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Teachers’ conceptions of history education : a phenomenographic inquiry Harding, James Craig 1999

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TEACHERS' CONCEPTIONS OF HISTORY EDUCATION PHENOMENOGRAPHIC INQUIRY by JAMES CRAIG HARDING B.P.E., University of Calgary, 1979 B.Ed., University Calgary, 1984 M.A., Gonzaga University, 1991 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM STUDIES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1999 © J. Craig Harding, 1999 s In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT TEACHERS' CONCEPTIONS OF HISTORY EDUCATION: A PHENOMENOGRAPHIC INQUIRY J. Craig Harding University of British Columbia, 1999 This research examines three central questions: What are teachers' conceptions of history education?, What are the constituent components of these conceptions?, and Upon what sources of teacher knowledge are these conceptions based? To elicit data relevant to these questions a phenomenographic research methodology is utilised. In this phenomenographic inquiry, a conception is defined as the broadest possible understanding teachers have of what they teach, why they teach it, and how they teach it. The phenomenon in this inquiry is history education. Of primary interest are the ways in which teachers understand their purpose for history education. This inquiry utilises teachers' descriptions of their agendas and curriculum scripts to examine conceptions of history education. Certain foundational elements are used to analyse the data: a broad understanding of history education in which purpose is a salient feature; a tactical plan or the parts of instruction necessary to accomplish their purpose; reflective rationalisation which explains the knowledge upon which the purpose is predicated; and the extent to which the conception is consistent. Data is analysed from fourteen teachers who represent a cross section of teachers in secondary schools. Teachers have six ways of seeing their purposes. The conceptions include purposes focusing upon historiography, developing social studies methodology, developing a national collective identity, developing a non - national identity, developing an understanding of antecedents of current issues, and developing lessons from the past. Within conceptions representing more than one teacher, individual variations are found in the tactical plan, yet each retains enough ii similarity to suggest the broad categorisation. Teachers were asked to reflect upon the likely source of this conception. As phenomenography seeks to examine understanding, there is no need nor is there a way to confirm if the results reflect the actual source of their conception. However, it is significant that teachers state they believe they have developed their conception based upon certain sources. University scholarship, educational materials, the wisdom of practice, the role of students and collegial interaction are discussed as prominent in shaping conceptions. This research has important implications for teacher education and educational policy. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF FIGURES vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix DEDICATION x 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 Background to the Problem 3 History Education in the Canadian Social Studies Program 6 A Research Imperative 8 Problem Statement 10 2. REVIEW OF RESEARCH 12 Purpose 12 Models of Professional Knowledge 12 Subject Matter Knowledge 20 Pedagogical Content Knowledge 26 Defining Pedagogical Content Knowledge 26 Research on Pedagogical Content Knowledge 29 Sources of Conceptions of History 34 The Curriculum 35 University Education 36 Department Subculture 38 Student Subculture 40 Educational Materials 40 History Education 41 Typologies of History Education 43 Research in Teacher Conceptions of History Education 50 3. METHODOLOGY 57 Phenomenography as a Research Methodology 57 Terminology 60 The Aim of Phenomenography 62 Design of the Interview Protocol 66 Research Participants 71 Validity 74 Reliability 78 iv Creating an Analytical Model 79 Foundational Elements 82 General Conception Tactical Plan Reflective Rationalisation Tactical Consistency Reporting the Data 89 ANATOMY OF UNDERSTANDING 92 Literature - Based Conceptions of History Education 95 History Education to Develop 'Skills' 95 Conception 1 - Historiography Conception 2 - The Methodology of Social Studies History Education to Enhance a Collective Identity 100 Conception 3 - Enhancing a National Collective Identity Conception 4 - Enhancing a Non-National Collective Identity History Education to Gain an Understanding of the Antecedents of Current Issues 103 Conception 5 - Antecedents of Current Issues History education to develop an explanatory context or 'lessons from the past' 105 Conception 6 - Lessons from the Past Conception 7 - Patterns and Speculation in History Actual Categories of Description 109 Conception 1 - Historiography 109 General conception Tactical plan Way of Knowing The Process of History Reflective Rationalisation Tactical consistency Conception 2 - The Methodology of Social Studies 120 General conception Tactical plan Critical Thinking Information Gathering and Reporting Personal and Social Values Reflective Rationalisation Tactical consistency Conception 3 - Enhancing a National Collective Identity 133 General conception v Tactical plan Developing an affinity for Canada Background to Canada's current milieu Interest in Canadian history Individual variations Reflective Rationalisation Tactical consistency Conception 4 - Enhancing a Non-National Collective Identity 154 General conception Tactical plan Identity from history Cultural Literacy Understanding and Empowerment Individual Variations Reflective Rationalisation Tactical consistency Conception 5 - Antecedents of Current Issues 170 General conception Tactical plan Identifying the issue Examining antecedents to understand the past Examining antecedents to understand the present Taking action for the future Individual Variation Backward referencing history Present referencing Use of analogies Reflective Rationalisation Interest oriented relevance Coeval relevance Substantive relevance Tactical consistency Conception 6 - Lessons from the Past 196 General conception Tactical plan Creating an imperative Developing an historical frame of reference Identifying the lesson Types of parables Reflective Rationalisation Tactical consistency vi Conception 7 - Speculative History. 210 Summary 212 5. BELIEFS ABOUT SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE WHICH SHAPE CONCEPTIONS OF HISTORY EDUCATION 218 University Scholarship 220 Educational Materials and Structures 225 Wisdom of Practice 227 A variety of teaching experiences 228 Students and student subculture 229 Knowledge of students Motivating students Collegial interaction 233 Summary 235 6. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 238 Introduction and Limitations 238 Multiple Conceptions 238 Collective Conceptions 239 Actual Categories of Description 239 A Snapshot 240 Type of Course 240 Verbal Self Reports 241 Discussion and Implications 242 Knowledge Base for History Education 244 Conceptions of History Education 245 Implications for Teacher Development 246 Teacher education 247 Educational policy 250 Research Possibilities 252 Summary 255 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 257 APPENDIX A: Interview Protocol 271 vii LIST OF FIGURES 2.1 Components of the Knowledge Base of Teaching 15 3.1 Interview Participants 73 3.2 Foundational Elements of Conceptions of History Education 81 4.1 Conceptions of History Education 211 5.1 Sources Teachers Believe Shape Their Conception of 221 History Education viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Over the course of writing this dissertation I was continually asked how near I was to completion. My usual answer was "I am taking the scenic route." This enjoyable ride was impeded by certain enjoyable detours as expected - a full time job and a growing family. However, I was assisted by many kind and knowledgeable guides without whom the ride would not have been as fruitful or engaging. The efforts of Peter Seixas were instrumental in starting and completing the trip. The original idea for this exploration arose from an article written by Peter and his standards of excellence were a goal I aspired to throughout the journey. His skepticism and optimism forced a steep learning curve, which was not, as one might expect, an unpleasant process. Peter's encouragement, wisdom, guidance, and professional commitment ensured the completion of the trip. Two people should be acknowledged for their invaluable assistance during the darkest moments of this trip. I had an intuitive sense that the direction I wanted to go was correct. Gaalen Erickson provided a road map in the form of phenomenography which gave shape and legitimacy to the methodology. Without his assistance the trip would have ended mired in a methodological bog. Ian Wright's advice, insistence upon clarity and continual support were invaluable from the earliest stages of planning the trip until the completion. The assistance of many others ensured a proficient journey. Fellow students Penney Clark and Allen Sears continually provided valuable information. Teaching colleagues such as Margo Gruener must be thanked for her editing in the early stages and Mary Ellen Neiderweiser's efforts in transcribing the interviews, a thankless task, were essential. Finally, a major detour was taken to Janet and Steve Flesch's summer get - a - way where a large part of this dissertation came to shape and was written. Their generosity is greatly appreciated. A special mention must be given to family who ensured a successful journey. John and Katie Babinec should be thanked for their continuous support and interest in this endeavour. The assistance provided by Brenton Harding and Lise Harding during the early stages of analysis is also greatly appreciated. The values instilled by my parents, Douglas and Anice Harding, were essential to a successful completion of this project as was their continued support and interest. A trip metaphor would be incomplete without acknowledging the contribution of three other people who were important travellers on the ride. The changes that Susan had to adapt to were unlike any other she has or ever will encounter. It is impossible to describe her interest, patience, motivation, and support during this eight year journey. Finally, on every trip there are always kids asking "How much longer?" Kaitlin and Marlies did a wonderful job being interested and encouraging, although they did not quite know what it was I was doing. I suspect this journey could have been made without any one particular person included. However, for me it truly was the journey that mattered, not the destination. Without the contribution of all of these people the journey would not have been as enjoyable or rewarding. ix DEDICATION For Douglas Harding Those who live in our hearts will be with us always. x CHAPTER 1 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM Introduction [It] is impossible to divorce history from life; Mr. Everyman can not do what he needs or desires to do without recalling past events; he can not recall past events without in some subtle fashion relating them to what he needs or desires to do. Carl L. Becker History is, more or less, bunk. Henry Ford These two quotes represent polar extremes of perspectives on history - history signifies nothing or it is a pervasive part of our everyday life. Despite Henry Ford's assertion, history as a hobby, a profession, a school subject or an academic discipline is undertaken by a great variety of people for an equally great number of reasons, yet leaves in its wake a great many unanswered questions. At one level, the appeal of the past has spawned a 'heritage industry' including a cable television history channel to satisfy public demand for greater knowledge and understanding of the past. At another level of inquiry, scholars in academic institutions seek to interpret evidence to provide explanations of the past. Study of history is also found at various grades in the school curriculum. History in the curriculum raises many concerns for educators regarding content, objectives, and teaching strategies. In terms of content, ancient, mediaeval and modern history all suggest specific eras on which to focus inquiry. Political, cultural, social or economic history all offer different focuses within an historical study. Choices for scope vary from regional microhistories to macrohistories at national or global levels. Educational literature shows scholars advocate many different objectives for the 1 school - based study of history. History may be studied as a way to confirm existing knowledge or to undertake new interpretations of existing knowledge. History education may be studied for the utility it has for understanding the present or clarifying the past. Undertaking the study of history to empower ethnic, social or gender collectives or to develop national patriotism is also advocated as a legitimate objective for a program of studies. However, Calderhead (1988) notes that the objectives for teaching a subject that are advocated by scholars are not unanimously adapted by teachers. Teachers must change or adapt their objectives based upon their beliefs and goals for teaching a subject. Additionally, it is necessary for a teacher to select and modify objectives for different contexts such as grade level, classroom composition, or student academic ability. The objectives of the study of history in schools are, then, subject to competing aims. These aims are the subject of this thesis. A document analysis of curriculum topics and objectives would not provide insights into teacher understanding of these facets of instruction. Such an analysis assumes teaching is a generic activity unaffected by various contexts influencing the act of teaching. To understand any facets of instruction for teaching history in the reality of the classroom, it is necessary to examine the purposes around which teachers shape their instruction in history education. These purposes will follow from teacher beliefs about the role of school history, the value they place on history, and may give insights into the origin of these beliefs and values. 2 Background to the Problem Researchers have extensively documented history instruction and concerns related to understanding history. For history education, Downey and Levstik (1988) state that the type of pedagogy, evaluation practices, and role of textbooks are well researched.1 Researchers have also asked how teachers use textbooks (Smith & Feathers, 1983; McNeil, 1986), what knowledge students possess (Ravitch & Finn, 1987), children's understanding of time and history (Thornton & Vukelich, 1988) and children's cognitive development (Booth, 1980, 1984, 1987). A new body of research in history education emphasises teacher subject matter knowledge (Gudmundsdottir, Carey & Wilson, 1985; Shulman, 1986; Wilson, Shulman & Richert, 1987; Wilson, 1988). Often this research considers the difference between expert and novice history teachers. This research differs from the previous inquiry by addressing what Shulman (1986) refers to as the "missing paradigm" in educational research. This scarce but growing body of inquiry considers "content - oriented" questions which seek to explicate the manner in which teachers choose to represent the subject they teach, their beliefs about the subject, and their beliefs about the students (Shulman, 1986).2 These content - oriented questions are significant as they illuminate the knowledge that teachers use to organise instructional activities to teach the history curriculum. Calderhead (1988) explains that the teacher plays a significant 1. Shulman (1986) concurs that this type of general knowledge has been well documented. He states: In reading the literature on teaching . . . the emphasis is on how teachers manage their classroom, organise activities, allocate time, ascribe praise and blame, formulate the levels of their questions, plan lessons, and judge general student understanding (P- 8). 2. Research in this area has led to a categorisation of a variety of types of teacher knowledge. See Shulman (1986), Wilson (1988), Grossman (1990), and Grossman & Yerian (1992). 3 role as the translation of this knowledge into instruction "requires interaction between this knowledge (subject matter) and other knowledge such as that concerning children or teaching strategies" (p. 57). One area of research which seeks to examine content oriented questions has been inquiry into teachers' pedagogical content knowledge.3 Impetus for this growing body of inquiry has come from the research program "Knowledge Growth in Teaching" (Shulman, 1986). Knowledge derived from this research is that which goes beyond an understanding of teacher knowledge of a subject to explain the knowledge of a subject for the purpose of teaching. Shulman (1986; p. 9) states that this amalgamation "embodies the aspects of content most germane to its teachability." Categories of pedagogic content knowledge include the "most useful forms of representation" of ideas in a subject area and "the ways of representing and formulating the subject to make it comprehensible to others" (Shulman, 1986). It represents knowledge about the subject for the purpose of teaching. Grossman (1989) derives four categories of pedagogic content knowledge from Shulman's definition. These categories include conceptions of teaching the subject matter, knowledge of student understanding, knowledge of curricular materials and knowledge of instructional representations.4 Analysis of these categories has led to a variety of research studies including inquiry on, or comparisons of, new teachers and experienced teachers' content knowledge, and teaching strategies in many subjects, 3. McEwan and Bull (1991) dispute the distinction between content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. They contend all subject matter is pedagogic. However, McEwan and Bull support the contention that more research must be performed to provide better understanding of teacher's subject matter knowledge. 4. Instructional representations are the embodiment of content in instructional forms or methods. These would be the teaching strategies utilised by a teacher to convey the content of the lesson. This is in contrast to a conception , a term used extensively in this thesis, which is a broad understanding of a subject. See footnote 5. 4 especially math and science.5 Understanding teacher knowledge is important, as "what accounts for how teachers plan and conduct instruction is a vision of what it means to teach a particular subject matter" (Grossman, 1989; p. 26). "What it means to teach a particular subject" requires teachers to transform information from a discipline into useful instructional representations. According to Shulman (1987), an essential part of this transformation involves "scrutinising educational purposes and goals" of the subject matter to be taught (p. 16). The cognitive act of scrutinising educational purposes of subject matter presupposes teachers possess beliefs about the goals or purposes of a subject. As teachers act upon their beliefs (Fetterman, 1988), these beliefs about the goals of a subject can provide an organising framework which serves as "the basis for judgments about textbooks and curricular materials, classroom objectives, appropriate assignments, and evaluation of student learning." (Grossman, 1989; p. 26) Therefore, beliefs teachers possess about the goals of a particular subject will have an impact upon teaching, as beliefs provide the basis for a conception  6 Research is necessary in this area of beliefs and how they shape conceptions of content matter because they affect the content and process of instruction or what teachers teach and how they teach it (Stein, et al., 1990). In addition, understanding teacher conceptions of the content which shapes instructional representations will provide insights into content inclusion and exclusion. A research topic arises as McCutcheon (1985) states that these beliefs are often tacit and cannot be fully expressed by teachers. Knowledge and beliefs then must be unfolded and interpreted 5. For other examples see: Brophy, J. (1991). Advances in Research on Teaching, volume 2 . Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press Inc.. 6. An extended discussion of the term conception takes place in Chapter Three. Briefly, a conception is the broadest understanding teachers have about the subject they teach. Teachers' purposes are one aspect of a general conception. 5 as teachers are held accountable to peers, students and the community for examining and rationalising their actions (Shulman, 1987). Yet, relatively little research has been undertaken in North America to understand teachers' knowledge of tacit beliefs about conceptions of teaching history (Downey and Levstik, 1991; p. 400). History Education in the Canadian Social Studies Program A review of the variety of ways in which history education has appeared in the curriculum of Canadian schools illustrates that history has had a diverse educational value and that its value has changed greatly over time. Compounding this diverse value is the placement in schools of historical content in the subject of social studies. Social studies has had many different goals since its incarnation, including instilling certain values, promoting nationalism (Osborne, 1983), promoting an international perspective by examining contemporary problems (Phillips, 1957), expanding the imagination and engendering personal and social ideals. As criticism of social studies arose, new orientations were advocated7 such as an issue - oriented approach, one modelled on the disciplines (van Manen & Parsons, 1983) and ones which sought to shape a national identity and support nationalism. Often the explicit study of historical content and methods took a back seat to the valuing process, moral education, environmental education and social problems which became the focus of many programs as did Canadian studies which sought to foster a national identity. History education's place within the Alberta social studies curriculum parallels 7 . Criticisms during this era include those by University of Saskatchewan history professor Hilda Neatby's (1953) scathing indictment of progressive education in Canada entitled, So Little for the Mind: An Indictment of Canadian Education and in What Culture? What Heritage? (Hodgetts, 1968). New ideas include those by Jerome Bruner (1960) in The Process of Education and the Harvard Social Studies Project of 1956. 6 the changes seen throughout Canada. Although active citizenship remains the ultimate goal, recent changes describe the course as one which assists students in acquiring basic knowledge and skills necessary to become responsible citizens and contributing members of society. Curriculum content reflects the disciplines of history8, geography, economics, and other social sciences. The purpose of social studies is to equip students with knowledge and skills necessary to function in a society in which they must ultimately find their places (Program of Studies: Social Studies 10 & 13, 1988). Information, not inquiry, critical thinking or the valuing process, is the new focus and the disciplines of history and geography becomes more prominent in the curriculum. This brief summary serves to highlight the multiple conceptions that have existed for history education in Canada and Alberta. Compounding the multiple conceptions of history education are the multiple conceptions of social studies, the subject in which history education is most often located. This creates a challenge for teachers and a rich field for research. This thesis will explore one of the problems inherent in these multiple conceptions of history education, which in the province of Alberta is contained within the broader subject of social studies. 8. It is important to note that in Alberta the focus is upon content that is historical in nature as opposed to the study of history as a subject or a discipline. Content that is historical in nature can be found in grades eight, ten, and eleven social studies. For the purpose of this research the specific unit addressing historical content is found in Social Studies 10. The history component of Social Studies 10 in the Alberta curriculum is Topic A: Canada in the 20th Century. In this course students develop an understanding of forces and events that influenced the development of Canada and shaped current life. Generalised objectives include themes of sovereignty, regionalism and identity. In Social Studies 13 the history component is Topic A: Challenges for Canada in the 20th Century. The objective of this course is to provide students with knowledge and skills necessary to effectively participate as citizens of Canada. Concepts to be studied include diversity, unity and identity. 7 The Research Imperative This review highlights the notion that despite the significant role of objectives in shaping instructional activities, a lack of unanimity has existed regarding the objectives of history education. This lack of unanimity is still apparent today, perhaps even to a greater extent. For Alberta teachers, purposes for history education are shaped within the context of the debate on the goals of social studies as well as within a larger educational debate in which a variety of groups advocate curricula based upon their visions of education. An example of this educational debate is the ongoing struggle between groups advocating a curriculum based upon select knowledge9, those advocating a curriculum focusing upon select subgroups of society, and those advocating skill development. Often these groups cite the shortcomings of the current history curriculum as a way to justify the need for a different orientation to history education.10 Yet, despite the struggle to define school history, its position in social studies is well entrenched in the curriculum. Regardless of the rhetoric of critics11, Downey and Levstik (1991; p. 408) note "... research indicates history is not the beleaguered part of the curriculum that it is sometimes claimed to be." Given its significant role in the curriculum, it seems logical then that meeting the 9. Select knowledge is that history content deemed important by groups advocating a specific type of historical study. An example of this is apparent in what has been described as a neoconservative agenda which promotes traditional patriotic canons of knowledge deemed necessary for participation in society. 10. As an example, consider the title of Granatstein's (1998) best selling book Who Killed Canadian History? and a chapter entitled Teaching Ignorance: History in the Schools'. Granatstein uses as evidence school texts, curriculum and academic literature to suggest a deficiency in school history as a way to promote his agenda in a chapter entitled 'Resurrecting History'. 11. An example of this criticism is apparent in: Ravitch, D. & Finn, C. E. (1987). What Do Our 17- Year - Olds Know? A Report on the First National Assessment of History and Literature, New York: Harper and Row. 8 goals of the provincially mandated social studies curriculum becomes the primary consideration for the manner in which teachers organise history education. However, the preceding background information suggests a lack of clarity and internal integrity existing in the educational goals of social studies. Therefore, the onus is upon teachers to define their purpose for history education based on their interpretations and understanding of the curriculum. With each teacher responsible for interpreting curriculum and then organising instruction, individual beliefs will shape the manner in which history is taught (Wilson & Wineburg, 1988; Evans, 1988). Among others, these individual beliefs include specific skills to be acquired, dispositions to be developed, and content to be covered within the larger framework of goals and objectives for history education. Individual beliefs have also been referred to as teachers' personal knowledge (Connelly & Clandinin, 1988). Understanding personal knowledge will explain how teachers define history education, interpret curriculum, and construct and rationalise their instructional activities.12 Teachers utilise the knowledge and beliefs they possess to develop a conception, through a process Shulman (1987) calls pedagogical reasoning. These conceptions may be influenced by a variety of contexts, including disciplines studied in undergraduate degrees, teacher preparation courses, curricula teachers have taught, or the subject community. In summary, school based history education, in Alberta and elsewhere, is a 12. Peter Lee (1992) provides an important insight into why it is necessary to understand a teachers' knowledge base. Lee states that "The difficult part of education is to connect a coherent conception of what ought to be done with the realities of teaching" (p. 20). Lee alludes to two types of knowledge that are relevant to this research - transforming subject matter knowledge to develop a coherent conception of "what ought to be done" and utilising pedagogical content knowledge to make the subject matter knowledge compatible "with the realities of teaching." The product of these two types of knowledge can be seen to shape a conception of a subject. 9 subject lacking clear consensus on goals and objectives. To illustrate this lack of consensus, a recent text, intended for education students in social studies, has a chapter preface in which the authors implore the reader to "begin to formulate your own answers" to questions such as "What is the purpose of social studies?".13 As history is placed within social studies curricula, which are continually evolving due to changing societal and educational demands14, different understandings of the purposes of social studies and history education exist and are subject to competing initiatives. Inevitably an understanding of purpose will shape the manner in which teachers interpret and implement the curriculum, with a consequential impact upon learning opportunities available to students. Despite the crucial role teachers' understanding of purpose has for teaching, it has received little attention in educational research. Problem Statement The problem originates by recognising that history has a visible and established place in provincial social studies curricula.15 Yet goals of history education are amorphous, with only superficial consensus. Accepting this premise, the argument is 13. Wright, I. & Sears, A. (ed.) (1997). Trends and Issues in Canadian Social Studies. Vancouver: Pacific Educational Press. In addition these questions suggest that purposes will be different as teachers are different due to different experiences shaping their understanding of the curriculum. 14. The provincial Social Studies Council in Alberta has undertaken several initiatives in the mid 1990s to elicit feedback on changes teachers would like to see in a revised curriculum. In addition, the western Canadian provinces are currently engaged in discussions to revise and develop a social studies curriculum with a degree of similarity to one another. 15. This research is based upon a presupposition that as history education has a place in the curriculum it has a purpose for being included. The research questions described later arise only if this presupposition is accepted. 10 that the shape of instruction in history education is subject to individual beliefs, knowledge and way of understanding, which is correctively referred to as a teacher's conception of history education. Literature in history education indicates that multiple conceptions of history education exist. An individual's conception of history education shapes the way the content will be transformed into instructional representations most conducive to the classroom teachability of the subject. This conception of history education and the constituent components16 of the conception would be manifest in teacher developed instructional representations which normally would exhibit a high degree of consonance with the teacher's stated purpose of history. The teachers may develop this conception may be developed from a variety of influences including school community, teaching experience, and the subject area of history.17 The central problems of this study then are: (i) what are teachers' conceptions of history education18 (ii) what are the constituent components of these conceptions, and (iii) upon what sources of teacher knowledge are these conceptions based? 16. Constituent components are those particular building blocks which contribute to developing the whole conception. They reflect the architecture of the variation between the various conceptions of history education (Marton and Booth, 1997). A person's conception of a hike can be used to illustrate the constituent components. For some people a hike may simply be a walk in the city. The constituent components may include crossing a street, passing other hikers on sidewalks, or selecting a route to hike. To others a hike may be a walk in a natural setting. The constituent components include crossing a stream, or minimising their impact on the environment. For history education, constituent components are the various building blocks around which teachers organise instruction based upon their conception. 17. The subject area of history includes content and ideas from the discipline of history, the theory of teaching history, and educational philosophy. These ideas and an understanding of content would influence the prospective teacher during undergraduate education in specific history courses. See also: Grossman, P. & S. Stodolsky (1984). 18 . A purpose for history education would be considered implicit in a teachers' way of understanding history education. This notion will be discussed at greater detail in Chapter Three. 11 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RESEARCH Purpose This chapter examines research and theories which seek to explain teacher knowledge. The goal of this examination is fivefold. It will: a. review models of teacher knowledge that may have an influence on a conception of history education, b. review the theory and research on two main types of knowledge (subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge) which suggest that a conception of history education is specialised knowledge central to the act of teaching, c. explore the relationship between teacher knowledge underlying a conception, d. examine the potential sources of teacher knowledge, e. examine the literature which outlines the range of conceptions advocated for history education and the research which seeks to explicate these conceptions within the reality of the classroom. Models of Professional Knowledge Wilson, Shulman and Richert (1987) define a teacher knowledge base as the aggregate of knowledge, understanding, skills, and dispositions a teacher requires to effectively execute a pedagogic task. Research aimed at uncovering the characteristics of teacher knowledge has increased greatly in the past decade yet lacks definitive agreement on what type of knowledge constitutes a teacher knowledge base. Numerous authors such as Schon (1983), Aoki (1992), and Sockett (1993) reject the notion that a core of teacher knowledge can be defined, as they see 12 teaching not as a mechanical, technical task but as a "moral enterprise" (Sockett,1993; p. 7). Sparks-Langer and Colton (1991) suggest that research is moving away from thinking about teaching in a technical way and, as Kagan (1992) suggests, moving towards emphasising "the cognitions, beliefs, and mental processes that underlie teachers' classroom behaviours" (p. 129): Gibson (1995) explains that "contemporary research acknowledges that teachers possess both a body of professional teaching knowledge, and a personal knowledge of teaching that is shaped by and shapes the experiences and beliefs they bring to the profession" (p. 16). Researchers disagree as to what constitutes the components of professional knowledge. Elbaz (1983) suggests there are five categories of knowledge. These categories spiral outward from self knowledge to the knowledge which pertains to the teaching environment. Specifically, this knowledge includes knowledge of self, knowledge of the teaching environment, knowledge of teaching subject matter, knowledge of curriculum development, and knowledge of instruction. Leinhardt and Smith (1985) generate two categories of teacher knowledge -subject matter knowledge and knowledge of lesson structure. These researchers envision teacher understandings as an intricate system. One component of this system includes subject matter knowledge. Directly related to subject matter knowledge is knowledge of lesson structure which includes the skills associated with teaching such as lesson transition, explanation of material, lesson planning, and classroom management. A research project entitled "Knowledge Growth in Teaching" (Shulman, 1986) presents a more comprehensive model of teacher knowledge. This project identifies seven categories of teacher knowledge including knowledge in the areas of subject content; curriculum; learners and learning; contexts of schooling; pedagogic content; and educational philosophies goals and objectives. These categories, as 13 summarized by Wilson (1988), are shown in figure 2.1. The summary of these types of knowledge is highlighted as it subsumes the components described by Elbaz (1983) and Leinhardt and Smith (1985). Not to be lost in this summary is that fact that several different components of teacher knowledge in all models include a purpose for the subject matter. Other types of teacher knowledge, although not explicitly shaping purpose, are part of a teacher's conception of the subject. Wilson's categories of knowledge shape conception of history education.1 It is apparent that a teacher possesses some knowledge of curriculum. This knowledge includes an understanding of the knowledge, skill, and attitude objectives outlined in the legally mandated curriculum document. A teacher knows what resources are available for teaching this curriculum. These resources may include authorised textbooks and resources to complement or enrich the course such as videos or supplementary texts. Curriculum knowledge also includes some knowledge of curriculum theory. Understanding the relationship between these three aspects of curriculum knowledge allows teachers to make choices about what topics to include in the course of a unit, what topics to exclude, or how to best motivate learners. A question for further research related to teachers' purpose for history education is To what extent does a certain topic predispose a teacher to utilising a certain conception of history education? 2 1. Although this knowledge is generic to education it has direct application to the way a teacher understands history education, as understanding is shaped by knowledge. 2. The inquiry presently undertaken examines teachers' conceptions of history education for a specific era of a national history. It is conceivable that focusing upon other history topics such as different eras or different regions may involve different conceptions of history education. 14 Types of Knowledge 1. Knowledge of curriculum, both in terms of resources available to teachers and of theories that guide the development of curricular materials. 2. Knowledge of learners and learning, both the specific learners that teachers work with over time and the learners in a more abstract sense. 3. Knowledge of educational philosophies, goals, and objectives, as well as the sources and justifications of those values and aims. 4. Knowledge of pedagogy, including knowledge of generic principles of management, planning and instruction. 5. Knowledge of the context of schooling, including politically and socially defined contexts such as communities, states [or provinces], and cultures. 6. Knowledge of content, both the subject matter of instruction and other related content areas. 7. Pedagogical content knowledge, including knowledge of alternative representations of subject matter, knowledge of student conceptions related to particular topics, and pedagogical reasoning. Figure 2.1 Components of the Knowledge Base of Teaching Wilson (1988, p. 44) 15 Teachers possess a knowledge of the students they teach. This includes knowledge of the process of learning and knowledge of the individuals or learners involved in learning. Teachers may incorporate formal learning theories or even their own personal learning theories to help provide a structure for organising instructional activities. They understand the motivation of students, their background knowledge, their interests, and their misconceptions. The knowledge of educational philosophies, goals and objectives is also a significant part of teacher knowledge. This knowledge comprises the formal goals, philosophies and objectives which shape the subject as well as the teachers' own philosophies of education and instructional goals.3 Wilson (1988, p. 50) states "these different goals figure prominently in what and how they (teachers) choose to teach." Instructional strategies are also influenced by teachers' knowledge of pedagogy. Teachers' understanding of classroom management, lesson design, and educational objectives play a role in shaping the content focus and the classroom activities. Wilson (1988, p. 49) describes knowledge of context as: an eclectic collection of information about schools, communities, and cultures. It may include understandings about school ethos, community characteristics, district level political, and fiscal constraints, state mandates, or leadership styles of the administration. Teachers are aware of factors such as these, for they constrain and impact their work, and considerations of context figure prominently in the choices that teachers make. Knowledge of content or of subject matter is central to the act of teaching. All teacher actions are ultimately aimed at teaching content whether facts, concepts or procedural skills. Wilson (1988) indicates teachers draw on two types of content 3. The review of social studies in Ghapter One illustrates the various philosophies and goals inherent in social studies in both Canada and specifically Alberta. 16 knowledge and take advantage of a third. One is the specific content of instruction. A history teacher must have some knowledge of the era, concept or person about whom he or she are teaching. A math teacher must have knowledge of polynomials in order to teach how to factor them. A teacher of physics must understand the laws of motion if he or she is to teach the subject. A second type of content knowledge teachers possess is that content which is drawn from other subjects to help organise instruction. For instance, teachers may draw on their understanding of political philosophy to describe the problems related to the formation of the Great Coalition in Canadian history. They may use their knowledge of the media to explain the bias in newspaper accounts of the Winnipeg General Strike. A third type of knowledge teachers may draw upon is that which bridges other distinct disciplines to assist in instruction. An example of this is a history teacher's use of Anne of Green Gables books for the insights they provide students into the social life of people in Eastern Canada at the turn of the century. In summary, Wilson (1988) states: The analogies and metaphors that teachers use in instruction frequently involves bridging across other disciplines, a process that requires knowledge of other fields, be they disciplines, school subjects, or other fields of study (p. 45). Juxtaposing subject matter knowledge with knowledge of pedagogy provides the final type of teacher knowledge described by Wilson (1988). Briefly, pedagogical content knowledge4 includes knowledge of alternative representations of the subject matter, knowledge of student conceptions of the subject matter, and pedagogic reasoning. Grossman (1990) further synthesised these components of teacher knowledge into four general areas. These general areas 4. A more detailed explanation of pedagogic content knowledge is given later in Chapter Two. 17 ... can be seen as the cornerstones of the emerging research on professional knowledge for teaching: general pedagogic knowledge; subject matter knowledge; pedagogic content knowledge; and knowledge of the context (p. 5). General pedagogic knowledge refers to knowledge of the general principles of teaching. This includes knowledge of classroom management, knowledge of learning and the learner, curriculum and instruction, and knowledge of other instructional skills. Leinhardt and Smith (1985) refer to this as knowledge of lesson structure. Examining this knowledge has been the focus of most research on teaching (Downey & Levstik,1988; Downey & Levstik,1991). Knowledge of context is a general knowledge of the community, district, and school that must be adapted to each teaching situation. Definitions of knowledge of subject matter vary. Wilson, et al. (1987) describe the domain of subject matter knowledge as including substantive and syntactic structures. 5 Substantive structures are comprised of the "ideas, facts, and concepts as well as the relationships among those ideas facts and relationships" (Wilson, et al. 1987; p. 118). Syntactic structures for Wilson, et al. (1987) are comprised of teachers' knowledge of "the ways in which the discipline creates and evaluates new knowledge" (p. 118). Grossman (1990) uses Schwab's (1964) description of subject matter knowledge. Schwab saw subject matter as being composed of substantive and syntactic knowledge of a discipline as well as knowledge of facts and concepts of a 5. Some discrepancies exist when discussing the notion of subject matter knowledge. Wilson et al. (1987) and Grossman (1990) refer to this as substantive and syntactic structures. Grossman (1989) and Schwab (1977) refer to these categories as substantive and syntactic knowledge. For Wilson, et al. (1987) substantive structures are the ideas, facts, and concepts of a discipline and the relationship among these. On the other hand, Schwab (1977) and Grossman (1990) refer to substantive knowledge as the way inquiry is conducted and the way the field is organised. The inclusion of content knowledge is not specific in this definition and Grossman (1990) separates it as a distinct category of subject matter knowledge. Wilson, et al. (1987) includes content knowledge as part of the substantive structures. 18 domain. Substantive structures of a discipline refer to "various paradigms within a field that affect both how the field is organised and the questions that guide further inquiry" (Grossman, 1990, p. 6). This is the explanatory framework around which inquiry is conducted within a discipline and the means by which the data are interpreted. Syntactic structures of a discipline relate to understanding how knowledge claims within a discipline are warranted. Shulman (1986) states they are "the set of ways in which truth or falsehood, validity or invalidity, are established" (p. 9). These structures are the established set of rules for determining the legitimacy of knowledge claims within a discipline. Grossman, et al. (1989) add a fourth component to subject matter knowledge that is significant for this research. This component includes teachers' "beliefs about the subject matter" (p. 29). Beliefs about subject matter include teachers' perceptions of what is important knowledge within a subject and how one knows this information. However, subsequent literature by Grossman (1990, 1992) does not include this category of subject matter knowledge. Grossman (1990) indicates that these four components of subject matter knowledge play a significant role in how a subject is taught. She indicates "the degree to which teachers possess knowledge of syntactic and substantive structures of their field may influence how they represent their discipline to students" (p. 7). Utilising syntactic and substantive knowledge of a discipline allows teachers to design lessons which enhance student understanding of the nature of the discipline. Understanding content knowledge will affect the nature of classroom discussions, instructional activities, and the use of texts. Briefly, Grossman (1990) indicates pedagogic content knowledge comprises the following: knowledge of instructional strategies; knowledge of student's understanding; curricular knowledge; and conceptions of purposes for teaching 19 subject matter. As the focus of this dissertation is to examine teachers' conception of history education in which a purpose is implicit, the two bodies of research that are most applicable are those concerning subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. As it is through the filters of this knowledge that teachers organise and develop instructional representations of a subject, this review of literature will focus upon teachers' subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge. Subject Matter Know ledge Prior to an investigation of this type of knowledge it is necessary to clarify the use of the term. Wilson (1988) refers to knowledge of content in her list of types of knowledge illustrated in figure 2.1. Yet in her explanation of this type of knowledge she calls it knowledge of subject matter. Shulman (1986) refers to the knowledge of concepts, facts, and procedures as content knowledge. As the previous information provided by Grossman (1990) refers to knowledge specific to the current research as subject matter knowledge, this term will be utilised. Research focusing on teacher subject matter knowledge initially sought to find connections between what teachers know and what students learn. The variables of teacher knowledge, as determined through research instruments such as the teachers' grade point average or their achievement on locally constructed tests, and student results on standardised tests, were analysed. These studies correlated the measures of student outcomes and measures of teacher knowledge. Research failed to produce consistent results which could have implications for improved instruction. As Wilson (1988) states, there are three possible explanations for the lack of correlation. One is that no relationship exists between teacher knowledge and student achievement. A second explanation is that the relationship is not linear. A third explanation is that one 20 variable lacks a clear theoretical conceptualisation. Wilson (1988) cites an unpublished paper which sought to examine the variables used in such research. This research found there was no clear explanation of what constitutes teacher knowledge of the subject and the instruments used to determine this knowledge varied and were qualitatively different. Consequently, this research failed to provided an accurate picture of teacher subject matter knowledge. Utilising this research and the accompanying recommendations, Wilson (1988) suggests a more subtle understanding of teacher knowledge is necessary. This understanding of teacher knowledge must focus upon the content that is taught and how teachers represent the content to be taught.6 The knowledge to be explicated in researching this understanding is that which combines knowledge of a discipline (content) and knowledge of how to represent the subject matter. McEwan and Bull (1991) concur. They note that research findings show little relationship between teacher scores on standardised tests and ratings of their instructional effectiveness. In addition, MacEwan and Bull indicate that teachers possess an awareness and knowledge of factors which have an impact upon their effectiveness. This includes awareness of children, classrooms, schools and teaching as well as other knowledge related specifically to education. Investigating this knowledge then requires descriptive research which examines the teacher's decisions which affect planning and the choices they make, not just simple correlational studies as used during initial examinations of teacher knowledge. Leinhardt and Smith (1985) explored a deeper understanding of the 6. The use of the term represent, representing or representation at this point is problematic as it is used in many research studies without a clear definition of the concept. Wilson (1988) outlines three definitions for the term representations that are applicable to examining the work of teachers. However, for this research the most common use of the term refers to instructional representations which Wilson defines as "the way in which students experience a particular piece of subject matter in their classroom" (p. 261). 