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The subsequent effects upon the educational goals of music and art when the B.C. primary curriculum is… MacArthur, June 1992

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THE SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS UPON THE EDUCATIONAL GOALS OFMUSIC AND ARTWHEN THE B.C. PRIMARY CURRICULUM IS INTEGRATEDTHROUGH THE USE OF THEMATIC UNITSbyJUNE MacARTHURB.Ed. (Elem.), The University of British Columbia, 1986A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESCentre for the Study of Curriculum and InstructionWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAApril 1992© JUNE MacARTHUR, 1992In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)7.)Department of  U2,if,,tAz The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to discover whether theexpanded educational goals for primary level Music and Artin British Columbia's Year 2000 Curriculum are met whenthe curriculum is integrated and teaching is done throughthemes.The sample population selected for this study was thelower mainland of British Columbia. 12 school districtsparticipated in this study. Semi-structured interviewswere conducted with 17 administrators of Fine ArtsProgrammes, District Principals or Consultants.The results indicate that educational goals for Musicand Art can be achieved when thematic units are used tointegrate the curriculum but only when the classroomteacher can be described as a specialist in primary Musicand Art, having a personal background in Art and Music, orhaving a degree as a Fine Arts Major.The curriculum-as-practiced differs considerably fromthe curriculum-as-planned due to lack of resources,in-service education and program scheduling.iiTABLE OF CONTENTSTitle Pageii^Abstractiii Table of Contentsvii^List of Figuresviii List of Tablesix^AcknowledgementsPAGECHAPTER ONE:^INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM/QUESTION^1Historical Background to the Study^ 1Statement of the Problem/Question 2Introduction to the Research Design 3Pilot Study for Content Analysis^ 4Pilot Study for Interview Survey 6Procedures^ 8Importance of the Study^ 8Limitations of the Study 10Definitions^ 11CHAPTER TWO:^REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE^13Evaluative Research on Integration^ 14Definitions of Integration^ 16Model of Integrated Curriculum 17Forms of Curricular Integration^ 18Temporal Dimensions of Integration 20Extremities of Viewpoints regarding Integration^21Increased Aesthetic Experience in daily Life^24Healthy to include different Art in Curriculum^25Complexities of Planning Integrated Curricula 27Meaningful Integration versus Trivialization^30Possible Consequences of Superficiality^31Content for Music and Art in integrated Program^33Forced Associations of Fine Arts are invalid^35Goals: What happens when Arts are integrated 37Advantages of an Integrated Curriculum^38Disadvantages and Problems with Integration^39Assessment facilitates Transfer of Learning 45Summary^ 46iiiivCHAPTER THREE: ORGANIZATION AND TWO PILOT STUDIES^48Organization of this Study^ 48Synchronization of the Studies 48Pilot Study for Content Analysis Section^51Design of Grids to record Future Data 52Success of the Content Analysis Pilot Study^52Grids for Content Analysis:^ 53(Figure 1 and Figure 2)Pilot Study of Interview Section^ 54New Questions added to Questionnaire 54Sample Interview Questions (Figure 3) 55Interview Guide (Figure 4)^ 56Demographic Information 57Success of the Pilot Studies 57Introductory Comments and Figure 5^ 58CHAPTER FOUR: METHODOLOGY^ 59Framework^ 59Introduction 60Rationale for Collecting Thematic Units^62Procedure^ 65Rationale for Using the Interview Technique^69Rationale for Using the Elite Interview 72Advantages of the Elite Interview^72Disadvantages of the Elite Interview 72Rationale for Qualitative Analysis of Units^78Summary of Methodology^ 80CHAPTER FIVE: MAIN STUDY: SECTION I - QUANTITATIVE^83Synchronization of Two Sections of this Study^83The Duration of the Study^ 83Schedule of Analyses^ 83Sequence of Examination of Documents^ 84Selection of Documents Scrutinized 86Guidelines for Selection of Units 86The Setting^ 88Table I 89The Actual Research^ 91Table II - (Grid for Music)^ 94Table III - (Grid for Art) 93Table IV - (Expanded Goals for Music)^94Table V - (Expanded Goals for Art) 95CHAPTER SIX:^CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THIRTY UNITS^96The Transference of Data to Master Grids^96Figure 6 - (six Petite Grids)^ 98Table VI - Field Notes for Music 100(Levels - Early and Later Primary)Table VII - Field Notes for Art^ 101(Levels - Early and Later Primary)Table VIII - Composite List 102(Which units have attempted Music or Art)Analysis of Data^ 103Analysis of Graph Data for Complete Primary^103Figure 7 - Complete Primary Graph^ 104Analysis of Graph Data for Early Primary 106Figure 8 - Early Primary Graph 107Figure 9 - Later Primary Graph^ 110CHAPTER SEVEN: MAIN STUDY: SECTION II - INTERVIEWS^116The Demographic Questions Guide^ 117The Interview Guide^ 117Selection of the Sample Population 119The Target Population^ 119Procedure for Interviews 124CHAPTER EIGHT : ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM INTERVIEWS^126Overview^ 126Demographic Information^ 128Research Question One 128Research Question Two 129Research Question Three^ 129Research Question Four 131Research Question Five 133Research Question Six^ 134Research Question Seven 135Summary^ 137CHAPTER NINE: CONCLUSIONS, SUMMARY REMARKS, SUGGESTIONS, FUTURE RESEARCH^139Conclusion to the Main Research Question^140Summary of Content Analysis of Units 140Summary Statements of Respondents^ 141Conclusion^ 144Major Findings 144Conclusions regarding Teachers' Attitudes^149Conclusions of the Study^ 153First PurposeSecond PurposeRecommendations^ 157Resource Materials^ 157Teacher Training 158Design of Classrooms 159In-service Training^ 160Directions for Further Study 160REFERENCES^ 162APPENDICES:A. Certificate:^ 165for the ethical use ofhuman subjects in researchB. Interview GuidesDemographic Interview Guide^166Interview Questions Guide 167C. Sample Interview Transcript^ 168D. Observation Categories Guide^ 178E. List of Participating School Districts^180F. Graphs^ 181G.^Photocopies of Expanded Goals (Art & Music) 184viList of Figures FigureFigure12Petite Grid for MusicPetite Grid for ArtPAGE5353Figure 3 Sample Interview Questions 55Figure 4 Interview Guide 56Figure 5 Introduction & Demographic Interview Guide 58Figure 6 Samples of integrated units analyzed 98Figure 7 Graph of Total Music & Art "Hits" 104Figure 8 Graph of Early Primary Music & Art "Hits" 107Figure 9 Graph of Later Primary Music & Art "Hits" 110vi iviiiList of TablesPAGETable I^List: Integrated Units Analyzed (Coded)^89Table II^Sample Grid for Music^ 92Table III^Sample Grid for Art 93Table IV^Photocopy of Expanded Goals for Music^94Table V^Photocopy of Expanded Goals for Art^95Table VI^Field Research Notes for Music^100Table VII^Field Research Notes for Art 101Table VIII^List of Units attempting Art or Music^102ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI am very grateful for the time and effort which thebusy school district administrators gave to me to help mearrive at some conclusions which may prove to be useful.I would also like to express my thanks to myCommittee members: to Dr. Graeme Chalmers, my advisor,for his help in planning the original quantitativeresearch proposal, for his help with the interview guide,and for his advice; to Dr. Allen Clingman for his approvaland praise which inspired me to overcome difficulties; andto Alex McLeod for his suggestion to include interviews,thus changing it to a two part study.Most important of all are my thanks to my husband,Robert, who cheerfully helped me through many crises, andwho gained new household skills while still balancing hisown career and computer courses; and so my deepestappreciation goes to 'Bob' for his active involvement andall his help and encouragement -- without whose steadfastsupport, this thesis would never have been completed.ixCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION TO THE STUDYIn 1987 the Government of British Columbia called fora Royal Commission to study the status of education withinthe province of British Columbia. Mr. Barry M. Sullivan,Q.C., was commissioned to lead the study. His findingswere published in 1988 in a paper which was entitled, The Report on the Royal Commission: A Legacy for Learners. Since the Royal Commission published its policy paper in1988, an entire primary curriculum has been developed.One major direction calls for integration of subjectsacross the curriculum and teaching through themes. Thisfocus has become extremely important for the early schoolyears because of the directive of the Ministry ofEducation regarding this new policy, which was set forthin new curriculum documents.These new documents were entitled The PrimaryProgram: Foundation Document and The Primary Program: Resource Document. The current situation is that almostall primary teaching is now done by thematicallyintegrating subjects.Since this curriculum has been in use for three years1now, it is appropriate that its success be monitored andassessed by various types of studies to ensure that theintegrated thematic units which we see today do, in fact,fulfill the educational goals which have been set forth inThe Primary Program: Foundation Document. From page 162through to page 169, inclusive, there is a description ofhow these goals relate to the Fine Arts Strand, which isone of the five educational strands of this newchild-centred curriculum. This study is specificallyconcerned with how the subjects of Art and Music arehandled within this new curriculum.Art and Music, henceforth, will comprise part of theFine Arts Strand. However, it is these two subjects whichhave traditionally been the Fine Arts subjects mostfrequently taught by the "generalist" teacher within theprimary classroom: that is the reason these subjects werechosen to be the focus of this study. It is our purposeto discover if and how generalist teachers are integratingthese Fine Arts disciplines through their planning intothe schedules and lessons of their primary students.The Problem: When themes are used to integrate theprimary curriculum in British Columbia schools, are theeducational goals for Art and Music met?2Research DesignThis study includes both "quantitative" analysis and"qualitative" analysis. The "quantitative" analysis willconsist of a content analysis of integrated thematic unitsto ascertain the number of times the goals for Art andMusic are included in the plans by the teachers who wrotethese units. Thus, by this means, it will be possible tocount the number of attempts that the teacher-authors havemade in these units to teach the goals for Art and Music.These attempts might only consist of allowing children anopportunity to have a pleasant experience with Music orArt and may not necessarily reveal an actual teachingsituation.The "qualitative" analysis will consist of reflectionand study regarding the educational value of the Art andMusic which have been included within the units. Besidethis content analysis, but in relation to it, this studywill include a survey of the Fine Arts Coordinators of theschool districts of the B. C. lower mainland. Theseinterviews will be conducted to ascertain whether, in theopinion of such supervisory personnel, this thematicmethod of instruction is successful in relation to theFine Arts Strand of the Primary Curriculum. The main3focus of the interviews will be to enquire whether theexpanded goals, which were described in the FoundationDocument, are being achieved to correspond with theirdescriptors or, in fact, if they are even being attempted.Pilot Study for Content Analysis Portion of this Study:With regard to the Content Analysis study, an initialselection of three units - Unit G, Unit Q, and Unit T -was made. Then those three units were analyzed to seewhether the assessment of similar teacher-made thematicunits would be a feasible method to assess the content ofArt and Music within thematic integrated units. After adetailed study, which included tallying the results on aminiature grid, it was decided that it would be possibleto ascertain whether classroom generalists integrate Artand Music into their own thematic units.It was further decided that the type and amount ofcontent could be ascertained from studying similar unitsif a simple but appropriate method could be found whichwould contain the data precisely, and yet would not provecumbersome or difficult to use when making field notes.A grid was designed to keep a tally of the number ofattempts which had been planned, in the various units, toinclude the goals for Art and Music.4Because this grid was proven to be very useful whenit was used to help compile the data from the pilot study,the decision was made (after a consultation with my studycommittee) to proceed with a complete content analysisstudy of thirty thematic units.The units were to be selected on the basis of theirrepresentativeness of the primary levels - Early Primaryand Later Primary. Also, they were to be the type ofunits which B.C. teachers were making and using in theirclassrooms.After several enquiries were made at various outletswhere such units can be obtained, it was decided to obtainthem all from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation,which publishes many of the teacher-made units in theprovince. That is to say that teachers from the entireprovince submit units to the B.C.T.F. publishingdepartment which means that these units are not merelyfrom the large urban districts, but also from ruraldistricts, possibly even being written and mailed into theB.C.T.F. from an isolated teacher working in a single room"country school." In other words, the units from theteachers' federation would be more representative of theentire province than similar units from the VancouverElementary School Teachers' Association, which representsthe largest urban district in the province.5Pilot Study for Interview Survey Portion of the StudySample questions, similar to the type of questionwhich was to be used in the study itself, were compiledinto a brief questionnaire. Graduate students wererequested to help give these questionnaires a trial study.Two Graduate Students offered their help and were used tohave a "test run" of the questions and the format of thequestionnaire as well as the demeanour and style ofinterviewing of the researcher. One of these students wasregistered in Curriculum Studies and the other GraduateStudent had previously been working as a primary "HelpingTeacher" before returning to U.B.C. for post-graduatecourses.These two students both agreed to be interviewed (andtape recorded) in order for me to assess both thequestions and my own interviewing style. Each of theinterviewees made suggestions after the interview andthose suggestions were analyzed to decide if they could beincorporated into the questionnaire.It was decided that changing the format of one of thequestions so that it had a two part answer would vastlyimprove the responses, thus increasing the data whichcould be derived from that single question. Also, as adirect result of these discussions, a question was added6at the end of the questionnaire. This question solicitedsuggestions for ways and means to improve the conditionsfor teachers implementing this new curriculum.As a result of this Pilot Study, improvements weremade to both the quality of the Interview Guide and to thequality of the interviews because the suggestions made byboth of these Graduate Students were based upon their ownknowledge of how to plan such questionnaires and fromreading research papers and other materials. They alsosuggested that I use a demographic type of questionnaireat the beginning of the interview. It was thought that arapport between the interviewer and subject could be builtmore quickly if the interview were to begin in such amanner that a friendly sociable exchange could occur.This technique worked extremely well because there wasmuch less tension after the person being interviewed hadanswered a few simple questions which required very littlestudious concentration.It was my experience that the interviews in which Iused this technique achieved much better results than whenI had been gathering the demographic information at theend of the interview, which is the customary manner.believe that these changes proved to be very beneficial tothe study and improved the data gathered - not only inquantity, but also in the quality of the responses.7Procedures: After both the pilot studies had beencompleted and the Content Analysis of the thirty thematicunits was finished, letters were sent out to all of theschool districts of the lower mainland. These letterswere addressed to whomever was in charge of the Fine ArtsCurriculum for the primary years. This letter outlined,briefly, the purpose of this study and requested help inestablishing a data base. They were asked to participatein an interview regarding the implementation of the newintegrated curriculum, The Year 2000: A Learner-FocusedCurriculum and Assessment Framework for the Future, whichwas introduced to the schools in the fall of 1989,particularly as it pertains to the inclusion of thesubjects of Art and Music. After ten days, theseindividuals were contacted by telephone and arrangementswere made, wherever possible, to begin interviewing andthus complete the survey portion of this study.Importance of this studyThis study is important because information gainedfrom this research may prove to be useful in any futurerevisions that may be undertaken on the primary curriculumof British Columbia. Also, those curriculum workers who8plan Fine Arts programs may gain valuable insightsregarding how average teachers actually implement a newcurriculum. Ultimately, this study will give primaryteachers an opportunity to reflect and to honestly viewthe art and music content within the integrated thematicunits written by themselves, but which are often intendedfor the use of other teachers as well as themselves.Since this curriculum, The Year 2000: A Learner-FocusedCurriculum and Assessment Framework for the Future, hasbeen in use for nearly three years, it is not onlyappropriate but also highly important that its success bemonitored and assessed to ascertain whether the integratedunits which are used in primary classrooms today do, inactual practice, fulfill the expanded educational goalsfor music and art.If we are to ensure that the goals prescribed by theMinistry of Education and described within the FoundationDocument are to be achieved, it is necessary to engage instudies such as this one. Valuable insight regarding thedifference between the curriculum-as-planned and thecurriculum-as-practiced can be gained through interviewswith those educators who function chiefly in a supervisorycapacity. Those individuals are in positions where theynot only hear teachers plans, but can watch those plansdevelop as the curriculum is delivered to the students.9Limitations of the StudyA personal bias may exist because of my background asan elementary music teacher in Langley and in Vancouver.However, I have tried to be as fair as possible and toplace myself in the situation that these generalistclassroom teachers often find themselves when they try tointegrate Music and Art into their programs. It is commonfor teachers with little or no background in the subjectsof Music and Art to be suddenly confronted with thenecessity of planning to teach Art and Music in a theme.Set against this possible bias is the ability andexperience which I bring to this research because I amable to mentally picture the classroom, the children, themusic, and the problems that are inherent within thelessons being undertaken in the written plan. Thisexperience allows me to evaluate, realistically, thepossibilities of success that some of the activities arelikely to have. It also allows me to estimate thecapabilities of the primary children and to determinewhich activities might be beyond their abilities. Suchactivities can cause frustration rather than challenge.Also, my experience allows me to see opportunities forlearning music, where someone without a musical backgroundor with less classroom experience might not see the10potential for integrating a musical experience in theparticular theme being taught.Because interviews were conducted with Fine ArtsCoordinators or Supervisory personnel within the LowerMainland of Vancouver only, the conclusions cannot begeneralized beyond this local area.The data obtained resulted from interviews conductedwith respondents from 12 school districts.There were three districts from which no data wasobtained. Therefore, comments and conclusions of thisstudy cannot be generalized to include those threedistricts.Analysis of this qualitative data by anotherresearcher may, in contrast to the content analysis,produce a different interpretation.Definitionsaesthetic education: Perhaps the most complete definitionof this terminology is the description given by BennettReimer, which is fully given in the following quotation.Aesthetic education is the systematic attemptto help people experience human feeling bybecoming sensitive to (better able to perceive11and react to) conditions which present formsof feeling. Such conditions are potentiallypresent in everything but are created solelyfor that purpose in works of art, which is whythe study of art is the major way to improveaesthetic sensitivity. In each art, educationwhich attempts to increase aesthetic sensitivityto that art can be called "aesthetic education."In any combination of arts, education whichattempts to increase aesthetic sensitivityto each one of the arts included can be called"aesthetic education." Whether treatedseparately or together the goal of teachingart aesthetically remains the same, to makemore shareable the experiences of feelingpresented by each and every art.(Reimer, 1989.229-230)12CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATUREFor the purposes of this study the literaturereviewed was confined to no earlier than 1975. Onlypublications within 16 years of the date of the study wereexplored because both the new curriculum and the thematicunits collected were written since 1988.There were twelve basic areas of concern which wereexplored in the literature. These will be dealt withinthis chapter. The twelve areas of concern are:1) Evaluative research on integration2) Definitions of integration3) Extremities of viewpoints regarding integration4) Increased aesthetic experience in daily life5) Healthy to include different art in curriculum6) Complexities of planning integrated curricula7) Meaningful integration versus trivialization8) Possible consequences of trivialization9) Content for Music and Art when integrated10) Forced associations of Fine Arts are invalid11) Goals: What happens to them?12) How children learn: Transference theory.13Evaluative Research on IntegrationThere is a dearth of literature on the topic ofevaluative research of primary integration. However, areport was written on the British Primary Education systementitled, "The Plowden Report", which produced a balancedview when it summarized the aims of Primary Education inBritain. (Milburn,1974.137) The Plowden Report discussedthe wider educational aims and goals which include theproduction of happy, useful adults, presumably capable ofliving fulfilled lives.Some people, while conceding that children arehappier under the modern regime and perhapsmore versatile, question whether they are beingfitted to grapple with the world which theywill enter when they leave school. This viewis worth examining, because it is quite widelyheld, but we think it rests on a misconception.It isolates the long term objective, that ofliving in and serving society, and regardseducation as being at all stages recognizablyand specifically a preparation for this. Itfails to understand that the best preparationfor being a happy and useful man or woman isto live fully as a child. Finally, it assumes,14quite wrongly, that the older virtues, as theyare usually called, of neatness, accuracy, careand perseverance, and the sheer knowledge whichis an essential of being educated, will decline.These are genuine virtues and an education whichdoes not foster them is faulty. (Children andtheir Schools, Vol. 1. p 188, Sec. 506) citedin (Milburn, 1974.139-140)There was another advantage for this type of integratedcurriculum for primary children in the British system.This advantage was concerned with the capability of theeducation system to assimilate large groups of immigrantchildren. A quotation which describes this is presentedbelow.One of the successes of the British systeminternally, has been its ability to assimilatelarge groups of immigrant children. Here theflexibility of methods appear as positivefactors helping children to learn English andadjust rapidly to the learning process.(Milburn, 1974.140)15There is a possibility that, if this is true of Britain,perhaps it will also prove to be the case in BritishColumbia, particularly for the Vancouver School District,which also has a high immigration rate. If it does proveto be easier and less frightening for these young childrento enter a new school system that is integrated, withfamily-grouping and which also has an ungraded continuousprogress philosophy then, by all means, let us encourageteachers to support it and collaborate on programs thatwill ensure its success. However, without the necessaryresources, in teacher training, materials and lesson aids,the teachers cannot make it succeed with the limitedbackground and resources that they have at the presenttime.^(Blakeston, 1990.7)Definitions of IntegrationOne of the major problems...is that there is nosingle, clear, and widely accepted definition ofintegration....First, there is personal integration,the process by which the student integrates newideas and experiences into existing knowledge orschema. A second usage of the term integrationimplies functional integration, that is theapplication of different disciplines to the study16of a common topic or theme. Functional integrationimplies that teachers will work in multidisciplinaryteams. (McClaren, 1991.12) (author's emphasis)The preceding statement is an accurate reflection of theconcern felt by most teachers who regard the initiation ofintegration in their classrooms with consternation. Thisis a feeling that may be a result of the confusion many ofthem experience because of the lack of a single cleardefinition of what is actually involved in integration forthemselves in their own particular teaching situation.