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Global content in Canadian social studies curriculum guides Haskett, Roger Andrew 1992

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GLOBAL CONTENT IN CANADIAN SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM GUIDES  by  ROGER ANDREW HASKETT B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1985 B.F.A.,, The University of British Columbia, 1991  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Department of Curriculum and  Instruction)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  June 1992 çRoger Andrew Haskett,  1992  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  / Cvjc  Department of  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  /QZ  11  ABSTRACT  studies  social  this  purpose of  The  study was  curriculum  guides  to determine how Canadian global  portray  education,  broadly defined as the study of foreign countries, cultures and landscapes; or  comparisons  of  current  provincial  in  1988  grades  for  one  other  with  Canada/Canadians  Forty-seven  countries/citizens. documents,  and connections  universal or international issues;  and  territorial  through  12,  were  analyzed around the following questions: 1. What rationales and goals are used to justify and guide the pursuit of global education? 2. What is the recommended content (concepts, topics, geographic  global  coverage,  global/local connections,  problems,  extent  of  disciplinary orientations,  and overall amount) of global education? 3.  What characteristics of a global perspective are  advanced? To pursue  these questions,  a  16  page analysis  instrument was  developed in light of the varying definitions, rationales, and concepts  evident  in  the  global  education  literature,  and  to  allow for a wide-ranging analysis of the nature and extent of global education recommended in the curricula. According to the analysis there is considerable space for  the pursuit of global education within classrooms across Canada. There is little indication of a lack of overall support for such endeavours.  If a teacher has the knowledge and inclination,  significant  amount of  global  classroom,  as  are  curricula.  Overwhelmingly,  there  studies  could be  constraints  few  positive  pursued  imposed  rather  than  characteristics of a global perspective are evident.  a  in the  by  most  negative However,  the rationales and goals used to justify and guide the pursuit of  global  concepts, across  education, topics  curricula.  and  as  well  as  geographic  the  range  regions,  of  differ  Current controversial topics  recommended considerably  are ignored in  general, and value reasoning, while identified as a goal by many provinces, examples.  is  not  adequately  supported  with  instructions  or  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES  vii  LIST OF’ FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  CHAPTER I.  II.  1  INTRODUCTION Research Focus  1  Methodology  4  Selection of Curriculum Documents  4  Development and Use of Instrument  5  Reporting of Data  8  CURRICULAR ISSUES Descriptions of Global Education  11 11  Broad Definition  12  Content Emphases  22  Foreign Language Study  23  Multicultural Education  24  International Education  26  Global Issues  29  Rationales  31  V  Scope and Sequence  37  Challenges to Global Education  41  Empirical Research  44  Summary  49  III. ANALYSIS OF CURRICULUM DOCUMENTS Rationales and Goals for Global Studies  54  Rationales  54  Goals for Global Content  60  Content of Global Studies  IV.  52  67  Concepts  68  Global Topics  79  GeographicCoverage  90  Global Problems  98  Global/Local Connections  99  The Scope of Global Studies  102  Global Presence in the Curriculum  102  Source of Global Content  105  Global Perspective  107  S umnmnary’  122  SUMMARYANDIMPLICATIONS  125  S uminary  125  Implications for Curriculum Design  133  FurtherResearch  141  vi BIBLIOGRAPHY  142  APPEI A  150  APPEI B  151  APPENDIX C  153  vii  LIST OF TABLES  PAGE  TABLE  1.  Reasons for Global Studies  56  2.  Concepts Relevant to Global Studies  69  3.  Concepts Across Elementary and Secondary  74  4.  Concepts and Their Context  76  5.  Treatment of Concepts  77  6.  Topics Relevant to Global Education  80  7.  Topics Across Elementary and Secondary  82  8.  Topics and Their Treatment  85  9.  Topics and Their Context  87  10.  Range in the Coverage of World Regions  90  11.  Regions and Their Prominent Countries  93  12.  Common Topics by Regions  96  13.  Global Problems  99  14.  Provinces Making Global/Local Connections  100  15.  Defeasance Characteristics of a Global Perspective  108  viii  LIST OF FIGURES  PAGE  FIGURE  62  1.  Goals for Global Content: Provincial Support  2.  Goals for Global Content: Instructions for Teachers  3.  Geographic Representation: National Average  4.  Global Presence: National Average Across Grades  .....  103  5.  Global Presence: National Average  .....  104  6.  Pedagogic Approach to Global Content  7.  Global Perspective: Characteristics By Provinces  8.  Global Perspective: National Characteristics  .  66 92  .  ..  106 ....  120 121  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My sincerest gratitude to Walter Werner, without whom this thesis would never have been completed and who also contributed much of the wisdom contained in these pages. My appreciation also extend to my committee members, Roland Case,  who was  there  hopped on at the end,  at  the  beginning,  and  Peter  Sexias,  who  both of whom contributed their insights  and enriched this thesis. Finally,  thanks  to Katie,  and my  family and  friends who  lent me support and suffered through this experience (much more silently than I).  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  Global education is of growing interest to educators across Canada. Provincial teacher associations are currently funded by the  International  Canadian  Development  Agency  to  develop  appropriate student materials and teacher training. Despite this activity,  however,  there  is  little  information  regarding  the  status of global education in Canadian public school curricula. No comprehensive data are available on the extent or quality of the officially prescribed global studies in any of the provinces or territories. An analysis of curriculum guides across Canada would  a  provide  classrooms.  view  of  what  is  expected  to  be  taught  in  A relevant place to start such an analysis is with  the social studies because this subject deals so explicitly with the world’s peoples, places and issues.  RESEARCH FOCUS The major question addressed by this study is as follows: During 1988, studies  how did Canadian provincial and, territorial social  curriculum  guides,  both  elementary  and  secondary,  2 collectively portray global education? This question includes a number of sub-questions: 1.  What rationales and goals are used to justify and  guide the pursuit of global education? 2. What content is related to global education? a.  What  concepts  are  and  identified  are  they  are  they  countries  are  how  discussed? What  b.  topics  are  identified  and  how  discussed? c.  What  geographic  regions  and  identified and how are they discussed? d.  What  global  problems  are  identified and  how are  they depicted? e. What linkages between global and local issues and problems are identified? f. What percentage of the content is related to global studies? g. What disciplinary perspectives (single, multi-, or interdisciplinary) are recommended? 3.  What characteristics of a global perspective are  advanced? Questions one and two, by focusing on purposes and content, allow  for a descriptive analysis  of the nature and extent of  global education recommended within curriculum guides. Question three is more interpretive, and focuses on how global studies is  3 presented;  ten  criteria  perspective  are used to evaluate the purposes  for  the  development  of and  a  global  content of  curriculum guides. Although definitions of global education are open to debate (Chapter broadly  2  examines  here  as  two  the  leading  study  of  definitions),  one  or  more  of  it  is  defined  following  the  topics: 1)  foreign countries, cultures and landscapes;  2) universal or international issues related to human rights, the United Nations, nuclear war, international law, etc.; 3) connections or comparisons of Canada/Canadians with other countries/citizens. This general definition is adopted because it allows for a broad examination of curricular content, the goals and rationales that justify it,  and the perspectives that permeate it.  Throughout  the study, the terms “global education” and “global studies” are used interchangeably. The provide  focus a  is on curricular policy documents because they  relatively  concise  means  of  examining  what  is  prescribed and recommended for study in each province. However, although they provide the “official” position in a subject area and outline parameters for guiding classroom activities, there is no guarantee that the contents of the curriculum are being taught in each classroom.  4  METHODOLOGY  Research design decisions were related to the selection of the  documents,  curricular  of  development  an  instrument  for  analyzing those documents, and the best way to report the data.  Selection of Curricular Documents In  summer  the  of  a  1987,  sent  was  letter  to  12  the  and territorial ministries of education asking for  provincial  their current social studies curriculum guides (Appendix A). Not all  of  follow-up guides  jurisdictions  the  phone  that  call  were  was  still  responded made  to  early  missing,  and  first  this  in  1988  another  to  request.  secure  call  was  A  those made  a  couple of months later for the same purpose. Although all of the provinces  and  territories  responded,  complete  sets  of  guides  were not made available by Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia because some documents were under revision. These initial omissions did not  prove  to  be  serious  because  these  gaps  were  filled  by  analyzing microfiche copies of current curriculum guides kept by the library at the University of British Columbia. A total of 47 curriculum guides current during 1988 were analyzed from the ten provinces used  and  British  documents  the  Northwest  Columbia’s  analyzed.  All  Territories  curriculum). of  the  (the  Yukon Territory  Appendix  documents  B  relate  lists to  the  social  5 elementary  studies,  (eight through 12);  one  (grades  through  seven)  and  secondary  the social studies  at the secondary level,  in some provinces are referred to as history and geography. Although some provinces also offer a diversity of elective such  courses  political  as  science,  or  economics,  law  at  the  secondary level under the heading of social studies, these were not  analyzed  of  favour  in  non-elective  core,  courses.  In the  interest of consistency across the provinces, optional courses, most  often offered  in the higher grades  (eleven and twelve),  were avoided. To further keep the object of analysis consistent and standardized across provinces, whenever a province offered within  basic,  (e.g.,  average,  and  levels  advanced)  the middle or “average” course for a grade level was  analyzed  (e.g.,  outlines was  level  examines  three the the  a  course  different  Ontario’s levels only  for  one  treatment  History each  grade  analyzed). of  and  global  and  Thus,  Studies  Contemporary course; this  studies  the  middle  analysis  within  the  only non-  elective, core courses of social studies.  Development and Use of Instrument An analysis instrument of 16 pages (Appendix C) was adapted from an earlier instrument developed by Case, Werner and Daniels (1988) with  for evaluating curricular units and materials concerned global  studies.  Their  published  Development Education Materials Analysis  instrument,  entitled  Scheme,  the only  was  6 available  one  having  focused  that  used  been  originally  to  development  related  specifically on to  analyze  global  education,  Modifications  education.  materials  curriculum  made  were  utilizing feedback from the original authors; the new instrument expanded  on  the  relevant  to  Although  there  previous  the  research some  was  the desire to  instrument,  including  by  one  of  the  present  over  the  length  questions concern  concern study. of  a broad definition of  adopt  in order to be responsive to the  education  of  areas  the  global  literature and to  achieve a wide-ranging analysis of curriculum guides, was deemed more important than a more narrow focus on limited information. Consequently, the instrument explores global education in terms of  a  wide  range  of  factors  interrelated  such  as  rationales,  goals, nature and extent of geographical coverage, key concepts and  major  topics/issues,  disciplinary  characteristics of a global perspective. is divided into three sections:  perspectives,  and  The instrument itself  rationale and goals,  content,  and perspectives. These sections reflect areas of concern within the broader literature (as will be discussed in Chapter 2). The  modified  curricula, authors 1988).  instrument  was  using two surveyors:  of the original Data  compiled  the  on  two  provincial  the researcher and one of the  instrument by  piloted  two  (Case,  Werner and Daniels,  surveyors  were  compared,  differences discussed, and revisions of the instrument made in order to enhance its clarity and validity.  A second pilot was  7 conducted,  similar to the  first,  which resulted  in  the  final  revisions to the instrument. Enhancing the reliability of the researcher’s analysis was also the focus of the pilot tests.  The two surveyors analyzed  the same curricula independently and then compared data in order to discuss reasons for any differences of interpretation, and to search for ways to increase inter-rater reliability. after half of the provinces were examined,  Further,  a third inter-rater  reliability check was conducted on the curriculum analysis for one province. It was found that the curriculum guides were being interpreted in a similar and consistent manner. After the documents were analyzed and the data reported in a  first  draft  curricula  of  again  Chapter in  the  3,  order  to  researcher  clarify  further check on reliability.  read  through  the  of  concern  and  points  The same process occurred after  the second draft of Chapter 3  as well.  It was  found,  in both  instances, that the curricula had been interpreted consistently across the provinces and through time. In  summary,  territory. documents provincial  the  unit  of  analysis  was  a  province  or  The instrument was used to collect data across the for  each  and one  jurisdiction. territory)  gathering phase of the study.  There were  11  analyses  at the completion of  this  (ten data  8 Reporting of Data Provincial comparisons were difficult to make because all documents did not provide the same level of detail and depth of discussion. Consequently, the validity and fairness of detailed comparisons would have been suspect. to  provide  more  general from  selected  examples general  a  picture  national  documents.  provincial  are  comparisons  It was prudent, therefore,  between  drawn  with  together  Consequently,  provinces  only  where  appropriate. There are three important limitations to this portrayal of the data, and these account for why it is only an approximation of the current state of officially sanctioned global education across  Canada  different  in  1988.  provinces was  First, difficult  at  across  documents  comparing  because  times  different  formats for curriculum guides hindered an equitable comparison. There was disparity in the amount of detail provided across the guides; variations in the amount of description and elaboration made precise comparisons impossible. While one province outlined its complete curriculum in 100 pages contained within one guide, another  provided  Newfoundland’s provinces.)  500  guide  Also,  pages was  not  provinces  guides.  in  ten  as  detailed  allowed  for  as  (For were  greater  example, the  and  other lesser  amounts of locally developed curricula. For these reasons, national  picture  and  provincial  cautiously as “approximate.”  comparisons  must  be  any  treated  9 A second limitation arises because provinces have different policies regarding required and optional courses, and the number of courses a student may select for credit requirements. offer students  provinces  studies courses; 11,  to grade  little or no choice  Some  in their social  for example, students must take the subject up  and then in grade 12 choose between geography or  history. Other provinces allow choice as early as grade nine and may provide five or six options in the higher grades. no claims are made about the nature and extent of  Third, global  occurring  education guides  curriculum  cannot  classrooms.  in be  equated  The  with  content  of  implementation.  Authorized curricula do not depict how teachers interpret policy or what they actually do in their classrooms. Curriculum guides only provide a general prescription of what should be covered in a course;  the extent to which a teacher chooses to follow the  guide  another  is  guide,  a  question.  teacher’s  access  even  Moreover, to  resources,  when  following  a  teaching  preferred  methods and subject perspective will shape the content. However, curriculum studied  guides in  administrators,  provide  do  classrooms local  some  indication  across curriculum  a  of  what  be  Teachers,  province. developers  may  and  teacher  educators all look to curriculum guides for direction. The  organization of  this  study is  as  follows:  Chapter 2  examines selected literature of global education, including its goals,  rationales  and  content;  components  of  a  global  10 perspective; and the current status of global education. Chapter 3 presents the data from the curriculum guides, whereas Chapter 4 provides a summary and raises some implications.  11  CHAPTER 2 CURRICULAR ISSUES  Various questions arise when considering global education within curriculum policy documents:  What is  global  education?  Why should it be pursued? How does the scope and sequence of the curriculum affect the placement of global education? What are the  challenges  to  global  education  in  the  curriculum?  What  research has been done on global education in the curriculum? This chapter briefly examines these questions from the broader literature of global education in order to provide a context for the analysis and discussion of curriculum documents in Chapters 3 and 4.  DESCRIPTIONS OF GLOBAL EDUCATION  “Global education is a bundle of ambiguities,” says Werner, in part because “definitions of global education are various and lack  coherence”  (1990:  77).  conflicting  goals,  content  12 prescriptions (Becker,  and  rationales  1980;  Popkewitz,  1982;  in  evident  are  Tye,  the  1990[aj),  literature with  and  an  increase of literature over the past ten years, there sometimes is  a  corresponding  of  lack  clarity  (Werner,  78-79).  1990:  Consequently, questions about what is meant by global education and why it should be promoted are important. This section of the chapter outlines a broad definition,  some content emphases and  those rationales that encompass most of the discussion of global education within the literature.  Broad Definition  Hanvey’s (1976) prominent definition of global education is assumed in much of the literature. He considers the advancement of  a  “global  education, dimensions understand  and  defines  or categories if  we  are  student  to  this of to  interdependent  increasingly encourages  perspective”  the  be  central in  perspective  with  world”  the  along  understanding  terms  of  five  of  challenges 1).  (1976:  global  of  need to know and  “things we will cope  goal  any  an  Teaching  that  these  five  of  dimensions is considered to be global education. it  is  important to recognize a key element of Hanvey’s argument.  He  Before  we  examine  these  five  dimensions,  though,  believes that a global perspective is a collective as opposed to an  individual  perspective.  Every  individual  does  not  need to  13 five dimensions to the same degree  attain all  for a group to  have a global perspective: a global perspective may be a variable trait possessed in some form and degree by a population, with the precise character of that perspective determined by the specialized capabilities, predispositions, and attitudes of the group’s members.... every individual does not have to be brought to the same level of intellectual and moral development in order for a population to be moving in the direction of a more global perspective (Hanvey, 1976: 2). This  is an important point for Hanvey because education for a rather, depending  global perspective need not be standardized;  upon the diversified talents and strengths of any student body, of  aspects  suitable  1976:  (Hanvey,  could  dimensions  five  these  be  taught  2).  The first dimension is “perspective consciousness,” which perspective or woridview  involves a recognition that one’s own is  not  universally  different  shared,  assumptions.  He  and is  that  not  other  referring  people to  often  have  differences  opinion but to something much deeper and more stable:  of  “opinion  is the surface layer, the conscious outcropping of perspective. But there are deep and hidden layers of perspective that may be more important in orienting behaviour” contain that  unexamined  guide  challenged  our  assumptions,  actions.  For  taken-for-granted  conceptions,  example,  the  assumptions  perspective that allow sexism to  4).  (1976:  flourish:  These layers  and  evaluations  feminist of  our  movement  collective  “they labelled the  most commonplace behaviours and attitudes ‘chauvinist,’ and thus  14 (Hanvey,  revealed the deeper layers of perspective in action” 1976:  5).  Not  only should education provoke a  recognition of  perspective, but it should also teach us how to probe its deep layers. As these unexamined aspects of a perspective are raised from the unconscious to the conscious  level,  an understanding  and alteration of assumptions and attitudes may be possible. The second dimension he refers to as “state of the planet awareness.” This includes awareness of prevailing and emergent conditions,  world  developments  population growth,  migrations,  and  trends  in  such  conditions,  economic  areas  as  resources  and physical environments, science and technology, law, health, inter-nation and intra—nation conflicts. Although the media are most responsible for creating this awareness, the formal school system  can  provide  a  more  balanced  awareness  amongst  its  students by helping them to deal with distortions caused by the media  and  studies  political  and  students  ideology.  science  reduce  departments  the  planetary conditions  Collaboration  limits  within  to  a  between  school  understanding  social  could  help  significant  imposed by the technical nature of world  data. The third dimension, distinct practices  goals: found  1)  “cross-cultural awareness,”  awareness  of  in human societies  a  diversity  of  values  around the world,  these diverse ideas and practices compare;  and 2)  has two and  and how  some limited  recognition of how one’s own society might be viewed from other  15 vantage  Mere  points.  contact  with  other  cultures  does  not  necessarily enhance the development of this understanding unless is  there  also  a  another culture  respect over  for,  and  some  participation  an extended period.  More  within  desirable  than  empathy (“the capacity to imagine oneself in another role within the  context  of  one’s  own  culture”)  is  transspection  (“the  capacity to imagine oneself in a role within the context of a foreign  culture”),  in  which  “a  person  temporarily  believes  whatever the other person believes” (Hanvey, 1976: 12), although Hanvey  is  optimistic  not  about  encourage this disposition : by educational strategies”  the  school’s  capacity  to  “[it] is not likely to be produced  (1976:  12).  The fourth dimension is “knowledge of global dynamics,” an understanding of the attributes and mechanisms of global systems (e.g., political, economic, ecological and social). Viewing the world in terms of interacting systems curtails the tendency to see events or issues in overly simple terms: “[students] replace simplistic explanations and expectations with more sophisticated explanations  and  expectations”  (Hanvey,  1976:  13)  as  they  understand that decisions in one system or region often affect other areas. The ramifications of innovation or political action in one system,  for instance, can have surprising impacts on the  nature and quality of events elsewhere. The final dimension is “awareness of alternatives” and the importance of choice:  16 I have talked of changes in awareness... of our own cultural perspective, awareness of how other peoples view the world, awareness of global dynamics and patterns of change. In this final section I wish to emphasize that such heightened awareness, desirable as it is, brings with it problems of choice (Hanvey, 1976: 22). In our current understanding of alternative courses of action, Hanvey argues that we are increasingly moving from a pre-global to a global cognition, from a reliance upon tradition to that of pre-global  reason.  A  choices  in terms  cognition  not  does  seek  long term consequences,  of  to  understand  nor question the  adequacy of current social goals and values, nor the primacy of national  interests  critical  emphasizes  a more  problems  transcend  Surprisingly,  although and  regional  and for  argues  28).  (1976:  This  is  an  ironic  -  cognition that  most  boundaries. to  student  not  “propose  changes  Hanvey does  attitudes,  that students choose among alternatives them”  recognizing  evaluation,  he  a global  Conversely,  national  knowledge  awareness,  24).  (1976:  only that they know of way  of  concluding  an  argument for perspective change. When  or  one  perspective  are  more  studied,  of  these  dimensions  Hanvey believes  of  global  a  global  education  is  being promoted. Although various institutions contribute to the development of this perspective able  to  address  all  five  (e.g., the media),  dimensions  and,  thus,  schools are are  a  good  location for global education. Much  of  the  literature  assumes  Hanvey’s  definition  or  17 extends his arguments (note, for example, that the contributors to  Yearbook  1991  ASCD  the  Global  Action uncritically adopt his perspective). main  of  thrust  To  Authors accept the  highlights  conception which  his  From Thought  Education:  need  the  for  greater awareness of issues and understanding of facts about the world (e.g., technological change, different cultures). Few writers are critical of Hanvey’s ideas.  In “Towards a (1988)  Defensible Conception of a Global Perspective,” Coombs that  shows  Hanvey’s  account  of  global  a  inadequate for guiding global education. in  awareness  proceed”  solid  a  is  and  necessary  is  perspective  Although “an increase base  from  which  to  1976: 28), Coombs shows that Hanvey’s account  (Hanvey,  does not include any discussion of the need to evaluate value His  positions.  main  criticism  is  it  that  should  be  more  “strongly normative” by promoting: a moral point of view which sees all persons as having equal moral worth...[and incorporating] a theory of the good (development) that provides at least some basic criteria for identifying human problems and [and it does not provide] any solutions to them; reasoned view about why . . .universal values are to be accepted (1988: 5-6). Although  he  briefly  outlines  the  requirements  of  a  global  perspective that emphasize a rational, deliberate consideration of value issues,  Coombs does  little more than offer a general  and insightful critique of Hanvey’s work. On  the  other  hand,  efforts  of  both  Hanvey  Case and  (1991) Coombs  critically to  extends  define  a  the  global  18 perspective.  