UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Seconded teachers as teacher educators Badali, Salvador John 1998

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1998-345092.pdf [ 9.38MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0054850.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054850-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054850-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054850-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054850-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054850-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054850-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0054850-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0054850.ris

Full Text

SECONDED TEACHERS AS TEACHER EDUCATORS by Salvador John Badali B.A., York University, 1981 B.Ed., The University of Toronto, 1982 M.Ed., The University of Western Ontario, 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1998 © Salvador John Badali, 1998 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. ( W r ^ e . P e r S 4 W y of-The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date Ot^LtVi / J . DE-6 (2/88) Abstract This i s a study of seconded teachers' experiences as university instructors and faculty advisors i n the Faculty of Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Data were gathered for this study through interviews with 17 seconded teachers (5 f i r s t - y e a r seconded teachers, 8 continuing seconded teachers, and 4 teachers who re-entered the school system after secondment). The purpose of my study was to understand more c l e a r l y the experiences of seconded teachers i n the teacher education program through the use of Glaser and Strauss's (1967) grounded theory approach. The results indicated that the seconded teachers i n this study moved through stages: seeking the position, preparing for secondment, expressing s e l f doubts and loneliness, adjusting to the tempo and workload, working with adult learners, and looking for support. As university instructors, seconded teachers bring realism to the teacher education program by presenting fundamentals of teaching, by modeling teaching strategies, by connecting theory and practice, and by sharing narratives. Seconded teachers acknowledge with reservations that as evaluators they possess power over student teachers. Regardless of how they might prefer to conceive of t h e i r role, i n the end, they become evaluators. Seconded teachers displayed various communication styles. Reflection, an aspect of communication, was also i d e n t i f i e d as important. The themes i i that have emerged i n this study point to 5 general central issues: the contrast between university and school cultures, the strength of r e f l e c t i o n on practice, seconded teachers' commitment to classroom teaching, seconded teachers' professional i d e n t i t i e s , and secondment as professional development. The results of this study suggest that the temporary, short-term nature of secondment, as i t now stands, may be a l a t e r a l career move rather than a v e r t i c a l progression. Comments suggest that the Faculty of Education could do a better job of educating seconded teachers about, not only the preservice teacher education program, but s p e c i f i c a l l y the expectations and roles for the seconded participants. TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents i v Acknowledgments v i i i CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1 Assumptions of the Study 2 Rationale of the Study 4 Terms Used i n the Study 5 The Teacher Education Program 5 Teacher Educator 6 C l i n i c a l Professor 6 Seconded Teacher 7 Faculty Advisor 7 University Instructor 8 Cooperating Teacher 8 Theoretical Perspectives 8 Contexts of and Orientations Toward Teacher Education 8 Review of Relevant Literature 14 Some Perspectives on Learning to Teach 15 Cooperating Teachers i n Teacher Education 19 Power and Authority i n Education 24 Background Literature 28 C l i n i c a l Faculty i n Teacher Education 28 Potential Contribution of the Study 34 Overview of the Remaining Chapters 36 CHAPTER 2 Methodology 37 Theoretical Perspectives Informing the Study ....37 Data Sources 40 Aggregate P r o f i l e s 40 The Teacher Education Program 42 Data Gathering 43 Data Analysis and Interpretation 46 Eth i c a l Issues 50 Limitations of the Study 52 CHAPTER 3 Entering and Interpreting the University Culture 54 C l i n i c a l Consciousness and Teaching 55 The C l i n i c a l Mind 56 C l i n i c a l Consciousness Among Teachers 59 i v Teacher Education and the C l i n i c a l Worldview ..61 Stages of Secondment 62 Seeking the Position 62 Preparing for Secondment: The Orientation 66 Expressing Self Doubts and Loneliness 7 0 Adjusting to the Tempo and Workload 77 Working with Adult Learners: How Should I Know? 79 Looking for Support: Other Seconded Teachers to the Rescue 83 Chapter Summary 88 CHAPTER 4 Taking on the Identity of the University Instructor ..89 Bringing Realism to the Teacher Education Program 92 By Presenting Fundamentals of Teaching 92 By Modeling Teaching Strategies 95 By Connecting Theory and Practice 97 By Sharing Narratives 102 Evaluating Course Achievement 109 Adjusting to Teaching Adults 110 Giving Honest Feedback I l l Dealing with Student Failure 113 Chapter Summary 114 CHAPTER 5 Taking on the Identity of the Faculty Advisor 116 Approaches to Communication 116 Authoritarian 117 Laissez-faire 117 Democratic 118 Reflection 121 Focusing Attention on Theory/Practice Links ..122 Asking Student Teachers to Keep Journals 122 Shadowing Student Teachers 123 Videotaping Student Teachers i n the Classroom 124 Mutuality and Support: The F i r s t Hat 126 Why Support? 