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Multicultural clubs in schools: theory and practice Shiu, Daniel Pui-Yin 1998

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MULTICULTURAL CLUBS IN SCHOOLS: THEORY AND PRACTICE by Daniel Pui- Yin Shiu B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1990 B.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Curriculum Studies) We accept this thesis as confonning Jo the re/^ ruired standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1998 © Daniel Pui-Yin Shiu, 1998 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, 1 agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of CuggicuLuM S T U P I E S The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) 11 Abstract Despite the voluminous literature on multicultural education in both theory and practice, research on extra-curricular organizations (such as multicultural clubs) that deal with this issue is rare. As a practical outlet for voicing multicultural concerns, multicultural clubs provide a place for students to take social and political action. This qualitative case study examines multicultural clubs in three secondary schools in the Surrey school district, each unique in its stage of development. Interviews took place during the 1996-97 school year in which one sponsor teacher from each school and seven student members in total participated. The ideas presented in this thesis stem from these interviews and are categorized in terms of the purposes, approaches, activities, and challenges of the three multicultural clubs. The purposes and approaches of the multicultural clubs are expansive in scope as social and political issues (such as equality, human rights, and the environment) are also addressed. Although a number of the clubs' activities do not appear to be exphcitly "multicultural", students and sponsor teachers view them as linked through a broad approach to social and political activism In essence, multicultural clubs empower students as they take on leadership roles in decision-making and in delegating and fulfilling responsibilities, regardless of the issue at hand. Although the main concerns expressed in all of the multicultural clubs include their membership survival and handling of controversial social and political issues, each school has its unique challenges. A number of general recommendations grow out of this study: students must have ownership in the planning and management of the organization; students must believe that in the club functions as a forum for social and political activism where they may freely express and initiate their plans; activities based on a particular theme rather than on random spontaneity are more useful and focused in their implementation; support from the school's administrators, staff members, and students is needed; clubs need to set realistic goals; club members continually need to educate themselves through attending workshops and conferences; and time is needed for multicultural clubs to grow, reflect, review, re-evaluate, and transform iv Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iv List of Tables vi Acknowledgements vii Chapter 1 - Introduction 1 Rationale and Statement of the Problem 1 Purpose of the Study 2 Methodology 3 Surrey School District 3 Identifying a "Multicultural Club" 3 Selection of Multicultural Clubs and Students 4 Data Collection and Analysis 5 Limitations of the Research 5 School and Multicultural Club Profiles 6 School A 6 School B 7 School C 9 Chapter 2 - Literature Review 11 Introduction 11 Definitions of Multicultural Education 12 Purposes of Multicultural Education 15 Theoretical Approaches to Multicultural Education 17 Magsino 18 McLeod 21 Falconi 22 Elliston 24 Fleras and Elliott 25 McNeill 29 Banks 32 Generalized Typology of Multicultural Education Approaches 34 Implementation of Multicultural Education 36 Kehoe 37 McLeod 40 Friesen and de Vries 42 V Butt 43 Banks 46 Tator and Henry 49 McDowell 54 Lund 56 Concluding Remarks 58 Chapter 3 - Multicultural Clubs 60 Introduction 60 Similarities Among the Clubs 61 Definitions of Multiculturalism 61 Purposes of Multicultural Clubs 63 Theoretical Approaches to Multicultural Clubs 68 Differences Among the Clubs 73 Implementation of the Multicultural Clubs' Activities 73 School A 74 School B 75 School C 78 Challenges of Multicultural Clubs 81 School A 81 School B 82 School C 83 Impact of Multicultural Clubs 85 Social and Political Activism and the Role of the Media 86 Concluding Remarks 89 Chapter 4 - Conclusion 93 Reference List 98 Appendix - Interview Schedule Guide and Dates 102 List of Tables Table 1. Names of Interviewees 10 Table 2. Dates of Interviews 103 V l l Acknowledgements This work would not have been possible without the guidance, support, patience, and inspiration of many people: my advisor, Professor Peter Seixas, who has shown me invaluable understanding and whose insights continually challenge me to examine the issues of multiculturahsm; my committee members, Professor J. Donald Wilson and Professor Kogila Adam-Moodley, whose thoughtful suggestions have given me indispensible aid; my informants, sponsor teachers and student members of the multicultural clubs, who shared with me their knowledge and experiences about their organizations; my grandmother, Yuk Kam Shiu, who continues to show her love and support; my parents, Ying Seu Shiu and Bick Shiu, who imparted to me their love of learning and of the educational experience; my friends, Eliza Ip, who has given me much editorial feedback, and Larry Beach, who has given me substantial computer assistance. Chapter 1 - Introduction i Rationale and Statement of the Problem Although most Canadians agree that Canada is a multicultural nation, the concept of "multiculturaHsm" and its political legitimacy are recent phenomena: in 1971, the Trudeau government publicly accepted and encouraged "multiculturaUsm within a bilingual framework" as an official policy (Burnet, 1987, p. 68), and only in 1982 did the same administration constitutionally commit to the "preservation and enhancement of the 'multicultural heritage' of Canadians" (Kallen, 1987, p. 318). Entrenched even further in Canadian law as a means of political and cultural empowerment, the Multiculturahsm Act of 1988 was enacted to "assist with cultural and language preservation, to reduce discrimination, to enhance intercultural awareness and understanding, and to promote culturally sensitive institutional change at federal levels" (Fleras and Elliott, 1992, p. 75). Despite the legal existence of "multiculturaHsm", the concept remains somewhat vague and elusive. Yet, the policy seemed to have provided an impetus for educators to revise provincial curricula, by expanding them to include sections that examine multiculturahsm as a concept, perspective, and even doctrine. The notion of "multicultural education" thus entered the educational lexicon. However, the term remains problematic in that no semantic consensus exists. That pedagogical theories and praxis differ only exacerbates the already contentious issue. Despite the voluminous Hterature on multicultural education from the perspectives of 2 academics, administrators, and teachers, studies promoting multicultural education through extra-curricular organizations (such as multicultural clubs) are rare. Students consequently become the passive recipients of curricular development and change, depoliticized and disenfranchised in an institution where ironically they are most affected. Their ideas of what multicultural education is and what it should be remain mostly unvoiced. Multicultural clubs, as voluntary extra-curricular organizations, provide students one important forum to express their interests and concerns. In addition, they provide an opportunity for students to take action, and in effect they become a source for student involvement and empowerment. Purpose of the Study Through a qualitative case study of multicultural clubs in three secondary schools in the Surrey school district, the purpose of this qualitative research is threefold: first, the perspectives and observations from various academic writings with regard to the principles, objectives, approaches, and programs of multiculturalism will be examined in the literature review; second, the perspectives and observations from several faculty sponsors and student members of multicultural clubs in secondary schools will be examined using the same framework; third, recommendations for the development and maintenance of multicultural clubs in secondary schools will be proposed, based on the analysis of the literature and the clubs. 3 Methodology Surrey School District Within the last decade, the Surrey school district has experienced an influx of predominantly Asian and Eastern European immigrants. Approximately fifty percent of the district's student population is now categorized as "English as a Second Language", although in some cases such designations are more for political and economic reasons than for educational purposes. The resulting ethnic diversity has brought about the need for cross-cultural communication within the schools. This study focuses on Surrey's rapidly expanding school district for two main reasons: first, the pervasive multicultural atmosphere presents an appropriate case study for examining existing multicultural clubs at the secondary school level; second, as a secondary school teacher in this district who has become familiar with the existing administered district programs as well as the ethnic diversity of students, I can examine the ways in which theory and practice correlate within the context of multicultural clubs. Identifying a "Multicultural Club" The criteria used in this study to determine a "multicultural club" is based on the issues and concerns of the organization ~ those that deal with racial and ethnic diversity in the school system (Fleras and Elliott, 1992). In practice, however, I found the term, "Multicultural Club", not widely used. Instead, names such as "Global Issues Club" or "Global Education Club" are employed.1 These clubs, in addition to multicultural issues, deal with a variety of other subjects, such as the environment, human rights, and gender equity. Although the focus of these clubs appear too broad to be just "multicultural", the activities implemented are linked by both the social and political activism of the students and by the role of the media.2 Selection of Multicultural Clubs and Students As a participant in the Surrey multicultural camp program in November 1996,1 made contact with sponsor teachers from other secondary schools in the district. A number of teachers showed interest in participating in this field research, from whom I selected three (referred to as School A, School B, and School C). They agreed to request authorization from their administrators and subsequently recruited students from their own multicultural organization whom they perceived as being "active" participants in initiating ideas and implementing activities. Subsequently, one student from School A, three from School B, and three from School C volunteered to participate in this study. The selection of the schools was premised upon the respective clubs' stages of initial development and continuing maintenance. This difference provides a basis for 1 This study will hereafter refer to such organizations as "multicultural clubs". It is important to note here, however, that both students and teachers interviewed believe that multiculturalism plays only a part of their respective global studies club. Other clubs in the schools exist but are mainly in the field of athletics and fine arts. They do not deal with the political and social issues of the multicultural clubs. 2 Chapter 3 will highhght some of the issues and activities the multicultural clubs have implemented. It will also address the topic raised of social and political activism and the role of the media. 5 comparison: School A has only recently formed a multicultural club during the latter half of the 1996-97 school year; School B, however, dissolved its multicultural club, which ceased to exist independently in the 1996-97 school year, but has instead amalgamated (during the same school year) with the environmental club as a means of resurgence; School C has one of the largest student organizations in B.C. and has high participation and student-led activities since its start in 1980. Data Collection and Analysis Two tape-recorded and later transcribed semi-structured interviews took place at each school. Students and teachers were questioned separately in order to avoid potentially teacher-biased discussions and to reveal possible perceptual discrepancies between them Each interview lasted approximately thirty to forty-five minutes. While interviews with teachers were administered individually, students from Schools B and C were interviewed in groups in order to reduce individual pressures and promote an open discussion. Questions from the interview schedule fall mainly into the following categories: definitions of multiculturaUsm; purposes and goals of the club; club participation and activities; and the impact of the club in the school (see Appendix for the interview schedule). Limitations of the Research By researching only a few selected schools in one district within a restricted time span, limitations in geography, participation, and context arise. Geographically, because this study is confined to Surrey, the relevance and practicality of participant responses may only pertain to that particular district.3 In addition, confounding factors such as differing school population sizes, socio-ethnic statuses, and ethnic compositions may effect and in turn account for discrepancies among the participants' views on multicultural issues. Teachers and students participating in this investigation may not be representative because of the purposive selection process. Contextually, this synchronic study seems to present a static vision of multicwtural clubs as it examines them in a time-restricted manner; however, it must be noted that each club is dynamically cyclical as it constantly reevaluates, reorganizes, redevelops, and redefines itself. School and Multicultural Club Profiles School A School A was established in 1990 as a full secondary school and is situated in a predominantly Anglo-Saxon, upper-middle class cornmunity with a student body of approximately 1350 (1997-98). The school is essentially mono-cultural; however, its ethnic composition has been changing as a growing minority of Asian irnmigrants have recently settled in the area. It is this current cultural transformation that has resulted in an 3 The recommendations presented in Chapter 4 may be relevant to other Lower Mainland school districts, such as Vancouver, Richmond, and Burnaby, as they are also experiencing similar challenges in population increase and ethnic diversity; however, the recommendations may not be relevant to other places in B.C., such as the interior or the north, where they face other concerns. 7 acknowledgment of the need for a multiciutural club. A multicultural club did not exist in the school prior to 1996, but after the school district's multicultural camp (November 1996), the sponsor teacher, "Tony", and one of the participating students, "Jim" (grade 11), decided to form a student club to address and implement the ideas presented at the conference.4 By February 1997, a small group known as the "Global Issues Club" was formed, mostly credited to the initiatives of Jim and Tony, both of whom are Anglo-Saxons. Within a month, about a dozen students joined the club, but it has only had a consistently active group of about five students and one sponsor teacher. The club is student-led with no apparent delegated or elected hierarchical roles; rather, students volunteer to organize and implement their planned activities. Tony acts in an advisory capacity whereby students consult him with regard to the ethical and logistical concerns of their activities. School B School B was established as a full secondary school in 1997 with mostly a new building (one part of the school was renovated), although it had existed as a junior secondary for decades. Situated in a somewhat transient, lower-middle / working class area where the ethnic composition is diverse with Anglo-Saxons, Eastern Europeans, and Asians, the school has approximately 1170 students (1997-98). 4 To protect the anonymity of the interviewees, pseudonyms are given to each. Refer to Table 1 for the pseudonyms and schools of the students and teachers participating in this study. Table 2 in the Appendix provides the dates of the interviews. 8 The mmticultural club existed in this school for a number of years; however, at the beginning of the 1996-97 school year, the organization was dissolved, as student members consciously did not form one. They realized that their concerns had neither been acknowledged nor addressed in the past. Instead, they proactively decided to amalgamate with the environmental club, and a new organization emerged ~ Global Education Club. With a membership of about ten students and three sponsor teachers, the Global Education Club is ethnically mixed between Asians and Europeans. Three students were interviewed for this research, all of whom were in grade 11: "Arthur" and "Emily", both Anglo-Saxons, and "Trish", an Asian. The teacher interviewed, "Jennifer", is an Anglo-Saxon who was one of the sponsor teachers last year; however, she decided not to participate in it this year for personal and philosophical reasons.5 Although this club is new, those students involved do have administrative and leadership experience in managing an organization. In the past, the multicultural club was teacher-oriented in that the sponsor teacher established the agenda; however, the new club is mostly student-led in that no official positions are offered or given. There, students themselves brainstorm, evaluate, decide, organize, and implement all activities. Teachers only facilitate the students in affirming and c o n f i r m i n g with the staff and administration with regard to the students' activities. 5 For ethical reasons, an account of the personal reasons for this teacher not participating in the global education club will not be disclosed; instead, the philosophical reasons will be presented later in the analysis of the data in Chapter 3. During the 1995-96 school year, the multicultural club did have two sponsor teachers (Jennifer being one of them); however, both are no longer involved. The three current sponsor teachers have not been part of the multicultural club until the 1996-97 school year. 9 School C School C, similar to School B, expanded to a full secondary from a junior, in which a new campus was established in 1992. Although the school is not located in a highly transient area, it remains highly diverse in its ethnic composition, consisting mostly of middle class families: Anglo-Saxons, Eastern Europeans, and Asians. Of the three schools, however, it has the largest student population of approximately 1750 (1997-98). The multicultural club has existed in this school for about 20 years with the same sponsor teacher. She, "Becky", basically originated and developed the club to its present state and is herself an immigrant from Eastern Europe and has much experience with multicultural clubs.6 Three students volunteered to express their ideas of and experiences in the club: "Robert", an Anglo-Saxon in grade 10, "Christina", an Eastern-European immigrant in grade 11, and "Patricia", an Asian immigrant also in grade 11. Although the organization recently changed its name to "Global Issues Club", the main ideas and activities have remained the same. During the last four years, the club has grown to include approximately sixty to seventy members with an active core group of twenty to thirty students. Similar to Schools A and B, the club at this school is student-centred. In the past, elections were held for certain administrative positions; however, after realizing the contradiction between hierarchical structures and the club's beliefs and practice in equality, elections were eliminated. Instead, student volunteers from the club now form steering 6 The club, however, does have another sponsor teacher who was not interviewed for this study because of prior commitments. 10 committees to head the organization and implementation of their activities. The sponsor teacher only serves as a facilitator in the club, guiding the students to accomplish their own goals. The following chapter will present the literature review which will serve as theoretical background to the analysis of multicultural clubs based on my field work in Chapter 3. Table 1. Names of Interviewees School Sponsor Teacher Student(s) A Tony Jim B Jennifer Trish Emily Arthur C Becky Robert Patricia Christine 11 Chapter 2 - Literature Review Introduction In reviewing the literature for this study, several obstacles exist: first, the term "multicultural education" has invoked a number of differing terminologies and perspectives; second, the scarce number of sources directly related to multicultural organizations in schools restricts the literature review; and third, the related literature on multicultural education, conversely, is overwhehrungly expansive. Multiculturahsm has been fraught with terminological problems within academia since its political inception, resulting in apparently unresolvable theoretical debates. Terms such as "interculturaHsm", "transculturahsm", "anti-racism", and "cultural pluralism" have displaced and at times replaced multiculturalism in the educational setting.7 Only a few ethnographic studies on student participation in extra-curricular multicultural organizations have been documented, and even fewer research studies voice student ideas, concerns, and experiences. Because of this limitation, it is necessary to examine the related literature on multicultural education. At the other extreme, however, the large amount of literature on multicultural education becomes problematic such that 7 An examination of the various semantic differences of these terms will not be presented as it is not the intent and scope of this thesis, although a brief discussion of multicultural education versus anti-racist education will be presented in the section concerning theoretical approaches. For the purposes of this research, however, the term "multicultural education" will be used. 12 only a small sample will be examined. From these guidelines, the literature review will focus on the various definitions, purposes, theoretical approaches, and implementation strategies of multicultural education.8 Definitions of Multicultural Education From the literature on multicultural education, numerous explanations of the term are offered, but with each proposition emerges exegetic problems. Despite the vast range of meanings, multicultural education by essence should emphasize various cultures of society through both curriculum and extra-curricular programs within the school environment for and by students. Deterrnining which cultures, however, becomes a contentious issue of political inclusion and hence exclusion.9 Four sources will be presented in this section: most comprehensive in defining multicultural education as a philosophy are McLeod (1987) and the Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education (CCMTE) (1982); more focused descriptions of multicultural education are found in the work of Hoopes and Pusch (1981) and Fleras and Elliott (1992). 