He does so by first clarifying Coombs’ “(1) a ‘point of view’  that a perspective involves: from  point  which,  occurs,  and  (2)  person,  place  observation”  some or  a  or  ‘object’  state  (1988:  lens  of  affairs Based  3).  substantive  dimension  perspective,  while  “point of view  -  on of  a  to  observation  focus  thing, of  clarification,  global the  the matrix of concepts, -  the  is  this  an  a vantage  an event,  -  dimension  perceptual  sensibilities, and attitudes  the Case  perspective. “object” relates  The  of to  a the  orientations, values,  through which we want students to  (1991: 2). He then identifies five elements  perceive the world” are  that  corresponds  the  which,  of attention  two major dimensions  delineates  that  through  -  assertion  essential  to  the  perceptual  dimension  of  a  global  perspective. The one’s  “open-mindedness,”  first,  beliefs  available  on  the  evidence”  basis  and  is  of  is  a  “willingness  impartial  “the  to  consideration  crucial  feature  of  form of the  perceptual dimension” (1991: 10). Open-mindedness is, of course, a  matter  of  degree.  One  person may be more  open-minded  than  another, but also certain areas within a person’s consciousness may be more or less open to impartial evaluation.  For example,  deeply held convictions or one’s sense of personal identity are areas where a person may be less likely to be open-minded. While it may not  be  a  simple  process  to  change  one’s  foundational  beliefs, it is not impossible if a person is open-minded (Case,  19 1991:  1983:  Hare,  11-12;  But if a person is not open-  48-58).  there is little chance for any transformation in one’s  minded, thinking  or  structure.  belief  Hanvey’s  Although  “perspective  consciousness” is similar to open-mindedness, of account between Hanvey’s difference the key is that and open-mindedness perspective consciousness Hanvey is satisfied merely to make students more aware of the variability among perspectives, while openmindedness implies a willingness to reassess even the most fundamental aspects of one’s perspective (Case, 1991: 11). The importance of open-mindedness to global education is clear. Student decisions may be flawed if there is an unwillingness to consider relevant evidence, whereas conclusions based on a full and impartial assessment are much more likely to be sound. The second element, the  of  avoidance  “anticipation of complexity,” involves  superficial  or  views;  naive  it  the  is  “inclination to look beyond simplistic explanations of complex ethical among  and  empirical  events  constellation  -  of  to  issues, see  global  interrelated  similar to Hanvey’s  (1976)  dynamics” which seeks  and  to  look  phenomena  factors”  discussion of  for as  (1991:  to  12).  of  This  a is  to accommodate complexity and encourage  gives this dimension less of a substantive focus, inclination  part  “knowledge of global  less simplistic and more sophisticated analyses.  the  ramifications  anticipate  complexity  is  However, Case arguing that an  important  disposition to be acquired rather than just a means of treating specific content.  20 The third element is “resistance to stereotyping”, whether (where important features of a group or  cultural stereotyping  its heterogeneity are ignored) or the tendency to resort to “wethey” dualism (e.g., North—South, our nation vs. their nation). anticipation of complexity,  The preceding element,  explaining events with appropriate complexity, [resistance  element  to  stereotyping]  “focuses on  [whereas] with  deals  this  describing  people and groups of people with sufficient diversity”  (Case,  1991: 14). Stereotyping encourages us to see people or groups as less than human  less complicated than they are  -  marginalization,  their  rather  -  and promotes  enhancing  than  a  greater  appreciation of the extent of similarities and differences among people. The fourth element is the “inclination to empathize” willingness  and  a  capacity  to  place  in  oneself  the  -  role  “a or  predicament of others or at least to imagine issues from other persons’  or groups’  with Hanvey’s arguing  (1991:  15).  Case takes issue  limiting of empathy to cross-cultural contexts,  rather  empathize with  perspectives”  that  it  is  possible  and  often  desirable  “anyone whose position is different  to  from one’s  own” (1991: 16). He also disagrees with Hanvey’s contention that we must move beyond empathy into transspection: contrary to Hanvey’s suggestion that we should adopt temporarily the other’s way of life, it is sufficient to empathize with another that I know enough about that person’s situation to sensitively imagine an analogous set of circumstances within my own world. unless an attempt to empathize has been made, one  21 cannot be confident that the views and practices of others have been fully and fairly considered (1991: 16). The final element is “non-chauvinism” which “refers to the inclination  to  neither  prejudice  our  because we do not identify with them, interest  the  sacrifice of  of  others  even  if,  of  others  nor to unfairly discount  on  own interests”  one’s  judgments  occasions,  (1991:  17).  As  it  means  a  an example,  Case cites a study that analyzed articles about the Gulf War in Britain’s prestigious newspaper.  the Manchester Guardian,  This  study illustrates how prejudice can colour one’s perception: and “cautious” British forces were described as and while Iraqi troops were “cowardly” “loyal” missiles caused obedient;” British “blindly enemy missiles caused “collateral damage” while British sorties were “first “civilian casualties;” and while Iraq’s initiatives strikes” and “pre-emptive” were “sneak missile attacks” and “without provocation” (Case, 1991: 17) Two  forms  of chauvinism should be avoided:  the  view  that  one’s  cultural  own  others,” and national chauvinism  -  group  “ethnocentricism is  superior  to  -  all  the lack of “willingness when  appropriate to critically assess policies and positions adopted by  one’s  to  best-interests  national interests ability  and  country,  of  to  interests  other  that  should  countries  maintain (or  recognize  of  some  or  be  not  on  distance  country)  is  some  paramount  peoples”  critical  one’s  that  (1991: from  essential  occasions over  This  17). one’s to  the  own  Case’s  global perspective. He believes that there are moral obligations that  people  have  to  the  global  community  that,  at  times,  22 outweigh self-interest: “attention to our own national interests must not obscure moral obligations to the global community. be  would  morally wrong  not  to  have  some  sensitivity  rights of others in the global community” (1991:  to  It the  17).  Hanvey (1976), Coombs (1988) and Case (1991) define global education in terms of the goal of enhancing a global perspective in students. For all three authors a global perspective includes dispositions  certain  substantive  and perceptual  development of  a  global  defines  though,  an  and  understanding  dimensions  of  both  these  contribute to  perspective.  Much of  education  primarily  global  content;  the in  the  literature, terms  of  prescribed content.  Content Emphases One of the best known descriptions of global education in terms  of content is provided by Kniep.  Education by its  Content”  (1986),  In “Defining a Global  outlines  he  four essential  areas of content for social studies. The first is the study of both universal human values “that transcend group identity,” and human  diverse  contribute 437).  “that  define  group  our unique perspectives  membership  and worldviews”  and  (1986:  The second content area is the study of global systems:  “because global  to  values  we  live  systems,  simultaneously  we  experience  a  in  a  number  cumulative  of sense  interacting of  interdependence” (1986: 438). He identifies four global  global systems  23 worthy of study: 1) economic, 2) political, 3) ecological and 4)  in  problems  is  element  areas:  following  the  development,  the study of global  The third content involves  technological.  environment,  3)  By  history.  global  and  1)  a  means  he  security,  rights.  human  4)  this  and  peace  final  His  of  the  that is,  the  study  historical roots of the previous three elements,  2)  history of human values, global systems and interdependence, and global problems. content  Other  studies,  language  1)  include:  in  recommended  emphases  2)  literature  the  multicultural  education,  3)  international studies and 4) global issues. Foreign language study is recognized by some writers as an area  of  education  global  (e.g.,  1988,  Access,  1989;  World  Studies Journal, 1989). It appears that any approach to language including language taught as a separate  studies is acceptable, course various  the  within courses  curriculum,  for  language  programs  immersion or  learning,  which  use  exchanges  cultural  that tie language and cultural immersion more closely together. Whatever the approach, writers such as Byram (1989) language study “as a means of communication object  of  study,”  thereby  providing  [another’s]  different (1989:  way  4-5).  rather than as an  student  the  insight that the foreign language is not of  -  argue for  with  simply a codification  language but rather the expression of of  life,  Studying  the  realisation  language  in this  “the  of  another  manner  a quite culture”  encourages  the  24 student to develop an “intercultural communicative competence: the ability to establish a community of meanings across cultural [where]  boundaries....  can perceive  she/he  their  own  and  the  other culture from the perspective of the other speaker” (Byram, 1989:5). Appeals to national economic competitiveness are often made to justify language studies (e.g., Access, 1988, 1989; Lonzetta, 1988; Met,  1989; President’s Commission on Foreign Language and  International Governors’ remain  Studies,  1979;  Association,  1986).  competitive  These  international  need to upgrade  public sectors  1983;  sources  markets,  Southern  argue the  that  private  foreign language skills.  less often offered for language study include:  reasons desire  in  Rosengren,  to  live  in  a  encourages  acceptance  linguistic  heritages,  benefits  that  can  multiethnic/multilingual of  and  accrue  foreign language (Met,  minority populations 2) to  the  intellectual  students  through  1)  their  and  the  and  Other  society and  to  the  which rich  personal  study  of  a  1989).  Although language has not been a traditional concern of the social studies, it cannot be dismissed as irrelevant. The study of heritage languages is sometimes combined with social studies, and it is usual in language immersion programs to study social studies in the immersion language. Multicultural education is another content emphasis. There seem to be two views of the relationship between multicultural  25 and global education. The first is that multicultural and global education  converge  in  origins are distinct recognition  of  the  -  many  important  respects.  While  their  “global education sprang from an overdue  growing  interrelatedness  all  of  peoples,  whereas multiethnic [or multicultural] education developed from an  recognition of  overdue  the  expansion  ethnic diversity within the U.S. 568)  -  various  writers  (e.g., Burtonwood, Lynch,  1980;  have  and  [and Canada]”  commented  on  significance (Cortes,  aspects  of  of  1983:  overlap  1986; Cole, 1984; Cortes, 1980, 1983; Haipt,  1986;  Storm,  1981).  For example,  Bennett  (1989)  argues that multicultural education has traditionally emphasized study  “the  groups...  of  the  history  particularly  and  ethnic  culture  of  minorities,”  various  ethnic  whereas  more  recently, it has been “freed... from its earlier focus on ethnic diversity within a single nation to include cultures and nations across  the  globe”  reform movements  (1989:  2).  For  Cortes  (1983:  569),  [global and multicultural education]  “both  seek to  improve intergroup and global understanding and relations,  to  improve intercultural communication, to reduce stereotyping, and to help students comprehend human diversity without losing sight of the traits that all peoples share.” Key concepts within both global  education and multicultural education include empathy,  tolerance, diversity, cross-cultural awareness, racism, rights, inequity, prejudice, stereotype, and ethnocentrism. The other opinion concerning the relationship between the  26 two is that multicultural education is one component of global education. Tye (1990[aj: 165) quotes an unidentified teacher who sums  perspective:  up this  “Until  now I  thought of  it  (global  education) as multicultural studies. Now I’m beginning to see it as more holistic than that.  It has to do with ecology and other  issues too.” Many writers assume that multicultural topics and issues are an integral part of global education. Hanvey (1976), for  example,  discusses  other objectives  “cross-cultural  such as  “state of  awareness”  along with  the planet awareness”  and  “knowledge of global dynamics.” (c.f., Anderson, 1982; Peterat, 1988;  Selby,  outlines  1989.)  Another major advocate of global education  “diverse human values”  education;  because  preferences,  of  attitudes,  as  cultural  a  key component  differences  lifestyles  and  of  global  “tastes,  in  woridviews,”  global  education is designed in part to have students see “themselves through the eyes of those with another worldview”  (Kniep, 1986:  438). International  education,  international  studies,  foreign  affairs or world studies, is the third content emphasis. Although there are a substantial number of writers within this area, some common characteristics of their writing can be identified in the work of  Steve Lamy  studies  are  assumption, between  (1988,  disciplinary for  world  example,  studies  1990). or  First,  multidisciplinary.  Torney-Purta  courses  he assumes  that  (1988)  adhere  to  On  that such the  same  distinguishes a  disciplinary  27 orientation  (e.g.,  international disciplines  world  relations)  history, and  successively  Becker,  1990:  that  western  (c.f.,  geography, use  and  different  civilization  Anderson  1990:  and  14-16;  74—80). content  Second,  area  emphasizes  courses  (e.g.,  comparative historical culture)  world  in  (e.g.,  studies  education  international the  Pacific  international relations training (Lamy,  1983:  usually  Rim)  and  formal  19),  focusing on  the actions of nation states and governments as opposed to the small local groups or non-governmental  efforts of individuals, organizations  (Algers  and  Harf,  1986:  2;  1988:  Lamy,  6).  According to Lamy, these “international education advocates are self-described as the ‘academic heavyweights’” international  Third,  education  tends  reject the inclusion of values education, discussion 1990[aj). (l988[aJ),  of  controversial  Proponents “provide  of  topics  this  materials  to  that  try  19).  avoid  or  and there is  (Lamy,  approach,  (1983:  1988,  be  little  1990;  according to  even  to  Tye, Werner  ‘neutral’  by  presenting information only (e.g., extent of African famine) and shun  any  famine)”. emphasizes effective interested  mention As  Laiuy  of  (1990:  substance in in  avoiding values  issues  controversial 53)  over  puts  it,  “global  value-laden  controversy.” education  than  (e.g.,  of  education that  mush....  Although  causes  has  proven  currently more  previously,  he  is  still  opposed to approaching global education from a moral viewpoint,  28 characterizing it as “[t]he utopian left seek[ing] to create a more  equitable  international  system  through  the  creation  of  socialist systems in which power is decentralized and economic well being, social justice, and peace are dominant domestic and foreign policy goals” (1990: 57). However, where controversy is unavoidable  and  one  cannot  be  complex international issues” teachers must  “value-free (1990:  62),  in  discussions  of  he then argues that  international affairs to  “encourage students of  see an issue from a variety of value positions” (1990: 74), and ought to describe rather than prescribe a spectrum of competing In a critical vein, Coombs  values in the face of controversy.  (1988: 4) refers to this lack of an explicit normative component as an: instrumental conception of a global perspective.., it implies nothing about what attitude one should take toward human problems, that is to say, it incorporates no normative outlook——neither a theory of the good nor a moral theory. international education can be defined by its  In summary, content  focusing  international nation  states  education  and  disciplinary  on  affairs and  training  governments.  attempts  to  area  stresses  which It  preserve  and  studies,  seeks  the  to  neutrality  study  avoid by  formal of  values  describing  controversial issues or competing values without elucidating a means should  of be  adjudication supported.  in determining which Although  disciplinary orientation  (1988),  Lamy’s  side  of  preference  he also adopts  an is  aspects  issue for  a  of  a  29 issues  global  thereby  stance,  illustrating  how  interwoven  approaches to global education have become. His recent articles seem to encourage a more  1990[bJ)  (1990[a],  interdisciplinary  approach.  education.  is  issues  Global  It  is  the  last  emphasis  content  interdisciplinary,  global  of  utilizes values education  and endorses student action on issues. Werner concisely outlines three goals of this approach: The first purpose, then, of global education is to raise awareness of issues and problems from the interdependencies/ global perspective of is purpose to help A second interrelationships. about reason moral and articulate students how be taught to make need Students to questions... fair just about and is judgements what defensible third is to encourage AVER, purpose 1983). The (e.g. reflection and responsible action... Global education does not really leave one with the option of remaining neutral (1988[cJ: 2). According  Kniep  to  (1986),  four  major  dominate the content of global education: peace  issues  should  (e.g.,  British  Columbia Global Education Prolect, 1991; Greig, Pike, and Selby, 1987; Roche, 1987; Strada, 1985), development (e.g., Case, 1984, 1985,  1987;  and  1988[a]),  Joy  environment  and  Kniep  1987;  Short,  Werner,  1985;  British Columbia Global Education  (e.g.,  Pro-ject, 1991; Broadhead, n.d.; Greig, Pike and Selby, 1987) and human rights Sandahl,  (e.g., Amnesty International,  1987;  World  Since  issues  are  1990;  Lamy,  1990;  by  Studies their Tucker,  1983;  Teacher Training  nature 1990;  Hearty, Centre,  interdisciplinary Woyach  and  Remy,  1987; 1985).  (Becker, 1988),  30 geography, from  history,  economics,  disciplines  other  may  political  be  science and insights  necessary when  analyzing,  for  example, problems of world development. The  study  of  values education  issues  involves  teachers  and  (including moral education).  students  in  “I believe that  most persons concerned with global education, myself included,” says Coombs (1988: 6), “want to impart some version of what I am calling  universalist  the  strongly normative... point  of  view  which  worth.” However, such  a  perspective...  global  [and] view[sJ sees  all  be  persons  as  having  educationally  “transmitted  rationally”:  “responsible  value  deliberation  and  intellectual  resources  that  it  for  equal  by which  there  justification”  approaching  moral  imperative that  defensible,  is  means  is  human affairs from a moral  he further argues that it is  perspective  [which]  value  must and  conflict  he be  “the in  a  responsible manner” (1988: 6). Without such deliberation, global issues  may  be  taught  through  indoctrination.  (Examples  of  deliberation are provided by AVER, 1983, 1991; Beck, 1982; Hare, 1982;  Stenhouse,  1969; Werner and Nixon,  1990.)  Another characteristic of a global issues approach is its attention to student action: “the belief that understanding must translate  into  action,  has  guided  the  development  of  global  education since the early eighties” (Darling, 1988). Approaching issues from a moral point of view denies teachers and students the comfort of neutrality,  and thus responsible action may at  31 times become a part of global education’s content (e.g., British Columbia  Education  Global  1991;  Prolect,  Hanvey,  1974;  Lamy,  1988[cJ).  1990; Werner,  while there are various and distinct content  In summary,  emphases, many share of the same concepts (e.g., global systems, interdependence dimension  and  a  of  human values)  global  central The  perspective.  the  to  second  substantive part  of  the  analysis instrument (Appendix C) is designed to be sensitive to these various content emphases that may be evident in curricular policy documents.  Rationales Although there are diverse and often conflicting rationales used to justify the study of global education they  can  be  reduced  to  three.  The  first  two  (Werner,  1990),  justify  global  education in terms of nationalism or internationalism, whereas the  third  argues  that  global  education  is  essential  simply  because the world is changing. Rationales based on national self-interest most often use prudential,  as  opposed  to moral,  arguments  to promote  global  our standard  education:  “enhancing national or regional trade,  of living,  spheres of influence in the world, or even national  pride”  (Werner,  1990:  79).  For  many  writers  in  the  United  States, for example, enhancing national economic competitiveness  32 underlies their support of global education (e.g., Access, 1988; Met,  1989;  National  Association,  Governors’  1989;  President’s  Commission of Foreign Language and International Studies, 1979; Rosengren,  1983; Southern Governors’ Association, 1986). Global  education is promoted because it is deemed relevant to preparing a nation’s youth for competition in the global economy,  and to  deal with new realities in the world. According to Becker, effectively with cannot deal United States The international economic, political, and environmental international greater developing without issues educational our citizens. among U.S. competence must broaden citizens’ organizations and institutions people; with other communicating in training and recognizing other cultures; understanding rising growth, among population relationships standards of living, and environmental problems. Because of the increasing internationalization of society and interdependence among peoples and nations, a traditional and essential citizenship education must the United States in component of education (1990:68). have a global dimension -  -  Just what this global dimension entails is a subject of debate. Lamy (1990: 56) notes that there is controversy over the reasons for and the content of global education “because individuals and groups do not agree on an agenda believe  groups  citizens  for  that  “global  participation  international system....  for civic education.”  Some  should  U.S.  education in  an  anarchic  prepare  and  competitive  our educational system should prepare  students to compete and to secure our national interests” (Lamy, 1990: global  56).  Others argue more specifically “that the purpose of  education  domestic  and  is  to  promote  international  U.S.  support  interest for  and  American  to  build  ideals  and  33 traditions....  For  [these]  more conservative  interest groups,  teaching patriotism is the primary purpose of schooling” 1990:  57-59).  (Lamy,  Global education is rationalized on grounds that  it will enable students to help secure national interests in the changing international marketplace. In  contrast  self-interest  to  economic  are  moral  arguments  that  rationales  feature that  national highlight  internationalism. “The motivation here is not first our national or group interests, but concerns for social justice, notions of fairness and our common humanity” (Werner,  1990:  80). This kind  of global education, Ramler (1991: 45) states, “requires loyalty that, while in the interest of one’s particular nation,  is not  exclusive to that nation: a loyalty that is a commitment beyond national boundaries.” The commitment is based on such ideals as the protection of international human rights, role of  international  respect for the  and the promotion of  law,  economic  and  social justice. The concern is with moral questions: uncertain origin and According to a story of authenticity, a hungry person in a Third World nation is supposed to have told an affluent American: “We have a moral problem.” have a survival problem. this anecdote implies that Whether apocryphal or not, it is immoral for so many people to be hungry in a world of plenty. What ethical system would not agree? (Short, 1985: 38). In  commenting  on  the  differences  rationales, Lamy notes that some groups use a  means  of  furthering  a  narrow  notion  between  these  two  global education as of  citizenship  that  explicitly promotes one nation’s interests over other nations.  34 They “believe that students should be prepared to be American citizens and to represent American interests international environment” who  argue  global  from  a  (Lamy,  broader  1990:  61).  in a competitive Conversely, those  internationalism believe  system requires more emphasis  that  “the  on transnational values,  critical thinking, and comparative analysis” (Lamy, 1990: 61) so that students can assess global issues and act according to the interests  broader  However,  1991). can  be  seen  of  the  at times  as  international  might  (Darling,  these seemingly polarized rationales  complementary.  internationalism  community  also  For  instance,  justify  grounds of national self-interest;  this  an  advocate  perspective  on  of the  that is, we need to support  the broader interests of the global community if we also are to satisfy  some  nation’s  our  curricula  Canadian global  of  promote  environmental  interests  are  also  interests.  action  to  degradation, served.  However,  For  combat  our  example, the  dangers  long-term  although  when of  national  there  is  no  exclusive linkage between moral rationales and internationalism or economic rationales and nationalism, there is a tendency for moral  arguments  to  stress  internationalism  as  well  as  for  prudential arguments to emphasize self-interest. A third rationale needs to be mentioned. Global education is here justified by appealing to the fact of a changing world. For example, [There is] a consists of a  rationale for global education that three-fold argument: (1) that in the  35 [many] changes in the social past two decades... (2) that structure of the world have converged; because of this conjuncture of historical trends, American society became more globalized in the 1970s and 1980s and will likely become even more so in the 1990s and beyond; and (3) that education mirrors society in the sense that social change generates educational change (Anderson, 1990: 14). There is little appeal to nationalism or internationalism, or to for Anderson,  the use of prudential or moral arguments;  it is a  fact that American society has become more globalized, and since education  society,  “mirrors”  is  education  global  inevitable  because society is now more globalized. In response to Anderson, however,  it is possible to use these same “facts” to argue for  or against global education. Simply because something is thought to be  a  “fact”  does  not  legitimize  Cities are becoming more violent,  it  as  a  but this  for  topic  study.  fact does not mean  that we should include more study of violence in social studies courses.  A rationale includes an explicit normative  component  that allows one to say that such and such should be taught for certain that  reasons.  global  Anderson’s  education  has  implicit  normative  relevance because  it  assumption reflects  is  more  accurately the changes occurring in our world. Similarly, because global interdependence is changing the reality of our world, and because “the world is a system (1976: 13),  Hanvey argues  global perspective.  