(Kindler, 1991.5; Blakeston, 1990.7; McCoubrey, 1991.3)There are educators who are attempting to resolvethis confusion by offering definitional models, which areintended to clarify the interpretation of the word -integration. Two of these models are presented here.The first model was published in 1985.We define integration as the purposeful inter-twining of subject matters to achieve multiplegoals. Integration, then means the explicitintertwining of activities and purposes inelementary instruction^ By this definition,the mere presence of other content does notconstitute an integrated lesson or activity....17We identified three types of integration. InType I integration, language and reading skillsare the major emphasis of the lesson oractivity^ In Type II integration, non-language content is the major focus.... InType III integration, language and readingskills are integrated in instruction.(Schmidt et al, 1985.307)Roland Case has offered a definition of the form ofintegration which he perceives as discrete parts ordifferent elements of a curriculum which are united insome manner. (Case, 1991.19) A brief table which presentshis theory is shown below.Forms of curricular integration^(my emphasis)integration of:-^- making connectionscontent between the contentwithin and amongsubjectsintegration of:-skills/processes- making connectionsbetween "skills" or"processes" and contextin which they apply.18integration of:-school and self- making connectionsbetween what goes on inand the students'"outside" world19holistic integration - making all school-related experiences(hidden and plannedcurriculum) mutuallysupportive of or, atleast, not inconsistentwith each other.The first and most frequent form of integration isthe integration of content which attempts to promoteconnections among subject areas or disciplines, as is thesituation when teachers integrate through thematic units.The second form of integration is that of skills andprocesses. This form refers to attempts to integratereading and writing into subjects such as Social Studiesand Science. Often students are expected to apply skillsacquired in one subject to another subject. Not only doteachers expect students to transfer knowledge or skillsbetween subject areas but also to transfer thinking skillsabilities, which they have developed in school, toproblems which they may encounter in their own lives.(Case, 1991.20)The third form of integration is between school andself. This is when students apply the content from somesubject such as Geometry, which they have learned inschool, to their own concerns by using the processes ofcritical thinking, which they have also learned in school.Holistic integration, which is the fourth category,is when all school-related experiences (even those withinthe hidden curriculum) have been integrated orinternalized by the student into a total learned compositeof the entire school experience which includes thecultural, the academic and even what has been learned fromother students. (Case, 1991.21)There are two more aspects of integration which arecalled temporal dimensions. These are described in asmall table which is shown below. (my emphasis)Temporal dimensions of integration (my emphasis)horizontal integration - students see coherenceamong the differentareas of study thatthey encounter at anygiven time.20vertical integration - students see thecoherence of thevarious areas of studythat they encounterover time.(Case, 1991.22)21These models have been presented here to give anindication of the type of descriptive material whichteachers confront when they try to resolve some of theirconfusion regarding the term of "integration" and try toapply the concept of integration to their own styles ofteaching and, as discussed in this study, when they wishto integrate Music and Art with thematic units.Extremities of viewpoints regarding implementationPerhaps, it is not surprising, when there is such adiversity of interpretations of integration, that teachersand educators appear to be at polar points when theydiscuss the implementation of the new integratedcurriculum for British Columbia, which was introduced tothe schools in the fall of 1989. One such point of view,which is somewhat negative or perhaps cynical in tone, isfrom an arts educator whose comments appeared in a journalfor art teachers. Some of those comments regardingimplementation appear below.The prospect of killing two or more curricularbirds with one instructional stone isunderstandably attractive to schooladministrators, who must be constantlyaware of instructional costs and who areseldom trained to make valid judgements inmatters pertaining to the arts. By advocatingsuch instructional models, we risk underminingmore traditional modes of instruction thatstress substantive instruction in theindividual arts. (Ball, 1988.24)Placed in juxtaposition to this viewpoint is anotherone which seems to be at the other end of the spectrum ofopinion regarding integration of the curriculum.This educator (a musician) sees the implementation of thisnew integrated curriculum as an opportunity for childrento have an aesthetic education which only the schools canprovide. It is through learning about the arts - andparticipating in them - that understanding develops. Someof these comments appear on the following page.22It is about aesthetic education, which inturn must be based upon the understandingof music and the other arts. Otherwise,aesthetic education amounts to little morethan teaching people to talk about the arts.The case for the importance of arts curriculain the schools, therefore, is the case fordeveloping aesthetic awareness and sensitivity.Harry S. Broudy made this case concisely whenhe wrote, "The aesthetic experience is basicto the educated life and mind, and....only theschools can provide entry into this domain as(they) can in others." (Miller,1988.41)Such a wide variance in strong opinions is typical ofthe articles which I have read during my review of theliterature for this proposed study. It is apparent fromreading articles similar to the examples which I havepresented that teachers and educators care deeply aboutthis change in educational methodology which isnecessitated by the new integrated curriculum for BritishColumbia. One could even say that the wide swings inopinion, which vary from promoting integration todenouncing it, have increased the concern which someeducators feel.23Increased aesthetic experience in daily life Another advantage of extending the Fine Arts into thegeneral curriculum is that the participants are made awareof aesthetic qualities throughout their day, and not onlywhen they are in the arts classroom or attending a musiclesson. (Bundra,1987.28; Blocker,1988.13)The primary purpose of the general musiccurriculum should be the development of aestheticsensitivity. Proceeding from relatively simpleconcepts, the concern should be to develop awarenessof the music and what is in it, moving fromrecognition through understanding and discriminationto enjoyment. (Miller,1988.39)But, the Fine Arts are more than aesthetic enjoyment, forthey are woven into our day-to-day lives so completely -through cultural activities, in which we participate - andin recreational activities, at which we are audience andspectator - that it seems that the time to integrate themequally into the curriculum is now. This is expressedmost appropriately in the following quotation, an excerptfrom a speech which was given at the Symposium on FineArts, at Simon Fraser University by Michael Conway Baker.24Perhaps it is time to consider that music -along with all the other arts -- plays anintegral role in the fabric of our culture --multi-culture might be a better word in the1990s^ A true understanding of all theelements of music requires scientific,mathematical, social and psychologicalknowledge. If one includes the combining oflanguage and music we would have to includelinguistic skills as well.(p.119 of transcript of speech)Surely, this might be the best of reasons for integratingarts curricula in the schools - to develop aestheticawareness and sensitivity. (Miller,1988.41)These commentaries are evidence that there isconsiderable support, at least within the artisticcommunity, for the direction which the new curriculum hastaken regarding the integration of the Fine Arts into thedaily curriculum.It is healthy to include different art in the curriculum25When a wider view is taken of the possibilitiesinherent within the situation of integration, some viewthe integration of the Fine Arts into the generalcurriculum as healthy for the children. (Bundra,1987.28)The advantages of integrating the Fine Arts into thegeneral program are described fully by Reimer (1980).The impulse to include the arts within thestudy of other subjects is healthy. Itencourages ongoing constant interaction withthe arts and illuminates the pervasiveness ofart within human culture. It can clarify thespecial nature of art by comparing andcontrasting it with other subjects and, atthe same time, show how aesthetic componentsoperate within non-arts subjects. It caninvolve classroom teachers and non-artsspecialists in ways beneficial to themselvesas individuals and teachers and to theirstudents, who can share with them theexcitement of new explorations. There mayeven be some transfer from the creativity ofgood arts study to the study of everythingelse and to general attitudes.(p.147)26Complexities of Planning Integrated CurriculaIntegration is based on the assumption thatteachers will collaborate to createcomplementary curriculums. This assumes thepresence of time, money, and the willingnessof teachers. I would leave the decision toindividual teachers who know what time,resources and type of colleague they need.(Schmidt et al, 1985.14)Evidently, the three main ingredients for thesuccessful planning of an integrated curriculum areteachers, money, and time. The time that is needed isenormous. Time is needed for them to meet as a group, orwith just one or two other teachers, or even to reflect bythemselves in order to plan what the next procedures willbe. Of all the resources that are needed, the one of timeis perhaps the most essential. Another consideration mustbe that of compatibility. If teachers from differingbackgrounds, with differing philosophical views regardingeducation, and with attitudes which may vary fromenthusiastic to apathetic cannot find common ground, or ifthey cannot even hold cordial discussions, the entireplanning process is going to be fraught with difficulty.27This can seriously affect the chance of successfulimplementation of the various curricula which are beingplanned in concert. (Schmidt, 1985.317; Fisher, 1990.14;Bundra, 1987.28; Quattrone, 1989.29; Kindler, 1991.7;Hope, 1988.18; Blocker, 1988.16)Integrated curriculum planning requires hoursof cooperative work, discussions, and learningabout the disciplines that are to converge^The demands of the task increase immensely wheneven one of the cooperating teachers is territorialabout his or her subject of expertise or whenthere is a personality conflict within the team.(Kindler, 1991.7)Some of the problems which may arise will be thoseinvolving philosophy regarding the purpose of integratingthe Fine Arts with the entire curriculum. Many Artteachers do not believe that Art should be used as an aidin learning about more important subjects such as Scienceor Literature. "To suggest that this (the aid which theycan give in the learning of other subjects) is animportant justification for arts curricula in the schoolsseriously undervalues the importance of art and misses thepoint of learning about it." (Miller, 1988.41)28However, another point of view which appears to be insomewhat of a conflict with Miller's statement is theadvice given recently in an education journal for teacherswho are trying to integrate.Start with Art! Using art and imaging as acatalyst for writing and learning can also bevery powerful, and a change from the other wayaround. Some students think it's a penalty tobe asked to write. It's often easier forstudents to write or to do research in an areaafter they draw. Too often art is done if thereis time at the end of a unit or theme. Art canbe a wonderful pre-writing activity, and can beincluded at intervals in an overall theme verysuccessfully. (Mann, 1991.52)(author's emphasis)But, conflicts regarding philosophies are only part of thedifficulties for teachers who meet to plan curricula whichis integrated.After teachers have resolved their philosophicaldifferences and have decided upon a suitable theme, theymust then make further decisions based upon the resourceswhich will be available to them. Sharing of resourcesmust be planned and decisions must be made regarding the29distribution of material resources. If there is notenough for one teacher with a class or group to have for alesson, then the entire schedule for teaching will have tobe carefully worked out so that the children have equalbenefit from the resources. (Blakeston, 1990.9;Hope, 1988.15-19; Bundra, 1987.29)Meaningful Integration versus TrivializationThere are good examples where art and othersubjects can be integrated beyond mereillustration. Certainly looking at similaritiesand differences between the process of learningin different forms of representing ideas hasgreat possibilities. (Grauer, 1991.26)The above quotation is presented as an example of thepositive attitude or approach which many educators havewhen they discuss integration of the Fine Arts with theoverall curriculum. However, there are also educators whoexpress quite a different point of view regardingintegration across the curriculum, which some feel merelyweakens or dilutes the artistic experience. An example ofthe more negative viewpoint is presented next.30Integration of the arts with contentcurriculum is a concept not fully understood.What many teachers use as an arts experienceintegrated with social studies, language, orany other discipline provides only a watereddown arts experience. (McLaughlin, 1988.33)The issue is further complicated by the fact thatmany educators have the opinion that teachers do not haveenough education or background in the individual subjectsto integrate them with understanding. Only teachers whohave sufficient knowledge are capable of integrating thecurriculum in a cross-disciplinary manner which retainsthe values that are important for each subject.(Jacobs, 1989.18; Grauer, 1990, symposium transcript 123;Miller, 1988.40)Possible Consequences of SuperficialityDeep concern has been expressed regarding thepossible consequences of superficial treatment which mayoccur if the generalist teacher integrates the Fine Artswith the entire curriculum. (Hope, 1988.18; McCoubrey,1991.18; Bundra, 1987.29-30; Quattrone, 1989.33)31Many arts educators have expressed skepticismover the teaching of the arts outside of thearts classroom. Attempts to relate the artsto general subject matter have been perceivedas a threat to existing arts programs,particularly in music and visual arts.(Bundra, 1987.27)The perceived threat, however, appears to apply not onlyto programs but to the possible loss of the aestheticvalue of the arts, which they possess intrinsically withintheir very structure. It is for this very reason that thearts emerged as separate from the other more practicalsubjects of the curriculum. There is aesthetic value increating the arts, in performing artistic creations whichother artists have produced; and there is aesthetic valuein merely experiencing or appreciating the arts.If the arts are used to enhance or teach some othersubject, there is a possibility that there will bedistortion of this aesthetic essence and that the truevalue of the arts will be hidden from the children.(Wagner, 1988.24; Grauer, 1991.24; McCoubrey, 1991.18)Many fear that interdisciplinary teaching through thematicunits will have consequences such as the lack of students'opportunity to learn to appreciate art. (Hope, 1988.18)32Content for Music and Art in an integrated programToday, when we urge inclusion of the arts inpublic school curricula on the grounds thatpainting or music will be therapeutic, thatdancing will improve posture, that artstraining will facilitate learning in othersubjects, or on any other instrumental basis,we reinforce the traditional criterion ofutility and run the risk of prostituting thearts. There may be valuable corollaries fromteaching the arts, but corollaries are justthat -- incidental benefits must not beconfused with primary goals. We fail topresent the truth about the fine arts when weargue for their place in school curricula onthe basis of practicality. The more honestapproach is to advance the arts because ofwhat they uniquely do and to develop the artscurricula accordingly. (Wagner, 1988.24)Content is important, not just for the other subjectsin the curriculum, but for the artistic subjects also.Often when the arts have been included in school programsin the past, they have been mistreated and misunderstood33and the result has often been miseducation. If subjectsare to be integrated then they should be true partners,without one subject or area of discipline benefitingunduly from using special qualities or attributes ofanother subject. (Blocker, 1988.16; Bundra, 1987.26;Wagner, 1988.24; Grauer, 1991.24; Kindler, 1991.5)Care must be taken to avoid the arts-cum Mathand arts-cum Language syndrome, and toemphasize the arts-qua arts in basic education.Aesthetic knowledge, aesthetic response,aesthetic creation, and aesthetic evaluationshould be at the heart of an interdisciplinaryeffort. (Bundra, 1987.28)Because generalist teachers who lack knowledge of the artsare unable to make integrated curriculum of any value,when they use an arts experience to integrate with socialstudies, language or any other discipline, they provide awatered-down learning experience. This may occur when artis used to sesrve to decorate projects.This type of contrived integration does not serve theother subjects well either. The way to avoid suchsuperficial treatment is to set specific art learningoutcomes or objectives for each and every activity. Even34when an activity may appear to be a meshing of manysubjects, the teacher should be able to identify thespecific learning for each subject. For example, theteacher should be able to point out the math learning,science learning, music learning, language learning or theart learning that the students have an opportunity ofgrasping through the activity. Such vigilance, on thepart of the teacher, is essential because when subjectsare teamed together for superficial reasons, theconnection may not result in the deeper understanding thatwas aimed for in the integrated unit.(McCoubrey, 1991.18)Forced Associations of Fine Arts that are invalidBringing all the art forms into the curriculumis a challenging task, requiring sensitivityand caution. In an interdisciplinary effort,one must not create an alliance based uponsimilarities that do not exist. For example,the concept of "rhythm" is used quite differentlyin music, dance, drama or visual arts^The potential for misunderstanding is evengreater if the arts are introduced with othersubject matter. (Bundra, 1987.28)35When teachers impose a relationship between the artsthat is invalid, the unique content of each of the FineArts is lost. Although the arts have similar concepts,they are not necessarily equal in importance. Forexample, colour, tone and pattern could all be construedas being elements of the arts: but what real benefit isthere in taking these elements out of context? Great caremust be taken when encouraging generalist teachers tointegrate "the arts" that they do not inadvertently conveythe false concept that, because the words are the samethat they actually represent or describe either the sameelements or dynamics in the arts.Some terminology is shared by both the visual artsand music. Some of these commonly held terms are colour,form and line; but the similarity ends there. Thephenomena for which they stand are quite different. Alsothe way in which we perceive these elements is different,as is the manner in which the artist uses them.(Ball, 1988.24)Real relationships do exist, but on a higherlevel ....the arts are related in function,and this proves to be the deepest ofrelationships. They are also related inanother way. Various forms of art may share36secondary illusions. (author's emphasis)Music may produce a secondary illusion ofspace; visual art may produce a secondaryillusion of time. Such relationships areprofound and they are real; but they aresubtle.... Unfortunately, most attempts torelate the arts in an educational setting donot go beyond the superficial level. Theresult is frequently unintentionalmiseducation. (Ball, 1988.24-25)Goals: What happens to them when the Arts are integrated? If non-artistic goals replace the aestheticgoals, then the most powerful reasons forteaching the arts are lost. For the arts cando what no other subject can do -- the artsprovide a form for the expression of humanfeeling. The subjective becomes objectivethrough a work of art. (Bundra,1987.28)Because most teachers were inadequately trained inthe basics or Art - for example art history, artappreciation or aesthetics - there is a possibility that37most teachers are not capable of integrating art in anymeaningful manner in the general curriculum. It is onething to teach a skill-based sequential program for Artwhich has been set out in a detailed format in an Artprogramme, but it is quite another to be under pressurenot only to create an art curriculum but to create a newprogram that will fit in with all the other subjects in aninterdisciplinary integrated curriculum. There are veryserious doubts raised by many prominent educators as tothe capability of the generalist teachers to carry outthis mandate successfully. (Grauer, 1991.25)Unfortunately, when there is no art specialist in theschool to advise classroom teachers and help them developsuitable programs for their thematic units, the job fallssquarely on the shoulders of these teachers who areinadequately prepared. (Bundra, 1987.25-30)Advantages of an integrated curriculum: Vancouvercomposer and teacher, Michael Conway Baker, suggested in apaper which he presented to a Symposium on the Fine Artsin Education, that:From a broad educational perspectiveintegrating music in other subject areas38would be advantageous. Children come toschool with, usually, very positive feelingsabout music, therefore using Music as a meansof educating in other areas could well resultin a much higher degree of understanding inthose areas in which a valid music/subjectrelationship exists. (Baker, 1990, symposiumtranscript p.117)Many occasions exist in the primary classroom for ateacher to use an enjoyable musical interlude which willhelp to integrate her lessons, but which will also providea pleasant diversion for the children. If a goodsequential program could be developed for music that couldeasily be accommodated to the multi-disciplinarycurriculum, it would be to the children's advantage andmight solve many of the attitudinal problems which someteachers face with disruptive children.(Baker, 1990, transcript p.117)Disadvantages and Problems associated with integrationCase (1991) believes that vertical integration isbeing undermined by thematic units which concentrate on39horizontal integration. If students become totallypreoccupied with developing themes around currentinterests, this may undermine their perceptions of thelong term relevance of schooling. (23) With horizontalintegration there are minimal challenges to cope withbecause everything is at the same level. (Quattrone,1989.29) When vertical integration surrenders tohorizontal integration, there is a possibility that thiswould foster connections between topics and subjects.(Quattrone, 1989.29)Therefore, horizontal integration helps students tomake connections across the disciplines, but at the samelevel of difficulty. If students are allowed toexperience only horizontal integration, this could veryeasily affect students' opinion of the value of long termschooling.Given the variation in the opinions of manyeducators, there should be little surprise if teachersseem unsure of how to proceed with integration withintheir own classrooms. They have to ask themselvesquestions such as, "Should it be a concept orcognitive-process oriented curriculum model, or anapplication of knowledge curriculum model?" Most of themchoose the application model. (Gehrke, 1991.115) This isprobably because it can more easily be evaluated (by40themselves and others) and probably because they are stilla bit uncomfortable with the whole notion of integrationthrough concepts -- and many would probably prefer theprogrammed sequential curriculum of the past.McCoubrey (1991) discussed this troubling fact in hereditorial for the BCATA Journal For Art Teachers. Hercomments describe the dilemma confounding teachers.Integration has a variety of applications ineducation. It can refer to the internalassimilation in the mind of the learner ofwhat has been learned; or to the integrationof special needs students into the regularclassroom, or to the combining of the 4 areasof the Fine Arts; or to the joining of schoollife with the student's own life; or to theconnections made between school and thecommunity; or to the connecting of the varioussubject areas. (3)One teacher expressed the confusion and the dilemmaregarding assessment which creates difficulties thatteachers like himself must confront regarding the need toevaluate: "I suppose one of my greatest difficulties withincreased integration is not knowing just what the41Ministry [of education] hopes to accomplish with it."(Fisher, 1990.14)The B.C. Ministry of Education in the PrimaryFoundation Document.(1991), on pages 20, 25, 80, 98, 127,222, 254, (my emphasis) describes a cognitive-processcurriculum model. Eisner (1985) describes this model as:Development of Cognitive Processes in which the major functions of the school are(1) to help children learn how to learn and(2) to provide them with the opportunities touse and strengthen the variety of intellectualfaculties they possess. In this view, themind is conceived of as a collection ofrelatively independent faculties oraptitudes: the ability to infer, to speculate,to locate and solve problems, to remember, tovisualize, to extrapolate, and so on. It isthese faculties that must come into play inorder to deal adequately with the problemsthat individuals inevitably have to cope withduring the course of a lifetime^ Thecurriculum is not to emphasize content, butprocess. Teaching is not to impart, but tohelp students to inquire. ....This view assumes,42in short, general transfer. What transfers isnot content, but process: the ability to usethe variety of processes that the curriculumstrengthened through exercise. (62)In the nineteenth Century, there were phrenologistswho believed that the mind was made up of 37 intellectualmuscles. When the skull was examined, the location ofthose muscles could be established. Phrenology furtherbelieved that these intellectual muscles could beexercised through practice (like any other muscle, Iassume). The way to exercise these muscles was by havingthe mind engage in practice that was challenging. It didnot really matter what the individual practiced doing byway of subject matter because as long as one practiced themind would grow strong and could solve increasinglydifficult problems with greater ease. (Eisner, 1985.63)It is to this pseudo-science of the 19th Century thatthe Cognitive-Process curriculum orientation can trace itsroots. As Eisner (1985) so aptly describes "Their sloganmight be said to have been, 'It doesn't matter much what astudent studies in school, as long as he doesn't likeit'." (63)Their theory was seriously flawed. Thorndike andWoodward tested for the transferability of learning in431901. The research indicated that the transfer oflearning was general and not specific. (Eisner, 1985.64)What this means is that the transfer of learning does nothappen between subject areas, or between life situations.The example which Eisner gives, states:In preparing a curriculum in arithmetic, it wasnot assumed that if a student learned that threetimes four equaled twelve he or she would alsoknow tht four times three equaled twelve, orthat two times six equaled twelve. One couldnot safely assume general transfer or the useof "reason" as a way of coping with new tasks.