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Conceptions of outdoor education that underlie outdoor education courses at English speaking Canadian… Hirsch, Judith Elizabeth 1992

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CONCEPTIONS OF OUTDOOR EDUCATION THAT UNDERLIE OUTDOOR EDUCATION COURSES AT ENGLISH SPEAKING CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES by JUDITH ELIZABETH HIRSCH B.Sc., A c a d i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 M.Ed., D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y , 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1992 © J u d i t h E l i z a b e t h H i r s c h , 1992 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT This study c h a r a c t e r i z e s the content and i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of a set of conceptions of outdoor education. F i f t y - f o u r E n g l i s h speaking Canadian u n i v e r s i t y programs or courses which were l a b e l l e d , or contained as e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s . the term outdoor education or any of a s e r i e s of r e l a t e d terms provide the b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s . A conception i s defined as a coordinated set of c e n t r a l concepts, values and procedures which are e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t i n course documents. The study employed a methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n . Content a n a l y s i s of course documents provided the d e s c r i p t i o n of the values, c e n t r a l concepts and procedures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each course. Q methodology was performed by course conductors to review the 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts' components found i n the content a n a l y s i s and to express t h e i r views of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of those values and c e n t r a l concepts. A focused i n t e r v i e w was conducted w i t h fourteen course developers to confirm, r e f u t e or extend p r e v i o u s l y obtained data. Q methodology produced a typology of outdoor education comprising f i v e primary conceptions 1 and one secondary conception: The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t , The Adventurer, The 1 "The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t " , "The Adventurer", "The E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t " , "The Educator", "The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur", and "The A d m i n i s t r a t o r " are h e u r i s t i c devices which r e f e r to an i d e a l type of i n d i v i d u a l who embodies a co-ordinated set of c e n t r a l concepts, values, and procedures which are i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t i n a c o n c e p t i o n of outdoor education. Education, The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur, The Envir o n m e n t a l i s t , and The Ad m i n i s t r a t o r . D i s t i n g u i s h i n g features of each conception and f e a t u r e s common among the primary conceptions are discussed. Focused in t e r v i e w s produced information about course conductor a t t i t u d e s and t r a i n i n g , the program's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r f i e l d s of study, the concept's need f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , the need f o r a common knowledge base i n outdoor education, and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the n a t u r a l environment, te a c h i n g , r e c r e a t i o n and education. Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n are b r i e f l y discussed. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i v CHAPTER 1: In t r o d u c t i o n 1 Purpose of the Study 5 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 5 Terminology 12 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 14 CHAPTER 2: Background to the Study 15 An H i s t o r i c a l Summary of Outdoor Education i n North America 15 E x i s t i n g D e f i n i t i o n s and Frameworks 22 Research Procedures 3 6 Methodological T r i a n g u l a t i o n 37 Developmental A n a l y s i s 3 9 Content A n a l y s i s 39 Q Methodology 4 6 Focused Interview 51 Conclusion 54 CHAPTER 3: Research Framework and Procedures 56 The Research Framework 5 6 The Research Procedures 61 Outdoor Education Courses at Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s 61 Content A n a l y s i s 64 Units of A n a l y s i s 64 Recording I n s t r u c t i o n s 65 A n a l y t i c a l Technique 66 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 67 Q Methodology 68 Q Sort Instruments 69 The S o r t i n g Procedure 71 Treatment of Data 71 Computer Programs 7 2 Focused Interview 72 Interview Guide 73 Interview Procedures 74 Interview P i l o t 74 Data A n a l y s i s 7 5 Research Schedule 75 CHAPTER 4: Presentation and A n a l y s i s of the Content A n a l y s i s Findings 77 CHAPTER 5: Presentation and A n a l y s i s of the Q Methodology Findings 82 The Five Factor 'Values' S o l u t i o n and the S i x Factor 'Central Concepts' S o l u t i o n . . 83 The Adventurer 84 The Environmentalist 86 The Educator 87 The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t 87 The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur 88 The Ad m i n i s t r a t o r 89 Dif f e r e n c e s Among Conceptions 91 The Adventurer and The Environmentalist . . . 92 The Adventurer and The Educator 94 The Adventurer and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t 95 The Adventurer and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur 97 The Educator and The Environmentalist . . . . 99 The Educator and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t . 100 The Environmentalist and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t 101 The Environmentalist and the L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur 102 The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur 103 The Educator and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur 104 The Adm i n i s t r a t o r 105 The Procedural Knowledge Component 107 CHAPTER 6: Presentation and A n a l y s i s of the Focused Interview Findings 110 Course Conductors 110 Biocentrism 110 T r a i n i n g 113 Mentors 117 The Program 119 R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other F i e l d s of Study . . 119 Outdoor Education: The Concept 121 The Need f o r C l a r i f i c a t i o n 122 A Common Knowledge Base 123 Managing and Using the Natural Environment . 12 4 The C e n t r a l i t y of Teaching 12 6 The Natural Environment 127 Education and Recreation 13 0 Outdoor Education Values 132 Conclusions 134 P r o f e s s i o n a l Issues 135 D e f i n i t i o n 136 Research 136 L e g i t i m i z a t i o n 138 Teacher Education 13 9 Economics 141 The Environment 142 Gender 143 Conclusions 145 Summary 145 CHAPTER 7: Summary and Conclusions 147 Summary of Purpose 147 Summary of the Procedures 147 Summary of the Findings 14 9 Q Methodology 149 Focused Interviews 152 Recommendations 154 BIBLIOGRAPHY 156 Appendix A: Correspondence 167 Appendix B: Content A n a l y s i s Sources 180 Appendix C: Content A n a l y s i s Data 183 Appendix D: Q Sort Instrument 2 68 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: The Research Schedule 7 6 LIST OF TABLES Table I : A Comparison of the Goals, Features and Values of Environmental Education, Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor P u r s u i t s 3 6 Table I I : Course Conductor P a r t i c i p a t i o n Across the Research Design 63 Table I I I : An Example of Results of Content A n a l y s i s f o r the C e n t r a l Concept D e s c r i p t o r 78 Table IV: Q Sort Values Items 80 Table V: C e n t r a l Concepts Q Sort Items 81 Table VI: Values and C e n t r a l Concepts A s s o c i a t e d With The Adventurer 85 Table V I I : Values and C e n t r a l Concepts A s s o c i a t e d With The Environmentalist 86 Table V I I I : Values and C e n t r a l Concepts A s s o c i a t e d With The Educator 88 Table IX: Values and C e n t r a l Concepts A s s o c i a t e d With The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t 89 Table X: Values and C e n t r a l Concepts Associated w i t h The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur 90 Table XI: C e n t r a l Concepts Associated With The A d m i n i s t r a t o r 90 Table X I I : Extreme Differences Between The Adventurer and The Environmentalist 93 Table X I I I : Extreme Differences Between The Adventurer and The Educator 9 5 Table XIV: Extreme Differences Between The Adventurer and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t 96 Table XV: Extreme Differences Between the Adventurer and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur 98 Table XVI: Extreme Differences Between The Educator and The Environmentalist 9 9 Table XVII: Extreme Differences Between The Educator and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t 101 Table X V I I I : Extreme Differences Between The Environmentalist and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t . 102 Table XIX: Extreme Differences Between The Environmentalist and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur 103 Table XX: Extreme Dif f e r e n c e s Between The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur . 104 Table XXI: Extreme Differences Between The Educator and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur 105 Table XXII: Extreme Differences Between The Ad m i n i s t r a t o r and the Five Conceptions of Outdoor Education 106 LIST OF GRAPHICS 1. Acknowledgement and Consent Card 174 2. Acknowledgement and Consent Card (reverse) 175 3. Q Sort Envelop w i t h I n s t r u c t i o n s 269 X l l ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge the as s i s t a n c e and encouragement accorded me during t h i s study by a number of people. In p a r t i c u l a r , I am indebted to Dr. LeRoi D a n i e l s , Dr. David Bateson and Dr. Don Fisher f o r t h e i r p atience, support and guidance throughout t h i s study. My s i n c e r e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o extended to Karen Naugler, f r i e n d and secretary, f o r her considerable a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e . I would l i k e to acknowledge the val u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n made over s e v e r a l years by my colleagues at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . Their b e l i e f i n the value of t h i s study helped to ensure i t s completion. To my husband David, our daughter J e s s i c a and son Christopher, I can only begin to thank you f o r your encouragement and understanding. I wish to dedicate t h i s study to Amos. XI11 CHAPTER 1 Int r o d u c t i o n The conceptions of outdoor education vary as p r e c i s e l y as those who look upon i t vary. Any educator, viewing i t s r a t i o n a l e , philosophy, and p r a c t i c e s from h i s own poin t of view, n e c e s s a r i l y sees something d i f f e r e n t than h i s colleagues see. (Donaldson and Goering, 1972, 215.) A primary purpose of t h i s study i s to develop an understanding of the many and v a r i e d uses of the concept outdoor education. In t h i s way, t h i s study seeks to achieve outcomes which are s i m i l a r to those c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Coombs and Daniels (1989) as Conceptual Development. The t h e s i s makes use of a d i s t i n c t i o n between a concept and a conception. Conceptions of something are s p e c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of a concept. Thus, f o r example, a l l c u l t u r e s have a no t i o n of good manners, but have r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r i n g conceptions of what good manners c o n s i s t of (Coombs & Daniels, 1989) . The present study sought to reveal the complexities of the various conceptions of outdoor education h e l d by outdoor educators r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e l e c t e d outdoor education courses i n E n g l i s h speaking, Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . A conception can i n f l u e n c e a person's way of t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g about, and a c t i n g i n a s i t u a t i o n . As Becker, Geer, Hughes & Strauss (1961) e x p l a i n , when people face a problematic s i t u a t i o n or a s i t u a t i o n c a l l i n g f o r a c t i o n they make i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s based upon p r e v i o u s l y h e l d conceptions. In other words, the de c i s i o n s people make are i n f l u e n c e d by the conceptions they hold. I f a person holds a conception about a p r i v a t e school which assumes i t to be unreasonably expensive and e l i t i s t , that person w i l l be u n l i k e l y to send h i s or her c h i l d to that i n s t i t u t i o n . Conversely, the parent who b e l i e v e s that the value of p r i v a t e school education l i e s i n the opportunity i t a f f o r d s students to develop s o c i a l networks which are d e s i r a b l e f o r l a t e r l i f e w i l l l i k e l y wish h i s or her c h i l d to attend such a school. In these examples people are a c t i n g according to the conceptions they h o l d about p r i v a t e schools. People hold conceptions about a range of s i t u a t i o n s which they encounter on a day to day b a s i s . For example, the e n t e r p r i s e of education presents a myriad of s i t u a t i o n s which are informed by many complex conceptions. The e x i s t e n c e of a range of such d i v e r s e conceptions of education i s r e f l e c t e d i n attempts to provide a c l e a r conceptual framework on which to base d e c i s i o n s about edu c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . As examples, Schiro (1978) proposes four o r i e n t a t i o n s toward education f o r use i n understanding the e n t e r p r i s e of schooling; House (1981) suggests three p e r s p e c t i v e s on the purpose of education to a s s i s t c u r r i c u l u m implementation; McNeil (1977) introduces the subject of c u r r i c u l u m development by d i s c u s s i n g i t s three "faces"; and Eis n e r and Va l l a n c e (1974) o u t l i n e c o n f l i c t i n g conceptions of c u r r i c u l u m i n order to e s t a b l i s h the notion that c u r r i c u l u m development must proceed toward ends which are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h v a r y i n g conceptions of education. In each case a conceptual framework i s o f f e r e d because i t i s assumed that there e x i s t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between conceptual c l a r i t y and q u a l i t y of a c t i o n . Outdoor education, l i k e education, i s a complex concept r e f l e c t i v e of a broadly based movement which has been i n t e r p r e t e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways. Each vantage poi n t has i t s own p a r t i c u l a r set of values, b e l i e f s , and assumptions. As examples, McLaren (1983) maintains that outdoor or environmental education i s not j u s t another subject, but that i t has more to do w i t h the way schools have defined teaching and l e a r n i n g , students and teachers; and S t a l e y (1983), i n the aftermath of a survey about the status of outdoor education conducted by the American A l l i a n c e of Health, P h y s i c a l Education, Recreation and Dance, argued that the purpose of outdoor education i s to e n r i c h the l i v e s and l e a r n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s . D e f i n i t i o n s of outdoor education r e p r e s e n t i n g d i v e r s e , and i n many cases c o n f l i c t i n g , conceptions of the term abound i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Champ, 1981, Cousineau, 1982, Donaldson & Donaldson, 1958, Jensen & Briggs-Young, 1981). However, according to Goodman and Knapp (1981), when hard pressed to elaborate these packaged statements i n t o goals, g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s , c u r r i c u l u m f o c i , and b e l i e f s , w r i t e r s are l e s s eloquent and more unsure of themselves. As a r e s u l t c onsiderable confusion has accompanied the outdoor education movement. Donaldson and Goering (1972) contended that outdoor education was a comparatively new f i e l d which i n c l u d e d some very broad concepts, subjects, and methods, and which was accompanied by some confusion among educators and the general p u b l i c . A decade l a t e r , i n an e f f o r t to e x p l a i n outdoor-o r i e n t e d programs, R o l l i n s and N i c h o l s (1982) suggested that w h i l e d i v e r s i t y i s v i t a l to the h e a l t h of an ecosystem, the same notion cannot be a p p l i e d to an academic d i s c i p l i n e . They argued that u n t i l the term outdoor education ceases to represent such a diverse range of r e l a t e d concepts, growth as an academic i n t e r e s t would be slow. The c a l l f o r conceptual c l a r i t y i n outdoor education s t i l l e x i s t s . Many agencies are i n v o l v e d w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n a l development of outdoor educators. Among these are camps, environmental groups, p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n sport governing bodies. As w e l l , Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s are a primary v e h i c l e f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n of outdoor educators and are assumed to represent advanced t h i n k i n g about the concept because they occupy a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the development of theory and p r a c t i c e i n the f i e l d . Therefore, outdoor education courses at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r an important opportunity f o r the examination of conceptions of outdoor education. Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y and c h a r a c t e r i z e conceptions of outdoor education which u n d e r l i e outdoor education courses at E n g l i s h speaking Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . The major aim of t h i s study has three p a r t s : 1. to c h a r a c t e r i z e e x i s t i n g conceptions of outdoor education ; 2. to develop a typology of conceptions of outdoor education ; 3. to i d e n t i f y issues r e l a t e d to outdoor education which c a l l f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study Many people have argued that conceptual c l a r i t y i s necessary to the p r a c t i c e of education. In d i s c u s s i n g educational change, F u l l a n (1982) suggests that the conceptual f a c t o r represents a way of t h i n k i n g about the change process which i n a p r a c t i c a l way helps us plan and co-ordinate. John Dewey (1963) formulated h i s philosophy about experience and education r e c o g n i z i n g that "everything depends on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n given [ p r i n c i p l e s set f o r t h i n a general philosophy] as they are put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n the school. In e v a l u a t i o n research, d i v e r s i t y r e f l e c t i n g v a r y i n g conceptions of the e n t e r p r i s e range from House's (1979) ' a e s t h e t i c s of e v a l u a t i o n ' to Stufflebeam's (1971) 'systems' approach. I t i s suggested (Glass and E l l e t t , 1980) that the l i k e l i h o o d that a d e c i s i o n maker w i l l be convinced of the worth of e v a l u a t i o n research increases w i t h an understanding of i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r s u b s t a n t i a t i n g perceptions. Carter (1974) argues the need f o r a more adequate conceptual basis f o r designing p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs and f o r viewing the r o l e of the p r a c t i t i o n e r as i t r e l a t e s to p r o f e s s i o n a l development. He suggests that our a b i l i t y to comprehend the task of designing p r o f e s s i o n a l education i s l i m i t e d by our ways of t h i n k i n g about i t , and that many c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s which are used to develop c u r r i c u l u m are not based on a p r e c i s i o n which makes i t p o s s i b l e to t h i n k s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and a n a l y t i c a l l y about the task. Barrow (1963) suggests that as long as the conceptual work i s l e f t undone, any a c t i o n which i s dependent on a c l e a r understanding of the phenomenon can not proceed. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between conceptual c l a r i t y and outcome i s r e f l e c t e d i n Werner and Aoki's (1980) observation that when there i s slippage between conception and purpose, mutual adaptation occurs. In other words, one must adapt e i t h e r a p r e v i o u s l y h e l d conception, the s i t u a t i o n or both. I f mutual adaptation i s at the expense of q u a l i t y , the authors suggest that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between conceptual c l a r i t y and outcome i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y . This study proposes a conceptual framework which w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r outdoor educators to be c r i t i c a l of t h e i r f i e l d , of t h e i r own ideas and to consider t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e w i t h an enhanced degree of c l a r i t y . F u l l a n (1982) suggests that a lack of conceptual c l a r i t y almost guarantees m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , u n j u s t i f i e d a t t r i b u t i o n of motives, f e e l i n g s of being misunderstood and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . Clear and r a t i o n a l communication about c r u c i a l issues i n education i s paramount to progress. Therefore, p r a c t i t i o n e r s must go beyond the l e v e l of s u p e r f i c i a l discourse. This study o f f e r s a d e t a i l e d conceptual model of outdoor education which w i l l a s s i s t d e c i s i o n makers to define the range of arguments that can advance a course of a c t i o n (House, 1971) and which w i l l p rovide a b a s i s to engage i n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h might prove f r u i t f u l . Jensen and Briggs-Young (1981) propose a conceptual framework f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g outdoor education programs. They suggest that as people get on the outdoor education bandwagon, new programs emerge which are accompanied by confusion, o v e r l a p p i n g program goals and i l l d efined l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Therefore, u n t i l conceptual c l a r i t y i s achieved, i t i s argued that there i s l i t t l e on which to base assumptions and a c t i v i t i e s which e s t a b l i s h the worth of a program. Outdoor education i s a f i e l d which r e f l e c t s a range of conceptions and i t s approaches d i f f e r as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t conceptual assumptions. B a c k i e l (1976) suggests that a standard d e f i n i t i o n has never been e s t a b l i s h e d and as a r e s u l t there are a myriad of understandings and programs a l l under the t i t l e of outdoor education. He proposes that when s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s compete f o r i n f l u e n c e , and a f i e l d i s unable to cope w i t h d i f f e r i n g i n t e n t i o n s , there i s l i t t l e hope of p r o d u c t i v i t y . Schiro (1978) argues that when people speak from unrecognized and incompatible or competing conceptions they g e n e r a l l y t a l k past each other. He j u s t i f i e s the need f o r conceptual c l a r i t y as a means to a s s i s t a f i e l d to deal e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h d i v e r s i t y . There are thus many who argue the need f o r conceptual c l a r i t y to support advancement of the movement. Generally, conceptual c l a r i t y i s seen as p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a p p r o p r i a t e research and s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t y . S o l t i s (1978) s t a t e s that a n a l y s i s which forces a b s t r a c t ideas i n t o meaningful contexts o f f e r s a d i r e c t route f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of conceptual t h e o r i z i n g to educational p r a c t i c e . F a r i n a (1981) suggests that i t i s the e s s e n t i a l task of a p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e to b r i n g p r a c t i s e d wisdom to the realm of knowledge. He i n d i c a t e s that d e f i n i n g c o g n i t i v e l y determined a b s t r a c t i o n s can lead to greater p r e c i s i o n and r i g o u r i n research and s c h o l a r s h i p . Schiro (1978) i n d i c a t e s that conceptual c l a r i t y helps p r a c t i t i o n e r s and researchers a l i k e make sense of research. Carter (1974) i n s i s t s that p r o f e s s i o n a l development c u r r i c u l a must be based on an a b i l i t y to c l e a r l y comprehend the [outdoor education] phenomenon. He a s s e r t s that the p r a c t i t i o n e r must base a d e f i n i t i o n of h i s or her p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e on a p a r t i c u l a r conception of p r a c t i c e and t h a t , i f p r a c t i t i o n e r s are not conceptually c l e a r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs to respond a p p r o p r i a t e l y . C a r t e r c a l l s f o r s c h o l a r l y e f f o r t s to create new c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of c u r r i c u l a f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r . As we w i l l see, however, the present study d i d not produce an easy sense of c l a r i t y . The typology produced i n the present research r e v e a l s the complexities of the va r i o u s conceptions h e l d by u n i v e r s i t y outdoor educators and the m a t e r i a l s they use. I t can, however, by r e v e a l i n g those c o m p l e x i t i e s , enable outdoor educators to see b e t t e r what they do and do not share w i t h t h e i r colleagues. Outdoor education i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a 'movement' because outdoor educators see themselves as i n v o l v e d i n an e n t e r p r i s e to change s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s and, i n the view of some outdoor educators, to do so d r a m a t i c a l l y . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the account of my interviews w i t h outdoor educators, we w e l l explore where they "come from" and what t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s are f o r the f i e l d . One a s p i r a t i o n h eld by most outdoor educators i s f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of outdoor education. Outdoor educators have been committed to " l e a r n i n g by doing" ( e x p e r i e n t i a l education) outside the classroom f o r almost a century (Miles, 1985). However, outdoor education as a movement has f a i l e d to achieve formal st a t u s i n a l l but a few education systems i n Canada. Wilk i n s o n , Wright & Robertson (1979) c l a i m there i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between outdoor education and other f i e l d s w i t h i n the school system, and that when a r e l a t i o n s h i p does e x i s t , i t i s u s u a l l y w i t h p h y s i c a l education and i s l i m i t e d to s k i l l development. Jensen and Briggs-Young (1981) suggest a renewed i n t e r e s t i n e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g and i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of outdoor education w i t h subjects taught i n schools. However, i n s p i t e of renewed hope given to outdoor educators by t h i s and s i m i l a r statements, development and r e c o g n i t i o n of the movement remains slow. This issue i s one of l e g i t i m a c y and i s seen by some as connected w i t h the lack of conceptual r i g o u r i n the f i e l d . Thus, Straughan and Wilson (1983) p o r t r a y an educator muddling on without ever questioning the meaning of what i s done. They use the scenario to j u s t i f y the need f o r conceptual c l a r i t y i n order to e s t a b l i s h an educational e n t e r p r i s e as worthwhile. Wichmann (1986) discusses the ' e x p e r i e n t i a l education' movement. His i n t e n t i o n i s to warn e x p e r i e n t i a l educators not to make the same mistakes as were made i n the progressive education movement. He t h e r e f o r e suggests that achieving r e c o g n i t i o n i s only p o s s i b l e i f a movement evolves c r i s p and broadly accepted concepts. N i c h o l s (1982) c a l l s f o r the outdoor educator to become more c r e d i b l e by e s t a b l i s h i n g c l e a r boundaries and p r e c i s e d i r e c t i o n s f o r the f i e l d . He i n d i c a t e s the need f o r c a r e f u l a r t i c u l a t i o n of the f i e l d ' s f o c i and f o r increased research. E s s e n t i a l l y outdoor educators must be able to communicate t h e i r f i e l d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t p r e c i s i o n so that what they b e l i e v e to be obvious becomes p l a i n to the u n i n i t i a t e d . Outdoor education l i t e r a t u r e g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t s two concerns. F i r s t , a number of e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s seek to assess the e f f e c t s on p a r t i c i p a n t s of a v a r i e t y of outdoor education experiences. For example, Meadors (1979) s t u d i e d the educ a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s of an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y outdoor education program on s e l e c t e d high school students, and M i l l w a r d (1978) stud i e d the environmental, s o c i a l , and s e l f -concept a t t i t u d e changes i n students a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a sixth-grade r e s i d e n t i a l camp program. These s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that a v a r i e t y of outdoor education outcomes r e l a t e outdoor education to schools, and to s o c i a l and l e i s u r e s e r v i c e programs. The l i t e r a t u r e a l s o addresses program planning, design, and implementation. For example, the s u c c e s s f u l use of outdoor education when working w i t h such s p e c i a l populations as delinquent youth or battered women has been e x p l i c a t e d and examined. D e s c r i p t i o n s of outdoor education programs r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c subjects or grade l e v e l s or as a form of e x p e r i e n t i a l education e x i s t s . For example, Torgensen (1978) i d e n t i f i e d s e l e c t e d science concepts which can be taught i n outdoor education f o r eleven and twelve y e a r - o l d s ; Heiser (1977) stud i e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of environmental education programs i n a school system, and Doty (1960) ex p l a i n s how outdoor camp program design can c o n t r i b u t e to personal growth of the students. De Guerre (1985) compiled a comprehensive b i b l i o g r a p h y of outdoor education research from 1975 to 1985 and compared i t to nine areas of p o t e n t i a l research which were i d e n t i f i e d from textbooks and p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s . She concluded that research questions r e l a t e d to 'outcomes' and 'program e v a l u a t i o n ' were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y represented. However, f i v e of the remaining seven areas were l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r i l y represented and the remaining two, 'conceptual a n a l y s i s ' and 'outdoor t e a c h e r / i n s t r u c t o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s ' , were very p o o r l y represented. A s i m i l a r assessment was attempted by B a c k i e l (1976) who confirmed the need f o r stud i e s which are p r i m a r i l y conceptual i n nature. The present study addresses an area of s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t y which i s l a c k i n g i n the research on outdoor education. By i n v o l v i n g researchers i n the f i e l d i n the process, i t may induce b e t t e r t h i n k i n g and produce a conceptual framework f o r future research. Terminology 1. Outdoor Education This term i s used to r e f e r to Canadian u n i v e r s i t y programs or courses which were l a b e l l e d , or contained as e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s , the term 'outdoor education' or any of a s e r i e s of r e l a t e d terms i n c l u d i n g : 'environmental education', 'outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ' , 'adventure education', and/or ' e x p e r i e n t i a l education'. 2. Conception An co-ordinated set of concepts, values, and procedures used to determine the goals sought, and procedures p r e s c r i b e d i n , f o r example, outdoor education courses at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . Course Conductor A person employed by a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y to develop and/or implement outdoor education curriculum. Value A d e c l a r a t i o n of worth or goodness which may i n c l u d e such evaluations as d e s i r a b l e , e f f e c t i v e , u s e f u l , or c o r r e c t . Such d e c l a r a t i o n s could concern, f o r example, a worthy outcome of an outdoor education experience, a p p r e c i a t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment, expression of respect f o r others or l e a r n i n g a new l e i s u r e p u r s u i t . Procedural Knowledge A term used to c h a r a c t e r i z e the a b i l i t y to carry out a t e c h n i c a l procedure. An a b i l i t y of i n t e r e s t to t h i s study would be one a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such outdoor educator competencies as minimal impact camping technique, managing c o n f l i c t i n a group or paddling a canoe. C e n t r a l Concept A concept or idea which enables us to c h a r a c t e r i z e the s a l i e n t features of a conception. A concept which i n d i c a t e s what the outdoor educator must know such as, f o r example, the e f f e c t s of c l e a r c u t t i n g on a stream, how a group functions or canoe design i s of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The number of outdoor education courses e l i g i b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study was r e s t r i c t e d to a sample from courses conducted i n E n g l i s h . Due to a t t r i t i o n , s a b b a t i c a l leave, and changes i n program, the courses represented and course conductors who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study changed over time. This may have s l i g h t l y a f f e c t e d instrumental v a l i d i t y . R esults are l i m i t e d to r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study. CHAPTER 2 Background to the Study This chapter i s a review of the h i s t o r i c a l and conceptual aspects of outdoor education as w e l l as research techniques employed i n the study. The chapter begins w i t h an overview of the h i s t o r y of outdoor education i n North America to i l l u s t r a t e the roots of the movement. A summary of e f f o r t s to de f i n e or provide a conceptual framework f o r understanding the concept outdoor education f o l l o w s . The chapter concludes w i t h an account of the purposes and c r i t e r i a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the research techniques employed i n t h i s study. An H i s t o r i c a l Summary of Outdoor Education i n North America While the roots of outdoor education l i e i n the p h i l o s o p h i e s of Socrates and Plat o (Rusk & Scotland, 1982), the p h i l o s o p h i c a l foundations of the movement have more r e c e n t l y drawn on the ideas of educators such as Dewey, Coleman and K i l p a t r i c k ( K r a f t , n.d.). The focus i s on the roots of outdoor education i n North America. The f i r s t examples of outdoor education were of school subjects taught i n the out-of-doors. Sometimes short t r i p s were taken during the school day, but most o f t e n lessons were taught w h i l e on c l a s s camping t r i p s . From 1823 to 1834, Joseph Cogswell at the Round H i l l School f o r Boys taught t o p i c s i n botany and mineralogy while on p h y s i c a l education camping t r i p s (Bennett, 1965). Later, F r e d e r i c k Gunn, at the Gunnery School f o r Boys, took h i s students on extended camping t r i p s during summer vacations. Gunn's main o b j e c t i v e was to c o n t r i b u t e to the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l growth of the 'young gentlemen' who attended the school. However, subjects s t u d i e d during the school year were taught throughout the experience when the environment made the subject matter r e l e v a n t . By the t u r n of the century camping had become a v e h i c l e f o r the attainment of a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l goals. Camping programs became an i n t e g r a l p a r t of such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the G i r l Guides and the Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n . By 1920 many youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s were not only sponsoring camping programs, but were a c q u i r i n g l a r g e t r a c t s of land on which r e s i d e n t i a l camp f a c i l i t i e s were constructed ( V i n a l , 1972) . Often teachers became c o u n s e l l o r s at summer camps, expanding the t r a d i t i o n a l outdoor r e c r e a t i o n component of the summer camp program to i n c l u d e nature l o r e , or what we have come to know as environmental education a c t i v i t i e s . In Canada, J.B. Harkin demonstrated a s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t i n youth and education i n the out-of-doors when, i n 1911, he d e f i n e d the r o l e of Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks to i n c l u d e education (Passmore, 1973) . In 1917, as the decade drew to a c l o s e , the U.S. Education P o l i c y Commission s t a t e d that h e a l t h and the wise use of l e i s u r e time were a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p u b l i c education (Smith, 1963). I t i s c l e a r that outdoor education as p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , outdoor education as nature study, and outdoor education as a v e h i c l e f o r personal growth were a r t i c u l a t e d i n the p o l i c i e s of a v a r i e t y of p u b l i c and q u a s i -p u b l i c agencies. Leadership was a c h i e f focus i n the next decade. In 1920 the f i r s t nature l o r e school f o r camp c o u n s e l l o r s was e s t a b l i s h e d at Cape Cod, Mass., and at Columbia U n i v e r s i t y the f i r s t c o l l e g e camp leadership course was o f f e r e d to teachers ( V i n a l , 1972). The need f o r competent l e a d e r s h i p i n outdoor experiences was f u r t h e r recognized when, i n 1924, the U.S. Congress financed the f i r s t summer school to t r a i n nature guides f o r n a t i o n a l parks (Passmore, 1973). A l s o i n t h i s decade L.B. Sharp, w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the Kellogue Foundation, became the d i r e c t o r of L i f e Camps. There he pioneered the discovery approach to r e s i d e n t i a l camp programming f o r school groups. Sharp's L i f e Camps remained at the centre of innovation and leadership t r a i n i n g f o r school camping f o r decades (Smith, 1963). In the 1930's, outdoor education programs f o r youth continued to evolve under l e i s u r e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies; government continued to advocate the i n c l u s i o n of outdoor education to enhance the aims of p u b l i c education, and p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n outdoor education was f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . In 1930, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y became the f i r s t Canadian U n i v e r s i t y to o f f e r an outdoor P h y s i c a l Education degree (Passmore, 1973). The White House Conference on C h i l d Health i n c l u d e d a camping s e c t i o n i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s on the w e l l being of c h i l d r e n (Donaldson & Goering, 1972) and i n 1931, Charles Wilkinson of the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e , e s t a b l i s h e d the J u n i o r Forest Ranger Program to teach conservation education to the youth of that province (Passmore, 1973). Outdoor education c l e a r l y gained s i g n i f i c a n t r e c o g n i t i o n i n the t h i r t i e s . Stewardship of the n a t u r a l environment, personal w e l l being and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , concepts that came to the fore i n the decade 1930-39, continue to be among the c e n t r a l values which are a s c r i b e d to by outdoor education today. The decade 1940 to 1950 was an a c t i v e one f o r the movement. In 1941 the f i r s t outdoor school to operate throughout the school year was e s t a b l i s h e d . At Cl e a r Lake Camp, near B a t t l e Creek i n Michigan, students i n grades four through twelve p a r t i c i p a t e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l school camps. Each two-week program included outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , n a t u r a l science and group camping experiences. At t h i s s i t e , L.B. Sharp e s t a b l i s h e d the N a t i o n a l Camp f o r Leadership T r a i n i n g i n order to r a i s e the general l e v e l of competence of Outdoor Educators (Donaldson & Goering, 1972) . In Canada, i n 1945, the Ontario Camp Leadership T r a i n i n g Centre at Bark Lake was e s t a b l i s h e d to provide leadership development o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r high school students and to g e n e r a l l y meet le a d e r s h i p needs of the camping community i n that province. The value of u t i l i z i n g the n a t u r a l environment i n conjunction w i t h classroom a c t i v i t y was once again supported by the passing, i n Michigan, of the f i r s t s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n p e r m i t t i n g school d i s t r i c t s to acquire land f o r outdoor education purposes (Lewis, 1975) . P r o f e s s i o n a l dialogue was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i ncreased during t h i s decade. In 1944 L.B. Sharp became the e d i t o r of Extending Education, a free communication f o r teachers i n t e r e s t e d i n outdoor education. In 1945 a monograph on camping and outdoor education was published (Smith, 1963) . North Americans i n general approached the f i f t i e s w i t h increased awareness and concern about the n a t u r a l environment, which Passmore (1973) suggests was p i v o t a l to the fu t u r e of the outdoor education movement. Many of the s i g n i f i c a n t events which took place i n the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s were a r e s u l t of a developing environmental consciousness i n the p u b l i c . In the report of the U.S Educational P o l i c i e s Commission which was pu b l i s h e d i n 1952, s e v e r a l references were made concerning the need f o r education i n outdoor s e t t i n g s (Smith, 1963). As a r e s u l t of the N a t i o n a l Conference on Teacher Pr e p a r a t i o n , Northern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y began the Lorado Taft F i e l d Campus f o r Outdoor Teacher Education (Donaldson & Goering, 1972). In 1953, the Humber V a l l e y Conservation A u t h o r i t y and the Toronto School Board e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t Canadian conservation school camp (Passmore, 1973). Then, i n 1954, outdoor educators were given p r o f e s s i o n a l status when the American A l l i a n c e f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation e s t a b l i s h e d i t s Outdoor Education P r o j e c t to promote and develop outdoor education i n the nation's schools. Other p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a l s o became a c t i v e (Smith, 1963). In the l a t e f i f t i e s , the Ontario and Manitoba F o r e s t r y A s s o c i a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d summer schools f o r high school students to l e a r n about f o r e s t r y and conservation (Passmore, 1973) . Recognition of the p o t e n t i a l of an o u t - o f - c l a s s s i t u a t i o n to c o n t r i b u t e to educational and r e c r e a t i o n a l aims prompted Robin Denis, i n 1957, to e s t a b l i s h the Toronto Board of Education's Natural Science School on Centre I s l a n d i n that c i t y ' s harbour (Passmore, 1973) . The outdoor education movement had taken hold i n many facets of North American l i f e . Throughout the s i x t i e s and the seventies outdoor education a c t i v i t i e s continued to expand. There was increased involvement i n curricu l u m development at the elementary school l e v e l . F a c i l i t i e s which were owned or operated by school d i s t r i c t s m u l t i p l i e d (Passmore, 1973), and p r e - s e r v i c e and i n -s e r v i c e teacher education was a c c e s s i b l e throughout North America. By 1965, a v a r i e t y of day and r e s i d e n t i a l programs which u t i l i z e d the out-of-doors as a "l a b o r a t o r y f o r l e a r n i n g " e x i s t e d i n A l b e r t a , Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec (Passmore, 1973) . Then, f o r the f i r s t time, a p r o v i n c i a l government supported the movement when, i n A l b e r t a , the F i e l d Studies C o u n c i l was e s t a b l i s h e d . Following s u i t , the Ontario Department of Education wrote n a t u r a l science and conservation education i n t o the curriculum (Passmore, 1973) . Amendments to the Ontario Schools Act permitted school d i s t r i c t s w i t h a student population of 10,000 or more to purchase land to operate a n a t u r a l science school. The act was l a t e r amended to extend the p r i v i l e g e to a l l school d i s t r i c t s , r e g a r d l e s s of s i z e (Passmore, 1973). Co-operation between p u b l i c , q u a s i - p u b l i c , and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and school d i s t r i c t s f o s t e r e d the development of year round outdoor education o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r school, youth, and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups. P u b l i c support f o r the development of environmental l i t e r a c y and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s was mounting and governments responded acco r d i n g l y . The U.S. Bureau of Outdoor Recreation was e s t a b l i s h e d to study and report about the use Americans made of the environment f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. Objectives r e l a t e d to environmental impact were i n c l u d e d i n T i t l e I I I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Smith et a l . , 1972) . In Canada, the Cou n c i l of Outdoor Educators of Ontario and the Manitoba Outdoor Education A s s o c i a t i o n l o b b i e d f o r the concerns of outdoor educators i n those provinces. P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e began to b e n e f i t from the outdoor education movement as equipment, s a l e s , and s e r v i c e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s expanded. Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n s p e c i a l t y shops began to appear across North America. Vacation packages which i n c l u d e d stays at r e s o r t s which catered to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n became an a l t e r n a t i v e during t h i s p e r i o d , and continue today to gain i n p o p u l a r i t y . As the seventies progressed, a new, more i n t e g r a t e d dimension of outdoor education began t a k i n g shape. A set of b e l i e f s grounded i n p r o s p e r i t y , increased amounts of l e i s u r e time, and a general concern f o r the q u a l i t y of l i f e , education and the n a t u r a l environment i s the legacy of the 1960's. I t provided a c l i m a t e i n which outdoor education was heralded f o r i t s i n t e g r a t i n g b e n e f i t s . Therapeutic outdoor education programs, human r e l a t i o n camps and personal growth adventure programs came i n t o vogue. Outdoor educators claimed s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l , and s p i r i t u a l values f o r t h e i r movement (Wichmann, 1986) . An array of programs under the general umbrella of outdoor education, o f f e r e d by an even greater array of agencies, o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i n s t i t u t i o n s , continues to d e t a i l the landscape. Today the concept of outdoor education i s i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h concepts such as environmental education, conservation education, outdoor p u r s u i t s , outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , and adventure education. The concept i s now c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the same di v e r s e i n t e n t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s as were evident throughout i t s h i s t o r y . A review of e x i s t i n g conceptual frameworks w i l l serve to i l l u m i n a t e some of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between outdoor education and r e l a t e d terms and to confirm the need f o r c l e a r e r t h i n k i n g about the term. E x i s t i n g D e f i n i t i o n s and Frameworks Academic d e f i n i t i o n s of, and conceptual frameworks f o r , the concept outdoor education are many and v a r i e d . Some are short statements which i n d i c a t e broadly which s i t u a t i o n s or procedures are regarded as acceptable outdoor education. Most o f t e n these d e f i n i t i o n s are too vague to be of a s s i s t a n c e to the p r a c t i t i o n e r because they lack the depth of d e s c r i p t i o n necessary f o r use i n program development. For example, Donaldson and Donaldson (1958) define outdoor education as; "education i n , about, and f o r the outdoors". The authors defend the vagueness of the d e f i n i t i o n by c l a i m i n g that outdoor education i s simple. They attempt to expand the n o t i o n by s t a t i n g what outdoor education i s not. For example: "the f r o g doesn't f u n c t i o n i n the book, the d i s c u s s i o n , or the l a b o r a t o r y . " This statement accomplishes l i t t l e i n the way of h e l p i n g us t h i n k c l e a r l y about what outdoor education i s or how to do i t . S i m i l a r l y , J.W. Smith et a l . (1972) suggest that outdoor education i s the use of the outdoors as a l a b o r a t o r y f o r l e a r n i n g , or the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge and s k i l l s necessary f o r wise and s a t i s f y i n g outdoor i n t e r e s t s . While h i s d e f i n i t i o n confirms that l e a r n i n g i s intended and that the l e a r n i n g has something to do w i t h the out-of-doors, the outdoor educator i s s t i l l unable to d i s c e r n aspects of content or pedagogy which are unique to the concept. Perhaps the most often-quoted d e f i n i t i o n i s o f f e r e d by L.B. Sharp (1933). He c h a r a c t e r i z e s outdoor education by suggesting that which can best be learned i n s i d e the classroom should be learned there. That which can best be l e a r n e d i n the out-of-doors through d i r e c t experience, d e a l i n g w i t h n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s and r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s should there be learned (p. 43). The n o t i o n of what can best be taught i n the outdoors conjures up a myriad of images f o r the converted. However, those who are u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the concept are u n f o r t u n a t e l y l e f t w i t h ' d i r e c t experience', 'native m a t e r i a l s ' , and ' r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ' as c r i t e r i a by which 'best' can be judged. A problem w i t h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n to vagueness, i s the l a c k of a c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d set of values and procedures which might more f u l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e the e n t e r p r i s e . Other c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of outdoor education provide more i n s i g h t i n t o the values and procedures inherent i n the concept. Lewis (1975) suggests that an understanding of u n d e r l y i n g concepts which r e l a t e to the r o l e and the o b j e c t i v e s of outdoor education i s important to i t s growth and development. Seventeen concept statements were c u l l e d by the author from the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and presented to p r a c t i t i o n e r s and educators f o r v a l i d a t i o n . R e v i s i o n s based on t h e i r responses r e s u l t e d i n the formul a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s of outdoor education which are intended to guide p r a c t i c e . The concepts provide guidance f o r s e l e c t i n g a p p ropriate pedagogy, provided the would-be outdoor educator i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p u b l i c education. Curriculum, classroom, subject, textbook, p u p i l , and teacher are the concepts which frame the d i s c u s s i o n and l i m i t the scope of i t s usefulness. Champ (1981) claims that the what and why questions a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education seem to be l a r g e l y unanswered or i n c o r r e c t l y answered. The author seeks to d i s p e l opinions of outdoor education which e i t h e r a s s o c i a t e i t s o l e l y w i t h p h y s i c a l education as adventure, or view i t as a waste of time and e f f o r t because i t stands separate from what goes on w i t h i n a school. To t h i s end, a set of outcomes f o r p r a c t i c i n g outdoor education i s o f f e r e d . Again, the outcomes are e x p l i c i t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h extending classroom a c t i v i t y to the outdoors and w i t h cur r i c u l u m enrichment. Outdoor education i s defined as an a l t e r n a t i v e l e a r n i n g medium which b u i l d s concepts f o r future development, s k i l l s f o r f u t u r e use and enjoyment of the environment, and enhances p e r s o n a l i t y development and s e l f concept. Understanding the n a t u r a l environment and education f o r the wise use of l e i s u r e time are examples of outcomes which provided a c l e a r e r i n d i c a t i o n of what outdoor education i s meant to be. However, the outcomes are once again broadly defined and th e r e f o r e provide only general guideposts f o r educators wishing to do outdoor education. A s i m i l a r attempt to create depth of understanding i s made by Smith et a l . (1972) . Prefaced by vague, but t y p i c a l , statements about relevance i n education and q u a l i t y of l e a r n i n g , the author describes a set of contemporary s o c i e t a l i n f l u e n c e s which support the growth of outdoor education i n the p u b l i c school m i l i e u . The framework i s l i m i t e d , however, by the assumption that an understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between outdoor education and the s o c i e t a l i n f l u e n c e s which support i t w i l l provide pedagogical guidance. Unfortunately, understanding d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment and of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of u r b a n i z a t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y produce a concomitant understanding of the p r a c t i c e of outdoor education. Passmore (1973) o f f e r s a set of o b j e c t i v e s f o r outdoor education. Among these o b j e c t i v e s are the development of meaningful l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s , c u r r i c u l u m enrichment, the s t i m u l a t i o n of c u r i o s i t y , the development of new i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between indoor and outdoor l e a r n i n g , the understanding of e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s