that systems  should be part of a  He states that there is a  from tradition to reason, and calculated....  analysis  “clear trend...  from the habitual to the questioned  characterized by new knowledge  and a  more  36 deliberate use of it”; this trend “underlies the emergence of a global  perspective”  (1976:  24).  In essence,  he  facts  selects  about the world and uses them to justify global education. This of course,  argument’s weakness, facts”  tied  being  justify global  not by themselves  do  to  a  normative  is that  like Anderson’s,  For  argument.  “the  education without these  example,  same  facts could also be used to argue for the rejection of global education.  A  person  argue  might  that  because  the  world  is  becoming more interdependent, the school’s job is to strengthen a student’s link to her immediate community and its traditions face of change.  in the that  the  world  is  Therefore,  changing,  such  while it is does  change  certainly true not  by  itself  justify global education. Regardless, many authors choose, as do Anderson  and Hanvey  (1990)  (1976),  to justify the pursuit of  global education on the grounds that the world is changing. As might be expected,  different rationales are sometimes  linked to various contents. Language studies and international education are often associated with prudential arguments that stress national self-interest and, sometimes, factual rationales (e.g.,  Anderson,  1990;  Hanvey,  1976;  Lamy,  1990;  Met,  1989;  Rosengren, 1983; Southern Governors’ Association, 1986), whereas the study of global issues usually rests on a moral rationale that  emphasizes  thinking McGowan,  (Carr, 1987;  the 1987;  Selby,  community  international Coombs, 1989;  1988;  Short,  Joy  1985;  and  Werner,  and  critical  Kniep,  1987;  1988[c]);  a  37 multicultural emphasis may have either prudential (Cortes, 1983) or moral rationales (Lynch, 1986; Storm, rationale  Whichever development  of  a  is  global  instrument  analysis  offered,  in  though,  perspective. Appendix  1981; Traitler,  The was  C  the  goal  first  part  devised  to  1982). is  the  of  the  collect  information about the presence of any or all of these rationales within curricula.  SCOPE AND SEQUENCE  Another issue that concerns global educators referred  to  Decisions learned  as  scope  the  about what  (i.e.,  and  should be  grade level)  sequence  of  the  is  commonly  curriculum.  learned and when it  should be  underlie content placement  in the  curriculum. Since the 1930s, the leading theory used to organize the  content  horizons” short,  or  this  in  social  studies  has  been  “expanding environments” theory  holds  that  known  (Ravitch,  students  learn  as  “expanding  1989:  90).  best when  start with the familiar and work to the unfamiliar,  In  they  from that  which is spatially and temporally close at hand to the distant. In  social  studies,  this  scope  and  sequence  begins  with  the  child’s family and community, before moving to his or her city, province, country, and finally to the larger world.  38 Expanding United States  horizons (Ravitch,  According to Becker  is  evident  1989)  (1990:  in  and Canada  69),  curricula (Tomkins,  in  both  1986:  the  399).  a dominant pattern for social  studies in the United States includes  (listed by grade level):  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  Families Neighborhoods Communities State history/regions U.S. history World history/western hemisphere World history/cultures! geography U.S. history Civics/government or world culture/history 10 .World cultures/history 11.U.S. history 12.American government and economics or sociology/psychology  Note that this arrangement may not include global content until grade  six.  Becker  comments  on  the  archaic  nature  of  such  approach: Recent studies indicate that the dominant structure of secondary social studies today is remarkably similar to a pattern set in 1916.... The socials studies curriculum in most secondary schools is organized around topics (places, continents, and subjects) that were established 60 years ago.... Generally... the topics, courses, and textbooks are remarkably similar across the nation. The most notable changes since 1916 include the broadening of European history to world history, with more emphasis on Africa, Asia, and other non-western areas.... A few social studies programs are being taught on the skills, student such as basis of other themes, social issues. development needs, or International studies receives scant attention, other than in world geography and world history courses, where the emphasis tends to be on geographic areas or regions or, as in the case of world history, a chronology of major events in the western world. (Becker, 1990: 69)  an  39 This expanding horizons approach to social studies, while having  the  weight  of  tradition,  does  little  to  provide  all  students with an understanding of the contemporary world and its problems  and  issues.  The  fact  that  many  Canadian  provinces  adhere to this model does not encourage global education across all of the grades, although there are ways of introducing global content before grade six. Other models of determining scope and sequence may be more amenable to global content and contemporary issues 1986,  (Apple, 1988[a],  1988;  Degenhardt  1988[bJ;  and McKay,  Hughes,  1988).  1988;  For  Egan,  instance,  1979, Egan’s  model argues that children do not learn first the familiar and then the distant, but rather both the familiar and the distant. He contends that a child uses her imagination to move beyond the familiar: Instead of focusing on such content, we might examine those things that most engage children’s interest (for example, fairy stories and games).... what children know best when they come to school are love, hate, joy, fear, good, and bad. That is, they know best the human emotions and the bases of most profound morality.... This simple observation undermines the the typical expanding horizons foundation of curriculum, allowing us to see that children’s access to the world need not be, as it were, along lines of gradually out from content associations moving families, homes, communities, and daily experience, or from things judged relevant on grounds of some kind of physical proximity. Far from condemning ourselves to provincial concerns in the early grades, we may provide direct access to anything in the world that can be connected with basic emotions and morality (1979: 10—11). With Egans’ in  model it is possible to teach global studies early  elementary  school  as  long  as  it  is  connected  to  basic  40 emotions or the child’s sense of morality through imagination. Degenhardt and McKay (1988: 237) also attack the expanding horizons principle because it: equates relevance with close proximity. Clearly this is false, and in a way that both insults the youthful intellect and licences a curriculum to restrict rather than extend mental horizons. Contrary to familiar facts, it asserts that children can be interested in understanding only things close to their existing experience. Acceptance of this view hinders the development of curricula that extend children’s imaginations through studies of different and remote cultures. Taking their cue from Egan, these authors argue that imagination and  caring  empathy  is  are  essential  essential  to  for  the  development  intercultural  of  empathy,  understanding.  and The  development of imagination and caring and, thus, empathy should be  leading goals  in children’s  education,  and an  educational  model based on these goals would include global content at an earlier stage than would the expanding horizons model. In summary, the traditional form of organization provides some obvious limitations for global education. Although certain concepts like interdependence may be introduced at early grades, global  content  would  elementary curriculum,  not  be  included  until  late  in  the  and would increase as students moved to  the secondary grades. Consequently, it was important to make the analysis  instrument  responsive  to  the  issue  of  scope  and  sequence and its effect on the placement of global content in curricula.  It  is  likely that those curricula that  follow the  traditional expanding horizons approach will not evidence much  41 global content until late in the elementary years. The analysis instrument seeks information about this organization.  CHALLENGES TO GLOBAL EDUCATION  Two political challenges have serious implications for the nature  global  and amount of  curriculum.  in the  education  The  first began as a backlash in the United States against global Lamy  education in the mid 1980s. groups  —  argues that different  (1990)  characterized at the extremities by ultraconservatives  and utopian leftists  chose global education as a battleground  -  over educational goals. The core assumption of the conservatives was that “[tjhe American system is the best system and we have a mission to bring our ideals educational  that  endeavour  to the rest of  does  not  seem  the world”; to  any this  advance  assumption is viewed as biased against the United States and is accused other  of  “indoctrinating  students with  governments,  nations,  ‘the  systems,  legal  falsehood  that  cultures,  and  economic systems are essentially equivalent to us and entitled to equal respect’” global  education  acceptability, education would promote  (1990: may  for be  patriotism.  if  52).  have  This nationalistic challenge to serious  conservatives  barred For  from  the  example,  repercussions have  their  curriculum Greg  or  way,  on  its  global  changed to  Cunningham’s  (1986)  42 “Blowing the Whistle on Global Education”, with the support of the  Office  U.S.  promoting  of  moral  Education,  relativity,  condemning patriotism (Lamy, On the other hand,  accused  education  misrepresenting  1990:  Lamy  global  reality  of and  51-52).  (1990)  contends that the utopian  leftists would use global education to promote socialist values critical of the current capitalist system in the United States. “leftists”  These  anti-American  would  seek  sentiment  and  to  equate  global  pro-socialist  education  rhetoric.  with  Such  a  perception, whether true or not, may encourage educators to shun any association with global education. A second challenge comes from those who seek to enhance the of a certain kind of history in the  dominance  social  studies  curriculum. Diane Ravitch (1990, 1989, 1985, 1982) seems to have become  the  “returning” backbone  spokesperson history to its the  of  social  for  a  “rightful”  studies,  “history  unless  it  originally  is  will  never  detached  swamped  it”;  be  from  (1985:  and  “history taught honestly, as history” that  to  history,  17)  its  with  place as the  proper  format:  (1989: 89-91). She argues  restored the  concerned  movement  as  vulgar she  a  subject  of  utilitarianism argues,  if  value that  “properly  taught” does not emphasize connections with contemporary events or issues (1985:17); this version of history might challenge the placement of global content within curricula. Ravitch blames the decline of history on both the growth of  43 social studies, the  emphasis  of which history is just one sub-category,  on  process  revised its social  over  California  content.  studies curriculum,  and  recently  with Ravitch as one of  the co-authors (referred to as the “California Framework for K12 History-Social Studies”).  History is here the core around  which the social studies revolves. Evans criticizes Ravitch’s conception and argues that the California Framework: devotes little or no direct attention to competing ideologies, to the difficult question of social class in America, to the role of government in the economy and social welfare, to treatment of the culturally different and women, to the rights of labor, or to the role of America in the world (1989: 87). Although Ravitch denies  this  and  allegation  claims  that  “the  curriculum pays close attention to minorities, women and those who  are  ‘culturally different’”  (1989:  90),  Evans  (1989:  87)  contends that teaching history for its own sake does “little to criticism and instead serves to perpetuate our  promote social system  and  its  He  flaws.”  advocates  an  “issue-  or problem-  centered approach to the social studies and history, an approach in which historical content is organized around societal issues and problems”  (1989:87).  known global educators  Such an approach is favoured by well  (e.g., Kniep,  1986;  Selby,  1989).  Although Becker (1990:73) grants that “an awareness of the importance Framework,  of he  global notes  perspectives  that  “few of  pervades”  [the changes  the  California  recommended in  state guidelines and mandates] deal with the concept of global  44 in a manner that might shed light on what a Japanese  systems  has  industrialist  called  ‘borderless  the  global environmental concerns,  such as depletion of the ozone  layer, acid rain, or pollution of the oceans”  literature  global  in  seem  views  Ravitch’s  or  economy’  world  conflict  to  73).  much  with  conflict,  The  education.  (1990:  of  though,  the  is  not  because she emphasizes history, but rather because she advocates a certain type of history that seems to leave little room for global  content.  For  instance,  that  history  concentrates  on  colourful stories of heros and villains, that seeks a return to the United States’ and  both moral  glorious past as an undisputed world power,  economic,  deemphasizes  topics  and  issues  that  many global educators seek to explore (e.g., Case, 1991; Hanvey, 1976; Kniep, While  1988; Werner,  both  of  these  1988). challenges  to  education  global  are  centred in the United States and, especially the first, may have limited  impact  on  curricula  in  Canada,  they  raise  questions  about the nature and content of global education that should not be  ignored  in  analyzing  Canadian  curricular  documents.  The  analysis instrument is sensitive to these issues.  EMPIRICAL RESEARCH  The  literature of  conceptualizations,  global education consists primarily of  rationales  and  curricular  materials,  but  45 little  research.  empirical  What  research  exists  has  been  conducted mostly in the United States. “It appears that research on global education in Canada is almost nonexistent” says Dhand (1986),  who  cites  two  students and teachers,  Canadian studies  of  the perceptions  of  neither of which is related back to the  curriculum. Studies of the global content within Canadian curriculum guides  sketchy.  are  curricular Ministers  survey in  Tomkins  (1986:  conducted  Canada,  in  398),  1979-1980  concluded  that  at  in by  commenting the  the  on  Council  senior  a of  level  “Canadian history still tended to be taught from a chronological centralist perspective. World history courses were still Europecentered, although more attention was being given to non-western cultures by 1980; a course in modern world problems was offered in four provinces.” This is in keeping with Becker’s (1990: observation that  in  the United  States,  world  69)  history courses  offer “a chronology of major events in the western world” (1990: 69). Few studies offer any detail about how global education is defined  within  established  indicating that there world.  For example,  briefly the  is  provincial  curricula,  a tendency to emphasize  aside  from  the western  Peterat (1988) made an effort to determine  form and content  of  global  education  in Canadian  home economics curriculum guides. Using an instrument devised by Cissell  (1987),  she scanned 41 curriculum guides  from the ten  46 provinces  for nine  global concepts: nation(s),  “trigger terms”  that may be  indicators of  “world, international, other culture(s), other  other  geographical  area(s),  earth,  developing  countries, global, and cultural interdependence” (Peterat, 1988: 1).  She  also  established  concepts were present,  the  grade  levels  and where evident,  at  which  global  some of the reasons  given for including these concepts. Not  surprisingly,  Peterat  clustered in the higher grades. and  extras  add-ons  and topics.  units  core  rather  than  global  concepts  understanding national  (often Thus,  importance  in  were  not  issues  and but  courses)  an  “the  (1988:  primarily  questions “to  or  ‘extra’  courses”  rather  content”;  of  senior  used  global  concepts  They tended “to be present as  they have  status  contexts”,  in  that  found  in  or  Furthermore,  the  various  treatment  optional  ‘additional’  6).  “for  arouse  as  purpose  of  cultural  or  interest of  all  or  prove  concepts,  including global concepts, has been consistently non-problematic in presentation” (1988: 6). This use of global concepts, Peterat claims, increase  may reinforce stereotypes and differences understanding  ought to view  (1988:  6).  She  contends  rather than  that  teachers  “their curricula in a problematizing and issue  oriented way” and then guide “students through such deliberative processes”  (1988:  7)  if global education is to become viable.  While Peterat makes has  limitations.  Despite  some good observations, her argument that  the  her analysis “nine  trigger  47 terms”  are  concepts  -  indicators  of  global  concepts  in curricula,  other  such as environment, diversity, stereotype, economic  interdependence  are also potential  -  indicators.  Further,  the  nine concepts may be treated globally at some times and not at They do not necessarily indicate that global education  others.  will be pursued;  Peterat recognizes the possibility that these  can be treated in such a way as to counter a global  concepts  perspective. For example, if the only time “other cultures” are mentioned is through negative comparisons or to highlight their differences then global education may not be advanced. There global  are  other  education  in  important questions curricula  that  about  this  the  nature  analysis  does  of not  The methodology does not provide much information  illuminate. about which  areas  of  the world are  emphasized  and which  are  ignored, or whether these curricula are oriented towards western civilization to the exclusion of other parts of the world. The extent to which the nine trigger terms may be used largely in relation to Europe could go unnoticed. For these reasons, this analysis scheme is unsatisfactory as a means of determining the extent and nature of global content in curricula. In  contrast,  Canadian  social  Beckett  studies  and  Darling  textbooks  (1988)  published  reviewed  between  1979  five and  1985 in order to examine their “view of the world.” Used in at least two provinces, each text intends “to present a global view of  issues  and  concerns”  (1988:  1).  The  presentation  of  this  48 global  view was  advanced  the  determined by following  the  positive  extent  to which  dimensions  of  each a  text  global  perspective: A rich and positive, portrayal of the diversity of the world’s peoples and cultures (i.e., one which values diversity); Evidence of the commonality that exists among all human beings, including examples of universal needs and interests and instances of global cooperation; A variety of perspectives employed to present and interpret histories and cultures from the standpoint of those inside, as well as outside of them (e.g., non-western perspectives); Issues, problems and events which are placed in their emphasis on their contexts, with proper complexity. interrelationships and their Evidence of four negative dimensions was also sought: A presentation of other cultures and peoples as either exotic, bizarre or quaint; A lack of reference to those things all human beings have in common; A polarized view of the world which separates “us” from “them” (whether along national, regional or cultural lines); A portrayal of events and problems in isolation and/or out of context or a view which oversimplifies their nature (1988: 1-2). The  authors  divergence  detailed  provide from  these  examples  dimensions.  Four  of of  adherence the  to  textbooks  or had  examples of both positive and negative dimensions of a global perspective. positive  Conversely, World Prospects  dimension  dimensions.  without  promoting  (1979) any  of  supported each the  negative  49 The dimensions  of  a  global  perspective  that  Beckett  and  Darling outline are similar to the global perspectives defined in the analysis scheme used for this study (see Appendix C). For example,  their negative dimension which deals with  parallels “global polarity” and “national polarity”, “insider  perspective”  corresponds  to  “role  “polarity” and their  exchange”  on  the  analysis scheme. There are  no detailed analyses  of  global  social studies curriculum guides of Canada. necessary to determine how,  content  in the  Such an analysis is  when and why global  education is  prescribed. This study examines the rationales, goals, pedagogic approaches,  content  (including scope and sequence), and global  perspectives outlined in social studies curriculum guides.  The  following chapter presents the data from this analysis.  SUMMARY  The  purpose  of  this  chapter  was  to  review  selected  literature of global education in order to provide a context for the  development  of  the  analysis  instrument  and  for  the  discussion of curriculum documents. This review indicates that a broad definition of global education focuses on various goals deemed necessary for promoting a global perspective (Case, 1991; Coombs, 1989; Hanvey, 1976; Kniep, 1986), and allows for content  50 related  to  foreign  language  study,  international education and global rationales education:  -  arguments. the  include  Also,  or 3)  factual  education,  one of three  prescriptions  1) prudential, 2) moral,  is changing” education  issues.  accompanies  usually  multicultural  for -  global  “the world  Curricular issues related to global  role  of  traditional  scope  and  sequence  models that delay the introduction of global content until about grade six models, 1988;  (e.g.,  less Egan,  presence  of  Becker,  limiting,  patriotism  (The  Ad  1988). in  promotes  it  Hoc  Tomkins,  exist  education  global that  do  Evans,  1988;  accusation  1990;  (e.g.,  the  although other  Degenhardt  Further  relativism  on  and McKay,  challenges  curriculum  moral  Committee  1985),  Global  to  the  include  the  and  rejects  Education,  1987;  Caporosa and Mittelman, 1988), and that it does not give history the  centre  place  in  social  studies.  Unfortunately,  little  empirical research has been conducted on the global content of curriculum guides, and what has been done lacks both detail and depth (e.g., Peterat, The  analysis  1988).  instrument  created  for this  designed to provide data about these issues.  study has  It allows  been  for an  analysis of various dimensions of a global perspective, as well as differing content emphases,  rationales,  scope and sequence  formats, and disciplinary orientations. The analysis scheme also allows for the study to be empirically based, thereby addressing a lack of available research.  51 Chapter  3  presents  the  data  collected  through  the  instrument, and Chapter 4 summarizes the findings and discusses implications.  52  CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF CURRICULUM DOCUMENTS  This chapter summarizes the data from each section of the analysis scheme (Appendix C) as it was applied to 47 provincial Presented here is a national  social studies curriculum guides.  Such a picture  picture with examples from individual provinces. is general, must  and any comparison of provincial curriculum guides  tentative  be  their  and  cautious  structure  because to  and  variety  to  content  provided  studies  from grades  one  to twelve  whereas  others  have  ten  separate  pages.  is  considerable  in approximately with  of  social  the  outline  Some  depth  and  extent  the  documents.  within  there  100  pages of  500  Some provide detailed instructions and suggestions  for  guides  upwards  the teacher while others give little more than a general outline and leave the details  Disparate  for the teacher to establish.  data across guides make any systematic attempt at a national or comparative (Comments  picture  regarding  of “the  global  education  provinces”  only  actually  approximate. to  “the  into  four  refer  provinces and the territories”.) Data  presentation  in  this  chapter  is  divided  sections: 1) rationales and goals for global studies, 2) content  53 of  studies,  global  perspective.  3)  scope of  global  studies,  and 4)  global  Numerous figures and tables are used to summarize  the data concisely; only significant points are discussed in the text,  and  clarified  through  selected  examples  from  the  curricula. The chapter’s summary draws together generalizations about the national nature of global education across the social studies curriculum documents current in 1988. In  many  of  the  tables  and  figures  in  this  chapter,  the  provinces are represented by alphabetical letters A through K: Newfoundland (Nfld.) = A Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) = B New Brunswick (N.B.) = C Nova Scotia (N.S.) = D Quebec (Que.) = E Ontario (Ont.) = F Manitoba (Man.) = G Saskatchewan (Sask.) = H Alberta (Alta.) = I British Columbia (B.C.)(includes Yukon) Northwest Territories (NWT.)= K  =  J  Newfoundland is sometimes excluded from the analysis because of the paucity of detail in its curriculum guide. Any exclusion is clearly indicated on the appropriate tables in this chapter. Tables 2 through 14 tabulate the number of occurrences where particular content is “discussed” in any province’s curriculum guides.  For  example,  if  the  concept  mentioned in the following manner: of all nations, economy,  and  of  “interdependence”  is  “study the interdependencies  emphasizing the interdependency of the global  concentrating  on  the  economic  interdependencies  between Canada and the United States”, then it would be counted  54 even though the word itself is  as having been discussed once,  listed three times; these three listings occur in one place and relation  in  to  issue.  one  “international  discusses  the  On  other  cooperation”  in  hand,  if two  grade  guide  a  then  and  twice in grade eight, once early on in terms of Canadian efforts in  international  success  cooperation of  failure  and  then  and  recent  U.N.  later  of  terms  in  at  attempts  the  promoting  then three distinct discussions are  international cooperation, identified.  RATIONALES AND GOALS FOR GLOBAL STUDIES  Rationales  and  statements  goal  give  direction  for  the  teacher and explicitly indicate what is important. That is, they provide  framework  a  organization of statements why.  This  the  contents  indicate what section  understanding  for  first  is  of  the  to be  examines  selection  the  and  Usually goal  curriculum.  studied and rationales rationales  say  by  the  outlining  why  offered  curriculum guides and then proceeds to goal statements.  Rationales Some  curricula  have  no  to be taught;  something  is  rationale  offered,  or  explicit  section  in such cases,  reasons  justifying  either there global  is no  content  are  55 general  in  embedded  Four  elsewhere.  discussions  provinces  (Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba) do  whereas  rationales, sections  are  the  other  general  very  should be taught and why.  in  their  their  For example,  to  devoted do  provinces in  “rationale”  labelled  rationales  section  explicit  any  provide  not  discussing  have  Often  guides.  