(Eisner, 1985.64)It should not be surprising that teachers have notbeen able to report that their student's have beensuccessful at transfering knowledge which they havelearned in class to situations in their everyday lifeoutside of school. Case (1991) comments upon the attemptsto integrate skills or processes and transfer theknowledge gained to other areas.Integration of "skills" and "processes" refersto attempts to integrate so-called generic44skills or processes into the contexts in whichthese occur. ....In addition to transfer amongsubject areas, we also are concerned about transferof skills to "real life" contexts. The experienceof many teachers is that all too often studentscannot make this connection between the "in-class"exercise and the "real-life" application.(Case, 1991.20)The teachers appear to be faced with a conundrum.There is a new integrated curriculum which has beenintroduced and is being implemented throughout theprovince of British Columbia, and which many think of aschild-centred or student-centred. This curriculum's fulltitle is The Year 2000: A Learner-Focused Curriculum andAssessment Framework for the Future. However, in thesection on Assessment and Evaluation this descriptionappears:Assessment and evaluation facilitate transfer of learning. When children are encouraged to reflect onand evaluate their own learnings, they gainunderstanding of the processes they have used.As they develop this metacognitive awareness,they are able to achieve control of the45strategies and skills they have practised,and to deliberately use these in new situations.Similarly, when teachers reflect on andevaluate various aspects of a learningexperience, they gain important insights whichallow them to apply what they have observed tonew learning activities. (98)Professional Fine Arts specialists have reacted withdismay to what they perceive as integration throughsuperficial details in subject areas; (Hope, 1988.18)while other educators report that "As teachers generatedinterdisciplinary activities, there was some slippage between the activity and the original objective. Itproved especially elusive to maintain a focus on skills."(Quattrone, 1989.33) (my emphasis)SummaryFrom the literature reviewed, I detected awillingness on the part of educators to try to adapt theirprograms and their teaching styles to make an integratedcurriculum work (as they have been told it should). Theyapparently yearn for success and many seem to feel that it46is a failure on their part when their students do notachieve the goals described in the Foundation Document ofthe new Year 2000 Curriculum.Teachers would like to create an integrativecurriculum, but their concept of one isparticularly vague because most teachers....have no processes to create the curriculum andno strategies for ensuring that integrativelearning experiences would result from theirefforts. (Gehrke, 1991.107)47CHAPTER THREEINITIAL ORGANIZATION AND TWO PILOT STUDIESOrganization of this study: This study is organized intotwo sections to make it possible for data from differentsources to be gathered independently of one another. Thiswill allow a comparison of the information found in orderto determine whether or not there is corroboration. Thistechnique is known as triangulation, which was defined byWiersma (1986) as "a search for convergence of theinformation on a common finding or concept."(p.246)Synchronization of the studies: It was decided to do bothqualitative and quantitative research. Interviews withadministrative school district personnel formed the basisfor the qualitative section while a content analysis ofdocuments was planned for the quantitative section. Thesedocuments were thematic integrated unit plans which hadbeen created by generalist teachers.The actual data-gathering process was to begin inlate May, which is at the end of the academic year. Thedecision was made to leave the interview section of thestudy until the fall. This was for two reasons; firstly,48administrative personnel are inaccessible during themonths of May and June, due to the heavier than usualdemands upon them at this time, and the likelihood ofbeing granted interviews in late May and early June isslight.^Therefore, October was selected as the time toinitiate the interview section of this study. Secondly,if the content analysis of the integrated units could bedone before the interviews, then the information gatheredwould enable the researcher to be more capable of enteringinto the interview-conversations. Insights gained throughthe analysis of the thematic units would probably help inestablishing rapport with the respondents who, doubtless,might quickly detect any indication of lack of knowledgeregarding current integration through the use of themes.The schedule which was decided upon was that theresearcher was to:A) begin the content analyses in the latter part of Mayand continue this research throughout the summerwhile the schools are closed.B) complete all necessary preparations for theinterviews during the summer. These preparationsconsisted of:1) preparing the letter which would be sent to theschool districts.2) preparing the necessary "Consent Form"49503) preparing the Interview Guide4) obtaining approval of the Committee on theEthical Use of Human Subjects in Research atU.B.C. for the Interview Section of the Study.5)^^having a pilot study to "test-run" the questionson the Interview GuideThe content analysis for Music was completed by August 14.The analysis of the Art had begun in mid-August and washalf-completed by the time the approval was receivedduring the first week of September from the EthicsCommittee for the Interview Section of the study. Thefirst batch of letters were prepared and mailed. Duringthe time delay which had to pass between mailing theletters and contacting the individuals I continued withthe content analysis for the Art portions of the units.The entire content analyses were finished on October 16.The first interview was held at 8:30 am, on October 17.The planned synchronized schedule had worked smoothlyand there were no gaps where time had been wasted due towaiting for documentation or other necessary preparations.The letters were sent out four at a time, at two weekintervals so that there would be time to transcribe andstudy the information between interviews. It also reducedthe sense of pressure. The last interview was conductedon December 9.Pilot Study for Content Analysis Section: In early Maythree titles were chosen from the catalogue of teacherproduced theme units which is published by the BritishColumbia Teachers' Federation. Two units were for earlyprimary and one was for later primary. This ratio waschosen to approximate as closely as possible the actualnumbers of units which teachers submit for publication,which usually are many more for early primary. Theseunits were analyzed in the British Columbia Teachers'Federation reading room, where the staff was mostcooperative and helpful in allowing me to peruse manyunits before choosing these three. I used as a referencefor the goals pages 165 - 167, inclusive, of theFoundation Document, which was published by the Ministryof Education for the Year 2000 Curriculum. These goals were written down on a piece of linedpaper. In order to simplify the procedure I arbitrarilydesignated a number for each goal. I numbered the goal atthe top of the list as "#1", the next as "#2" and so ondown the list until the description of the last goal whichwas designated as "#8". This system of numbering was notintended to have any significance as to the relativeimportance of the goals in relation to each other. It wasdone merely to simplify the process of content analysis.As I read through each unit I placed a tick mark beside51the number for a goal if the author of the unit hadmentioned that particular goal in relation to the subjectwhich this researcher was analyzing relative to itscontent within the unit. The content analysis was firstdone for Music - early primary and then later primary.After this had been done exactly the same process was donefor the Art content of the 3 units. The names of theunits which were analyzed were "Ants", "Bears" and"Cariboo".Design of Grids to record future data: It became apparentfrom the data gathered in this small pilot study that amore effective means of recording data would have to bedeveloped in order for the Main Study to proceed smoothly.Therefore, I designed two small grids on which data couldbe recorded accurately and swiftly. These grids are shownas Figure I for Music and Figure 2 for Art. These gridsare simple, compact, and the data from these could easilybe counted and transferred to a master grid. In the eventthat graphs or tables would be made this was the mostefficient arrangement that I could devise.Success of the Content Analysis Pilot Study: Because thepurpose of a pilot study is to help solve problems oforganization and efficiency before the Main Study actually52Grids: for Quantitative Analysis of Primary Thematic UnitsFigure IMUSIC GOALS = 8skills - 5 2345knowledge - 3678Figure 2ART GOALS^8skills - 6123456knowledge - 27853is undertaken, this pilot was very useful. It helped thisresearcher to envisage possible future difficultiesregarding data management and solutions were found whichwould solve such problems.Pilot Study of Interview Section: During the month ofJuly practice sessions of interviews were conducted withgraduate students who were registered in Summer Session atthe University of British Columbia. The sample questionswhich were asked are shown in Figure 3. These testinterviewees made suggestions regarding how to proceedwith the Main Interview Study. Two of these ideas wereused. One suggestion was to give respondents anopportunity to present their ideas regarding successfulimplementation of the new curriculum, and the other ideaexpressed was to allow these people (considering theirvast experience) to express their concerns over problemsand issues which they may observe in the new curriculum.New questions added to questionnaire: As a direct resultof these ideas which the test respondents had presented,the first suggestion was added to the interview questionsand became number six, while the other idea becamequestion number seven. The Interview Guide which wasdeveloped appears as Figure 4.54Figure 3SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS1. Have the primary teachers in your districtenthusiastically integrated music and art into theircurriculum?2. Do they teach through themes?3. In your opinion, ^(specific individual) are the goals for music amd art being satisfactorilyachieved when teachers teach through themes?4. Why?^or^Why not?5.^Can you give me some examples of particularlysuccessful thematic units in terms of these criteria?A) art/music contentB) accomplishment of the educational goals, as setforth in the Year 2000 Curriculum55Figure 4INTERVIEW GUIDE1. Have the primary teachers in your districtenthusiastically integrated Art and Music intotheir curriculum?2. Do they teach through themes?3. In your opinion,are the goals for Art and Music being satisfactorilyachieved when teachers teach through themes?4. Why?^or^Why not?5.^Can you give me some examples of particularlysuccessful thematic units in terms of these criteria?(A) Art/Music content(B) accomplishment of the educational goals, as setforth in the Year 2000 Curriculum?6.^Do you have any suggestions you would like to offerthat will help in the successful implementation ofthe Year 2000 Curriculum?7.^If you are especially concerned about some aspectregarding the curriculum, would you explain why youare concerned?56Demographic information: These pilot interviews made merealize that some sort of "bridging device" was needed tohelp respondents ease into the difficult questions of theinterview which would require a great deal of thoughtfulanalysis on the part of the respondent. I decided thatsimple non-threatening demographic questions would be thebest way to launch into the main interview. Therefore, Icreated a small section of demographic informationquestions, the primary function of which was to put therespondents at ease and to begin the "give and take" ofthe interview situation. To make it even less stressful Idecided to begin with little introductory comments which Ihoped would set the "tone" of the interview which was tofollow. This was to be friendly, yet businesslike and wasintended to emphasize that they would be asked nothingwhich they would not already know merely through their ownexperience. These demographic questions and introductorycomments are shown in Figure 5.Success of the pilot studies: These pilot studiesconvinced me that this would be a worthwhile study projectto pursue. These simple pilots made me realize that therewas a high probability that important data could becollected if larger studies were developed along the sameguidelines.57Figure 5Introductory Comments: "Today I would like to ask you a few questions relative toyour knowledge of the new Year 2000 Curriculum. I amparticularly interested in the integration of Art andMusic within the curriculum. The questions will bespecifically concerned with how these subjects are nowtreated within the primary years, since the Ministry ofEducation has indicated that learning should be structuredaround themes and many primary teachers are now usingintegrated thematic units to teach the entire curriculum."Section 1: Demographic Information 1. Would you please state your title or job description.2. Briefly, could you tell us about your areas ofresponsibility?3. How long have you been doing this?4. If you were to categorize yourself as a specialist inany particular area of the subjects within the FineArts Strand, how would you categorize yourself?58CHAPTER FOURMETHODOLOGYFramework: This investigation employed two chief sourcesof data - documents and interview/conversationtranscripts. This strategy allowed data in relation to anumber of different topics to be considered; for example,people's interpretations of events of which theinterviewer was aware could be brought forward in aninterview. In addition, the validity of evidence from aparticular method could be verified. An example of thisis that the data from the analysis of documents could becross-checked by comparing it to data from other sources.Thus, there were considerable advantages to the blendingof methods.Probably, the most central focus of this study is theemphasis upon the interpretations of the subjects beingstudied - vicariously through the document analysis anddirectly through the interview/conversations. Aninterpretive approach was used, as the study was,essentially, a qualitative study which used quantitativemethods (for example, the examination of documents) toaugment the data available and to increase the validity of59the findings of this research. An interpretive approachwas also considered appropriate because of the relianceupon the researcher's direct experience, shared by bothmethods. (Bryman,1989.253)Introduction: The purpose of this study was twofold. Thefirst purpose was to provide information which couldanswer the question. "When themes are used to integratethe elementary (primary) curriculum in British Columbiaschools, are the educational goals for Art and Music met?"The second purpose was to uncover factors which may haveinfluenced the current implementation of the new Year 2000 Curriculum. This investigation presents an example of howinnovations in a curriculum which resulted from macrolevel influences can be altered considerably when thatcurriculum is finally interpreted in the classroom at themicro level.An overview of the circumstances regarding theintegration aspect of the primary curriculum, particularlythrough the use of thematic units, might give a fullerunderstanding of the problems involved. Knowledge thusgained might enable us to offer suggestions to theelementary curriculum workers as well as to the Ministryconcerning some implementation procedures. This researchstudy is especially timely because the intermediate years60(levels 4 to 6) are scheduled to begin the implementationof the Year 2000 Curriculum, beginning in the fall of1992. Therefore, any information which might be learnedthrough interviewing administrators of Fine ArtsProgrammes for the primary level could be generalizable tothe intermediate level.As part of the investigative process, and in aneffort to provide information of a quantitative nature,relevant written documents were accumulated. Thesedocuments are integrated thematic units which were writtenby primary British Columbia teachers since the inceptionof this new curriculum in 1988.In order to investigate the second aspect of thisstudy, namely - what factors may have influenced thesuccessful implementation of the directive from theMinistry to integrate the subjects of Art and Music intothe primary curriculum - interviews were conducted intwelve school districts within the lower mainland ofBritish Columbia. These interviews were intended toelicit information pertinent to the factors (known orunknown) which may have been involved in the process ofimplementation.This chapter will discuss the purpose for gatheringintegrated thematic units to use for data collection andexplain the reasons for utilizing interviews as a61secondary means of data collection. In addition, thetechniques which were used to interpret the data collectedfrom the content analysis of the units will be presented.With regard to the interviews, the methods which were usedto identify important issues and themes will be described.Rationale for Collecting Thematic Units: These units,which were written by generalist classroom teachers, canprovide a window through which to view how these teachersare implementing the Year 2000 Curriculum, particularly asit pertains to the integration of Art and Music into thegeneral basic curriculum through the utilization ofthemes. Although direct observation would have afforded amore immediate sense of what actually takes place in theclassroom, because of the intrusive nature of theobservation technique, that investigative method was notchosen. The reason for not using the direct observationtechnique was that the usual learning-teaching situationmay have been altered in that particular classroom on thatparticular day of observation. Also, it is not alwayspossible to accurately assess the degree to which the verypresence of a researcher observing the actions of childrenin a classroom may be influencing the direction, tone andcontent of the classroom activity and lessons which arebeing observed.62Therefore, the method of "content analysis" wasdeemed to be less intrusive and the advantages ofimmediate observations, which may have been lost, arecompensated for by the exactness and attention to detailwhich examination of these teacher-made thematic unitplans provided. These lesson plans were written in greatdetail by one or more teachers and reveal how they striveto implement the Curriculum 2000 by integration across allsubject areas. The teacher-authors indicate in theseplans exactly which expanded curriculum goals are includedin the units as a whole, and in specific parts of eachunit. For example, descriptions are frequently used thatspecify the activity and the expanded goals that areincluded (and which, presumably, are intended to beachieved by the teacher).The following is a quotation from a unit which wasdesignated as having been written especially for EarlyPrimary Children. I am only offering that portion fromthis lesson plan that deals with the Fine Arts portion ofthe curriculum. The thematic unit which is being quotedhas been renamed Unit C, in order to protect the identityof the author.AESTHETIC AND ARTISTIC DEVELOPMENT 1) Make model airplanes.2) Have a paper airplane race.633) Do story as a Readers' Theatre.4) Make a model of an airport.5) Song Taking Off in Canada Is Music, 3/4. This portion of the lesson reveals that the author hastried to include all of the Fine Arts subjects - Music,Art, Drama and Dance - within one unit. EvidentlyActivity 5 is for Music, Activities 1 and 4 are for Art,Activity 3 is for Drama and the remaining Activity 2 mustbe for dance. If the researcher tries to view through theeyes of the teacher, one can interpret this to mean thatthe intention for Activity 1 is that the children willcarry their little airplanes in a "dance".Although this example is only a small portion of along and complicated unit, it provides the researcher withinsight into the very involved and difficult process thatdedicated teachers go through as they attempt to meet theMinistry of Education's guidelines regarding theintegration of all subjects into a single cohesive unit.Therefore, these units are well-suited to the researchtechnique "content analysis." In research, this techniqueserves a specific purpose, as explained by Bryman (1989)."A content analysis entails the quantification of themesin such materials in order to establish their frequencyand how variation is related to other variables." (p 191)In addition, the thematic units provide access to the64ideas of the teachers who actually wrote and, in somecases actually used these same units. Content analysis ofthese documents reveals the strengths and weaknesses,advantages and disadvantages, which are inherent in theuse of thematic units to integrate separate subjects intoan all-encompassing whole learning situation.Questionnaires regarding the planning techniques,teaching practices and thoughts of these same teachers, inall likelihood, would not have revealed with such clarityhow, in reality they interpret and redefine the curriculumas they plan how they will integrate a variety of subjectsinto one common theme.Procedure: A detailed examination of the integratedthematic units was completed and the findings werecarefully tabulated on the specific tabulation sheet(petite grids) which had been created for the purpose ofcollecting this data.Upon reading the lesson plans, word by word, anymention of Art or Music was noted by placing a small tickbeside one or more goals for either Music or Art,respectively, whenever the teacher-author's descriptivedirections indicated that the activity was intended to fulfill the curriculum goals for Aesthetic Education ineither of those subjects.65However, sometimes it was the task of this researcherto try to analyze which of the goals the teacher wasstriving to meet. In this manner, I went through all theunits twice - once for Music and then once again for Art.Furthermore, some of the time it was difficult toactually assess whether the teacher was striving to meet acurriculum goal because all that might appear in thelesson plan or description would be a drawing of an eighthnote, or a quarter note for Music. Similarly, for Art,all that would appear, at times, would be a drawing of apaintbrush. Also, frequently, the descriptive commentaryor directions were so sparse that it was difficult to tryto envision how much (if any) musical or artistic activitywas intended to take place.I tried to draw up charts to code these lessons,which I viewed as half-hearted attempts to fulfill thedirective of the Ministry regarding the integration of Artand Music into the curriculum. Many of the mentions ofMusic or Art could only be described as "partially"achieving the goals for those subjects. It becameapparent that, if one were to try to classify thesementions of Art and Music on a scale, that the task wouldbe too complicated to result in any empirical data thatcould be used for analytical purposes.Therefore, I altered the research format so that,66instead of counting the incidences when the goals wereachieved or met that (for the sake of obtaining moreaccurate results) I would count the number of times thatArt or Music was attempted. This method allowed for clearunambiguous answers of "yes" or "no" in response to thequestion I was asking myself, "Were attempts made to teachthe expanded goals for Art and Music?".However, even this description proved to be a bit tooambiguous because it was unclear whether just mentioning asong, or writing a direction in a lesson plan of "Sendchildren to the Art center.", should constitute an attemptat meeting the curriculum requirements for that subject.Finally, I decided that any mention of either Art orMusic, either by written word or by pictorial-symbolicrepresentation was to be counted as the teacher-authorhaving made an attempt to include Art and/or Music intoher or his integrated unit and, therefore, was deemed tobe attempting to meet the recommended goals for Art andMusic within the integrated curriculum.The criteria of assessment having been finalized sothat the data realized from this analysis could be notedonto coding sheets, I collected thirty integrated units.These were gathered from three categories - Early Primary,Later Primary and Complete Primary. This was done so thata representative number of units would be included for67each category. On that basis I collected 15 Early Primaryunits, 10 Later Primary units and 5 Complete Primaryunits. These proportions correspond to the numbers ofunits for each category which are submitted to the BritishColumbia Teachers' Federation.A small grid or coding sheet was prepared that couldbe used to record the times the teacher attempted toinclude Art or Music within the unit. These small sheetshad been drawn up so that the expanded goals were dividedinto Skills and Knowledge. There were five skill andthree knowledge goals for Music: and six skill and twoknowledge goals for Art.These were numbered appropriately and the small codesheets were attached to the units - two sheets on eachunit, one for Music and the other for Art. These sheetswere never removed from the units for the remainder of theresearch. This was important because all identificationwas removed from the units in order to protect theidentity of the author(s). These small grids or codesheets were given the same code symbol (a letter) as thethematic unit to which they were attached. Otherwise, thedata could have become confused because the units had asimilar appearance.Through the process of examining these units, it waspossible to visualize the actual participation of the68children in their lessons. These units also providedinformation as to what the teacher intended to happen;that is, what goal he or she was striving to attain - eventhough the children's experience may have fallen far shortof that goal. (Bryman,1989.7)Rationale for using the Interview Technique The main advantage of the interview is itsflexibility and adaptability. Because of thisadaptability, more follow-up questions can be asked whenthe respondent gives an unusual emphasis to an answer, orperhaps even answers a question with another question.Interviews allow for more clarification of issues on bothsides. This instantaneous feedback is simply not possiblewith questionnaires, particularly those that are self-administered. Also, telephone interviews do not allow thefacial expressions and nuances of body language to benoted or recorded by the interviewer. These are some ofthe reasons why this study employed the face-to-faceinterview method.The interviews were semi-structured with open-endedquestions. The ability one has to immediately clarify anymisinterpretations, due to misunderstood questions or69answers, is a great benefit as it saves considerable timefor the researcher. This also helps to lessen thefrustration level which a respondent may feel whenconfused by a question. It is for these reasons thatthere is less answer distortion with the use of theinterview. (Borg and Ga11,1983.436)The main disadvantage of using the interviewtechnique for collecting data is the extremely high amountof time that can be involved. Not only is the interview,itself, very time-consuming; but a considerable amount oftime is also used in arranging the appointments,regardless of whether one uses the telephone or writesletters.Because of the highly specialized type of informationthat was required for this research, that is - expertopinions on the new Year 2000 Curriculum, it was deemedadvisable by my Research Committee and myself that aselect group of individuals should be sought out forinterviews on this topic. The new curriculum directsteachers to totally integrate the primary curriculum. Thechief means recommended to achieve this integration is byteaching through units which have been based on themes.This research study is confined to the Fine ArtsStrand of the new curriculum. In particular, this studywas designed to discover, specifically, how this new70directive from the Ministry has affected the teaching ofthe subjects of Art and Music.The group of individuals who should be the mostinformed on the subjects of Music and Art within thePrimary curriculum are the Fine Arts Coordinators orDistrict Principals of the school districts of BritishColumbia. Not only do they have expert knowledgeregarding the curriculum (both past and present) but also,they should be completely informed regarding the currentstatus of the Fine Arts subjects of Art and Music withinthe school system.It was, therefore, decided that the researchtechnique known as the "elite interview" should be usedfor this study. A definition for this research techniqueis:An elite interview is a specialized treatmentof interviewing that focuses on a particulartype of respondent. Elites are considered tobe the influential, the prominent, and thewell-informed people in an organization orcommunity. Elites are selected for interviewson the basis of their expertise in areasrelevant to the research.