and t h e i r importance f o r q u a l i t y of l i f e , the examination of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l values, and the understanding of s e l f , the teacher, and education. Once again, an attempt to capture the essence of how the term outdoor education i s used does not r e s u l t i n conceptual c l a r i t y or pedagogical a s s i s t a n c e . There are many examples of attempts to develop an understanding of outdoor education by generating l i s t s of outcomes, i n f l u e n c e s , concepts, or aims and o b j e c t i v e s . However, c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s which recognize that the concept i s f a r more complex than simple d e f i n i t i o n s and l i s t s are more h e l p f u l . I t i s important i n t r y i n g to i d e n t i f y v a rious conceptions of outdoor education to consider the r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s between the concept of outdoor education and concepts which are ofte n used as synonyms. Passmsore (1973) suggests that outdoor education takes many shapes and gives r i s e to a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s . J u l i a n Smith (1962) suggests that the r e l a t i o n s h i p of outdoor education to such r e l a t e d terms as r e c r e a t i o n and conservation education needs c a r e f u l c l a r i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . And Passmore (1973), i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between environmental education and outdoor education, considers a s e r i e s of c o n t r a s t s i n that environmental education i s now g e n e r a l l y viewed as the generic term f o r a l l education programs which focus upon the environment and man's i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h and i n i t . I t incl u d e s both urban and n a t u r a l landscapes. I t would in c l u d e i n - c l a s s , f i e l d t r i p , case study, and r e s i d e n t i a l school experiences. I t can incl u d e a l l subject areas. Outdoor education i n many school systems' concept has most o f t e n meant outdoor science education w i t h heavy emphasis on conservation and ecology, (p. 11) More u s e f u l are c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s which seek to d i s t i n g u i s h a set of d i s t i n c t sub-categories f o r the term. S t a l e y (1983) conducted a survey f o r the American A l l i a n c e of Health, P h y s i c a l Education, Recreation and Dance to i d e n t i f y the scope and p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of outdoor education to the t o t a l c urriculum. In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n he s t i p u l a t e s that outdoor education w i l l i n clude adventure education, environmental education, r e c r e a t i o n education, e x p e r i e n t i a l education, and conservation education. He concludes that emphases v a r i e d across programs but that three general c a t e g o r i e s of outdoor education e x i s t . While most programs s t a t e d extremely broad goals which r e l a t e d outdoor education to the aims of p u b l i c education, he s t i p u l a t e d that a program of outdoor education could be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o c u r r i c u l u m enrichment and i n t e g r a t i o n , adventure, or environmental r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S i m i l a r l y , R o l l i n s and N i c h o l s (1982) discu s s the r o l e of outdoor programs as academic p u r s u i t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to other academic f i e l d s . In t h e i r preamble they suggest that outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , outdoor education, environmental s t u d i e s , outdoor p u r s u i t s , adventure education, and r e c r e a t i o n resource management are but a few terms used to describe an outdoor program i n an academic s e t t i n g . The authors s t a t e that the academic roots of outdoor programs l i e i n p h y s i c a l education, education or science education, r e c r e a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and n a t u r a l resource management. A conceptual model i s proposed to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of outdoor programs to other academic f i e l d s . In the model, outdoor s k i l l s are the venue or the v e h i c l e , and environmental i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s the r a t i o n a l e or reason f o r teaching outdoor s k i l l s . The t h i r d component of the model, r e c r e a t i o n resource management, i s the context environment or, i n other words, the place we do outdoor s k i l l s i n order to i n t e r p r e t the environment. Inherent i n t h i s study i s the assumption that a r e l a t i o n s h i p between outdoor s k i l l s , environmental i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and resource management not only e x i s t s , but i s e s s e n t i a l . The authors contend that the concepts are i n t e r t w i n e d to such a degree that they are, i n f a c t , dependent on each other. The authors propose that, taken together, the ca t e g o r i e s describe the nature of outdoor programs i n academic i n s t i t u t i o n s . An e a r l y attempt to c l a r i f y d i f f e r e n t kinds of outdoor education which e x i s t e d i n the p u b l i c school system was made by J u l i a n Smith (1972) . He suggests f i v e types of programs: o u t d o o r - r e l a t e d classroom work, the use of the school s i t e f o r study or la b o r a t o r y , r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor schools, the teaching of outdoor s k i l l s i n p h y s i c a l education and work-learn experiences i n outdoor areas f o r secondary school youth. He descr i b e s each type of outdoor education program b r i e f l y and suggests that each i s anchored i n b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of l e a r n i n g and define d by a unique set of outcomes. In t h i s case commonalities among the terms r e l a t e to the not i o n of education, w h i l e d i s t i n c t i o n s are r e l a t e d to the mode of d e l i v e r y . In 1983 Jacques Grenier (1983) s t u d i e d the st a t u s of outdoor education courses i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . A preface note to the survey defined outdoor education using a set of sub c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s . Among the sub c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s are outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , e x p e r i e n t i a l education, outdoor p u r s u i t s , environmental education, adventure education, and a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n . He surveyed 263 courses, a s s e s s i n g them as of higher or lower s t a t u s , based on i n d i c a t o r s such as the number of courses per i n s t i t u t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each course and the academic c r e d e n t i a l s of f a c u l t y . Grenier a l s o proposes a set of d e s c r i p t i v e c a t e g o r i e s to i d e n t i f y s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of courses. He suggests s i x types of outdoor education programs: s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i c a l outdoor education, adventure education, and outdoor p u r s u i t s , a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n , sensory education, conservation education, and ecology and environment education. Each type of outdoor education i s b r i e f l y described. For example, s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i c a l outdoor education i s considered to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a focus on the a c q u i s i t i o n of t e c h n i c a l outdoor p u r s u i t s k i l l s . The adventure education and outdoor p u r s u i t s category i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by challenge programming goals and personal awareness outcomes. The sensory education category includes programs which seek to develop i n d i v i d u a l s who w i l l l i v e i n harmony wi t h themselves and t h e i r environment. Grenier acknowledges an inherent r e l a t i o n s h i p between outdoor education and a range of r e l a t e d terms, and formulates a simple typology to describe how the parent term i s used. Taylor (1983) c h a r a c t e r i z e s approaches to outdoor education. He argues that there are some b a s i c l a b e l s which de s c r i b e outdoor education programs, but that these l a b e l s are not simply d e s c r i p t i o n s of content. More l i k e l y each i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the b a s i c philosophy of a p a r t i c u l a r program. The s i x approaches he suggests: environmental s t u d i e s , outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , challenge and adventure o p p o r t u n i t i e s , l e a d e r s h i p development, a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n or ecosystem involvement, and conservation education. Taylor c h a r a c t e r i z e s each approach by d e s c r i b i n g a s e l e c t i o n of t y p i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and b r i e f l y d i s c u s s i n g the i n t e n t i o n s of i t s promoters. While the d i s c u s s i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to an understanding of the concept b e t t e r than the ones we have thus f a r considered, i t l a c k s the depth and order of a comprehensive a n a l y s i s . Examples e x i s t of more in-depth c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of conceptual models. Jensen and Briggs-Young (1981) suggest a set of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r outdoor education programming. Their typology includes four program c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t , Personal Growth, seeks to develop personal growth through adventure programming techniques. T y p i c a l of t h i s category i s the Outward Bound program which can be i n t e r p r e t e d as personal growth using Roger's (1979) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of adventure goals. I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Studies, the second type of program, i n v o l v e s a c t i v e l e a r n i n g informed by an i n t e g r a t e d view of l e a r n i n g and the tenets of e x p e r i e n t i a l education. T h i r d l y , S o c i a l i z i n g Agencies include outdoor education programs which seek to transmit c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , and values. The authors suggest that the advocates of t h i s type of program are more i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of acceptable s o c i a l behaviour than the promotion of i n d i v i d u a l i t y . F i n a l l y , the Recreation Education program seeks to develop the s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , and knowledge needed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y which r e l a t e s to the n a t u r a l environment. The authors suggest that each program type i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a unique and l e g i t i m a t e set of primary goals which c h a r a c t e r i z e the program, but that there e x i s t s the p o s s i b i l i t y of sets of secondary goals which may be common to one or more ca t e g o r i e s . For example, environmental awareness may be a secondary goal f o r a l l types of programs, but the r a t i o n a l e f o r the development of environmental awareness may be r e f l e c t e d i n the primary goals which are unique to each program type. In other words, environmental awareness may be developed f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons i n each type of program. Two important notions emerge from Jensen and Briggs-Young's work. F i r s t , the need to c l e a r l y and thoroughly e x p l i c a t e each category i n order that i t might be u s e f u l to the p r a c t i t i o n e r and, second, the r e c o g n i t i o n that there w i l l always be elements which overlap across the c a t e g o r i e s . The n o t i o n of sets of primary and secondary goals f o r outdoor education programs recognizes the complex and i n t e r r e l a t e d nature of the v a r i o u s uses of the concept. Jensen and Briggs-Young's (1981) used a model to set out the four categories i n t h e i r typology. The model, or matrix, f o r comparing outdoor education programs, c o n s i s t s of three u n i t s of a n a l y s i s : the type of program or i t s goals, the c h a r a c t e r of the s e t t i n g or i t s p h y s i c a l features and the nature of the experience or i t s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The model represents one of few attempts to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e outdoor education and, while i t does not appear to be grounded t h e o r e t i c a l l y , i t s categories provide a recognizable l i n k w i t h c e r t a i n s a l i e n t aspects of p r a c t i c e . A more recent c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e i s advanced by Simon P r i e s t (1986). He discusses the need f o r r e d e f i n i n g the term outdoor education i n a way which i s r e f l e c t i v e of i t s current s t a t u s . He s t i p u l a t e s that outdoor education i s an e x p e r i e n t i a l process of l e a r n i n g by doing, which takes place p r i m a r i l y through exposure to the out-of-doors. When doing outdoor education, he suggests, the outdoor educator emphasizes RELATIONSHIPS [ c a p i t a l s i n o r i g i n a l ] between people and n a t u r a l resources. His t h i n k i n g i s based on s i x p o i n t s which he b e l i e v e s are the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the use of the term outdoor education. F i r s t and foremost, i n d i c a t e s P r i e s t , outdoor education i s a method f o r l e a r n i n g and, secondly, the process f o r that l e a r n i n g i s e x p e r i e n t i a l . In a d d i t i o n , outdoor education takes place p r i m a r i l y i n an outdoor s e t t i n g . I t r e q u i r e s f u l l use of s i x senses and i s based upon i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c u r r i c u l u m matter which may or may not be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the school. The f i n a l and most s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which P r i e s t a s s o c i a t e s w i t h use of the concept i s that i t i s a matter of many r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s t h i s n o t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s typology from other d e f i n i t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s . P r i e s t describes four categories of r e l a t i o n s h i p . The i n t e r p e r s o n a l category r e f e r s to r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between people -- how they co-operate, communicate, and t r u s t one another during s o c i a l group i n t e r a c t i o n s . The i n t r a p e r s o n a l category r e f e r s to how one r e l a t e s to h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f -- one's l e v e l of independence, s e l f - c o n c e p t , and one's perception of h i s or her a b i l i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s . The ecosystemic category r e f e r s to the dynamics and interdependence of a l l parts of an ecosystem. F i n a l l y , the e k i s t i c category r e f e r s to the i n t e r a c t i o n between people and t h e i r surroundings. P r i e s t asks the reader to imagine a l a r g e t r e e c a l l e d outdoor education which has two major branches from the main trunk. One branch i s c a l l e d adventure education; the other i s c a l l e d environmental education. This s i m p l i s t i c image i s enhanced by the idea that the t r e e i s nurtured by i t s leaves which are e x p e r i e n t i a l education, a i r which contains the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c u r r i c u l u m and roots which draw nourishment from the f i v e senses. One i s to climb the t r e e by way of the e x p e r i e n t i a l education process. What i s r e v e a l i n g i s the suggestion that a l l four r e l a t i o n s h i p s are r e a l i z e d i n every outdoor education experience. P r i e s t suggests that "each approach may s t i l l r e t a i n a primary focus on one p a i r of r e l a t i o n s h i p s but would a l s o , by the very nature of being outdoors, touch on the other two" (p. 14). He supports the idea that there are se v e r a l types of outdoor education, each d i s t i n c t from the other, but sharing some fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be the e s s e n t i a l features of the concept outdoor education. The concept outdoor education i s viewed by many p r a c t i t i o n e r s and researchers as c o n t a i n i n g a number of c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s . There have been attempts to describ e , i n depth, one or another of the terms o f t e n used interchangeably w i t h or to r e f e r to a component of the a c t i v i t i e s of outdoor education. For example, M i l e s (1982) suggests that the o v e r a l l aim of environmental education i s to produce a c i t i z e n r y w i l l i n g and able to be stewards of the n a t u r a l environment. A c l o s e r examination of the term, however, reveals a set of goals to guide p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n s e l e c t i n g , developing, and j u s t i f y i n g environmental education. S i m i l a r l y , Cousineau (1982) discusses outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and c a l l s f o r a c l e a r v i s i o n of what i s important about man's r e c r e a t i v e rapport w i t h the environment. He suggests that p r a c t i t i o n e r s have l o s t s i g h t of what r e a l l y matters about outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and suggests a l i s t of e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the concept. March (1982) asks "what are outdoor p u r s u i t s ? . . . and what i s t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to outdoor education" (p. 3). He proposes a set of values which are a s c r i b e d to outdoor p u r s u i t s . Table I i s a comparison of the terms environmental education (Miles, 1981), outdoor r e c r e a t i o n (Cousineau, 1982), and outdoor p u r s u i t s (March, 1982) . Each l i s t i s a summary of the goals, features or values which are suggested by p r e v i o u s l y discussed authors. While there are s e v e r a l s i m i l a r notions which serve as common anchor p o i n t s across accounts of the three terms (such as an emphasis on a p p r e c i a t i o n and stewardship r e l a t e d to the n a t u r a l environment), c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s among the terms can be seen -- p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n i t i a l statements i n each category. These d i s t i n c t i o n s suggest that there e x i s t d i f f e r i n g conceptions of outdoor Table I A Comparison of the Goals, Features and Values of Environmental Education, Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor P u r s u i t s ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1 . t o d e v e l o p a c o n c e p t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , 2. t o d e v e l o p a c o n c e p t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e human b u i l t n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , 3 . t o d e v e l o p t h e i d e a o f s y s t e m and t h e p r i n c i p l e s t h a t g o v e r n t h e o p e r a t i o n of a l l s y s t e m s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d , 4. t o r e c o g n i z e p e o p l e as p a r t o f n a t u r e and a p p r e c i a t e t h e r e s u l t a n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , 5. t o d e v e l o p and s h a r p e n p e r c e p t u a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , 6. t o l e a r n a b out human v a l u e s and how t h e y a f f e e t s y s t e m s , 7. t o l e a r n t o c a r e f o r h u m a n i t y , S. t o f o s t e r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s , 9. t o d e v e l o p i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s . OUTDOOR RECREATION 1. t o have f u n , 2 . t o a c h i e v e a l e i s u r e d s t a t e o f mind, 3. t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f n a t u r e t h r o u g h a c t i v i t y t h a t r e l a t e s t o i t , 4 . t o c o m m u n i c a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l e t h i c s and s t e w a r d s h i p , 5. t o prom o t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h i s m o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e f o r freedom, 6 . t o l e a r n t h r o u g h d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e , 7. t o l e g i t i m i s e t h e o u t d o o r educa t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . OUTDOOR PURSUITS 1. t h e p a s s i v e r e d u c t i o n o f s t r e s s , 2. t o e x p e r i e n c e c o m p a n i o n s h i p a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y , 3. t o p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n t e m p l a t i o n a n d r e d i s c o v e r y o f o n e s e l f , 4. t o d e v e l o p an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e b e a u t y o f a n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d a c t a c c o r d i n g l y , 5. t o d i s c o v e r new p l a c e s and h a v e new e x p e r i e n c e s , 6. t o u n d e r t a k e an a d v e n t u r e s o m e e x p e r i e n c e , 7. t o a c c e p t c h a l l e n g e , 8. t o d e v e l o p p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l p r e p a r e d n e s s . education. Research Techniques This s e c t i o n i s a review of the purposes and procedures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each of the research techniques employed i n t h i s study. The methodology followed i n t h i s study assumes that there are d i f f e r e n t conceptions of outdoor education i m p l i c i t i n the minds of outdoor educators and that these can be i d e n t i f i e d by c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of documents they have produced and by in t e r v i e w s w i t h them. The research design includes three techniques which are employed i n sequence to permit developmental a n a l y s i s . Each technique i s s e l e c t e d because i t s purposes and procedures are considered to be appropriate f o r t h i s study. Taken together, these techniques permit a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the research problem, meet adequate standards of r i g o u r and s a t i s f y the d e s i r e to i n v e s t i g a t e use of the concept outdoor education i n r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Methodological T r i a n g u l a t i o n Good research p r a c t i c e o b l i g a t e s (sic) the researcher to t r i a n g u l a t e , that i s , to use m u l t i p l e methods, data sources, and researchers to enhance the v a l i d i t y of research f i n d i n g s . (Mathison, 1988, p. 13) V a l i d i t y i s an issue i n the s o c i a l sciences that demands c o n t r o l of b i a s and the establishment of v a l i d p r o p o s i t i o n s . Mathison (1988) suggests that methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n i s a s t r a t e g y f o r improving v a l i d i t y . The author supports the assumptions a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l view of methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n by c i t i n g s e v e r a l research experts. Borg and G a l l (1983) s t a t e that content a n a l y s i s i s a u s e f u l t o o l to use to c r o s s - v a l i d a t e other methods, and that more confidence i s placed i n research evidence which i s r e p l i c a t e d using m u l t i p l e methodologies. Isaac and Micheal (1984) suggest that o p e r a t i o n a l i s m i s b e t t e r served by using m u l t i p l e measures, each one sharing a p o r t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l l y relevant components of the object of the research. The authors i n d i c a t e that once a p r o p o s i t i o n has been confirmed by two or more independent measurement processes, the u n c e r t a i n t y of i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s g r e a t l y reduced. The t r i a n g u l a t i o n of measurement processes i s f a r more powerful evidence supporting a p r o p o s i t i o n than any s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n approach. (p. 92) Mathison (1988) proposes three conceptions of methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n . She suggests that methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n can provide a r i c h and complex p i c t u r e of the phenomenon by producing three outcomes. The f i r s t r e f l e c t s the t r a d i t i o n a l view which r e s u l t s when data from d i f f e r e n t sources, methods, or i n v e s t i g a t o r s provide evidence that produces a s i n g l e p r o p o s i t i o n or a convergent p o i n t of view. The second outcome, suggested as a more fr e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g one, produces i n c o n s i s t e n c y among the data. In t h i s case, methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n may produce a range of perspectives which do not confirm a s i n g l e p r o p o s i t i o n about a phenomenon. The r e s u l t s can thus be i n t e r p r e t e d on the basis of i n c o n s i s t e n c y . F i n a l l y , t r i a n g u l a t i o n may r e s u l t i n c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o i n t s of view. Mathison i n d i c a t e s that i t i s p o s s i b l e not only f o r data to be i n c o n s i s t e n t but to a c t u a l l y be c o n t r a d i c t o r y because there may be opposing views of the same phenomenon. I t i s assumed that each of the p o t e n t i a l outcomes of methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n p o s i t e d by Mathison has, f o r the present study, the p o t e n t i a l to make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the d e s c r i p t i o n and understanding of the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e and content of conceptions of outdoor education. Developmental A n a l y s i s The assumptions a s s o c i a t e d w i t h developmental a n a l y s i s (Lofland & Lofland, 1984) provide a framework f o r sequencing the procedures employed i n t h i s study. According to the authors, a n a l y s i s and data c o l l e c t i o n run c o n c u r r e n t l y , thus s t i m u l a t i n g coding or grouping and regrouping of the data i n t o c a t e g o r i e s . This a n a l y t i c a l technique, g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h q u a l i t a t i v e research, assumes that the researcher cannot separate data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . Further, i t i s thought that a n a l y s i s i s stimulated during the data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d and that the l a s t stage of a n a l y s i s , a f t e r data c o l l e c t i o n has ceased, i s a p e r i o d which brings f i n a l order to p r e v i o u s l y developed ideas. Constant i n t e r a c t i o n among the researcher, the data, and the concepts which are brought to the research process i s assumed to b e n e f i t the research process. In t h i s study research techniques are sequenced to permit developmental a n a l y s i s to address the research question, and to enable convergences, i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s to a r i s e and to be explained. Content A n a l y s i s The f i r s t research technique which was employed i n t h i s study was content a n a l y s i s . Content a n a l y s i s i s a procedure used to produce a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of some phenomenon as manifested i n documentary evidence (1969). Researchers seeking to understand what language conveys g e n e r a l l y employ the technique i f the information i s i n t e x t form, and too complex or voluminous f o r casual s c r u t i n y . Krippendorff (1980) suggests that content a n a l y s i s a s s i s t s the researcher to make inferences by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and o b j e c t i v e l y i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the t e x t . Carney (1972) c h a r a c t e r i z e s content a n a l y s i s as the e x t r a c t i o n of r e l e v a n t data from a document to focus a t t e n t i o n and r e v e a l p a t t e r n s or gaps i n the communication. Carney (1972) proposes several models of the procedure. One of the models j u s t i f i e s the procedure f o r t h i s study. The 'Ideal Inductive Model' describes content a n a l y s i s as a framework which acts as a set of i n t e r r e l a t e d g u i d e l i n e s to impose a k i n d of conceptual order upon a complicated mass of data. A wide v a r i e t y of sources i s analyzed to ensure general coverage, enable comparisons and, consequently, to permit infer e n c e s about a s p e c i f i c body of l i t e r a t u r e . In t h i s study the documents which are associated w i t h outdoor education courses are assumed to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the body of l i t e r a t u r e about outdoor education. Content a n a l y s i s i s used to s t r u c t u r e them to permit f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . To summarize, the reasons f o r u t i l i z i n g content a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study are as f o l l o w s : 1. Carney (1972) advises use of the procedure i n order to conduct a d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the language of a group of people such as the group of outdoor educators who c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s study. I t i s assumed, t h e r e f o r e , that content a n a l y s i s w i l l provide an adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r use of the concept outdoor education. 2. Krippendorff (1980) suggests that content a n a l y s i s can be used when the object of research i s not d i r e c t l y observable and, therefore, the data w i l l be p r e d i c t i v e of something that i s , only i n p r i n c i p l e and i n d i r e c t l y , observable. Therefore, the technique i s appropriate f o r a b a s i c methodological assumption i n t h i s study that p a r t i c u l a r course conductor's conceptions of outdoor education can be i d e n t i f i e d by c a r e f u l examination of the documents they produce. 3 . At the coding stage, surface meanings of language are i d e n t i f i e d , and at the i n t e r p r e t i v e stage, patterns of meaning are discovered (Krippendorff, 1980; Carney, 1972) . Thus, content a n a l y s i s c o n t r i b u t e s to the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the a c t i v i t y that gave r i s e to the analyzed t e x t i n the f i r s t place -- i n t h i s case the conception of outdoor education which u n d e r l i e s a p a r t i c u l a r course. 4. Content a n a l y s i s , i n t h i s study, provides the data from which Q s o r t items are evolved. I t i s thus appropriate f o r the intended sequence of the present research design. This study incorporates g u i d e l i n e s f o r conducting content a n a l y s i s suggested by H o l s t i (1969). F i r s t , the technique must u t i l i z e a set of r u l e s f o r each aspect of the procedure, and the e x c l u s i o n and i n c l u s i o n , or coding, of content must be c o n s i s t e n t . In a d d i t i o n , the categories which are developed f o r placement of the data must be appropriate to the purpose of the study. Issues r e l a t e d to v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y are addressed through the f o l l o w i n g procedures. Content a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s u n i t i z i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g , assessing, and i n f e r r i n g (Carney, 1972) . U n i t i z i n g i s the procedure the researcher uses to decide where datum i s to be placed. I t i s r e f e r r e d to as 'zoning' ( H o l s t i , 1969) a mass of communication i n t o a set of pigeon holes. Krippendorff (1980) suggests three types of u n i t s : sampling u n i t s , recording u n i t s , and context u n i t s . Each sampling u n i t i s independent, and once i t i s defined there i s very l i t t l e freedom to change i t s boundaries. The sampling u n i t i n t h i s study i s a u n i v e r s i t y course. Recording u n i t s are separately analyzable p a r t s of the sampling u n i t . Because t h i s research deals w i t h the ideas outdoor educators have about outdoor education, i t was necessary to use recording u n i t s which could adequately p o r t r a y the concept, outdoor education, without l i m i t i n g the data by using recording u n i t s which were s o l e l y r e l a t e d to the concept. Therefore, the b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n o f f e r e d by Ryle (In S o l t i s , 1978), the d i s t i n c t i o n between knowing how and knowing that, i s u s e f u l f o r t h i s study. Outdoor education c l e a r l y seeks to develop concepts, knowledge formed using those concepts and a l s o sets of s k i l l s . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s assumed that an outdoor education program embodies c e r t a i n values. Thus, the recording u n i t s of a n a l y s i s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study are c o g n i t i v e knowledge (knowing t h a t ) , procedural knowledge (knowing how), and values (favoured intended outcomes) or, three components of a conception; 'values', ' c e n t r a l concepts', and 'procedures'. These u n i t s of a n a l y s i s are s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive to permit a great v a r i e t y of conceptions of outdoor education to be revealed by the a n a l y s i s and, a l s o , s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r that documentary a n a l y s i s can be c a r r i e d out. The context u n i t sets l i m i t s to the i n f o r m a t i o n that may enter the d e s c r i p t i o n of a recording u n i t . A context u n i t i n t h i s study i s the documentation a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each course. Once sampling and context u n i t s are d e f i n e d and a c c e s s i b l e to the researcher, the assignment of data to r e c o r d i n g u n i t s takes place. I t i s important that each rec o r d i n g u n i t i s defined by a set of r u l e s which govern data assignment. These r u l e s , or d e c i s i o n schemes, ensure that the placement of each datum i s the outcome of a predefined sequence of d e c i s i o n s . By thus f i x i n g the o p e r a t i o n a l meanings of each u n i t , a l o g i c a l dependency i s created among them. In other words the u n i t s become c o n s i s t e n t , comparable, and analyzable. I f a datum i s placed i n one r e c o r d i n g u n i t , i t cannot be simultaneously placed i n another. There are s e v e r a l types of recording u n i t s . One type r e f e r s to the content of an expression. Objects, events, persons, f a c t s , and ideas are examples of other types of recording u n i t s . In t h i s study, the r e c o r d i n g u n i t may include a d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t p o r t r a y a l of a component of a conception. Each datum i s assigned to a recording u n i t based on c o n s i s t e n t and appropriate a p p l i c a t i o n of the r u l e s which govern data assignment. A data recording sheet ensures e f f i c i e n t and appropriate a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the data, and provides a framework f o r a n a l y s i s . In t h i s study the data sheet was a computer program which permitted a n a l y s i s to proceed, f i r s t , i n r e l a t i o n to each course and, second, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the development of items f o r the Q s o r t s . Content a n a l y s i s issues of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y are d i s c u s s e d by H o l s t i (1969). He claims that v a l i d a t i o n through independent sources of c o r r o b o r a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t and that content a n a l y s i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y f r e e of s e r i o u s problems of v a l i d i t y , except p o s s i b l y some d i s t o r t i o n as a r e s u l t of problems of sampling and r e l i a b i l i t y . He f u r t h e r suggests that the u t i l i z a t i o n of proper u n i t i z i n g techniques w i l l ensure o p e r a t i o n a l v a l i d i t y , provided there i s s u f f i c i e n t p i l o t t e s t i n g of the procedures. Krippendorf (1980) supports H o l s t i (1969) and suggests an a d d i t i o n a l argument i n support of the v a l i d i t y of these procedures. He suggests that the p r e d i c t i v e accuracy of content a n a l y s i s i s e s t a b l i s h e d i f i t s r e s u l t s are supported by independently obtained evidence. In t h i s study the background a n a l y s i s of e x i s t i n g conceptual schemes and the focused i n t e r v i e w s provide independently obtained evidence of p r e d i c t i v e accuracy. R e l i a b i l i t y i n content a n a l y s i s i s e s t a b l i s h e d when the a n a l y s i s i s repeated on the same documents by another coder. Obtaining i n t e r c o d e r r e l i a b i l i t y demands that the coders are t r a i n e d before coding and that they examine the u t i l i t y of the re c o r d i n g u n i t s to e s t a b l i s h category r e l i a b i l i t y . With respect to r e l i a b i l i t y , Schutz (1958) suggests that as the number of categories increases, r e l i a b i l i t y decreases. Also, w i t h respect to v a l i d i t y , he i n d i c a t e s that i f the purpose of the research i s d e s c r i p t i v e , then content v a l i d i t y i s g e n e r a l l y s u f f i c i e n t . Therefore, the informed judgement of the researcher to e s t a b l i s h i n i t i a l face v a l i d i t y , which i s supported by int e r j u d g e content agreement, i s s u f f i c i e n t to e s t a b l i s h content v a l i d i t y . H o l s t i (1969) describes a l i m i t a t i o n of content a n a l y s i s . He s t a t e s that d i r e c t inference as to the e f f e c t s of communication i s at best tenuous. In other words a conception of outdoor education may u n d e r l i e a document a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an outdoor education course, but that does not mean that the conception i s communicated to the reader. Content a n a l y s i s i s used i n the present study to describe the content and s t r u c t u r e of conceptions of outdoor education which u n d e r l i e the courses which are e l i g i b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study. There i s no i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s study to i n f e r the e f f e c t s of the conceptions on students who take the courses. 0 Methodology According to Stephenson (1953), Q methodology i s a systematic way to handle a person's r e t r o s p e c t i o n , h i s / h e r r e f l e c t i o n s about him/herself and others, h i s / h e r i n t r o j e c t i o n s and p r o j e c t i o n s , and much e l s e of an apparently s u b j e c t i v e nature. I t i s an approach to f a c t o r a n a l y s i s which seeks to describe how a person deviates on a given item from the mean of a l l other persons who sort on that item. K e r l i n g e r (1972) suggests that the technique i s u s e f u l f o r comparing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n groups or, i n t h i s case, courses. Q methodology i s used i n t h i s study to c h a r a c t e r i z e the content and s t r u c t u r e of a course developer's conception of outdoor education. I t does so by producing rank order c o e f f i c i e n t s between a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r s of course developers f o r a set of items which are considered to be an exhaustive l i s t of p o t e n t i a l ideas, procedures or values f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a given course. Q methodology i s g e n e r a l l y s u i t e d to i n t e n s i v e study of an e x p l o r a t o r y nature where a v i s u a l l a y out of the o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of a theory or an hypothesis i s d e s i r e d ( K e r l i n g e r , 1972). A l a y out, or f a c t o r array, mathematically i d e n t i f i e s the s a l i e n t aspects of the s t r u c t u r e , thus p e r m i t t i n g an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the essence of the subject being s t u d i e d . The essence sought i n t h i s study i s the content and s t r u c t u r e of conceptions of outdoor education. For the present study the technique i s used to permit an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the content of two components of a conception. Thus, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features f o r each conception, as w e l l as the more s a l i e n t , o verlapping features among conceptions i s made p o s s i b l e . There are s e v e r a l strengths a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Q methodology ( K e r l i n g e r , 1972) which make i t s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s study. The theory or hypothesis which i s being i n v e s t i g a t e d must be c a r e f u l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the items sorted i n the procedure. Then, Q methodology i s considered to o f f e r a good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l concepts or hypotheses i t represents. In t h i s study c a r e f u l e n u n c i a t i o n of an exhaustive set of items f o r p o t e n t i a l i n c l u s i o n i n a s p e c i f i c course helped e s t a b l i s h content v a l i d i t y . Once agreement to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study was obtained, each course conductor was r e q u i r e d to sort the items i n r e l a t i o n to each course f o r which he or she was r e s p o n s i b l e . The process i s a time consuming and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y demanding one, but provides a v i s u a l and f l e x i b l e procedure which engages the subject i n an i n t e r e s t i n g and r e f l e c t i v e manner. V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y issues r e l a t e d to Q methodology are u s u a l l y not i n t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d s i n c e they have l i t t l e consequence (Townsend, 1982). Townsend suggests that face or construct v a l i d i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d i f the e m p i r i c a l s t r u c t u r e which emerges from the sort i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l framework which prompted the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Content v a l i d i t y i s g e n e r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by a panel of experts and by instrument p i l o t i n g . One p o t e n t i a l weakness of the technique i s r e l i a b i l i t y . While i t i s enhanced through r e t e s t procedures, g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d to the re p r e s e n t a t i v e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. However i t i s noted that c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l supplementation enhances the r e l i a b i l i t y of Q methodology ( K e r l i n g e r , 1972). S t a t i s t i c a l weaknesses e x i s t because a n a l y s i s of variance assumes independence of response and forced choice Q methodology v i o l a t e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e . However, K e r l i n g e r (1972) suggests that a l l psychometric techniques are c o n s t r a i n i n g i n t h i s regard. Townsend (1982), i n support of the forced choice technique, s t a t e s that the s o r t e r i s permitted to move items w i t h i n and between p i l e s , t h e r e f o r e , the p o s i t i o n of one item i s not dependent on the item p o s i t i o n e d before i t . Wood (1973) used the technique to compare what knowledge and a b i l i t y teachers of graduate courses b e l i e v e d they had w i t h student opinion of f a c u l t y strengths. He i d e n t i f i e d gaps between teacher's a b i l i t i e s and student o p i n i o n , and used them to assess p r o f e s s i o n a l development needs. The l i s t of items f o r s o r t i n g were obtained as a r e s u l t of content a n a l y s i s of course o u t l i n e s supplemented by c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t analyses completed by the f a c u l t y . The instrument was p i l o t e d to e l i m i n a t e items on which d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was not p o s s i b l e . Both students and teachers sorted the items. The r e s u l t s of the s o r t s were compared and areas f o r e v a l u a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n were noted. Baker (1986) explored the educational uses and implementation issues associated w i t h high r e s o l u t i o n computer-generated graphics. The research design i n c o r p o r a t e d methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n of a semi-structured i n t e r v i e w , a focused i n t e r v i e w and Q s o r t . The s t r u c t u r e d s o r t was intended to confirm i n t e r v i e w data, s p e c i f i c a l l y as i t r e l a t e d to a teacher's p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n to aspects of the subj e c t . The r e s u l t s produced a set of important implementation issues and research questions. Townsend (1982) u t i l i z e d Q methodology to c h a r a c t e r i z e the u n d e r l y i n g dimensions of a set of environmental education concepts. The items used f o r the sort were taken from a p r e v i o u s l y conducted study. A panel of experts was asked to so r t f o r t y - s i x value statements according to t h e i r importance i n environmental education. F i v e f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d to enable the researcher to compare the r e s u l t s w i t h those from the study from which the Q items were o r i g i n a l l y taken. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a set of recommendations f o r f u t u r e research. I t was suggested that a smaller set of statements which would more c l o s e l y represent the f i v e f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s might b e t t e r serve as the basi s f o r f u r t h e r study. Test-r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s were low, i n d i c a t i n g the need f o r w e l l w r i t t e n items and the e l i m i n a t i o n of items which emphasize two or more d i f f e r i n g subjects or themes. Horn (1969) used Q methodology to i n v e s t i g a t e a t t i t u d e s toward the term "outdoor education". The items which comprised the set to be sorted were deri v e d from a survey r a t i n g sheet. The 1967 membership of the American A l l i a n c e f o r P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n i v e r s i t i e s or c o l l e g e s were asked to s o r t the a t t i t u d e statements based on personal preference. Three groups of p a r t i a l l y overlapping a t t i t u d e s were i d e n t i f i e d and explained. The researcher concluded that some a n t i c i p a t e d d i s t i n c t i o n s d i d not emerge since the subjects were mainly p h y s i c a l educators and were therefore s i m i l a r i n o r i e n t a t i o n . Johnson (1977) u t i l i z e d Q methodology to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p among environmental education, conservation education, outdoor education, environmentalist education, and general education. Goal statements f o r the sort were obtained from the l i t e r a t u r e by s e l e c t i n g documents considered to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of each of the s i x concepts i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study. The r e s u l t s of the sort i n d i c a t e d that environmental education overlapped w i t h the other f i v e concepts, i n p a r t i c u l a r conservation education and en v i r o n m e n t a l i s t education. As w e l l as d e s c r i b i n g areas of commonality, the so r t provided a d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n t e r n a l goal s t r u c t u r e of each of the s i x concepts. Bateson (1989) demonstrated the a p p l i c a t i o n of Q methodology to the problem of d e f i n i n g conceptions i n education, s p e c i f i c a l l y conceptions of teaching. Items f o r the s o r t were teacher behaviours derived from the l i t e r a t u r e on e f f e c t i v e teaching. F o r t y - f i v e respondents sorted the items on the basis of a quasi-normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that s i x - f a c t o r and t h r e e - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s were a p p l i c a b l e . Differences among teacher types were explained and i n t e r p r e t e d by the researcher. Several recommendations f o r f u r t h e r research using Q methodology i n c l u d e d the challenge to develop an instrument which i s sho r t e r and e a s i e r to administer than the o r i g i n a l 83 item Q-s o r t . The items i n the recommended sort were a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the data obtained i n the f i r s t s o r t and thus only those items that were most accepted by each type and that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d best among the types were i n c l u d e d . Focused Interview The focused i n t e r v i e w (Merton and K e n d a l l , 1946; Torgerson, 1987; Del B e l l o , 1989) i s des c r i b e d as i n t r o s p e c t i v e i n that the interviewee i s known to be i n v o l v e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r concrete s i t u a t i o n on which the i n t e r v i e w e r intends to focus. In a d d i t i o n , the i n t e r v i e w e r has p r e v i o u s l y analyzed the s i t u a t i o n and a r r i v e d at a set of conclusions about i t s meaning and e f f e c t s . The i n t e r v i e w guide i s based on these conclusions. The s e l e c t i o n of the focused i n t e r v i e w technique was based on the c o n t r i b u t i o n i t was able to make to the research o b j e c t i v e s . Among the c o n t r i b u t i o n s suggested by Kendall and Merton (1946) are three which are important to t h i s study. Accordingly, i f the researcher i s able to conduct a p r i o r a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n and then use that a n a l y s i s to construct the i n t e r v i e w schedule, he or she provides more e x p l i c i t v e r b a l cues about the focus of the research thus enabling the respondent to provide a c l e a r e r d e s c r i p t i o n of the subject, and a l s o to c o n t r i b u t e to post factum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Secondly, conjecture, which i s the r e s u l t of previous analyses, i s confirmed or r e f u t e d because i t i s presented to the respondent as a set of hypotheses to which responses are i n v i t e d . F i n a l l y , the coherent expression of s e v e r a l p o i n t s of view provides the respondent w i t h the opportunity to comment on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of each. The researcher seeks the personal context of the respondent, h i s or her i d i o s y n c r a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , b e l i e f s , and ideas. Torgerson (1987) used focused i n t e r v i e w s to desc r i b e the perceptions of educators about sev e r a l aspects of a c t i v i t i e s which were suggested f o r a beginning teacher i n d u c t i o n program. The l i t e r a t u r e which r e l a t e s to teacher i n d u c t i o n programs was content analyzed. The i n v e s t i g a t o r d e f i n e d a pe r c e p t i o n as an opinion of worth and a d e s c r i p t i o n of outcome. He proposed a set of recommendations f o r designing teacher i n d u c t i o n experiences i n the Puget Sound area of Washington State. Figueiredo (1985) sought to describe the perceptions of Azorean Portuguese Immigrants about t h e i r e a r l y departure from school. Content a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to school dropouts produced s e v e r a l conjectures r e l a t e d to the uniqueness of the population i n r e l a t i o n to accepted t h e o r i e s about school dropouts. Focused i n t e r v i e w provided respondents w i t h the opportunity to comment on and c o n t r i b u t e to the researcher's conclusions. The study produced a set of hypotheses f o r f u r t h e r study. Johnson (1980) c h a r a c t e r i z e d the perceptions and circumstances that i n f l u e n c e a teacher's w i l l i n g n e s s to teach environmental s t u d i e s . Among the questions addressed by the study were two r e l a t e d to the perceptions teachers hold about teaching environmental studies and about what they are teaching as environmental education. P r i o r to the conduct of the focused i n t e r v i e w s , an explor a t o r y survey provided a range of perceptions and key iss u e s . Focused i n t e r v i e w s were conducted to provide a f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n of the perceptions i n question, and to assess the f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to the w i l l i n g n e s s to teach environmental education. As a r e s u l t of the study, a proposal f o r environmental education c u r r i c u l u m was developed. Ware (1987) and Del B e l l o (1989) used focused i n t e r v i e w to examine the perceptions teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h e l d about matters r e l a t e d to curriculum. In both cases the researchers used focused i n t e r v i e w to examine the s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e of the interviewee because i t was assumed that both the researchers' and the respondents' p r i o r knowledge of the subject would permit c l e a r e r d e s c r i p t i o n and post factum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Conclusion Methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n i s used i n t h i s study to a s s i s t the researcher to converge on the meaning of outdoor education, i d e n t i f y i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the use of the concept outdoor education, and/or i d e n t i f y c o n t r a d i c t o r y and opposing views of the meaning of the concept. The research design i s developmental i n nature. I t employs a sequence of procedures which are analyzed throughout the research schedule. This enabled the researcher to u t i l i z e p r e v i o u s l y analyzed data i n subsequent phases. Three techniques were sequenced as f o l l o w s : content a n a l y s i s , Q methodology, and focused i n t e r v i e w . Content a n a l y s i s was employed to i d e n t i f y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and o b j e c t i v e l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of outdoor education a s s o c i a t e d w i t h course documents. A wide v a r i e t y of document sources were analyzed to ensure general coverage and to c o n t r i b u t e to the v a l i d i t y of the research. Documents were analyzed according to a set of r u l e s and u n i t i z i n g procedures, and the c a t e g o r i e s which were used f o r placement of the data were considered to be appropriate to the purpose of t h i s study. V a l i d a t i o n through independent sources of c o l l a b o r a t i o n and i n t e r c o d e r r e l i a b i l i t y were used to ensure category r e l i a b i l i t y . The data produced by content a n a l y s i s was used to develop the items sorted using Q methodology. Q methodology was employed to c h a r a c t e r i z e the content and s t r u c t u r e of p o t e n t i a l conceptions of outdoor education. The procedure produced rank order c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r an exhaustive set of items which define a conception among a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r s of course developers. The set of items which were s o r t e d using Q methodology were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the documents as s o c i a t e d w i t h the courses