claims  discrete these what  concerning  in Curriculum Guideline  History and Contemporary Studies Part C: Senior Division Grades 11 and 12  33), Ontario says that students should:  (1987:  have that upheavals and changes the understand characterized life in this century and to deal with issues of primary concern as we approach the twentyfirst century. Our world is examined in terms of the by characterized village” “global a of concept conflict, interdependence, interrelationships, cooperation, and rapid change.... The program highlights the major defining features of our contemporary world, among them the rapidity of technological advance, the growth of demands for a more equitable sharing of world resources and for more equitable human relationships... As  discussed  including summarizes guides  the  in  evident  in  Chapter  literature  reasons  the  in order to  global  in  explicitly  justify goal  various  are  provide  that  content  particular  there  2,  rationales for  justification education.  referred  statements  to  in  Table  1  curriculum  or the pursuit of  global content in social studies. Although many of the reasons overlap,  the  focus  differentiation.  of  Goal  each  is  statements  supporting justification (i.e., following  points  should  different by  enough  themselves  to  allow  without  any  “by the end of the program, the  have  been  developed..,  the  56 interconnectedness and interdependence of the world” Social Studies K-12 Overview,  1985:  [Manitoba  3]) are not included here.  Table 1 Reasons for Global Studies Extensive Discussion* Interdependent world** Shared problems/needs Global extinction Solutions require cooperation Changing world Justice/fairness Fundamental human rights/dignity Gross inequality Shrinking world Responsibility Multiculturalism  2(C,H) 2(C,D)  Total  7  Some Discussion  Merely Mentioned 3(A,E,F)  2(A,B) 2(A,F)  1(H) 1(E)  1(F)  1(C) 1(A) 1(C) 2(A,C)  1(B) 1(B) 2 (A,E) 1(H) 4  13  *“Extensive discussion” meant that there was a paragraph or more devoted to explaining a particular reason for global content. “Some discussion” referred to one or two sentences, whereas “merely mentioned” meant that a reason was stated without any supporting discussion. **Interdependent world: reasons for global content emphasize the (e.g., economic, political, social, technological, linkages environmental) that tie the world more closely together. Shared problems/needs: reasons emphasize problems, issues or needs that extend across national boundaries (e.g., acid rain, underdevelopment). I Global extinction: reasons emphasize issues that threaten life itself (e.g., nuclear holocaust, environmental degradation, depletion of the ozone layer). recognize that cooperation: reasons require Solutions of resolution for the is essential cooperation international many global problems. Changing world: reasons emphasize changes in the world that necessitate changes in perception and action (e.g., decline of Cold War, rise of new technologies).  57 Justice/fairness: reasons recognize that justice and fairness should be guiding principles in our interactions with the world’s peoples, especially in the face of such issues as poverty, hunger, and development. Fundamental human rights/dignity: reasons recognize that human rights and dignity should be guiding principles in our relations with the world’s peoples, especially in the face of issues such as poverty and hunger that degrade human dignity. and inequality recognize that reasons inequality: Gross disparity are rampant across the world and that we have a responsibility to attempt to diminish them. Shrinking world: reasons recognize that some events (e.g., technological advances) are increasing international interaction and interdependence. Responsibility: reasons recognize that we have a responsibility for our actions in the world and to other peoples. there are recognize that reasons Effective citizenship: essential understandings and dispositions for living in a world less characterized by national boundaries. reasons recognize that many nations are Multiculturalism: multicultural. increasingly  It is fair to say that curriculum guides do not provide much argument for any of their prescribed topics and specific goals. Where they do exist, rationales tend to be stated briefly and in general terms for entire social studies programs rather than for different  kinds  of  content.  It  is  not  surprising,  then,  that  particular discussions justifying global topics are not common or well developed. For example, Newfoundland “merely mentioned” some general reasons, such as global extinction (“the threat of nuclear holocaust”), interdependence and responsibility, for the pursuit of  global  content:  “In the  face of  such perplexities  [global extinction], the need for understanding and appreciation of our interdependence with and responsibilities toward all who share  this  earth,  is  realized”  (The  Master  Guide  for  Social  58 K-XII in Newfoundland and Labrador,  Studies, up  from “merely mentioned”  is  ii). A step  n.d.:  “some discussion” which Ontario  gives to the rationale of a changing world, as cited earlier: have upheavals that and the changes understand characterized life in this century.... Our world is examined in terms of the concept of a ‘global village’ characterized by interrelationships, interdependence, conflict, cooperation, and rapid change (Curriculum Guideline History and Contemporary Studies Part C: Senior Division Grades 11 and 12, 1987: 33). As an example of “extensive discussion”, for  Social  Studies  1-12  briefly  but  Saskatchewan’s Themes  consistently  refers  to  “interdependence” and “solutions [that] require cooperation” as reasons under  for the content at each and every grade. the  justified  heading by  “the  content  in  co-operation  and  “rationale,” need  for  within a ‘global village’ context”  (n.d.:  For example,  year  three  is  interdependency  94), while in year 11  “students will study those world issues which have affected, are affecting and will  continue to affect not  only the  spirit of  interdependence and co-operation of humanity but also its very survival”  104).  (n.d.:  Prince  Edward  Island  provides  a  rare  illustration of “extensive discussion” around gross inequality: The ‘Developing World’ is the home of more than seventy of the people living some three billion five percent today. They are the poor, desperately poor who toil vigorously and receive little in return. It is not easy for a Canadian citizen to imagine, yes to like in the many poor life is what understand, countries. Even the poorest people in Prince Edward Island are rich in comparison to most of the people in Bangladesh, or northeast Brazil. For some three billion people, poverty means more than not having a car or a television set. It means being hungry for days at a time. It means suffering from all kinds of diseases with -  -  59 little hope of receiving medical care. It means that the most basic needs of human life are not satisfied. There is overwhelming evidence that most of the poor people in the world are not content to stay in poverty. Developing World: a better life. (The They want Teacher’s Guide, 1979: 11.) the  Ignoring  possible  underlying  paternalism,  and  sense  of  we/they and rich/poor dichotomies, this rationale justifies the of  study  geographic  particular  content  on  the  grounds  of  understanding economic inequality. found  Information rationales  offered  rationales  dominate national  stressing  in the  in  the  the  curricula can be  global  education  literature:  1)  self-interest,  related to the  literature.  prudential 2)  moral  Three  rationales rationales  emphasizing internationalism, and 3) factual claims highlighting our changing world. Overwhelmingly within the curricula, factual about  claims  our  changing  world  dominate.  For  example,  references to an “interdependent world”, “shared problems/needs” and a “changing world” are the top three reasons given by the curricula, making up half of all reasons given. Moreover, these three reasons account for five of the seven times any reason is given  extensive  reason  discussion,  given some discussion  is  factually  treated  and  (e.g.,  Contemporary Studies Part C:  three  of  (see Table  Curriculum  four  the 1).  Guideline  All  times  any  three are and  History  Senior Division Grades 11 and 12,  1987: 33); the implication of this rationale is that because our world  is  because  we  changing have  and  shared  is  becoming  problems  and  more  interdependent,  needs,  we  should  or  study  60 An  content.  global  example  of  this  very  general  argument  is  given by New Brunswick: Children must come to an understanding that people all over the world share basic human needs. Wherever they live, people need clean air and water, food, shelter, community security, work, government, clothing, services, recreation, and culture. Although methods of meeting these needs vary greatly in different parts of the world, recognizing that similar needs affect the lives of people everywhere can enable a child in New community world of the part Brunswick feel to (Elementary Social Studies Curriculum Guide, 1987: 3-4). Moral  Already  extent.  discussion  Teacher’s Guide, mentions Master  “respect  Guide  for  Prince  was  quoted gross  about  although to  also offered,  are  rationales  inequality  11),  1979:  lengthy  Developing  World:  whereas Newfoundland very briefly of  for the dignity and rights Social  lesser  Island’s  Edward (The  a much  K-XII  Studies,  in  others”  Newfoundland  (The and  Labrador, n.d.: 6) Canadian guides do not provide any rationales that stress prudential, national self-interest arguments for the inclusion  of  global  content.  Surprisingly,  concerns  understanding the multicultural nature of our society, enhancing positive attitudes to diversity, beyond our borders,  for  and for  are rarely extended  even though multiculturalism is a central  organizing concept for many Canadian curricula. Saskatchewan is the  only  province  to  justify  some  global  content  by  briefly  recognizing that other nations are increasingly multicultural.  Goals for Global Content There are any number of goals a curriculum might endorse.  61 six goals that are prevalent across the  section examines  This  provinces reviews  when  global  content  the type and amount  is  being  of support  discussed  and  then  the curricula give to  teachers. The goals are: 1) knowledge of facts, 2) understanding of concepts, and the ability to engage in 3) problem solving, 4) value reasoning, directly  5)  correlate  empathy and 6) with  instance, value reasoning, are  identified  in  the  goals  action. Many of these goals  discussed  empathy,  in  2.  Chapter  For  problem solving and action  literature  as  important  for  the  development of either a global perspective or specific content related  to  a  global  Knowledge  perspective.  of  facts  and  understanding of concepts are fundamental to the development of any content. Although  many  of  the  guides  outline  their  goals  in  a  discrete section, unless these explicit goals were also evident in the content and activities dealing with a global topic, they would be assigned “minor goal” status  (Figure 1).  For example,  Manitoba discusses the development of both value reasoning and empathy in its section on goals 1985:  (Social Studies K-12 Overview,  9-14), but as it does not provide evidence of these goals  within the recommended global content, they remain minor goals for this province. Figure 1 shows that knowledge of facts and understanding of concepts are goals stated or evident in all provincial guides. All ten provinces treat knowledge of facts and understanding of  62 Figure 1  Goals for Global. Content Provincial Support U  of’ proinces  10  I:::’  S —.--.c  6  —----4  4  2  0— Values  Problens  Concepts  Minor’ Goal  Significant Goal  Eripatliy  EZ]  Action  No Mention**  *NFLD is not included. **A goal is classified as “significant” when it is found to be evident in three or more topics or activities related to global content. A minor goal is found in one or two topics or activities, or is not evident at all even though it is listed as a goal.  concepts  as a significant goal in relation to global content.  Two examples follow. Manitoba succinctly states the importance of  “facts  facts:  instruction  and  learning  building  blocks  of  Overview,  1985:  9).  grade  nine  serve  the  as are  social  the  raw  grounded; studies”  material they  New Brunswick organizes  curriculum around concepts.  are  (Social  For  which  upon the  minute  Studies  K-12  each unit of  its  in  its  instance,  63 unit on Africa, ecology,  some of the concepts identified are:  black nationalism,  tribalism,  (Grade Nine Social Studies Syllabus,  apartheid and animism”  1987:  18).  Nine of the provinces identify empathy as  on  “identity  and  a goal,  and six  A goal of Saskatchewan’s grade eight  treat it as significant. unit  “cultural  roles”  is  students  for  to  to  “begin  empathize with cultural and ethnic groups, past and present, in to  efforts  their  Curriculum Guide:  preserve  Individual  The  identity”  their  Studies  (Social  in Society,  1985:  One-  45).  third of Alberta’s grade seven is devoted to an exploration of  students  empathy  between  conflicts  potential  are expected to develop by  cultures,  industrial  ethnocentrism,  and  for people  “empathy  contact  viewing  technological society from their perspectives” Studies Curriculum, As  1981:  with  and  in nonWestern  (Alberta Social  56-57).  for problem solving,  five provinces  distinguish  it as  significant and four as a minor goal. British Columbia refers in general to problem solving as a “skill” that should be pursued in every grade grade  1983:  seven,  concrete  direction  dilemmas  faced  partners Have  come  who  students  strategies”  by  45),  whereas  grade  in our  12:  leaders  New  Brunswick  as  they  a  leader’s  (World Issues 123,  role  1986:  20).  deal  tactics and  grade  one  provides  students  “Have  disagreement on  into  assume  Curriculum Guide:  Studies  (Social  examine  with and  devise  -  more the  alliance strategy. their  own  64 Two of the provinces treat value reasoning as and seven as a minor goal. competencies  Alberta identifies of value analysis,  in processes  significant  “development of decision-making,  and moral reasoning” as important in all grades, and is the most explicit about how teachers may be able to achieve such goals (Alberta throughout  the  Curriculum,  Studies  Social  curriculum  isolates  1981:  two  unit  Each  5).  competing  values  and  suggests instructional activities for dealing with these values. For  example,  one  in  unit  twelve  grade  on  relationships  around  and one unit in grade eleven  nationalism and internationalism, focuses  organized  is  between  global  welfare  prosperity (Alberta Social Studies Curriculum,  and  1981:  national 82,  86).  Student action is a significant goal for only two provinces, Alberta  and  Manitoba.  Alberta  However,  cautions  that  social  action must be treated carefully: While the concept of active involvement is encouraged as active for aspect education of significant a citizenship, the role of the teacher in helping students organize and implement social action projects is one requiring a strong sense of responsibility. It requires the of to students, the maturity sensitivity to expectations of parents, to institutional norms, and to for need the of Because processes. democratic learning of type this out carrying sensitivity in experience, social action is not prescribed but is encouraged where possible, given the above cautions (Alberta Social Studies Curriculum, 1981: 8). Throughout the grades, Alberta suggests that students formulate plans of action.  In grade ten,  for example,  the guide states:  “apply the decision by creating a plan of action to implement the  chosen  solution”  (p.  78),  and  “apply  the  decision  by  65 creating a plan for handling a violation of individual or group rights”  (p.  75).  Figure 2  Goals for Global Content Instructions for Teachers #  of pro.,inces*  10  8  6  4  2  0  *NFLD is not included.  The  data  education support  in  Figure  literature  those  goals  1  are  discussed  consistent in  Chapter  with 2.  the  Most  global  provinces  that are generally considered to be  non  controversial. For example, facts, concepts, problem solving and empathy have a higher degree of support across the provinces; within the literature, as well, there is little dissention over the importance of these goals. However, there is less support in  66 and  literature  the  the  curricula  for  goals  the  of  value  reasoning and action. Figure 2 shows the extent to which instructions for the promotion of  these  goals  are provided  The most  for teachers.  striking feature is how few provinces supply any instructions, recommend  materials,  identified goals. to  these  promote  suggest  or  for  activities  promoting the  It is assumed that teachers already know how at  or  goals,  least  access  have  to  other  avenues of assistance. “Considerable some  instructions  means  indication” on  to  how  that  a  goals,  the  promote  province  provides  as  well  as  suggests materials or activities, where appropriate, that could be  Alberta  used.  reasoning”  explains  how  to  in its discussion of goals  Curriculum,  1981:  appropriate to do so,  Studies  (Alberta Social  indicating where  4-5),  value  “critical  promote  and when  it  may  be  and describing some relevant activities.  For instance, for grade seven the guide recommends that students develop  competencies  consequences  of  our  “in  value  ethnocentric  perspectives on non—industrial  by  analysis,  empathetic)  (or  cultures”;  identifying  the  value  the guide then asks  the student to formulate “recommendations about the best ways to manage  cultural  contact  situations,”  and  to  “evaluate  decision by judging the worth of recommendations above, the  principles  of  the  Role  Exchange  Test”  materials for teachers are also recommended.  (p.  57).  the  using  Resource  67 “Some  indication”  means  that  either  are  provided  (but  activities  illustrative  instructions not  both  or not  and  consistently). The Northwest Territories, for example, discusses the  importance  understanding  students  of  values  and  value  in the grade by  analysis in its introductory sections; however,  grade breakdown there is little or no indication when, where or how to approach these goals. It  is  obvious  though  provinces  global  content,  instructions  comparing  from  identify various they  are  1  Figures types  less  of  and  that  2  goals  related  about  concerned  for the promotion of these goals.  even to  providing  Four provinces  give no indication of how to advance value reasoning, nor six of how  to  identify  pursue both  empathy, types  of  even  though  goals.  On  nine  the  of  other  the hand,  provinces the  two  jurisdictions (i.e., Alberta and Manitoba) that identify action as significant also give some advice to the teacher on how to promote student action. In addition, three of the four provinces that  suggest  some direction of  how to teach  identify it as a significant goal  for empathy also  (New Brunswick,  Saskatchewan  and Alberta).  CONTENT OF GLOBAL STUDIES  The content of global studies  is defined by the concepts,  68 topics,  geographic coverage,  connections  that  global problems,  prescribed  are  or  and global/local  suggested  at  each  grade  level.  Concepts are  Concepts studies  integral  an  part  of  the  social  of  content  They are considered within most curriculum  education.  regions,  guides to be the “organizers” around which countries, issues and topics are selected for study.  Concepts from curriculum guides that are relevant to global studies  are  listed in Table 2.  that each  The number of times  concept is mentioned (either stated, or stated and developed) by each province  in  the  topic is indicated.  context  of  a  global,  national  local  or  (Tables 2, 3 and 4 refer to concepts used in  both a global context as well as a non-global context.  Table 5  lists concepts that are only used in a global context.) Even  though  there  provided by the guides  is  disparity  in  the  amount  (as explained in Chapter 1),  of  detail  the extent  of differences in the focus on concepts across the provinces is surprising (e.g., Newfoundland mentions the concepts in Table 2 17 times while Alberta lists them 68 times). However, the guides are more similar in the kinds of concepts they emphasize. Concepts in the top half of the table are mentioned more often by each province than those in the bottom half. Also note that the  bottom two-thirds  of  the  table  contains  explicitly moral  69 concepts  (e.g.,  human rights,  inequality/disparity,  justice),  while the top third could be taught without discussing any moral dimensions (e.g., conflict, change, interdependence, ideology). Table 2 Concepts Relevant to Global Studies*  Concepts Conflict Change Interdependence Multiculturalism Diversity Co-operation Ideology Human Rights Inequality /Disparity Development Ethnocentrism Justice Global Perspective Stewardship /Conservation Scarcity Group Self— determination Personal Autonomy Total  # Mentioned By Each Province H I F G D E C  A  B  2 / 8  2 4 5 3 4 /  12 8 5 8 4 6  /  4  / 2 1 1  K  4 6 6 3 4 3 2 4  3 3 6 4 2 3 1 2  70 60 57 42 37 36 36 29  3 1  4 3  / / 1  3 1 /  25 21 17 11  4  6 6 2 5 3 2 7 4  3 3 3 2 4 1 4 1  6 7 1 5 2 4 2 3  9 6 9 4 6 6 4 3  12 7 8 4 3 4 4 2  2 2 2  3 1 3  2 2 /  3 5  1 /  3 /  1  1  1  /  4 1 3 / 1  1 1  / 3 2 1 3  2** 2 3 2** 2  / /  1 /  / /  / /  3 /  / 3  3  1  /  8  I  / 1  3  /  /  7  / /  / /  1 /  2 /  / /  / /  / /  1 1  / 3  1 /  1 /  6 4  17  24  61  47  26  39  60  58  68  39  36  475  / 1 1 4 1 / /  / / / /  /  11 10 4 4 4 6 4 5  Total J  9  * Included are concepts also mentioned in rationales, goal statements, and general remarks outside of the year—by-year breakdown of topics; 32 of the total 475 are thus not mentioned in reference to a specific grade level. ** Because these two concepts are so central in the AVER (1981) materials referred to throughout the Alberta curriculum, they are promoted to a greater extent than indicated by these figures.  70 Three concepts are singled out for further discussion here: and  interdependence  conflict,  concept mentioned most  the  interdependence  whereas  (see Table 2),  is  Conflict  rights.  human  and human rights are central concepts within the broader global education literature. Conflict:  and how  reasons for conflict,  Types of conflict,  specific cases of conflict were resolved historically comprise the  focus.  central  “East  the  between  Territories  Northwest  the  explore  of  existence  “the  West:”  and  nine  grade  in  students  that  suggests  the  example,  For  conflict two  major  contending groups of nations and the reason for their rivalries -  the efforts  both East and West to  of  Studies  Countries”  (Social  recommends  investigation  hence  in  conflict,  1979:  K-9, past  of  “What  Africa:  influence Third World New  197).  independence  Brunswick  movements,  and  to  the  contributed  factors  drive among African people for independence from European rule? Students should understand the concept of black nationalism and its  in  role  independence  the  1987:  Studies Syllabus, Few  personally,  on  inherent  curriculum  Nine  Social  how  conflict  affects  students  or encourage teachers to help students clarify and  critique their own experiences values  (Grade  17).  focus  provinces  movement”  that  competing values  in  public  encourages (e.g.,  of conflict or the conflicting  issues. students  An to  exception analyze  self sufficiency vs.  is  Alberta’s  issues  around  interdependence,  71 rights  minority  appropriate  actions  welfare)  majority  vs.  (Alberta Social  to  and  Studies  decide  on  1981:  Curriculum,  38, 58); the conflicts are not just treated historically but are explored for their potential relevance to each student’s life. All curriculum guides recommend the study  Interdependence: of  economic  “interdependence  that  For example,  interdependence.  requires  that  Saskatchewan states  nations  interact  through  trade. A shrinking globe implies increasing interaction. Canada with  trades  all  countries  studied”  being  (Grade  6  Social  Studies, 1986: n.p.); British Columbia asks in grade 11 “in what ways are countries economically interdependent?” and “How have developments  in  create the global  village?”  communication  and  transportation  helped  to  (Social Studies Curriculum Guide,  79).  1988:  Most  relationships “People  like  provinces,  in  communication  between  British  technology  diverse  regions  links  in order to  Columbia,  and  discuss  also  interdependence  establish  (e.g.,  transportation  trade products  and  ideas  and for  their mutual advantage.... What transportation and communication links are used to connect Alberta to the rest of Canada and the world? (Consider air, rail, media networks, telecommunications, etc.)”  (Alberta  Social  Studies  Curriculum,  1981:  38-39)).  Saskatchewan, in grade seven, recommends classroom discussion of how  advances  in  communication  and  transportation  technology  allow for greater interaction between countries, which in turn  72  through  interdependence  cultural/social  and  49).  1986:  Curriculum Guide: Canada and the World Community, Political  Studies  (Social  interdependence”  encourage  can  technology  how  “Appreciate  relationships:  interdependent  more  create  international organizations are only mentioned by a few of the For example, when Alberta identifies “interdependence  guides.  cultural)” as one of the concepts to be  political,  (economic,  explored in grade ten,  the guide goes on to say  “A country’s  foreign policies are influenced and limited by its political, These needs give rise to  social and cultural needs.  economic,  international  and  agreements  organizations....  participation  military  cultural,  What  in  international economic  and  (Alberta  agreements does Canada have with other governments?” Social Studies Curriculum,  1981:  78).  All of these examples stress international interdependence and are taken from the intermediate and secondary grades; primary  grades,  community Territories grade  two:  interdependence. outlines  their  people needs”  tend For  need (Social  emphasize  to  example,  interdependence  “the major concept  interdependence: satisfy  conversely,  within  the the  underlying Topic each  other  Studies  and K-9,  personal  help 1979:  or  Northwest  community A  the  is  that  each 83).  in of  other New  Brunswick, in grade three, suggests an “interdependent community study:  groups of communities are often interdependent,  sharing  transportation, economic, historical, cultural and geographical  73 features”  (Elementary  Curriculum  Studies  Social  Guide,  1987:  45). Human  Some  Ricxhts:  guides  United  the  mention  Nations  Declaration of Human Rights and relate it to Canada’s Charter of Rights and Freedoms; they also discuss examples of human rights and infringements to these rights. Some examples are as follows. New Brunswick talks of civil disobedience and dissent; raises  the  issue  of  there  whether  is  justification  for  it  such  actions and, if so, when (Junior High Social Studies Years 7-8-,  1983: n.p.). Manitoba links human rights to quality of life:  “compare and evaluate the concept of quality of life in various societies degree  are  [in  relation  the  rights  of  free  and  freedoms  to]....  speech,  free  rights: press,  To  what  religion,  mobility and human rights enjoyed by members of society? (Social Studies K-12 Overview, 1985: of  global  examples  of  115). Alberta recommends the study  human  rights’  infringements,  focuses  freedom and social  students on the tension between individual  control, and highlights “Canadian participation in international human rights movements (Amnesty International), and the role of government at various levels in relation to human rights issues” (Alberta Social Studies Curriculum, to  the  study of  “basic  1981:  human rights:  74).  Ontario refers  guarantees,  violations”  (Curriculum Guideline History and Contemporary Studies Part C: Senior Division Grades 11 and 12, lists  some  specific  cases  where  1987: one  45), and might  wish  Saskatchewan to  restrain  74 either  or  individual  rights  collective  (Social  Curriculum Guide: Canada and the World Community,  1986:  Studies 33).  