(Marshall and Rossman,1991.94)71Rationale for Using the Elite InterviewAdvantages of the Elite Interview: The advantages ofusing such a select group for interviews are many. Somepoints to consider are that such individuals would be ableto divulge past history, organizational policies or futureplans within a particular school district. There is ahigher probability that they would be more familiar withfinancial matters, district staffing policies and materialresources than the average classroom teacher. Thus, theyshould be able to provide an overall view of theorganization of the school district because of thepositions which they hold in supervisory or administrativeareas. In addition, they have all been teachers of thesubjects of Music or Art (in some cases, both subjects)and can give an opinion that reflects the viewpoint of theteachers who are integrating these subjects within thisnew Year 2000 Curriculum at the present time.Disadvantages of the Elite Interview: Unfortunately,there are numerous disadvantages to using this researchtechnique. The researcher must be willing to be totallydevoted to obtaining the interviews and become totallyavailable to meet with these people because of theproblems associated with the accessibility of these72respondents. If the researcher is not willing or able todevote his or her own time and energy in a totallycommitted fashion to the goal of obtaining the interviews,then some of the meetings will not take place and the datawill be incomplete. The entire study could easily beruined if conspicuous holes were allowed to occur in thedata base. Therefore, it is imperative that a researchermake the decision that the interviews will be conducted -come what may - because it will be too late for a changeof research technique part way through the study due tothe scheduling difficulties which can be involved in eliteinterviews.Another disadvantage for the researcher who choosesto use the "elite interview" technique is the extremedifficulty that can be involved in arranging appointments.These people must either become convinced that the studyis a worthwhile one and that subsequent research data andconclusions are worthy of their valuable time and energy:or the researcher must be able to rely on others who mayhave sufficient influence to arrange appointments forthem. There are very few "rewards" that these importantpeople will consider as being worthwhile for theexpenditure of their time. However, that is not to saythat there are no inducements which may influence them,but the researcher who decides to take on this difficult73task should be aware that being granted interviewsrequired more than for the average "person-on-the-street"type of respondent. (Marshall and Grossman,1991.94)However, because of my personal background as a musicteacher in the lower mainland for many years, plus thefact that I have taken part in musical performances withsome of them or have been in choral groups which a few ofthem conduct as a hobby for pleasure, I did not think thatthey would not find time in their busy schedules for aninterview with me. Also, in addition to those personalexperiences, I had previously met many other Fine ArtsCoordinators at music conferences, such as those presentedby the British Columbia Music Educators Association.Therefore, it was decided that the target population forthe semi-structured interview/conversations would be thegroup of Fine Arts Coordinators, or as some now refer tothem, District Principals for Visual and Performing Arts.As an added inducement, I decided to offer a subtle"reward" in the letter which would be sent to theminitially, before there was any telephone call from me.The reward which I offered was that of "altruism", and Iput it in these words, "Any assistance you can give tohelp in this project would be very much appreciated asthere is simply no substitute for the candid appraisal ofinformed professional personnel who are currently active74in the field of music and art education." This statementwas positioned in the letter immediately before mysignature.In this research study, both letters and telephonecalls were used to arrange appointments. Frequently,there were repeated calls made before contact was achievedwith the person whom I specifically wished to interview.However, the efforts were well worth the results becauseso much information was forthcoming from the interviewsthat many points were brought up that had not evenoccurred to me. If one can get the respondent to feelquite relaxed, the free flow of information is extremelyvaluable and, what is even more important - thisinformation was totally unavailable from any other source.The administrators whom I interviewed brought vastexperience and knowledge of the subject under discussionbecause of many years of experience - sometimes decades.In some cases, over thirty years of experience werebrought to the interview from administrators who hadplanned and helped implement new curricula several timesbefore: and always they had their specialization in thefields of music or art education as their chosen area ofexpertise. Therefore, it was most effective to use asemi-structured interview/conversation technique.The interview guide helped with the initial stiffness75but, when I allowed the answers to become relaxed and moreconversational, much more information was forthcoming thanif I had stayed rigidly within the format of an interviewguide.The data-recording procedures which were usedincluded a stenographer's pad upon which I noted unusualtones of expression, or data which was surprising to me.I also noted any evidence of resistance (for example,doodling, moving papers about, or shifting uneasily in achair) upon this pad. These notes were in shorthand sothat they could not be read by anyone but myself. I alsokept a copy of the interview guide beside me and smallnotations were put on it when respondents began toelaborate to such an extent that the question took ondeeper meaning than the original question. For example,the word "enthusiastically" sometimes provoked about afive minute discussion as to why that particular adverbhad been used. Subjects would ask "Was thatintentional?"; "Did you deliberately add that adverb - orwas it merely an accident?". Sometimes the bulk of theinterview would keep revolving back to that word"enthusiastically". Naturally, as a researcher should, Ibegan to take note of the interviews that found such aproblem with that one word.The necessity of taking notes quickly convinced me76that I should use a check list of some type. I developeda companion check sheet that matched the interview guideso that data could be recorded quickly and inconspicuouslyby means of a few symbols, letters or simple check marks.(Wiersma,1986.181) In addition, a tape recorder was usedso that the entire conversation could be retained. Therespondents consented beforehand.Another disadvantage to the research technique ofinterviewing, particularly in the case of semi-structuredor conversational type interviews, is that because such aninterview situation is basically a social encounter, theinterviewee will behave or interact in a sc)ciallydesirable manner. Certainly, in some interviews of thistype, the respondents may even mask their true feelings inorder to present an image that they feel is "correct"under the circumstances. Thus, controversial informationin such situations is not readily forthcoming.(Wiersma,1986.181)However, in these interviews which were conducted bymyself, I am confident that this "sociability" tendencydid not result in any bias or skewing of the informationwhich was gathered. Because the sample which was selectedto be interviewed was composed of people in such senioradministrative positions in their various schooldistricts, with decades of experience upon which to base77their professional opinions, there was little likelihoodthat, even in the social atmosphere under which theseinterviews were conducted, that there would be anytendency to try to please this interviewer by answering orreacting in any particular manner. In fact, theinterviews frequently took the kindly tone of a superiorgently but firmly revealing the wisdom gained throughyears of training and experience. Also, many of theseindividuals had experience from debating similar questionsat conferences, etc. in the past.Rationale for Qualitative Analysis of Thematic Units There are many different characteristics betweenresearch designs based upon qualitative research andquantitative research.Probably the most significant differenceis the priority accorded the perspectivesof those being studied rather than theprior concerns of the researcher.(Bryman,1989.135)Thus, the emphasis tends to be on understanding. Indeed,one might describe it as viewing a situation through theeyes of the individuals being studied. The researcher78tries to be sensitive to the nuances of what is said (orin the case of documents, what is written) and to thecontext in which an activity took place. In this study Iused the qualitative data, gleaned while analyzing theteacher-made units, to illustrate or clarify thosefindings which were arrived at from my quantitativeanalysis of those thematic units. This double check ofthe units first - quantitatively - and then later in thestudy - qualitatively - after interviewing theadministrators, supervisors, and consultants helped toevaluate whether the goals for Music and Art are being metwhen the curriculum is integrated by the use of thematicunits in the average primary classroom wherein one teacheris responsible for the whole program.This practice of using qualitative methods for suchreasons is well-documented as being useful when used to"fill-out" or double-check data and there are manyexamples of this described in literature pertaining tothis technique. An example of such use of qualitativemethodology is described thus:The research findings may be used to: clarifyand illustrate quantitative findings, buildresearch instruments, develop policy, evaluateprograms, provide information for commercialpurposes, guide practitioners' practices, and79serve political ends, as well as for morescientific purposes such as the development ofbasic knowledge. (Strauss and Corbin,1991.21)Combining methods from both quantitative and qualitativeresearch styles is especially applicable in this studywhich, in essence, seeks to discover whether the statedcurriculum goals are not being met; and also whetherpolicy and practice differ in the classroom setting.Summary of Methodology: A quantitative analysis ofdocuments was conducted. These documents were integratedthematic units, designed to integrate the primarycurriculum. They had been written by elementary teachersin British Columbia. These units were obtained from theLesson Aids Department of the British Columbia Teachers'Federation in Vancouver, B.C. The purpose of analyzingthese units was specifically to determine whether theexpanded goals for the Fine Arts, specificaly Music andArt, are being met when these subjects are integrated intothe entire primary curriculum through the use of themes.Thirty units were collected. Fifteen units were for EarlyPrimary. Ten units were for Later Primary. Five unitswere for Complete Primary. The quantitative findings weretabulated onto a grid and subsequently, this data was usedfor tables and graphs.80Then, semi-structured interviews were held withsupervisory personnel from 12 school districts within thelower mainland of British Columbia. This was done toexpand upon the information gained from the quantitativeanalysis of the units. These supervisors were asked ifthe teachers in their school district were integrating Artand Music into their curriculum and, if so, was it beingdone through the use of themes. These supervisors werethen asked to give their opinion as to whether the goalsfor Music and Art were being satisfactorily achieved whenteachers teach through themes. They were asked to expandupon whatever answer they had given to the previousquestion and to give some examples of particularlysuccessful thematic units in terms of content of the FineArts Strand - specifically, Art and Music. Finally, theywere asked to give examples of some particularlysuccessful units in terms of their accomplishment of theeducational goals, as set forth by the Ministry ofEducation in the Year 2000 Curriculum. Comments by the respondents, which were perceived tobe important, were identified and coded. This informationpresented a picture which revealed possible contributingfactors or themes which may have affected the achievementof the goals for Music and Art. Notes and transcriptionswere re-examined to discover if these themes were common81to many of the school districts or localized to aparticular district. When these themes were analyzed,they did appear to proffer reasons which may have directlyaffected the thematic units which had been previouslyanalyzed. That is, infopmation was gained from theinterviews which gave insight as to the achievement of thegoals for Music and Art when they are integrated into thecurriculum by the use of integrated units, usuallyprepared by generalists.Finally, the thirty integrated units were againanalyzed, but this time qualitatively. That is to say,this time I was reading the explanatory notes made by theteachers to discover whether there was a possibleinterpretation which could be made when the units did notmeet the goals or, in fact, when no attempt had been madeto include Art or Music. Surely, there must be someexplanation which would be forthcoming if one approachedit with an interpretive research approach. The themeswhich had emerged from the interviews with administrativepersonnel did appear to give indications as to why so manyof the teacher-made units did not even attempt to includethe goals, as decreed by the Ministry of Education, forMusic and Art.These themes appear to be widespread within the lowermainland.82CHAPTER FIVEMAIN STUDY: SECTION I - QUANTITATIVEThe pilot study having been completed in early May,and the desired changes in the format having beenincluded, this research study was now ready to begin theactual data collection phase of the content analysisstudy.Synchronization of the two sections of this study: Themain quantitative study was begun on Thursday, May 23 andcontinued until Wednesday, October 16. The followingmorning, Thursday, October 17, the first interview washeld, which marked the beginning of the next section (theinterviews) of this research project.The duration of study: The main quantitative study, orcontent analysis of thematic units, took 21 weeksaltogether.Schedule of analyses: The units designated Early Primarywere done first, then the Later Primary, and finally the"Complete Primary" units. These latter units had been83described by their authors as being appropriate for thewhole of primary, for years 1 through 4. This descriptionwas too cumbersome to use on Grids, or Tables, so Irenamed these units "Complete Primary" Units. This wasdeemed necessary because the data had to be kept separatefor all the categories. If the data from these units hadbeen arbitrarily added to data from one of the othergroups, it would have caused a serious distortion of thedata base, because these "Complete Primary" unitscomprised one sixth of the total number of units studied.In other words out of 30 units studied, 5 were designatedas being appropriate for the whole of primary. This iswhy it was important to rename these 5 units because thisdata base was to become the source from which all thelater deductions were to be formulated. The results ofthis research would have been made invalid if precautionshad not been taken to keep the data separated.Sequence of examination: The units were examined firstfor Music and then for Art. The method employed was thatall the Primary units were assessed for Music content.Then they were scrutinized again (much more slowly) inorder to do a qualitative analysis of the planningtechniques which had been used. This researcher did thisin order to ascertain the educational goals which the84author(s) may have been trying to include in theintegrated unit. This assessment was done withsensitivity in order to increase the researcher'sunderstanding of the planning processes which had beenundertaken during the planning of the integrated unit. Anattempt was made to empathize with the generalistteacher(s) who had composed the unit.Then the same procedure was repeated for Art. Theunits were assessed for Art content. They were gonethrough again very slowly so that an interpretive andreflective analysis of the actual planning could be done.Every effort was made to imagine the problems which thegeneralist teacher(s) might have encountered - such aslack of resources or the assistance of a specialistconsultant - and to sympathize and empathize with theauthor(s) attempts to attain the educational goals.These units were not examined from the perspective ofsomeone merely trying to "pick holes" or be a "nit-picker"intent on merely finding fault. This examination was donewith a view towards helping teachers who may be havingdifficulties in achieving the goals set down by theMinistry for the Year 2000 Curriculum. Studies such asthis, taken from the perspective of the "classroom worker"may give insight to future curriculum planners who mightbe in charge of educational programs.85Selection of documents which were scrutinized: Thirtyteacher-made integrated thematic units were chosen to bean accurate representation of the actual numbers of unitsthat are available from each category for teachers toorder from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation.15 units were Early Primary level10 units were Later Primary level,5 units were Complete Primary (Years 1 - 4)This ratio corresponds to the number of units presented tothe B. C. T. F. for publication by member teachers.Guidelines for selection of units: Several guidelineswere set forth to assist in choosing units that would betruly representative of the type which generalist teacherscreate. These are listed as follows:1) The units could not be written prior to 1988, whichis the year that the Year 2000 Curriculum was presentedand when implementation began at the primary levels.2) The units could not be written by a specialist ineither Art or Music.3)^The units had to have been identified by the authoras conforming to the new curriculum guidelines and to bedescribed somewhere within as an integrated unit. That isto say there had to be a very clear understandingexpressed by the author that this was intended as an86integrated unit which conformed to the Ministry'sguidelines regarding thematic integration for primarylevel students.4)^The units could not be written by a special interestgroup or stakeholders such as a Ministry of theGovernment. An example of this type of unit would bethose written by the Ministry of Forests and the Ministryof Fisheries. Other special interest groups includedlabour organizations in other provinces such as NovaScotia and Ontario who have published several unitsregarding women in the workforce. Also UNICEF haspublished many units on world peace. A prominentmulticultural organization in Ontario has published somevery slick glossy professional material. All of thesewere rejected because they were obviously written byprofessional writers. They had not been printed at theB. C. Teachers' Federation in Vancouver and it wasextremely doubtful if they had been written by generalistclassroom teachers from the province of British Columbia.That is not to say that these units were withoutmerit. Many of them were of very high calibre, forexample the units on women's rights published by theLabour Organization in Nova Scotia, were extremely welldone; but they were outside the parameters of this studyand had to be rejected. Because this study addressed the87question of whether or not the educational goals for Artand Music are met when they are taught in an integratedprimary classroom by a generalist classroom teacher, itwas necessary to choose units which were written by andfor the average primary teacher.This process of selection took approximately 5 daysbecause 166 units had to be reviewed in order to selectthe 30 units which were ultimately used as the basis forthis research.The setting: Most of the analysis was done in the readingroom, at the British Columbia Teachers' Federation. Thisroom is adjacent to the "stacks" where the lesson aids arestored neatly on shelves. The clerks were very obligingand welcomed me to work there and even made many trips toand from the shelves to help me select the exact units Irequired. The reading room is attractively furnished withlarge counters to work on and huge deep upholstered chairswhere one can sit for hours, studying in comfort. It wasquiet there. The light was good and in this peaceful,air-conditioned environment my summer research projectprogressed at a steady pace.The units which were used for this study are shown ina list titled Coded list of primary units analyzed whichappears as Table I on pages 89 and 90.88CODED LIST OF INTEGRATEDTable^IPRIMARY UNITS ANALYZEDNO. CODE LEVEL SUBJECTS or TOPICS of UNITS1 A Early Science:^Animals - Cats2 B Early Science:^Fish3 C Later Language Arts4 D Later Author Study5 E Early Study of Small Farm Animals6 F Later Language Arts:Canadian Books7 G Later Social Studies:^Canada8 H Later Stories about Dragons9 I Later Stories:^Real or Pretend10 J Early Stuffed Toy Animals11 K Complete Social Studies:^Communities12 L Later Author Study13 M Later The Environment:^Science14 N Complete Literary Enrichment Unit15 0 Early How People Travel on a Trip16 P Early Cold-blooded Creatures17 Q Early Animals that Hibernate18 R Early Science:^Geology19 S Complete Social Studies:^Peace/War20 T Early Science:^Insects8921 U Early Social Studies:^Families22 V Early Soc. St.