8 I will use the definition, purpose, approach, and implementation of multiculturahsm and multicultural clubs as an analytic framework throughout this thesis; however, because of the interrelated themes from this classification they tend to overlap, and only serve as parameters used for reasons of categorization and generalization. 9 The issue of cultural inclusion and exclusion will be discussed later in the sections of the literature review concerning the various approaches and implementation of multicultural education. 13 In his extensive explanation, McLeod (1987) offers seven principles inherent in multiciuturalism that should be incorporated into multicultural education: 1. Equality of status of all cultural and ethnic groups within the framework of our official bilingual country. 2. The freedom of all individuals and groups to the retention and development of their cultures as part of the Canadian identity. 3. Equality of access by all individuals and groups to employment and promotion, services, and support. 4. A commitment to sharing our cultures within the mainstream of Canadian society. 5. An undertaking to participate in Canadian citizenship and the democratic process in terms of both rights and responsibilities. 6. A belief that individuals have the freedom to choose the particular cultural attributes they prefer within the framework of our democratic principles. 7. Respect for and observance of human rights and civil liberties as exemplified in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the common law, and human rights codes, (pp. viii-ix). Similarly, the CCMJE (1982) defines multicultural education as a philosophy or ethic . . . concerned with ensuring equality of educational opportunity and achievement and, ultimately, with creating an aware, complete human being with a global view of life; people who respect and promote cultural and linguistic diversity, human rights, social equality, and ethnic, racial and religious tolerance, (p. 2). From these definitions, I believe that multicultural education, philosophically, can become too general and lose its meaning; practically, however, it may be a pragmatic approach because of its extensive description, allowing flexibility in interpretation and implementation.10 Also, although these ideas present a comprehensive view of multicultural education acknowledging cultural pluralism and diversity, the focus of both McLeod and the CCMTE is apparently based on human rights in accordance with 1 0 This pragmatic approach to multiculturahsm is evidenced in the multicultural clubs surveyed and will be presented in Chapter 3. 14 democratic ideals. By recognizing the equality of cultural groups "within the framework of. . . [the] official bilingual country" and by sharing cultures "within the mainstream of Canadian society [and]. . . democratic principles" (McLeod, 1987, p. ix), McLeod presents somewhat of an ethnocentric assumption that cultural minorities subsist through accepting the political atmosphere of "mainstream Canada". Emphasizing an experiential description, Hoopes and Pusch (1981) state that multicultural education refers first "to building an awareness of one's own cultural heritage, and understanding that no one culture is intrinsically superior to another", and second "to acquiring those skills in analysis and communication that help one function efFectively in multicultural environments" (p. 4). More importantly, however, they stress that experiencing cultural differences in the classroom and in society is more beneficial than simply studying them: "multicultural education is not just a set of ethnic or other area study programs but an effort to demonstrate the significance of similarities and differences among culture groups and between individuals within those groups" (pp. 4-5). Hoopes and Pusch, in their definition of multicultural education, also attempt to address the possibility of ethnocentrism and stereotyping: first, they recognize the need to understand one's own culture before learning about another; second, they emphasize that cultures are equally valued; and third, they note that differences exist within a particular culture. Although Fleras and Elliott (1992) acknowledge the extremes in defining multicultural education, they attempt to provide a compromise. At a minimum, it "entails some degree of responsiveness to the presence of cultural diversity within the school environment" and at a rnaximum, it "encompasses a comprehensive plan for transforming 15 educational policies, programs, and practices at all levels and across most domains" (p. 187). They prefer, however, that multicultural education is an organized effort to accommodate and manage racial and ethnic diversity as an integral component of the school system [and] . . . acknowledges ethnocultural variation, recognizes its vaUdity within the educational environment, and reaffirms its role in the formulation of philosophy, objectives, content, and delivery of services to students, (p. 187). Both of these sources, I believe, provide a clear definition of multicultural education within the school environment. While Hoopes and Pusch address the cognitive and affective aspects of multiculturaUsm, Fleras and Elliott address the political. Significant in Fleras1 and Elliott's explanation is the inclusion of students. As with almost all educational programs, students have become voiceless recipients of theoretical policies and implementation. I believe that multicultural clubs provide one avenue for students to exercise their autonomy to initiate their own ideas and activities, and in order for multicultural education to succeed, its definition must include students as active participants and contributors. Purposes of Multicultural Education Just as complex as defining multicultural education in general terms is the theoretical task of defining its objectives and functions. With regard to the proposed meanings, the purposes of multicultural education should affect both individual and institutional levels. At an individual level, one main purpose of multicultural education is to eliminate personal prejudice and (hscrirnination through understanding and appreciating the various 16 cultures of society (Ramautarsingh, 1977; Temelini, 1987; Fleras and Elliott, 1992). Despite the empirical difficulties in assessing these goals (i.e. measuring understanding and appreciating diverse cultures), such an objective does focus on cognitive and affective changes of individuals which are essential in combatting prejudice and discrhnination. Another purpose of multicultural education is to promote empathy among individuals toward other ethnic groups. Through this process, people may better understand other cultures, which may lead to political and social activism. At an institutional level, one main purpose of multicultural education is to promote the equality of opportunity pohtically, socially, and educationally (Ramautarsingh, 1977; Banks, 1992; Fleras and Elliott, 1992). Pohtically, multicultural education should support the democratic rights of both individuals and ethnic groups. Socially, it should encourage the cultural practices of an ethnic group. Educationally, it should uphold the rights of students, respecting their cultural differences and providing an equal opportunity to learn in school (Banks, 1997). The role of the school, however, needs emphasis because it is the essential grassroots agent for fulfilling the objectives of multicultural education. In outlining their comprehensive goals for multicultural education programs, Friesen and Chaudhuri (1986) focus on students and believe that such programs should: 1. Provide students with an opportanity to learn about the peoples of Canada and thereby encourage an appreciation for cultural diversity; 2. Inform students about their own cultural backgrounds so that they develop pride in their heritage and improve their sense of identity; 3. Provide students with opportunities to experience the cultures of others . . . and encounter different values and ways of living; 4. Illustrate to students new ways to function in Canadian society given the added 17 skills, attitudes, and knowledge they have derived from multicultural studies; 5. Raise the level of appreciation for cultural diversity in the school population and thereby reduce the influence of the negative element of the school community which might be hostile to differences; 6. Implement strategies that reduce prejudicial and (uscriminatory treatment of minority students where it occurs; 7. Foster acceptance and reduce potential misunderstandings or hostility among staff members and; 8. Be a component of an overall social policy of justice for cultural minorities in Canadian society, (p. 37). Beyond the context of the classroom (ie. teacher and students), government officials, school board officials, and administrators must all be involved in multicultural education programs in order for it to achieve its objectives as confirmed by Multiculturahsm and Citizenship Canada's study (Tator and Henry, 1991). More specifically at the school level, administrators must take an active role to set an example for students to follow (i.e. participate in multicultural activities with the teachers and students). One other important purpose of multicultural education that has been overlooked in the literature is the issue of empowerment. Because multicultural education espouses equal rights for all I believe it provides opportunities for both students and teachers to express and act on their ideas. Without this purpose, multicultural education becomes another exercise in non-action. With it, however, multicultural education becomes an exercise in proaction, empowering its participants to further political and social activism. Theoretical Approaches to Multicultural Education Within the Canadian multicultural context, theorists have proposed a wide range of approaches to multicultural education. Because of the complex ethnic diversification 18 within and among each region of Canada, no one typology for mmticultural education is sufficient; rather, models tend to overlap and what is suitable for one school district (or even individual school) may not be for another. The following discussion will focus on a variety of theoretical approaches to multicultural education based on the works of Magsino (1985), McLeod (1987), Falconi (1987), Elliston (1984), Fleras and Elliott (1992), McNeill (1988), and Banks (1997).11 In their explanations, the authors initially present and criticize what they believe are weak approaches to multicultural education before they offer more effective ones. At the end of this section, I will offer my own generalized typologies based on the literature presented. Magsino Magsino (1985) offers a typology composed of six theoretical models of multicultural education: education for an emergent society; education for the culturally different; education for cultural understanding; education for cultural accommodation; education for cultural preservation; and education for multicultural adaptation of choice. First, education for an emergent society promotes the elimination of ethnic, cultural, racial, and linguistic diversity and the amalgamation of all ethnic groups into one new unified society (p. 5). From this "melting pot" perspective, however, Magsino believes multicultural education in effect would become monocultural, denying and 1 1 Although many more theoretical approaches to multicultural education exist, they tend to overlap in ideas, and therefore the ones I have opted to review will serve the purposes of this thesis and will reflect an adequate span of differing opinions among academics. 19 negating the basic tenets of Canada's multiculturalism policy. As well potential conflict may result as to who and what would eventually form the new emerging society. Thus, Magsino offers other models to incorporate and integrate multicultural education in the school. Second, multicultural education as education for the culturally different advocates equal opportunity and outcomes among all students, regardless of their ethnicity, by encouraging the "minority group students" to acquire the skills and knowledge held as being valuable by the host society (i.e. programs such as English as a Second Language and remedial classes) (p. 5). Again, despite its benevolent intentions, Magsino believes this type of paternalistic education only accentuates the differences among students based on ethnicity in which multicultural education again becomes monocultural in practice. Students would be taught the beliefs, practices, and values of the dominant society by the dominant society: cultural diversification thus would not be widely accepted. Inird, cultural understanding is based on two main objectives: developing an understanding of similarities and differences among various cultures; promoting social harmony in a diverse yet equality-based society (p. 6). Magsino argues that such a model may succeed at a cognitive level, focusing on the knowledge of cultures, yet at an affective level, this approach apparently overlooks experiential learning and fails to address knowledge about cultures.12 12For the purposes of this thesis, the term "knowledge o f will refer to cognitive learning in which one may know and understand a certain topic (or in this case a particular ethnic group); however, the term "knowledge about" will refer to experiential learning in which one does not only know and understand a certain topic but also has some experience with it and therefore can personally relate to it. 20 Fourth, education for cultural accommodation encourages ethnic diversity in society and develops equality of opportunity by accommodating and incorporating ethnic groups into a nation. Essentially, it creates the notion of "hyphenated Canadians" (p. 6). Though the cultural values and practices of "mainstream Canada" are ensured within the curricula, this model of multicultural education does not strictly prescribe an assimilative approach as it does recognize and approve the existence of minority education through programs such as heritage language schools, Native studies, and ethnic-specific and cornmunity schools (p. 6); however, as Magsino argues, ethnic groups with sufficient economic, political, and social influences are the ones most capable of vying for such governmental support, and therefore the theoretical idea of inclusion in practice becomes inadvertently a politicized exercise in exclusion. Fifth, upholding and enhancing a specific ethnic group's culture and language, socializing students into such traditions, and increasing the awareness of and pride in one's heritage are the main goals of education for cultural preservation (p. 6). This approach to multicultural education appears to protect and secure cultural traditions and practices of ethnic groups. It may, however, lead to self-segregation in the education system in varying degrees and a fragmentation of cultures.13 Sixth, education for multicultural adaptation seems most beneficial according to Magsino. Initially through linguistics, students would learn to function in two or more cultures in society. Examples of this model include immersion classes, courses taught in a 1 3 The First Nations Peoples, however, is an exception to this, as they have benefitted from developing their own education system as a means to preserve their cultures. non-official language, multicultural extra-curricular activities, and employment of staff from a variety of ethnic groups (p. 7). According to Magsino, this comprehensive approach is most effective as it recognizes and promotes at least two coexisting cultures for students that extends beyond the classroom McLeod In classifying Canada's provincial multicultural education policies, McLeod (1984) offers three general approaches: ethnic-specific, problem-oriented, and cultural / intercultural. The ethnic-specific model of multicultural education echoes the ideas of Magsino's approach of education for cultural preservation: the purpose of education is to "counteract assimilative forces, extend the familiar socialization, or generally broaden the [person's] . . . knowledge of, involvement in, or acquaintance with the ethnic heritage" (p. 34). Examples of this model include ethnic schooling (such as heritage or immersion schools) and ethnocultural programs (p. 34). In practice, however, I believe that the ethnic-specific approach to multicultural education leads to a pohticization of ethnic groups vying for linguistic and cultural recognition. Furthermore, although adaptation of this model has increased the sense of ethnic security among minorities and communities as a means of diminishing the cultural disparity between ethnic communities and the larger society, it may foster ethnic segregation and become problematic in ethnically mixed communities or families. Similar to Magsino's education for the culturally different, McLeod's 22 problem-oriented approach to multicultural education attempts to address the "needs or demands associated with schooling and the assimilation or integration of people of diverse backgrounds" of which the most common forms include English as a Second Language, second dialect courses and compensatory programs (p. 35). Although this approach stresses intercultural understanding and group relations, it is problematic in two ways: first, the term "problem-oriented" itself semantically connotes a negative image of ethnic minorities as being or causing the "problem"; second, programs with this approach tend to be reactive rather than proactive in addressing critical issues such as prejudice and racism. Focusing on equity, equal access, and full participation in society, the cultural / intercultural model of multicultural education attempts to "enable people to live in a pluralistic society" and produce individuals "who will be capable of transcending the boundaries of their own ethnic cultures" (p. 37). Because the cultural / intercultural approach is based on i) the social, cultural, and political realities of Canadian society, ii) individual cultural experiences, iii) development of individual self-esteem, empathy, and awareness of diverse cultures; and iv) equal opportunity for all ethnic groups (p. 38), McLeod advocates such a model over the others as it is more comprehensive, long-term, ethnically all-inclusive, and flexible (1987, p. x). Falconi In her typology of multicultural education, Falconi (1987) proposes five strands based on a continuum of curriculum influences: conformist / assimilative, additive, problematic, contributive, and integrative. 23 First, in the conformist / assimilative strand, multicultural education excludes ethnic groups without public power as it promotes, reinforces, and maintains the political and social hegemony of those who already hold power in society (p. 148). Thus, Falconi argues that students "learn" only about the dominant group and its existing structures, being recipients of a monocultural curriculum and pedagogy. Second, the additive strand emphasizes the success of only a few ethnic minorities within mainstream culture as it purports to show minorities in positions of power but really only shows us the famous few who have "made it." All the other individuals of that group and other minorities remain invisible. . . . Besides being a one-way street, this approach conveys to the student the impression that minorities do not really exist unless they are exceptional as defined by the dominant group's standards, (p. 148). From this approach, the curriculum only "adds" a multicultural component by providing a superficial knowledge of ethnic minorities, and in turn their individual experiences go unheard. Third, addressing the barriers against minorities and emphasizing differences as "deprivations", the problematic approach parallels Magsino's education for the culturally different and McLeod's problem-oriented models to multicultural education. In Falconi's explanation, this approach views ethnic minority groups as "deprived, disadvantaged, and oppressed" whom mainstream society should "tolerate" (p. 154). By using this potentially detrimental approach, teachers may unintentionally encourage ethnocentric views among students as they receive and in turn project negative images of particular ethnicities. Fourth, the contributive strand focuses on equality and inclusion with contributions by ethnic groups in mainstream society whereby all "cultures, races, and religions are 24 valued" (p. 150). This constructive approach, I believe, is relevant not only to theorists, but to teachers and students as well because it accepts differences and utilizes them to empower students with knowledge and skills. Students then become "active learners" and retain their identity while appreciating others. Fifth, taking one step further in her approach to multicultural education is the integrative strand in which the curriculum is "re-defined and reconstructed to include all", and is based on the principles of equality, integration, pluralism, and inclusion (pp. 151). According to Falconi, this approach is superior to the others: rather than just emphasizing significant contributions of ethnic groups, the integrative model of multicultural education incorporates a heterogeneous or global view that stresses universalism (p. 154). Elliston Depending on the philosophy, program design, and curricular content, Elliston (1984) identifies four different models of multicultural education: benevolent multiculturahsm, multiethnic studies, cultural pluralism, and multicultural education as a normal human experience. Benevolent multiculturaUsm attempts to compensate for the disparity between the culture of the school and the home environment by teaching students about different ethnic groups. It is similar to Magsino's education for the culturally different, McLeod's problem-oriented, and Falconi's problematic models of multicultural education in that students would learn to assimilate into the dominant culture: "compensatory education is based on the principle of Anglo-conformity and is directed at the so-called 'culturally 25 deprived'"(p. 312). Multiethnic studies, however, recognizes ethnic diversity and encourages the study of different cultures whose aim is to foster intercultural understanding (p. 312). Yet, Elliston criticizes this approach to multicultural education as it apparently overlooks the experiential and focuses on the cognitive component of learning. By increasing the power of minority groups and therefore decreasing the chances of cultural assimilation, the model of cultural pluralism emphasizes both mainstream culture and that of ethnic minorities (p. 312). Theoretically, however, other ethnicities must be emphasized in order for pluralism to succeed. As with McLeod's ethnic-specific and Magsino's cultural preservation models of multicultural education, I believe that this particular approach becomes one of cultural selection, a political process with little prospect of consensus. The last approach proposed by Elliston, however, views multicultural education as a "normal human experience [that extends] . . . the schooling and the curriculum to include all the formal and informal life learning experiences" and is congruent with the notions of equality and respect (p. 312). According to Elliston, this model becomes ideal because it effectively "dissolves" multicultural education as not just a component of the curriculum but a philosophical understanding and outlook, transcending the curriculum Fleras and Elliott Because the concept of multicultural education in constantly evolving, Fleras and Elliott (1992) correctly claim that it is neither a uniform nor homogeneous process. 