21 relationship between subject matter knowledge. Through research with teachers of mathematics, Leinhardt and Smith focus on subject matter understanding. They outline two types of knowledge required for teaching: knowledge of subject matter and knowledge of lesson structure. Subject matter knowledge for Leinhardt and Smith is topic specific.7 Subject matter knowledge "supports and acts as a resource in the selection of examples, formulation of explanations, and demonstrations" (1985, p. 247). This knowledge may include concepts, operations, curriculum presentation, and connections among different processes. Knowledge of lesson structure allows a teacher to organise and teach a lesson, to make a smooth transition from one idea to the next and to teach the material clearly. Through their work with novice and expert mathematics teachers, Leinhardt and Smith (1985, p. 247) find that teachers possess a complex "intertwined" system of knowledge. They portray the knowledge as a web consisting of facts, concepts, and their connecting relationships. Subject matter knowledge for Leinhardt and Smith is greater than just facts and concepts. It is a contextual knowledge shaped by both academic content and pedagogy. Lesson structure knowledge bridges topics and teaching skills such as classroom management and instructional strategies. It is the knowledge of how to teach a particular concept. Despite the criticisms, the research of Leinhardt and Smith (1985) provides a model of the types of knowledge teachers possess and how they influence the act of 7. Leinhardt and Smith (1985, p. 247) state as an example that for teachers of mathematics this includes "algorithmic operations, the connections among different algorithmic procedures, the subset of the number system being drawn upon, the understanding of student errors, and curriculum presentation." 22 teaching.8 Leinhardt and Smith provide the background for examining how teachers amalgamate their knowledge of teaching and their knowledge of the subject matter. Calderhead (1988) explains that translating "subject matter into practice requires the interaction of this knowledge [subject matter] and other knowledges such as that concerning the children or teaching strategies" (p. 57). To illustrate this need for translation Calderhead uses the analogy of a scientist and a non-scientist. A scientist may have in depth subject matter knowledge associated with images appropriate for teaching and learning for some age levels but inappropriate for others, such as primary school children. In contrast, the non-scientist may have a relatively low level of subject matter knowledge but a high level of other knowledge that enables him or her to teach science effectively. Calderhead calls this other knowledge contextual knowledge. It includes knowledge of self, subject matter, children, curriculum and teaching methods. These knowledge bases are then transformed through metacognitive processes to create classroom practices. More simply put, Calderhead and Miller (1985) in an earlier work stated subject matter knowledge must be translated into action relevant knowledge. The significance of the research performed by Calderhead (1988) and Calderhead and Miller (1985) is that it examined subject matter or content adapted for 8. Wilson (1988) explains three basic inadequacies in the work of Leinhardt and Smith (1985). Initially they "confound procedural and declarative knowledge with subject matter and lesson structure knowledge" (p. 27). Leinhardt and Smith present subject matter knowledge as knowledge about the content of mathematics. Lesson structure knowledge is the knowledge about how to teach. Leinhardt and Smith omit the notion that some subject matter, such as knowing how to dissect a frog is procedural. A second concern is the relative narrowness of the types and forms of knowledge. Leinhardt and Smith fail to recognise the other forms of teacher knowledge which may be pertinent, such as learning theory. A final concern is the "nature of the relationship between the types of knowledge they posit. These are not independent bodies of knowledge; it seems more likely that they are constantly interacting and informing one another" (p 29). To illustrate this concern Wilson points out that the ability teachers possess to clearly explain a topic is reliant upon their understanding of the subject matter. 23 the classroom. This adaptation or translation takes into account many different factors. The translation requires teachers to possess a certain amount of academic or subject specific knowledge, yet this knowledge varies greatly in both quantity and quality. The unique challenges of teaching require teachers to utilise their knowledge to adapt, modify, and refine the content for use in the classroom. To do so teachers must understand the context of the classroom. Feiman-Nemser and Buchman (1986) call this process of building bridges between subject matter and the classroom pedagogical thinking. Wilson (1988) states this research is important as it recognises the significant role of translation in teaching. What emerges from this exploration of teacher knowledge is the notion that teachers have a complex system of knowledge which they utilize while planning instruction. Regardless of the labels attached to this knowledge, strong evidence exists to indicate it plays a role in shaping instructional practices. Stein, Baxter, and Leinhardt (1990), state that research9: has provided evidence that teachers' knowledge affects both the content and the processes of their instruction, influencing both what they teach and how they teach it. In general, teachers with more explicit and better organised knowledge tend to provide instruction that features conceptual connections, appropriate and varied representations, and active and meaningful student discourse (p. 641). More specifically related to the research questions posed in Chapter One, Gibson (1997) indicates that teachers' subject matter knowledge influences their orientation to social studies. Furthermore, she states "the extensiveness of teachers' subject matter understanding influences their choices of representation of the subject matter for their students" (p. 103). Wineburg and Wilson (1991) caution that expert knowledge of content is 9. Stein, Baxter, and Leinhardt (1990) cite Wilson (1988) as providing research in the field of history. 24 important but is not the sole factor in determining the quality of teacher. Subject matter knowledge alone is not enough to create an instructional representation. They state: Creating a representation is an act of pedagogical reasoning. Teachers must first turn inward to comprehend and ponder the key ideas, events, concepts and interpretations of their discipline. But in fashioning representations teachers must also turn outward. They must try, as it were, to think themselves into the minds of students who lack the depth and understanding they, as teachers, possess. . . . An instructional representation emerges as the product of these two processes - the comprehension of content and the understanding of the needs, motivations, and abilities of learners (p. 333). In summary, research has found that knowledge of the content of instruction is an important influence upon how teachers shape instruction, but is not the sole kind of relevant knowledge. Knowledge of how to teach the content is also important. Subject matter knowledge should be seen as an important factor in determining a teacher's conception of history education for the current research. However, it is important to remember that history education has been organised in a variety of ways and that it is placed within the subject of social studies which includes other disciplines. The variety of ways to organise social studies and the need for knowledge of other disciplines have definite implications for how teachers understand history education and what purpose they may have for teaching history. 25 Pedagogical Content Knowledge Defining Pedagogical Content Knowledge Lee Shulman has been generally acknowledged for introducing the concept of pedagogical content knowledge10 into the field of educational discourse. Shulman followed up on the challenge of examining teacher knowledge through the Knowledge Growth in a Profession Project11 at Stanford University. Research in this project involved determining how subject matter knowledge influenced the behaviour of novice teachers. Shulman (1986) observed that in the research community the 10. McEwan and Bull (1991) disagree with Shulman's distinction between pedagogical content knowledge and subject matter knowledge as "all content knowledge, whether held by scholars or teachers, has a pedagogic dimension." Shulman (1986) notes that not only must teachers be able to explain accepted truths of a discipline, they must be able to justify why these truths are worth knowing. This justification of why something is worth knowing is vital to pedagogy (as goals transcend action in the form of planning for instruction) and is very relevant to this research. McEwan and Bull analyze these terms in great detail and conclude that the separation of subject mastery in various academic disciplines from schools of education is artificial and harmful. As the purpose of this literature review is to examine relevant research, there is no need to examine this debate in depth but simply acknowledge the terms lack conceptual clarity. 11. Numerous doctoral dissertations in various school subjects and other aspects of teacher education resulted from this program including: i. ) Grossman, P. (1988). A study in contrast: Sources of pedagogical content knowledge for secondary English. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. ii. ) Gudmundsdottir, S. (1988). Knowledge use among experienced teachers: Four case studies of high school teaching. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. iii. ) Hashweh, M. (1985). An exploratory study of teacher knowledge and teaching: The effects of science teachers' knowledge of subject matter and their conceptions of learning and teaching. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. iv. ) Wilson, S. (1988). Understanding historical understanding: Subject matter knowledge and the teaching of U. S. history. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. 26 importance of content had been neglected in a pendulum swing from pedagogy as content to pedagogy as process. He noted that the central questions remained unasked. To Shulman, the central issues of educational research should focus on the questions asked, the explanations offered, the source of explanations, and teachers decisions on how to represent what they teach. For Shulman, exploring content knowledge was important to derive parr of the information about teacher knowledge he desired. Shulman states that "To think properly about content knowledge requires going beyond the knowledge of facts or concepts of a domain. It requires understanding the structures of the subject" (1986, p. 9). The structures that Shulman discusses are the substantive and syntactical structures of a discipline. In addition, Shulman felt research must move beyond content knowledge of teachers to examine teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. Shulman (1986) defined pedagogical content knowledge in the following manner: A second kind of content knowledge is pedagogical content knowledge, which goes beyond knowledge of subject matter per se to the dimension of subject matter for teaching. . .. Within the category of pedagogical content knowledge I include, for the most regularly taught topics in one's subject area, the most useful forms of representations of those ideas, the most powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrations - in a word, ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others. Pedagogical content knowledge also includes an understanding of what makes the learning of specific topics easy or difficult; the conceptions and preconceptions that students of different ages and backgrounds bring with them to the learning of those most frequently taught topics and lessons ( pp. 9 -10). Shulman's definition indicates that pedagogical content knowledge represents a link between subject matter and pedagogy which creates a separate category of teacher knowledge. McEwan and Bull (1991) summarize this definition by stating "pedagogical content knowledge includes a command of a particular content 27 (alternative representations) and a particular process (pedagogical reasoning)" (p. 319). Teachers engage in pedagogic reasoning to transform the content or what is to be learned into pedagogic action or instructional representations. Gudmundsdottir (1990) explains that this transformation, reorganisation, or translation is based upon teachers' values, beliefs, and knowledge of the content area. Several models of pedagogical content knowledge have been developed which attempt to establish the kinds of associated knowledge. These models can provide a focus for examining how teachers may think about representing the content of history in the classroom. The role of a purpose for a subject is explicit in each model. Building on Shulman's definition, Wilson (1988) describes pedagogical content knowledge as one of seven types of knowledge teachers possess. 1 2 To Wilson (p. 44), pedagogical content knowledge includes "knowledge of representations of subject matter, knowledge of student conceptions related to particular topics, and pedagogical reasoning." She adds that pedagogical content knowledge is not just a "bag of tricks", but a "repertoire of representations that combine pedagogy with content in ways that are sensitive to the learner and school contexts" (pp 41 - 42). Pedagogical content knowledge involves the process of thinking and reasoning to solve content problems. This essential part of pedagogical content knowledge can be demonstrated as a teacher generates and evaluates alternative representations of the subject matter. Marks (1990) developed a portrait of pedagogical content knowledge through his research with fifth grade mathematics teachers. This view comprises four highly integrated areas. Subject matter for instructional purposes includes teacher knowledge of purposes ol math instruction; justification for learning specific 12. See page 15 for the seven types of knowledge outlined by Wilson (1988) 28 topics; important ideas to teach in a topic; prerequisite knowledge for a topic; and, typical math problems associated with a topic. The area of student understanding represents the insights a teacher has into student learning processes, student understanding, common errors and concepts students find hard or easy. Media for instruction indicates teacher understanding of the common resources used for instruction. This includes how a topic is organised in a text, the activities associated with topics, what material is appropriate for what topics and what students, and how the resources affect student learning. Marks (1990) divides the final area of instructional processes into three subcategories focusing on students, presentation and media. The student focus deals with learning activities, homework assignments, assessment, remediation, and motivation. Presentation involves topic organisation, teaching strategies, lesson organisation, and explanations. How texts and other materials are used is referred to as a media focus. To illustrate the integrated nature of this model, Marks states that if teachers criticise a textbook that lacks examples of certain mathematical processes, they are demonstrating knowledge of media, subject matter and student understanding. The concept of pedagogical content knowledge is significant for the research currently undertaken as it clearly illustrates the notion that a purpose is a specialised aspect of teacher knowledge with a significant impact upon instructional activities utilised in the classroom. Research on Pedagogical Content Knowledge Grossman and Yerian (1992) acknowledge that the relationship between pedagogical content knowledge and subject matter knowledge is subject to debate. However, they contend that these two features are "inextricably interwoven in teachers' thinking" (p. 3). Examining the field of research on subject matter knowledge 29 confirms it is an essential component of the knowledge base of teaching. To represent how this knowledge then influences the act of teaching and how it is utilised by teachers, one must create a complex lattice of interconnected personal and professional knowledge. Embarking on an extensive search of studies into various aspects of pedagogical content knowledge, Grossman and Yerian (1992) find research in a wide range of school subjects including English, math, science, social studies, and history. A problem they encounter is "defining the boundaries of what constitutes pedagogical content knowledge" (p. 1). The boundaries extend from "what teachers know or believe about teaching and learning in a specific content area" (p. 1) to teachers' personal practical knowledge. To establish boundaries for their research, Grossman and Yerian refer to Shulman's (1986) definition of pedagogic content knowledge.13 Utilising a previously developed model,14 Grossman and Yerian (1992) find that researchers have focused on conceptions of purpose of teaching a subject; teachers' knowledge of student understanding; and teacher knowledge of instructional representations and strategies. There was a different emphasis on these topics within different subjects. To provide a structure for analysis, Grossman and Yerian identify four categories of research: Studies which tried to define and identify pedagogical content knowledge in teacher thinking; studies of the relationship between pedagogic content knowledge and classroom teaching; studies of the relationship between teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and student learning; and examinations of the sources of pedagogical content knowledge (p. 6). Three of these categories have particular relevance to this research. 13. See page 27-28 for Shulman's (1986) definition of pedagogical content knowledge. 14. See Grossman (1990). 30 The first area of research involves ascertaining the types of pedagogical content knowledge. Grossman and Yerian (1992) review the array of research methods utilised in mathematics and science. Research by Hewson and Hewson (1989) utilises interviews and written scenarios with preservice teachers to represent instances and non instances of teaching science. The authors then utilise the data derived from the scenario - based interviews to determine six categories of science education knowledge. Lehrer and Franke (1992) examine the knowledge of teaching fractions in two elementary teachers. These authors develop a set of four constructs important to teaching fraction problems. They examine the relationship among the four constructs and the teaching of fractions and conclude that a teacher's personal constructs and relationships between different types of knowledge can be derived from such a research methodology. Unravelling teacher pedagogical content knowledge is accomplished through assessment strategies in mathematics (Marks, 1990) and history education (Wilson and Wineburg, 1991). Relating teachers' pedagogical content knowledge to classroom instruction is a second area of research examined by Grossman and Yerian (1992). Results of this research "suggest there is a great deal of congruence between teachers' conceptions of their purposes [emphasis mine] for teaching specific subject matter and their instructional practices" for both experienced and preservice teachers (pp 10-11). The "conception of purpose" is demonstrated in "how teachers exploited the potential inherent in their subject matter" (Grossman, 1990; p. 11) and in a study of math teachers via kinds of representations teachers develop for instruction (Stein, et al., 1990). Research in this area of pedagogical content knowledge has significant implications for the current research. Grossman and Yerian's (1992) research . indicates that teachers of all grades hold a "conception of purpose" for the subject they 31 teach which is an amalgam of teachers' subject matter knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge, and beliefs. This conception guides teachers when developing instructional strategies; it exerts a vast range of influence over the topics teachers emphasise, the choice of representation for the subject, and the way in which a teacher organises instruction. In creating an instructional strategy, teachers draw upon their pedagogical content knowledge to adapt subject matter and general pedagogical knowledge through a process referred to as transformation (Shulman, 1987), representation (Ball, 1988), interpretation (Marks, 1990), and psychologising (Dewey,1902/1969). These assertions by Grossman and Yerian (1992) lack unanimous support in the research community. Research not specifically in the field of pedagogical content knowledge, suggests that teacher beliefs and actual teaching practices are not necessarily congruent. For instance, Cornett (1990) states "there is a lack of congruence between stated teacher beliefs and actual teaching practice" (p. 250). A final area of relevant research examined by Grossman and Yerian (1992) is the source of teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. Grossman and Yerian (1992, p. 20) state teachers' "own understanding of subject matter", general pedagogical knowledge, "their experiences as learners", and "their own teaching experiences" all contribute to the development of pedagogical content knowledge. Grossman (1990) and Marks (1990) find that subject matter can be the source of teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. Their research indicates that teachers develop instructional representations based on their personal understanding of the topics. The researchers use terms such as interpretation, representation, and transformation to describe the process by which subject matter knowledge is changed into pedagogical content knowledge. In addition, Lehrer and Franke (1992) and Marks (1990) utilise their research in 32 mathematics to suggest that pedagogical content knowledge can be derived from general pedagogical knowledge in conjunction with their own subject matter knowledge. Marks (1990, p. 8) states that "the process by which such generic knowledge engenders pedagogical content knowledge is specification, that is, the appropriate instantiation of a broadly applicable idea in a particular context." This process of "specification" or transformation is particularly noticeable when teachers are planning an unfamiliar lesson. Grossman and Yerian (1992, p. 21) indicate that during this planning "teachers may draw upon their existing understanding of how to teach particular topics, their existing representations and explanations, but may also be constructing new representations." Of particular importance to the current research, Grossman and Yerian (1992, p. 21) add that "articulating their plans to another person may require that teachers clarify their own understandings of the purposes [emphasis mine] for teaching specific subject matter." The experiences teachers have during their preservice apprenticeship also have been found to be a source of pedagogical content knowledge. Knowledge of instructional strategies and representations may be predicated upon the teachers' experiences while learning the subject matter or from their experiences in the classroom (Grossman, 1990). Researchers such as Marks (1990) and Shulman (1987) find that teaching experience can be a source of pedagogical content knowledge. This experience incorporates the reaction from students, observation of colleagues, as well as textbooks (Stein, Baxter, and Leinhardt, 1990; Wilson and Wineburg, 1988) in the development of pedagogical content knowledge. The role of teacher education courses for preservice teachers and staff development opportunities for experienced teachers in developing pedagogical content knowledge has also been researched. As a result of their meta analysis, 33 Grossman and Yerian (1992) summarise: Not surprisingly, then, most researchers did find that subject specific methods courses can help prospective teachers construct aspects of pedagogical content knowledge, particularly conceptions of the purpose [emphasis mine] for teaching a particular subject (p. 23).15 Grossman and Yerian (1992) add that teacher subject matter knowledge plays a significant role in mediating the impact of staff development. Experienced teachers with rich subject matter knowledge are able to generate new representations of the content presented at workshops. Those teachers lacking in subject matter knowledge tend to simply replicate the activities demonstrated. Marks (1990) cautions that "any precise demarcation of pedagogical content knowledge from subject matter knowledge and general pedagogical knowledge is somewhat arbitrary" (p. 9). However, he does not dismiss the importance of pedagogical content knowledge as it is central to teachers' work. It is, as Shulman (1986, p. 10) defines, knowledge that "goes beyond subject matter to understanding ways of representing ideas that make subject matter more comprehensible to others." Sources of Conceptions of History Education The review of pedagogical content knowledge highlights the fact that the act of teaching requires purposes upon which to base actions in the form of instructional activities or pedagogy. If the contention that action is goal - oriented is accepted, it follows that teachers possess a conception of history education that will shape their actions in the form of instructional designs (Fetterman,1988). The study of teachers' perceptions, or what teachers think, is based on the assumption that teachers have a personal perspective, an implicit theory, a conceptual 15. In addition, research by Gibson (1995) supports this claim. 34 system, or a belief system about teaching and learning (Clarke and Yinger,1979). This belief system about the subject they teach creates what Grossman and Stodolsky (1994, p. 205) call a "conceptual context for classroom teaching". Exploring the source of teachers' beliefs and knowledge, including their formal education and the community in which they function, may suggest a context in which their conceptions of history education are developed. The Curriculum One source of a teacher's conception of history education may be the explicitly stated curriculum. Various institutions, such as government and the church, influenced all aspects of education, especially the curriculum throughout the nineteenth century. Eventually, a government - imposed curriculum became the norm. However, external forces continued to shape the curriculum. University examination boards influenced curriculum by including specific topics on university admission tests. Goodson (1989) states that by the 1940's certain subjects were closely aligned with university disciplines and were consequently given preferential treatment. Thus, explains Goodson, the role universities played in shaping curriculum was strengthened and they came to have an increasingly more important role. Goodson notes this role was enhanced as "subject groups employ a discourse where they argue increasingly for their subject to be viewed as an academic discipline" (p. 19). Consequently, the academic disciplines play a significant role in defining curriculum. The framework this curriculum provides may suggest concrete orientations towards the content which may influence a teacher's conception of history education. Social studies may appear to be an anomaly as it is not single - discipline oriented. However, Goodson (1987) states subject communities, such as teachers of social studies, should be seen as a diverse composition of groups or factions. Subject 35 communities may be organised around differing disciplines of thought, such as history, with differing views on significant knowledge and organisation and treatment of this knowledge. Goodson notes the major source of disagreement is the nature and purpose of curriculum. Traditions which come into conflict in social studies are academic and utilitarian traditions. Social studies with an academic tradition has a content focus, is examinable and therefore has high status. By contrast a utilitarian tradition is seen as promoting practical knowledge and therefore is a low status course. This affiliation with either tradition may have a significant influence on the purposes a teacher has for history education regardless of whether it is discipline oriented or pragmatically oriented. As previously stated, the commonly stated goal of social studies is to develop citizenship. However, the manner in which each discipline or tradition contributes to this goal is vague. Therefore, the aims of each discipline may be subject to redefinition since a conflict may exist over how it best helps meet the goals of social studies. Grossman and Stodolsky (1994) state this conflict "suggests there is room for negotiation of the curriculum to meet different purposes" (p. 190). This "room for negotiation" indicates there is sufficient latitude in the curriculum to accommodate a variety of conceptions of history education. University Education When discussing the role of scholarship in content disciplines for developing a knowledge base, Shulman (1987) states: Teaching is, essentially, a learned profession. A teacher is a member of a scholarly community. . . . This view of sources of content knowledge necessarily implies that the teacher must have not only depth of understanding with respect to particular subjects taught, but also a broad liberal education that serves as a 36 framework for old learning and as a facilitator for new understanding (p. 8). From Shulman's statement it is apparent that universities necessarily contribute to the development of content knowledge which contributes to shaping teachers' beliefs about a subject. Interactions with institutions, such as undergraduate training at universities, develop frames of reference by establishing a "network of cognitive definitions of reality" (Cornbleth, 1990; p. 20). As social studies teachers are products of universities it is likely they have been exposed to these definitions of reality. Elbaz (1983) states that "teachers, like all members of society, are influenced by the forms of thought and discourse which go on around them; their academic training invariably deepens such influences and instils conceptions of theory, of valid knowledge and research" ( p. 21). Unpacking the statement by Elbaz suggests that both indoctrination ("influenced by the forms of thought and discourse which go on around them") and education ("academic training") are at play as a consequence of a university education. This academic training and indoctrination create what has been referred to as an intellectual biography by Shulman (1986) and as a personal philosophy by Connelly and Clandinin (1988). Beliefs and theories developed by individuals during their undergraduate training within a knowledge community are a construct of shared beliefs and practices of the community. If this community is discipline-oriented and derives status from the academic nature of the course, a plausible link exists between theory of the scholarly discipline and the subject community. This link should be manifest in teachers' beliefs towards the goals of the subject, in this case, history. Johnston (1990) finds that disciplinary backgrounds of teachers to be an important influence on how teachers transform content knowledge into subject matter for teaching. According to Johnston (1990), pre - service teachers who do not have an academic background in a subject 37 have different views of the subject matter. This suggests that academic disciplines, such as history, are tradition-forming as well as self - perpetuating entities. Although little research has been conducted which examines the role of arts and science preparation on teacher preparation, it is apparent that universities contribute to the disciplinary knowledge of teachers.16 Beliefs teachers possess about their subject because of their indoctrination and education within a knowledge community contribute to the creation of a subject subculture which affects their approaches to teaching (Grossman and Stodolsky, 1994). Department Subculture Secondary schools are generally organised around subject specific departments. These departments function within certain contexts influenced by the district and school norms, students, as well as teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical skills and aims for instruction (Grossman & Stodolsky, 1994). Within these departments a specific occupational culture develops based upon shared beliefs. To Hargreaves (1989) "some of these patterns of thinking, beliefs and assumptions are so widely shared among the community of teachers that they amount to what might be called a broad occupational culture of teaching" (p. 26). Membership in these intra - subject and inter - subject communities is initiated early in a career and establishes a set of practices about how to best deliver the subject. A personal philosophy or frame of reference developed by occupational culture potentially has a great impact upon teacher instructional design. This occupational culture significantly affects teachers' classroom practice and the structures upon which their practices are based (Grossman & Stodolsky, 1994). 16. See: McDermid, G. W. (1992). The arts and sciences as preparation for teaching (Technical report). East Lansing: Michigan. 38 However, in social studies, the school subject where history is most often located, Grossman and Stodolsky (1994) note teachers are less likely to share a common perspective as this academic department has the potential to be very heterogeneous. As a consequence, there may be less collaboration or collegial exchange. When combined with the previously discussed notion that purpose of curriculum is in conflict, the departmental subculture has the potential to influence the resolution of the conflict as a consequence of bias towards certain orientations, thus shaping the way history education is understood. The role of the department subculture is examined by Grossman and Stodolsky (1994) who explain that the departmental culture is directly linked to subject matter. In the subject of history, and social studies, what constitutes subject matter is nebulous. This can be illustrated by the admission requirements for students entering a Master of Teaching Program subsequent to completion of another undergraduate degree at the University of Calgary. The admission document states students are required to have a major in such diverse courses as history, geography, religious studies or women's studies.17 This diversity undoubtably plays a role in shaping a department's understanding of the subject. As Leinhardt (1988) notes "we can learn much about the 17. Students in the Master of Teaching Program at the University of Calgary graduate with a Bachelors degree in Education. Despite the name this program is not considered post graduate studies. A document entitled Faculty of Education Teacher Preparation Program BED After an Approved Degree Information and Requirements describes the following requisite social science background for admission into the secondary social studies program: Applicants with majors or degrees in the following areas are admissible: anthropology, archeology, Canadian studies, economic, geography, history, political science, psychology, religious studies, or sociology (p. 6). This document also invites "applicants with a background in emerging Social Studies programs such as women's studies, environmental studies, or other interdisciplinary studies." (pp 5 - 6). 39 art of teaching if we seriously consider the nature of the environment in which teachers work and reason" (p. 146). Student Subculture Perceptions students bring to a subject have potential to shape teachers' instructional practices (Grossman & Stodolsky, 1994). As an emotional, intellectual, and personal response to instructional representations exists, the response of students, their levels of motivation, and past levels of achievement can all mediate instruction. These responses can shape the teachers' success in individual lessons. This response may encourage revision of instructional practices and consequently beliefs towards subject goals. Educational Materials The act of education necessarily requires the use of materials for teaching and learning. As teachers function within an educational system, they need to use this material and are influenced by this material.18 One source of teachers' beliefs was the previously described curricula. To complement the curriculum, tests and testing material have been developed, as have textbooks designed to cover prescribed content. Shulman (1987) states "if a teacher is to know the territory of teaching, then it is the landscape of such materials . . . with which he or she must be familiar" (p. 9). The act of creating instructional representations is predicated upon certain core beliefs. Shulman (1987) indicates that these core beliefs or maxims guide the 18. With regards to the influence of materials, Shulman (1987) states: "There is no need to claim specific literature undergirds this source [of influence], although there is certainly abundant research literature in most of these domains" (p. 9). 40 practices of able teachers. These maxims, which he calls "wisdom of practice" (p. 11), have been developed during a teacher's experience in the classroom and with the subject matter. Wood (1984, p. 260) too explains that teachers interact with curriculum "at a deeply personal level" and teachers have the opportunity to "chart their own course" utilising their wisdom of practice when developing instructional units. Research by Wilson and Wineburg (1988) and Evans (1988) indicates this personal level, which reflects teacher beliefs, significantly shapes what is taught in class. This combination of knowledge and experience provides a basis for what Shulman (1987) calls pedagogical reasoning. Pedagogical reasoning involves a teacher "taking what he or she already understands and making it ready for effective instruction" (p. 14). Thornton (1991) and Connelly and Clandinin (1988) indicate teachers are central in this transformation. History Education I would like to revisit the goals previous set out for Chapter Two. Discussion of the models of types of teacher knowledge highlights the notion that teachers possess many different categories of knowledge which influence their conception of history education. Next, I will examine the concepts of subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. From this examination emerges the idea that knowledge specific for teachers of history education can be derived from the discipline of history as well as from knowledge derived from the training and experience of teaching. Examining these concepts highlights the centrality of understanding a purpose for teaching a particular subject and the role the purpose plays in shaping instructional representations. I then examine the potential sources of the various types of knowledge central to the act of teaching. To conclude this chapter I will move from the general to the specific. I will examine the scholarship which outlines the range of 41 conceptions advocated for history education and research which seeks to explicate these conceptions within the reality of the classroom. Several concerns need to be examined prior to this review. Primarily, teaching history in school may have competing goals. This creates a multifaceted dilemma for teachers. Peter Lee (1992) outlines part of this dilemma as follows: If history is part of education, it can be expected to contribute to education, but this does not mean that 'the aims of history' are the same as 'the aims of education', and it does not mean that the latter can be transposed down from the level of education in general to the level of history in particular (p. 29). This concern is complicated by history's location within the subject of social studies. The ultimate goal for social studies is to develop responsible citizens, as outlined in the Alberta Program of Studies. As history is a component of social studies, any instruction in history must develop a responsible citizen, "one who is knowledgeable, purposeful, and makes responsible choices" (Program of Studies, Social Studies 10 and 13, 1988; p. 2). Such a definition of responsible citizenship does little to clarify either how, or if, history may be organised to achieve this goal. The notion of citizenship remains greatly contested and broad activities contribute to making a responsible citizen. Explicit in the goals for teaching social studies must be a notion of developing students to become responsible citizens, yet this goal may not be implicit in the aims of history. A second caveat regarding conceptions of history education deals with the exclusive use of one conception. It is unlikely one single conception would be encountered in its pure form and utilised to the exclusion of all others. Overlap is to be expected and may even be desirable. The arrangement of these conceptions for history education is not to provide a precise, inflexible demarcation of ways history education has been or can be, organised. Instead this review provides a way to think about how teachers may understand and organise history education. 42 Typologies of History Education Developing a sense of the various conceptions of history education is difficult as much of the literature in this area advocates utilising one primary conception of history education. A survey of typologies of purposes of history education demonstrates an overlap of purposes. Myers (1990, p. 68) outlines seven approaches to "what history [is] for and how it should be taught." A traditional approach views history as a means to accumulate certain factual information from a textbook - oriented narrative of the past. History can also be used to help students develop a better understanding of concepts such as revolution, democracy, or colonisation. Developing skills of the discipline of history such as the use of records and relics or problems of evidence is another of Myers' purposes for history. These skills are also referred to as historiographic skills. A fourth approach outlined by Myers focuses on teaching students "critical thinking in order to prepare for an uncertain future" (p. 1). This approach focuses on contemporary history related to current social issues. The transmission of specific content is important in Myers' (1990) fifth approach, which utilises history to "develop a stronger sense of personal identity and self - worth" (p. 1). This orientation often focuses on ethnic, women's and labour studies. The sixth approach sees history used to promote general educational aims such as communication. A final approach focuses on examining the value systems of the past and encouraging students to explore specific values issues through case studies. David Pratt (1985) claims "there are hundreds of specific objectives that history teachers collectively claim to be pursuing." He further cites six "more basic arguments for the study of history" (p. 202), some of which parallel Myers' (1990). His first basic objective involves teaching history "for its own sake" (p. 202). Pratt briefly traces the history of this orientation, popular in the 1960's, to Hilda Neatby's (1953) attack on 43 teaching history in Canadian schools. This orientation sees the transmission of content knowledge as the motivating catalyst. Pratt explains the pursuit of knowledge is "an ellipsis for. . . learning" (p. 202). Content knowledge is important although it does not necessarily have to be practical nor meaningful knowledge. Pratt's (1985) next five justifications for history reflect a practical or instrumental orientation. His second justification for history is to promote good citizenship which is described as "development of tolerance, intellectual skills, and understanding of the world." (p. 203). This orientation seeks to indoctrinate students into the social and political status quo. Pratt's third justification parallels Meyers' (1990) third orientation. Pratt outlines the use of history as a means to develop intellectual skills through inquiry. A fourth orientation views the primary purpose of history as a vehicle to develop critical thinking and values clarification. History is also advocated in schools, claims Pratt (1985), as it "enables the students to derive generalisations about human behaviour. . . ." (p. 206). The previous two orientations see history as serving the same purpose as any number of social sciences which seek to lay claim to investigations that produce generalisations. The final orientation regards history as a way to address the concern of relevance. To achieve this, Pratt (1985) explains teachers utilise the study of history as it "enables students to derive generalisations about mankind that are useful for understanding the present" (p. 207). This conception embraces the notion that the present can be better understood by examining particular events in history. An insightful debate about purposes for history education occurred in England as educators grappled first to construct and then to implement a national curriculum in history in 1988. This debate is insightful for the current research as the academics and educators that constructed this curriculum deal with questions such as "How should 44 the aims and purposes of history teaching relate to the aims and purposes of education?" and "Is it possible to formulate aims for history teaching?" (Shemilt, 1992; p. 2). Yet in his discussion of history education related to the national curriculum, Shemilt (1992) fails to clarify for teachers what purposes exist for history when he states that "the aims of history should relate to the potentialities of the individual as well as the needs of society, and must be broadly civilising rather than narrowly instrumental" (p. 1). While Shemilt fails to focus on a definitive purpose for history, Lee (1992), another British scholar involved in developing the national curriculum, clearly understands the daunting task for educators trying to teach history. He states "the difficult part of education is to connect a coherent conception of what ought to be done with the realities of teaching and the educational context" ( p. 20). Schools Council History 13-16 Project (1976) does not use the term purposes nor aims, but addresses the issue of what student needs are fulfilled by teaching history. The purpose of teaching history may be seen as addressing these needs. The first student need fulfilled by history is to understand the world in which an adolescent lives. History serves to help students understand their current situation by offering perspectives on the past. Being exposed to the past provides a public memory for students. History can allow a student to "establish his [sic] personal identity and to begin the process of realising for himself what values he finds worthwhile" (Schools Council History 13-16 Project ,1976; p. 13). Through the study of history adolescents have the opportunity to relate their experiences to what others have done in real life situations. This is a form of vicariously experiencing a vast range of human endeavour. Fulfilling this need provides a perspective on the present as history can show examples of "societies with values and life styles quite distinctive from their 45 contemporary world." Put in stronger terms "No subject other than history can correct the arrogant regard for the present and its achievements which so much of the contemporary curriculum inculcates in the young" (p. 14). The Schools Council History 13-16 Project (1976) asserts that history fulfils the students' need to understand how change occurs. History is a study of change and continuity which requires students to understand "that change can only be understood in the context of time and . . . the complexity of causation in human affairs" (p. 14). The study of history can also provide leisure interests for students. The Schools Council History 13-16 Project (1976) believes that the current interest in history in Britain has caused local archaeological and historical societies to flourish. It has also caused adults to find interest in visiting museums. The authors contend that "future adults will need to know how to use their leisure and subjects which can contribute to this should be given some priority" (p. 14). The 'subject' to which they refer is history. A final need of adolescents fulfilled by history is to develop the ability to think critically and make judgments. This need requires students to understand the concept of evidence of human actions. An essential component of this involves "distinguish(ing) between evidence and interpretation" (p. 15). Secondly, it requires students to make judgments by utilising a decision making process. To summarize, the educational outcomes of the Schools Council History 13-16 Project (1976) focus on ideas (evidence, change and continuity, causation and motivation, anachronism); abilities (analysis, judgment, empathy); experience; and interest. Although not explicitly stated as purposes for history education, several purposes can be gleaned from Lee's (1992) defence of the National Curriculum in Britain. Lee focuses on aims for history education that have a specific connection to 46 history. Otherwise, he posits, "how can they be aims of history teaching?" (p. 25). Lee (1992) argues that an aim of history education is to change what students see and the way they see the world. This transformative aim does not seek to engender patriotism or harness history to socialise students. Instead history provides rational knowledge and understanding of the past to illuminate various substantive issues. The study of history opens "up new possibilities for action . . . through vicarious experience, giving us some purchase, however slight, on the future - not so much by predicting what it will be like as by preventing it from ambushing us" (p. 27). The transformative aim of history also allows students to understand what options people of the past had available to them and what options they have available now. Lee (p. 29) conclusively states "The transformative aim is a central aim of school history: that is, it is what school history should aim for, an achievement to work towards." Historians have added to this debate on what purposes exist for teaching history in schools. Stanford (1994) outlines the concerns about teaching the facts to students as a way to suggest that understanding historical context is significant. Understanding context allows students to understand the 'how and why' things occurred. This 'how and why' is similar to the Schools Council History 13-16 Project's focus on causation and motivation. A further parallel with the above project is apparent when Stanford states "history may be described as education through vicarious experience" (p. 60). Students may gain insights into other "modes of living, other ways of thinking, other solutions to common problems" (p. 60). A third purpose can be discerned from Stanford when he states "the most rewarding way to teach history, at least to younger children, is to encourage them to find out for themselves in a simplified model of historical research" (p. 60).19 Stanford recognises that the 19. Although this seems to suggest an instructional strategy as opposed to a purpose, it is included in a subsection entitled What should a child know. This suggests a purpose of teaching history would be to teach a model of historical research. 47 purpose of history in schools is not to create historians but to develop useful and responsible citizens. This, he argues, can be accomplished by transferring the skills developed through historical research.20 Seixas (1993 B) explores the purposes of history education in his examination of academic history and curricular theorising. History taught to enhance cultural literacy is centred around the need to teach students certain 'historical canons' of a culture.21 These common referents form the basis of an historically literate debate among the citizens in the country. Seixas (1993 B) states that the purpose of teaching with such a goal in mind is to develop a" broad vocabulary of historical knowledge" (p. 236) or a "common national historical vocabulary" (p. 237). Ultimately, this transmission of culture is supported as it is seen to develop citizens to perpetuate the culture. A second purpose arising from Seixas' (1993 B) examination is "the use of inquiry to gain an understanding of the problems of historical interpretation." According to Seixas (1993 B), this representation utilises the 'structure of the discipline' orientation that arose during the 1960's.22 By using primary sources, constructing and evaluating narratives and examining interpretations, proponents of this purpose for history indicate students will develop historical 'habits of mind' and evaluate historical interpretations and significance from a critical perspective. History education as a use of the past to inform the present is a third orientation 20 . This purpose also parallels one of the Schools Council History 13-16 Project's (1976) educational outcomes for history. This Project indicates the ability to analyze, make judgments and empathise is an important outcome for history education. 21 . See Hirsch (1987) and Ravitch and Finn (1987). 