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Line dancing : an atlas of geography curriculum and poetic possibilities Hurren, Wanda Jean 1998

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LINE DANCING: A N A T L A S OF GEOGRAPHY C U R R I C U L U M A N D POETIC POSSIBILITIES by W A N D A J E A N HURREN B.Ed., The University of Saskatchewan, 1980 M.Ed. (Thesis), The University of Saskatchewan, 1995 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1998 © Wanda Jean Hurren, 1998 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2788) ABSTRACT The words, legends, maps, post-cards, and poems within this study are an exploration of geography curriculum, poetics, and embodied knowledge. There are three main sections and a supplement to this atlas. The first section is an exploration of semiotic theory and the notion of poetics. I inquire into structures of signification, the relationship between our words and our worlds, and the spaces of possibility that relationship opens for the inclusion of embodied knowing. The second section of this atlas is an exploration of geography curriculum in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, and of recent developments within academic human geography writ large, regarding existing constructions of geography and poetics and embodied knowledge. An attention to language, writing, and embodied knowledge can be found within academic geography, yet these same concerns have not been considered within Canadian curricular geography. The third section of this atlas is an exploration of post-structural approaches to reading/writing, and poetic possibilities on a personal level. Within this section, poetic language is explored as a genre for facilitating embodied knowledge within geography curriculum. The supplement to the atlas is a part of the atlas that finishes the form, and was written in an interpretive, poetic, and playful spirit. The underlying premise of this research is that how we write the world affects and reflects in the same instant how we understand and live in the world (our words and worlds perform a mingling dance of signification); therefore, attending to how we graphy the geo is of curricular concern (especially if we consider that curriculum provides the medium for us to understand self and world). Transformation of geography curriculum, and an inclusion of embodied approaches to (re)writing the world of curriculum theory (and dissertations) are the aims of this research. ii T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Figures v Acknowledgments vi PREFACE TO T H E A T L A S 1 T H E A T L A S 10 Incantation 11 A Guide to the Atlas 12 LINE DANCING 17 In the Beginning 22 In the Beginning is the World 24 In the Beginning is the Word 27 In the Middle is the Wor(l)de 42 LANDSCAPES OF GEOGRAPHY 52 Dancing Curricular Lines/Spaces 53 Two Landscapes 58 A Landscape of Curricular Geography 60 The Geography of Social Studies Education 61 Description: A Legend of Exploration into Geographical Spaces 68 A Landscape of Academic Geography 83 Post-Cards 88 Another Borderland 94 POETIC POSSIBILITIES 106 Poetics as an Active Composing/Imposing 107 Reading/Writing Lines Poetically and Post-structurally 109 Poetic as a Way of Composing/Imposing: Embodied Knowledge 126 T H E SUPPLEMENT 149 13 Ways to Handle Moonlight 150 General Index 156 Dancing Instructions 157 i i i REFERENCES 158 APPENDIX I Curricular Documents Explored in the Atlas 166 iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: A Landscape of Social Studies Education 64 Figure 2: Dancing Curricular Lines 98 V ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to thank my committee members for their guidance and scholarly support. Thank you to Ted Aoki for introducing me to metonymical spaces of possibility. Thank you to Linda Darling for inquiring along with me into curricular spaces of possibility. Thank you to Derek Gregory for introducing me to imaginative geographical spaces of possibility. Thank you to my supervisor, Carl Leggo, for introducing me to poetic spaces of possibility; and for generous gifts of time and talents. I also wish to thank the students whom I have had the opportunity to work and study with here in the graduate program at the University of British Columbia. Thank you all for your friendship and scholarly support. Together, we have continued to re-write doctoral spaces and to insist on spaces for embodied knowledge within the academy. And, thank you to my family, Milo, Jordan, and Mark, for your willingness to travel and re-locate with me as I pursued my dreams. Thank you for your patience, love, sanity, and, always, support, throughout my years of graduate studies. I promise I will never want to move again (within the next five years). v i Preface to the Atlas ... like the colouring books of my childhood long afternoons spent learning to colour within the lines we spend our lives learning to keep our bodies living within the lines on the maps of our territories. Recently, a Canadian team of young geographers won the "World Geography Olympics". During an interview with the victors on national television, several Olympiad questions were read in order to give the audience an idea of the knowledge required to win a Geography Olympics: "What is the line of latitude located at 23°27' S?; Which is the smallest city in Canada?; Which is the highest mountain in the world?" The three young men had memorized facts and figures "and," it was speculated, "they must have read every issue of National Geographic". While not wanting to diminish the glory of their victory, I was disappointed that the present conception of geography (at least within popular culture) is that of a school subject requiring a great deal of learning the lines—lines of latitude, lines of longitude, date line, time lines, contour lines, boundary lines, river lines, rail lines, trade lines ... This atlas was compiled out of a desire to transform the present state of school geography curriculum in Canada. Concerning school geography1, map skills and a form of disembodied gazing (...Examine the early map of Canada and try to predict where the rail 11 am referring to Canadian school geography. While I am not aware of any formal comparative studies, and my present study examines curricular documents from two Canadian provinces; judging from journals and scholarly research and writing that relates to school geography it appears that Canadian school geography is lagging behind Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and as Derek Gregory points out, "even the USA", in its incorporation of critical reflection and theoretical and analytical thinking. However, when it comes to academic geography (a distinction I discuss further on) the Canadian context is similar to the rest of the western world regarding the current attention within geography to issues of poetics, politics, social theory, and critical reflection regarding what geography is/does. 1 Student Information Page: Grid for "Battleships" A B C D E F G H I J K M N O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 o \ X 0 5 battleships (B) (five spaces) A B C D E F G H I J K M N O co w • i ' o 1 to 3? o » -1 3. v. V 1 (0 •a Saskatchewan Education: Grade Four Social Studies Curriculum (111) 2 line was laid down in the settlement of the West...) receive heavy emphasis. We are led to believe that the world has already been written, and it is our job to read and learn the lines, rather than take an active role in creating and writing lines. It seems that the lines are already drawn. We just need to colour in the spaces and understand human settlement patterns and all of the lines that go along with these same patterns. What is not acknowledged in all of this line learning is that as we read and learn the lines, we are in effect, learning to live and write the world in a certain (disembodied, disconnected, alienating) way; learning to settle into the patterns. Geography can be thought of as geo-graphy, that is "earth-writing". It is my belief that how we graphy the geo affects and reflects in the same instant how we live in the world. If we graphy the geo in one fairly exclusive, disembodied manner we risk alienation rather than connection with self and world. I want to write/dance in the spaces between the lines that are written about the world and about curriculum; to consider how this dancing, in effect, writes the world and curriculum. My words and lines placed on the pages of this atlas are an attempt to create spaces for poetic possibilities in how we graphy the geo, and possibilities for geography lessons that attend to embodied2 knowing within the lines and spaces3. In this atlas, poetic possibilities within the study of geography are considered along two lines of thought. The first has to do with what I am calling a poetics of the world, or a poeming of the world. The Greek origin of the word poetics is the verb, poema, poieein: to make, compose, create. A poetics of the world in this verb sense would be to create or compose the world. I consider possibilities for composing the world through words within 2 I use the term embody, embodied, embodiment to refer to human lived experience, and also to refer to an inclusion of our physical bodies—bodily experiences. 3 Even while I write lines, I see spaces. Lines call space into presence. The presence of lines indicates the presence of space in the same instant. Could there be a line without a space? Could we recognize a space without the presence of a line? I use the term space to refer to space on a page of paper, school spaces, curricular spaces, imagined spaces and metaphorical and metonymical spaces. Lines from bell hooks on space: "Spaces can be real and imagined. Spaces can tell stories and unfold histories. Spaces can be interrupted, appropriated, and transformed through artistic and literary practice" (152). 3 the study of geography: world asland text. This consideration of language and the world is consistent with materialist notions of the determining (and not pre-determining) role of language in human life. While geography could be thought of as a poetics of the world, or a poeming of the world, that is, composing or writing the world, my use ofthe term poetics in this composing, creative sense is not to be confused with poetry and poetic language; rather I am acknowledging the performative, political nature of words and texts. That said, however, my second line of thought regarding poetic possibilities does have to do with poetry and poetic prose. I want to consider possibilities for geography lessons that invite poetic language — poetry and poetic prose. So I am interested in exploring poetics as an action (verb form)—in acknowledging the role that words and texts play in our living (and also the role our living plays in giving shape to our words and texts), and then in addition to this, poetic as a form of writing or composing: poetry and poetic language. Jose Rabasa contends that there is no recorded history of the atlas as a genre (358), and I contend that there is no recorded history of the dissertation as a genre. I chose to mix these two genres for several reasons. In her natural history of the atlas, Barbara Bartz Petchenik tells us that the largest commercial market for atlases is travelers who use the atlas as a "looking up" tool (54). Roland Barthes' notion of the space of "looking up" in our reading is perhaps a convoluted twist on "looking up" places, but this is one of the aims of my atlas/dissertation text. I am providing spaces for readers (including myself) to look up in the reading act. And in that "looking up" space, to acknowledge the re-writing that occurs, and to imagine the re-writing that occurs when any atlas/dissertation (even one on a classroom shelf) is read. My choice of an atlas form is also my attempt to do some scribbling—to colour outside the lines of what is expected within an atlas; to refute the science and objectivity ofthe atlas; to explore poetic possibilities. In spite of (because of) the connections between atlases and Western, patriarchal dominance and power (and the 4 connections between dissertations and Western, patriarchal dominance and power4), I am aiming to "write back" by using the very form(s) that has been exclusive and colonizing. I am choosing to compile an atlas/dissertation that is about the everyday, that presents alternatives to traditional maps and legends, that includes ground truthing as well as bird's eye views, that begins with a frontispiece depicting a globe in a laundry room in student family housing, that explores lines/dancing/spaces. This atlas is intended to be playful (both in the deconstructive sense and in the transgressive sense), poetical, political, and performative. I am using the notion of line dancing in three ways within this atlas. First of all, because I am inquiring into embodied knowledge within geography curriculum and dissertation writing, I wanted to call the body to mind, and I believe that a reference to dancing does this. Secondly, related to curriculum, I use the metaphor of curriculum as a dance between the lines of planned curriculum and lived curriculum; I note how curriculum can be thought of as line dancing. And, thirdly, I consider the line of signification and what happens with word and world and we around this line. I explore the act of signification as a line dance between word, world, and we, and also the notion of word, world, and we dancing around the line of signification. This atlas of line dancing, then, is an atlas of a different sort. Theories of language and signification, epistemological considerations regarding both embodied knowing and textual practices, poststructural approaches to writing/reading, an examination of geography curricular materials and the current state of academic geography regarding poetics and embodied knowledge, and my own personal, lived geo-graphies within the lines and spaces all serve to inform this consideration of poetic possibilities within geography teaching and learning. 4"Few other places of work exemplify patriarchal rule better than the university, from the bureaucratic distribution of power to the Foucauldian 'network of writing' (1979) rationalized in the rule system of the form and memo that administer procedure, persons, and knowledge" (Carmen Luke and Jennifer Gore 202). 5 Speaking of the changing landscape of curriculum theory, Ted Aoki notes how the language of curriculum theory has moved from one of resistance and neo-Marxist critique, a "critical social theoretic language" (193) during the 1980's, to one that is grounded in post-structuralist advances, a curricular theorizing that attends to its own languages. He notes a curriculum theory that is "located between structuralist and post-structuralist notions of sign theory" (193), and an attention to the materiality of language. I locate my atlas within these same "between" spaces. My inquiries into poetics and geography were informed by post-structural perspectives, and I want to be clear about the 'post' part. I do not believe that post-structural is "not-structural". My inquiry into language and geography was an inquiry into structures that have been in place in order to consider post-structures. That is, I am still working with structures regarding my three equations for line dancing. Post signifies a linear progression from something to after-something. The something is still there, and it is examined and questioned and given a close reading. New structures emerge from old structures—and that is the post part. In my examination of structural semiotics I attempted to recognize the structures that are accepted, and then to posit an alternative structure that combines structures but is a new structure. I use the term post-structural to signify a pos(i)ting of alternative structures that might better serve our purposes in any given field. Post-modern and post-structural and deconstruction are terms often used interchangeably. In my present study, I do not use these terms interchangeably. My reference to post-structuralism is to signal a questioning and close reading of the structures that have been conceived of thus far in our notions of poetics, and also to signal the confusion of domains or the weakening of divisions between signifier/signified and reading/writing (Makaryk 159). So, in the case of semiotics, in order to construct my notion of line dancing (another structure), I started with structuralist semiotics and then imagined 'post'-structural possibilities. 6 My use of the term deconstruction in this atlas is to signal a desire for a better world. I do not wish to leave the world in ruins. I do wish to examine closely the worlds we have constructed through texts, and the worlds we have excluded through these same texts. Deconstruction is a way of reading/writing that acknowledges a multiplicity of reading/writing positions on the part of the writer/reader and is a strategy that opens possibilities for more inclusive, equitable world writing/readings. I consider work that has been done on deconstructing maps and atlases as important work to consider within geography curriculum; these deconstructive readings call into question taken-for-granted assumptions about reality. The argument is often given that post-structuralism or deconstruction or post-modernism in the end leave the world foundation-less, and in a situation where no thing is better than other things. For me, these three terms are affirmative rather than nihilistic. They reveal that all this "naturalness" has been constructed, and that we can continue to (re)search/construct the best possible worlds. I do not wish to close down meaning and further inquiry with my research. Concerning geography teaching and learning, research around poetics is not an area that has been considered in the past. In Joseph Stoltman's summary of research on geography teaching (within the context of social studies education) he notes that most of that research has been carried out through doctoral dissertation research. Concept and knowledge acquisition, map skills development and sequence, and status studies of geography teaching are common research investigations. Recommendations for further research suggest attention to learning outcomes, new technology, new initiatives, and new approaches to teaching within geography teaching and learning (437 - 447). Effects of duration of treatment in long-term and short-term retention of learning and an inquiry into experiences that will result in spatially accurate mental images of the world are sample recommendations for future research in geography teaching and learning. While these recommendations sound like they are for a geography from a different world, one of the recommendations from Stoltman's summary does apply to the research within this atlas. Stoltman suggests that "research is needed on geography's role in students' development of a world image that is spatially accurate and intellectually attuned to values, attitudes, and perceptions of one's own country and of other countries and other peoples" (444). I am just starting one step before his recommendation, in first of all examining geography itself as already a particular world image, already full of attitudes, values and perceptions; and I am adding, also, the effects of geography teaching and learning on perceptions of one's self (in relation to the world and others). I believe attending to the language and the words we use to word the world will enhance and transform our geography teaching and learning and our living in the world. Inquiring into post-structural semiotics highlights just how words, worlds, and we are related, and illustrates how we can move away from a perspective that sees geo-graphy as phenomenological enterprise (privileging experience) and from a perspective that sees geo-graphy as palimpsest and intertextual (privileging word/text) into a space between. A space that opens possibilities for poetics and agency in our world writing. I want to end this preface where my atlas of line dancing first began to take shape—at the International Children's Festival, Vanier Park, Vancouver, on a rainy day in May, in a big canvas tent. We sat on the top bench of the bleachers, waiting for a group of Zimbabwean dancers to appear on the stage. As the dancers lined up on the stage, the lead dancer issued an invitation... We invite you to share in our dance. When we share our dance with you, you will know something about us, and we will know something about you. Together we can dance around the whole world: 8 dancers wearing gum boots stomp out onto the stage compose a line of colours and open smiling faces we clap and cheer and sway our beating hearts now learning the rhythm of their souls Zimbabwean dancers enticed us with the soles of their feet. A dancing crowd began to gather on the stage at the International Children's Festival... Could I entice you to enter this dance a dance of and around and through words and lines and spaces? Could I alter your heartbeat disrupt your iambic rhythmic breathing with words placed here and here? Would you share in this dance through the lines of this text through the lines ofthe world and through spaces in between? 9 incantation atlas let the heavens fall around us and i will hold the world for a while but not above my shoulders i would not have the upper body strength no i will gently cradle the world in my arms taking my turn i will rotate the earth give all the territories pleasure in the soft evening folds of my breasts while other lands see daylight even the seas and all the shiny shimmering creatures within shall have a turn at my bosom and the axis — i am afraid that will have to go north south east west shall be no more i long to warm antarctica breathe sweet breath on polar ice caps while greenland Iceland bask in even warmer climes of my bounteous lap below 11 A Guide to the Atlas Elliot Eisner describes research as "reflective efforts to study the world and to create ways to share what we have learned about it" (The Promise and Perils 8). And then he asks us, "What is your conception of research?" I like his conception of research, except that I view research as a sharing of what we are learning about the world. I believe research is an ongoing endeavor—always happening. Even in representing or sharing our research the research is happening, and we continue to learn while we share. There is a poetic performance inherent in research. Delia Pollack writes about performative writing and tells of how words can have double messages on the page. Pollack describes performative writing as metonymic writing. It is writing that says and does. It performs at least two things at once "and so refuse[s] identification with a unitary system of meanings" (83). Often, a backslash represents this double meaning; this notion of "and/not and" (and here I borrow from Ted Aoki's notions of metonymy). Metonymic writing calls forth the materiality of signs and forms of writing. The forms we choose can perform a multiplicity of writing. Pollack also describes performative writing as evocative. In my atlas I have included "maps" with transparent overlays. These overlays make it necessary for readers (including myself) to finger and feel the form, and by placing our hands behind the transparent overlays, we bring our bodies to mind in the reading. Writing with/about maps is part of the performance in this atlas. Julia Kristeva notes regarding art that "contents are formal and forms are content....to work with forms is the most radical way to seize the moment of crisis" (17). While I do not place this atlas within a moment of crisis, within my exploration of geography curriculum and poetic possibilities I have tried to create a way to share what I am learning in a form that is itself a way of learning. The legends (without maps), maps, post-cards, notes, words, and poems that explore poetic possibilities also perform poetic possibilities. Poetic writing, both in the creative, active sense, and in the language sense, is a performative 12 writing. Our words perform the research, and present it. Laurel Richardson is a scholar in sociology who uses poetic prose not just to "write up" her research; she considers the writing itself as research. She notes, "poems can themselves be experienced as simultaneously whole and partial, text and subtext; the 'tail' can be the dog" (26). Throughout this atlas I have included travel notes; documents that indicate to some extent where I have been. James Clifford reminds us of the baggage, the "historical taintedness" attached to the notion of travel: "its associations with gendered, racial bodies, class privilege, specific means of conveyance, beaten paths, agents, frontiers, documents, and the like" (39). While the metaphor of travel does carry with it notions of privilege and gender and imperialistic appropriations and authority, I have included my travel notes as a playful performance in order to question the separation of "being there" and "getting there" (the metonymical space of being there/getting there; travelling/arriving) that Clifford notes (23), as well as to transgress the boundaries of expected discourses, and to acknowledge the language of the everyday in dissertation places. Many of my travel notes are interruptions. They perform a refusal to construct a smooth, linear journey out of travels that have often been along winding, maze-like trails. They indicate that my dissertation writing was not a romanticized journey through exotic lands and climes. Notes to pay the visa bill and a fixation with dust and the messiness of my desk (where I sat for many hours throughout my travels) are included to give you some idea of the mundane nature of my travels. The degree of privilege attached to my traveling depends on with whom and where I am situated, bell hooks reminds us that "theorizing diverse journeying is crucial to our understanding of any politics of location" (343). For bell hooks, the metaphor of travel invokes a terror of whiteness, and of traveling through places where she encounters alienation, rather than playful intellectual journeying. After reading the first travel note in this atlas, Ted Aoki wrote: "In the beginning is fear". Terror is present in my notes. Several travel notes make reference to my spatial fears about "where" to place my words. 13 Throughout my academic journey I occasionally feel/fear I am traveling into strange country, or, in fact, remaining on the boundaries of exclusive terra-stories (terror-stories even). Mine has been the terror that the itinerary for my travels will not, somehow, "measure up" to the patriarchal, epic journeys often expected within the academy. This atlas of line dancing has three main sections and a supplement. The first section is an exploration of semi otic theory and the notion of poetics. I inquire into structures of signification, and the relationship between word and world and we—an important inquiry regarding geography curriculum, and one that has received little attention to date in the Canadian context. An attention to poetics and language in geography curriculum is an attention to the role of words in our world-making, and the role of our worlds in our word-making. While scholars in Britain and Australia have considered the kind of language used in geography teaching and learning and the effects of this language on our learning5, a language and ideology approach, my look at semiotics is a look at structures of language in order to search out spaces for taking an active role in creating words/worlds. I am considering geography itself as a poetics of the world. The second section of this atlas is an exploration of geography curriculum in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, and of recent developments within academic human geography writ large. In my search for areas where poetic possibilities can transform the curriculum, I wanted to gain an idea of what is currently in place within both of these geographical landscapes (curricular and academic). Support for attending to language and writing, and an 5See Alison Lee, 1996, and Frances Slater, 1989. These studies inquire into the role of language and learning. They take the position that experience is mediated by language, and that language is a cultural artifact arising out of dominant ideologies. These scholars imply that we need to become critical of the language used in the teaching of geography in order to interrupt the power of the dominant language, and that the dominant scientific discourse in geography teaching and learning excludes students according to race, gender, and class. My study agrees that language is an ideological construct representing dominant cultural ideologies; however, I see language and experience as both involved in signification. It is the poetics of signifying that I wanted to inquire into, in order to build support for transforming our world writing. I believe human agency is possible through a deliberate choice of genres in our study of geography—we can consciously enter into the line dance of signification. What these studies touch on only briefly is that our study of geography, of world-writing, is our world writing... 14 acknowledgment of embodied knowledge can be found within academic geography, but these concerns have not been included within curricular planning lines. The third section of this atlas is an exploration of poetic possibilities on a personal level, where I take advantage of post-structural approaches to reading/writing, and I do some scribbling. Some imagining. It is meant to illustrate further how reading the lines that have been written about the world can become part of an active (re)writing of the world. Cartography is an integral (sometimes the only) part of geography teaching and learning in classrooms. In this third section I consider a playful reading/writing of maps, a poetic reading of maps; and here I am using the term poetic in the creative, active, political, personal sense. I also consider poetry as a language genre in geography teaching and learning, and how poetry makes a space for embodied knowledge. My thesis is not that we should erase scientific objective language from geography curriculum altogether, and replace it with poetic language, but that we should examine the language we (teachers, students, texts) use, and make use of as many genres as possible, in order to know and understand and live in the world with a sense of agency and connection. The supplement to the atlas is a part of the atlas that finishes the form, and was written in an interpretive, poetic, and playful spirit. While Eisner encourages us to explore the edges regarding research and representational forms, he warns of people (those with whom we share our research) becoming lost, especially those for whom the terrain is new or those who sail by other stars (The Promise and Perils 9). This atlas does explore the edges and also the spaces between the edges. On several occasions I did indeed get lost in my travels. I have come to believe that getting lost is not the end of the world. Perhaps, only the beginning. Maybe this atlas is a book of maps and spaces to get lost in. And, while it is true that stars are for sailing by, they are also for gazing at and wondering. 