26 Instead, it is comprised of a series of distinct but overlapping perspectives: compensation, enrichment, enhancement, and empowerment. First, compensatory education, according to Fleras and Elliott, was the prototype of multicultural education as a reactionary response to the challenges of Canada's increasing cultural diversity in the 1970's. However, this "education of the ethnoculturally different" model is restrictive in its objectives as it tends to focus exclusively on racial and cultural minorities, and in turn it negatively targets and magnifies cultural differences (p. 189). It also appears to incorporate the compensatory ideas expressed by Magsino, McLeod, Falconi, and Elliston: minority students become "problems" of the school system which Western education would paternahstically solve within an assimilative and Anglo-confirmative framework. As a result, "the presence of cultural diversity is depicted as a problem that has to be isolated, controlled, and ultimately eliminated" (p. 190). Thus, multiculturahsm in Canada would pohtically cease to exist. Second, enrichment education emphasizes education about cultural differences which endorses an inclusionary multicultural education for all students (p. 190). Exposed to a variety of different cultures as an enrichment experience, students ideally would "enhance positive attitudes toward outgroups . . . improve minority self-images . . . reduce the incidence of bigotry and discrimination, and . . . foster social harmony" (p. 191). This type of approach is similar to Falconi's additive model where teaching of different cultures is "added" to the curriculum. Fleras and Elliott, however, criticize enrichment education, arguing that it inadvertently depicts ethnic minorities as "exotic and unique" through highly selective and therefore biased anecdotal history. Therefore, such cultural groups 27 become politicized objects of academic study, not subjects. Third, multicultural education as enhancement focuses on education for cultural pluralism by using a "problem-solving" approach to examine processes that either enhance or detract from minority success in schools: The "enhancement" perspective cornmits students to understand the dynamics underlying intergroup relations as these are constructed, maintained, and transformed within contexts of power and domination. Issues for discussion include cultural relativism, non-ethnocentrism, sensitivity and tolerance for diversity, racial and ethnic stratification, and prejudice, discrimination, and racism, (pp. 192-193). By analyzing institutions, enhancement education attempts to eliminate the prime barriers to cultural pluralism — racism and discrimination. Fourth, empowerment education focuses on equity and is concerned with imparting skills and resources for minorities to "take charge of their destiny" (p. 193). Also, this approach inherently assumes a restracturing of all educational institutions within and without the classroom, "from the hidden agendas that preclude ethnic minority input to the more obvious such as the selection of classroom material" (p. 193). According to Fleras and Elliott, the short-term goal of this model is the protection of students' identities while the long-term goal is the establishment of separate educational streams that "ostensibly discourage cultural interaction, but facilitate the transmission of group values and positive minority identities" (p. 194). Thus, "[t]aken to its logical conclusion, the empowerment perspective is geared ultimately toward a parallel educational system for minorities" (p. 194). Despite its assertion for equity, education as empowerment serves as a pohticizing vehicle accorded by mainstream society for disadvantaged ethnic groups. 28 Because of this political dependency, it is unpredictable. Although not generally viewed as an approach to multicultural education, anti-racist education has recently emerged as a variant and has since competed with the former for political legitimacy. Kehoe (1994) provides a succinct explanation of the debate between the two. He puts forth the idea that while multicultural education focuses on achieving "equivalency in achievement", "more positive intergroup attitudes", and "pride in heritage", anti-racist education focuses on "causing individuals and institutions not to be racist or at least be less racist" (p. 354). As well, Moodley (1995) asserts that culture is the main focus of multicultural education "while inequality, power, and racism are not mentioned. Overall, multicultural education as an educational orientation is firmly located within a consensus paradigm" (p. 809); contrarily, anti-racist education "seeks to understand individual and group experiences within institutional and power structures. It attempts to comprehend the social and political relations embedded in internal logic . . . of educational institutions" (p. 812).14 According to Fleras and Elliott (1992), anti-racist education is conceptually rooted in the ideas of race and racial (hscrimination as systemic and inherent within the policies and practices of institutional structures whose objectives include a change in both organizational policies and practices with a discriminatory impact and individual behaviours and attitudes that reinforce racism (p. 195). Anti-racist education thus basically attempts to eliminate from society both racism at a cognitive and 1 4 For further descriptions of the differences between multicultural education and anti-racist education, see Kehoe's article, "Multicultural Education vs. Anti-Racist Education: The Debate in Canada" and Moodley's article, "Multicultural Education in Canada: Historical Development and Current Status", both cited in the Reference List. 29 affective level and racial (uscrimination at a behavioural level. In this sense, anti-racist education goes beyond all the theoretical approaches and objectives of multicultural education and becomes a model in itself that embraces fundamental changes from the institutional level down to the grassroots level. McNeill In reflecting on the future of education and schooling in Canada, McNeill (1988) perceives three possible configurations of multicultural education: enlightened assimilation, pragmatic accommodation, and complex acculturation. Although enlightened assimilation acknowledges ethnic identity as intrinsic in Canadian society as a basic human right, it is nonetheless based on the Anglo-conformist model, postulating that the "British cultural tradition in Canada is a good model of civilized society, and that it is adaptive to gradual social change" (p. 16). Under the guise of promoting equality, education from this approach must be "basically the same for all, [as] it must be freely accessible to all,. . . understand and respect cultural differences, and . . . assure the assimilation of those dominant cultural qualities necessary for effective participation in the exercise of power" (p. 16). According to McNeill, enlightened assimilation appears educationally attractive, implying that 1. a designated assimilative curriculum be followed in all schools, 2. study of English and French be compulsory for all students at all levels, 3. ESL and / or FSL instruction be continued until full competence in the official language(s) is attained, 4. teachers must be fully sensitive to cultural identities in order to avoid prejudicing children's educational opportunities, 5. a multicultural heritage program be on-going and pervasive in all schools, 30 6. extracurricular heritage language study be guaranteed for all who choose it and 7. multilingual schooling be provided for all school communities that choose it. (p. 17). However, he argues that this approach to multicultural education is plagued with three main problems: first, it does not address the basic issue of equal access to the resources of power as Anglo-ethnicity continues to be a criterion of merit and may in effect "diminish minority cultures while raising false hopes of equitable economic and political opportunity" (p. 17); second, the expectation of teachers as ethno-cultural experts is unrealistic; and third, the ethnocentric curriculum perceives foreign cultures as not only different but as inferior. As an alternative, the pragmatic accommodation model of multicultural education requires 1. A basic provincial curriculum is required of all funded schools, both public and private. 2. Ethnic and aboriginal schools emphasize their own cultural studies and provide functional study of other relevant cultures. 3. Study of English and/or French is required of all students at all levels, 4. Instructional competence in English or French and an appropriate heritage language is required of many teachers, 5. Compulsory intercultural studies is required in all schools, 6. More qualified teachers from the ethnic or aboriginal cultures will be employed, (p. 20). McNeill argues that the advantages of this type of multicultural education include political and cultural empowerment and autonomy in which the preservation of ethnic practices is ensured. However, according to Bibby (1990), disadvantages of this approach include the dissemination of process and information from above and the potential for divisiveness and fragmentation as voluntary segregation of ethnic groups may threaten national unity. This 31 sentiment is echoed more recently by Bissoondath as he criticizes "professional ethnics" whose divisive effects include the marginalization and alienation of promoting hyphenated Canadianism: multiculturalism has "heightened our differences rather than diminished them; it has preached tolerance rather than encouraging acceptance; and it is leading us into divisiveness so entrenched that we face a future of multiple solitudes with no central notion to bind us" (1994, p. 192). In effect, Bibby and Bissoondath are promoting assimilationist ideas, and by doing so are insensitive to people's cultural identity. They do not realize that multicultural education does not always emphasize differences between cultures as similarities are also stressed in the process. I propose that multiculturalism is a unifying force in Canada, and it is unfortunate that both Bibby and Bissoondath do not see its value of diversity within unity. Rather than a unilateral approach to multicultural education upon which only one culture is stressed or an accommodating one upon which the issue of multiculturalism appears forced, complex acculturation espouses a bilateral exchange of cultural components among different ethnic groups as they interact: "acculturation is the process of learning cultural ways from a different culture that are absorbed into one's own culture by choice" (McNeill, 1988, p. 21). McNeill provides the following general conditions in which complex acculturation would take place: 1. Government authority will be basic and not pervasive across the curriculum or throughout the structure of schooling, but it will be broadly protective of human rights, of the law, and of the principles of pluralism and mutuality. 2. Culture and heritage will be of serious concern to all citizens, and knowledge of culture will be a general competence of all professionals as a result of their schooling and postsecondary education. . . . 3. Schooling will take a variety of forms reflective of cultural consciousness and of 32 cultural exchange, and it will be closely related to the community it serves. 4. Multiple languages will be spoken, instructed and shared within the community and within schools. 5. The common character of Canadians will be closely identified with a tolerance of difference and an intense interest in the variety and complexity of cultural forms witliin Canada and globally, (p. 21). As a result, the multicultural society would not have an official nor dominant culture other than multiculturahsm itself presumably a new "national ideology". Theoretically, this model appears ideal; practically, however, it appears too radical as a complete restructuring of political, economic, and social powers at both individual and institutional levels is required. Banks Although writing from an American perspective using American topics, Banks (1997) proposes four approaches for the integration of multicultural content which in practice are "often mixed and blended" (p. 242): contributions, additive, transformation, and social action models. The contributions approach to multicultural education focuses on "heroes, holidays, and discrete cultural elements" (p. 233). According to Banks, this model is most frequently used because of its simple implementation (p. 234). First, it looks at particular individuals of ethnic groups for their "contributions" to mainstream society. Second, it uses celebrations as a means to "involve students in lessons, experiences, and page[a]nts related to the ethnic group being commemorated" (pp. 233-234). Third, cultural elements such as foods, dances, music, and artifacts are studied. However, Banks points out 33 several weaknesses of the contribution approach if it is not used in conjunction with other approaches: [It] tends to gloss over important concepts and issues related to the victimization and oppression of ethnic groups and their struggles against racism and for power. . . . [It] often results in the trrvialization of ethnic cultures, the study of their strange and exotic characteristics, and the reinforcement of stereotypes and misconceptions. . . . [It] also tends to focus on the life-styles of ethnic groups rather than on the institutional structures, such as racism and discrimination, that strongly affect their life chances and keep them powerless and marginalized, (pp. 234, 235). In the additive approach to multicultural education, content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are included in the curriculum without changing its structure. It allows the teacher to put ethnic content into the curriculum without restructuring it. Banks mainly criticizes this approach for its often biased point of view: "The events, concepts, issues, and problems selected for study are selected using mainstream-centric and Eurocentric criteria and perspectives" (p. 235). In the transformation approach to multicultural education, Banks proposes that the fundamental goals, structure, and perspective of the curriculum are changed "to enable students to view concepts, issues, events, and themes from the perspectives of diverse ethnic and cultural groups" (p. 233). Although he favours this model, he realizes that it is not possible nor desirable to take the perspective of all ethnic groups. Instead, he recommends that students should view concepts and issues from more than one perspective and from the point of view of the cultural, ethnic, and racial groups that were the most active participants in, or were most cogently influenced by, the event, issue, or concept being studied, (p. 237). 34 The social action approach incorporates the transformation approach but includes the idea that students should "make decisions on important social issues and take action to help solve them" (p. 239). According to Banks, this model allows students to develop decision-making skills as a means to empower them: To participate effectively in democratic social change, students must be taught social criticism and must be helped to understand the inconsistency between [teachers'] ideals and social realities, the work that must be done to close this gap, and how students can, as individuals and groups, influence the social and political system in . . . society. In this approach, teachers are agents of social change who promote democratic values and the empowerment of students, (p. 240). From Banks' description, the approach appears to be limited to the classroom and does not explore issues beyond multiculturaUsm In keeping with Banks' social action approach to multicultural education, I argue that it can and does extend beyond multiculturahsm. If the main goal is to "empower students and help them acquire political efficacy" (p. 239), then social action cannot be limited to only multicultural issues. Other social concerns such as gender equality, human rights, and even the environment may be addressed from this approach. Furthermore, I propose that this model transcends the classroom setting through extra-curricular organizations such as multicultural clubs where students become leaders.15 Generalized Typology of Multicultural Education Approaches From the hterature examined, I believe that the approaches to multicultural education may be categorized into three main areas: assimilative, accommodative, and 1 5 Further discussion of the expansive nature of multicultural clubs and possible reason for it will be presented in Chapter 3. 35 active. In all the hterature examined, the most criticized approach to multicultural education is based on assimilative principles. Although varying degrees exist, the assimilative approach essentially overlooks students' cultural identity. Students are enveloped by the dominant culture in that most of their traditions and customs are not formally recognized, and in extreme cases suppressed, in the education system The dominant culture's language, history, and values are instead stressed in the schools as a means to integrate ethnic groups into mainstream society. Although not completely abandoned, it is nonetheless seen as being "pohticalfy incorrect" and therefore has been recently downplayed as an approach to multicultural education. As an improvement to the assimilative approach, the accommodative one does recognize and value cultural diversity. In terms of cultural recognition, the approach brings into light some of the traditional and customary practices of different ethnic groups and occasionally celebrates them In terms of academic recognition, the model promotes a new social history ~ one that at least acknowledges the accomplishments of individuals or ethnic groups who were before neglected in the history texts. However, the weakness of this approach lies in its additive nature: cultures tend to be treated as additional information rather than an integral part of Canadian society. Thus, ethnic groups are seen as objects, not subjects. Also, the accommodative approach lacks experiential and interactive learning. Even though the curriculum is changed to include different ethnic groups, individuals, and occasionally points of view, students in the end only learn new material without being empowered. 36 The active approach to mwticultural education, however, takes into account the cognitive, affective, and experiential components of learning. It provides opportunities for students not only to learn but do. Students are taught various skills in decision-making, problem-solving, and perspective-taking as a means of learning the curriculum Students then take action. It is this active approach to multicultural education that political and social activism is born and where students become involved, committed, and empowered. Implementation of Multicultural Education The multicultural reality of Canada has prompted school boards to develop programs to address the issue of cultural diversity. As a pedagogical issue, implementation of multicultural education is dependent on its theoretical approach, purpose, and regional interests, and since many models, purposes, and regions exist, so do implementation strategies; however, most of the literature on this particular subject is curricular, as expressed in the works of Kehoe (1984a; 1984b), McLeod (1984), Friesen and de Vries (1986), Butt (1986), and Banks (1992), while only a few are extra-curricular, as expressed in the works of Tator and Henry (1991), McDowell (1990), and Lund (1993).16 1 6 This list of works dealing with the implementation of multicultural education reflects and represents only a fraction of Uterature on the subject; however, the ones selected are applicable to and representative of the Canadian context. 