126 Ways to Support 127 Evaluation of Practicum Achievement: The Second Hat 133 Problems Associated with Being the Evaluator 133 Chapter Summary 144 v CHAPTER 6 Making Sense of Reflection: Catalysts and Content ...146 Some Approaches to Reflection 147 Springboards to Reflection 151 Teaching University Courses: A Refresher Course 151 Watching Others Teach 156 Reflective Content 159 Checking Foundations of One's Beliefs and Practice 159 Improving Planning S k i l l s 161 Inspiring C r i t i c a l Approaches 162 Chapter Summary 167 CHAPTER 7 Re-Entering the School D i s t r i c t 168 Preparing for Re-Entry to the School Community 168 Returning to the School Community 174 Back to Tight Schedules 174 More Stress - Less Stress? 175 Tenuous Relations with Colleagues 176 F a l l i n g Back into Bad Habits 179 Assessing the Benefits of Secondment: Experienced Changes 180 Raised Personal Standards of Performance 180 Expanded Resources 183 Increased Confidence 184 Enhanced Professional Language 184 Missing Follow-up by the University and School D i s t r i c t 185 Feeling Cut Off 188 Dreaming of Extending Secondment 190 Chapter Summary 194 CHAPTER 8 Conclusions, Discussion, and Suggestions for Further Research 195 Conclusions Emerging from the Research Questions 195 Question One 195 Question Two 202 Question Three 205 Question Four 206 Contributions to Teacher Education 207 The Contrast Between University and School Cultures 207 Strength of Reflection on Practice 209 v i Seconded Teachers' Commitment to Classroom Teaching 209 Seconded Teachers' Professional Identities ...210 Secondment as Professional Development 213 Reviewing the Assumptions of the Study 214 Assumption One 214 As sumption Two 215 Assumption Three 216 Implications for Teacher Education 217 Absence of a Formal Recruitment, Selection, and Appointment Process 217 Improving Secondment 219 Suggestions for Further Research 221 Re-Entry to the School Community and Career Implications 221 Power Relationships Within Teacher Education 221 Research on Teacher Educators 222 In Summary 222 References 224 v i i Acknowledgments I would l i k e t o extend my h e a r t f e l t g r a t i t u d e and deep indebtedness t o my research s u p e r v i s o r , B i l l i e Housego, f o r her c o n s i s t e n t guidance, c r i t i c a l suggestions, and encouragement. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank the other members of my committee, Gaalen E r i c k s o n and Tony Clarke f o r t h e i r advice and suggestions f o r refinement. F i n a l l y , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n would not have been p o s s i b l e without the support, love and encouragement of my wife, Kathleen. v i i i 1 CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION A primary f u n c t i o n of teacher p r e p a r a t i o n programs i s to provide an environment that promotes the t r a n s i t i o n from student to teacher; that i s , they a s s i s t students to become teachers. Another t r a n s i t i o n , one from teacher to teacher educator f o r r e g u l a r f a c u l t y or seconded teachers, however, i s r a r e l y acknowledged. L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d to the process whereby teachers assume the tasks of teacher education; together these t r a n s i t i o n s might be thought of as a continuum of professional development. The l i t e r a t u r e on seconded teachers' knowledge base f o r teaching, as w e l l as t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward and b e l i e f s regarding t h e i r r o l e s as teacher educators i s l i m i t e d . The extent to which the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g and the practicum i n f l u e n c e these a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s has not been f u l l y explored. Few s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y recognize seconded teachers f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to teacher education programs. And yet, depending on the s e t t i n g , seconded teachers and other non-tenured f a c u l t y are assigned a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of the tasks of teacher education. Indeed, Goodlad (1990) contends that student teachers a s s o c i a t e these "shadow f a c u l t y " most c l o s e l y with t h e i r teacher education programs. In the extreme, the