^- Life Necessities23 W Complete Women's Studies24 X Early Social Studies:^Sharing25 Y Early Our Environment Changes26 Z Early Why do we feel Good or Bad?27 -a Later Reading Helps us to Think28 -b Later Old Fables29 -c Early Folktales30 -d Complete DramaNumber of units in each category:Early^= 15 unitsLater^= 10 unitsComplete = 5 units90The actual research: It took me a little more than a dayto analyze each unit for one subject. The working patternwhich I developed was to examine 3 units Monday toThursday and I would type up my commentary and field noteson Friday at my own office. The code names that had beengiven to the units were used throughout the study andappear on all graphs, grids or tables whenever referenceis made to any unit. The large grids upon which the datawas finally entered is shown as Table II for Music andTable III for Art. At the end of each week, after theunits had been analyzed and the field notes and commentaryhad been typed, the actual data - that is, the tick markswhich had been placed on the small individual grid sheets- would be entered onto the main grid for each subject byplacing a large dot beside the name of each unit and underthe number which corresponded to the educational goals.By adhering strictly to this practice, when the last unitanalysis was completed both large grids were full. Afterthis it was a simple matter of plotting the numbers ofattempts (hits) onto graphs which would be used in thesubsequent analysis of this data. These tick marks wouldalso be used as the data base from which tables would becompiled analyzing the results. A photocopy of theeducational goals is shown as Table IV and Table V onpages 94 and 95 respectively.91Table IIquantitative Analysis of thirty integrated primary units Year 2000 Curriculum Goals Achieved in Thematic Units Mus ic92Early Primary Later PrimaryGoals^1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Goals^1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8^.11Table$2uantitative Analysis of thirty integrated primary units Year 2000 Curriculum Goals Achieved in Thematic Units Art93GoalsEarly Primary1 2 3 4 5 6 GoalsLater Primary1 2 3 4 5 6 8Early Primary Later PrimaryTable IVMusic94The child:1, represents personal vocal sounds usingspeaking and singing voice (e.g., useshigh/low sounds, repeated pitch, createsinterest in speech, gains awareness ofown accuracy in pitch);The child:1• sings in tune within a comfortable range(e.g., sings in tune within the followingrange, with emphasis on the upper part ofthe range):performs simple songs, rhythm chants,and linger plays (e.g., uses song materialsto gain awareness of beat and rhythmicand melodic concepts, keeps best usingsimple percussion instruments andmovement);3. explores differences in timbre ofinstruments and voices (e.g., explores thedifferences among wood, string, metal,skin, and vocal timbres);4. responds to musical phrase, tempo,dynamics through body movement (e.g.,observes pattern in music, beginnings andendings, differences in tempo anddynamics).5^represents music through simple notation(e.g:, high/low placement on staff, teats,simple rhythm patterns, rests).2 • contributes to musical activities bothindividually and in groups (e.g, expressesmood, tempo, timbre, dynamics, rhythmand melody in music, uses percussioninstruments, movement, and voice incombination);3. uses different instruments and voice tocreate and perform rhythmic and melodicostinato (e.g., uses repeated rhythmic ormelodic patterns to accompany knownsongs);4^expresses musical phrases, variation intempo and dynamics through contrast(e.g., varies loud/soh, or through bodygestures, group/solo alternation, etc.).5 • uses appropriate music vocabulary andnotation with understanding (e.g., quarternote and rest, time signatures, eighth noteand rest, etc.).The child:6^communicates personal ideas throughmusic (e.g., represents personal ideas andimages through singing and playingsimple rhythmic and melodicinstruments);7 • responds to similarities, differences, andrelationships in music (e.g., discusses andresponds through movement to repetitionin songs, different instrumental qualities,variations in mood);8, recognizes that music can expressdifferent emotions and moods (e.g.,responds to mood contrast throughmovement, verbal or visual images).The child:6 • expresses images through music andsound (e g., using voice and selectedclassroom instruments, creates anddevelops own musical images);7 • expresses musical elements through theirparallels in other art forms (e.g.,dramatizes musical sequence, transformsmusical form as Anil! art design Ofmusical contour as dance);8^expresses personal preferences in musicand appreciates the musical preferences ofothers (e.g., discusses a variety of music,giving reasons for preference).Table VArt95Early PrimaryThe child:1 • creates images through use of visualsymbols (e.g., paints a picture of a personand a house with use of personalschema);2 • expresses ideas in visual form (e.g., usesdrawings to tell a story);3 • creates images inspired by self or others(e.g., constructs a sculpture on monstertheme);4^represents images in different ways (e.g.,draws, models, paints, constructs, and usetextile and printmaking processes);5 • uses a variety of simple art making toolsand materials (e.g., uses bnishes andpaint to create patterns and pictures).6 • displays skill in manipulating simplematerials and processes (e.g, uses brushesand paint to create patterns and pictures).The child:7. explores elements ofdesign in making orresponding to art (e.g., names elements(Fries, colours, textures, shapes) andrecognizes qualities);a describes images by attending to thesubject, sensory and formal qualities,(elements and principles of design andmethod and technique] (e.g., identifiesand describes textures in a weaving).Later PrimaryThe child:1 • creates images from different sources(observation, memory, imagination) (e.g.,creates an observational line drawing of aclass pet);2. expresses ideas and feeling in visual form(e.g., paints a picture that expressesscariness);3. creates image inspired by self, or other artforms (e.g.,, constructs a collage inspiredby theme Of a poem);4. represents images in different•ways withincreasing skill (e.g., draws, paints,models, constructs, and uses textile andprintmaking processes);5. uses a variety of simple art making toolsand materials appropriately (e.g., cutspaper and shapes with scissors).6. displays increasing sophistication inmanipulating simple materials andprocesses (e.g., chooses various papertypes that suit image in making a collage).The child:7^uses and discusses different elements andprinciples of design (e.g., describes ownart in terms of colour, pattern, andbalance); .8. describes images by attending to thesubject, sensory, and formal qualities(elements and principles of design] andmethod and technique (e.g., discussesimplied textures and how they might havebeen made in a painting).CHAPTER SIXCONTENT ANALYSIS OF THIRTY THEMATIC UNITSThe two Master Grids contain all the data which wasaccumulated as a result of examining the 30 integratedunits. In order to illustrate the data-recording systemwhich was used, I will provide 3 examples of units whichwere analyzed and will explain how the data subsequentlywas entered on the Master Grids. The 3 units representthe 3 categories of units which were analyzed: EarlyPrimary, Later Primary and Complete Primary. The unitswere selected by random choice. Those that were selectedare Unit "0" from Early Primary, Unit "C" from LaterPrimary and Unit "W" from Complete Primary.The transference of data from Petite Grids to Master GridsIn the previous chapter it was explained that therewere two small graphs made up for each unit. These wererenamed "Petite Grids" because it is from these tabulationslips that the data was transferred onto the Master Grids.Hereafter, when reference is made to a "Petite Grid", itis intended to mean those small data tabulation slips96which had been attached to the front of each unit. Afterthe units had been examined the data from the Petite Gridwas entered onto the Master Grids for both Music and Art.Replicas of the Petite Grids are shown on the followingpage: two petite grids for each unit.Unit "0": The data for Unit "0" (the tick marks) wastaken from the Petite Grid for Art and large dots, whichwere to represent the tick marks, were entered on line 15of the Master Grid for Art in the Early Primary section.The Music data for Unit "0" (the tick marks) was takenfrom the Petite Grid for Music and large dots were placedon line 15 of the Master Grid for Music in the EarlyPrimary section.Unit "C": The data for Unit "C" was similarly taken fromthe Petite Grid for Art and entered onto line 3 of theMaster Grid for Art in the Later Primary section. TheMusic data for Unit "D" was taken from the Petite Grid forMusic and large dots were placed on line 3 of the MasterGrid for Music in the Later Primary section.Unit "W": The tick marks on the Petite Grid for Art weretransposed into dots and placed on line 23 of the MasterGrid for Art in both Early and Later Primary. The data97Figure 6Unil-^E at*98MUSIC GOALS = 8skills - 5b/ 1 p. irLOVV2 pl. 2.3,24t/V,4/4^?No u yit "41'—5knowledge - 3---„ 6r 7p0d74/- chke twig,V 8 /P.n.ART GOALS = 8skills - 6-1C 2 syrnbol •sity-io./f-3- 4-5- 6knowledge - 2- 78Uri* C- Later MUSIC GOALS = 8 skills - 5V29 3 partial, ro esthfalv4- 5knowledge - 3V 6 p,12 C 2/3)7Liftei- fteethevesART GOALS = 8skills - 6V 1 e.14/V 2 11,2-114V 3 Iv. 2 3e 4 f• itvs p • AL./ 6 niskt sceneknowledge - 2 v 7 de.Siin Wise SV 8 p.11 ..Unif W- C ornpleteMUSIC GOALS = 8skills - 5-1-.2-3- 4- 5knowledge - 3- 67 Poten t dPetry Ai/-• 8ART GOALS = 8skills - 6V I draw p•c. p. 2.V 2 trni Pa 1^f•V 3 lister, -t erhsio p•T— 4V5 c^p.V 6 ttna-41^P. qknowledge - 2 V 7 deste cods r.••••••••11 8for Music was also entered onto line 23 in both sections(Early and Later Primary) of the Master Grid for Music.The reason that the data for the Complete Units wasrecorded on both sides of the Master Grids was becausethere was a presumption that the author(s) who designatedthe units as appropriate for all of the primary years hadoriginally planned the unit for either Multi-grade FamilyGrouped classrooms or for teachers to use with any levelof primary class. Therefore, in order to keep the maindata bank from becoming distorted, which could cause thegraphs to be skewed in favour of a particular level ofprimary, I recorded the data on both sides of the MasterGrid - that is, for both Early and Later Primary because Ipresumed that was the author's intention.There was some hesitation on my part to enter thedata on both sides of the Master Grid because I did notalways think that some of the Later Primary activitiescould be accomplished with younger Early Primary children.When one cannot observe the lesson in real life, there isa possibility that one might be only expressing bias bynot entering the unit's data also as Early Primary level.It is possible that the teacher may have had a system fordoing some of the more difficult activities with youngerchildren that is not obvious from merely reading thelesson plan.99100Table VIilantitative Analysis of thirty integrated primary unitsYear 2000 Curriculum Goals Achieved in Thematic Units Mus i cEarly Primary Later PrimaryGoals^1 2 3 4 5 6 Goals^1 2 3 4 5 6 7I133^c • • • to2) •••••ri^ •^7 &s/ H?^ I10^i13^M1$t^*IVir 0/4^P4^R/7 Qtio• * o dr, •• • • co ••if *5I- • ,21 23^* IV2.41^X• •25"V.^Zz7^a-2y LI--g-.1^c. • • 30 * — "Comp' ete_q 14firr30^A" PtTable VIIQuantitative Analysis of thirty integrated primary unitsYear 2000 Curriculum Goals Achieved in Thematic UnitsArtEarly^Primary Later^PrimaryGoals 12 3 4 5678 GoalsL1 2 3 4 5 7 8I A 0• 4 • •3 c fo • • • • • • .4 D • • * • • •5. 6 • • • • • .i, F • 0 0 • • • • •7 Ai • . es • 9, H Sg •IW .T •n * K • n/2of-^K.L • •a _14 _ 4oPt *W1: • Pi 3it-^11 •I5-_ 0 doIL P eU • • •li ; 0 go • • • oIl A'^S • • • • L2 ,t-^S • • so17 5 5V CL •a. V •23 * II • • • • • • 23 X^I,/ 0 * * 0 • el2Y • •25- • •27 4,. • •• • • :^ : -. .  27 3.b 4,-^a0 •• • • • •*d30X-• - "CdPIPIXIX 11I4's/17-101UNITSTable VIIIART NEITHERLEVEL MUSIC1 A Early Primary X2 B Early Primary X3 C Later Primary X X4 D Later Primary X X5 E Early Primary X X6 F Later Primary X7 G Later Primary X X8 H Later Primary X9 I Later Primary X10 J Early Primary X11 K Complete X12 L Later Primary X13 M Later Primary X14 N Complete X15 0 Early Primary X X16 P Early Primary X X17 Q Early Primary X X18 R Early Primary X X19 S Complete X20 T Early Primary X X21 U Early Primary X22 V Early Primary X23 W Complete X X24 X Early Primary X25 Y Early Primary X26 Z Early Primary --- X27 "a Later Primary X28 "b Later Primary X29 "c Early Primary X X30 "d Complete XTOTALS^ 11^29^1102X - Data figures taken from Master Grid - attempted GoalsAnalysis of Data Table VIII: All the units are listed on this table, butthe three columns indicate which units had only Music orArt. This list also shows clearly which units containedboth subjects. This table shows that almost all of theunits (29) had Art somewhere in the unit while a muchsmaller number (11) had both subjects included in theunit. Only Unit Z had neither Art nor Music mentioned.Table VIII reveals dramatically that Art, in someform, is usually included in the teacher's planning but,of course, the quality of the Art lessons is not indicatednor does this table show if the educational goals for Artare being met. However, this simple table gives an earlypicture that Music is only considered in about one thirdof the thematic units published. Therefore, if Music isonly included about one third of the time, it is unlikelythat the educational goals for Music are being achieved.Graph of data for Complete Primary: Similar data is shownin the form of a graphical representation in Figure 7on the following page.This graph shows clearly a large discrepancy betweenArt and Music activities in the primary levels. Alsothese activities are concentrated in a few skill goals.103Figure 7Total Attempts for Early and Later Primarywna27asnuasa212012111I11MDVI14131211102210I•IIi01 2 3 4 5 6 7 GOALSART MUSICFor Art, these goals are number 2 and number 4, whichare activities involving drawing - usually of therepresentational type. Examples of this would be askingchildren to make an illustration of a storybook characteror to draw a picture of a science project.The highest point on the graph for Music was goalnumber 2, which is the activity of group chanting orsinging. The next most frequent goal attempted for Musicis goal number 1, which is the activity of rote singingfor Early Primary and becomes singing in a specific vocalrange (mid F to high F) in Later Primary.The lowest point on the graph for Music was goalnumber 5, which is the use of appropriate musicalvocabulary and simple notation. It is obvious fromlooking at this graph that generalist teachers do not makeeven small attempts to teach any type of musical theory.Goal number 6 is only slightly more frequently used. Thisgoal refers to simple singing and playing of simplerhythmic and melodic instruments and children expressingtheir own personal ideas and images. This goal isintended to encourage children to express themselves insome other way besides language, either written or verbal.For Art the lowest point on the graph was goal number8, which is the knowledge goal. This is really acommunication goal because it states that the children105should describe the qualities of Art and be able todiscuss artistic creations such as paintings and weaving.Just as the knowledge goals for Music are intended toencourage children to communicate their ideas, theknowledge goals for Art are also intended to urge childrento communicate in another form.Early Primary Graph - Figure 8: The graph whichrepresents the data for Early Primary appears as Figure 8on the following page.This graph indicates that there are quite a fewactivities for Art in the skill goals - numbers 1 to 6.However, after goal 6 the graph plummets down for the twogoals that represent knowledge. Goal number 7 is forchildren to respond to artistic works. In other words, itis a type of simple artistic appreciation lesson for smallchildren. The teacher is supposed to lead the children ina discussion about the qualities of art and what appealsto them personally in a work of art. For example,colours, shapes, textures. This does not seem to be sooverwhelming that teachers would be afraid to attempt todo such lessons but the figures indicate that children getvery little art appreciation lessons. Goal number 8 isslightly more involved because the children are to beinvited to describe works of art. The descriptor for this106Figure 8Early Primary1071514131211"(c-'1 loEw 9Zi. s0 7t e.0E= 8z432108Mus:c.1^23 4567GOALSArtgoal states "the child describes images by attending tothe subject, sensory and formal qualities [elements andprinciples of design and method and technique]." In otherwords, these two goals could very nicely be taught at onetime. First the teacher could lead a spirited discussionof the artistic elements in a painting and then elicitfrom the children descriptions of perhaps a similar workof art that had been brought to class for the lesson. ArtGoal 8 was not attempted in any unit for Early Primary.In Early Primary Music, there were 3 educationalgoals never attempted. These are goals 3, 5 and 6. Goals3 and 5 are skill goals. Number 3 directs that the child"explores differences in timbre of instruments and voices"and the Foundation Document offers the suggestion ofhaving the child compare the sound of wood, string, metal,skin and vocal timbres. Here the teacher should havepresented a few rhythm band instruments, such as triangle,cymbals, rhythm sticks, bongo drums, and perhaps astringed instrument such as a ukulele. The voices of thechildren could be used for easy comparison. This does not require a high degree of musical training on the part ofthe teacher. I suggest that this skill level was withinthe ability level of most generalist teachers, I think.It is surprising that none of the units included thisskill goal. The other skill goal never attempted (goal 5)108is for representing music through simple notation. Goalnumber 6, which is a knowledge goal, was the other goalwhich was never attempted. This knowledge goal isactually aesthetic education. The directive for this goalin the Foundation Document states "the child communicatespersonal ideas through music" and the example givensuggests that the child "represents personal ideas andimages through singing and playing simple rhythmic andmelodic instruments."In both Music and Art the lowest number of activitiesrecorded are for the knowledge goals which, for Music are6, 7, 8; and for Art are 7 and 8. This fact reveals thatcritical thinking, which was one of the main purposes ofthis new Year 2000 Curriculum, is not being taught - atleast not in the Fine Arts Strand for Early Primary.Later Primary Graph - Figure 9  : The graph whichrepresents the data for Later Primary appears as Figure 9on the following page. This graph reveals how fewattempts are made to include Music in the daily activitiesof these children. Later Primary children are usually 7or 8 years of age and it is quite evident (when comparingthis graph to the previous one for Early Primary) thatthere is a sudden decrease in the amount of Music offered.Art is included much more frequently than Music.109Figure 9Later Primary1 101514131211coC1. 10Ea)^9'4E)^7st)^elX)EZ 5::432101 2Art3456GOALS78^ Music As indicated in the Master Grids for Music and Art,there were 160 possible opportunities to include thesesubjects in 10 Later Primary units. But there is a vastgap between the attempts to include Art and Music.Possibly, the explanation for this might be that theteacher believes that the children are already learningMusic from an itinerant specialist. To establish thecauses of this wide variation in artistic learningopportunities for children, further research should beundertaken regarding teacher motivation. I believe it islikely that the teacher does not try to include Musicbecause she feels uncomfortable with Music and does notwant to risk being observed having a poor lesson. Art isa more silent activity. In addition to this, an entiregroup or class cannot be judged simultaneously during Art.In order for a supervisor to ascertain whether childrenhave grasped certain artistic techniques, a supervisingprincipal often looks at each child's art work andassesses them individually.While, on the other hand, for Music, it is all toocommon for a teaching situation to be assessed whilechildren are in the early stages of rehearsing for aperformance or learning a musical piece. It isimmediately obvious, even to an "untrained ear", if thechildren are not performing in a synchronized fashion, or111if they are singing out of tune, or are not "together"when they are chanting or singing. Perhaps, what is lessobvious is the fact that they are developing reflexeswhile playing, and throat and diaphragm muscles whilesinging, which require a continuum of practice beforetheir control becomes "second nature". Of course, thecreation of Art also requires good physical reflexes -dexterity with certain muscles of the hands particularly -and a high level of coordination, but this is lessimmediately obvious than it is for Music, which isfrequently a performance. Children like to perform andneed this type of activity both as a learning opportunityand as recreational time in their daily lives.When planning for Art, the knowledge goal number 8 isthe one least attempted. This is essentially artisticappreciation or, some educators refer to it as aestheticeducation. For this goal to be achieved, children are tobe engaged in active discussion regarding the "subject,sensory and formal qualities" and also the "method andtechniques" which were used in a work of Fine Art. Onecan deduce from the graph, that most teachers recoiledfrom attempting such lessons. Perhaps, if they had abetter background in artistic appreciation themselves,they would have less hesitation including this particularknowledge goal when planning their thematic units.112It is somewhat disturbing to note that for Music,goal number 5 was not attempted by any teacher in any unitfor any level. Goal 5 is a skill goal and is for simplenotation and music vocabulary.To give an indication of how simple this goal reallyis for Early Primary, I will quote the definition in theFoundation Document, which gives an example "high/lowplacement on staff". In other words, the note names didnot have to be learned, but merely the concept of highnotes being on the top lines and low notes being on thebottom lines. Even the youngest child is able tounderstand the concept of a "rest". Children could quiteeasily be taught these very simple concepts by dramatizingthe music and pretending to be a high note or low note.When they are marching around the teacher could call out"REST" and have the children stop moving and countsilently for that brief time.If teachers had a little more musical background theycould teach simple theory without having to sing bythemselves (which seems to be what many teachers fearhaving to do). Certainly, generalist teachers couldbenefit greatly from more music education subjects inteacher education courses at the universities.While it is true that generalist teachers (and thechildren) would benefit greatly from having specialists113assist the teachers in teaching or planning lessons forthe Fine Arts subjects; it is also true that this is notalways possible for a variety of reasons. One of the moreobvious reasons is the financial costs which this wouldentail and whether the school district has the capabilityto pay for this extra help. Other reasons might be thelack of availability of this type of highly-trainedspecialist teacher.Therefore, it is desirable; indeed one might even saynecessary that teachers make efforts to become responsiblefor their own training in these subjects. Surely there issome means of teaching aesthetic education in Art andMusic, particularly in courses which stress how theenjoyment and appreciation of these Fine Arts could bedeveloped. Once again, I would like to stress that I amsympathetic to teachers who lack confidence but it doesappear that they are not trying very hard to accomplishthe goals that are included in the curriculum for theappreciation and enjoyment of experiencing these arts fortheir own sake.The main thrust of this Year 2000 Curriculum is toteach critical thinking techniques and it is the knowledgegoals which are going to develop the critical thinkingabilities of our young children. Coincidentally, perhapseven ironically, these knowledge goals are the very ones114seldom attempted by most generalist teachers. Thissuggests a lack of understanding of the direction andpurpose of this new curriculum on the part of primaryteachers.To conclude: Teachers could be doing more to achievethe educational goals for Art and Music, particularly inthe area of aesthetic education or the knowledge goals.115CHAPTER SEVENMAIN STUDY: SECTION II - INTERVIEW RESEARCHFor the purpose of this study an interview techniqueoften described as "semi-structured conversation" wasemployed.The interviews all began with personal information tobuild rapport between two individuals in a situation thatis sometimes a bit unnerving to the respondent. However,in the case of these interviews, I think the oppositewould actually be a more accurate picture. In any case,the personal questions did establish the professionalcredibility and expertise of the respondent, whileallowing for a more relaxed entry into the actual researchquestions.The information requested was of a type of whicheducational supervisory personnel would have knowledge.In other words, the specialized knowledge which wasrequired dealt with the new Year 2000 Curriculum and anyproblems of implementing the Art and Music portion of thatcurriculum within the primary years. This was consideredto be knowledge which these individuals would possess.The interviews all concluded with the opinions andsuggestions of the respondents.116The Demographic Questions Guide: This simple guide wasdrawn up as a result of suggestions from those who wereinterviewed during the Pilot Study for the interviewportion of this research. Those people who wereinterviewed, as part of the Pilot Study, felt that itwould be far too abrupt to immediately launch into thedifficult questions, without any sort of preamble. Theyalso thought it might seem a bit rude to rush in withdifficult questions to such a group of respondents withoutfirst having some sort of social verbal exchange.Thus, the solution which was arrived at was to createa brief series of demographic questions which would notonly "break the ice" and begin the interview moresmoothly, but would also serve to establish a rapport withthe individuals. This technique worked extremely well.The Demographic Guide was part of the Interview Guide andacted as an introduction to the more difficult questions.The Interview Guide:The questions in the interview guidewere designed to allow supervisory personnel to respondeasily and completely. That is to say, the questions wereopen-ended so that the respondent could choose how much toinclude in their answer. If they answered with a simple"yes" or "no", then the follow-up question countered with"why?" or "why not?". However, if this did not elicit a117further answer but only a shrug, I would try to gentlyprovoke them into answering by comments such as "Do youhave any idea as to why this is the case?", or "What wouldyour description of the situation be?" in an effort toshow them that I was sincerely interested and that theiropinion was valued by myself. Such questions usually gotresponses in those few cases where individuals wereobviously hesitating to express an opinion of any sort.As the interviews progressed, frequently an open easyconversation took place, and with such "give-and-take"information was freely forth-coming. It was my intentionto create an atmosphere which would be conducive to havinga respondent be relaxed and sociable so that they would bewilling to answer the questions as completely and ashonestly as possible.This was why the interview guide was so important tothe success of these interviews. By placing a copy by myright hand, and handing them a copy to follow, they knewthat more was expected of them than a