37 Kehoe In A Handbook for Enhancing the Multicultural Climate of the School, Kehoe (1984a) focuses on methodologies for reducing prejudice and discrimination among students and offers practical suggestions for i) carrying out an assessment of multicultural needs in the school, ii) ensuring equality for all students by analyzing the hidden curriculum and behaviour in the classroom, and iii) developing formal curriculum for students. As a preliminary step in implementing a multicultural program in schools, Kehoe believes an assessment of the school's multicultural climate is necessary. He uses two sets of questions for the staff: the first set centres on the patterns of organization and interaction that serve an integrative function in the school; the second centres on the school climate and programs (pp. 11-13). More important is an assessment of students by using a semantic differential and observation schedule as they measure student attitudes and behaviour toward specific ethnic groups (pp. 14-15). From the results, schools can then decide the degree to which implementing multicultural education programs is needed. Because the hidden curriculum greatly affects the culture and equality of opportunity in the school, educators need to recognize its impact. Kehoe suggests that the hidden curriculum may consist of "activities and procedures which recognize the culture of some children but not of others" including "teaching practices which ultimately result in denial of opportunity" and "behaviours such as assessment procedures in which marks or grades are assigned for student participation" (p. 27). As an attempt to reduce prejudicial practices in the classroom, Kehoe provides first a comparison of interpersonal styles in the 38 school (using First Nations cultures as an example) with possible school accommodations for potential cultural conflicts, and second a number of cultural practices from different cultures (i.e. South Asian, Greek, Italian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Portuguese) which may be potential sources of misunderstanding in cross-cultural communication or interaction (pp. 30-47, 50-55). As symbolic recognition of multiculturahsm and initial implementation of multicultural education, celebration of important holidays, national, and religious holy days of the cultures represented in the school or classroom is necessary, although not sufficient to achieve respect for cultural heritage (p. 55). Another type of implementation that helps provide equality of opportunity is the home-school coordinators program which concerns the acquainting of immigrant students with the schools in which coordinators: advise and counsel parents about the academic performance or social development of their child in school; explain to parents their responsibilities to assist the school in educating their child and encourage them to participate actively in the school; establish social, orientation, and educational programs in response to the needs of the ethnic communities; assist in the assessment and placement of ESL students in schools; advocate and explain the ethnic perspective on school-related matters to school staff; provide direct interpretation for school staff and translate report cards for parents who are not fluent in English; and counsel students in cases where parental values conflict with those of the school (pp. 56-57). By ensuring equality, these strategies strengthen ties among students of different cultural backgrounds and between immigrant parents and the school. 39 With regard to the formal curriculum, Kehoe recommends that analyzing textbooks and other learning resources for cultural bias is necessary. Learning materials should "contribute to a feeling of self-worth in all students", "reflect fully and accurately the reality of Canada's social, religion, and cultural diversity", "facilitate the development of mutual awareness, understanding, and appreciation among all racial, religious, and cultural groups in Canadian society", and "recognize the universality of the human experience and the interdependence of ah human beings and communities" (p. 70). Also, they should represent the "insider's point of view" and de-emphasize "exotic and bizarre", because upholding an Anglo-perspective of differences may reinforce a sense of ethnocentrism(pp. 70, 71). In Achieving Cultural Diversity in Canadian Schools, Kehoe (1984b) further offers pedagogical strategies for implementing multicultural education in schools, again with a focus on reducing prejudice and discrimination. In teaching about prejudice, Kehoe outlines an anti-prejudice unit based on the following lessons: What is prejudice?; Prejudice in the world today; How we get our prejudices; What prejudice does to us; What can we do about it? (p. 50). A cognitive strategy is used first through appeals to consistency (pp. 65-89) while an affective strategy is used then through appeals to empathy (pp. 90-93). In addition, Kehoe cautions the use of role play and simulation as possible strategies because of their unpredictable results; however, the Native Indian-Majority Culture Value Differences which demonstrates the feeling of being torn between two value systems and the East Indian-Majority Culture Value Similarities which demonstrates the 40 high degree of similarity in value systems where significant differences are perceived to exist are two role plays that have proven successful (pp. 94-104). Kehoe also notes other practical strategies such as personal contact (including peer tutoring) in which groups "meet on personal terms, on a common task with shared interests and tastes that run across ethnic lines" (p. 106), multicultural leadership programs in which students from various secondary schools "develop skills and positive attitudes which can assist them in assuming leadership roles in promoting the acceptance of human diversity in their schools" (p. 113),17 and student exchange programs within the same city in which immigrant students and "Canadian" students experience living with another ethnic group (pp. 116-117). Through the implementation of these eclectic programs, students benefit cognitively, affectively, and experientially. McLeod According to McLeod (1984), implementing a successful multicultural education program requires a cooperative approach involving the administration, teachers, students, and community. First, having the responsibility to work with the staff students, and community, administrators could explain the goals, functions, and activities of the schools to parents, and in instances where language is a communication barrier, interpreters and translated hterature may be used to encourage reticent parents to participate (p. 44). Such an 1 7 Further discussion on multicultural leadership camps will be presented with an analysis of McDowell's M.A. thesis on multicultural, multiracial leadership camps (UBC, 1990). 41 inclusive policy bridges cultural disparities and reinforces a comrnitted multicultural ethos of the school. Second, as implementors of multicultural education programs, teachers play an essential part in educating and facilitating students: the degree of success of a multicultural curriculum strongly depends on the attitudes and practices of teachers. Therefore, it is important for individual teachers to realise that they need not be hamstrung in implementing their awareness and sensitivity by a dated or biased curriculum The teachers' attitudes and behaviour toward students, their verbal and nonverbal communication, their skills and strategies, the emphasis and examples within the curriculum, their preparation and approach to topics or content, and their use of texts and resources all have potential to develop or to stultify the students' sense of worth and identity, their belief in their future, and their view of their chances of success or failure, (p. 45). TJhird, the role of students cannot be overlooked. Because they are most affected by the education system, students need a political voice in schools. By implementing cultural clubs in the school, students feel empowered by having a legitimate opportunity to express their ideas and concerns. Such student-led organizations provide support to the cultural identities and needs of students: they become "involved and concerned in school activities that promote human relations, personal identities, and group development" (p. 45). Fourth, the cornmunity can reinforce and support multicultural education in which parents and local cormnunities and businesses serve as resource persons or volunteers representing various ethnic groups (p. 45). With a collective effort and active participation from these sources, multicultural education would become an integral part of 42 the school culture. Friesen and de Vries In a program outline for multicultural education, Friesen and de Vries (1986) suggest a variety of activities for students and provide a list of resources that teachers may find useful. First, to promote the cultural practices of and participation in activities of various ethnic groups, cultural celebrations offer an opportunity for students to "experience" another ethnic group's dance, dialect, diet, and dress (i.e. "4D's of multiculturaUsm") (p. 5). Despite the superficial treatment toward ethnic groups, cultural celebrations are perceived as non-threatening events that serve as an orientation about particular cultures involving the entire school. Such an expansive exposure on a regular basis would eventually elevate the importance and acceptance of various ethnicities. Second, to provide information about Canada's multicultural society and promote activities for intergroup contact, Friesen and de Vries propose cultural content and casual contact as two implementing strategies (p. 9). For cultural content, they recommend students read literature about multiculturahsm in Canada through public information, academic studies, school curricula, and other forms of media (p. 9), and for casual contact, they recommend students visiting cultural institutions and centres (such as Chinatown and Citizenship Court) and participating in community programs (p. 11, 17); however, they also caution that this "museum approach" may result in objectifying the culture. Instead, they promote visits whereby both parties "engage in meaningful dialogue or activity" 43 which in turn tend to have the "highest return in terms of building mutual trust and reciprocal learning" (p. 12). Third, the use of ethnic case studies would encourage the writing and production of ethnic histories and monographs outlining minority group experiences (p. 13). The use of these "insider" sources reduces ethnocentrism, and in turn students become more aware of various points of view of history and contemporary society. With these strategies, the objectives of multicultural education, such as raising the level of appreciation for cultural diversity in the school and having students learn about and experience the cultures of the various peoples of Canada, are achieved. Butt Using a "transitional curriculum" approach in the classroom, Butt (1986) provides sequential stages represented by clusters as a means to implement multicultural education. With each pedagogical cluster, gradual emphasis is placed on "experience, critical self-reflection and personal growth through self-education" (p. 154). Although these clusters of strategies are categorized as individual groups, they are interdependent and are not necessarily linear in implementation. Butt suggests that they should be used in conjunction with one another (p. 154). The first cluster consists of three strands: direct teaching with a change in content emphasis in which both similarities and differences of cultures along with their political, economic, religious, historical, geographical and social contexts are examined (pp. 144, 145); direct teaching plus critical discussion focusing on pertinent multicultural, 44 racial and prejudicial issues (p. 145); and direct teaching of acceptable behaviour which emphasizes "partisan logical arguments for healthy multicultural attitudes and behaviour" (pp. 145-146). With a focus on "traditional" teaching whereby teachers instruct students directly, this implementation strategy provides, according to Butt, a simple method of introducing multicultural issues. The second cluster consists of four strategies: films, video, and other media to help change pupils' attitudes (p. 146); case studies with "real situations concerning members of a particular group, whether the day-by-day events that a community member undertakes or instances depicting daily prejudices, can provide a concrete focus for discussion and lead to attitudinal improvement" (p. 147); role-taking or exchange requiring students to place themselves "in the place of individuals in a case study or film situation and to 'live through' the experience of role taking and would make conscious and explicit the results of that experience" (p. 147); and non-directive class discussion and inquiry whereby the teacher remains neutral during the exchange and students become their own leaders and facilitators, expressing their ideas and opinions (pp. 147, 148). Shifting from a cognitive base as stressed in the first cluster to an affective one in the second cluster, students gain insights into their dispositions and in turn learn to become more critical. The third cluster promotes and encourages ethnic interaction in both the community and classroom: visits to the classroom by high status ethnic members; interethnic work groups in class; inter-home visits; and pupil creation of case studies, oral histories, and biographies (pp. 148, 149). 45 Similar to this cluster is the fourth which emphasizes cooperative learning: jigsaw groups whereby each student group becomes an "expert" at a particular task or concept and teaches the other students; investigation model whereby student groups explore and address a particular inquiry (pp. 149, 150). Each of these strategies aim to provide opportunities for students to interact cooperatively and collectively, resulting in a practical progression from a low-context to a high-context mode of communication (Hall, 1980), which in turn fosters better cross-cultural understanding. The fifth cluster involves personal expressive activities in which students may first create role plays and psychodrama vignettes to "explore . . . feelings and expressions of prejudice and the experience of being a victim in such situations" and second may create or perform various forms of literature, drama, and other expressive arts (Butt, 1986, p. 151). Similar to Kehoe's proposals, however, the commonahties rather than the disparities between ethnicities must be emphasized before implementing these strategies among students in the classroom (p. 151). The sixth cluster relates to the third and fourth ones and centres on interpersonal communication and personal development in that empathy is stressed and developed. Butt cites in a study that "through the use of some direct teaching combined with a hierarchy of examples of emotional states, personally relevant and evocative situations, other people's emotional states . . . and, finally, more complex social situations", students develop a "greater capacity to feel the way others do" (p. 152). However, he admits that these strategies are still somewhat speculative as only a few research studies have proven this result, and therefore developing empathy through these means remains inconclusive. 46 Banks Similar to Butt, Banks (1992) focuses on the curriculum as an educational medium for multicultural education and provides a list of guidelines to consider before implementing a school program.18 His theoretical guidelines may be categorized into three orientations: school, curriculum, and students. First, with regard to the schools, Banks believes that i) ethnic and cultural diversity should permeate the total school environment (p. 279), ii) school policies and procedures should foster positive multicultural interactions and understandings (p. 280), iii) a school's staff should reflect ethnic diversity (p. 280), iv) schools should have professional development programs dealing with multicultural education (p. 280), and v) schools should conduct continuous, systematic evaluations of the goals, methods, and instructional materials used in teaching about ethnic diversity (p. 288). According to Banks, in order for multicultural education to permeate the total school environment, informal programs should reflect cultural diversity in assemblies, classrooms, hallway decorations, cafeteria menus, and extra-curricular programs (such as dances and athletics). Also, libraries and other learning centres should include a variety of historic, literary, and aesthetic resources (such as music, folklore, and art) of different ethnic groups (pp. 280, 287). Also, in order to foster positive multicultural interactions and understandings, Banks suggests a type of accommodation for students in areas such as 1 8 Although Banks is writing from an American perspective, most of his twenty-three curriculum guidelines are relevant and easily transferable to the Canadian context. 47 food, school attendance during religious holidays and festivities, and academic testing and evaluation (pp. 280, 288). These strategies if solely and independently implemented may prove ineffective as they only express a culture's cursory manifestations and not the meanings behind them Using this approach, students will not understand the rationale and the subtle imphcations behind these cultural practices. In effect, they relegate the culture to an object and view it from an ethnocentric perspective. Instead, students should be made aware of their own ethnocentrism before introducing and examining other cultures. With regard to staff employment and their professional development, Banks argues that school board policies should reflect equal opportunity practices while the training and retraining of teachers should clarify their own attitudes and perceptions toward various ethnic groups, acquire knowledge about these groups, improve their intercultural communications skills, and select appropriate resource materials (p. 281). In the end, however, schools should set attainable goals and objectives for implementing multicultural education after which they should be evaluated: Evaluation should be construed as a means by which a school, its staff, and students can improve multiethnic and multicultural relations, experiences, and understandings. Evaluation should be oriented toward analyzing and improving, not castigating or applauding, multicultural programs, (p. 288). Second, with regard to the curriculum, Banks believes that it should i) reflect the cultural learning styles and characteristics of the students (p. 281), ii) promote values, attitudes, and behaviours supporting ethnic pluralism (p. 283), iii) be comprehensive in scope and sequence (p. 285), iv) be inter- and multi-disciplinarian with a comparison approach (pp. 285, 286), v) provide opportunities for students to study ethnic group 48 languages as legitimate communication systems (p. 287), and vi) make maximum use of experiential learning (p. 287). To reflect cultural learning styles, teachers should not ignore ethnic differences when planning instruction nor treat all the students the same. Thus, to provide equal educational opportunities, teachers must treat students unequally. Promoting the idea that differences in cultures is not equivalent to deviance or "abnormality1' supports the pluralistic philosophy which validates the importance of other ethnic groups. Not only is promoting such a notion an essential part of multicultural education, but the opportunity to learn further students' mother tongue also plays an important role in accepting and not just tolerating ethnic diversity in the school. In order for multicultural education to be effective and successful, it must be continuous throughout the years of schooling, include a wide range of different ethnic groups to compare, be presented in all subject matters, and incorporate personal experiences with the various cultures (pp. 285, 286, 287). Functionally, however, Banks states that pluralism must work within the context of national unity: "E pluribus unum — out of many, one" (p. 284). Though Banks' American perspective is apparent, his idea of a multicultural society within a national framework echoes that of Trudeau's bilingual framework in Canada. Critics of multiculturahsm, however, view multiculturahsm and its educational intent as a political policy aimed at "encouraging division, at ensuring that the various ethnic groups whose interests it espouses discover no compelling reason to blur the distinctions among them" (Bissoondath, 1994, p. 43), and, in the process, the "centre" of traditional Canadian ideals is lost. Again, the effects of multiculturahsm (both theoretical and practical) are 49 questioned in such criticisms: does multiculturahsm unify or d s^-unify Canada?19 With regard to students, Banks (1992) believes that multicultural education should help them to i) develop skills necessary for effective interethnic interactions (p. 284) and ii) view and interpret events, situations, and conflict from diverse ethnic perspectives (p. 286). By gaining knowledge and learning from different points of view about various ethnic groups, students acquire a greater understanding of others from the "insider's perspective" and in turn may better communicate and interact with them: "students should broaden their ethnic and cultural options, increase their frames of reference, develop greater appreciation for individual and ethnic differences, and deepen their own capacities as human beings" (p. 285). In the end, the process of implementing multicultural education becomes one of inclusion, and although Banks does not explicitly offer specific concrete strategies, his curriculum guidelines provide a comprehensive basis for a multicultural education program in schools. Tator and Henry In a national survey sponsored by the federal Department of Multiculturahsm and 1 9 The question posed here becomes a main focus for multiculturahsm critics, such as Bissoondath and Bibby. However, discussion of this debate will be presented through the perspectives of participating members of multicultural organizations in schools in the analysis of the research. As well, the issue of Quebec separatism and sovereignty arises as not all Canadians agree that national unity is an adequate or acceptable framework from which to base and develop pluralism. However, for the purpose and scope of this research, Quebec nationahsm and sovereignty will not be an issue in the discussion of multicultural education; rather, British Columbia, and more specifically, Surrey, will be the main focus. 