tenured, f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s o r i a t e i s i n v i s i b l e t o many student teachers on campuses across North America. In many f a c u l t i e s of education two d i s t i n c t groups of teacher educators e x i s t : the f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y and the 2 "shadow" or adjunct f a c u l t y (Goodlad, 1990). Generally, the shadow f a c u l t y i s comprised of experienced cooperating teachers, some of whom may a l s o be e n r o l l e d i n graduate education programs, who are seconded by the u n i v e r s i t y t o teach methods courses and to supervise student teachers on practicum. A f t e r one or two years they r e t u r n t o school d i s t r i c t s and resume t h e i r former r o l e s as teachers. Therefore, they are i n a unique p o s i t i o n t o observe the process of teacher education from both the school and the u n i v e r s i t y p e r s p e c t i v e . As f a c u l t i e s of education continue to t r y to improve t h e i r p r e s e r v i c e programs, these educators are important sources f o r informing the p r a c t i c e of teacher educators and improving the l e a r n i n g of p r e s e r v i c e teachers. I t i s conjectured that seconded and formerly seconded teachers are d i s t i n c t from other teacher educators, l a r g e l y because of t h e i r " p r a c t i c a l " knowledge; a type of knowledge that r e f l e c t s t h e i r classroom experiences, values, b e l i e f s , and personal p h i l o s o p h i e s of teaching and l e a r n i n g . In t h i s study, I i n c l u d e both seconded and formerly seconded teachers under the one l a b e l , seconded teachers. At t h i s time, I do not wish t o say anything more about " p r a c t i c a l knowledge" other than I w i l l be using t h i s c o n s t r u c t t o analyze some of the data. Assumptions of the Study Three assumptions u n d e r l i e t h i s study of seconded teachers. F i r s t , p r e s e r v i c e teacher education programs w i l l 3 be improved i f seconded teachers' s k i l l s and d i s p o s i t i o n s are made p a r t of classroom knowledge and d i s c o u r s e i n i t . The Holmes Group (1995), f o r example, c a l l s f o r the c r e a t i o n of a new type of f a c u l t y member i n teacher education; "a person who. i s e q u a l l y at home i n the u n i v e r s i t y and i n p u b l i c school classrooms. A c l i n i c a l p r o f e s s o r . . . who can show and do what education p r o f e s s o r s might otherwise be l e c t u r i n g about i n u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s on pedagogy, school psychology, counseling, e t c . " ( c i t e d i n Murray, 1996, p. 29). A second assumption u n d e r l y i n g t h i s study i s that u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t i e s of education recognize the advantage of student teachers working with cooperating teachers, who were p r e v i o u s l y seconded teachers, s i n c e they b e t t e r understand the philosophy, o b j e c t i v e s , and sequence of the p r e s e r v i c e programs of which the student teachers are a p a r t . A t h i r d , and r e l a t e d assumption i s t h a t , when seconded teachers and u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y each enter the s e t t i n g of the other, they may c r e a t e and improve cooperative, even c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Programs as w e l l as courses c o u l d b e n e f i t from seconded teachers' c r e d i b i l i t y of p r a c t i c e , and the i n t e r m i n g l i n g of people from schools and from u n i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d b r i n g about more e f f e c t i v e and more s a t i s f y i n g p a r t n e r s h i p s . 4 Rat i o n a l e of the Study Schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s view p r e s e r v i c e teacher education from unique p e r s p e c t i v e s . Seconded teachers have the opportunity t o observe and p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r e s e r v i c e teacher education i n both contexts. This unique p o s i t i o n i n g provides access t o a s c h o o l / u n i v e r s i t y p e r s p e c t i v e on p r e s e r v i c e teacher education t h a t i s not o f t e n otherwise a v a i l a b l e . L i t t l e i s known about the emerging r o l e s of seconded teacher educators, except t o say t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l cooperating teacher r o l e i s being expanded t o in c l u d e a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (Cornbleth & E l l s w o r t h , 1994). In p a r t , the expansion and r e d e f i n i t i o n of the cooperating teacher r o l e i s l i n k e d t o e f f o r t s t o u n i f y the teaching p r o f e s s i o n and l e s s e n the gap between pr o f e s s o r s of education i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and classroom teachers i n p u b l i c schools. The o b j e c t i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , of t h i s study are: (1) t o explore seconded teachers' understandings