monosyllabic answer.When they could see that there were more questionsfollowing the one they were on, or that there had been a"follow-up" question created, they became less inclined tobe extremely brief in their answers and more willing toengage in a lively discussion of the topic. Once theyunderstood that I was willing to enter into such a118discussion, they seemed quite eager to participate.Therefore, the interview guide permitted theinterview to flow smoothly from one topic to the next, butalso allowed for probing and clarification where helpful.The Demographic Guide and the Interview Guide have beenincluded as Appendix B.When it had been decided what the questions were tobe, these questions were then partially memorized to helpestablish an aura of professionalism and to facilitateease of delivery. This also helped to keep the continuityof the interview smooth. Thus, I was able to keep theinterview from drifting without breaking away from the"conversation" to look up the next question. I discoveredthat in interviews with "elite" respondents such as these,they like you to be fully engrossed in their replies.Selection of the SampleIdentification of the Target Population: It was decidedthat the individuals most capable of shedding light uponthe question which this research was designed to answerwould be those administrators and supervisors who were inthe Fine Arts. In fact, most of the District Principalsand Fine Arts Coordinators had, themselves, come from the119ranks of the teaching profession and so they wouldunderstand not only the perspective of the administrators,but also the viewpoint of the professional teacher ofsubjects in the Fine Arts Strand of the new Year 2000 Curriculum.Therefore, having decided what positions the peoplewere to hold in the educational system, it only remainedto decide which administrators were to be approached. Itwas decided that the target area would be all schooldistricts within the lower mainland of British Columbia.There are thirteen school districts within this area. Idecided to add two more districts to the possible list ofparticipants because it would add to the data base andmake the research more meaningful. The districts thathave been included are all within a distance which,conceivably, a person could commute between daily to teachin Vancouver. Admittedly, the furthest points ofAbbotsford, Mission , Squamish or Sechelt would takeconsiderably more driving time than, for example,Richmond. But, there are individuals who do commute tothese locations daily to teach and so I considered itwould be appropriate to include these districts in thearea from which to recruit the target population ofrespondents for these interviews.A target population of 15 school districts was120identified. A letter was sent to each of these districtsto request the cooperation of whoever was supervising theArt and Music within the elementary schools of thedistrict. Previously, these supervisors or consultantswere called "Fine Arts Coordinators". Since the newcurriculum came into being most of them are now called"District Principal" for a certain area of the district orfor a particular portion of the curriculum, such as Music.Before I mailed these letters, I checked with thereceptionist at the school district to make certain that Icould address the person by his or her correct title.also enclosed with the letter a few sample questions, plusa copy of the consent form which they would be expected tosign. This was done because I was fearful that they mightrefuse to be interviewed if they had any misapprehensionsabout the questions they might be expected to answer.imagined myself in their situation and so I thought itwould be better to allay their fears (even if unspoken) bysimply showing them sample questions beforehand. Also,the Consent Form was enclosed because it stressed the factthat their conversation would be kept confidential. It ismy belief that this had a positive effect upon my gainingadmission to see these important people. The letter alsoinformed them of when they could anticipate my telephonecall to set up an appointment.121This procedure was time-consuming but it paid off.By the time I telephoned them, about ten days later ormore, the recipient of my letter had had time to thinkabout the request, possibly even contacting othercolleagues to discuss the advisability of granting aninterview. Thus, when I telephoned, the call was expectedand frequently accepted. Usually, if I was able to getthis far into the contact, there would ensue a lengthydiscussion over the phone regarding the research. Oftenthese calls took about 40 minutes or more while they triedto decide whether or not they would give me the interview.In other words, they interviewed me, on the telephone,before they would consent to be interviewed by me for thisresearch study. I found these phone discussions to bevery fruitful because I kept a shorthand pad beside thephone and made notes as to their areas of emphasis,special phrases etc. that might be useful to bring uplater at the interview (if it was granted).From the target population of 15 school districts, 12districts participated. One extremely large schooldistrict had a separate District Principal for PrimaryFine Arts and another District Principal for Music for theentire district. Both of these District Principals kindlygranted me time for interviews, precious time taken out oftheir extremely busy schedules.122In total, 17 interviews were conducted because, in 4districts other consultants were informed of my researchand were invited to participate in the interview by theadministrator with whom I had made my interviewarrangements. They were very eager to share theirexperiences with integrated themes and their professionalopinions regarding not only this new Year 2000 Curriculumbut also other types of integrated subjects with whichthey were familiar.The school districts which were invited toparticipate in the study were Abbotsford, Burnaby,Coquitlam, Delta, Howe Sound, Langley, Maple Ridge,Mission, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Richmond,Sunshine Coast, Surrey, Vancouver, and West Vancouver.Twelve of these districts participated in the study bygranting interviews. There were various reasons thatthree of the districts did not participate. In one casemessages were left repeatedly from early October toDecember. As there was no reply either by phone or bymail to my requests, I was unable to include that districtin the study. One of the districts refused to grant aninterview, and, because one of the districts took so longto agree to be interviewed, there was no more time as thestudy was closed off in early December.However, the districts which did participate were123extremely cooperative and a large amount of data wascollected. The conclusions and suggestions which werederived from this study were based in large measure uponthe data gathered from the twelve districts interviewed.Procedure for InterviewsThe interviews were conducted during the period fromearly October to early December. One factor which madethis time of year appropriate for conducting this researchwas that, because the school year had recently begun, theproblems of staffing and the issues and opinions thatmight have been stated at that time would still be "fresh"in the memories of the respondents.All of the interviews were held at locations whichwere chosen by the respondent, usually their own office,or possibly a boardroom if more than one person wasattending the interview. In all cases, I allowed therespondent to choose a time most suitable to their busyschedule and I made myself available to be there at theirconvenience. Most of the interviews took about one hour,although several exceeded this time. In a few cases theinterview took about 30 minutes. It was usually difficultto schedule more than one interview per day because of the124extensive traveling involved and also because of theconstricted timetables of the respondents. All of theinterviews were tape recorded with the knowledge of therespondents. In every case a consent form was signedbefore the interview began. In those cases where morethan one person was participating in the interview, aConsent Form was given to each of them. I began theinterview when the respondent appeared to be ready tobegin. In no case was the tape recorder put on untilafter the respondent was informed that I was about tostart taping the interview. No interview had to beterminated because of a respondent's wish to withdraw.All the respondents were extremely cooperative and freelyanswered all the questions which were put to them.After each interview I listened to the tape to see ifthere were any problem spots which I had not sensed at thetime of the interview. I also noted on a codingobservation data sheet, which I had created for thispurpose, any special emphasis or intonation which changedthe emphasis of a particular issue or problem. If Idetected anything unusual, I made a note of it forsubsequent interviews. (Marshall and Rossman,1991.29)In order to protect the confidentiality of therespondents, all of the interviews had an assigned numberand the key was kept separate from the tapes.125CHAPTER EIGHTANALYSIS OF DATA FROM INTERVIEWSOverview: The basic research questions being addressed inthis study were first, to discover whether the educationalgoals for Art and Music were being achieved when thesesubjects were integrated into the overall curriculumthrough the use of themes or thematic units; and second,to identify factors which may have had an affect upon thecurrent implementation of the Year 2000 Curriculum. To obtain that information, interviews were held withadministrative personnel such as Fine Arts Coordinators,District Supervisors of the Visual and Performing Arts,Consultants, and other administrative personnel who areresponsible for curriculum implementation and who alsosupervise teachers. Seventeen interviews were held withpersonnel from 12 school districts of the lower mainlandof British Columbia.^This chapter will present andinterpret information obtained from these interviews.Whenever possible, excerpts from interviews have beenused as examples of the main issues under investigation.Such remarks will be identified using the code system toprotect the identity and the confidential nature of this126investigation. The code which was devised by thisresearcher uses a combination of numbers and letters. Thenumber designates the district and the letter refers tothe actual respondent within that district. Because someof the districts provided more than one interviewee, Ichose this method to indicate which respondent had offeredcertain comments.The numbers were allocated to the districts in thefollowing manner: 15 small pieces of cardboard were cutidentically. A number was written on each piece. Thesewere then placed in a paper bag and shaken. A friend drewthe slips from the bag. As he did so he told the numberwhich was on the piece. A list of the school districts ofthe lower mainland had been typed. As each number wasdrawn I wrote that number down beside the name of a schooldistrict. I started at the top of the list. Thesedistricts were then rearranged according to the numberswhich had been given to them.Then I went through the field notes of the interviewsand in those cases where more than one person had beeninterviewed I assigned a letter to each person. Thisletter corresponded to the order in which I had firstspoken to them in the course of the interviews. Forexample, the second person in an interview would be giventhe letter "B". The code might appear as 13:B, which127would represent District 13 - and these remarks would beattributable to the second person who participated in theinterview.Of the 15 districts approached, 12 participated inthis study. There were 17 respondents from those 12districts.The districts were initially contacted by mail andtheir cooperation was requested. Those which participatedin this study were Abbotsford, Burnaby, Delta, Howe Sound,Langley, Maple Ridge, Mission, North Vancouver, Richmond,Surrey, Vancouver, West Vancouver.Demographic information: Ten females and seven malesparticipated in this aspect of the study. There appearedto be no differences in response according to gender.All of the respondents had been in the teachingprofession for at least 10 years while 2 of them were duefor retirement at the close of this school year. Themajority of these individuals had over 20 years ofexperience. Their comments, therefore, were deemed to bevaluable to this research project.Research Question One: "Have the primary teachers in yourdistrict enthusiastically integrated Art and Music intotheir curriculum?"128Answers:no - 5^yes - 5^partially - 2^"enthusiastically" - 3Definition of "partially": refers to the fact thatteachers are either:A) not teaching everything through integration, justcertain subjects or,B) only integrating occasionally.Resistance to the concept of integration was reported in 4districts or, in other words, one third of the districtsin the lower mainland. (1:A, 5:A, 7:A, 9:A)Research Question Two: "Do they teach through themes?"Answers:no - 0^yes - 5^partially - 7Partially was usually described as units without music.Frequently music is not attempted by generalist teachers.The "yes" answers were from (6:A, 10:A, 8:A, 12:A, 2:A).The "partially" answers were from (11:A, 1:A, 4:A, 5:A,7:A, 9:A, 3:A). The fact that not one respondent answered"no" indicates the curriculum is being well received.Research Question Three: "In your opinion,are the goals for Art and Music being satisfactorilyachieved when teachers teach through themes?"Answers: Yes - 1, No - 12, partially - 2The "yes" answer was from (8:A)129The "no" answers were from (3:A, 3:B, 10:A, 12:A, 11:A,1:A,1:B, 2:A, 4:A, 5:A, 6:A, 7:A,)The "partially" answer was from (9:A, 9:B)The "yes" answer was given by a district which has foryears had one of the strongest Fine Arts programs in theprovince. However, the one which answered "partially"indicated that the answer was "Yes" for Art but "No" forMusic. However, when I followed this up with an enquiryregarding what the goals were, it was admitted that theteachers were quite unfamiliar with the Foundation Document and had never seen the expanded goals to which Iwas referring in this research study. This was a commonproblem with many of the respondents. They had not seenthe goals, nor had they ever had access to the Resource Document. However, it is the number of negative answers thatgive insight into the success rate of this style ofintegration, at least as far as the subjects of Art andMusic are concerned. The success ratio of 1 to 12 is anextremely low success rate for goals achieved.This indicates that the probable success rate is less than10 percent.Respondents indicated that there had to be a newsystem of evaluation developed because, if teachers are touse the previous methods of evaluation, the score will130tend to be rather low. One respondent indicated thattheir district personnel were working on developing justsuch a new standard of assessment and were going topresent it to the Ministry.But, what is remarkable in terms of this study is thecorrelation between the quantitative analysis which wasdone prior to the interviews and the data which emergedfrom the interviews. The quantitative analysis of thethematic units which had been collected gave a clearindication of the success rate of meeting the expandedgoals of the Year 2000 Curriculum. The graphs, however,do not reflect the causes behind the results. That is whyit was necessary to conduct the interviews to get aclearer picture. This new data not only validates thedata which came from the quantitative analysis, but givesa more complete picture because reasons which lie behindthe data are disclosed through interpersonal communicationthat is possible through interview-conversations.Cause and effect statements, and the reasoning behindthe previous answers did emerge when the next question wasposed.Research Question Four:"Why? or Why not?"This question was designed to draw forth some informationas to the specific circumstances which were unique to theindividual speaking with regard to a particular district.131This question succeeded very well. The respondents triedvery hard to give a full explanation as to why they hadfelt compelled to answer "No".These answers reflected four basic themes:1) lack of background or expertise in the Fine Arts,2) lack of support in the form of material resources orconsultant support,3) poor planning,4) too difficult to correlate thematic units withouttrivializing the arts with meaningless activities.Every respondent expressed concern that themes areoften too superficial, or forced, with the result that theartistic area of the curriculum has become shallow andwithout depth. This is an issue which Egan (1991) dealswith, in his book Primary Understanding. Shallowness oftreatment in early education does not permit the childrento have deeper affective experiences which can allow themto develop to their full potential as communicative humanbeings.(199) Also, every respondent mentioned that mostteachers lacked sufficient background in Art or Music toteach them properly within the integrated curriculum.When the question of "why?" was put to the solitarydistrict which had given the only affirmative answer, thereply was that the district had gone to great pains torecruit musically talented teachers as well as teachers132with a background in Fine Arts. It appeared as if thisparticular district was not experiencing many difficultieswith this aspect of the Year 2000 Curriculum. Theirproblems centred around lack of funding for continuingteacher education and resources to support their programs.Research Question Five: "Can you give me some examples ofparticularly successful thematic units in terms of thesecriteria: A) Art/Music content, and B) accomplishmentof the educational goals, as described in the Year 2000 Curriculum?The responses for A) were: Yes - 6, No - 6The responses for B) were: Yes - 2, No - 9 Partial - 1For A) Art/Music Content - the districts whichanswered "Yes" were (8:A, 12:A, 1:A, 2:A/B/C/, 4:A, 9:A);while those which answered "No" were (3:A/B, 10:A, 11:A,5:A, 6:A, 7:A)For B) - examples of units which accomplished theeducational goals as set forth in the Year 2000 Curriculum- the districts which responded "yes" were (12:A, 4:A);while the districts which responded "no" were (3:A/B,10:A, 8:A, 11:A, 1:A, 2:A/B, 5:A, 6:A, 7:A,).^Thedistrict which answered "some of the goals" was 9:A).Four districts volunteered the information that theyare in the process of rewriting the goals. These133districts were (8:A, 2:A, 1:A, 12:A).Most of the districts expressed doubts regardingteachers' familiarity with the Foundation Document inwhich the goals appear.Research Question Six: "Do you have any suggestions youwould like to offer that will help in the successfulimplementation of the Year 2000 Curriculum?"Responses:- "the unit should be developed around the arts, notvice versa." (3:A), (5:A)- "the Art Curriculum needs to be taught separately."(3:B)- "teachers need books of supplemental activitysuggestions to flesh out musical ideas." (10:A)"Integration should be through a Reading Series"(8:A)"the Government should develop some units that areexemplary." (12:A)"Resource thematic kits should be developed forteachers." (12:B)"Regular teachers should be given educationalsessions in the specialties of Art and Music."(11:A), (2:A), 2:B), (3:A), (4:A), (5:A),^(6:A),(7:A), (8:A), (9:A), (9:B), (10:A), (12:A),^(12:B)."Humanistic relating would be better thanintegrating." (1:B)134- "Success is based on the quality of a teacher who:a) is a co-learner with the student and, b) maintainsa classroom environment which must be respectful ofthe student." (1:B)"Classrooms should be renovated to accommodate thestyle of teaching of the Year 2000 Curriculum."(2:B), (4:A).- "should have listening stations with headphones"(4:A)- "teachers should remember that the journey is moreimportant than the end of the trip." (5:A)- "expressive dance should be used more." (6:A)- "the districts should support Music more." (9:A),(5:A), (6:A), (7:A), (10:A), (11:A),"there should be a clearer definition of the word'integration' because it is obscure at the presenttime. "(7:A)The above suggestions are given as a sampling of the ideasthat were offered. These were chosen because they were atypical representation of the comments which were offered.Basically, they fall into three categories: there shouldbe more teacher education provided, more resourcematerials should be made available, the overall vision ofthe curriculum should be made clearer to teachers.Research Question Seven: "If you are especially concernedabout some aspects regarding this curriculum, would you135explain why you are concerned."Responses:"Themes overcome the educational goals." (7:A)"Art is in jeopardy when teachers teach throughthemes. (4:A)"There is too much emphasis upon teaching lessonsthat "fit" a theme. Not all learning experiencesshould be taught through themes, only those that"fit" easily." (9:A), (1:A), (1:B), (3:A), (3:B),(4:A), (7:A), (12:A)."The goals are not suitable and must be rewritten."(8:A), (1:A), (2:B), (7:A), (9:A), 9:B), (12:A)."The shallowness and superficiality of the treatmentof the Fine Arts is a special concern." (12:A),(1:B), (3:B), (4:A), (7:A), (9:A), (12:B), (5:A),(2:A)"the Ministry should allow teachers more time toimplement new curriculum because the pressure causes'teacher burnout'." (12:A), (11:A)."New methods of assessment and evaluation are anecessity." (1:A), (2:A), (4:A), (6:A), (8:A),(9:A), (9:B), (12:A)."Different goals are wanted." (1:A), (1:B), (3:B),(7:A)."Themes can be too artificial." (7:A)136"Trivialization is bad." (1:B), (3:B), (4:A), (7:A),(8:A), (9:A), (12:A)."There is a watering down, a denigration of theskills for Art and Music." (4:A)- "the curriculum was brought out too swiftly and withtoo little opportunity for District Arts Supervisorsto have input and it was imposed too quickly." (7:A)The special concerns of these supervisors can be groupedinto several categories which I have listed below.- lack of government funding and resources,- shallow, superficial, treatment of the Fine Arts- problems from forcing the lesson to fit into a theme- new methods of evaluation needed- goals need to be rewrittenBut, another concern which is of such paramount importancethat it overrides all the others is that of "time" or moreaccurately perhaps "the lack of time" which teachers havebeen allowed for planning, theme preparation andimplementation of the Year 2000 Curriculum. SUMMARYEvery interview disclosed the information that lackof government funding is a huge problem - so much so that137most of these administrators feel that it seriouslyaffects the implementation of the Fine Arts Strand of thecurriculum. Beyond that concern, virtually every districtsupervisor expressed worry and concern because of thesuperficial, shallow treatment of the Fine Arts subjects,which the use of themes appears to encourage. Commentssuch as "trivialization of the artistic curriculum" weresaid with great feeling and emphasis. One aspect whichwas mentioned repeatedly was the fact that teachers (oncethey have decided upon a theme) will try to force subjectssuch as Art or Music to "fit" whatever theme they havechosen. In some cases this becomes almost an obsessionand they will go to the extent of putting alternativewords (which will reflect their theme) onto tunes oflittle musical merit. Some of the respondents privatelyexpressed feeling embarrassed at witnessing some of themore blatant examples of this practice.Almost all of the districts expressed concern thatthe existing methods of evaluation were inadequate. Manyfelt that either the goals should be rewritten or newmeans of evaluation should accompany this new curriculum.Finally, and probably most important of all, theissue of "time" came up repeatedly. More time is neededto implement the Year 2000 Curriculum because there is toolittle time for educators to meet, to plan, or to reflect.138CHAPTER NINE CONCLUSIONS, SUMMARY REMARKS, SUGGESTIONS, NEW RESEARCH The purpose of this final chapter is to present briefsummaries of the major findings and conclusions reached inthis study. The order of presentation will be as follows:first - the major conclusion which was the main focus ofthis study and which answers the initial question; thensummary statements of the respondents, will also bepresented. The value of these statements is that some ofthem reveal their conclusions regarding the new Year 2000 Curriculum. Next, the conclusions which have been arrivedat as a result of interviewing the administrators will besummarized. Then recommendations for dealing withproblems noted during this research will be suggested.The recommendations put forward have been arrived at bycombining information from the review of lesson aids andthe interviews with knowledge from my own background andpersonal experience as a teacher. Finally, this studyhas disclosed information which has implications forfuture research relative to curriculum implementation.These will be offered at the end of the chapter.139Conclusion to the main research questionQuestion: "When themes are used to integrate the elementarycurriculum in British Columbia schools, are theeducational goals of Art and Music met?"Conclusion: It is a rare occurrence when this happens. Duringthe course of this research, it became clear that theeducational goals for Art and Music are seldom met whenthese Fine Arts subjects are integrated into the generalcurriculum and taught by including them in thematic unitstaught by the generalist classroom teacher. In all thedistricts where I conducted interviews, only threedistricts could tell me of classrooms where this wasoccurring. In every case it was further revealed whenquestioned more deeply that the "generalist" teacher whowas doing such an excellent job was, in actual fact, not ageneralist at all, but a specialist who was taking ageneral classroom for personal reasons. and was teachingas a generalist. However, the successful manner in whichthese teachers were able to integrate the Fine Arts intoan overall theme does show that it is possible to140141successfully integrate the curriculum as the late BarrySullivan envisioned in his report to the Royal Commission.Summary Statements of Respondents Regarding the Integration of Art and Music by Themes: "Is the content for Art met? - No! Schools areabandoning disciplines in order to integrate." (3:B)*^"If the thematic unit is superficial, the result isan insult to the arts." (7:A)"Art is in more jeopardy than music when teachersintegrate through themes." (6:A)*^"With thematic integration there is a watering down,a denigration of skills." (4:A)*^"Language Arts or Math, are more important. Fine Artsis left to the wayside - but there is not that muchgoing on which requires artistic skills." (10:A)"They are being taught piecemeal." (3:A)142"Teachers lack the skills in their own background, tointegrate Art and Music properly." (6:A)*^"Themes overcame the goals. That is, teachers becameso intent on making everything match a theme thatthey lost sight of the true educational goals theyshould've been striving to attain." (7:A)*^"Music and Art are exploited to serve curriculargoals."