22. The Schools Council History 13-16 Project (1976), Shemilt (1992), and Lee (1992) utilize this orientation and it is advocated by the Bradley Commission on History in Schools (1989). 48 Seixas (1993 B) describes. Seixas outlines several distinct ways in which the past can shed light on the future. History can be organised around themes relevant to current controversies, around generalisations applicable to contemporary problems, or around the relating of historical antecedents to contemporary problems.23 History can also be used to inform the present as it can develop historical empathy and an understanding of causation.24 Although both purposes for teaching history are different, they have in common the utility they provide for the present. A final purpose for history education derived from Seixas' (1993 B) examination is history education to define or enhance a collective identity. The Bradley Commission (1989) states that history "can satisfy young people's longing for a sense of identity and their time and place in the human story" (p. 22). This orientation suggests a purpose for history can be to develop an understanding of where a student came from. However, a controversy arises from this statement by simply asking the question 'Whose story do we examine?' Teachers can use history to develop a national identity, a culturally oriented identity, a class oriented identity, or even a gender oriented identity. In bemoaning the demise of history education in Canadian schools, prominent Canadian historian Jack Granatstein outlines the need to establish national standards for Canadian history. The aims he proposes for the standards give insights into his ideas about the purposes for history education. Granatstein (1998) outlines that students should know content about Canada and the world which would "provide the historical perspectives required to analyse contemporary issues" (p. 43). A second 23. Based on the work of Oliver and Shaver (1996). 24. Briefly, historical empathy can be described as understanding the motivations of historical figures. This 'habit of mind' can be demonstrated by realising the ambitions, values, knowledge and beliefs of people in the past are different than the present. This notion is subject to significant debate. See Jenkins and Brickley (1990) and Portal (1987). 49 purpose for history education for Granatstein would be to develop "the skills necessary to evaluate evidence, develop comparative and causal analyses, and construct historical arguments on which informed decisions about contemporary life might be made" (p. 43). The previous models or conceptions of purpose for history education do not embody the complete range of possible conceptions for history education. Certainly other conceptions are plausible and have been advocated by curriculum theorists. History can be taught with a quasi-psychological representation to show possibilities of human thought or unpredictability of human actions. A fine arts representation emphasising aesthetic appreciation may focus on art, music, or even architecture. It is necessary to see these models as providing a range of possibilities for teachers' understanding. Research on Teachers' Conceptions of History Education There is little research into teachers' conceptions of history teaching. Various combinations of the descriptors 'history', 'curriculum', 'perceptions', 'conceptions', and 'teachers' failed to provide any listings in Dissertation Abstracts International. The same descriptors provide one listing in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). The definitive handbook on social studies, The Handbook of Research on Social Studies Teaching and Learning (1991), fails to provide any specific research studies but does indicate several references to related topics. I located five relevant studies. A study by Adler (1984) bears tangential relevance while studies by Thornton (1988), Evans (1988, 1989), Muskin (1990), and Wineburg and Wilson (1991) are the most relevant examinations of teachers' conceptions of history education. All of these studies were conducted in American 50 schools; no Canadian research was located. A great deal of scholarship has examined conceptions of social studies25 and beliefs about conceptions of social studies. To illustrate the notion that teachers' beliefs about social studies, of which history is a central topic, will affect their practice, one study will be examined. Adler (1984) examines perspectives towards social studies in general and the relationship these perspectives had to the pedagogy of four preservice teachers. The study finds that teachers have conceptions of social studies which play some part in shaping practice. Adler (1984) determines that two conceptions are evident in the preservice teachers. One conception sees social studies knowledge as that which is personally relevant. Teachers holding this view tends to stress the importance of students' personal experience. These teachers emphasise development of the "skills of learning and reasoning and seek to implement a social studies curriculum which would emphasise this process approach" (Adler, 1984; p. 26). Teachers utilising this conception see knowledge as tentative and constructed. Other teachers emphasised acquisition of publicly known knowledge developed by scholars. These teachers stress the learning of content over processes of learning. They define content as factual truth, as opposed to a tentative construction. Adler (1984) adds that these conceptions are influenced by many factors including institutional features and the biographies of individual teachers. Thornton (1988) examines the degree of consonance between an officially mandated curriculum document and practices of American history teachers. He utilises a cluster population sample consisting of three males, each with over twenty years of teaching experience. Inquiry includes interviews, resource analysis, and 25. Gibson (1995) addresses the notion of multiple conceptions of social studies in novice teachers from a Canadian perspective. Additionally, Sears (1997) and Case (1997) review literature which indicates multiple perspectives exist for social studies. I will use Adler's original research as a representative of the inquiry which seeks to elaborate on teachers' conception of social studies. 51 direct observation. Thornton (1988) seeks to answer the questions "What degree of curriculum consonance exists?" and "What appears to account for it?" One of the three factors shaping what teachers planned was their conception of history. Thornton's study indicated that teachers had three conceptions. These conceptions centre upon addressing students' personal relevance, the development of students' intellectual process, and developing in students an understanding of what historical information is significant. These appear to reflect general scholastic purposes. Furthermore, Thornton finds that the teacher conceptions lack consonance with classroom practices. Evans (1988, 1989) investigates teachers' conceptions of meaning or purpose of historical study, the relationship between this conception and teaching style, and background factors which may influence the development of this conception. Evans' initial study is an interview of three intern teachers. His study focuses on determining conceptions of the meaning of history education and determining if this affected the shape of the transmitted curriculum. The three central purposes this study explicated for teaching history are to solve contemporary problems, to develop a context for understanding an individual's place in the world, and to develop an understanding of current issues. Evans finds teacher conceptions of history are shaped by individual backgrounds and the educational community in which they taught. The focus of this research is to determine if teachers' conceptions affect the transmitted curriculum. This proves to be the case for the research sample. However, the sample size raises concerns regarding the generalisability of the information and the insights it offers. Furthermore, Evans' (1988) classifications of the conceptions of history are not the explicit goal of the research. Instead, Evans seeks to examine consonance between organising imagery and transmitted curriculum. To address the concerns of generalisability, Evans (1989) undertakes research 52 on a larger scale. Using an initial survey, Evans derives five instructional orientations. One orientation, the scientific historian, includes teachers who relied upon primary documents and evaluation of evidence to determine objective truth about history. A second orientation is based upon understanding historical processes and acquiring background knowledge to better understand current events. Evans calls these people the relativist /reformers as they stressed the relationship of the past to current issues and see the study of history as a means of understanding current issues. An orientation entitled cosmic philosophers emphasises patterns or laws connecting historical events. To the storytellers the central purpose of history is to gain cultural knowledge. This is accomplished by transmitting knowledge of dates, people, and places. Finally, the eclectic orientations represents teachers who combine characteristics of two or more conceptions of history. Subsequent to the questionnaire Evans (1989) conducts interviews with teachers about their instructional orientations and origin of these orientations. Methodological concerns and interpretation of information from interviews raise questions about the utility of the research. Despite a return rate (71 of 160 or 44 %) significantly less than acceptable, the questionnaire is used to suggest a distribution of orientations and suggest dominance of certain orientations.23 Interview subjects are "self-selected volunteers" who returned the questionnaire. Furthermore, results of these interviews lack clarity. The stated purposes are often vague notions representing a muddled combination which mixes strategies so that five artificially synthesised composite conceptions focusing upon purposes are derived. Understanding current issues is the purpose or goal for both "scientific historian" and 26. Borg and Gall (1989) consider an 80% return rate acceptable. Gay (1987) considers 70% an acceptable rate. A rate of less than this makes data suspect. Evans does not describe any actions taken to determine if non-respondents are similar or different to the respondents in any systematic way. 5 3 "relativist / reformer." However, they are differentiated by methods used to achieve this goal. Scientific historians use historical content as a means of developing "scientific skills" of the discipline of history, whereas relativist / reformer use historical content to examine relationships. Delineating actual purposes for teaching history becomes confused. Some categories are determined based on instructional activities as opposed to stated purpose. In addition, the purpose was often subsumed within an ideal conception of history which is not found in actual instruction. The utility of this study relevant to explicating the purpose of teaching history is compromised by methodological and interpretive concerns, yet it can be beneficial as it suggests instruction is shaped by purposes which teachers can articulate. Muskin (1990) also undertakes a study of teachers' goals for history education. This study involves interviews with and observations of twelve teachers in six secondary schools. Teachers are asked to indicate their goals of teaching history. The primary goal (10 out of 12) stated is content coverage. The purpose for covering this content is not indicated. Cultural literacy (cultural information; learning from past mistakes) is the stated goal of eight of the twelve teachers. Six of the twelve teachers state goals of critical social studies skills (critical thinking skills such as understanding another point of view) and general skills (primarily reading and writing). General social studies goals of citizenship education (goals concerning educating citizens to uphold democratic responsibility) and responsibility (developing self-discipline) are reported by four and two teachers respectively. Developing social science - specific skills is a goal only for those teaching college preparation classes. The degree of consonance between stated goals and practice casts concern over the utility of this information in determining conceptions of history education. Muskin (1990) finds the degree of consonance varies; however, it is skewed to the moderate or low end of a continuum. As with Thornton's study, stated goals of the 54 purpose of history often reflect general scholastic goals. These goals are often compromised in instructional activities. Research by Wineburg and Wilson (1991) also suggests a need to examine conceptions of history education. They note "few researchers carefully examine the content of instruction - the body of ideas, concepts, and facts that teachers try to teach and hope their students learn" (p. 308). Wineburg and Wilson focus on subject matter knowledge or knowledge, beliefs and values that two teachers have acquired through years of practice. This study is part of a larger study of eleven teachers nominated as experts by university faculty, school teachers and administrators. Their study focuses on concepts, characters, scope and sequence of a history unit. Wineburg and Wilson use observations and interviews to examine how subject matter is represented in the form of instructional strategies. Both teachers see history as a human construction in which students must interpret information or solve problems. For both teachers, the vision of history is to understand the story of history and interpret conflicting judgments regarding significance of events and actions. Wineburg and Wilson (1991) suggest that within the act of teaching history two overlapping structures exist around which teachers organise their teaching. Epistemological structures concern how "knowledge is constructed and how inquiry is pursued in the discipline of history" (p. 333). Contextual structures are concepts, ideas and events rooted in time and place. As the focus of this study is on only two teachers, it too lacks generalisability. It does provide detailed insights into how two expert teachers interpret curriculum and construct instructional activities. The authors note the research is intended to mark a beginning of further inquiry into teacher expertise. Their research confirms teachers organise school history differently based upon different conceptions. In addition, it provides an impetus for more research into teachers' conceptions of history education. 55 Case studies by Evans (1989), Thornton (1988), Muskin (1990) and Wineburg and Wilson (1991) give insights into the multiplicity of goals for history education, yet they do not sufficiently illuminate conceptions of history education upon which teachers predicate their instructional representations. Lack of consonance between stated goals and practice indicates the stated goals of teachers may instead be ideal goals of history not readily transformable to pedagogy. Additionally, this body of research does not explicate the purpose of history education which is implicit in a conception as specific subject area goals are often confused with general scholastic goals. Studies do suggest teachers have what Shulman (1986) calls "a veritable armamentarium of alternative forms of representation" (p. 9). Further research may provide greater insight into teachers' conceptions of history education around which these representations are organised. 56 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Phenomenography as a Research Methodology This research begins by acknowledging that there are many different ways in which a provincially prescribed curriculum may be implemented in a classroom. To get a sense of these different ways of implementing history education, we can seek to examine teachers' conceptions of the subject. However, attempting to examine these conceptions is fraught with methodological concerns. Teachers' descriptions of classroom activities are not necessarily an accurate window on their conceptions as those descriptions often lack consonance with practice. Literature in the area of social studies, the subject in which the topic of history is located in Alberta, confirms that this consonance may be lacking. Thornton (1991, p. 237) states "there is now considerable evidence that what social studies teachers say they do and what they actually do are frequently different matters." The prescribed curriculum also fails to offer a clear description of history education which can be implemented by teachers. Goodlad (1984) suggests that the stated goals for social studies do not reveal much about classroom practice, as during the transformation from prescribed curriculum to practised curriculum "something strange seems to have happened ." (p. 212).1 This information suggests a dilemma exists when trying to accurately determine teachers' conceptions of history education. 1. Orr and Smit (1996) indicate this problem is applicable to the province of Alberta and state "The disparity between the formal curriculum and what actually happens in classrooms is of course not a new problem" (p. 35). 57 An ethnographic research methodology can offer insights into classroom events from both a teacher's and student's perspective. One value of ethnographic research is the contextualised narrative that teachers provide in response to questions. Ethnography explicates patterns which exist, the impetus for these patterns, and assigns a value to achieving certain purposes. This mode of inquiry seems to complement the desired goals of this dissertation. Yet as ethnography seeks to find order and regularity in a teacher's action, it also possesses a "multitude of built in quality controls, with an emphasis on ensuring validity" (Fetterman, 1988; p. 19). This may show teachers' understanding of possible conceptions of history education, but this understanding may lack of consonance with actual practice. Fortunately, as Fetterman (1988) notes, "qualitative approaches are varied and manifold" (p. 22). A different approach is required to examine what teachers think about when planning for instruction. Marlon (1981) argues for an alternative form of inquiry he calls phenomenography. Marton (1994) describes phenomenography as "the empirical study of the differing ways in which people experience, perceive, apprehend, understand, conceptualise various phenomena in and aspects of the world" (p. 4425). The aims of this research are "description, analysis and understanding experiences" (Marton 1981; p. 177).2 To illustrate the difference between traditional ethnography and phenomenography, consider the difference between the following two questions: What purposes exist for history education? and What do teachers think are their purposes for history education? An answer to the first question is a statement about reality. The 2. Marton (1994) states that in phenomenographic research "the words experience, perceive, etcetera are used interchangeably" (p. 4425). He further adds that the phrase a "conception of something" or "a way of understanding something" can also be used interchangeably (p. 4426). For this research, the term conception will be used to mean a way of understanding of something. This idea is explained at greater length later in this chapter. 58 answer to the second question is a statement about teachers' conceptions of reality, the determination of which is the goal of this research. Marton (1981) explains the difference between the two questions: In the first and by far the most commonly adopted perspective we orient ourselves towards the world and make statements about it. In the second perspective we orient ourselves towards people's ideas about the world (or their experience of it) and we make statements about people's ideas about the world (or their experience of it) (p. 178). Marton labels these complementary perspectives as first and second - order perspectives. The former question reflecting a first - order perspective and the latter question being a second - order perspective. Marton (1981) argues that there are two reasons for utilizing second - order questions for inquiry. Firstly - and most obviously - we consider that to find out the different ways in which people experience, interpret, understand, apprehend, perceive, or conceptualize various aspects of reality is sufficiently interesting in itself, not the least because of the pedagogical potentiality and necessity of the field of knowledge to be formed. Secondly, the descriptions we arrive at from the second - order perspectives are autonomous in the sense that they cannot be derived from the descriptions arrived at from the first order perspective (p. 178). This means that if we are inquiring into teachers' conceptions of history education, in which purpose is a salient feature3, we must investigate this problem specifically, as the answer cannot be derived from what we know and what people write about the subject of history education. Investigating the first - order question involves reviewing the scholarship in the domain of history education. Examining conceptions of history 3. The notion of purpose being a salient feature of a conception of history education will discussed in greater detail later in this chapter. 59 education "focuses on perception itself" (Fetterman, 1988; p 21 ).4 Yet Marton (1995) acknowledges that phenomenography is not necessarily best described as a method for research. Certain methodologies are dominant such as data collection "in the form of in-depth interviews and analysing all transcripts across individuals" (p. 170). However, as a methodology, its principles have not been fully developed nor made explicit. Terminology Prior to further discussion of the methodologies utilised in this phenomenographic research it is essential to develop an understanding and common use of the language specific to this research. Phenomenon: The New Webster Encyclopedic Dictionary (1980) defines a phenomenon as "an observable fact or event" (p. 623). Yet Marton and Booth (1997) include "learning", "the nature of matter" (p. 118), "understanding the text" and "problems" (p. 74) as possible phenomena around which to focus research.5 None of these examples seems to satisfy the dictionary definition as these terms deal with a cognitive event not an observable act. However, if you recognise that an individual's understanding of these terms, or of history education, can be reflected in certain artifacts they produce, such as lesson plans, then the previous examples and history education can be seen as phenomena. Marton and Booth (1997) state that "we refer 4. Teacher perceptions are defined as the "operational philosophy developed out of experiences in the immediate and distant past, and applied to specific situations." (Adler, 1984; p. 14). Therefore, teacher perceptions are meanings and interpretations or understanding given to the subject they teach. The conceptions of meaning are manifest in concrete actions of the teacher and have implications for particular behaviours. 5. According to Marton (1994) phenomenographic research has a wide variety of applications including inquiry into student understanding of content, the experience of learning, and describing conceptions of the world around us. 60 to the wholeness of what we experience to be simultaneously present as a situation, while we call entities that transcend the situation, which link it with other situations and lend meaning to it, phenomena" (p. 74). The entity or phenomenon of interest for this research is history education. Conceptions: Marton and Booth (1997) state that many different terms are used interchangeably to describe ways of experiencing a phenomenon, which is the focus of research in phenomenography. These include the terms "conceptions" and "ways of understanding." For this research the term conception will be used to mean the broadest understanding teachers have about what they teach, why they teach it and how they teach it. Dahlgren (1984) describes conceptions of a phenomenon as that which "constitutes a particular way of viewing and thinking about an aspect of the surrounding world" (p. 30). Marton and Booth (1997) point out that a conception requires placing a phenomenon in a situation which allows an individual to understand it and link it with other similar experiences. The situation in which history education is placed in this research is a social studies class in a secondary school. A teacher links it to other experiences as she develops a pedagogically useful representation of the topic. Salient feature: A conception of a phenomenon is made up of salient features which Marton and Booth (1997) call "aspects" (p. 123). For Marton and Booth an "aspect is (as opposed to being absent or taken for granted) a dimension of variation. Experiencing something is discerning aspects of it and being focally and simultaneously aware of them" (p. 123). A purpose can be seen as an aspect of a conception of history education as teachers articulate their understanding (awareness) of their purpose, or why they teach the subject in the way they do, and it can be shown 61 to be a source of variation. It is a salient feature inherent in a way of understanding history education. However, as the term aspect is a recurring word in phenomenography, this research will use purpose as the salient feature which will be the primary unit of analysis. Other salient features, or important aspects, of a conception of history education include instructional strategies, suitable resources, or psychological models applicable to history education. The Aim of Phenomenography To Marton (1981), the aim of phenomenography is to "systematize forms of thought in terms of which people interpret aspects of reality - aspects which are socially significant and are at least supposed to be shared by the members of a particular kind of society" (p. 180). The centrality of the conceptions of certain facets of reality as opposed to the source of variation is significant in phenomenographic research. Marton (1981)) states: This focussing on conceptions of specific aspects of reality, i.e. on apprehended (perceived, conceptualised or "lived") contents of thought or experience, as a point of departure for carrying out research, and as a base for integrating the findings, is in fact the most distinctive feature of the domain labelled "phenomenography".. . . ( p. 189). Phenomenography seeks to provide categories of descriptions which denote "forms of thought... in order to characterize the perceived world . . . " (Marton, 1981; p. 196). It is an attempt to "thematize" alternative forms of propositional knowledge about various aspects of reality. Marton (1995) adds that "the aim is not to find a singular essence, but the variation and the architecture of this variation in terms of the different aspects which define the phenomena" (p. 179).6 6. The "architecture of the variation" (Marton 1995; Marton and Booth, 1997) for this research are the constituent components which make up the conception. 62 Marton (1981) summarises the need for phenomenographic research as he states it is descriptive of human thought in two ways. "It can be used as an instrument for description of the way people think in concrete situations and, from a collective perspective, it can be seen as a description of thinking" (p. 198). As the goal of this research is to examine teachers' conceptions of history education a method of initiating teacher discussion on the topic must be developed. This discussion requires establishing the context in which the phenomenon is to be described. As previously stated, performing observations in the classroom leads to concerns of consonance. Teachers may state a specific conception of history education around which they organise for instruction, but this conception may not be observable in their actions. Instead, by locating the phenomenon in the context of what teachers think about when planning for instruction, this research can focus upon the teachers' understanding of history education. Several starting points exist which allow this examination of teachers' understanding of history education. These key sites for examining conceptions within teachers' instructional processes are agendas, curriculum scripts, explanations, and representations (Leinhardt, et al., 1991). Although initially derived from research in mathematics, these sites are adaptable to lessons in history education An agenda, according to Leinhardt, et al. (1991) is the "mental plan that contains the goals and actions for the lesson" (p. 88). The agenda is a mental flow chart of the lesson. It establishes lesson segments and a plan for explaining the topic to be taught. This agenda is a malleable plan which can be modified during instruction. The varying nature and amount of content described by a teacher provide insights into the richness of a teacher's subject matter knowledge. As an agenda provides a mental diagram of the content, it is an important point of entry for examining instructional processes. The agenda reflects the teacher subject matter knowledge 63 that shapes his or her understanding of history education. A second point of entry for examining instructional processes is the curriculum script. This component is "an important part of the agenda which provides the overall goal structure for the content presentation of a particular lesson. It consists of a loosely ordered set of goals and actions that a teacher has built up over time for teaching a particular topic" (Leinhardt, et al., 1991; p. 89). The curriculum script reflects teachers' subject matter knowledge as the curriculum script includes "how to teach the topic, including sequences of ideas or steps to be introduced, representations to be used, and markers for concepts or procedures that are likely to cause students difficulties" (Leinhardt, et al., 1991; p. 89). The content of a lesson is structured or organised around a curriculum script. The curriculum scripts provide valuable insights into teachers' conceptions of history education as they are relatively stable components of teacher planning. Leinhardt, et al. (1991) explain that teachers utilize a limited number of explanations and "teaching actions or moves" (p. 94). These actions involve using previously developed explanations and utilizing a limited number of student moves. Leinhardt, et al. (1991) note that "teachers focused their energy on altering and adjusting their own behaviours rather than on designing hypothesis about why students did what they did" (p. 94). This is not to suggest that teachers use a limited number of inflexible curriculum scripts, as teachers possess a vast repertoire of curriculum scripts developed through their experiences in teaching. This vast reservoir of accumulated knowledge provides "a cohesiveness to lessons by providing a structure (often a sequence) of ideas to be presented and actions to be taken to help students construct the desired knowledge structure" (Leinhardt, et al., 1991; pp 94 -95). As a curriculum script is developed slowly over time, it will be revised slowly as a teacher acquires new knowledge. 64 A third point of entry for examining teachers' instructional process is through their explanations. To Leinhardt, et al. (1991) an explanation "is not only what a teacher says or shows to the students, but also includes the systematic arrangement of experiences so that the students can construct a meaningful understanding of a concept or procedure" (p. 89). An explanation is a window on teachers' subject matter and pedagogic content knowledge as it focuses on the content inherent to the curriculum script and the way of organising to teach this content. . A final way to view teachers' beliefs about conceptions of history education is via the instructional strategies they organise. Leinhardt, et al. (1991) refer to these strategies as representations. The use of representations provides a detailed window into teachers' understanding of a topic, particularly the goals of the curriculum script. These goals will reflect the purpose a teacher has for teaching a topic. Leinhardt, et al. (1991) state: In addition to being aware of the benefits to be gained from multiple representations, a teacher must consider the suitability of particular representations for particular purposes . . . . certain representations will take an instructor farther in his or her attempt to explain the to -be - learned material and still remain consistent and usefu l . . . . The choice of an effective representation for a particular purpose is not a trivial matter (p. 108). Wilson (1988) expands on the notion of representation. She states that "instructional representations embody the intersection of pedagogy and content and it is at this nexus that concerns for learners, learning, context, and content merge" (p. 259). Wilson, Shulman, and Richert (1987) indicate teachers have a preferred representation for the content based upon their own purposes. The content of the topic is transformed to a designated set of activities and representations which will provide students with a meaningful understanding of the content. Therefore, the ways students experience the content is through the representations teachers utilize. Different representations would be expected as no one representation can meet 65 the various demands and goals of teachers (Wilson, 1988; Leinhardt, et al., 1991). The representations will be affected by teachers' subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, knowledge of students, context, students, curriculum, and their own goals and objectives for the topic. This literature suggests two primary routes for examining the salient feature of purpose within teachers' conceptions of history education. As a stable component of teacher planning, the curriculum script will provide insights into their aims and goals for subject matter. The cohesiveness a curriculum script provides suggests that a purpose will be manifest throughout many of a teacher's daily instructional activities. Agendas are a second valuable way to gain insights into a teacher's broad understanding of a purpose for history education. Although an agenda is a malleable plan, it reflects a teacher's goal for a lesson which would include a goal for instructional representations. As instructional representations of subject matter are developed based on a particular purpose (Leinhardt, et al., 1991), a decision to utilize a certain representation is predicated on teachers' beliefs about a purpose. An initial examination of a teacher's agenda followed by a discussion of their more stable curriculum scripts should ultimately reflect their understanding of the purposes for history education. Design of the Interview Protoco l The general goal of the interview is to have teachers articulate their implicit conceptions of history education. Of particular importance is having teachers articulate their understanding of the purpose of history education as completely as possible. To accomplish this the teacher needs to develop a meta - awareness of his 6 6 or her actions.7 As a way to gain a window on teachers' purpose inherent in their curriculum script, teachers are asked to briefly explain the agenda for a significant history lesson and provide the goals and the actions undertaken. Teachers are sent the following question via facsimiles to their schools several days before the interview: Briefly describe the most significant lesson or series of lessons you teach in the history section of social studies. (Briefly state the topic and central "things" you want students to acquire.) Significant is described as that which will make the most difference or have the greatest impact on students. Teachers are then asked to describe why this lesson is important for students in the context of the history topic. This question so worded provides a context that is similar for all teachers for exploring their understanding of the phenomenon of interest. Marton (1995) states that "data originating from studies where the participants give an account of their experiences of a particular situation, which is more or less the same for them all, is much more meaningful from a phenomenographic point of view." (p. 170). This similar context facilitates analysis of the variation in how teachers understand history education. The question also provides two central pieces of information regarding teachers' conception of history education in a meaningful learning experience. Significantly for analysis, it will provide a segue for discussing a teacher's agenda for the content as well as the overall goal structure for the content or the curriculum script. Discussing the agenda will provide a starting point for examining the goals of comparable lessons. This will lead to questions requiring teachers to reflect upon his or her understanding of the purposes for history education as they teach it. This format is comparable to other phenomenographic studies described by Marton and Booth (1997): 7. Marton and Booth (1997) describe this meta - awareness as "being aware of his awareness" (p. 117) 67 We described studies in which the interviewees were asked first to undertake a task (reading a text or solving a problem) and report on it, and then to describe how they had gone about the task. In the first part the researcher had formed a situation the output of which was of the interviewee's making - a description or a solution - and in the second part the output was a probing of the interviewee's own awareness of producing it (p. 117). A concern arises regarding the insights this one lesson provides into a purpose inherent in a curriculum script. A teacher may describe that a particular lesson is significant but this may not suggest a purpose that pervades his or her curriculum script. Indeed, this may be the case but it will still indicate one of several purposes a teacher has for history education. However, the literature suggests that one lesson is a strong indicator of a comparable agenda in subsequent lessons. Strong links have been found between purposes for one particular lesson and lessons throughout the year in social studies (Wood, 1984). This is supported by Leinhardt's, et al., (1989) notion of curriculum script which indicates that teachers possess a limited number of agendas that work for a particular topic and try to shape new material around these scripts. These scripts provide a cohesiveness and continuity to the lessons. Having teachers refer to their own instructional activities is necessary for eliciting information on their agendas.8 Although not using a task identical to this research, in trying to determine teachers' conceptions of teaching science Hewson and Hewson (1989) have interview respondents refer to classroom events to suggest whether science teaching is occurring or not. 8. By referring to practice we have a tool to analyze a teacher's presuppositions about history education. Turner (1994) describes presuppositions as "a claim that is neither explicitly formulated nor consciously adopted by a reasoner" (p. 29). The presuppositions are reflected in the beliefs teachers act upon when constructing a lesson. 68 To ensure reliability an interview protocol is developed.9 Several concerns arise in trying to develop a set of interview questions which would explicate the teacher's understanding of purposes for history education. Obviously the understanding must be one that can be developed into a curriculum script suitable for use in a school based history education setting. It should have some degree of consonance with practice, yet this consonance need not be validated as it is only a description of the teacher's understanding of his or her purpose.10 A second concern is to have teachers describe a lesson or series of lessons with sufficient detail so that they may develop an understanding and articulate a purpose for history education evolving from their description. Marton and Booth (1997) refer to this as developing meta - awareness. The initial question I posed to the interviewees is used as a basis for further discussion. I asked teachers to describe the focus of the lesson - the major ideas, facts, relationships or processes teachers have for the content based upon their own purposes.11 This is an attempt to clarify the vagueness of "central things" referred to on the initial question. Teachers are then asked to explain why this is significant. Relating information to classroom activities has a significant role in determining the type of information that a teacher possesses. As this research seeks to explain teacher understanding about purposes of history education based on what they believe they do in class, it is important to uncover procedural ways of knowing. Consider the difference between information derived from a teacher whose purposes 9. Briggs (1986) describes reliability in an interview as "the probability that the repetition of the same procedures, either by the same researcher of by another investigator will produce the same results." 10 . This is based on Marlon's (1981) notion of second order questions. Wilson (1988) describes the difference between purposes with a low versus high degree of consonance as "potential representations" and "enacted representations." 11. Derived from Wilson, Shulman, and Richert (1987). 69 are based on instructional activities and a teacher whose purposes are derived from a discussion not based on instructional activities. By referring to instruction a teacher can illustrate procedural knowledge (Marton's second order perspectives) which may include a knowledge of pedagogy, a knowledge of learners, and pedagogical content knowledge. On the other hand, a teacher whose purposes do not refer to instructional activities (Marton's first order perspectives) may just reflect propositional knowledge outlined in subject matter literature.12 To determine if this is an isolated lesson or if it provider sense of cohesiveness inherent in an overarching curriculum script and influencing other lessons, teachers are asked to describe lessons which reflected comparable procedures such as ideas, facts, relationships or processes. Understanding the larger context in which a teacher understands history education is important. The teacher's understanding must be interpreted against the background of the history section of the topic. Respondents are then probed to see if they can explicitly state their purpose for history education based on the lessons they described. Subsequent questions focus on determining the extent to which this purpose permeate their curriculum script. Questions examine teachers' subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge by determining if this is a clearly thought out and pervasive purpose for history education or if it is a vague image of why they thought the content was important. Other questions probe the origin of the lesson; the context in which it was taught; and the role of students in shaping the lesson. 12. For example of propositional knowledge, see the literature outlined in Chapter Two including Myers (1990), Pratt (1985), Schools Council History Project 13-16 (1976), and Seixas (1993). 70 Research Participants In this study the respondents are selected from those public school teachers in the Calgary Board of Education teaching the social studies topic A outlined in the Alberta Program of Studies (1990). The Calgary Board of Education is the largest public school system in Canada with an enrolment of nearly 100,000 students in more than 200 schools from kindergarten to grade 12. Grade 10 social studies in Alberta consists of two achievement tracked courses. Students can be enrolled in either Social Studies 10, an academic track, or in Social Studies 13, a vocational track. In Social Studies 10 topic A is entitled Canada in the Twentieth Century. In Social Studies 13, topic A is entitled Challenges for Canada in the Twentieth Century. History is the major focus in both courses.13 A purposeful sample of respondents is identified for interviews.14 The variety of respondents reflect the great diversity of the teaching population and different teaching contexts. Teachers are contacted who reflect different levels of experience, 13. For the purpose of this research the specific unit on history to be examined is found in topic A of Social Studies 10 and 13 as described in the Alberta Program of Studies (1990). The history component is contained within the Social Studies 10 (academic stream) Topic A: Canada in the 20th Century. In this course students are to develop an understanding of forces and events that influence development of Canada and shape present life. Generalised objectives include themes of sovereignty, regionalism and identity. In Social Studies 13 (vocational stream) the history component is Topic A: Challenges for Canada in the 20th Century. The objective of this course is to provide students with knowledge and skills necessary to effectively participate as citizens of Canada. Themes to be studies include diversity, unity and identity examined through the lens of twentieth century history. A personal conversation with a social studies consultant who is an author of various social studies textbooks and who is also a prominent member of the provincial social studies community confirm the dominant history orientation of this topic. 14. The data used for analysis is derived from transcribed interviews with fourteen teachers. Prior to the formal interviews six teachers were interviewed to refine the interview protocol. 71 educational (discipline) backgrounds, gender, and educational contexts.15 A summary of the variety of contexts applicable to each respondent is summarised in figure 3.1. Phenomenographic research typically derives its descriptions from a small sample of participants drawn from a particular population. Consequently, the categories derived are never claimed to be an exhaustive system. However, the categories are complete as Marton and Booth (1997) state that "nothing in the collective experience as manifested in the population under investigation is left unspoken" (p. 113). 15. The different contexts include factors such as socio - economic conditions of the school's neighbourhood, school size, teaching experience, academic ability of the students (academic or vocational track), and ethnic composition of the school. 72 Selection Criteria Name Selection Criteria Kate M.C.;M;V;D;10 Dennis M.C.;S; V; D; 10 James M.C; M;E; U; 10 Christine M.C.;S;N;D;13 Use L.C.;S;V;U;10 Justine LC.;M;E;D; 10 Donald LC.;L;V;D;13 Darren M.C.;M;E;D;10 Chris M.C;M ;V;D;10 Ken M.C.;L; V; U; 10 Brian M.C.;L; E; D; 10 Kendall M.C.;M;V;D;10 Pierre M.C.;S;N;U;10 Jackie M.C.;M;E;D;10 Selection Criteria Codes School location L.C. - relatively lower socio - economic class M.C. - relatively middle socio economic class School size S - under 800 students M - 800 - 1200 students L - over 1200 students Teaching Experience N - novice - under 5 years teaching social studies E - experienced - between 5 -15 years V - veteran - over 15 years School culture D - heavily multicultural (diverse) U - relatively unicultural Academic stream 10 -academic 13 - vocational Figure 3.1 Interview Participants 73 Validity Validity for this research concerns the extent to which the final report on the data analysis and the original data are comparable. To mediate the concerns regarding the various types of validity all interviews have been tape recorded and transcriptions have been produced. Response effect is the major threat to the validity of interviews, according to Sudman and Bradburn (1974). This occurs when there is a lack of consonance between response and reality. Respondents may give inaccurate or incorrect information during the interview for various reasons. Furthermore, response effect is complicated by variables related to interview structure. To control this threat to validity an interview guide is structured to elicit responses to comparable questions. I acquire expertise in interviewing prior to formal research by piloting the interview guide. The intent of piloting is to acquire knowledge in interview procedures and practice in interviewing techniques. As the interview focuses on understanding of purposes for history education the need to determine consonance between response and reality is reduced. Communication during the interview may also a threat to validity but Borg and Gall (1979) outline procedures through which it can be controlled. Although both interviewer and subjects are professional educators, it is not assumed that a common language exists. Thus I minimised the use of technical terms and used plain language so subject and interviewer are answering questions from a common position. Briggs (1986) refers to this as ensuring there is standardisation about the meaning of the question. In the interview I define the term most in need of clarification, significant, in a manner similar to that found in the initial question. Maxwell (1992) outline five types of validity to be taken into account, two of which are relevant to the interview process. Descriptive validity refers to "what the researcher reports having seen or heard . . . . " (p. 286). In other words, are the 74 physical and behavioural events observable? Descriptive validity does not refer to the meaning people attach to words but specifically the uses of the words. If a teacher reports the use of collaborative reading strategies then that term must not be reported as cooperative reading strategies. To ensure descriptive validity reports of actions are described faithfully as recorded. The use of direct quotes from the transcripts facilitates this type of validity. Interpretive validity is concerned with what "objects, events, and behaviours mean to the people engaged with them" (Maxwell, 1992; p. 288). The accounts of meaning derived from interviews must be based on the meaning specific to the respondent. Using the previous example, the interviewer must clarify what the respondent means when using the term collaborative learning. The interpretation and reporting of data must rely on the language of the respondents. To ensure this type of validity, I asked respondents to clarify terms used and give detailed descriptions of actions to further validate the account. The final three types of validity outlined by Maxwell (1992) are applicable to analysing and reporting the data. Theoretical validity refers to the resulting "theoretical constructions that the researcher brings to, or develops during, the study" (p. 291). This implies that the theory or construct developed must accurately refer to a phenomenon observed or recorded. The two components of this form of validity are accuracy of the concepts or categories employed and the relationships that exist among the categories and concepts. Marton (1981) states that the outcome of phenomenographic research is to develop categories of description, denoting certain forms of thought, that can be used in concrete cases in the future. Conversely, phenomenographic research can be used to show the applicability of existing categories to make a statement about certain observable facts. This suggests that theoretical validity is a significant part of 75 phenomenographic research as the development of categories based on theoretical constructs is implicit. The literature described in Chapter Two and the literature - based categories of description outlined in Chapter Four can assist in ensuring theoretical validity for the categories constructed from the teachers' responses. Each of the literature - based orientations towards history described or advocated in Chapters Two and Four have purposes as an explicit component of the category. Theoretically valid categories for classifying or describing teacher's actual purposes are derived by utilizing the descriptions of the activities and purposes stated in the interviews in conjunction with the conceptions outlined in Chapter Two and Four. Marton and Booth (1997) outline that a grounded set of actual categories of description should be based upon three criteria. The first criterion is that each category should provide insights into a distinct way of understanding the phenomenon. Secondly, the categories of description should "stand in a logical relationship with one another, a relationship which is frequently hierarchical" (p. 114).16 Finally, as few categories of description as possible should be explicated to exemplify the variation in data. With the exception of the second criterion, the actual categories of description resulting from the interview appear to be compatible with Marton and Booth's requirements. This research does not seek to evaluate the conceptions in order to establish a hierarchy. Data analysis does seek to determine if one conception did subsumes other conceptions, which could suggest a hierarchical arrangement. Generalisability is another type of validity which is of concern in qualitative research. This refers to "the extent to which one can extend the account of a particular 16. The term hierarchical suggests certain categories are more complex or are more powerful that others. This research did not seek to evaluate the quality of the conception of history education and did not develop a notion of a hierarchical relationship. 