Table 3 Concepts Across Elementary and Secondary*  # Mentioned Elementary Secondary  Concepts  Conflict Change Interdependence Multiculturalism Co-operation Ideology Diversity Human Rights Inequality/Disparity Development Ethnocentrism Global Perspective Justice Stewardship/Conservation Scarcity Group Self-determination Personal Autonomy  24 28 37 18 18 6 22 8 6 7 9 2 4 4 3 1 2  Total  199  *Elementary refers to grades grades eight through 12.  Table  3  shows  the  one  relative  concepts.  “diversity” countries)  However,  (within  the  244  seven,  conceptual  (55%)  secondary to  emphasis  between  The latter mentions 55% of  concepts  families,  (45%)  through  elementary and secondary curricula. the  43 30 15 21 17 29 11 19 16 13 6 6 4 4 4 4 2  “interdependence”  communities,  provinces  and and  are mentioned significantly more in the elementary  75 grades. This tendency to stress personal/community as opposed to and  interdependence  national/international  diversity  in  the  is an example of the principle of expanding  elementary grades  horizons. Because many provinces use this philosophy to organize (e.g.,  the scope and sequence of topics across the grades  1987:  Brunswick Elementary Social Studies Curriculum Guide, Columbia  British  Social  Studies  Northwest Territories Social Studies K-9, often  grades  elementary  1983:  Curriculum Guide,  primarily  deal  14),  1979:  New 9;  7,9;  the early families,  with  communities and cities and save examination of other countries until later grades. 4  Table  how  shows  often  these  (59%)  concepts  refer  to  a  global context. This figure is not surprising, given that social studies is largely concerned with people and places around the world  and  time;  through  even  though  these  concepts  are  identified 41% of the time in a flop-global context, the teacher could also easily relate them to foreign countries and issues. The concept of interdependence is explored in the elementary grades  in personal  and community terms  (non-global contexts),  whereas the secondary grades focus on national and international contexts  (Tables  3 and 4).  British Columbia also follows this  model with the concept of cooperation. states: students  using  their  own  should examine..,  school,  In grade two,  the guide  and  community  neighbourhood  co-operation and conflict”  Studies Curriculum Guide: grade one  -  (Social  grade seven, 1983: 19). In  76 Table 4 Concepts and Their Context  # Mentioned *Global Context Non-Global Context  Concepts Conflict Change Interdependence Multiculturalism Co-operation Ideology Diversity Human Rights Inequality/Disparity Development Ethnocentrism Global Perspective Justice Stewardship/Conservation Scarcity Group Self-determination Personal Autonomy  37 27 30 14 15 26 24 16 16 20 11 8 3 3 6 3 2 262  Total  30 31 22 25 19 9 9 11 6 4 -  5 5 1 2 2 (59%)  181  (41%)  *What constitutes a “global context” is outlined in the Analysis Scheme (Appendix C). This context involves any of the following: a) foreign countries, cultures, or landscapes; human (e.g., universal or international issues b) rights, the United Nations, nuclear war, law of the sea); or c) connection or comparison of Canada/Canadians with other countries/citizens.  grade  11,  cooperation is examined in a clearly defined global  context: recognize that today’s world is one of cooperation, and cooperative many involved in is Canada that endeavours.... What examples of cooperation exist in the world today? To what cooperative organizations does How successful has the U.N. been at 2 Canada belong Studies (Social and peace? cooperation fostering  77 Curriculum Guide,  78).  indicates that 69% of these concepts are not just  Table 5 stated,  1988:  but  “developed”  within  a  global  context;  that  is,  explanations are provided or teaching activities suggested that Table 5 Treatment of Concepts*  Developed**  Stated Only  Concepts Conflict Interdependence Change Ideology Diversity Development Co-operation Human Rights Inequality/Disparity Multiculturalism Ethnocentrism Global Perspective Scarcity Justice Stewardship/Conservation Group Self-determination Personal Autonomy  8 14 8 4 3 6 5 8 5 4 4 1 4 3 1 2  Total  80  29 16 19 22 21 14 11 8 11 10 7 7 2 -  2 1 2  -  182  (31%)  (69%)  *This only represents concepts listed within a global context (i.e., the first column of Table 4). **“Developed” means that explanations are provided or teaching activities suggested that highlight, exemplify or support these concepts.  highlight,  exemplify or support these concepts in terms of one  or more of the following: a) landscapes;  b)  foreign countries, cultures, or  universal or international  issues  (e.g.,  human  78 rights,  the United Nations,  connections  countries/citizens.  Less  than  a  Canada/Canadians third  of  sea);  with  or  c)  other  concepts  these  definition/discussion  without  mentioned  of  comparisons  or  law of the  nuclear war,  are  supporting  activities. The difference between a concept that is stated only and one that  is  also developed with discussion and activities  illustrated  by  considering  the  curriculum  guides  can be  produced  by  Alberta. This province mentions scarcity in its list of concepts for grade six but does not provide any description/discussion nor  suggest  development contrast, list  of  any  supporting  (Alberta Social  in grade concepts,  11, but  materials  or  activities  Studies Curriculum,  1981:  for 48).  its In  disparity is not only mentioned in the accompanied  by  both  discussion  and  suggested activities: The world is characterized by problems of overpopulation and inadequate resource distribution. Although these international issue in are a central disparities politics, no simple generally applicable solutions are known at the present time.... What are disparities in the distribution and utilization of resources within and among countries?... What major efforts are currently and how disparities, global redress to underway effective are they?... What are the implications, for future world stability, of significant disparities in the wealth of nations?... Develop competencies in value analysis, by comparing alternative solutions to global disparities from the perspectives of groups who would be the most adversely affected by each alternative (p. 8283). The range of concepts found in the curricula corresponds to those discussed in the literature. However, there is a tendency  79 the  across  to  curricula  stress  those  concepts  that  less  are  explicitly moral. For example, conflict, change, interdependence ideology  and  justice  inequality/disparity, glance at Table only”  shows  5  rather that  Furthermore,  scarcity.  and  latter concepts  that the  rights,  human  than  often  more  appear  a  “stated  are  “developed” much more often than the former  group of concepts.  in Chapter 2,  As discussed  not all  global  educators, although most of those who support a “global issues” approach, and  moral  are comfortable with teaching about value reasoning education.  same  The  to  appears  be  true  the  for  developers of provincial curricula.  Global Topics content  The  broad  extent  by  the  Tables  (6  through  topic  is  at  least  studies  global  of  topics  9)  chosen  refer to mentioned  includes any of the following:  determined  is for  study.  the number within a)  a  of  The  times  global  a  to  following a  general  context  foreign countries,  large  that  cultures,  or landscapes; b) universal or international issues (e.g., human rights,  the United Nations,  connection  or  of  comparison  countries/citizens.  Table  nuclear war,  6  law of the  Canada/Canadians  displays  the  topics  sea);  with  other  relevant  global education across the provincial curriculum guides.  c)  to  80 Table 6 Topics Relevant to Global Education  TOPIC  Physical Geography Culture/Traditions Economic Development andPlanning Migrancy/Immigration Government science/Technology Trade, International Environment/Ecology Religion Lifestyle Industry! Manufacturing Population International Org’ns War Resource Distribution Resource Management Transportation Multiculturalism Food Democracy Education/Literacy Agriculture/ Animal Husbandry Employment Communication Urbanization Women Development, social Arts Energy HumanRights Housing Language Minorities Trade,Domestic Climate I Climatic Conditions International Aid Health/Medicine  Total  # Mentioned by each Province A  B  CD  E  F  G  HI  J  K  1 3  8 5  6 11 9 9  5 4  4 3  6 3  4 6 6 11  7 4  3 2  61 59  14433547748 1 7 3 6 3 5 6 6 6 3 3 3299126455 / 4 3 4 4 6 2 1 4 6 6 5 4 2 4 3 1 2 2 2 7 4 6 2 2 3 5 8 3 2 2 2 2 / / 1664 / 4343 / 235543322 / 2  50 49 46 45 37 31 31 31  44132225331 13314342223 1 1 4 1 5 3 1 4 4 3 / 1 2 2 8525 / / / / 1 1 2 3 / 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 / / 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 1 3 / / 5 2 2 2 1 3 4 / / I / 2511 / 42121 / 2 63112 22 / / / 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 / /  30 28 27 25 25 23 22 19 19 19 18  4 1 2 1 4 1 / 3 2 / / 3111121223 / 22131 323 / / / 2 32231 2 / / / / 2 11 2513 / / / / 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 / / 2 1 12 1332 / / / / 2 1 4 121 / / / 2 / 1 122 24 / 1 / / / 1 1 2223 / / / / / / / 211211111 1 2 2411 I / / / / 13311 I / 11 / /  18 17 17 15 15 15 13 13 13 11  / / /  1211131 1 1 1 1 1 1 / 2 1 13 / / /  / 2 /  / / /  / 1 2  11 11 11 10 9 9  81 Poverty Fishing Disarmament! NuclearWar Peace Aboriginal Claims Agrarian Reform! LandUse Water and Sanitation Mining CivilWar Forestry Youth/Adolescents Transnational Corporations Hunger Children Diet/Nutrition International Debt  / /  1331 2 / 11  / /  / /  /  /  /  1121  /  / / / / /  11/3 / 1! 2 / / 1 / 21 / 2! / 1 / 2 11 1 / 2! / / 1 3 1 / / /  / 1 / / /  / / / 1 /  31 2 / 2 1  / / /  / /  /  / 1  8 7  1 / 1 / 1211 1 / 1 /  / / /  1 / 2  7 7 7  /  /  /  6  / / / / /  / / / / /  / / 1 / /  6 6 6 5 5  1 1 / /1 / /11 / / 2 / / /  5 5 5 4 0  / /  /  / 2  1  11 / /1 21 / / / 111 / / 1 / / / / / / / / /  / /  / / / / /  /  3580131149906911388 87 80  Total There  is  disparity  considerable  among  70  provinces  992  the  in  number of topics recommended. For example, Newfoundland mentions 35 topics as compared to 149 for New Brunswick. Newfoundland’s guide, though, is general, cursory, and lacking in detail; local development and “subsequent course outlines and teacher guides” are to fill in the gaps (The Master Guide for Social Studies, K XII  in Newfoundland and Labrador,  conversely,  has eight guides,  n.d.:  vi).  New Brunswick,  all of which provide detailed,  specific discussion. The  topics  in  Table  6  are  according to decreasing emphasis.  ordered  from  top  to  bottom  Dominant topics across  all  provinces include: physical geography (61), culture/traditions (59),  economic  development  (50),  migrancy/immigration  (49),  82 government trade  (37),  debt  (no  (46),  science/technology  whereas  negligible  mention),  and  international  include:  international  (45),  topics  diet/nutrition  (4),  hunger  (5),  youth/adolescents (5), forestry (5), clean water (6), aboriginal claims  (7) and poverty (8).  Table 7 Topics Across Elementary and Secondary*  TOPIC  # Mentioned SECONDARY ELEMENTARY  Physical Geography Culture/Traditions Economic Development and Planning Migrancy/Immigration Government Science/Technology Trade, International Environment/Ecology Religion Lifestyle Industry/Manufacturing Population International Organizations War Resource Distribution Resource Management Transportation Multiculturalism Food Democracy Education/Literacy Agriculture/Animal Husbandry Employment Communication Urbanization Women Development, Social Arts  TOTAL  33 29  28 30  61 59  14 25 15 16 12 13 10 17 8 10 4 3 12 10 13 11 12 4 6 6 6 10 1 1 2 4  36 24 31 29 25 18 21 14 22 18 23 22 13 13 9 8 7 15 12 12 11 7 14 14 13 9  50 49 46 45 37 31 31 31 30 28 27 25 25 23 22 19 19 19 18 18 17 17 15 15 15 13  83  370  Total  are  Grades one through seven through 12 are secondary. *  There  is  more  mention  of  13 13 11 11 11 11 10 9 9 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 0  11 10 2 7 9 8 3 8 5 6 4 6 7 4 5 3 3 2 3 3 5 4 3 3 0  2 3 9 4 2 3 7 1 4 2 3 1 0 3 1 3 3 4 2 2 0 1 2 1 0  Energy Human Rights Housing Language Minorities Trade, Domestic Climate/Climatic Conditions International Aid Health/Medicine Poverty Fishing Disarmament/Nuclear War Peace Aboriginal Claims Agrarian Reform/Land Use Water and Sanitation Mining Civil War Forestry Youth/Adolescents Transnational Corporations Hunger Children Diet/Nutrition International Debt  622  (37%)  elementary,  global  topics  and  in  (63%) than the elementary (37%) guides (Table 7).  (63%)  grades  the  992  eight  secondary  “Housing” is  the only example of a topic listed disproportionately more (4.5 times more) more  times  for the elementary grades; within  international peace,  the  secondary  organizations,  most topics are listed  guides,  international  as aid,  for war,  example, women,  and urbanization. Almost all references to both war and  international organizations at the elementary grades come in the  84 or three years  two  final seven;  that  is,  grades  in  six and  five,  this again reflects the expanding horizons approach for  selecting topics. in  unit  -  Quebec,  for example,  elementary curriculum seeks  its  the  in  second to  have the  to  last  students  “identify several bodies which can defend democratic rights and international  freedoms  at  the  Amnesty  International, Social  Curriculum  UNESCO,  United  Nations,  (Elementary  etc.”  in grade nine  School  international  45);  1983:  Studies,  are revisited  organizations  the  level...,  through a  study of  Canadian “participation in International Bodies: United Nations, NATO,  Commonwealth,  School  (Secondary  etc.”  Curriculum.  Geography of Quebec and Canada, 1983: 60). Saskatchewan does not study international  organizations until  grades  six and seven;  the grade seven unit on power refers to the United International Groups: the Authority of World of Court, Council World the Nations, the Indigenous Peoples, the Assembly of First Nations, Prairie Treaty Nations Alliance, the Commonwealth of Nations.... Summarize the purpose of the United Nations. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of international organizations as authoritative bodies. Identify common goals shared by various international bodies (Social World and the Curriculum Canada Guide: Studies Community, 1986: 40—41). By  12,  grade  organizations: obligations?  the  what  “in  e.g.  focus  NATO,  is  on  military  organizations NORAD,  U.N.  do  we  Why?...  and  economic  have  military  [Canadians]  work  toward freer world trade, through such agencies as GATT (General Agreement  on  agreements”  Tariff  and  Trade)  and  through  bilateral  (Social Studies 30: Canadian Studies,  1978:  trade 27).  85 is discussed  “Developed” means that the topic  In table 8,  and that activities are suggested so that the teacher has some indication somewhere suggested,  of  how  within  a  to  proceed.  unit  but without  of  “Mentioned  study the  supporting  topic  only” was  activities;  means  that  mentioned or  ideas  for  such  activities have to be generated by the teacher. Two-thirds (66%) of these topics are developed, whereas one-third (34%) are not.  Table 8 Topics and Their Treatment  TOPIC Physical Geography Culture/Traditions Economic Development and Planning Migrancy/Immigration Government Science/Technology Trade, International Environment/Ecology Religion Lifestyle Industry/Manufacturing Population International Organizations War Resource Distribution Resource Management Transportation Multiculturalism Food Democracy Education/Literacy Agriculture/Animal Husbandry Employment Communication Urbanization Women Development, Social  Developed  Mentioned Only  Total  56 53  5 6  61 59  45 34 35 32 21 24 21 28 21 20 23 22 18 17 10 15 9 11 6 10 7 8 10 7 14  5 15 11 13 16 7 10 3 9 8 4 3 7 6 12 4 10 8 12 8 10 9 5 8 1  50 49 46 45 37 31 31 31 30 28 27 25 25 23 22 19 19 19 18 18 17 17 15 15 15  86 7 9 7 4 5 7 6 6 4 1 2 2 4 2 1 3 2 2 1 2 0 2 1 1 0 0  Arts Energy Human Rights Housing Language Minorities Trade, Domestic Climate/Climatic Conditions International Aid Health/Medicine Poverty Fishing Disarmament/Nuclear War Peace Aboriginal Claims Agrarian Reform/Land Use Water and Sanitation Mining Civil War Forestry Youth/Adolescents Transnational Corporations Hunger Children Diet/Nutrition International Debt  658  Total  As  an  “mentions only”  example,  334  (66%)  Brunswick  New  13 13 13 11 11 11 11 10 9 9 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 0  6 4 6 7 6 4 5 4 5 8 6 5 3 5 6 3 4 4 5 3 5 3 4 4 4 0  both  the topic of minorities.  992  (34%)  and  “develops”  In the grade 12 unit  “Living in a Communist Society”, minority rights are identified as  a  key  activities  topic,  but  without  (World Issues  123,  any  1986:  supporting 15).  discussion  In another unit,  or  “The  People of the United States”, the guide identifies minorities as one of the key topics as well as briefly stating:  “Compare with  related situations in the United States Canadian minority rights and conditions  (refer to  the Canadian  Nova Scotia and the French)” (p.  Indians,  the  Blacks  of  11). More extensive discussion  87 is given to the topic of poverty: Students should be very interested in the section on ‘War Against Poverty’. An excellent array of films and resource persons are available from the Unicef New Brunswick Office, Prince William Street, Saint John E2L 4S2, Tel. 652—4747). (P.O. Box 6773, Station A, (which is available in each Check their catalogue school). Students will relate to much of the material presented here as they have been prepared by both their human nature and television appeals to show interest in and feeling for the need to fight famine, disease, child exploitation, et cetera. This section of the curriculum individualized many opportunities for provides assignments (World Issues 123, 1986: 24). Table 9 Topics and Their Context  TOPIC  # MENTIONED IN: MULTIPLE COUNTRY SINGLE COUNTRY CONTEXT CONTEXT  Physical Geography Culture/Traditions Economic Development and Planning Migrancy/Immigration Government Science/Technology Trade, International Environment/Ecology Religion Lifestyle Industry/Manufacturing Population International Organizations War Resource Distribution Resource Management Transportation Multiculturalism Food Democracy Education/Literacy Agriculture/Animal Husbandry Employment Communication Urbanization  TOTAL  57 53  4 6  61 59  45 43 39 39 33 29 26 29 25 27 27 22 24 22 20 13 18 16 15 12 16 15 15  5 6 7 6 4 2 5 2 5 1 0 3 1 1 2 6 1 3 3 6 1 2 0  50 49 46 45 37 31 31 31 30 28 27 25 25 23 22 19 19 19 18 18 17 17 15  88  872  Total  15 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 11 10 9 9 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 0  4 2 3 1 2 2 1 4 4 0 0 1 1 2 3 0 4 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  11 13 10 12 11 9 10 7 7 10 9 8 7 5 4 7 3 5 6 6 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 0  Women Development, Social Arts Energy Human Rights Housing Language Minorities Trade, Domestic Climate/Climatic Conditions International Aid Health/Medicine Poverty Fishing Disarmament/Nuclear War Peace Aboriginal Claims Agrarian Reform/Land Use Water and Sanitation Mining Civil War Forestry Youth/Adolescents Transnational Corporations Hunger Children Diet / Nutrition International Debt  120  (88%)  (12%)  992  Most (88%) of the topics listed in the guides are done so in relation  to  various  countries  rather  than  one  in  isolation.  These topics are seen as global and, consequently, examples are a  across  spectrum  of  countries/regions.  For  obtained  from  instance,  in contrast to the study at grades 11 and 12 of “the  basic structure of the American government as established by the Constitution Contemporary  of  1789”  Studies  Part  (Curriculum C:  Grades  Guideline 11  and  12,  History 1987:  and 60),  Ontario’s “Twentieth-Century World History” course examines the  89 nature meaning  the  of  fascism,  nationalism,  of  concepts  country context:  a multiple  government within  of  and totalitarianism;  communism,  “the  socialism,  feminism,  the applicability of  the above concepts to selected parts of Europe and Asia between 1919 and 1939” (p. 49). In grade eight, Quebec studies democracy in  to  relation  Characteristics,  Original  General  Curriculum.  of more  news,  some  (Secondary  1983:  whereas  in  30),  School in  the  of democracy are understood in  aspects  than one country:  situations,  Democracy:  “Athenian  Limitations”  History,  elementary curriculum, terms  period:  historical  one  “To  which  identify,  the  based on world  exercise  democratic  of  rights and freedoms is curtailed or denied. To identify several bodies which can defend democratic rights and freedoms at the  UNESCO”  International, Studies, In roughly  summary,  topics  same  culture/traditions, government poverty  and  (Elementary  Amnesty  Nations,  School  Curriculum  Social  45).  1983:  the  United  the  level...,  international  are  all  hunger.  treated  are  manner  as  within  concepts.  curricula  the  Physical  development  and  examined  more  often  that  the  former  topics  As  well,  geography,  planning,  economic  in  and  human  rights,  are  usually  supported with discussion and activities while the latter topics are more often “mentioned only.” As discussed in the previous section, this tendency within the curricula to avoid discussions of more controversial topics reflects the same treatment within  90 the literature.  Geographic Coverage An important consideration in global education is the image of the world that is presented in curricular content. Three  Table 10 Range in the Coverage of World Regions  Regions * * Africa As i a Au S tra ii a / New Zealand Europe North America*** Middle East South/Central America Developing Countries Developed Countries Unspecified**** Total  % Each Province Devotes to Each Region* I F H J G D E A B C  Average K  13 19  10 22  8 19  12 12  10 17  10 13  14 18  10 21  3 9  10 26  9 18  6 44 6  2 34 19 8  /  /  2 27 16 8  33 17 2  2 22 13 7  6 27 16 6  / 16 11 2  5 21 16 10  / 37 24 6  6 20 13 6  3 29 15 6  12  /  10  8  7  7  13  14  10  3  16  9  /  /  2  /  7  5  3  7  /  3  3  3  /  6  1  /  5  2  /  5  /  3  5  6  2  2  5  15  6  13  7  12  / /  2 7  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100  101  / 18  / 41 12 12  * % = number of times a region was mentioned over the total times all regions were mentioned per province. **Includes any mention of a region or the countries within that region. *** Excluding Canada. Unspecified refers to times when the guide does not indicate any specific region to be studied, but leaves the choice to the teacher. (E.g., British Columbia states for grade six: “Students should compare and contrast the features of four peoples drawn from four continents with each other and with Canadians” (Social Studies Curriculum Guide, 1983: 35).)  91 aspects  regionsare these  this  of  and  regions  are are  mentioned;  not  here:  discussed  are  image  identified  and  which  2)  which  are  world  which  1)  countries and  not;  within the  3)  topics and issues linked to these regions and countries. Table 10 identifies, by province, the percentage of consideration that selected regions receive. 10 only three regions are mentioned by  According to Table all  of  Asia,  provinces:  the  Europe,  and  North  America.  attention implies a possible hierarchy of importance.  This  While it  may be legitimate to study some areas more than others due to, for  example,  historical  or  economic  problems  connections,  balance may arise when such connections  of  are emphasized to the  exclusion of other areas. British Columbia (J) and Prince Edward Island (B) are prime examples of this tendency to over-emphasize some regions (i.e., Europe) and exclude others (i.e., the Middle East). There is relative consistency across the provinces in the areas they emphasize (Europe, Asia and North America) and in the areas they downplay (Australia, Middle East). Figure  3  pictorially  represents  the  average  national  of  regional representation across the provinces: 29% of geographic coverage is given to Europe, placing it well ahead of all other regions;  Asia  follows  with  18%  and  North  America  (excluding  Canada) is third with 15%; Africa and South/Central America each receive  9%;  unspecified  (7%);  the  Middle  Australia/New Zealand (3%); developing countries  East (3%)  and  (6%);  92 Figure 3  Geographic Representation National Average  Asia  Europe  17.3  .  I I  Developed 2.G Developing .ØY.  14.1+1.11..  North An.  28.7Y  14.97 II ‘.4 I I  AustralialNZ Iliddle East  Africa  8.9Y  South/Central An.  developed countries  Unspecified 8.97  (2%) bring up the rear.  According to Table 11, monolithic entities,  some regions tend to be treated as  as if their parts are uniform and possess  the same characteristics. East,  S.97  South/Central America and the Middle  and to a lesser extent Africa, tend to be portrayed this  way. When the Middle East is identified, the guides do not refer to individual countries more than twice; although the intention often is to allow the teacher a choice of which country to study within a region, an implicit message may be that this region is homogeneous. South America also is treated monolithically; it is identified 29 times, whereas Central America is specified four times, and Cuba and Haiti only three times. Africa is shown much  93 the same, except that Egypt is specified nine times, while South Africa, Nigeria and the Sahara are identified three times each. the Northwest Territories refers to “the movement  For example,  toward economic and political independence by former colonies in Africa,  South America,  the Caribbean,  India,  China,  Southeast  Asia, Indonesia” (Social Studies K-9, 1979: 192). In its mention  Table 11 Regions and Their Prominent Countries*  Africa Egypt Nigeria Sahara South Africa  19** 9 3 3 3  Asia USSR China India Japan Korea Pacific Rim Vietnam  11 30 28 23 19 4 4 4  Australia  11  Europe Britain France Italy Western Europe Germany Greece Ireland Spain Eastern Europe Cyprus Portugal  34 39 28 10 10 7 7 6 5 4 3 3  North America United States Mexico  12 57 3  Middle East  24  South America Central America Cuba Haiti  29 4 3 3  * Those countries identified two times or less by all the guides together are flg included. ** Number of times a region/country is listed across all the curricula.  94  rule”  military  under  been  is/has  Saskatchewan  seven,  grade  a country in South America which  “case study of  a  encourages  in  oligarchy  and  authority  of  (Social  Curriculum  Studies  Guide: Canada and the World Community, 1986: 40). New Brunswick “to identify the presence  states as rather general objectives: of  (World Issues 123,  Black Nationalism in Africa” lack  specificity  of  to  teachers  To understand the rise of  in the Middle East.  superpowers  in  19). Such  may  encourage  questions/topics  the  regions  these  treat  1986:  In  homogeneous.  as  contrast,  Saskatchewan identifies specific countries for grade six: resources  similar  of  distribution  Haiti”  France, Mexico, Jamaica, Cuba, Canada’s Global Neighbours, Homogeneity specificity  further  is  Columbia specifies and  American  Scotia identifies (c)  Korea”  advocates  n.p.) the  French,  to  “hot spots” World of  “(a)  as:  Problems,  “roles  For  Cyprus  in various  Curriculum Guide:  The  1988:  Guide,  1976:  democratic  of  development  Curriculum  Studies  comparisons  the  (Social  Japan are  to  “the contributions of the English,  in an African village,  44).  compared  when  receive.  they change....  1985:  Britain,  British  (Modern  Studies  USA,  (Grade 6 Social Studies:  highlighted  regions  revolutions  (Social  concepts”  of  example,  other  that  1986:  each  in  “the  (b) 7).  44).  Middle East Saskatchewan  Indian village, in  (In the last two examples, Cyprus, Korea, specifically  and how  societies  Individual  Nova  identified while the Middle  Japan”  Society, India and East,  and  95 Africa are treated monolithically the Middle  -  that is, any country within studied;  East or any African village could be  the  implication being that all countries or villages are roughly the in  same  students not  just  these  regions.)  