^(3:A)"Music specialists come in so there is nointegration." (10:A)*^"If you want to have any true learning take place,you must have an understanding of the art form."(7:A)"You can integrate Art or movement or Dance throughthemes. Generalists are able to do drama also, butMusic needs to be taught by specialists." (6:A)*^"Embellishing it (thematic unit) with Art or Music isnot teaching the curriculum as we know it." (3:B)"Themes can be superficial." (7:A)143"If integration is done with no plan it becomesporridge." (8:A)*^"Trivialization can become a real problem." (1:B)"True integration takes place in the minds of thechildren and, if it doesn't take place there, all thestuff you add doesn't mean a 'hill of beans'." (7:A)Comments such as those above clearly reveal that there isa deep sense of frustration and dissatisfactin with thenew curriculum. But, whether these feelings stem from areal disagreement with the concepts and ideas within thecurriculum itself, or whether they arise from the deepfrustrations which have been induced because of the mannerin which the curriculum was developed and introduced isunclear. Several of the administrators felt that they hadnot been consulted enough prior to the curriculum beingintroduced. They also are annoyed at the lack of resourcematerials that have been made available.However, the most troublesome concern is the lack ofteacher education which has been made available since thecurriculum was introduced. Such education is consideredto be of critical importance, whether it is in the form ofworkshops, in-service seminars, or courses that have beendeveloped and which the teachers can attend after school.Conclusion: When administrators, consultants,coordinators, and other supervisory personnel are notactively engaged in the planning of sweeping curriculumchanges, then the frequent result is a sense ofresentment. After all, it is they who have to encourageand inspire teachers to carry out the directive of theMinistry. When a new curriculum is imposed upon themwithout allowing them to have sufficient meaningful input,then it is extremely difficult for them to foresee wheredifficulties may arise and what measures to take to ensuresmooth implementation.Major Findings The content analysis of the integrated thematic unitsproduced data from which several findings were derived.Table VIII revealed that out of the 30 units, 29 had Artincluded but only 11 units had Music as well as Art. Oneunit had neither Music nor Art mentioned. Therefore, ifthese findings can be generalizeable to the usual unitscreated by teachers, then only about one third of thethematic units have Music included in them. With such a144low proportion of units even mentioning Music, it isunlikely that the educational goals for Music are beingmet. Not only is there a large discrepancy between theamount of Art and Music in the Primary Units, theactivities that have been included are clustered around afew skill goals.For Art, these goals (2 and 4) are activitiesinvolving drawing, usually representational; while forMusic the activity which is most often mentioned is thatof chanting or group singing.In Music there is no attempt to teach any of thesimple notation skills.In both Music and Art the lowest number of activitiesrecorded are for the knowledge goals. This indicates thatcritical thinking skills are not being taught, at leastnot in lessons which use these "teacher-made" integratedunits for Primary.The interviews which were conducted with seventeen,administrators, consultants, District Principals, orsupervisors provided the information upon which severalmajor findings were based. These major findings areconcerned with the achievement of the goals for Art andMusic when the overall curriculum is integratedthematically. The conclusions which were the result ofthese discussions are listed in point form.1451461. Teachers appear to be quite willing, even eager tocomply with the directive from the Ministry regardingintegration, but they lack resources, educationalskills, and the time to meet and plan new thematicunits.2. The educational goals for Art and Music are seldommet when these Fine Arts subjects are integrated intothe general curriculum and taught by including themin thematic units.3. Art is taught by the generalist teacher who triesto integrate it into the thematic units.4. Music is taught by an itinerant specialist whoteaches her/his own music course and does not relateit to units which are in progress in each class.5. There are instances when music is taught by theclassroom teacher, but this is only allowed (by theadministration) when the teacher has either been aspecialist or has a musical background in music.6. Teachers are trying to teach through themes, but only5 of the districts gave an unequivocal "yes" whilethe other 7 districts answered "partially" or "someof the time" to the question, "Do the teachers inyour district teach through themes?". However, thedata generated by this study does indicate that thedirective to integrate the Year 2000 Curriculum isbeing followed and that the variation in complianceis due to teachers adjusting to the new style ofteaching. Also, it is difficult because resources tohelp them implement the new curriculum are inextremely short supply.7. Generalist teachers lack the educational backgroundto achieve the artistic goals for Art and Music.8. The educational goals for Art and Music are notbeing achieved when they are taught in thematic unitsby generalists. However, in some districts,specialists who had been teaching music decided thatthey would rather have their own classrooms thantravel about the district. In these situations,where these teachers have a strong Fine Artsbackground, the units were very successful inachieving the artistic educational goals for both Artand Music. In fact, the names of some of those unitswere given as examples to show the new curriculum147can work under the right circumstances.9. Teachers feel unsure of their capability to teach thesubjects of Art and Music in a goal-directed fashionbecause of their lack of educational background inthese specific areas.10. Almost all classroom generalists feel apprehensiveabout teaching Music and prefer to leave it to thespecialist.11. Most classroom generalists make an attempt to teachArt but they hesitate to make any attempt to teachMusic. Apparently the reason is that there is agreater sense of personal exposure or risk-takingwhile teaching Music. Evidently teaching Music isconsidered, by most generalist teachers, to be a"performance" which brings out fears similar to thosecaused by public speaking. Art, on the other hand,is less feared because there is less likelihood ofbeing embarrassed before an "audience".12. Many teachers have not attended any in-serviceprogram pertaining to integrating Art and Musicthematically into the current curriculum.14813. Teachers are not using the resource manuals becausethere has not been an effective distribution of thisgovernment published booklet.14. It is more important for classroom generalists tohave access to a Resource Teacher for Art because itis not taught by specialists.15. New methods of evaluation are required. (1:A)Conclusions regarding Attitudes or Viewpoints of Teachers:The role of the generalist teacher is extremelycomplicated with the new curriculum - specifically as aresult of the directive of the Ministry to integrate thecurriculum by themes, which are to be used for allteaching.Teachers have become confused because they have beentold that the new curriculum is child-centred and nolonger content-centred. Most primary teachers happilyendorsed this philosophy as being based on soundeducational principles.However, no sooner had they accepted this philosophythan they were informed that everything must now be taughtthrough themes because the entire Year 2000 Curriculum wasto be integrated and the Ministry of Education wanted this149integration to be achieved through the use of themes.Most teachers, particularly those with little experiencefelt a sense of confusion at these directives. A commentfrom teachers was, "Well,is this curriculum child-centredor is it still content-centred - but this time in theguise of themes?".As the process of implementation continued the choiceof themes became all-important.Not all educators agree with this practice, because,realistically speaking, young inexperienced primarychildren are not able to plan themes or thematic unitswhich will fulfill the educational criteria shown below.Egan, (1991,201)A. achieve the educational goals in all subjects.B. prove interesting or exciting enough so that the unitwill last long enough for the teacher to successfullyteach some of the more subtle goals of the Fine Arts.C.^can be broad enough so that there is room enough tointroduce new learning concepts and skills in avariety of subjects such as Mathematics, SocialStudies, Language Arts, Dance, Physical EducationScience, Art and Music.Frequently this focus upon themes has turned the focusaway from the curriculum being child-centred. Also, thisconcentration upon themes seems to have turned the focus150away from the subjects or disciplines as well. There isreal confusion in the minds of the teachers who feel theymust focus or concentrate upon creating themes throughwhich to teach all the subjects. They are not certainthat the curriculum is child-centred anymore; some of themprivately feel that it has become theme-centred. Teachersfind that some subjects, such as Art and Music, do not fitand are forced into a mold for the sake of conformity.The plight of generalist teacher is that they mustnow face up to a task for which they were not sufficientlyprepared, particularly in the subjects of the Fine ArtsStrand which, formerly, were taught by specialists.The teachers are striving to fulfill the directive ofthe Ministry. Nonetheless, there is resistence withinsome school staffs. By and large, however, they aretrying to join everything together - at leastsemantically. Thus, if a song has a word, or phrase thatis echoed in the title of the theme, then the song is usedwhether or not it has educational or artistic merit. Thesituation for Art is worse. Children are told to somehowinterpret through their drawings whatever the thematiclesson is, so that there is evidence of integration whenthese drawings are displayed in the room or halls.Almost all children's art has become focused onmaking drawings that will extend the thematic topic in151some way. One result of this could easily be thatchildren will begin to dislike Art intensely. Why?Because no longer is it "fun", nor does it come from thechild's own inspiration. It has become a job. Childrenhave become illustrators and are told to illustrate ormake drawings for virtually every subject within thecurriculum. They are asked to draw pictures to depictarithmetic problems, to illustrate Social Studiesbooklets, to illustrate Language Arts stories, to drawpictures of people running, jumping or whatever theappropriate thematic activity is for Physical Education,to illustrate a Science lesson and, of course, for Artlesson - draw yet another picture of the theme or project.It is easy to sympathize with the generalist teacherswho must, somehow, tie everything together: but, we alsomust have compassion for these small children who feelthey must illustrate everything! Of course, the artisticgoals are not being achieved. The Ministry refers to thisas Aesthetic Artistic education. In the opinion of thisresearcher, such euphemisms merely obscure the truth whichis that Art is being turned into a chore in the interestsof creating the illusion that all subjects have beenintegrated within the self-contained classroom of thegeneralist.Music is treated similarly because it also can quite152easily be used as "window-dressing"; and children can bemade part of a pretense at musical participation inperformances where only a few "best voices" are heardwhile the less capable children are used to hum or createsome other type of accompaniment which involves littlereal musically aesthetic education.Conclusion: Generalist teachers are trying hard tointegrate through themes but, because of their lack ofskill and expertise in the subjects of Art and Music, theextended goals of the Year 2000 Curriculum are not beingachieved.ConclusionsFirst Purpose of this Study - Research Question One: From the findings presented above this studyconcludes that the educational goals for Art and Music canbe achieved when thematic units are used to integrate thecurriculum but only when certain conditions exist. Theseconditions are that the teacher:A) is a specialist in MusicB) has a great personal background in Art and MusicC)^has a degree as a Fine Arts Major153However, when a classroom generalist who lacks such anartistic background integrates the curriculum throughthemes, then the artistic educational goals are rarely metand, in fact, are frequently not even attempted.Second Purpose of this StudyTo Discover Factors which may have influenced CurriculumImplementation: This study further concludes that theimplementation of the Year 2000 Curriculum has beenhampered by unforeseen factors, which have had a profoundimpact upon the implementation of this curriculum.There is a wide discrepancy between the curriculum-asplanned and the curriculum-as-practiced.An example of this profound impact is that theidealistic concept and central thrust of this curriculumhas often been thwarted by the Union Contract which wasnegotiated at precisely the same time this new curriculumwas published and introduced to the school districts.Union Contract negotiations dictated terms whichdramatically affected implementation of the newcurriculum, particularly in the area of integration of thesubjects of Art and Music. The concept of integration wasthe area which was most affected by the fact that the154newly-created teachers' union bargained for an hour perweek for each primary teacher to have for preparation. Thedecision of how to create this hour of preparation timewas left to teachers who decided to use itinerant musicspecialists to free the generalist classroom teachers.At that point Music became the subject that was lessintegrated than any of the others. However, theeducational goals for music were well taken care ofbecause the specialists taught a core music course whichcovered the educational goals for music. Art, on theother hand, was left with the generalist teachers who havetried to integrate it into the overall curriculum.There is no way that the Sullivan Royal Commission,which was appointed in early 1986, could have foreseenthat teachers would be given the right to form a union.The Sullivan Royal Commission published its curriculum inthe Spring of 1988 and, coincidentally, teachers weregiven the right to unionize in June of 1988.Seemingly undeterred by this change of circumstanceand, perhaps not realizing the possible impact which thisnew labour union could have upon the new curriculum, theMinister of Education decreed that, as of September, 1989,the new curriculum was to be implemented by the schools ofBritish Columbia, beginning with the primary levels.Union negotiators continued working to draw up the first155union contract for teachers and thus, before the schoolsopened in the fall of 1989, the new curriculum's directionhad already been altered because of this initial unioncontract and the new rules for hours of employment whichhad been part of the bargaining process and which,coincidentally, dealt with time allotted for lessonpreparation etc., and how that time was to be created.The decision was made to use itinerant music teacherswho would travel to various schools and when they took theclass for a music lesson, the regular teacher was free toattend to other duties, such as lesson preparation. But,the question arises, in my mind at least, of what will bethe outcome if, in the next round of union negotiations,the teachers decide that they want to use a differentapproach, for example a different subject - such asScience - to create the time which will allow the regularteacher to leave the classroom? This could alter theformat of this integrated curriculum again.In other words, before the first primary classroomhad even gotten the chance to implement the new directive,far-reaching changes in policy had irrevocably altered thechances of success of the Year 2000 Curriculum, and itsnew mandate for total integration of subjects in primary.Insofar as complete integration of the primaryprogram was concerned - only those few primary teachers156who already had expertise in teaching Music and Art toyoung children, or who had a strong educational backgroundin both of these subjects, or who had a degree in LiberalFine Arts before entering the teaching profession - onlythey were able to fulfill the mandate of the Ministry ofEducation pertaining to the integration of Music and Artinto the general curriculum for the primary levels.RecommendationsThis section will discuss several recommendationswhich pertain to the integration of the subjects of Musicand Art in the Year 2000 Curriculum.1.^Resource materials, especially teacher manuals,should all should be given a very careful analysis toascertain whether they are worthwhile, adhere to thedirectives of the Ministry, and whether they are"teacher-friendly". For the latter consideration, perhapsa group of teachers could review materials and decide ifthey are suitable. If materials are "teacher-tested"before orders are placed, then considerable money could besaved, or spent more wisely on lesson aids that do notcause frustration, and which teachers like and will use.1571582.^The teacher training institutions - S.F.U., U.B.C.and U.Vic. - should develop courses in the artisticappreciation of Art and Music. These courses should be amixture of one part appreciation, one part research study,and one part methodology for how to teach children anappreciation for these art forms. This course should beworth a 3 credit value.As the situation is now, teachers appear to be unableto give even the most basic lesson in Art appreciation oreven to lead children in a discussion related to theenjoyment of Art. I believe that offering such courses onthe appreciation of Art and Music would be a very good wayto encourage teachers to accept more responsibility fortheir own education in these subject areas. Perhaps thecourse should be made mandatory. Then teachers would atleast be able to teach their own artistic appreciation andmight develop a greater sensitivity as to how toincorporate such lessons into their own thematic units.Also, the universities which have teacher educationprograms should make it a prerequisite to entering theelementary teacher programs for applicants to have somebasic course in both Art and Music. These courses couldbe taken concurrently with whatever program the student isenrolled in, but the student should not be allowedadmittance to the student teacher education programwithout having received credit in approved prerequisitecourses in the Fine Arts, particularly in Art and Music.This is not an unreasonable suggestion because there aremany other prerequisites that students must have beforethey can enter university programs. If student teacherswish to teach young people an integrated curriculum, thenit is essential that they know more about the subjects ofMusic and Art than they do at the present time.3.^New school buildings should be designed to reflectthe multi-subject nature of the Year 2000 Curriculum.Classrooms should be much larger with a semi-enclosed areain the center. This central area should be capable ofbeing completely closed for sound-proofing purposes. Inthis way noisy activities such as drama, dance, music,could be carried on without causing excessive distractionto more quiet classes, such as the creative writing group.This central core should be capable of storing in itscupboards resource materials, audio-visual aids, artsupplies, musical instruments, books, science equipmentand so on. However, this area should be large enough forteaching music skills to a group (recorders, for example).The general classroom would still be able to continue tofunction around the periphery of this core. This type ofa physical arrangement would help implement the integratedthematic curriculum as well as facilitate team-teaching.1591604.^The Ministry of Education must supply more fundingfor educational development of teachers. It is vital thatquality in-service workshops be provided for teachers.Ongoing education is absolutely critical to the successfulimplementation of this new Year 2000 Curriculum.Directions for further studyThis study has produced findings which haveimplictions for future research. Some of thesesuggestions have been listed below. However, in theprevious discussion sections, there are other areas ofconcern that researchers might find of interest,especially those factors which have an effect uponcurriculum implementation.1. A survey to discover how many districts are givingextra support to teachers in the form of resources,workshops, or in-service training. Find out how muchprofessional development each district is providing.2. A questionnaire to generalist teachers to explore howthey feel and react when faced with the prospect ofhaving to teach either Music or Art. Do they have anantipathy toward teaching these Fine Arts?3. A survey of teachers to discover what type ofresources they consider to be "teacher-friendly."Some Music and Art resource books cause teachers tobe even more fearful or less confident. In otherwords, they hinder instead of help, which wasrevealed in a few interviews in this study.4. A study to see how many teachers lack the artisticbackground to teach Art and Music. Enquire as towhat steps they, themselves, have taken sinceentering the teaching profession to remedy thisdeficiency; or have they passively waited for schooldistricts to provide in-service training. A samplequestion might be "How many have joined professionalorganizations for teachers?".161REFERENCESBaker, Michael C. "Integration in Instruction andImplications For The Arts - Music." Speech deliveredat a Symposium on the Fine Arts in Education.Burnaby, British Columbia. March 31, 1990.Ball, Charles H. "Art, the Arts, and Arts Education."Arts in Education. 89:3 (1988), 31-34.Blakeston, Judith. "Integration: A PersonalPerspective." Update. 33:1 (September 1990), 7-9.Blocker, Robert L. "The Arts: Reflection of Society."Arts in Education. 89:6 (1988), 13-17.Borg, W. R. and Gall, M. D. Educational Research. NewYork: Longman, 1983.Bryman, Alan . Research Methods and Organization Studies.London: Unwin Hyman, Ltd., 1989.Bundra, Judy I. "The Arts in Education: A Search forBalance." Arts in Education. 89:1 (1987), 25-30.Case, Roland. "Integrating Around Themes: AnOveremphasized Tool?" The Bookmark. (March 1991),19-27.Egan, Kieran. Primary Understanding: Education in EarlyChildhood. New York: Routledge, 1991.Eisner, Elliot. The Educational Imagination. 2nd ed.New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1985.Fisher, David. "Integration." Update. 33:1 (September1990), 12-16.Gehrke, Nathalie J. "Exploration of Teachers' Developmentof Integrative Curriculums." Journal of Curriculum and Supervision. 6:2 (Winter 1991), 107-117.Grauer, Kit. "Integration." BCATA Journal For Art Teachers.^31:1^(1991), 23-27.Grauer, Kit. "Integration: A Visual Arts Perspective."Paper presented at a Symposium on the Fine Arts inEducation. Burnaby, B. C. March 31, 1990.162Group Discussions. "Integration." (Transcript)Symposium on the Fine Arts in Education - Music, Visual Art, Drama, Dance. Burnaby, British Columbia.(March 30-31, 1990), 124-142.Hope, Samuel. "Searching For Common Ground." Arts inEducation. 89:5 (1988), 13-22.Jacobs, H. H., ed. Interdisciplinary Curriculum: Designand Implementation. Alexandria, Virginia:Association for Supervision and CurriculumDevelopment, 1989.Kindler, Ann M. "Integrated Curriculum and The VisualArts." BCATA Journal For Art Teachers. 31:1 (1991),5-7.Korzenik, Diana. "Francis Wayland Parker's Vision of theArts in Education." Theory Into Practice. XXIII:4(1987), 288-292.Mann, Chris. "Integration: Language Across theCurriculum." The Bookmark. (March 1991), 50-56.Marshall, Catherine and Rossman, Gretchen B. DesigningQualitative Research. Newbury Park, Calif: SagePublications, 1991.McClaren, Milton. "Integration: A Puzzle in Search of aSolution or a Solution in Search of a Puzzle."Provincial Intermediate Teachers' Association.(Spring 1991), 11-14.McCoubrey, S. "Connecting Commonalities." BCATA Journal for Art Teachers. 31:1 (May 1991), 17-21.McCoubrey, S. "Editorial." BCATA Journal For Art Teachers. 31:1 (May 1991), 3.McLaughlin, John. "Arts Education and School Personnel:Renewal and Retraining." Arts in Education. 89:3(1988), 31-44.Milburn, D. "Observations on 'Going British Primary'."Canadian and International Education. 3:2 (December1974), 134-140.Millar, John and Seller, Wayne. Curriculum: Perspectivesand Practice. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman, 1990.163Miller, Frederick. "Music In Our Schools: The Case forRealism." Arts in Education. 89:5 (1988) 38-41.Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia,Program Development. Primary Program Foundation Document. Victoria, B.C.: British ColumbiaGovernment Printing Office, reprinted 1991.Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia,Program Development. Primary Resource Document.Victoria, B.C.: British Columbia Government PrintingOffice, 1990.Ormond, John. "Two Lower-Mainland Integration Programs."Update. 33:1 (September 1990), 18-20.Quattrone, David F. "A Case Study in CurriculumInnovation: Developing an InterdisciplinaryCurriculum." Educational Horizons.(Fall 1989), 28-33.Reimer, B. A Philosophy of Music Education. 2d ed.Toronto: Prentice-Hall Canada, 1989.Reimer, B. "Designing Effective Arts Programs." Arts andthe Schools. Edited by Jerome Hausman. New York:Houghton Mifflin Co., 1958.Schmidt, Wm. et al. "The Uses of Curriculum Integrationin Language Arts Instruction: A Study of SixClassrooms." Journal of Curriculum Studies. 17:3(1985), 305-320.Strauss, Anselm and Corbin, Juliet. Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques.Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, 1991.Wagner, Ann. "Knowing How: Knowing That and theCriterion of Utility." Arts in Education. 