i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study. Construct v a l i d i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d since the e m p i r i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the sort was coherent w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l framework which prompted the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and content v a l i d i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d by a panel of experts. G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d to the subjects who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. However, t r i a n g u l a t i o n of research technique enhances the r e l i a b i l i t y of the procedure. Focused i n t e r v i e w i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to research which seeks to i n v e s t i g a t e the personal context of the respondent. In t h i s study i t was employed because the interviewees were known to be i n v o l v e d i n and possess s p e c i f i c knowledge about the s i t u a t i o n on which the researcher focused. The researcher conducted a p r i o r a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n and used i t to construct the i n t e r v i e w schedule. Thus the interviewee was expected to provide c l e a r , e f f e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s which would c o n t r i b u t e to post factum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and to confirm or r e f u t e previous a n a l y s i s . CHAPTER 3 Research Framework and Procedures This chapter o u t l i n e s the a n a l y t i c a l framework on which t h i s study i s based and reports the procedures used to c a r r y out the three research techniques used i n t h i s study. A b r i e f overview of the research design serves to place data c o l l e c t i o n techniques i n r e l a t i o n to each other and to organize the remainder of the chapter. A d e s c r i p t i o n of procedures used to i d e n t i f y courses e l i g i b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the study i s followed by an account of each research tech-nique. Instrumentation, scheduling, and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures employed i n the treatment of the data are discussed. The chapter concludes w i t h the research schedule f o l l o w e d i n t h i s study. The Research Framework People acquire, more or l e s s c o n s c i o u s l y , conceptions f o r viewing various aspects of human l i f e . This framework, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Straughan and Wilson (1963) as our conceptual equipment, contains a l l of the elements which comprise the meanings of the concepts we use i n language. The b e l i e f that i t i s important f o r the concepts which serve human purposes to do so e f f e c t i v e l y u n d e r l i e s the r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s study. What i s of t h e o r e t i c a l importance i s the assumption that w e l l developed conceptual equipment i s p r e r e q u i s i t e to i t s a b i l i t y to serve e f f e c t i v e l y . Schwab (1962) argues that the need f o r f l u i d or long term i n q u i r y a r i s e s when e x i s t i n g conceptions are problematic. One of the aims of f l u i d i n q u i r y i s to devise a m o d i f i c a t i o n of an e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e , or to construct a new s t r u c t u r e to replace an e x i s t i n g one. In e i t h e r case, the r e s u l t s embrace more of the ri c h n e s s of the subject, and take i n t o account weaknesses discovered i n older conceptions. The process i s a developmental one and provides an appropriate summary of the r a t i o n a l e and purpose of t h i s study. L a z a r s f e l d (1972) speculates that the e v o l u t i o n of meaning may be a flow from concept to e m p i r i c a l i n d i c e s . He proposes four developmental steps. F i r s t , imagery which i s r a t h e r vague and l o o s e l y constructed, i s created. Second, the imagery i s d i v i d e d i n t o components which r e v e a l the complexity of the concept. L a z a r s f e l d c a l l s t h i s stage 'concept s p e c i f i c a t i o n ' . Then, i n d i c a t o r s which have a probable r e l a t i o n s h i p to the underlying concept are f o r m a l l y or i n f o r m a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r use by those who r e q u i r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the concept. F i n a l l y , i n d i c e s are formed which are a r e s u l t of p u t t i n g the i n d i c a t o r s and dimensions which evolved i n step two and three back together again. Carter (1974), seeking a conceptual framework f o r use i n developing c u r r i c u l a , combines L a z a r s f e l d ' s (1972) steps and the notion of f l u i d i n q u i r y to p o s t u l a t e four stages of conceptual growth. The f i r s t he c h a r a c t e r i z e s as the development of the i n i t i a l conception. This stage corresponds to the imagery step i n L a z a r s f e l d ' s model. The second stage corresponds to imagery and concept s p e c i f i c a t i o n ( L a z a r s f e l d , 1972) and i n v o l v e s the e l a b o r a t i o n of a conception i n t o a p p r opriate components f o r d e s c r i p t i o n . Then the components are r e f i n e d . This step i s analogous to L a z a r s f e l d ' s concept s p e c i f i c a t i o n and h i s s e l e c t i o n of i n d i c a t o r s . The f i n a l stage proceeds to t e s t the conception. Carter i n d i c a t e s that the f o u r t h step i n L a z a r s f e l d ' s model i s not completed i n h i s own model because he sees the a p p l i c a t i o n as e x p l o r a t o r y and u n r e f i n e d . That e x i s t i n g conceptions of outdoor education are problematic has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the r a t i o n a l e of t h i s study. Therefore, viewing t h i s study as f l u i d i n q u i r y i s l e g i t i m a t e . Several i n i t i a l conceptions (Carter, 1974) or imageries ( L a z a r s f e l d , 1972) of the concept outdoor education are documented i n the relevant account of the background to t h i s study. One could conceive of t h i s study as analogous to the completion of the l a t t e r three steps and stages i n L a z a r s f e l d ' s (1972) and Carter's (1974) models. To summarize, t h i s study i s modeled on notions about f l u i d i n q u i r y (Schwab, 1962) and the e v o l u t i o n of our conceptual equipment (Carter, 1974) . Wilson (1963) states that language i s a symptom of conceptual s t r u c t u r e . In other words, v e r b a l communication i s p a r t l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the way we view t h i n g s . Babin (1979) suggests that content i s the f a b r i c of c u r r i c u l u m . Therefore, the language and content of a u n i v e r s i t y course, i n t h i s case as embodied i n course documents, i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the conceptions of the concept outdoor education held by va r i o u s outdoor educators. In e f f e c t , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s study seeks to make the i m p l i c i t e x p l i c i t . Becker, Geer, Hughes & Strauss (1961) contend that a set of ca t e g o r i e s c o n s t i t u t e a conception and that the set should provide d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of each conception. They suggest the goals, ideas, and a c t i o n s i n a s i t u a t i o n are s u i t a b l e categories f o r d e f i n i n g a conception. House (1981) proposes that a conception i s a complex combination of values, f a c t s , and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s ; and goals are suggested by Case (1983) as the means by which a conception i s honed. Speaking s p e c i f i c a l l y about semi-t e c h n i c a l or t e c h n i c a l concepts, Coombs and Daniels (1989) suggest that a concept has a range of d i v e r s e and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g meanings f o r t h e o r i s t s and researchers. Wilson (1963), speaking about our conceptual equipment as a c e r t a i n posture or stance we adopt towards the world, suggests that a conception can contain p r i n c i p l e s , or values and s k i l l s . The c r u c i a l , t e l l i n g , features of any type of education, according to S o l t i s (1978), are the procedures adopted to c a r r y out the e n t e r p r i s e . He argues that an a n a l y s i s of the c e n t r a l concepts a s s o c i a t e d with a term c o n t r i b u t e s to a general understanding of i t s meaning and that Ryle's d i s t i n c t i o n between knowing how and knowing that i s u s e f u l i n understanding some aspects of education ( S o l t i s , 1978). In the present work a set of u n i t s of a n a l y s i s f o r conducting content a n a l y s i s are i d e n t i f i e d . The set i n c l u d e s : c o g n i t i v e knowledge (knowledge that, ideas, or c e n t r a l concepts); procedural knowledge (knowledge how or s k i l l ) ; and values (intended consequences or g o a l s ) . An important aspect of t h i s study i s the use of Q methodology f o r the development of a typology. Wilson (1963) suggests that users of language may need help to p a i n t a p i c t u r e of a concept, e s p e c i a l l y i f the concept i s a b s t r a c t . Q methodology i s used as the p r i n c i p a l procedure to help outdoor educators to c l a r i f y t h e i r conceptions of outdoor education and to c h a r a c t e r i z e the typology. The focused i n t e r v i e w w i t h course conductors serves four f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t , the i n t e r v i e w provides an opp o r t u n i t y f o r concept users to support or r e f u t e the r e s u l t s of the Q methodology. To t h i s end, the i n t e r v i e w schedule contained an opportunity to comment on the outcomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r conception. Second, the essence of t h i s study i s a r e c o g n i t i o n that outdoor education means d i f f e r e n t things to d i f f e r e n t people. I t i s assumed the r e f o r e that the items r e s u l t i n g from content a n a l y s i s which are u t i l i z e d i n Q methodology may mean d i f f e r e n t things to d i f f e r e n t people. T h i r d l y , the focused i n t e r v i e w a l s o provides the opportunity f o r course developers to c o n t r i b u t e to content v a l i d i t y subsequent to the p i l o t study by d i s c u s s i n g aspects of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Q methodology items. F i n a l l y , the i n t e r v i e w provides an opportunity f o r the researcher to engage i n c l a r i f y i n g conversation w i t h users of the concept outdoor education, thus p e r m i t t i n g the researcher to confirm a n a l y s i s to date. The Research Procedures Outdoor Education Courses at Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s The aim of t h i s research was to i d e n t i f y and c h a r a c t e r i z e conceptions of outdoor education that u n d e r l i e outdoor education courses at E n g l i s h speaking Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . A course was considered e l i g i b l e f o r the study only i f i t was w i t h i n a degree gra n t i n g program and considered a component of a major, minor, or s p e c i a l i z e d area of study. Outdoor education courses o f f e r e d as general survey courses were considered i n a p p r o p r i a t e to a search f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g marks which could be used to maximize understanding of d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view on outdoor education. Canadian u n i v e r s i t y calendars f o r the 1984-85 academic year were surveyed to l o c a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g a major, minor or s p e c i a l i z e d study i n outdoor education. The " D i r e c t o r y of Outdoor Education at Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s " (Grenier, 1983) was used to supplement the l i s t obtained from Canadian u n i v e r s i t y calendars. Twelve u n i v e r s i t i e s were i d e n t i f i e d and a l e t t e r was sent to the f a c u l t y person l i s t e d i n the calendar or the d i r e c t o r y as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the outdoor education program. (Appendix A). The l e t t e r contained a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the study and a number of r e p l y cards. Contacts were asked to r e t u r n a card (Appendix A) and to d i s t r i b u t e a d d i t i o n a l cards to colleagues who might be e l i g i b l e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. The i n i t i a l contact was made i n both French and E n g l i s h . From the i n i t i a l twelve contacts, forty-one r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from f a c u l t y persons at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the design and implementation of outdoor education courses. T h i r t y - f o u r of the respondents consented to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study and seven requested a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The l a t t e r seven were contacted by phone and were e i t h e r found to be i n e l i g i b l e or agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Several unsuccessful attempts to gain funding f o r the t r a n s l a t i o n of French m a t e r i a l s i n t o E n g l i s h r e s u l t e d i n the e l i m i n a t i o n of courses at French speaking Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . A d d i t i o n a l courses were e l i m i n a t e d because they were not considered to be components of a major, minor, or s p e c i a l i z e d area of study. Two i n s t i t u t i o n s , o f f e r i n g a major, minor or s p e c i a l i z e d area of study i n outdoor education, d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Of these, one course conductor, due to s a b b a t i c a l leave, d i d not have the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the research and the other d i d not respond to the correspondence r e l a t e d to t h i s study. F i f t y - f o u r courses, conducted by twenty-one f a c u l t y persons, remained e l i g i b l e f o r the study. Since u n i v e r s i t y courses e x i s t i n a dynamic system, and courses and course Table II Course Conductor P a r t i c i p a t i o n Across the Research Design ( P = p a r t i c i p a t i o n , NP=no p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) I .D. Instr 1 . 1 1 1.2 2 1.3 1 1 . 4 1 1.5 1 1. 6 1 1. 7 4 1.8 4 1. 9 3 1.10 3 2 . 1 5 2 .2 5 2.3 5 2.4 5 2.5 5 3 .1 6 3.2 7 3.3 8 3 . 4 8 3 . 5 8 3 . 6 8 3 .7 8 3 .8 6 3 . 9 9 3.10 10 4.1 11 4.2 11 4.3 11 4 . 4 11 4 . 5 11 5.1 12 5.2 12 5.3 14 5.4 12 5 . 5 12 5 . 6 12 5 . 7 12 5 . 8 15 5.9 12 5 .10 14 6.1 16 6.2 16 7 .1 17 7.2 17 7.3 17 7 . 4 17 8 . 1 18 9 . 1 19 10 . 1 20 10 .2 20 11. 1 21 11.2 21 11. 3 21 11.4 21 C.A. QS 1 p P p NP p P p P p P p P p NP p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p P p NP p NP p NP p NP p NP p P p P NP P P P P P P NP NP P P P NP P NP P P P NP P P P P P P P P P NP P P P P NP P P P P P P P P P QS 2 F. P P P P P P NP P P P P P P P P P P NP P NP P P P P NP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P NP P P P P P P NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP P P P P NP P P P P P NP P P P P P P P P P P P NP P P P P P NP P NP P NP NP P NP P P P NP P NP P NP P NP P NP developers change over time, the sample a l s o changed as t h i s study was conducted. Table I I i n d i c a t e s course conductor p a r t i c i p a t i o n across the research design. Content A n a l y s i s U n i t s of A n a l y s i s Context u n i t s were considered to be documents a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e l i g i b l e courses. They were obtained by sending a second l e t t e r (Appendix A) to twenty-one course conductors requesting that a v a i l a b l e documents r e l a t e d to each of f i f t y - f o u r courses be sent to the researcher. Required t e x t and reference m a t e r i a l s , when not i n the pos-se s s i o n of the researcher, were obtained from p u b l i s h e r s or the Acadia U n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y . Any document o f f i c i a l l y r e l a t e d to a course was considered to be r e l e v a n t . Of p a r t i c u l a r import were course o u t l i n e s , assignment de-s c r i p t i o n s , and reference b i b l i o g r a p h i e s . I n i t i a l l y , seven cate g o r i e s were considered appropriate as r e c o r d i n g u n i t s f o r content a n a l y s i s . These included; values, c o g n i t i v e knowl-edge, knowledge procedures, rehearsed procedures, goals, course purposes, and c e n t r a l concepts. Using these c a t e g o r i e s , a set of recording i n s t r u c t i o n s was developed f o r p i l o t t e s t i n g by a group of twelve s e n i o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n majors at Acadia U n i v e r s i t y . Documents l i s t e d on the reading l i s t f o r RECR 4563 "Concepts of Adventure" at Acadia U n i v e r s i t y , which a l s o appeared as course readings i n other sampling u n i t s , were content analyzed by the p i l o t t e s t e r s . Based on feedback from the p i l o t t e s t , the a n a l y t i c a l construct was r e v i s e d to include only three c a t e g o r i e s : 'values', ' c e n t r a l concepts', and 'procedures'. Also, r e c o r d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e v i s e d and judged by the group to be more s u i t a b l e to meet the c r i t e r i a of exhaustiveness and mutual e x c l u s i o n . Recording I n s t r u c t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g r e c o r d i n g i n s t r u c -t i o n s were used f o r the remainder of content a n a l y s i s . Value rVI : Knowing why. A value i s de f i n e d as a statement which expresses the worth or goodness of outdoor education. The statement often i m p l i e s that the value has been judged against a l t e r n a t i v e s according to some set of standards, but the set of standards may or may not be e x p l i c i t . Look f o r a s e t t l e d o pinion or d e c l a r a t i o n about the worth of outdoor education. Look f o r a reason f o r doing outdoor education. Look f o r words that express worth, such as; good, b e t t e r , h e a l t h i e r or more aware. A value may be s t a t e d as a goal or outcome of outdoor education. Ask y o u r s e l f i f outdoor education i s worth doing, then look f o r reasons why. A value statement may be i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t . Examples of values often a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education are; p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , a p p r e c i a t i o n of the environment, and b e t t e r communication s k i l l s . C e n t r a l Concepts fCC1 : Knowing about. C o g n i t i v e knowl-edge i s defined as statements which contain i n f o r m a t i o n about what outdoor education i s . A piece of c o g n i t i v e knowledge t e l l s us that the outdoor educator should know that ... Look f o r i n f o r m a t i o n which the outdoor educator needs to know about i n order to know everything there i s to know about outdoor education. Included may be concepts, p r i n c i p l e s , t r a d i t i o n s , and many other kinds of information. Information i n t h i s category may not r e f e r to an a c t i o n or a procedure. I t may be i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t . Ask y o u r s e l f i f the in f o r m a t i o n i s , f i r s t , necessary to understand what outdoor education i s , and second, information that would be v e r b a l i z e d r a t h e r than demonstrated. For example, the outdoor educator should know about groups, ecosystems, and safety equipment. Procedures [Pi : Knowing how. A procedural knowledge i s def i n e d as a statement which i n d i c a t e s what to do or what course of a c t i o n to take when doing outdoor education. Look f o r statements about how to do outdoor education. Look f o r examples or i n s t r u c t i o n s which t e l l the outdoor educator what should be happening i f the s i t u a t i o n i s to be counted as outdoor education and not something e l s e . Look f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s of what i s happening i n an outdoor education s i t u a t i o n . Information i n t h i s category may be i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t . Paddling a canoe, camping w i t h minimal impact, and communicating e f f e c t i v e l y are examples of procedures the outdoor educator may need to know how to do. A n a l y t i c a l Technique Think Tank (1984) software was used to summarize data f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Each u n i v e r s i t y was as-signed a leader code which i d e n t i f i e d the i n s t i t u t i o n , course number, and name. A feature of t h i s computer software i s that d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of information can be recorded, each l e v e l able to be c o l l a p s e d i n t o the l e v e l above i t . Thus, i t was p o s s i b l e to record s y s t e m a t i c a l l y each context u n i t or docu-ment i n t o as many l e v e l s of recording u n i t s as was necessary. For example, an item of procedural knowledge might contain s e v e r a l component procedures which, once i d e n t i f i e d , could be c o l l a p s e d i n t o the parent procedure. In t h i s way complex data language could be recorded i n i t s component p a r t s . The u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of each course was produced by merging the information from the three c a t e g o r i e s i n the a n a l y t i c a l c o nstruct. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Unit r e l i a b i l i t y was estab-l i s h e d by the adjustment of recording i n s t r u c t i o n s , as a r e s u l t of p r e t e s t feedback, to achieve exhaustiveness and mutual e x c l u s i o n . Inter-coder r e l i a b i l i t y was t e s t e d four times throughout the content a n a l y s i s process i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. During the two years i n which content a n a l y s i s was completed, the researcher taught four s e n i o r e l e c t i v e courses i n outdoor education at Acadia U n i v e r s i t y . Four sets of docu-ments c o n t a i n i n g readings which were r e q u i r e d i n each of the four courses and i n other context u n i t s were i d e n t i f i e d f o r p i l o t t e s t i n g . Each set was document analyzed according to the same set of recording i n s t r u c t i o n s . In each case the t e s t i n g group comprised ten students who were outdoor education majors, B.Ed. students or p h y s i c a l education students. Five students i n each group analyzed only one set of documents and the remaining f i v e students i n each group were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more than one course and th e r e f o r e analyzed some documents as s o c i a t e d w i t h more than one p i l o t t e s t course. A f t e r the t e s t a n a l y s i s documents were completed by each group, they were o v e r l a i d w i t h photocopied t r a n s -parencies of themselves as analyzed by the researcher. High i n t e r r a t e r agreement was achieved i n a l l four t e s t s . The c o n d i t i o n of semantic v a l i d i t y was s a t i s f i e d by s t r u c t u r i n g and t e s t i n g the a n a l y t i c c o n s t r u c t . Recording i n s t r u c t i o n s produced a s i m i l a r set of data records across four independent t e s t s (as described i n the previous para-graph) . In a d d i t i o n to required textbooks, s e v e r a l textbooks not i n c l u d e d as required reference m a t e r i a l i n any context u n i t provided l i s t s of values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education. The l i s t s were used to t e s t e x t e r n a l semantic v a l i d i t y . One i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g was that the number and content of recording u n i t s i n the values category of the content a n a l y s i s f a r exceeded l i s t s of values o f f e r e d i n these textbooks. 0 Methodology The 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts' c a t e g o r i e s i n the typology of conceptions of outdoor education were s e l e c t e d f o r Q methodology. The technique was used to produce i p s a t i v e scores to represent the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n groups of outdoor education courses at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . Q technique, comprising the procedures used to implement Q methodology, i n v o l v e d the development of two Q so r t i n -struments f o r data c o l l e c t i o n and the a p p l i c a t i o n of data a n a l y s i s procedures. 0 Sort Instruments Two s o r t i n g decks, 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts', were developed from the content a n a l y s i s data. In each case s e v e r a l hundred record u n i t s were c o l l a p s e d i n t o l o g i c a l categories or items f o r s o r t i n g . For example, one c e n t r a l concept u n i t was group management. Therefore, any c e n t r a l concept record item which r e f e r r e d to group management, such as the l i f e c y c l e of a group or group c o n f r o n t a t i o n , was assigned to that item. In order to s a t i s f y content v a l i d i t y , two methods f o r c o l l a p s i n g the data were used. F i r s t , the researcher proposed a set of c a t e g o r i e s f o r each of the two components of a conception which were sorted. Secondly, s i x t y students i n an outdoor education survey course at Acadia U n i v e r s i t y were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. Each group worked w i t h one of the d e s c r i p t o r s . The two groups of t h i r t y students were each d i v i d e d i n t o s i x groups of f i v e students and i n s t r u c t e d to place each record item i n t o one of the proposed new cat e g o r i e s , and to produce a l i s t of record items which d i d not f i t i n t o any category. As a r e s u l t , f o r each d e s c r i p t o r s i x sets of c o l l a p s e d items and t h e i r l i s t s of outcast items were compared to develop a new set of items which s a t i s f i e d c o n d i t i o n s of exhaustiveness and mutual e x c l u s i o n . The second method used to c o l l a p s e the data was performed by four s e n i o r outdoor education majors at Acadia U n i v e r s i t y . A complete content a n a l y s i s data record was given to each student. Two students received the values d e s c r i p t o r and two r e c e i v e d the c e n t r a l concept d e s c r i p t o r . Each student was i n s t r u c t e d to develop a set of mutually e x c l u s i v e and exhaustive c a t e g o r i e s i n t o which a l l of the items i n the data record could be c o l l a p s e d . The r e s u l t i n g four sets of items were compared to the sets developed by the survey c l a s s and two Q s o r t decks were f i n a l i z e d f o r use i n the Q-methodology. The Q s o r t decks were p i l o t t e s t e d to a s c e r t a i n t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s research problem on a group of f o r t y p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n l e i s u r e , s o c i a l , and education s e r v i c e s . At the annual conference of the Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n of Nova S c o t i a (1985) the instruments were used by the researcher i n a workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to demonstrate the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a p a r t i c u l a r value construct about outdoor education programs to an appropriate set of c e n t r a l concepts h e l d by an outdoor educator. Q methodology was used i n the workshop to determine both c o n s t r u c t s . Based on p i l o t t e s t feedback the decks were modified and a s o r t i n g procedure f i n a l i z e d f o r t h i s study. The decks included f o r t y - s i x value items and f o r t y c e n t r a l concept items. Each item was typed on a piece of paper which could be f i t t e d i n t o a s l o t i n a s o r t envelop. The design of the sort envelope provided space to i n d i c a t e course demographic information and s o r t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . (Appendix D) The S o r t i n g Procedure The c e n t r a l concept s o r t was com-p l e t e d before the values s o r t . Each set of m a t e r i a l s was d i s t r i b u t e d to course conductors i n q u a n t i t i e s s u f f i c i e n t to permit the procedure to be c a r r i e d out f o r each course f o r which that person was res p o n s i b l e . P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to examine the complete set of items c a r e f u l l y , and then to make a general s o r t of the items i n t o three p i l e s which i n c l u d e d those important f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the course, those not important f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the course, and those which were n e i t h e r important nor not important. The course conductors were asked to sort f u r t h e r a l l of the items along a continuum from most important to l e a s t important f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the course by p l a c i n g them i n t o nine p i l e s . The items were used l i k e a deck of cards and sorted i n t o p i l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a forc e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . (Appendix D) Treatment of Data The values and c e n t r a l concept Q s o r t s were scored by weighting each item i n the Q array by a s s i g n i n g i t a numerical value from one (le a s t important) to nine (most important). In each case, a matrix of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s was formed by c o r r e l a t i n g the s o r t s f o r each course w i t h those f o r every other course. The matrix of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s was submitted to f a c t o r a n a l y t i c a l procedures where courses represented v a r i a b l e s and each c e n t r a l concept and values item was t r e a t e d as an observation. Eigenvalues were p l o t t e d f o r Scree t e s t to determine a s u i t a b l e number of f a c t o r s to consider f o r submission to Q a n a l y s i s . An minimum eigenvalue of 1.5 (Bateson, 1989) was se l e c t e d and the p r i n c i p a l components s o l u t i o n s obtained f o r f i v e f a c t o r s (values) and s i x f a c t o r s ( c e n t r a l concept) were submitted to varimax r o t a t i o n to produce orthogonal f a c t o r s 'which represented a grouping of courses around a common s o r t i n g of the items. To complete Q a n a l y s i s f o r each d e s c r i p t o r , the item response of each of the courses most h i g h l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a given f a c t o r was weighted and summed across each item s e p a r a t e l y to produce an item array. Arrays of weighted responses were converted to Z-scores. The arrays of Z-scores were ordered f o r each f a c t o r , from most accepted to most r e j e c t e d , producing a hierarch y of item acceptance f o r each type of conception. F i n a l l y , the arrays of Z-scores f o r each f a c t o r were compared by s u b t r a c t i o n of each p a i r of f a c t o r s to provide a ba s i s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g one from another (Boldt, n.d.). Computer Programs P r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s , Eigenvalue p l o t s and varimax r o t a t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l a x i s f a c t o r s were computed using SPSSX from the Acadia U n i v e r s i t y Computer Centre, Cyber. Q analyses were computed using QANAL (UBC), F o r t r a n 2.00 adapted from that of Dr. Walter Boldt at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Focused Interview A focused i n t e r v i e w was conducted w i t h fourteen of the twenty-one course conductors who o r i g i n a l l y agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Of the remaining seven course conductors, s i x were u n a v a i l a b l e due to i l l n e s s , leave or retirement and one was the researcher. Interviews were conducted on l o c a t i o n at the appropriate u n i v e r s i t y to ensure that o p p o r t u n i t i e s to "show and t e l l " about courses were a v a i l a b l e . The focused i n t e r v i e w was chosen because the researcher had, through the conduct of content a n a l y s i s and Q methodology, h y p o t h e t i c a l l y determined the s i g n i f i c a n t elements, p a t t e r n s , and s t r u c t u r e s of the s i t u a t i o n under study. Also the respondents were i n v o l v e d and were aware of t h e i r involvement i n a p a r t i c u l a r concrete s i t u a t i o n (Merton & K e n d a l l , 1946), i n t h i s case the development of courses and the research process. Interview Guide The i n t e r v i e w guide was based on content a n a l y s i s and Q methodology data. In keeping w i t h focused i n t e r v i e w t h e o r e t i c a l and procedural c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , s e v e r a l broad themes f o r d i s c u s s i o n were i d e n t i f i e d . In a d d i t i o n to c o n s i d e r i n g p r e v i o u s l y analyzed data, d e c i s i o n s about themes r a i s e d were based on the assumption that there i s a systematic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the meanings given the concept outdoor education by a course conductor and h i s or her l i f e ex-periences and the choices he or she makes about course content and program development (Wilson, 1963). Several questions or probes f o r each theme were developed and, where appropriate, graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e to motivate d i s c u s s i o n (Appendix E). Interview Procedures The interviews were conducted to s a t i s f y the procedural co n d i t i o n s of the focused i n t e r v i e w (Merton & Ke n d a l l , 1946) and those a s s o c i a t e d g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n t e r v i e w technique (Borg & G a l l , 1983, Measor, 1985, Spradley, 1979). Also, procedures normally a s s o c i a t e d w i t h conceptual a n a l y s i s technique such as the use of model cases, con t r a r y cases, r e l a t e d cases and invented cases, and questions of purpose, d i s t i n c t i o n s , and c o n t r a s t i n g concepts (Wilson, 1963; S o l t i s , 1978), were used to probe respondents throughout the i n t e r v i e w . The in t e r v i e w s were recorded on c a s s e t t e tape. A l l themes were discussed i n each i n t e r v i e w . However, depth of d i s c u s s i o n was determined by the respondent. Each i n t e r v i e w r e q u i r e d unique e x p l o r a t i o n s , developed i n a d i f f e r e n t order and, i n some cases, c a l l e d f o r d i f f e r e n t r e c o r d i n g methods. For example, where the researcher was i n v i t e d to view a f a c i l i t y or a product of a course, f i e l d notes supplemented taped i n t e r v i e w data. Interview P i l o t Three professors who had p r e v i o u s l y conducted a course or courses i n outdoor education at a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y agreed to permit the researcher to i n t e r v i e w them. Each p i l o t respondent performed a Q sort r e l a t e d to a course they had conducted p r i o r to the i n t e r v i e w . Interviews were conducted and recorded as intended f o r use i n t h i s study. The p i l o t i n t e r v iews were analyzed to a s c e r t a i n p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s research and to determine strengths and weaknesses i n the conduct of the i n t e r v i e w . The researcher then met w i t h each of the p i l o t respondents to c l a r i f y the purpose of the i n t e r v i e w and to s o l i c i t feedback regarding the content and conduct of the i n t e r v i e w s . As a r e s u l t , the i n t e r v i e w themes remained unchanged, however, p o t e n t i a l d i s c u s s i o n questions f o r each theme were r e v i s e d . Several points r e l a t i n g to the conduct of the i n t e r v i e w were noted and u t i l i z e d to guide the a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w s f o r t h i s study. Data A n a l y s i s Two a n a l y t i c a l frameworks were employed to analyze i n t e r v i e w data. The meanings a s s o c i a t e d and u t i l i z e d to organize and i n t e r p r e t curriculum development were sought by conducting d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n type conceptual a n a l y s i s ( S o l t i s , 1978) . Data were searched f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features to c h a r a c t e r i z e d i f f e r e n t types of outdoor education ( S o l t i s , 1978) . In a d d i t i o n , each theme was analyzed f o r statements which supported, r e f u t e d or c o n t r i b u t e d to an exp l a n a t i o n of the typology of outdoor education which emerged from Q a n a l y s i s . Research Schedule This study began i n November, 1984. Data c o l l e c t i o n was completed i n May, 1988. Figure 1 contains the research schedule and demonstrates procedural overlap. 1984 September-November I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n . I n v i t a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . Request t o i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r names o f p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . 1985 J a n u a r y -September R e t u r n acknowledgement and c o n s e n t c a r d . Request t o r e s p o n d e n t s f o r o t h e r names. Reminder #1 - consent c a r d . Request f o r c o u r s e documents. Content A n a l y s i s b e g i n s . Reminder #2 - consent c a r d . 1985 March -1986 November Reminder #3 - c o u r s e documents. Reminder #4 - g e n e r a l ( l i s t s , c a r d s & documents). Update #1 - p r e Q S o r t . C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s ends. Send Q S o r t #1 1986 November 1987 November R e t u r n Q S o r t #1. Reminder #5 - Q S o r t #1. Q S o r t #1 d a t a t r e a t m e n t . Send Q S o r t #2 Reminder #6 - Q S o r t #2. 1987 November-1988 June. R e t u r n Q S o r t #2. Q S o r t #2 d a t a t r e a t m e n t . I n t e r v i e w s - E a s t e r n Canada. I n t e r v i e w s - Western Canada. Figure 1 The Research Schedule CHAPTER 4 Presentation and A n a l y s i s of the Content A n a l y s i s Findings The r e s u l t s of content a n a l y s i s of the documents a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education courses at E n g l i s h speaking, Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s are reported i n t h i s chapter. Content a n a l y s i s was used i n t h i s study f o r two purposes. F i r s t , i t provided a mechanism to develop a d e t a i l e d account of outdoor education courses. This i n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the conceptions r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l thousand statements or phrases i n each of the categories used to define a conception (Appendix C). Secondly, content a n a l y s i s e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s i s f o r the development of the items to be s o r t e d using Q methodology to e s t a b l i s h a typology of conceptions of outdoor education (Tables IV & V) . This chapter describes the use of content a n a l y s i s data f o r the development of Q methodology items. Content a n a l y s i s provided a d e t a i l e d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of each course according to three u n i t s of a n a l y s i s : 'values', ' c e n t r a l concepts', and 'procedures'. The r e s u l t s of the content a n a l y s i s were organized i n t o c a t e g o r i e s and sub-c a t e g o r i e s to permit the a n a l y s i s to be performed i n depth. Several hundred documents i n c l u d i n g books, a r t i c l e s , course o u t l i n e s , and assignment d e s c r i p t i o n s were analyzed. A sample of these i s c i t e d i n Appendix B. Table I I I i s an example of the r e s u l t s obtained i n the values record u n i t of a n a l y s i s f o r one course. Table III An Example of Results of Content A n a l y s i s f o r the C e n t r a l Concept D e s c r i p t o r . 10.1 (course code) P r i n c i p l e s of Outdoor Education (course t i t l e ) -concepts, p r i n c i p l e and ph i l o s o p h i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education = 20 (item code) - r e l a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s = 25 -fundamental issues = 31 -leadership -teaching - s a f e t y - e t h i c s - e x p e r i e n t i a l education = 1 - p r i n c i p l e s -theory - l e a r n i n g outdoors = 8 - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common between a c t i v i t i e s = 8 -environmental contrast - p h y s i c a l demand -small group context - s o c i e t a l pressure on schools = 31 -human r e l a t i o n s theory = 2 -the nature of environmental problems = 5 -human i n t e r a c t i o n s -human a t t i t u d e s - p o l i t i c a l and economic systems and impacts - c i t i z e n s h i p education = 20 -youth p a r t i c i p a t i o n -community involvement -program models Two of the u n i t s of a n a l y s i s , 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts', were chosen f o r use i n Q methodology. At the con c l u s i o n of content a n a l y s i s , these components contained approximately 1,500 and 2,000 items r e s p e c t i v e l y . The l i s t s of items were thought to be as comprehensive as the documents r e l a t e d to Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s i n d i c a t e d . However, i t was assumed that some 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts' would be viewed by course conductors as more or l e s s important f o r i n c l u s i o n i n courses i n outdoor education. Thus, the items f o r each component were c o l l a p s e d f o r Q methodology by p r o g r e s s i v e l y developing a smaller, i n c l u s i v e set of c a t e g o r i e s . For example, i n the c e n t r a l concept component content a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e d concepts r e l a t e d to groups, group dynamics, group management, and group theory. These concepts were taken together and given a name, 'group theory and management technique' (see Table V), and a code. Subsequently, a l l c e n t r a l concepts r e l a t e d to the parent t i t l e were i n c l u d e d and coded as such by reviewing the l i s t and p l a c i n g the code number representing the parent category beside the concept. Code numbers, marked 'item code', are i n c l u d e d i n Table I I I . This process permitted the researcher to i d e n t i f y the content of each item i n the Q s o r t to ensure that a l l of the o r i g i n a l items were represented, and to weight the items according to frequency of appearance w i t h i n the 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts' u n i t s of a n a l y s i s . However, the weighting of items, as r e f l e c t e d i n content a n a l y s i s , was not determined to be a s i g n i f i c a n t issue f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of conceptions of outdoor education because a subsequent weighting by course conductors was inherent i n Q methodology procedures. In t h i s way, Q methodology provided course Table IV Q Sort Values Items r e s t & r e l a x a t i o n l e i s u r e s k i l l s d e s i r a b l e behaviour st a t u s economic growth heightened perceptions e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n wellness i n t e r p e r s o n a l bonding a p p r e c i a t i o n of n a t u r a l world a e s t h e t i c pleasure s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n personal growth e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s sustained p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e s t y l e r e c r e a t i o n environmental i n t e r a c t i o n acceptance of consequence escape e f f i c a c y new experiences c u l t u r a l roots s t i m u l a t i o n q u a l i t y of l i f e v a r i e t y of opportunity environmental l i t e r a c y commitment strengthened p e r s o n a l i t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y challenge metaphysical awareness mastery opportunity f o r r e f l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y s u r v i v a l s k i l l s emotional involvement f i r s t hand l e a r n i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s freedom from c o n s t r a i n t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e x e r c i s e choice enjoyment c i t i z e n r y personal f u l f i l m e n t developers the opportunity to c l a r i f y the importance of s p e c i f i c content items i n t h e i r courses. Tables IV and V d i s p l a y the 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts' sets of items used i n the Q s o r t . Each item i s assumed to be e x c l u s i v e and there without o r d i n a l value i n p r e s e n t a t i o n . Table V C e n t r a l Concepts Q Sort Items values, b e n e f i t s & obj e c t i v e s environmental education c o u n s e l l i n g outdoor p u r s u i t equipment e x p e r i e n t i a l education program planning, design & e v a l u a t i o n teaching s t r a t e g i e s & l e a r n i n g theory camp a d m i n i s t r a t i o n Outward Bound group theory & management cu r r i c u l u m planning environmental impact programs & resources l e g a l i ssues a d m i n i s t r a t i o n & p o l i c y development research techniques r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s & agencies personnel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n outdoor l i v i n g s k i l l s n a t u r a l science concepts personal growth p o t e n t i a l h i s t o r y , philosophy & pe r s p e c t i v e s environmental e t h i c s & issues f i e l d t r i p s l e i s u r e i n s o c i e t y outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ecology & n a t u r a l h i s t o r y s a f e t y & emergency procedures r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e adventure education terminology & r e l a t e d concepts environmental c o n d i t i o n s & f a c t o r s subjects & a c t i v i t i e s tourism & p o l i t i c a l systems wilderness f i r s t a i d leade r s h i p theory & technique outdoor p u r s u i t t e c h n i c a l s k i l l & i n s t r u c t o r s h i p f a c i l i t y a c q u i s i t i o n , development & management r i s k management CHAPTER 5 Presentation and A n a l y s i s of the Q Methodology Findings This chapter d i s p l a y s and i n t e r p r e t s the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of Q Methodology. Q Sorts were completed by course developers f o r the 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts' d e s c r i p t o r s . F i f t y - f o u r courses were represented i n the study. However, due to a t t r i t i o n , s a b b a t i c a l leaves, and changes i n program or f a c u l t y throughout the study, a Q s o r t was not completed f o r every course. I t was assumed that a comprehensive representation of the concept remained throughout the study because the sort items remained s t a b l e and s e v e r a l new courses were added to the s o r t data to replace l o s t ones. Fo l l o w i n g the completion of f o r t y - t h r e e ' c e n t r a l concepts' s o r t s and t h i r t y - n i n e 'values' s o r t s , the data were entered i n t o a data f i l e and submitted to p r i n c i p l e component a n a l y s i s . I n i t i a l s e t t i n g s f o r the number of f a c t o r s used were determined using the 'eigenvalues greater than one' r u l e . Eight f a c t o r s were i n d i c a t e d f o r each of the ' c e n t r a l concept' and 'values' d e s c r i p t o r s . Scree t e s t s determined the number of interprétable f a c t o r s f o r the 'values' d e s c r i p t o r and the ' c e n t r a l concepts' d e s c r i p t o r as f i v e and s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y . A d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r analyses were subsequently conducted. I n t e r p r e t i v e runs were performed using the QANAL (UBC) program. Using t h i s program, each f a c t o r i s de f i n e d by an arra y of standardized weighted f a c t o r scores. The absolute value of the weighted f a c t o r scores i n d i c a t e s the degree of a s s o c i a t i o n of a Q sort item w i t h the f a c t o r under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t should be noted that the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s used i n Q so r t does not produce f a c t o r s which are c l u s t e r s of items or i n d i c a t i o n s of commonalities among items, but rat h e r produces c l u s t e r s of courses or, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , c l u s t e r s of course developers. By simultaneously examining a l l the items which are s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a c t o r , the f a c t o r can be i n t e r p r e t e d and c h a r a c t e r i z e d . An a i d to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s an examination of d i f f e r e n c e s between the f a c t o r s . Q s o r t items which best d i f f e r e n t i a t e one f a c t o r from another are i d e n t i f i e d by s u b t r a c t i n g the vector of standardized weighted f a c t o r scores f o r one f a c t o r from the s i m i l a r vector f o r another f a c t o r . Computing the 'Z Score D i f f e r e n c e s ' f o r a l l p o s s i b l e c o n t r a s t s and f i n d i n g those items which provide the best d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n helps to f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e each f a c t o r . A d i s c u s s i o n of the s o l u t i o n s f o l l o w s . The Five Factor 'Values' S o l u t i o n and the S i x Factor 'Central Concepts' S o l u t i o n Q methodology had course conductors rank order a set of values and a set of c e n t r a l concepts according to the c r i t e r i o n 'important f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s course'. The standardized scores f o r each item are i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of the importance that item holds f o r a p a r t i c u l a r conception of outdoor education. The items which t y p i f y each h y p o t h e t i c a l conception are thus i n t e r p r e t e d . Each s o l u t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , represents the 'values' or ' c e n t r a l concepts' component of a conception of outdoor education. The remaining t a b l e s i n t h i s chapter d i s p l a y standardized weighted f a c t o r scores or "L Score D i f f e r e n c e s ' f o r the 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts' items f o r the f i v e and s i x f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s and t h e i r comparisons. Based on a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , weighted scores equal or greater than 1.0 or equal or l e s s than -1.0 were chosen to permit s u f f i c i e n t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of a conception and, weighted scores equal or greater than 1.5 or equal or l e s s than -1.5 to permit s u f f i c i e n t d i s t i n c t i o n between conceptions. Each conception 2 i s named f o r i t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features to permit ease of comparison. The Adventurer The Adventurer (Table VI) i s named f o r i t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f eatures which r e l a t e to the outcomes and knowledge base g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h high adventure outdoor p u r s u i t s and adventure education. S i x values and s i x c e n t r a l concepts produced the necessary Z scores. These items are i n t e r p r e t e d "The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t " , "The Adventurer", "The Env i r o n m e n t a l i s t " , "The Educator", "The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur", and "The Ad m i n i s t r a t o r " are h e u r i s t i c devices which r e f e r to an i d e a l type of i n d i v i d u a l who embodies a co-ordinated set of c e n t r a l concepts, values, and procedures which are i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t i n a conception of outdoor education. Table VI Values and C e n t r a l Concepts A s s o c i a t e d With The Adventurer Values Factor 1 (2.1) Decision making a b i l i t y (1.9) Personal growth (1.4) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y (1.4) Challenge (1.3) E x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n (1.2) Commitment C e n t r a l Concepts Factor 1 \2 '1 :i.3) :I.D :i.o) Personal growth p o t e n t i a l Adventure education E x p e r i e n t i a l education Values, b e n e f i t s and o b j e c t i v e s Outward Bound Leis u r e i n s o c i e t y as features which permit t h i s conception to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d . The emphasis i n t h i s set of values i s on educational experiences which seek to c o n t r i b u t e to the personal growth of the p a r t i c i p a n t . Personal growth outcomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h accepting challenge, making commitments, making d e c i s i o n s , e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n and accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are the r a t i o n a l e f o r adventure education. In order to achieve goals a s s o c i a t e d w i t h personal growth the outdoor educator must know about adventure and e x p e r i e n t i a l education and the values, b e n e f i t s and o b j e c t i v e s associated w i t h t h e i r use f o r personal growth purposes. Outward Bound, as an example of an e s t a b l i s h e d and s i g n i f i c a n t l y researched program of t h i s nature, serves as a model f o r prospective outdoor adventure educators. Two points serve to e x p l a i n the importance of understanding the phenomenon of l e i s u r e i n s o c i e t y f o r t h i s type of outdoor educator. F i r s t , people o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s type of experience during t h e i r l e i s u r e time. Secondly, the value of l e i s u r e as therapy, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n areas of personal growth, i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e (Cousineau, 1978). The Environmentalist Table VII Values and C e n t r a l Concepts A s s o c i a t e d With The Environmentalist Values Factor 2 (2.1) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y (1.7) Q u a l i t y of L i f e (1.7) Decision making a b i l i t y (1.6) C i t i z e n r y (1.4) F i r s t hand l e a r n i n g (1.2) Heightened perceptions C e n t r a l Concepts Factor 2 : (2.2) Values, b e n e f i t s and o b j e c t i v e s (2.1) Program planning, design and e v a l u a t i o n (1.9) Environmental impact (1.4) Environmental education (1.3) Environmental e t h i c s and issues (1.0) Programs and resources Outdoor educators associated w i t h The Environmentalist (Table VII) conception of outdoor education are t y p i f i e d by a focus on g l o b a l stewardship. Values which are sought i n t h i s k i n d of experience c o n t r i b u t e to an environmentally l i t e r a t e p o p u l a t i o n and a s u s t a i n a b l e s o c i e t y . The b e n e f i t s of f i r s t hand l e a r n i n g i n heightening perceptions about the environment i n order to a f f e c t a t t i t u d i n a l change are sought. The outdoor environmental educator must be able to j u s t i f y him or h e r s e l f i n terms of the educational outcomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the kinds of experiences which are included i n t h i s conception. A conceptual understanding of environmental education and access to the multitude of programs and resources which support i t are important knowledge f o r t h i s outdoor educator. F i n a l l y , the outdoor environmental educator must be w e l l versed i n concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the subject matter of environmental education, that i s , man's impact on the environment and the e t h i c s and issues associated w i t h the w e l l being of our planet and a s u s t a i n a b l e s o c i e t y . The Educator The Educator (Table