76 situation or population to other persons, times, or settings than those directly studies" (Maxwell, 1992; p. 293). Using Marton's description of the outcomes of phenomenographic research generalisability appears to be an issue. Specifically, there are two aspects of generalisability that must be valid - internal and external generalisability. Internal generalisability refers to the extent to which these categories of description are generalisable within a community. External generalisability refers to the extent to which these categories of description are generalisable to other communities, for instance teachers in other provinces. The primary outcome of this research is not to develop generalisable data. As this research has not previously been undertaken, the knowledge derived must be seen as theory developing or as providing case knowledge for future research. To try to ensure a sufficient body of knowledge upon which to develop a theoretical construct, I select as research subjects teachers who reflect the diversity in the school system.17 Also it is necessary to minimise the inferences drawn from the interview, such as using one lesson to infer purpose for all lessons. Teachers are asked specifically what is their purpose for history education subsequent to a discussion focusing upon the agendas of other comparable lessons. This should reduce the need for drawing inferences during the analysis of the data. A final form of validity outlined by Maxwell (1992) is evaluative validity. This requires "the application of an evaluative framework to the objects of study" (p. 295). Unlike studies which focus on evaluating the extent of subject matter knowledge or the degree of difference between novice and expert teachers, this research is concerned with the development of a rich description of categories of conceptions of history education. There is no need to develop an evaluative framework as this research is descriptive not evaluative. 17. See figure 3.1. 77 In general, qualitative research addresses threats to validity by focusing on particulars instead of generalising (Maxwell, 1992). This inductive method allows researchers to focus on the validity of their accounts and seek evidence to rule out those that are invalid. Reporting the data in this manner is conducive to Marton's (1981) conceptions of the purposes for phenomenographic research. Marton and Booth (1997) provide the final comments regarding the validity of the interview results and the subsequent construction of categories of description. They state: Even if some of the participants may not have functioned at their very best, even if what we have observed of one individual or another in the particular situation is not totally typical of them, and even if the distribution of the different ways of experiencing the phenomenon in question may not be easily generalised to any population, we can still argue that we have identified the variation in how the phenomenon in question might be experienced by people with certain background characteristics (p. 116). Reliability Interjudge reliability may be seen as a concern regarding the subjective development of actual categories of description. This form of reliability refers to the extent to which two or more independent scorers would develop comparable categories of description derived from the data obtained in a phenomenographic study. Marton (1995) responds that interjudge reliability cannot be the only criterion utilised to judge the quality of the results. He notes that: It seems reasonable that categories of description that we develop might be useful for other people, as instruments for making sense of and describing phenomena which we have studied and which they find in other contexts. The usefulness of such instruments assumes a certain degree of intersubjectively shared meaning, and the extent to which we find that is reflected through the measure of interjudge reliability (p. 169). 78 For Marton, interjudge reliability is achieved by the shared meaning which evolves between the developer of the categories of description and those who wish to utilise their description. Creat ing an Analy t ica l Model To engage in an analysis of the data requires a clarification of the purpose of phenomenographic research. The validity of the categories of description derived from the analysis may be questioned based on Thornton's (1991) and Orr and Smit's (1996) previous comments on the degree of consonance between what teachers say and what they do. However, Marton and Booth (1997, p. 123) clarify the scope of phenomenographic research as follows: The validity claim is made in relation to the data available. Thus we argue the category of description is a reasonable characterisation of a possible way of experiencing something given the data at hand. Whether or not a certain person is really capable of experiencing the phenomenon in question in this particular way, or under what conditions she is capable of doing so, is a question which falls outside phenomenography proper. Marton (1981, p. 196) explains that "a conception exists in the real world only in terms of a mental act and it is exhibited by someone who does something in a certain setting." Utilising a format similar to other phenomenographic research described by Marton (1994), this inquiry generates rich and multifaceted answers to the questions: "Describe the most significant lesson or series of lessons you teach in the history section of social studies," and "Why is this lesson significant?" This question requires teachers to describe a significant lesson in history education (or Marton's 'doing something in a certain setting') as a way to have them reflect upon their agenda which shape the mental act which leads to the creation of this lesson. The actual categories 79 of description18 generated from the analysis are not intended to suggest teachers limit themselves exclusively to the conception used to describe their mental acts upon which the lesson was created. These categories of description reflect the conception of history education as elicited from the teachers' description of their most significant lesson. Teachers may be capable of other conception around which they organise their teaching of history. I base the analysis of the data upon a model Tullberg (1998) developed to analyse how teachers taught the science concept of 'the mole'.19 Certain common analytical elements, which Tullberg called structural elements, arise from her interviews with teachers that are subsequently used to formulate categories of description for teaching 'the mole'. These structural elements provided a "backbone of the final categories of description of the teachers' conception of teaching." Similarly, common analytical elements are also apparent in teachers' conceptions of history education although they are not synonymous with Tullberg's structural elements. These structural elements are summarised in Figure 3.2.20 18. Two categories of description are outlined in this research. The distinction between actual categories of description and literature - based categories oi description will be made later in Chapter Three. 19. The model used in this research is inspired by Tullberg but is not a direct replication of her research in the field of history education. Tullberg's research focuses upon teachers' educational knowledge domain which bears a strong likeness to pedagogical content knowledge as described by Shulman (1986). 20. To avoid confusion the term foundational elements will be substituted for the phrase structural elements as the term structural is part of a phrase used frequently in the analysis of data. 80 1. General Conception embodies the teacher's broadest understanding of history education. This general conception comprises certain salient features which distinguish one conception from other conceptions. The salient feature which will be the focus of the current research will be the purpose for history education. Exploring a teachers' purpose is important as it provides a framework around which instruction in history education is organised. 2. Tactical Plan refers to the parts or constituent components around which the general conception is organised. This comprises what Marton (1995) refers to as the architecture of variation between the conceptions. 3. Reflective Rationalisation illustrates the knowledge around which the conception of history education is justified. 4. Tactical consistency examines the extent to which the conception of history education is a unique conception or composite of other conceptions. Figure 3.2. Foundational Elements of Conceptions of History Education. 81 Foundational Elements The foundational elements provide a way to organise the data generated by the interviews. By examining the various foundational elements of a conception articulated in an interview we can discern variations of history education. The details of the specific foundational elements include: General Conception The most basic task of examining a general conception is based upon the presupposition that teachers have knowledge and beliefs about history education although they may be not be at a conscious level. Marton and Booth (1997) explain that a perception of a phenomenon, which for this research is history education, has both a referential aspect and a structural aspect.21 To describe a structural aspect they explain that "in order to experience something in a particular way not only do we have to discern it from its context,... but we also have to discern its parts, the way they relate to each other, and the way they relate to the whole" (p. 78). These parts could include certain salient features such as resources, instructional strategies and, for this research, a purpose for history education. This ability to identify and understand a manner in which to organise history education presupposes that a teacher has broad 21. Marton and Booth (1997) explain that the referential aspect is the meaning given to an experience. For this research teachers were asked to describe their most significant lesson in the history section of topic 10A. In order to describe this lesson the teachers must have been able to identify what lesson was a history lesson. Teachers necessarily had to identify the history section from the mandated curriculum and assign it a meaning. Marton and Booth (1997) state that "Structure presupposes meaning and at the same time meaning presupposes structure. The two aspects -meaning and structure - are dialectically intertwined and occur simultaneously when we experience something" (p. 78). The initial written description of a history lesson by the teachers around which the interview was organised presupposes the referential aspect of their experience with history education. 82 purposes for history education. It seems logical that as the general conception provides the 'whole' of a conception it is superordinate to all foundational elements of the conception. The general conception is superordinate as the way teachers understand history education and the meaning they ascribe to history education will translate into purposes which have an impact upon instruction. As stated in Chapter Two, an understanding of purpose exerts a vast range of influence over the topics teachers emphasise, the choice of representation for the subject, and the way in which a teacher organises instruction. The way the content and the pedagogy intersect in the general conception reflects teachers' pedagogical content knowledge as well as their capacity to transform content knowledge into a pedagogically useful form. Contained within the general conception are preparation and representation, two pertinent components of Shulman's notion of transformation. For Shulman (1987) preparation entails a "critical interpretation and analysis of texts, structuring and segmenting, development of a curricular repertoire and clarification of purpose [emphasis mine]" (p. 15). Representation entails the "use of representational repertoire [emphasis mine] which includes analogies, metaphors, examples, demonstrations, explanations and so forth" (p. 15). Especially significant in these components of transformation of content into a form suitable for classroom instruction is the notion that teachers possess a purpose of the subject to be taught which is subsequently manifest in instructional strategies. The general conception provides valuable insights into teachers' understanding of history education as it is a relatively stable component of their planning. Leinhardt, et al. (1991) explain that teachers utilise a limited number of explanations and "teaching actions or moves" (p. 94). These actions involve using previously developed explanations and utilising a limited number of student moves. Leinhardt, et al. (1991) 83 note that "teachers focused their energy on altering and adjusting their own behaviours rather than on designing hypotheses about why students did what they did" (p. 94). This is not to suggest that teachers use a limited number of inflexible instructional representations, as teachers possess a vast repertoire developed through their experiences in teaching. As stated in Chapter Two, Shulman (1986) indicates that teachers, in fact, possess an "armamentarium" of representations. Taken in conjunction, Shulman (1986) and Leinhardt's, et al. (1991) comments do suggest that teachers choose to utilise a dominant conception of a subject based upon their accumulated knowledge and understanding. This vast reservoir of accumulated knowledge and understanding provides "a cohesiveness to lessons by providing a structure (often a sequence) of ideas to be presented and actions to be taken to help students construct the desired knowledge structure" (Leinhardt, et al., 1991; pp 94 -95). This indicates that a teacher's general conception of history education will likely be exhibited as a dominant factor when he or she plans individual lessons as well as instruction for the entire topic. Tactical Plan The tactical plan comprises of the specific constituent components22 teachers utilise to develop the goals and purposes of a general conception. These constituent components are reflective of certain organisational foci which can be called the architecture of variation illustrating how conceptions vary from teacher to teacher. The use of certain constituent components reflects a teacher's pedagogical 22. See Chapter One for an explanation of constituent components. Changes in a general conception cannot come about without changes in the tactical plan nor can changes in the tactical plan come about without changes in a general conception. Thus the general conception and the tactical plan dialectically constitute each other 84 content knowledge. Constituent components show what subject matter23 a teacher believes is necessary to focus upon when teaching to accomplish his or her goals. In addition, these constituent components illustrate teachers' pedagogical reasoning by showing their selection of a representational repertoire which takes advantage of the subject matter potential. In their tactical plans, teachers do not necessarily use all of the constituent components of the literature - based categories of description outlined in Chapter Four. Nevertheless, the decision to utilise certain constituent components gives insights into what teachers believe is important to develop within students to achieve their purpose for history education. Examining the constituent components of a conception will indicate the degree of continuity or connectedness within a teacher's conception and the individual variations that may exist in the collective understanding of all teachers utilising this conception. The constituent components of the tactical plan are determined by examining the teacher descriptions of their curriculum script for various lessons. These data are used to construct a model of what it may be like to plan for instruction. This model represents what teachers think about when planning for instruction and teaching in history education. Much of this plan is inferred from the data as teachers are not specifically asked to state what they think about when planning for instruction. 23. Subject matter includes substantive knowledge, substantive structures and syntactic structures. 85 Reflective Rationalisation Included in Marks' (1990) four components of pedagogical content knowledge is subject matter for instructional purposes which includes a justification for learning specific topics. Reflective rationalisation focuses on this justification of the general conception which often includes the role of relevance to students.24 Reflective rationalisation, for Shulman (1987), is made up of the maxims that guide practice. The justification for the general conception is based upon the various types of knowledge teachers possess including pedagogical content knowledge. Reflective rationalisation reveals what personal values, beliefs, or presuppositions teachers have about history education. It is based on these values and beliefs that teachers reorganise (Gudmundsdottir, 1990), adapt (Calderhead, 1988; Calderhead & Miller, 1985), or translate (Wilson, 1988) the history content of the prescribed curriculum into a pedagogical representation they feel is suitable for students. 24. A dilemma arises when analysing the interview data. Despite the creation of this analytical model the data does not present itself in an easily compartmentalised form. The foundational elements are very intertwined. Much like the intertwined and dialectical nature of the referential and structural aspects of an experience, a conception and justification of this conception also have a dialectical relationship. A conception presupposes a purpose and a justification. Whereas a purpose provides the goal, the justification describes why the goal is important to accomplish. Concurrently, the constituent components of a tactical plan have an inherent purpose and a justification. Any precise demarcation of these three foundational elements is somewhat arbitrary considering the intertwined nature of these elements. Analysis of the tactical plan may include a purpose for the specific aspect and may justify why this aspect is utilised. The primary consideration is that the conception is the broadest understanding of history education as opposed to the purpose for a specific aspect of a tactical plan. Additionally, the reflective rationalisation primarily justifies the general conception, and secondarily the constituent components of the tactical plan which contribute to accomplishing the conception teachers possess. 86 Tactical Consistency This foundational element reflects the extent to which a general conception provides teachers with a continuous model for instruction in history education. One form of consistency which will be examined reflects the extent to which a tactical plan comprises plausible constituent components which reflect an understanding of the broad purpose of history education. A continuous model would show the tactical plan coincides with the teachers' general purpose. If the constituent components of a tactical plan lack consonance with the explicitly stated purpose it may show the general conception reflects cliches about history education, but it does not provide an organisational model.25 Tactical consistency also examines the relationship among constituent components of the tactical plan. Consistency reflects the extent to which the constituent components are connected to each other in relation to the general conception. If an individual teacher's tactical plans lack consistency it may show a discontinuous model or it may reflect a variation of the actual conception of history education.26 Marton (1995) refers to a variety of logical relations in the way the constituent components may be organised to reflect different ways of understanding a phenomenon such as complementarity and inclusion. These terms suggest that constituent components can be arranged within different conceptions in a manner 25. The description of purpose evolves from a discussion on the significant lesson and others comparable to the significant lesson. Subsequent to this discussion, the interview protocol specifically asks teachers to state their purpose for history education in high school. Therefore, the researcher constructs the general conception is constructed from explicit statements as opposed to being inferred from the tactical plan. 26. The term discontinuous should not be construed as a pejorative term. Instead, it reflects the utilisation of parts of a variety of general conceptions that are incongruent with the literature - based categories of description outlined in Chapter Four. 87 which logically complements the other constituent components or in a manner which subsumes other constituent components. To analyze the data I will initially outline the collective experience of teachers, highlighting different categories of description. As with Tullberg's (1998) model for analysis, subsequent to examining the collective experience, I will examine individual teaching models to illustrate internal variations within certain categories of description.27 Tullberg (1998) states that "the result is a structured concentrated description of how the teacher understands her teaching of 'mole'[or history education for this research]" (p. 84). As with Tullberg's research, the term description refers to how teachers understand their teaching; as actual classroom practices are not observed. The actual method for analysis parallels Marton and Saljo's (1984) three phases of analysis. In the initial phase of analysis I identify any comments relevant to the specific foundational elements. As with Marton and Saljo's (1984) method of analysis, meaning is interpreted not only from a teacher's explicit comments but in relation to context. The second phase involves seeking a pool of meaning from the explicit and contextual comments. This pool of meaning may also be viewed as what Clandinin and Connelly (1986) call unities of experience which reflected a similarity among teachers' conceptions of history education. The third phase involves determining at which foundational element these comments should be seen in relation to each other. In this third stage of analysis the similarities and differences in conceptions of history education ultimately emerges. 27. Only one teacher experiences history in the described manner for conception 1 (C-|),conception 2 (C2), and conception 6 (C6). Naturally only their individual models can be highlighted. 88 Reporting the Data Chapter Four describes 'literature - based' categories of description for conceptions of history education in which purpose is a salient feature. I constructed these categories by synthesising the literature in the field of history education. These 'literature - based' categories assist in understanding possible conceptions of history education elicited from teachers, the salient feature of purpose, and the constituent components of their tactical plan. For this research, I extract qualitative data from teacher interviews and use this information to derive 'actual' categories of description for teacher's conceptions purpose for history education. The conceptions are not restricted by the literature - based categories of description. Marton and Booth (1997) state that "what might be thought of as one thing can appear very differently when see from different perspectives" (p. 115). Instead the original categories provide boundaries, open to variation, which are "derived from her most generous understanding of what might turn out to be relevant to depicting differences." (Marton and Booth, 1997; p. 121). It is necessary to develop these literature - based categories of description before conducting the interviews to become sensitised to the possible terminology that the interviewees may use and the ways others may understand certain categories of history education. Marton and Booth (1997) state that "at every stage of the phenomenographic project the researcher has to step back consciously from her own experience of the phenomenon and use it only to illuminate the ways in which others are talking of it, handling it, experiencing it, and understanding it" (p 110). Furthermore, the literature - based categories are representative of other educators in the field of history education and as such these categories are legitimate ways of understanding the purpose for history education. This study will also seek to determine the extent to which similar categories will be elicited from the history 89 teachers interviewed. The primary focus of interviews, as previously discussed, is to have teachers: a. elaborate on their conceptions of history education focusing upon the salient feature of purpose, b. describe the constituent components of the tactical plan of this conception of history education, c. provide a justification or rationalisation for utilising this conception. Evolving from Marton's (1981) explanation of phenomenography is a description of what should be derived from the research. Marton states What we want to thematize . . . is the complex of possible ways of viewing various aspects of the world, the aggregate of basic conceptions underlying not only different, but even alternative and contradictory forms of propositional knowledge, irrespective of whether these forms are deemed right or wrong (p. 197). For Marton (1981) the purpose of qualitative research is to describe, or thematize how people make sense of their actions or events. The research currently undertaken seeks to thematise conceptions of history education based upon how teachers make sense of their curriculum script as manifest in the agenda they describe. The action is the act of teaching a significant lesson in history education which is a manifestation of the curriculum script. The structure of the interview is such that ways of understanding history education may emerge during discussions of lessons. Individual teachers are encouraged to reflect upon these lessons for themes which appear in a variety of lessons. The discussion seeks to highlight any pervasive way of understanding history education which allows teachers to explicitly state what they understand to be their purpose for history education. I analyze of these ways of understanding to develop categories and present a proposition to make sense of teachers' conceptions of purpose for history education. I use explanatory propositions and anecdotal reports 90 from interviews to provide a detailed description of each conception of history education. 91 CHAPTER 4 ANATOMY OF UNDERSTANDING You think that just because it's already happened, the past is finished and unchangeable? Oh no, the past is cloaked in multi - coloured taffeta and every time we look at it we see a different hue. Milan Kundera This multi - coloured taffeta exists no only when one looks at the content of history; it also exists when looking at how teachers understand history education. Clarifying several interrelated concerns is necessary before analysing this taffeta of teachers' conceptions of history. One concern is determining if teachers have an awareness of their actions to articulate their conception of history education. A second concern is the need to develop a model of possible variations among conceptions. To elicit teachers' beliefs in order to perform an analysis of their understanding of history education, teachers must be aware of three things (Alexandersson,1994): the activity in which students are currently involved, the general aims of the teaching activity and the content being taught. In support of Alexandersson's research, Andersson and Lawenius (1983) find the themes of primary concern to teachers include the aims and goals of teaching as well as instructional practice. In addition, teachers can only have a conception of history based upon what they know (perhaps only in an unreflected - upon way) to be a possible conception of history. These conceptions must "correspond to qualities of her own knowing" (Wilson, 1988; p. 261). These "qualities of knowing" history depend on various contextual influences such as student and school culture and curricular materials, and are mediated by teachers' knowledge of subject matter, students, and curriculum as well as their own beliefs and values. 92 The possible "qualities of knowing" (Wilson, 1988) which teachers may use to develop their purpose for teaching reflect their way of understanding the phenomenon. A central concern in analysing phenomenographic data is the researcher's own understanding of the object (in this case history education) of research or the phenomenon experienced by the research subjects. Marton and Booth (1997) state: The researcher has a responsibility to contemplate the phenomenon, to discern its structure against the backgrounds of the situations it might be experienced in, to distinguish its salient features, to look at it with other eyes, and still be open to further developments. There are various ways of going about this - by considering the phenomenon's treatment in other research traditions for example; or how it appears in literature, treatises and textbooks; or how it has been handled in the past and in different cultures. If the researcher is to be able to meet the people she is interested in and take part in a discourse that attempts to reach their unreflected experience, then she might be aware of the many possible starting points they will have, the sorts of situations they have met the phenomenon in before, and the range of ways in which they may handle it (p. 117). Marton and Booth indicate that it is necessary to contemplate how history education can be understood and what constituent components may result from adapting this way of understanding into the reality of the classroom. To contemplate this way of understanding it is necessary to examine potential and actual ways a person may experience a phenomenon. Boundaries must be established to seek variations which may suggest different conceptions. However, these boundaries must be open to variations that may arise during data analysis. Through an examination of the way history education has been treated in 93 relevant literature1 several different conceptions can be determined.2 A conception of history education should be seen as a subset of all the possible variations. There is a finite possibility of reasonable conceptions of school based history education. Marton and Booth (1997) explain: If the number of potential aspects - the essential aspects that define the phenomenon - had been infinite, each one of us could have experienced every situation in every phenomenon differently, and also could have experienced a particular phenomenon differently each time. We would live in different worlds, we would not be able to communicate, there would be no permanence. Now, we do not live in different worlds, and we are able to communicate and we do experience the sameness of the world in.spite of changes (in fact changes can only be experienced against the background of permanence). We have variation and similarity in our way of viewing the world. In order for this to be the case the number of critical aspects that define the phenomenon must be limited. And the number of critical aspects must be limited because we learn to experience them by successive differentiations from each other. Oversimplifying things a bit, the different ways of experiencing a phenomenon reflect combinations of the aspects that we are focally aware of at a particular time (pp. 114-115). Marton and Booth's explanation indicates that there is a finite number of aspects of a phenomenon. A way to provide a framework to analyse the possible variations of history education is to thematise the various aspects into possible conceptions. Marton (1981) states, we want to thematise "the complex of possible ways of viewing various aspects of the world, the aggregate of conceptions underlying not only different but even alternative and contradictory forms of propositional knowledge, irrespective of whether these forms are deemed right or wrong" (p. 197). 1 . See Chapter Two for a survey of the general treatment of history and the literature which may be relevant. 2 . According to Marton and Booth (1997), in phenomenographic research terms such as conceptions, ways of understanding, ways of comprehending, and conceptualisations are all synonymous with ways of experiencing. See the section entitled Terminology' in Chapter Three. 94 Literature - Based Conceptions of History Education There is a richness and complexity to history that can make it of great educational importance but can also make it difficult for teachers to be sure they are successfully achieving that educational importance. Kieran Egan (1989, p. 280 ) Egan's statement describes the dilemma facing teachers when planning for instruction in history education. The richness and complexity of history contribute to a range of educational purposes for the subject. There is no consensus regarding as to what the definitive purpose is or even if a definitive purpose should exist. The range of potential purposes for history education can be understood by organising the literature in the field of history education which was outlined in Chapter Two into categories of description. These literature - based categories of description represent what Marton and Booth (1997, p. 123) refer to as "a reasonable characterisation of a possible way of experiencing something given the data at hand."3 History Education to Develop 'Skills' Agreement on what constitutes 'skills', in a general sense, does not exist. This is also the case for 'skills' relevant to history education. For clarity, it may be more appropriate to argue it is not 'skills' that are being developed but an understanding of "how to" perform certain tasks. In a school environment, tasks may be specific to the domain of history or general scholastic tasks! 3. The categories that follow are composed of data which represent how the phenomenon (history education) has been treated in other research traditions. 95 Conception 1" (C i ) - Historiography Tasks specific to the domain of history may be referred to as an historiographic approach. Stanford (1994) explains quite simply that historiography is "the writing of history" (p. 5). However, "writing history" can include a vast variety of tasks. Stanford (1994) explains that historiography may apply to three aspects of history writing -descriptive, which includes the methods and procedures of writing history; historical, which traces the way history has been written; and analytical or critical, which discusses the philosophical concerns associated with writing history. An alternative version could focus upon how previous and present histories have been constructed in terms of content and method and to show why certain narratives are dominant and others are marginalised (Jenkins and Brickley,1986). A third alternative is related to the structure of the discipline orientation which includes analysis of documents, understanding evidence, constructing historical arguments and debating historical interpretation (Seixas, 1993 B). A final alternative is to see historiography addressing the rules of thought governing historical thinking including understanding time, change, causation, motivation, as well as evidence (Sansom, 1987). An historiographic conception of history education could include a variety of aspects depending upon a teacher's familiarity with the conception. These aspects may include understanding the process and nature of historical inquiry. The task of reconstructing historical events revolves around the process of examining evidence, relating pieces of evidence, resolving conflicts between evidence, assessing reliability of evidence, and arriving at judgments or accounts based upon evidence, and 4. I am reluctant to assign a descriptive label to each category of description since I seek to avoid any suggestion of rigidity. Labels may suggest that little variation occurs. This is incongruent with phenomenography which seeks to highlight variations. The categories of description simply cluster a group of comparable instructional representations and the title given reflects a degree of commonality. 96 defending judgments (Thompson, 1984). The outcome of this inquiry is an account (narrative) of past interactions in society or analyses of these interactions. Understanding the nature of narrative may fall within the scope of an historiographic conception. If the narrative is the key to historical knowledge then understanding how it is constructed is essential.5 By understanding that history is written in a political, economic or social context. students can see why certain narratives are sanctioned and others marginalised.6 If, as Seixas (1993 B) states, "The historian does not seek to write the account of the past which will be eternally definitive, but to contribute to an ongoing conversation" (p. 241) then understanding the nature of the narrative is essential. Understanding how narratives are constructed and how knowledge claims within a discipline are warranted may be included within this conception. To Jenkins (1991), speech, and the act of recording this speech, as well as ideas and actions, are acts of interpretation. Interpretations are based on contemporary and dominant presuppositions of the past and all the innate predispositions influencing construction of this interpretation. Evidence used to test our hypotheses or interpretations is a product of discourse set in a community of historians (Jenkins, 1991) as is the truth of the past we derive from these tests (Jenkins and Brickley, 1989). An historiographic conception may be used to show students that truth is a construction process subject to a variety of interpretations. 5. See Cronon (1992), Barber (1992), Kaye(1991) and Schlesinger (1991) all of whom address the construction of a narrative, albeit in very different ways. The dominant or accepted narrative is a version which already has or gains credence within the community to which it is presented. This version does not necessarily represent truth but simply a widely accepted proposition. It may obscure a large portion of reality legitimising some voices and silencing others. 6. See also Vinten-Johansen (1993). 97 This conception of history education can be seen to reflect the subject matter knowledge of the discipline as described in Chapter Two. Schwab (1977) and Grossman (1990) see a discipline comprised of substantive and syntactic knowledge. They refer to substantive knowledge as the way the field of inquiry is organised and the questions which guide inquiry. Syntactic knowledge of a discipline refers to understanding how knowledge claims within a discipline are warranted. This knowledge establishes set of rules for determining the legitimacy of knowledge claims within a discipline. C o n c e p t i o n 2 (C2) - The Methodology of Social Stud ies A second conception in this category is related to the goals of education in general and specific goals of social studies. Curriculum guides, such as Alberta's, state that the goals should be achieved through incorporating 'critical thinking'. Case (1997) describes the goal of critical thinking as the: Ability and inclinations to competently assess what to believe and to reach a defensible decision about how to act. This involves understanding the criteria and procedures for assessing different types of claims (eg. historical claims, value judgments about human rights, theories about social phenomena) and applying them on a ongoing basis (p. 12). Scholars propose a variety of critical thinking models to accomplish these goals.7 Johnson (1992) summarises the common attributes of these models by stating that "critical thinking is a form of reasoning that requires a combination of skills, attitudes, and information / knowledge" (p. 51). Developing an understanding of the skills 7. Prominent models include McPeck (1981), Ennis (1985), Lipman(1988), Siegel (1988) and Paul (1989). Components of critical thinking in the Alberta social studies curriculum are based on the model outlined by Beyer (1985). Eight different conceptions of critical thinking skills are offered in the model based on a synthesis of social studies descriptors and pertinent aspects of other selected models. 98 involved in these models is seen to result in an improvement in student scholastic ability. History education can also be seen to develop an understanding of certain processes. One such process which may develop through the study of history is reflective inquiry.8 Barth and Shermis (1970; p. 748) state that this tradition originates with the philosophy of John Dewey and has been supported by a variety of prominent social studies educators including Shirley Engle, Lawrence Metcalf and Edwin Fenton. Utilising an inquiry model, students should identify problems, gather and evaluate relevant information, and make decisions. Case (1997) adds three further skill oriented goals for social studies which can be developed through the study of history. The ability to identify information and take out relevant information from a variety of sources which culminates in representing the data in various forms is called information gathering and reporting . A second goal outlined by Case which is unique to social studies is that of developing the competence to solve interpersonal and societal problems. This requires that students develop the ability to analyse personal and societal problems, plan actions to resolve or mediate the concern and, finally, put their actions into effect. A final goal which may have tangential relevance to history education is developing appropriate personal and social values. There are certain values that are more appropriately developed through 8. A skill objective described in the Program of Studies for Social Studies 10 Topic A, the focus of this research is to develop inquiry strategies. Inquiry strategies are defined as a "combination of skills that help one answer questions, solve problems and make decisions using process, communication and participation skills" (p. 15). To outline what specific abilities must be developed, this document states students will "apply critical and creative thinking in problem solving and decision making"; develop the ability to propose and discuss alternative solutions to issues"; "develop the skills necessary for composing and argumentative essay"; and, "use appropriate inquiry models to answer questions, solve problems and resolve issues" (p. 15). 99 social studies9 which can also be seen as general goals of education. In summary, conceptions of history education dealing with developing certain skills are supported by literature suggesting students should focus upon the methods and skills utilised by historians or those which may develop general scholastic abilities. Students should understand that the product of historical inquiry is the construction of a narrative which should be considered neither neutral nor eternal. Grasping the role of a community of discourse in determining historical truths is also an essential component in this purpose of history. Adopting this stance towards history education can have an impact upon students' ability to know something by understanding 'how to' construct history. The second way of understanding history education is that which develops general scholastic abilities, which entails teaching certain procedural knowledge and general skills. Problem solving strategies, communicative abilities, lateral thinking and a host of other 'skills' may be improved using the content of history as the vehicle for development. The focus would be on the quality of reasoning, communication or creative thinking as opposed to accumulation of facts. History Education to Enhance a Collective Identity History education can serve to illuminate our collective past, helping students understand who they are. This function has been seized by those who advocate school - based history as a means of transmitting a national culture. However, a bitter debate exists about the role of history in the curriculum regarding the culture or identity to be enhanced (Seixas, 1993 B). Simply enhancing a national identity may exclude 9. Of the values Case (1997) outlines, equality, justice, national pride and international solidarity are most appropriate to social studies education. However, Case does not allude to the role history may play in developing these values. 100 the collective identities of groups whose historical consciousness has been minimalised by a synthesis of history framed to shape a national identity. Marginalised groups may be organised along lines of gender, race, ethnicity, or occupation. Two distinct conceptions of how history can serve to enhance a collective identity can be derived from the subject area of history. Teaching history can be used to enhance a national identity or a restricted collective identity associated with groups within a national mosaic. Conception 3 (C3) - Enhancing a National Collective Identity History education, focused on enhancing a national identity, is one in which the primary function is to create a master narrative of a national history to perpetuate the collective self - awareness of the culture. Ideally such history education is comprehensive as it seeks to include the widest scope of citizens within the narrative. Granatstein (1998) summarises: Content... is cultural capital, a basic requirement of life that every Canadian needs to comprehend the daily newspaper, to watch the TV news or a documentary, or to argue about politics and cast a reasonably informed vote. . . . A knowledge of fact and an understanding of trends form the critical elements of our society's public discourse, and if Canadians do not have cultural capital in common, the fragmentation of our society is inevitable (pp. 46 -47). In addition, Granatstein (1998) adds that history "helps people know themselves" (p. 5) as it provides them with a collective memory. This ability of history to shape public discourse and personal memories has been seized by neoconservative proponents of the cultural literacy movement.10 Cultural literacy is based on the premise that to function as a nation there must be 10. See also Hirsch (1987), Finn (1991), Ravitch (1985), Ravitch (1989), Ravitch and Finn (1987), 101 unity which can be achieved through establishing a historical literacy that seeks to provide basic tools to allow discussion of the past. Historical literacy would seek to institutionalise selected canons, or distillations of the past and develop a national historical vocabulary or cultural capital based on these canons.11 A goal of history education, then, is to shape a story of the past, understandable to most, and to promote nationalism.12 11. Granatstein (1998) provides a partial list of canons he believes should be part of "the collective consciousness of all Canadians, young and old, native - born and recently arrived" (p. 134). His list includes significant events from Canada's military history including Vimy Ridge, Dieppe, Hong Kong, the liberation of the Netherlands and the Atlantic convoys among others. He states: "The wars are a part of Canada's heritage, a proud part" (p. 134). 12. Nationalism is an evolving concept. Bashevkin (1991) states from 1867 to the 1920's it was characterised by an attachment to imperial or British tradition, a resentment of cultural and territorial threats from the United States, and a desire to develop a distinct Canadian identity through enhanced imperial ties and restrained continentalism. Nationalism in the 1930's was supported by the creation of public institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and the National Film Board to confront United States nationalism . U.S. cultural imperialism was a dominant theme throughout the 1950's, 1960's and 1970's and resulted in numerous federal reports and laws designed to restrict American influence and encourage growth of a Canadian communications industry. The 1963 Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (the B and B Commission) had a significant impact on the nature of Canadian nationalism. Troper (1978) states the commission's investigation and recommendations regarding the implications of a new social and cultural reality in Canada provided the impetus for the ethnic communities to move to the centre of the Canadian identity debate. As the notion of Anglo - conformity decreased, ethnic communities asserted the role of plurality for understanding the Canadian identity. Bashevkin (1991) states any present day sense of pan - Canadianism is primarily associated with left of centre ideology and English speaking central Canada. Nationalism, as a form of patriotic obedience to the state, appears to have little support in present Canadian educational contexts. Provincial authority for curriculum promotes regional as well as a national identification. Pluralism, as a form of nationalism, is a notion that has received support in Alberta from multicultural programs such as the Alberta People Program and the Mosaic Project. 102 Conception 4 (C4) - Enhancing a Non - National Collective Identity History education can also be used to enhance collective identities other than national. In recent years there has been profound criticism of the Eurocentric, male dominated nature of national history. This has led to a move to dismantle a unified political, economic and cultural narrative. Thus, new perspectives focusing upon feminist, social class, and ethnic histories, among others, have arisen. This history seeks to examine historical contributions and agency of previously marginalised groups to provide a role model for empowerment. A significant paradigm shift has occurred in the study of history in both schools and universities as a result of these new perspectives. The focus of history has moved from enhancing national attitudes to enhancing those of the previously marginalised. In summary, one purpose of history education may be organised around constituent components which seek to enhance a collective identity. One conception seeks to enhance a national identity as it solicits support from a vast but disparate audience to create a national identity. An alternative conception of history is to enhance identities other than national. These restricted groups may vary from large marginalised voices in the national mosaic to the most atomised voice of family members. History Education to Gain an Understanding of the Antecedents of Current Issues Conception 5 (C5) - Antecedents of Current Issues In the United States, Charting a Course: Social Studies for the Twenty First Century, a report by the Curriculum Task Force of the National Commission on Social 103 Studies in the Schools (1989) defined social studies as a subject including history, government, civics, anthropology, sociology and psychology as well as religion, literature and the arts. It viewed social studies as a combination of these fields utilised to "develop a systematic and interrelated study of people in societies, past and present" (1989; IX). The National Commission on Social Studies in the Schools (1989) stated that "a thoughtfully designed program of study can use contemporary conflict to illuminate the past, while the study of past conflict can give perspective on the present and future" (1989; 49). The purpose of history is to develop a narrative about the evolution of certain significant aspects of our present society. Study is valued for the practical information it has to offer for illuminating current issues. History offers insights into precipitating events, actions and agency of individuals and groups as well as courses of action previously undertaken. History education focusing upon antecedents is often based on themes or crisis / event orientations. Events are selected for study based on relevance to themes, topics, questions, or problems deemed worthy of study. Historical cases are often presented to lead to discussion on various public issues. Diverse issues of study are related by common themes such as democracy, rise of organised labour, imperialism, or the constitutional crisis. The focus of this study is on the genesis of current or past contested issues or themes. Granatstein (1998) adds that the collective knowledge of the past can "help to explain our existence and the mistakes and successes of the past" (p. 5). In summary, history education which examines historical roots of currently contested issues focuses upon antecedents of an issue. It would illuminate the issue's genesis to give a perspective on the present. 