of t h e i r r o l e s as u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s ; (2) to i n v e s t i g a t e ways i n which seconded teachers' knowledge of l e a r n i n g t o teach may be changed through t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the teacher education program; (3) to i n v e s t i g a t e ways i n which seconded teachers' perceptions of the r o l e s of a l l the p a r t i e s (e.g., student teacher, f a c u l t y a d visor, and cooperating teacher) may be changed through t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a teacher education program: and (4) t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a b e t t e r understanding of how the 5 s k i l l s and knowledge of seconded teachers can more e f f e c t i v e l y be used t o inform the p r a c t i c e of teacher education. Terms Used i n This Study The Teacher Education Program As o u t l i n e d i n the Teacher Education Program Handbook of the F a c u l t y of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the context i n which t h i s study i s s e t , candidates are e n r o l l e d i n courses designed t o provide them with a balance of general and s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge about c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n . In the f i r s t term, students (12-month elementary and 12-month secondary options) e n r o l l i n The P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching, a course designed t o provide a foundation i n general pedagogical knowledge, i n c l u d i n g l esson and u n i t planning, and ways to organize and provide f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and classroom management. Candidates e n r o l l i n courses i n educ a t i o n a l psychology and s p e c i a l education and a course i n the a n a l y s i s of the aims and means of education. Regardless of the program of study, student teachers e n r o l l i n subject s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n courses p r i o r t o undertaking an extended practicum. During the t h i r t e e n week practicum the student teachers' teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c r e a s e g r a d u a l l y , as they demonstrate p r o f i c i e n c y . A f t e r the extended practicum, candidates r e t u r n t o the campus to engage i n s t u d i e s designed t o put t h e i r teaching experiences i n a broader context. 6 Teacher Educator When s p e c u l a t i n g about the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s that seconded teachers make to teacher education, one needs f i r s t t o consid e r the question: who or what i s a teacher educator? C a r t e r (1984) de f i n e d a teacher educator as a " f a c u l t y member i n a tenure t r a c k p o s i t i o n who taught at l e a s t one p r o f e s s i o n a l course during the preceding twelve months" (pp. 125-126). For Ducharme (1993), teacher educators are "those who hold t e n u r e - l i n e p o s i t i o n s i n teacher p r e p a r a t i o n i n higher education i n s t i t u t i o n s , teach beginning and advanced students i n teacher education, and conduct r e s e a r c h or engage i n s c h o l a r l y s t u d i e s germane t o teacher education" (p. 6). For the purposes of t h i s study, I use the term teacher educator t o r e f e r t o those who teach and supervise student teachers, whether they are tenured or tenure-track f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y , s e s s i o n a l p a r t - t i m e r s , or seconded teachers. C l i n i c a l P r o f e s s o r For Conant (as c i t e d i n Cornbleth & E l l s w o r t h , 1994), c l i n i c a l p r o f e s s o r s need not . . . make c o n t r i b u t i o n s by research and w r i t i n g . They would be g e n e r a l l y recognized as superb t e a c h e r s . . . . Such persons might be given appointments of three t o f i v e years . . . i f p o s s i b l e , s e r v i n g both the u n i v e r s i t y and the school at the same time. (p. 230) 7 Conant's v i s i o n of the c l i n i c a l p r o f e s s o r perhaps most c l o s e l y resembles the p r o f i l e of seconded teachers i n Canadian f a c u l t i e s of education. These teachers not only work i n elementary and secondary school classrooms; they a l s o spend p a r t of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s i n u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g s teaching and s u p e r v i s i n g student teachers. Seconded Teacher Seconded teachers are teachers who are seconded t o the F a c u l t y of Education from t h e i r school d i s t r i c t s f o r u s u a l l y a one or two-year term. They have a minimum of f i v e years s u c c e s s f u l teaching experience at the elementary, middle, or secondary l e v e l s , are p r a c t i c i n g teachers at the time of appointment, and have had recent involvement i n the teacher education program as cooperating teachers. F a c u l t y A d v i s o r F a c u l t y advisors are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r working with both the schools and cooperating teachers t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o f e s s i o n a l working r e l a t i o n s h i p and to a s s i s t i n planning f o r student teachers' work. F a c u l t y advisors are expected to make frequent v i s i t s t o schools, to a s s i s t schools i n making adjustments i n the placements of student teachers, to support school s t a f f i n work with student teachers, to respond t o s t a f f e n q u i r i e s about the u n i v e r s i t y ' s program, and to confer with student teachers about t h e i r experiences. Student teachers r e c e i v e both o r a l and w r i t t e n feedback from cooperating teachers and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . 8 U n i v e r s i t y I n s t r u c t o r Seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study taught methods courses i n a v a r i e t y of cu r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n areas. A d d i t i o n a l teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t e n i n c l u d e d three other courses, P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching, Communication S k i l l s i n Teaching, and Language Across the Curriculum. Cooperating Teacher Cooperating teachers are expected t o act as mentors and models f o r student teachers throughout the extended practicum. T h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e r e g u l a r l y checking u n i t and le s s o n plans, maintaining contact with f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , observing and p r o v i d i n g o r a l and w r i t t e n feedback t o student teachers, and completing a summative e v a l u a t i o n form f o r each student teacher. T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s Contexts of and O r i e n t a t i o n s Toward Teacher Education Acknowledging contextual r e a l i t i e s i n teacher education i s important because seconded teachers perform w i t h i n a context but, at the same time, that context acts upon them (Schon, 1983). Seconded teachers share with student teachers what they know about teaching, hoping t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the education of beginning teachers, thus enhancing the p r o f e s s i o n and p o s s i b l y r e f i n i n g t h e i r own s k i l l s through d e s c r i b i n g and demonstrating them. T h e i r preconceptions about student teachers, what they need t o 9 l e a r n and how i t w i l l be learned, a f f e c t t h e i r p r a c t i c e as teacher educators. A u s e f u l l i n e of i n q u i r y i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s toward the conceptual foundations of teaching and teacher education (e.g., Feiman-Nemser, 1990; Kennedy, 1987, 1990; Morine-Dershimer, 1991; Zeichner, 1983; Zimpher & Howey, 1987). An o r i e n t a t i o n , according t o Feiman-Nemser (1990) r e f e r s t o a set of ideas about the goals of teacher p r e p a r a t i o n and the means f o r ac h i e v i n g them. I d e a l l y , a conceptual o r i e n t a t i o n i n c l u d e s a view of teaching and l e a r n i n g and a theory about l e a r n i n g to teach. Such ideas should give d i r e c t i o n t o the p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of teacher p r e p a r a t i o n such as program planning, course development, i n s t r u c t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n , (p. 220) A word of ca u t i o n , however, i s i n order about o r i e n t a t i o n s , d e s p i t e t h e i r b a s i c importance. They are not mutually e x c l u s i v e and, as Merseth (1994) reminds us, d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s o f f e r teacher educators v a r i a t i o n s i n the s t r u c t u r e of [the] why and how of educating teachers. They provide a frame of referen c e to help guide d e l i b e r a t i o n s about teacher education a c t i v i t i e s . They help make e x p l i c i t the p o t e n t i a l impact of a v a r i e t y of p r a c t i c e s 10 on the coherence and strength of o v e r a l l programs, (p. 149) F i v e conceptual o r i e n t a t i o n s towards teaching and teacher education are o u t l i n e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of t h e i r p o s s i b l e use i n an a l y z i n g and understanding seconded teachers' knowledge of l e a r n i n g t o teach and t h e i r perceptions of t h e i r r o l e s i n teacher education: academic, perso n a l , t e c h n i c a l , p r a c t i c a l , and s o c i a l c r i t i c a l . Simply s t a t e d , my p o s i t i o n i s t h a t seconded teachers' conceptions of teaching and l e a r n i n g i n f l u e n c e how they p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e s as teacher educators. These widely accepted o r i e n t a t i o n s , which w i l l be di s c u s s e d next, are u s e f u l when a n a l y z i n g seconded teachers' knowledge of l e a r n i n g t o teach and t h e i r perceptions of t h e i r r o l e s i n p r e s e r v i c e teacher education. Academic o r i e n t a t i o n . The academic o r i e n t a t i o n i n