VIII) conception of outdoor education i s s t r o n g l y connected w i t h the educational concerns of p u b l i c education. Values which are t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x p e r i e n t i a l education, such as e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g , f i r s t hand i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the environment, heightened p e r c e p t i o n s , and r e f l e c t i o n are important. The a f f e c t i v e outcome of a p p r e c i a t i o n of the environment i s achieved through c a r e f u l l y c onstructed l e a r n i n g experiences which demand knowledge about c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n . The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t (Table IX) i s represented by the r e s u l t s presented i n Table IX. While the p r e v i o u s l y discussed Educator designs experiences to provide p a r t i c i p a n t s Table VIII Values and C e n t r a l Concepts A s s o c i a t e d With The Educator Values Factor 3 [2.2) E f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g [2.0) 1st hand l e a r n i n g [1.9) Opportunity f o r r e f l e c t i o n [1.9) Heightened perceptions [1.2) Environmental i n t e r a c t i o n [1.1) A p p r e c i a t i o n of the n a t u r a l world C e n t r a l Concepts Factor 3 (2.0) E x p e r i e n t i a l education (1.9) Curriculum planning (1.7) Environmental education (1.6) Values, b e n e f i t s and o b j e c t i v e s (1.6) Teaching s t r a t e g i e s and l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s (1.4) F i e l d t r i p s (1.0) Subjects and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h an opportunity to r e f l e c t upon the n a t u r a l world, The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t designs experiences which provide p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h an opportunity to r e f l e c t upon q u a l i t y of l i f e and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the c o n t r i b u t i o n r e c r e a t i o n can make to q u a l i t y of l i f e . Both outdoor educators do t h e i r job i n the n a t u r a l world. However, the outdoor educator f u n c t i o n i n g from the p e r s p e c t i v e of The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t conception of outdoor education i s expected to know about teaching outdoor p u r s u i t s , keeping people safe, l i v i n g and p l a y i n g i n the n a t u r a l environment and why i t i s important to do so. The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur Table X presents the set of values and c e n t r a l concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur. I t i s apparent Table IX Values and C e n t r a l Concepts As s o c i a t e d With The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t Value Factor 4 (2.3) Enj oyment (1.9) Q u a l i t y of L i f e (1.7) New experiences (1.6) Opportunity f o r r e f l e c t i o n (1.2) Personal f u l f i l m e n t (1.2) S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n C e n t r a l Concept Factor 4 :2 . i : (1.7 (1 (1 (1 (1 6) 4) 4) 2) d . i : d . i : Outdoor p u r s u i t s t e c h n i c a l s k i l l and i n s t r u e t o r s h i p Outdoor l i v i n g s k i l l s Outdoor p u r s u i t s equipment Values, b e n e f i t s and o b j e c t i v e s Safety and emergency procedures F i e l d t r i p s Environmental e t h i c s and iss u e s Risk management that t h i s outdoor educator seeks to help people l i v e a l i f e s t y l e which i s based on a strong a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the n a t u r a l world. E f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g about the environment and mastery of s k i l l s which w i l l permit an enjoyable a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the environment are the de s i r e d outcomes of experiences based on t h i s conception. The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur must be w e l l versed i n the concepts associated w i t h t h i s l i f e s t y l e and know about the s o c i e t a l agencies which are i n v o l v e d i n the d e l i v e r y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s which support such a l i f e s t y l e . The A d m i n i s t r a t o r The A d m i n i s t r a t o r conception of outdoor education (Table XI) i s p r i m a r i l y an a p p l i c a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s to the d e l i v e r y of each of the other outdoor education Table X Values and Cen t r a l Concepts Associated w i t h The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur Values Factor 5 (1 9) E f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g (1 7) S u r v i v a l s k i l l s (1 6) Mastery (1 6) A p p r e c i a t i o n of the n a t u r a l world (1 5) F i r s t hand l e a r n i n g (1 1) Enjoyment (1 1) Environmental l i t e r a c y C e n t r a l Concepts Factor 5 (2.2) Leisure i n s o c i e t y (1.7) Values, b e n e f i t s and o b j e c t i v e s (1.7) Tourism and p o l i t i c a l systems (1.5) Organizations, a s s o c i a t i o n s and agencies (1.4) Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n (1.3) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i c y development (1.3) H i s t o r y , philosophy and perspectives (1.1) Program planning and e v a l u a t i o n (1.0) Terminology and concepts Table XI C e n t r a l Concepts Associated With The A d m i n i s t r a t o r C e n t r a l Concepts Factor 6 [1.8) Personnel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n [1.6) Program planning, design and eva l u a t i o n ;i.4) F i e l d t r i p s [1.4) Risk management [1.4) Leadership theory and technique [1.4) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i c y development [1.3) Legal i m p l i c a t i o n s [1.1) Group management theory and technique experiences. Knowledge about a fu n c t i o n s which are important v a r i e t y of to safe a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e f f e c t i v e 90 o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the n a t u r a l world i s to be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h each of the conceptions. Differences Among Conceptions A greater understanding of each conception of outdoor education may be obtained by comparing the array of Z scores fo r each p a i r of f a c t o r s . The arrays are subtracted, one from another f o r each p a i r , and the d i f f e r e n c e s are rank ordered. The r e s u l t i n g l i s t contains those items which provide the greatest d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between each p a i r of f a c t o r s . Values and c e n t r a l concepts which best d i s t i n g u i s h each conception from other conceptions are thus i n t e r p r e t e d . Some items which are s i g n i f i c a n t i n the f i v e and s i x f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s do not appear i n the comparison data, and some other items which do not appear i n the f i v e and s i x f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s do appear i n the comparison data. This i s explained by the f a c t that the tab l e s show only those f a c t o r s which are e i t h e r most extremely d i f f e r e n t from one another when two conceptions are compared or are most a l i k e . Conversely, the comparison data c h a r a c t e r i z e items on which a p a i r of conceptions d i f f e r and, therefore, represent aspects of the conceptions w i t h i n that p a i r which make each of them d i s t i n c t . Items which appear i n the comparison data which do not appear i n the i n i t i a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of a conception provide a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of a conception of outdoor education. Tables XII through XXI set out each p a i r of f a c t o r s i n turn, and Table XXII de s c r i b e s The A d m i n i s t r a t o r compared to each of the other f i v e conceptions. The conceptions named i n the caption are separated by a l i n e i n each t a b l e w i t h data r e l a t e d to the f i r s t conception i n the t i t l e appearing above the l i n e and data r e l a t e d to the second conception i n the t i t l e appearing below the l i n e . For example, the t i t l e of Table XII i s "Extreme D i f f e r e n c e s Between The Adventurer and The Environmentalist" where i n The Adventure appears above the l i n e and The Environmentalist appears below the l i n e . D i s c u s s i o n about each t a b l e i s g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d to items which do not appear i n the f i v e and s i x f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s and items w i t h Z scores greater than plus or minus 1.5. There i s a p o i n t i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of comparison data at which many of the items i n a l i s t have been i d e n t i f i e d and discussed i n p r i o r comparisons. Therefore, i n l a t t e r t a b l e s , items which have not p r e v i o u s l y been discussed are marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k [*] f o r ease of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I n s i g h t i n t o the sets of items which d i s t i n g u i s h between each p a i r of conceptions are gained by i n t e r p r e t i n g the data produced by the comparisons. Thus, the v a l i d i t y of the f i v e and s i x f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s i s confirmed. The Adventurer and The Environmentalist Table XII i s a comparison of the Adventurer and the E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t . Features most prominent i n the two conceptions appear to be the Adventure's greater concern f o r values which are i n t r i n s i c to the p a r t i c i p a n t , and VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD adventure 3 .13 adventure education 2 .23 s u r v i v a l s k i l l s 2 .14 personal growth 2 .22 intense emotional involvement 1. 51 outdoor p u r s u i t s k i l l s & i n s t r u e t o r s h i p 2 . 07 l e i s u r e s k i l l s -1 . 65 Outward Bound 2 . 06 c u l t u r a l roots -1 . 65 l e i s u r e i n s o c i e t y -1 .72 q u a l i t y of l i f e -1.66 programs & resources -1 . 97 economic growth -2 .44 f a c i l i t y management -2 .06 c i t i z e n r y -3.26 program planning, design & e v a l u a t i o n -2 .25 understandings which w i l l a s s i s t the outdoor educator to ensure the attainment of those values by p a r t i c i p a n t s . The Envi r o n m e n t a l i s t , on the other hand, focuses more on broader s o c i e t a l concerns and outcomes, and the understandings which w i l l a s s i s t t h e i r achievement. Features which are more t y p i c a l of The Adventurer in c l u d e the value of s u r v i v a l s k i l l s and of intense emotional c o n f r o n t a t i o n . Both are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h adventure education as a means to personal growth, but are a l s o recognized as having value i n and of themselves . The Outdoor Adventure Educator must thus be more knowledgeable about outdoor p u r s u i t s s k i l l s and i n s t r u c t o r s h i p because, as i n the Outward Bound d e l i v e r y model, the primary v e h i c l e f o r personal growth i s outdoor p u r s u i t s . Comparison data f o r The Environmentalist conception i n d i c a t e that an environmental agenda seeks, to a much greater extent, to serve a p u b l i c which b e l i e v e s i n the value of a c u l t u r e and of a l e i s u r e d l i f e s t y l e i n which p a r t i s i n a n a t u r a l environment. The Environmentalist thus seeks to develop concern f o r the n a t u r a l environment. This outdoor educator ought to understand economic r e a l i t i e s i n our s o c i e t y and, t h e r e f o r e , recognize the need to consider program planning w i t h i n a context of economic growth. The Adventurer and The Educator Table X I I I presents eight items which d i s t i n g u i s h The Adventurer and The Educator. Items which do not appear i n Table VI (The Adventurer) i n c l u d e the value of d e s i r a b l e behaviour and of strengthened p e r s o n a l i t y as a long-term g o a l . This comparison i n d i c a t e s a greater need f o r leaders who are competent i n managing the human i n t e r a c t i o n s and the cont e x t u a l demands, such as emergency procedures, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h doing outdoor education i n the n a t u r a l world. The Educator continues to place more importance on the attainment of l e a r n i n g outcomes, and i s expected to understand t o p i c s r e l a t e d to the d e l i v e r y of an educational experience. In a d d i t i o n , the comparison recognizes the r o l e of the educator as a s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t i n that the outdoor education experience i s provided to enable movement toward an Table XIII Extreme Differences Between The Adventurer and The Educator VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD d e s i r a b l e behaviour 2 .57 Outward Bound -2 .31 e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n 1 . 66 personal growth -2 . 01 intense emotional involvement 1 . 50 le a d e r s h i p s k i l l s & techniques -1 . 92 strengthened p e r s o n a l i t y 1.50 adventure education -1. 65 a l t e r n a t i v e to contemporary l i f e -1.54 programs and resources 1 . 54 e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g -1.84 f i e l d t r i p s 2 . 08 cur r i c u l u m planning 2 . 97 subjects & a c t i v i t i e s 3 .15 a l t e r n a t i v e to contemporary l i f e . The Adventurer and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t The comparison between The Adventurer and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t (Table XIV) t y p i f i e s the d i f f e r e n c e between a person seeking an immediate and e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e opportunity f o r r e c r e a t i o n (The R e c r e a t i o n i s t ) and a person seeking an opportunity f o r i n t e n s i v e experience l e a d i n g to personal growth. Added understanding of The Adventurer conception i n c l u d e s such things as the importance of the r o l e of the group and the greater need f o r small increments of challenge which can be mastered to achieve personal growth. Thus, VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n 2 . 94 personal growth -2 . 50 d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y 2 . 68 r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e -2 .38 commitment 2 .24 l e i s u r e i n s o c i e t y -2.30 i n t e r p e r s o n a l bonds 1. 91 research technique -2 . 04 mastery 1.75 adventure education -1. 91 d e s i r a b l e behaviour & conduct 1. 63 Outward Bound -1.76 metaphysical awareness 1.53 outdoor l i v i n g s k i l l s 1. 51 economic growth -1. 61 outdoor p u r s u i t s k i l l s & i n s t r u e t o r s h i p 1.74 escape -1. 65 o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s & agencies 1.81 new experiences -1.71 f i e l d t r i p s 1. 91 c i t i z e n r y -1.82 subjects & a c t i v i t i e s 1 . 98 q u a l i t y of l i f e -1.86 outdoor p u r s u i t equipment 2 .27 enj oyment -2 .65 accepting such features means that the adventure outdoor educator has a greater p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n to consider and conduct relevant research. The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t conception i s enhanced by no t i n g a greater need to focus on an opportunity to escape the demands of contemporary l i f e , make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the economic growth of an area or region and develop an environmentally conscious c i t i z e n r y . To accomplish these goals the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n educator must be more knowledgable about a v a r i e t y of subjects and a c t i v i t i e s which enhance the q u a l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n experience. For example, using knowledge about b i o l o g y w h i l e p r o v i d i n g an opportunity f o r a r e c r e a t i o n a l canoe t r i p , the outdoor educator may i n f o r m a l l y acknowledge the impact of canoe portaging on a s h o r e l i n e , or p l a y a game which demonstrates the e c o l o g i c a l concept 'interdependency' to a group of c h i l d r e n at a summer camp. The Adventurer and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur Table XV includes items which i n d i c a t e the importance of a f f o r d i n g The Adventurer the freedom to choose a course of a c t i o n from a s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s , and that the adventure outdoor educator must possess a gr e a t e r working knowledge of s p e c i a l populations seeking t h e r a p e u t i c goals through adventure experiences. This outdoor educator must know more about managing groups and keeping them safe i n a wilderness environment. A d d i t i o n s to the i n i t i a l l i s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur conception support i t s g r e a t e r l i n k w i t h tourism, and i n d i c a t e that i t i s necessary f o r t h i s outdoor educator to know more about managing the f a c i l i t i e s which provide tourism o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t i s recognized that The L i f e VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n 1.99 Outward Bound -2 .71 freedom to choose 1. 50 personal growth -2 .42 mastery -1.55 leadership theory & technique -2 . 27 e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g -1.64 adventure education -2 .09 l i f e t i m e l e i s u r e s k i l l s -1.79 e x p e r i e n t i a l education -1.95 a p p r e c i a t i o n of the n a t u r a l world -1. 95 wilderness 1st a i d -1 .77 s p e c i a l populations -1 .72 group theory & management technique -1. 63 terms & concepts 1. 58 programs & resources 1 .72 f a c i l i t y management 1.86 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n & p o l i c y development 2 .83 tourism 3 .47 o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s & agencies 3 .49 S k i l l s Entrepreneur, to a greater extent, seeks to promote a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e by ensuring that the p a r t i c i p a n t i s given the opportunity to acquire s k i l l s which can be used to pursue l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s throughout l i f e . The Educator and The Environmentalist Table XVI Extreme Differences Between The Educator and The Environmentalist (ZSD = Z Score D i f f e r e n c e s , * = items not p r e v i o u s l y discussed) VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD r e f l e c t i o n -1.98 cur r i c u l u m planning 2 .69 e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n * -1.50 subjects & a c t i v i t i e s 2 .16 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1.70 r e l a t e d terminology* 2 .11 c i t i z e n r y 1.84 e x p e r i e n t i a l education 1.82 economic growth* 2 .07 h i s t o r y , philosophy & perceptions* 1.50 d e s i r a b l e behaviour & conduct 2.26 lea d e r s h i p theory and technique* -1. 67 q u a l i t y of l i f e 2 .85 personnel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n * -1.70 f a c i l i t y management* -2 . 67 According to t h i s comparison, The Educator's (Table XVI) grea t e r focus on educational outcomes, s k i l l s , and processes i s accompanied by increased a t t e n t i o n to the value of understanding man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the ear t h . This outdoor educator i s expected to know more about outdoor education i n r e l a t i o n to other aspects of the educational e n t e r p r i s e . In a d d i t i o n , greater understanding of h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l perspectives supports an i n t e g r a t e d view of outdoor education. I t appears that, i n t h i s view, at the very heart of outdoor education i s more d e s i r e f o r a s u s t a i n a b l e s o c i e t y . Items revealed about The Environmentalist by t h i s comparison show The Environmentalist more as a change agent. This means that a l o b b y i s t who holds t h i s conception needs to understand lead e r s h i p , personnel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and f a c i l i t y management. This presents an i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e of an environ m e n t a l i s t who i s able to focus lobby a c t i v i t y at the con t e x t u a l l e v e l -- i n other words, at the people and i n s t i t u t i o n s which r e l a t e to environmental issues -- as w e l l as on broader s c i e n t i f i c and s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s . The 'values' item, economic growth, i s i n t e r p r e t e d as r e v e a l i n g an increased a p p r e c i a t i o n of the often complex, t a n g i b l e , and d i f f i c u l t issues a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the environment and the economy. The Educator and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t This contrast reveals The Educator conception of outdoor education (Table XVII) as s t r e s s i n g the need f o r outdoor educators w i t h i n the education system to be more able and w i l l i n g to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r claims by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t y . The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t ' s greater concern f o r 're-c r e a t i o n ' , on the other hand, i s f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d by a c a l l to i n c o r p o r a t e intense emotional experience i n the development VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD heightened perceptions 2 .58 c u r r i c u l u m planning 2.28 e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g 2 .15 r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e * 1. 93 1st hand l e a r n i n g 2 . 05 research technique* 1. 88 enj oyment -1 .64 r i s k management -1 . 54 p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s * -1.79 outdoor l i v i n g s k i l l s -1.86 intense emotional involvement * -2 .02 outdoor p u r s u i t s k i l l s & i n s t r u e t o r s h i p -2 .34 q u a l i t y of l i f e -3 . 05 outdoor p u r s u i t equipment -2 . 94 of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . The Environmentalist and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t That the s u c c e s s f u l environmentalist b e l i e v e s he/she must be able to i n t e r p r e t research and s c r u t i n i z e i t s f i n d i n g s i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table XVIII. Also, the outdoor educator operating w i t h t h i s conception seeks a stronger commitment from p a r t i c i p a n t s to environmental stewardship. In c o n t r a s t , the comparative r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that we need to add to The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t conception that one of the more important outcomes d e s i r e d from a s u b s t a n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n experience i s the development of a sense of personal e f f i c a c y or the a b i l i t y to e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y 2 .11 research technique* -2 .26 heightened perceptions 1.81 f a c i l i t y management -2 . 04 commitment* 1. 69 program planning, design & e v a l u a t i o n -1 . 59 opportunity f o r r e f l e c t i o n -1.59 outdoor l i v i n g s k i l l s 2 .33 e f f i c a c y * -1.81 outdoor p u r s u i t s equipment 3 . 07 escape -1 .99 outdoor p u r s u i t s k i l l s Sc i n s t r u e t o r s h i p 3 .80 p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s -2 .00 intense emotional involvement -2 . 01 enj oyment -2 .71 one's l i f e . The Environmentalist and the L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur The comparison of The Environmentalist and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur (Table XIX) rev e a l s that The Environmentalist needs more knowledge of management theory and technique. This need i s understandable c o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t that environmental lobby groups oft e n c o n s i s t of volunteers r e q u i r i n g considerable a s s i s t a n c e i n order to organize themselves. This comparison a l s o reveals that enjoyment and p h y s i c a l VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD c i t i z e n r y 3 .10 leadership theory & technique -2 . 01 economic growth 1. 94 group management theory & technique* -1. 97 enjoyment * -1. 51 or g a n i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s & agencies 2.33 p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s -1.88 tourism 2 .34 mastery -2 . 06 h i s t o r y , philosophy & pe r s p e c t i v e s 2 .56 s u r v i v a l -3 .55 r e l a t e d terminology & concepts 2 . 60 l e i s u r e i n s o c i e t y 2 .85 f i t n e s s are, to a greater degree, inherent i n the l i f e s t y l e which i s sought by the entrepreneur. The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur A comparison of The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur (Table XX) reveals two a d d i t i o n a l features of each conception. F i r s t , i t i s b e l i e v e d that the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n educator must have more knowledge of group management and wilderness f i r s t a i d to ensure that experiences are s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e and safe. The outdoor educator ope r a t i n g from The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur conception, on the other hand, seeks to empower the p a r t i c i p a n t to make important d e c i s i o n s about l i f e s t y l e . L i k e those who ho l d other conceptions, t h i s outdoor educator must know about research Table XX Extreme Differences Between The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur (ZSD = Z Score D i f f e r e n c e s , * = items not p r e v i o u s l y addressed) VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD intense emotional involvement 1 .90 outdoor p u r s u i t s k i l l s & i n s t r u e t o r s h i p 2 . 69 escape 1. 68 outdoor l i v i n g s k i l l s 2 . 62 q u a l i t y of l i f e 1. 65 outdoor p u r s u i t equipment 2.40 1st hand l e a r n i n g -1 .52 group theory & management technique* 2 . 02 d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y * -1 .54 wilderness 1st a i d * 1. 98 environmental l i t e r a c y -1 . 57 f i e l d t r i p s 1.83 e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g -1. 94 r i s k management 1 .77 s u r v i v a l -2 .77 r e l a t e d terms & concepts -1 .72 mastery -3.29 f a c i l i t y management -1.83 h i s t o r y , philosophy & pe r s p e c t i v e s -1. 95 research technique* -2.21 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n & p o l i c y development -2.36 tourism -3 .22 l e i s u r e i n s o c i e t y -3 .43 technique i n order to remain abreast of and c o n t r i b u t e to a growing f i e l d . The Educator and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur A comparison of The Educator and The L i f e S k i l l s VALUES ZSD CENTRAL CONCEPTS ZSD opportunity f o r r e f l e c t i o n 1.85 e x p e r i e n t i a l education 2 .56 heightened perceptions 1.75 cur r i c u l u m planning 2.29 p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s -1.67 f i e l d t r i p s 1.99 d e s i r a b l e behaviour & conduct -1.90 teaching s t r a t e g i e s & l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s 1. 97 mastery -1. 98 subjects & a c t i v i t i e s 1.79 s u r v i v a l -2 .11 l e i s u r e i n s o c i e t y -2 .00 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n & p o l i c y development -2 . 01 o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s & agencies -2.31 f a c i l i t y development -2 .47 tourism -3 . 65 Entrepreneur (Table XXI) confirms p r e v i o u s l y noted aspects of both conceptions. The A d m i n i s t r a t o r Table XXII presents The Adm i n i s t r a t o r conception. I t i s assumed that t h i s conception c h a r a c t e r i z e s an outdoor educator w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s which are a p p l i e d i n a v a r i e t y of contexts a s s o c i a t e d with the array of conceptions of outdoor education. I t i s , however, a second order conception of Table XXII Extreme D i f f e r e n c e s Between The A d m i n i s t r a t o r and the Five Conceptions of Outdoor Education (ZSD = Z Score D i f ferences) CONCEPTION CENTRAL CONCEPTS & ZSD ZSD The A d v e n t u r e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s & a g e n c i e s ; s u b j e c t s & a c t i v i t i e s ; programs & r e s o u r c e s ; c u r r i c u l u m development; s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s ; e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts & u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . 2 .11 2 . 09 2 .01 1 . 61 -2.30 -2 .34 The E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t r e l a t e d t e r m i n o l o g y & c o n c e p t s ; o u t d o o r p u r s u i t t e c h n i c a l s k i l l & i n s t r u c t o r s h i p ; h i s t o r y , p h i l o s o p h y & p e r s p e c t i v e s ; o r g a n i z e d camping; n a t u r a l s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s ; s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s ; e c o l o g y & n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . 2 .34 2 .12 1. 96 1 .85 -1.77 -1.94 -2 . 10 The E d u c a t o r s t a f f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; o r g a n i z e d camping; f a c i l i t y management; t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s & l e a r n i n g t h e o r y ; n a t u r a l s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s ; e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s ; e c o l o g y & n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . 2.70 1 . 56 1. 50 -1. 69 -1.91 -2 .12 -2 .37 The Outdoor Recréât i o n i s t r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e ; o r g a n i z e d camping; e c o l o g y & n a t u r a l h i s t o r y ; w i l d e r n e s s 1 s t a i d ; e x p e r i e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n ; e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s & u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . 2 . 19 1.76 -1. 53 -1 .54 -1.80 -2 . 07 The L i f e S k i l l s E n t r e p r e n e u r o r g a n i z e d camping; n a t u r a l s c i e n c e c o n c e p t s ; e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts & u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . 1 .79 -1 . 51 -2.37 outdoor education. The Admin i s t r a t o r must thus possess not only a working knowledge of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n concepts, but understand the c e n t r a l concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the outdoor education s e t t i n g f o r which he or she i s r e s p o n s i b l e . Table XXII i s a report of c e n t r a l concepts which were i d e n t i f i e d i n a comparison of The Administrator w i t h each of the f i v e primary conceptions of outdoor education. A concept which recurs when comparing the a d m i n i s t r a t o r and other conceptions i s organized camping, suggesting that the h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n between outdoor education and organized camping continues to be strong. R e s i d e n t i a l camping o p p o r t u n i t i e s are g e n e r a l l y considered by outdoor education a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to o f f e r the best of n a t u r a l world experiences and t h e i r unique a d m i n i s t r a t i v e demands are thus regarded as important. In a d d i t i o n , i t i s e s s e n t i a l that The A d m i n i s t r a t o r understand man's impact on the environment, s a f e t y i n the n a t u r a l environment, the needs and nature of c l i e n t s , the p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l concerns associated w i t h the experience, and the resources which are a v a i l a b l e to enhance the experience. The Procedural Knowledge Component The c h i e f point i n analyzing f o r the procedural knowledge components i s to discover the extent to which, i n a c t u a l programs, t h i s type of knowledge i s l o g i c a l l y l i n k e d to the 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts' components. In other words, i f an important c e n t r a l concept f o r an outdoor educator to understand i s e x p e r i e n t i a l education, i t would be expected that e x p e r i e n t i a l education methods and techniques would be w e l l represented i n the procedural knowledge content of the course. The procedural knowledge components of conceptions of outdoor education were analyzed using content a n a l y s i s and supplemented by Q methodology data. The numbers a l l o c a t e d to the 'values' and ' c e n t r a l concepts' content a n a l y s i s data to produce Q sort items (Table I I I ) were used to search the data i n an attempt to l o c a t e courses which revealed commitment to any of the conceptions other than the a d m i n i s t r a t o r conception. Once a course could be i d e n t i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r conception, i t s procedural knowledge component could be analyzed. The procedure d i d not produce any courses which contained a l l the items i n any of the primary conceptions. In f a c t , only one course contained f i f t y percent of the c e n t r a l concept items of a conception. In t h i s case which was The Envi r o n m e n t a l i s t , of the s i x items which c h a r a c t e r i z e the conception, three of them appeared i n one course. However, one of the three items i s contained i n a l l f i v e of the primary conceptions and i s thus not u s e f u l i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a p a r t i c u l a r conception from others. Several i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h i s s i t u a t i o n are p o s s i b l e . I t may be unreasonable to assume that any p a r t i c u l a r course i s de f i n e d by one conception. Rather, each course may be a combination of elements which are present i n one or s e v e r a l conceptions of outdoor education. Put another way, i t may be that p a r t i c u l a r courses address content which r e f l e c t s those items which are c e n t r a l to s e v e r a l or even a l l conceptions. In t h i s case what might be unique about such courses would be t h e i r a c t u a l d e l i v e r y . One could expect that the course conductor would a r t i c u l a t e such a d e l i b e r a t e i n t e n t i o n i n a focused i n t e r v i e w . A t h i r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be that the i n t e n t i o n of a course developer to represent a p a r t i c u l a r conception may not be con s i s t e n t w i t h the documents a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the course. For example, a document which describes the value of high adventure outdoor p u r s u i t s may not be used to st i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n about environmental stewardship and th e r e f o r e may not represent of the conceptions revealed i n t h i s study. I t i s l i k e l y that a l l three i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are at p l a y to var y i n g degrees i n each course. On s e v e r a l occasions during the focused interviews course developers suggested that while i t was important to search f o r the meaning of the concept of outdoor education, there are many aspects of the concept which could not be placed i n one category or another. There i s some evidence that consistency between the course developer and course m a t e r i a l s i s i n question. Seven course developers s t a t e d that the procedure i t s e l f caused them to r e t h i n k course content i n r e l a t i o n to the values and c e n t r a l concepts they considered to be important f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e i r courses. As a r e s u l t , course documents were being reviewed or replaced to r e f l e c t b e t t e r the i n t e n t i o n of a course to transmit c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . One course developer i n d i c a t e d that f o r the f i r s t time he was very c l e a r about what he intended to accomplish i n a p a r t i c u l a r course and intended to thoroughly evaluate c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s p r i o r to d e l i v e r i n g the course again. CHAPTER 6 Presentation and A n a l y s i s of the Focused Interview Findings In t h i s chapter the focused i n t e r v i e w data i s presented and discussed. A focused i n t e r v i e w was conducted w i t h fourteen of the course conductors who o r i g i n a l l y agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. As p r e v i o u s l y discussed, i n t e r v i e w s i n v o l v e d e f f o r t s to have the i n s t r u c t o r s support or r e f u t e the primary set of conceptions of outdoor education which emerged from Q methodology and to f u r t h e r comment on the focus of t h i s research. Interviews were t r a n s c r i b e d and content analyzed using four recording u n i t s (p. 46). These i n c l u d e d the course conductor, the program or curriculum, d e f i n i t i o n s of outdoor education and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s s u e s . Each r e c o r d i n g u n i t i s discussed s e p a r a t e l y . Course Conductors B i o c e n t r i s m Information about the background of each course conductor was obtained. When asked how they became i n v o l v e d i n outdoor education, s e v e r a l course conductors described a c l o s e f a m i l y member who was employed i n a p r o f e s s i o n which was s t r o n g l y l i n k e d to the land. Summers and ho l i d a y s had been spent o f t e n working w i t h t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t other. One person p a s s i o n a t e l y s a i d : I have been i n the woods f o r as long as I can remember. Even though I grew up i n a c i t y , I learned from the beginning that everything good happened when we were at our cottage. There I could work w i t h my uncles on the farm -- feeding animals, haying, r i d i n g the horses through the woods -- so many good memories. I spent hours walking and p l a y i n g i n the woods w i t h my f o l k s , cousins, f r i e n d s . I learned to be comfortable outdoors and, I learned the s k i l l s which now form the foundation of my work and my l e i s u r e . I learned to love what I do and I learned to love nature. Another interviewee described himself as, "a nonconformist i n the c i t y , escaping i t to work i n the bush w i t h my uncles each summer." Another, whose mother i s a b o t a n i s t and uncle was a b i o l o g i s t , describes summers he spent as h i s uncle's research f i e l d a s s i s t a n t : I was born i n Dundas, Ontario. I l i v e d and worked on my f a m i l y ' s farm. I went to a one-room, r u r a l school where my mother taught. We were always outdoors doing something. We used the environment as i t should be used -- we learned i n i t , played i n i t and worked i n i t . I don't r e a l l y know when i t happened or even how i t happened. But a p p r e c i a t i n g nature i s a part of me. I t i s n ' t something I t h i n k about, i t i s something I l i v e . When I was i n high school, my uncle, who was a p r o f e s s o r at the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , came east to do f i e l d work every summer. I loved to be h i s f i e l d a s s i s t a n t . I enjoyed working w i t h him, gathering i n f o r m a t i o n about the environment and t h i n k i n g about nature. I became a n a t u r a l science teacher -- there was never any choice to make ! The f a m i l y sawmill required another course conductor to work i n the bush, and yet another f u l f i l l e d a l i f e long d e s i r e to become a farmer, l i k e h i s f a t h e r before him, before completing formal education. An occupational l i n k w i t h the environment was considered to be fundamental i n the e v o l u t i o n of a commitment to the e t h i c a l stance which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of outdoor educators. Some course conductors c i t e d an e q u a l l y strong r e c r e a t i o n a l l i n k to the land as the b a s i s f o r t h e i r p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to a career i n outdoor education. In the words of one person; "outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has always been an a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t of mine." Several interviewees described a place where a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of time was spent doing outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and enjoying the environment: We had a summer cottage where I spent my time canoeing, h i k i n g , swimming, and water s k i i n g . These were what a day was f i l l e d w i t h . You never wondered what you would do today. Things were easy because the lake was always there and you didn't need to organize anything. That's the way i t should be -- flowing comfortably! I p l a y some sports -- f o r e x e r c i s e but f o r my head and my s o u l , i t would never occur to me to do anything e l s e [outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ] f o r my r e c r e a t i o n . That's why I am committed to the environment -- i f i t s not healthy, then n e i t h e r am I ! G e n e r a l l y the place was a cottage or summer home and was h i g h l y valued as an a l t e r n a t i v e to c i t y l i f e . Ongoing involvement i n youth groups, such as the Boy Scouts, Rovers, and a v a r i e t y of summer camps, which are known to have a strong outdoor r e c r e a t i o n component, was seen as a primary for c e i n developing an i n t e r e s t i n environmental conservation and p r e s e r v a t i o n . I t appears that an i n t e r e s t i n and commitment to the n a t u r a l environment i s i n i t i a t e d and f o s t e r e d through a lengthy and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the environment. The nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p may be v o c a t i o n a l or a v o c a t i o n a l as long as i t i s s u b s t a n t i a l enough to n e c e s s i t a t e a t t e n t i o n to the demands of d a i l y l i v i n g i n the n a t u r a l environment on a continued b a s i s , and to c u l t i v a t e a b i o c e n t r i c p e r s p e c t i v e , that i s , a concern f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n of the environment. Bioc e n t r i s m e v o l v i n g from an a v o c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the environment may be based on respect f o r the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of a healthy environment to a q u a l i t y r e c r e a t i o n l i f e s t y l e . Biocentrism evolving from a v o c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the environment may, on the other hand, d i f f e r e n t i a l l y produce a respect f o r the c o n t r i b u t i o n a healthy environment may make to economic w e l l being. I t i s apparent though that these d i f f e r i n g views can become more g l o b a l at some point since because outdoor educators b e l i e v e i n the n e c e s s i t y of a healthy environment i n order to maintain a s u s t a i n a b l e s o c i e t y , both v o c a t i o n a l l y and a v o c a t i o n a l l y . T r a i n i n g The m a j o r i t y of outdoor educators who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study are t r a i n e d teachers. With the exception of two people, a l l h e l d p o s i t i o n s i n the p u b l i c education system i n Canada p r i o r to doing graduate s t u d i e s . Most were P h y s i c a l Education teachers. One person taught at P i c k e r i n g College and was i n v o l v e d i n the f i r s t outdoor education program i n Canada. Some were not p r a c t i s i n g outdoor educators when they taught, but were concentrating t h e i r teaching e f f o r t s on sport and coaching. One s a i d : I was very i n v o l v e d i n sport throughout my l i f e --s p e c i f i c a l l y hockey. I guess I was what you might c a l l a t y p i c a l jock. As a P.E. teacher I continued to be in v o l v e d i n coaching, almost to the e x c l u s i o n of other r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . I t j u s t didn't occur to me that I might be able to make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the outdoor t h i n g . Since I grew up i n r u r a l Northern Ontario, and s i n c e my f a v o u r i t e uncle was a logger, I always had some contact w i t h the outdoors. Then a parent approached me to help w i t h a X country s k i club at the school -- he j u s t needed a teacher to be i n v o l v e d and I was the P.E. teacher - - s o ... I d i d i t ! And I loved i t ! G r a dually I found myself doing more outdoor r e c r e a t i o n s t u f f then coaching s t u f f , and as a consequence I had to get q u a l i f i e d . Now I spend almost a l l my time doing and l e a r n i n g about outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Two course conductors had p r e v i o u s l y been high school science teachers. One interviewee describes h i s involvement i n the p u b l i c school system and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to outdoor education i n t h i s way: I enjoyed the n a t u r a l sciences and was f o r t u n a t e to o b t a i n a teaching job a f t e r high school because the demand [for teachers] was so high. I was a science teacher at a time when new c u r r i c u l u m was being developed. I got to develop a l o t of c u r r i c u l u m and even though i t wasn't c a l l e d outdoor education i n the f i f t i e s , i t used the school yard to s t r u c t u r e c l a s s e s and provide a l a b o r a t o r y and use community resources. I t was considered a way to s t r u c t u r e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h k i d s . I found some r e c o g n i t i o n f o r the things I was doing and I i n f l u e n c e d school design to i n c l u d e an outdoor l a b o f f the science room. We c a l l e d i t the science garden. When I became a p r i n c i p a l I set up the school yard as a science lab and taught physics by l o o k i n g at t e e t e r t o t t e r s . These things gave me the r e c o g n i t i o n I needed to continue teaching i n t h i s f a s h ion a f t e r I j o i n e d the M i n i s t r y of Education to teach young teachers how to teach science. The two remaining course conductors who d i d not f o r m a l l y teach i n the p u b l i c education system b u i l t a d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the system. In both cases a teaching c e r t i f i c a t e was obtained i n P h y s i c a l Education and a d e c i s i o n was made to pursue the q u a s i - p u b l i c s e c t o r , working f o r youth and r e c r e a t i o n agencies. Opportunities f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s and p u b l i c education came as a r e s u l t of a demand f o r competence i n high adventure outdoor p u r s u i t l e a d e r s h i p : I can't imagine being a school teacher i n the p u b l i c education system. I d i d enough when I was p r a c t i c e teaching to know that my hands would have been e s s e n t i a l l y t i e d . So, since I was c r e d i b l e because I have a teaching degree, I s t a r t e d working w i t h the YMCA. Soon schools were asking me to do what I wanted to do anyway. Only I didn't want to do a l l the other s t u f f that went along w i t h i t i n the p u b l i c education system. Now I'm the primary mover and shaker i n the p u b l i c education system because of my experience and t r a i n i n g , and because I am academically c r e d i b l e . C l e a r l y , these outdoor educators are educators f i r s t and foremost. One d i s t i n g u i s h i n g group feature i s t h e i r long e s t a b l i s h e d commitment to the n a t u r a l environment. I t seems to have i n s p i r e d them to i n t e g r a t e t h i s commitment w i t h a v a r i e t y of teaching a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n s e v e r a l components of the d e l i v e r y system. One person s a i d : "Hey, I j u s t want to teach! And I want to do i t outdoors where things are r e a l ! " The m a j o r i t y of persons interviewed were e i t h e r not i n t e n d i n g a career i n the f i e l d of outdoor education at the time they pursued graduate stud i e s or d i d not view a degree s p e c i a l i z i n g i n outdoor education as a necessary p r e - r e g u i s i t e f o r t h e i r present p o s i t i o n . Those who d i d not in t e n d a career i n outdoor education completed graduate s t u d i e s i n P h y s i c a l Education i n a v a r i e t y of areas which they c l a i m they can r e l a t e to outdoor education. For example, course conductors h o l d an M.Sc. or Ph.D. i n P h y s i c a l Education A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Intramurals, Campus Recreation or Physiology. Some course conductors do not hold a graduate degree. They suggested that i t i s appropriate to s u b s t i t u t e such a degree w i t h other q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . One interviewee described the demands as s o c i a t e d w i t h o b t a i n i n g an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Guiding C e r t i f i c a t e as, "equivalent, i f not surpassing the demands of a Ph.D. which are placed on my academic [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] colleagues." Another course conductor s t a t e d : The expectation f o r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education n e c e s s i t a t e s a constant r e v i s i t i n g of i n s t r u c t o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n courses. The i d e a l would be to be able to keep a dozen or so t e c h n i c a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n s up to date, hold a Ph.D., be published i n a v a r i e t y of s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s and c o n t r i b u t e to my u n i v e r s i t y and my p r o f e s s i o n . Not only am I unable to a f f o r d the time and money to pursue a terminal degree, but i t would mean s a c r i f i c i n g c e r t a i n fundamental s a f e t y and t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I b e l i e v e i n . " The s o l e woman i n t h i s study completed s e v e r a l adventure c e r t i f i c a t e s and climbs i n a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s around the world. Her status at the i n s t i t u t i o n i n which she was teaching was not a formal one. She in t i m a t e d that she was working toward an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Guiding C e r t i f i c a t e i n hopes that she would be able to formalize her p o s i t i o n as a f a c u l t y member. When asked i f academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were i n her plans at any time, she i n d i c a t e d that a M.A. was not only s u f f i c i e n t , but a reasonable expectation, given the demands of her job. A few of the course conductors who were int e r v i e w e d i n t h i s study made conscious d e c i s i o n s to pursue an advanced degree to complement p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s i n the f i e l d of outdoor education. One person completed a Masters i n E x p e r i e n t i a l Education and another completed a Ph.D. i n Resource Development. Two course conductors h o l d an Ed.D. i n Science Education. A l l four i n d i c a t e d that t h e i r d i s s e r t a t i o n s r e l a t e d to outdoor education and s t a t e d that there was indeed a need to ensure academic c r e d i b i l i t y at the te r m i n a l degree l e v e l i n order to ensure academic c r e d i b i l i t y f o r the movement. Mentors I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note who these people b e l i e v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r t h i n k i n g about outdoor education. Their mentors 3 are i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r conceptions. One course conductor declared, "I am a Deweyan and I am proud of i t ! " When asked i f anyone i n f l u e n c e d h i s t h i n k i n g about outdoor education, he i n d i c a t e d that studying w i t h J u l i a n Smith at B a t t l e Creek was a guiding force i n h i s development. He i n d i c a t e d : These were the people doing r e a l education. They made l e a r n i n g l i v e i n the hearts and the minds of students. I was completely and i r r e v e r s i b l y s o l d . I s t i l l use t h e i r w r i t i n g s to b r i n g passion to my claims and my proposals ! Another interviewee i n d i c a t e d that h i s mentors modelled two d i s t i n c t e x p e r i e n t i a l education s t y l e s . He suggested that : George Kimmear at Colorado i s more c e r e b r a l and very w e l l p u blished. He employs a f a c i l i t a t i v e s t y l e of outdoor 3 By 'mentor' I mean e i t h e r an a c t u a l mentor or someone whose ideas i n f l u e n c e d the person. l e a d e r s h i p . Then there i s B i l l March. 4 He models a more c r i s p B r i t i s h , s t y l e . Both are h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e c h n i c a l outdoor p u r s u i t s i n s t r u c t o r s . I b e l i e v e I am b e t t e r f o r having fashioned myself a f t e r both of them. Another mentor, Claude Cousineau, c a l l e d f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n to be laden w i t h fun, l e i s u r e , a e s t h e t i c s , and freedom (Cousineau, 1982). Two course conductors c i t e d Cousineau as t h e i r primary mentor. One claimed that Cousineau was s o l e l y r e s ponsible f o r h i s conversion from teaching p h y s i c a l education a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to teaching outdoor education : He t a l k e d me i n t o h e l p i n g him w i t h the n a t i o n a l canoe school. I was not a canoe i n s t r u c t o r , j u s t a canoer I love to paddle! Before that I would have taught a s k i l l by breaking i t down and doing the t r a d i t i o n a l t h i n g . A f t e r that I taught by g i v i n g an opportunity f o r fun, then c h a l l e n g i n g students to l e a r n by p u t t i n g them i n a s i t u a t i o n which requires mastery. That experience w i t h Claude changed my l i f e . When asked about a mentor, another interviewee reminisced about h i s days at camp: I t evolved by going to Camp Masenov [ s p e l l i n g mine] which Lecky [ s p e l l i n g mine] was running. I learned how to canoe, ran r i v e r s -- i t was r e a l l y e x c i t i n g . Lecky was i n t o outdoor education and sport. He was a prime mover i n CAPHER and he was [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] camp! He introduced me to e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g -- provided challenges. He worked wi t h the ba s i c p r i n c i p l e of working i n the outdoors and working w i t h people. He was a very c a r i n g and dedicated man. He would f i g h t f o r things he b e l i e v e d i n . He was my mentor. 