89:5(1988), 23-27.Wiersma, W. Research Methods in Education: An Introduction, 4th ed. Toronto: Allyn and Bacon,1986.164Dr. R.D. pratleyDirecto Research Servicesand Acting ChairmanAppendix AThe University of British Columbia^B91-196Office of Research ServicesBEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES SCREENING COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCHAND OTHER STUDIES INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTSCERTIFICATE^of APPROVALINVESTIGATOR: Chalmers, G.UBC DEPT:INSTITUTION:TITLE:NUMBER:CO-INVEST:APPROVED:Visual & Perf ArtsUBC-CampusThe subsequent effects upon the educationalgoals of music and art when the B.C.primary curriculum is integrated throughthe use of thematic unitsB91-196MacArthur, J.AUG 2 7 1991The protocol describing the above-named project has beenreviewed by the Committee and the experimental procedures werefound to be acceptable on ethical grounds for researchinvolving human subjects.THIS CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL IS VALID FOR THREE YEARSFROM THE ABOVE APPROVAL DATE PROVIDED THERE IS NOCHANGE IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURESAppendix BIntroductory Comments: "Today I would like to ask you a few questions relative toyour knowledge of the new Year 2000 Curriculum. I amparticularly interested in the integration of Art andMusic within the curriculum. The questions will bespecifically concerned with how these subjects are nowtreated within the primary years, since the Ministry ofEducation has indicated that learning should be structuredaround themes and many primary teachers are now usingintegrated thematic units to teach the entire curriculum."Section 1: Demographic Information1. Would you please state your title or job description.2. Briefly, could you tell us about your areas ofresponsibility?3. How long have you been doing this?4. If you were to categorize yourself as a specialist inany particular area of the subjects within the FineArts Strand, how would you categorize yourself?166INTERVIEW GUIDE1. Have the primary teachers in your districtenthusiastically integrated Art and Music intotheir curriculum?2. Do they teach through themes?3. In your opinion,are the goals for Art and Music being satisfactorilyachieved when teachers teach through themes?4. Why?^or^Why not?5.^Can you give me some examples of particularlysuccessful thematic units in terms of these criteria?(A) Art/Music content(B) accomplishment of the educational goals, as setforth in the Year 2000 Curriculum?6.^Do you have any suggestions you would like to offerthat will help in the successful implementation ofthe Year 2000 Curriculum?7.^If you are especially concerned about some aspectregarding the curriculum, would you explain why youare concerned?167Appendix CSAMPLE TRANSCRIPT OF INTERVIEW (ANONYMOUS) INTERVIEWER:^ , would you give us yourtitle and tell us something about your jobso that we can understand more about yourposition here?RESPONDENT:^Certainly, June. My title is Director ofInstruction and I'm responsible, in thedistrict, for Visual and Performing Arts, sothat includes music, art, drama, dance. Ialso have responsibility as theadministrator for our District Consultants-- so, for the people who are in theschools, working with teachers, in primary,intermediate programming, gifted andtalented, and so on. I also am responsiblefor one quarter of the district when itcomes to staffing the schools. I have beenin ^  for 4 years in thissame role, although the job has added newdimensions each year; and I have done thiskind of job in two school districtspreviously, in ^ and in^ , that would make atotal of approximately 14 years. If I wereto categorize myself as a specialist, whichI still would, my background is music,instrumental and choral.INTERVIEWER: Well, that's very interesting. Now, we'llget into the central core of the interview,unless there's something else you wish toadd about your interests.(pause)This is regarding the Year 2000 Curriculum,which was implemented in 1989 and is shortlyto go up into the intermediate grades.QUESTION 1:^"Have the primary teachers in your districtenthusiastically integrated Music and Artinto their curriculum?"RESPONDENT:^It depends on the school, June. I thinkthat, certainly, they have worked at168integrating, relating; but our MusicCurriculum is taught by specialists -- notin total, but certainly in the intermediategrades it is. In the primary grades, thereare some people who are teaching their ownmusic. All of them are teaching their ownart in the primary grades and there isfairly consistent agreement that thethematic approach is valuable, as long asthey are teaching the skills of the arts aswell. But, I would say that they haverelatively enthusiastically embraced theidea of themes.INTERVIEWER: Um, Hmmm. You mentioned the skills. Yousaid that they use themes as long as itteaches the skills. However, if the themesdon't teach the skills, what do they do -stop and teach the skills?169RESPONDENT:INTERVIEWER:RESPONDENT:INTERVIEWER:RESPONDENT:No, I think they have tried to find themes,or be involved in themes that they could, infact, relate to their area comfortably andmeaningfully. But, where the school or thedivision has not done that, then they havetaught Art or taught Music in, I guess, amore traditional format.Umm, Hmmm. Well, we're up to questionnumber 3 already. This is going along quitenicely.I can give you more detail, if you'd like,June. Would that be helpful?Yes, it would, actually.Do you want me to deal primarily with Art orMusic?Well, I'm a music teacher, so I understandmore about the music answers; but I'mgathering information regarding art as well.But, I'm interested in the music.We've had a lot of discussion and there is afairly comfortable relationship that existsin the schools between the specialists andthe general classroom teachers in terms ofhow the specialists relate to the classroomINTERVIEWER:RESPONDENT:teachers and they have tried to beconsultative when they're planning themes,involving the specialists in those themes.Now, of course, you're going to find allsorts of varieties of that statement. We'vegot 37 elementary schools and you can find37 slightly different variations on thattheme. But, I think that the music teachershave, generally, embraced the concept of thefact that children do not learn Music, orArt, or Phys. Ed. or anything in isolationand that, whatever they can do to relatetheir subject area to what's going on in therest of the classrooms in that grade levelor in that primary division will be helpfulfor the children. Where they have, again,consistently said "No." is when a themedoesn't provide any material that ismeaningful or is something that they canrelate in a way that does enhance theteaching of the skills of the arts.For example, a unit on birds and simplysinging songs about birds or drawing apicture of a bird is^ I mean, theysimply wouldn't do that. But, if they couldfind a song, for instance, for a Grade Oneor a Grade Two classroom of "Bluebird,Bluebird"; talk about the birds -- why abluebird's a bluebird. You know, that kindof thing, dancing the song and play the gameassociated with it -- fine! And in art, ifthat were a picture of a bluebird thatrelated to the music class and, also,related to other subjects and, if everythingelse were related and it was teaching formor line drawing or colour or something likethat, then they would do that.INTERVIEWER: Umm. Hmmm. Well, this is the problem thatsome of us have found when we've beenlooking at thematic units -- that they'llfind a title somewhere in a book and justuse that song because there's a word in asong title that relates to the theme.RESPONDENT:^I thnk it's more common when it comes to theclassroom teacher because they're in thesituation and I thnk Art is in more jeopardythan Music here because, in our system atleast, they are for the most part generalist170teachers with minimal background in visualArt compared to the specialists that we havein Music. So there is more likelihood thata classroom teacher would make somejudgements that probably, to an Artsspecialist, would not be viewed as being "ontask" when it came to teaching the skills ofvisual Art.INTERVIEWER: But, you feel that the teachers are moreconfident in the music. Hmmm?RESPONDENT:^Well, they are more confident because theyare specialists. They have been hired toteach only music.INTERVIEWER: But, if a generalist was teaching the music,would the same thing occur?RESPONDENT:^Oh, it would occur probably even more so, interms of them making judgements about whatwas to be taught. The only reason there isa difference here is because we havespecialists for Music. That's the onlyreason.INTERVIEWER:QUESTION 5:(A)"Can you give me some examples ofparticularly successful thematic units interms of the criteria of the content of theArt and the Music?RESPONDENT:^Well, I can't say that I've seen anythingthat was really badly conceived, June,because when they have planned units inschools, they have planned them as a groupand they have involved people in thediscussion that led to the decision beingmade, and so whether it was on Dinosaurs orwhether it was Fall or Harvest or whatever,but they found some things that were veryadequate. I'll use the example that's mostrecent in my mind right now, which is theHarvest theme,   schooldid that and they did autumn colours intheir art classes. They did leaves and theydid crops in fields and so on, so that theywere gaining skills of colour but, also, inmore upper grade classes, they were doing171perspective and so on. In Music, Kate did awhole number of things that were mostlycircle and line dances so they were doing"Dance" but they were also looking at it fromthe perspective of, that this time of year afestival is associated with the Harvest.They used those kinds of themes and they hada little drama that was associated with itwhen it was the final, the culmination ofthis unit, which was about five to six weekslong. When Kate did the Music for it, it wasconceived (and she's a very skilled teacher)so that what she chose was totally related tothe theme and yet advanced the causes of herprogram at that point in time. With regardto the Art -- again, this is an unusualexample because our previous Art HelpingTeacher is a teacher in that school so Susangives lots of help and direction to teachersin that school.QUESTION 5:(B)"Can you give me some examples ofparticularly successful units in terms ofaccomplishment of the educational goals asset forth in the Year 2000 Curriculum?RESPONDENT: I guess I'd have to ask which goalsspecifically, June, are you referring tohere, or to which this question is referring?INTERVIEWER: Well, I didn't bring my, uh -- it's the oneinterview I didn't bring my Foundation Document to, but the Ministry has set outsome descriptors there of what childrenshould be doing by Later Primary and, as Irecall, by Later Primary they should've foundtheir "singing voice", to a certain point,and they should enjoy singing, and beenthusiastically participating and theyshould be using simple rhythm instruments andostinato and, uh^ I'm sure you rememberthese things as I'm bringing them up.RESPONDENT: Yes. Oh, I remember them. I just waswondering if, specifically, there were somethat you were aiming this question at, suchas individualization of program -- you know,that kind of thing, June. But, generally,let me answer the question, then. If we'retalking about each student working to the172maximum of their own potential, which I thinkis probably the crucial goal of the wholedocument, then I think we're meeting that tovarying degrees of success; probably less soin Music, because Music tends to be taught asa group activity. I think more so in Art,even though it may not be taught byspecialists; but I think that teachers ofMusic have a lot to learn aboutindividualizing instruction or maximizing thepotential of each child because we do tend tothink of things as everybody will do this atthe same time and, onwards it goes and so on.INTERVIEWER: Something that has come to my mind severaltimes, especially when I've been readingthematic units -- they'll try to have a MusicCenter, and I often wonder how they have thechildren all over the room, and some at aMusic Center happily composing, or singing,or making noise on their instruments -- andyou can't help but wonder how the children inthe next Center are managing. This is justas a teacher this comes to mind -- thedistraction could be a problem. Maybe someteachers have learned how to deal with that.RESPONDENT: I don't think many have: and I don't thinkthat many will. Personally, I think that'sthe big difficulty in this whole thing formusic, June.So, I interpret individualization in musicas being something else -- that there isopportunity to work at Centers but, if itwere my classroom I'd have to conceive it asa classroom which was organized around, forinstance -- a listening station where theymight put on headphones; where they mighthave a research station, or an experimentwith quality of sound so that you might havevibrations, you know -- sort of a ScienceStation related to music, physics of sound.In Art, I think it would be -- well, I thinkArt is much more easily geared toward theindividualization process, dealing with eachchild as the class goes on. I think it's much easier because there is an opportunity, whileyou're working, to walk around and deal withthem, to work with them, to move them incertain directions or ask them questions that173will help them think about what they'redoing.Whereas, in Music, where it's active andusually perceived as a group activity, it'smuch more difficult to do that because thereis noise, sound produced by most activitiesyou'd undertake in a Music classroom. So,there are varying degrees of achievement.Well, I think the teachers are meetingthat in Music classrooms by, for instance, aGrade One class tried here that in the courseof a week, that they will have heard everychild individually in that week.There certainly has been, in our district,a great deal of discussion with the Musicteachers and with the Art teachers aboutevaluation and I think that's a big goal ofthe Year 2000 Curriculum, as well, to havemore meaningful response to parents, tochildren, that helps them grow. The wholereason for evaluation, assessment andreporting would be to do that and so, I thinkthat we have made some significant stridesthere.In terms of the enjoyment and the kinds ofskills that they're expected to have, I thinkthat we are, again, at various levels.In Music, I would say that they havethose skills because, again, because we havespecialists doing it and we have a verystrong Orff Schulwerk Curriculum in placewhich is open-ended. Teachers who are welltrained, all of whom have at least Level IIOrff and we now have, I think, three peoplein this district who have Level IV Orff,which is the highest qualification level.In Art, I think here that, in terms of theactual production goals, I think that most ofthose kinds of things are being met where theteachers are undertaking it. There is still,in my mind, a consideration -- I guess --that in classrooms where the teachers doesnot feel comfortable teaching Art thatthey're not going to teach it. They're goingto do something that kinda looks like Art,but it's not.So we have, you know, both ends of thatspectrum, June. There is no doubt.INTERVIEWER: One of the uh - this uh^I haven't thought174of this question before because it just cameup at an interview the other day but, itseemed to me to be such a good point that I'mgoing to bring it up again. This teacher wassuggesting, and the rest of her friends feltthe same way, that the classrooms are notreally designed for this new curriculum andthat they were thinking that there should,perhaps, be small enclosed spaces uh, Isuppose something like small seminar rooms,and in this way you could have a MusicStation that you could put within glasswalls; close the door and children could goin there and work at a keyboard or drums, orwhatever was set up in there -- and theteacher could still see that they were "ontask", so-to-speak, but they are stillexploring and the noise is not obliteratinganybody's speech. What do you think of thatidea?RESPONDENT: I think that facilities are a majordifficulty, but I think also, June, that itcan be an excuse for lack of creativity onthe part of teachers in terms of finding waysto deal with this. So, although I do thinkthat some of the concepts of The Year 2000 would be served well by some physicalrenovations or new plans or whatever it wouldtake, I don't personally perceive that to bean insurmountable roadblock.INTERVIEWER: Uh, huh. Well, they were just thinking thatthis would really be of such great benefitand, of course, you've lost some of your roomif you have these little rooms built into thecorners. But, still, it struck me as kind ofa keen idea the way they were describing it,with all these instruments and drums and --you can imagine the things that would be inthere for children to explore. Anyway, Ijust thought I'd bring that up.RESPONDENT: I think that in the new buildings that arebeing designed they're trying, as much aspossible, within the constraints of theMinistry's blue book on facilities, to buildin opportunity to do that so that there isflexibility within the structure. Now wehave a new elementary school being built175which has a lot of space in the school, June,which is uh - sort of multi-functional andunassigned and, whether it becomes a spacethat's well used by the music teacher issomething left to be seen -- or the artteacher -- but it will have, in eachclassroom, an Arts space. But there is alsoa multi-purpose room which is designed forwork with large art projects -- big sinks,storage and so on -- and also, there's amusic room but, there is also this samemulti-purpose room, which was designed foruse with dance or it could be an offshootarea for the music group and so on. So, Ithink there'll be heavy, heavy demand on thatspace plus a number of others that weredesigned into it.But, there certainly was much philosophical discussion about:"How do we try and incorporate into thisspace within the given limits of the kinds ofthings that would help us meet these goals?"INTERVIEWER: Umm Hmm. But, for part of this thesis I'mtrying to put in a section on suggestionsthat people really feel would help and so, Iwas wondering how you felt about that one.Do you have any other suggestions you'd liketo offer?RESPONDENT: Well, I think, June, that the most importantsuggestion that I have is probably one whichsurfaced early, but it's kind of disappeared.It comes back to one of the first things Isaid that, the concern that I have is that,in the hands of the person who doesn't fullyunderstand the skills that we're trying toteach in the Arts, or in Phys. Ed., or -- itdoesn't matter -- but, the whole concept ofthematic grouping allows a watering-down ofthose skills and a denigration of thatsubject area's implicit skills and I thinkthe only thing that will help there is aconstant dialogue as this goes along and theneed for districts to provide resource peoplewho can, in fact, reinforce the concept thata thematic unit that touches on -- singing asong about a bird, draws a picture of a bird,with no other reference to Art or Music,other than that -- is not adequate.176So, I suggest:- a resource person in the district,- strong documentation from the Ministry thatputs some teeth in that will help.But, beyond that, people close thedoor to their classroom and they're going todo -- what they're going to do. That's thereality of it, too.INTERVIEWER: Yes, indeed.Well, those are excellent suggestions.That's a very good idea.Well, unless you have anything further toadd, I think that we've finished in less timethan I thought it would take.Thank you again very much.RESPONDENT: Oh, you're welcome.177Appendix DObservations & Coding Categories for Curriculum Interviews (I)^PERSONAL STYLE or INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL BEHAVIOURS(A) greetings(1) touching(2) verbal salutations(B) attitude of respondent(s) throughout interview(1) followed the interview format(a) easily(b) resisted the structured questions(i) somewhat(ii) less than half of the time(iii) more than half of the time(C) tendency of respondents to be extra helpful(1) volunteer historical information(a) history of the district(b) history of curriculum changes(c) history regarding Year 2000 Curriculum(2) volunteer information from written sources(a) other research studies(b) books by experts in the field(c) information offered regarding-(i) conferences(ii) symposiums(iii) research(iv) other(II)^REACTIONS DURING QUESTIONING AND ANSWERING(A) distractions(1) paper shuffling(2) body position changes(3) critical of questions asked(B) engagement and feedback(1) head nodding(2) smiling(3) looking at interviewer(4) eye contact(5) verbal agreement^or critical comments(6) asking questions(a) on new curriculum(b) on clarification of question(c) UBC teacher education courses(7) body positioning(a) relaxed(b) tense(C) interruptions(1) from outside sources(a) telephone(b) another person178179(III)^VERBAL(A) tone(pitch)(loudness)(intonation)(B) duration(1) length of sentences(2) conciseness(C) content(1) tentative phrases(a) I believe(b) I guess(c) I think(2) apologies(3) niceties(4) humour(a) elaborate(b) quick asides(c) dry wit(5) value statements(6) philosophical statements(D) silences(1) wait time(a) while pondering answer(b) quickly answers(c) automatic fast answers(IV)^NONVERBAL(A) kinesics(1) hands(a) restless(b) quiet(2) stance(a) poised but at ease(b) uncomfortable and rigid(B) proxemics(1) use of space(a) moving around room(b) moving from chair(2) office(a) desk(i) functional(ii) decorative(b) library in office(i) professional books(ii) quality reference books(iii) other materials - (periodicals etc.)(3) site of interview(a) size(b) decor(c) amount of privacyAppendix ESCHOOL DISTRICTS WHICH PARTICIPATED IN THIS RESEARCHAbbotsfordBurnabyDeltaHowe SoundLangleyMaple RidgeMissionNorth VancouverRichmondSurreyVancouverWest Vancouver1801 2ArtAppendix FEarly Primary3 456GOALS181'5141312117 8lMu$iC--II.-_41...I.meo-,1•=1-_IMMO__IsmsMID.___peeLater Primaryi^I^I^i^I^I^I^I182-___-IN=151413121142 10o.Ea)^9< 80 75 e.oED 5Z43210••• %• •• •• •• •• •• •,^ S^„.^ ,-,,I^I^I^1^•%1-'^1^1^I1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 GOALSArt Music2ART3456GOALS1 7Total Attempts for Early and Later PrimaryAppendix Art184Early PrimaryThe child:1 • creates images through use of visualsymbols (e.g., paints a picture of a personand a house with use of personalschema);• expresses ideas in visual form (e.g., usesdrawings to tell a story);• creates images inspired by self or others(e.g., constructs a sculpture on monstertheme);• represents images in different ways (e.g.,draws, models, paints, constructs, and usetextile and printmaking processes);• uses a variety of simple an making toolsand materials (e.g., uses brushes andpaint to create patterns and pictures).• displays skill in manipulating simplematerials and processes (e.g, uses brushesand paint to create patterns and pictures).Later PrimaryThe c hild:1 • creates images from different sources[observation, memory, imagination) (e.g.,creates an observational line drawing of aclass pet);2. expresses ideas and feeling in visual form(e.g., paints a picture that expressesscariness);3. creates image inspired by self, or other artforms (e.g.,, constructs a collage inspiredby theme of a poem);4. represents images in different•ways withincreasing skill (e.g., draws, paints.models, constructs, and uses texdle andprintmaking processes);5. uses a variety of simple art maldng toolsand materials appropriately (e.g., cutspaper and shapes with scissors).6. displays increasing sophistication inmanipulating simple materials andprocesses (e.g., chooses various papertypes that suit image in making a collage).The child:7. explores elements of design in making orresponding to an (e.g., names elements[1;nes, colours, textures, shapes] andrecognizes qualities);a describes images by attending to thesubject, sensory and formal qualities,[elements and principles of design andmethod and technique] (e.g., identifiesand describes textures in a weaving).The child:7^uses and discusses different elements andprinciples of design (e.g., describes ownan in terms of colour, pattern, andbalance); .8. describes images by attending to thesubject, sensory, and formal qualities(elements and principles of design) andmethod and technique (e.g., discussesimplied textures and how they might havebeen made in a painting).Mu s ic185Early PrimaryThe child:1. represents personal vocal sounds usingspeaking and singing voice (e.g., useshigh/low sounds, repeated pitch, createsinterest in speech, gains awareness ofown accuracy in pitch);Later PrimaryThe child:sings in tune within a comfortable range(e.g., sings in tune within the followingrange, with emphasis on the upper pan ofthe range):performs simple songs, rhythm chants,and finger plays (e.g., uses song materialsto gain awareness of beat and rhythmicand melodic concepts, keeps best usingsimple percussion instruments andmovement).explores differences in timbre ofinstruments and voices (e.g., explores thedifferences among wood, string, metal,skin, and vocal timbres);4. responds to musical phrase, tempo,dynamics through body movement (e.g.,observes pattern in music, beginnings andendings, differences in tempo anddynamics).• represents music through simple notation(e.g:, high/low placement on staff, beats,simple rhythm patterns, tests).The child:6 • communicates personal ideas throughmusic (e.g., represents personal ideas andimages through singing and playingsimple rhythmic and melodicinstruments),7 • responds to similarities, differences, andrelationships in music (e.g., discusses andresponds through movement to repetitionin songs, different instrumental qualities,variations in mood);8, recognizes that music can expressdifferent emotions and moods (e.g.,responds to mood contrast throughmovement, verbal or visual images).contributes to musical activities bothindividually and in groups (e.g, expressesmood, tempo, timbre, dynamics, rhythmand melody in music, uses percussioninstruments, movement, and voice incombination);3 • uses different instruments and voice tocreate and perform rhythmic and me/odicostinato (e.g., uses repeated rhythmic ormelodic patterns to accompany knownsongs);4, expresses musical phrases., vitiation intempo and dynamics through contrast(e.g., varies loud/soft, or through bodygestures, group/solo alternation, etc.).5 • uses appropnate music vocabulary andnotation with understanding (e.g., quarternote and rest, time signatures, eighth notesand rest, etc.).The child:6^expresses images through music andsound (e.g., using voice and selectedclassroom instruments, creates anddevelops own musical images);7 • expresses musical elements through theirparallels in other an forms (e.g.,dramatizes musical sequence, transformsmusical form as visual art design ormusical contour as dance);8^expresses personal preferences in musicand appreciates the musical preferences oothers (e.g., discusses a variety of music,giving rer,sons for preference),12 •


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