15 STARS BURNING now i am 41 still i will tell you on the august edge of a prairie july i wonder if i will ever see a star burn out and if i do what if it happens to be one from the big dipper and in the city my son wonders when do they change the billboard signs will he ever see them do it and why is it only in recent months when i look at a crescent moon i see earth shadow you might not know this: now there are satellites blinking their way across night skies LINE DANCING TraveC 9{ptes Place: The Board Room Last night in my creative'writing class, one of the men said his biggest fear in writing was that people would read his words and think he was stupid. He was very emotional when he told us this. I have the same fear, and it is one that I hope to grow out of. Literally—"grow" out of. I am growing out of this fear all the time. Perhaps without fear there is no growth? In fact, I grew a little when he shared that with us. Grew in confidence that is, with the assurance that my fears are common fears^  shared by other writers. Today we met as a committee for the first time. We had a great meeting. It was so good to talk with four strong scholars about my work, and where I might go with my researching. Ted suggested keeping a diary of my journey, and Derek added the idea of a travel diary to Ted's suggestion. I like the idea. This is a journey I am taking. It is somewhat like my committee members are the editors of a travel magazine, and they have placed me (at my own suggestion/desire) on assignment in this particular place/space. I was so pumped for the rest of the day. I can't wait to get started on my writing. There are possibilities. I feel like I have crossed a line, been admitted into another country, now that my proposal has been accepted. A borderland: between graduate student and graduated student, between knowing and wondering, an uncertain district, space, or condition. I am a borderer: living on the border to a country or region. Writing my passages through a borderland. The border means more than a customs house, a passport officer, a man with a gun. Over there everything is going to be different; life is never going to be quite the same again after your passport has been stamped. Graham Greene 18 BORDERLAND* do not be fooled into believing borderlines are imaginary lines on maps and nothing else they are real I know a place a borderline between where two countries end there is a space a borderland wheel tracks in a ditch we used to go there on warm summer evenings park the car open the windows welcome the breeze there we crossed real imaginary lines on over under into between where two countries end there is a space a borderland *an uncertain district, space, or condition nsavelOiptts Place: Borderland I met with Carl today to talk about word and wor(l)de. I don't want to privilege world or word, and wasn't sure how to place this attitude—it is not phenomenology (which privileges world) and it is not Derridian deconstruction (which privileges word). I am in a borderland between the two. I don't think we can freeze-frame a moment in time/space and determine whether word or world is the beginning of meaning and being (and to say something is pre-verbal is so oxymoronic). Carl suggested some readings. I am very happy about my travel plans, and anxious to start out. I have decided to move into a study of language and signification and poetics as a creating act first. From there I hope to move on to consider poetic possibilities—the many ways possible to write/read wor(l)des. On the weekend I was reading Karen Connelly's book Touch the Dragon. She poems the world in such poetic language. I was treated to many sensual images. "Thailand has whittled the world into a great sliver and lodged it beneath my skin.... My skin stretches over the earth. I think of atlases and remember history and the future in the same moment" (194 - 95). My skin stretches over the earth. I think of atlases and remember history and the future in the same moment. Karen Connelly (185) 20 TraveC 9{ptes Place: Borderland It's been five days since my research proposal was accepted, and each day Milo has asked me, "Did you get your dissertation written today?" Tonight I told him not to ask me that every day. The further you go, the more you shall see and know. Medieval Proverb 21 In The Beginning.. in the beginning is the wor(l)de: is there an instant in time/space when word becomes world becomes word becomes world becomes... what amazes me is not the possibility of an answer to the question but that wor(l)des exist to ask What a coincidence that word and world are such similar words! One letter makes the difference, and even that letter is coincidental—of all the letters in the alphabet, it most resembles a simple straight line. Rather than accepting a straight line placed between signifier (Sr) and signified (Sd) (SrISd)6, it seems that we might take a more active role in signification if we consider a poetics of the world; if we attend to Ted Aoki's backslash (Sr/Sd) in the space of the "and/not and"7; if we notice how language and meaning dance up and down, and back and forth 6A11 of this talk of signifiers and signifieds relates back to Saussure and his theories of structural semiotics, however, many additions to his science of the sign have occurred. Saussure was concerned only with the sign, and not with what has since been added to equations - the referent and the subject. My use of signifier and signified actually refer to components of more recent semiotic theory; where "signifier" signifies word and "signified" signifies world (referent). Regarding relationships, Saussure was only concerned with the relationship between the signifier and the signified (phonic and mental component), between a sign and all other signs in a signifying event, and between signs in a closed system. While he spoke of the sign as having two parts—signifier (in this case an actual phonetic component) and signified (in this case a mental image called forth by the signifier), he did not consider what might be outside of the sign, a component later referred to as the "referent" by Peirce. While semiotics began as a science of the sign, its work has evolved to include not only the sign, but the referent (object) and the subject as well. So, although Saussure saw language as very important in considering social phenomena, he did not consider anything outside of the sign and other signs in his study of the sign. A strange contradiction, considering he first began to think of a "science which studies the role of signs as part of social life" (15). He was separating out signs from us(e). 7Ted Aoki, 1996. Ted encourages curriculum scholars to consider the space between a signification that privileges world: Discourse A; and a signification that privileges spaces between words (i.e., the space of difference between words): Discourse B. He proposes a discourse or model for signification that is Discourse A a n d l n o t a n d Discourse B: a Metonymical Discourse C. 22 across the line between signifier and signified and between signifier and signifier; how the line itself tips up and down, back and forth in a constant state of performance. It is often said that the map is not the territory; as a reminder that we should not confuse the signifier (map) with the signified (territory). Concerning the notion of poetics and the recognition of the role language plays in constructing our realities, I would prefer to say that the map is the territory is the map is the territory... Word and world dance back and forth across the line. A state of flux exists between signifier and signified, and a space of poetic possibility is present in this line dancing. In my search for spaces of poetic possibilities in how word and world are related, I believe it is useful to consider theories where language and signification figure prominently. I do not believe these theories have been included within discussions of teaching geography in classrooms. Concerning the subject discipline of geography, I believe, as Trevor Barnes states regarding the academic discipline of geography, that very little attention is paid to writing in the discipline of geography. We have ignored the fact that "it is humans that decide how to represent things, and not the things themselves", and that "when we 'tell it like it is' we are also 'telling it like we are'" (2 - 3). Regarding relationships between word and world, I am going to do some dancing around the lines in the following three equations that I have adapted from Ted Aoki's "brief excursion into sign theory" (Modernity andPostmodernity 3): word = text as representation = The map is not the TERRITORY = in the beginning is the WORLD. fWORPt = text as intertextuality = The M A P is the territory = WORD is the world world = in the beginning is the WORD. 23 W O R D / W O R L D = text as performativity = ... the map is the territory is the map is the territory ... = in the middle is the WOR(L)DE In relation to the above equations, and in order to explore the possibilities inherent in the relationship between word, world, and we, I am situating this part of the dance within a mingling of theories of semiotics, phenomenology, deconstruction, poststructuralism, psychoanalysis, and personal theories8 of living and dancing. In the Beginning is the W O R L D (the map is not the TERRITORY) w o r d f w O R L D T In this equation (representing a signifying event), the word (Sr) is assumed to be transparent, as is the line between the word (Sr) and the world (Sd); the word is mimetic of the world. World (Sd) is privileged, its essence shines through the transparent line, and is reflected in the word (Sr). This equation represents Ted Aoki's imaginary formulation of the sign in Discourse A ; the discourse of a representational world, where the vertically of metaphor is at play. Within this equation, the dance of signification is one of representation. There are several assumptions regarding the relationship between word and world, and where "we" fit in this equation. This equation assumes that language is transparent, and objective. "We" is not present in this equation. The world is omnipresent; there is a true essence/world. Words are used to mime or reflect a mirror image of that essence/world. Conventional scientific discourse is like Terry Threadgold's definition of theory. She speaks of theory as stories told from some body's position (1). When 1 speak of theory, I am speaking of "an idea or opinion about something". Speculative thought or fancy (as opposed to fact or practice). Five speculative, fanciful theories on writing and living after 40: 1. Never fabricate a citation unless it suits your purposes. 2. Keep a list of interesting names from your favourite novels. These are very useful for fabricating citations. 3. We cannot all be Julia Kristeva or Helene Cixous. Honour their words and believe in yourself. 4. If you have a feeling about something, trust that feeling. 5. And if you want to feel young, go to matinee theatre performances where the A A A (Average Age in Attendance) > 75. And only have your hair styled by people much older than you (they will know you are younger, and will style your hair accordingly). 24 Be CAUT; o o cr X CO < Without the sorrows of life, the joys would not exist. . X 25 represented by this equation; a discourse that "commonly maintains that subjective experience is 'caused' by an objectifiable set of processes in the mechanically determined field ofthe sensible" (Abram 66). A n exception to this is the thinking of David Abram (who bases his thinking on Merleau-Ponty). Abram believes that we, bodily, are part of the living world, and so part of the primordial essence of world that leads to language. Phenomenology sees language as rooted in our experiences of the world—so first there is the experience, the world, and then language and words grows out of it. However, Abram still sees our body as part of the sensuous world; we live in the world and in language. "Ultimately then, it is not the human body alone, but the whole of the sensuous world that provides the deep structure of language" (85). This equation suggests that words are chosen to mirror the world (text as representation). Barnes and Duncan refer to this manner of (geo)graphic naivete as the notion that "pieces of the world come with their own labels and writing in geography is just a matter of lining up pieces of language in the right order" (2). Statements within geography curricular documents that discuss the "nature of geography", or the natural environment as different from the social environment, as if geography itself is a transparent category representing a "naturally occurring" subject area/world would seem to reflect this position. Within geography lessons, words are assumed to represent a privileged world. We are writing about the earth; the earth that already is. There is no acknowledgment that we might be choosing words to represent a certain "construction of the world", or that our words actually play a part in constructing or performing the world as we choose them; or that, as Derek Gregory notes, the words we use are "not entirely of our own choosing" (qtd. in Barnes and Duncan: 2). 26 In the Beginning is the WORD (The M A P is the Territory) f W O R P f world Within this equation, word is privileged over world, and in fact, world becomes erased. This view of signification presents reality as impossible to write—we have images and symbols, but reality is something that will always slip away from us in our attempt to write it. The line between word and world is opaque, and it is assumed that one does not relate to the other—in fact, the word is the world. There is only the word (and the difference between words) to determine our worlds. Ted Aoki calls this the world of "floating discourse", where meaning is constructed in the space of difference between Sr and/not and Sr and/not and Sr 9 . Words define our worlds (and Lacan says they define us also). Jacques Derrida is a prominent scholar working under/within this equation. Derrida is famous for his lines about nothing outside of the text, which would seem to be saying that signs would then define us. We cannot come into presence without language. Without discourse. And how did the signs get there in the first place? According to Derrida there is no centre, language is a game, a play of signification. He speaks of the absence of any transcendental signified. That is, there is nothing that existed before language and words could signify it. Also, related to this transcendental signified, there is no thing; rather we have a whole world of not things. In the act of signing, meaning is always deferred. What we sign is already different from what we intended to sign and meaning is deferred. There is a lapse. Related to this lapse, Peirce and Benveniste say that the signified itself (in the signifying act) then becomes a signifier and signifies something else (Silverman 14 - 53). This equation represents the notion of text as intertextuality and this relates to Barthes' notions in S/Z of denotation and connotation (6 - 9). Barthes noted the existence of an original denotation, which then signifies a secondary signification or what Barthes called connotation. Connotation is the set of cultural codes that takes over from an original denotation. 9Ted Aoki, letter to the author, 26 June 1998. Ted notes that this imaginary Discourse B can be described as "in the beginning is word (Sr) and world (Sr)". 27 Perhaps Derrida would say that e v e r y t h i n g is connotation. This is also similar to his idea of traces, and ail significations being Which leads us now, to metaphoric and metonymic writing. Discourse C is the Metonymic space of metaphor and metonymy; of and/not and... And what about Lacan? Subjects are mediated through language/signifiers not signifiers mediated through subjects. No, I think today I cannot write myself out of these circles of semiotic readings. And readers, you may one day read a continuous, linear text, as is expected in dissertations. Must I language a linear landscape for you? Are you interested in what happens under the surface? Behind the scenes? Between the lines? What this looked like in its becoming? A dissertation performing? 28 rLravd<Hptes Place: Desk, Dissemination So this is all about language. Playing with language and words in an attempt to question/critique the "status quo" or notions of "truth". But how to play, how to become part of the game? Derrida desires a change of the rules in order to change the game itself. Still another game. And who can play? Must 1 read Mallarme, Heidegger, Hegel, etc. in order to have the right to say I won't play? Why am I resisting this text despite my delight in the way Derrida is playing with language and text on the page? Maybe because he is privileged, male, French, "philosopher"? Deconstruction is a privileged game of words? Needing a long and thorough preface by a translator. Derrida refuses to preface. Someone else, a woman, does this in order to disseminate his (Ideas). Again, a sign of privilege. A word contains phonetic and mental referent? So the word is everything according to this text. I thought a word only refers to the mental referent—a word contains only the phonetic signifier that refers to a mental signified which depends on the reader of the word—the mental referent is in another body, isn't it? (And "body" calls forth a multitude of possible "mental signifieds", depending on who reads/writes the phonic signifier.) (p. ix, translator's notes) The whole point of the book seems to be negated by the presence of the translator's introduction. Otherwise, Derrida is only playing with himself (masturbation/master debating) as indeed he apparently plays with Rousseau's discussion of writing "on the one hand" and masturbation "on the other"! So, the translator, the woman, becomes the "handmaiden" to his "tale"; becomes complicit in his master(de)bations. Derrida and Geo-graphv Curriculum... His ideas relate to what I might be able to say about form and content, and deconstructing notions about what geography is, and questioning what has been referred to as the "Nature of Geography". And is my dissertation itself a deconstruction of dissertation writing? Jeff Collins and Bi l l Mayblin note that deconstruction can not be described as a project, "if it has an outcome staked out in advance, a goal which predetermines its movements" (95).They also say that Derrida would say "there is no assured essence of anything. If things seem secure and natural, it's because they are governed by a powerful consensus, premised on foundational thinking" (99). Geography as a discourse, as a poetics of the world. We need to attend to how written words might relate to the world (137). 29 ON FIRST ENCOUNTERING TRACES at first glance a form so delightful words placed (arbitrarily?) meaning pure mystery not unfolding 5 until in sheer distress the presence of a comic form shelved among great works l o and Derrida's words manage to keep open the idea that 15 translations are not copies made to deliver the meaning of an original but(t) other texts words about words 20 that become words to write words about and Derrida I shall not 25 fall nor stumble lightly slide across your words because I know their places in my reading/writing 3 o 30a spaces/traces of Barthes I have been blindly tracing shadows Travel9(ptes Place: Desk, Kitsilano Blenz and into a bit of Caputo's text So... radical hermeneutics. I am beginning to see how Derrida and Heidegger fit together. Heidegger is saying we still need to wonder about the possibility of Being as presence - he is questioning the presence (the metaphysicalness of Being). And Derrida is critiquing any notions of presence, calling into question, paying attention to ambiguity. Is this ambiguity present? absent? So, then, my search or inquiry or questioning of poetic possibilities in geography curriculum is informed by notions held within a radical hermeneutics project. If we open up geo-graphy to uncertainty and ambiguity, do we open up geo-graphy to possibilities— poetic/active/creative possibilities at that? Looking for a re-cognition of all our geo-graphical attempts to write the wor(l)de. And what does language and writing have to do with radical hermeneutics? (Hermeneutics that is open to multiple interpretations.) Writing in geography at that? Well, there is more than one way to write the world. And there is more than one way to read the world as it has been written (the poststructural approach to reading/writing also comes in here; and poststructuralism is perhaps akin to radical hermeneutics and deconstruction?) We can open up maps and write in some of the absent lines and spaces—lines that are called into presence by their absence. We can write with a language that calls the body into presence, and illustrate the mind/body-ness of learning and experiencing. We can disrupt polarities and make them and/not and spaces. We can learn from ambiguity. By returning to the original difficulties we can say that something is and/not and, we can explore life in the backslash, in the flux, and in so doing, become more inclusive in our wor(l)de writing within geography curriculum. at a window counter light is gentle coming across my page passing buses alter sunlight every ten minutes breath is visible surrounding smoking coffee drinkers at an outdoor table desk notes 32 (Tra.vtC<A[ptes Place: Language Education Research Centre Today I listened to Carl Leggo speak on "Performing in Re-Search: Fifty Ways of Listening to Light". His presentation in the Language Education Colloquium series was about searching for "research that hangs out in the spaces between a poetics of possibility and a poetics of impossibility" and "research that both performs language and is performed in language" (1). I heard him say "I want" at least 10 times, and then I quit counting. Maybe he even said "I want" more than 50 times. I like hearing what people want. And I like thinking about what I want. So, now, I am going to list some of the things I want. 1. I want to draw attention to how we word the world the word within geography teaching and learning. 2. I want to bring the body into our teaching and learning and languaging in geography. 3. I want to remind people of their bodies, even as they dance through the lines of the text on these pages. 4. I want to speak and write and dance poetically about poetics. 5. I want to sound like I know what I am talking about. 6. I want to look at theories of signification and tie these theories in to the study of geography in classrooms. 7. I want to create a bit of unease, some uncomfortable feelings, like the feeling that comes when I say the word body in some places. Complacency does not lead to change, to possibilities... 8. I want to open up possibilities for earth writing. 9. I want to open up possibilities for dissertation writing. 10.1 want to reconceptualize geography curriculum. 11.1 want geography lessons to include time for reading and writing poetry. 12.1 want geography lessons to include time for re-membering bodies in spaces. 13.1 want geography lessons to include time for taking things personally. 14.1 want geography lessons to include times for telling and listening to stories about how it feels to be in places. To be continued... ... languaging always emerges and streams from pre/positions located in embodied spaces, in geography... Carl Leggo (Interchange; In Press) 3 3 Place: Desk, The Subject of Semiotics So, this is all making more and more sense to me gradually. Nice combination of readings: Dissemination, Caged in Signs, and Subject of Semiotics. Plus being familiar with Barthes' work helps. Silverman seems to be making the point, or at least it comes up occasionally throughout her text, that there is a relationship between signifier and signified that is back and forth—both are secondary signs in the act of signification. Re: Derrida: "Derrida, on the other hand, insists that all signifying terms—signifieds as well as signifiers—are secondary. No absolute distinction can be maintained between the former and the latter, since both carry the 'traces' of all the other signifying elements with which they interconnect" (Silverman 34). (Which relates to my question: is there an instant in time space when... Or, was there ever a denotating, or is it all connotating?) Connotation is secondary, it allows for free play, for plurality. "The very authenticity of denotation is called into question—it is charged with being an impostor, a metaphysical fiction which passes itself off as the "hearth, centre, guardian, refuge, light of truth" (Silverman 32). (And is this the dictionary?) Denotation as lines on dictionary pages; we refer to these lines in our connotation? Denotation and connotation: primary and secondary? Both are secondary, or perhaps both are primary. (Except that, as Lacan indicates, words in dictionary definitions are also words that have to be defined on other pages of the dictionary... and so on and so on...) I wonder about how we are using the dictionary in all our word play and attention to language, and the throwing away of PRESENCE, and discarding any transcendental signified or essence or "one right answer" or metaphysical presence or you know what I mean; truth, etc. Original difficulty, multi-layered definitions and word origins, getting to the essence, the original definition. We say we don't like to define, that there are many interpretations, yet we go to accepted, consensus definitions in order to open up spaces of possibility for meaning. Is there some metaphysical presence being called into presence here? In order to return to original difficulty, we use defining mechanisms. Define = to make clear, to fix, settle, settle the limits. Etymology: definire to limit de (from) + finis (boundary) Not finished. Always searching, always possibility, always the three dots in the true spirit of hermeneutic interpretation; so to define is to put a boundary on meaning; to limit meaning... another and/not and? p. 9 of S/Z: "denotation is not the first meaning, but pretends to be so; under this illusion, it is ultimately no more than the last of the connotations (the one which seems both to establish and to close the reading), the superior myth by which the text pretends to return to the nature of language..." 34 cTmvet(Nptts This sounds like what we think of the dictionary - metaphysical fiction passing as truth. And why are there 2nd and 3rd and 4th etc. editions of dictionaries? Precisely because we must acknowledge the next connotations. The life of language—it has a life of its own? And, would radical hermeneutics support the getting rid of notions of denotation and connotation (because connotation also seems to be a closing down of openings, of possibilities for multiplicity of meanings; the secondary boundary to meaning?) Or is it rather that there are a multiplicity of connotations, and this is all part of the hermeneutic circle? So we want to stay away from closing readings, or closing down possibilities for meaning, or at least be cognizant ofthe process of trying to achieve this state of making all meanings evident - acknowledge our desire for this? ** according to Derrida signification is intertextuality in motion? (Did I make this up or read it somewhere?) So what does this mean for geography and teaching and learning? Language and writing have been recognized by geographers as important to the field of geography. Geography has not previously attended to language/writing. This is the focus of several scholars working in human geography, especially feminist geographers, who attend to language and discourse in geography. Non-transparency of language. And on into geography curriculum: what it looks like, does it attend to writing/language? Could it? If we look at curriculum as (...) then there are spaces for possibility within geography curriculum. Poetic possibilities: for including language of theory, language of poetry, language of description (related to language of poetry), and language of everyday places. de»fine v. -fined, -fining. 1 make clear the meaning of; explain: A dictionary defines words... dic*tion»ar»y n., pl. -ar«ies. 1 a book of words arranged alphabetically, with information about their meanings, forms, and usually, pronunciation and history. Some dictionaries also give information on how words are used in sentences and idiomatic expressions... book n., v. —n. 1 a set of written or printed sheets of paper stitched or glued together along one edge and usually having attached covers at the front and back: a book of poetry... words «., v. — n. 1 a sound or a group of sounds that has meaning and is an independent unit of speech... written adj., v. —adj. put down in a form intended to be read... 35 Irwvd'Nptes Place: Desk, Course in General Linguistics and The Subject of Semiotics I want my notes on language and signification to stay in the Travel Notes. So you can see where I have been. After all, I had to start somewhere. You might want to know where I have been. Saussure (Sr = signifier, Sd = signified, S = sign) • According to Saussure there is no line dancing between Sr and Sd. The relationship between the two is arbitrary. • Is this like a dark curtain between Sr and Sd? No, because he is saying that the phonic component (Sr) calls forth a mental image (Sd). It is just that any given Sign could be made up of any given phonic component which would call the mental component to mind. A tree could be called a gooble. Saussure was concerned with 3 types of relationships: 1) between signifier + signified (totally arbitrary he said) 2) between sign and rest of signs in a system—calls this paradigmatic. Paradigmatic relationship depends on human memory—not on discourse "part of inner storehouse that makes up language of each speaker" (is this like deep structure?) 3) between sign and rest of signs in a concrete/actual signifying instance—he calls this syntagmatic - in syntagmatic relationship a sign gets its value because it stands in opposition to everything that precedes it or follows it or both (Lacan thought similar about words? binaries?). Again, Saussure says nothing about relationship between sign and referent; referent not brought into semiotics until Peirce (object) and Benveniste. • Here is how I am seeing it: signifier signified I I phonic mental image I ! word thing or referent: world wor(l)d = word + world (sign) (referent) wor(l)d is a sign for a dancing signification; a sign that acknowledges a relationship between the signifier + signified 36 Travel9(ptes sign referent word world territory terrastory wor(l)d And, if we acknowledge that w e tell and listen to these terrastories, these wor(l)ds, then we could add we to the equation also: w(or(l)d)e = worlde. Worlde is an acknowledgment of the space between a signification that includes a transparent line between Sr and Sd, and one that includes an opaque line between Sr and Sd; worlde stands between, in the space between. Maybe an inter- pretive space, a space standing between. Geo/graphy sometimes privileges geo (world) and assumes a transparency between Sr (sign) and Sd (referent). Geo/graphy sometimes privileges graphy (word) and assumes an opaque bar between Sr and Sd, and Sr becomes all important. We need both: locate oneself in the backslash (Ted Aoki)—between world and language. How we signify determines our concept of the signified. The signified (mental image Saussure talks about and thing or referent others talk about) is shaped by the signifier? Not an arbitrary relationship? Not as linear as Saussure envisioned. More circular. Only small piles on my desk today. All is ready for serious writing to begin. Phone cord and mouse cord are curling lines along my oak stained wooden desk. Once a library table somewhere. Small flicks of lint here and there. Green light of printer bright in "on" mode. Recipe for Eggs Fu Yung and Pork Fried Rice along with e-mail message and note to sister on desk top. Nice light across desk today. Desk Notes 3 7 IraveC 9{ptes Place: Desk What I don't want to write about is semiotics and the intricacies of index and icon and symbol and the primary and secondary, and metaphor and metonymy in great detail that is. 1 don't want to do any sort of semiotic analysis. What I do want to write about is the line in all of this semiotics, and what happens around it; why it is even there. What happens around the line, and why it is drawn. So, I will have to discuss the basics of what semiotic equations look like and why they are like they are, and then consider what happens around the line, and what this means for geography or curriculum or teaching and learning or writing or earth-writing. Are there spaces, is there a borderland between the two entities? Close to the borderline is there a borderland? Where signifier and signified are in a state of flux around the line, dancing back and forth, and this is the sign? Actually a dancing back and forth across the line, or a tipping back and forth of the line—the line itself dances, and the signifier and signified dance around it, and in total, it is a dancing sign? Or the SIGN is a dance, rather than a linear progression of events... in the act of signification. Worlde as a dancing sign. So, then each influences the other (signifier and signified) in the signing act, and we should not take this influencing lightly. Or is it a square dance, with a caller (the SIGN itself), and we are signs as well? And what do metaphor and metonymy have to do with all this? And desire and lack? need the light of lamp, yet yellows the desk top fine cover of dust on everything papers stacked edges flopping curling over cloudy day out the window CD's stacked and sliding bulletin board full looking disorganized time to clean it Seattle mug hidden behind printer should get rid of cards and gold dish like the frog though get 2 reprints for Kathryn and Janet walk meeting? supper? pizzas? get ingredients file papers away Desk Notes 38 MY SON TAUGHT ME about semiotics: at the age of three he disputed the arbitrary nature of the sign / know why ice is called ice— because it i s just so icy! and at his first taste of spinach linguini declared it just too gishy about phenomenology: in true Heideggerian form he takes great joy in the thinging of things Look at this—you just take this thing, and turn it around this other thing and a thing comes out to tie right onto this thing! about psychoanalysis, desire, and lack: he volunteers Saturdays at the SPCA just so he can pull very gently on a leash he consoles cats and he dreams of a dog Structuralist semiotics be damned he is my son and he is just so sonny 39 IsavdOiptes Place: Language Education Research Centre Thomas Kemple read from his Reading Marx Writing. Extreme convolution of sentences in his locution. And his end notes were very intriguing. Very Derridian—deconstructive as well as instructive and interrupting. He read from his endnotes and explained where they were in the text and why. Notes on his reading/notes on his notes: "Imitate, parody, and subvert in my own way, some of Marx's strategies." "... provide occasions for readers to make their own notes." We could think of his notes as program notes to a theatre production. With his arbitrary cutting and opening, he is attempting to invite readers in to make connections, where readers must re-write the text. He says he is attempting to deconstruct the idea of text and notes, and mess with the hierarchy of the usual placement of notes. (I asked why didn't he then place the notes within the text—or he could even place the text within the notes...? He said editor/publisher constraints. They told him he was not Derrida.) His notes are similar, I think, to my use of these travel notes. But it becomes a question of where to place them. There is no linearity to this. I think about something and write about it, sometimes in the Travel Notes, sometimes on the "dissertation" page. Of course it is all "dissertation". Every misted hollow folds words over on your tongue. Like time travel gone wrong, the perils of geography. All that old cartography. 