4 At the time of t h i s i n t e r v i e w B i l l March was on s a b b a t i c a l leave from the U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary. He returned to the U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary i n September, 1990, where he di e d l e a d i n g a group of people i n the outdoors. He acquired i n t e r n a t i o n a l fame as the leader of the most recent Canadian e x p e d i t i o n to climb Mount Everest. His i n f l u e n c e on outdoor education i n t h i s country i s h i s legacy. Perhaps one of the most r e v e a l i n g statements about mentors was one which was u n s o l i c i t e d . D e s c r i b i n g himself as an advocate f o r p r o t e c t i n g the environment, t h i s course conductor claimed that reading John Muir, Henry Thoreau, and Edward Abby were p i v o t a l i n h i s t h i n k i n g about outdoor education. Several interviewees c i t e d one of these authors as i n f l u e n t i a l but none wi t h the passion and f o r c e of t h i s person. The range of views of the mentors represented by the interviewees i n t h i s study supports the primary conceptions of outdoor education uncovered by Q Methodology. March and K r a f t are adventurers. Smith i s the consummate outdoor educator. Muir and Thoreau represent the underpinnings of the environmental movement, and Cousineau o f f e r s a b l u e p r i n t f o r the u l t i m a t e outdoor r e c r e a t i o n experience. The only one missing i s someone to represent The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur. The Program In some cases a program was represented i n t h i s study by s e v e r a l f a c u l t y members and other programs by only one. I t was assumed that information about the program and i t s image and status at the u n i v e r s i t y would provide i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of the conception of outdoor education on which i t was based. R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other F i e l d s of Study Each course conductor was asked to i d e n t i f y e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the outdoor education program and other f a c u l t i e s , d i s c i p l i n e s or s u b j e c t s . Representatives of one program informed me that double degrees w i t h n a t u r a l science and geography were o f f e r e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l studies i n p h y s i c a l education, education, f o r e s t r y and nursing e x i s t e d as options f o r the general student. One r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s program i n d i c a t e d that stronger l i n k s w i t h business needed to evolve, e s p e c i a l l y i n areas r e l a t e d to eco-tourism and entrepreneurship. Another program had formal t i e s w i t h ecology, f o r e s t science, botany, geography, and p h y s i c a l education. A d e s i r e to develop a t i e w i t h s o c i a l work was expressed. One interviewee described a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e i r program had w i t h medicine, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n areas such as the physiology of c l i m b i n g and o c c u p a t i o n a l therapy. He a l s o suggested that "the program needs stronger l i n k s with the i n t e r p r e t i v e s t u f f , you know l i k e science, and with management." Another course conductor suggested the f o l l o w i n g : In the area of adventure I need to b u i l d stronger t i e s w i t h psychology, even though many psych, students take the course, f a c u l t y do not understand how e x c i t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p could be to research. Also, there i s a l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y understanding on the p a r t of science people that environmental education r e q u i r e s more than the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y species i n the f i e l d . I could do more to i n i t i a t e b e t t e r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the science people. With the exception of one person who taught i n an education f a c u l t y , education l i n k s w i t h outdoor education programs appear to be r e l a t i v e l y few i n number. One course conductor claimed that : We seem to have evolved our own unique set of educators, mainly grounded i n e x p e r i e n t i a l education and d i f f e r e n t from the t y p i c a l education person. Our students are comfortable i n an extremely dynamic environment and w i t h a d i f f e r e n t k ind of pedagogical o r i e n t a t i o n . Perhaps we should be b e t t e r at working w i t h more t r a d i t i o n a l education people. I t should be noted that the one person i n Canada who d i d not agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study suggested that as a science educator i n t e r e s t e d i n environmental education he d i d not consider himself an outdoor educator. He s a i d that environmental education i s the umbrella term and outdoor education i s a sub-concept. In a d d i t i o n , the Bachelor of Education i n Outdoor and E x p e r i e n t i a l Education at another u n i v e r s i t y i s not represented i n t h i s study because a primary f a c u l t y member was on s a b b a t i c a l leave. C l e a r l y , these programs would have demonstrated a stronger l i n k w i t h education. Outdoor Education: The Concept Chapter 1 e s t a b l i s h e d that the n o t i o n of m u l t i p l e conceptions r e s t s on the assumption that there are p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n s of the underlying concept. The i n t e r v i e w s provided s e v e r a l ways of viewing that underlying concept. These w i l l be examined under the f o l l o w i n g headings: the need f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , a common knowledge base, managing and using the n a t u r a l environment, the c e n t r a l i t y of teaching, the n a t u r a l environment, and outdoor education values. The Need f o r C l a r i f i c a t i o n Without exception, course conductors agreed that the need to c l e a r l y d efine the concept was a pres s i n g one. When asked i f i t made sense to t r y and define outdoor education, one interviewee s a i d , "yes -- i t i s the only way we can q u a l i f y [ i . e . get r e c o g n i t i o n for] what we do." Another person i n d i c a t e d that i t may need to be c a l l e d something d i f f e r e n t once we become c l e a r about i t , because our c r e d i b i l i t y problem l i e s i n the f a c t that there i s a stigma a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an easy way to teach. He sta t e d that I get very f r u s t r a t e d because I know how much p o t e n t i a l there i s f o r outdoor education to c o n t r i b u t e to the goals of so many agencies. However, every person you t a l k to th i n k s something d i f f e r e n t . Some people t e l l me: "Aren't you lucky, you get to play a l l the time," and they mean i t ! Some people think t h i s i s only p h y s i c a l education s t u f f -- you know l i k e a l l we do i s paddle canoes and s i n g songs around a camp f i r e . Then there are others who th i n k of us as second c l a s s c i t i z e n s because we are not science teachers -- or real teachers [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] ! Yet I know that I can do more to help a student l e a r n something e x p e r i e n t i a l l y then most of the teachers I know could ever accomplish i n a classroom! Another person suggested: We have been arguing over semantics f o r decades, i t i s about time we understand ourselves c l e a r l y enough to j u s t i f y our existence. We know our worth, but i t i s a l i t t l e hard to convince others when we are arguing amongst ourselves about who i s really [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] l e g i t i m a t e . Another course conductor presented an i n t e r e s t i n g thought. At f i r s t he s a i d there was no reason to define outdoor education and that everyone should j u s t do t h e i r t h i n g and leave i t at that. His r a t i o n a l e was that "outdoor education i s many things to many people and i f we de f i n e f o r the middle, we put aside what i s to the l e f t and to the r i g h t . " Sometime l a t e r i n the i n t e r v i e w he reviewed h i s response and suggested that there are indeed p o i n t s i n common, and at the very l e a s t we should understand our commonalities so that we can t a l k to each other. C l e a r l y , one d e f i n i t i o n of outdoor education i s not the answer since ' d e f i n i n g f o r the middle' would do very l i t t l e to f u r t h e r the f i e l d . What these comments suggest i s the need to be c l e a r about the conceptual range w i t h i n which the concept of outdoor education f u n c t i o n s . They support the need f o r a set of conceptions rather than any simple d e f i n i t i o n . A Common Knowledge Base C e r t a i n aspects of the conceptions of outdoor education we have d i s t i n g u i s h e d are represented i n a l l programs. Thus, a l l outdoor educators need some degree of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h those aspects that are common ground among the conceptions. For example, some grounding i n the n a t u r a l sciences i s a necessary competence f o r any outdoor educator to possess. However, The Environmentalist as contrasted w i t h , f o r example, The Adventurer, w i l l need to be considerably more knowledgable i n matters which r e l a t e science to a s u s t a i n a b l e environment. One interviewee put i t t h i s way: We are a l l doing something s i m i l a r and we are a l l doing something d i f f e r e n t . You do your t h i n g and i t i s d i f f e r e n t from my t h i n g . But only i n so f a r as we are working with d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t s , t r y i n g to a t t a i n d i f f e r e n t goals or using d i f f e r e n t techniques. At the heart of the matter i s something that binds us together. And i t i s t h i s glue that we need to understand i f we are ever going to move ahead. We have been so busy w i t h our d i f f e r e n c e s that we have f o r g o t t e n about our s i m i l a r i t i e s . I am not sure any of us know what they are. Managing and Using the Natural Environment Another way to look at conceptions of outdoor education i s to note that they can be assigned to broader c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t category r e l a t e s to managing the n a t u r a l environment f o r humanity as a whole to c o n t r i b u t e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y . The second category r e l a t e s to the b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h using the environment to enhance c e r t a i n kinds of personal human a c t i v i t y . Considering the f i r s t category, i t i s reasonable to suppose that The Environmentalist and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur, as d i s t i n g u i s h e d by Q Methodology, are more i n t e r e s t e d i n managing the n a t u r a l environment to achieve a s u s t a i n a b l e s o c i e t y and a s u s t a i n a b l e l i f e s t y l e . The Educator, The Adventurer and The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t may be more i n t e r e s t e d i n using the n a t u r a l environment f o r the purposes of enhancing education, personal growth, and r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The d i s t i n c t i o n between resource manager and resource user i s supported by the image course conductors b e l i e v e students and outside f a c u l t y hold about t h e i r programs. One interviewee suggests that the program i s viewed as something between P h y s i c a l Education and F o r e s t r y . He explained: We are viewed as an a p p l i e d l e a r n i n g base f o r the education system, camps and other human s e r v i c e agencies. Our students can teach anything from a hands on p o i n t of view. However, i f they are to be i n v o l v e d i n some of the issues that are of great concern -- l i k e the environment, endangered spaces, the wilderness c h a r t e r then they must understand the issues and how to address them. They must understand about d e f o l i a n t s on tr e e s or about a c i d r a i n and marine biology. So even though we are viewed as doing outdoor p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , we are a l s o viewed as doing science. We have to do both. Another course conductor suggested that students view t h e i r program as a unique blend of le a d e r s h i p and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , and that g e n e r a l l y the re s t of the campus viewed them as a group concerned w i t h environmental stewardship and advocacy. He st a t e d : The blend of leadership and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s i s necessary to manage what people do i n the n a t u r a l environment -regardles s of whether what they do i s to educate or to rec r e a t e -- and i t i s a l s o necessary to manage the environment i t s e l f . U n t i l r e c e n t l y a resource manager, of the parks type, needed a science degree i n b i o l o g y or f o r e s t r y or something l i k e that, but now a resource manager needs the s k i l l s to manage people. That's where we come i n . So i t makes sense that we are viewed as concerned w i t h stewardship and advocacy. The user image, i s p o s i t e d at another campus: "I imagine that we are viewed as a fun program, a program heavy on t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , w i t h a strong people aspect." The same program was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as having an image based on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l fame some f a c u l t y achieved through the most recent Canadian e x p e d i t i o n to climb Mt. Everest. He i n d i c a t e d that " f a c u l t y and students i n the program are g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d as l i v i n g i n a healthy environment, being extremely t i g h t k n i t -- granola types." An analogy o f f e r e d by one person was that of the long h a i r e d flower c h i l d r e n of the s i x t i e s doing t h e i r own thing, however, g e t t i n g high on adventure outdoor p u r s u i t s rather than drugs. In each case a strong connection w i t h the n a t u r a l environment was thought to be c e n t r a l to the image people h e l d of the program, e i t h e r because of the need to use the environment or to manage the environment. The C e n t r a l i t y of Teaching Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , a l l the interviewees revealed a strong commitment to having people l e a r n . For example, i n support of the n o t i o n that "outdoor education i s the personal enjoyment of being outside and r e l a t i n g to nature," one interviewee explained : Enjoying oneself and f e e l i n g happy i n the n a t u r a l environment where nobody w i l l hurt you and where you can t r y something new i s fundamental to being y o u r s e l f . But i n order f o r t h i s to happen you must l e a r n something. Another person suggested that : the thread that t i e s outdoor education together i s that i t always involves l e a r n i n g how to l e a r n -- outdoor educators develop comprehensive l e a r n i n g experiences. You may l e a r n the names of b i r d s by s i t t i n g i n a room i n fr o n t of a computer or a movie screen or a textbook. But i f you went out on a ni c e day and cooked a meal, made some f r i e n d s , learned some low impact camping s k i l l s and, as w e l l , learned the names of some b i r d s , you would have had a r e a l l y meaningful experience. You would have had a comprehensive l e a r n i n g experience, and a s s i m i l a t e d and u t i l i z e d information. When asked i f there were any fundamental f e a t u r e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e outdoor education, one course conductor r e p l i e d : Yes, there are s e v e r a l . Outdoor educators are i n the values education business. Our environmental e t h i c s are w e l l developed and we seek o p p o r t u n i t i e s to transmit them to others. We know that understanding the environment i s important, and we teach environmental awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y . Outdoor educators are i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o c i a l aspects of an experience. We value i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e l a t i o n s . We add to the s o c i a l dimension of a t y p i c a l classroom. We value t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s -- at l e a s t to the extent that they are supportive of what we are doing. We may teach map and compass to navigate to a pond to observe something or we may teach map and compass to complete an extended s u r v i v a l e x e r c i s e . Then there i s the knowledge p a r t . We value knowledge about ourselves and others, our environment and our contexts. The sum of a l l of these p a r t s i s personal growth. The parts must a l l be there. I f you d i d a computer or music camp, knowledge about the n a t u r a l environment would be missing. The education theme i s supported by another interviewee who claims that "the d i s t i n c t i o n i s i n our planned use of the outdoors f o r educational purposes. I t i n v o l v e s preparing i t , understanding i t , and doing things i n i t . " He goes on to say that some things that are c a l l e d outdoor education may be dinosaurs that need to d i e . For example, he claims that "the school t r i p which i s c a l l e d outdoor education and ransomed as the end of the year pay o f f f o r good behaviour i s not outdoor education." He suggests that these models need to change s i n c e they are missing the e s s e n t i a l educative i n g r e d i e n t . The N a t u r a l Environment Several course conductors discussed the importance of maximizing o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r q u a l i t y education by u t i l i z i n g the n a t u r a l environment. Outdoor education was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the planned use of the outdoors f o r educational purposes, and one person suggested that i t i s "a philosophy of education which incorporates e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g i n the n a t u r a l environment." Another interviewee demonstrated a commitment to the b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h teaching outdoors: There i s so much to know about l i f e and l i v i n g . We as educators should create the form and the environment to maximize the b e n e f i t s [of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n ] . We do readiness t e s t s , we do needs and i n t e r e s t s t e s t s , we consider the lear n e r - c e n t r e d s t u f f . Outdoor education stands the t e s t of l o g i c . We should have no problem l e g i t i m i z i n g ourselves i n the education community. We need to help others [teachers] make sense of i t . Fundamentally, outdoor education i s about l e a r n i n g , but l e a r n i n g of a c e r t a i n nature. I t r e l a t e s to the outdoors i n the sense that i t i s a c t u a l l y about the outdoors -- or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the n a t u r a l environment. Outdoor education a l s o takes l e a r n i n g about the outdoors or the environment i n t o a number of personal growth dimensions which can help d i s t i n g u i s h d i f f e r e n t conceptions of the term. For example, The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t might l e a r n about a s p e c i f i c ecosystem to l e a r n minimal impact camping s k i l l s which should r e s u l t i n personal enjoyment i n the n a t u r a l environment. The Adventurer might l e a r n about water dynamics to assess the flow of a r i v e r i n order to accomplish the personal challenge of paddling that r i v e r . The Environmentalist might l e a r n about the unique f l o r a , fauna, and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a place i n order to speak i n a p u b l i c forum, i n order to i n i t i a t e the management of a p r o t e c t e d space. B a s i c a l l y , what d i s t i n g u i s h e s the conceptions i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study are the somewhat d i f f e r i n g views of the l e a r n i n g goals they have and, thus, d i f f e r i n g reasons to l e a r n about the n a t u r a l environment. One person s a i d : Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , outdoor education, adventure education, environmental education -- a l l names f o r the same t h i n g . But, we are doing them i n d i f f e r e n t ways --a car i s a car, there are j u s t d i f f e r e n t models. In our case we always d r i v e our cars i n a n a t u r a l environment. We j u s t have to make adjustments f o r the various models. Concern f o r the n a t u r a l environment i s fundamental to the f i e l d of outdoor education. Q Methodology produced a conception which I c a l l The Environmentalist f o r which there appeared to be l i t t l e d i r e c t support i n the focused i n t e r v i e w s . However, when a comment about the outdoor educator as a p r o t e c t o r of the environment was probed, one course conductor s a i d : A l l outdoor educators are l o b b y i s t s . There i s such an important t i e between the environment and what we do, regardles s of how or why we do i t , that i f we don't take care of the environment, we wouldn't have anything to do. I t s j u s t that these days the issues are much l a r g e r than us -- f i n a l l y the re s t of the world i s t a k i n g n o t i c e . For a long time we were one or j u s t a few voices i n the wind. Being an advocate f o r environmental p r o t e c t i o n was considered a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a good outdoor educator by every course conductor. In a d d i t i o n , possessing the a b i l i t y to c a r r y out s u c c e s s f u l advocacy was c i t e d by one person as the most important reason f o r c u l t i v a t i n g environmental l i t e r a c y i n outdoor educator education programs. One explanation f o r the lack of e x p l i c i t reference i n the in t e r v i e w s to The Environmentalist conception of outdoor education may be that i t i s such a strong component of a l l conceptions that i t i s one of the features common to a l l -- i n a way d e f i n i t i v e of the concept i t s e l f . Another explanation may be that outdoor educators are not w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n our s o c i e t y as l o b b y i s t s . Most l o b b y i s t s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h volunteer o r g a n i z a t i o n s and, th e r e f o r e , The Environmentalist conception of outdoor education may be a r e l a t i v e l y new p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r s u i t . As such, i t may be neophyte i n i t s overt r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l development community. Thus, at present, i t manifests i t s e l f i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s course conductors wish to evolve w i t h other d i s c i p l i n e s and programs w i t h i n academic communities. A s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be made regarding a lack of reference to The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur. Many comments were made about the l i f e s t y l e component of outdoor education. One course conductor suggested that : the l i f e s t y l e component i n what we do i s strong. We are t r y i n g to cause an adaptation i n l i f e s t y l e . The adaptation i s centred around the n a t u r a l environment. I t demands that the environment be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o every aspect of d a i l y l i v i n g . To do otherwise would be h y p o c r i t i c a l . Another person r e f e r r e d to the "job of the outdoor educator" as: w e l l done i f people s t a r t to move toward a change i n l i f e s t y l e . The k i d who convinces h i s mom to r e c y c l e , the couple who end up buying a canoe, the teenager who i s more aware of i n t e r p e r s o n a l issues and the a d u l t who gets i n v o l v e d i n a p u b l i c forum on water q u a l i t y -- these are r e s u l t s ! I f we, any of us, have a part i n these k i n d of changes i n l i f e s t y l e , we are doing good outdoor education. Education and Recreation Course conductors were f i r s t asked to desc r i b e d i f f e r e n t i nstances of outdoor education and then to d i s c u s s r e l a t e d terms. One interviewee s t a t e d that "outdoor education i s cu r r i c u l u m enrichment i n and f o r the environment. Then I go to the broader goals of education and r e l a t e them to outdoor education." He explained the d i f f e r e n c e between what he p e r c e i v e d as a d i f f e r e n t form of outdoor education by r e l a t i n g the l a t t e r to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n t h i s way: You see, there i s work and there i s what i s l e f t over. What i s l e f t over i s l e i s u r e . Outdoor educators need to help people know what to do w i t h l e i s u r e . In the formative years we should give c h i l d r e n outdoor experiences to generate an understanding of the environment and what the environment has to o f f e r i n terms of a l e i s u r e response. Another course conductor c h a r a c t e r i z e d the apparent r e c r e a t i o n and education dichotomy i n t h i s manner: I use the King F i s h e r Outdoor Education Centre i n my courses. The board [of education] people ask f o r science, but the teachers and students want r e c r e a t i o n education and i n t e g r a t e d environmental education. The tension between the two [board and teachers] i s always present. They can both e x i s t i f the board could understand that environmental education i s not j u s t science. You can snow shoe to b i r d watch. You can have a fun, healthy time l e a r n i n g to canoe to get to the other end of a lake where you j u s t happen across a p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t a t . One i s motivated by r e c r e a t i o n the other by n a t u r a l science study. They can e x i s t apart or together, but i t makes a b e t t e r program to put them together. You are l i k e l y to have both kinds of s t a f f -- the science people and the r e c r e a t i o n people. Both have important educational messages i f they are done w e l l . " He goes on to make f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n s : "Even so, there are the environmental types and the t e c h n i c a l types. The hard core canoeist who t h i n k s that i t ' s a t h r i l l to master higher and higher l e v e l s of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l i s d i f f e r e n t from me. I t h i n k of canoeing as part of the experience of l e a r n i n g about the environment, or the h i s t o r y , or the c u l t u r e . Then there i s the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process which i s important. Students have to be organized to do a t r i p . There i s a l o t to do and i t i s not a r t i f i c i a l . There i s a l s o the challenge t h i n g . From the OB [Outward Bound] t h i n g to the simple challenge of s l e e p i n g i n a new environment. The degree to which these things are present w i l l change according to what the leader/teacher wishes to accomplish." In every case, the response to the question of d e f i n i t i o n contained a d i s t i n c t i o n between r e c r e a t i o n and environmental s t u d i e s . Often the d i f f e r e n c e was expressed i n terms of d e s i r e d outcomes. Some described a type of outdoor education which was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l e i s u r e c o u n s e l l i n g . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s form of outdoor education was seen as d e a l i n g w i t h the whole person to evolve a change i n l i f e s t y l e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to l e i s u r e and w e l l being. The Boy Scouts were o f t e n c i t e d as an example of an o r g a n i z a t i o n which teaches outdoor s k i l l s i n order to develop l i f e long r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s . One course conductor describes the d i s t i n c t i o n between r e c r e a t i o n and environmental studies t h i s way: There i s a d i s c i p l i n e c a l l e d outdoor education. There are a number of r e l a t e d sub d i s c i p l i n e s l i k e environmental education, outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , outdoor p u r s u i t s , and adventure education. These are a l l concepts that f i t somewhere on a continuum of nature s t u d i e s and s k i l l s a c t i v i t i e s . The s t u f f can be environmental or personal. Environmental education i s a philosophy of l i f e . Then the education i s focused on how to help people evolve that philosophy. Outdoor p u r s u i t s are the panacea f o r a l l the world's e v i l s -- they help i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , s t r e s s , i d e a l s -- people w i t h people i s the f i n a l hook! I t i s apparent from these comments that outdoor educators i n t e n d to educate. The reasons they educate seem to range on a continuum between r e c r e a t i o n and environmental s t u d i e s . Outdoor Education Values The primary conceptions of outdoor education which were uncovered v i a Q methodology help to make d i s t i n c t i o n s and acknowledge commonalities about -a range of values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the concept. One aspect of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between outdoor education and the environment i s an e t h i c a l one, and the other appears to in v o l v e the process of doing outdoor education. The e t h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of outdoor education to the n a t u r a l environment i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the values outdoor educators seek to transmit and the c e n t r a l concepts w i t h which they should be acquainted i n order to do so. Some values are common across primary conceptions and centre around the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p the p a r t i c i p a n t should have w i t h the environment. In order f o r a person to deal a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h the environment the outdoor educator must c u l t i v a t e appropriate environmental i n t e r a c t i o n , environmental l i t e r a c y , and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the n a t u r a l world. One interviewee s t a t e d : I f there i s nothing e l s e , we, as outdoor educators, have an o b l i g a t i o n to do our best to c o n t r i b u t e to environmental stewardship. People may acquire f i n e l e i s u r e l i v e s , or l e a r n to w r i t e c r e a t i v e l y , through an opportunity we create. But, i t matters not i f each and every person we come i n contact w i t h does not l e a r n something about nature and man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t . The f i n a l t e s t w i l l be i n a person's w i l l i n g n e s s to become an advocate. The course conductors who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study demonstrated c o n s i s t e n t concern about environmental impact and environmental e t h i c s . C l e a r l y these values are the b u i l d i n g blocks f o r environmental stewardship and are sought by every outdoor educator. The process of doing outdoor education i n a way that w i l l ensure personal gain i s a l s o important f o r outdoor educators. Every experience holds the p o t e n t i a l f o r a c h i e v i n g worthwhile personal values such as; p e r s o n a l i t y growth, improved d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y , and f i r s t hand, e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g . Knowledge of e x p e r i e n t i a l education, environmental education, program planning and evalu a t i o n , teaching s t r a t e g i e s , and s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s a s s i s t the outdoor educator to achieve d e s i r e d outcomes. I t was s t a t e d i n t h i s way by one person : I t i s not j u s t a matter of what we teach about, i t i s very much an issue of how we teach. Many people ask me where I get my energy. People o f t e n say "I could never do that s t u f f -- i t s e a s i e r to do i t the other way." Well, indeed, maybe i t i s e a s i e r . But the outcomes are so d r a m a t i c a l l y b e t t e r , so i t s worth the time and e f f o r t . Besides, i t s fun to get to be more than a teacher, to get to know people the way we do, to laugh and explore, and to t r u l y c e l e b r a t e success. Mmmm . . . [long pause] R e a l l y a l l of the things educators wish they could do -- l i k e the h o l i s t i c s t u f f . You know -the whole person, the a t t i t u d e s , the d e c i s i o n s , the joy of l e a r n i n g -- the way we teach, we r e a l l y get at that s t u f f ! These comments r e f l e c t the a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the process of of the conception. values and c e n t r a l concepts outdoor education, r e g a r d l e s s Attempting to d i f f e r e n t i a t e conceptions of outdoor education has l e d to a b e t t e r understanding of i t s e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s , an understanding which i s necessary i f i t s i n t e r n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s are to become c l e a r . Conclusions Several i n s i g h t s about the concept are apparent from t h i s a n a l y s i s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , there appear to be two e s s e n t i a l features which define outdoor education. F i r s t , there i s always a c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e educational i n t e n t . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t i n g u i s h e s outdoor education from other a c t i v i t i e s which take place i n the out-of-doors but do not i n t e n d s i g n i f i c a n t educational outcomes, and a l s o provides at l e a s t a p l a u s i b l e r a t i o n a l e f o r outdoor education i n schools. Secondly, there i s always a c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the environment. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t i n g u i s h e s outdoor education from a myriad of a c t i v i t i e s which may take place out-of-doors but do not n e c e s s a r i l y 'need' the environment. In a d d i t i o n , given that these e s s e n t i a l features are present, s e v e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n s can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Using the environment f o r adventure, r e c r e a t i o n , or education are s p e c i a l v a r i a t i o n s on the c e n t r a l themes of outdoor education which are d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h i s study. P r o f e s s i o n a l Issues I n i t i a l l y i t was assumed that course conductors would comment on issues which they b e l i e v e d to be important or p r e s s i n g from t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r conception. I t i s apparent, however, that the issues which confront these people are fundamental ones which represent concerns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f i e l d as a whole. They include issues of d e f i n i t i o n , research, l e g i t i m i z a t i o n , teacher education, economics, the environment, and gender. D e f i n i t i o n One i s s u e which emerged supported the r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s study. The m a j o r i t y of course conductors i n d i c a t e d that a l a c k of conceptual c l a r i t y has continued to plague the f i e l d . One interviewee s a i d : We need much more work i n the areas of philosophy and d e f i n i t i o n . We need to know what, so what, and how. So many newly a r r i v e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s became challenged p l a y i n g the research game. Research has become f a l s e because i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y rehash and empty. We need to get at the heart of the e n t e r p r i s e and f i g u r e out what we are. Another course conductor commented on the need f o r the f i e l d to l e g i t i m i z e i t s e l f through " c a r e f u l l y o r c h e s t r a t e d navel gazing." However, a cautionary note was o f f e r e d by another person i n t h i s way: " I f we are not c a r e f u l we could define outdoor education and end up r e s t r a i n i n g i t to something." A d i s t i n c t l a c k of c a r e f u l l y construed conceptual a c t i v i t y was c i t e d by s e v e r a l course conductors as "the most p r e s s i n g i s s u e i n our h i s t o r y and the reason f o r our sporadic growth and tenuous p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . " Research For one interviewee, research was considered of l i t t l e importance. However, the remaining course conductors i n d i c a t e d v a r y i n g degrees of concern f o r the st a t u s of research i n the f i e l d . One person expressed concern f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of research to the f i e l d as f o l l o w s : Researchers are l i g h t years away from the trenches and u n t i l there i s reason to b e l i e v e that there i s good research and u s e f u l research we w i l l s p i n our wheels. The two types do not have to c o - e x i s t spontaneously, the doer can help the researcher stay on t r a c k , but there i s a l s o a l e g i t i m a t e f u n c t i o n f o r open and undirected spontaneous research. The conceptual gap between the f a r ahead researcher and the f a r behind p r a c t i t i o n e r i s huge. Several people expressed concern about the general l a c k of commitment to research which i s r e f l e c t e d i n comments l i k e , "we are an a p p l i e d philosophy, we l i v e what we b e l i e v e . We j u s t do i t , we don't want to examine i t . " Another person claimed that "we are a c t i o n o r i e n t e d and do not value research enough. We need c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s i n research to motivate each other." I t i s apparent that the people i n the f i e l d t y p i c a l l y are a c t i o n o r i e n t e d and not as i n t e r e s t e d i n doing research as they seem to b e l i e v e they should be. The lack of u s e f u l research technique was c i t e d as a major issue f o r the f i e l d . One course conductor i n d i c a t e d that "we do not have the instrumentation to measure growth as a r e s u l t of an outdoor experience and we have f a i l e d to adequately deal w i t h the b e n e f i t s question as a r e s u l t . " The i s s u e was f u r t h e r supported by another interviewee who s t a t e d that "perhaps we should look to measurement people or to a p p l i e d ethnographic research to f i n d ways to do what we need to do." Another course conductor s a i d t h a t : we have described everything from the park experience to the program. But we are new and we do not have a wealth of program m a t e r i a l s to describe. We need to pay more a t t e n t i o n to the experimental mode of i n q u i r y , we tend not to c o l l a b o r a t e with ourselves and w i t h others to do b e t t e r research. We need to convince others that doing research w i t h us would be good. That a lack and inadequacy of research i s symptomatic of a l a r g e r i s s u e i s r e f l e c t e d i n these comments: Not only do we not do research because most of us are too busy doing our th i n g , we don't do research because g e n e r a l l y we don't know how! And we seem to be w i l l i n g to a l l o w others to continue to hold the op i n i o n that we are not doing anything worthwhile, i n s t e a d of g e t t i n g s c h o l a r l y job done. We are a p r e t t y smart and c r e a t i v e group -- we could do i t i f we knew how! L e g i t i m i z a t i o n The need to l e g i t i m i z e the f i e l d i s an i s s u e that was c i t e d by every course conductor. Several concerns emerged. One course conductor suggested: We know i n our hearts that i t makes sense to e n r i c h -- we know the sensory t h i n g works, we know the i n t e r a c t i v e t h i n g works. We witness the b e n e f i t s of l e a r n i n g i n the company of f r i e n d s -- we know the hands on l e a r n i n g t h i n g . But i f s o c i e t y wants a student to l e a r n about the bi o l o g y of a frog, I can do that indoors. I f the outcome i s to be knowledgable about a fr o g , I can do i t more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h s l i d e s and a blackboard. However, i f the outcome i s long term a p p r e c i a t i o n a loose s o f t word -- commitment to the ecology of the pond, which in c l u d e s the frog, some d e c i s i o n s about i t s maintenance, i t s purpose and i t s place i n the whole plan, than I can do a b e t t e r job outdoors. But the toughest t h i n g to do i s to prove that i t makes a d i f f e r e n c e . E s t a b l i s h i n g l e g i t i m a c y w i t h i n the p u b l i c education system was described by another person i n t h i s way: We need a b e t t e r image, e s p e c i a l l y i n the p u b l i c education system. Especially [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] about the dimensions of values, i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , and personal growth. E s t a b l i s h i n g that these dimensions are addressed by outdoor education, as w e l l as info r m a t i o n about the b i r d or the pond, or whatever they t h i n k a student needs to know about, i s tough enough. E s t a b l i s h i n g that they may even be more important than in f o r m a t i o n about a b i r d i s what we need to address. A number of suggestions to help l e g i t i m i z e the f i e l d of outdoor education i n the p u b l i c education system and i n the research community, as w e l l as i n l e i s u r e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies, were o f f e r e d . Several course conductors mentioned the need f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l , increased networking, and research i n c e n t i v e s . One interviewee made seve r a l s t r a t e g i c suggestions r e l a t e d to " g e t t i n g i n t o the p u b l i c education system". He i n d i c a t e d that : a mandate i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and p u b l i c education must be determined and adopted, and a formal l i n k to p u b l i c education goals must be e s t a b l i s h e d and p u b l i c i z e d . Outdoor education must achieve c u r r i c u l a r s t a t u s i f i t i s to s u r v i v e and f l o u r i s h i n the p u b l i c school system. And f i n a l l y , the f i e l d needs to i d e n t i f y i t s f l a g s h i p . The same course conductor suggested that : i f the environment and i t ' s issues laden w i t h c r i s i s are to be our f l a g ship, then people need to t h i n k about environmental issues and outdoor education, or whatever we decide to c a l l ourselves, simultaneously. We need to become the answer, not j u s t one of the a l t e r n a t i v e s ! Teacher Education Comments about teacher education and i t s l a c k of a t t e n t i o n to outdoor education i n d i c a t e d that the s t a t u s of outdoor education i n p u b l i c education w i l l not change u n t i l teacher education changes. Many interviewees agreed that "as long as teachers teach the way they are taught, the system w i l l not change." One course conductor described the problem t h i s way: Imagine the new teacher and what he or she b r i n g s to the classroom. She has emerged from a system that recognizes marks f i r s t . She w i l l promote the status quo because one gets high marks by b u c k l i n g under to the system. She lacks the experience to do outdoor education and tends to teach what and how she has been taught. S h e ' l l do a l l the things we [outdoor educators] know she shouldn't do i n the formative years. The good s t u f f , at l e a s t as f a r as we [outdoor educators] are concerned, happens outside the school. I t was suggested that an environmental education course, i f o f f e r e d , i s g e n e r a l l y an e l e c t i v e i n teacher p r e p a r a t i o n programs and u s u a l l y other types of outdoor education courses are not a v a i l a b l e at a l l . An i d e o l o g i c a l concern was r a i s e d : A l o t of work needs to be done to help determine where we f i t i n t o the teacher t r a i n i n g model. Subject r e l a t e d courses [methods] want you to teach content, i n s t e a d of using information as u s e f u l data i n s o l v i n g environmental problems. So long as environmental education i s l i n k e d to science and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s l i n k e d to P h y s i c a l Education we w i l l continue to make the same mistakes. Our world i s an i n t e g r a t e d whole and we r e l a t e to i t as whole people, w i t h our hearts, our minds, and our bodies. We need to educate about i t i n the same way. But so long as we are t u r n i n g out teachers who do not understand these things and so long as p u b l i c agencies are stuck i n the norm, we w i l l not move!" Another comment which r e f l e c t s the need to address teacher t r a i n i n g was made i n r e l a t i o n the purpose of s c h o o l i n g . One course conductor commented that "the r e a l purpose of school i s to s o c i a l i z e . Therefore, curriculum should r e f l e c t c u l t u r a l problems and i s s u e s . Most of the major s t u d i e s s a i d the same t h i n g . What happened?" In f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n he commented on the p u b l i c education system i n general, and teacher education s p e c i f i c a l l y : I f c u r r i c u l u m i s the transmission of c u l t u r e , then schools need to spend more time going to where the c u l t u r e i s . Real c u l t u r e i s not i n s i d e a classroom. Sure you can create i t , you can study i t second hand, and of t e n t h i s i s good or i t i s the way you have to go to accommodate the system. But i t ' s not r e a l , i t produces a person too f a r removed from the r e a l i s sues that confront our s o c i e t y . We need to stop making teachers the centre of education. We need to create teacher education programs which w i l l help teachers f u n c t i o n i n a r e a l environment. Economics Several economic issues arose i n d i s c u s s i o n . F i r s t , d o l l a r s to support e s t a b l i s h e d outdoor education programs are dwindling. Most course conductors b e l i e v e d that e s t a b l i s h e d programs such as the hundred plus outdoor education centres i n Ontario were not d i r e c t l y i n jeopardy. I t was b e l i e v e d , however, that economic f a c t o r s may cause many communities and i n d i v i d u a l schools to reconsider the a d d i t i o n a l costs a s s o c i a t e d w i t h going to these centres. Therefore, long term d e c l i n e i n use of these centres may be a f u n c t i o n of economic d e c l i n e r a t h e r than a d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a r i t y of programmes and s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d . Several interviewees b e l i e v e d that support f o r outdoor education i n i t i a t i v e s would not be a v a i l a b l e unless proposals were s t r o n g l y l i n k e d to the development of a s u s t a i n a b l e s o c i e t y or the wellness movement. There i s a bandwagon we can jump on i f we can get there f i r s t . I f we can, there i s some hope. Concern f o r the environment and, therefore, environmental and s u s t a i n a b l e development education i s one trend that holds great p o t e n t i a l f o r the f i e l d . I f we can get i n on the l e a d i n g edge, we could get a l o t of funding and r e c o g n i t i o n . Another course conductor s a i d : The wellness t h i n g i s g e t t i n g b i g . We have been dancing around f i t n e s s , a c t i v e l i v i n g , wellness, and l i f e s t y l e f o r a w h i l e . There i s something there f o r the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n people -- as w e l l as the general outdoor educators. And even more there i s the l i n k between environment and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s made. F i n a n c i a l support f o r research, t r a v e l , program i n i t i a t i o n , and on-going eva l u a t i o n and development of p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs was seen as a key i s s u e that was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the issues of l e g i t i m a c y and research s t a t u s . The Environment The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the outdoor education community and a v a r i e t y of environmental issues was regarded as important. E s s e n t i a l l y , the m a j o r i t y of outdoor educators s t a t e d that they b e l i e v e they are a l o g i c a l l i n k between many s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and environmental i s s u e s . I t i s a question of r o l e . One course conductor observed that " i t i s our time, i f we are ever going to gain respect as a group or a f i e l d , or what ever we are, i t i s now i n the midst of heightened environmental concern." Another person commented that : I t s not j u s t a question of opportunity. Even though people are i n t e r e s t e d i n the environment r i g h t now, and they are f o r many reasons l i k e p l a y i n g i n i t , saving i t , knowing i t . The point i s that as a group we have claimed f o r decades that the environment i s our t h i n g . We had b e t t e r take advantage of the s i t u a t i o n and get i n there before someone el s e does. I t f o l l o w s that there i s concern f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r o a c t i v e r o l e at a time when our s o c i e t y may be w i l l i n g to l i s t e n to what outdoor educators have to say. However, s e v e r a l course conductors i n d i c a t e d being p r o a c t i v e should extend beyond the p u b l i c education system to a v a r i e t y of p u b l i c , p r i v a t e , and q u a s i - p u b l i c agencies. Comments r e l a t e d to ecotourism, s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , r e c r e a t i o n , education, entrepreneurship, and protected space management i n d i c a t e d that there i s a need and opportunity to e s t a b l i s h , as one person put i t , "our character and our t e r r i t o r y . " Gender On the issue of gender there appeared to be a s p l i t i n opi n i o n . One course conductor i n d i c a t e d that a d i s t i n c t l a c k of female outdoor educators i n academic i n s t i t u t i o n s was an is s u e . He s a i d "we are s t i l l w a i t i n g f o r a batch of women to come along, but most of them do not pursue graduate s t u d i e s . They never make i t to the u n i v e r s i t y scene." When asked to comment on the s i t u a t i o n , another course conductor i n d i c a t e d that " i t i s probably because doing graduate work i n adventure means l e a v i n g husbands or boyfriends, f a m i l i e s or jobs. Most women are not i n a p o s i t i o n to do so or j u s t don't want t o . " Another interviewee suggested: The jobs a v a i l a b l e to women i n the f i e l d are e i t h e r i n teaching -- i n which case they would be at an outdoor ed. centre which i s tough on the s o c i a l l i f e ! , or i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s -- you know l i k e DARE or something l i k e t h a t . Those jobs are very demanding and the burnout r a t e i s high -- I think they decide to leave the f i e l d a f t e r they experience jobs l i k e t h a t . I think they decide to s e t t l e down. However, the m a j o r i t y of interviewees d i d not perceive a gender i s s u e . One response to the question was i n d i c a t i v e of the m a j o r i t y : I don't r e a l l y get e x c i t e d about i t . We are doing a ... t r i p and h a l f the p a r t i c i p a n t s are females. They j u s t don't go any f u r t h e r . They do not pursue t e r m i n a l degrees. I suppose i t s got to do w i t h f a m i l y and, perhaps, a l i t t l e b i t of h i s t o r i c a l e x c l u s i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the one female interviewee d i d perceive some d i f f i c u l t y . She suggested that : i t i s hard to put your f i n g e r on the problem -- I am tr e a t e d w e l l , but I am t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , and I know I have to prove myself i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t way. Sometimes i t borders on e l i t i s m , but i t would be very d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h how or even why. I am always a l i t t l e o f f centre. At a workshop on Women i n Recreation (Hirsch, 1984) t h i s researcher suggested that she had been p r o g r e s s i v e l y accepted i n t o the f i e l d . One i s judged as a woman f i r s t , then as a competent woman outdoor educator, and f i n a l l y as an competent outdoor educator. When the female interviewee was asked to comment, she intimated that she was probably i n the second phase of the progression and that she could understand why many women choose not to pursue the f i e l d , at l e a s t at an academic l e v e l , "because the whole t h i n g was j u s t too demeaning." A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from one i n s t i t u t i o n i n d i c a t e d that a tenure t r a c k p o s i t i o n had been held over f o r two years since f a c u l t y were searching f o r a female w i t h s u i t a b l e academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . He s a i d : I guess w e ' l l j u s t have to wait because we have been t o l d that we will [emphasis h i s ] h i r e a women. The problem i s that there aren't any out there. We had one, but she was unhappy here and wanted to go back to your neck of the woods. R e a l l y she needed a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i f she wanted to stay i n the academic s e t t i n g . Course conductors were asked why there were so few appropriate women f o r p o s i t i o n s l i k e the one mentioned i n the previous quote, given the number of women i n undergraduate programs. Several interviewees agreed that: I t i s not that they wouldn't l i k e to do t h i s k i n d of a job. I t s more l i k e l y that they are g e t t i n g stuck i n entry l e v e l p o s i t i o n s or j u s t l o o k i n g f o r entry l e v e l p o s i t i o n s . Then they get married, r a i s e f a m i l i e s and go back i n t o s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s i f they go back i n t o the f i e l d at a l l . I t i s hard to have a f a m i l y and do t h i s s t u f f . Maybe there w i l l be a slough of women i n a decade or so when t h e i r f a m i l i e s are grown up and they can go back to school to get a higher education. Conclusions The issues which are considered important by outdoor educators are not new, nor are they unique to the f i e l d of outdoor education. Concerns f o r the s t a t u s of research, p r o f e s s i o n a l development and gender issues are contemporary and are evident i n the s o c i a l sciences. Legitimacy, however, i s normally a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d . Outdoor education i s not a f l e d g l i n g f i e l d ; i t s h i s t o r y spans at l e a s t a century and s i m i l a r struggles have e x i s t e d throughout i t s h i s t o r y . Perhaps, then, one of the most important issues to be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study i s that of l e g i t i m a c y i n that i t may provide a framework f o r d e a l i n g w i t h most of the other i s s u e s . In other words, a f i e l d which i s s t r u g g l i n g , and has s t r u g g l e d f o r so long, to become l e g i t i m a t e w i l l l i k e l y experience d i f f i c u l t y w i t h issues as fundamental as teacher education and research. Summary Q methodology revealed f i v e primary conceptions and one secondary conception of outdoor education. Primary conceptions were t i t l e d : The Adventurer, The E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t , The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t , The Educator, and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur and the secondary conception was t i t l e d The A d m i n i s t r a t o r . The a n a l y s i s produced b a s i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of each conception by r e v e a l i n g a set of features which were used to c h a r a c t e r i z e them. The primary conceptions were f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d by comparing each conception to a l l of the others. Focused interviews were analyzed to provide i n f o r m a t i o n about the course conductors, the program or curriculum, d e f i n i t i o n s of outdoor education, and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s s u e s . The conception used by a course conductor was found to be most l i k e l y a f u n c t i o n of three f a c t o r s : a b i o c e n t r i c o r i e n t a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and the choice of mentors. Programs and c u r r i c u l a were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other f i e l d s of study. The data revealed that c e r t a i n aspects of the conceptions of outdoor