Some  of  suggested  the  tasks  to recognize distinctions within a region: a  common  geographic  area,  it  unique and individual countries. On the other hand, seem to imply that Africa,  the Middle East,  Europe is  comprised  also  is  require  of  the guides  and South/Central  America do not have the same degree of distinctiveness within their regions. Asia and North America are treated much more often through specific  countries  rather than through the whole  For  region.  example, Asia is mentioned 11 times while the USSR, China, India and Japan are identified, respectively, 30, 28, 23 and 19 times. Asia is not often spoken of as a monolithic region, but composed of  countries  sufficiently  varied  necessitate  to  singular  identification; given the number of times specific countries are mentioned in relation to the times the region is mentioned,  it  would seem that Asia is defined more by its individual countries than by regional characteristics. North America is mentioned 12 the  USA  is  identified  57  times  and Mexico  times  while  times  (Canada is not included in the statistics). Europe,  three as a  region, is mentioned 34 times, whereas Britain is identified 39 times,  France  (28),  Western Europe  (10),  Italy  (10),  Germany  (7), Greece (7), and five other countries or semi-regions. This  96 specificity is in marked contrast to the treatment accorded to Africa, South/Central America and the Middle East. Also evident in Table 11 is the representation of a region by  a  few  it.  within  countries  These  prominent  countries  are  mentioned so extensively that they overshadow other countries in the  region  and  countries  in  mentioned  57  treatment,  almost  America  North and  it  replace  Mexico  would  be  the  itself.  Canada),  (excluding  three  easy  region  times.  With  equate  the  to  Of  the  the  such USA  USA  two is  lopsided  with  North  America. Similarly, Asia is largely composed of the USSR, China, Japan  to  the  exclusion  of  other  countries.  These  India,  and  guides  show Europe to be overwhelmingly dominated by Britain,  followed closely by France. Moreover, Europe is often identified as Western Europe,  with Eastern Europe given minimal mention.  Africa is dominated by Egypt and to a lesser degree the Sahara desert, South Africa, and Nigeria.  Table 12 Historical Emphasis of Selected Regions  Region  Topic  Africa Middle East South/Central America  Ancient Civilizations Ancient Civilizations Ancient Civilizations  % of all topics* 22 20 16  % = number of times “Ancient Civilizations” are mentioned over all topics mentioned for the region. *  97 Most provinces study ancient civilizations at some point in their curriculum. For instance, British Columbia devotes most of grade seven to the study of “Early and Classical Civilizations: A study of  (Social  and/or Mediterranean” one  grade seven,  -  “Content  six:  (e.g.,  civilizations  Studies Curriculum Guide:  grade  selected  be  Roman,  Greek,  Mayan,  (e.g.,  America  Indus  Tigris-Euphrates,  39), whereas Alberta does so at grade  1983: to  is  Nile,  of the:  the peoples  Inca,  ancient  from  Egyptian)  or pre-Columbian Social  (Alberta  Aztec)”  Mediterranean  Studies  Curriculum, 1981: 46). Approximately one-fifth of the times that Africa, the Middle East and South/Central America are mentioned is in respect to ancient civilizations (Table 12), whereas other regions do not show a pattern of such magnitude. Although Europe (i.e.,  Greece and Rome)  civilizations,  is studied in connection with ancient  many more  and various  contemporary  topics  also listed. Where ancient civilizations are emphasized,  are  there  is a possibility that students may develop rather limited images of those regions  (c.f., Case,  1991:  5).  In summary, various emphases within the curricula combine to make  it unlikely that an accurate image of the world will be  presented. Africa, South America and the Middle East are treated and  superficially ignored.  within  these  regions  largely  Europe, Asia and North America are examined with more  specificity exclusion  distinctions  but of  certain others.  countries For  are  example,  to  the  America  is  emphasized North  98 overwhelmingly shown to include the United States (and Canada); Mexico  overlooked  is  composed of  by  most  countries  western European  almost exclusively by Japan,  Europe  is  primarily  and Asia  is  dominated  curricula.  India, China and (the now defunct)  If global education seeks to encourage accurate images of  USSR.  the world, then some questions may need to be raised about the appropriateness of geographic coverage in these curricula.  Global Problems Global problems or issues transcend national boundaries and affect  whole  regions  or  even  the  globe.  warming,  Global  pollution, poverty and population are examples of such problems. Although all provinces refer to global problems,  the relative  emphasis given to causes, manifestations and ramifications, and remedies does differ (Table 13). causes  While  and  manifestations  of  problems  global  are  “extensively” treated within most of the guides, only one-third treat remedies vary  solutions suggests  “extensively.” across  Recommended ways  provinces.  role playing as a way to  For  to think about  example,  help students  consider solutions to a variety of problems  New  Brunswick  generate and  (Grade Nine Social  Studies Syllabus, 1987), whereas Manitoba didactically presents some  means  countries  of  enhancing  (Social  Studies  the K-12  quality  of  Overview,  life  in  1985:  117).  developing Alberta  defines all issues/problems as a conflict between at least  99 Table 13 Global Problems  # of Provinces* Extensive** Treatment Causes/origins Manifestations / ramifications Remedies/programs  Merely Mentioned  Some Treatment  9  1(G)  10 3(D,G,I)  6  1(J)  Newfoundland is not included. “Extensive treatment” means that aspects of global problems are discussed three times or more; suggestions for instruction “Some treatment” or support activities are also provided. indicates that these aspects are discussed and supported one or “Merely mentioned” does not include supporting two times. discussion or activities. *  **  two values,  students to consider remedial  and then encourages  courses of action (Alberta Social Studies Curriculum,  1981).  Discussions of the causes and origins of global problems are usually approached from a historical perspective. Understanding the  development  United  Nations,  interdependence human  of  Middle  the an  populations  role  of  increasing all  conflicts,  East  rely  changing fact on  of  the  origin  technology life,  historical  or  in  of  making  increases  study,  the  in  although  insights from sociology, geography, anthropology, and economics may  also  be  recommended.  (Interdisciplinary  perspectives  are  discussed within the “Scope of Global Studies” section.) One of the approaches is to link global problems directly to  100 the student and show how she can have an impact on them locally. Many curricula recommend this, as discussed in the next section.  Global/Local Connections How much  encouragement is  given  to  issues  link global  to  regional or national concerns? A very general answer is  local,  given in Table 14. curricula make  All  some attempt  link global  to  and  local  Over one-third consistently have students consider how  issues.  global issues impact on themselves, their friends, Table 14 Provinces Making Global/Local Connections 4 Consistent global/local linkage*  (C,G,I,K)  7 Some attempt made to connect issues 0 No attempt made *“Consistent” linkage means that all of the global issues “Some discussed by a province are linked back to Canada. attempt” means that there is inconsistency in linking issues to Canada.  city,  neighbourhood,  or region,  or how local  issues relate to  global issues. For example, Alberta in grade six compares basic human needs in eastern cultures to those of Canadians Social  Studies  explores  Curriculum,  “relationships  1981:  between  48-49),  one’s  own  and  in  (Alberta  grade  behaviour  and  11, the  global distribution of wealth” (p. 83). Saskatchewan relates the concept  of  global  interdependence  to  Canada  and,  more  101 specifically, to Saskatchewan (Social Studies Curriculum Guide: Canada and the World Community,  1986:  46-51).  Ontario talks of  “the characteristics of the global village that affect students  Studies  Guideline  (Curriculum  personally” Part  that  argues  Territories  11  Grades  C;  a  and  and  History  The  43).  1987:  12,  Contemporary  bring  always  teacher should  Northwest issues  “Social Studies learning in every year  back to local concerns:  and in every Topic will either start with or lead back to the known and familiar world of the student” 1979:  26).  (Social  Scotia discusses methods  Nova  of  relating all  topics in a grade 12 course to Canadian examples 1976:  Problems, This  Studies K-9, the  (Modern World  4-5). linkage  global/local  is  intended  to  have  students  consider how global problems have local impact; they are not to be seen as located only in other countries and therefore not of concern to Canadians. Understanding global/local connections is part of gaining a global perspective. Within curriculum guides  there are assumptions  concerning  teachers’ background knowledge of global topics and issues, and For example, teachers may be expected to  of relevant pedagogy. understand  something  of a  history and geography  knowledge  world regions,  have  development,  political  “interdependence”  the  of  systems  global or  of  dynamics, the  various economic  concept  of  (i.e., the teacher has to provide examples of  global and local “interdependence”). The global studies courses  102 offered for grades  11 and 12 by Nova Scotia and New Brunswick  also demand a considerable knowledge of specific global issues related to terrorism, revolutions, environment, and population. The  need  for  specialized  knowledge  of  value  reasoning  is  explicitly recognized only by Alberta in its advocacy of global (Alberta  issues  Social  Studies  Curriculum,  1981:  province recommends the pedagogy developed by AVER value  reasoning,  and  focuses  units  (e.g., global concern vs.  positions  around  This  5). (1981)  conflicting  for  value  national self-interest).  The Scope of Global Studies This section presents a general picture of the percentage of content that is related to global studies across the provinces. Further, it examines the sources of global content the curricula encourage a single,  -  that is, do  or interdisciplinary  multi-  approach to global content.  Global Presence in the Curriculum The discussion so far in this chapter focused on those parts of  curricula devoted to global  discussion  of  concepts  used  (the exception  content in  both  global  and  is  the  non-global  contexts). This section outlines how much of the curricula are focused  on  percentage  global of  content.  topics  devoted  Figures to  4  global  and  5  studies  provide  the  (given  the  103 definition provided in Appendix C). Figures 4  indicates increasing attention to global studies  as one moves up the elementary grades. Younger children (grades one  through  three)  receive  little  exposure  in  global  topics:  from two to 15 percent. As one advances through the elementary grades,  the  increases  percentage  of  content  devoted  to  global  studies  (64% for grade seven). All the secondary grades  Figure 4  Global Presence National Average Across Crades* l00  Grade level Global Prescence  *The percentage was determined by comparing the amount of global content to total content that are stated for each grade in each province, and then finding the average across provinces. This is a very general calculation and does not indicate what occurs in classrooms because each province allows between 15 and 40% of each grade for “extension” activities defined by the teacher.  104 dedicate considerable attention to global studies (from a low of for grade  47%  10,  to  a  high of  71%  for grade  11).  Figure  5  illustrates the gross difference in attention to global studies between the elementary (29%) and secondary (59%) grades. content  occupies  twice  the  amount  of  the  Global  curriculum  in  the  secondary as opposed to the elementary grades. This  pattern  of  increasing  global  content  as  one  through the elementary and into the secondary grades  moves  has  its  roots in the widespread use of the expanding horizons philosophy that  guides  much  of  the  scope  and  sequence  of  the  social  studies. As discussed in Chapter 2, this philosophy structures  Figure 5  Goba1 Presence National Average 20  z:z: . 1  20  0 Elerientary Grades  Secondary Grades Average Presence  105 the  scope and sequence of  grades  to  devoted  are  the curriculum so that the primary  exploring  child’s  the  world  in  an  expanding pattern from the self to the family and community. Not surprisingly, then, in the primary grades global content is less evident but becomes increasingly more so as a student moves into the later grades of elementary school. In most cases, it is not until  four,  grades  five  be  student  will  encouraged  by  the  multidisciplinary  and  that  six  and  a  introduced to considerable global content.  Source of Global Content of  sources  Three  single  guides:  curriculum  interdisciplinary  content  global  discipline,  (definitions  are  are  found  in  Figure  6).  Two  notable features are evident in Figure 6. First, the proportion of  emphasis  given  to  these  three  sources  is  similar.  Single  discipline and interdisciplinary inquiry are each evident in 35 to 40% of the global content while multidisciplinary inquiry is utilized  in  approximately 25  to  35%.  Second,  there  is  little  difference between elementary and secondary; both are similar in their proportional emphasis on these three sources. However, this national picture of relatively equal emphasis on sources across the grades is misleading. not  hold  true  for  individual  provinces,  This equality does as  the  following  examples show: Quebec indicates an interdisciplinary approach in  106 Figure 6  Sources* of Global Content ieo  7 of global content  80  1  40  20  0  Secondary  E lenentary Multidisciplinary  SirgIe discipline  LZJ  Interdisciplinary  *Single discipline inquiry: global topics are viewed exclusively through one discipline or intellectual perspective (e.g., geography, sociology, economics). Multidisciplinary inquiry: global topics are viewed through several disciplines or intellectual perspectives consecutively (e.g., a discrete section deals with geography, a second section deals with history, and so on). Interdisciplinary inquiry: global topics are viewed concurrently through several the perspectives (e.g., intellectual or disciplines is topic significance of a political, economic and ethical examined).  less than 20% 80%  than  Ontario 90%  Saskatchewan’s curriculum is  its curriculum;  interdisciplinary  discipline; more  of  of  and  gives  utilizes its  a  no  preference  multidisciplinary  curriculum;  Prince  to  a  single  approach  Edward  in  Island’s  107 secondary  of  consists  curriculum  in  courses  geography  and  courses in history. As discussed in Chapter 2, many global educators argue that an interdisciplinary, issues-based approach to global education is  desirable  because  it  breaks  down  artificial  or  narrow  boundaries when studying topics, and allows for an analysis that more  closely  respects  the  on  education,  international  reality the  of  issues.  other  hand,  Proponents  of  commonly  more  espouse single or multidisciplinary inquiry for global content. These two outlooks are also evident in provincial curricula. For example, Saskatchewan generally assumes a global issue  -  interdisciplinary approach to its global content, while Quebec predominately emphasizes Canada,  though,  a  single discipline approach.  Across  less than 40% of global content is approached  from a single discipline orientation.  GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  The literature on global education indicates that one of its central  purposes  perspective  for  is  to  have  understanding  develop  students issues  (see  a  global  Chapter  2).  Characteristics of a defensible global perspective can be talked about in negative terms (Case, 1989). While a list (Table 15) of such  characteristics  may  not  be  exhaustive  or  shared  by  all  108 global  educators,  it  represents  some  features  that  undermine  what would be considered a defensible global perspective (Case, 1991;  Hanvey,  1976).  heavily on Case’s In  Table  15,  Much  of  the  following discussion relies  (1989) Global Perspective or Tunnel Vision? first  the  category  of  “evidently  present”  signifies that there are explicit and consistent indications of the presence of the negative characteristic in the curriculum. “Evidently not present”  signifies that there are explicit and  consistent indications of the absence of the characteristic.  Table 15 Defeasance Characteristics of a Global Perspective  # of Provinces* Evidently Present Oversimplification Compartmented stereotyped Sectoral Polarity National Polarity Objectified Relativistic Non Empathic Uni-lateral Action National Egoism  2(B,K)  No Indication  Evidently Not Present  1(J)  1(E) 1(C)  9 2(B,G) 4(E,F,B,K) 3(B,C,E)  Mixed Indication  6 9 10 2(D,I) 7 8 1(I) 7 4 6  4(B,E,J,K) 1(J) 5 3(E,G,K) 1(J) 1(E) 1(D) 1(D)  *Nujnbers refer to provinces. Newfoundland is not included because its guide was too general to give adequate information.  “No  indication” means  that there  is no clear evidence  for or  against the presence of the characteristic. The final category,  109 “mixed indication”, refers to conflicting evidence. If a goal of then  is to promote a defensible global perspective,  educators  that goal would be best advanced in those situations where any defeasance characteristic was “evidently not present”. Complex  Oversimplification:  ethical  empirical  and  issues  seem to be treated as straightforward or unproblematic. While it is inevitable that issues have to be simplified somewhat, it is  views.  this  that  important Six  provinces  not  distort  avoid  a  topic  encourage  or  but  oversimplification;  naive  four  have  mixed results, avoiding oversimplification at certain times but Examples of how some guides  not at others.  Manitoba  follow.  problem  evaluating  development”,  warns and  to  about  try to avoid this “complexity  the  illustrate  this  of  complexity,  compares a rural Canadian and third world community, raising the question of which is “more developed” and cautioning that “these issues  do  not  lend  themselves  to  simple  (Social Studies K—12 Overview, 1985: 49).  or  final  answers”  Saskatchewan stresses  that technological changes have positive and negative effects on different  people:  “Understand that  changes  in  society affect  people in different ways. Appreciate that industrialization may benefit some groups or nations but not others” Studies: Canada’s Global Neighbours, There  are  various  means  of  (Grade 6 Social  1986: n.p.).  oversimplifying  issues.  One  method is to avoid recognizing or discussing the diversity of views within an issue; Prince Edward Island investigates “world”  110 but  communities,  identified come  Isles and Germany: Teacher’s Guide, is  to allow for limited time issues;  complicated grade  five  Studies  and  5:  the  positive  eight  (British  only  in grade  Year  1981: n.p.). Another method  in the treatment of complex and the Northwest Territories in  for example,  environmental  promotes  communities  “world”  (Social  1977),  Communities,  industry are mentioned  of  attributes  the  Europe  from Northern  Eastern Hemisphere  all  examination,  on  but  responsibility,  then  Superficial  explicitly recommends that it be treated quickly.  coverage may well lead to student misunderstanding rather than clarity: 5. Responsibilities We Have Toward The Environment: local, national and international issues 5.1 personal, local responsibilities (to control waste, fire, abuse) of non conservation and resource management 5.2 including game renewable resources, and renewable management 5.3 planning and controlling the use of technology (Social Studies Unit 5 should not be studied in depth 1979: 133; emphasis added). , Compartmented: other  and  are  interrelated  is  seen  factors.  compartmentalize Columbia)  not  Topics  global  less  are to  Nine  treated be  of  part the  This  isolation  of  a  provinces  whereas  issues,  clear.  in  from each  constellation clearly  one province  province  discusses  do  of not  (British  the  impact  resource management has on pollution and waste, which clearly is not  compartmented;  on  the  other  hand  it  issues in isolation from each other and,  treats  other  global  consequently, may not  encourage the examination of linkages among them (Social Studies  ii’ Curricula Guide, guides  Many  the  discuss  history,  geography, events,  1988).  and  between  interrelationships  culture  relate  they  as  to  such as the exploration of the “new world.”  specific Many also  analyze regions of the world utilizing a variety of disciplines and  go  then  on  to  compare  and  these  contrast  regions.  When  examining quality of life issues in grade four, Manitoba warns that they are more complex and interrelated than is accounted for by evaluation based on G.N.P. 1985:  (Social Studies K-12 Overview,  49). Time is spent discussing the impacts that one event for example, how technological change  or factor has on others; influences choices  people,  their  habits  and  lifestyle  (Saskatchewan, Social Studies Curriculum Guide:  and the World Community, Even  perceptions,  those  1986:  provinces  approach  overcome  example,  how  that  45-51). rely  on  compartmentalization  various  factors  Canada  single  a by  interrelate  discipline  discussing, or  how  for  different  regions compare. For example, Prince Edward Island in grade five compares other world communities to Canada (Social Studies Year 5:  Eastern Hemisphere Communities, Stereotyping:  1977).  Portrayals of people or cultures are limited  to superficial generalizations,  and individual differences are  not represented. All of the provinces make some effort to combat stereotyping, increase  and  tolerance  many and  explicitly respect  state  their  for differences;  intention for  to  example,  112 Prince  Edward  prejudice”  seeks  Island  “foster  to  n.d.: that  “recognize development”  (The  n.p.)  and  and  reduce  Selected Canadian and World  (Social Studies Year 4:  Communities,  tolerance  declares  cultural  and  Developed  World  students  that  aids  diversity  physical North  should  Teacher’s  America:  Guide, 1982: 13). Alberta, in grade seven, argues for developing “sensitivity to the limitations of any one cultural perspective” (Alberta Social Studies Curriculum, 1981: 56), and New Brunswick seeks to  “challenge stereotypes”  of Latin America  (Grade Nine  Social Studies Syllabus, 1987: 37). In a stronger vein, Manitoba offers explicit instructions on how to minimize the chances of stereotyping: select contrasting communities within each region to  offset the  cultures,  populations,  and  countries  (Social Studies K-12 Overview, Although  see  regions,  monolithic  entities  tendency to blur distinctions  some  of  the  1985:  provinces  intention to reduce stereotyping,  as  and  48). state  succinctly  their  it is sometimes difficult to  find evidence in suggested activities. For example, both British Columbia  and  Prince  Edward  Island  suggest no activities to combat it. of  the  world  in  their  curricula  mention  stereotyping  but  Geographic representation  tends  to  treat  Africa,  the  Middle East, and South America as monolithic entities (Table 10 and 11). within  Such treatment may promote ignorance of the diversity these  regions,  and  thereby  encourage  stereotyping  Therefore, while provincial curricula state their opposition to  113 not  stereotyping,  all  of  them seem to  this  support  statement  with appropriate content and activities. Sectoral Polarity: Canadian or foreign interests are aligned e.g., North-South, East-West, developed-developing  in “blocks”,  countries. The study of historical and contemporary alliances is interests  the  if  desirable  of  countries  in  block  a  not  are  reduced to the interests of the block as a whole or necessarily set in opposition to the interests of countries in other blocks. Prince Edward Island and the Northwest Territories portray sectoral “blocks” There  polarity such as  consistently  attempt  dividing  the  into  world  North-South or First-Third World.  East-West,  little  is  by  here  to  emphasize  or  individuals  individual countries. Countries within blocks are characterized in the main,  as being,  and differences between blocks  similar,  are magnified. Nova Scotia and Alberta oppose this polarity by doing the opposite of the above. Either they break down the blocks  (e.g.,  identifying similarities and differences between countries) they  compare  blocks.  In  “attention  and grade  should  connect six, be  Canada for  called  to  the  example, to  the  countries Alberta  similarity,  the  within  argues as  or  that  well  as  differences, in problems that people in our society and Eastern societies must resolve in meeting their emerging needs” (Alberta Social Studies Curriculum,  1981:  48).  The five provinces that have a mixed response demonstrate a  114 combination of these tendencies. A case in point is Manitoba’s curricula which break down polarity by stressing the “political  regions”  K-12  Studies  (Social  among various  interdependencies  and  interactions  and economic  1985:  Overview,  72),  and  yet  compare general North American aboriginal populations to Third World  populations  80),  (p.  societies in grade eight  (p.  First  discuss  and  Second  World  and East-West and North-South  80)  organizations in grade 12, without stressing that the variations within these groupings are to be studied (p.  118).  National Polarity: Canadian interests are consistently cast interests  in opposition to other countries’  in a  “we  -  they”  dualism. Seven provinces do not support national polarity while three  (Quebec, polarity  This  concern  to  are mixed.  Manitoba, the Northwest Territories) is  issues  broken down when world are  countries  specific  also  issues  or  related  to  of  Canada;  illustrative is Nova Scotia’s provision of Canadian examples of modern world  problems  “for  teachers  who  wish  to  place  extra  emphasis on the Canadian scene” (Modern World Problems, 1976: 4comparison  linkage  is  a  disparity in India and Canada (p.  4,  13-15).  5).  One  example  of  this  of  economic  The three mixed responses at times identify global problems and what Canadians can do to help solve these problems; however, poverty, disparity and pollution, for instance, are largely seen to be other peoples’ share  their problems.  problems: For  we can help others  example,  the  Northwest  but do not Territories  115 asks  in  nine:  grade  nations?...  emerging  are  “What  can we  What  to  do  reduce  194).  1979:  Ob-lectified: quaint,  static,  Cultures or countries are at times viewed as as  or  eccentric  One  curiosities.  province  almost exclusively as  non—Western countries  examines  (Quebec)  disparity  the  (Social Studies  among standards of living in the world today?” K—9,  toward  responsibilities  our  ancient cultures, whereas eight provinces portray cultures and variety  sociological,  historical, rights,  a  from  peoples  conflicts,  of  cultural,  problems).  