50 Citizenship, Tator and Henry (1991) assess the process of translating the conceptual framework for promoting racial and ethnic equality into concrete programs and initiatives at the ministry, board, division and school level in different jurisdictions. Their study reviews the roles and responsibilities of the federal and provincial governments, administrators, teachers, and students, while providing case studies from various provinces20. They conclude, however, that the advent of multicultural policies and programs have not transformed most educational institutions in Canada. Rather, the issues of multiculturahsm are pohtically absent from the agenda of both boards and ministries of education, and multicultural education practices provide only a "veneer of change rather than a transformation of educational processes and institutional structures" (p. iii). Yet, in order to implement multicultural programs effectively and successfully, support is needed from all levels, from governments to individuals. First, the federal government has provided financial assistance to educational institutions, organizations, and international agencies for the development of projects and programs to "reflect and embody the cultural diversity of Canada" (p. 119). Despite this economic support, the federal government, because of concerns about interfering in provincial jurisdiction, has not clearly formalized a coherent policy on multiculturahsm or related educational programming. In turn, it depohticizes and convolutes the issue. Furthermore, the federal government should be more active in the facihtation, 2 0 The provincial case studies presented in this survey include Ontario, Alberta, Quebec, and British Columbia in which Tator and Henry surnmarize particular provincial, administrative board, and local school initiatives. For the purposes of this thesis, however, emphasis will be placed on British Columbia's implementation policies as well as the student-led S.T.O.P. program initiated in Alberta. 51 coordination, and evaluation of multicultural education. It should "act as a clearing-house for the (ussemination of those resources which will equip educators to become more aware, knowledgeable and skilled in the areas of multicultural and anti-racist education" and support research surveys designed to provide educators with "a more sohd and concrete body of information and models of how the educational system can respond effectively to the challenges of racial and cultural diversity" (p. 121). Thus, economic assistance is necessary but not sufficient as political endorsement needs recognition. Second, with powers to set educational policies through their own ministries, provincial governments need to take a more proactive approach to multicultural education as they need to i) provide sufficient financial support, evaluate, and monitor policy development and program implementation by school boards, ii) develop appropriate course curricula in all core subjects, iii) collect and m s^eminate bias-free resources, and iv) fund multicultural research (p. 123). Although these recommendations are descriptive in nature, they are only theoretical as actual and practical implementation of these policies are lacking. Third, actainistrators have the ability to "shape, influence, control and direct the culture of the school and the learning envhonment created by and for the staff and students" (McKeown, 1989, p. 24). Their acceptance of and involvement in multicultural education programs are crucial to its survival in schools as the determinant of their effectiveness will be "an increasingly relevant curriculum and the enhancement of collegial respect and appreciation throughout the system" (Wright, 1986, p. 74). In addition, they have a direct influence over hiring practices. Tator and Henry (1991) note that students of 52 different ethnic backgrounds socially and academically benefit from a culturally diverse staff as it reinforces their own seff-image and esteem, "providing them with role models and a more optimistic view of their life chances" (p. 128). However, two assumptions need to be addressed: first, students of different cultural backgrounds are ethnocentrically assumed to be "ethnic minorities" (i.e. not Anglo-Canadians) who have low self-image and esteem; second, staffing policy in which "ethnic representatives" are hired to reflect the cultural diversity of the schools is assumed to improve the self-image and esteem of those very students (but inadvertently raises the pohtically sensitive and controversial issue of affirmative action). Third, to implement multicultural education in the classroom, teachers should research and famiharize themselves with a broad range of literature, poetry, music, art, oral history and biographies. It means teaching children about how people have tried to change things which are wrong and unjust and nurturing a respect for the courage and skills it takes to do this. It means respecting and reflecting in the classroom the languages that children speak . . . it means supporting the efforts of parents to teach and have the school teach those programs which it may not currently provide. (Thomas, 1984, p. 23). The role of the teacher also encompasses the establishment of a racism-free environment whereby racial incidents and ethnic slurs must be immediately addressed: "teachers seeking to incorporate the concepts of race and ethnocultural equity into the classroom will have to . . . establish a process to ensure that the experiences of diverse racial and cultural groups permeate all areas of the core curriculum" (Tator and Henry, 1991, p. 129). By creating and maintaining a "safe" atmosphere of ethnic diversity in classrooms, teachers enable students to learn and understand various cultures more 53 acceptingly. Fourth, students play an essential role, albeit mostly unrecognized and unrewarded, in multicultural education not as mere reactors and participants but as proactors and initiators. Student involvement either in classes or extra-curricular organizations proves effective when they feel empowered. Initiatives organized and directed by students to combat discrimination through the use of local media, public presentations, festivals, and conferences are a few examples of successful multicultural education implementation (p. 137). In the context of British Columbia, Tator and Henry present a case study of the Vancouver School Board based on a previous study by Fisher and Echols (1989), examining its program as mandated by its Multicultural Action Plan. Briefly, the Vancouver board requires from every school a submission of annual "multicultural action plans", outlines of "multicultural activities", and a race relations program in communication, curriculum and learning resources, English as a Second Language and Heritage Language Programs, in-service education, hiring and promotion practices and combatting racism (Tator and Henry, 1991, pp. 62, 63). However, evaluation of these plans was somewhat discouraging as school responses were generally indifferent and even hostile: only half the teachers reported their school had such a plan; less than 5% of the parents were involved; most activities centred on special events days, games, music, holidays, and displays; some resentment rested on the requirement that plans had to be evaluated and reconstructed annually which most teachers resisted by simply revising and enacting previous plans; few schools provided for in-service training sessions; equity 54 concerns about hiring and promotions were ignored; and most students and parents were unaware of such plans (pp. 63, 64). The apparent ineffectual multicultural education in Vancouver, I believe, stems from the involuntary nature of the program itself. Instead of a grassroots movement, the multicultural policy is hierarchically implemented and mandated from the administrative board, and in turn schools, teachers, students, and parents feel disempowered. On a larger scale, the British Columbia Teacher's Federation has established and enacted a program against racism since 1974. The program provides professional development opportunities and supporting resources to teachers in order to implement multicultural education in their schools (p. 105). A coordinator is responsible for collecting and distributing resources, administrating in-service programs for teachers, establish crisis intervention plans, consulting and supporting issues of racism, reviewing policy and bargaining clauses in contracts (pp. 106, 107). However, Tator and Henry do not explain further the program nor present any results for closer examination. McDowell21 In her thesis, McDowell (1990) qualitatively analyzes multicultural and multiracial leadership camps of various school boards based in Ontario as "symbolic of the transformation of multiculturahsm as a systemic ethos into multiculturahsm as a specific curriculum" (p. 154). Although based in Ontario, the study is significant in that it provides 2 1 Although the following two sources are specific studies of multicultural education, they are relevant to this literature review because they touch on the issues of student input and involvement. 55 literature on a practical program of multicultural education that extends beyond the classroom curriculum The theoretical strategies upon which the activities of the three-day camp session for students and teacher / facilitators are based are to teach about prejudice, moral development, appeals to consistency, empathy, contact, and cooperative learning (p. 161).22 However, activities appear to focus more on communication and social skills than on understanding cultural diversity. As well, selection of students becomes problematic in the research in that it is based on criteria such as i) individual skills, knowledge, and attitudes, ii) ethnic, cultural, racial, and gender representation from the community, hi) willingness to participate in the program, iv) social consciousness, and v) self-awareness, sensitivity, and empathy (pp. 195, 196). Thus, the selected students may not be representative of their schools as they may be already predisposed to the ideas of multiculturahsm A more diverse field of student participation, such as an entire class, in the future may produce more "objective" and comprehensive results. Although McDowell concludes that "participation in the camp had a positive and significant effect upon student participants" (p. 181), their experiences and learning during the camp result in little effect on the school. Students do nevertheless constructively create action plans related to multicultural education to implement in their respective schools; however, further investigation into then implementation and impact is usually not pursued. As a result, a perpetual cycle is created whereby schools annually send their selected students to multicultural camps who then eventually develop action plans similar to those of previous 2 2 For specific activities of the multicultural, multiracial leadership camp, see Appendixes 1 and 2 (pp. 268-285) of McDowell's master's thesis, "Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camps" (UBC, 1990). 56 years. Students apparently lack serious cornmitment and effort afterward in irnplementing their plans, and multicultural camps in effect become a socializing event rather than a pohticizing one, although individual learning undeniably occurs and perhaps is sufficient for the camps' legitimization. Exarrrining the same topic of extra-curricular multicultural education, Harrison outlines briefly the goals, objectives, program, and evaluation of multicultural leadership camps as implemented by participating Ontarian and British Columbian schools (Harrison, 1986, pp. 237-242). He concludes that the growth of leadership programs in both Ontario and British Columbia is evidence that "educators believe that a 'camp' approach is an effective vehicle for implementing multiculturahsm" but cautions that more research and post-studies need to be developed in order to evaluate the quality of the students' action plans (pp. 243, 244). Lund With regard to student initiatives, only one case study is cited in this survey — Students and Teachers Opposing Prejudice (S.T.O.P.). Established in 1987 at the Lindsay Thurber Comprehensive High School in Red Deer, Alberta, S.T.O.P. evolved from a discussion among a Grade 13 English class on the topic of prejudice and Alberta's stereotyped reputation for intolerance prompted by the Keegstra case.23 In response, the students suggested that a group be formed in order to present a more positive message 2 3 The "Keegstra Affair" occurred during the mid-1980s when Keegstra, a secondary school teacher in Alberta, was found to have taught his students that the Holocaust was a hoax and conspiracy of the Jews. 57 and image of the student community.24 As a result, according to Lund (1993), a regular extra-curricular organization was formed whose aim was to increase people's awareness of various forms of prejudice in their own lives and whose members believe that "all individuals, regardless of ethnic origin, skin colour, age, gender, religion, disability, or any physical traits, should be judged fairly, based upon their own merits" (p. 51). The heterogeneity of club members provides diversity to the organization in which elected executives engage in more responsibility for directing specific events or activities. Student conferences, drama presentations, involvement, membership, and financial support to international organizations (such as Amnesty International, Canadian Peace Alliance, and United Nations), foster child sponsorship, contests (annual poster and poetry), fund-raising, speakers, educational films, benefit concerts, and magazine publications are only a sample of the numerous activities in which this school club participates and supports (pp. 53-58). The continuing success and effectiveness of this school organization he mostly in its autonomous nature whereby members discuss, decide, and initiate activities for the students, school and even community: "A great strength of the S.T.O.P. program is that it is powered by the energy and ideas of the diverse youth who make up its membership" (p. 58). Without such a respected and influential voice, I argue, the student organization may prove indifferent to pohtical and social issues (i.e. not only multicultural issues), and in turn be ineffective in attaining its goals. 2 4 Darren Lund, a Ph.D. candidate at UBC (CSCI), is the teacher who initially established S.T.O.P. in his English class in 1987 and writes about the student-led program in "The Evolution of S.T.O.P.: Students and Teachers Opposing Prejudice". 58 Concluding Remarks This review represents only a fraction of the existing hterature. However, I propose several generalizations from the hterature in terms of the definition, purposes, theoretical approaches, and implementation of multicultural education. First, multicultural education by definition should encompass the following: a study of various cultures in society; a cognitive understanding of these cultures; and an affective response of accepting the diverse cultures. As well, issues of equality, prejudice, and cuscrimination should be addressed. Second, from the typologies offered, one main purpose of multicultural education should be to achieve equality of opportunity by ehminating ethnic prejudice and discrirnination. In a multicultural organization at school, this goal may be achieved through student activities involving the entire school and even the community. Tnird, theoretically, the most successful approaches to promote multicultural education appear to be integrative, inclusive, and interactive. Criticized for being ethnocentric by academics, the assimilationist, additive, and accommodative approaches tend to promote monocultural (ie. Western / Anglo) education. Fourth, practically, the most successful implementations of multicultural education depend on both external and internal support. Externally, multiculturahsm needs support and legitimization through finance and awareness programs at the governmental, school board, and administrative levels. Internally, at the school level, teachers need to endorse it in the curriculum, and students need to endorse it through extra-curricular organizations and activities. Activities that students plan, develop, and administer in a multicultural 59 organization tend to be most effective in promoting mmticulturalism at their schools as it empowers and gives ownership to them Thus, students' input becomes essential to the success of any multicultural program implemented in schools. These theories and praxes of multicultural education (definition, purpose, approaches, and implementation) provide a framework on which the following comparative analysis among the three participating multicultural clubs in this research are based. 60 Chapter 3 - Multicultural Clubs Introduction Although much of the published research focuses on the prescribed curriculum and classroom practices of multicultural education, few ethnographic studies examine multicultural clubs that centre on the concerns of then student and teacher members. This chapter will highhght some of those concerns as expressed in their interviews. It is organized in a way corresponding to the organizational structure of the literature review: definitions, purposes, approaches, and implementation of multiculturahsm. As significant additions to this framework, however, students and teachers voiced certain challenges, successes, and failures that their respective clubs historically and currently experience in then schools.25 From the collected data of student and teacher interviews, general similarities and differences may be identified: the definitions, purposes, and approaches to multiculturahsm through then clubs appear to share common principles, while the implementation, challenges, and impact appear distinct to each school.26 2 5 Refer to the Appendix for the interview schedule guide of the main questions asked in each interview. 2 6 It should be noted that the variations and anomalies existing within the framework of similarities and differences and between teachers and students will also be discussed. Such generalized observations are used only for the purpose of classification. 61 Similarities Among the Clubs As the basic foundation for further inquiry, the first question in all the interviews concerned the definition of multiculturahsni, and from the students' responses elaboration on the interrelated purposes and approaches logically and naturally followed. Since students and teachers defined multiculturahsm in similar social and political terms, then responses to its purposes and approaches also shared common ideals. Definitions of Multiculturalism From the interviews with the students and sponsor teachers, three dominant and interconnected themes emerge from their definitions of multiculturahsm: unity, diversity, and equality. Although participants do not provide a uniform meaning of multiculturahsm per se, they do collectively in each school voice these three themes, creating a small consensus among the participating schools. First, students from all three schools express social and political unity as a fundamental tenet of mmticulturahsm, entailing further notions of "togetherness" and "harmony". Social and political unity, according to Tony (sponsor teacher, School A), refer to cultural similarities, whether real or perceived, that bind Canadians to a common culture and nation state: multiculturahsm is "learning from each other and still maintaining their own unique heritage but also coming together and having some overlap". In effect, multiculturahsm attempts to unite (lifferent cultures as opposed to fragmenting them, and thus the practice of multiculturahsm in the schools must work within the framework of the 62 dominant culture (i.e. Anglo-culture) in order to survive socially and politically.27 Second, amid this unity, students and teachers generally acknowledge the need for and existence of diversity through an "appreciation" and "understanding" of the different ethnicities in the cornmunity as a means to: value culture, the uniqueness of each culture and origin of our roots, families, and traditional ways, and hanging on i t . . . to keep that as a richness, enriching our life.28 Otherwise, the whole world becomes uniform . . . The future global village [is] going to be based on . . . all those things [that] we've tried to preserve now that are songs and our art works and our dances and our stories and our languages . . . [to] make the life more rich . . . more interesting, and more diversified. (Becky, sponsor teacher, School C). Although both meanings are significant in defining multiculturahsm, a connotative polemic arises in that one apparently becomes the contextual basis for the other — diversity within unity or unity within diversity. While the former seems to emphasize the preservation of cultural distinctiveness within the confines of a common culture (i.e. a "Canadian culture"), the latter seems to emphasize the creation and development of a common culture from the differing ethnicities. The apparent focus of the participants, however, is on the former as their initial responses to the issue of defining multiculturahsm support a social and political union rather than a fragmentary one. Third, participants note equality among people as a principle of multiculturahsm which transcends ethnicities and in turn becomes an issue of human and individual rights. From a governmental perspective, however, Jerrnifer (sponsor teacher, School B) views 2 7 The province of Quebec, however, is an exception where the dominant culture is Francophone and the issue of unity is in effect one of separation and sovereignty. 2 8 Quotes from the interviewees will be verbatim and may contain grammatical mistakes. 