education are represented i n a l l programs and that the conceptions can be assigned to two broader categories 'managing' and 'using' the n a t u r a l environment. In a d d i t i o n , i n t e r v i e w data revealed a strong commitment to having people l e a r n using the n a t u r a l environment and to the values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n and/or education experiences i n the n a t u r a l world. Issues which were considered to be important or p r e s s i n g from the p a r t i c u l a r conceptions held by course conductors i n c l u d e d the need to define the concept, the status and conduct of research, the need to l e g i t i m i z e the f i e l d , teacher education, economics, p r o t e c t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment, and gender. CHAPTER 7 Summary and Conclusions A summary of the purpose of t h i s study, the procedures employed i n t h i s study and the f i n d i n g s of the research appear i n t h i s chapter. Conclusions about the nature of the f i n d i n g s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development and outdoor educator education are explained. Based on the conclusions reported i n t h i s chapter, recommendations f o r f u t u r e research and a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study are proposed. Summary of Purpose The purpose of t h i s study was to i d e n t i f y and character-i z e conceptions of outdoor education u n d e r l y i n g outdoor education courses i n E n g l i s h speaking Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . The major aims of the study were: 1. to develop a typology of conceptions of outdoor education ; 2. to c h a r a c t e r i z e the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of concep-t i o n s of outdoor education; 3. to i d e n t i f y issues r e l a t e d to outdoor education which c a l l f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Summary of the Procedures In t h i s study an attempt was made to b u i l d a typology of conceptions of outdoor education. The typology was evolved by a n a l y z i n g documents as s o c i a t e d with Canadian u n i v e r s i t y programs or courses which were l a b e l l e d , or contained as e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n , the term 'outdoor education' or any of a s e r i e s of r e l a t e d terms by engaging them i n Q s o r t procedures and by i n t e r v i e w i n g a sub-set of the course i n s t r u c t o r s . Content a n a l y s i s was conducted using three re c o r d i n g u n i t s which included: 'values', ' c e n t r a l concepts' and 'procedures'. Units of a n a l y s i s were s e l e c t e d and defined i n accordance w i t h expert s t i p u l a t i o n , and procedures were used to v a l i d a t e t h e i r use i n content a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t i n g l i s t s of values and c e n t r a l concepts were reduced to compile two sets of items f o r use i n Q methodology, (see Appendix D) Course conductors performed Q methodology f o r each course twice. S t a t i s t i c a l procedures produced a set of primary conceptions and one secondary conception of outdoor education. A focused i n t e r v i e w was conducted w i t h course conductors to explore the meanings they a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education and w i t h the programs they represented. Four r e c o r d i n g u n i t s formed the b a s i s f o r anal y z i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . The r e s u l t s produced information about course conductor background, a t t i t u d e s and t r a i n i n g ; the program's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h other f i e l d s of study; the concepts's need f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , a common knowledge base, and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the environment, teaching and r e c r e a t i o n ; and s e v e r a l issues s a l i e n t to the movement. A Summary of the Findings 0 Methodology As a r e s u l t of Q methodology the f o l l o w i n g primary conceptions of outdoor education emerged. The Adventurer The p r i o r i t y assigned to personal growth items i n t h i s conception i n d i c a t e s that adventure a c t i v i t i e s are used as a v e h i c l e to achieve a p a r t i c u l a r set of goals. Op p o r t u n i t i e s f o r developing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y , and commitment are presented as a r e s u l t of the inherent q u a l i t i e s a s s o ciated w i t h adventure outdoor p u r s u i t s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adventure programmes such as challenge and e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n are sought. The values, b e n e f i t s , and o b j e c t i v e s normally addressed through adventure education and the procedures used i n Outward Bound type programmes are implemented w i t h regards to the t h e o r e t i c a l framework and procedures of e x p e r i e n t i a l education. The Environmentalist This conception u n d e r l i e s programs which seek to be e f f e c t i v e i n developing an understanding of the n a t u r a l environment and man's impact on i t . Environmental education techniques are used to develop c i t i z e n s who b e l i e v e that q u a l i t y of l i f e and q u a l i t y of environment are i n e x t r i -c ably l i n k e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s are expected to develop s k i l l s necessary to make informed and r e s p o n s i b l e d e c i s i o n s about environmental i s s u e s . The Educator The c e n t r a l feature of t h i s conception i s i t s focus on e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g through e x p e r i e n t i a l education o p p o r t u n i t i e s which u t i l i z e the environment. P r i o r i t y i s given to understanding c u r r i c u l u m planning, teaching s t r a t -egies, l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s , subjects and a c t i v i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n to enhanced l e a r n i n g i n a v a r i e t y of su b j e c t s , i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the environment presents opportunity f o r r e f l e c t i o n and can r e s u l t i n the development of an a p p r e c i -a t i o n f o r the n a t u r a l world. The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t The b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h q u a l i t y r e c r e a t i o n experiences r e l a t e d to the n a t u r a l environ-ment are c e n t r a l to t h i s conception. P r i o r i t y i s given to enjoyment, q u a l i t y of l i f e , new experiences, personal f u l f i l -ment, and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In order to a t t a i n these values the outdoor educator must possess advanced s k i l l s and knowledge r e l a t e d to the safe, environmentally sound, and e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r outdoor p u r s u i t s . The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur The outdoor educator ope r a t i n g from the premises a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s conception assumes that p a r t i c i p a n t s are i n t e r e s t e d i n a t o t a l l i f e s t y l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the n a t u r a l world. I t i s e s s e n t i a l to help p a r t i c i p a n t s develop the environmental l i t e r a c y and a p p r e c i -a t i o n to form the basi s f o r l i v i n g i n harmony w i t h the environment. This conception recognizes the need f o r the outdoor educator to understand a broad range of s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , agencies and systems to support t h i s way of l i f e . Conceptions were compared to each other to produce a grea t e r understanding of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by f u r t h e r c l a r i f y i n g the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features of each. In a l l cases the e s s e n t i a l features of a conception were expanded as a r e s u l t of the comparison f i n d i n g s . The r e s u l t i s a c l e a r e r understanding of the values sought i n outdoor education programs and the knowledge required by outdoor educators to achieve these values. The c e n t r a l concept Q sort produced a s i x t h f a c t o r s o l u t i o n which was named The Ad m i n i s t r a t o r . This f a c t o r was not i n t e r p r e t e d to be a primary conception but rat h e r a secondary conception a r e f l e c t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s necessary to manage the d e l i v e r y of outdoor education programs. The Administrator requires knowledge i n a v a r i e t y of r e l a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas such as personnel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , program planning and e v a l u a t i o n , r i s k management, and l e g a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . When each conception was compared to The Administrator the r e s u l t s suggested that a person a d m i n i s t r a t i n g an outdoor education program should a l s o possess a c l e a r understanding of the e s s e n t i a l features inherent i n the conception which defines that program. F i n a l l y , content a n a l y s i s data were searched to l o c a t e courses which were defined by a p a r t i c u l a r conception. The i n t e n t was to i d e n t i f y the procedural content and s t r u c t u r e of a conception by matching content a n a l y s i s data to the conception which defined the course. I t was not p o s s i b l e , however, to l o c a t e a course which was defined by only one conception and t h e r e f o r e not p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y the procedural content and s t r u c t u r e of a conception i n t h i s manner. I t was assumed that a l o g i c a l l i n k e x i s t s between values and c e n t r a l concepts which d e f i n e a conception and the procedures which must be understood and p r a c t i s e d . Focused Interviews The a n a l y s i s of focused i n t e r v i e w data produced an understanding about two necessary features of the concept outdoor education. F i r s t , the i n t e n t to educate must be present. The nature or o b j e c t i v e s of the educational experience c h a r a c t e r i z e s the values sought w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r conception. The achievement of these values i s a f u n c t i o n of an outdoor educator i n possession of appropriate competencies. C e n t r a l concept competencies are i d e n t i f i e d f o r each conception i n the a n a l y s i s of Q methodology data. The second e s s e n t i a l feature of the concept outdoor education which emerged i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the n a t u r a l environment. I t i s suggested that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be e t h i c a l l y o r i e n t e d or process o r i e n t e d . Both r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the values outdoor educators seek to transmit and the knowledge and procedures they use to do so. The e t h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p centres around the development of an understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the n a t u r a l environment, wh i l e the process r e l a t i o n s h i p centres around the personal development of the p a r t i c i p a n t . The former uses the environ-ment as content and the l a t t e r as a v e h i c l e . Both r e l a t i o n -ships may be present at the same time. Three outcomes associated w i t h methodological t r i a n g u -l a t i o n (Mathison. 1988) were achieved i n t h i s study. F i r s t , the a n a l y s i s of focused i n t e r v i e w data confirmed the exis t e n c e of three of the primary conceptions i d e n t i f i e d using Q methodology. The Educator, The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t , and The Adventurer appear to be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d conceptions w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features and w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d programmatic boundaries. Course conductors a r t i c u l a t e d mentors and sub s t a n t i v e d i s c i p l i n e s r e l a t e d to these conceptions and were able to c l e a r l y define t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s and d e l i v e r y systems . The Environmentalist and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur were not c l e a r l y supported by the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of focused i n t e r v i e w data. Two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y were o f f e r e d . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n that they are not primary conceptions but rather a d d i t i o n a l e s s e n t i a l features of the concept. In other words, a l l outdoor education has an advocacy f u n c t i o n and a l i f e s t y l e impact. The Environmental-i s t and The L i f e S k i l l s Entrepreneur may a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as emerging conceptions i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r f u n c t i o n as determinants of p r o f e s s i o n a l development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . C o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the data represented opposing views about the nature of outdoor education and subsequently the nature of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of opposing view i s one of the outcomes sought from methodologi-c a l t r i a n g u l a t i o n which served to confirm the e x i s t e n c e of s e v e r a l conceptions of the concept which was the focus of t h i s study. Recommendations 1. Outdoor educators should use the conceptions c h a r a c t e r -i z e d i n t h i s study to assess the merits of t h e i r own programs and s e r v i c e s ; 2. Outdoor education o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s should use the conceptions c h a r a c t e r i z e d and the issues i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study to p l a n conferences and other i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; 3. Outdoor educators i n v o l v e d i n the d e l i v e r y of p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs and s e r v i c e s should use the conceptions c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t h i s study to evaluate present c u r r i c u l a and develop future c u r r i c u l a ; 4. Further research i s required to determine whether or not conceptions of outdoor education are a c t u a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d i n u n i v e r s i t y courses. The research instruments, The 'Values' and 'Central Concepts' 0 Sorts, may be used to assess the transmission of a conception. 5. P r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of Q methodology data and pro-cedures should be explored i n co-operation w i t h p r a c t i -t i o n e r s . P r e l i m i n a r y e x p l o r a t i o n s by the researcher i n d i c a t e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the areas of personnel adminis-t r a t i o n and program e v a l u a t i o n . The procedures employed i n t h i s study may be a p p l i e d to other concepts which are t y p i c a l l y used i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of u n i v e r s i t y courses and i n need of conceptual c l a r i f i -c a t i o n , such as l e i s u r e education, l e g a l education, and nursing education. BIBLIOGRAPHY Babin, P a t r i c k . (1979). A Curriculum O r i e n t a t i o n P r o f i l e . Education Canada F a l l , 38-42. Baker, P. (1986). 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(ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED 128 360) Appendix A Correspondence November 28, 1984 Dear I wish to obtain the names of f a c u l t y i n your i n s t i t u t i o n who are teaching or developing outdoor education courses. I am a d o c t o r a l student i n the Centre f o r the Study of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I am preparing to conduct a major n a t i o n a l study r e l a t e d to conceptions of outdoor education which u n d e r l i e courses at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . I am making t h i s request so that I may contact members of your f a c u l t y to i n v i t e them to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. I am i n t e r e s t e d i n f u l l and part time course conductors or developers of courses which are l a b e l l e d outdoor education or any of s e v e r a l r e l a t e d terms such as environmental educa-t i o n , e x p e r i e n t i a l education, adventure education and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Thankyou i n advance f o r your time. I look forward to hearing from you as soon as p o s s i b l e . Yours s i n c e r e l y , P r ofessor Jude deGuerre, Co-ordinator Outdoor Recreation January 19, 1985 Dear I am a d o c t o r a l student i n the Centre f o r the Study of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. This year I w i l l be t a k i n g a leave of absence from Acadia U n i v e r s i t y to c o l l e c t data. The study i s n a t i o n a l i n scope and seeks to i d e n t i f y conceptions of outdoor education which u n d e r l i e outdoor education courses at Canadian univer-s i t i e s . I t i s my understanding that you are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a course (or courses) which i s part of a major, minor or s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n outdoor education or one of s e v e r a l r e l a t e d areas such as outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , environmental education, adventure education and e x p e r i e n t i a l education. Given t h i s understanding, I would l i k e to i n v i t e you to p a r t i c i p a t e i n my study. My i n t e r e s t has evolved as a r e s u l t of my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the outdoor education and r e c r e a t i o n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n programme at Acadia U n i v e r s i t y , as w e l l as s e v e r a l years of involvement i n the formulation of p o l i c y and procedures f o r a v a r i e t y of outdoor education programmes i n Canada, the U.S. and abroad. I t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent to me that we are preparing outdoor educators f o r a d i v e r s i t y of r o l e s w i t h i n the f i e l d and that we may not c l e a r l y understand t h i s d i v e r s i t y at the conceptual l e v e l . In an e f f o r t to provide you wi t h as much inf o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e on which to base your d e c i s i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e , I have enclosed a summary of the r a t i o n a l e and the procedures f o r t h i s study. Anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y are guaranteed. Only I w i l l have access to the primary data and Q Methodology and Focused Interview data w i l l be coded and st o r e d on computer. You would have the r i g h t to refuse p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any stage of the study or withdraw completely at any time. Please r e t u r n the Acknowledgement and Consent Card (A&C) i n the envelop provided regardless of whether you intend to p a r t i c i p a t e . Should you r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n before you decide about p a r t i c i p a t i o n , please check the appropriate p l a c e on the card. I would appreciate a response as soon as p o s s i b l e i n order that I may proceed to organize your p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n t h i s study. In a d d i t i o n to the A&C I have enclosed a l i s t of people at your i n s t i t u t i o n who I understand are e l i g i b l e to p a r t i c i -pate i n t h i s study. Please review the l i s t and add or d e l e t e as a p p r o p r i a t e . Your co-operation i s g r e a t l y appreciated. I b e l i e v e a study of t h i s magnitude and nature w i l l make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to our f i e l d and welcome the opportunity f o r your input and to meet you. Yours s i n c e r e l y , Jude de Guerre, Co-ordinator Outdoor Education and Recreation Outdoor Education Course Conductors Institution: Please review t h i s l i s t . According to the summary or r a t i o n a l e and procedures which accompany i t , add people who you b e l i e v e are not included on the l i s t , but are or may be re s p o n s i b l e f o r a course which r e l a t e s to t h i s study. Delete people who you b e l i e v e are in a p p r o p r i a t e to i n c l u d e i n t h i s study. Thankyou f o r your time. Conceptions of Outdoor Education A Conceptual Analysis Study Summary of Rationale "The conceptions of outdoor education vary as p r e c i s e l y as those who look upon i t vary. Any educator, viewing i t s r a t i o n a l e , philosophy, and p r a c t i c e s form h i s own p o i n t of view, n e c e s s a r i l y sees something d i f f e r e n t than h i s colleagues do. " Donaldson and Goering Perspectives on Outdoor Education. Dubuque: Brown, 1972. This study w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the t h e o r e t i c a l development of the f i e l d of outdoor education i n a number of ways. F i r s t , by s e r v i n g as an i n d u c t i v e study i t w i l l lead to the formula-t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l ideas. For example, t e n t a t i v e notions my emerge regarding c u l t u r a l or r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n concep-t i o n s of outdoor education. I may be p o s s i b l e to make infe r e n c e s about the nature of p r o f e s s i o n a l development c u r r i c u l u m at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s or about issues which r e l a t e to the f i e l d . Secondly, t h i s study w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the development of an overview of outdoor education i n Canada, at l e a s t as i t i s evidenced i n courses at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . There has been some attempt to c h a r a c t e r i z e the nature of p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n courses i n t h i s country (Grenier, 1983, however, these r e f l e c t d e s c r i p t i o n s of programmes, w i t h out the b e n e f i t of i d e n t i f y i n g the underlying d i f f e r e n c e s i n the content and s t r u c t u r e of the conceptions which u n d e r l i e them. The past s e v e r a l decades have seen major developments i n the f i e l d of outdoor education p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s to p u b l i c education and l e i s u r e s e r v i c e systems. Studies i n outdoor education have been g e n e r a l l y concerned w i t h assessing a broad range of outcomes as s o c i a t e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of experiences or w i t h d e s c r i b i n g programme development. What i s assumed i n these studies are c e r t a i n conceptions of outdoor education. Sometimes vague d e f i n i t i o n s are o f f e r e d , but g e n e r a l l y there i s l i t t l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the meaning of the concept to which these studies r e l a t e . This study w i l l p rovide a d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h which e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s can be judged and future research can be developed. F i n a l l y , t h i s study w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the broader f i e l d s to which outdoor education r e l a t e s . The outdoor education movement has not been accompanied by p r e c i s e or even c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n . I t spans a d i v e r s e and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g set of purposes. Conceptual c l a r i t y w i t h i n the f i e l d w i l l strengthen the c o n t r i b u t i o n the movement can make to many aspects of Canadian l i f e . Summary of Procedures The research design f o r t h i s study i n c l u d e s a methodo-l o g i c a l t r i a n g u l a t i o n of three techniques. F i r s t , content analysis w i l l be performed on documents a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education courses. Appropriate documents i n c l u d e course d e s c r i p t i o n s , course textbooks, manuals, a r t i c l e s and hand outs. The a n a l y s i s i s intended to produce a comprehen-s i v e set of values, c e n t r a l concepts and procedures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education courses at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . I t i s a l s o intended to provide a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of each course. s i n c e i t i s important that I have a complete set of m a t e r i a l s f o r each course, your task is to provide me with the appropriate documents or a bibliography of required readings. When I have completed content a n a l y s i s , which I assume w i l l r e q u i r e the academic year (85-86), I w i l l implement Q Methodology. Based on the data obtained i n content a n a l y s i s , I w i l l evolve two l i s t s of Q sort items. One w i l l be the values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outdoor education courses and the other the central concepts. Your task w i l l be to perform a values and a central concept Q sort for each course you are conduct-ing. I t w i l l l i k e l y i n v o l v e about an hour per course. I understand, however, that the procedure i s a pleasant and thought provoking one. I expect to be completing Q s o r t s during the 1986-87 academic year. F i n a l l y , I intend to conduct a focused interview w i t h each course conductor. I w i l l be seeking i n f o r m a t i o n about you, your courses, your students and your perceptions about the concept and the f i e l d of outdoor education. I w i l l v i s i t you, at your convenience, and take about one hour of your time. I intend to conduct interviews i n 1987-88. Should you agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study s e l f addressed, stamped containers w i l l be sent to you to f a c i l i -t a t e the transport of course documents. I f you r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l information, please c a l l at 542-2201 (ext. 562) or check the appropriate place on the enclosed Acknowledgement and Consent Card. Thankyou f o r your time. Name: I n s t i t u t i o n : A d d r e s s ; __, , ____ __ T e l e p h o n e : D e p a r t m e n t o r S c h o o l 1 I w o u l d l i " k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y . y e s 2. I may l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y , b u t I r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . P l e a s e w r i t e _____ phone 3. My i n q u i r y c o n c e r n s t h e f o l l o w i n g : D a t e : : : S i g n a t u r e : 1 Acknowledgement and Consent Card Date Dear Thankyou f o r consenting to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study of Conceptions of Outdoor Education at Canadian Universities. The response from our colleagues has been extremely support-i v e . I have enclosed a la r g e envelop f o r each course you i n d i c a t e d a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r . Please place a l l of your documents and/or a b i b l i o g r a p h y i n the envelop and r e t u r n i t to me at your e a r l i e s t convenience. Remember to complete the i n f o r m a t i o n s t i c k e r on the back of the envelop. I w i l l be i n touch w i t h you i n s e v e r a l months to arrange the next phase of the study. Thankyou once again. Yours s i n c e r e l y , Jude deGuerre, Co-ordinator Outdoor Education and Recreation COURSE INFORMATION I am r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s : COURSE NAME COURSE NUMBER 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 2 Acknowledgement and Consent Card (reverse) Date Dear E a r l i e r t h i s year you were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study I am conducting of outdoor education courses at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . I have had t e r r i f i c support from our colleagues across the country, but as yet, have no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from (name of i n s t i t u t i o n ) I am anxious that your courses are represented i n the study since I b e l i e v e they w i l l provide a b a s i s f o r a c l e a r e r understanding of the concept, outdoor education, and the uniqueness of (name of i n s t i t u t i o n ) I n i t i a l l y you were asked to complete and r e t u r n an Acknowledgement and Consent Card regardless of your i n t e n t to p a r t i c i p a t e . I f u l l y understand the busy l i f e of a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r , e s p e c i a l l y during the academic year. Just i n case you have misplaced the f i r s t package, I have taken the l i b e r t y of sending you another set of information. I would appreciate your response at your e a r l i e s t convenience. Thankyou. Yours S i n c e r e l y , Jude de Guerre, Coordinator Outdoor Recreation and Education May 12, 1986 Dear Time has passed q u i c k l y since I began t h i s study. I thought I would l e t you know how things are going. I am j u s t f i n i s h i n g content a n a l y s i s and g e t t i n g ready to prepare the Q Sort instruments. E a r l y i n September you w i l l r e c e i v e the C e n t r a l Concepts Q Sort m a t e r i a l s f o r each of courses you are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r . In January you w i l l r e c e i v e a second set of packages f o r the Values s o r t . I f at any time you r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e throughout t h i s phase of the study please contact me. In the mean time, I have an o f f i c e o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h documents r e l a t e d to f i f t y - o n e outdoor education courses. I f e e l very fortunate to have had the p r i v i l e g e of reading them. Thankyou again. Yours s i n c e r e l y , Jude (deGuerre) Hirsc h , Co-ordinator Outdoor Education and Recreation Date Dear Thankyou f o r your prompt r e t u r n of the Values Q Sort. About 90% of them have been returned already. Thus f a r the r e s u l t s have been very i n t e r e s t i n g . As we get c l o s e r to the Focused Interview phase of t h i s study, I f i n d myself a n t i c i p a t i n g meeting such a wonderful r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of my colleagues. In the mean time, I am sending you the C e n t r a l Concept Sort. Once again each item represents a reduction of a set of r e l a t e d items i n the content a n a l y s i s data. In most cases, I b e l i e v e the terms are s e l f explanatory. Sometimes, I have in c l u d e d on one tag a set of terms to help i n d i c a t e more f u l l y the meaning of the item. I f you r e q u i r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n , please f e e l f r e e to contact me. The procedure i s the same, although the number of items to s o r t t h i s time i s d i f f e r e n t . Follow the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the f r o n t of the Q Sort envelop and remember to f i l l i n the i n f o r m a t i o n area i n the upper l e f t hand corner of the envelop. I was pleased to hear that some of you used the sort i n your c l a s s e s i n various ways and found i t to be h e l p f u l . In one c l a s s I used a s i n g l e page l i s t of the items to s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n about s e v e r a l f i l m s and make d i s t i n c t i o n s about the values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t instances of outdoor educa-t i o n . I understand from the students that i t brought some r e a l i t y to a d i s c u s s i o n of values. I am developing some a p p l i c a t i o n s of the procedure to the h i r i n g process f o r a c i t y r e c r e a t i o n department. I t i s good to see some p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s emerging! Please r e t u r n t h i s s ort as soon as p o s s i b l e . Again, thankyou f o r your time and e f f o r t . I know you are very busy. Yours S i n c e r e l y , Jude H i r s c h , Co-ordinator Outdoor Education and Recreation January, 1987 Dear Further to our telephone conversation of I w r i t e to confirm the date and time of our Focused Interview. I w i l l complete interviews i n eastern Canada during our study break. I w i l l be v i s i t i n g western Canada i n May i n conjunc-t i o n w i t h the World Congress on Leisure, Free Time and Culture. In some cases there are se v e r a l people I w i l l be i n t e r -viewing at one i n s t i t u t i o n . I would appreciate your co-o r d i n a t i n g e f f o r t s to make my stay as productive as p o s s i b l e . I f I can be of any ass i s t a n c e while I am i n town, please l e t me know i n advance. An excuse to stay longer i s welcome. Please check the enclosed. I look forward to meeting you a f t e r such a long and productive acquaintance. Yours s i n c e r e l y , Jude H i r s c h , Co-ordinator Outdoor Education and Recreation Appendix B Content A n a l y s i s Sources Content a n a l y s i s was performed on course o u t l i n e s , assignment d e s c r i p t i o n s , program handbooks and any documents obtained from course conductors or from the Acadia U n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y . F o l l o w i n g i s a s e l e c t i o n of course documents on which content a n a l y s i s was performed. Where a s i g n i f i c a n t number of readings associated w i t h s e v e r a l courses were l o c a t e d i n one book of readings, the l a t t e r i s recorded. Course d e s c r i p t i o n s , assignment o u t l i n e s and program handbooks are not in c l u d e d i n t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y . I t can be assumed, however, that some or a l l of these documents were analyzed f o r every course i n d i c a t e d i n Table I I as p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the content a n a l y s i s phase of t h i s study. A s s o c i a t i o n f o r E x p e r i e n t i a l Education (n.d.). The theory of e x p e r i e n t i a l education K r a f t & S. M i t c h e l l (Eds.). Boulder: A s s o c i a t i o n f o r E x p e r i e n t i a l Education. Donaldson, G.W., & Goering, 0. (1972). Perspectives on outdoor education. Dubuque : Wm. Brown. Ford, P.M. (1981). P r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s of outdoor and environmental education. New York: Whiley & Sons. Hammerman, D.R. and Hammerman, W.M. (1971). Teaching i n the outdoors. Minneapolis: Burgess P u b l i s h i n g Co. Hammerman, D.R. and Hammerman, E.L. (19 68) . Outdoor education: A book of readings. Minneapolis: Burgess. Link, M. (1981). Outdoor education: A manual f o r teaching i n nature's classroom. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Meier, J . (1980) . High adventure outdoor p u r s u i t s : o r g a n i z a t i o n and leade r s h i p . S a l t Lake C i t y : Brighton. P r i e s t , S. (1986, Spring). Redefining outdoor education: A matter of many r e l a t i o n s h i p s . J o u r n a l of Environmental Education. 17.(3), 13-15. Olsen, L.D. (1967) . Outdoor s u r v i v a l s k i l l s . Provo, Utah: Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y Press. P e t z o l d t , P. (1982). The wilderness handbook. Toronto: G.J. McLeod. Rogers, R.J. (1979). Leading to share, sharing to lead. Sudbury: Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario. Smith, J.W., Carlson, R.E., Donaldson, G.W., & Masters, H.B. (1972) . Outdoor education. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e -H a l l . S t a l e y , F.A. (1983) . Outdoor education i n the t o t a l c u r r i c u l u m . Journal of Health, P h y s i c a l Education, Recreation and Dance. 54.(1), 55-64. Van Matre, S. (1972). A c c l i m a t i z a t i o n . Indiana: American Camping A s s o c i a t i o n . Appendix C Content A n a l y s i s Data Values Items 1. r e s t & r e l a x a t i o n 2. l e i s u r e s k i l l s 3. d e s i r a b l e behaviour 4. status 5. economic growth 6. heightened 7. perceptions 8. e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n 9. wellness 10. i n t e r p e r s o n a l bonding 11. a p p r e c i a t i o n of n a t u r a l wor 12. a e s t h e t i c pleasure 13. s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n 14. personal growth 15. e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g 16. p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s 17. sustained p a r t i c i p a t i o n 18. a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e s t y l e 19. r e c r e a t i o n 20. environmental i n t e r a c t i o n 21. acceptance of consequence 22. escape 23. e f f i c a c y 24. new experiences 25. c u l t u r a l roots 26. s t i m u l a t i o n 27. q u a l i t y of l i f e 28. v a r i e t y of opportunity 29. environmental l i t e r a c y 30. commitment 31. strengthened p e r s o n a l i t y 32. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 33. challenge 34. metaphysical awareness 35. mastery 36. opportunity f o r r e f l e c t i o n 37. d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y 38. s u r v i v a l s k i l l s 39. emotional involvement 40. f i r s t hand l e a r n i n g 41. i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s 42. freedom from c o n s t r a i n t 43. r e h a b i l i t a t i o n 44. freedom to choose 45. enjoyment 46. c i t i z e n r y 47. personal f u l f i l m e n t Central Concept Items 1. values, b e n e f i t s & o b j e c t i v e s 2 . environmental education 3 . c o u n s e l l i n g 4 . outdoor p u r s u i t equipment 5 . e x p e r i e n t i a l education 6 . program planning, design & e v a l u a t i o n 7 . teaching s t r a t e g i e s & l e a r n i n g theory 8 . camp a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 9 . Outward Bound 10 . group theory & management 11. curri c u l u m planning 12 . environmental impact 13 . programs & resources 14 . l e g a l issues 15 . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n & p o l i c y development 16. research techniques 17 . r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s & agencies 18 . personnel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 19 . outdoor l i v i n g s k i l l s 20 . n a t u r a l science concepts 21. personal growth p o t e n t i a l 22 . h i s t o r y , philosophy & p e r s p e c t i v e s 23 . environmental e t h i c s & issues 24 . f i e l d t r i p s 25. l e i s u r e i n s o c i e t y 26. outdoor r e c r e a t i o n 27 . ecology & n a t u r a l h i s t o r y 28 . s a f e t y & emergency procedures 29 . r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e 30 . adventure education 31. terminology & r e l a t e d concepts 32 . environmental c o n d i t i o n s & f a c t o r s 33 . subjects & a c t i v i t i e s 34. tourism & p o l i t i c a l systems 35 . wilderness f i r s t a i d 36. leadership theory & technique 37 . outdoor p u r s u i t t e c h n i c a l 38. s k i l l & i n s t r u c t o r s h i p 39 . f a c i l i t y a c q u i s i t i o n , development & management 40 . r i s k management Procedures Descriptors : + 1.1 OD Programming and C o u n s e l l i n g extended outdoor programs impact of leader and member s k i l l s on group behaviour i n t e r p e r s o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches s t a f f development, t r a i n i n g and m o t i v a t i o n t r i p planning emergency procedures s e l f d i s c l o s u r e communication process l i s t e n i n g and responding task and maintenance group fu n c t i o n s expressing f e e l i n g s , non-verbal and v e r b a l how to recognize and e f f e c t i v e group l i s t e n i n g an responding r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t sharing l e a d e r s h i p h e l p i n g program planning acceptance of s e l f and others e v a l u a t i n g outdoor programs confronting e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l i n g w i t h anger s e l f assessment developing and maintaining t r u s t accepting s e l f and others r e i n f o r c i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s + 1.2 Winter Outdoor Education c l o t h i n g and s l e e p i n g bags f o r outdoor l i v i n g needs winter t r a v e l i n remote mountain regions s h e l t e r s f o r winter camping avalanche safety t r i p d e b r i e f i n g c o l d a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l of heat production c l o t h i n g as thermal i n s u l a t i o n e f f e c t s of a l t i t u d e on c l i m b i n g rates avalanche rescue means to measure temperature conditions depressing heat production + 1.3 OE Organization and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n operation of s e l e c t e d outdoor centres s i t u a t i o n a l l eadership developing leadership c o n s t r u c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e m o tivation assessment of lead e r s h i p s t y l e s MBO, performance a p p r a i s a l prevention of burnout working w i t h volunteers s t a f f s e l e c t i o n marketing program development ev a l u a t i o n r i s k management team b u i l d i n g i n c r e a s i n g team e f f e c t i v e n e s s s t a r t i n g and implementing change ev a l u a t i n g group d e c i s i o n making time management + 1.4 Judeo-Christain Perspectives i n Organized Camping + 1.5 Urban Outdoor Recreation u t i l i z a t i o n of outdoor s e t t i n g s f o r meaningful rec & dev experiences i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches used i n env. ed - approaches i n p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n urban centres user assessment i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r using outdoor environments various t r a v e l modes car,bike,canoe, foot teaching a c t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p educating f o r environmental a c t i o n i n t e g r a t i o n of env. ed i n t o the tim e t a b l e winter use of urban parks accessing winter to the m o b i l i t y impaired programming f o r the o l d e r a d u l t camping w i t h retarded persons family camping nature a c t i v i t i e s f o r e a r l y childhood + 2.1 I n t r o to Outdoor Environmental Education e x p e r i e n t i a l education models Belgrade Charter guiding p r i n c i p l e s use of the environment i n i t s t o t a l i t y - process., i n school and out of school i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n problem s o l v i n g view major environmental issues from a world point of view focus on current and f u t u r e environmental s i t u a t i o n s examine development and growth from an environmental p e r s p e c t i v e - promote the value of l o c a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-op placed i n four broad c u r r i c areas humanities, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , n a t u r a l and p h y s i c a l sciences, outdoor p u r s u i t s s t r e s s the formation of concepts leading to the development of a t t . & value focus on r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s a n a l y s i s of environmental issues environmental a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s model f o r a u n i t of study f i e l d t r i p planning s i t e a n a l y s i s + 2.2 Foundations of Outdoor Environmental Education o r g a n i z a t i o n and operation of f i e l d t r i p s e f f e c t i v e teaching methods i n q u i r y method, in c l u d e s prob. solve and discovery use of teacher l e d d i s c u s s i o n and l e c t u r e use of debate i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s demonstrations readings student l e d d i s c u s s i o n independent study e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n t e r e s t s t i m u l a t i o n techniques s i m u l a t i o n games value c l a r i f i c a t i o n environmental s t u d i e s p r o j e c t cards student a c t i o n groups student completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s student administered o p i n i o n a i r e s resource worksheets career education resident centres s t r e s s challenge methods methods which i n v o l v e students as a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s student centred a c t i v i t i e s f i e l d t r i p s e f f e c t i v e n e s s increases w i t h length + 2.3 F a c i l i t i e s and Programs i n Outdoor Environmental Education s t r a t e g i e s and techniques f o r a n a l y z i n g centre operations Boyne River N a t u r a l Science School one to two month previous v i s i t to school student o r g a n i z a t i o n program o r g a n i z a t i o n d e c i s i o n s and choices i n small groups made by group what to take what to leave at home + 2.4 Leadership i n Outdoor Environmental Education p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s e v a l u a t i o n of personnel s t a f f r e l a t i o n s , motivating, meetings program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e l a t i o n s w i t h other agencies c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n conducting i n - s e r v i c e programs and workshops s t a f f s u p e r v i s i o n + 3.1 Wildlands and Outdoor P u r s u i t s r e c o n c i l i n g the demands of OD p u r s u i t s with p r e s e r v a t i o n - p o l i c i e s and procedures which a s s i s t small groups to c o - e x i s t minimal impact technique + 3.2 Outdoor P u r s u i t s s t r e s s management r i s k assessment equipment r e p a i r and maintenance route planning, n a v i g a t i o n , menu planning etc. f o r expeditions t e c h n i c a l s k i l l r e l a t e d to seasonal and sele c t e d outdoor p u r s u i t s - leadership c o n s i d e r a t i o n s + 3.3 Outdoor Education e x p e r i e n t i a l education f i e l d t r i p planning and implementation program planning and c u r r i c u l u m development teaching outdoors A c c l i m a t i z a t i o n / S u n s h i p Earth l o c a t i n g resources i n s t r u c t i o n f o r r e t e n t i o n do a l i t t l e thoroughly mesh v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h c l o s e p r a c t i c e do not t a l k f o r long - devise exercises that demonstrate the knowledge to the student i f the i n f o does not apply to the task at hand, leave out t r a i n / d r i l l to achieve l a s t i n g competency f a c i l i t a t i o n use of the wilderness as a l e a r n i n g t o o l enrichment do i t f o r i t s e l f group management and p r e s e n t a t i o n r i g h t moment ensure p h y s i c a l comfort get a t t e n t i o n speak slowly and c l e a r l y demonstrate p r a c t i c e c r i t i q u e i n t e r p e r s o n a l aspects be calm..radiate confidence and s e c u r i t y t a l k w i t h y o u r students...communicate..dialogue vs monologue be s i n c e r e tune i n t o changing mood of c l a s s provide c u r i o s i t y quick i n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e use of the s k i l l i n a s i t u a t i o n adventure s a t i s f a c t i o n / s u c c e s s r e f l e c t i o n planning m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y programs guiding experience meeting educational o b j e c t i v e s d i r e c t l e a r n i n g through f i r s t hand experience i n t e r v i e w s , resource v i s i t o r s , f i e l d t r i p s surveys c o n t r i v e d experience camping s e r v i c e p r o j e c t s work experiences s i t e assessments c r a f t work compass course leadership i n school camping + 3.4 Organization and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Outdoor Education Programs and Centres o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and management s k i l l s e f f i c i e n t and competent a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r i s k management mobile courses program budgeting and fund r a i s i n g geographical l o c a t i o n planning program planning procedures s t a f f s e l e c t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e safeguards e v a l u a t i o n a r t i c u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s reasonably r e l a t i n g r i s k to o b j e c t i v e s developing contingency plans f a m i l i a r i z i n g s t a f f w i t h the t e r r a i n developing r e g u l a t i o n s - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s before and a f t e r a t r i p before planning time avoid over commitment f u l f i l l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e s t a b l i s h and maintain w r i t t e n records submit a w r i t t e n proposal f i l e route card/program - e s t a b l i s h emergency n o t i f i c a t i o n procedures emergency planning a l t e r n a t e routes rescue s e r v i c e s - doctor or h o s p i t a l contacts emergency v e h i c l e e s t a b l i s h h e a l t h care medical forms - MSI medical problems arrange h e a l t h / a c c i d e n t insurance make and use c h e c k l i s t s draw up d e t a i l e d program prepare and plan equipment t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s d r i v e r s budget parents i n i t i a l planning, b r i e f i n g permission n o t i c e s send-off agencies/land use and resources weather and c o n d i t i o n s r e p o r t / f o r e c a s t / d i s c u s s i o n snow avalanche report r i v e r flow report f i r e danger t r a i n i n g and c o n d i t i o n i n g p h y s i c a l and mental i n t e g r a t e p r e p a r a t i o n b r i e f i n g a f t e r time to wind down plan follow-up or s p i n - o f f check i n w i t h s u p e r v i s o r equipment check before students go home clean e t c . make notes - f i x s t a f f d e b r i e f i n g and recommendations documents w r i t e a report clean and r e t u r n t r a n s p o r t then l a t e r d e b r i e f p r i n t . . r u s h c e l e b r a t e + 3.5 Safety i n Outdoor P u r s u i t s procedures f o r the avoidance of n a t u r a l environmental hazards management of n a t u r a l hazards avalanche protec t i o n / l o c a t i o n / and rescue + 3.6 Cou n s e l l i n g and Leadership i n the Outdoors keeping groups ha p p y , e f f e c t i v e and safe p r a c t i c a l group management techniques emergency procedures search and rescue systems i n t r o s p e c t i v e techniques s e l f e v a l u a t i o n c r i s i s coping s t r a t e g i e s formal c o u n s e l l i n g techniques f a c i l i t a t i o n of l e a r n i n g , personal growth, group i n t e r a c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h emotional problems and c r i s e s leaders r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s party management j o u r n a l i z i n g r o l e p l a y i n g d e - b r i e f i n g + 3.7 S u r v i v a l t o o l c r a f t improvised s h e l t e r s f i r e l i t h i c a r t ed i b l e p l a n t s + 3.8 Outdoor P u r s u i t s n a v i g a t i o n techniques equipment purchasing programming f o r a wide range of comm. p e r s o n a l i t i e s + 4.1 Outdoor Warm Weather A c t i v i t i e s v a r i e t y of warm weather outdoor a c t i v i t i e s l e adership and planning f o r adventure t e c h n i c a l l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s l o c a t i n g resource m a t e r i a l - maintaining normal p h y s i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s during outdoor l i v i n g - minimal impact techniques cookery and menu planning weather p r e d i c t i o n rope techniques n a v i g a t i o n techniques canoe t r i p planning adventure a c t i v i t y l e a d e r s h i p equipment preparation tent equipment issue form personal equipment l i s t packing equipment marking equipment preparation plan canoe t r i p p i n g w i t h l e a r n i n g groups know trace camping s k i l l s environmental behaviour personal growth t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s s a f e ty leadership s k i l l s f o r outdoor adventure a c t i v i t i e s emergency procedures s k i school p o l i c i e s p r e - s k i warm up ex e r c i s e s + 4.2 Advanced Alpine S k i i n g t e c h n i c a l s k i l l of a l p i n e teaching progressions f o r s k i i n g dry land t r a i n i n g t r a i n i n g techniques tuning a l p i n e s k i i s set a competitive course + 4.3 Outdoor Recreation s i t e a n a l y s i s master planning + 4.4 Outdoor Cold Weather A c t i v i t y winter camping s i t e s e l e c t i o n food s h e l t e r c l o t h i n g c o l d weather s u r v i v a l + 4.5 I n t r o d u c t i o n to Outdoor Education Outdoor education teaching about the q u a l i t y and quantity of a l l aspects of the environment using the n a t u r a l environment f o r teaching other f a c e t s of education using experiences as a primary focus s y n t h e s i z i n g a l l school d i s c i p l i n e s d i r e c t l a b . experiences to i d e n t . and resolve r e a l l i f e problems f i e l d t r i p s , excursions, v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e and school camping s k i i n g advanced a l p i n e d i r e c t r a t h e r than v i c a r i o u s experiences occurs on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s e c o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n of the interdependence of l i v i n g things teaching a t t i t u d e s , a p p r e c i a t i o n s , understandings, and expression a c q u i s i t i o n of b a s i c s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , an a p p r e c i a t i o n of l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s t o t a l community planning discovery approach using the senses Environmental Education i n t e g r a t e d process f o s t e r i n g awareness recognizing values c l a r i f y i n g concepts p r a c t i c e i n d e c i s i o n making and s e l f formulation of a code of behaviour using h i s t o r y to teach about the environment teaching i n a man-centred fashion programs must encompass three areas of l i v i n g : knowledge s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e developing knowledge on t h e i r own through proj ects discovery i n small groups of four or f i v e + 5.1 Outdoor Recreation f o r S p e c i a l Populations r i s k r e c r e a t i o n procedures co-operation w i t h the elements of nature phenomena of t e s t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g oneself challenge of the unknown and the unpredictable f a c i l i t a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n involvement f o r s p e c i a l pops doing community studi e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i a l populations through r e f e r r a l s scheduling record keeping i n t e g r a t i n g / n o r m a l i z i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n s u l t i n g program c o n s u l t i n g i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g case c o - o r d i n a t i o n educating the p u b l i c l e i s u r e c o u n s e l l i n g l i a i s o n + 5.2 Outdoor S k i l l s IV a s e l e c t i o n of outdoor p u r s u i t s , teaching them and leading them + 5.3 Tests and Measurements i n Outdoor Recreation s t a t i s t i c a l methods i n the s o c i a l sciences research and e v a l u a t i o n of l e i s u r e s e r v i c e s a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s and SPSS co n s t r u c t i o n of graphs hypothesis t e s t i n g a n a l y s i s of variance + 5.4 Outdoor S k i l l s V l e a r n i n g methods paddling solo solo paddling strokes paddling double paddling rapids white water technique wipeouts, when things go wrong a l t e r n a t i v e s to running rapids wilderness s a f e t y procedures r e p a i r i n g canoes choosing canoes no-trace camping + 6.1 Outdoor Education A c t i v i t i e s - what a c t i v i t i e s to do at what grade l e v e l s - what to teach i n the outdoors and what to teach indoors, the equipment and the resources where to go f o r help + 6.2 Winter Camping winter camping s i t e s e l e c t i o n and l o c a t i o n s h e l t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n campfire: s i t e , maintenance, r e f l e c t o r , wood supply cooking and food p r e p a r a t i o n care of equipment o r d e r l i n e s s co-operation i n i t i a t i v e s cross-country s k i i n g p r e p a r a t i o n walking g l i d i n g k i c k i n g p o l i n g and double p o l i n g t u r n i n g up h i l l techniques down h i l l techniques t o u r i n g map compass and route f i n d i n g s u r v i v a l s k i l l s wilderness f i r