0, the New World. Helen Humphreys 40 Travel9{ptes Place: Desk Not a good day today. A n d my desk is a clutter of junk. M u c h of it someone else's. Titanic web site print-outs, a Grade 9 science research paper. Already it is necessary, it seems, to define the problem. In Grade 10 they w i l l probably add a new section to the assignment: limitations of the study. Phone numbers and scheduling scribbles for someone else's schedule. Notes and sticky notes here and there. I am in despair today. Getting lost in semiotic reading. Starting again with Chapter One of Silverman. Minute differences in the language of signification. Signifier is showing up in disguise as a sign, as an interpretant. A n d Peirce is saying the signified of the signifier is another signifier with another signified which is another signifier with a new signified etc. A linear thing, a signified that does not turn back on its own signifier, but refers/relays to another signifier or becomes itself another signifier, delaying meaning further on down the line? A train/chain of signification what about an unchained melody oh my love my darling I've hungered for your touch ... oh my god what is happening to me? Are you reading this? A m I crazy? A n d is this just such a chain here? One thing leading to another? Peirce is not saying what I am trying to say. I am trying to say that there is a back and forth action—if we signify something (with a sign), our understanding of the thing (referent/signified) in some way is influenced by the sign we choose, and before we even choose the sign it has been affected by previous signifieds? Does this happen over time, with us(e)? Voice (tenderly) lonely mountains gaze at the stars, at the stars, waiting for the dawn ofthe day Hy Zaret (Unchained Melody) 41 In the Middle Is the Wor(l)de (... is the map is the territory is the map ...) WORD/^ORLD In attending to the notion of poetics as an active writing, I am not concerned with which came first—the world or the word, and I do not intend to prove the existence of any transcendental signified. And I am not trying to say that we should privilege word over world or vice versa. I am more interested in the mingling and dancing of wor(l)de and what that mingling and line dancing might mean for geography lessons. This equation for signification is in the space between the first two equations. Not privileging word or world, but recognizing that there is a movement of the line in this equation; it is in a state of flux. There is a dancing back and forth between world and word; the relationship between the two is not static, there is kinesthetic energy in the line. The line is dancing between word and world. A part of the world influences the word and a part of the word influences (our conception of) the world. Regarding "we" or the subject, it seems to me that in the first signifying equation, "we" is outside of the word, in the second equation "we" is with the word, and in the third equation, "we" is in the w(or(l)d)e. What does psychoanalysis have to say about poststructural semiotics and word and world and we? Even within this area there is a direct connection made between who we are and how we are in the world, and the connection is made through words. A basic premise within psychoanalysis is that we are intent throughout life in crossing the line between meaning and being; between the I and the one who says I. While Lacanian theories relate these two separate entities or parts of the self to the separation from the mother, and a desire to return to the (w)hole, there is a line acknowledged between the two parts. Often the metaphor of the mirror is used to indicate a separateness in our being; that is, there is a glass surface between the I and the one who says I, between the self and the image of self. This is similar to a line dance between word and world, as we dance between being and meaning, always trying to 42 merge the two, but acknowledging the line of signification is there. I think of particular importance to notions of we and world and word are the notions of similarity and contiguity and metaphor and metonymy found within psychoanalytic theories of signification. In our attempt to cross the line, to merge being with meaning, we make use of similarities and contiguities in our signifying acts. While similarity and metaphor attempt in some ways to mirror ideas and images, to say this is like this (a signifying dance of verticality), contiguity and metonymy recognize the separateness of entities even while they are both part of a whole (a dance between the vertical and horizontal). Metonymy itself is a recognition that there are possibilities for meaning that metaphor or similarities might close down. Metonymy is a way of wording worlds with open possibilities. In a way, when we read metonymic writing or writing that presents contiguous sections of text, it is up to us, the readers/writers to make the connecting line between the contiguous parts. To imagine the line dancing—dancing a new step. Regarding poetic language, Julia Kristeva refers to this notion of contiguity. She speaks of certain signifying practices that reach "zero degree of meaning" (22); that is, certain ways of communicating (such as poetry that is elliptical, or "the play of colors in an abstract painting or a piece of music that lacks signification but has a meaning") "that do not refer to a referent or have a precise denotative meaning in the way that signs have referents and signifieds" (21). Kristeva defines these acts of communicating as semiotic, but her definition of semiotic is not the structuralist definition. She defines as semiotic those acts of communication that go beyond language. They are moments of meaning that are not reducible to signs. But they exist as moments of meaning only because there is language and a symbolic system. 43 This third equation of signification is related to the rhizomatic space between the book and the world (Deleuze and Guattari 9). Perhaps, rather than a line that dances up and down, back and forth between word and world, there is a space where a multiplicity of connections is M E A N D E R I N G 10 a metaphor (like this one) will close a door. metonymy is part of more... note punctuation marks metonymy/metaphor 1 °Is this small piece of language, one word, yet two (metonymy/metaphor), what Metaphor with a capital M presents/performs? Is everything? Similarity in a system depends on contiguity. Post=note: After speaking with Ted Aoki, and reading again my references that deal with metonymic writing and metaphoric writing, this is what I understand; metaphoric discourse is a discourse of verticality, an effort to mime what is not present and in the mimetic act, to call the absence into presence. There is a privileging of presence within this discourse, and it is similar to Ted's imaginary Discourse A. Discourse B is a discourse that plays with the difference between word and word, capitalizing on that difference between Sr and Sr, and privileging absence, and this is metonymic discourse, with a small m. Metonymic discourse with a capital M (Metonymy) is the "and/not and" of metaphor/metonymy, and this is Ted's imaginary Discourse C. And here is where my notion of worlde resides, and where poetic possibilities for new dancing steps exist. 4 4 Travel9{ptes Race: A Traffic Circle For the last three months I feel I have been writing in a circle, attempting to get out of it and on with my journey, but I can't write my way out of this circle. And many days I try to enter the circle from a new point, thinking that day I will finally make it out of the circle, but I am like Chevy Chase in EuropeanVacation, caught in a traffic circle, repeatedly saying to his children, "Oh look kids, there's BIG BEN" . I want to move on from thinking about semiotics and word/world and look at curricular matters, but I can't seem to say what I want to say (and I'm not sure what I want to say), and I am now afraid of failing at this whole thing. I keep trying to figure out new ways to approach or organize a discussion of how words and worlds are connected, and each time I get to a point (usually where I have to start talking about other people's theories) where I just don't want to move on. I don't want to write another word. Maybe today I will find a way out. And it's not like I have to come up with some novel idea or invention. The area of geography curriculum does not abound with discussions of words and semiotics and language. So I do believe in many ways I am writing an introduction to this area for those who are interested in geography curriculum. I should be explaining why I think we need to look at words and language in the study of geography. I should be talking about the way words and language are not transparent—how the ways we use language and words in geography lessons form a part of our world writing, our geo-graphying. And why do I keep writing in this travel journal, and can hardly say a thing on the dissertation pages? groceries ink for printer red tulips check at library bookstore mail VISA 4 5 Travelfiptes Place: Desk Yesterday was the worst day. I just got so frustrated. I think a lot of this frustration has to do with my voice. And I was so frustrated I missed going to the doctoral seminar where I know the topic was going to be "voice" in our writing. What do I want this to sound like? I don't want my writing to be obscure or opaque. Last night I was reading a paper by Peggy Phelan on the unmarked. She was using endnotes, and I think the endnotes were not symmetrical with her actual article. I think she was trying to make a point with them. She was talking about how the generative space is where there is misunderstanding and no way to make things symmetrical. So were her endnotes doing that? Performing asymmetry? And then creating a generative space? This would be a clever idea, except that, I do want people to understand. I liked what Phelan said about the notion of the "Real" —how it is impossible to represent, yet she was desiring that her words on the page would "really" say something. That they would be understood by readers. Even the performance is performed in the "hope" that there will be some understanding; at least, if nothing else, of misunderstanding. I talked with Anita today about my writing in circles. She said I needed to just leave that section and move on. Go back to it in a week or so and try again. And this is what I will do. It is a good time for that because today all of the Saskatchewan Education materials came in the mail. this program teaches and reinforces basic map reading skills includes material to develop map reading skills included are a table of contents, map, and curricular words 46 possible "and no radical separation can be established between the regimes of signs and their objects" (11)—between words and worlds. Deleuze and Guattari speak of de-territorialization and re-territorialization as movements connected to each other and rhizomatic—the word could re-territorialize the world, and in so doing, the word becomes de-territorialized, but also, in the same movement, the word is re-territorialized into something else: a becoming-world. Julia Kristeva also notes this generative space and practice in her writing regarding the revolution of poetic language. Along with a space of signification, she speaks of the practice of signification as signifiance, an "unlimited and unbounded generating process,...a structuring and de-structuring practice, a passage to the outer boundaries of the subject and society" (31). I believe Deleuze and Guattari and Kristeva are also speaking ofthe mingling dance of word and world in a signifying event. This notion of rhizomatic growth and its multiplicity of pathways of connections is preferred by Derek Gregory as a way of thinking about geography itself. Rather than conceiving of geography within the "tree of knowledge" framework, as a discipline that is "systematic, hierarchical, grounded—so that its cultivators can scrutinize its fruit, fuss over its pruning, and worry about its felling" (x), Gregory proposes we "open up our geographies to interruptions and displacements, to attend to other ways of traveling, and to follow new lines of flight" (x). Writing in the area of human geography, Gregory would prefer to conceive of geography as a discourse, rather than an enclosing discipline. Our habits of mind, and our ways of "making sense of places, spaces, and landscapes in our everyday lives" (11) is a discursive framework for geography, one that may open onto spaces for poetic possibilities moreso than a framework that is strictly disciplinarian. 4 7 (Travd(Hgtes Place:(ing) words on pages This is where I will begin the section on geography curriculum. I have moved this section around quite a bit, splitting sections and leaving spaces. I know my struggle about where to place sections, and even to decide how to split sections is all about expectations of linearity. It is difficult to make something linear out of something that has not been linear at all in its conception (or in its tracings of tracings). I write in fragments, adding to sections here and there. A BED-TIME STORY plot lines like isobars always connecting under the surface of lives lived in narrative captivity plot lines transform our flat everyday: prairie landscapes become mountainous terrain plot lines ascend descend ascend until at the final cliff we plunge again into an ending only to begin along another linear pathway plot lines: perhaps Aristotle started it all or maybe it was manuals constructing the act of sex into standard narrative forms 48 TraveC %Cotes or maybe that is where Aristotle got his plot lines in the first place in love with his climax he chose its topography and that is why the ending always comes now hush my sweet and go to sleep And, for example, I do not always remember the places for all of the states in the United States of America, even though I was marked for that in Grade 6. Even though I marked students for that in Grade 6. Even though my own children were marked for that in Grade 6. desk note 49 SOUNDING II when the nurse handed me my naked little boy child at bath time i did not know what to do with him and all of his appendages all i knew was sisters and girl friends and girl cousins and mothers and aunties and grandmothers and great grandmothers and great aunties and how to play dolls and house and hospital and school i did not then know the earthy smells Of digging deep holes in dirt and now my son has a voice that is changing he bellows and mumbles and shouts and roars out his new sounds he likes his voice he is proud of his rich dark coffee tones he watches us he wants to know what his voice change looks like on our faces i ask him if it hurts to have your voice change what is it like is it like a sore throat he laughs at a woman's questions and says he does not even notice the difference that i notice calling home to check on things he answers the phone is this my son i am shocked and then i think how silly of course i know what it is like to have a voice change mine is changing also daily in this place and i like it too L A N D S C A P E S O F G E O G R A P H Y Dancing Curricular Lines/Spaces Ted Aoki invites us to open up to possibilities concerning the meaning of curriculum. He speaks of a curricular landscape consisting of "both planned curriculum and live(d) curricula, as many as there are teachers and students, indeed, a multiplicity of curricula" (Modernity and Postmodernity 1) and invites us to enter the space between. To enter the space of the "and/not and". Again I am reminded of the backslash he draws between signifier and signified, signifier and signifier—the sign of the and/not and. Ted calls this a generative space. The space between the lines planned and live(d). I am exploring curricular possibilities in this generative space. But (I have pondered) how do I get to that space? I think I am (and all of us are) always in that space, as I dance up and down, back and forth, between the planned lines and the lived lines. It is in that dancing that curriculum is/happens. Curriculum in the living and planning is a dance of performing. In my consideration of poetic possibilities, I want to consider the lines of curriculum-as-planned and the lines of curriculum-as-lived, from the space between the two. Perhaps by exploring the boundary lines, the spaces for poetic possibilities will become evident. By choosing the space between, we are able to imagine possibilities for planning and living, all the while acknowledging and accepting the messiness and ambivalence and chaos of that space. Curriculum is like a dance of planning and living and ambivalence in between. In my dancing, I believe I am adding to the multiplicity of ways the world of curriculum theory can be written. Curriculum is about self and world. Bi l l Pinar describes curriculum as the medium in and through which "generations struggle to define themselves and the world" (848) 1 1. Both 1 'it is interesting to note that Pinar's discussions of curricular matters are filled with cartographical metaphors, in fact, the index includes 19 direct references to mapping—in a book dealing with curriculum! Phrases such as "mapped fields, mapping theories of curriculum, plotting a journey, the curricular outline as map, mapping dominant positions in curricular theory" are littered throughout the text. A discussion of jan jagodzinski's work (490) is filled with mapping metaphors, and is concerned with a "dismantling of male dominance and technical rationality" (all the while using a system of metaphors that has typically been associated with technical precision and male dominance). However, in a related book chapter, jan jagodzinski does discuss spaces for possibility regarding maps and curriculum, jagodzinski describes curricular documents 53 curriculum and geography hold possibilities for enhancing our notions of self and world. The self and world of curricular lines are shaped by lived experiences (of living, breathing bodies!). Curricular lines are lines of self and world, mingling together. It makes no sense to first talk about planned lines, and then talk about live(d) lines of curriculum, because these lines of curriculum are always already mingling and dancing. My exploration acknowledges the dancing that always already happens. And this is not much different than what I have said earlier about word and world. Curricular planned lines are documents of words all gathered together, and these words do influence the live(d) curricular world of geography education. Just as our living influences how we live in the curricular world. My use of the term landscape in regards to geography and curriculum is a conscious effort to call forth the constructedness of both entities. Geography and curriculum are not naturally occurring phenomena. Both are culturally constructed. My reference to planned curricular landscapes is a reference to landscape as an act of observing and as an artifact that is observable. That is, the landscape of curriculum-as-planned is a conscious arranging for a certain effect, and the landscape of curriculum-as-planned is an artifact that is observable. In performative terms, the curriculum-as-planned landscape is an act and a seeing/scene. Gillian Rose discusses the use of the term landscape within human geography. She notes that landscape "refers not only to the relationships between different objects caught in the fieldworker's gaze but that it also implies a specific way of looking" (87) and that "whether written or painted, grown or built, a landscape's meanings draw on the cultural codes of the society for which it was made" (89); it "represents only a partial world view" (91). Denis Cosgrove's deconstruction of the landscape idea indicates that while the present uptake of landscape within cultural geography is anti-scientific, historically, as maps that we might use for traveling, and notes that it is when the travel route becomes pre-determined through the territory/map/curriculum that these maps/curricular documents lose their openness to possibility (162). 54 landscape represented an objective measuring and linear perspective, and "like the practical sciences of the Italian Renaissance, was founded upon scientific theory and knowledge" (46). It was not considered a partial view at all, but an all-encompassing view. He cautions human geographers to pay attention to the particular view they are calling up when they employ the term landscape. He notes an "inherent conservatism in the landscape idea, in its celebration of property and of an unchanging status quo, in its suppression of tension between groups in the landscape" (58). Gillian expands on the gendered nature of landscapes (the act of viewing and the scene/seen), noting that the act of viewing was/is masculine (and active), and the scene/seen is feminine (and passive). In my initial use ofthe term landscape in association with curriculum, I had not considered these aspects, but in retrospect, these geographical musings regarding the term landscape are also quite fitting for curricular musings and the metaphor of landscape. Curriculum (in design and content) is very much a culturally arranged document that reinforces and maintains dominant patriarchal cultural ideologies, and a status quo, and in document form (while not necessarily feminine), attempts the linear perspective of which Cosgrove speaks regarding the historical aspects of landscape. However, my present exploration of curriculum, my own arranged view on these pages, is a partial view, and thus fits in with the current uptake of this term within cultural geography. And if anything, I am trying to disrupt the status quo with my landscaping. Related to this notion of landscape as view, accounts of spatial representation within the project of modernity include the need to gain a bird's eye view of specific sites and places, the need to know the world through the gaze—the gaze becoming the claim to knowledge. Gazing from on high allows the viewer a position of power, and the assumption is that by seeing the city or a place as a whole, as a totality, we can then claim to know the city or the place. In the nineteenth century in Paris, hills were built up so that an all encompassing, distancing gaze was possible. In the 1870's towers began to appear in 55 western "world" cities (Paris, New York, London), thus facilitating the attempt to organize the world—make it visible and ordered. The view from on high became the all-knowing gaze. Along with the gaze from on high, Benjamin 1 2 noted that the gaze in nineteenth century Paris had become mobilized. It became possible to effect the gaze from not just on high, but by moving through the city and observing people in public places: the gallery, the shopping mall, the boulevard. This mobile gaze was made possible through the act of fldnerie. Paris, in the nineteenth century, was the birthplace of flanerie: the practice of distanced, detached sightseeing. The fidnuer was gendered (male) and privileged, passing the time among crowds and in public spaces observing life in a detached fashion. More than just an aimless stroll in the park or along the boulevard, Sheilds notes that flanerie was enacted in specific public spaces and involved the art of the gaze: "The flaneur is out to see and be seen, and thus requires a crowd to be able to watch others and take in the bustle of the city in the security of his anonymous status as part of the metropolitan throng. The crowd is also an audience. Flanerie is thus a crowd practice, a connoisseur's 'art of doing' crowd behaviour" (65). For the most part, the view from on high, or the detached gaze of 19th century flanerie has been the approach to curriculum in the 20th century; coming to know something through an objective, disembodied, scientific approach. The curricular tradition within geography itself has been to stand back and objectify places, to study places in a removed sort of way. Curricular flanerie is evident in the following lines of Carl Leggo's poem, Grade Four Geography: In grade four geography I saw illustrations often-year-old children; for all their differences l^ See Shields, 1994 for a discussion of Benjamin's writing on the flaneur. 56 they looked the same like Barbie dolls with interchangeable costumes ...In grade four geography I knew the earth was an object solid, stable, static, easily described the earth present in the words and pictures and maps of my textbook 1 3 Returning again to Gillian Rose's discussion of landscape and masculinity, Rose notes that feminists have tried to call attention to the masculine gaze that in effect "constructs access to knowledge of geography", a gaze that determines "what are constituted as objects of knowledge, whether environmental, social, political or cultural" (109). I would add that this masculine gaze also constricts what count as ways of knowing. She notes how feminists attempt to disrupt the hegemonic way of seeing within geography, "without imposing an alternative which could only assert a specific femininity as universal in an equally repressive manner" (112). On the following pages then, I plan to arrange some geographical landscapes, both curricular and academic; sometimes as a traveler/dweller, sometimes, perhaps as a tourist, and always with possibilities in mind. While my views might appear rather flanuer-iike, on occasion, I do hope to arrange some of my landscapes from the ground level, with more of the detail and more of what Rose refers to as the "small-scale pleasures" (112) being my focus. 3Carl Leggo. "Grade Four Geography." The N e w f o u n d l a n d Q u a r t e r l y (In Press). 57 Two Landscapes Geography as a curricular subject has been studied in classrooms across North America since the beginnings of public education. Occasionally a subject in its own right within some school districts, geography is most often included under the interdisciplinary umbrella of social studies education in elementary and secondary classrooms. Decisions regarding what to teach in geography lessons are based, in part, on state-determined curriculum requirements14. And these state-determined curriculum requirements are based, in part, on the academic discipline of geography as it is constructed within scholarly research and writing (most typically originating within Geography Departments on university campuses) and on the subject discipline of geography as it is constructed within scholarly research and writing (most typically originating within Curriculum and Instruction departments on university campuses). And here, I think, is another generative space or borderland, and one in which I am presently situated—the space between the lines of curricular geography/social studies education, and the lines of academic geography. In his studies of the evolution of disciplines and school subjects, Ivor Goodson examines the relationship between academic disciplines and school subjects. While a common understanding of how a school subject evolves is one based on the idea that "an intellectual discipline is created by a community of scholars, normally working in a university, and is then 'translated' for use into a school subject" (4), Goodson notes this is not the case for school geography. During the late nineteenth century, geography in Britain was struggling at the universities, but was receiving more and more emphasis in the schools 1 5. Part ofthe struggle for the discipline within the university context was where to 14Although still in the review stages, the British Columbia Grade 12 Instructional Resource Package (IRP) 1997, suggests the following changes within geography curriculum from Kindergarten to Grade 12: A greater emphasis on human geography and less on physical geography, a greater emphasis on different environmental perspectives, and increased student participation through local community involvement (1). 15While Canadian curriculum had its origins in British and French curricular traditions, it is unlikely that present-day geography curriculum in Canada parallels Britain's. However, Goodson's study is useful because it highlights the territorial boundaries between the academy and the schoolyard, and the possibilities that open up when these boundaries are transgressed. 58 locate geography—it seemed to contain properties that would place it within the humanities and also properties that would place it within the natural sciences. Where it was located (in which faculty) determined the focus of study and the examinations; thus there seemed to be no consistent approach or growth to geography as an academic university discipline. School geography during this same time period was an established subject; however, it was growing and changing into a subject area that was so broad and all encompassing, that it was losing its definition of purpose. Goodson's study cites Honeybone as stating that by the 1930's, geography "came more and more to be a 'world citizenship' subject, with the citizens detached from their physical environment" (64). School geographers began calling for a strong academic geography at the university level with the hopes that this would raise the standards and confine the focus of school geography, as well as provide a training ground for future geography teachers. As a result of pressure from the schools, university geography did become well-established as a legitimate discipline by the early 1940's, and soon specialists were heading school departments. It appears that this is when the gap between the two landscapes began to widen. When it did become established as an academic discipline in university territory, and did indeed train teachers, geography was criticized by other university disciplines for being a subject for children in schools! Perhaps because of this, the academic discipline became increasingly intellectual and rigorous, splitting into specialist areas, each with its own jargon. (And here I am speculating, but at this point, the academic discipline did not likely have the training of teachers high on its list of priorities.) So, while never quite the same thing, school geography and academic geography have had a long-standing relationship of sorts. What Goodson refers to as a "pattern of disciplines translating down" (from academic scholars) to lower-status groups at the school level (teachers!) did not seem to be the case for geography. He refers to the way geography became established as a curricular area as a process of "aspiration upwards" (78)! I prefer to think of the establishment of a curricular area as a mingling process (perhaps not wanting to 59 see myself as a member of a "lower-status group"). Most certainly, academic scholars and curricular scholars and classroom teachers and students are each individual determining factors regarding school geography. However, aside from technological advances, over the last thirty years it seems that as curricular scholars16, we have not attended to recent developments within the academic discipline. I believe, in Canada, it is a case of being stuck in the sixties. And, here, I think is a good place to begin to describe to you my travels through these two landscapes. I am going to start with my travels through the curricular landscape of geography, and then I plan to share with you some of the recent developments within the academic geography landscape. A Landscape of Curricular Geography What is geography, then, within the lines/spaces of curriculum? As a subject under the curriculum umbrella of social studies education, how is geography constructed? How is social studies education constructed? What are the textual practices supported and promoted within this subject discipline (as perhaps a way of disciplining subjects)? In my exploration of the above questions, I am considering the following planned lines and spaces of curriculum: teacher education textbooks, social studies ministry documents (curriculum guides) from British Columbia and Saskatchewan, and curricular discussions within a recent publication regarding current trends and issues in social studies education (See Appendix I). I am including documents from British Columbia and Saskatchewan because, geographically, these are the places I have danced between the lines, living and planning curriculum; as an elementary student, as a teacher education student, as an elementary 16Here I am referring to those educators who study curriculum and consider policy and programming and changes to curricular planned lines, and who (like myself) have the opportunity to work within the curricular lines and spaces of teacher education programs. Classroom teachers may be attending quite closely to recent developments in academic geography on an individual basis, but any related innovations have not translated into curricular documents. There are certainly teachers who throw out the curriculum documents and go their own way. My concern is with a transformation in the curriculum-as-planned. I believe that if curriculum-as-planned becomes more attuned to recent developments in academic geography, then there are more opportunities for transformation of curricula-as-live(d). 