quality  British  economic,  (e.g.,  perspectives  of  Columbia  life, does  human  both  by  viewing foreign cultures as past entities that led ultimately to the establishment of modern civilization; a skewed perception of these cultures may emerge for students if, for example, Egypt is objectified and reduced to “the land of pyramids.” In contrast, Ontario  explores such  perspectives,  various as  world  lifestyles  regions and  from  cultural  a  variety  change,  of  human  rights and values, the global economy, roles of male and female leaders  and  citizens,  peace,  war,  and  conflict  (Curriculum  Guideline History and Contemporary Studies Part C: Grades 11 and 12,  1987:  35).  Relativistic:  Questions  of  moral  right  and  wrong  are  portrayed as entirely relative to the beliefs of each culture. While most  judgements  do  depend  on prevailing  conditions  and  societal standards, it is undesirable to encourage the view that  116 cross-cultural judgement is not permissable. rights  resources  discouraged  of  relativistic  a  accepting  from  destruction  even  censure.  ethical  warrant  implications  and  genocide,  abuse,  Instances of human  There  are  First,  view.  responsibility  of  two  natural  undesirable  students  to  act  may  be  global  on  problems if they believe it improper to make ethical judgements about the practices of other cultures. Second, since relativism that  suggests  is  right  moral  determined  entirely  one’s  by  society, students may be discouraged from reassessing their own beliefs when these conflict with those of other cultural groups. In cases of cross-cultural dispute, ethical relativists tend to regard their society’s position as “right for them.” provinces  Nine  whereas  relativism,  can  be  used  indication  one argues  to  judge  positions  Social Studies Curriculum,  1981:  Students  Non-Empathic:  of  how  to  deal  against this position.  for value reasoning,  tools  utilizes  no  give  in  with  Alberta  including four tests that value  (Alberta  conflicts  5).  are  not  encouraged  to  place  themselves in the role or predicament of others nor to imagine issues from another person’s or group’s perspective. Naturally, this  does  not  require that  taken by others, and  agree with the positions  but merely that they acquire some sensitivity  understanding  provinces  students  for  discourage  that  position  non-empathic  or  predicament.  attitudes;  Island and Manitoba give no indication;  Prince  Seven Edward  and Quebec promotes a  117 mixed response. Those provinces that discourage this perspective most often role  recommend  although  ethnocentrism, playing  to  playing  once.  through this  perspective;  involves  decrease  and  only  Columbia  British  playing  Role  empathy  increase  mentions on  taking  role  another’s  empathy with others  identification,  may increase and, concurrently, ethnocentrism (seeing only from your  own  may  perspective)  group’s  New  decrease.  Brunswick  stresses critical analysis of one’s culture from the perspective of the outsider: An exercise which might prove useful in giving students a better perspective on their culture and at the same time teach them about their own ethnocentricity is to have them imagine themselves as an extraterrestrial viewing some cultural rite such as Halloween (Grade Nine Social Studies Syllabus, 1987: 13). Similarly,  Saskatchewan urges the student to ask the question  “how would I be different if I was in another culture?” (Social Studies Curriculum Guide: The Individual in Society, 1985: 24). Prince  Island  Edward  and  Manitoba  do  not  provide  any  activities for combatting a non-empathetic view of the world nor for  encouraging  empathy.  Without  exposure  to  situations  that  invite consideration of the experience or predicament of persons in other countries, empathetic role  students may not come to see the value of  considerations  playing  in  one  of  in its  social  studies.  curriculum  Quebec  guides  but  utilizes does  not  are  not  mention this activity in any other guide. Uni-lateral  Action:  Solutions  to  global  problems  118 seen as requiring multi-lateral or cooperative action from all rather,  parties; countries  and  problem solving  organizations.  in the hands  is  Quebec,  Ontario,  of  powerful Edward  Prince  Island, and the Northwest Territories give no indication of this perspective, while Nova Scotia sends mixed signals. Examples of the four that support multi-lateral action are as  follows:  cooperation  international  Studies  (Social  for  Columbia prompts students to one  of  Manitoba  argues  of  necessity  non-polluted  healthy,  1978:  Studies,  28).  world  British  “recognize that today’s world is in  many  (Social Studies Curriculum Guide,  1988:  that  and  cooperation,  cooperative endeavours” 78);  a  Canadian  30:  the  discusses  Saskatchewan  involved  no  can  “humans  that  is  Canada  longer  live  in  isolation but must view the world as an interdependent totality in which everyone shares the responsibility for improvement and (Social Studies K-12 Overview,  stewardship” discusses  the  importance cooperation  international  of in  international  mentions  1981:  discussing  exclusion  Egoism: of  12,  countries’  and  respectively  86). it  like NATO and the Warsaw  1986:  Canadian interests  other  organizations  cooperation among or  these organizations (World Issues 123, National  78,  68). Alberta  seem to promote uni-lateral action;  international organizations  Pact but without  and  10  grade  (Alberta Social Studies Curriculum, New Brunswick does  1985:  even within  17-18).  are emphasized to the interests,  and  our  119 responsibilities to other countries or peoples are not stressed. While discussion of Canadian interests is important, it must be tempered  some  with  sensitivity  to  responsibilities  the  that  Canada has towards others in the global community. Six provinces avoid national egoism by recognizing Canada’s responsibility to other countries; Quebec, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island give no indication, whereas Nova Scotia gives mixed signals. Of  example,  humane,  Curriculum  Guide,  caretakers  of  the  world?”  peaceful  and 1988:  and  78)  world’s  national  egoism,  “how can Canada create  asks  British Columbia  equitable,  discourage  that  provinces  those  states  a more Studies  (Social  are  the  responsible  for  that are  and  resources  for  “we  their management” (p. 79). Alberta asks students to balance the competing values of national self-interest and global concern, and  global  Studies  welfare  and  Curriculum,  prosperity  national 78,  1981:  (Alberta  Saskatchewan  82).  Social  discusses  Canadian contributions to world improvement and the promotion “of social  justice through aid to developing nations”  Studies 30: Canadian Studies, On the other hand, in  elaboration  support;  judgement  about  grade  the  28).  Nova Scotia does mention international  responsibility or  1978:  (Social  12, the  but  briefly  only  guide  advisability  seems or  to  and  avoid  without making  inadvisability  a of  international responsibility and, thus, gives a mixed signal in this perspective (Modern World Problems,  1976).  120  Figure 7  Global Perspective Characteristics by Province n of characteristics 10  8  4  2  0 ALTA  HIlT  Figure  SASK  HAN  Favourable  ho lndiatior  IZ]  7  the  characteristics  includes  ten  Mixed  Unfavourable  identified  in  Table 15, and provides a very general impression of the extent of global perspective within provincial guides. The ‘favourable” category indicates that the characteristics adhere consistently to  a  perspective,  global  while  “unfavourable”  the  category  indicates some inconsistency. In certain cases no discussion of a perspective however,  may be  equivalent to  treating  it unfavourably;  an “unfavourable” rating results only when a province  explicitly  supports  the  defeasance  characteristic.  “No  indication” means that the perspective is not explicit enough to make a judgement one way or another;  the curriculum guide does  121 not  say  category  to  enough refers  to  allow  a  reasonable  provinces  those  decision.  that  provide  The  “mixed”  an  unclear  message concerning specific characteristics. Figure 8  Global Perspective National Characteristie Favourab 1  Unfai.,oix’ab le  Ho Indication 19.  % = number of “favourable”, “unfavourable”, “mixed”, or “no of number total the characteristics over indication” 10 (i.e., across all the provinces characteristics (100) characteristics times 10 provinces = 100). *  Whereas Figure 7 displays a provincial breakdown of a global perspective,  showing that certain provinces are more explicit  about the characteristics of a global perspective, Figure 8 indicates  very  generally  the  extent  to  which  a  global  perspective is evident in curricular documents across Canada. An  122 perspective  unfavourable  is  explicitly  evident  only  in  four  four provinces each treat  percent of the characteristics (i.e.,  one characteristic in a negative fashion) as compared to 60% for favourable characteristics.  SUMMARY  Some general observations can be made about similarities and amongst  differences global  education.  provinces Three  terms  in  comparative  of  their  groupings  support of  for  provinces  become apparent. The  group,  first  of  consisting  Saskatchewan  Alberta,  and  for the most part, displays a global issues approach,  Manitoba,  as discussed in Chapter 2. These provinces focus their curricula around issues, exploring not just one, but various sides of an issue.  Consequently,  interdisciplinary diverse  sources  reasoning is  to  these  approach aid  encouraged,  the  to  provinces global  also  content,  investigation  of  some moral questions  an  assume drawing issue.  an upon Value  are considered,  and a role for student action is recognized. Alberta is the most consistent  and  extensive  exemplar  of  this  approach  to  global  content. The  second grouping  contains  New Brunswick,  Nova  Scotia,  123 Ontario,  British  Columbia,  Northwest  the  Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island.  Territories,  In very general terms,  this grouping relies on regional studies, and multidisciplinary or  single  questions  tend  to  not  Value  inquiries.  discipline  be  reasoning  and  promoted,  neither  moral  and  student  is  action. However, these provinces do occupy a spectrum where one end  Brunswick  (New  and  Nova  student  the  of  middle  characteristics  takes  spectrum  Territories)  Northwest  finally,  action  end  far  the  curriculum  is  the  a  good  education”  spectrum  of  exemplar  Columbia  Edward  British a  the the  and  those  (Chapter 2)  (Prince  approach.  the  while  resembles  closely  more  discipline  single  a  of  British  (Ontario,  “international  of  reasoning)  value  and  to  (interdisciplinary,  attributes discussed in the first grouping issue-based,  closer  comes  Scotia)  and,  Island)  Columbia’s  multidisciplinary  “international education” approach. The final group contains Quebec. What global content it does have more closely resembles a single discipline  international  education approach. This more inward looking curriculum tends to focus  on  provincial  history and  European connections,  and  in  some respects is less supportive of global education than other provinces.  For  supportive  of  example,  curriculum  Quebec’s  characteristics  of  a  global  is  the  perspective,  least only  treating two out of ten characteristics in a clearly positive manner.  124 How do we account for these differences? Obviously, because it will exhibit  curriculum development is a provincial matter,  different educational needs, interests and traditions. There is no one conception of the purposes and content of social studies across the country. Historical, economic and cultural realities vary significantly, and are reflected in the way social studies has  shaped  been  time,  over  resulting  dramatic  some  in  differences from province to province (Tomkins, 1986; Werner et al, 1980). Furthermore, differences in opinion within the global result  community  education  a  in  and  diverse  sometimes  contradictory literature, which may also account for some of the across  differences  the  provinces  (Popkewitz,  1980;  Werner,  1990). This national picture has to be treated cautiously, though, particular  a  because  perspectives  of  any provincial  with this general grouping. range  of  approaches  content,  goals  or  curriculum may not  always  fit  of  aspect  to  the  These three clusters global  education  illustrate a  within  Canadian  curricula. Chapter 4 summarizes the study and discusses implications for both curriculum design and further research.  125  CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS  This  chapter  summarizes  the  findings  the  around  study’s  research questions, discusses some implications for curriculum for  design  the  enhancement  of  global  education,  and  suggests  determine  how  Canadian  some further research.  SUMMARY  The social  purpose studies  of  this  study was  curriculum  guides  to  portray  global  education,  broadly defined as the study of foreign countries, cultures and landscapes;  universal or international issues;  comparisons  or  countries/citizens. documents,  current  of  Canada/Canadians  Forty-seven in  1988  for  provincial grades  one  and connections other  with and  territorial  through  12,  analyzed around the following questions: 1.  What  rationales  and goals  are used to  justify and  guide the pursuit of global education? 2.  What  is  geographic  the recommended content coverage,  global  (concepts,  problems,  topics,  extent  of  global/local connections, disciplinary orientations, and  were  126 overall amount) of global education? 3.  What  characteristics  of  a  global  are  perspective  advanced? these questions,  To pursue  a  16  page  rationales, and  developed in light of the varying definitions, in  evident  concepts  global  the  instrument was  analysis  education  literature,  and  to  allow for a wide-ranging analysis of the nature and extent of global education recommended in the curricula. A  national  picture  of  comparisons across provinces,  global  education  as  well  as  are difficult to present because  of variations among provincial guides in their formats,  levels  of detail, optional courses, and the amount of allowable locally developed  curricula.  The  major  generalizations  of  the  study  must, therefore, be interpreted cautiously. The following three generalizations summarize the findings related to the research questions. 1.  The  rationales  and  goals  used  to  justify  and  guide  the  pursuit of global education are limited and varied. Curriculum guides provide little explicit justification for the study of global content.  In  fact,  it  is  fair to say that  they do not provide much argument for any of their prescribed topics and specific goals. Teachers are given little explanation for the contents of curricula, or for determining what content is of higher priority. Where rationales do exist, they tend to be stated briefly and in general terms for entire social studies  127 programs rather than for different kinds of content.  It is not  surprising, then, that particular discussions justifying global topics are uncommon; four provinces provide no rationale for the study of any global content within their curricula, whereas five provinces  supply a paragraph or more discussing a  reason  for  global content. found  in  the  curricula  rationales  offered  in  the  global  rationales  dominate this  Reasons  stressing  national  be  literature:  1)  self-interest,  related  prudential 2)  moral  justice,  highlighting our changing world.  to  literature.  education  emphasizing human rights and economic claims  can  the  Three  rationales rationales  and 3)  factual  Overwhelmingly within  the curricula, factual claims about our changing world dominate. For example,  references to an  “interdependent world”,  “shared  problems/needs” and a “changing world” are the top three reasons given by the curricula, making up half of all reasons given for the selection of global content. Moreover, these three reasons account  for  five  of  the  seven  times  any  reason  is  given  a  paragraph or more of discussion, and three of the four times any reason is given less discussion (see Table 1). The implication of  such claims  is  that because our world  is  changing,  and is  becoming more interdependent, or because we have shared problems and needs, we should study global content. Moral rationales are rarely  offered,  and  there  are  no  prudential,  national  interest arguments for the inclusion of global content.  self  128 Knowledge  facts,  of  understanding  concepts,  of  and  the  inclination to empathize and to engage in problem solving are goals in almost all curricula. However, half of the provinces do not  provide  any  suggestions  how  on  to  teach  these  goals;  in  particular, complex goals are rarely supported with examples or activities to indicate how they can be pursued. two  Only  provinces  (Alberta  and  identify  Manitoba)  value  reasoning and student action as goals (these goals are explicit most  within  global  and  literature)  education  then  give  some  indication for the teacher about how to promote them. This range of goals mirrors the global education literature discussed in Chapter 2. Not surprisingly, all provinces support goals  those  that  are  generally  considered  to  be  non  controversial. For example, the development of facts, concepts, problem solving and empathy are supported within the literature; at least half of the provinces also treat them as significant in terms  of  global  studies.  support  However,  is  less  evident  in  both the literature and the curricula for the teaching of value reasoning and student action.  2.  The  range  of  concepts,  recommended  topics  and  geographic  regions differ across curricula, although some general patterns are evident. Concepts  most  often  listed  interdependence, or ideology  -  -  such  as  change,  conflict,  are those that can be developed  129 without necessarily raising moral issues, whereas concepts such as  of  human  are  rights  less  recommended  The same pattern holds true for global topics;  frequently. facts  or  disparity,  justice,  economic  geography,  physical  cultures/traditions,  the  development and planning, government, and science/technology are more  recommended  problems  than  frequently  related  the  to  treatment of minorities, or reasons for poverty and hunger. This hesitancy to deal with controversial or moral content is also apparent within the literature, as discussed in Chapter 2. Only most of whom support a  some global educators, approach,  advocate  the  teaching  judgement-making (e.g., Coombs, There  is  tendency  a  of  value  reasoning  issues”  or  moral  1988).  portray  to  “global  countries  homogeneously  within Africa, South/Central America and the Middle East, as if their  parts  are  These regions  uniform  referred to 24  times,  more than twice. only  three  specificity  share  the  are referred to more as  individual countries.  but  and  may  same  characteristics. than as  unitary wholes  For example, although the Middle East is no individual country is ever mentioned  South/Central America is mentioned 29 countries encourage  are  identified.  teachers  to  treat  This some  times,  lack regions  of as  monolithic and homogeneous and to ignore important distinctions within them. On the other hand, important distinctions amongst countries are highlighted for Europe,  and to some extent Asia and North  130 These regions are treated with much more specificity.  America.  within  is mentioned  Europe  For example, Europe  are  identified  a  times while  34  of  total  countries  11  Asia  times.  123  is  listed 11 times while seven countries are referred to 112 times. The specificity afforded to these regions is in direct contrast the Middle East and South/Central  to the treatment of Africa, America.  conclude  may  Students  whereas  similarities and differences within them,  have  rich  others  lack  regions  some  that  variety. some  Within such  extent  an  that  overshadow  they  the  emphasized  whole  region.  to For  (aside  two countries  although North America contains  example,  are  certain countries  regions,  from Canada) the United States is mentioned 57 times and Mexico only three. evident  100  a  for Asia which as  times,  region  referred  is  All issues,  times,  11  times.  These  to the exclusion of  since they dominate discussions of it so extensively. make  provinces  some  effort  to  link  and four consistently attempt this  provinces global  12  only  and other Asian countries  four countries may come to represent Asia, others,  to  India and Japan are mentioned a total  China,  whereas the USSR, of  such disproportionate treatment is also  Similarly,  discuss causes,  problems  remedies.  and  However,  manifestations  three  curricula  recommend  and  local linkage.  global  Also,  all  and ramifications of  the  study  concentrate more  on  of the  possible factual  aspects of problems rather than on their moral implications and  131 controversial aspects. is  emphasis  Considerable  global  to  devoted  and  concepts  topics across the curricula. The national average of 29% at the elementary grades,  and 59% at the secondary,  is not surprising  because social studies is the study of people and places around the world and through time. The extent to which global concepts and topics are evident across the curricula means that there is freedom to pursue global education, if a teacher so chooses. The  prevalent  “expanding  horizons”  principle  content  of  organization does limit to some extent the amount and type of global content in the elementary grades. As a consequence, many  four  not begin to examine  do  provinces  later,  or  almost  and  twice  global as  grade  content until  much  global  content  is  evident at the secondary as opposed to the elementary grades. arise  Exceptions  the  for  concepts  “interdependence”  and  “diversity” which are emphasized more at the elementary level; these concepts are examined within the context of the  however,  expanding horizons of the child’s family and community. The multi-  disciplinary  balanced, Less  than  to  of  global  interdisciplinary),  and  province  sources  province.  Nationally,  as well across 40%  of  global  content  sometimes however,  vary  (single,  radically, these  from  sources  are  the elementary and secondary grades. content  is  approached  from  a  single  disciplinary orientation. As discussed in Chapter 2, many global educators argue that an interdisciplinary, issues-based approach  132 to global education is desirable because it breaks down narrow boundaries when studying topics, and allows for an analysis that more closely respects the reality of issues.  3. Overwhelmingly, positive rather than negative characteristics of a global perspective are evident. Favourable  characteristics  predominate across the provinces. promote  one  unfavourable  of  a  global  perspective  Only four provinces actually  characteristic  in  their  curricula,  although nine provinces provide ambivalent examples, in terms of the following: Oversimplification: Complex ethical and empirical issues seem to be treated as straightforward or unproblematic. Compartmented: Topics are treated in isolation from each other and are not seen to be part of a constellation of interrelated factors. Stereotyping: Portrayals of people or cultures are limited to superficial generalizations, and individual differences are not represented. Sectoral Polarity: Canadian or foreign interests are aligned e.g., North-South, East-West, developedin “blocks”, developing countries. National Polarity: Canadian interests are consistently cast they” in opposition to other countries’ interests in a “we dualism. Obiectified: Cultures or countries are at times viewed as quaint, eccentric or as curiosities. Relativistic: Questions of moral right and wrong are portrayed as entirely relative to the beliefs of each culture. encouraged to place are not Non-Empathic: Students themselves in the role or predicament of others nor to imagine issues from another person’s or group’s perspective. Uni-lateral Action: Solutions to global problems are not seen as requiring multi-lateral or cooperative action from all parties; rather, problem solving is in the hands of powerful countries and organizations. National Egoism: Canadian interests are emphasized to the exclusion of other countries’ interests, nor are our -  133 responsibilities to other countries or peoples stressed. these  present,  If  could  perspective Alberta  the  hamper  development  province  only  the  is  characteristics  defeasance  to  global  of  avoid  of  all  a  global  studies.  negative  and  ambivalent examples and to favourably support all ten of these characteristics. In summary, according to the curricula there is considerable space  the  for  of  pursuit  global  education  within  classrooms  across Canada. There is little indication of a lack of overall If a teacher has the knowledge and  support for such endeavours. inclination,  a  significant  amount  of  global  studies  could be  pursued in the classroom, as there are few constraints imposed by most curricula. history  and  (Quebec has the strongest focus on provincial  European  connections.)  disappointing,  Somewhat  though, current controversial topics are ignored in general, and value reasoning, while identified as a goal by many provinces, is not adequately supported with instructions or examples.  IMPLICATIONS FOR CURRICULUM DESIGN  Research  curriculum  on  guides  is  at  best  moderately  worthwhile if one is seeking a means of assessing what is taught and how.  only have  Many teachers  curricula organizing  because the  they  daily  provide  activities  a passing acquaintance with such of  the  general  guidance  classroom;  far  for more  134 important  to  materials  that  curriculum  teachers  do  not  textbooks  available.  readily  are  guides  the  are  represent  and  However,  classroom  provide the general content parameters  other  teaching though  even  they  life,  do  and broad perspectives  under which teachers operate. Analysis of curricula allows us to understand some features of the classroom’s policy context. While the diverse nature of the provincial guides makes both provincial comparisons and a national picture tentative,  there  are some issues raised by this analysis that have implications for a variety of groups that may have an interest in promoting global  education.  implications  following  the  However,  those  are  most  group  affected  people who write  by  the  curriculum  documents for teachers. For those curriculum designers who seek to enhance global studies,  some consideration of the following  implications may prove useful. The first issue concerns the widespread adoption of the expanding horizons pattern its  and  repercussions  for organizing curricular content,  for  the  scope  and  sequence  of  global  education concepts and topics. This pattern of moving the child from the known to the unknown is taken for granted within most guides  without  any  attempt  to  justify  it.  However,  global  educators have good reason to question the expanding horizons principle since it limits most global content to grade four and beyond. What does going from the familiar to the unfamiliar mean to  a  child  in the  1990s?  He or she has  a different  “known”  135 world than a child in 1922 or even 1962. By grade one, the media have shaped much of the child’s understanding of  the broader  world. In many cases the “known” world contains places that are not geographically close  Iraq after the Gulf War)  (e.g.,  and  concepts that may not be a part of the child’s immediate reality Many children today do not live  (e.g., hunger, poverty, war).  insular lives, and the advisability of a curricular philosophy assumes  that  possible,  as  relative Alberta  isolation done,  has  can  be  to  include  It  is  study  of  questioned. the  significant global issues as early as grade one. Egan (1986, 1988) argues for an alternative more amenable to global education. He challenges the basis of expanding horizons, that the known world of the child is not limited to,  arguing  their family or community;  nor only organized around,  children know best when  “what  they come  to  rather,  are  school  love,  hate, joy, fear, good, and bad. That is, they know best the most profound human emotions and the bases of morality” 10).  