s t a i d camp entertainment d i e t , h e a l t h and hygiene outdoor conservation avalanche safety and rescue + 7.1 Outdoor Education: Summer a l l the summer a c t i v i t i e s l i k e canoeing, h i k i n g and what you can do on these t r i p s to support c u r r i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s + 7.2 Outdoor Education: Winter a l l the winter a c t i v i t i e s l i k e XC s k i i n g and how to use them to support c u r r i c u l a r obj e c t i v e s + 7.3 O r i e n t e e r i n g and Cross Country S k i i n g about maps and compass + 7.4 Education to Adventure the meaning of adventure education, s e l e c t e d programs and s e r v i c e s the value of adventure education l i k e s p i r i t u a l outcomes and metaphysical awareness, e f f i c a c y , c h a l l e n g e , c o n f r o n t a t i o n (there i s a l i s t which i s w e l l represented i n the values l i s t . + 9.1 Outdoor Education i n Recreation Outdoor education teaching about the q u a l i t y and qua n t i t y of a l l aspects of the environment using the n a t u r a l environment f o r teaching other f a c e t s of education using experiences as a primary focus s y n t h e s i z i n g a l l school d i s c i p l i n e s d i r e c t l a b . experiences to i d e n t . and resolve r e a l l i f e problems f i e l d t r i p s , excursions, v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e and school camping d i r e c t r a t h e r than v i c a r i o u s experiences occurs on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s e c o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n of the interdependence of l i v i n g things teaching a t t i t u d e s , a p p r e c i a t i o n s , understandings, and expression a c q u i s i t i o n of b a s i c s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , an a p p r e c i a t i o n of l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s t o t a l community planning discovery approach using the senses Environmental Education i n t e g r a t e d process f o s t e r i n g awareness recognizing values c l a r i f y i n g concepts p r a c t i c e i n d e c i s i o n making and s e l f formulation of a code of behaviour using h i s t o r y to teach about the environment teaching i n a man-centred f a s h i o n programs must encompass three areas of l i v i n g : knowledge s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e developing knowledge on t h e i r own through proj ects discovery i n small groups of four or f i v e s o c i a l : i n t e n t i o n a l vs. f r e e choice groups using high school l e a d e r s h i p i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups, l i v i n g groups, eating groups, r e c r e a t i o n groups s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t i n g program to o b j e c t i v e s measuring behaviour against obj e c t i v e s p r a c t i c e democratic procedures s i x steps i n the d i s c o v e r y process u t i l i z a t i o n of resources beyond the classroom implementation of f i r s t hand experience f i t t i n g outdoor experiences i n t o background information covered i n c l a s s l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s from a planned sequence of events moulding i s o l a t e d f a c t s from the c l a s s i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d whole a teaching progression a c c l i m a t i o n p r i o r to advanced l e a r n i n g of concepts s t i m u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t b u i l d i n g i n i t i a l confidence i n knowledge and s k i l l s move from a c q u i s i t i o n of b a s i c f a c t s to u t i l i z a t i o n of f a c t s Art forms seeking app, sen, awar, and d i s c r , t o w a r d v i s u a l environment seeking v i s u a l evidence of a r t forms i n the n a t u r a l world Analogies to r e l a t e to nature i n terms of items that are f a m i l i a r discuss and i d e n t i f y analogous components help people form p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r minds Sensory Awareness E c o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e s the development of b a s i c e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s D e c i sion Making studying environmental issues developing a land e t h i c s u r v i v a l outdoors hypothermia treatment choosing s i t e s f o r outdoor education teaching outdoor behaviour which ensures s u r v i v a l and perpetuation of the q u a l i t y of the land developing the school s i t e s e l f guided walks nature t r a i l day s i t e s r e s i d e n t s i t e s f i e l d t r i p s e s t a b l i s h i n g the purpose of the f i e l d t r i p p r e paration f o r t r i p development of t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g experiences a c c l i m a t i z i n g to the f i e l d t r i p experience t e s t i n g the i t i n e r a r y - leadership techniques f o r teaching on the t r i p use of m u l t i sensory awareness a f t e r the t r i p review and summary adapting the f i e l d t r i p concept to ur b a n i z a t i o n reading h i s t o r y i n the environment planning and d e l i v e r i n g n i g h t hikes resident outdoor schools a d m i n i s t r a t i o n lodging e a t i n g planning indoor program planning outdoor program h e a l t h and s a f e t y procedures emergency p o l i c i e s s t a f f i n g the outdoor school o r g a n i z i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , f u n c t i o n s , areas, p a r t i c i p a n t s b i c y c l e tour r i s k management planning funding r e s i d e n t i a l programs ev a l u a t i n g outdoor programs programming campfire programming d i n i n g h a l l programming f l a g ceremonies weather p r e d i c t i o n scheduling programs p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s + 10.1 P r i n c i p l e s of Outdoor Education + 11.1 Outdoor Recreation A d m i n i s t r a t i o n v a r i e t y of warm weather outdoor a c t i v i t i e s l e adership and planning f o r adventure t e c h n i c a l leadership s k i l l s l o c a t i n g resource m a t e r i a l - maintaining normal p h y s i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s during outdoor l i v i n g - minimal impact techniques cookery and menu planning weather p r e d i c t i o n rope techniques n a v i g a t i o n techniques canoe t r i p planning adventure a c t i v i t y l e a d e r s h i p equipment preparation tent equipment issue form personal equipment l i s t packing equipment marking equipment preparation plan canoe t r i p p i n g with l e a r n i n g groups know trace camping s k i l l s environmental behaviour personal growth t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s s a f e ty leadership s k i l l s f o r outdoor adventure a c t i v i t i e s emergency procedures s k i school p o l i c i e s p r e - s k i warm up e x e r c i s e s t u r f management overstory management v i s i t o r s e r v i c e management resource management p u b l i c involvement s e r v i c e management tourism and parks parks systems threats to stewardship concession, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n , hazard, p u b l i c s a f e t y management + 11.2 Outdoor Education Methods programs must encompass three areas of l i v i n g : knowledge s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e developing knowledge on t h e i r own through proj ects discovery i n small groups of four or f i v e s o c i a l : i n t e n t i o n a l vs. f r e e choice groups using high school l e a d e r s h i p i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups, l i v i n g groups, eating groups, r e c r e a t i o n groups s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t i n g program to o b j e c t i v e s measuring behaviour against obj e c t i v e s p r a c t i c e democratic procedures s i x steps i n the di s c o v e r y process u t i l i z a t i o n of resources beyond the classroom implementation of f i r s t hand experience f i t t i n g outdoor experiences i n t o background information covered i n c l a s s l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s from a planned sequence of events moulding i s o l a t e d f a c t s from the c l a s s i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d whole a teaching progression a c c l i m a t i o n p r i o r to advanced l e a r n i n g of concepts s t i m u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t b u i l d i n g i n i t i a l confidence i n knowledge and s k i l l s move from a c q u i s i t i o n of b a s i c f a c t s to u t i l i z a t i o n of f a c t s Art forms seeking app, sen, awar, and d i s c r , t o w a r d v i s u a l environment seeking v i s u a l evidence of a r t forms i n the n a t u r a l world Analogies to r e l a t e to nature i n terms of items that are f a m i l i a r discuss and i d e n t i f y analogous components help people form p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r minds Sensory Awareness E c o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e s the development of b a s i c e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s f i e l d t r i p s e s t a b l i s h i n g the purpose of the f i e l d t r i p p reparation f o r t r i p development of t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g experiences a c c l i m a t i z i n g to the f i e l d t r i p experience t e s t i n g the i t i n e r a r y leadership techniques f o r teaching on the t r i p use of m u l t i sensory awareness a f t e r the t r i p review and summary adapting the f i e l d t r i p concept to ur b a n i z a t i o n reading h i s t o r y i n the environment planning and d e l i v e r i n g night hikes .3 Camp A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s e t t i n g camp o b j e c t i v e s c r i t i c a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i n g camps planning or c h a r t i n g ways to reach goals o r g a n i z i n g d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n t e g r a t i n g the fu n c t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n d i r e c t i n g a c t i v a t i n g the goals of the o r g a n i z a t i o n making d e c i s i o n s - producing a d m i n i s t r a t i v e manuals e x p l a i n i n g policy-maintaining open l i n e s of communication s t a f f i n g and resources c o - o r d i n a t i n g communicating e f f e c t i v e l y s t a f f meetings c o n t r o l l i n g e v a l u a t i n g working w i t h boards and committees p o l i c y making or g a n i z i n g boards c h a i r i n g and planning boar meetings using committees ev a l u a t i n g achievement parliamentary procedures a c q u i r i n g land i n v e s t i g a t i n g the property surveying the s i t e developing a property a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of personnel search f o r personnel reviewing a p p l i c a n t s examining a p p l i c a n t s i n t e r v i e w i n g a p p l i c a n t s s e l e c t i n g and a s s i g n i n g a p p l i c a n t s developing personnel p o l i c i e s e v a l u a t i n g and assessing s t a f f s t a f f t r a i n i n g pre-camp t r a i n i n g in-camp t r a i n i n g developing c o u n s e l l o r i n t r a i n i n g programs programming scheduling e v a l u a t i n g program he a l t h and s a f e t y procedures food s e r v i c e procedures f u r n i s h i n g and o r g a n i z i n g the d i n i n g h a l l managing the d i n i n g h a l l food s e r v i c e con't dis p o s i n g of garbage food management purchasing p r e p a r a t i o n storage record keeping finance and budgeting budget preparation budget execution c o n t r o l l i n g accounting a u d i t i n g p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s methods and procedures o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n operations f i l i n g correspondence o r g a n i z a t i o n planning t r a v e l camps planning f o r the handicapped c h i l d b r i d g i n g the gap between m i n o r i t y groups at camp s t a f f i n g f o r a l l types of campers maintenance procedures 4 People and Parks b i o d i v e r s i t y steady s t a t e and growth economies genetic d i v e r s i t y s p e c i a l places and rare species p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s u s t a i n a b l e development n a t u r a l p r otected areas of the world n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l etc. park systems resource development predesign needs environmental impact assessment and review resource design process i n t e r p r e t a t i o n hydrology p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact of design vegetation management day use areas play areas camp grounds t r a i l s outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and education programming managing open spaces and parks environmental impacts and is s u e s r e l a t e d to t h e i r e f f e c t s on the resource and on the human experience 5 Outdoor Recreation A c t i v i t i e s canoeing cl i m b i n g hebertism and i n i t i a t i v e s o r i e n t e e r i n g cross country s k i i n g c o l d weather s u r v i v a l b i c y c l i n g e l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y v a r i e t y of warm weather outdoor a c t i v i t i e s l eadership and planning f o r adventure t e c h n i c a l l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s l o c a t i n g resource m a t e r i a l - maintaining normal p h y s i o l o g i c a l f unctions during outdoor l i v i n g - minimal impact techniques cookery and menu planning weather p r e d i c t i o n rope techniques na v i g a t i o n techniques canoe t r i p planning adventure a c t i v i t y l e a d e r s h i p equipment p r e p a r a t i o n tent equipment i s s u e form personal equipment l i s t packing equipment marking equipment preparation plan canoe t r i p p i n g w i t h l e a r n i n g groups know trace camping s k i l l s environmental behaviour personal growth t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s s a f e t y leadership s k i l l s f o r outdoor adventure a c t i v i t i e s emergency procedures s k i school p o l i c i e s p r e - s k i warm up ex e r c i s e s + 11.6 Adventure Education the meaning of adventure the use of adventure to meet educational aims and o b j e c t i v e s adventure based c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t e d programs and a c t i v i t i e s the adventure program planning system types of adventure the adventuresome p e r s o n a l i t y + 11.7 Advanced S k i l l s i n Outdoor Recreation keeping groups happ y , e f f e c t i v e and safe p r a c t i c a l group management techniques emergency procedures search and rescue systems i n t r o s p e c t i v e techniques s e l f e v a l u a t i o n c r i s i s coping s t r a t e g i e s formal c o u n s e l l i n g techniques f a c i l i t a t i o n of l e a r n i n g , personal growth, group i n t e r a c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h emotional problems and c r i s e s leaders r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p arty management j o u r n a l i z i n g r o l e p l a y i n g d e - b r i e f i n g + 11.8 Independent Study i n Outdoor Recreation the development of a research p r o j e c t research methodology Central Concepts: + 1.1 Outdoor Programming and C o u n s e l l i n g r o l e s of program leaders, r o l e of c o u n s e l l i n g , e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between outdoor environments and outdoor programs range of program approaches and mo d i f i c a t i o n s f o r populations approaches to s t a f f development and s t a f f support systems e x t e r n a l resources group behaviour and growth program planning and development s e l f d i s c l o s u r e , i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , communication process i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s environmental education : resources trends issues nature programs scope groups: dev. and growth, e f f e c t i v e n e s s , wilderness emergencies + 1.2 Outdoor Education: Winter - winter environment and man's p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses to i t emergency c o n d i t i o n s , hypothermia, c o l d i n j u r i e s , mountain sickness temperature, climate and weather,physio responses to c o l d winter ecology e f f e c t s of c o l d and a l t i t u d e c l o t h i n g and sle e p i n g bags snow technology: p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s s p e c i f i c heat, thermal i n e r t i a , change of st a t e heat t r a n s f e r , i n s u l a t i o n s h e l t e r s avalanche safety heat and water t r a n s f e r through c l o t h i n g , vapour b a r r i e r s hypoxic environments, carbonmonoxide poisoning + 1.3 Outdoor education o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n management functions leadership s t y l e s and m a t u r i t y of fol l o w e r s power and leadership, leader behaviour, leadership development c o n s t r u c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e , m o t i v a t i o n marketing and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development s i t u a t i o n a l l e adership p h y s i c a l , t e c h n i c a l and human resources operation of outdoor centres c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of outdoor education wilderness and c r e a t i v i t y s t a f f i n g -.burn out, s e l e c t i o n , volunteers marketing, program development and ev a l u a t i o n l i a b i l i t y team b u i l d i n g issues : time management, c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , s t r e s s management + 1.4 Judeo-Christian Perspectives i n organized camping j u d e o - c h r i s t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e s b i b l i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , J-C values organized camping developmental and edu c a t i o n a l issues of camping s t r a t e g i e s b i b l i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n personal and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s developmental t h e o r i e s personal and group norms stewardship, ecology, and e t h i c s + 1.5 Urban Outdoor Recreation a v a i l a b i l i t y and u t i l i z a t i o n of outdoor s e t t i n g s i n an urban centre i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches i n env. ed. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s of a v a r i e t y of user groups resources w i t h i n an urban environment environmental e t h i c s h e r i t a g e environmental education outdoor r e c r e a t i o n user groups; s e n i o r s , handicapped, general ecology and n a t u r a l h i s t o r y w i l d l i f e behaviour and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n environmental study techniques + 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n to Outdoor Environmental Education curriculum planning f i e l d t r i p s f o r s c i e n t i f i c , s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l , an r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes h i s t o r y f i r s t a i d 2 Foundations of Outdoor Environmental Education the movements socio-economic and e t h i c a l i s s u e s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u pervisory and l e g a l aspects c u r r i c models environmental resources: nat., prov., l o c a l . conceptual and h i s t o r i c a l development contemporary p o l i c i e s and issues need f o r od/en ed p r i n c i p l e s of planning and d e c i s i o n making i n c u r r i c teaching and l e a r n i n g resources the Belgrade Charter concepts of development, p l u r a l i s m , g l o b a l e t h i c s environmental goals environmental education goals guiding p r i n c i p l e s quantum theory of en. ed. Conservation/ Nature Study Movement school camping/ outdoor education movement i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods use and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of teaching methodologies e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s subjects and a c t i v i t i e s animal studies freshwater s t u d i e s s o i l s tudies plant studies climatology geography h i s t o r y mathematics language ar t p h y s i c a l education purposes, products and processes nature simulations c u r r i c development 2.3 F a c i l i t i e s and Programs f o r Outdoor Environmental Education resource s e l e c t e d centres: o r g a n i z a t i o n , p h y s i c a l fac., management and prog program response to socio-economic issues and school c u r r i c . program relevancy to c l i e n t needs centre i n t e r f a c e w i t h schools and other s o c i e t a l i n s t . 2.4 Leadership i n Outdoor Environmental Education leadership theory program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l contexts linkages i n s o c i e t y c o n f l i c t coaching and i n - s e r v i c e r o l e - p r i n c i p l e s of adult ed., s u p e r v i s i o n , i n - s e r v i c e and workshop prep 1 Wildlands and Outdoor P u r s u i t s demands of outdoor p u r s u i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l a n d s wilderness e t h i c minimal impact p o l i c i e s and procedures, government departments conservation and environmental groups proposed and present wilderness areas wilderness: meaning value areas philosophy agencies and departments management issues a c i d r a i n , nuclear disarmament, t o x i c chemicals 2 Outdoor P u r s u i t s s u r v i v a l techniques, i n Alpine/sub a l p i n e weather, c l o t h i n g , f i r e s s h e l t e r s , s i g n a l l i n g , - psycology of s u r v i v a l , s o c i o l o g y of s t r e s s + 3.3 Outdoor Education m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y education i n and f o r the OD p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , od and exp movements range of od programs P.P. & D. and c u r r i c . dev. l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d p r i n c i p l e s of teaching outdoors terminology of od/env/exper ed od as a l t e r n a t i v e ed d e l i v e r y system p h i l o s o p h i c a l roots adventure ed l e a r n i n g r e t e n t i o n group management, i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s i n s t r u c t o r s h i p p r i n c i p l e s a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n c u r r i c guides/ od appropriate items program purposes f i e l d t r i p : purpose, procedures e t c . environmental awareness land use school subjects o.d. values energy c i r c u i t s teacher behaviour: content and methods o teacher prep agencies community support c o n t r o l and student management l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e and teacher d i r e c t i v e n e s s classroom as a s o c i a l system discovery l e a r n i n g i n s e r v i c e and p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g + 3.4 Organization and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Outdoor Programs and Centres a d m i n i s t r a t i v e systems r i s k management, l e g a l l i a b i l i t y / l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s o b j e c t i v e s nature and scope of r i s k s mobile courses, f i x e d centres P.P.D. budgeting and fund r a i s i n g future developments and c o n s t r a i n t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l foundations o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e aims and o b j e c t i v e s of d i f f e r e n t programs Calgary School Board program s t a f f i n g : c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n , c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r i t i s / c o u r s i t i s s a f e t y : r u l e s and regs, s t a f f i n g r a t i o s equipment/ budgeting program e v a l u a t i o n / e v a l u a t i o n f a c t o r s outdoor a c t i v i t y a v a i l a b l e safety weather and environment r e g u l a t i o n of students environmental impact student s t i m u l a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s t i m u l a t i o n working conditions costs a d m i n i s t r a t i v e load ease of set up f l e x i b i l i t y ease of l o g i s t i c a l f u n c t i o n future trends types of outdoor centres a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p r e - t r i p proposal emergency planning h e a l t h equipment budget s t a f f i n g e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t i n g environmental impact 5 Safety i n outdoor P u r s u i t s exo-hazards - wilderness based a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g high care nature and occurrence of n a t u r a l environmental hazards procedures f o r the management and/or avoidance of hazards mountaineering s u r v i v a l avalanche safety hazard e v a l u a t i o n f o r e s t hazards a l p i n e t e r r a i n r o c k f a l l g l a c i e r s bears weather hazards r i v e r h y d r a u l i c s lake and r i v e r i c e snake b i t e avalanche p i t / Pieps Search 6 Cou n s e l l i n g and Leadership i n the Outdoors group management techniques emergency procedures search and rescue systems group dynamics th e o r i e s of group f u n c t i o n i n g communications - lead e r s h i p : q u a l i t i e s , s t y l e s , techniques, leadership t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r s h i p s k i l l s p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m h e l i c o p t e r s and radios Pathways leadership systems i n s t r u c t o r s h i p s t y l e s 7 Wilderness S u r v i v a l s u r v i v a l techniques p r i m i t i v e t o o l s s h e l t e r s w i l d foods psycology of s u r v i v a l l i t e r a t u r e review s u r v i v a l programs i n education 8 Outdoor P u r s u i t s h i s t o r y p r i n c i p l e s r a t i o n a l e v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s scope r o l e i n 20th century l i f e s t y l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to other s i m i l a r f i e l d s a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n A l b e r t a equipment ODPU concept : p h i l o s o p h i e s and models a c t i v i t y e v o l u t i o n - ODPU centres Outward Bound: p h i l . , adaptive pro., Prescott College s k i l l s t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n t i a l ed. 1 Outdoor Warm Weather A c t i v i t i e s t e c h n i c a l s k i l l component of l e a d e r s h i p wilderness adventure e s s e n t i a l elements f o r l e a r n i n g groups:env. beh., per. growth, tech. s k i l l , s a f e t y requirements leadership s k i l l s emergency procedures personal and group equipment needs appropriate environment wilderness n a v i g a t i o n route planning wilderness camping s h e l t e r s search and rescue wilderness cooking equipment s e l e c t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r co-operative games and i n i t i a t i v e tasks s k i care and waxing s k i equipment s k i tuning equipment packing environmental e t h i c + 4.2 Advanced Al p i n e S k i i n g s k i i n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i c a l requirements a l p i n e s k i r a c i n g p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s + 4.3 Outdoor Recreation phenomenon of outdoor l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y impact on modern s o c i e t y use of n a t u r a l resources as s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , l e i s u r e pastime, f i t n e s s , adventure nature of r e l a t e d terminology p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e o r i e s r o l e of the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r i n urban, suburban, and wilderness areas design f a c t o r s f o r neighbourhood playgrounds impact on n a t u r a l resources pre-programmed, s e l f scheduling od rec f a c i l i t i e s impact, h i s t o r y and development i n Canada patterns i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s s i t e a n a l y s i s f o r c e s : s o c i o economic. + 4.4 Cold Weather A c t i v i t i e s l e a d e r s h i p p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s l i v i n g outdoors i n winter cross country s k i i n g + 4.5 Outdoor Education philosophy, p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s i n N.A. and Europe r e l a t i o n s h i p and c o n t r i b u t i o n to education h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary p e r s p e c t i v e s e x p e r i e n t i a l education l o c a l , prov., n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t , programs p r o t e c t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment land use p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p h y c o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s , c o n t r i b u t i o n to f i t n e s s outdoor group lead e r s h i p leadership r o l e s small group theory and f u n c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n r a t i o n a l e and philosophy conceptual model issues and concerns population p o l l u t i o n a c i d r a i n r e c y c l i n g consumer/saving s o c i e t y land reclamation education, programs,centres fox f i r e Sudbury Board S i e r r a Club Lester B. Pearson c o l l e g e of the P a c i f i c - Brathay H a l l Trust, U.K. Young Explorers Canadian Outdoor Education h i s t o r y ;and development leaders Ontario Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario - A.E.E. programs f i e l d centres i n t e g r a t e d education w i t h s i x p o i n t s continuum of components leadership i m p l i c a t i o n s Dewey and experience personal growth thro experience environmental education outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , outdoor p h y s i c a l p u r s u i t s , adventure a c t i v i t y f i e l d studies and conservation education Great B r i t a i n h i s t o r y and development leaders F i e l d Studies Council Local Ed A u t h o r i t i e s Outdoor P u r s u i t s Centres Mountain Leadership T r a i n i n g centres l i f e s t y l e f i t n e s s outdoor ed centres f a c i l i t i e s equipment personnel l i a b i l i t y + 5.1 Outdoor Recreation f o r S p e c i a l Populations b a r r i e r s to involvement r i g h t to r i s k s o c i e t i e s a t t i t u d e s toward the handicapped s t a f f a t t i t u d e s safety a c c e s s i b i l i t y and u s a b i l i t y major a c t i v i t y centres b e n e f i t s d e f i n i t i o n of r i s k r e c r e a t i o n f o r the handicapped a c t i v i t i e s enjoyed by s p e c i a l populations community based programs a v a i l a b l e resources t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - P.R. concepts - play r e c r e a t i o n l e i s u r e i n t e g r a t i o n and n o r m a l i z a t i o n d i s a b l e d , handicapped, s p e c i a l groups, therapeutic r e c r e a t i o n r e c r e a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l groups areas of c o n s u l t a t i o n r o l e of the r e c r e a t i o n i s t i n the mental h e a l t h s e t t i n g r e l a t e d r o l e s case c-ordinator programming r o l e p u b l i c ed r o l e c o u n s e l l i n g r o l e c o n s u l t a t i v e r o l e parks and r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s s o c i a l b a r r i e r s s k i l l b a r r i e r s Alzheimer's Disease s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of t h e r a p e u t i c s e r v i c e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and tasks of personnel l i t e r a t u r e general and s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s of the human body i n r e l a t i o n to mental and p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s contemporary events and i n f l u e n c e s on the d e l i v e r y + 5.2 Outdoor Recreation-Outdoor S k i l l s IV winter outdoor s k i l l s c l i e n t group program philosophy and goals l e a r n i n g problems ev a l u a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s h i p and teaching technique + 5.3 Tests and Measurements i n Outdoor Recreation s t a t i s t i c a l methods research and e v a l u a t i o n computation of s t a t i s t i c s - SPSS computers + 5.4 Outdoor S k i l l s V canoeing, canoe t r i p p i n g , and wilderness l i v i n g Franks and Mason + 6.1 Outdoor Education A c t i v i t i e s s a f e t y , f i r s t - a i d , conservation + 6.2 Winter Camping safe t y , f i r s t - a i d , hypothermia, f i s h and w i l d l i f e conservation, avalanche rescue tour leading + 7.1 Outdoor Education: Summer leadership p r i n c i p l e s of conservation and r a t i o n a l u t i l i z a t i o n of the environment teaching technique l e a r n i n g progression 2 Outdoor Education: Winter teaching technique l e a r n i n g progression 3 O r i e n t e e r i n g and Cross-Country S k i i n g pedagogy of the a c t i v i t i e s f r a g i l i t y of the n a t u r a l environment mechanical and p h y s i o l o g i c a l aspects of the a c t i v i t i e s kinds of maps conventional symbols types of t e r r a i n s components of a compass o r i e n t e e r i n g courses mechanical p r o p e r t i e s of snow weather and transformation of snow 4 Education to Adventure the r o l e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the outdoor educator d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the outdoor movement s p e c i f i c knowledge i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s e c o l o g i c a l f r a g i l i t y and i n s t a b i l i t y of the wilderness and nat. env. c u l t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l and f o l k l o r i c context values and p r a c t i c e of t r a d i t i o n a l ed as compared to outdoor ed. problem r e s o l u t i o n , l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s , pedagogical technique menu planning b i c y c l e s afety, mechanics h i s t o r i c a l aspects m a t e r i a l and equipment t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s and techniques eco-tourism general i n f o : o r g a n i z a t i o n s , tourism ass. pedagogical a p p l i c a t i o n s teaching approach 1 Outdoor Education i n Recreation status i n modern s o c i e t y government functions and p o l i c i e s current problems p o l i c i e s programmes and techniques components of the n a t u r a l environment programmes of d i f f e r e n t outdoor education centres appropriate teaching methods pl a n t s i n f a l l and winter n a t i o n a l and g l o b a l conservation s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r e f f e c t s c u l t u r a l conservation promotion of conservation s t r a t e g i e s to i n d u s t r i a l i z e d nations educational process i n Canada : booklets thro Environment Canada e c o l o g i c a l process conservation genetic d i v e r s i t y conservation requirements f o r s u s t a i n a b l e u t i l i z a t i o n the concept of environmental education i n t e r n a t i o n a l environmental education issues concerning environmental q u a l i t y i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and h i s environment environmental impact r o l e of man , linkages I n t e r n a t i o n a l EE workshop at Belgrade f i n d i n g s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l assessment EE problems status of EE i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s key issues status at v a r i o u s ed l e v e l s teacher t r a i n i n g f a c t o r s handicapping the formal education systems i n r e l a t i o n to EE i n t e r n a t i o n a l EE communications EE programs i n s e l e c t e d c o u n t r i e s developmental phases of EE i n the US Outward Bound values procedures land management and conservation issues concept of conservation e f f e c t s of government p o l i c i e s o b j e c t i v e s of outdoor education d e f i n i t i o n of outdoor education environmental a t t i t u d e s leadership q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n t e r p r e t i v e b u i l d i n g design winter ecology non-direct education outdoor education p o l i c y c l a s s of "no-technical" s o l u t i o n problems per c a p i t a share of world goods population problems optimum population c r i t e r i a f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n : s u r v i v a l education about consumption n a t u r a l chemical and b i o l o g i c a l r e c y c l i n g processes a p p r e c i a t i o n of nature and knowledge of n a t u r a l processes r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and p a r t i c i p a t i o n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n education stimulates demand cumulative pressures on the environment p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s : re types of a c t i v i t i e s , SES, impacts c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s s u e s : re impact nature of the wilderness experience: re value user needs and preferences r e : outdoor r e c r e a t i o n experience m o r a l i t y act : l e g i s l a t i n g temperance + 10.1 P r i n c i p l e s of Outdoor Education concepts, p r i n c i p l e s , and p h i l o s o p h i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h education and r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s methods programs a s s o c i a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s fundamental issues a s s o c i a t e d w i t h education leadership, teaching methods, adventure discovery, s a f e t y , e t h i c s p r i n c i p l e s and methods a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x p e r i e n t i a l education p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o f i l e s a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n s e r v i c e l e a r n i n g servant leader h i s t o r y / d e f i n i t i o n s environmental f a c t o r s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p personal and s o c i a l t r a nsformation stages of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p r o l e of the outdoor leader t r a n s a c t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p e t h i c s i n leadership r e l a t i o n s to s k i l l s l e a r n i n g moral philosophy man's r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s re land use taxonomy of e t h i c s i n t r a p e r s o n a l e t h i c s i n t e r p e r s o n a l and human e t h i c s i n t e r s p e c i e s e t h i c s e c o l o g i c a l e t h i c s p h y c o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of an area n a t u r a l feeding h a b i t s of animals e x p e r i e n t i a l education r a t i o n a l impact of ExE on the psych, s o c i a l , i n t e l l . dev of sec. students e f f e c t i v e programs : v a r i a b l e s d e f i n i t i o n types of e x p e r i e n t i a l programs common threads that u n i t e exemplars of e x p e r i e n t i a l education impact on students p s y c h o l o g i c a l development s e l f esteem s o c i a l development s o c i a l and personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t t i t u d e s toward a d u l t s a t t i t u d e s toward others - a t t i t u d e s toward being a c t i v e i n the community career e x p l o r a t i o n i n t e l l e c t u a l development problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y general program features s t u d e n t / p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l experiences i m p l i c a t i o n s of using e x p e r i e n t i a l psych b e n e f i t s of an outdoor challenge program the meaning of outdoor l e a r n i n g leadership and f o l l o w s h i p the use of a u t h o r i t y i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n contracted a t t e n t i o n e x p e r i e n t i a l education the s e l f defined i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h others outdoor l e a r n i n g set of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common environmental c o n t r a s t p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n t e n t i o n a l use of s t r e s s small group context employment of newly acquired knowledge and s k i l l s the future of e x p e r i e n t i a l education the energy s i t u a t i o n re e f f e c t s on l i f e s t y l e d e l i c a t e balance i n the environment changes i n our concept of work and l e i s u r e i s o l a t i o n from nature l e s s s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y dependency on t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n increased government a i d programs s o c i e t a l pressures on schools to be everything human r e l a t i o n s l e a r n i n g from non-classroom experience assumptions about human behaviour- very l i t t l e occurs by accident c i t i z e n s h i p education the k i n d of c i t i z e n s which schools should be encouraging c i t i z e n s h i p youth p a r t i c i p a t i o n the classroom m i l i e u trend toward n a r c i s s i s m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n academic l e a r n i n g community p r o j e c t s s o c i a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n program models environmental education a f i e l d , extension of OD, CE, the nature of environmental problems e c o l o g i c a l i n v o l v i n g nature, human a t t i t u d e s and values, systems of p o l and ec. not l o c a l , but r e g i o n a l and even g l o b a l human resources and urban, r u r a l etc. expanded awareness of the p o t e n t i a l and scope of EE goals + 11.1 Outdoor Recreation A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n scope and p o t e n t i a l various outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s d e l i v e r y system, components and options f i n i t e resources developmental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r n a t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e functions r o l e of the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e sector support r i s k management environmental issues outdoor r e c r e a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n a d v e r t i s i n g and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n funding s p e c i a l pops leade r s h i p t r a i n i n g church outdoor r e c r e a t i o n commercial r e c r e a t i o n outdoor rec i n education outdoor r e c r e a t i o n research outward bound o r g a n i z a t i o n a l camping value of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n adventure education trends, forces f a c i l i t y , issues and concerns, management value of high adventure a c t i v i t i e s winter r e c r e a t i o n , past, present, and future i n t e r a c t i o n s between man and h i s surrounding the e f f e c t s of the environment on our su b j e c t i v e s t a t e s environmental psychology phenomena r e l a t e d to weather b i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s of temperature heart disease and m o r t a l i t y s p r i n g fever p r o d u c t i v i t y and energy l e v e l s s o c i a l and p h y c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s on the seasons need f o r outdoor o p p o r t u n i t i e s h i s t o r y of man's pleasures a f f i n i t y between p r i m i t i v e and modern concepts of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n l o s s of touch w i t h the wilderness c u l t u r a l values p h y c o l o g i c a l values s o c i o l o g i c a l values p h y s i o l o g i c a l values educational values s p i r i t u a l values future trends tourism and r e c r e a t i o n at a t u r n i n g point changes i n a t t i t u d e toward r e c r e a t i o n and r e s o r t s short and long term trends of contemporary s o c i e t y the nature of an energy c i v i l i z a t i o n : THIRD WAVE p u b l i c expectations - demographic and economic d i s l o c a t i o n s or s h i f t s impact of the aging on l i f e s t y l e s e f f e c t s of unemployment unc e r t a i n economic growth and i n f l a t i o n a r y pressures consumer income d i s t r i b u t i o n s values s h i f t s , c o n s e r v a t i v e d i r e c t i o n s changing t a s t e s and preferences death of i n d u s t r i a l i s m and r i s e of superideology high cost of energy, land and money personal use of time and r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s new technologies world tourism impacts the r e s o r t experience b a s i c v a c a t i o n or r e c r e a t i o n needs impact on winter r e c r e a t i o n i n the urban environment changes i n l i f e s t y l e s systems become more s t r u c t u r e d , organized, and s o p h i s t i c a t e d competition, e x p l o i t a t i o n , usury l o s s of h a b i t u a l r u r a l ways of l i f e more r e c r e a t i o n o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s , events and p u r s u i t s impacts f a c i l i t i e s to counter c l i m a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n warmer months tech. and mech. to a l l e v i a t e c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l tasks s p e c t a t o r i t i s de-seasoning g l o r i f i e d a c t i v i t i e s having monetary b e n e f i t s closed comfortable s i t e s - mass s p e c t a t o r i t i s i n r e c r e a t i o n r e c r e a t i o n organized by others a c t i v i t i e s c l a s s i f i e d by s o c i a l s t r a t a and s i g n i f i c a n c e o b l i t e r a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and nature s o l d out to the r e c r e a t i o n company l o r d reduced the number and v a r i e t y of urban open spaces r e l o c a t i o n of c e r t a i n events to major multi-use, mass a c c e s s i b i l i t y centres increase i n commercial e n t e r p r i s e s open space trend because f o r e s t d e s t r u c t i o n flooded lands f i n i t e resources use of space f o r economic progress conservation, p r e s e r v a t i o n , and resource use laws a r t i f i c i a l f a c s i m i l e - n a t u r a l surroundings p r o f i t motives pressure groups e f f o r t mainly i n r e l a t i o n to green seasons needs of the fu t u r e - the l i f e s t y l e breakthrough....values, morals, m a t e r i a l a p p e t i t e s patterns of independence, i n d i v i d u a l i s m , escapism broken homes, new f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s i n t e r e s t i n job d i m i n i s h i n g back to nature t h r u s t t e c h n o l o g i c a l breakthrough computers, cybernation, and automation self-management, and s e l f a s s e rtiveness mobile and dismantle i n s t a l l a t i o n s environment c r e a t i o n t e l e v i s i o n gadgetry c u s t o d i a l f u n c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n or change agents of a new s o c i e t y c i t i e s nodes of environmental impact trade o f f : fu t u r e environments?space q u a l i t i e s c l i e n t population concept of l e i s u r e c l i e n t r e s i d e n t commitment to r e c r e a t i o n mechanisms to ensure d e l i v e r y a c t i v i t y space a n a l y s i s inventory socio economic impact of OD demographic trends i n urban and r u r a l areas r e l o c a t i o n of i n d u s t r y as a s o l u t i o n to r u r a l poverty types of b e n e f i t s methods of e v a l u a t i n g b e n e f i t s d i s t i n c t i o n s between b e n e f i t s and p r o f i t s negative e f f e c t s on l o c a l community groups d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s induced e f f e c t s balance between park development and lack of to s t i m u l a t e l o c a l business l a r g e s t impact i n non-aggie s e r v i c e l i t t l e e f f e c t on low income groups work force i n small towns under u t i l i z e d e f f e c t s g e n e r a l l y small s i g n i f i c a n t costs born by l o c a l community demand w i l l increase i n p r o p o r t i o n to pop growth i f nothing e l s e need e v a l u a t i o n over a long p e r i o d of time vary from s i t e to site-encourage r e c r e a t i o n home development development c r i t e r i a f o r maximum s t i m u l a t i o n of l o c a l economy economic importance of wi n t e r r e c r e a t i o n the science or a r t which deals w i t h the a l l o c a t i o n of resources components of the wi n t e r r e c r e a t i o n sector v i s i t o r s to the s i t e tourism winter sports p u b l i c s i t e s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the prov or fed gov't e f f e c t s of the export market economic e f f e c t s creates jobs produces incomes keeps Canadians f i t and a l e r t adds happiness i n our long c o l d winter r i s k f a c t o r i n outdoor p u r s u i t s i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has not been matched by awareness of r i s k s awareness and respect f o r the powerful f a c e t s of nature o b j e c t i v e dangers: n o - c o n t r o l s u b j e c t i v e danger: c o n t r o l l a b l e # of inexperience wilderness users has r i s e n at a r a t e f a s t e r than knowledgable leaders wilderness v a r i a b l e s are what gives some of the t h r i l l d i f f e r e n c e i n v o l u n t e e r i n g to engage i n r e a l danger as a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l vs. o r g a n i z i n g school programs which go beyond apparent danger o b j e c t i v e danger i s beyond the scope of r e g u l a r school programs - most important f a c t o r : the i n t e g r i t y , s k i l l , judgement of the leader c e r t i f i c a t i o n the need f o r competent outdoor leadership wilderness education a s s o c i a t i o n increase i n deaths, i n j u r i e s , and rescues need f o r standard n a t i o n a l program mans impact of the environment l i a b i l i t y inadequate l e a d e r s h i p e f f e c t s no one school or agency which would receive n a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n observance i n the f i e l d necessary to el i m i n a t e inadequate p r e p a r a t i o n a general program of education and experience outdoor leadership intro/need l e a d e r s h i p : the most c r i t i c a l aspect need a balance: p h i l o s o p h i c a l foundations t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y knowledge of the outdoors a c t u a l experience and t r a i n i n g standards by which l e a d e r s h i p can be measured demand f o r c h a l l e n g i n g outdoor experiences need f o r competent leaders c h e c k l i s t f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to document : personal and or s t a f f performance l e v e l s , b a c k g r o u n d t r a i n i n g and experience theory and p r a c t i c e p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s of the ar t and science of l e a d e r s h i p areas i n need of OD l e a d e r s h i p : education.. e f f e c t i v e and e t h i c a l l e a d e r s h i p issues among leaders, p a r t i c i p a n t s , group, program c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a c t o r s of outdoor l e a d e r s h i p p e r s o n a l i t y and experience f o l l o w s h i p needs and expectations goals of the group, agency and leader environmental and s o c i a l circumstances distance between the circumstances and the goals i e : weather co n d i t i o n s f o r l e a d e r s h i p to e x i s t a group goals or common tasks d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s bearing the t i t l e does not make q u a l i t y - a s s i s t i n g others to i d e n t i f y and achieve goals t h e o r i e s and approaches t r a i t theory s i t u a t i o n approach behaviour approach shared f u n c t i o n of the group continuum of s t y l e s a u t o c r a t i c democratic l a i s s e z - f a i r e i m p l i c a t i o n s of l e a d e r s h i p e f f e c t e d by: how people p e r c e i v e themselves self-enhancement sought motivation leadership and f o l l o w s h i p the a b i l i t y to serve i n democratic group leadership and i n s t r u c t o r s h i p i n s t r u c t i o n competence as a v e h i c l e i n accomplishing goals leader as a model leadership methods, techniques and s t r a t e g i e s dimensions of the human being b e h a v i o r a l science support theo r i e s p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as r e f l e c t i v e of be h a v i o r a l understandings le a d e r s h i p s t y l e i s the p a r t i c u l a r e x p r e s s i o n , execution, or performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a leader or o r g a n i z a t i o n leadership and outdoor adventure dimensions of adventure education components of outdoor l e a d e r s h i p competency ca t e g o r i e s p h i l o s o p h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l foundations outdoor l e a d e r s h i p and i n s t r u e t o r s h i p c o u n s e l l i n g , human s e r v i c e and human development program planning and development outdoor s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m environmental awareness, understandings and a c t i o n f i r s t a i d and s a f e t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supp l i e s e v a l u a t i o n and assessment trends and issues personal and le a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s outdoor l e a d e r s h i p i n p r a c t i c e handbooks and program g u i d e l i n e s t r a i n i n g programs standards q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r leaders e n t e r i n g the back country outdoor l e a d e r s h i p s t u d i e s and proj ects Cousineau Rogers Meier, Morash and Welton Environment Canada - Outdoor Organization and A s s o c i a t i o n s Tourism, Parks and Recreation c a u s e a n d e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p / i n d u s t r y marketing and v i s i t a t i o n l e v e l s n a t i o n a l parks/prime t r a v e l d e s t i n a t i o n s 10% of overseas v i s i t o r s had n a t i o n a l parks as d e s t i n a t i o n park management represents a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n economic h e a l t h t r a v e l and tourism .... second l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y - marketable assets of an areas i n which a park i s s i t u a t e d reasons f o r steady increases i n r e c r e a t i o n p r o f i t s Outward Bound f o r delinquent youth i n US 100 programs f o r 10,000 delinquent youth per year r e c i d i v i s m : r e t u r n f o r a new offense p o s i t i v e changes on s i x sc a l e s autism a l i e n a t i o n s o c i a l i z a t i o n manifest aggression s o c i a l maladjustment value o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s on s e l f - c o n c e p t need f o r a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and accurate theory Wilderness as therapy youths best served by a l e a s t r e s t r i c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n wilderness experience avoids contaminating e f f e c t s of the i n s t r u c t i o n need the s k i l l s of both the wilderness i n s t r u c t i o n and the mental h e a l t h p r o f . the p r i n c i p l e s of outdoor s u r v i v a l pocket gear preparedness p r a c t i c e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s u r v i v a l k i t elements of s u r v i v a l s h e l t e r warmth energy f i r s t - a i d and s i g n a l s u p p l i e s threats f a c i n g lands and resources human a c t i o n or i n a c t i o n the cause of more than 3/4 of t r e a t s 1/3 w i t h i n park boundaries 1/2 to n a t u r a l systems a i r , water, s o i l , v e g etation, and animals remaining to a e s t h e t i c or a b i l i t y to manage land categories of t h r e a t s u n s i g h t l y or o b t r u s i v e human development l i t t e r of dumping noise from ou t s i d e excessive e r o s i o n i n s u f f i c i e n t a c t u a l s t a f f , funding of equipment encroachment by a l i e n p l a n t species i l l e g a l or a n t i s o c i a l v i s i t o r behaviour c o n f l i c t i n g d e s i r e s of others w i t h p o l i t i c a l powers lack of p r o p e r l y marked boundaries 12 most c r i t i c a l t h r e a t s environmental issues environmental impact assessment s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e human h e a l t h and s a f e t y commercial p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n or a e s t h e t i c importance ra r e or endangered species f u t u r e production imbalances between supply and demand of species or h a b i t a t e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r resource use proper weight to long-run productive cap. of b a s i c resources p o l i t i c a l questions: i s p o l l u t i o n an i n d u s t r i a l r i g h t h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on e t h i c a l p o s i t i o n s Malthus..population growth conservation movement n a t i o n a l parks system r e s u l t a n t a c t i o n s . . t o x i c substance laws to emission c o n t r o l s - d i r e c t i o n s of t e c h n o l o g i c a l innovâtions..too l a t e ? ? L i m i t s to Growth - OPEC conservation p r i n c i p l e s meeting s o c i e t a l needs i n p e