60 classroom teacher, as a graduate student, and as a social studies curriculum instructor in teacher education programs at three universities in Western Canada: the University of Saskatchewan, the University of Victoria, and the University of British Columbia. In exploring the planned lines of curriculum, my intent is not to offer a detailed analysis of these curricular materials, but rather, to use these documents to arrive at a description of how geography is constructed within the subject area of social studies, to note any attention to textual practices these documents support, and to explore how word and world and we occur within geography curriculum. I believe some form of description of curricula currently in place is necessary in order to imagine possibilities for change. Parts of these documents appear throughout the lines and spaces of this atlas, perhaps Have students construct glossaries that define environmental terms associated with resource management (e.g., sustainability, stewardship) (BC Ministry IRP, Grade 6). Have students represent what they see when looking down on several objects (bird's-eye view) on their desk. (BC Ministry IRP, Grade 1). juxtaposed with alternative documents, or I may insert planned lines to interrupt and/or introduce space or possibilities. Geography and environmental education are obviously linked. These pupils have become aware of this by studying animal habitats. What is not obvious is that the study of the environment begins with your own body: what you do to it, what you do with it, and what it does to the environment (Joseph Kirman, Elementary Social Studies 99). The Geography of Social Studies Education I am considering geography along several lines of thought regarding social studies education (the place where geography is located curricularly). First of all, I am considering, 61 in a general way, the geography of social studies education, that is, how it is constructed as a subject area. What does the landscape look like? And, within this landscape of social studies education, I am interested, more specifically, in how geographical understandings and concepts are included within the landscape of social studies education. What sorts of textual practices are supported through the teaching of these concepts? What are these concepts? Also, regarding the geography of social studies, and I have been playing with this metaphor throughout my travels, I am considering geography as geo-graphy: earth writing or world writing. Metaphorically speaking, I am concerned with how we graphy the geo, how we write the world, within geography lessons and social studies education. Do we privilege word or world, or do we acknowledge the line dancing of wor(l)de? I believe that in what we study and how we study in social studies and geography teaching and learning, we are actually poeming the world; we are writing the world in certain ways, and further, we are writing our selves into the world in certain ways. Teaching any subject is a socio-textual event and as teachers and students, we write/read our selves into/out of that text17.Curricular considerations need to acknowledge this line dancing. So, then, how do we word the world of social studies education18? What does the landscape look like? There has been an ongoing debate among educators as to what social studies is and what it should be. Alan Sears notes in his recent discussion of social studies education in Canada, "Social studies educators are people who are always arguing about what social studies is" (19 - 20). 1 'Although he is using a different dialect, Alan Sears notes this same poeming of the world that happens within social studies education. In a recent publication Sears says, "The very nature and purpose of [social studies] is debated by professionals in the field, politicians, academics, and the general public. These debates are as much about the kind of society that we ought to shape as they are about any particular curriculum or method of teaching" (43). We are shaping society and writing a place for our selves within or outside of that society through social studies education. 18When I speak of social studies education, I am referring to the area of study, as it is constructed within teacher education documents, curricular documents, and in curricular discussions within scholarly writings and research. I am not speaking here of "doing" the subject of social studies; but rather how it is constructed as a subject area. 62 My own personal definition of social studies education is, "Who we are and how we are in the world". Several definitions of social studies education focus on the physical and social environments and how people interact within those environments. I do not intend to argue for what I believe social studies education should be. I am basically happy with what it is. I like all the words we use to word the world of social studies education. Regarding geographical understandings within social studies, I am interested in changing how we say the words, rather than in changing the words themselves. Despite the arguments about what social studies education is or ought to be, geography is always included in some way as part of social studies education. I plan to give you a general overview of social studies education, and then take a closer look at how geography occurs within social studies education. 1 have included a landscape of elementary social studies education on the following page (See Figure 1). This is the landscape that I have been traveling through for many years; as an elementary student, as a teacher education student, as an elementary teacher, as a graduate student, and as a teacher education social studies curriculum instructor. I chose these words that appear in my landscape from provincial curricular documents, from teacher education resources, and from scholarly writing in the area of social studies education. Most of these words come from definitions and rationale statements for social studies education, and some come from lists of concepts believed to be integral to teaching and learning in social studies. I believe these words are full of poetic possibilities. I have added the word inclusiveness to this landscape. Although it is not mentioned specifically within rationale statements and definitions, the intent in including multiple perspectives, decision-making, valuing self and others, etc., is inclusiveness. What I mean by inclusiveness here, is the idea that social studies is about including all people and places in our conception of the world and how we live in it. Inclusiveness in social studies is about including perspectives from various locations regarding issues that we study in social studies; for example, it is about including an acknowledgment of our emotions and feelings 63 A Landscape of Social Studies Education Inclusiveness , . * „ . Location Multiple Perspectives Identity Relationships: physical environment Citizenship social environment Critical Thinking Value and Respect for Self/Others Making Decisions Making Connections Respect for Human Equality and Cultural Diversity Figure 1: A Landscape of Social Studies Education 6 4 when we make our "reasoned" decisions, rather than ignoring this added dimension. Inclusiveness in social studies is about gender inclusiveness; for example, including both boys and girls in a discussion of what "all thy sons command" means in our National anthem. Inclusiveness in social studies education is about including as many approaches to learning as possible; for example, validating what we know from our bodies and in our hearts about what it is like to live in a community. Inclusiveness in social studies is about including discussions about race and colour in our attempts to understand who we are and how we are in the world as individuals and as groups. Inclusiveness in social studies is about including, within our multiple perspectives, a critical examination of those perspectives regarding the welfare of all people; for example, including a discussion of why books about homosexual families are banned from school districts, and how we decide on our personal stance regarding these issues. Let me tell you what I have noted in my travels through the landscape of social studies education. Within teacher education materials and provincial curricular documents, elementary social studies is actually organized geographically. That is, we begin with studies of our immediate surroundings in the primary grades and we move further and further out into the world as we grow up. This method of organization is referred to as an "expanding horizons" approach. Kindergarten and Grade One studies focus on self and family, Grade Two and Three focus on communities, first the local community, and then neighbouring communities. Grade Four is usually a study of provincial focus, Grade Five is our country, Grade Six our neighbouring countries (BC: Pacific Rim, Sask.: Atlantic Neighbours), Grade Seven the world, and then Grade Eight varies (BC: Ancient Civilizations: Greek and Roman; Sask.: Individual in Society). So then, from primary to intermediate, and on into secondary education, social studies education becomes more and more removed from the local and personal. 65 While documents note the importance of making connections between the global and the local, social studies education is described within documents as a study that moves from the local to the global. A recent assessment of social studies education in the province of British Columbia includes the following recommendation regarding instruction at the Grades 5-7 and 8-12 levels: "Increased emphasis on relating material studied to the individual student's life" (8 - 9). This does not show up as a concern for the K - 4 Grades, where study is more focused on the local and the personal. This geographical organization of study supports a notion that as we grow older it is desirable to move away from the personal, private spaces to the public spaces. So, geographically, social studies promotes, in the way it is organized for instruction, a split between public and private. There is also a gender difference regarding this demarcation of the study of private and public. Students in primary classrooms are more likely taught by women, and they study the more private spaces—home and family. Students in intermediate classrooms and secondary classrooms study the less personal, more public spaces and places, and are more likely to be taught social studies by both women and men. As social studies education progresses through the grades (or as children progress through social studies education), children are encouraged to adopt a bird's eye view in their study of the world, especially, as will be noted further, in the case of "map skills". This method of detached study reminds me of a poster advertising the discipline of geography. The poster depicts a young man with his arms and legs wrapped around a flag standard that is at the top of a sky scraper and he is looking down on the world of the city below. The caption on the poster says: "See the world from a different place. Become a geographer". I am hopeful that we can also be geo-graphers on the ground level. 66 cTravet<Hptts Place: Desk Like Helene Cixous, I make many of my notes at night. Many nights while "I am in my bed in a greater proximity to my body" (106), I get up and go to my desk to write a note. And in the morning I work my notes into my text. I expand on them. Now I am expanding. In the night I made notes about topography. I am not happy with the way I have been writing the curricular topography over the last few days. I don't like trying to string along artificially a group of thoughts that did not occur in a nice long linear string. What if I started writing like Baudrillard? What if I wrote cool memory fragments about curriculum and geography and wor(l)de? And left spaces between the fragments? Would that be democratic? Would readers feel misled? Or would they feel free to make their own rhizomatic connections? Fragmented writing is what these travel notes sometimes portray, or at least they will perform this when they are placed within the "real" dissertation pages. But where to place them is the question. She has been warned of the risk she incurs by letting words runoff the rails, time and again tempted by the desire to gear herself to accepted norms. But where has obedience led her? TrinhT.Minha(264) 67 (Description^: A Legend of "LxptoratJo-nM Into GeographicalSpaces In the years of my graduate research and teaching, I set out to explore the occurrence of geography teaching and learning within thz Cands of social studies education. Here is a listing of my ports of call (See Appendv^I): Various Cool Memories and'Dreams of'Teaching and Learning Geography Two Teacher 'Education Texp Sin anthology of Current Trends and Issues in Social Studies 'Education 'Various Ministry 'Documents from the 'Provinces of'British Columbia and Saskatchewan Having my supplies made ready, I departed one evening with only a soft Breeze to fid the sails of my sloop. Having set my sails for a close haul sail, I cleated the jib and main sail sheets, which then left my hands free to worl(the tiller. Soon a landscape was visible in the distance, a fragmentedarchipelago. My first sighting of geography teaching and learning was along the islands of teacher education textbooks21. There were two small islands. Having already been to parts 1 9Lyn Hejinian notes that "description should not be confused with definition; it is not definitive but transformative. Description ... is a particular and complicated process of thinking, highly intentional while at the same time ideally simultaneous with and equivalent to perception (and thus open to the arbitrariness, unpredictability, and inadvertence of what appears). Or one might say that it is at once improvisational and purposive" (32). 20"There is a disconcerting similarity between records of dreams and records made by the explorers—the same apparent objectivity, the same attempt to be accurate about details and to be equally accurate about every detail (presumably because one doesn't know which details are the important ones, either in Tahiti or in the dream)" Lyn Hejinian (33). 2 S^ee Appendix I for a list of these. The texts were chosen because they were recommended or required at the universities where I taught social studies curriculum and instruction courses. I have used both the Kirman and Wright textbooks as required texts. Thinking back on my own teacher education courses, I remember that for the first month of my first social studies curriculum course, the professor spoke very highly of the "Manacorsive Study" as an example of current directions in social studies curriculum (in 1977). It was only in doing a library search that I realized he had been referring to Bruner's "Man: A course of Study." 68 of these islands in the past, I was familiarwith some of the chapters includedwithin each of these islands, and here arc their names: field Research Maps, Map-ping & the Teaching of Geography Teaching about Geography and Environmental education Teaching Map SkHUs Map games for the 'Elementary Grades Within these chapters, the value of geography was eiqtounded upon, evidence of which follows: "...the teaching of geography andmap skills plays a crucial role in Social Studies" (Wright 141). "Geography is a critical concern, everything that happens on this planet has a geographic component...Mumanityfaces a crisis in the management of the planet "Earth" (%irman 100). The chapter with the name offield%esearch had a strong local environmental education focus. There were 18 suggested activities for a local field research study, and two of these 18 spok^e of embodied Iqtowledge: 14. List all of the sounds you can hear and smells you can smell. Where do they come from? 15. Write descriptive words or sentences about how you feel at the site. 'Does it make you feel happy, sad, angry {137)? Wright describes "getting a feel' (135) for a place as a majorgoal of field studies, along with collecting data firsthand, and teaching map skHCls. There was a very wide and strong stream running through this chapter on field studies, and it can be described as 69 "How people use and manage the environment". I noted the following textual practices encouraged within the field study samples: draw, list, write descriptive words or sentences. 'Everywhere within the chapter on 'The Teaching of Geography and Map Skills" ('Wright) the teaching of latitude and longitude was made evident. Indeed, teachers were encouraged to Begin the study of a place with the latitudinal position of that place, ft. "pilots-eye view" is the perspective children are to develop regarding geography and map sf$lls, andthis same pilot's-eye view is evident in the way illustrations are presented in these chapters. My eyes never wearied of photographs that look^ed down on drawings or maps. On the one hundredth and sixty-third page of this chapter, I noted a suggestion that children should read "accounts ofthe physicalandculturallandscapes ofaplace in order to get a feel for the location." 70 •8* *f* »1* »J* « I * *f» 4 * *$• •$* *t* *t» v% ht* *f* »f* *S* »J> »J» HJ* »t* »J» «f «t* * ! • 4 * «t> «f» «1* »t» «t* «4» »f* *I* *t* " l * • ! * «t* *t» ^> »I» •J» rg* rf* «J» *J» «J» «J» »j» »)% rf* *(* *J» «j» «J» »J» *J» »|» *J» *J» if* *j» »J» *J» »J» *J» »}» *J» *J» *J» * j» * J * «j» «{* «j» •£» •]» i j» •(» if* *g* i j » «J» «J» *J» wj» Cool Memories and Dreams I : Teacher Education Classroom I invited Warren to come and talk with my elementary social studies curriculum and instruction students about bodies, spaces, and drama. He came to class today and shared some of his ideas with us. We used our bodies within our classroom space to map/locate our home places, and also in some way to represent our place. Two students were from the prairies—the three of us grouped together according to our geographical region. We decided to use the entire room to depict our place. The three of us spread out in the room and held out our arms. We were lonely trees on the prairie. One of the "prairie trees", a tall quiet man, said to me, "I hate doing things like this." He was very shy, and self-consciously held up his arms. He was a perfect tree for our self-conscious prairie landscape. A few weeks later, when he handed in his portfolio, he had reflected on the experience of using his body to represent a place. In his portfolio, he outlined an idea he had for using Warren's approach to bodies and mapping in a physical education lesson on lines of movement in space. Children sit in the middle of this maelstrom, full of belly giggles and little night tremor jolts, waiting for us to respond in kind. Waiting. "—have you forgotten? All the children are Wild." David Jardine( 18) «$» »!* * ! • «J* *1* *I* »$» *$* *S* *t* *1* *t* *1* *f* » I * *t* * l * • ! * *t* ^J* *t* *£• *I* *f* *t» •$* * ! * *!* *f* *£* •$* •$» *l» »!» »S* «V * ! • *$* * ! * *$» *!> »l* »!* *!* »t» »t* *t* *1» * ! * rf* if* if* if* if* rfr rf* *^  *fi rf* if* if* if* if* if* *J» »j> »J» »J» »£> JJ» »J> if* if* «f» *j» »J» »{5 »J» *J» »f» if* if* rf* if* if* if* rf* if* if* rf* if* if* if* if* rf* if* if* if* if* if* if* 71 IQrman's te?ctbool(lists geography as one of the disciplines of the multidisciplinary subject of social studies, and his chapter on mapping provides space-age images and promotes an "astronaut's-eye view" (111). Latitude and longitude are emphasized regarding maps andmapping. %irman describes geography as a "subject that is very skills-oriented, but those skills will help in some areas of deciswn-makHng, provide ageographical foundation for examining Cocal, national, andgCobal events, and serve a pupil for a Cifetime" (107). These chapters link\geographicaiskills with environmental education, and there is a focus on probtem-soCving and managing the planet earth: "humanity faces a crisis in management ofourpCanet earth" (100). PL concluding comment within %irmans chapter on environmental education calls for "an appreciation of nature, and the recreational and esthetic enjoyment of our environment. Art, poetry, music, meditation, and physical activities are expressions of this appreciation....The idea that we shouldtake time to smell the flowers and listen to the birds could well be an environmental objective" (106). I made another stop along the anthology of Trends and Issues in Canadian Social Studies, although there is one chapter specifically dealing with geography in this book^ I also had several sightings of geography throughout various chapters. The introductory section in this most recent bookjtates that history and geography have been the traditional split within secondary social studies, but that elementary social studies is more interdisciplinary. Regarding space and place, there is a national trend to increase global content in curriculum. Concerninggeography teaching and learning, Walt Werner and Roland Case believe that the following lament from a 1899publication (New Canadian Geography^ is appropriate to this day: "Geography is in reality one of the most important subjects taught in school, but it has been degraded in past to the memorizing of lists of names of places, coupled with their location" (177). 72 Within this anthology, Tlspeth Deir's chapter deals spedfically ivithgeography. Tfeirdescribes geography as "an integrated discipline that provides (knowledge of our planet's physical and human systems, (knowledge that can equip us to make wise decisions about our use ofthe 'Earth....we need geographic information and skills" (131). ft common stream that ran throughout this chapter and gathered force along the way was the stream of problem solving along with geographic tools, knowledge, andslqCCs. I notedmany references to secondary classrooms, but very little on this island pertained to elementary classrooms22. One statement in particular was very general, and perhaps even erroneous: "In 'Britain, although geography is now firmly placed in the Rational Curriculum, researchers are not impressed with the state of geography instruction: teachers at the primary level (grades % to 6) lack\confidence and tend to relegate geography to the margins of their school day. This situation may be echoed in Canada!' (134 -135). In one paragraph I had a clear view of geography education according to the author: 'Various skills specific to geography education emerge from concepts connected to space and place. These skills include the decoding of maps and globes, and the use and interpretation of symbols, direction, location, scale, and distance" (135). 22Although the Trends and Issues anthology has somewhat of a secondary social studies slant, what happens in secondary social studies filters across into what happens in elementary social studies. This is especially apparent when elementary teacher education students begin to consider what elementary social studies might be. What first comes to mind is their secondary schooling experiences of history or geography, and we spend considerable time trying to chase those memories away. 73 «!# *t* »f> »t» «I» *t» «S* *f* *f* •!» 4* «1* *?* «I» «£• «f* «l» *t# *I* *t* •!» «!» *t* *t« vl* *t* *t* •1' •!* »I» *I» *^ «t» «l» *!• *1* »t» »!* *T> «t» »t» •£> «J> •J^  »J» Jj» if. »j» •'J* rg* rgm «J» «j» *|<t *}» »j» «J» »|» *^  *j* #JV *^ «J» «J» Cool Memories and Dreams II: Teaching and Learning and Living on the Edge of Pink In September I tried not to press too hard on the tips of my freshly sharpened Laurentien pencil crayons colouring the world I saved my favourite colours for the big spaces USA was #5 Purple #4 Cerise was for the British Commonwealth of Nations If I was just colouring Canada # 1 Deep Velloui was for my province a place where men in malls in winter had #17 Smoke Grey coats, hair, whiskers, and skin Manitoba was #10 Brown Alberta was #2 Orange the colour of the Camrose grain elevator on our calendar beside the fridge Quebec was #16 French Green British Columbia was #22 Sky Magenta I would have chosen #9 Deep Green because of all the trees except that I always saved #7 Peacock Blue for the ocean I thought there was a rule about green and blue not going together Green does not go with blue my older sister told me one school morning eyeing my carefully chosen pedal pushers and pop top In July living on #22 Sky Magenta 7 4 sailing in #7 Peacock Blue my husband takes the tiller and moves us through the waves as if we are on the # 1 Deep Velloiu space of a prairie wheat field Instead of leaving a # 10 Brown line of astonishingly moist overturned soil behind us in #7 Peacock Blue we leave a #23 Cotton UJhiteline of air mixed with water *I* ^ * *t* »f* *SM *&* ^ » * ^ ifo «f* *]» * ^ mSm «f* *f* * ^ 4^ *t# *f» « ^ 4f* 4^ * ^ rgm * ^ ^ * * |* ^ » ^ » ^ » ^ » *{* ^% « ^ *J» « ^ #j» #^ ^ » «J» * ^ * ^ *i* **• *•* *r * ^ *J* *J* * ^ *** *•* *1* *** * ^ *J* 'Within this particular island, computer applications, worldwide web access, satellite imagery and digital technology were heidin high esteem, andfteir noted that because of these technological advances geography could be considered on the same level as math and science. 'Because of these advances, 'Deir believes that students and parents will perceive geography as a '"hard science', and therefore of value" (132). After traveling along these three islands I continued on in my exploration, with provincial social studies curricular documents appearing on the far horizon, geography was evident within these documents/islands in the form of general themes and specific concepts and understandings and skills, features of a landscape, regions, map skills, location (finding), distribution of resources and people, size and structure were ad seen along these curricular document islands. Geographical features and regions were understandings that were emphasized. 'Both provincial curriculumguides include a particular unit of study that refers to geography. Understandings that are labelled geographical are located within the cumculum organizer (unit of study) 'Environment''in the "BC Ministry documents. I noted along these pages particular emphasis on geographical features, locating places, and "demonstrating an understanding of responsibility" to load and global environments (32). 7 5 geographicalemphasis was noted within the unit of study "Identity" in Saskatchewan 'Education documents. Here is a sampling of words from the grade 5 Social Studies curriculumguide: Students wUle?q>lore the identity of Canada. They will learn about itsgeography, that is, its landforms, river systems, climate, and vegetation. They will also learn about places within the country, its national and regional symbols, and its people, especially heroes. 'While learning about the country, students will develop and practice skills in interpreting and creating maps... (103) 76 *£• «f* *t* ""If 4* «!* %J» «J> *f* *f> *1* *f> *f* tSm aj> ISM *T* *f* *£» •$* al* •$> «f> »J> •]> »j> «|> %f+ «f> «1* •!> «f* *t* *t« *I» «I* *1» *!• «1* •!* "•!» #j» #w *^ *p «^ « ^ ^ » «{• «T« *j» *J» A> «J» ^% «p» A *|> «f» «£b «|* «{b A A* «n «^  #{» *£b Cool Memories and Dreams III: Teacher Education Classroom They do not understand the point of teaching time zones. Every year it is the same thing. I warn students ahead of time about the chapter in the textbook. They become very confused with the explanation of how to teach time zones. I tell them that every time I taught time zones in social studies classrooms, I had to figure it all out and describe it in a way that made sense to me before I could teach it. And I lived in a place where time did not change, if you stayed in the same place. But if you crossed a line, then you had to understand the way time changes. Time zones is a very abstract notion. The world was divided into 24 time zones in 1884. Imagine the moment when time in the zones began! Erika introduced me to Marilyn Singer's Nine O'Clock Lullaby. It is a wonderful poetic journey around the world. Great for teaching time zones, and students could write some of their own poetic lines about the zones. Embodied ways, fleshy ways, the bounce and bump and muddy squishes that we educate children out of, teaching them as we do to climb up into their heads and join our frightened numbers, our sad enumerations. Earth becomes mathematized and things don't quite add up any more. David Jardine (22) * • * -1= • • ^ =1= • * * • * • • si* * • * * • ^ * • ^ ijc * * * * i!i * * ij; ;Jc ^ * • • * * ^ • * * • * =1= • 77 IT IS TIME. what time is it mister wolf Ijljljjey stand on a green line dancing with anticipation ICrttS^ s t r o k e o f midnight the pacific oceaft c o m e s c h a s i n g i s n o t r e a l l y the^&e&<wh«lrephomefree monday begins w a n t i n s s o m u c h t o b e caught eaten alive H .«. '4 a f? "3, PS vr* bre|tthing in Jbetween g a f a u g ^ a g t M i f ^ fj i ^ B I £ 5 in expectation Ipifeatbe now bfe t^he^ V *4 %f * fern our own and the squeal of shock leroit is crv^ er when it begins trie silence or words that tumble and pile all together in a heap when a mother tells a daughter a father has slipped away after all that anyway Students - should know u on t i m e d o e s n o t h a p p e n i n z o n e s now you d better run Regarding textualpractices that are supported, within the study of geography in these social studies curriculum documents, the following is a listing of those noted: observe and record on charts label continents and oceans read stories to students present research through models or maps that use a variety of grids and scales to show location debate log daily resources used by your family write orgive oral presentations on reducing levels of resource consumption locate and display features on a map write letters create mo dels of structures draw pictures ofpeople who work-in different environments include thinking bubbles flag, label and locate historical and current events on a map develop a collage to illustrate Canada's diverse environment read poems by Canadian authors about the environment write poems about the environment role-play. 'During my travels through these curricular documents I encountered occasional definitions of geography, and here are their words: "Geography is the science of the environment and the interactions, both physical and cultural, of people with the environment. The discipline of geography deals with all aspects of location relating to this planet"(%irman 3). "Geography is a discipline that integrates many subjects and addresses both the physical and human-created systems of the world in the study of people, places, and environments. With the widespread depletion of the earth's resources due to rapid population growth and resource mismanagement, there is a need for a society that is geographically literate and therefore able to makg informed decisions about the sustainability of the earth's resources and the future of'the planet1" (Grade 12IR$ HC 1). 