teacher p r e p a r a t i o n r e f l e c t s the b e l i e f t h a t knowledge of subject matter, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s e s s e n t i a l to a teacher's development. Teacher educators who adopt t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n t y p i c a l l y emphasize academic p r e p a r a t i o n i n the b e l i e f t h a t i t w i l l help student teachers acquire the necessary knowledge base Disagreements e x i s t , however, about the extent t o which f a c u l t y - b a s e d teacher educators should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r pr o s p e c t i v e teachers' subject matter p r e p a r a t i o n . Some c r i t i c s of teacher education f a c u l t y , f o r example, argue that teachers have already learned as much about t h e i r 11 subject as they need t o know from t h e i r undergraduate coursework. The teacher educator's r o l e w i t h i n the academic t r a d i t i o n , then, i s mainly to transmit knowledge, and as Merseth (1994) p o i n t s out, he or she i s a person " f i r m l y grounded i n the subject matter t o be taught who i s f a c i l e i n developing m u l t i p l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the m a t e r i a l f o r d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g outcomes" (p. 145). Personal o r i e n t a t i o n . The personal o r i e n t a t i o n places the student teacher's l e a r n i n g a t the center of the l e a r n i n g - t o - t e a c h process. The teacher educator who adopts t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n encourages p r o s p e c t i v e teachers to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . The emphasis here i s not on teaching s p e c i f i c behavior, s k i l l s , or content knowledge, but i n s t e a d on the q u a l i t y of the experience; "a process of becoming r a t h e r than merely a process of educating someone how to teach" (Zeichner, 1983, p. 5). The teacher educator who adopts t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n t y p i c a l l y works as a counselor who t r i e s t o encourage i n q u i r y and self-knowledge i n student teachers. T e c h n i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The u n d e r l y i n g assumption of the t e c h n i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s the n o t i o n that knowledge about teaching and l e a r n i n g can be c o d i f i e d and presented to teachers. Those who advocate a t e c h n i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n b e l i e v e t h a t teachers f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o problems by applying appropriate teaching p r i n c i p l e s . The r o l e of teacher educators i n t h i s 12 o r i e n t a t i o n i s to provide teachers with examples of the general c a t e g o r i e s of s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a teacher i s l i k e l y t o encounter. Teacher educators who adopt t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n tend to emphasize s k i l l s and outcomes p e r t a i n i n g t o areas l i k e classroom management, l e s s o n planning, l e s s o n p r e s e n t a t i o n , and questioning techniques. P r a c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The p r a c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n recognizes t h a t teaching i s a complex and o f t e n ambiguous endeavor rooted i n the wisdom and experience of p r a c t i c e . E a r l y s t u d i e s i n t h i s area focused on teachers' d e c i s i o n s r e f l e c t i n g personal values and b e l i e f s . Elbaz (1983), f o r example, i d e n t i f i e d f i v e broad domains of p r a c t i c a l knowledge when she s t u d i e d a high school E n g l i s h teacher c a l l e d Sarah. Her study informs us about what teachers do but says l i t t l e about what teachers a c t u a l l y know. Other s t u d i e s (e.g., C l a n d i n i n & Connelly, 1987; Lampert, 1985; Munby & R u s s e l l , 1991) concentrate on s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s i n a teacher's classroom. Fenstermacher (1986) goes f u r t h e r i n developing a conception of how teachers convert knowledge i n t o a c t i o n . His argument i s that teachers make d e c i s i o n s based upon the i n f o r m a t i o n they have about teaching, i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s rooted i n the d a i l y events of teaching. Those who advocate a p r a c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o teaching and teacher education tend to emphasize the "wisdom of experienced p r a c t i t i o n e r s " (Zeichner, 1983) and the " l o c a l i z e d , c r a f t - o r i e n t e d nature of teaching" ( L o r t i e , 1975; Macdonald, 1986, Schon, 1983). 