104 History Education to Develop an Explanatory Context or 'Lessons From the Past' Conception 6 (C6) - Lessons From the Past Levstik and Pappas (1992) support a notion that a purpose of history education should be to provide students with a broad base of historical narratives to develop an historical context including understanding historical scripts, event schemata, and domain specific concepts. Study of history would allow students to develop an understanding of context and, through increased exposure to historical narratives, this understanding can be used to show relationships, in the form of lessons, between historical events and the present. This notion is supported in literature by Rogers (1984, 1987) and Lee (1984) who advocate developing context as the purpose of history. Lee (1984, p. 1) states that the study of history can give "concrete content" to concepts. Concrete historical content can be given to many examples of concepts such as autocracy, colonialism, or appeasement. Additionally, historical study of concepts can provide a temporal understanding of beliefs, ideas, and actions associated with concepts such as feudalism or liberalism. Developing an understanding of concepts and exposing students to historical narrative will allow them to develop a frame of reference. As this experience grows, students can start to relate conceptually similar events or look for analogies. An example may be relating the use and success of economic blockades in the past to the recent use and potential for success of economic blockades in places such as Burma or Serbia. Rogers (1987), states these analogies provide a sense of how things "hang together", or they appeal to a sense of how things likely happened. Analogies shape a sense of probability from history and, as Lee (1984) indicates, they may develop 105 generalisations to be employed to understand events. Ideally, this conception of history education would be to develop a rich background of knowledge which allows students to develop a conceptual frame of reference about historical events. Continued experience with history would develop this conceptual knowledge and allow students to seek relationships with conceptually similar events. These relationships would be in the form of analogies which can show a sense of how things probably happened. It can provide students with the ability to develop 'lessons from the past' or generalisations to understand events. It is these 'lessons from the past' which may provide students with backward referencing reasons for their actions. As various constraints limit the range of historical contexts which could be examined, an historical frame of reference would be developed for a concept which has particular relevance to contemporary society. Patterns and Speculation in History Conception 7 (C7) - Patterns and Speculation in History The philosophy of history suggests that examining the past can lead to the development of patterns which can be applied to the present. This conception of 106 history13 allows the student to understand the current state of the world as a part of a previously examined phenomenon. Patterns to be explicated allow for prediction of outcomes or suggest an organisational theory in which our present conditions are an understandable feature. Speculative philosophers of history may take the development of patterns further seeking to predict future events. 13. The notion of history repeating itself has a tradition spanning from early antiquity to present. A cyclical nature pf history was recognised by early Greek and Mesopotamian civilisations. Writings by Plato, Polybius, Homer, and Aristotle show the basic cyclical elements of history (Trompf, 1979). Early Hebrew and Christian interpretations of historical change are rife with the notion of the recurrence of events. Historical events are seen to have an inner relatedness and connectedness which demonstrate a re-enactment of history. Speculative history is also associated with writers of the early reformation such as Machiavelli, who writes in the 1500's about the cycles of government. This tradition has been maintained in different configurations by nineteenth century writers such as Dilthey, Marx, Kant and Hegel, to well known twentieth century writers, such as Toynbee and Walsh. Positivist historians seek to connect historical facts in the way natural scientists connected facts by looking for patterns or laws. They believe "they ought to concentrate on making these laws explicit" (Walsh, 1960; p. 16). By clearing away the mass of confusing facts, these historians believe an underlying pattern can be exposed and a law will be derived. Trompf (1979; p. 2 - 3) elaborates on seven patterns or organisational theories associated with speculative history. A cyclical pattern suggests history or historical phenomena passes through a fixed sequence of stages, returning to the original point of departure and repeating the cycle again. The theory of alteration contends a movement in history exists in which one set of conditions is succeeded by another then giving way to the first. Reciprocal patterns assert that common events are naturally followed by consequences which show a general pattern in history. If there is a departure from the norm, it will be rectified by reciprocal actions. Reenactment in history exposes the repetition of given actions by others. This theory contends people merely consciously imitate the actions of another. Restoration, renovation and renaissance are patterns apparent when a given set of conditions actually constitute a revival of conditions or actions previously considered defunct. The notion that human nature does not change and events recur at any time represents a uniform pattern of human nature. Finally, parallelism describes the belief that separate historical events resemble others in general or precise terms. All of these patterns suggest a direct association can be made between historical events and present events. 107 Possibly teachers may use concepts associated with speculative history.14 Despite criticism, teachers who adhere to beliefs associated with speculative history see a definite purpose for teaching history. Present phenomena can be better understood by examining historical patterns which parallel the current context. This understanding may render current actions and future consequences predictable. Present phenomena can also be used to illustrate historical laws and generalisations applicable to the phenomena. This can be seen to provide a scientific orientation to the study of human affairs. 14. Evans (1988, 1989) finds that a small percentage of teachers in his study seek to explicate laws or patterns of history. 108 Actual Categories of Description15 Conception 1 - Historiography (only one teacher) Nothing changes more constantly than the past; for the past that influences our lives does not consist of what actually happened, but of what men believe happened. Gerald White Johnson Some circumstantial evidence is very strong, as when you find a trout in the milk. Henry David Thoreau General Conception Kate, a teacher with over twenty - five years of experience, is a social studies department head at a relatively multicultural school. She possesses a double major in history and has a graduate degree in history.16 The history component of the program of studies that Kate finds most significant for students concerns Confederation and the evolution of Canada into ten provinces. Specifically she cites the development of language and culture policies. A key focus for Kate is analysing subject-related text in the form of original source documents and textbooks to detect bias and point of view. The focus of Kate's general conception of history education is upon syntactic 15. Chapter Three describes theoretical validity as ensuring that the category accurately reflects the phenomenon observed. To address this concern, all statements in quotations are excerpts from transcribed interviews. Quotes from field notes are not included. 16. All names are pseudonyms and are not necessarily gender related. 109 structures, and to a lesser extent substantive structures, of subject matter knowledge.17 She clearly represents history education centred around one central purpose -developing historiographic skills.18 Kate explicitly states that" to me, the main purpose [for history education] is the process, it's the historical process."19 The value and purpose of the historical process is highlighted when Kate states that "it [history] creates truth." Creating truth, or as Johnson says in the introductory quote, "what men (sic) believe happened", requires knowledge of how claims within history are warranted (syntactic structures) and how inquiry is conducted (substantive 17. In this chapter I will consistently use the subject matter knowledge to refer to what others have called substantive and syntactic knowledge and still others have called content knowledge. Shulman (1986) refers to the knowledge of concepts, facts, and procedures as content knowledge. On the other hand, Schwab (1964) describes subject matter knowledge as being composed of substantive and syntactic knowledge of a discipline as well as knowledge of facts and concepts of a domain. It does not refer to Leinhardt and Smith's (1985, p. 247) "intertwined" system of knowledge nor to Grossman, et al.'s (1989) fourth component of subject matter knowledge which includes teachers' "beliefs about the subject matter" (p. 29). 18. The way Kate states that she organises history education for pedagogical purposes reflects historiographic skills as the 'whole' or the overall purpose . The use of the phrase "historical process" is indicative of the broad purpose which seeks to develop students' understanding of the methodology of history. 19. Quotes from transcripts taken in isolation from their context can be criticised as they may refer to a different context than that inferred in the analysis. However, Tullberg (1998) states: During the process of analysis the researcher relates to the data in a dialectic process, in which parts are viewed in light of the whole, and the whole is viewed in light of the parts. Single abstract statements carry more meaning than is obvious when they are considered one by one, and this emergent meaning is only accessible within the collective pool of statements of a larger number of subjects. In the case of (Ci), (C2), and (C6) emergent meaning can only be made accessible within the collective pool of the individual's statements. 110 knowledge).20 This purpose focusing upon developing an understanding of historical methodology, including notions of evidence such as that described by Thoreau, permeates Kate's descriptions of all her history lessons. Tactical Plan Kate's significant lesson uses as a starting point students researching what the British North America Act, the Charlottetown Conference, and the Meech Lake Conference offered for the people. Her curriculum script related to these topics focuses upon developing information processing skills such as researching and analysing data as well as developing communication skills via cooperative learning and debate. The subject matter which is most evident in Kate's teaching are certain constituent components of the methodology of history. They include the following: Way of knowing™ Much of Kate's teaching parallels what Dickinson, et al. (1978) describe as a 'way of knowing' within the discipline of history. Kate begins with the previously stated documents as a starting point. From this starting point, the tasks she presents to her students revolve around examining evidence, assessing the reliability of evidence, and arriving at judgments or accounts based upon evidence. When Kate's students perform research (examine evidence) they are expected to utilise a variety of sources of information including CD -Rom, Internet and textbooks. Kate has students analyse the source documents for bias, which is one component of 20. Grossman (1990) and Schwab (1977) refer to the way inquiry is conducted in a discipline as substantive knowledge. Others refer to this as syntactic knowledge. 21. The way of knowing could also be referred to as syntactic knowledge of a discipline (Schwab, 1978). 111 reliability. Specifically, they look at whether the source "presented a bias by saying that these parts of Canada were hard done by or poorly done by and it wasn't supported by the data." Students also look at what she calls "hard evidence as compared to soft evidence" when analysing the sources. Further use of the concepts of hard and soft evidence arises later when Kate describes subsequent lessons in which guest speakers talk to the students. Students are expected to "identify when the speaker was giving information based on the evidence that he had." Kate believes students grasp this concept as evidence by the fact that "they would ask questions that showed they knew the difference between the soft answers and the hard answers." Kate does not articulate the meaning of hard and soft evidence until she describes a culminating activity in which students engage in a debate "using a reasoned position and it's got to be based on evidence." Hard evidence / answers to Kate are those supported by fact as opposed to soft evidence / answers which are supported by opinion or even hearsay. Developing historical empathy (Ashby and Lee, 1987; Portal, 1987) is another element of the syntactic structures associated with the discipline of history. This is also an aspect of Kate's teaching. Her knowledge of the difference between everyday empathy and historical empathy22 is evident when she says "kids look at that Japanese 22. Ashby and Lee (1987) describe everyday empathy as understanding the actions of people in the past: By reference to evidence of the specific situation in which people found themselves, but the situation is seen in modern terms, with no distinction made between how we see it and how contemporaries would have seen i t . . .(p.74). Ashby and Lee (1987) describe restricted historical empathy as understanding the actions of people in the past: By reference to evidence of the specific situation in which people found themselves, with recognition that these cannot necessarily be characterised as we now may characterise them. . . (p. 78). 112 internment through the eyes of somebody living in 1990, not the eyes of somebody living in 1940." Further reference to empathy is apparent when she states "you walk in the shoes of somebody of that time." To help students develop a notion of historical empathy, Kate organises sources to give insights into the experiences and motivations of the people of that time. These aspects can be seen as syntactic structures of Kate's subject matter knowledge. From the starting point of analysing significant documents in Canadian history, Kate has students examine data to arrive at historically warranted knowledge claims. The process of history Kate does not understand history to be simply a narrative found in a textbook. She states that "we look at history as being a process as well as a product." Kate understands there is a method of inquiry associated with history and she understands what this methodology entails.23 She refers to it as "the skill of doing history." In fact, Kate refers to the student as "a historical researcher" and her teaching seeks to develop the student's skill of doing history which she parenthetically calls the "skill of analysis." Kate possesses a knowledge of the historical process which she framed within the prescribed curricular methodology. The Alberta Social Studies Curriculum Guide (1988) states the central questions of the topics to be examined through the inquiry process. Kate's "process of history" parallels this process. Well, the process of history is very similar to the process of inquiry. It's what we use in the curriculum anyway because you look at something as "how do I know this happened, how do I know that this is really the cause of this event", and so you state a hypothesis 23. Schwab (1964) and Grossman (1990) refer to this as substantive knowledge. Substantive knowledge includes the questions that guide further inquiry as well as ideas, facts and concepts within a discipline. 113 and start researching it. And so you have to go to some sort of data base to get the information. You have to analyse it and come up with your own interpretation of circumstances of that. So the historical process is quite common for the social studies class. The language used by Kate parallels language used by scholars in the field of history. Dickinson, et al. (1978) use terms including inquiry, interpretations, and questions in describing the process of history and include phrases synonymous with analysis. Kate reverts back to her experience as a social studies teacher when she summarises the role of history education in high schools as one which "allows a lot of critical thinking to occur." Kate's process of history illustrates what Wilson, et al. (1987) refer to as the syntactic structures of subject matter knowledge as they refer to the way inquiry is conducted and claims are warranted within a field. Reflective Rationalisation In describing why her conception of history education is appropriate for high school students Kate utilises three justifications, each reflecting a component of teacher knowledge. One justification is predicated upon her knowledge of context in conjunction with her knowledge of learners.24 Kate cites surveys which, to her, justify the need for alternative conceptions of history education.25 Surveys that have been done with students will tell you that history is totally irrelevant and it comes up over and over again when 24. Based upon Wilson's (1988) categories of teacher knowledge. Although not explicitly stated in Wilson's definition, knowledge derived from surveys certainly would be included as she states this type of knowledge includes "an eclectic collection of information about schools, communities, and cultures. It may include understandings about school ethos, community characteristics . . . " (p. 49). 25. I have called her strategy an alternative strategy as Kate sees it as one which addresses the concerns raised in the survey. It is alternative to her perception of conceptions of history education that cause the problem. 114 students are asked what school has offered. Is it important to you or not? Does it connect to your world? All the research I have seen indicates that students are saying history should not be taught in school. Kate's statement indicates she does not perceive that her way of teaching contributes to the concerns expressed in the surveys. This offers insights into Kate's justifications for her conception of history education. Kate's reference to a survey and justification of her teaching as an attempt to address the concerns of the survey (knowledge of context) suggest that she has a belief about what is critically significant for students (knowledge of learners) about her conception of history education. A second justification arising from the surveys Kate cites is the need for relevance. This reflects a knowledge of learners or a knowledge of student understanding.33 The need for relevance arises from the surveys Kate cites in which students identify parts of the curriculum they consider irrelevant. Students identify historical topics such as the French Revolution and explorers of Canada as topics of little relevance. Kate sees it to be the teacher's responsibility to make history "alive" or relevant for the students. Kate attempts to address the need for relevance in several ways. One rationalisation she offers for her conception is that "history provides one of the sources of information." She sees providing information as a way to make history relevant.27 When she elaborates on this justification she reveals a further layer of subject matter knowledge she possesses. Kate continues: But so do other things [provide sources of information]. Political 26. Grossman (1990) and Marks (1990) include this as a component of pedagogical content knowledge. Wilson (1988) includes this as a separate type of teacher knowledge. 27. Kate's tactical plan outlines how she expects students to work with information that is provided. Working with information is relevant as it allows students to understand the different types of evidence and arrive at historically warranted claims. 115 science definitely provides a lot of our data for developing a curriculum. The analysis of a senior high school curriculum is that it's mostly political science based. The political science is not going to be there without a historical component either. But the concepts that we mostly teach in senior high are political science. If making history relevant for students by providing and working with information is part of Kate's reflective rationalisation, she understands that other disciplines subsumed under the heading of social studies, such as political science, play a complementary role in teaching history. This idea illustrates that Kate draws upon knowledge of other disciplines to complement the knowledge derived from the study of history. Kate's desire to make history education relevant is based on the knowledge that students come from homes in which history is not brought alive. She states that "students are tuned into television where they think that by watching Hercules they are getting history." Her general conception is informed by her perception that students have a naive understanding of history; they believe it can be learned by watching fantasy oriented television shows. Additionally, Kate justifies the need to construct experiences for the students to help develop historical empathy as a way to address the concern of relevance. She states: "So they [students] find it really difficult to walk in the shoes of somebody in the 1930's." Kate's final means of addressing the concern of relevance relates to the role history plays in creating truth. In response to a follow - up interview question regarding the students' understanding of truth, Kate responds that students have a concern about what it is they really know. She explains: One of the big studies that we do in grade 11 at the social 23 level that's not in the curriculum but it starts the historical process, is we take a look at the celebration of Columbus' visit to wherever he was and the kids are actually horrified to find out that there isn't an exact place where he landed. There wasn't an exact date; we don't even have an exact record of his name. We have 12 or 17 116 different spellings of his name and when they look at that they start saying "Well, how else can we trust this?" and that's what a historian does. A historian doesn't just repeat and copy. What he does is he carries a process to investigate and explore so I don't think there is any truth to this. It creates truth. Kate's comment indicates she has a knowledge of student misconceptions, background knowledge, and interests. She addresses this knowledge by attempting to make her conception of history education relevant. Tactical Consistency As Kate is only teacher interviewed who utilises this conception of history, education variations cannot be determined within the framing of this specific conception. A high degree of consistency exists between Kate's tactical plan and her general conception. Specifically, her language suggests she utilises the following constituent components of this category while planning for instruction: C i • developing an understanding of the 'way of knowing' within the discipline of history. comprising: • concerns of evidence. • developing historical empathy. C i • developing an understanding of the methodology of the discipline of history, comprising: • the inquiry process. C i • developing an understanding of the construction of truth. comprising: • how claims are warranted in the discipline. From the outset of her lesson description Kate uses a lexicon coinciding with her general conception of history education. Each aspect of the tactical plan appears in a logical relation to complement other aspects. Taken in the context of the interview, the terminology she uses in describing her lessons also reflects a high degree of consistency. Regarding understanding the way of knowing necessary to construct a historical narrative, which she calls "the historical process", Kate describes a process 1 1 7 of inquiry which is used to develop an account of an historical activity. This process starts with a hypothesis and moves to analysis of information. It concludes with an "interpretation of circumstances." Kate highlights the role of examining and assessing evidence by referring to "Brinton's model of doing history, of checking out the difference between sources as being primary or secondary."33 An important feature of the way of knowing in the discipline of history is arriving at judgments or accounts based upon evidence, and defending judgments (Thompson, 1984). Kate exhibits this feature when she requires students to examine information from speakers based on their evidence, which she describes as hard and soft. In Kate's tactical plan, students must have an understanding of the context in which a narrative is produced. Kate accomplishes this by having students look for what might currently be understood to be bias in textbooks in their description of the political and economic history of various parts of Canada. Developing historical empathy is another feature of the way of knowing. Although she does not use that term specifically, Kate refers to the concept when she states "you have to walk a mile in the shoes of somebody of that time." The language she uses when discussing the nature of narrative is also consistent with the Ci category of description. Although not engaging students in the complexities of reconstructing a story, Kate demonstrates her awareness of historiography, but does 28. In a subsequent interview Kate clarifies that she meant Collingwood's model. Kate describes the Collingwood model as one which utilises primary resources to develop an understanding of concerns of evidence. Her inadvertent use of Brinton's (1965) model indicates she has an awareness of alternative purposes for history education. Brinton's model explains the conditions necessary for a revolution to take place. Understanding this model provides the teacher with historical exemplars of a revolution which then can be applied to current events. This model is applicable to ce-ns not refer to it specifically in discussion of when she develops lesson plans.29 Consider the following quote: "At no time did I ever have a prof who said there was a process that was historiography, that there was a reason why this textbook is this way, or that a film was put together that wayfemphasis mine]." Throughout the interview Kate uses the wording that historical inquiry "creates truth." Her experience with history allows her to question the dominant or most widely accepted truths, as in the phrase "why this textbook is this way, or that a film was put together that way" and then to develop instructional strategies to help students understand the role of interpretation in history and how historical inquiry "creates truth". As explained in Chapter Three, I use contrasting questions to identify the defining characteristic of phenomenography. What purposes exist for teaching history? is used as a statement of reality which can be derived from literature in the domain of history education. What do teachers think are their purposes for teaching history? is said to be a teachers' conception of reality. Kate's conception of reality, which permeates her instruction in history education, parallels the original category of description entitled C i . Variation from the totality of this category is apparent, yet Kate's description of her instruction includes many of the defining constituent components of this category of description, as suggested earlier in this chapter. In the interviews, Kate demonstrates a consistent conception of history education, or what Tullberg (1998) refers to as a coherent approach . 30 29. See work by Cronon (1992), Barber (1992), Kaye (1991), and Schlesinger (1991). 30. ForTullberg "a coherent approach refers to a conception of teaching in which the teacher's general idea of how the content is to be understood is logically related to her methods, as indicated by the connectedness and consistency between the sets in the teaching model" (p. 113). 119 Conception 2 - The Methodology of Social Studies (only one teacher) As a result of studying history, people occasionally stumble upon the truth; but they almost always get up and continue on their way as if nothing happened. Anonymous. General Conception Ken, a teacher with over twenty - five years of experience, teaches two different grades of social studies at a large, relatively monocultural school. He possesses a major in history. The history component of the program of studies he finds most significant for students concerns French - English relations and Quebec sovereignty. In general, the broad area he focused upon was "the role the French Canadians played in the history of Canada." The specific content includes "history of the French settlement, the contribution the French made, the unique culture. . . . " A hint of Ken's broad understanding of the purpose of history education is apparent when he describes his significant lesson as developing "a rational approach to thinking about the francophone, French Canadian, situation so that they [students] would develop an attitude based on understanding of the history and tolerance or respect for a group of people." To try to identify Ken's general conception specifically it is necessary to examine some of the nuances in the dialogue. The general conception he uses initially may be seen as fragmentary as it appears to represent several conceptions. One conception is exemplified when he states, "I think a much more useful approach in my view is to delve into the history that is relevant to the current issue that one is studying." This statement suggests an orientation similar to C5, as the history that students study would be that which examines the antecedents of current issues. However, if a general conception reflects a teacher's broadest understanding of 120 history education, which includes purposes for organising to teach the content, then Ken's actual understanding of history education fits best in C 2 which focuses upon general social studies skills.31 He states, "Maybe call it stirring the pot or perhaps challenging them to question attitudes or beliefs .. . wanting them to have an approach [emphasis mine] to other issues such as human rights . . . of open mindedness and perhaps acquiring [emphasis mine] new information and processing [emphasis mine] that." The dual nature of Ken's general conception is further evident in his attempt to concisely summarise his purpose for history education. He states, "I would say [it is] to provide understanding for dealing with current issues and to enable people to make rational decisions as citizens, participating citizens." Ken's general conception of history education is a combination of knowledge of social studies processes and substantive knowledge. The processes are social studies oriented, in contrast to Ci which are discipline oriented, so it would be erroneous to refer to this as a syntactic element of the discipline of history. The substantive knowledge, or the ideas, facts, and concepts Ken articulates, is what facilitates the development of what Ken calls "rational citizens" as exemplified in the following statement: Well I hoped that what it would be to develop a rational approach to thinking about the francophone, French Canadian, situation so that they would develop an attitude based on understanding of the history and tolerance or respect for a group of people. I guess it's critically important to me because it seems to me I want them to 31. I will defer to the Alberta Social Studies Curriculum Guide (1988) for a definition of skills. In this document skills are organised into process, communication and participation. Process skills "help one acquire, evaluate and use information and ideas. These skills include gathering, organising, interpreting, analysing, synthesising and evaluating." The skill objectives also include developing inquiry strategies. Communication skills "help one express and present information and ideas. These skills include oral, visual and written expression." Participation skills "enable one to interact with others. These skills include working effectively, individually and cooperatively, in group situations" (p. 15). 121 function as rational citizens and this particular issue, at least at this time in Canada, requires some individual rational thought for decision making. The purpose around which Ken organises his instruction is the desire to facilitate the development of "rational thought for decision making." It is against this general understanding of the purpose for history education that the substantive knowledge emphasised by Ken, although antecedents of a current issue, are selected and translated for the contribution they make to the development of general social studies skills. Ken's description suggests that the study of history allows students to "stumble upon the truth" but still "continue on their way" without developing a great deal of understanding of the variety of ways in which historical knowledge can be utilised. Tactical Plan Ken's most significant lesson in the topic deals with the history of French Canadians' role in the development of Canada. In particular Ken focuses upon French settlement, the contribution of the French to the development of Canada and their unique culture. The constituent components around which Ken organises his conception of history education are the general goals of social studies which include the following: Critical thinking The goal of phenomenography is to explicate how teachers understand a particular phenomenon. For this research the goal is to explicate how teachers understand history education and what they think about when planning for instruction. A purpose Ken thinks about when planning for history education can be seen in the statements previously highlighted as providing general conception. Specifically he refers to the phrases "rational approach", "rational citizens", "rational decisions as 122 citizens", and "rational thought for decision making". Rational, by definition, means utilising the faculties of reasoning. An aspect of his tactical plan which contributes to developing this "rational" student is employing critical thinking skills or abilities. Case (1997) describes critical thinking as a goal for social studies which he defines as developing "students' abilities and inclinations to competently assess what to believe and to reach defensible decisions about what and how to act" (p. 12). One aspect of critical thinking apparent in Ken's conception of history education is assessing different types of claims. Ken notes that students "are going to have to respond to surveys or another referendum and the bigotry or biases are so prevalent that it is easy for them to pick it up and I want to counter that." This statement further parallels Case's (1997) conception of critical thinking which states students should develop abilities and "apply them on an ongoing basis" (p. 12). For Ken, this aspect focuses upon assessing claims made in the present. His approach contrasts with Kate's; she assesses claims made in the past and then applies the assessment strategy to claims made in the present. This aspect of Ken's tactical plan reflects a form of syntactic knowledge of the subject matter. Although Schwab (1978) indicates syntactic knowledge refers to how knowledge claims are warranted within a discipline, Ken's statements certainly reflect an understanding of how knowledge claims are warranted within the context of social studies. As the substantive knowledge in this topic is history, Ken's use of the term "rational", framed within Case's definition of critical thinking, indicates that Ken seeks to develop a process for students to develop warrants for their conceptions of truth. This is verified in Ken's statement that his conception of history develops students' ability for "rational thought for decision making." 123 Information gathering and reporting A second constituent component of Ken's general conception related to the broad goals of social studies is information gathering and reporting.32 This constituent component of Ken's teaching again parallels a general goal of social studies as described by Case (1997) as it involves developing the ability to competently identify, extract, and present information in various forms. Inherent in the term competent is the notion that students must interpret information and understand the information. To develop this competence, Ken utilises a variety of text and visual information to assist students in answering worksheet questions. The questions vary from basic identification of 'who, what, where, and when' to interpretation questions such as 'why' and to demonstration of an understanding of concepts such as 'war', and 'collective security'. Ken expects students to represent this information in a variety of forms including fill in the blank style questions, retrieval charts, and 'visuals'. Ken defines visuals as "a series of pictures mounted on poster board, graphs, drawings, charts or overheads. These visuals help you explain your material to the class." The culmination of the information gathering and reporting (or for Case identification, extraction, and presentation) is a presentation to the class which utilises several different "reporting" techniques. The students must "teach a lesson", "utilise a visual", and provide "a summary outline" for the other students. The assessment Ken describes for this presentation provides additional insights into his understanding of what Case (1997) 32. This information was not specifically referred to in the interview with Ken. Instead, he provided the information to show me where his lessons fitted into the scope and sequence of the larger unit. It provides relevant information as Fetterman (1988) notes teachers act upon their beliefs. This lesson information then would reflect Ken's beliefs about history education. In addition, the information offers insights into the pedagogy Ken uses to develop in students the abilities and understandings he describes. 124 describes as "competently representing this information in various forms" (p. 12). Scoring rubrics Ken provided for presentations are based on descriptors including clarity, imagination, creativity and the degree to which the presentation shows continuity. Personal and social values A third constituent component of Ken's general conception for history education again parallels Case's (1997) goals for social studies. Case identifies the goal of developing personal and social values as those values which are "constitutive of healthy individuals, communities and society / world" (p. 12). Although the definition Case provides does not explicitly state so, it must be inferred that the teachers' beliefs play a relevant role in determining what personal and social values are important. Ken's tactical plan incorporates the development of social values. The values Ken identifies in the discussion of his conception of history are "tolerance and respect", "open mindedness", and respect for "human rights." Ken's conception was previously noted as reflecting certain elements of Cs, specifically the role history plays in helping to understand current issues. However, his explanation of the purpose for teaching the substantive historical information reflects the development of a social value. Selecting substantive knowledge to develop the social value of national pride is evident in Ken's description of a lesson comparable to his significant lesson: I think it is probably understanding Canada's relationships with other countries, having to do with sovereignty and relationships to world affairs, relationships to other countries as a sovereign nation. I think the whole background to that is perhaps it's essential to have the students understand where Canada has come from as a rather dependent nation to one of independence. I think it just helps them to, I suppose, appreciate Canada. It's not essential to understanding it. It is more essential to appreciating our role in the world [emphasis mine]. 125 The development of personal and social values and the subordinate role of C5 is further evident in the following quote: I do make a point of noting that it's important to study the historical background to understand an issue or the current situation. But I don't harp on it. I don't keep refocusing their attention on the place of history. So I guess I'm just assuming it gives them a better understanding. And I have a sense that it does give them a better understanding. Puts them in a position of, I think, more open minded and more appreciative of other points of wew[emphasis mine]. The superordinate role of developing personal and social values is further made apparent in Ken's comment that the history content he selects helps students understand alternative points of view or "perhaps change their minds." The goal of this content selection is to develop open mindedness. The constituent components of Ken's tactical plan are highly representative of his pedagogical content knowledge which Wilson (1988) defines as "including knowledge of alternative representations of subject matter, knowledge of student conceptions related to particular topics, and pedagogical reasoning" (p. 44). Ken's substantive knowledge is complemented by his ability to identify appropriate resources and pedagogy to enhance the students' acquisition of skills, abilities, and dispositions. This is exemplified by the fact that students are expected to develop and demonstrate their knowledge of topics relevant to Canada's history in the twentieth century. Reflective Rationalisation Ken uses several maxims to justify his conception of history education. The primary justification is based on the need to develop "good citizenship." To address this maxim Ken believes students need "to develop processes of rational thinking and 126 developing viewpoints rationally so, of course, they have to develop an information base consisting of the study of history." For Ken, the study of history is justified as it provides a knowledge base necessary for rational thought. Rational thought is justified as it is a necessary requisite for "good citizenship." Although Ken utilises two different conceptions of conceptions of history education, the designation of C 2 is still compatible with phenomenography. Marton and Booth (1997) state: A particular way of experiencing something reflects a simultaneous awareness of particular aspects of the phenomenon. Another way of experiencing it reflects a simultaneous awareness of the other aspects or more aspects or fewer aspects of the same phenomenon (p. 97). Ken's experience with history education reflects his awareness of two conceptions, but in a superordinate / subordinate relationship. C 2 is the superordinate conception and C 5 is the subordinate conception. This relationship is illustrated when Ken states "I think it is just fundamental to good citizenship to understand the background to your society." Several additional statements illustrate the superordinate / subordinate relationship of the conceptions: There is a bit of that (hostility) but probably more I think is the response of having their eyes opened, of the 'Oh I didn't know that' type of response and having to then somehow assimilate new information that they acquire through these lessons and having to perhaps change their m/nd[emphasis mine]. Not that I am trying to convert people or establish a particular line of belief but I am just asking them to examine what they haven't looked at £>efore[emphasis mine]. Why they perhaps have had these beliefs and what it is based on compared to perhaps getting more information. In both statements the purpose of acquiring new information is to have students examine their beliefs juxtaposed with the new information. Ken justifies this variation 127 of a conception of history education as it develops open mindedness, a component of "good citizenship." A second maxim for justifying his conception of history education is the need for relevance. Relevance as a justification for Ken's conception of history education is derived from his knowledge of context33 and his knowledge of learners. Ken describes his teaching as "stirring the pot." In the social context of a multicultural classroom Ken justifies a lesson in human rights as follows: Well, I guess the human rights [lesson] comes to mind . . . where we look at attitudes and the foundations for prejudice or discrimination that exists in our society. And I think that is a very meaningful lesson in the classroom in the last few years, which you have probably noticed too, have become much more multicultural in nature so that it makes sense for a meaningful lesson perhaps in that classroom of multicultural backgrounds [emphasis mine]. But at the same time it is easier for the students to deal with that topic because they are in a multicultural setting in school [emphasis mine] but I think that topic comes to mind as one that gets quite a good response from students in terms of controversy and perhaps a little discomfort before they fall into a process of thought or processing the information [emphasis mine]. Focusing upon social studies skills such as processing information and developing personal and social values is justified as Ken believes they are relevant to the concerns of the multicultural classroom, which illustrates Ken's knowledge of context. Ken's knowledge of learners is apparent in his statements such as "it is easier for students to deal with", "it gets a good response from students . . . and a little discomfort." The superordinate position of developing social studies skills is again apparent when he describes the ultimate educational outcome of the significant lesson as encouraging students to "fall into a process of thought or processing the 33. Knowledge of context is one of the components of teacher knowledge described by Wilson (1988) as knowledge "of schooling, including politically - and socially -defined contexts such as communities, states and cultures" (p. 44). Ken utilises the knowledge of the social context of his classroom and of the community. 128 information." Ken also relies upon knowledge of content to provide a form of relevance around which he justifies his conception of history education. In Wilson's (1988) description of the three types of content knowledge she identifies specific subject matter, subject matter knowledge which is drawn from other disciplines, and the understanding teachers possess of students which shapes their instructional strategies. In contrast to Kate's utilisation of all three types of content knowledge as described by Wilson (1988) to provide relevance, Ken's conception of history education utilises only one of the three types of content knowledge in relation to his maxim of relevance. His knowledge of subject matter is the basis for relevance in this conception. He selects subject matter which facilitates the development of skills and abilities he considers necessary for developing "good" or "rational citizens." Unlike Kate in her experience with history, Ken does not refer to knowledge from other disciplines directly.34 Relevance is based on providing information which will cause students to develop "rational" skills as these skills are required in the complex society in which they live. Relevance is related to developing "tolerance or respect for a group of people", "functioning as a rational citizen", "rational thought for decision making", and "open mindedness." Clear justification is provided in Ken's reflective rationalisation of his conception of history education. He is consistently aware that his conception of history is one that develops certain social studies related skills. These skills are in methodological contrast to C i , but like Ci the development of these skills provide the maxims around 34. It could be argued that as Ken's understanding of history education reflects the general goals of social studies, a subject reflecting aspects of many disciplines, his knowledge reflects perhaps a hybrid of other disciplines. However, as Ken does not explicitly articulate an awareness of the role of other disciplines it must be assumed that his understanding of history education is not explicitly shaped by knowledge of other disciplines. 129 which Ken justifies his conception of history education. Tactical Consistency As with Ci only one teacher was interviewed who utilised this conception of history education. Therefore, variations of individuals' experience cannot be determined. However, variation was apparent from the original category of description outlined at the beginning of the chapter. Initially, the degree of consistency in Ken's description of his significant lesson is suspect. He begins to utilise language associated with C5. Phrases such as "understand the role the French played in the history of Canada" and "contributions that the French made" suggest that his conception of history contributes to helping students understand French - English relations, a current Canadian issue. The language changes when Ken is asked to justify the significance of this lesson and the subordinate role of content becomes apparent. However, the inclusion of constituent components of C5 does not infer a lack of consistency but it does suggest a conception that is partially characterised by inclusion. The inclusion of constituent components C5 stands in logical and complementary relation to the constituent components of C2. This superordinate / subordinate relationship is a necessary feature of Ken's conception of history education. Ken's conception seeks to develop social studies skills, specifically a rational student / citizen. If we understand developing a "citizen" as the primary purpose of history education, the current Canadian social and political milieu can be seen as the context in which an understanding of what constitutes a citizen is framed. The two parts are intertwined. A conception of a good citizens exists 1 3 0 within the context of our current society. The selection of content related to the current social and political milieu around which Ken frames the need for a good citizen reflects Ken's substantive knowledge and his knowledge of curriculum.35 His understanding and utilisation of the French / English concerns in Canada is consistent with C 2 as the skills Ken teaches cannot be taught independent of content.36 The skills are the superordinate part of his conception. The following constituent components are apparent in Ken's tactical plan reflecting consistency with his general conception of history education. This conception is best described as inclusive, as demonstrated by Ken's utilisation of the following superordinate constituent components of C 2 in conjunction with certain components of C 5 while planning for instruction: C 2 • developing critical thinking skills and dispositions. comprising: • assessing types of claims. • decision making. 35. Wilson (1988) defines knowledge of curriculum "both in terms of resources available to teachers and of theories that guide the development of curricular materials" (p. 44). This knowledge consists of three parts: a. The knowledge, skill and attitude objectives outlined in the legally mandated document. b. Resources available for teaching this curriculum. These resources may include authorised textbooks and resources to complement or enrich the course such as videos or supplementary texts. c. Some knowledge of curriculum theory. This knowledge allows Ken to make choices about what topics to include in the course of a unit to best achieve his tactical plan. 36. This idea is presented in the Alberta Social Studies Curriculum Guide (1988) which states "skills are best taught in the context of use rather than isolation" (p. 2). The notion is supported by Wineburg and Wilson (1991). 131 C"2 • developing information gathering and reporting skills. comprising: • identifying, extracting, and presenting information. • interpreting and understanding information C 2 • developing personal and social values. comprising: • open mindedness, tolerance and respect, respect for human rights C 5 • content focusing on antecedents of current issues Ken's tactical plan is consistent as it is predicated upon his conception of what constitutes a rational citizen. His description and utilisation of the substantive content of the topic supports his beliefs that students must be rational citizens; they need to make rational decisions; they must be open minded; and they must be able to process information. All constituent components of his tactical plan contribute to developing this rational citizen. The justification for the tasks utilised by Ken consistently refers to the broad notion of developing a competent or "responsible" citizen.37 Implicit in the term competent to Ken is the idea of rational as has been explicated throughout his description of his conception of history education. The interview with Ken highlighted a conception of history education which illustrates an answer to the question What do teachers think are their purposes for teaching history? Ken's conception of reality, which is explicit in his instruction in history education, emphasises general goals of social studies and education. Variations from the original category of description are apparent and as such could cause this conception to be seen as fragmentary as opposed to consistent. However, consistency is apparent in the superordinate / subordinate relationship of skills and subject matter knowledge in which the dominant skills focus closely parallels the original category of description. 