80 "Geography is an integrated discipline that provides knowledge of our planet's physical and human systems, knowledge that can equip us to mak^e zuise decisions about our use of the "Earth... ive need geographic information and skills" ("Deir 131). The chapters I travelled through in the teacher education textbooks all focused on teaching geography, mainly geography skills. Pi common sight on my travels through these islands were the words "Map Skills". These particular words showed up along the islands of teacher education te%tboo/(s, the anthology, and within the provincial curricular documents. The textualpractices encouraged within these teacher education documents were largely labeling and listing and some describing activities. I was treated to bird's-eye views, and pilot's-eye views and astronaut's-eye views, and many times had the sensation of flying in a detached way up above the world. Looking down on lines and spaces. "Within the teacher education teprtboofe a problem-solving approach to geography teaching and learning was emphasized. Geography is constructed as a tool or body of knowledge for making decisions and solving problems, mostly management problems. 'Especially on the island of The "Place of Geography in Social Studies, I noted evidence of statistical tep(ts, impersonal geographies, moving from concrete to abstract in our study of our world and from local to global. "Environment was spoken of in terms of management, and geographical "systems" were split into human and physical. Concerning geography, "getting physical'means detaching ourselves from any physical contact with the world, and"digital'analysis has nothing to do with our digits actually mucking around in our surroundings; rather our digits poke at k^eys on a keyboard and mess around with numerical digits. 81 TraveCOiptes Place: Harbour Centre, Simon Fraser University Went with Pat to hear Derek speak at Harbour Centre. On the way we stopped in at Spartacus and Pat showed me a book Maps are Territories: Science Is an Atlas. Very interesting little anecdotes about mapping traditions and beliefs. Derek's talk was very engaging. And interesting use of visuals along with his talk. Somewhat montage in the way they spliced his words, although illustrations were congruent with his words, not actually disrupting them. The de Certeau citation was perfect for his talk, except that I still think it calls forth the notion of landscape as text. Derek pointed out the difference between textual representations of landscape, and landscape as text, indicating he sided with the former. But, I see a mingling, between textual representations and the referent, between word and world. It is possible to consider landscape as text, not just as represented in text. That is, in our textual representations of landscape, landscape becomes a text? Or at least some pretty strong connections? His comment seems to privilege the signifier, and assumes a transparency between the sign and the referent (what I was originally referring to as the signifier and the signified, which, I am realizing is a common replacement in poststructural discussions of signification—perhaps what Barthes would call a connotation of signification...) I am going to hunt up that de Certeau citation and read on. Postscript: What about writing itself as a colonizing activity. We organize the spaces of our perceived landscapes, and just as they moved buildings from London/Paris to Cairo, (and Cairo to Paris: the obelisk) we do the same by taking words from others (especially the continental philosophers) and re-building them word-for-word on our pages; organizing space on the pages to reflect what we see as a controlled, grid-like pattern or linearity in order to make our statements about whatever... Seeing the task as one of getting rid of the "chaotic" in the colonized spaces of writing dissertations. Post-postscript: Though even these somewhat chaotic pages of mine have been organized to object to the typical organized pattern. Such ant-like creatures we are, stuck in our colonies, doomed to colonize or be colonized. Post-post-postcript: But maybe Derek was referring to the notion of landscape as a view—as one particular text of representation? —readers are travellers; they move across lands belonging to someone else, like nomads poaching their way across fields they did not write... Michel de Certeau (174) 82 A Landscape of Academic Geography For the most part, my travels through this landscape were chosen to support my inquiry into poetics, and out of a desire to transform geography curriculum concerning these notions. While I will highlight current major attractions within the academic geography landscape (because I believe within the Canadian curricular context these attractions have gone unnoticed, and they are attractions that would enhance the curricular landscape in many respects), I do intend to focus in on the regions related to poetics (language and reading/writing and texts) and to some extent, embodied knowledge. A guide who has been most helpful to me throughout my travels in the academic landscape of geography is Derek Gregory, along with his book Geographical Imaginations. Published in 1994, this book offers a comprehensive overview of contemporary issues in spatial studies, with the first section reporting on how geography has recently evolved. Three tenets that guide Derek's own geographical imagination and his passages through a critical human geography relate directly to my own inquiry into geography curriculum and poetics and embodied knowledge. Derek posits that geography must examine closely and not take for granted "the strategies of representation that treat discourse as an unproblematic reflection of the world"; a critical human geography must move away from a spatial science that imposes "estrangement on people, places, and landscapes"; and must include an examination of what is done in the name of geography, in order to "make human life not only intelligible, but better" (75,76). Following a general overview of how geography has evolved to where it is today, I would like to consider developments related to poetics and bodies, two areas I believe relate directly to each other, and to the above tenets Derek Gregory puts forth. While universities received their impetus for raising the status of geography from school teachers, once geography became established as a university discipline, it became more and more specialized and intellectual and rigorous, and began to move away from 83 school geography, which had become by the 1950's, a study of regional focus. Derek Gregory notes this same focus within academic geography during the same time period, and offers a general genealogy of academic human geography from that point on to the present day. Following the regional focus within human geography, a focus which concentrated on physical aspects of regions, Derek describes the 1960's as the decade of the "so-called 'new geography'"23. This new geography was very quantitative, and presented geography as a spatial science. Peter Haggett's work is within this particular conception of geography. His book The Geographer's Art (published in 1990 and reprinted in 1995, indicating that spatial science geographers continue to play a role in present-day geography), describes geography as a mirror of the world, and examines how "geographers have polished and adjusted their mirrors to get particular images of the world around them" (19). His conception of geography is an example of Ted Aoki's imaginary Discourse A , and my first equation where world is privileged, where language is assumed to reflect the world, and where writing is conceived of as writing about the world. Following a decade of spatial science, the 1970's were a time for reversal, for rejection of positivism and a move to considering more of the human in human geography. Engagement with social theory and a good deal of cross-disciplinary mingling during this decade (for example, with economics, sociology, and anthropology) led to a radical geography. Projects (writing and research) within this radical geography were concerned with experience and the life-world, and included a questioning of grand theory. Civil rights, social justice and Marxist theory were influential during this time. Derek cites as an example of this more radical turn within human geography, work by David Ley on social movements and neighbourhood struggles. During this decade, feminist geography arose out of an initial reaction to the absence of women both within the discipline. This radical geography continued to evolve through the 1980's and developed into a more critical geography. 23Derek Gregory, personal communication, 6 July 1998. 84 Cool Memories and Dreams IV: Curricular Re-Visions Please note that the following statement will appear in the final copy of this document: • In the past, the emphasis has been on skills and tools within geography, and geography itself has been considered a "body of knowledge". It is important to recognize that the subject of geography is a socially constructed entity (a body of knowledge constructed by bodies), and as such, is open to re-vision and change. It is imperative that geography move from a spatial sciences emphasis, prevalent in the 1960's, into a consideration of broader social theory and that curricular documents incorporate the more recent perspectives regarding geography as a discourse. A discourse constitutes the ways we think and speak and write about geography in our everyday living, as well as the skills and tools we use in our negotiations of space, place and landscape. How we write and speak and study geography (the discursive practices) is just as important to inquire into, as its content. It is recommended that students at all grade levels should be exposed to the historical traditions of geography. While map skills will continue to be a component within school geography, this approach needs to be balanced out with analysis and critique of the uses, abuses of maps in society, and with an acknowledgment of the lived-in spaces on the maps students study. In addition, the past environmental determinism perspective that promoted the "physical environment" as determining settlement patterns, movement, and exploration needs to be replaced by a critical social theory that recognizes the role of power, knowledge, and human agency in settlement patterns, movement, and exploration. • A language of systems and management has been associated with geography. Teachers and students are encouraged to consider the consequences of this form of technical, indifferent language in relation to our world and our place within the world. Poetic language... «ly «fU fcf> *!U «f> ^0 *f# «5> «f» *f# ^0 «ly «f« ^0 hf* *J> «J> +&0 *V> ihf> «IU «~> «IU ^ » tf* *f> ^ * «f> «"U «IU «]> «]U *!> 1&0 a& *]# *f> i&0 »j» «J» »J» «g» #}» #{• «J» #J» *j» rfm *"> *fm *{• #j» rfr rj* «J» ¥ft «J» *{* *f» «J» •}» *fm ¥g9 •{* •(» rft rft *|* *fr »j» *fm »J» »|» *j* rgt «|» »j» 85 Geography Emphasized in Social Studies K to 11 T Grades K to 3 At this level, students begin to learn about their place in the world from a local to global perspective. They learn to use and interpret maps and to demonstrate an awareness of environmental diversity. In grades K to 3, prescribed learning outcomes include: • demonstrate an understanding of their responsibility to local and global environments • demonstrate an awareness of Canada • describe the diverse physical environments within British Columbia • locate home and school within the community on simple maps • practise responsible behaviour in caring for their immediate environment T Grades 4 to 7 Students gain an understanding of major geographic features, the location of the world's continents and oceans, how people interact with their environment, and Aboriginal people's relationship with the land and resources.The concepts of sustainability, global citizenship, and human and physical systems are introduced. In grades 4 to 7, prescribed learning outcomes include: • locate the major geographic features of the world • analyse the relationship between the development of communities and their available natural resources • demonstrate an understanding of Aboriginal people's relationship with the land and resources • describe how settlement patterns, economics, and occupations of ancient peoples were influenced by physical environments • demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of sustainability, stewardship, and renewable versus non-renewable natural resources T Grades 8 to 10 Students are asked to analyse the spatial relationships between landforms, settlement, and patterns of trade using a variety of geographic skills. Higher levels of performance are reached as students evaluate the role of industrialization and technology in resource management, and as they consider its cultural, political, and economic implications. In grades 8 to 10, prescribed learning outcomes include: • relate knowledge of physical geography to patterns of settlement, movement, and exploration • analyse how people interact with and alter their environments • analyse the impact of population and resource use on settlement patterns • analyse the political, economic, social, and geographic factors that led to Confederation • assess local and global resource development issues from 1815 to the present, considering the concepts of stewardship and sustainability • Grade 11 Students use more sophisticated tools to collect, analyse, synthesize, and present geographic information in spatial terms.They employ problem-solving techniques, using a more holistic approach, and propose solutions that will lead to a more sustainable environment. In grade 11, prescribed learning outcomes include: • demonstrate mapping skills, including the ability to organize and synthesize various types of map data • explain the environmental impact of economic activity, population growth, urbanization, and standards of living • apply understandings of location, place, movement, regions, and human interaction to global issues • assess critical environmental issues facing Canadians • assess the importance of both individual and collective action in responsible global citizenship Geography Emphasized in Social Studies K to 11 B C Geography 12 Integrated Resource Package, Review Document (5) 86 Referring to this critical aspect of current academic geography, Felix Driver notes that "many geographers are now writing confidently and expansively about the history and current condition of their own discipline" and in so doing, these geographers are not just trying to justify their own discipline, but rather to "offer new perspectives on geographical inquiry" (97 - 98). Closer engagement with social theory added to the critical aspects of geography. During this time period (late 1980's, early 1990's) Derek Gregory identifies "an explosion of interest in 'culture' across the spectrum of the humanities and the social sciences," and another "new" geography evolved—the "new cultural geography" (133). The two main themes that appear within this recent academic geographical landscape are the increased engagement with social theory and its intersections with human geography and, very much related to this theme, the attention to place, space, and landscape within this "socialized" human geography (4). A look at the back covers of recent publications illustrates the interdisciplinary rhizomatic travelling that is happening within human geography. Publishers are cross-referencing books published within human geography as "geography/gender studies/sociology", "geography/cultural studies/women's studies", "geography/literature/cultural studies", "geography/cultural studies/sociology", "cartography/geography", and "cultural studies/cultural geography". An important development within human geography is the recognition of geography as a discourse. Derek Gregory speaks of his writings regarding geographical imaginations as "interventions in a discourse rather than a discipline" (3). The notion of geography as a discourse is a recognition that what we do and say and write regarding geography is all part of what geography is (becoming). It is not a static body of knowledge. Geography is constituted through discursive practices; and this is the notion of poetics—our words do not mime the world, rather, they intervene in the world (becoming); and this is the notion ofthe line dance. 87 The present decade has seen a continued broadening of human geography to encompass post-modernist, feminist, post-structuralist and more recently, post-colonialist perspectives. What I have to offer you on the following pages is a collection of post-cards— highlights of major attractions. These post-cards are from areas within the present academic landscape of human geography, where geography is critiqued and examined for the way it has been constructed. In particular, current writing and research in academic geography calls into question the language and writing practices that exist within geography and that have gone unnoticed in the past, and how these practices influence our thinking and living in the worlds we write and read (the notion of poetics here). Several writings attend to embodied geo-graphying. Post-Cards Writing Worlds: Discourse, Text & Metaphor in the Representation of Landscape Trevor Barnes and James Duncan consider post-structural perspectives regarding texts and representations of landscape, noting that "in spite of the fact that human geographers write for a living, until recently the actual process of writing was considered unproblematic" (1). These two earth-writers discard the imaginary Discourse A that privileges world, and move into the space of Discourse B, privileging words and the space between words; adhering to the notion that the word is the world (or, the space of difference between words and texts is the world). They note that writing "is constitutive, not simply reflective; new worlds are made out of old texts, and old worlds are the basis of new texts" (3). Such activities as "drawing maps, making plans, and even painting" (5) are considered to be textual representations of landscape by these authors. From there they move to the post-structural perspective aid Roland Barthes that every reading of these written texts involves a re-writing. 88 Deconstructing the Map One result of this close attention to the problematics of writing within human geography (including writing/reading maps) is a close reading and deconstruction of maps. Work by several writers in human geography question the relationship between map and territory, and the relationships between map-makers and maps/territories and map-readers. J.B. Harley noted that accepting texts as intertextual opens a space for reading maps to uncover "alternative" and "competing" discourses. Harley contended that maps are about texts and knowledge/power. In support of his thesis he listed as examples of the colonial power of maps, the way Europeans were able to "draw lines across the territories of Indian nations without sensing the reality of their political identity", and the pin and paper map battles that generals have been able to fight, detached and removed from the bloody battlefields. Harley noted that "while the map is never the reality, in such ways it helps to create a different reality" (247). (Emphasis added. His word "helps" makes his statement sound a bit like "...is the map is the territory is the map...") Designs on Signs/Myth and Meaning in Maps Ascribing to Roland Barthes notions of denotation and connotation, Denis Wood and John Fels examine maps for their myths and meanings. They read a North Carolina state highway map, and they remind us that "there is nothing natural about a map. It is a cultural artifact, an accumulation of choices made among choices every one of which reveals a value" (65), even though a map is typically assumed to be neutral and non-political, especially a tourist map like the state highway map of North Carolina. They note that county borders on this highway map run right through Indian reservation land, indicative of the role of the map in "pretending to be neutral on an issue over which people are divided" (64). Harley, Woods, Fels, and others question the many uses of maps besides finding one's way. Woods and Fels claim that most maps are used to possess, claim, legitimate, and name (71). 89 Cool Memories and Dreams V: A Classroom Social Studies Curricular Focus: map skills, critical thinking, questioning and challenging in the process of informed decision-making, including multiple perspectives, making connections between past, present, and future Activity 1: The mapping tradition is associated with colonial, imperialistic power and authority, and was generally undertaken by male explorers. Encourage students to explore the way geography has been constructed. Examine and question the tradition of mapping. Students might examine reasons for mapping in colonial times and in post-colonial times, various cultures and their mapping traditions, why maps change, how maps appear in popular culture, and the hidden messages in maps. Consider how you might make the familiar strange, by taking a poststructural approach to reading and interpreting maps. Activity 2: A useful introduction to the place of maps in our everyday lives might be to ask students to collect objects that depict maps and cartographic images as decoration (greeting cards, gift wrap, clothing). Have students look for advertising that uses these same images. Several interesting patterns will emerge regarding how maps are associated with authority, power, and gender in our everyday lives. *t* *f* *t* *t* *!* *f* *t* *J* *1* *1* *t* ^* *I* *t* *t* *f* *1* *t* *S* ^* *^ ^* *t* *f* *f* *I* *£* *t* ^* *I* *t* *£• t^* 0§* *(» »^ *j» *^ «^  wf* *J» #J* *(» *|* #{* w|» *J» *^  rfm *|» fl^fc *j» *j» #^  »(» »^ »(» *(» *J» •)» 90 Space and Social Theory In their edited collection of essays regarding space and social theory, Georges Benko and Ulf Strohmayer note the fragmentation of geographic approaches within human geography that arose out of the post-modern turn. Their collection of essays is a cross-section of several approaches to post-modernity evident within research and writing, and these authors openly admit and even celebrate the fact that these approaches are conflicting and contrasting, and create anything but "harmonious discourse". Issues of text and author, modernity vs. post-modernity or even hypermodernity, and defining and re-defining identities within spatial considerations are just some of those featured in this collection. Hypermodernity, Identity, and the Montage Form In relation to textual practices, Allan Pred breaks away from the linear narrative in his montage essay, and while he is writing about hypermodernity/post-modernity, his writing form performs the fragmentation and interspacing of these same two concepts. He notes that montage has been described as "creative geography" by Soviet film maker. Lev Kuleshov (138). Pred asks: How may we as intellectuals, as human geographers, as corpo-real beings, as knowing, thinking and feeling subjects... How may we (re)constructively re-present the present, creatively produce on-the-page images of our mental images and reflective reworkings of the contemporary world(s) in which our everyday jives are interwoven...? (118 -119) 91 Progress in Geography and Gender. Or Something Else Some ofthe strongest questioning and critique of the discipline of geography, and language more specifically, comes from feminist geographers. Gillian Rose believes that feminist geography "cannot be ignored" and that it is "at the heart of debates about this thing called geography" (535). Feminist geography covers a diverse range of topics and includes a rich source of literature in research journals. Research projects situated within feminist geography examine such varied issues as the effects of household chores on the geographical location of women's waged work, safe spaces in urban areas for women, women's lives and spatial restrictions, and gendered experiences regarding body size, image and clothing choices of people working in banks and other financial institutions. Other Figures in Other Places: On Feminism, Postmodernism and Geography Regarding texts and writing practices in the production of geographical knowledge, Liz Bondi points out that it has been widely assumed that "language is a medium through which knowledge can be unproblematically represented and transmitted. Language is viewed as transparent, its active role in shaping discourse is denied" (204). Feminist geographers dispute the transparency of language and attempt to illustrate the power and politics of language, recognizing that how we write about geographical knowledge determines our understandings of geographical knowledge. Feminist geography supports alternate linguistic forms of writing besides the "formal language of science, supposedly bereft of ambiguity, passion, and so on, and produced primarily by men and frequently defined in opposition to feminine linguistic forms" (204). Within a feminist geography perspective, such forms of discourse as poetry, drama, personal anecdote, and narrative accounts, hold possibilities for transmitting and shaping geographical knowledge and geography itself as a discourse/discipline. 92 Remapping the Body/Land: New Cartographies of Identity, Gender, and Landscape in Ireland Post-modern, feminist, and post-colonialist perspectives within human geography attempt to get back the body by acknowledging, often privileging the local, the personal, the situated nature of our lives. These perspectives actually point out that even in the disembodied viewing, the body is often present in the form of the landscape. Landscape is often equated with a woman's body, an essentialized, close-to-nature, maternal body in some cases, and in others, a mysterious, exotic, wild body that must be known and tamed. Catherine Nash looks at issues of gender and national identity within the Irish "landscape". She highlights how the act of naming and the act of mapping have the power of representation. She uses the artwork of Kathy Prendergrast (volcanic mountains as breasts, deserts as bellies, vulvas as passages) to "write back", and to remap, the appropriation of Irish culture and the gendering of landscape and nation within Ireland (227 - 250). Re:Mapping Subjectivity In her contributing chapter to the edited collection, BodySpace, Kathleen Kirby discusses the way maps separate subjects and space, and how they also present a mediating space between subjects and space. She suggests there is a gender differential in spatial negotiation; that men somehow are accustomed to erasing their physicality (52) and that women do not have the same luxury; as well, men are more accustomed to taking on a removed, distancing view, whereas women are more immersed in their surroundings. She believes that mapping has excluded ways of negotiating space that take into account ground level perspectives, and the lived everyday of bodies in spaces. She is hopeful for inclusive transformations to mapping, even though they may require "eradicating, radically, the ordering lines of our culture and our selves" (55). 93 The Power of Disembodied Imagination: Perspective's Role in Cartography Ken Hillis describes how perspective-taking requires a disembodied positioning. That is, if we imagine ourselves actually able to view the territory we are viewing within a map text, it becomes necessary to detach from our bodies. While this only happens at the subconscious level, Hillis shows through the use of diagrams of perspective and view (and a very dense text) that disembodied (literally a head with no body) is the only way we can possibly view a map—we do not even realize that in our subconscious imaginations we have severed our bodies from our heads (or perhaps our eye from our body) in order to take in the view. He notes: "In detaching vision from embodiment we too are diminished, our left-behind bodies marginalized, as is that which lies beyond perspective's horizon. This is one reason why it becomes easier for the eye to venture forth. The body that would hold it in place has been reduced to insignificance" (13). Like Hillis, my desire for a more embodied geo-graphying is because I "understand the material body, eyes included, to form the basis or actuality of geographic experience from which we negotiate ongoing and intersubjective relationship[s]"24(15). Another Borderland So then, after traveling through the landscapes of academic geography and curricular geography, what now can I say about curricular geography and my desires for poetic possibilities and embodied knowing? In general, I noted that geography was constructed within the planned lines of curriculum in the following ways: • as a set of concepts that were considered to be geographical and as such were set apart for particular units of study. This set of concepts was dependent on a view of geography as a discipline, a body of knowledge, rather 24Hillis focuses on this relationship as one with history, and how the disembodied perspective had implications for "Discovery". 94 than a discourse. • as a set of tools and skills that were necessary for the geographically literate person, and in order to manage the earth (removed from the world, managing the world) • as a set of two separate geographies related and connected to each other: physical geography and human geography (out of a blindness to how geography itself is a human construction, we have created the split between physical and human. Perhaps this has led to a need to manage and control the world?) The Saskatchewan curricular documents list a set of concepts that are relevant to the study of social studies25. Major social studies concepts like location, distribution, environment, resources, and identity were noted within provincial documents as places where geographical understandings and skills would be taught. Within the Saskatchewan provincial documents, I noted that geography was written in "physical" terms—features of landscape, regions, map skills, location finding, distribution of resources and people, size and structure. I have included the Saskatchewan curricular list of concepts below and I have starred the concepts that were referred to (within documents from both provinces and within the teacher education materials) as geographical or within the study of geography: Central to the K-12 social studies program is a set of twenty major concepts drawn from the social science disciplines. These concepts act as organizers for the sequence of required learnings related to knowledge, skill/abilities, and attitudes/values. The twenty concepts are: Beliefs Culture * Environment Interdependence * Resources Causality Decision Making Identity Needs * Technology Change *Distribution Institution ^Location Time Conflict Diversity ^Interaction Power Values 25Saskatchewan Education, Social Studies: A Curriculum Guide and Activity Guide for The Elementary Level (2). 95 Cool Memories and Dreams VI: Teacher Education Assignment Study #1: Within your study group, read the following two selections: 1. Richard Henley's chapter from Language and Learning in the Teaching of Geography: "The Ideology of Geographical Language" (p. 162-171). 2. The following pages from the unit "Identity" in the Grade 4 Social Studies Curriculum Guide: pp. 103-118. (The focus of this particular unit is on the following geographical concepts listed on page 104: regions and their definition, population distribution, relationships between/among climate, landforms, vegetation, population distribution, opportunities for work, rural/urban communities in Saskatchewan.) Study Group/Class Discussion Focus: Poetic Considerations: • How is the world being written within this social studies unit of study? (What observations can you make regarding the wider social and economic climate and the dominant ideological formations within the context of this unit?) • How could we, in classrooms, interrupt this writing? • Should we? "...what can be said is that for obvious reasons linguistic questions are of interest to all those, including historians, philologists and others, who need to deal with texts. Even more obvious is the importance of linguistics for culture in general. In the lives of individuals and of societies, language is a factor of greater importance than any other" (Saussure 7). * ^J> «f* 4]> <U »Jf A «J# *!