63 mwticulturalism as a means to "appease voters from all different backgrounds" by creating an "equal basis for all people". Although this political interpretation of multiculturahsm may reflect a bureaucratic reality, it is not directly pertinent to the students; instead, by promoting human rights among the various ethnic groups in their schools, the issue of equality becomes relevant to the students. In addition to these three concepts of multiculturahsm, Jennifer and Becky, with their years of experience in the teaching profession and with this issue, elaborate further. Jennifer defines mmticulturalism from a personal perspective: multiculturahsm "should be looking at people for who they are as people, using their background, their education as a resource". Becky, however, defines multiculturahsm from the macro-perspective of internationahsm in which globalism and universalism become normative issues: "we don't want to keep the borders and we don't want to keep the barriers but we want to keep all those rich and incredible history". From the participants' broad range of responses, multiculturahsm has a number of definitions. However, they appear to conform to the comprehensive definitions of McLeod (1987) and the CCMIE (1982), forming a consensus in encompassing the three fundamental principles of unity, diversity, and equality. Purposes of Multicultural Clubs From the participants' similar definitions of multiculturahsm evolve similar purposes of the clubs, most of which correspond to individual reasons for becoming an active member. In reviewing the responses of the participants, three main categories may 64 be identified for taxonomical purposes, but in reality they function interdependently and cannot be separated: cognitive, affective, and behavioural. Cognitively, the most frequent response as to the purpose of the multicultural club is "awareness" ~ awareness of equality and subsequently inequality, ethnic similarities and differences, human rights, racism, discrimination, and even the environment ~ as students acknowledge the need to inform others about various cultures. Looking at these "social issues" and learning about them prompted Jim (student, School A) to initiate a multicultural club at his school with Tony as the sponsor teacher, both of whom participated in the district's annual multicultural camp. They perceive a lack of cornmunication and understanding between the different ethnic groups at their school that has resulted in cultural self-segregation. This ethnic division may emanate from the student composition in which the lack of ethnic diversity only accentuates the perceived presence of minorities who then consequently become more "visible" to the majority and consciously separate themselves from the mainstream According to Jim and Tony, ethnic segregation appears to be a natural phenomenon of cultural comfortabihty and familiarity at then school but by educating students with regard to cultural diversity, they hope to integrate students through a common understanding.29 Affectively, the purpose of the organization is to encourage and instill an attitude of acceptance and appreciation by "breaking the stereotypes apart", and subsequently "understand why there are cultural rules, cultural values on certain things" (Jennifer, 2 9 This segregation "problem" is not unique to this particular school (A), but is also noted by the others interviewed at schools B and C. 65 sponsor teacher, School B): "It's more like accepting a difference because they are a person, not because they are different'' (Jim, sponsor teacher, School A). Patricia (student, School C) and Tony specifically joined then respective multicultural clubs for similar reasons. Patricia notices the influence she has had on her peers and the changes in their attitudes through her educating them about different cultural groups. For Tony, however, sponsoring the multicultural club was a matter of personal revelation and reclamation. In the past, he had passively condoned ethnic ridicule and prejudice. Now he realizes then harmful social effects. In turn, his objective is to prevent the potential for racial conflict at his school by addressing the issue of racial prejudice and discrimination. Although these goals have become the most diflicult to initiate and achieve for all the clubs, the participants beheve that by changing the attitudes of students, they may change their behaviour as well. Behaviourally, first, racial discrimination receives much attention from the multicultural clubs as their members attempt to address and ideally eliminate them from then respective campuses. It is this main purpose that prompted both Jennifer and Becky to become involved in their multicultural clubs. Even with such an objective, however, Arthur (student, School B) admits a serious concern at his school ~ the frequent racial incidents, both verbal and physical: You can see people of one culture go to one place, people of one culture go to another and then the third culture go to another. . . . we have a hard time mtermingling. People mostly stick with their culture and their ethnic and then race, and that's not very good. . . . I can walk down the hall and just walking through the wrong part of the hallway, you can feel the tension from the people around you. . . . most of the fights in our school are racial fights but it's our school. . . . it's not always a physical confrontation, but there's definitely more 66 than twenty or thirty verbal confrontations monthly. Emily (student, School B) supports this sense of segregation as "it seems like [students] have a problem interacting". Pessimistically, when asked for a solution to alleviate the problem of racial violence at his school, Arthur replies: You can't. The people you see starting the fights are maybe the twenty percent of the people that are really truly racist, and then you have your other fifty percent of the people that just get pulled into it. . . . We're hoping that we can take away some of the followers. . . . We're not trying to convince the leaders, because you never can. They're always going to be there, but what we are trying to do is take their base of population, and maybe they'll realize it's not such a smart thing to do. Yet, Robert (student, School C) appears more optimistic in proposing a solution for his school: It's like a step by step progress you make. . . . [We] wanted to show at first that the different races or the differences between people doesn't necessarily make the person better or worse off than you. . . . it's mostly short term but then the long term is just to promote [that] everybody's equal. Although their viewpoints differ, their purpose remains the same ~ a campaign of anti-racism and anti-discrimination. This purpose of eliminating personal prejudice and discrimination appear to correspond with those of Ramautarsingh (1977), Temehni (1987), and Fleras and Elliott (1992). Second, club members express their concern over student and staff apathy toward multicultural issues and activities, seeing little commitment and proactive support (i.e. planning, implementing, or even participating in club activities); however, Christine (student, School C) acknowledges the staffs indirect support for the club as teachers "let [students] out of class if [they] have to do something for the club" or "bring their classes to things like the Global Issues Week or to the workshops, but there's still some teachers 67 that are a little bit ignorant".30 Being made aware through the club's promotional campaigns, Emily joined her multicultural club because of its activities and philosophy of social activism Thus, a significant purpose of the multicultural clubs in terms of pragmatic survival is to encourage more student and staff involvement in their activities. Third, the multicultural clubs serve a social and political role for the students. As a social forum, "the goal of the club is to get to know each other, to make friends. . . . if they have some common goals, they would have some common interest, and then they learn about each other and they be making friends with each other, and that breaks down the barriers" (Becky, sponsor teacher, School C). Thus, one goal of the multicultural club is to help students establish new friends. More importantly, however, the club serves as a pohtical arena where students are able to voice concerns relevant to them and to develop and practice leadership, which in turn empowers them According to Becky, "young people try to be active and if we give them something, they can be enthusiastic. . . . Then they feel they [are making] a difference in life; that's empowering students". Robert, Christine (students, School C) and Trish (student, School B), believes then respective clubs provide them with an opportunity to express, initiate, and hopefully realize then ideas. In essence, this purpose is the most important to the students because it is the most relevant. The students' and teachers' views on the purpose of then multicultural club correlate with those presented in the literature review, focussing on the cognitive, 3 0 The Global Issues Week is one of the events planned and sponsored by School Cs global issues club. This activity will be detailed later in this chapter. 68 affective, and behavioural domains. Theoretical Approaches to Multicultural Clubs In order to achieve their objectives, the clubs have developed both theoretical and practical approaches to the administration of their respective organizations. With regard to these strategies, the three clubs in this research generally share the same views — acknowledgement, appreciation, and acceptance of diverse cultures through a holistic perspective and empowerment of students within the club. From a theoretical point of view, the participants seem to emphasize cultural understanding through an additive and contributive approach of learning as described by Falconi (1987) and Banks (1997). Students in turn teach others about ethnic minorities (i.e. 4D's of multiculturahsm ~ dance, dialect, diet, dress) as a means to eliminate cultural barriers and dispel ethnic stereotypes (Jennifer, sponsor teacher, School B). Philosophically, all three organizations take a holistic approach to multiculturahsm in that the issues students address are not exclusively "multicultural" ones as reflected in the naming of their clubs ~ global issues or global education club. First, the term "global issues" connotes an inclusive and non-ethnocentric approach in which other topics of discussion and activities of the three clubs have included topics such as women's issues, human rights, the envhonment, nations of the South, and even disaster relief. Conceptually, therefore, the term, "multicultural" becomes too narrow of a scope for the club. For instance, School C has various chapters within their global issues club ~ Amnesty International, covering human rights concerns; environmental, covering 69 recycling and conservation concerns; and mwticultural, covering the issues of racism, prejudice, mscrimination, and even violence. As a result, students feel they accomplish more with a broader focus. Also, on an ideological level, Jennifer (sponsor teacher, School B) says that "the whole concept of (hscrimination is one that's really needed, but not just what is discrimination, but working with understanding the issues of the world. . . . [That's] why I like the global education format, because it goes into a broader perspective". From this point of view, multiculturahsm cannot be separated or even isolated from other social issues as they all impact on one another. Second, for practical purposes, the amalgamation of various lobbying groups provides an expanded support and resource base, as demonstrated at School B: The only reason we actually made all the clubs [i.e. multicultural and environmental] the same is because even if all our clubs being the same, we still only had about ten members, so if split them up into environmental, human rights, multiculturahsm, you wouldn't have enough people doing anything. The only reason we put everyone together is to have a larger support base. (Arthur, student). Thus, the existence of the multicultural clubs does depend on student, staff, and administrative support, regardless of the diverse focuses of the expanded organization. Third, students apparently stereotype the term "multicultural club" with negative images of members as being "dorky" and "geeky" (Jim, student, School A). This social stigma is partly explained in terms of its political connotation and peer association. Although "multiculturahsm" is a term of cultural inclusion, the club has mainly attracted ethnic minorities and, as a result, has indirectly alienated mainstream Anglo-cultures as then concerns are seldom addressed. More importantly for students, however, is the 70 perception that the club is not "cool", especially for males: Because the boys, when they are thirteen and fourteen and fifteen, they tend to think about cars as being cool and sports and hockey and ah those stuff. . . . [They] don't really think about [the] kinds of things the global issues club or the multicultural club is doing. (Becky, sponsor teacher, School C). A gender imbalance does exist in the membership of multicultural clubs in the three participating schools in which females form the vast majority. Becky further elaborates that females have a tendency to act on their nurftuirig disposition: "[The] girls [are] going to be mothers. . . . they care more about environmental things and all those human rights . . . because [that's where] their heart is." Thus, participants believe that changing the name and image of a multicultural club to a global issues club would appeal to and be accepted by more students. From a practical point of view, the participants stress their administrative autonomy whereby they manage the club, estabhshing the agenda and chairing all the meetings. They in effect become the initiators and implementors of the clubs' ideas, plans, and actions. The role of the sponsor teachers therefore is m i n i m i z e d They act mostly as facilitators and occasionally as mediators between students and school administrators, a role and approach Banks supports (1997). For School A, Jim (student) plays a pivotal role as he basically organized and created the multicultural club at his school. It, however, does not have an elected president or leader, although Jim does chair many of the club's meetings, which according to him become "like a talk-show, nothing rigid and formal" in which students "just talk" about current social and political issues. Because the sponsor teacher (Tony) has other 71 corrmoitments, he has not been as involved as the students but does offer legal and ethical guidance in accordance with the school's administrative policies. For School B, a change occurred this school year in the managerial direction of the multicultural club. In previous years, the club was mainly administered by two sponsor teachers, and as a result students felt depoliticized31: "The sponsor teacher would stand up there and talk about something" (Trish, student), and subsequently the "population base didn't know how to do anything. . . . [They] didn't know how to organize an event because they didn't have the capabilities, and so they really just sat there and tried to learn something" (Arthur, student). Jennifer (sponsor teacher) echoes similar sentiments as she felt the club was ineffective because the activities were not ''meanmgfui" to its members, and consequently decided not to sponsor the club this school year: "[The students'] opinions were important and they as a group of youth could create something, and I think that's one of the problems that we don't do, is that we don't give them opportunities to create out of their own knowledge and relevance". Rather than having students generate ideas, the sponsor teachers directed the club, asking for and occasionally delegating volunteers to fulfill certain duties, and thereby neglecting the needs of its members: "We never had the capability of trying activities last year because our multicultural club was not active. And that's why we wanted to be different" (Trish, student). Because student direction in the organization did not exist, the club disbanded at the beginning of the 3 1 There were two sponsor teachers of the multicultural club at School B for 1995-96; however, both decided not to continue to sponsor the organization in 1996-97. Three new teachers took on this role, but they did not participate in this research due to other commitments and time constraints. 1996-97 school year, and a new student club was formed with three new sponsor teachers and a new approach. Students now have a voice and are able to generate ideas and chair their own meetings. Similar to School A, no official positions exist as members themselves volunteer for approved activities. Also, the three current sponsor teachers function as facilitators, being the "guide on the side, not the sage on the stage" (Jennifer, sponsor teacher). For School C, the multicultural club (which is the most established of the three schools participating in this study) used to have an elected administrative council, consisting of a president, vice-president, and secretary-treasurer. However, the electoral process became a popularity contest as club members mostly voted for their friends. This consequently resulted in jealousy between the candidates and an inefficiently managed organization. Also, the current student members note the inconsistency with the club's philosophy of equality: "with the club you try to promote equality, and then having appointed leaders or something, that's just totally defeats the purpose because you'd have people competing, saying, 'I want to be head of the club'" (Robert, student). Instead, the club this year opted to incorporate steering committees in which students who volunteer for a particular project completely oversee its organization, planning, and implementation. They become responsible and accountable to the steering committee as well as to the entire club. In effect, these "suborganizations" provide students with more leadership opportunities and autonomy, empowering them and giving them direction of the club, an approach that both Fleras and Elliott (1992) and Banks (1997) advocate. Without student input, multicultural clubs would tend to serve the purposes of the teachers. 73 Differences Among the Clubs Despite the similarities in defining, rationalizing, and theorizing multiculturahsm within the context of an extra-curricular organization, the three clubs do differ in then implementation of activities, challenges, and levels of effectiveness. Such differences in effect reveal the uniqueness of each school, being in various geographic and socio-economic areas of Surrey, and of each respective multicultural club. Although no one formula exists as a means to accomplish all the goals, the following do present a wide range of creative and even enterprising ideas as well as precautions for other multicultural clubs to consider.32 Implementation of the Multicultural Clubs' Activities Although the three multicultural clubs share similar goals, they differ in the means to achieve them. These probably reflect their different stages of experiential praxis ~ School A organized the least number of projects while School B did some and School C did the most.33 Then activities, however, may be categorized as external (i.e. involving members beyond the club and therefore beneficial to others) and internal (i.e. involving members directly in the club beneficial to themselves), both of which prove important to 3 2 The following is not a set of recommendations for multicultural clubs but an examination of their various activities as well as some of their challenges and effectiveness in the schools. Recommendations for multicultural clubs will be presented in Chapter 4. 3 3 The activities presented in this study only reflect the significant ones participants disclosed during the interview. Most likely, however, other projects were implemented but were not discussed. 74 the development of the clubs. It is important to note here that the activities the three clubs implement do not necessarily reflect the participants' definitions of "multiculturahsm" but are in practice consistent with their described purposes and approaches. I will attempt to show later in this chapter that this diversion from multiculturahsm is rooted both in the clubs' activist function and in the role of the media. School A Because of its recent genesis and inexperience of its members, the multicultural club at School A did not initiate many programs in 1996-97 as "it's still very young, and the direction of it isn't clear" (Tony, sponsor teacher). Only several activities were implemented, most of which targeted students outside the club, each with limited success -- discussions of current issues, a world map of student origins in a display cabinet, and a fund-raiser for Russian orphans (Operation Orphanage). Internally, in a typical weekly meeting of the club, a member would summarize an article from a news source and lead a discussion among the group.34 This activity benefitted the members as they became more conscious of the political, social, and economic issues at a local, national, and even international level. Topics of discussion (1996-97) included the Red River flood and possible aid for the victims, teenage music as a popular fad, and the ramifications of biotechnology and cloning. Yet, this particular activity did not elicit much attention or enthusiasm in the school as membership and 3 4 Most of the time, Jim would be the one who brought a news article to the group for a discussion. 75 participation remained somewhat low. Perhaps discussing current events as a multicultural club activity is not highly engaging or uniquely new to the school population, as such discussions most likely already take place in the regular classroom (i.e. in Social Studies, English, or Humanities classes). Externally, one of the earlier actions of the club included an invitation to all students to place pins on a world map in a display case in the school's foyer as a means to acknowledge their diverse geographic / ethnic origins ~ a variation of the "roots and routes" activity from the school district's multicultural camp; however, not many students took this opportunity except for the members of the club.35 Similarly, the complacency of the students and staff only further frustrated the efforts of the club during the implementation of Operation Orphanage, a social activist project. In Operation Orphanage, Jim began a collection of clothes for orphans in Russia, but even within the club itself he had few organizational volunteers. Although such activities resulted in minimal success this year, they were initiated nonetheless by the students, and the organization did raise some awareness of current issues and of themselves as a club in the school. School B In an effort to revive the multicultural club during the 1996-97 school year, students at School B advantageously used their experience and network resources to 3 5 The "roots and routes" activity at the multicultural camp had the participants draw lines to trace their own or ancestors' place(s) of origin to Canada. 