37. The Province of Alberta Program of Studies (1988) states "Responsible citizenship is the ultimate goal of social studies" (p. 2). 132 Conception 3 - Enhancing a National Collective Identity History makes men wise. Sir Francis Bacon [History is] the rival of time, the depository of great actions, the witness of what is past, the examples and instruction of the present, the monitor of the future. Miguel de Cervantes Long live the Revolution - as long as it is dead and buried with no prospect of resurrection. Daniel Singer General Conception Three teachers who were interviewed reflect similar conceptions of history education.33 Brian, who possesses majors in both history and geography, teaches at a large high school which draws students from across the city for its academic focus and the alternative academic programs it offers.39 Jackie is an experienced teacher who taught social studies in a French immersion high school but is currently teaching at a French immersion junior high. Finally, Christine is an experienced home economics teacher at a small high school who is teaching social studies for the first time. In response to the preliminary questionnaire Christine indicates her significant lesson in history education deals with geographic regions. Specifically she describes "dividing Canada into different zones to show them the diverse land forms, climate and other features of geography." When asked how this relates to history and the curriculum her response was that it "ties in with current Canadian facts." Christine has 38. Marton (1981) states that the "collective intellect can thus be seen as a structured pool of ideas, conceptions, and beliefs underlying possible interpretations (or possible constructions) of reality . .." (p. 198). As the data will be presented as a collective experience reference to individual names may at times be omitted. 39. These programs include Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate. 133 a conception of history that integrates geography and history. Her general conception is defined as developing an historical awareness of both geographic and demographic data, and then relating it to "current Canadian facts." This statement is best exemplified when Christine states: This is where they [students] tie in information such as population density. Historically you will find the densely populated areas in the east. And then they will study about transportation and the railroad; the CPR was built to tie the country together and it was the one way the government tried to ensure the west was populated. The component of the program of studies Brian finds most significant for his students deals with the "sacrifices" Canadians made during World War I, World War II and the Cold War. Specifically, he focuses upon "try(ing) to get them [students] to understand a little bit more about Canada's history in terms of our own independence." Jackie's most significant history section focuses upon providing a chronology of events leading up to the current status of French / English relations. As a teacher in a bilingual setting Jackie feels students lack an understanding about the relationship between the French and English cultures in Canada. She states, "I think it gives them the background necessary to have an opinion on what is happening now." The focus of French / English relations is characterised by developing an historical understanding of the chronology of relations so students have better insights into their national identity. For all of these teachers substantive elements of subject matter knowledge are the dominant foci. Teachers very clearly explain that the goal of instruction is the transmission of substantive knowledge relevant to their particular focus in Canadian history. The aim of providing content is to develop a knowledge of significant narratives with the intent of developing a collective student awareness of the culture. Even though each historical context varies, the purpose of transmitting this knowledge 134 remains constant. The meaning emerging from the collective pool of statements in this conception indicates that the teachers believe that to function as a nation people must have a historical literacy. This provides background knowledge to allow discussion of the nation's past and the its impact on the current national milieu.43 The literature - based category of description outlined earlier in this chapter thematizes this conception as one which seeks to institutionalise selected canons, or distillations of the past and develop a national historical vocabulary based on these canons.41 As Cervantes states in the introductory quotation, this history would be the "depository of great actions." The purpose of history education for this conception is to shape a lay past, understandable to most, to promote nationalism. The collective experience drawn from these data do not suggest an overt selection of certain canons by the teachers in an attempt to develop a form of patriotic obedience to the state.42 However, as Bashevkin (1991) explains nationalism is an evolving concept with different meanings for different people. In this research, the teachers' common conception of history education in C3 presents a purpose focusing upon nationalism 40. The results of the data analysis indicate C 3 views historical information as developing a literate understanding of the past. Although teachers use cliches such as 'You have to understand the past to understand the present' the collective experience in this conception differs from C 5 . For C 3 'understanding the present' is related to Canada's identity as opposed to understanding a specific current issue or concern. An example of this is that in C3 understanding the history of French / English relations helps students understand why Canada is a bicultural country. In C5 understanding the history of French / English relations helps students understand concerns such as the rise to power of the Bloc Quebecois or the demand for sovereignty in Quebec. 41. Seixas (1993 B) defines historical canons as "the list of great names and significant dates which constitute the key terms underpinning historical literacy . . ." (p. 237). 42. See footnote 13, chapter 4. 135 which is collectively referred to as "our identity."43 Tactical Plan The literature - based category of description does not outline possible 'parts' or constituent components of the general conception yet analysis of the data suggests common patterns in the collective experience with history for C 3 . Although each respondent has a different starting point in the topic, a collective tactical plan is apparent. The tactical plan consists of the following constituent components which contributed to developing students' understanding of a national identity: Developing an affinity for Canada Developing an affinity for Canada is a constituent component common to all teachers utilising C 3 . They use various terms or phrases to express this notion. One aspect was to develop pride in the country. Subtle variations of this aspect are evident in phrases such as "proud [emphasis mine], again, of being Canadian"; "to gain an appreciation [emphasis mine] of what the nation has gone through"; and "the feeling of pride [emphasis mine] in what we as members of our country have accomplished." These phrases were used interchangeably among all respondents. Within the larger context of the interview, these phrases indicate the teachers saw the necessity to provide certain subject matter as they believed this knowledge would 43. The term identity, like nationalism (see footnote 14) is an evolving concept. For this conception, any aspect of teaching that has an explicit goal of providing information about Canada's past that does not have an ulterior purpose will be considered to contribute to developing students' understanding about Canada's identity. This information allows students to be more literate or knowledgeable about Canada. For these teachers, this literacy develops an understanding which allows students to know more about what it is to be a Canadian. 136 develop almost a whiggish a pride in the nation.44 For teachers utilising C 3 , developing an affinity for Canada is accomplished by cultivating an understanding of significant Canadians, events in Canadian history, or Canadian innovations. The following statements are indicative of the transmission of such substantive knowledge: I think the number one purpose would be to gain, as I said before, an appreciation of what and how our history developed. To instil some pride in our history, to instil some focus, get some name identification, some heroes, both male and female, from our past. I think it is very important that we have a larger identity with Canada. And a lot of that will come from our history. Now I have shown some videos, like I showed in Velcour, Quebec the snowmobile . . . I have shown some videos on Canadian immigration . . . I showed the space one [contributions to the space program by Marc Garneau, Roberta Bondar, and the Canada Arm] that the students received very well. . . showed one on Lucy Maud Montgomery, a famous Canadian author. So we do some deviations, variations, some other things as well to get this, to be proud of Canadians [emphasis mine]. .. Both statements indicate that developing name / event recognition is an important aspect of developing an affinity for Canada. Focusing upon familiar people or events can be seen to transmit and perpetuate certain canons of Canadian history and culture. The statements show that teachers believe an explicit relationship exists between name / event recognition (subject matter knowledge) and pride in country. Both statements also contain the previously described notion of developing pride in the country. Teachers also believe that developing an affinity for Canada may be derived by 44. This subject matter is curriculum related but selected and reified through individual teacher beliefs about the what information students need and the contribution of the subject matter to attaining their goals. As this research focuses upon teachers' beliefs instead of their actual practices the extent to which the subject matter knowledge represents facts or myths is not examined. 137 providing substantive knowledge relevant to Canada's "place in the world", a phrase used by all teachers utilising this conception. The significance of this is evident in the following statement: "The [history unit] makes you think 'Hey we're a pretty big fire in this world and we are playing an important role' and so on." To develop this understanding, teachers utilising C 3 focus upon international events and institutions which contributed to establishing global recognition of Canada as an independent nation. Teachers seek to develop in students an understanding of events such as World War I and World War II and institutions including NATO, NOR AD, and the United Nations to facilitate the achievement of this goal. Developing "an appreciation" for and an understanding of Canada's place in the world is multifaceted as indicated in the following statement: Just understanding Canada's place in the world and just having some factual information about where they live and it is something that these students probably take for granted . . . One facet deals with providing "factual information" about Canada and the other facet is related to the effect it is purported to have upon the students. The "factual information" selected may be considered canons of Canadian history. Canons mentioned include the snowmobile, Canada's contribution to the space industry (Roberta Bondar, Marc Garneau, Canada Arm), inventions such as penicillin, the DEW Line, the Pine Tree Line, and the Francophone state, as well as the previously noted events and institutions. A third facet deals with overcoming what "students probably take for granted" about Canada's international contribution and instilling "a feeling of pride" because of this contribution.45 The teachers interviewed believed their students lack an awareness or collective consciousness of, and appreciation for Canada's past. By 45. A comparable idea is presented by Granatstein (1998) who discusses the role of the military in Canada's past which he sees as "a proud part" of our heritage (p. 134). 138 teaching certain canons and through a process they do not articulate43, but certainly believe takes place, they develop students' affinity for Canada by increasing their understanding and feeling part of collective national accomplishments. The following statements illustrate the notion of developing the collective consciousness and the resulting pride: You know, my students didn't know that Canadians invented the snowmobile, Canadians invented the zipper. . . that there are a lot of things that we can be proud of as Canadians, the feeling of pride in what we as members of our country have accomplished. It [a video] was again about the broad purpose of Canada and being proud of Canadians and learning about Canada's place in the the world . . . Teachers utilising C 3 believe that transmitting substantive historical information for students will develop an affinity for Canada which will contribute to developing a greater identity with Canada. The substantive information being transmitted reflects both a national and international focus. National historical information is centred upon significant Canadian people, innovations, and events. Internationally, the information illuminates Canada's role in significant global events and institutions. This conception is explicitly nationalist as it seeks to develop a cultural literacy and transmit nationalist features of Canada's history. Background to Canada's current milieu A second collective constituent component of developing a Canadian identity is providing background into Canada's current social and political milieu. The primary 46. The teachers interviewed articulate a direct relationship between specific subject matter knowledge and an affinity for the nation. However, this relationship is in the form of an unexplained model. In these interviews, I do not seek to have teachers systematically explain this relationship nor do teachers volunteer their explanation. Nevertheless, this represents a relationship teachers believe exists, which is within the realm of knowledge derived from phenomenographic research. 139 topic relevant to this constituent component which the students examine is the origin of the French / English tension. By providing substantive knowledge related to certain prominent national concerns, teachers believe students would develop an understanding of the Canadian identity. The following statements support this claim: a. You incorporate the history and once you go through the history then you are better able to understand why Canada is the way it is today. b. To know more about the background of just everything . . the laws, the economy, the cultures, about this country where they live, the history of the nation that is so important to them. c. But they (students) have no idea of how Canada developed or how it came to be, what it is today, and I think to continue as a culture because we are the kind of culture we have to have some knowledge of our past to build on where we were and to continue to go forward. The intention of developing a notion of a national identity by providing substantive historical knowledge is apparent in all three statements. Statement [c]. adds the notion of cultural growth derived from an understanding of history. This notion of understanding the present is not a reflection of constituent components of C5, as the quote refers to culture, not current issues or concerns.47 Interest in Canadian history A final constituent component of developing a Canadian identity common to teachers utilising C3 is their belief in the need to develop student interest in the history of the country. In C3, interest is developed through showing enthusiasm and relating historical content to students' needs. The following statements exemplify this 47. The defining difference between C3 and C5 is that C3 addresses the notion of understanding Canadian identity and culture. Teachers utilising C3 focus upon developing an understanding of the current milieu whereas teachers utilising C5 provide substantive knowledge addressing a clearly identified current issue. 140 relationship: I think that if the teacher is enthusiastic about that sort of thing [pride in Canada] the students will be more enthusiastic. That's what I try to be - very enthusiastic about Canada's history. They really enjoy it. They enjoy the videos, they enjoy the map work, and they enjoy learning about it, and it's surprising what they don't know. So when you're teaching history in high school, I think just getting students to appreciate the past and to be interested in the past by relating it to the present is probably .. just a .. you know .. a purpose that is suitable for the average student.48 I think some high school students perhaps find history boring, and they wonder what the relevance is in their daily lives so just trying to show keen enthusiasm for it [the importance of Canada in the world]. What is implicit in each of these statements and unique to this conception is the notion that teachers must develop students' interest in Canadian history. Developing students' interest in Canadian history contributes to developing a national identity, as increased knowledge will develop a greater cultural literacy in students and can transmit more national cultural information. In summary, the teachers' substantive knowledge is most significant for C3. Instructional strategies are directed towards developing a Canadian identity by making students more historically literate. With this conception of history education teachers 48. Several phrases need elaboration in this quote. The meaning of "appreciate the past" in isolation does not necessarily imply developing a common Canadian identity. However, this phrase must be taken within the the context of the entire interview which focuses upon a significant lesson in a topic in which Canadian history is prominent. In addition, the term "appreciation" is a significant part of the constituent component in which teachers sought to develop an affinity for Canada. A second phrase requiring clarification is "relating it to the present." This statement may be construed as C5. However, the larger context of the interview indicates "relate it to the present" does not refer to current issue but instead is a reference to the current social and political milieu. 141 feel certain canons of our culture must be transmitted to students to develop an understanding of Canada's identity.49 Individual Variations of the Tactical Plan Although all three teachers reflect a common conception, a variation in their understanding of history education was apparent. This variation may best be described as a surface application versus a deep application. Contrasting the two conceptions shows the variation in understanding the subject matter and even the broad purpose of history education. Brian exemplifies a deep application of history education to enhance a national identity. He is aware of alternative conceptions of history but consistently utilises the previously outlined constituent components of C3 to organise his instruction. Brian focuses upon historical canons and develops name / event recognition but has a deeper application as he also focuses upon why these canons are significant. Brian utilises the notion of causation in history to make students aware of the significance of these canons in Canada's history. This is evident in the following general statement: I think it [history] gives kids a broader view of how the world operates, what has happened and why [emphasis mine] things have happened. . . I think if you have a background on how they developed and why they think the way they do . . . I think that is very important. Specifically, Brian cites causation in teaching about the relationship between the French and English and the impact it has on Canada today. The significance of 49. As each significant lesson represented a different focus within the curriculum the determination of common canons among all three teachers was not possible. The significant events, people, or institutions cited by the teachers throughout the interview certainly exemplify what would be considered canons of Canadian history. This would be expected as a part of the topic addresses Canadian Identity which explicitly states many of the examples used by teachers. 142 understanding the canons is apparent when he states that students should have an in-depth knowledge of "events, people, and how they all meshed together." Brian teaches canons not as discrete facts but as part of a significant network of intertwined or "meshed" events which contributes to developing identity. This variation is said to utilise a deep application of C3 as Brian has a goal complemented by name / event recognition. For Brian, enhancing a national identity will contribute to the development of responsible citizens. He states: a. Well, if you go back to the Alberta Curriculum where we are trying to make responsible students and I think students that have an understanding of how various thoughts and ideology and perspectives were developed they will be better able to make responsible judgments for themselves once they leave. That's what history can do. b. Well, again, if you understand where various ideas came from, what was the nature of their ideas, who opposed them, why [emphasis mine], who supported them and why [emphasis mine], then the kids themselves once they have that balanced view can find where they fit in and what they agree with and if you give them those perspectives, don't focus them on one, but give them all of them, then they can go out and make their beliefs known in terms of a voting situation. In both statements, Brian refers to the contribution of his conception to developing responsible citizens.50 This is seen in the phrase "responsible judgments for themselves once they leave" and "make their beliefs known in terms of a voting situation." In addition, the phrases highlight the notion of a deep application by explaining why certain canons are significant. Finally, Brian has a notion of what sort of identity he hopes to enhance in students. His view of an enhanced national identity is exemplified in the following 50. The notion of enhancing a national identity through teaching certain canons is not explicit in each statement but is explicit in the context of the interview. 143 quote: Do we really want to have a sense of nationalism and patriotism similar to the United States? Is that what an important history background will give them, the pride? Do we want that? And my answer would be yes. I think it is important. Maybe not like the United States and be over - zealous about it but to have a pride in how our country developed. Jackie's conception of history education can also be seen as a deep application of C3. Responsible citizenship, or even more accurately participatory citizenship, is the desired outcome of Jackie's teaching to enhance a national identity. Of her purpose for history education she states: To better understand where we are going and to possibly politically contribute to decisions locally or regionally or nationally that trace Canada's path into the future.51 Jackie adds that the students are better "prepared" citizens because they are aware of where Canada came from. In addition she discusses the political involvement of some students that has developed as a result of her teaching C3. They are also getting closer to the age of voting and participating more actively in politics . . . and the more they learned about the views in Canada, the more they were interested in becoming more of a participating citizen . . . As with Brian's conception, Jackie sees teaching name recognition of certain canons as only part of what it takes to enhance a national identity. Ensuring students understood why certain canons are important for Canada's identity is a significant part of her conception as is shown in the following statement: Not to the extent that I actually mouth the purpose in everything. But in the other extreme I don't think I am just teaching dates and events. I think we are discussing them and what they mean, what they meant then and what they mean to us today... . Not just 51. Parts of this statement seem to reflect constituent components of C5 but within the larger context of the interview these comments are more applicable to C3. 144 memorising dates and events without any theme or idea behind it. For Jackie, developing a national identity is the primary goal which she accomplishes by teaching certain canons. These canons are not an end in themselves as the development of this canonical literacy is essential for understanding Canada and being a participating citizen. Christine is an experienced home economics teacher who has been assigned to teach one class of social studies to students in a vocational track. Social studies is a subject area in which she has no formal post - secondary training. Although the history content she teaches is comparable to Brian and Jackie's, Christine's understanding reflects a surface application of developing a national identity. For Christine, developing student recognition of canons of Canadian history equates to students developing an understanding of Canada's identity.52 This surface application of C3 can been seen as an underdeveloped conceptualisation of this category. Christine's conceptualisation is underdeveloped as it does not focus on micro components of a tactical plan.53 For Christine, teaching content comprising select canons is essential to developing an affinity for the nation; an interest in Canadian history; and a background to the current social and political milieu. In relation to 52. My use of the term recognition is deliberate. Christine consistently cites various canons yet at no time does she address ideas such as why these are significant or what the relationships are between these canons. For Christine, cultural literacy and the transmission of her version of Canadian culture contribute to enhancing the students national identity. 53. It is possible to envision each constituent component of a tactical plan as consisting of smaller contours or micro components. As an example in Ci a constituent component is understanding the way of knowing in history. The way of knowing consists of micro components such as examining evidence, relating pieces of evidence, resolving conflicts between evidence, assessing reliability of evidence, arriving at judgments or accounts based upon evidence, and defending judgments. Each of these micro components contributes to developing the constituent components of the tactical plan. 145 Singer's introductory quote, Christine wants students to know the canons associated with a revolution, but encouraging a revolution, or seeing any other use for the information, is beyond the scope of her instruction. Teaching canons for Christine will result in developing a Canadian identity which has intrinsic value only as its ultimate end.54 This is in contrast to the developed conceptualisation utilised by Brian and Jackie which sees the need for student to understand why some canon is important. Teaching the constituent components has an extrinsic purpose. Reflective Rationalisation The justifications for C3 can be shown to arise from a combination of four sources - knowledge of educational philosophies, goals and objectives; knowledge of learners; knowledge of context; and personal experience. Knowledge of learners, in the form of what motivates students, their background knowledge, their interests, and their misconceptions is derived from a survey which two teachers give. Both Jackie and Brian elicit student information prior to teaching the history section to determine "what they know, what they don't know." Jackie gives a formal pencil and paper survey and for Brian the survey takes the form of "verbal brainstorming." Jackie, teaching in the bilingual program, finds the Francophone group more tolerant of the bicultural nature of Canada. She states: 54. In fairness to Christine she does express the potential for a more developed conceptualisation of the content or even for utilising constituent components of different components later in the term. Upon being asked about the lack of a critical dimension to her conception she responds that students "would be doing more of the critical thinking .. . where the students will think critically . . . and they will weigh all of the facts and they will debate this kind of thing.. . . No, I think that is very important." This statement may reflect a naive knowledge of curriculum, but certainly does not contribute to the tactical plan for her conception of history education at the time of the interview. 146 I [the group of French immersion students] was more tolerant of the bilingual approach in Canada and official bilingualism and a tolerance of the differences and of two cultures coexisting and so on and the tolerance level in the French survey was unbelievably higher. . . whereas with the English kids there was a higher percentage that just wanted to forget the problem or cut Quebec off and let them go away. Jackie believes the surveys indicate that students in her classes need to develop a tolerance for the bicultural nature of Canada so she develops instructional activities to enhance the bicultural national identity. The maxims around which Brian justifies his actions are based upon a brainstorming strategy used to gain insights into student knowledge. He offers a very insightful comment regarding his justification: I don't think they [students] have the background in terms of Canada's history that we would like them to have. . . I think it is very important that they have some pride in their nation and as I mentioned in the questionnaire we are inundated by American history constantly on our videos, T.V. and media and we lose some of the excitement and thrills of our own history which is very dynamic. This comment shows he possesses knowledge of students and knowledge of context. Brian derives maxims from these beliefs which guide his formulation of instructional strategies focusing on significant Canadians and historical events of which he believes students lack knowledge yet enjoy learning about. Brian seeks to address this concern of "losing some of the excitement and thrills" throughout his instructional planning in history education. He states "My motivation is personal interest. . . . I enjoy reading about it, I enjoy examining it. I would like to fire up even a few students. That would be just fabulous." This statement parallels justifications used in other conceptions which are based upon teacher beliefs about students' knowledge, or at least what they are inundated with, and what they believe are students' motivations. Being a novice at teaching this course, Christine relies on her personal 147 experiences to make assumptions about learners. She states: Having travelled oneself, you know . . . . the importance of Canada and the world and keep trying [to show keen enthusiasm] . . .but you just don't know whether students think it is important... It is not until you travel.. . till say you live over in France for a year that you realise or Japan that you realise that . . . ya .. . we do things that are cultural. . . many are the things we take for granted in our life . . . Her statements indicate she has beliefs about what knowledge students do not possess. Christine justifies her conception of history education as it fills the void in knowledge she perceives as necessary for enhancing the national identity of Canada. Knowledge of educational philosophies, goals, and objectives provide a second collective justification for this conception. All teachers cite the general objectives of the program of studies as a justification for their conception. This would be expected, as a general objective for the unit is to understand the development of Canada's national identity. In addition, the goal of developing responsible citizenship, which is the explicitly stated goal of social studies, is cited as a collective justification.55 This knowledge (or lack of knowledge) is juxtaposed with curriculum knowledge for Christine. Christine cites knowledge of the curriculum goals and objectives only as a second hand experience. Her department head explained in general what the curriculum entailed and provided her with a textbook that he purports follows the prescribed curriculum. Christine's justification for utilising this conception is primarily based upon her limited knowledge of resources, which is a component of curriculum knowledge according to Wilson (1988). Knowledge of the social context in which they teach provides the final justification for C3. As a collective, the teachers demonstrate an expanding 55. See footnote 37, chapter 4. 148 awareness growing out from the community, to the province and finally to the Canadian culture. As should be expected, all teachers understand the bicultural nature of Canada. A deeper understanding of this is apparent in Jackie who teaches in a French immersion program. Jackie states: I think people who have already learned the language, like who are continuing French immersion might be more open to looking at both sides of the issue [French / English relations] than some of the students who are just in an English speaking program. It might partly be a function of the types of things that they have talked about at home. Maybe their parents decided to put them into a bilingual program because they already are open to bilingualism and tolerating and encouraging two main cultures.56 Jackie's comment suggests she understands both the learner and the context of the community in which student attitudes arose. One way in which Brian justifies his conception is related to his desire to create responsible citizens. This justification is derived from his knowledge of the political context of the province. He states: When we talked earlier about the voting thing, what jumped into my mind was you're trying to make responsible citizens. When we look at the voting situation the other night [provincial elections] and you see that only 50 odd percent of the people voted, I would hope that the people that I taught would take it upon themselves to be part of that 50 some percent and not avoid the things that are important. Finally, Christine expresses knowledge of the community and national context as a justification for her conception. She states "Canada is such a multicultural society, we see this in our classroom . . . and I think the text is very current, very multicultural. . . and I would hope I make it [her teaching based upon her conception of history education] multicultural and appeal to everyone in the class." 56. The use of the term "issue" should not imply the use of C5 as within the context of the interview Jackie does not indicate she organises her instruction to analyse issues. For Jackie the terms issue and topic are synonymous. 149 An interesting void exists in the collective reflective rationalisation for C3. Only once is the term relevance explicitly used to explain teacher actions. Yet beliefs about what motivates students and why this conception is significant often refer to why students enjoy or are interested in instruction utilising this conception of history education. Jackie states: I don't know, probably the student in Grade 10 is still at the age where they are finding their own identity and they can, if they are interested at all, they can relate some of what is being talked about to who they are.57 The notion of relevance is apparent as Jackie believes course material may help students develop their own personal identities. The notion of relevance is also apparent when Jackie describes her teaching during the time in which Quebec was preparing for a referendum on sovereignty. She states: "So it was really pertinent to what was happening in the fall so it was easy to relate to today's events." Jackie makes the comment that it was "pertinent" and "easy to relate to today's events." In C5 teachers use comparable language in their justification for making the topic relevant yet the term relevance is rarely used by these three teachers. It may be helpful to revisit the general goals of phenomenography to provide a coherent picture of the reflective rationalisation for C3. Phenomenography in this research seeks to explain What do teachers think are their purposes for teaching history? The resulting answer is a statement about teachers' conception of reality. This research orients itself towards people's ideas about the world or in this case, history education of history education. Examining the collective tactical plan shows 57. Stanford (1994) concurs with this idea of Christine's. He notes that stories of our past can have relevance for both national and self identity. He states "our own self identity is linked to, and enlarged by, the identity of the larger group" (p. 55). 150 how teachers justify their conception. Teachers utilising C3 justify the significance of their instructional model by referring to various types of teacher knowledge they possess.59 The conception is shaped by providing information to fill a void they believe exists within their students. This void is determined by teachers' beliefs of the extent to which there is a need to enhance a national identity. The teachers rely on knowledge of students, knowledge of context and personal experience to shape their perceptions. Their conception of history education is also shaped by their knowledge of educational philosophies, goals and objectives; as the curriculum document is a motivating force in shaping their collective conception of reality. Tactical Consistency Consistency is exemplified by the regular reference to significant people and events in Canadian history and the need to develop name recognition of these people and events. These beliefs about what is important in teachers' conception of history education suggest a strong link to the notion of cultural literacy. Cultural literacy is based on the premise that to function as a nation there must 58. This conception of history history education offers insights into teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. Referring to research by Lehrer and Franke (1992) and Marks (1990) pedagogical content knowledge can be derived from general pedagogical knowledge reified by their own subject matter knowledge. The difference in pedagogical content knowledge is very noticeable in C3 as teachers' subject matter knowledge varies greatly. Marks (1990, p. 8) states: "The process by which such generic knowledge engenders pedagogical content knowledge is specification, that is, the appropriate instantiation of a broadly applicable idea in a particular context." For Christine, this process of "specification" is particularly noticeable as she plans unfamiliar lessons. It is abundantly apparent that Christine draws upon her knowledge of general pedagogy to plan lessons which create the surface application of a conception history education. Jackie and Brian, in contrast, draw upon general pedagogical knowledge in conjunction with a strong of subject matter knowledge to develop a deep application of their conception of history education. 151 be unity. A way to develop unity is for students to have a basic knowledge of certain canons. All teachers reflect this focus on canons, yet a spectrum of canons exists. This should not be perceived as contradicting the tenets of cultural literacy; the canons the teachers mention only arise in the response to questions posed to them about a narrow time period in Canadian history. Teachers utilising this conception also reflect the notion that a comprehensive or inclusive narrative is necessary. They recognise and address not only the bilingual but multicultural nature of Canada. The goal of C3 is to enhance a national identity, which is similar to the goals of cultural literacy. Individually, teachers state the need to develop pride in Canada which would enhance their affinity for the country or their national identity. The discontinuous nature of this conception is apparent in the constituent components of the tactical plan which seek to provide background knowledge which reflects constituent components of C5. Brian and Jackie address the concern of why some knowledge is significant by discussing causation to explain significance and also seek to encourage participation in society. Christine opts for simply providing the information framed within the goal of enhancing a national identity. She feels that having name recognition was sufficient. The collective conception of reality suggests teachers consistently think about the following constituent components of this category of description while planning for instruction: C3 • developing an affinity for Canada comprising: • developing canonical literacy • developing a feeling of pride C3 & C5 • providing a background to Canada's current milieu comprising: • developing literacy related to current national concerns C3 • developing an interest in Canadian history 152 The tactical plans of teachers holding this conception appears to lack consistency and can be seen as an inclusive conception, as certain constituent components are logically included in other conceptions. Yet certain aspects remain consistent. Teachers feel the need to develop students' interest in Canadian history, and this need appears consistent with the notion of enhancing a national identity. Advocates of a conception of history education which enhances a national identity focus upon the need to develop cultural literacy.59 The constituent component of developing an interest in Canadian history is consistent within the tactical plan if the general conception of enhancing a national identity is synonymous with developing cultural literacy. Developing an interest in Canadian history facilitates the acquisition of more canons of Canadian history which teachers equate with developing an affinity for Canada. 59. See Cheney (1987). See also Hirsch (1987); Finn (1991); Ravitch (1985); Ravitch (1989); Ravitch and Finn (1987). 153 Conception 4 (C4) - Enhancing a Non National Collective Identity60 Life must be lived forwards, but can only be understood backwards. Soren Aabye Kierkegaard 'History' is one of the key words in which English - speaking people now express what they think they are and what they think the world to be. George Grant General Conceptions Donald and Lise utilise a conception of history education comparable to that outlined in the literature - based category of description entitled C4. Donald, an experienced teacher with a major in economics and a minor in history is nearing retirement. He teaches both the academic and vocational tracks of social studies at a very multicultural high school. Lise, who possesses a graduate degree in French, also teaches the academic and vocational tracks of social studies, but at a school created to serve the needs of native students. The general conception of C4 that teachers describe emphasises the substantive dimension of their subject matter knowledge. Both teachers articulate a need to have students acquire select historical content which they believe will develop students' self identity. Specifically, the student self identity that is the focus of instruction is one that is linked culturally to the student. The collective pool of statements emerging from teachers utilising C4 indicate that teachers believe that to function within a culture not defined by a political entity there must be an 60. A collective experience. 154 understanding of self.61 The substantive knowledge of the historical study is that which seeks to examine the history of marginalised groups to provide a role model for empowerment. In contrast to C3, the focus of the history content for C4 has the understanding of a n o n - national identity as the primary goal. More accurately, this n o n - national identity is tied to an ethnic identity with little reference the Canadian political state. Although the purpose is comparable, the substantive knowledge varies within the collective experience of the teachers. Lise focuses on intra curricular content, as the historical information she uses is specific to the mandated curriculum. Donald can be said to utilise extra curricular content. His general conception is predicated on content outside the mandated curriculum which he views as a necessary prerequisite to teaching the curriculum for the students in his particular context. The literature - based category of description thematizes this conception as one which seeks to enhance collective identities other than national. The goal of this conception of history is to dismantle a unified political, economic and cultural narrative. However, the collective picture drawn from the data does not suggest a general conception with a purpose focusing upon radical social transformation. Instead, the teachers' broad understanding of purpose is one in which students examine history to develop an understanding of student identity, to value this identity within their current cultural milieu, and to empower students with this identity.62 In summary, the understanding of history education represented in C4 consists of developing a 61. A variation takes place in C4 as each teacher has a different interpretation of the locus of identity. This variation will be discussed in greater detail in the tactical plan. Briefly, one variation focuses primarily upon cultural identity and secondarily upon self identity. Conversely, the primary focus of the second variation is self identity and cultural identity is secondary. 62. This empowerment is also a source of variation which will be discussed later. 155 cultural or ethnic identity, or George Grant's understanding of who "they think they are", within the larger national identity so that students can do as Kierkegaard suggests - live life forwards. Tactical Plan63 As with C3, the literature - based category of description does not outline possible constituent conceptions of the general conception, yet analysis of the data suggests common patterns exist in the collective understanding of history education in C4. Each respondent has a different originating point for his / her study of history -either inside or outside the curriculum. Despite this difference, a collective general conception is apparent. The general conception consists of the following constituent components which contributes to students' understanding of their cultural identity: Identity from history In C4 a way to develop the student cultural identity is to explicitly teach students about the history of their culture. The teachers believe that students are deficient in their knowledge of their culture's history and seek to provide information to compensate for this deficit. Donald states: "So you have to understand some of the history of their country, some of them do, and some of them don't."64 Lise adds that 63. In contrast to C3 the tactical plan will not be presented anonymously. Names will be used to show that this conception of history education is applicable to different classroom populations. 64. The statement appears to suggest Donald thinks teachers should learn about the countries of origin of their students. However, he adds to this statement quotes which indicate it is actually students who must know about their ethnicity. He adds, "I find the Cambodian kids do, a lot of Vietnamese kids don' t . . . . The Latin American students tend to have some idea of where they came from though their parents don't talk about it a lot." 156 "some of them [students] are even treaty [natives] and they don't know anything about their history. I find that shocking." Although the teachers did not express a specific psychological model for how it happens, they both believe that by understanding one's past a student will develop a sense of identity. Lise states that "it is my belief that we are a product of our past and to understand where you are you have to understand your past." Donald adds "and once we [referring to students] understand their identity we understand a little bit more about Canadian identity." To facilitate the development of a cultural identity both teachers strive to make the students' experience with history have personal meaning. Donald refers to this processes as internalising. He states: "Personal to me is they [students] internalise. The internal feeling of importance and because it's [history] theirs." The benefit to this "personal" teaching is that students develop an identity reflective of their culture. Lise notes her students develop a cultural understanding or personal meaning when she states "well, all of a sudden they [students] can say 'Gee, this is where I stand and that's why I am the way I am.'" The consequences of developing an understanding of their culture's history is motivating and empowering.65 Collectively the teachers believe students become more engaged in the topic and exploring their own cultural history. Lise states: "Ya, they want to know more. They do. They really want to know more about it [native history]." In support of this statement Donald adds "they [students] are learning about things they didn't know because they go home and check and then come back." Teachers claim there is a mutual benefit as they have interested students and the students benefit by learning about their cultural identity. 65. This motivation is a source of variation that will be explained later. Empowerment is a constituent component explained later in the tactical plan. 157 A progression is apparent in the manner in which a culture's history is taught to enhance a cultural identity. The teachers identify a deficit in student knowledge which has a consequence for understanding his or her identity. Next the teachers provide historical information about the student's culture that is "personal." Consequently, students develop an understanding of what it means to be part of their culture and are then motivated to acquire greater understanding of their cultural history. Cultural literacy Cultural literacy in C4 mirrors that in C3. The teachers want to develop name recognition of famous people by examining the history of these cultures. Lise cites native Canadian heroes from history such as Gabriel Dumont and Louis Riel as two examples. The goal of this literacy is to allow students to identify with certain members of the culture who accomplished significant things. She states: "It's more important that they [students] have native people that they can identify with, that have accomplished something." The notion of developing an identification for the actions of these people could be seen as a type of contributionist or compensatory history where significant individuals are highlighted to show the agency of those within this culture.93 Donald states the students take pride in developing this identification because "it creates a mutual feeling of respect." Cultural literacy in C4 utilises a deeper application than simply recognising cultural canons. Donald explains that he requires each student to do research on their cultures not only to develop an understanding of various canons but also to write papers expressing their positions on various concerns related to their identities within 66. Although primarily related to academic history, Novick (1988) describes the type of narrative arising from this sort of examination as one that "emphasised the achievements of noteworthy members of the race. For Blacks it would be a spur to effort and enhance self esteem" (p. 480). 158 Canadian society. In fact, the previous statement by Lise indicates her teaching is reflective of compensatory history as significant people are highlighted to illustrate the agency and historical contribution natives have made. However, Lise does not focus just on developing name recognition within the context of cultural literacy. She includes other topics or "things" that comprise a collective memory. These "things" include language, ancestors, stories, myths and ceremonies. Lise offers great insight into her conception when she states that "All of those things [emphasis mine] are an integral part of you and if you know nothing about them, then you are just an opposing identity." An examination of this statement within the larger context of Use's interview indicates she believes it is not external characteristics such as race that determine a culture's identity, but having an understanding of the collective memory and history that determines cultural identity. Understanding and empowerment A final collective constituent component of C4 is to provide students with an understanding of the history and current plight of their culture in Canada and to empower them to deal with the milieu in which they find themselves. To develop this understanding, Donald provides students with the opportunity to research the history of their own cultures. He explains how this impacts the students and how the current plight of their cultures has an effect upon the Canadian identity. Donald states that the class is "going to get into multiculturalism and that's Canadian identity and their identity fits with them." When students are developing an understanding of their culture's history, Donald states students begin to understand why their families are living in Canada and why they have certain values. For students, this knowledge "helps us [students] understand who we are" and they develop an understanding of "who they are as a person and who we are as a Canadian." 