* »J> »J* «J» *J* *J» *£* *t» »T* »£» »J» » j* *i* *1+ *1* «f» *A» *J» *X» *J« *t» «J» **» %*» *.%* «*» *$» *?* »** «*• »1» *$* *&* «V *f* *S* *J* «*» *l* «*• «J* «f* »** rf* * |» »t* **• »J* »»» »«» »J» »J» rf* »J» »$» »J» »}» «t» »J» »J» if* »J» »J» ^ ^ ( i »J>» S)^ #j» »|> if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* 96 If we considered geography as a rhizomatic discourse in our planning lines, rather than as a tree of knowledge discipline (Gregory x), there are possibilities for making sense of our everyday places and spaces within each of these concepts that are studied within social studies (considering how we might graphy the geo and our place within it through a consideration of culture, conflict, change, values, needs, power, decision making, etc.), and not just those starred as "geographical concepts". These possibilities further multiply if we apply the components of the landscape of social studies education (See Figure 1) to the teaching and learning of geography. While geographical concepts are currently located within social studies education, and a skills orientation is promoted with regard to geography, we do not appear to consider how we might approach these same concepts within the landscape of social studies education in "social studies" ways. Poetic possibilities become present if we encourage critical thinking, including multiple perspectives, making connections between past, present and future, and honouring and respecting self and others while we try to make sense of space and place in our everyday living (and here I borrow from Derek Gregory's very general, rhizomatic description of geography). Throughout my wanderings, it appeared that geography itself as a construction26 was not overtly discussed in any of these curricular documents. Rather, geography was something that just "is". There was no consideration of theories of geography. There was no inquiry into the "lack of innocence in any discourse" (geography included) "by looking at the textual staging of knowledge and the effects of language on giving meaning to experience" (Lather 120). The line dancing that happens in signification was not acknowledged. Geography curriculum has not attended to deconstructive practices or critical reflection 2 6 Q f course, even as I wandered about exploring the various curricular documents, I was aware that I was also involved in "constructing" or "describing" geography. I was looking for certain attributes, certain phrases, that would lend clues to the structures and constructions already in place (like my noting of the concepts that are considered to be geographical). I was looking for certain artifacts, certain souvenirs, if you will, to take back home with me, to show the.reader (including myself as a reader). I consider geography a subject discipline that holds possibilities for continuous construction, a place where spaces continue to open up to possibilities. 97 GEOGRAPHY 1 2 OVERVIEW The following Geography 12 overview chart provides a background to assist teachers in understanding why tire curriculum is organized as it is. This overview illustrates that: • students need a basic understanding of the nature of geography to appreciate how people, places, and resources are interrelated • a knowledge of physical and human systems is needed for students to move into the realm of resource management and resource sustainability • there is an interplay between the earth's physical systems and the demands humans put on those systems • the course is intended to be taught from local, regional, and global perspectives • there is a set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to ensure the sustainability of resources (jpivfii- ) $ Geography 12 Overview Systems of the Earth Resources of the Earth */ - 4T/V£S SsreP - L.fi.L. )'~3&L&J}&Lb ~ ~R-across i. - -/ouch 7^e /?, /or013rd -touch hte,/ \Hydrosphere-«—• Lithos'phere/ \ ^ ^ / \ ^ Political -*—• Economic A ? W back 3steps 'or' 3-ste.p baeAuJdrJ Cultural Tknce, tan U dene. U Svg/ts, (/cubits,cf ^jfiUpdrl/it^. Geography 12 explores the interrelationships between physical geography and human geography. Figure 2 : Dancing Curricular Lines 98 regarding textual practices at all. Surely, within a social science this should be attended to. We need to be encouraging students to inquire into language and texts in geography, to inquire into both the methods and the content that is considered geography. To inquire into the discursive practices. And what, you might be asking, does this have to do with line dancing? Well, remember the part about world, word, and we and the dance between? It is very important to consider how we write the world of geography education, and how this in turn writes the world in certain ways, and writes us within that world in certain ways. Word can include curricular documents. How we study about the world is also a writing of the world, and if we study the world in detached, disembodied ways, we risk alienating our selves and others from the world. Remember, curriculum is about self and world. Curricular decisions need to consider how we might manage and solve the problems of the world, as well as how we might live and learn in the world and create our worlds as we live and write. Throughout my curricular travels, it appeared to me that world was privileged or was attributed a considerable amount of metaphysicalness in the way geography teaching and learning were arranged. It seemed like a case of "Here is the world—learn its lines, and manage and use the world in sustainable ways". On the other hand, there was also a certain amount of privileging the word as written. There was not a lot of evidence in my travels that our words and worlds perform wor(l)des. The spatial science era of the 1960's seems to have lingered within curricular geography to the present day; and this lingering has been at the expense of a more human approach to the study of geography. Within social studies, geographical concepts seem to be the place where we detach from the lived world and disembodied study is encouraged. Poetic possibilities open up if we first of all reconsider our definition of geography. Possibilities for embodied knowledge open up if we consider geography as a discourse, rather than a discipline, and a discourse that actually crosses traditional subject boundaries. Rather than 99 ending geography lessons with locating our places, and learning the lines about our places, a discursive, rhizomatic construction of curricular geography might make it easier to continue on with "geography" or "social studies" as we write or read poetry or creatively write lines about spaces and places instead of waiting to do this after moving on into "language arts" period 2 7 . In my curricular travels, I did not note any direct references to current research or writing located within "academic geography", and vice versa. While I did note several references pertaining to Journal of Geography within the teacher education textbooks, there were no references to journals 2 8 like Progress in Human Geography, Environment and Planning, Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal ofFeminist Geography, Geography, or the New Zealand Journal of Geography. Curricular geography needs to be more rhizomatic, making connections and crossing spaces that have not been crossed enough in the past. Attending to the current cultural/social theories focus within academic geography and to the discipline's self-conscious critique of itself would highlight the poetics of geography, and would lead to an acknowledgment and encouragement of including embodied knowing within curricular geography. Taking its cue from academic geography, curricular geography (I mean here, teacher educators, curriculum developers, and classroom teachers) must begin to question the what and how of geography and move towards an inclusion of more personal 27While you might be thinking here, "As long as we write poetry or creative lines about spaces and places in some subject, what does it matter if it is geography?" The thing is, separating out genres and leaving scientific language to the study of geography continues to perpetuate a detached writing of the world. And saving poetic language for other school suhjects usually means saving poetic language for topics not related to space and place. It is an important issue to consider—we need that added dimension within our world writing in order to connect more personally with our selves/others and worlds. 2 8 As I indicated earlier (see page 1), contemporary Canadian school geography lags behind Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the United States regarding critical reflection and linking geographical matters with contemporary social theory. The journals I have listed here on this page are not Canadian. N e w Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f G e o g r a p h y contains a nice mix of theoretical articles and practical articles. As well, it mixes genres and audience appeal. Both academics and practitioners will find stimulating reading in this journal, and the journal provides the space for academics and practitioners to keep in touch through sharing their research and literature. While there are several journals for social studies education, there are no Canadian journals specifically dealing with geography. The Canadian journal, C a n a d i a n S o c i a l Studies, lists three articles published in the last five years with a geographical focus. Again, it requires taking a more discursive view of geography in order to make connections with the articles in these journals and geography teaching and learning. 100 geography-ing within our study of geography, an awareness of the socio-textual act of teaching geography, and a more material notion of "bodies" of knowledge. The current detached, disembodied approach within school geography has received little attention within the Canadian context. While geography is usually split between physical and human systems, and recent recommendations call for more emphasis on the human side, even this human side to geography is referred to in systems language. Concerned with power and justice and the ideological attributes of language, Richard Henley (writing about British school geography) notes how the language of school geography is ideologically loaded, and in its use, creates a "flattening of reality" (166). The world is written in a language of indifference. Derek Gregory notes an estrangement from people, places, and landscape within human geography, and he refers to this estrangement as a legacy of spatial science geography. School geography is still heavily influenced by spatial science perspective, and if we believe Elspeth Deir, will become even more and more a technological study of digital analysis. Also, the heavy concentration on map skills within school geography leads to a detached writing of the world. It strikes me that what is at the heart ofthe debate within geography as an academic discipline appears to remain, at best, at least within the Canadian context, on the margins of debates regarding school geography. My travels into the curricular landscape of school geography in British Columbia and Saskatchewan yielded no direct references to feminist geography (although I believe parallels do exist between the basic tenets of feminist geography and social studies education2^). Australia and New Zealand are closer to the heart 29There are several obvious parallels between social studies education and feminist geography perspectives. The basic tenet of feminist geography—questioning and critiquing the construction of geography—supports the goals of participatory citizenship and questioning and challenging through critical thinking, advocated within social studies education. Further parallels can be seen in the recent trend within social studies education that requires students to become involved in field studies in their local communities, and in the feminist geographical acknowledgment of local, situated research. While social studies has traditionally been concerned largely with the public sphere, Nel Noddings is a scholar who promotes feminist perspectives within social studies education. She points out that while any sharp "separation between [public and private] breaks down under analysis, the tradition that sustains the separation is still dominant. Surely if we had started with private life, the school curriculum would be very different from the one actually developed" (234). Like Noddings, feminist geographers support the inclusion of the private sphere in research and writing, and 101 regarding feminist geography perspectives. A recent Australian study explores gender and literacy within the context of geography curriculum and sites feminist geography perspectives as informing the research and findings 3 0. Writing in 1993, Robyn Longhurst and Robin Peace, two New Zealand academic geography scholars admitted that while feminist geography was not yet being taught in New Zealand schools, the time was right for transferring those perspectives from the lecture theatre into high school classrooms. The conversation at least is underway in those locations. attempt to envision a more fluid boundary between the two (that is, private spaces often merge on public spaces and vise versa). 30See Alison Lee, 1996. This study examines the gendered nature of the content and language practices of geography in Australian high school classrooms and the barriers this gender bias presents for females to succeed. Lee also critiques previous studies of the language of school science that were based on linguistic analysis as being inadequate because of the technical and scientific nature of the language of linguistic studies themselves, and the barriers to a critical analysis this presents. 102 Cool Memories and Dreams VII: Course Proposal Draft Title of Proposed Course: Geography and Curriculum (SSED 330, Teacher Education) General Purpose: The purpose of this course will be to provide an overview of the evolution of geography as a subject area (within both academic and curricular contexts), its location within social studies education, and how the major geographical themes of space, place, and landscape occur within present curriculum. This course will examine current trends and issues within the academic discipline of human geography, and will provide a forum for consideration and discussion regarding how these issues might inform geography curriculum in classrooms (K-12). The course will focus on the role of language and discourse in shaping our understandings of the world that we study in geography classes (and how the way we study geography plays an important role in our understandings of geography); the notion of geography itself as a set of discursive practices; and how/why we might encourage embodied knowing within our study of geography. Describe the Need/Impetus for the proposed course; While the current curricular milieu in Saskatchewan views social studies as an interdisciplinary approach/subject that includes geography as one of its disciplines, geography (making sense of space, place and landscape in our everyday lives) is a major component. This course would provide those students who wish to specialize in social studies education (whether at the elementary or secondary level) with further opportunities to consider curriculum and instructional approaches in the teaching of school geography. Students would elect to take this course during the final year of their elementary education program, or within the curriculum year of 103 their secondary education program. A summer course offering would also welcome returning classroom teachers. Topics to be addressed; Geography as a curricular area Critical examination of curricular approaches with particular attention to language Geography as a discipline and a discourse Current trends and issues within academic geography The Poetics of geography curricula Poetic approaches within the teaching of geography Instructional approaches Maps and geography curriculum Possible Assignments: Major Term Assignment Choices • Compilation of A Personal Atlas or Community Atlas, depending on the context • Compilation of a Resource File related to one particular geographical theme (e.g.: local community, map study, community comparison, spiritual geography, urban study, rural study, changing spaces, a field study, etc.) • Presentation at the Provincial Social Studies Subject Council Conference or a submission to their journal, Perspectives Short-term Assignment Choices: • Literature and landscape, poetry and place: compilation of poetry and literature that focuses on a particular geographical area that is studied at a particular grade level • Critique of a journal article that focuses on the academic discipline, and relating this reading 104 to curricular geography or vice versa • Critique of various instructional materials Grading: Evaluation will be on a pass/fail system, the criteria for these two categories to be established by the students and instructor, with the instructor to have the final say in matters of discrepancy. Note: It is possible that the responsibility for instructing this course could be shared in a collaborative approach by the Faculty of Arts and the Faculty of Education. A similar course offering is being considered within the Geography Department as an elective. lis i t * 5*J St* *!* *$* i t * *J* St*. *t» *S* «!* WU WU VU VU wu vu VU VU WU Vt> WU VU VU WU WU VU WU WU WU WU WU WU VU VU WU VU WU WU WU WU WU WU WU WU WU WU WU WU wu wt* *f "1* *** *J» V »*• »f» »f" »J» *I» »f» *^  »J» if* *^  »J» »J» »J» »J» »J> »J» ^ »J» if* if* if* «J» ^ »J» »J» »j» if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* if* 5j> if* if* if* if* if* if* if* 1 0 5 POETIC POSSIBILITIES 106 Poetics as An Active Composing/Imposing When I ask about an instant in time/space when word becomes world becomes word..., my curiosity centres on the relationship between our words and our worlds. In my search for poetic possibilities I want to consider poetic as an active composing/imposing of lines, as well as poetic as one way of composing/imposing lines (poetic language) within geography curriculum. I am asking, "What is the relationship between our words and our worlds? What do our words have to do with our worlds, and vice versa?" These are questions about what it means to take up a pen and write (literally and metaphorically speaking), to language (in the verb sense), to engage (either producing or processing, reading/writing) with a text31 —text as "cultural practices of signification rather than as referential duplications"(Barnes and Duncan 5). What is transpiring in the act of signification, in geography or any other discipline/discourse? I believe that any time we do take up a pen and write about our world, or read what has been written about our world, there is a preposition being erased in the process. The word "about" is erased. When we write or read about a place or an event, the words also play a role in shaping that place or event. And here is where lines dance—in the erasure of the preposition. This is text as performing. 3 1 I like Roland Barthes' notion of text in The Semiotic Challenge: "it is not an esthetic product, it is a signifying practice; it is not a structure, it is a structuration; it is not an object, it is a work and a game [like a dance...]; it is not a group of closed signs, endowed with a meaning to be rediscovered, it is a volume of traces in displacement" (7). 107 IraveC O^ptes Place: Richmond Supper with Pat. Kentucky Fried Chicken. Crispy Strips and Crispy Fries (Pat's with gravy) eaten in front seat of car with interior light on. Very hungry.Read Pat's proposal draft while eating and talking. Traveling in the front seat with her notions of traveling theory. Heard Carl speak on performativity. The performativity of language? Made me wonder about language as performance, and language as production. Tonight someone mentioned the similarity of performance and production. We often call a performance a production within a drama context. I asked Ted about performance and production. It seemed to me that I am not a part of the production when language is referred to as production (language as producing reality?/meaning). But language as performance includes me as a part of the performance. Ted noted the word "form" in performance, transformation, limm. Conform? Informing? Anyway I do wonder about language as performance. Just what is performing? What is forming? Language as performing—perforating, making the holes that Carl talked about. A l l this attention to words and in some ways attention to dictionary entries (Valerie Rauol speaking in Language Education Research Centre, beginning with a dictionary definition - something metaphysical about definitions?) Me looking up to find a word for borderland, the space at the borderline that is not one country and not another. Is this just another way of living by Grammar? And which dictionary? Whose words? Webster, Gage, Standard Oxford, etc.? Good company in a journey makes the way seem the shorter Izaak Walton 108 So then, what does all this have to do with poetic possibilities in geo-graphy curriculum? If we attend to the relationship between word, world, and we that is inherent in these equations, especially in the notion of wor(l)de, then we can take advantage of this space as a space for writing the world in active, creative ways. The performative space is there already. Perhaps it is more a case that we have not been recognizing the possibilities within this space. Poetics occurs all the time. In what and how we write in geography lessons we are writing the world, and writing ourselves into that world. And this is where the possibilities lie. Along with literary and scientific descriptions of place, there is an aspect of writing that allows more than description of a place. In the writing, we imagine, and we create our places and lives. Several contemporary writers story landscapes and people32 Their narratives go beyond mere descriptions of place. Through their story and verse, these writers actively construct places (and selves). Wayson Choy, a Vancouver-born writer notes how places also construct selves in his essay, The Ten Thousand Things, "At home, I turn on my computer to begin tapping out the second novel; in the middle of a sentence—like this one, in fact—I laugh aloud. I had been writing fiction about life in Chinatown; Chinatown, all these years, had been writing me" (22). And here is the word/world/we line dancing. Reading/Writing Lines Poetically and Post-structurally Even the lines that have already been written can be rewritten as we read them. It is possible to read poetically. To compose/impose our own lines within the lines we read/write. Take, for example, geographical and cartographical lines. A great deal of emphasis is placed within geography and social studies curriculum documents on map skills—reading and interpreting maps. When referring to making sense of maps, we say we "read" maps. But often our reading of maps ignores the narrative or writerly qualities of the map and we focus 3 2 See Carol Martin, ed. L o c a l C o l o u r , 1994; Constance Rooke, ed. W r i t i n g H o m e , 1997; and Terry Glavin, This R a g g e d P l a c e : Travels Across the L a n d s c a p e , 1996. 1 0 9 on the "facts". In this approach to reading maps, we read the text of the map as a closed text rather than as an open text or a listening text 3 3. The facts presented on a map (population, land use, natural vegetation) are part of a grand narrative (for example, a narrative of capitalist economies, patriarchal societies, colonization, and "progress") ofthe space represented, and these grand narratives go largely unacknowledged in our everyday map "reading". We ignore the fact that maps not only tell us about the spaces, they also say just as much about the map makers and the culture that produced the space and the map. Not only are the grand narratives ignored, but our local everyday lived narratives of the space remain hidden among the lines, dots, and colours of the map. A postmodern approach to narrative challenges the authority of grand narratives, and recognizes the value of lived, everyday experiences and situated knowledges and narratives. While I do not see such a separation between grand narrative and local narrative, I do believe that reading maps in a way that allows a mingling ofthe grand narrative of a space with the local, lived narrative of that same space would enhance our notions of the space (or place), and ultimately of ourselves. There are connections between maps and narratives; whether or not the narrative form has been intentionally applied by the map maker/writer. Often when narrative is discussed the writer of the narrative and the written text on the page are privileged in the discussion, over the reader of the narrative and the text as it is read. Rather than privilege the writer of narrative (we often focus on the author's intent), I would like to look at the narrative component often left out of discussions around narrative—the reader. While a text might not be written with postmodern intentions (questioning the author, locating multiple centres,...) the reader might still want to read the text in a postmodern way. I am suggesting that it may be in the reading of maps that the greatest possibilities for poetics 3 3Jacques Daignault, 1996. A more detailed discussion of Daignault's notion of a "listening text" is presented further on. 110 TraveC 9{ptes Place: Geography and Cartography and the Space Between While cartography and geography are separate sciences, they are also closely related. Regarding the relationship between cartography and geography, Peter Haggett states that, "maps play a distinctly more prominent and central role in geography than in other disciplines. No other insists that students include courses on map making, map reading, map projections and the like in their core curriculum" (8). As my travels through curricular landscapes indicated, this same focus on maps is evident within curricular materials in geography/social studies education. I have not seen the need to differentiate between geography and cartography within my atlas. They are closely related within curricular planning and within living. In fact, geography/cartography/autobiography is a metonymic word for some of the writing that is included within this atlas. Each is related to the other, in an "and/not and" relationship. And, if we used Derek Gregory's rhizomatic notion of geography: "Making sense of our everyday spaces and places", then cartography (and autobiography) would be very much a part of geography. From a spatial science perspective: For if science is the art ofthe soluble, then much of geography is the art ofthe mappable. Peter Haggett (6) 111 are present. Barthes was one poststructuralist scholar who considered the reader as part of the narrative. That is, an author writes a text, it is there on the page, and as the reader reads the text, it becomes text-as-reading (The Rustle of Language 30). In effect, the act of reading the text is an act of writing as well. Barthes describes a writerly text as one which is open, a text that leaves room for the reader to write personal meaning into the text as it is being read. Jacques Daignault discusses this same quality of openness in his notion of a "listening text" (3). A listening text is one that is open, it lets the readers come in, there is a space for the readers to think through and write their own simultaneous texts along with the text on the page. Nadine Gordimer argues that every reading is a writerly reading, regardless of the writer's intent, that is, every reader brings into a reading personal meaning and cultural signifiers, thus "writing" the text as it is being read (17). It is this writerly reading that I want to explore in terms of reading maps. While it might be the case that every reading is writerly, what seems to be overlooked, is the reader. Is every reader aware of the writerly aspects of reading or in fact, cognizant of the possibilities of a writerly reading of text? I think this writerly reading is covert, and we have become accustomed to reading a text in author-itative ways, that is, we try to read the author's intent, while ignoring the differences in the text. The differences between the author's lines and our lived lines. Barthes describes writerly reading as that reading that occurs in the "looking up" space (The Rustle of Language 30). Writerly reading is a form of slow motion reading, wherein we bring our own meanings to the text as we read it. Concerning reading maps, it is this looking up space I would like to explore. The space not on the map, in the lines/text on the page. The space full of the differences between, the space that challenges the author/ity of the map text as it is being read. The space where the text-as-reading is written, where the space-as-lived is mapped. What would a reading of maps be like if we were to read in slow motion, to write in the local, lived everyday experiences of a place on the official map of that 1 1 2 Travel9{ptes Place: Kootenay School of Writing Ann Lauterbach, a member of the New York group of "language poets" was reading from her books of poetry. Very interesting poetry. And she was using her hand to gesture as she read phrases, sort of looked like she was gently tossing out words, rolling them out like dice with her hand as she read. Her poems were fragments strung together around events. Like the poem about the fires in Oakland, California. Her words were very descriptive and called forth images and feelings of lives and artifacts going up in smoke and sifting down like ashes around the observers. I spoke with her at the intermission and told her I enjoyed the poetic phrases, but often was behind her a couple phrases, because I was so accustomed to trying to connect the fragments into some sort of narrative. I asked her if she was aware of listeners doing this as she read. She said she was and acknowledged that the meaning-making was happening among the listeners. She had no control over that. She was attempting to disrupt notions of lyric, and write the everyday, fragmented as it is. She said that young people take to her poetry and her agenda very quickly. (Maybe because of their video lives?) Even though Ann's poems are fragments strung together (Peter and Meredith Quartermain kept saying they are contiguous?), they are beautiful pieces ofthe world. I especially liked the pieces she read from her book, And, for example. standing at the window watching space bend in the wind's fabric breaching the wave's hump Ann Lauterbach (46) 113 place. In the looking up space, what are the possibilities for inviting in a lived, local narrative of the spaces on the map? I think the possibility exists for the grand to mingle with the local, but only if we consciously allow this to happen. The reader of the map holds the creative power to author/ize or personalize the map and the narrative within the lines. In many respects, this approach to reading a map is much like reading between the lines—openly acknowledging personal narrative knowings of a place or difference in the text/lines of the space/map. All lines on a map, we must acknowledge, are imaginary; they are ideas of order imposed on the sloshing flood of time and space . Janette Turner Hospital (1) A poetic reading of maps can be a disruptive reading of maps. That there might be empowered ways of reading a map disrupts the typical notion of how power is associated with representations of space. Power is usually associated with map making (the production of space), rather than map reading (the reading of space). In an effort to disrupt the power of maps and mapping, a political group known as the Situationists International began a practice that David Pinder describes as subvertive cartography. This group of individuals appropriated maps of the city and developed a method of psychogeographical mapping to displace the authority of city maps and mapping. Psychogeographical mapping involved wandering through the city, and getting a "feel" for the spaces that were mapped. In some cases, group members cut up city maps and created a collage of the different areas of the city, and then connected each cut-up section with arrows. The arrows indicated the direction of their travels. Engaging in psychogeographical mapping was how this group contested the "official" status of city maps. It was their attempt to "trace out how different forms of mapping, based on different values, desires, and needs that challenge the status quo can be developed" (406). 