76 implement a vast array of activities, one of which included the sponsorship of club members to an educational / environmental excursion along the south coast of B.C., many of which included financial donations to non-profit organizations with regard to environmental and humanitarian preservation, but ah of which were initiated by the students. Internally, the multicultural club sponsored three of its members to the Flotilla Program, a week excursion where students interactively learned about ecological issues on a boat along B.C.'s south coast. After the experience, the participating students suggested ideas of future projects concerning the preservation and conservation of the local environment to the club. Most of the time and effort, however, was devoted to activist causes and concerns external to the club. By donating to the World Wildlife Fund, the club protected one kilometre of a migratory1 s bird flight path. As well, with regard to the environment, club members participated in a beach clean-up in White Rock with other local schools. The club also initiated and promoted the food drive, collecting non-perishable items to the local foodbank. However, to increase the awareness of global issues, club members engaged in more international and substantial projects: first, students and sponsor teachers organized and directed a 24-hour famine in support of Oxfam, raising both concerns of the Souths phght and monies to assist them; second, they sponsored a foster child in Casa, 77 Guatemala through a school-wide fund-raiser.36 Despite the expansive range of projects, the students showed self-motivation and enthusiasm for them, two factors lacking in previous years. In the past, before the amalgamation with the environmental club, other annual activities of the multicultural club included a Christmas potluck, a fashion show, a welcome party for ESL students, dim sum in Chinatown, and a visit to the Museum of Anthropology and the Nitobe Gardens at UBC. 3 7 Although some of these activities were "successful" by participation standards, they were planned by the sponsor teachers without much student input. It was the lack of delegation and alienation of students, who felt disenfranchised from the decision-making process, that partially led to the club's collapse. Consequently, the multicultural club this year (1996-97) did not implement any of those past activities as members did not perceive them to be relevant, although ironically they are more "multicultural" in nature than the ones the students did employ. Yet, activities such as protecting a migratory bird path, cleaning up the local environment, supporting Oxfam through a 24-famine, and sponsoring an orphan in Casa, Guatemala, on the surface do not appear to address "multicultural" issues. However, 3 6 This fund-raiser involved a male pageant ("Man on Campus") whereby the students and staff would vote by donating money to their favourite candidate. The "winner" was the one with the most money, and all proceeds went to the orphanage. 3 7 As mentioned in the "Introduction" (School and Multicultural Club Profiles) and in this chapter (Approaches to Multicultural Clubs), School B used to have a separate multicultural club, but it ceased to exist independently this year as it joined with the environmental club. This paragraph will briefly outline some activities the multicultural club used to do (prior to 1996). 78 according to the students, they still reflect their club's purpose of social and political activism. The issue, therefore, becomes one of student autonomy and sense of empowerment to initiate and implement ideas. School C In existence for almost twenty years, the multicultural club at School C has the most organized and established infrastructure of the three schools. Similar to the multicultural club at School B, this one focuses on internal and external projects. Internally, club members were recruited to attend extra-curricular conferences ~ Amnesty International Youth and anti-racist conferences ~ as a means to educate themselves and to become facilitators to the club and in turn the school. At the Amnesty International Youth Conference at UBC (1995), members became familiar with the organization, its philosophies and objectives (mainly to procure the international recognition, practice, and preservation of human rights), and the means by which to achieve them As a result, the multicultural club has formed a human rights chapter dedicated to the ideals of Amnesty International. Students there participate in a weekly letter-writing campaign to political leaders / governments on behalf of prisoners of conscious as a means to protest their unjust treatment. At an anti-racism conference held at a school in the Burnaby school district (1996), students discussed the problems resulting from, causes of, and possible solutions to racism in schools. From attending such conferences, club members were better informed and prepared to initiate projects at then own school. 79 Externally, the club organized several large-scale annual events, all initiated and managed by its student members: Global Issues Week, Diversity Week, a mosaic show, Starvathon, a grade 7 and global educator's conferences. First, the club directed a week of workshops, inviting guest speakers from different professions to address various social, political, and environmental issues in an open interactive forum — Greenpeace, Amnesty International, AMSSA (Affiliation of Multicultural Societies and Service Agencies of B.C.), the Surrey school district's multicultural worker, and teachers.38 Furthermore, several club members served as panelists, facilitating student discussions / debates with regard to other concerns such as violence, anti-racism, feminism, and human rights within and without the school. In turn, teachers selected the workshops their classes would attend. Second, Diversity Week is similar to Global Issues Week but excludes academic dialogue. For a week during lunch in the cafeteria, club members attempted to educate other students "what different cultures are about... [in which] each day was a different culture day, so . . . [there was a] Spanish Day where [there was] Spanish dancing and food" (Christine, student): "We ask the cafeteria to cook some food for the culture and the show can be the dancers.39 They can be [from] outside the school or they can be from inside the school, like the teachers or students, whoever wants to do it" (Patricia, student). Although this highly publicized and accessible event emphasizes the physical 3 8 AMSSA is a provincial youth organization that addresses multicultural issues. It serves as a resource base, a network of communication, for the different regions of B.C. 3 9 The club invited professional dancers to perform traditional Spanish dances at the school. Both students and staff were invited to learn and later participate in the dancing. 80 manifestations of cultural diversity, more students became involved, interacting with performers: the different cultural groups dancing and singing and then they . . . after twenty minutes or thirty minutes performance, they teaching the other people . . . so everybody is up in arms and dancing, and even those who don't, they clap and sing and cheer, and the food is matching to the culture, and it's probably the most popular event. (Becky, sponsor teacher). Third, in a more formal setting open to the pubhc, the mosaic show featured the fashions and dances of the school's different ethnicities. Becky provided me with a videotape of the mosaic show from 1996 in which the students performed traditional dances and music in their traditional costumes in the school's theatre. The mosaic show is a ticketed evening event, charging $5 per person and is usually sold out. Although this event was organized by the multicultural club, it attracted many students not directly associated with the club who volunteered their time and talents to exhibit their culture. Fourth, similar to School B's famine sponsorship, the Starvathon supported Oxfam by donating the participants' financial pledges to the organization as rehef to the nations most in need. Again, this event attracted non-club members who were educated during the process as informative presentations and educational videos about the causes of and solutions to international famine were shown to all the participants. Fifth, targeting students in grade 7, club members committed themselves to creating conferences for local elementary schools, addressing ethnic diversity through cultural presentations. Student members also provided workshops in the Surrey school district for the Global Educators' Conference (1997) to assist other sponsor teachers in organizing a club and implementing activities. Through these events, the multicultural club has raised awareness in the school with regard to its 81 issues and appears effective in reaching their goals; however, it faces challenges, as do the other schools. Challenges of Multicultural Clubs Although most participants in this study state the need for the support of students, staff, and administration, each club has its priorities: School A realizes the fragility of its club as it enters its first full year of existence; School B also shares this survivalist mentality in an attempt to transform its past image; School C recognizes the need to maintain its successes and to raise new issues. School A The most pressing concern for this multicultural club is the lack of student involvement and enthusiasm within and without the organization: "I'm not sure a whole lot of students are even into it [i.e. multicultural club] or interested in it [including] student input from the club members. . . . It's getting people involved because this school doesn't have very good school spirit" (Jim, student). Tony (sponsor teacher) echoes this sense of student complacency: The biggest challenge for this club will be to get students involved and get students excited about what's happening. . . . The students here tend to be pretty much to their own little groups. . . . If it's not cool then they're not going to buy into it. So that's probably the biggest challenge that this group will have ~ to get students involved and excited and interested in the club and in the activities that they're planning to do. In addition, to exacerbate the low participatory situation, staff support is inconsistent. 82 Their apparent indifference effectually filters down to the students: that sense of community is also sometimes lacking. . . . I think it's generated from the staff at the school, and I think a lot of times developing that type of atmosphere starts with the teachers, and a lot of times when things are planned and teachers are invited the participation level is low. (Tony, sponsor teacher). For example, Operation Orphanage received much attention as Jim informed all the staff and students, yet he found that "a few staff members, maybe a handful of staff members, were really into it, advertising in their class" and only a few pubhcly promoted the cause (Jim, student). As for the administration, both Jim and Tony acknowledge their indirect support as both the principal and vice-principals approve the existence of the club in principle and practice; however, because of the club's slow development, few initiatives have materialized and the school's administration has only remained marginally supportive: in terms of direct involvement, there hasn't been a lot of that happening yet, but I'm sure once things grow a little bit more and actual events occur then involvement will increase. . . . The administration is very supportive of these types of initiatives because it's one of the issues of our school is that changing nature of the students that are coming here. (Tony). Thus in order for this multicultural club to survive, members must consolidate realistic goals, create a proactive atmosphere at the start of the school year, and focus on inclusive activities appealing to students, staff, and adimnistration. School B Similarly, participants from this school voiced then concerns mainly over student apathy. Involvement and enthusiasm appear to be waning. However, Arthur also raises the problem of bureaucratic barriers as the teachers "have created a good environment for 83 us and allowed us to be there and they're always there with good ideas, but sometimes they also slow down the process" but admits the "biggest difficulty for our club right now would definitely have to be the small number of people". Although the administration appears supportive of the club's initiatives, students are somewhat critical: "I go talk to them and they're supportive of what we're doing and they give us time, [but the] administration doesn't really ask us what we're doing or anything like that" (Trish, student); "we have a lot of support from the teachers because the teachers want to be there, but administration doesn't really do much" (Arthur, student). Again, rather than taking a proactive approach, the administration appears reactive at this school. In addition to internal and external support, this multicultural club faces the challenge of reinventing an image acceptable to the students of the school: the past image of the multicultural club was that it was a club for people who had nothing better to do. . . . It was for geeks. . . . We didn't establish any leadership, so how can people who have leadership feel it's a place for them? If you want to develop a consciousness, you'll also develop a leadership at the same time. (Jennifer, sponsor teacher). In order to develop further, students from this multicultural club must promote their plans early in the school year to attract potentially new members and to inform administration for their approval and participation. School C Unlike the other two multicultural clubs, the one at this school is not overly concerned about student membership and administrative support. With approximately seventy members involved, the club may have one of the largest student organizations in 84 the school district. Also, the school's administration financially supports the club with a monthly allowance of $200 as members in return weekly clean garbage off the school grounds. Although this particular activity is not "multicultural", it helps fund other projects that are, and though it is the least popular among club members, it has raised awareness and resulted in a decreased amount of litter by other students: "It's not a glamourous activity but it certainly has its own successes because it made a difference" (Becky, sponsor teacher). Instead, one of the club's most pressing challenges is to persuade students and teachers outside the club to partake in its activities: the biggest challenge probably [is] motivating other students, like for example that recycling program because some kids just don't learn from home to care, so they don't know, so the club wants to motivate them. . . [and some club members] taught about recycling . . . because some of the teachers don't recycle. I think about ten percent of the teachers who are really aware of what's happening, and who are supportive. (Becky). For the students interviewed, however, their main challenge is "tackling homophobia", a highly controversial issue in the Surrey school district: it has been put back on the back shelf for now, and now that we're trying to bring it up, there's many old-fashioned people who see it as wrong and that it shouldn't be taught in school at all or even be spoken about, and we see it as a form of discrimination, which we've taught the school so far through racism that it isn't acceptable. (Robert, student). Although tackling homophobia is not generally included in the definitions of multiculturahsm, it is related: this contentious topic concurs with the club's effort to achieve equality and acceptance of all students based on human rights, and in order to maintain their present success, club members must devise plans to address this issue and incorporate more teacher participation. 85 Impact of Multicultural Clubs The impact that the three multicultural clubs have in their respective schools apparently correlates to then membership size and experience. With a small group and / or with little experience, multicultural clubs face difficulties in organizing and managing activities that involve the entire school because of their bruited resource and network base, and therefore also face the threat of extinction; however, with a larger group and / or with more experience, the clubs have the flexibility and resources to expand in terms of goals and activities, and therefore may continue to develop. For School A, the club has had no significant impact in the school perhaps because of its short history: "I really don't think it has made a difference because I don't think a lot of people know about any of it anyways. It hasn't really made an impact on the school for this school year" (Jim, student). Although Tony (sponsor teacher) agrees with this assessment, he, more optimistically, views this year's club as having some noticeable impact for the members themselves in that the club provided a place for students to develop leadership skills, especially for Jim: "He's [i.e. Jim] a lot more open now in expressing his ideas and seems to have more passion for global issues and wants to try to develop some discussions to build awareness, and I think maybe ultimately, he wants to build a strong sense of community within the school through that avenue". For School B, the responses of the club's impact are mixed from a negative "not much" to a positive "sense of change from the multicultural club" with a "different image" 86 to become "well-accepted" in the school (Irish, student). Although, as a teacher, Jennifer may not be exposed to "student reality", she does nonetheless beheve the multicultural club has had a positive yet superficial impact in the school: "it [i.e. the multicultural club] has given this idea that it's not cool to put down other people racially. . . . That doesn't mean that it has brought about a change in thinking. It's just brought about a change in behaviour, and I think that might be a positive".40 The most positive response, however, with regard to the club's impact on members and school is from School C. There, students themselves realize that the organization has provided both an opportunity to develop leadership skills and a sense of accomphshment: "It teaches us leadership skills" (Robert, student); "[it] makes you feel good that you're involved, that you can spread the word to other people, educate other people you know from what you learned through the club" (Christine, student). Becky (sponsor teacher) reiterates this sentiment as students "feel proud of themselves" and notices a lack of racial hostility among students and a growth in club membership in the school, both "a good sign" and reflection of the effort, commitment, and work the club has put forth thus far for the school. Social and Political Activism and the Role of the Media From the various activities these multicultural clubs implement, a few correspond 4 0 According to Arthur and Emily (students, School B), however, frequent verbal and physical attacks based on racial differences continue to occur at their school, and therefore it is difficult to assess the impact the club has had on in the school thus far. 87 with those mentioned in the hterature: the celebration of hohdays, food, dance, and dress (Kehoe, 1984a; Friesen and de Vries, 1986); the participation in multicultural leadership programs including multicultural camps (Kehoe, 1984b; McDowell, 1990); casual contact with various ethnic individuals / organizations (Friesen and de Vries, 1986); and various activities of S.T.O.P. (Lund, 1993). As mentioned, however, a number of projects sponsored by the various multicultural clubs in this study do not appear directly associated with multiculturahsm per se. I propose two main reasons for this diverging focus: first, the club functions from a "global" perspective for practical reasons to serve as an avenue for social and political activism; second, the media plays an influential role in the clubs' decision to engage in various types of activities. First, the three clubs address an expansive and eclectic range of topics for a pragmatic reason ~ participation within and without the club. By engaging in activities concerning women, the environment, the local community, and even world affairs, the clubs appeal to a greater number of students. Without the support base from such areas, a club that specifically and exclusively addresses "multicultural" issues potentially may be too small to undertake school-wide projects.41 More importantly, however, the clubs provide an arena for students to be active both socially and pohtically in local and even global concerns, regardless of the topic. Socially, students beheve they do "make a difference" and accomplish more worthwhile 4 1 Arthur (student) mentions this type of situation at School B, where the multicultural club in the past was too small to do much and therefore amalgamated with the environmental club in order to increase student membership. 