159 Understanding the plight of the cultures is a significant part of Use's teaching. Use's uses a proactive approach to native youths' understanding of their milieu as opposed to a reactive approach. The reason Lise seeks to utilise a proactive approach are apparent in the following quotes: I think it would be very sad to say 'Oh you [natives] have just had a terrible time here, nobody has been treated as badly as you. Look what happened'. We [students] cannot dwell on it [native history] and moan over it but we have to know it. Instead Lise focuses upon teaching them the causes of their plight. She states understanding their plight is "very pertinent to them to understand why they are in the situation they are in." She utilises her knowledge of students to provide what she considers to be appropriate historical information. She states: I know with my students a lot of them were raised in white foster homes and yes they still did not survive well in the system. They need to know their roots, their identities and I just think it is crucial. We don't only have native students here but a lot of them have come from poverty. They are in the lower socio-economic range and they have suffered for one reason or another and I think when you deal with the type of material that I am dealing with it makes them understand why some people are better off than others or why they would be in the situation they are in. The aim of teaching them this plight is to help students understand that "it is okay to be a native .. . and then it's okay to be what you are and that Canada's a melting pot of cultures and each culture has something to offer." The proactive nature of Use's teaching is further apparent when she states: I mean, if you take that focus [that natives have been treated badly] I really say, 'Ya, this is what happened. A lot of it is really bad. But we'll simply learn from it.' We go on and that is simply what you know. You are not going to start saying all white people are horrible. That just wouldn't work. 160 The above statement also begins to demonstrate that Lise seeks to empower her students. She states that "I hope they don't feel so badly about themselves. I'm hoping that they will tabulate that information and get what they need to make a little better life." Empowering students through relating the historical content to students' cultural backgrounds is important too for Donald. He claims when his students research their culture's history and involve their families in discussion of the information it "makes them feel they are important." The form of empowerment that takes place in C4 is not one that encourages social or individual action with the aim of reformation. It is one which seeks to be efficacious by enhancing the personal identity of students. This enhancement is accomplished through developing and understanding of their cultural identities and the contribution of their cultures to Canadian identity. The constituent components of the tactical plan of C4 were developed to enhance the students' cultural identity. By examining their cultures' histories, helping each student develop a cultural literacy specific to his or her culture, and then providing the students with an understanding of the current milieu of their cultures with the goal of empowerment, the teachers believe the tactical plan will develop the cultural identity for students of different ethnic communities. Despite a common collective tactical plan, the motivation for empowering students provides insights into the individual variations on this conception. Individual Variations Individual variation is apparent when examining the locus of the non-national identity to be enhanced. Lise, teaching in a school created to better educate native students, seeks to enhance a culture's identity within Canada. The student's identity is 161 subsumed within the culture's identity. Although Lise sees her task as "building identity", she does not seek to enhance the individual's identity but seeks to enhance the collective identity of the native culture within the large Canadian culture. The desired outcome of this variation of C4 is to help students feel good about their cultural identity. In contrast to Lise's culturaMocus, Donald seeks to develop the individual's identity by focusing upon the culture's history and its contribution to Canadian culture.67 The motivation for adopting this orientation is school related while Lise's motivation is culturally oriented. Donald seeks to develop a non-national identity so students will derive a heightened sense of importance. By making history personal he states "I think that brings them success at all levels." This notion of success and the standard against which success is judged is school related. Donald's role is to "get them interested.... To make them realise that they can get enjoyment out of learning about themselves and learning about others." He seeks to enhance a non-national identity to get students interested in what they are doing in the classroom. He hopes he might "turn some of them on to their own .. . culture." Reflective Rationalisation The previously highlighted variation in teaching plays a dominant role in the conception of history education that each teacher utilises. Lise seeks to enhance the cultural identity of her students as it will benefit both them and their culture. Donald, on the other hand, seeks to enhance the cultural identity of his students as he believes it will improve their performance in school. Although the justification for utilising this 67. Donald's interview protocol focused upon the vocational stream of students in a multicultural school. The ethnic groups in his class include students from Vietnam, Cambodia, China, Lebanon, various Central American countries, and India. 162 conception of history education differs, a similar body of knowledge is provided - one which provides substantive historical knowledge related to the students' culture. Collectively, the dominant justification for C4 is predicated upon several types of teacher knowledge including knowledge of learners, knowledge of context, knowledge of curriculum, and knowledge of subject matter. For this conception of history education, relevance based upon knowledge of learners is an important justification that the teachers offer. Lise states: "I think that the way you teach is definitely governed by the people [students] you are dealing with and I spent four years at the Calgary Hebrew school and I definitely changed my focus to a more Hebrew focus."6 8 Relevant for Lise is that the content is "meaningful." She states: "Students must understand their history before history is relevant. I'm very convinced that if the material is relevant to you and your people then it becomes meaningful." The conception of history education is seen as meaningful as it has cultural significance and fills a knowledge deficit the teachers perceive the students possess. The knowledge deficit is a poor understanding of their culture and their cultural identity. Lise exhibits an understanding of this student knowledge deficit and their attitudes in the following statement: Today I had one of my [students].. we just started doing the Indian Act today, you can't do it on one lesson, we'll be spending probably a week or so on it and she said to me Tm a Treaty Indian and I didn't know there was an Indian Act. And all of this is news to me and how come I don't know about it? And what does it have to do with our lives?' So that is a typical example of the type of students that we are dealing with. Collectively the teachers justify their conception of history education based 68. Although Lise uses the word "way" which may suggest she is talking about pedagogy, taken in the context of the interview she is referring to the purpose of the content. 163 upon their own psychological models of learning. In one model the process of learning history must begin by the teachers' making the information relevant to students. This will then motivate the students to learn more about the history content. Another psychological model determines the historical content upon which they focus. As was outlined in the tactical plan, the teachers believe that as a consequence of providing information on the history of the culture, students will develop a cultural identity. Individually, Lise articulates an understanding of the learners which includes their motivations, background knowledge, interests, and misconceptions (Wilson, 1988). By predicating her purpose for history education upon her beliefs of student motivations, interests and misconceptions, Lise has developed a conception of history in which the justification is based primarily upon addressing her beliefs about student needs. Donald's justification for his conception of history education also focuses upon addressing his beliefs about student needs. As was previously stated, the student needs are those which will help students academically. Donald teaches both Social Studies 10 and Social Studies 13 students, yet in response to the question regarding his most significant lesson, his answer focuses upon Social Studies 13, the vocational track. His knowledge of both groups of learners causes him to believe that the Social Studies 13 students possess certain attitudes which are contrary to his goal of developing the student's academic abilities. The understanding of contrasting beliefs between the different groups of students is apparent in the following statement: Really it [history on television] is meaningful to some of these kids [Social Studies 10]. I mean they just like to look at. . they like to know about it and they like to try to stump each other on it. Thirteens [Social Studies 13] they don't watch those programs. The only way they get to know history again is personal. Donald justifies his conception as it addresses his beliefs about the students' attitudes 164 towards historical knowledge. His conception has meaning for students as it is one that is "personal", one that enhances a student's individual identity first with the intent of developing their cultural identity. Donald understands the motivation of students and seeks to use his conception to encourage students to perform better academically. He states that by studying their culture: You might turn some of them [students] on to their own . . to their culture again because they have been in isolation. But their goals are so different, for the most part, the academics are most indirect to what they are studying. Donald claims this creates an atmosphere of "mutual respect" and that students "look at you as someone who cares about them personally."60 It is apparent from the discussion that collectively these teachers base many of their beliefs on their knowledge of context. Wilson (1988) describes knowledge of context as: An eclectic collection of information about schools, communities, and cultures. It may include understandings about school ethos, community characteristics, district level political and fiscal constraints, state mandates, or leadership styles of the administration. Teachers are aware of factors such as these, for they constrain and impact their work, and considerations of context figure prominently in the choices that teachers make (p. 49). Lise and Donald demonstrate a significant awareness of community characteristics, such as the various cultures, and the multicultural nature of Canada. In fact, this knowledge of context has a significant impact upon why they choose to develop a 69. A plausible criticism of this passage is that what Donald hopes to achieve are simply general educational goals, not ones specific to history. What makes the goals part of C 4 as opposed to C 2 is that they are derived from an historical study which provides substantive knowledge to enhance a cultural identity not skills, which are a characteristic of C 2 . The benefits Donald derives are directly related to the historical study which enhances the students' cultural identity. 165 conception of history education in the manner they describe. Donald consistently refers to where the students in his multicultural classroom fit in the context of the community - their academic goals, their lack of cultural and national identity, and their cultural isolation. Lise discusses the impact of "racism and prejudice and where that fits, where it doesn't fit in society." This knowledge of context provides the superordinate knowledge around which these teachers' conception of history education is justified. Both teachers seek first and foremost to enhance a cultural identity which, by definition, is derived from knowledge of context. Knowledge of curriculum and knowledge of subject matter play minor roles in the justification teachers provide for C4. Lise acknowledges the broader goals of the official curriculum do little to address the deficit she believes exists in her students' understanding of their cultural history. Therefore, she does not justify her conception of history education based upon formal curriculum requirements. Her knowledge of curriculum causes her to seek other justifications for her conception. Donald's content has previously been described as extra curricular as it is not part of the prescribed curriculum. He, too, is aware of the goals of the formal curriculum but he places them in a position subordinate to the concerns of students. Both teachers possess a great deal of substantive knowledge, which in C4, is justified only insofar as it contributes to enhancing a cultural identity. Tactical Consistency As with C3, the original category of description for C4 offers nb constituent components around which a model may be derived. Data analysis from the teachers' experience with history education does suggests that several constituent components exist which teachers utilise to develop their broad understanding of purpose. 1 6 6 From the initial descriptions of their significant lessons, the teachers utilise a language consistent with their general conception.70 The use of the following constituent components reflects a conception possessing a high degree of consistency between the stated general conception and enacted the constituent components: C4 • provide historical information about a culture from which students could derive their identity. C4 • develop a non-national cultural literacy. comprising: • contributionist history • developing a collective memory 70. Despite the statement that a consistent model exists for C4, the interview protocol does not address collectively how the formal curriculum is conceived. Donald's conception is described as extra curricular as it focuses on content external to the formal curriculum. He does discuss the topic of developing a Canadian identity within the formal curriculum and the notion that there is a need to have a personal identity prior to developing an understanding of the Canadian identity. However, his conception of the formal curriculum is not explicitly articulated despite a lengthy discussion of his teaching of history. This may suggest that his conception of the formal curriculum is subordinate to his conception of the history he sees as necessary. It is also possible that Donald's conception complements a different conception for the formal curriculum. Lise's conception reflects certain elements of this extra- ness as she states: Well, because they're native students, there isn't an awful lot in the curriculum for native students so a large part of what I do is compare what happened to them firstly in Canada and then make comparisons with other aboriginal people across Canada . . . (and) around the world. For Lise, the extra aspect of the curriculum, the native studies component, is meant to complement the formal curriculum. She spends at least "one day a week, preferably two" on the formal curriculum "and then three days we do native history." Of the formal curriculum, she states: My other history lessons I would imagine that they are very much like what any other teacher would do. I mean a lot of it is taking notes, reading pertinent material and commenting on it, trying to integrate it into your life. What would you do if you were in that situation? 167 C4 • develop an understanding of the plight of their culture in Canada and empower them to address the concern. comprising: • understanding the current plight of the culture • empowerment by relating historical content to a cultural background to enhance a personal identity. The consistent nature of this way of understanding clearly shows it is a unique conception of history education, not just a variation of C3. In contrast to the national cultural literacy orientation of C3, C4 seeks to develop a culturally specific literacy.71 As cultural literacy is based on the premise that to function as a nation there must be unity, C4 includes developing an understanding of culturally specific canons including names and events, but differs by adding cultural beliefs or a collective memory. Cultural literacy also includes the notion that the development of a comprehensive narrative is necessary. It is regarding this notion that the greatest difference exists between C3 and C4. Teachers do not try to show either a national or a cultural specific narrative, nor do they try to dismantle a national narrative. Instead, C4 seeks to enhance the students' identity with their culture by utilising a type of contributionist history focusing upon cultural heroes or significant events. The goal of this history is to empower or encourage their agency within the national narrative. A consistent collective model was apparent in the manner in which a culture's history is taught. Both teachers identify a deficit they believe exists in the students' knowledge of his or her culture; the teacher provides historical information about the 71. Much of the literature on cultural literacy (Hirsch, 1987; Finn, 1991; Ravitch, 1985; Ravitch, 1989; Ravitch and Finn, 1987) is from American scholars. There exists a widely accepted view that the American culture is considered to be a melting pot or one which encourages a homogeneous culture. In contrast, government policy in Canada supports multiculturalism. An historical "cultural" literacy for this research is one which transmits the history of the dominant British culture. A culturally specific literacy is one which transmits the culture of the specific target culture. 168 student's culture; they believe that this will help a student to acquire an identity with his or her culture which is thought to be motivating. The interviews with Donald and Lise highlight a conception of history education which illustrates an answer to the question What do teachers think are their purposes for teaching history? Their conception of history education, which is explicit in answers to direct questions focusing upon their purpose, and in their instruction in history education, seeks to enhance the identity of marginalised groups in society. The literature - based category of description does not outline what constituent components of a tactical plan would contribute to enhancing this identity. However, emerging from the interviews are very comparable curriculum scripts which teachers see as necessary to enhance the students collective identity. A consistent model is apparent which reflects teacher knowledge of students and an empathic understanding of their knowledge deficits. The purpose of this model, although believed by their teachers to be empowering, is never described as being transformative in the manner outlined in the literature - based category of description or by Seixas (1993 B) in Chapter Two. 169 Conception 5 (C5) - Antecedents of Current Issues What is past is prologue. William Shakespeare An instructor is one who explains the causes of a thing . . . and the most knowable things are first principles and causes, for it is through and from these that other things are known. Aristotle General Conceptions Six teachers demonstrate a conception of history education which may be labelled C5. Kendall is a teacher with over 20 years of teaching experience who possesses a major in history and a minor in political science. She team teaches at a moderately sized school that draws from an ethnically and socio - economically diverse population. At the time of the interview Chris taught humanities at a moderately sized, ethnically diverse school. He is an experienced teacher, possessing a major in history and has since become an assistant principal at the high school level. Darren, who possesses a double minor in history and religious studies, taught with Chris. He has not taught as long as Chris and indicates that he never collaborates with colleagues in planning history lessons. Justine teaches at a very ethnically diverse school. During her ten years of teaching she has taught in several different schools which reflect a great deal of the diversity within the school system. She possesses minors in psychology and sociology and has less than one university course in history. Justine states she formally plans history lessons on a weekly basis with colleagues. The final two teachers in this category, James and Pierre, are two of the least experienced, both with under seven years of teaching experience. Both possess majors in history and teach at moderately sized high schools. Although they teach the 170 academic stream, Pierre teaches in the French immersion program which has a reputation of drawing more academically motivated students. Neither indicates a great deal of collegial planning. Rather than focusing upon individual conceptions, I will examine the collective conception. A great deal of similarity exists among all six teachers' general conception. As stated in the description of the analytical model, the general conception reflects the teacher's broadest understanding of the purpose for history education. For all teachers using C5, their broadest understanding is to make history education relevant to students.72 To accomplish this, the content for instruction is developed around issues that are currently prominent, or ones which they believe students may find interesting. A more specific understanding of purpose which emerges from the collective experience with history education is exemplified by James, who states: So what I try to do, and I'm not always successful in doing it, is giving greater significance for them [students] and putting it [an historical study] in a time frame that is applicable to toemfemphasis mine] and trying to relate events that are affecting them today [emphasis mine].73 Although stated by James, the nature of the collective understanding of history education is such that it could plausibly be stated by any of the six teachers. 72. The meaning and types of relevance are explained later in the description of teachers' reflective rationalisation. 73. Although not explicitly part of the general conception the commonality of this conception is exemplified by the instructional strategies teachers state they utilise. Fairly typical instructional strategies were utilised in C5. This includes class discussion, lectures, library research, and textbook related question and answers. Several teachers utilise primary documents and this usage represents a slight variation in their conception of history. Significantly, many teachers state they have students construct time lines, an instructional strategy not described in other conceptions. 171 In contrast to other literature - based categories of description for history education outlined at the beginning of this chapter, teachers demonstrating C5 do not need to have a conception of history in the curriculum, but rather they need to have an understanding of current issues around which an historical examination is possible. These diverse issues dealt with topics including aboriginal concerns, French / English relations, human rights concerns, and Canadian identity. All teachers initiate the examination by identifying an issue of relevance to their students. For several teachers, the students identify the issue they feel is relevant as the entry point around which an historical examination is based; for others, the teachers identify the issue they feel is relevant for students. A caveat regarding this conception is necessary at this time. An analysis of the data in this category of description suggests that rather than a conception of history education, collectively teachers predicated their conception of history education upon a model of pedagogy.74 In a manner similar to C4, transformation of content for this conception is based upon teachers' desire to motivate students. Teachers used phrases such as: My goal is to get you hooked a little bit, interested in the material.. . . (Chris)7 5 They do try to make sense out of it [the present] in their own way, and I think that is a hook, really, from my perspective. (Darren) The use of the word "hook" did not occur in any other conception, including C4. The extensive use of this term in C5 suggests teachers seek to use a present issue as a 74 . Perhaps a more appropriate term would be pedagogical content knowledge. See Chapter Two pages 41 - 47. 75. Six teachers utilised C5. To illustrate the degree of commonality between the teachers names will be included at the end of quotations. 172 means to "hook" students, capture their attention or motivate them to study at the past. The pedagogical as opposed to content oriented nature of this conception is also evident in the following statements: I think they [the instructional strategies used] help me meet my philosophy on teaching. I don't know if they necessarily strengthen the approach to the historical content. . .. (Justine) In response to a question posed to Pierre which asks if his conception of history benefits any one group in particular, he responds by discussing his instructional strategies, not his conception: I think it benefits the ones that are vocal. Like class discussions, but hopefully it also benefits the other group that is a little bit more quiet but could be participating as well. (Pierre) Although this conception of history education can be seen to have a model of pedagogy as the superordinate focus, the broad understanding of the purpose of C5 focuses upon organising substantive knowledge. Very clearly teachers express a concern for developing student understanding of select substantive content as the purpose of history education. The substantive knowledge which is selected is that which contributed to shaping an important issue or concern. Teachers believe they can motivate and interest students in an historical study by relating this content to either a current issue or one which they perceive as relevant to the student. In summary, this conception of history education seeks to examine the past to 173 help students understand the present.76 Adding to the complexity of this conception is the supplementary notion that the purpose of understanding the present is to help students become "effective citizens." For teachers utilising this conception, understanding the past provides a prologue for the present. In addition, understanding the nature of causation due to past actions allows students to know what Aristotle calls "other things." These other things are outlined in the tactical plan for this conception. Tactical plan The tactical plan will be presented as a collective experience. It is a composite plan. No one teacher utilises all constituent components of the tactical plan described, but an overlap is evident which suggests a logical progression as outlined. Examining antecedents of current issues consists of the following constituent components: Identifying the issue Support for the proposition that this conception of history education is more a model related to pedagogical concerns than a model related to the concerns of content is evident in the initial constituent component of the tactical plan. Teachers unanimously states the selection of an issue relevant to students is important. The primacy of relevance to students indicates that the selection of an issue in which 76. Although the purpose is comparable, the emphasis upon specific substantive knowledge varies within the collective experience of the teachers. Several teachers articulate the need to examine the past to understand the current milieu. This may be seen as forward referencing, as the focus of their instruction is to develop a thorough understanding of the past and how it shaped current concerns. Others utilise a backwards referencing orientation which focuses on developing a thorough understanding of the present concern and referring to historical events which precipitated this concern. Still other teachers use the past to help students understand present concerns and subsequently make decisions on future actions that could take place. 174 students would have a requisite interest, thus requiring minimal extrinsic motivation, is more important than selecting an issue of current significance. This is exemplified by Chris who states: I don't want it [the historical examination of a current issue] to be dry. I don't want it to bore the heck out of them because they are going to turn off and they are not going to learn a darn thing. So if you can somehow make it come alive. I really try to put current events into lessons almost daily . . . . And if we can talk about current events just for the sake of current events it doesn't mean a whole lot to the students. If we can relate the current events to what we study or what we are working with right now, that adds so much more meaning. Often the issue selection is a result of student feedback: That is one of the issues that students identified as one they had a lot of interest in. (Darren) In other cases the issue is one of which students likely possess some knowledge. It ["the Quebec situation"] is in their everyday lives. They just have to open a newspaper or watch the TV and they talk about Quebec. Quebec wants to separate so of course when they come to class they have opinions already and what we do is we take those opinions and we look at them and we try to see if they are good or bad or if there is another side to the story. (Pierre) The issue selected necessarily reflects two forms of relevance - relevance to the curriculum and relevance to the learner. Identifying and focusing upon an issue in which relevance to the students is the primary concern supports the contention that C5 is a conception based upon concerns of pedagogy as opposed to a conception centred upon concerns of the content of history. Examining antecedents to understand the past Once they identify an issue or concern, teachers seek to develop student 175 understanding of precipitating events which culminate in the current concern. This understanding of the past takes two forms - an in - depth understanding of past events and a superficial understanding of past events. This understanding is comparable to that explained in C3 where a deep application of historical events is contrasted within a cultural literacy orientation. The cultural literacy orientation is apparent in James' approach to history education. He states "their [students'] goal is to understand the causes of the war, Canada's involvement and the development of our national identity and an appreciation of the war effort." The use of the term appreciation reflects language drawn from C3. James further exemplifies elements of C3 by adding: We look at the major battles such as Vimy Ridge, interesting personalities . . Prime Ministers during the time - Robert Borden, leader Sir Sam Steele, two individuals who received the Victoria Cross . . . I can't remember at this time, probably Smoky Smith, I believe was one of them. Hopefully these individuals will come out and give students the greater feel for Canada's contribution to the war effort in World War I. The previous quote illustrates that James seeks to develop an affinity for Canada by facilitating an understanding of significant Canadian personalities and events in Canadian history. For certain teachers, developing this literacy is important as it allows students to "understand the path" leading to the current concern.77 Although "understanding the path" is not specific to Canadian history, Chris describes understanding this "path" when he states: 77. The problematic nature of this statement is also apparent in the literature - based category of description. Shulman (1986) points out that it is important for teachers to justify why certain truths are worth knowing. The prevalence of cliches such as "understand the path" or "illuminate the current issue" do little to explain teachers' justification for why these historical truths are worth knowing. Failure to justify why certain truths are worth knowing suggests teachers are utilising a surface application of history in contrast to the deeper application described later in which teachers justify why certain knowledge is worth knowing. 176 I think it is important that students have an appreciation tor the different critical events that have happened in the past that have dramatically altered mankind or civilisation. Significant events such as the Industrial Revolution, those kind of things. Kendall goes beyond just recognising and appreciating the important events and people of the past to developing a deeper understanding of the actions of the past. She states: For instance, if we are looking at French / English relations there is another major topic that we deal with in Canada, so the broader topic is Canadian unity, and we look at what are the things that have impacted Canadian unity throughout history and one of the recurring scenarios is the conflict between French and English Canadians. I mean even their forging unity at the beginning was forged out of conflict and so we look at how we have dealt with that conflict from history and where we are now. Will these same strategies continue to work for us now? Should we continue to compromise and try to work things out with Quebec or would it be better for us to allow them to go their separate ways? [emphasis mine] By posing these questions at the end of the passage, Kendall infers there must be an in-depth examination of the past to determine what strategies have previously been used to resolve conflicts or concerns. Kendall's variation offers insights into why understanding the past is a pertinent part of this conception. For Kendall, the past provides insights into the variety of strategies that have been used to resolve comparable conflicts. Kendall offers an analogy to clarify the utility of history: "I mean, it's just like I think a doctor needs to have the history of the case or the ailment in order to offer some sort of an alternative. We need to know what alternatives have been tried." The study of history to understand the past is valuable as it offers an understanding of the strategies and mistakes of the past. Kendall believes that by examining the past events we can determine the causes for conflicts and "we can attempt not to repeat them." In addition, she believes that we can determine causes of 177 "calamities" in our lives and know how to "address them." As an example she describes a current issue: And the same with Quebec. You know what has worked in keeping Canadians united in the past. Should we not continue to promote those things . . continue to expand on things that have worked in the past and you know, stop doing the things that haven't worked in the past. Chris, too, believes studying the past helps students and society "learn from your mistakes." These comments from both Kendall and Chris suggest lessons can be learned from history which is a constituent component of the literature - based category of description C6-Examining antecedents to understand the present The study of antecedents of current issues plays a significant role in helping students understand how society has arrived at the current milieu. For teachers utilising this conception, an important role of history is the information it provides about how the present was shaped. Teachers use various phrases which reflect this unique role of C5. These include: To shed light on current issues. (Darren) I think my personal approach to teaching history is always to make sense out of the presenf.[emphasis mine]. (Darren) I think it gives people a better appreciation of our lives today [emphasis mine] if we understand how we got here.[emphasis mine]. (Chris) Sometimes we can go back in history and look at the different regions and why today [emphasis mine] we have problems with them. (Pierre) Because of course when you look at history we need to look at how it is today [emphasis mine] and how history has moulded our soc/'efy[emphasis mine]. (Pierre) 178 So history itself is very important for the kids to understand, appreciate and see how it shapes our country and our /'denf/fy[emphasis mine]. (James) What is lacking from these statements and throughout the interviews is an explanation of how history sheds light upon the current milieu. What is meant by "shedding light" can be gleaned from the interviews and, although it is never explicitly stated, suggests what teachers think about when planning for instruction. Darren offers that history can help dispel myths and allow students to speak more knowledgeably about a topic.78 In addition, he explains that history "help[s] us understand that we change as people and it's [change] likely to happen in the future, too." Kendall states that by examining Japanese internment and treatment of minorities we can give students an understanding of "why we have to entrench certain rights and constitutions or pieces of legislation in a constitution so they can't be altered or changed by an elected government. . . and to also understand how important it is to protect human rights in Canada." Shedding light is also explained by Chris who states students will develop an "appreciation of our lives today" and by James who explains students need to develop an appreciation of how it shapes our lives. The cliche "shedding light" can be seen to have three different meanings. "Shedding light" can be seen to provide knowledge, provide lessons, and develop an appreciation for Canada. Teachers offer another way in which history can "shed light" on the present. Their comments indicate "light" can be shed on the present by providing background knowledge. What is offered is a utilisation of the historical information that can be useful for students given our current milieu. This is achieved through engaging in a variety of activities which the teachers refer to as "critical thinking." In C 5 critical 78. Darren's statement about the ability to speak knowledgeably about a topic parallels the notion in cultural literacy about the need to develop a set of common reference points. 179 thinking comprises several different components including values clarification, examining the validity and reliability of information, and decision making.79 Justine, Darren, and Kendall discuss the need for students to garner historical information to allow them to analyse their beliefs or clarify their values. Darren wants students to arrive at a point of view "critically and thoughtfully." Kendall states, "In terms of impact I think hopefully it [history] allows them to question maybe some preconceptions that they have or at least question some of the attitudes that they may have." Darren and Justine utilise a form of historical empathy (Ashby and Lee, 1987) to help students clarify beliefs. In a manner similar to Kate's historical empathy, they encourage an empathic examination to help students clarify what beliefs and motivations are reflected in the actions of certain people in history and relate them to the students' beliefs. Darren states that "at different times we haven't viewed things in the same way . . . let's look at the history. Why couldn't we even think about doing it now?" Justine adds that "we look at some of the things that have happened in history. Would you have done the same thing if you were in that situation?" Darren wants his students to "critically analyse" societal myths. He illustrates this critical analysis in the following statement: One way I think it [history education] makes a difference in students is that it dispels the myths of sort of street level talk, I guess you could say, or casual talk about Canada, Canadians, immigration. Things like that. And I find students mirror those myths and speak those myths That's an area I want to have an impact on. I'd rather since we are in high school and going through this process of education that they walk out speaking knowledgeably about a subject as opposed to mouthing myths like immigration. 79. The components of critical thinking found in C5 are comparable to these described by Case (1996), but do not include all components described earlier in Chapter Four. 180 Darren's comment indicates he believes, yet does not explicitly articulate, that information must be analysed to ascertain the validity and reliability. This is evident as Darren adds "history allows you to look at bias in different ways and I find it really effective for that." He talks of having students look at information "critically and thoughtfully." This "critical analysis" of information reflects values clarification and provides a bridge to the next aspect of critical thinking utilised by teachers - rational decision making. Rational decision making is a common way in which history education helps students understand the current milieu. The contribution of the study of history to understanding the present is derived by examining background information to allow students to develop a position on a current concern. Justine illustrates this utilitarian purpose for history in the following statements: / strongly believe that students need to have this background information. So they need the historical information to not just make an emotional position on this question, [emphasis mine] So they need to know why Quebec feels the way they do, why there is such a passion for them to separate, and whether or not this is justified to the unity of Canada or whether the provincial issues of Quebec are stronger or more important in that sense. So to me there is a lot of historical significance, you know, the events that lead us right up to 1996 and whether or not there is going to be any future referendum and what is going to happen in regards to the country. So students need to know these historical events to make a qualified decision on what position they would like to hold [emphasis mine]. I guess I tend to look at things from a more general point of view of social studies and look at the issues and how can some of the historical events give you some more background information so that you can be more informed to make a decision on the issue... .[emphasis mine]. To me it is important. It's the foundation so that you have something to talk about, that you have some background and you've got something to defend. You are not just talking emof/'ona//y[emphasis mine]. For Justine, examining the antecedents of current concerns or issues provides 181 students with background knowledge to come to a rational decision on the issue considering the current milieu. The micro aspect of decision making is a harbinger of the following constituent components of examining antecedents of current issues -taking action for the future. Taking action for the future A cliche that is repeated by many non - teachers, as well as by teachers utilising C5, is the idea that you have to understand the past to know where you are going. Chris states the need to "take a look at where we've been and where we are going." Justine adds that "so we are looking at the past, how relevant it is today and what impact they [events of history] are going to [have on] us in the future." Beyond the cliche is a notion that by utilising C5 the subsequent understanding of history can have relevance for the future. A collective belief is the study of history may facilitate actions that can cause changes which may benefit students' lives in years to come. A stated goal of the Province of Alberta's Program of Studies (1988) is "responsible citizenship" (p. 2). Within the tactical plan of Cs, teachers appear to interpret this goal as developing students' abilities to take action regarding current issues.80 "Taking action" is usually conceived of as both a cognitive activity, and a physical activity. For Justine, what it means to take action is an undeveloped model. The undeveloped notion of this model is apparent in the following statements of Justine's: To me it is important that you apply the knowledge, [emphasis 80. Not all teachers express this as a goal of teaching in this conception. However, several teachers describe this constituent component of C5 as an integral part of the examination of the antecedents of a current issue. 182 mine] that you can share the knowledge, that you can do something with it... [emphasis mine]. I don't want students just to sit and memorise information. I want them to be able to do something with the information, [emphasis mine]. So again we are applying what we have gathered from the past [emphasis mine] and what is relevant to today. Justine does not articulate how to "apply the knowledge" yet infers action should take place when she uses the term "apply" and the phrase "do something with it." Within the context of the entire interview "action", to Justine, is developing a rational decision as opposed to an emotional decision based on knowledge gained from an historical examination of a relevant issue. Taking action, from Darren's perspective, involves a more observable act which results in a change in behaviour. Subsequent to an historical examination of immigration and the dispelling of myths, Darren engages the students in the action described: One of the products of this whole immigration study was that students actually went out and did a look around the school to see if we had a problem of racism in this school.... And the students went out and surveyed other students and took a look at themselves in the mirror and looked at their friends and what kind of things they saw going on and felt that 'Now they didn't [have a race problem].' but they came out with personal commitments to a behaviour. That is if a friend of mine [a student] tells a racist joke I will [tell them to stop]. And to me again that is significant situation because of the change in students . . . there is a change in behaviour. Kendall also uses an historical examination as a means of taking action which she hopes will encourage students to understand the agency they possess. She begins by using "open ended questions" relating to a current issue or problem. Students then are involved in an historical examination of the issue and conclude with 183 an "action project." This is evident in the following statements: I think probably one of the most effective things is having them take action projects where they have to identify a problem and then take some kind of action to address the problem. So not necessarily to solve it, but to address it. So for instance if they were very concerned about. . . human rights or a particular issue in the news, or whatever, then I would expect them to take action, either write to the appropriate level of government or minister involved, or write a letter to the newspaper, or become involved with an organisation that deals with that. I think I've always been committed to it [history] as problem solving. As being issue based. As having some relevance to society today. The composite tactical plan evident in C5 is indicative of a conception of history based on an amalgam primarily of pedagogy and secondarily of subject matter knowledge. Subject matter knowledge for this conception is not limited to substantive and syntactic elements traditionally associated with the discipline of history. Instead, this conception seems to incorporate elements of discipline based strands inherent to social studies such as history and political science as well as concern based strands such as global education and Canadian studies. Accumulating substantive historical knowledge is central to this conception as it offers students insights into current issues and provides a basis for making decision or taking action. Individual Variation81 Six teachers represent history in a manner consistent with C5. However, variations occur throughout the manner in which they organise the parts of the whole conception. Within the variation among teachers there emerged sub-patterns that are 81. Referring to this section as individual variations is somewhat of a misnomer as variations can be seen collectively as often more than one teacher demonstrates this variation. 