114 The geographies of everyday life were a concern of the Situationists International group. The notion of poetic reading is similar to psychogeographical mapping, and my concern is also with the geographies of everyday life, de Certeau describes an "anthropological, poetic and mythic experience of space", a space that is not evident on the maps (even of the Situationists) of city spaces and official spaces. Through a poetic reading of maps, the experience of space is acknowledged. I am not just concerned with city spaces, but with all of the spaces we live and experience—country spaces, town spaces, cafe spaces, highway spaces, academic spaces, and the "spaces that cannot be seen" and whose paths "elude legibility"(93). As the map is read, the reader's personal meanings and knowings of that space can be acknowledged. Reading maps is a very tactile experience. Who has not clutched a map to their bosom as security when confronted with new territory? Or sat hunched over the kitchen table, an index finger sensuously caressing or assertively pressing on the lines of the route to be followed on an impending journey (be it a local, continental, or more worldly destination). But beyond the tactile finger touching and map clutching in which I have taken part, and which I have witnessed, as we currently read maps we do not leave a space for embodied knowledge or readings of the spaces on the maps. My exploration of poetic reading is to make a space for personal embodied ways of knowing the spaces on the maps of our places, and to promote a more empowered reading of maps. Some modern-day maps are presented with several transparent overlays—additional information and reading made possible with each successive overlay. I thought I might be able to say what I want to say by using this same technique. An illustration of a poetic reading of space might be possible by starting with a map/space and then adding transparent levels to the surface reading of the map, each overlay being my writerly reading of how I have experienced the space on the map. 115 If we were to examine all of the possible layers of meaning and stories told in one map, while it might seem logical that the first level of meaning would come in the very act of mapping and the presence of maps in society, I think the story starts even before the map is in our hands, in the act of surveying a space. Many accounts of colonization describe the imperial travellers and explorers searching out a vantage point and surveying the land, observing from above, attempting a bird's eye view from on high. Surveying the territory did not end with the visual. Official surveys, wherein land was divided up in geometrical fashion and survey stakes pounded in to pin down ownership and authority, actually authored the space before it was "written" on maps. Cadastral maps (those maps made to prove ownership and define boundaries) and commercial maps (those maps made to promote the travel and tourist industry and boost real estate sales) followed, and today the list of the ways a map is put to use is practically endless. And each of the uses of a map is a story; a grand narrative of people, cultures, and place. The map itself is another layer of meaning, another chapter to the story of a space. What the lines enclose, the contents of the legend, the colours used, the information not included adds to the detail of each level. The text-as-reading is another layer of meaning within the map. The text in the looking up spaces of the map, the text that is written while reading between the lines holds narrative possibilities at the personal, local level. I have put maps to various uses in my life thus far, most recently in the form of way-finding maps 3 4, having moved from the Canadian prairies to the Canadian west coast. Maps have become necessary in my forays into the urban landscape, on freeways, side streets, transit lines, library floors, and shopping mall concourses. While the lines and symbols on the map often mystify a space, as I read the maps I am aware of the text-as-reading, that is, my own text of the places indicated on the map. My experiences of the place are added to the actual lines and symbols of the map, to reveal an intertextuality of the territory. As I read the 3 4Monmonier, 1996. Monmonier classifies way-finding maps as folk cartography. 116 text of the map I am able to bring my own text to that reading, and this brings increased personal significance to the map. So the writing that occurs in the looking up space of the reading can be added to the text ofthe map. I am not trying to say that maps are narratives and nothing else, or that we should only be concerned with one way of reading/writing maps. Rather, I am saying that if we think of maps as narratives of space, as well as statements of fact, and take part in a poetic reading of the space on the map, maps take on meanings at the level of local narrative as well as meanings at the level of grand narrative. A mingling of the grand narrative of a place or territory with the local, lived narrative of that same place is encouraged, and our notions of place and self are enhanced. Barthes' idea of writerly reading is like reading between the lines, and in the case of reading space, we write our own local lived narratives between the lines on the map, as we pay attention to the "looking up" spaces, as we take part in spacious, poetic readings. Reading space in a way that allows for a mingling of grand and local requires attending to "point of view", and in fact, changing our view point. The panoptical view (God's eye view) from above 3 5 must switch to a view from the ground level. Adrienne Rich writes a world in her book of poems, An Atlas ofthe Difficult World. Discarding the bird's eye view, Rich comes down to ground level as she 'maps' the "haunted river flowing from brow to groin" and the "desert where missiles are planted like corms". She declares: "I promised to show you a map you say but this is a mural/ then yes let it be/ these are small distinctions/ where do we see it from is the question" (6). On the following pages I present several "map-poems" as poetic possibilities for writing the world; for seeing it (and saying it) 35Michel Foucault discusses the panoptical view in D i s c i p l i n e a n d P u n i s h . It is a view from a tower, like those in the prison yards. People in the tower have an "all seeing" eye. They can survey from on high, and get the whole picture in one totalizing gaze. While some might not agree that maps and our traditional use of maps exemplifies the panopticon (because it might not appear that behaviour is altered because of this panoptical view/presence within the tradition of mapping), I do believe our traditional use and reading of maps does alter our behaviour. We adopt a detached, disembodied position in relation to the "world on paper" (David Olson book title) presented in maps. 117 from a different vantage point. My poetic lines are written between, within, and on top of the lines already drawn on maps from my everyday living. Some of these maps are produced with transparent overlays of poetic text, requiring you to place a fleshy hand between the layers in order to read the lines. My map-poems contest the widely accepted bird's eye view of maps and they attempt to bring the corporeal into map reading/writing. How I have lived the lines and spaces on the maps of these territories—whether rural (Living a Landscape of Geometrical Progression36), urban (Transit Lines31), or borderline spaces between countries (Living in Linear Fashion38)—is explored within the lines of the map-poems. Poststructuralism blurs the boundary between reading and writing. As we read the lines that have already been written on maps, it is possible to live poetically within those lines; to re-write the lines as we read; to impose/compose lines according to our own lived, bodily experiences. 36WandaHurren (In Press), P r a i r i e J o u r n a l (Calgary, AB). •^Wanda Hurren (In Press), G e n d e r P l a c e a n d C u l t u r e : A J o u r n a l o f F e m i n i s t G e o g r a p h y (University of Edinburgh). 3 8Ibid. 118 LIVING A LANDSCAPE OF GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION warm early summer evenings the upstairs window open to the prairie breeze my sisters already breathing their sleep breath I listened to the traffic living on an edge inside an intersection I heard travellers leaving town sounding off into the depths until the anticipated click as they reached the point of intersection where the railway tracks crossed the highway upstairs in my bed blowing over my face and body a breeze so soft the same breeze that skimmed over the hood of the car as it crossed the tracks years later still living inside an intersection but on an opposite corner on warm sunny afternoons with my strollered baby I leave the town behind the prairie landscape a perfect study of perspective lines moving off in ever widening angles I am always at the vertex reaching the railroad tracks I turn back toward town welcoming the same breeze that has blown over my body all these years 119 120 ' OCKNIC 1 C A * O L T R A N S I T L I N E S inside the Orange Line Saturdays and Sundays between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. the sign above me These Seats Reserved for Persons Disabled and Seniors forgive us our trespasses I am surrounded by seniors a woman sitting by the window says to the man beside her: Are you wearing long underwear? yellowed, waffle-weave leg sticking out of black fortrel trouser tffe, X * frjjp55&* yvxSU-'''* $1 the man says he wears them for his arthritis and slaps his knee she says: Someone in here doesn't know when to stop with the perfume. It's really rank. M y mother used to say there's no need to use perfume just make sure you wash your body real good she gets off the bus alone she says she'll sure be glad to get away from the smelly perfume two women sitting beside me start to talk: Do you notice perfume? No, I sure don't they tell each other where they live one of the women is holding something on her lap she says: Look what I've got in here feel it it's still w a n n ' , ~ ^ £ a cup of soup in a plastic margarine container placed in a paper bag inside of another clear plastic bread bag she tells about Sunday Seniors Lunch she can take leftovers home the other woman pulls the cord to get off at the next stop she stands in the aisle waiting behind the yellow line alone the woman with the soup says: Speak to me if you see me again and I ' l l do the same for you itif ii 47 ml. To Refine 134 mi. to CarhW 46 mi. L I V I N G I N L I N E A R F A S H I O N k s J ' V TOHIC SiTf I Us . Zahi . A l a m o Tl^fc'i'i iiniiii«?^' .... R;ittrc*vi D OCR" MOMMSLT MUN1T W h e n I was 19 I took a day t r ip w i t h m y grandmother. We went to visit the relatives down across. I stood with my great grandmother at the end of the day, waiting to leave, to make it back before the line closed. In her shrunken body, my great grandmother stood straight beside me. Although the temperature was still 31° Celsius (instantly converted into 95° Fahrenheit when we crossed the line, like kilometers into miles, bags into sacks, Afr ican Americans into Blacks, hil lsides into side hi l ls , mickys into fifths) she was wearing gloves and real nylons with seams. Not those ridiculous pantyhose. Two stitched lines running down the backs of her legs reminding me of blackened versions of lines of albumen refusing to detach in the separation of egg yolk from egg white. M y great grandmother told me to just look at that: standing on the steps of the farmhouse, her youngest daughter, whose 60 years of l iving left her with a body the perfect antithesis of playtex invisible lines of 18 hour control and cross your heart lift and separation. Oh, I wish she'd wear a girdle or something. When she was 96 my great grandmother stopped visiting her daughter who lived across the line 25 miles away. She said she d id not want to die i n Canada. It would be too much trouble to get her body home across the line. Her last two years of l iv ing ran i n parallels wi th the 49th. Like the colouring books of my chi ldhood, long afternoons spent learning to colour within the lines, we spend our lives learning to keep our bodies l iv ing within the lines on the maps of our territories. Permission for the printing of the North Dakota map was granted by the N.D.D.O.T. Any unauthorized reproduction of any parts or the whole are forbidden. Copyright remains with N.D.D.O.T. ataHndj Riai.irinll m 1 2 2 1 cTrcuveC<Hptts Race: Desk The thing is, we need to teach students that they can be geo-graphers. They can write their place, and other places. Play with/in the lines and spaces of "official" geographical knowledge, facts, figures. Write their own atlas of their local places and other places. Human geography and space—space not just a mappable territory. Poetic function of language allows this to happen. We need to attend to writing: creating, actively composing/imposing our world with our words. And reading in ways that also allow an imposing of words. In the past we have not attended to the ways writing and words have shaped our understanding of the world and places in our geography lessons. We need to notice this and look for possibilities here in how words can continue to write the world and bring embodied experiences into geography. By taking an active role, our bodies become part of it, part of the writing. Air they scarcely notice curls and rustles each dry leaf, along, across this inland sea. In shy experiments of touch and part, they sail an unfamiliar coast, discovering. Bil l New 123 (Tra.vdcKiptes Place: Desk I can't believe I have not written in this journal for almost a month. I have been reading and thinking, but not writing here. A job application and a teaching nomination required time away from dissertation writing. And a note from Liz Bondi telling me 3 map-poems I submitted for publication have been accepted for publication in Gender, Place and Culture. I was so happy. Unbelievably happy. This is the first poetic submission the journal will publish. So, something very interesting I read/wrote in this period of silence: Writing Performing by Debbie Pollack. It is an excellent chapter in the book The Ends of Performance and it outlines how writing can perform a form and a message at the same time, actually in the performing of a form, writing writes double messages on the page, or layers of meaning. And her discussion regarding metonymy is helpful. Maybe that is the whole thing about writing and language and being in the world, in a culture. Anything we say is always already what we don't say also, because of who we are and where we are. And the backslash is imperative in metonymic writing. It is there anyway, even if we don't trace over it. For example, when we speak of language, we could write the word as: language/culture, but we don't, yet the two are part of each other—contiguity here? Same with word/world or wor(l)d; this is illustrative of metonymy? And why am I scared to write on the pages of my actual "dissertation"? Why am I writing everything in these travel notes? I think the poem I wrote about women and families is performative writing. The words perform the form: montage, and the words also perform a message about writing everyday living on a page, which, of course, montage form helps to portray, along with the words. But it is still linear, because I do want control over my message. So that is evident in the performance too; how we have these imperialistic instincts, even over words. Montage is transgression ofthe (hyper)modern condition( ing)s out of which it is created. In demanding new associations, new connections that transcend taken-for-granted meanings, it also demands transgressions on the part of those who read it. Allan Pred( 137) 1 2 4 def*i#ni»tion* wom»en and fam»i«lies a group of words meaning? some days my is it gym today? he needs his inserts he is late again that damn dryer thoughts I did not think he was this fridge is full of his parents will not eat this they will hate the couch I should have gone to that meeting e-mail carbon copies are so I did not know about her cancer what will she do for her cat they really want a dog fragmented why can't we have a dog a stage of not liking mothers sensitivity or I forget the coupon book every buy it anyway the grant application it becomes how can I say this in 50 lines he needs a haircut we need a drive always something rolling rattling in the difficult to she thinks she needs him he will take her money she should leave make any a good idea for lunches how to keep it cold till why won't she say it? meaning seem clear it's the dreaming *the act or process of explaining or making clear the meaning of a word or group of words 125 Poetic As a Way of Composing/Imposing: Embodied Knowledge Moonlight, a cessation of clear, harsh day, is associated with mystery and illusive glimpses. The moon seems to have its own light, yet that light is reflected light, deriving from the sun which illuminates the everyday world. If in the moonlight, we "handle" that muted radiance, there is no substance we are touching. We are playing with shadows made of darkness and reflected light....When you read or write a poem you are handling moonlight. Margaret Demorest (364) Handling moonlight3 9. What more can I say? Except, of course, to ask, Might there be places for handling moonlight within geography lessons? (And perhaps, we might even find that everything is moonlight—mystery and illusive glimpses.) Poetry is a language that attempts to say what words cannot say. Poetry, in all its illusiveness, has the ability to affect us through our body, soul, and mind. Several philosophers who explore poetry make the connection between body and soul. Gaston Bachelard describes poetry as a phenomenology of the soul rather than one of the mind (xxii). I believe poetry is a phenomenology of the body/mind/soul. Poetic language calls forth sensual experiences and rememberings, and poetic language has physiological effects on our bodies. Diane Ackerman explores how "sense-luscious" the world is, and notes the effect that language has on our bodies. She writes about the sound of poetry and its effects on our heartbeat, especially poetry written in iambic meter, which mimics a regular heartbeat—"ba-BUM, ba-BUM, ba-BUM: it locks up the heartbeat in a cage of words, and we, who respond so deeply to heart sounds, read the poem with our own pulse as a silent metronome" (180). 3 9Margaret Demorest plays with Wallace Stevens' 13 ways to view a blackbird and writes about 13 ways of looking at a poem. The first of her thirteen ways of looking at a poem is as "handling moonlight". 126 Noticing similar physiological effects of poetry (whether from reading it or writing it), Laurel Richardson reminds us that: ... an experiencing person is a person in a body. Poetry can recreate embodied speech in a way that standard sociological prose does not because poetry consciously employs such devices as line length, meter, cadence, speed, alliteration, assonance, connotation, rhyme and off-rhyme, variation and repetition to elicit bodily response in readers/listeners [and, I think writers].... Poetry, built as it is on speech as an embodied activity, touches both the cognitive and the sensory in the speaker and the listener. Lived experience is lived in a body and poetic representation can touch us where we live, in our bodies. (26) Like Margaret Demorest, I see poetry as recreating situations from the concrete external world, and at the same time "intent upon the opposite world: that ofthe abstract, invisible, interior world of feelings and insight experienced in that external world....poetry evolves from the private and lonely and unutterable world of the individual's emotions" (360). The world is more wonderful than any of us have dared to guess, as all great poets have been telling us since the invention of poetry. Sharon Butala (56) In her discussion of a spiritual geo-graphy, Sharon Butala credits poetry with the ability to speak of spiritual knowing. Thomas Moore also points tp poetry as a way of re-enchanting the world—of attending to the particularities of our everyday places. He suggests that poets or "perhaps any of us living with imagination" are the "transparence of place" when the spirit of our ground concretely influences what we do and the way we live" (152). 127 Poetic language, then, makes a space for embodied knowledge in our reading/writing of the wor(l)de. A space : to get messy with our places : to welcome the breezes that blow across our faces : to speak ofthe dryness on our lips and in our breath when we live on the prairies: a dryness not noticed until, living with wetness its presence is recognized in its absence Embodied knowings of places would mean attending to the smells, tastes, touches, intuitions, and emotions that we associate with a place. Kathleen Kirby recognizes a gender differentiation in spatial negotiation, and posits that embodied knowing of a place has not been included in traditional ways of mapping spaces and places, because of a need to distance oneself from the place being studied. She believes that people have been alienated from their environments because of a scientific requirement to be at an "objective distance from the phenomena [being analyzed]" (51) 4 0. Rather than standing back and observing a place from a removed vantage point, embodied knowing requires getting messy with the spaces—living the spaces, celebrating embodied spaces, even in our writing/reading. "Our task is that of taking up the written word, with all of its potency, and patiently, carefully, writing language back into the land" (Abram 272 - 273). 4 0 A n d this relates to my earlier note regarding the proliferation of "map skills" in geography curriculum and the panoptical effects of this detached study. 128 Back in 1916, John Dewey wrote about schools as places for uniting body, mind and soul, and the relationship of intellect and emotions in theories of knowledge (335 - 337). Yet, it is only in recent years that embodied ways of knowing, somatic knowing, have entered epistemological discussions within education and curriculum theory. While modernity has required an objective separation of mind and body, feminist and post-modern epistemologies recognize the impossibility of separating mind from body (embodied minds, mindful bodies). Learning theories are based on a continuum that moves from the more concrete to abstract reasoning, yet it is now recognized that disembodied abstract reasoning is not distinctly separate from an embodied, sensual knowing. The senses of sight, touch, hearing, smell, taste, intuition, and emotion inform our rational knowing, and vice versa. Elliot Eisner examines the role of the senses in concept formation, and advocates using the senses more fully in our learning. He suggests that greater educational equity becomes possible by attending to embodied knowing (x, xi). In a recent publication regarding educational research, several established scholars describe mind-body connections that have been evident in their researching lives. They speak of an "entire dimension of experience" (Heshusius and Ballard, xiii), personal, embodied ways of knowing, that has been left out of the research project, and of the possibilities found in narrative inquiry for exposing and celebrating mind-body connections. Referring to spiritual knowing, Butala says the same thing: "a whole, valuable dimension of human experience remains unsung and unvalidated" (55), and she blames this silence on our subscription to a scientific approach to knowing the world. My attempt in this discussion of accountable knowledge is not to refute the value of objective, disembodied knowing, but rather, to include embodied ways of knowing alongside or within or surrounding objective, detached knowing. 129 <Tr(iveC9{ptes Place: I am not sure Linda asked me to consider what Dewey might say about my research. "Maybe," she said, "he wouldn't go along with all of this." I don't know what he would think about line dancing and poetic possibilities. I do think that he would be supportive of attempts to get over the perceived split between mind and body. I can think back to my first master's seminar in curriculum theory, when Reg Hemming asked me if I would read Democracy and Education and then share my insights with the class. He called me "The Dewey Scholar" after that. Funny. Now I can hardly remember what I read about. But it is important to note how those who have theorized curriculum have in many ways cleared paths for people like me to travel down. The trouble is, I get caught in the ditches, wandering off, and before you know it I am way out in a field (but not always left field). Not really meaning to, but somehow I find myself wandering over to the shoulder of the road, and before you know it I am really in the ditch and in my panic I try to step on the brake and I hit the gas pedal instead, and then I am really off the beaten path. Like right now I guess. Is this a musing? No. Okay. I will try to smarten up. Well, I think he might say, "Collateral learning in the way of formation of enduring attitudes, of likes and dislikes, may be and often is much more important than the spelling lesson or lesson in geography or history that is learned....What avail is it to win prescribed amounts of information about geography and history, to win ability to read and write, if in the process [we lose our] own soul: [lose our] appreciation of things worth while, ofthe values to which these things are relative... (Experience and Education 48 - 49) Oops. He really did say that. Okay, I'll try again. What do / think he would say? Well, I do know that Dewey believed in the possibilities of an education that was based on ordinary experience, but that he wanted to make sure that there were some quality controls as to what counts as educational experience. He was criticized for his progressivism, or for the way it was taken up in schools without a lot of thought given to the kinds of experiences that were happening. I think this rampant progressivism in American schools is what Honeybone was referring to in his history of the school subject of geography (cited in Goodson). Honeybone was writing about how in the 1930's, geography became so generalized and covered so many areas that its purpose was lost, and he says this was partly due to the "spread 'under American influence' of 'a methodology, proclaiming that all education must be related to the everyday experience of the children'" (64). And I do know that Dewey wasn't concerned with "isms" so much as he was concerned that education did not become a name or a slogan. In fact, he was sort of in a middle space, saying he didn't want total progressivism or total traditionalism. Maybe he would say, "Well, I think embodied knowledge is a good thing, and we should find ways to encourage this within education, but we must not do something in the name of education just because we believe we are promoting embodied knowledge. There have to be reasons and some sort of quality control to all this. An activity or program that incorporates embodied knowledge must be educative in effect." 1 3 0 Travel9(ptes And then what would I say? Maybe I would say, "I agree that we should not find ways to incorporate embodied ways of knowing within curriculum just for the sake of acknowledging embodied knowledge. There should be educative reasons for wanting to include embodied knowledge in our teaching and learning. Like, here are some reasons: We should be including embodied knowledge in order to include multiple learning styles. We should be including embodied knowledge in our learning experiences because abstract reasoning alone will not provide us with all there is to know about a concept or idea. We should be including embodied knowledge because embodied knowing is a dimension of human understanding that is present but often ignored; thus we often feel something is missing in our learning experiences. In Democracy and Education, Dewey talked about the importance of not ignoring the body in education, but his reasons were rather functional. He noted how children become fidgety if they have to sit for long periods of time without actively engaging their bodies in a learning experience, and he said the result was "nervous strain and fatigue" on the part of the teacher and the student! (141) What would Dewey say? We don't really know. Do we. 131 When I think of curriculum and epistemological considerations, several possible reasons for the absence or ignorance of embodied and spiritual knowings of place come to mind. Patriarchal frameworks for knowledge and curriculum permeate the institution of education. Embodied, personal knowing and narrative knowing have been associated with women and children within the project of modernity. Lyotard credits modernity with the scientific view that narratives are "savage, primitive, underdeveloped, backward, alienated, composed of opinions, customs, authority, prejudice, ignorance, ideology....fables, myths, legends, fit only for women and children" (27). The platonic tradition of debate, with its arguments and statements of claims, so embedded in modem educational institutions, ignores emotions, intuitions, and bodily knowings; these phenomena are traditionally associated with the feminine. I can recall being told to deny my emotions and intuitive knowings in the very early stages of my own teacher education program {don't take things personally), and in present-day schools and classrooms, teachers are not permitted bodily contact with their students. Bodies are ignored, or at the very least, controlled, and personal and public spaces in schools are constructed in ways that limit physical contact between students as well as between students and teachers. Of importance to note, I think, is the way that mind and body are split in the very attempts to reconcile the two within philosophical thought. A library search with the descriptor "mind-body" yields numerous sources that refer to the "mind-body problem" in philosophical thought. What is the "problem"? While reading about bodily knowing and spiritual knowing and ideas about re-enchanting the world (Moore and Berman), I did note some personal uneasiness at the outset of my readings. I did think I likely should not be reading about bodies and erotica and spiritual knowing and even magic. But there were so many enjoyable moments in that reading, and too many "aha" moments to take these readings lightly. 