r p e t u i t y s t a b i l i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y of biosphere not at r i s k value of goods i s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to s a t i s f y i n g wants and needs vs i n goods environmental degradation reduces q u a l i t y of l i f e current problems from an e t h i c a l view a c i d r a i n concept of stewardship user c o n f l i c t users r e c r e a t i o n places c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s and c o n f l i c t s f a c t o r s p h y s i c a l p e r c e p t u a l scales of c o m p a t i b i l i t y m u l t i p l e use resource management Rideau Canal Outdoor Recreation Programming philosophy and need leadership programming a d m i n i s t r a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s outdoor education + 11.2 Outdoor Education Methods in t e g r a t e d outdoor education c u r r i c u l u m e x i s t i n g resources and supports environmental education outdoor r e c r e a t i o n group development e x p e r i e n t i a l education outdoor leadership education school camping o r g a n i z a t i o n a l camping personal development outdoor education adventure education outdoor p u r s u i t s education various outdoor education a c t i v i t i e s teaching methods nature, scope and value n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e concerns program implementation terminology outdoor education i n , about and f o r family camping l e a r n i n g process l e a r n i n g domains lesson planning process teaching aids f a c i l i t i e s l e a r n i n g t r a i l s environmental games basi c concepts of outdoor education a method uses the environment outside the classroom not a separate d i s c i p l i n e not a textbook replacement process f o r teachers and students continuing b a s i s i n r e a l l i f e experience conservation goal enhancement teaches a t t i t u d e s l e i s u r e time p u r s u i t s c r e a t i v e teaching s e t t i n g whole community planning due to modern c o n d i t i o n s of l i v i n g f i r s t hand l e a r n i n g experiences c h i l d grows i n accordance w i t h the general aims of education based on c h i l d l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s - teacher and a d m i n i s t r a t o r o r i e n t a t i o n and t r a i n i n g impact statements r a t i o n a l e f o r environmental s t u d i e s h i s t o r y / s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the development of camping education new demands placed on p u b l i c schools changes i n c u l t u r e t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances family s t r u c t u r e j u v e n i l e d e l s o c i a l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m a c t i v i t y c u r r i c , p r o j e c t methods p h i l o s o p h i c a l roots contemporary educational philosophy pragmatism of James and Dewey experience and the c u r r i c u l u m s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n d u s t r i a l i s m u r b a n i z a t i o n population m o b i l i t y economic f a c t o r s depression r e a p p r a i s a l of ed o b j e c t i v e s - W.W.ll p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s c i v i l i a n conservation corps educational f a c t o r s broadening o b j e c t i v e s p r o g r e s s i v i s m educational psycology c u r r i c u l u m r e o r g a n i z a t i o n c h i l d centred education community school a c t i v i t y c u r r i c u l u m education f o r democracy programs i n other c o u n t r i e s German country homes fo r e s t schools i n England l e g a l background of school camping U.S. programs B a t t l e Creek, C l e a r Lake New York C i t y Camping Education Experiment Tyler , Texas Outdoor Laboratory Pioneers - L.B. Sharp George Donaldson J u l i a n Smith Outdoor Teacher Education New York Teachers Outdoor Education I n s t i t u t e George Peabody College f o r Teacher's Experiment Outdoor Education at B r o c j p o r t New Jersey State School of conservation Outdoor Teacher Education at Northern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y - H i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t Developments Outdoor Education A s s o c i a t i o n Extending Education J o u r n a l Outdoor Education P r o j e c t Outdoor Education and Camping Proj ect Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 1965 - Environmental Education movement S t a r t i n g Young Education Act 173, boards may acquire land i n Ontario f o r outdoor education 27 statements i n v a r i o u s c u r r i c supporting O.D. education COEO resources types of f a c i l i t i e s : day and r e s i d e n t i a l centres m i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s : two types of O.D. Ed. Rec r e a t i o n a l Environmental Studies increase i n p u b l i c concern f o r safe t y COEO Workshops and Reforms Code of Recommended P r a c t i c e s i n Outdoor Education Canoe/Camping Leadership workshop v a r i e t y of types of programs/elements that overlap Bark Lake, Fox f i r e , Kandalore, Tawingo - schools are the only i n s t i t u t i o n assured of g e t t i n g at a l l youth environmental education/broadening the concept appeared i n the I960., outgrowth of OE, CE and others en. problems seen to be e c o l o g i c a l , i n v o l v i n g human a t t . , v a l , pol,& ec. c e n t r a l concern..humanity..the i n t e g r i t y of humankind s k i l l s i d e n t i f y i n g problems gathering and o r g a n i z i n g i n f o a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s o l u t i o n s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and implementation of plans of a c t i o n problems of impact on human and non-human nature c a r i n g f o r nature i s a c t u a l l y an act of love f o r other human beings r e a l i t y of the concept of interdependence c u l t u r a l j o u r n a l i s m a r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y r e a l world problem s o l v i n g problems are those which s t a t e and e x h i b i t a f u l l rang of human impact L.B. Sharp's Philosophy of Education c h i l d development lesson planning + 11.2 Outdoor Education Methods Piaget' Stages of I n t e l l e c t u a l development Kolberg's Stages of Moral development teaching aids woodsman's code outdoor studies code f i e l d studies l e g a l aspects elements of negligence standard of care nature of s u p e r v i s i o n conduct of the a c t i v i t y environmental c o n d i t i o n s nature centre values o b j e c t i v e s r a t i o n a l e f o r developing school s i t e s as l e a r n i n g environments s e l e c t e d school camping program designs study themes and things to do when the leaves turn when the snow f a l l s when the sap flows w i t h h i l l s and v a l l e y s w i t h g u l l y e r o s i o n with w i l d l i f e w i th astronomy wi t h rocks, minerals and f o s s i l s w i t h b i r d l i f e f o r environmental q u a l i t y w i t h a i r w i t h water wi t h s o i l a r i t h m e t i c language a r t s n a t u r a l sciences earth sciences h e a l t h and P.E. a r t s c r a f t s and music p l a n t s animals weather ponds and streams mapping and surveying s o c i a l studies o l d cemeteries outdoor education i n Canada l e a r n i n g through discovery, fun, adventure, and d i r e c t experience i n Germany, A u s t r i a , and S w i t z e r l a n d d i s c i p l i n e .3 Camp A d m i n i s t r a t i o n organized camping, concepts and meanings philosophy h i s t o r y d e f i n i t i o n s goals and o b j e c t i v e s trends issues aspects of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process or g a n i z i n g c o - o r d i n a t i n g board and committee r e l a t i o n s h i p s functions and s t r u c t u r e s meetings campsite s e l e c t i o n and a c q u i s i t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n land philosophy present and p r o j e c t e d needs a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r s f u n c t i o n a l f a c t o r s topography ve g e t a t i o n water features program water features potable drainage l o c a t i o n a d a p t a b i l i t y property development philosophy of land development in f l u e n c e s on development agency p o l i c y r o l e of the s t a f f b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s program d i r e c t i o n adequacy of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s planning process master pla n - p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s p r i n c i p l e s of camp planning planning d i r e c t i o n - a n a l y s i s of f a c i l i t y , needs and trends a n a l y s i s of f a c i l i t y planning p r i o r i t i e s c onservation w i l d l i f e area d e s i g n a t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n p r i o r i t i e s f a c i l i t y beauty and f u n c t i o n leadership d e f i n i t i o n l eadership r o l e s nature of le a d e r s h i p t r a i t approach s i t u a t i o n a l approach group approach theory and camp a d m i n i s t r a t i o n leadership types r o l e of the camp d i r e c t o r personnel c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of q u a l i f i e d camp personnel job d e s c r i p t i o n s recruitment of personnel number of s t a f f age a p p l i c a t i o n s medical examinations s k i l l s i n t e r v i e w i n g and examining s e l e c t i o n and assignment contracts personnel p o l i c i e s work environment work schedule p r o f e s s i o n a l growth s a l a r y schedule promotion records s t a f f e v a l u a t i o n s t a f f t r a i n i n g the camp c o u n s e l l o r p r e - a r r i v a l t r a i n i n g s t a f f manual pre-camp t r a i n i n g in-camp t r a i n i n g CIT programs camp program c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good program implementation of o b j e c t i v e s camper needs camper involvement use of environment challenge and adventure r e c o g n i t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l determining f a c t o r s camper type s t a f f s i t u a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s length of sessions camper expectations p a r e n t a l expectations program s t r u c t u r e groupings p r i n c i p l e s of program plan n i n g program e v a l u a t i o n timing who methods of e v a l u a t i o n h e a l t h and sa f e t y status of h e a l t h / two i l l n e s s e s /week he a l t h s t a f f h e a l t h examinations r e s t c l e a n l i n e s s h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s records program s a f e t y . , i s no accident nuisance p l a n t s nuisance animals proper c l o t h i n g storms equipment saf e t y i n s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s emergency procedures f i r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n waterfront missing person food s e r v i c e importance of good food food s e r v i c e personnel f u r n i s h i n g the d i n i n g h a l l d i n i n g h a l l management washing garbage purchasing preparation storage records finance and budgeting revenue sources expenditures budget process budget execution insurance medical l i a b i l i t y automobile p h y s i c a l damage f i r e camp owners miscellaneous coverage p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s functions r e c r u i t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f i n a n c i n g p r i n c i p l e s of PR media day camps purpose, philosophy, program t r a v e l camps s p e c i a l pops camps is s u e s . . . s e x u a l i t y environmental e t h i c s c e r t i f i c a t i o n + 11.4 People and Parks protected areas world conservation s t r a t e g i e s biogeographical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r t e r r e s t r i a l environment b i o p h y s i c a l c o a s t a l and marine c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system o b j e c t i v e s and c r i t e r i a f o r pro t e c t e d areas major issues s u r v i v a l of species g e n e t i c d i v e r s i t y permanence of conservation i n s t i t u t i o n s e c o l o g i c a l processes and the n a t i o n a l park r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h adjacent lands r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s o c i e t a l needs s e l e c t e d bio-geographical realms A f r o t r o p i c a l realm Indomalayan realm A u s t r a l i a n Indonesian Oceanic A n t a r c t i c P a l a e a r c t i c N e a r a r c t i c N e o t r o p i c a l new d i r e c t i o n s i n management monitoring gene banks i n t e r n a t i o n a l support needs assessments design process management techniques, i s s u e s , concerns ev a l u a t i o n s p e c i f i c examples n a t i o n a l parks p r o v i n c i a l parks r e g i o n a l parks urban parks p u b l i c involvement process hazards research + 11.5 Outdoor Recreation A c t i v i t i e s knowledge, t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , l e a d e r s h i p and pedagogical competencies canoeing equipment saf e t y and rescue r e p a i r and maintenance design games route planning n a v i g a t i o n program c a r r i e s environmental impact techniques climbing s a f e t y equipment r e p a i r and maintenance knots systems o u t - t r i p p i n g search and rescue map and compass route planning menu planning and outdoor cooking environmental e t h i c s s a f e t y leadership equipment tents and s h e l t e r s s l e e p i n g bags and pads c l o t h i n g r a i n gear packs f i r s t a i d k i t s stoves f i r s t a i d camp s i t e s e l e c t i o n and development t o o l c r a f t f i r e s knots and l a s h i n g o r i e n t e e r i n g hebertism and i n i t i a t i v e tasks x-country s k i i n g c o l d weather s u r v i v a l b i c y c l i n g + 11.6 Adventure Outdoor P u r s u i t s nature of the experience a d v e n t u r e . . i d i o s y n c r a t i c to the p a r t i c i p a n t c h a l l e n g e . . s p i r i t u a l , emotional, p h y s i c a l or mental f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g c o n f r o n t a t i o n . . e x i s t e n t i a l l y the d e c i s i o n to venture i n t o the unknown uncer t a i n outcomes v a r i e t y of op p o r t u n i t y . . v a r i o u s l e v e l s and types of s t i m u l a t i o n mastery p o t e n t i a l commitment r e q u i r e d . . s u b s t a n t i a l enough to s u s t a i n emotional response intense emotion..at a l e v e l appropriate to motivate growth t e s t i n something s i g n i f i c a n t to the p a r t i c i p a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . . c o - o p e r a t i o n , not competition choice..the op p o r t u n i t y to make decis i o n s r i s k . . p e r c e i v e d r i s k sustained p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . c y c l e of a n t i c i p a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n , and r e f l e c t i o n d i f f i c u l t y . . t h r i l l , but not without work issues c e r t i f i c a t i o n of leaders environmental e t h i c s s i m u l a t i o n vs. r e a l i t y s a f e t y perceptions t r a n s f e r l e a r n i n g l e a r n i n g r e t e n t i o n values pedagogical s k i l l s relevancy to c u r r i c goals and o b j e c t i v e s outdoor lea d e r s h i p environmental e t h i c s adventure a form of human expression need f o r adventure modes of expression escape i n t o fantasy v e r t i g o seeking k i n e t i c euphoria pioneer s p i r i t means to s a t i s f y the need f o r adventure h i s t o r i c a l & p h i l o s o p h i c a l roots of adventure i n education outdoor education movement e x p e r i e n t i a l education models some form of a c t i o n some form of r e f l e c t i o n some form of a p p l i c a t i o n processing i s the r e f l e c t i o n component i t i s what makes the l e a r n i n g which takes place e x p e r i e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l l y c o g n i t i v e h i e r a r c h i e s Bloom c o g n i t i v e p r o c e ssing models th e o r i e s of l e a r n i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l be able the t h i n k a b s t r a c t l y around the age of eleven l e v e l s of thought know1edge/memory comprehension/understanding a p p l i c a t i o n / s i m p l e usage a n a l y s i s / r e l a t i o n s h i p s y n t h e s i s / c r e a t i v e évaluâtion/opinion Adventure and Education p h y s i c a l magnitude of the peak,pole, lake or t r a i l i s no more important the emotional response the task e l i c i t s d e f i n i t i o n s of adventure e l i m i n a t e r i s k . , a novel e n t e r p r i s e undertaken f o r i t s own sake and undertaking of un c e r t a i n outcome; a hazardous e n t e r p r i s e - an e x c i t i n g or very unusual experience a strange experience f o r i t s own sake has a mystery about i t that can't be v i o l a t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l element of the unknown p o s s i b i l i t y of catastrophe there f o r students understanding of o b j e c t i v e dangers co n s t e r n a t i o n of students i s t h r e e q u a r t e r s ignorance commitment to p e r s i s t understandable s t r e s s the c o r r e c t responses w i l l r e s o l v e the c r i s i s l eadership dynamics, t h e o r i e s , s t y l e s , development s u r v i v a l s a fety three phases of i n j u r y countermeasures pre-event, event, post-event adventure programming f o r the o l d e r adult 45-65 - excluded from the adventure movement programs are designed f o r p h y s i c a l l y v i b r a n t people and i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e and p o l i t i c a l l y powerful group l e f t u n s a t i s f i e d s o c i e t a l forces aging population changing nature of work growing n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s o l d e r a d u l t s . , misconceptions about adv. a c t i v i t i e s b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s l ack of time f e e l i n g s of inadequacy *** expense e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s peer r i d i c u l e l a c k of marketing program components program c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s program techniques ev a l u a t i o n g u l f between research and p r a c t i c e need f o r meaningful feedback d i f f e r e n c e s between research and p r a c t i c e pre-occupât i o n w i t h demonstrating p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s among p a r t i c i p a n t s l i t t l e work on i n t e r p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , or i n t e l l e c t u a l goals of programs e v a l u a t i o n research as propaganda i n a p o l i t i c a l context weak e m p i r i c a l research foundation needs to be of more use to ad m i n i s t r a t o r s and educators elsewhere a program i s r a r e l y funded on i t s academic merits - primary expectation should be to document s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses f o r program development use of r e f l e c t i o n i n e v a l u a t i o n issues f o r e v a l u a t i o n to address leaders r o l e i n encouraging a small group to work together information on processes how the best components of a number of programs could be combined focus on f o l l o w up behaviours changes i n group co-operation over time b e h a v i o r a l data on s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g processes e v a l u a t i o n measures which are themselves e x p e r i e n t i a l to i n v e s t i g a t e the power of e x p e r i e n t i a l methods s t a f f have to come to see e v a l u a t i o n as a p r i o r i t y insurance insurance i n d u s t r y developed a new pr o f e s s i o n c a l l e d r i s k management how the i n d u s t r y works two p e r s p e c t i v e s - i n s u r e d . . p r o t e c t i o n against f i n a n c i a l l o s s i n s u r e r . . t h e r i s k s of two or more persons are combined f a c t o r s which increase or decrease accident r a t e s . . . . r i s k management s p e c i f i c items to be shared w i t h the in s u r e r s a f e t y record system what the system i s used f o r r e s u l t s of system sa f e t y record of s i m i l a r programs w r i t t e n p o l i c y and procedural g u i d e l i n e s fo r a l l program s t a f f s t a n d a r d s . . h i r i n g , progressions, s u p e r v i s i o n adequate s t a f f t r a i n i n g emergency systems d e t e c t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n of burn-out d e t e c t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n of non-human hazards d e t e c t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e danger f i r s t a i d t r a i n i n g medical f a c i l i t i e s - progressive t r a i n i n g of students r i s k t r a n s f e r techniques.. l i a b i l i t y . . i n s p e c t i o n s safety co-ordinators and s a f e t y committees management involvement n a t i o n a l o r r e g i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s that address safety-s a f e t y peer reviews outside consultants continency f o r l o s s of key personnel q u a l i f i e d personnel understanding and ident f o r high r i s k p a r t i c i p a n t s insurance contract s t r e s s on s t a f f course s t r u c t u r e and the environment are s t r e s s f u l . , r a p i d burn-out delinquent youth d i s t r u s t and antagonism toward a u t h o r i t y u n w i l l i n g n e s s to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l f and others i n acc. way v i o l e n c e and defiance . . . problem s o l v i n g mode concrete t h i n k e r s . . l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s l e a r n best through a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and concrete experience l a c k i n g i n self-esteem and s e l f confidence demanding/ give back l i t t l e the i n s t r u c t o r y o u t h f u l and t r a n s i e n t pre-dominantly middle c l a s s i n t e l l e c t u a l backgrounds chosen a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s k i l l e d i n wilderness p u r s u i t s adventuresome h i g h l y motivated d e s i r e f o r s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n genuine i n t e r e s t i n h e l p i n g other they should a l s o ; ; philosophy and p r i n c i p l e s of OB p r o f i c i e n t wilderness/adventure educators h i g h l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l l o r s Higher Horizons Model four i n s t r u c t o r team f i e l d home base c y c l e complementary s k i l l s staggered s t a f f t r a n s i t i o n s t herapeutic process burn-out t r a i n i n g and development h i r i n g , t r a i n i n g , and p r o f e s s i o n a l development minimal competency model competencies which are most e a s i l y demonstrated or meas. u s u a l l y min. comp. c e r t i f i c a t i o n widely used min. comp fo s t e r s a black box c h e c k l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e on the h i r i n g process s y n e r g i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n of competencies may be u s e f u l f o r h i r i n g , but of l i m i t e d use i n i n - s e r v i c e and s u p e r v i s i o n focus on the i d e a l f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of i d e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s experience, s k i l l s t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge c e r t i f i c a t e s experience more s i g n i f i c a n t than s k i l l , knowledge or c e r t i f i c a t i o n personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e r i v e d from r e f l e c t i v e experience s t a f f competency only one of the f a c t o r s that c o n t r i b u t e to program success s t a f f development need f o r n e g o t i a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l goals assumptions on which s t a f f development model i s b u i l t people i n t r i n s i c a l l y want to l e a r n on-going s t a f f growth i s e s s e n t i a l to program success personal growth i s more important than pay and other b e n e f i t s s t a f f burn-out when they stop f e e l i n g that they are growing l e a r n i n g occurs i n a myriad of w a y s , . a n t i c i p a t e d a n d spontaneous a d m i n i s t r a t o r s can enhance growth p r o - a c t i v e planning model i n t e g r a t e d s t a f f development model experience, s u p e r v i s i o n , formal t r a i n i n g s t a f f development synergy which element i s most important personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , exp . , s k i l l s , t h e o r e t i c a l , c e r t , i n des order formal.. lower l e v e l personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from experience need f o r q u a l i t y r e f l e c t i o n + 11.7 Advanced S k i l l s i n Outdoor Recreation advanced tech. s k i l l s , knowledge, leadership and pedagogical competencies t h r e e [ o u t d o o r p u r s u i t s , environmental education, adventure education] a c t . + 11.8 Independent Study i n Outdoor Recreation s a l i e n t issues and problems of i n t e r e s t to the student research methods and design r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e Values : + 1.1 Outdoor Programming and C o u n s e l l i n g p o t e n t i a l f o r joy, fun, excitement, c a r i n g , warmth, and personal f u l f i l m e n t making new f r i e n d s deepening ongoing r e l a t i o n s h i p s a b i l i t y to r e l a t e e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h other human beings the a b i l i t y to co-operate w i t h other human beings the a b i l i t y to co-ordinate a c t i o n w i t h that of other human beings working e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h other human beings i n c r e a s i n g c a p a c i t y to be human s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s development communicating + 1.2 Winter Outdoor Education c r i t i c a l to man's s u r v i v a l comfort and enjoyment of winter p u r s u i t s + 1.3 Outdoor Education O r g a n i z a t i o n and Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of human resources + 1.4 Judeo-Christian Perspectives i n Organized Camping understanding developmental and educational issues i n camping r e l a t i o n s h i p to b i b l i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of personal learnings h o l i s t i c l i v i n g and l e a r n i n g + 1.5 Urban Outdoor Recreation meaningful r e c r e a t i o n and developmental experiences greater awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y to the n a t u r a l environment + 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 groups and i n d i v i d . acquire an aware, and sens, to the t o t a l env. and prob. acquire a set of values and f e e l i n g s of concern f o r the environment d i s p o s i t i o n toward a c t i v e involvement i n r e s o l u t i o n w i l l i n g n e s s to: work i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y toward the achievement of : a dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m between q u a l i t y of l i f e and q u a l i t y of env. e c o l o g i c a l l y sound d e c i s i o n s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of personal value p o s i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h env. issues develop a pop. aware of and concerned about the env. be t t e r q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r present and future generations p r e s e r v a t i o n and imp. of humanity's p o t e n t i a l s s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l w e l l being i n harmony wi t h the b i o p h y s i c a l and env saving the human race from e x t i n c t i o n u n i t i n g a l l the people of the world i n a common e f f o r t s o l u t i o n s to problems that threaten l i f e on the planet earth to r e a l i z e the f r a g i l e and f i n i t e nature of the earth motivation to work toward env. s o l u t i o n s making wise choices about the environment i n small personal matters environmental l i t e r a c y program i n t e g r a t i o n 1 Wildlands and Outdoor P u r s u i t s cannot l i v e without w i l d things a higher standard of l i v i n g i s not worth i t s cost i n the n a t u r a l world law of d i m i n i s h i n g returns i n progress t r y i n g to r e b u i l d what i s l o s t w i t h shovel and axe what we loose elsewhere seeing land as a community and using i t with love and respect s u r v i v i n g the impact of mechanized man p e n a l t i e s f o r wise and f o o l i s h acts against which c i v i l , has b u i l t b u f f e r s elemental s i m p l i c i t y of wilderness t r a v e l freedom to make mistakes progressive d i l u t i o n of e s s e n t i a l s by the t r i v i a l i t i e s of l i v i n g + 3.2 Outdoor P u r s u i t s freedom s u r v i v a l s e l f r e l i a n c e overcoming fear compensation f o r the e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y + 3.3 Outdoor Education thorough understandings f i r s t hand experiences w i t h elements of discovery change viewed as an a l l y r a t h e r than a foe + 3.4 Organization and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Outdoor Programs and Centres + 3.5 Safety and Outdoor P u r s u i t s + 3.6 Co u n s e l l i n g and Leadership i n the Outdoors clean a i r you can see people are ni c e to you robin's song saying not to worry opportunity f o r r e f l e c t i o n s trength and determination f o r a c h i e v i n g goals i n l i f e - p r a c t i c e emergency ... s t r e n g t h of character a b i l i t i e s to r e l a t e i n group s i t u a t i o n s e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g i n s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l f d i s c o v e r i n g and r e d i s c o v e r i n g strengths and weaknesses + 3.7 Wilderness S u r v i v a l + 3.8 Outdoor P u r s u i t s + 4.1 Outdoor Warm Weather A c t i v i t i e s experiencing new a c t i v i t i e s new ways of doing things new modes of l e a r n i n g new ways of a p p r e c i a t i n g and i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h others people w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s and hobbies resp e c t i n g the n a t u r a l environment + 4.2 A l p i n e S k i i n g 4.3 Outdoor Recreation 4.4 Outdoor Cold Weather A c t i v i t i e s 4.5 I n t r o d u c t i o n to Outdoor Education 5.1 Outdoor Recreation f o r S p e c i a l Populations the development of f u l l p o t e n t i a l through l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s increased acceptance of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s reduction of ignorance and f e a r that r e s u l t s i n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g s o c i a l s k i l l s non-disabled c h i l d r e n develop p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s which l a s t a l i f e time a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s the r i g h t of everyone modify behaviour i n order to achieve an obj e c t i v e r i s k prep f o r , part that o f t e n exceeds that of other types of r e c . engage w i t h i n ones c a p a c i t y (non-comp.) wi t h the mental and emotional prep needed without the usual l i m i t a t i o n of : unequal p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y and u n f a i r comparison excitement that i s both l e g a l and f e a s i b l e e x h i l a r a t i o n and emotional impact balance an otherwise drab and o f t e n unjust r e a l i t i e s of l i f e freedom to choose l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y 5.2 Outdoor Recreation S k i l l s IV outdoor p u r s u i t f a c i l i t i e s managed w e l l 5.3 Tests and Measurement i n Outdoor Recreation 5.4 Outdoor S k i l l s V 6.1 Outdoor Education A c t i v i t i e s lack of preparation puts a burden on the group the welfare of the group i s paramount i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t s have value equipment must be cared f o r cooperation w i t h others i n i t i a t i v e outdoor e t h i c s personal d i e t , h e a l t h and hygiene outdoor conservation 2 Winter Camping outdoor e t h i c s outdoor conservation 1 Outdoor Education: Summer an adventurous and d e f i a n t l i f e a p p r e c i a t i o n of ones p h y s i c a l and mental c a p a c i t i e s judgement determination d e c i s i o n making saf e t y sharing d i f f e r e n t tasks f a c i l i t a t i n g and enjoyable t r i p an a p p r e c i a t i o n of various forms of nature s e l f p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n a group the enjoyment of success s e l f c o n t r o l of a t t i t u d e s and behaviour conservation s e n s i t i v i t y and awareness c r e a t i v i t y 2 Outdoor Education: Winter i n d i v i d u a l strengths and l i m i t s appropriate a t t i t u d e s and behaviour a f f e c t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n of the winter environment discover oneself s e n s i t i v i t y of the e c o l o g i c a l m i l i e u v a r i e d l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s sharing of personal knowledge and experiences a p p r e c i a t i o n of v a r i o u s forms of nature q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of experiences discovery l e a r n i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n of o l d and new ways of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n resourcefulness s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r e a t i v i t y i n conjunction w i t h nature s e r v i c e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g a r t i s t i c t a s t e 3 O r i e n t e e r i n g and Cross-Country S k i i n g performance i s secondary 4 Education to Adventure r e s o l v i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s attached to the outdoor movement j udgement spontaneity i n i t i a t i v e discovery of ones p o t e n t i a l patience determination w i l l i n g n e s s 1 Outdoor Education i n r e c r e a t i o n h e l p i n g others l e a r n relevance to i n c l a s s c u r r i c u l u m enjoyable experiences env - s o l u t i o n s i n science & technology w i l l worsen the s i t u a t i o n the good person i n d i v i d u a l freedoms that are d e f e n s i b l e to env. e t h i c s not f o u l i n g our own nest the greatest good f o r the greatest number energy conservation freedom i n the commons bri n g s r u i n to a l l values sought i n the park are c o n t i n u a l l y erode environmental ed leads to env. e t h i c s environmentally s e n s i t i v e v i s i t o r s should v i s i t o r s v i s i t s e n s i t i v e areas env. ed may be s e l f d e f e a t i n g , exacerbate the very problems i t seeks to solve our i d e n t i t y comes form the land/ we are rooted i n the n a t u r a l world working together f o r maximum e f f e c t s a green earth or a dry desert conservation p a r t n e r s h i p s space i s no escape .1 Outdoor Recreation A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Value of High Adventure scenery at heights l i f t s the s p i r i t sensation moving wi t h elemental force an a l i e n and mysterious environment u n c e r t a i n t y n a t u r a l anxiety mastery intense emotion escape from r o u t i n e l i v i n g s o c i a l sharing intense personal experiences sharing pain and pleasure, a n x i e t y and e x u l t a t i o n personal bonds f u l l concentration and a t t e n t i o n being f u l l y present heightened perceptions observe and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the environment going beyond perceived l i m i t s f e e l i n g humble knowledge of ones m o r t a l i t y and l i m i t a t i o n s e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n acceptance of consequences commitment of mind and body Winter Recreation the weather cl i m a t e and seasons surrounding and a f f e c t i n g our l i v e s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the seasons and peoples' humours and temperaments e f f e c t s on our s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e s renewed awareness of our psych-bio herit a g e and l i m i t s tourism s o c i a l a c t i v i t y competitive v a r i a n t s expression of innocent a f f e c t i o n indebtedness and dependence on each other p l a y i n g and l i v i n g together t r a d i t i o n s r e - c r e a t i o n of s p i r i t s o c i a l s o l i t a r i e s our s i m i l a r i t i e s simple pleasures i n t e g r a t i v e ways of r e c r e a t i n g spontaneity maintenance of purpose or d i r e c t i o n community growth reverence f o r the environment, environmental q u a l i t y , a n d q u a l i t y of l i f e e x e r c i s e peace and quiet beauty of nature escaping urban r e l a t e d s t r e s s e s family s o l i d a r i t y a chieving something not having to compete being free of schedules, leagues and dependence on others continuing need labor a t o r y f o r l e a r n i n g museum f o r study wholesome fun and enjoyment f e e l i n g nature seeing things born and growing scenery man's processes viewed f i r s t hand beauty / a l t e r n a t i v e to c i t y scenery a l t e r n a t i v e to science and technology a l t e r n a t i v e to l i v i n g by c r i s i s to c r i s i s a l t e r n a t i v e to a power dr i v e n , complex, d e l i c a t e s o c i e t y renewing experience economic impact p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , and moral w e l l being s o l u t i o n ton the s o c i a l problems created by u r b a n i z a t i o n & l e i . time improvement of depressed areas c u l t u r a l values tension between beauty and u t i l i t y the use of the out o doors f o r f u l f i l m e n t of l i f e comforting i n f l u e n c e s awareness of a presence beyond and around us manifested i n a l l l i v i n g things evidence of the order and c r e a t i o n of which we are apart wholeness concept of l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n s a n d i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e t a i n i n g a f e e l i n g of s i g n i f i c a n c e f e e l i n g of wholeness u n i t y and purpose -- s e c u r i t y embodies h i s t o r y , p r i m i t i v e experiences c o n t r i b u t i o n to the h e a l t h and s a n i t y of man s o c i a l values innate d r i v e f o r adventure a l t e r n a t i v e to l e s s d e s i r a b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n of the d r i v e people of l i k e i n t e r e s t s l e a r n i n g d e s i r a b l e behaviour and conduct environmental, s o c i a l e t c . companionship, f r i e n d s h i p s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the r i g h t s of others p h y s i o l o g i c a l values ta x i n g the body beyond i t s usual performance l e v e l s t i m u l a t i n g the organism to improve i t s c o n d i t i o n high f i t n e s s l e v e l s p h y s i c a l vigour educational values broadened understanding of the laws of nature sharpened a p p r e c i a t i o n of nature la b o r a t o r y i n l i v i n g d i s c o v e r i n g things f o r oneself f i r s t hand l e a r n i n g l i v i n g b e n e f i t s of outdoor l i v i n g s k i l l mastery s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to others s p i r i t u a l values freedom and s e r e n i t y develop h u m i l i t y inner warmth sense of s e c u r i t y true s a t i s f a c t i o n Future r e s t and r e l a x a t i o n l o a f i n g and dreaming i n t e l l e c t u a l enrichment fami l y togetherness e x o t i c adventure excitement sexual escapades s e l f discovery escape Man's Impact r u r a l l i f e s t y l e s r e v i s i t e d - more p l e a s i n g and p l e a s u r a b l e outdoor experiences space Socio- Economic Impacts congestion, p o l l u t i o n , n o i s e , s t r e s s escape form undesirable e f f e c t s of ur b a n i z a t i o n s t i m u l a t i o n of r u r a l economies Risk Factor stimulus r e i n t r o d u c e s to our p r e d i c t a b l e and secure l i v e s m o tivation toward i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s tudies human development t o o l s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t on group dynamics Wilderness education reduction of deaths and i n j u r i e s due to ignorance conservation i n t e l l i g e n c e I n t r o arouse s e n s i t i v i t y , shape values, develop commitments strengthen p e r s o n a l i t i e s expand c o g n i t i v e understandings, l e a r n p r a c t i c a l l i v i n g s k i l l s develop c i t i z e n r y w i t h awareness of issues and s o l u t i o n s to those issues human development and environmental awareness - OTHERS n a t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e development of f i r m a p p r e c i a t i o n stewardship untapped resource at v i r t u a l l y no cost p o s i t i v e changes i n s i x s c a l e s adapted ob autism, a l i e n a t i o n , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , m a n i f e s t a g g r e s s i o n , s o c i a l maladjustment and value o r i e n t a t i o n increased l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n and maturity more powerful, hard working, l o y a l , t r u s t i n g , and s a t i s f i e d long term impact on s o c i a l and personal f u n c t i o n i n g fewer a r r e s t s , l e s s a l c o h o l and drug use l e s s dependency on s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n p o s i t i v e behaviour i n personal s e l f low general maladjustment low neurosis i n s e l f concept value o r i e n t a t i o n maturity-a l i e n a t i o n aggression withdrawal re p r e s s i o n l e s s r e c i d i v i s m reduction of delinquency Wilderness as Therapy avoids the containment of i n s t i t u t i o n s l e s s undermining of the sense of s e l f t o o l i n p h y c o l o g i c a l e v a l u a t i o n d i a g n o s t i c t o o l f o r asse s s i n g strengths and weaknesses member of group reveals a composite p i c t u r e of the s e l f , the g l o b a l p e r s o n a l i t y - behaviours emerge i n sharp focus i d e n t i f i e s l i f e on b e h a v i o r a l patterns which can be addressed develops f l e x i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l under r i g o r o u s s i t u a t i o n s a l t e r n a t i v e to the system therapeutic change i n the context of a long term process e x p e r i e n t i a l base f o r l e a r n i n g - PAP te s t of s u r v i v a l a b i l i t i e s Stewardship proper stewardship f o r . . . r e c r e a t i o n a l , i n s p i r a t i o n a l , educational b e n e f i t s OR program book contact w i t h n a t u r a l wonders improved q u a l i t y of l i f e renew s p i r i t and purpose f u l f i l man's need to be c l o s e to n a t u r a l things f u l f i l need f o r challenge and adventure compensation of the speed and confusion of modern l i v i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l value away from s y n t h e t i c environments doing something e x c i t i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n and enjoyment acceptance i n a group conquest and adventure beauty i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e excitement of doing development-improvement p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and c o n d i t i o n i n g a b i l i t i e s , techniques, and s k i l l s i n od mental a t t i t u d e and s t a b i l i t y confidence and s e l f expression use of l e i s u r e new i n t e r e s t s co-operation and teamwork - a p p r e c i a t i o n of conservation and n a t u r a l resources safety and good judgement s p i r i t u a l meaning and moral values awareness and concern f o r the p h y s i c a l environment and the eco balance b u i l d i n g s o l i d c i t i z e n s s k i l l s i n l i v i n g a p p l i e d respect f o r n a t u r a l things mental r e s t l i f e long a c t i v i t i e s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y s e l f confidence, s e l f respect, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y b asic f e e l i n g s i e hunger, f a t i g u e etc v i v i d involvement e x c e l l e n t l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g ground 11.2 Outdoor Education Methods - What i s OE the importance of teaching from n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s d i r e c t contact w i t h that which i s to be learned most out of l e a r n i n g through discovery f a s t e r , more deeply appreciated l e a r n i n g l e a r n i n g r e t a i n e d longer l e s s expensive l e a r n i n g r e a l i t y l e a r n i n g more e x c i t i n g and at a more valuable pace worth more than a l l the lessons i n a book genuine understanding respect f o r l e a r n i n g and the land greatest i n t e g r a t i o n of l e a r n i n g not a r t i f i c i a l l y separated from the r e s t of the world - improved r e l a t i o n s h i p between student and teacher s t i f f n e s s out of the educational process new ki n d of eagerness to l e a r n understanding the more s u b t l e problems of group l i v i n g r e a l lessons i n democracy combats problems w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l ways of l e a r n i n g r e s t l e s s n e s s , dropouts A D e f i n i t i o n replaces removal from the land fun to play and work i n the out of doors na t u r a l s i n the school c u r r i c u l u m more meaningful e x c e l l e n t foundation f o r comparison and contrast often the disadvantaged have a chance teacher gains i n s i g h t i n t o the c h i l d p e r s o n a l i t y c h i l d understands the teacher b e t t e r f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n of ones environment does not merely emphasis a b s t r a c t c o g n i t i o n c o n t i n u a l e x p e r i e n t i a l adjustment to changing co n d i t i o n s t o t a l l i v i n g community, the c h i l d community escape from the crowded, h u r r i e d , high tensioned change from the sedentary way of l i f e education f o r democracy a c h i l d r e n democracy i s created Basic Concepts s e l f r e a l i z a t i o n i n d i v i d u a l m a turity, achievement, r e c o g n i t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g community s e r v i c e n a t u r a l resource use s e l f - c o n f r o n t a t i o n knowledge and a t t i t u d e s toward the environment human r e l a t i o n s h i p s economic e f f i c i e n c y c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y H i s t o r i c a l background s o c i a l i z i n g , humanizing, c i v i l i z i n g emotionally s a t i s f y i n g Code co-operative l e a r n i n g asset to the c h i l d t o t a l education opportunity to p r a c t i c e f u n c t i o n s i n s o c i e t y democratic procedures i n ; the classroom f a c i l i t a t e s the teaching l e a r n i n g process p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o b j e c t i v e s , r e c r e a t i o n and sleep personal hygiene r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c knowledge to the s e l f understanding the e f f e c t s on n a t u r a l and human systems personal meaning e x p e r i e n t i a l methods address the c e n t r a l goal of p a r t i c i p a t i o n strengthening l i n k s between ideas and the r e a l i t i e s to which they r e f e r s t r i n g i n t e g r a t e d system growth o an e s s e n t i a l c a r i n g d i s p o s i t i o n heart and mind engaged t h e r e f o r e more empathy s k i l l s 'of problem a n a l y s i s through r e a l problems immersion i n the l e a r n i n g c h a l l e n g i n g a c t i v e problem s o l v i n g experience true success lose of a s e l f consciousness about l e a r n i n g motivation about l e a r n i n g teacher student r e l a t i o n s h i p enriched t h i n k i n g and r e f l e c t i o n n a t u r a l observation s u r p r i s e and excitement i s m o t i v a t i n g to l e a r n i n g motivation and i n t e n s i t y of purpose exposure to an environment f o r which they w i l l make d e c i s i o n s serious i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r s t u d i e s l e a r n i n g process improves make sound judgements about what they see teach and generate i n t e r e s t personal i n t e r a c t i o n s co-operative a t t i t u d e s , excitement of discovery leadership q u a l i t i e s revealed i n students people g e t t i n g along w i t h people Nature Centre a sense of breathing space around the c i t y s e l f i n i t i a t e d experience i n d i v i d u a l and group i n i t i a t i v e p r i d e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and work a e s t h e t i c enjoyment think i n quiet be made new again awareness, a p p r e c i a t i o n , and a f f e c t i o n f o r nature man's place i n the n a t u r a l world stewardship study i n n a t u r a l h a b i t a t a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h i n Canada le a r n to care c l o s e r to the land S t a r t i n g Young e x c i t i n g experience i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e a l world environmental awareness s o c i a l value personal experience teacher as a human being teachers l e a r n too coming to terms w i t h s e l f s t a f f and students a l i k e have i n s i g h t s s o l i d information on which to base f e e l i n g s r e a l l i f e experiences r e a l e f f e c t s on the environment are viewed Real World Problem S o l v i n g act r e s p o n s i b l y and e f f e c t i v e l y i n r e s o l u t i o n of env. problems greater accuracy and p u n c t u a l i t y i n assignments develop cooperative and l e a d e r s h i p a t t r i b u t e s more o r i g i n a l i t y expended more e f f o r t forum sense of daring, sense of adventure f i t n e s s moving beyond l i m i t s making and e f f o r t i s as important as successes or f a i l u r e d e l i g h t i n the n a t u r a l environment f o x f i r e f o r Sp Pops preparedness f o r the world paying b e t t e r a t t e n t i o n overcoming group behaviour problems before addressing goals planning own work schedules accepting d i r e c t i o n accepting a s s i s t a n c e s e t t l i n g down and g e t t i n g to work communicating w i t h various age groups i n t e r v i e w and s t o r y w r i t i n g g e t t i n g along w i t h other k i d s coping w i t h strange s i t u a t i o n s bridge between c u l t u r e s Teaching Students to Work w i t h Sp Pops - behaviour m o d i f i c a t i o n and s e l f image r e c o g n i t i o n of l i m i t a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i l l fears or p r e j u d i c e s + 11.3 Camp A d m i n i s t r a t i o n preparedness f o r the world paying b e t t e r a t t e n t i o n overcoming group behaviour problems before addressing goals + 11.4 People and Parks + 11.5 Outdoor Recreation A c t i v i t i e s + 11.6 Concepts of Adventure Adventure i n Education conquering s e l f c r e a t i n g monumental p o s s i b i l i t i e s s e l f knowledge p o t e n t i a l growth i n s e l f sense of ones own c a p a c i t i e s promotion of the i d e a l i n a person r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward humanity choosing at p e r i l means complete i n powers c a l l i n g upon the whole nature f o r complete e f f o r t s s p i r i t u a l and humanistic experience e f f i c a c y e s s e n t i a l elements of s u r v i v a l perseverance strength i n i n d i v i d u a l i t y compassion i n the m u l t i p l i c i t y of group experience a b i l i t y to use on's mind and to think - reason to t h i n k - OUT OF THE SUMMARY personal growth self-concept s e l f respect s e l f d i s c i p l i n e s e l f confidence p e r s i s t e n c e emotional c o n t r o l r e l i a n c e s e l f e f f i c a c y d e c i s i o n making s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h others r e l a t i n g to others co-operation sharing communications mutual support and c a r i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n of the n a t u r a l world h e a l t h , w e l l - b e i n g , and f i t n e s s emotional h e a l t h peak experiences intense emotional involvement - the e x i s t e n t i a l d e c i s i o n as to whether to p a r t i c i p a t e s t i m u l a t i o n or a r o u s a l heightened perceptions r i s k and challenge status novice or veteran p a r t i c i p a t i o n feedback from peers - challenge of competition as status increases commitment e f f i c a c y d e a l i n g w i t h s t r e s s making d e c i s i o n s under s t r e s s t e s t i n g perceptions about the s e l f p h y s i c a l , mental and emotional s t r e n g t h technique competency understanding l i m i t s personal freedom v a r i e t y of opportunity mastery - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the environment d i v e r s i t y of responses lack of c o n s t r a i n t c h a l l e n g i n g landscape co-operation w i t h the n a t u r a l elements freedom of choice sustained p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r i l l but not w i t h out work + 11.7 Independent Study i n Outdoor Recreation + 11.8 Advanced S k i l l s i n Outdoor Recreation Appendix D Q Sort Instrument 1. PLACE THE ITEMS SECURELY IN THE POCKETS 2. FOLD THE ENVELOP IN HALF 3. PLACE IT IN THE MAILING ENVELOP PROVIDED PLEASE COMPLETE THE INFORMATION SECTION ON THE FLAP OF THIS ENVELOP 1M 3M 5M 8M 12 8L 5L 3L 1L INSTRUCTIONS 1. Examine a l l of the items to be sorted. If you have any d i f f i c u l t y un-derstanding the meaning of any of the item tags, please do not hesitate to c a l l me. You may divide them into three p i l e s including; very important, somewhat important and not very import-ant . Proceed. 2. Choose the one (1) you believe i s most important for i n c l u s i o n i n the course and place i t i n the 1M pocket. 3. Choose the one (1) you believe i s least important for i n c l u s i o n i n the course and place i t i n the 1L pocket. 4. Choose three (3) items which are next most important and place them i n 5. Choose the three (3) items which are next least important and place them i n the 3L pocket. 6. Choose the f i v e (5) items which are next most important and place them i n the 5M pocket. 7. Choose the f i v e (5) items which are next least important and place them i n the 5L pocket. 8. Choose the eight (8) items which are next most important and place them i n the 8M pocket. 9. Choose the eight (8) items which are next least important and place them i n the 8L pocket. 3 Q Sort Envelop with Instructions Appendix E Interview Guide Interview Guide The I n t r o d u c t i o n 1. Purpose of the research. 2. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . 3. Research procedures. The Course Conductor 1. T e l l me about y o u r s e l f . 2. How d i d you get involved i n outdoor education? 3. What are your r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n ? 4. Do you have any mentors? The Program 1. How could you describe t h i s program to a colleague or to a new student? 2. Does t h i s program have r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other f a c u l t i e s or departments? What are they? What should they be i n your opinion? 3. What image does t h i s program have w i t h students? Faculty? Community? 4. What are the program's strengths and weaknesses? How would you address them? The Student 1. Why does a student come here to take outdoor educa-t i o n ? 2. What happens to a student i n t h i s program? 3 . What does a student do a f t e r completing the pro-gram? The Concept 1. Does i t make sense to define the concept outdoor education? 2. How would you define? 3 . Can you describe how you would recognize outdoor education i n p r a c t i c e ? 4. What about the f o l l o w i n g scenarios? Why would you consider them or not consider them outdoor educa-t i o n ? a. Adventure A c t i v i t i e s , b. I n s t r u c t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s , c. Environmental A p p r e c i a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s , d. others i n response to previous d i s c u s s i o n , e. use P r i e s t and Jenson & Briggs-Young models i f need be. 1. Is there such a th i n g as "the good outdoor educa-t o r " ? Describe or why not? 2. How does the outdoor educator impact on an outdoor education experience? 3. What do you do to develop good outdoor educators? Issues 1. Does our f i e l d have burning issues? What? 2 . Is there anything which could be considered unique-l y Canadian or uniquely r e g i o n a l ? 3. What do you think about research i n our f i e l d ? 4. Is there a gender issue i n our f i e l d ? 5. What would your outdoor education wish l i s t c o n s i s t of? 6. What do you think our p r i o r i t i e s should be i n the 90s? Summary 1. We have covered 2. Let me see i f I asked about everything? 3. Is there anything e l s e you might l i k e to add? 

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