88 projects when engaged in a diverse range of issues, whether the activities entail writing letters on behalf of political prisoners vis a vis Amnesty International, cleaning up the local beaches as a means to promote environmental causes, tackling the controversial issue of homophobia in on open discussion, or simply collecting food and clothes for those in need. Politically, students feel empowered through their efforts in activism This sense of empowerment essentially becomes the driving force for the clubs. If the clubs restricted their activities to only "multicultural" ones, I beheve they would become less effective as students would feel stifled in their attempts to fulfill their goals. Second, the clubs are media-driven in that their activities are closely linked to the issues and events that take place both locally and globally as seen through the lens of the media. The media's coverage of news stories such as world famine, natural disasters, and environmental destruction / exploitation, touches on the social consciousness of the students and greatly influences the types of activities they undertake. Despite the disparate nature of the issues, I beheve that by using the media as a source of information to initiate projects, students feel they are both making an impact as active members of the community and being "in touch" with reality. Though the clubs' projects do not necessarily correspond with "multicultural" ideas and perhaps are accommodative and additive in approach, it is ultimately the students of these clubs who decide which issues to address and activities to implement. I beheve that this type of student autonomy and initiative is the quintessential aspect of the clubs. Students do not intellectualize whether the projects selected are "multicultural" in nature or whether they are "theoretically correct". Rather, they choose on the basis of which 89 activities are most fit, (i.e. relevant), feasible, and "fun" to them It is this unique and multiple praxis of "multiculturahsm" that makes the student clubs operational and effective. Concluding Remarks In defining multiculturahsm, rationalizing its objectives, and implementing activities, the three multicultural clubs in this study generally share similar philosophies, yet they somewhat differ in their application, indicating various challenges and levels of effectiveness. Several reasons may account for these similarities and differences. With regard to the similarities, first, the sponsor teachers and most of the students interviewed for this study have participated in the school district's multicultural camp where they addressed multicultural issues and shared then ideas and cultural histories. Common themes and goals for students to develop at then respective schools evolved from this interactive experience: "they were really positive people because we kind of all had something in common, and it was energizing or inspiring" (Trish, student, School B). Second, Surrey hosts a district multicultural club whereby further network with other teachers and students from other schools provide a forum for participants to share successes and failures, philosophies and methodologies. As a result of this district organization, multicultural clubs in the district adapt and modify shared goals and projects to suit better the needs of then particular schools. Third, as young activists with common ideals, the students enthusiastically "think globally but act locally" in order to "make a difference" in then school, community, and even world (Robert, student, School C). It is 90 this self-motivation and driving force that binds them to a common purpose through their respective multicultural clubs. With regard to the differences, first, because each multicultural club is at a different stage of development, different needs arise. Because School A has only recently started a multicultural club, its members need to focus on mobilizing students and staff for support for its activities. For School B, club members also need to focus on recruitment as a means to rebuild the club, but they also need to recognize and learn from their past mistakes. For School C, the club needs to look at strategies to maintain their drive and find new avenues to explore as a means to expand their goals. Second, the disparity in the continuous sponsorship, support, and experience of teachers in such clubs also accounts for their different degrees of effectiveness in their schools. Again, because School A has the least experience in this field (both students and sponsor teacher), its club appears to be least effective, while Schools B and C are more successful in their activities because of their students' or teachers' experience. Third, the individual school's atmosphere in terms of general enthusiasm or apathy determines the types of activities the clubs introduce and may also account for then-successes and failures. As mentioned, both Jim (student) and Tony (sponsor teacher) admit that their school (A) lacks enthusiasm and commitment. The motivation for students at School B greatly increased during the 1996-97 school year because of the club's reorganization, and as a result enjoyed some successes. Most enthusiastic, however, is School C, where the multicultural club has existed for quite some time and the atmosphere of accepting and supporting multicultural activities at the school has been well 91 established. Fourth, and perhaps most important, the leadership quality of the student members themselves play a role in terms of the clubs' effectiveness to motivate and mobilize others to participate in projects. Although all of the students interviewed in this study demonstrate leadership skills, other students in their clubs may not. However, it can be speculated that Jim (student, School A) is the only driving force of the multicultural club at his school. With just one active member, the club remarkably survives, yet at the expense of potentially exhausting him. Thus, it is difficult for this multicultural club (at least during the school year 1996-97) to achieve its goals. For School B, however, there are at least two students in the club who have taken on leadership roles ~ Arthur and Trish.42 Delegation of tasks becomes easier and projects become more manageable. With a greater student base, the multicultural club at School C appears to have the most students actively involved and taking on leadership roles ~ Robert, Patricia, Christine.43 Along with this leadership base, the club also enjoys the advantage of an established network of professional and personal contacts by past students of the club. Because of these factors, School Cs multicultural club is the most effective of the three clubs examined in terms of developing leadership roles and in terms of the implementation and impact of its activities. 4 2 Emily was quite reticent during the interview. Thus, it is difficult to assess whether she has a leadership role in the club or not. 4 3 Becky (sponsor teacher, School B) stated that there were more students I could have interviewed who actively participate in the multicultural club, but because of time constraints and other commitments, it was not manageable. 92 Despite these differences, each mmticultural club continues to strive to improve itself, whether by simply increasing its membership enrollment, increasing student and staff participation in activities, adding more (or even eliminating some) activities, or tackling new issues. Although their activities, challenges, and impact may be different, it is important to note that the three multicultural clubs are all dynamic, adaptable and flexible to change. 93 Chapter 4 - Conclusion This thesis has outlined some principal ideas regarding the definitions, purposes, approaches, and implementation of multiculturahsm from the perspectives of academics, students and sponsor teachers of multicultural clubs in the Surrey school district. Although the former provides an organizational framework on which the main ethnographic study is based, by voicing the concerns of the latter, this thesis provides a better understanding of the role and impact multicultural clubs and then members in Surrey have in their schools in addressing multicultural issues. The following general recommendations and cautions for multicultural clubs grow out of this analysis. The first and most important recommendation for multicultural clubs deals with its administration: students must have ownership in the planning and management of the organization. Instead of an authoritarian club where teachers or even a few students dominate the agenda and delegate tasks among its members, a democratic one is necessary where students create their own agenda and volunteer for then own tasks. By creating initiatives, students become proactive in their approach to multiculturahsm rather than reactive. In turn, they are empowered by the process and the club becomes more effective and meaningful to the participants. Second, students must beheve that the club functions as a forum for social and pohtical activism where they may freely express and initiate their plans, even though then activities may not be "multicultural" in nature. By restricting their activities, teachers may in effect alienate the students. The media provides an important source of student-led 94 activist projects and should be screened by both students and teachers. Third, despite this freedom in selecting social and political activities, thematic activities are recommended as a means to present a sense of uniform goals. A balance, therefore, between the two is needed. Because multicultural clubs tend to brainstorm projects for spontaneous implementation, the activities appear disjointed, and consequently the purposes of the clubs tend to appear fragmented. Instead, a general focus is needed to connect the activities together. Undertakings such as Diversity Week and Global Issues Week that have a theme appear more successful in implementation as they provide a clearer organizational framework for the club. Fourth, support from the school's administrators, staff members, and students is needed for a club to be effective in achieving its goals. However, rather than mere passive acknowledgement and acceptance of the club's projects, the three groups need to participate actively in terms of planning, adirhnistering, and even supervising them. It is more important that administrators and teachers take part in such activities because as role models, they set an atmosphere in the school ~ either apathy or activism Through then actions and non-actions, students come to perceive the importance of the club and its activities. If many administrators or teachers choose not to participate in the club's functions, students too may follow suit. Thus, the multicultural clubs should actively promote their causes and encourage staff and administrators to participate. Fifth, multicultural clubs need to realize the limitations of their objectives. Because they may not necessarily "change the world", realistic goals must be set at the beginning of the year. Despite their tendency toward a globalist perspective, the clubs in 95 this study mainly focus on personal effectiveness in terms of knowledge, attitude, and behaviour rather than on institutional changes dealing with structural inequalities. From the students' perspective, therefore, multiculturahsm does not include institutional reform but individual reform In the end, the purposes of the club need open discussion among the students, sponsor teachers, and even adrrrinistrators in order to establish the agenda for the year. Sixth, multicultural clubs need to balance their external and internal activities. In terms of the external the clubs concentrate on projects aimed at the participation of the school (i.e. administrators, teachers, and students). However, clubs should not neglect the growth of their own members: they too need renewal. Therefore, multicultural club members should be encouraged to participate in activities, such as conferences, workshops, and camps, not just to benefit themselves but for the club as well. Such activities potentially benefit ah, as participants become facilitators to the club as a result of their experiences. Seventh, it must be noted that "successful" multicultural clubs are not created instantaneously. No one formula will solve the problems or achieve the goals of the club. Instead, multicultural clubs will experience both successes and failures. Time, therefore, becomes essential for growth, reflection, review, re-evaluation, and even transformation. The schools in this study demonstrate the patience and endurance needed in order to 96 establish and maintain a multicultural club.44 Eighth, as a cautionary note, it is important to realize the potential problem of ethnocentrism and stereotypes that may result from studying cultural groups. Because cultures are viewed from an "outside" perspective, the issue of ethnocentrism inevitably arises. In order to examine different cultures, a point of reference must be established as a basis for comparison. It is this self-cultural framework that becomes an ethnocentric barrier to understanding another culture. In order to eliminate an ethnocentric point of view, cultures must be seen from an "inside" perspective in which people become part of that culture; however, for the majority, such a complete immersion is not practical nor possible. Thus, students and teachers must understand and be aware of their own culture and possible biases before studying another. Also, by presenting, and in effect representing, cultural groups through exhibiting their symbols (e.g. 4-D's of multiculturahsm), multicultural clubs may inadvertently overgeneralize them, and in turn may create and perpetuate ethnic stereotypes. Students and teachers therefore must be aware of the variances within a culture exist and that not everyone "belonging" to that culture shares the same understanding, customs, and traditions. Ninth, because cultures are dynamic, preservation of them through multicultural activities is temporary. Ethnicities subtly adapt and transform to harmonize with mainstream culture, which in turn may also adapt and transform itself to harmonize with 4 4 Because this study took place during one school year (1996-97), I do not know whether the students interviewed are still involved in their respective clubs (1997-98), nor do I know if other student members returned to the club. I, however, would assume at least those interviewed are still active in their clubs. 97 the former. It is this process of syncretization that needs acknowledgement in the field of multiculturahsm in order to better understand the various ethnic groups. Students and teachers thus need to realize that examining different cultures is neither static nor synchronic. From the theoretical to the practical this study has presented a number of concerns surrounding multiculturahsm Each school has its own needs and should decide on the most appropriate strategies in estabh'shing and mahitaining multicultural organizations. It is the theoretical and practical notion of a democratically open forum which multicultural clubs offer to students that becomes the quintessential element of the club itself, where students may voice their concerns and initiate action in an institution where they traditionally exercise few rights. 98 Reference List Banks, James A. (1992). "Curriculum Guidelines for Multicultoal Education." Social Education, 56, 274-294. Banks, James A. (1997). "Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals." In James A. Banks & Cherry A. McGee Banks (Eds.), Multicultural Education. Issues and Perspectives (3rd ed.), (pp.3-31). Toronto: Allyn and Bacon. Banks, James A. & Banks, Cherry A. McGee. (Eds.). (1989). Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Toronto: Allyn and Bacon. Bibby, K W. (1990). Mosaic Madness. The Poverty and Potential of Life in Canada. Toronto: Stoddart. Bissoondath, Neil. (1994). Selling Illusion. The Cult of Multiculturahsm in Canada. Toronto: Penguin. Burnet, J. (1987). "Multiculturahsm in Canada." In L. Driedger (Ed.), Ethnic Canada: Identities and Inequalities (pp. 65-79). Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman. Butt, R (1986). "Appropriate Multicultural Pedagogy and its Implementation in the High School." InR.1. Samuda & S. J. Kong (Eds.), Multicultural Education Programmes and Methods (pp. 141-158). Toronto: Intercultural Social Sciences. Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education. (1982). Multicultural Education in Canada: Future Needs and Possibilities. Draft Discussion Paper. Elliston, I. N . (1984). "Multicultural Centres: A Focus for Intercultural Education." In R J. Samuda, J. Berry, & M . Laferriere (Eds.), Multiculturahsm in Canada. Social and Educational Perspectives (pp. 309-326). Toronto: Allyn and Bacon. Falconi, A. (1987). "Multicultural Education: Curriculum Strands and the Challenge." In S. V. Morris (Ed.), Multicultural and Intercultural Education. Building Canada (pp. 147- 155). Calgary: Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education. Fisher, Donald & Echols, Frank. (Principal Investigators). (1989). Evaluation Report on the Vancouver School Board's Race Relations Policy. Vancouver: Vancouver School Board. Fleras, A. & Elliott, J. L. (1992). The Challenge of Diversity. Multiculturahsm in Canada. Scarborough, Ontario: Nelson Canada. 99 Friesen, J. & Chaudhuri, E. R. (1986). "Developing a School Multicultural Program." Multicultural Education Journal, 4(1), 35-71. Friesen, J. & de Vries, K B. (1986). "Determining Objectives for Multicultural Education Programs." Multicultural Education Journal, 4(1), 2-34. Gundara, Jagdish (Ed.). (1986). Racism, Diversity and Education. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Hall, E. T. (1980). The Silent Language. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press. Harrison, R. (1986). "Implementing Multiculturahsm Through Leadership Camps." InR. J. Samuda & S. J. Kong (Eds.), Multicultural Education Programmes and Methods (pp. 235-246). Toronto: Intercultural Social Sciences. Hoopes D. S. & Pusch, M . D. (1979). "Definition of Terms." In M . D. Pusch (Ed.), Multicultural Education: A Cross Cultural Training Approach (pp. 2-8). Chicago: Intercultural Press. Kallen, E. (1987). "Ethnicity and Collective Rights in Canada." InL. Driedger (Ed.), Ethnic Canada: Identities and Inequalities (pp. 328-336). Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman. Kehoe, J. (1984). A Handbook for Enhancing the Multicultural Climate of the School. Vancouver: Western Education Development Corporation, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia. Kehoe, J. (1984). Achieving Cultural Diversity in Canadian Schools. Cornwall, Ontario: Vesta. Kehoe, J. (1994). "Multicultural Education vs Anti-Racist Education: The Debate in Canada." Social Education, 58(6), 354-358. Lee, Enid. (1985). Letters to Marcia: A Teacher's Guide to Anti-Racist Education. Toronto: Cross-Cultural Connnunications Centre. Li , Peter S. and B. Singh Bolaria (Eds.) (1983). Racial Minorities in Multicultural Canada. Toronto: Garamond Press. Lund, D. (1993). "The Evolution of S.T.O.P. ~ Students and Teachers Opposing Prejudice." In K McLeod (Ed.), Multicultural Education: The State of the Art National Study, Report # 1 (pp. 50-58). Toronto: Faculty of Education, University of Toronto. 100 Magsino, R. (1985). "The Right to Multicultural Education: A Descriptive and Normative Analysis." Multiculturalism, 9(1), 4-9. Moodley, Kogila A. (1995). "Multicultural Education in Canada: Historical Development and Current Status." In James A. Banks & Cherry A. McGee Banks (Eds.), Handbook of Research in Multicultural Education (pp. 801-820). New York: Macmillan. McDowell, A. J. (1990). Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camps. Master's thesis, Vancouver, University of British Columbia. McKeown, H. (1989). "The Role of the Principal." In Ontario Public School Teacher's Federation News. McLeod, K. (1987). "Introduction." In K McLeod (Ed.), Multicultural Education: A Partnership (pp. vii-xi). Toronto: Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education. McLeod, K (1984). "Multiculturahsm and Multicultural Education: Policy and Practice." In R Samuda, J. Berry & M . Laferriere (Eds.), Multiculturalism in Canada: Social and Educational Perspectives (pp. 30-49). Toronto: Allyn and Bacon. McNeill, J. (1988). "Multicultural Futures: Education and Schooling." Multicultural Education Journal, 6(2), 12-22. Moodley, Kogila A. (1995). "Multicultural Education in Canada: Historical Development and Current Status." In James A. Banks & Cherry A. McGee Banks (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (pp. 801-820). New York: Macmillan. Ramautarsingh, T. (1977). "Multiculturahsm as a Dimension of all Education." In S. C. V. Dubois (Ed.), Conference on Multiculturalism in Education (pp. 145-149). Ottawa: Mutual Press. Smith, Jonathan. (1989). "Anti-racist Practices After the Education Reform Act. What are the Ways Forward?" Multicultural Teaching to Combat Racism in School and Community, 7(3), 30-33. Tator, C. (1987/1988). "Anti-Racist Education." Currents: Readings in Race Relations, 4(4), 8-9. 101 Tator, C. & Henry, F. (1991). Multicultural Education: Translating Policy Into Practice. Toronto: Department of Multiculturahsm and Citizenship. Temelini,W. (1987). "The Humanities and Multicmtural Education." In K. McLeod (Ed.), Multicultural Education: A Partnership (pp. 53-64). Toronto: Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education. Thomas, B. (1984). "Principles of Anti-Racist Education." Currents: Readings in Race Relations, 2(3), 20-24. Wright, O. (1986). "The Role of the Administrator in Multicultural Education." InR. J. Samuda & S. J. Kong (Eds.), Multicultural Education Programmes and Methods (pp. 69-76). Toronto: Intercultural Social Sciences. 102 Appendix - Interview Schedule Guide and Dates Rationale: 1. How would you define ',multiculturalisnl,,? 2. Sponsor teacher - How would you define "multicultural education"? What would it incorporate? 3. What is the purpose of having a multicultural club in your school? 4. What are some of your short term and long term goals? 5. How would the club achieve these goals? 6. How would you describe the ethnic relations / atmosphere in your school? Participation: 7. Sponsor teacher - What prompted you to become a sponsor teacher for this club? Student members - What prompted you to join this club? 8. Do you promote the multicultural club in your school? If yes, how? 9. Are there assigned roles in the club? Who is responsible for what? Who decides? Activities: 10. What types of activities does the multicultural club have? How would they serve the purpose of the club? 11. Which activities would you consider most successful? least successful? Are there any explanations for their success or lack of success? 12. Describe one important incident where the work of the club has helped, could have helped, or should have helped the students of the school. Impact: 13. What has been the biggest challenge for the multicultural club? 14. What impact do you think the club and its activities have on the club members? on non-club members (i.e. the rest of the school)? Other questions may arise as the interview progresses while others may be omitted. Questions specifically for the sponsor teachers have been noted. 103 Table 2. Dates of Interviews School Sponsor Teacher Date of Interview Student(s) A Jim March 7, 1997 Jim Date of Interview May 30, 1997 B Jennifer July 10, 1997 Trish Emily Arthur Robert Patricia Christine June 24, 1997 Becky February 14, 1997 April 18, 1997 

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