184 consistent with the collective or composite conception. Backward referencing history In this variation of Cs, the study of history focuses upon an in depth understanding or "making sense" of the past and how it has shaped the present. It is termed backward referencing as the primary focus of the study is understanding the past and the secondary focus is how the past shaped the present. The evidence presented in support of such a thematisation of this conception is found throughout interviews with Kendall and Justine. Terms or phrases unique to Justine's interview protocol include "background information" and "foundations." These phrases are apparent in the following quotes: I strongly believe students need to have this background [emphasis mine] information. So students need to know these historical events [emphasis mine] to make a qualified decision on what position they would like to hold. I am the type of teacher that I firmly believe that students need some foundation [emphasis mine]. . . so I usually structure my classes around research.... Although Kendall does not use the specific terms "background" or "foundation" what she describes of her conception is synonymous with these terms. Kendall talks about looking back at the history of conflict between the French and English and putting the relationship in some historical context. She states: "A large part of that [her conception of history education] is our history, where we have been." Kendall develops 'lessons from the past' based upon incidents from history to help students understand the present milieu. Her in depth examination of the past gives students insights into why significant actions or legislation exist today. She examines the treatment of Japanese by the Canadian government during World War II 185 as a way of showing that current human rights legislation is necessary in Canada. The focus is on understanding the past events and then relating it to the present. I mean most of them some how see Canada as being a very tolerant and understanding type of country that has a great reputation throughout the world and I guess what I'm helping, or trying to help, them understand is that Canada has a few blemishes on its past as well and hopefully we can learn from those mistakes that we've made in the past. Kendall believes an in - depth examination of the events of the past allows her students to understand why the present concern, in this example human rights legislation, is significant to both students and society. Justine reflects a comparable use of history as the in - depth examination of the past allows her students to develop qualified positions on various current concerns. Present referencing This variation within C5 has the present as the primary focus of study with history as the secondary focus. Contributions of historical events are covered in a superficial manner, similar to the surface application of cultural literacy outlined in C3. There is no attempt to provide in - depth background or foundations. The past is examined to develop a common vocabulary, or cultural literacy, regarding present events. Four teachers thematised C5 in this manner. Their present referencing theme is best exemplified in the following statements: I think not all of the lessons deal with historical events and you want to spend a fair amount of time talking about what is happening today. (Chris) Because, of course, when you look at history we need to look at how it is today and how history has moulded our society and that's why I think it is important to study history. (Pierre) 186 I think it is really important that you take an event and try to give it greater meaning by making reference to maybe something which is contemporary, that's going around today, so that we can tie it back to the past event. (James) By juxtaposing these statements with statements made by Justine and Kendall, the dominant concern of the present is made more apparent. For James, Pierre, and Chris, significance of an historical event is attained by relating it to a contemporary event. In contrast to the backward referencing orientation to history education, Chris even downplays the role of history in the section of the curriculum document which focuses upon history education. As outlined in the composite tactical plan then, the purpose of this study is to provide a superficial understanding of the contribution of certain events to the current milieu. The primary focus for Darren is helping students understand the present by examining activities of the past. His conception differs as he can be seen to utilise a deeper application of the past. He states that "the purpose of the history study at that point, I would say, was to give a fairly detailed background to where we are today." Darren appears to incorporate aspects of the previous variation - an in depth look at the background - with a present referencing orientation which examines our current milieu. He cites the examination of the antecedents to numerous government policies as his focus. These include policy statements regarding First Nations people, multiculturalism, racism and immigration. Use of analogies A second common variation evident in C5 is the use of analogies as a way to make history applicable to the current concern. James, Justine and Kendall all make comparisons between historical events and current concerns as a means of providing 187 relevance for students. Terms associated with making comparison are evident in the following statements: I'm looking at World War I and maybe we can also look at conflicts that are going on in the world today on a smaller scale, like Yugoslavia or what have you, and see if we can draw some similarities [emphasis mine] so the kids can understand that history is relived. (James) So I do activities where they are again looking at events that lead up to Canada's taking control... I also look at native rights to see whether or not the natives have any claim to their own sovereignty. . . . So we look at the basis of our sovereignty and then we can apply [emphasis mine] it to forming our own country and then to natives within Canada - whether they should be allowed to have sovereignty or rights within Canada. (Justine) So the lesson [emphasis mine] would be first of all we take a look at human rights legislation . . . and then we would observe a video that outlines the Japanese internment or that period during World War II and I would have them compare [emphasis mine] how we treated the Japanese minority with the Canadian culture during that time period. (Kendall) By using analogies teachers make the historical study significant for students. It relates events of the past to current concerns of students or current concerns in society. The tactical plan of C5 is quite fragmented and complex. A composite conception is evident, yet a great deal of variation, both overt and subtle, is apparent within the larger conception. These variations still reflect common patterns of a conception of history education as thematised within C5. Reflective Rationalisation The general conception for C5 places teachers' pedagogical concerns in a superordinate relationship to those dealing with their content concerns. The literature 188 - based category of description thematizes this conception as one which seeks to develop a narrative about the evolution of certain significant concerns or issue apparent in our present society; consequently, it often has a theme or crisis / event orientation. This study is valued for practical information it has to offer for illuminating current issues. The reflective rationalisation utilised for C5 then illustrates why teachers believe this pedagogical model has relevance for students. Collectively teachers offer three justifications for utilising this conception - it is of interest to students; it will develop students' critical thinking abilities; and it provides certain substantive knowledge. Utilising Wilson's (1988) model, these justifications may be described as teachers' knowledge of learners, pedagogy, and content. Perhaps even more succinctly, these justifications illustrate the notion of pedagogical content knowledge as they reflect "that special amalgam of content and pedagogy that is uniquely the province of teachers, their own special form of professional knowledge" (Shulman, 1987; p. 8)* All teachers refer to the need to make the content relevant to students. Teacher achieve this by focusing upon four types of relevance. One manner in which relevance is used to justify the conception is by addressing an issue that is current. For teachers utilising C5, currentness is important, as they believe it equates with developing students' interest. The pervasiveness of interest is illustrated in the following quotes: 82. The purpose of this study is not to identify types of pedagogical content knowledge such as the research performed by Lehrer and Franke (1992), Marks (1990),Stein et al. (1990), or Wilson and Wineburg (1988). Instead, Shulman's (1986) definition which describes pedagogical content knowledge as a combination of pedagogy and content provides a basis for arguing that the teachers' conception of history reflects an emphasis concerned primarily with pedagogy and to a lesser extent with history. Although arguably all conceptions are models of pedagogy, in no other conception is the general conception skewed to pedagogy as opposed to subject matter, both syntactic and substantive, as greatly as it is in C5. 189 I try to give them materials that are of some interest [emphasis mine] to them. (Pierre) They are engaged . . . for the most part they are interested [emphasis mine] in those ideas. (Kendall) For the most part students identify or have a greater interest [emphasis mine] in w a r . . . . (James) This 'interest oriented' relevance reflects the teachers' knowledge of students. A second form of relevance teachers utilise demonstrates their knowledge of learners. This form of relevance sees teachers organising their conception of history education around coeval issues they believe to be of interest to students and therefore motivating to students.83 The importance of this form of coeval relevance is evident in the following statements : I think it [the focus for teaching history] is to make it applicable as possible by trying to tie it in if, whenever possible, to real life situations and events and that will increase the general meaning for the kids. (James) When we look at history we need to look at the relevance to today. (Justine) I've always been committed to it [history] as . . . having some relevance to society today. (Kendall) Coeval relevance or 'relevance to today' not only refers to relevance to a current concern but also to a concern that is relevant to students.84 A third type of 'relevance' which provides the justification for teachers is the information history provides for students, or substantive relevance. The teachers utilising C5 see a utilitarian purpose for history - it provides usable information, 82. Wilson's (1988) definition of knowledge of learners includes understanding what motivates students. 84. See the constituent component of the tactical plan in which issue or concern selection is a component in which student concerns play a major role. 190 perhaps even 'lessons' from the past. Subsequent to examining an historical event, Chris asks questions such as "What can we get out of this? What can we learn from this sort of thing?"86 Kendall, too, sees history as providing 'relevant' substantive knowledge. She states, "I would say we learn a great deal from the past; we learn from our mistakes [emphasis mine]." A fourth type of relevance teachers use to justify this conception of history education is that it develops skills teachers believe are essential for what some call "good citizenship." Within this process relevance are two main skills upon which teachers focus to develop "good citizenship" - critical thinking and decision making. Examining evidence is a component of critical thinking; this is evident in the description Chris provides of his significant lesson. Before we take a look at for example Canada's role in World War I or World War II I think it is important to have them understand that the information that they will be looking through over the next period of say a couple of weeks or several weeks there's different sources, different types of documents they will be looking at primary to second hand and hearsay type documents. I think it is important that the students understand that they need to view these documents critically. They need to ascertain how reliable the information is, try to pick out biases when reading. The capacity of C5 to develop students' ability to determine reliability and understand bias are an important justification of history education that Chris offers. Darren justifies his use of C5 as he sees this conception as being able to develop certain critical "faculties" and cites the need to identify bias and understand propaganda as essential skills. 85. It is important to keep in mind that the nature of this research is to determine what teachers think about when planning to teach history. When Chris asks questions it appears that these are cognitive acts of trying to organise or manage ideas within his conception of history education. Shulman (1987) refers to these actions as pedagogical reasoning. 191 For teachers utilising C5, critical thinking is an essential part of being a "good" or responsible citizen. The Province of Alberta Program of Studies (1988) states that "Responsible citizenship is the ultimate goal of social studies" (p. 2). Therefore, teachers appear to utilise knowledge of the curriculum as a justification for this conception of history education. The direct link between teachers' beliefs about critical thinking and citizenship is apparent in the following statements: One of the goals of social studies supposedly is to create responsible citizens, critical thinkers. (Darren) To think critically. To understand our role as Canadian citizens within our country. (Kendall) I guess it helps them be critical thinkers. I think a big part of what social studies is is to help them be responsible citizens. (Kendall) Teachers utilising C5 justify the emphasis on critical skills as they believe critical skills provide students with process knowledge that is "relevant" or applicable to their lives. Kendall justifies the examination of antecedents of a current issue as it allows students to solve problems. She states, "So I sort of see lessons as culminating in the resolution of some type of problem." Instead of resolving problems or issues, Justine justifies her conception of history education as it allow students to make decisions. Justine explains that "I think it just gives students an opportunity to be problem solvers and to look at decision making processes." In the same vein, she adds that "you can defend what you are saying." Darren justifies his conception of history education in a similar manner to Justine. He states: "I hope it contributes to the critical thinking in the future. That as an individual I would like to question why are we here today? I'd better understand that. Then I can understand the decision making I may have to go through." Teachers' reflective rationalisation for C5 demonstrates their knowledge of 192 learners, specifically regarding the content base the students possess. The teachers utilising C5 have an understanding of a deficit model of student knowledge. Justification for this conception of history education is derived from the substantive knowledge it provides students. The organisation of this substantive knowledge mirrors that demonstrated in C3, with some teachers utilising a surface application and others utilising a deeper application of the substantive knowledge. Regardless of the depth of analysis, a justification for examining the antecedents is to provide substantive knowledge as evident in the following statements: When they [students] come into grade 10, they don't even know the name of the Prime Minister. I think there is a problem somewhere. (Pierre) Often times you are in a bit of a rush to try and put a lot of material together and get them to study a fair amount of information. It may be that they are missing sort of a bigger picture. (Chris) Providing substantive knowledge regarding the antecedents of current concerns allows students to develop a common vocabulary, or issue - specific literacy, regarding the issue which allows them to speak more knowledgeably about the issue. The foundational element of reflective rationalisation for this conception of history education focuses on the justification teachers have for their general conception. This justification is another component of pedagogical content knowledge. Included in Marks' (1990) four components of pedagogical content knowledge is subject matter for instructional purposes which includes a justification for learning specific topics. This justification for the general conception reflects what personal values or beliefs a teacher has about history education. For C5, teachers justify their conception history education as they believe it provides interest oriented relevance, coeval relevance, substantive relevance and process relevance. 193 Tactical consistency C5 demonstrates a conception of history that borrows constituent components and micro aspects from many different conceptions of history education. As there are no prescribed constituent components around which a preliminary model may be developed, data analysis suggests a composite conception comprising the following constituent components. This approach results in a consistent model with each component contributing directly to achieving the teachers' broad understanding of the purpose for history education: C5 • identifying the issue. comprising: • issues relevant to students. C5 • examining antecedents to understand the past. comprising: • either surface or deep application of cultural literacy. C5 • examining antecedents to understand the present. comprising: • developing lessons from the past. • utilising various critical thinking strategies. C5 • taking action for the future. comprising: • developing various notions of responsible citizenship. Although individual variation exists, the data derived from interviews suggest a consistent and coherent model exists, as the general idea of how the content is to be understood consistently relates to the tactical plan.86 The general idea of how the content is to be understood is to relate the content to current concerns relevant to students. Collectively, the tactical plan for C5 reflects language and terminology that transcend many different conceptions of history education. A detailed examination reveals comparable teacher movements and language unique to C5 - aspiring for 86. See Tullberg (1998), p. 113. 194 relevance via focusing upon a current issue or concern.87 Teachers utilising C5 also share a great deal of language and instructional practices with other conceptions. The extent to which C5 is an inclusive conception is apparent in the summary of the various micro aspects which make up the constituent components of C5: Ci • historical empathy. Ci • examining the validity and reliability of information. C2 • issue selection. C2 * critical thinking comprising of values clarification and decision making. C2 * taking action that can cause change. C3 • developing an affinity for Canada by acquiring cultural literacy. C3 • developing name recognition of significant events and people. C5 • understanding the strategies and mistakes of the past. C5 • understanding how society has arrived at current milieu. C6 • use of analogies. The interviews with these six teachers highlight a conception of history education which illustrates an answer to the question, What do teachers think are their purposes for teaching history? Their beliefs about history education permeate their curriculum scripts explicitly as they seek to examine the antecedents of current issues. The literature - based category of description as proposed did not outline what constituent components of a tactical plan would be evident in this conception. However, a coherent composite picture emerges from the interviews. 87. The movements are called comparable as synonymous terms were used to describe similar actions undertaken by the teachers. 195 Conception 6 (C6)(only one teacher) Lessons from the Past It was, after all, Greeks who pioneered the writing of history as what it has so largely remained, an exercise in political ironies - an intelligible story of how men's actions produce results other than those they intended. J.G.A. Pocock General Conception Dennis, an experienced teacher at a small high school, has a minor in psychology and a diploma in curriculum and instruction. He teaches all three levels of the academic stream of social studies. Dennis uses phrases unique to this conception when describing how he organises for instruction in history education. He describes historical examples of concerns related to concepts such as rights, equality, freedoms, and assimilation.89 However, to get an accurate picture of Dennis' broad understanding of the purpose of history education it is necessary to unfold many instructional practices and reconceptualise them into a coherent model without deliberately imposing a prescribed format upon his actions. To develop an understanding of the significance of certain concepts, Dennis sets up structured experiences or scenarios for students which cause them to respond to hypothetical situations. This strategy is apparent in the following abridged description of the introduction to his significant lesson: More than rights, I try to get the students to understand that they have responsibilities . . . [I] try to outline to people that they have responsibilities that are associated with rights . . . what I want to get to these students are that responsibilities are paramount. . . Within the classroom that's where we start. What are their rights? Then, as a result, whose responsibility [is it] to have them fulfilled? 88. Dennis regularly refers to "teachingconcepts" which is a phrase not used by respondents utilising other conceptions. It is also significant that Dennis identifies these as concepts instead of concerns or issues as he does not seek to resolve an issue nor does he examine the antecedents of the concern. 196 - which in essence becomes both the students, other students inside the class, and myself. Then I turn around and deal with looking at them [responsibilities] and saying "My responsibilities are your rights, now let's look at what my rights are." So therefore when I identify to them as to what my rights are and then they start clicking into it then . . . Oops, they've got to start studying, preparing, being at class on time and so forth. In this lesson Dennis sets up a scenario in which he questions what rights students have, how they are guaranteed, and what responsibilities accompany these rights. He then applies this to the classroom setting to encourage students to examine their actions within this notion of rights and responsibilities. The next step that Dennis describes taking in the classroom is the examination of historical exemplars of concerns associated with each concept so students have an awareness of a context in which the concern may exist. Dennis states he then relates this historical context to the current milieu to demonstrate the present concern regarding the concept and the need for students to be vigilant. This is exemplified when Dennis talks about the concept of equality related to voting rights. I think the evolution . . . of even voting, going from the concept of the elites not wanting to have everyone have the right to vote, that it would only be the white adult males over age 25 who have property ownership having the right to vote going to the more democratic philosophy . . . reducing age, white males and then eventually bringing in the whole evolution of voting to universal suffrage. . . . Equality was not there and we are still looking at developing equality. By discussing the evolution of current voting rights, Dennis seeks to develop an historical frame of reference regarding the concept of equality. He encourages students to question our current notion of equality relative to voting rights and exercise vigilance in contemporary society. It is during this instructional activity that Dennis uses a second phrase unique to C6- Dennis refers to history and the present as "interactive." He elaborates on this 197 notion by adding "no event is happening in isolation and in order to understand what is happening over here you have to look over here or over there to see how it is impacting over there." This idea of "interactive"ness, or the potential for an event's vast impact upon society, is also apparent when he describes history as "cyclical." In response to the direct questions which asks him what he believes to be the purpose for history education Dennis explains: We really need to understand what has happened in order to be able to appreciate and recognise when something is possibly going to be happening again because we have seen it happen in the past. We should be able to anticipate and avoid the situation from reoccurring. Although the term cyclical and Dennis' description suggest a speculative approach to history, Dennis adds, "So in a sense, being able to avoid some of our mistakes in the past is [a purpose of history]." What Dennis seems to mean by cyclical is that we can learn lessons from the past. He does not imply that history is bound to repeat itself, but instead he articulates that history offers generalisations that can employed to understand the present milieu and can provide a basis for taking action in the future. For Dennis, understanding history creates a sense of probability or likelihood. This is apparent when he describes the conditions leading up to World War I and World War II, which he then compares to the conditions present during the Cold War of the early 1980's and the potential for World War III. He concludes this comparison by explaining that "the Cold War did not escalate into a hot war and I think it is because people have studied history and know what has happened in the past." This passage indicates that Dennis seeks to develop a sense of probability by describing an historical script of conditions necessary to precipitate a "World War." By studying this script students would be able to determine if a global confrontation is likely. The study of this and other narratives allows students to develop an understanding of context, the pre-War period for this example. Through increased exposure to comparable 198 narratives they can determine the relationships between historical events and conceptually similar events of the present, such as the Cold War of the 1980's.89 The relationships are what Dennis calls the cyclical nature of history. For Dennis, these relationships are in the form of analogies which can show a sense of how things probably happened. They provide students with the ability to develop 'lessons from the past' or generalisations to understand events. Ideally, Dennis' broad understanding of the purpose of history education, as previously described, would be to develop a rich background of knowledge allowing students to develop a conceptual frame of reference about historical events.90 Continued experience with history would develop this conceptual knowledge and allow students to seek relationships with conceptually similar events. It is these 'lessons from the past' which may provide students with backward referencing reasons for their actions. In summary, this conception of history education as taught by Dennis seeks to utilise the study of history to develop a frame of reference for a concept which has particular relevance to the curriculum and to contemporary society. Understanding of these 'lessons from the past' is essential to prevent students from 89. Dennis draws on a vast reservoir of substantive knowledge which he makes relevant to the concept he is teaching. Throughout the interview he refers to how he integrates into his lesson events in Western history ranging from the Spanish Inquisition to Henry IV of France and the League of Man. His knowledge of significant people includes figures as varied as Voltaire and George Brown. Dennis refers to an equally vast knowledge of Canadian history referring in detail to events during the Klondike gold rush, early exploration of Canada, as well as recent events such as NAFTA. This reservoir of substantive knowledge goes beyond what would be required of a teacher instructing this course. 90. However, in practice a variety of constraints forces Dennis to limit or select the historical contexts he examines. He refers regularly to the amount of significant history and states: "I haven't got the time to get into all of that [background information]. I mean in a semester of teaching, there is far too much Canadian history to really get into." In response to a question which asked why not all of his lessons have a similar purpose, he responds, "Time is a factor. It's quantity." 199 taking actions which will "produce results other than those intended." Tactical Plan Dennis possesses a conception of history education around which he clearly organises certain instructional activities. This conception seeks to develop student understanding of concepts, provide students with an historical frame of reference regarding these select concepts, and develop lessons from this historical frame of reference upon which the students can predicate future action. To accomplish this purpose, Dennis' tactical plan is based upon the following constituent components: Creating an imperative The Alberta Program of Studies specifies the concepts that Dennis teaches.91 Therefore, he does not have the liberty to select any concepts around which to focus an historical examination. These constraints require Dennis to find a way to make the study of the prescribed concepts of interest to students. About history, Dennis states: "It lives. I want them to know it lives. . . it's interactive, it's ongoing and Canadian history may not be that boring thing that we should be forgetting." To develop this imperative Dennis relies on utilising a pseudo - Socratic teaching model.92 This model utilises questions and answers to encourage students to examine their actions and beliefs. Dennis describes four such scenarios centring 91. Although a long list of concepts is included in the Alberta Program of Studies, Dennis only refers to several of the concepts during the interview. His specific reference to "teaching concepts" and his description of how he teaches the concepts does give an indication of his conception for history education. 92. A Socratic teaching model is one in which conclusions are drawn based on questions and answers. Dennis' orientation is labelled pseudo-Socratic as it utilises questions and answers with the goal of stimulating interest and provoking more discussion instead of drawing conclusions. 200 upon the concepts of rights, regional disparity, sovereignty and identity. The model is illustrated in the following narrative: You start off looking at students' rights because to me when we looked at it initially, with students identifying what is superficial within the individual class, as to what do they want from class? Whether they want the right to be able to leave the class, they want the right to be able to bring food and drink into the class, they don't talk about the notion of well I'm here for one thing. I'm here for education. So I have the right to an education that means you have a responsibility as a teacher to be coming in here prepared and be effective in this classroom. They don't ask for that. They use the right to learn but they don't really hit on the classroom. And then once I tell them, ya, your superficial rights are granted, I give them to you. I have no problem as long as you are neat with the food. They can eat food if they want, but I tell them they have the right to expect me to be prepared and so forth. That's when they really start getting the seriousness. Dennis uses this teaching style to make the concept personal and stimulate discussion on the concept of rights. The imperative that can be gleaned from this statement is that only when students recognise they can expect certain behaviours from others as a consequence of their ascribed rights will they take the concept and the study of rights seriously. Developing an historical frame of reference Subsequent to developing the imperative to study a concept Dennis involves the students in a study of historical events relevant to the concept. To briefly illustrate this action he says: You have to look at the Industrial Revolution and the child labour and why reforms were made and the opportunities children have inside of school. The opportunities to educate themselves, to better their lives so that they aren't going to be in that mine or in the factory with the windows closed and no ventilation and living conditions of 80 plus degrees and working for 15 cents a week. 201 Initially this examination appears to simply resemble what could be termed historical literacy related to the concept.93 However, an alternative explanation is that Dennis is seeking to develop an awareness of what he believes are certain significant events throughout history which are relevant to understanding the importance of the concept. This can be called developing a historical frame of reference. In the following statement Dennis is explaining what narrative or frame of reference students should acquire (in a superficial manner) to facilitate an understanding of the concept of national identity: You [students] have to understand the whole process of everything we have done. You have to understand the Charter of Rights, you have to understand the French and their relationships, you have to understand the American / Canadian relationship. Now we're moving into more international looking at NAFTA, looking at Pacific Rim trade, all of our interactions, how we've dealt economically, politically, socially with other countries. All factors of our history. I mean, that's who we are. As with teachers who utilise a deeper application of cultural literacy, Dennis does not believe it will suffice to have students understand at a superficial level the significance of the events from the distant and more recent past. He states," I want them to understand why. What is it that we should be proud of? What is it we should be doing to continue that pride that the rest of the world looks at us?"94 93. One constituent component of C 3 , which is said to parallel the notion of cultural literacy, is developing an affinity for Canada. This is accomplished by developing an understanding of significant Canadians, events in Canadian history or Canadian innovations. This transmission of subject matter knowledge may be seen as developing concept literacy as it provides students with common historical referents for discussing the concept. 94. In the larger context of the interview this quote refers to how Canada has protected citizen rights. 202 Identifying the lesson The culmination of C 6 is to develop, or expose, a relevant lesson which can be derived from studying the historical frame of reference related to a concept. The significance or relevance for students is intimated as Dennis states that identifying and understanding a lesson "direct[s] them [students] into the future." This type of relevance is similar to the substantive relevance described in C 5 as developing a frame of reference provides information (lessons) necessary to make future decisions. Making future decisions would be a characteristic of the responsible and effective citizens to whom Dennis regularly refers. By organising history education to teach concepts and the related frame of reference Dennis seeks to "get them [students] to become . . . responsible, effective citizens, and in order to become that responsible, effective [citizen] they have to understand everything is related." This notion of responsible is evident in many of the lessons Dennis derives from the study of history. Dennis articulates this when he concludes his description of teaching a section of the prescribed curriculum focusing on the concept of regional disparity: So we talk about our own individual responsibilities in society to help that individual have a job where he's at so that he isn't forced to uproot. I look at everything in the course that I can relate to the rights, to government and to responsibility [emphasis mine] that we have. Emerging from the study of frames of reference associated with the concepts Dennis teaches were a variety of lessons, the understanding of which contributes to effective citizenship. The lessons may better be called parables as they are select representations of historical events from which a moral or lesson can be drawn. They are select representations as developing instructional goals requires the teacher to select content which will facilitate the formulation of parables. A previous quote 203 indicates Dennis wants students to be directed into the future and be responsible. To accomplish this goal, Dennis must select and represent history content to provide a lesson. By definition, selection and specific representation of content creates lessons or parables. Three forms of parables are developed in C6 9 3 The study of history exposes mistakes that should not be repeated (type 1), it exposes positive actions to be emulated (type 2), and it illustrates that certain concepts are evolving, and studying this evolution can give students insights into what changes may take place in the future (type 3). Dennis explicitly states the parable in the interview but the parables are not taught in isolation as the categorisation may suggest. Type 1, type 2, and type 3 parables may be exposed in the same historical narrative. Developing parables from past mistakes is accomplished by illustrating an historical narrative in which the desired outcome was not achieved. This is evident in Dennis' description of Canada's multicultural society, which is an exemplar of the concept of equality. He states: "assimilation that was first attempted in Canada is not going to function but rather integration [will]." When discussing the concept of rights, Dennis develops an historical narrative to support the parable with which he concludes: One of the most important concepts is looking at how human rights have been taken away, whether they have been taken away in World War II with Hitler, whether they have been taken away by Philip II in the Spanish Inquisition, Mary Tudor trying to take away the rights of Protestants in England after her father introduced Protestantism to England. We keep trying to take away rights and it ends up in upheaval [emphasis mine]. 95. The following examples of parables are meant to be illustrative of each type as conceived by Dennis. As the nature of phenomenographic research is to examine what teachers think about, I believe it is acceptable to use illustrative examples from the interview without having classroom observations to confirm whether or not they are explicitly laid out as stated by Dennis. 204 A type 1 parable is also developed by illustrating undesirable consequences of a certain action. Referring to an incident in 1981 in which the mayor of Calgary blames rising crime on "eastern creeps and bums", Dennis points out the repercussions of the mayor's actions by highlighting the chastisement he took from both the east and the west. The examples Dennis uses and the parable he develops indicates Dennis believes in the the notion of a linear, but perhaps unforeseen, relationship between events in history. For Dennis, action A will necessarily result in action B. Dennis develops type 2 parables by illustrating positive actions that should be emulated. One example of a type 2 parable is evident in a continuation of the previous quote: Whereas when you have strength you look at Henry IV of France who introduced the League of Man. When you wound up with such strength of rights you had a real developing country [emphasis mine] and it was sad that he was assassinated but it would have been interesting to see how far he could have taken France in the role of equality. I think this is what we are looking at in Canada [emphasis mine] is trying to get people to be equal, integrated, and to be able to function effectively. This passage illustrates both the positive action - introduction of the League of Man -and the action to be emulated - try to get people to be equal, integrated, and to be able to function effectively. When developing an historical narrative around the concept of rights Dennis discusses its evolution by highlighting people such as Voltaire and George Brown and events such as the French and American Revolutions. The parable Dennis derives from this narrative is that "it took us a while to really get to the point where everyone has rights . . . and to get them [students] to understand that the right to vote is more than simply a right. It becomes a responsibility of effective citizenship." This parable encourages students to emulate the notion of effective citizenship by exercising their rights. 205 The final type of parable discussed by Dennis shows the evolving understanding of a concept. This type 3 parable is evident in a previous quote where Dennis discusses the notion of voting rights and equality. Dennis' final sentence typifies the nature of a type 3 parable in which the evolving understanding of a concept is illustrated: I think the evolution . . . of even voting, going from the concept of the elites not wanting to have everyone have the right to vote, that it would only be the white adult males over age 25 who have property ownership having the right to vote going to the more democratic philosophy . . . reducing age, white males and then eventually bringing in the whole evolution of voting to universal suffrage.... Equality was not there and we are still looking at developing equality [emphasis mine]. This type of parable is apparent when Dennis briefly describes a historical narrative related to the concept of Canadian identity. This narrative concludes with the parable "what is Canadian identity? We can't define ourselves [emphasis mine] but certainly when you look at Europeans or Americans or whoever, they have an idea as to what Canada is." Dennis conceives the broad understanding of purpose for C6 as studying history to develop a frame of reference for a concept which has particular relevance to the curriculum and to contemporary society. To see the reality of this conception or how it is experienced by students in the classroom, the tactical plan must be exposed and understood. Three constituent components comprise this tactical plan. Initially, Dennis seeks to develop an interest or an imperative in students to study the concept. He then develops a narrative to show a study of historical events relevant to the concept or to highlight concerns related to the concept. Once students understand the historical narrative, Dennis develops parables to help students learn lessons from the past. 206 Reflective Rationalisation A recurring justification is apparent in the analysis of Dennis' interview. The overarching justification for his conception, developing "responsible, effective citizens," is predicated upon his knowledge of learners. In fact, Dennis' reflective rationalisation is not specifically predicated upon any of Wilson's (1988) other categories of teacher knowledge.93 The manner in which Dennis organises instruction suggests he has his own theories on learning which help provide structure for this conception. The constituent component of creating an imperative indicates Dennis knows what motivates students to be interested in the study of curriculum topics. Dennis has knowledge of another component of learners, as he perceives that they have a misconception of certain concepts and that they lack a clear understanding of the concepts' relationships to their daily lives. Dennis consistently refers to the concepts of rights and responsibilities: More than rights, I try and get the students to understand that they have responsibilities.... (I) try to outline to people that they have responsibilities that are associated with rights, and that's what I want to get to these students are the responsibilities are paramount. By initiating his instruction through creating an imperative, Dennis reflects an understanding of what motivates students and what misconceptions they have, both of which are facets of Wilson's (1988) description of knowledge of learners. By focusing upon building an historical narrative around various concepts, Dennis develops lessons or parables which have application for the students - it will 96. Dennis makes tangential references to knowledge of pedagogy, such as generic principles of instruction and pedagogical content knowledge such as pedagogical reasoning. However, the superordinate justification is predicated upon his knowledge of students. 2 0 7 help them become "responsible, effective citizens." However, throughout the interview Dennis alludes to ten additional parables derived from the study of historical narratives. The ultimate justification for learning the concepts and associated parables is always to develop citizenship. Dennis states: To me, the effectiveness [of the way he organises instruction], that is looking at everything inside Canadian identity, diversity, unity, sovereignty, security, cooperation and government and politics . . move everything else and yes I do do this citizenship and rights from here. But all of that sums up to me at one area - citizenship, effective citizenship [emphasis mine]. How do we meet that? You have to understand the whole process of everything that we have done . . . all factors of our history. Dennis justifies the use of this conception of history by deferring to his knowledge of students. He perceives what misconceptions they have, what motivates them, and what they need to become effective citizens. Interestingly, at no time throughout the interview does he specifically state that the content is relevant to students. Relevance may be inferred as he reflects knowledge of learners, but this relevance is not a student elicited relevance; it is a teacher created relevance. In response to a question asking if his purpose for history education has changed over time Dennis refers to his changing beliefs and does not discuss at all the influence of his students. He replies: Yes. Very definitely.... The more I teach it the more / [emphasis mine] realise how important it is to recognise the events and where else it is impacting. I learn every day something new about what I am teaching. Tact ica l Cons i s tency As with Ci and C 2 , I interviewed only one teacher who utilised this conception of history education. Therefore, variations of individuals' experience cannot be determined. The categories of description described at the beginning of the chapter 2 0 8 do not suggest specific constituent components around which the conception is organised. However, analysis of the beliefs Dennis articulates about history education suggests a model of C6 that consists of a clear purpose achieved by utilising several unique constituent components.97 The use of the following constituent components reflects a conception possessing a high degree of consistency between the stated general conception and enacted the constituent components. The constituent components of C6 include: C6 * developing an imperative. created by: • utilising scenarios and a question and answer strategy to get students to examine their beliefs and actions. C6 • developing an historical frame of reference. created by: • developing cultural / historical literacy related to the concept. C6 • developing lessons or parables from the study of history. Dennis describes a very consistent conception of history education. His superordinate goal is to develop effective citizens by examining historical information related to certain curriculum topics. To accomplish this he utilises three strongly related constituent components in a linear fashion. The consistency of the constituent components are based upon Dennis' clear conception of history education. The fact that Dennis utilises a coherent conception of 97. It is unfortunate that only one teacher is shown to represent history education comparable to the literature - based category of description. In C i and C2 certain constituent components of the conception are proposed by authors in the field of history education. However, for C6 no such constituent components are proposed to describe how a teacher may organise to teach lessons from the past. The tactical plan outlined here presents only one person's model for how to develop lessons. This should not suggest that this conception is rarely used, as during preliminary research and testing of the interview protocol, other teachers reflected a comparable orientation to history education. 209 history education suggests he is aware of more than just a broad understanding of the purpose for history education and that his purpose is very specific, focused, and goal oriented. Conception 7 - Speculative History In no interviews, either preliminary and formal, do teachers suggest any broad purposes indicative of the use of speculative history. Several constituent components of C 5 may be seen as possibly included in C 7 . The use of antecedents to allow students to take action for the future may be seen as rendering current actions and future consequences predictable. Yet, when considered within the larger context of a conception the use of speculative history is not apparent.96 98. Although it is not the intent of this research to determine why C 7 is not utilised possible reasons may include: the prescribed topic is not conducive to looking at patterns; no authors of the recommended resources utilise this approach; the approach I used to select teachers for interview did not facilitate the inclusion of teachers utilising this conception; or, it is not a strategy utilised by teachers. At various stages throughout the preliminary research, questionnaires were distributed with over 100 teachers responding. The use of speculative history cannot be gleaned from any of these questionnaires. 210 Thematisation of History Education Conception 1 - Historiography • understanding the 'way of knowing' necessary to construct an historical narrative. • understanding the nature of narrative. • understanding construction of truth. Conception 2 - The Methodology of Social Studies • developing critical thinking skills and dispositions • developing information gathering and reporting skills • developing personal and social values • providing content related to antecedents of current issues Conception 3 - Enhancing a National Collective Identity • developing an affinity for Canada • providing a background to Canada's current milieu • developing an interest in Canadian history Conception 4 - Enhancing a non-National collective identity • providing historical information about a culture from which students could derive their identity. • developing a non-national cultural literacy. • developing an understanding of the plight of their culture in Canada and empower them to address the concern. Conception 5 - Antecedents of Current Issues • identifying the issue. • examining antecedents to understand the past. • examining antecedents to understand the present. • taking action for the future. Conception 6 - Lessons from the Past • developing an imperative. • developing an historical frame of reference. • developing lessons or parables from the study of history. Figure 4.1 Conceptions of History Education. 211 Summary This chapter explains what literature - based conceptions for history education exist by developing a series of categories of description. What many of these literature - based categories of description lack is an examination of what constituent components teachers find germane to these categories and how these constituent components shape teachers' instruction. Two possible research strategies may expose how teachers utilise these conceptions and how they organise for instruction. One strategy involves direct classroom observation over a long period of time to expose how teachers organise instruction for teaching history. Alternatively, the strategy I utilise in this research engages teachers in a structured discussion of history education using descriptions of their agendas and curriculum scripts as well as direct questions as a basis for ascertaining the teachers' broad understanding of history education. It focuses specifically upon teachers purposes and constituent components of their conceptions. By referring to instruction this research exposes how teachers believe they adapted content matter to the reality of the classroom. The beliefs upon which this adaptation is predicated expose coherent conceptions of history education as well as variations within categories of description.. This type of research is entitled phenomenographic as it examines teachers' understanding of a phenomenon. Marton (1981) explains that the aim of this type of research is to "systematise forms of thought in terms of which people interpret aspects of reality - aspects which are socially significant and are at least supposed to be shared by the members of a particular kind of society" (p. 180). This research has developed a description of conceptions of history education. Analysis of the data has provided awareness of how teachers organise for instruction and upon what sources this conception is predicated. It tries to make sense of the experience teachers have with history education by examining their beliefs about how history is taught to 212 students. Several significant ideas arise from the analysis of the data. The literature -based categories of description represent a model or a way to think about how others may think about history education. Often this takes the form of advocacy for a conception, not a model predicated upon practice. These original conceptions of history education lack an explication of what sort of sub - themes a teacher must look at in order to accomplish a desired purpose. In contrast, the actual categories of description systematise the way in which teachers understand history education and the constituent components they utilise to develop useful pedagogic representations which are necessarily predicated upon their understanding. Each constituent component of the actual categories of description sheds new light on what teachers believe necessary and essential for their conception of history education. The conceptions of history education are thematised in figure 4.1. This systematisation of thought alone is significant as it provides a theory of conceptions of history education which is grounded in practice. Each actual category of description adds greater understanding to the models advocated in the field of history education. C i shows that history methodology in the classroom is not just comprised of syntactic elements of the discipline but includes postmodern approaches which question whether a "knowable truth about the past" (Seixas, 1993 B; p. 241) can actually exist. It shows how history education focusing upon methods, interpretation and objectivity can be developed beyond advocacy into a coherent representation suitable for the classroom. C 2 addresses what aspects of history education are germane to a social studies class. This information offers insights into the debate which exists among educators regarding the role of the disciplines in social studies. Although the Alberta Program of Studies (1988) does not make any claims to be discipline - oriented, certain topics, 213 especially the topic of focus in this research, do have as the primary focus content which is of an historical nature. Ken's methodological conception of history education, which focuses upon the development of "rational thought for decision making", shows that the study of history, while lacking the disciplinary interest of C i , contributes to developing the social studies skills outlined in the provincial program of studies. Thus the inclusion of historical content in a curriculum topic gives options to teachers. Those with discipline interests may exploit the content for the contribution it makes to understanding syntactic and substantive elements of the discipline of history while those adherents to a social studies orientation may exploit the content for its contribution to the skill - related goals of a social studies model. C 3 and C 4 illustrate what it means to enhance an identity. Advocates of a cultural literacy conception of history education utilise many cliches100 to justify such a conception but fail to explain how the substantive ideas behind these cliches should be organised to accomplish the stated purpose. The details, the sequence of constituent components, and the actual goal are all exposed in