Consequently,  questions  of  a curriculum can also be  morality  Degenhardt and McKay  topics  (1988)  are  restricted by  spatial  proximity  horizons close  and  related  (Egan, 1979:  organized around  to  human  emotions.  also argue that children’s mental a  pedagogical  rather  than  focus  on  extending  topics  of  “children’s  imaginations through studies of different and remote cultures” (1988:  237).  If  curriculum  designers  wish  to  enhance  global  studies, a reconsideration of the role of expanding horizons in  136 the curriculum may be valuable. A  concerns  issue  second  the  selection  and  portrayal  of  geographic content. As was described earlier, certain regions of the world were accorded a high degree of specificity by most curricula while others were talked about with generality. Parts of Europe, Asia, and North America were treated with specificity -  that is, many of the individual countries within these regions  ignored.  differences  and  examined  were  On the other hand,  countries  between  not  were  a region may be unduly defined by  specific countries due to the amount of time devoted to their study. In these cases, an over-emphasis on some countries and an underemphasis  of  others  does  a balanced,  not provide  or even  honest, portrayal of the region as a whole. In contrast, Africa, South America  and the Middle  East were  almost exclusively as unitary wholes.  treated generally and  What do such portrayals  tell students, and is the message justified? Case warns that: [that] is limited to the study of other cultures relatively superficial features of their lifestyles.... is unlikely to promote an enlightened perspective on the these in ‘foreign’ people of lives concerns and cultures... and may actually reinforce stereotypical perceptions about other people (1991: 4). The  solution,  teaching  students  information world”  he  may  (1991: 5).  cautions, more not  about  advance  is  not  “primarily  the world students’  -  a  matter  merely having  understanding  of  of  more the  In order to enhance a defensible global view,  curriculum designers need to consider the amount and nature of attention that regions of the world should receive.  137 A third issues arises out of two approaches to dealing with diversity and, most notably, making cross-cultural judgements. The  employed  first,  by  most  of  the  emphasizes  provinces,  a  multicultural approach where the goal is to appreciate diversity and  judgements,  avoid  possibly  on  assumption  the  therefore,  largely ethnocentric;  judgenients made are  that  any  the most  that should be done is to make students aware and appreciative of  similarities  and  differences  second  The  cultures.  across  argues that at times there may be a need to make some crossmoral  cultural  this  supports  2)  universal  approach.  also human  multiculturalist values:  for  grounds  explicit  Chapter  judgements,  so;  The  global  hold  this  (Kniep, true  for  there  that  doing  recognizes values  and  are  Alberta  only  education  tension 1985). the  rational  consistently  study  diverse  and  of  the  arguments of  (see  literature  between  The  and  diverse  human  we may have little reason or right to disparage most  culturally determined values.  However,  where universal  values  (e.g., freedom from the fear of torture, respect for the rule of international  law)  come into play,  then judgements need to be  made. International law and treaties, as well as the recognition of  rest on a broadly based consensus  human rights,  desirability  of  a  global  morality  Declaration of Human Rights).  (e.g.,  the  about the  United  Nations  Both a multicultural and a moral  approach are necessary for an educationally sound curriculum. If designers wish to enhance global studies,  then a consideration  138 of the benefits of these two approaches and their applicability to the curricula might prove useful. A fourth issue concerns what type of global education is in the curriculum. Within the literature there is still a lack of clarity about its goals, content and rationale (see Chapter 2); in many ways it remains a “slogan system” that embraces diverse and  surprisingly,  this  (Popkewitz,  beliefs  contradictory  even  diversity  evident  is  the  among  Not  1980).  curricula,  although diversity within the curricula might be more a product of  the  educational  unique  provinces.  individual approach includes  which  needs,  for  Alberta,  encourages  an  adopts  example,  of  issues and  analysis  interdisciplinary  British Columbia  reasoning component.  a strong moral  traditions  and  interests  evidences something closer to an international studies approach which relies more on a single or multidisciplinary descriptive other  analysis,  whereas  Northwest  Territories,  such  curricula, the  stress  as  of  those  the  aspects  multicultural  of  global education. Within provincial  curricula,  moreover,  there  about the nature and type of global education. are  inconsistent  perspective  their  characteristics.  characteristics instance,  in  are  treated  support For  ambiguity  Many provinces  important  for  example,  unclearly  is  by  36%  global  of  provinces.  these For  oversimplification of issues may be both discouraged  and evident within one province’s curricula (e.g., Prince Edward  139 Curriculum  Island).  may wish  studies  designers consider  to  seeking  to  strengthen of  implications  the  global  conceptual  vagueness within their curricula. A fifth issue concerns the scope and direction for global education within Canadian curricula. There is much scope within most  focused  commonly  around  lists  concepts,  of  study are  of  Units  curricula but very little direction.  topics  or  issues,  many of which are globally relevant. However, information on how to  use  instructional  most  the  make  out  global  these  of  components is often lacking. Without explicit guidelines, global 1991).  education may be hampered more than helped (Case, of  that  goals  are  examples  activities,  by  accompanied  Lists or  instructions for the teacher may have a better chance of being classroom  translated  into  supporting  documentation.  two  polarities  such  as  welfare  “global  self—interest” or “individual freedom vs. content  can  then  relationships.  be  by  focused  However,  if  a  vs.  a  teachers  to does  no a  tension national  social control”;  curriculum  particular framework for content,  suggests  explores  unit  have  that  Alberta  example,  instructional  framework whereby each between  For  those  than  practice  explore  the  these  encourage  a  then it should also explain  the workings of that framework (if necessary, through supporting documents).  Alberta does not give enough explanation for some  of the complexities of moral reasoning; the suggested strategies would not  anyone unfamiliar with  able to teach them on the  140 basis of a brief summary, although the curriculum does refer the teacher  a  to  Studies  Social  that  source  Curriculum,  1981:  reasoning  value  discusses 5).  Adequate  (Alberta  explanation,  supporting documentation and focused instructions could be part They could be vehicles for  and parcel of curriculum documents.  supporting instructional change by introducing teachers to new ideas, methods, materials and literature. The use of footnotes and current bibliographies could identify important trends  in  the literature. In this manner, most curricula would become less academically and professionally sterile. A  implication  sixth  amongst  curriculum  province,  from  arises  guides.  very  from  Curricula  detailed  and  the  variety  vary  from to  structured  of  formats  province general  to and  unstructured. Each type of organization makes assumptions about teacher knowledge, experience, preferences and motivation, among other things.  A general and unstructured curriculum,  one that  provides little direction, assumes that teachers will draw upon their own experiences and knowledge to devise lessons, that they would rather plan their own structure than have it provided for them.  Conversely,  a structured,  detailed curriculum,  one that  provides direction, content and activities in abundance, assumes that all teachers may not have the same interest, experience and background designers  knowledge concerned  consider which  relevant with  curriculum  to  global  studies.  advancing  global  format  suited  is  Curriculum  studies to  this  need  to  task.  If  141 teachers have to be introduced to global education, then a more detailed  and  for  explanation  curriculum  structured its  rationale,  that  provides  and  content,  goals  adequate and  some  instructional support may be desirable.  documents,  they  may  have  also  related  are  implications  these  While  relevance  for  to  curriculum  the  design  of  picture  of  teacher inservice and curriculum support materials.  FURTHER RESEARCH  it  Since  is  difficult  to  provide  a  national  studies because of the diversity of curricular  global  and elective courses across provinces,  formats  further research could  examine, with greater specificity, each individual province. The validity of comparisons across provinces would be enhanced as Research  the idiosyncrasies of each province are explored.  curricula.  How  familiar are they with recent literature? To what extent,  and  also  could  how,  do  extent  focus  they are  on  access  they  the  committees  expertise  influenced  by  in  that  global  special  make  To  what  groups?  What  education?  interest  perspectives on “citizenship” do they assume and exclude? Where do  they  stand  on  current  global  issues?  An  analysis  of  the  nature and sources of their ideas might account for some of the presentations guides.  of the world that are evident across  curriculum  142 BIBLIOGRAPHY  AVER.  (1991). Peace: In Pursuit Justice. Toronto: OISE.  of  AVER.  (1983). “Introduction Toronto: OISE.  Value  Access. (1988). New York: Education. N.77-78. The  to  The  Security,  Reasoning”  American  and  Prosperity,  Population.  Forum  for  Global  (1987). “Global Ad Hoc Committee on Global Education. In Bounds or Out?” Social Education, V.51, Education: p.242—249.  and E. Harf. (1986). “Global Chadwick F. James Algers, Education: Why? For Whom? About What?” in Robert E. 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(1986). “Building the Global Dimension of the Multicultural Curriculum”. Bristol, Eng.: Paper presented at the Conference on Swann and the Global Dimension in Education. McGowan, Pat. (1987). “Key Concepts for Development Studies” in Joy, Carrol and Willard Kniep (eds.) The International Development Crisis and American Education. New York: Global Perspectives in Education, Inc. Met,  Myriam. (1989). “Which Foreign Languages Should Students Learn?” Educational Leadership. V.47, N.1.  Pellicano, Roy. (1982). “Global Education: A Macro Perspective for Citizenship Education” The Social Studies. V.73, N.3.  147 L. Peterat, (1988). in Home Teaching of Global Concepts Economics: A Curriculum Document Analysis. Vancouver: EGDE Paper #2, Research and Development in Global Education (UBC). Popkewitz, T. (1980). “Global Education Curriculum Inquiry. V.10, N.3.  as  a  Slogan  System”  (1982). Development Education: The 20th Pradervand, Pierre. Century Survival and Fulfillment Skill. 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Internationalizing Your School. Rosengren, Frank H. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Foreign Language and International Studies. Sandahi, Peder. (1986-87). “Teaching Human Rights: Why, What and How?” The Hisory and Social Science Teacher. V.22, N.2. Selby, David. (1989). “The Role of Schools in the Global Age” Prime Areas. V.31, N.2. Short,  Joseph.  (1985).  “Learning  and  Teaching  Development”  148 Harvard Educational Review. V.55, N.l. Southern Governors’ Association. (Nov. 1986). “Cornerstone of Competition”. Report on the SGA’s Advisory Council on Southern D.C.: Education. Washington, International Governors’ Association. (ed.). (1989). Towards a Global Social Studies Spinola, C. University of Focus on Teacher Education. Education: Research and Development in Global British Columbia: Studies. Stenhouse, Lawrence. (1969). “Handling controversial issues in the classroom” Education Canada. V.9 p.12-21. Storm, Michael. (1981). “Development Education and Multi-ethnic Education: Some Tensions”. Unicef Development Education Paper No. 21. (ERIC #ED212412). (1985). “Rich Nations Vs. Poor Nations: Strada, Michael J. Baiting the Global Trap” Contemporary Education. V.56, N.2. Tomkins, G. (1986). A Common Countenance: Stability and Change in the Canadian Curriculum. Scarborough, Ont. :Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc. Tooke, Moyra. (1986-87). “The Global Village in the Classroom” The History and Social Science Teacher. V.22, N.2. Torney-Purta, Judith. (1988). “Measuring the Effectiveness of World Studies Courses” in Woyach, R., and R.C. Remy. Approaches to World Studies: A Handbook for Curriculum Planners. Needham Heights, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon. Traitler, Reinheld. (1982). Leaping over the Wall: An Assessment of Ten Years’ Development Education. Geneva: World Council of Churches. Tye,  Education “Global (1983). Barbara and Kenneth Tye. Research: A Partial Agenda for the Future” Educational Research Quarterly. V.8, N.1.  Tye, K.A. and W.M. Kniep. (1991). “Global Education Around the World” Educational Leadership. V.48, N.7. Tye, K.A. (ed.) (1990). Global Education: From Though to Action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Weeren,  Donald  J.  (1986).  “Global-citizenship  Education  and  149 Education: Paper A Comparison”. for Moral/Values presentation at the Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Werner, Walter. (1990). “Contradictions in Global Education” in Henley, Dick and Jon Young (eds.) Canadian Perspectives on Critical Pedagogy. Winnipeg: Canadian Critical Pedagogy Network. (1990). The Media and Public Werner, Walter and K. Nixon. Issues: A Guide for Teaching Critical Mindedness. London, Ontario: The Althouse Press. Werner, Walter. (1988[a]). “Development Education in Canadian Public Schools”. Presented at Pacific Rim Conference, Vancouver, June. (1988[b]). “Implementing Roland. Werner, Walter and Case, Vancouver: Graduate Studies”. Through Studies Global Research and Development in Global Studies (UBC). Education”. Global “What is (1988[c]). Walter. Werner, Presented at “The School’s Role in Global Education” Conference sponsored by the B.C.T.F., Vancouver, March 4. Werner, Walter, B. Connors, T. Aoki, and J. Dahlie. (1980). Whose Culture? Whose Heritage? Ethnicity within Canadian Social Studies Curricula. Vancouver: Centre for the Study Faculty of Education, of Curriculum and Instruction, Columbia. British of University Wiersma, William. Introduction.  (1986). Research Methods Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  in  Education:  An  Wilson, Angene H. (1982). “Cross-Cultural Experiential Learning for Teachers” Theory into Practice. V.21, N.3. World  Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Qj Common Future: From One Earth to One World. New York: Oxford University Press.  Woyach, Robert B. and Janice Love. (1983). “Citizenship and World Affairs: The Impact of a Community-Based Approach to Global Education” Educational Research Quarterly. V.8, N.1. to World (1988). Remy. R., and R.C. Approaches Woyach, Needham Planners. Curriculum Handbook for A Studies: Bacon. Heights, Mass.: Allyn and  APPENDIX A  150  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2125 MAIN MALL VANCOUVER, B. C., CANADA V6T 115 Faculty of Education Centre for the Study of Curriculum & Instruction July 24,  1987.  Social Studies Coordinator Department of Education Box 2000 Charlottetown, PEI CiA 7N8 Dear Social Studies Coordinator, A team of curriculum researchers and developers the at University of British Columbia are currently beginning a two year project on global education. As part of the project, we will be producing curriculum materials suitable for use at various grade levels. However, we first need to know what are the issues, concepts, and topics relevant to global education that are prescribed within provincial curriculum guidelines. May we order a copy. of your prescribed guidelines for social studies (elementary and secondary)? If you have curriculum guidelines for courses in world history or world studies, economics, political science, geography, and anthropology, then we would like to order these as well. I appreciate your consideration of my request. Cordially,  W. Werner Associate Professor  151 APPENDIX B CURRICULUM GUIDES ANALYZED NEWFOUNDLAND Master Guide for Social Studies K-XII,  1978.  PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND Social Studies Year 4: Selected Canadian and World Communities, n.d. Social Studies, Year 5: Eastern Hemisphere Communities, 1977. Social Studies Year 6: Atlantic Canada, 1980. British Isles and Germany, Grade 8, 1981. The Developed World: North America (Teacher’s Guide), Grade 9, 1982. The Developed World, Grade 10, 1979. Canadian Geography 431 (Guidebook), Grade 10, 1985. Our Changing Earth 521 (Notebook), Grade 11, 1980. NOVA SCOTIA Social Studies for Elementary Grade Levels, Grades 1—6, 1981. Teaching Guidelines (History), Grades 7-12, 1976. Social Studies Curriculum, Grade 7, 1987. Social Studies Curriculum, Grade 8, 1987. Geography Grades 10-12 Revised Guidelines, 1979. Modern World Problems, Grade 12, 1979. NEW BRUNSWICK Elementary Social Studies Curriculum Guide, Grades 1—6, 1987. Junior High Social Studies Years 7-8-9, 1983. Grade 9 Social Studies Syllabus, 1987. History 102: Ancient and Medieval Civilizations, Grade 10, 1979. History 112, Grade 11, 1979. Physical Geography 110, Grade 11, 1985. Canadian Geography 120, Grade 12, 1985. History 122: Canadian History, Grade 12, 1973. World Issues 123 (Fieldtest Copy of Draft Curriculum Guidelines), Grade 12, 1986. QUEBEC Elementary School Curriculum, Social Studies, Grades 1—6, 1983. General Geography: Secondary I, 1985. General History Secondary II, 1983. Geography of Quebec and Canada: Secondary III, 1983.  152 History of Quebec and Canada:  Secondary IV,  ONTARIO History and Contemporary Studies (Part A), History and Contemporary Studies (Part B), History and Contemporary Studies (Part C), Geography Program Summary, 1987. MANITOBA Social Studies K-12 Overview,  1986. 1986. 1986. 1986.  1985.  SASKATCHEWAN Themes for Social Studies 1-12, n.d. Social Studies: A Curriculum Guide for Division II, 1973. Grade 6 Social Studies: Canada’s Global Neighbours, 1986. Social Studies Curriculum Guide: Canada and the World Community, 1986. Social Studies Curriculum Guide: The Individual in Society, 1985. Social Studies Curriculum Guide: Roots of Society, 1986. Social Studies 10, Man: A Study of the Individual, A Curriculum Guide for Division IV, 1977. Social Studies 20, Cross Cultural Comparision, A Curriculum Guide for Division IV, 1976. Social Studies 30, Canadian Studies, A Curriculum Guide 1 1978. for Division V ALBERTA Alberta Social Studies Curriculum, Grades 1-12,  1981.  BRITISH COLUMBIA Social Studies Curriculum Guide, Grades 1-7, 1983. Social Studies Curriculum Guide, Grades 8-11, 1985. THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES Social Studies K-9, 1979.  15.  14.  13.  12.  11.  10.  9.  8.  7.  6.  5.  4.  3.  2.  1.  Document Title  Bibliographic Information:  Province:  Grade(s)  Elementary  Date  Secondary  Global Studies Curriculum Analysis: Provincial Curriculum Guides  APPENDIX C  Comments  153  Interdependent world Shared problems Global extinction National self-interest Solutions require co—operation Changing world Justice/fairness Fundamental human rights/dignity Less ego/ethnocentric world view j) More enlightened/future looking decisions k) Gross inequality 1) Shrinking world m) Other  a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)  Extensive Discussion Some Discussion  Merely Mentioned  Rationale: Which, if any, of the following reasons for undertaking Global Studies are explicitly referred to in the rationale?  a) foreign countries, cultures, or landscapes; b) universal or international issues (e.g., human rights, the United Nations, nuclear war, law of the sea); c) connection or comparison of Canada/Canadians with other countries/citizens.  For the purposes of this analysis, “Global Studies” (and by extension “global—related topics” and “global context”) are defined broadly as the study of any of the following:  154  compartmented (i.e., persistently treating problems in isolation without recognition of the constellation of other factors that bear on the issue)  stereotyping (i.e., viewing people/cultures in light of pre-formed generalizations/characteristics, ignoring other characteristics or individual differences)  global polarity (i.e., persistently viewing the interests of blocks of countries in a “we—they” dualism North-South, East-West, developed-underdeveloped)  b)  C)  d)  e) national polarity (i.e., persistently viewing Canadian—foreign interests in a “we—they” dualism)  —  oversimplification (i.e., treating complex ethical or empirical issues as unproblematic! straightforward)  Examples:  Examples:  Examples:  Examples:  Examples:  Evidently present  No indication either way  Evidently not present  In the treatment of global-related topics is there evidence of the following  a)  •  Perspectives: features:  15  objectified (i.e., treating people/countries as quaint, eccentric, curiosity objects)  j)  national egoism (i.e., Canadian interests are emphasized to the exclusion of other countries’ interests  i) uni—lateral action (i.e., solutions to problems are not seen as requiring input and co—operative action from all parties involved)  h) non empathic (i.e., students are not encouraged to place themselves in the role or predicament of others nor to imagine issues from other persons’ or groups’ perspectives  g) relativistic (i.e., questions of moral right and wrong are not decided on universal principles but entirely relative to the beliefs of each culture)  f)  Examples:  Examples:  Examples:  Examples:  Examples:  Evidently present No indication either way Evidently not present  15  Extensive Treatment Some Treatment Merely Mentioned  What aspects of global problems are stressed? Exemplars:  General Comments:  Exemplars:  Exemplars:  What are the expectations regarding teachers’ knowledge?  General knowledge only Some background in Global Studies Specialized knowledge of Global Studies Other  Teacher Knowledge:  Considerable linkage Some attempt made to connect issues No obvious attempt made Other  (Check one)  Local Connections: What effort is made to connect global topics/issues with those of national/regional relevance to Canadian students? (Check one)  Other  Causes/origins Manifestations /ramifications Remedies/programs  Global Problems:  157  North America  Europe  Australia  Asia  Antarctic  Africa  Grades  Topic  Studied in comparative context  Studied in isolation  Geographical Coverage: Aside from Canada, what geographical areas are covered? Indicate specific countries if mentioned and whether or not the country is studied in connection with other countries.  America  Topic  Studied in comparative context  Studied in isolation  Grade  Theme  Countries studied in multiple country context  Studied in connection with one country only  Thematic Coverage: Identify any globally-related themes. If the guide specifies a variety of countries, but only relegates enough time time to deal with a few of them, indicate those countries and whether or not the theme is studied in connection with several countries.  South  Grades  159  Other  Examples of treatment  r)  Other  Human rights Inequality Justice  n) o) p)  q)  Other  —  Ethnocentrism Global perspective Group self-determination Personal autonomy  Other  in)  k) 1)  j)  i)  h)  a) Change b) Conflict c) Co—operation d) Development e) Diversity f) Ideology g) Interdependence  Human Rights:  Interdependence:  Conflict:  Stated & Developed  Stated Only  Stated Only  Stated & Developed  Not Clearly Within A Global Context  Clearly Within A Global Context  Key Concepts: Identify at what grade level(s), how extensively, and in what context the following concepts are treated.  160  Minor Goal  Exemplars of extent of significance:  Other  Commitment/action  Empathy/concern  Understanding of key concepts  Knowledge of physical/cultural facts  Technical/practical problem solving  Critical value reasoning  Significant Goal  Global Goals: Identify at what grade level(s) and to what extent are the following goals implicit in the content and activities dealing with Global topics. N S C =  =  =  No Indication Some Indication Considerable Indication  To what extent do the guides indicate how teacher can promote/develop these goals?  Exemplars of types of treatment:  161  11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27)  Development, economic Development, social Diet/nutrition Disarmament and nuclear war Environment (ecology) Economic planning/development Education/literacy Employment Energy Fishing Food Forestry Government Health/medicine Housing Human rights Hunger  disenfranchisement  Aboriginal claims Agrarian reform/land use Agriculture/animal husbandry Arts Children/infants Civil war Climate/Climatic conditions (ie. drought) 8) Communications Culture/traditions 9) 10) Democracy/political  1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)  Mentioned  Focus of Sub-unit  Focus of Sub-unit  Mentioned  Studied in connection with one country only  Studied in multiple country context_____  Key Topics: Identify at what grade level(s), how extensively, and in what context the following are treated as global-related topics. (Check by indicating grade level, only if applicable). “*“ means the topic is a major component of the year’s study.  162  Industry/manufacturing International aid International debt Language Lifestyle Migrancy Mining Minorities Multiculturalism Peace Physical Geography Population Poverty Religion Resource distribution Resource management Science/technology Trade, domestic Trade, international Transnational corporations Transportation Urbanization Water and sanitation Women 52) Youth/adolescents 53) Other 54) Other  28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51)  Focus of Sub-unit  Mentioned  Focus of Sub-unit  Studied in multiple country context_____ Mentioned  163 Studied in connection with one country only  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  Grade  (Average)  %  Percentage  (Total)  11  Dominant Perspective  (inter-disciplinary): Global Studies is viewed simultaneously through several perspectives/disciplines (eg., in dealing with a single topic, its history, economic and ethical significance are all examined).  I  Elementary Social Studies:  (multi—disciplines): Global Studies is viewed through several perspectives but not concurrently (eg., one discrete section deals with geography, a second discrete sections deals with history, and so on);  M  (single discipline): Global Studies is viewed almost exclusively through one perspective/discipline (eg., geography, economic history, sociology);  Global Component: What percentage of the prescribed curriculum for each course is identifiable as Global Studies and which of the following disciplinary perspectives are recommended for these sections:  164  12  11  10  9  8  7  Grade  Title  Secondary Required Courses:  (Average)  Percentage  (Total)  5  Dominant Perspective  (Courses all students must take)  165  Grade  Title  (Average)  %  (Average)  56  (Average)  (Total)  (Total)  (Total)  Dominant Perspective  I  (Clusters of courses from which students must select)  Percentage Global Studies  Secondary Required Cluster Courses:  166  Western Civilization  Political Science  Law  History  Geography  Economics  Title  (Electives)  Grade  Secondary Optional Courses: Percentage of Global Studies  14  Dominant Perspective  167  Other  World Courses  9-0  %  %  M  168  


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