132 Travel'Oiptts Place: Desk When I talk about epistemology, I want to include a travel note about my day at the Vancouver Art Gallery, viewing the Matisse Jazz collection of cut-outs—the way his body dictated his art. He only began painting when he had appendicitis as a youth and was confined to bed, then in his later life, bowel cancer and arthritis led him to sitting and the cut-outs. I could include this in some way as a cut-out, with collage, and use his techniques, and words, maps, bodies, print material in collage about bodies and minds,... and for sure Matisse's words regarding the line: "My line drawing is the purest and most direct translation of my emotion" (1939). No. These are lines that in some way embody emotions. Like poetry. He is privileging phenomenon, and assuming a transparent line between his emotion and the lines he uses to express that emotion. What if we considered how our line drawing effects our emotions, the two-way mingling, the line dancing between word and world, or between lines and living. yellow creamy light from lamp shadows from my hand and pen on the page sometimes causes me to write in the shadows and sometimes because ofthe angle of my hand I write outside the shadows just on the edge of them Desk Notes 133 134 In the wider western world, outside the institution of education, acknowledging a spiritual knowing would go against the modern projects of progress and continued colonialism (still going on today in the form of multinational corporations). Recognizing a spiritual knowing of places would complicate the justification for plowing through a field to lay down an asphalt highway or airport runway. Modem day subdivision growth might not be so prolific if we attended and nurtured our spiritual knowings of places or if we believed we would be violating the spirit of the place to expand our urban landscapes. Ignoring the spirit of a place and spiritual knowing, makes "progress" possible. So then, how might we study the geographical notion of place/location in ways that attend to embodied knowing? And what about locations/places we have never experienced? Places we have never been? Jeans calls for "an attention to literary skills and the imagination...in the education ofthe complete geographer" (13). The education Jeans is calling for requires a consideration of poetic language in our studies of location. Alongside our atlases and geography textbooks (perhaps even within them) we need to place poetry, and even novels and short stories. There are geo-graphy lessons to be learned from poets and storytellers. The following geographical words taken from a Grade 8 Geography textbook focus on interactions between humans and their environments, a theme that is studied regarding location and place in curricular geography:"... refer to the economic profiles of India and Burma on atlas p. 35A. Find the percentage that agriculture contributes to the Gross Domestic Product and the percentage of employment in agriculture..." (83). Human interaction with the environment is also evident in the following passage from Anita Rau Badami's best-selling novel, Tamarind Mem: ... the sweet odour of roses and rajni-gandha surrounding my father had seeped through the entire house. It was a dreadful smell, reminding me that Dadda was now just a body in the middle of the drawing room. He lay on a pile of rapidly melting 135 ice, his mouth a thick blue line, cotton wool in his nostrils .... A warm draft puffed into the room ... (143) The above poetic words attend to bodies in spaces, to the ways in which the people who produce the Gross Domestic Product live and die. Because of cost factors and space limitations in mortuaries, families in parts of India may arrange to have bodies of their loved ones in their homes while relatives pay their respects before cremation. Owing to climatic conditions, ice is often used to pack the bodies. Poetic descriptions of places help us to connect our experiences of a place to the knowing of a place. One of the best parts about a weekend at Alice Lake in the Coast Mountain range of British Columbia, not far from Whistler (we do need scientific writing) was a walk we took around the lake. Spending the morning lazily soaking up sun on the beach and in the water on air mattresses, we could see the people on the other side of the lake but we could not hear them. Luscious laziness lingered. As we walked along the path circling the lake, the shade from the trees provided a welcome coolness on our backs. I marveled at the thick green plant growth along the path through the trees, and I remember looking up to see how the sun could possibly make it through the trees to reach the undergrowth. The sunlight sparkled and filtered through the trees and landed on me in that very spot as I looked up. Some months later, I read the following lines from Lake Ellenwood, Leigh Faulkner's poem about a lake on the other side of the continent. As I read the words, I remembered and knew a place: the campground is out of sound around the point; at the far end ofthe lake the corpulent lodge lounges on the beach; 136 the lambent sun catches in the treetops and is passed down from branch to branch ... (31) Moore refers to the depth and centrality of imagination that writing revives and speaks of a re-enchantment of the world, made possible through abandoning abstract philosophy and "mechanistic and mental approaches to the human situation": ... the life we make, for ourselves individually and for the world as a whole, is shaped and limited only by the perimeters of our imagination. Things are as we imagine them to be, as we imagine them into existence. Imagination is creativity, and the way we make our world depends on the vitality of our imagination. (380) Perhaps there is a homeostatic relationship between imagination and landscape. The imagination we use to shape our world has also been shaped by our landscape. Hampl notes that "landscape plays a key role in the formation of the imagination...it is the primer coat under all we can paint for ourselves and others..." (125). 137 STATEMENTS OF PLACE just like any other map with dots punctuating places: small dots for small places large dots for large places on this map a large dot shows this place Vancouver: like a period at the end of a statement rolling down the map on prairie afternoons we looked for places we read the words beside the dots not our dots someone else lived in the dots we found unlike the dot dwellers we lived in an unedited space a dotless territory on the map full of wind and gravel roads and sun and in our sky jet streams left wispy lines playing their game of connect the dots 138 139 "Place" is not a term that is used widely within current geographical curriculum materials for British Columbia and Saskatchewan (location is the term used, and finding locations is the emphasis). While "local places" is the focus of study in the early grades, learning about our local places from Kindergarten to Grade 12 will not only enhance our notions of place and self, it will also present the possibility of creating a sense of responsibility and caring connections between land, people, and habitat. Sheila Harrington's Giving the Land a Voice was a project of local mapping that involved a bioregional approach to sustainable living on Salt Spring Island, British Columbia. Local people used drawings and writings to map their home places, with the results contributing to a social and cultural knowing of home places. Planners of the project state that "creating the maps was an attempt to reveal the essence of where we live, and how our community fits into a larger region. Until we have maps that do this, we risk being geographically located, but socially and culturally lost" (2) 4 1 . ...all places are sacred. The places we thank the Creator. The places the spirits live. The places we celebrate our ceremonies. The places we seek visions. The places we bury our dead. The places we name our children. The places we get our food. The places we gather our medicines. The places we greet the morning sun. The places we welcome the spring....they help us to understand where we come from, they also help us to understand who we are...42 Several curricular scholars have argued for a curriculum that attends to lived experience and autobiographical knowledge. In attempts to answer the question of what is worth knowing, the self has been elevated to a place of importance. In his writings on 41While the planners were subscribing to a representational discourse, hoping their project would reveal the "essence" of their community and the larger region; their mapping project was also a writing of their community and the larger region, a performance in the space between a representational (revealing) discourse and a floating (concealing) discourse. 42Maracle as cited in Courtney Milne, 1994. The quotation is from pp. 10-11. 140 autobiography and curriculum, Roy Graham 4 3 neatly positions autobiography within Dewey's ideas of constructing the self and relating to how the self is situated in society, the place of self-realization in education, and the social construction of knowledge. Dewey saw a progression from self-knowing to self-care. Embodied knowing and spiritual knowing of our everyday places would enhance what we know of our selves, and would also present the possibility of exposing the realities of places and spaces. While the danger does exist in romanticizing place through poetics (though this is not always a dangerous project), validating personal, embodied knowings of place also presents possibilities for exploring the politics of place. Human geography relegates importance to notions of space and place. Feminist geography recognizes the importance of local, lived everyday spaces, and how our spaces affect how we live our lives. What we know of our place and of locations is connected to what we know of our selves and how we live in places and locations (word, world, we). While place and self are seen as intimately connected, Doreen Massey looks at the cultural politics of space and place and addresses some of the ways in which the notion of place is problematical. She cautions that a "sense of place" can be constructed around "reactionary nationalisms", "competitive localisms", and "sanitized, introverted obsessions with 'heritage'" (Power-Geometry 64). Massey suggests that we begin to conceive of places as processes that are continuing to evolve and are not enclosed by boundaries; rather, they are defined by social relations, and are composed of multiple identities, each of these qualities ensuring a continuing uniqueness of place. In her critique of the notion of place, Gillian Rose outlines that place is often equated with home in humanistic geography, and therefore relegated as feminine, nurturing, comforting, safe, and a place without conflict. While this might be the desired image of place/home constructed through patriarchal lenses, feminist geography acknowledges that 4 3See Roy Graham, 1991. 141 place/home within this construction is often oppressive to women and marginalized people (Feminism and Geography 54-60). Humanistic geography took the position that to know a place was to be human, and this geographical perspective, which is not one and the same as "human" geography, was concerned with emotions and feelings and certain attachments to place. While Rose equated the humanistic (masculinist) construction of place or home or community as feminine, she does acknowledge that humanistic geography paid attention to bodies in spaces, and embodied experiences of places, albeit masculine bodies. In rather strong contrast to this critical examination of place within academic human geography, Elspeth Deir has this to say about curricular geography (in Canada): "various skills specific to geography education emerge from concepts connected to space and place. These skills include the decoding of maps and globes, and the use and interpretation of symbols, direction, location, scales, and distance" (135). Her comment illustrates the way curricular geography skims the surface of notions of space and place, and all in a language of technology and indifference. Embodied knowledge can be expressed in poetry about place; and while poetry can tell us that "the world is more wonderful than any of us have ever dared to guess" (Butala 56), it can also tell us that the world is also not wonderful. Poetic language can write the metonymic spaces of a wonderful/not wonderful wor(l)de. 142 OH, CANADA I went to your birthday party today I saw your new helicopters and airplanes and sea planes I heard your military band play Amazing Grace and one for old blue eyes / Did it My Way I tasted your Beaver Tails dripping with Real Maple Syrup and 0 Canada why were those men in red coats showing us their dogs and telling us how fast they could run and how much fresh meat they could eat in just one day and how fast the special highway cruiser car could go? and O Canada who was that woman with the dark skin wearing the blue coat cleaning up after all the dogs and the Amazing Grace and the people who dripped Real Maple Syrup onto the street when it melted under all thy suns! 143 LEARNING MY PLACE I did not learn about my town how it came to be called Torquay I did leam about Captain Vancouver and queen cities I did not learn the population of my town no dot (between 0.1 and 0.5 million people) or square (more than 2 million people) I did leam the three largest cities in Canada I did not learn about the maps of my place how the numbers changed on them every three years I did learn how others sold out and moved on when they could not live with the numbers I did not leam why only men went for three o'clock coffee at the Chinese cafe on main street I did leam that Another World was good on Fridays I did not learn why my place was not as important as other places on the map I did learn to live with invisibility 1 4 4 Which places are ordinarily studied in North American classrooms and why and how? Envision this: A double page spread in the National Geographic publication Geography for L i f e 4 4 . The page is black, and shows the world from space, lit up at night. The photo explanation points to gas burn-off areas in the Persian Gulf region: "Imagine what this would have looked like during the Gulf War in 1991", and an area in the Sea of Japan where "there is a valuable resource being exploited...It is the Japanese squid-fishing fleet, lit up at night for round-the-clock harvesting. / thought the war was over... The photo title is "The World at Night", and the explanation accompanying the photo begins with: Light is evidence of large numbers of people and cities; dark means the absence of people and cities. You can see great clusters of cities—from Boston through New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, to Washington. This is the original megalopolis, the nation's economic and political powerhouse. (12) What if I live in the dark, in the absence of people and cities? Or what if I live in an economic and political powerhouse, but come to school hungry, or sick from the fumes of the industrial park that pumps up and fuels the economic and political powerhouse? In many cases, it seems that the places we study in classrooms are the "bright lights" places, or other places in the world that affect how we maintain our economic and political powerhouses. Several writers illustrate how poetry can also be political. Post-colonial writing examines the way the world is written, and seeks to rewrite or poem the world in more 44National Geography Standards 1994; p, 12. While "place" is considered, the focus through much of this publication is on economic power and global competition: "...standards reflect the belief that geography must be as rigorously taught in the United States as it is in other countries. All countries depend upon their citizen's knowledge of the world to compete in the global economy..."(237). Also, owing to a critical examination of photojournalism in National Geographic (Lutz & Collins, 1993) my reading of National Geographic has become one of skepticism and critique. I noted this same "geography for life (read global competition)" aspect within the American teacher education textbook, Geography for Educators, which is based on National Geography Standards, 1994. This text lists "geographic illiteracy" as something to be "combatted": "We depend on a well-informed populace to maintain the democratic ideals which have made this country great. When 95 percent of some of our brightest college students cannot locate Vietnam on a world map, we must sound the alarm.:.in 1980, a presidential commission found that companies in the United States fare poorly against foreign competitors, in part because Americans are ignorant of things beyond their borders." (Susan Hardwick and Donald Holtgrieve 2) 145 Travel 9{ptes Place: Curricular Documents While every curricular decision involves issues of ethics, I do need to say something about the ethical and moral dimensions of geography curriculum and poetic possibilities. My hope for geography curriculum is that we can make the study of geography more inclusive regarding method and content. One way of doing that is by attending to poetic language (a methodological/pedagogical and content consideration). Another way of doing that is to openly acknowledge how words can shape our worlds, and that worlds can shape our words, and that we can be actively involved in this. In doing this we are creating a space for students to become aware of embodied knowledge, and to become aware ofthe political nature of curriculum. There are many students who respond positively to activities that require an examination of text, or creating text that is poetic. While I hadn't been thinking of poetry itself as a gendered genre, Nikki Strong-Boag's e-mail message to me in March did start me thinking... ...Hope you persevere with the poetry in SS education. I think it's a real loss not to have more of it in schools. My kids are in school here [in France, where she was on sabbatical] and they memorize and write loads of it. For boys (I have 3) it's an important way to explore new emotions, as well as to make connections, not to mention public speaking, etc. Good luck with your work. (Nikki Strong-Boag, e-mail, 30 Mar. 1998) Ethically and morally, if our curricular decisions leave out these kinds of experiences, we are creating a curriculum that excludes in its approaches to learning and to content. And we are prohibiting students from the fullest possible educational experiences. Perhaps poetry is more likely to be associated with feminine ways of expressing, and it could easily be assumed that we are being inequitable regarding gender and genre by excluding poetry; however, it is not just girls that are missing out when we devalue poetic textual practices. My own two boys are not that crazy about poetry, but it is true, that a poem can say what it is very hard to express in other forms, and while they find poetry difficult to write, they do like to read poems (even mine) and "figure them out". They always have insights that are instructive to me. The John Goodlad et al. collection of articles about the moral dimensions of teaching are worth looking at here. Walter Feinberg notes that the "role of public education is to create and recreate a public by giving voice to an otherwise inarticulate, uninformed mass" (181). I don't agree with the last part of his statement, and maybe he doesn't either, because he does go on to say that "the idea of a public suggests, as Dewey well understood, a sense of shared experience and symbols for communicating the meaning of that experience to others" (182). And he does say that creating and recreating a public requires attending to everyday knowledge. (So he can't be thinking that this everyday knowledge is coming from an "uninformed, inarticulate mass".) Anyway, concerning the moral dimensions of teaching, Feinberg notes the importance of considering individual development and emotional and intellectual growth of students when teachers make professional judgments about curriculum. Another article in this collection, by Kenneth Sirotnik (Society, Schooling, Teaching, and 146 Travel9(ptes Preparing toTeach), talks about an ethics of inquiry, knowledge, competence, caring, and social justice. He indicates that, where ethics are concerned, social justice is a bottom line regarding public education. He sees signs of social injustice in our schools: tracking students, selective curriculum for selective students, "unidimensional tests of intelligence" (312). I believe not questioning what it is we do in geography lessons, and why we do it, is an example of social injustice. One of the main reasons that geography is included in social studies education is to promote nationalism and civic competence (but this is not often stated in curricular rationale statements). This point should be noted in teacher education courses, and teachers themselves should be making this point evident to students. When we study Canada in classrooms, we should ask students to note what we study, and what we do not study. And we should encourage students to question. Why does our national anthem refer to "all thy sons"? Is that an inclusive phrase? Does language matter? What about the notion of Saskatchewan as the prairie province or the plains? If we travel above 54° latitude in Saskatchewan we find out that "prairie" is full of lakes and trees and outcroppings of solid rock. And the people who live there do not believe they live in a prairie. Maybe, they start to believe they are invisible. Social justice requires critical reflection on both method and content on the part of the teachers, and it requires encouraging students to critically reflect on these issues as well. Maybe the bottom line is to ask some questions, like: What is unethical about including poetry in our study of geography? What is unethical about validating embodied knowledge in our approach to geography; in how we come to understand issues and our selves? What is unethical about questioning the history of maps or the language of scientific, objective approaches to learning about spaces and places? I can not, at this point, think of any good answers to these questions. 147 inclusive ways. Jamaica Kincaid writes about her place and how it was not the place the English wanted it to be, and so during the colonial period, Antigua was turned into England, "but no place could really ever be England, and nobody who did not look exactly like them could ever be English, so you can imagine the destruction of people and land that came from that" (92). As Veronica Strong-Boag notes, Pauline Johnson was intent on remapping the Canadian "imaginative landscape" with her poetry and words. Regarding the geography of Vancouver and the Pacific coast, Johnson reminds readers that the "twin peaks which rose to the north of the city are not 'the lions' appropriated by some foreign-born settler....The mountains had a far older indigenous history as the 'sisters' of Indian legend" (55 - 56). Along with the political significance of the places we study, there are ethical and moral issues at stake. When curriculum ignores our everyday lived spaces, it in effect erases people and places from the map, as well as issues and problems. Current events bulletin boards in classrooms that feature a map with pins stuck into news worthy places around the world ignore local, everyday places and experiences. Students recognize that the famine in Africa is horrendous, while they step around homeless people just around the corner from the bus stop. And children learn to believe that their place is not so important—unless it happens to be one of the large dots on political maps of the territory, and even so, it is studied in disembodied ways, with lived experience ignored, especially those experiences of the unempowered. Poetic possibilities for writing the world in personal, embodied ways are present within post-structural approaches to reading/writing and within poetic language. And yes I do believe geography classrooms are places where handling the moonlight is possible. 148 T H E S U P P L E M E N T 4 5 4 5 I n my old school atlas there were two sections: the atlas and the supplement. I have used that format for my own atlas. I like the notion of supplement as coming after, added on; it can only be a supplement because of what came before, yet it can also be a re-placement for what came before. Checking with a dictionary, I noted this reference to supplement: "to supplement one's income." Isn't that moonlighting? 149 13 WAYS TO HANDLE MOONLIGHT i Moon shadows surround the sleeping children. In the morning they will wake and return to desks that hold their secret treasures: sample tubes of A V O N lipstick rocks and sticks that are just that size bits of chalk the janitor missed in sweeping torn pieces of tissue paper In the morning they will wonder: where does the rain come from why is the toilet paper so scratchy in the school washrooms what is in the teacher's desk where is that smell coming from In the moonlight they murmur and dream. Some dream to remember some dream to forget. II in the moonlight your hands my dress the wet grass the way a breeze played with your hair it was my 30th birthday III at three I rise and go down to the lake I paddle down past the golf course, open a bottle of wine and let the wind 150 take me back it is here, by moonlight, that I have come ... ... there are things greater than trout, shadows in the deeper pools, passing beneath the keel of my canoe 4 6 IV For a very long time I have felt myself to be in a poetic and fantasmatic relationship to the moon our o t h e r . . . to whom I always say—silently looking at her—excuse me for acting as i f you were the other, whereas you are lune. Let us change points of view....in this case the other would be the earth. A n d it is a good thing. Each one should get her or his turn.... the earth seen from the point of view of the moon is revived: it is unknown; to be rediscovered 4 7. V when the moon hits your eye like a big pizza pie that's amour(e) i'm bein' followed by a moon shadow moon shadow moon shadow dancin' in the moonlight everybody was feeling just alright it's such a fine and natural sight 46Leigh Faulkner, 1993, (32). 47Helene Cixous, 1997, (10). 1 5 1 VI In the morning they will write their world with numbers and lines and colours and words. Their words will speak of their places and their words will not always rhyme. In the moonlight they murmur and dream. VII / have a personal belief that when women of all nations/colours pass from this world to the spirit world part of their spirit goes into the moon48. Who will I have when you leave me here? I am afraid. You will have your Moon to keep you company, inside and above you49. VIII And sometimes they cross the line. They write on top of lines already written. They draw in their own lines. They fold up their maps and make them fly. They open their atlases and begin to read/write their stories between the lines. And they map the spaces in their world that only they can map, as they move and breathe and dance through spaces. They hear the stories of other times and places they have not travelled through, and they understand their living in their own places just a little more. And they know a little more about the intimate spaces within. IX slowly silently now the moon walks the night in her silver shoon this way and that she peers and sees 4 8 C a t Cayuga, quoted in Lenore Keeshig-Tobias, 1996, n. pag. ^Barbara La Valley, quoted in Lenore Keeshig-Tobias, 1996, n. pag. 152 silver fruit upon silver trees5 0 X what to do with all her shoes we sat by a dusty closet wondering if the red ones would still fit and what about underwear and for some reason the men that came to my mother's house after my grandmother's burial took their shoes off at the door maybe custom or caution or superstition not to scatter dust from the grounds of the remains on the grounds of the remaining her friend Henry from the second floor and down across wanted to leave but his shoes were not at the door someone else had worn them home and left him with a smaller smoother newer pair in stocking feet 50Childhood memory of poem tided Silver 153 remembering dampness and the wild playfulness of august evenings Henry left in the moonlight later in the fall shoes exchanged through the mail and maybe a letter saying sorry I took your shoes they were a little big and a returned note saying thanks for sending my shoes yours were just too small XI Here there are only shadows. The moonlight is a memory now and left behind are lines of wind and darkness. The children have grown up and they move out into the world—the one they have written. The one they continue to write. Every now and then they add a comma, delete a sentence, write a new pali-graph51 to their palimpsest prairie criss-crossings and overlays of moonlight trails. Some things only happen in the moonlight and these things we do not always notice. But the traces are there, we hear and see and smell and dream the traces moving over and within us. 5 *Erika Hasebe-Ludt describes a palagraphic text as a text that "reflects its layered textuality in the form of different types of fonts and spatial arrangements for the shifting voices" of many (210). 154 XII Where I come from the winters are long, to be traversed by cross-country skiing along the river or across wood-locked fields. Every day, chasing the hour between dusk and darkness, I escape the cold grip of winter and return home breathless, triumphant, the moon riding on my shoulder. And always, I bring with me from the woods a fragment of a story or an idea to be considered, to be reshaped, to be troubled over. Each wintry excursion seems to bring with it discovery, born in the space between the rhythm of skis against snow and the sound of the wind entering the f irs . 5 2 XIII a partial index to handling moonlight53 moonlight as aphrodisiac 88-99; grass is always wet in the 77-78; how to catch the 91-94; lake surfaces and 3, 8,39-41, 111-114; leaving the tent without a flashlight and noting the 101-105; needing extra money and deciding to 28,46-51, 60n, 87; parking and 55,59n; places to walk in the 19-21,33n; and the places where words stop 45-79; see also 'poetry', embodied knowledge(s), line dancing 5 2Lynn Fels, 1995, n. pag. 53Form adapted from Kate Harvey's innovative use of index poetry in Contemporary Verse 2 (Spring 1998). 155 GENERAL INDEX my body A l in the C 1 responding C 1 falls C 1 through F2 a G 6 rain forest H-I2 there had to be a separating G-K 1 why do I need to know M ... 6 everything flat is a region A - E l the things we have mapped (marginalia) into existence (marginalia) 156 DANCING INSTRUCTIONS: there is space imagine stepping into the space imagine the intricate changes your body brings to the space on the dance floor just by being even a toe skimming surface creates a line of exquisite space 157 REFERENCES Abram, David. 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Environment and Planning A, 28 (1996): 405 - 427. Pollock, Delia. "Performing Writing. "The Ends of Performance. Eds. Peggy Phelan and Jill Lane. New York, N Y : New York University Press, 1998. 73 - 103. Pred, Allan. "Re-Presenting the Extended Present Moment of Danger: A Meditation on Hypermodernity, Identity, and the Montage Form." Space and Social Theory. Eds. Georges Benko and Ulf Strohmayer. Oxford, U K : Blackwell, 1997. 117 - 140. Rabasa, Jose. "Allegories of Atlas." The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. Eds. Bi l l Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. New York, N Y : Routledge, 1995. 358 - 364. Rich, Adrienne. An Atlas ofthe Difficult World: Poems 1988-1991. New York, N Y : W.W. Norton & Company, 1991. 163 Richardson, Laurel. "The Poetic Representation of Lives: Writing a Postmodern Sociology. Studies in Symbolic Interaction 13 (1992): 19 - 27. Rose, Gillian. Feminism and Geography: The Limits'of Geographical Knowledge. Minneapolis, M N : University of Minnesota Press, 1993. . "Progress in Geography and Gender. Or Something Else." Progress in Human Geography 17.4 (1993): 531 - 537. de Saussure, Ferdinand. Course in General Linguistics. Trans. Roy Harris. Peru, IL: Open Court, 1983. Trans, of Coursde linguistique generate. 1972. Shields, R. "Fancy Footwork: Walter Benjamin's Notes on Flanerie." The Flaneur. Ed. K. Tester. London: Routledge, 1994. 61 - 80. Silverman, Kaja. The Subject of Semiotics. New York, N Y : Oxford University Press, 1983. Sirotnik, Kenneth. "Society, Schooling, Teaching, and Preparing to Teach." The Moral Dimensions of Teaching. Eds. John Goodlad, Roger Soder and Kenneth Sirotnik. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publications, 1990. 296 - 325. Stoltman, Joseph. "Research on Geography Teaching." Handbook of Research on Social Studies Teaching and Learning. Ed. James Shaver. New York, N Y : Macmillan Publishing, 1991. 437 - 447. Strong-Boag, Veronica. "No Longer Dull: The Feminist Renewal of Canadian History." Canadian Social Studies 32.2 (1998): 55 - 57. . E-mail to the author. 30 Mar. 1998. Threadgold, Terry. Feminist Poetics: Poiesis, Performance, Histories. New York, N Y : Routledge, 1997. Turnbull, David. Maps are Territories: Science is an Atlas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Vintz, M . and T. Tammaro, eds. Imagining Home: Writing from the Midwest. Minneapolis M N : University of Minnesota Press, 1995. Wolfart, P. "Cartography as Chorography: The Narrative Role of Maps. Paper/scissors/rock: Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Graduate Student Conference on Nationalism, Empire and Post-colonialism. Eds. J. Critchley, D. Feeney, N . Hanlon and M . Ripmeester. Kingston, ON: Queen's University, May, 1995. Wood, Denis and John Fels. "Designs on Signs/Myth and Meaning in Maps." Cartographica 23.3 (1986): 54- 103. . "Pleasure in the Idea: The Atlas as Narrative Form." Cartographica 24.1 (1987): 24 - 45. 164 Wright, Ian. Elementary Social Studies: A Practical Approach (4th Ed.). Toronto, ON: Nelson Canada, 1995. Wright, Ian and Alan Sears, eds. Trends and Issues in Canadian Social Studies. Vancouver, BC: Pacific Educational Press, 1997. 165 APPENDIX I 166 L Teacher Education Resources Kirman, Joseph. Elementary Social Studies (2nd Ed.). Scarborough, ON: Allyn & Bacon Canada, 1996. Wright, Ian. Elementary Social Studies: A practical approach (4th Ed.). Toronto, ON: Nelson Canada, 1995. Wright, Ian and Sears, Alan. Trends and Issues in Canadian Social Studies. Vancouver, BC: Pacific Educational Press, 1997. BC Ministry Documents: Social Studies K to 7 Integrated Resource Package 1996 Social Studies 8 to 10 Integrated Resource Package 1996 Geography 12 Integrated Resource Package 1997 Saskatchewan Education Documents: Social Studies: A Curriculum Guide and Activity Guide for the Elementary Level. Social Studies: A Curriculum Guide for Grade 6: Social Studies: A Curriculum Guide for Grade 7: Canada and the World Community 167 


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