13 In t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n , l e a r n i n g to teach o f t e n i n v o l v e s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p experiences, case-based a c t i v i t i e s , and problem s o l v i n g contexts intended t o help the p r o s p e c t i v e teacher "think l i k e a teacher" (Feiman-Nemser, 1990). S o c i a l c r i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The s o c i a l c r i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n acknowledges teachers as a c t i v e agents i n t h e i r own p r e p a r a t i o n . This focus does not mean t h a t the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s of teaching are unimportant. Instead, t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n assumes t h a t those s k i l l s alone are an i n s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r a conception of the f u l l n e s s of p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge. Because schools g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t what already goes on i n s o c i e t y (Habermas, 1978), c r i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s expect to f i n d the same i n e q u a l i t i e s i n classrooms as one f i n d s i n s o c i e t y . To counter these i n e q u a l i t i e s teachers are expected t o promote democratic values i n the classroom. Teachers become s o c i a l transformers, f o r example, by encouraging students t o question taken-for-granted assumptions about power, language, s c h o o l i n g , knowledge, and teaching (Giroux, 1988). The r o l e of the teacher educator who adopts t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s to r a i s e the student teachers' consciousness of s o c i e t a l c o n d i t i o n s . To sum up, s e v e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and approaches to teaching t h a t r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t goals and expectations f o r teachers and schools e x i s t . Seconded teachers cannot escape t h e i r p r i o r experiences as classroom teachers. Before I began t h i s study, I expected seconded teachers t o r e f l e c t 14 mainly a t e c h n i c a l and/or p r a c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o teaching. I reasoned that they would b r i n g with them s t r o n g l y h e l d views about teaching, l e a r n i n g , and l e a r n i n g to teach t h a t would i n f l u e n c e how they f u n c t i o n as teacher educators. Controversies over the reform of teacher education are, i n some ways, l i n k e d t o the foregoing o r i e n t a t i o n s . Should the r e s u l t s from research on teaching be emphasized when designing or modifying teacher p r e p a r a t i o n programs (Gage, 1978; Good, 1990; Housego & B a d a l i , 1996; Imig & Switzer, 1996; Reynolds, 1989; Zimpher & S h e r r i l l , 1996)? Or, should we move toward a l t e r n a t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n approaches by i n c r e a s i n g the f i e l d - b a s e d component of p r e s e r v i c e teacher education? Or, does i t make more sense to advocate a v i s i o n of teacher education and s c h o o l i n g that leads to a more " j u s t s o c i e t y " ( L i s t o n & Zeichner, 1991)? Or, i s Goodlad's (1990) endorsement of c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s among pr o f e s s o r s of education, p u b l i c school personnel, and p r o f e s s o r s of a r t s and sciences the way t o proceed? C l e a r l y , one can pursue more than one of these emphases (e.g., Grimmett & Housego, 1983; Imig & Switzer, 1996; Zimpher & S h e r r i l l , 1996). Review of the Relevant L i t e r a t u r e In t h i s s e c t i o n of the chapter, I introduce some of the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s u s e f u l i n a n a l y z i n g seconded teachers' experiences as u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s : p e r s p e c t i v e s on l e a r n i n g t o teach, 15 cooperating teachers i n teacher education, power and a u t h o r i t y i n education, and c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y i n teacher education. I d i d not c r e a t e a separate chapter f o r the l i t e r a t u r e review. Instead, I s i t u a t e d the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e s i d e - b y - s i d e with the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study (Chapters 3 - 7). Some Per s p e c t i v e s on Learning t o Teach Much has been w r i t t e n about teachers' knowledge and l e a r n i n g t o teach (e.g., C a r t e r , 1990; Feiman-Nemser, 1989; Feiman-Nemser & R e m i l l a r d , 1996; Kagan, 1992; Reynolds, 1992; Wideen & Mayer-Smith, 1996; Zeichner, 1987). In t h i s b r i e f overview, I acknowledge some of the ways t o examine teachers' knowledge, beginning with more temporal aspects of l e a r n i n g t o teach (e.g., Featherstone, 1993; L o r t i e , 1975; McDiarmid, 1990; Nemser, 1983). Learning t o teach begins long before enrollment i n formal teacher education programs. Obviously, t h i s b a s i c f a c t has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teacher educators when they decide what t o i n c l u d e i n the courses they teach. Other s t u d i e s examine teacher candidates as l e a r n e r s (e.g., Belenky, C l i n c h y , Goldberger, & Tarule, 1986; Brookhart & Freeman, 1992; Calderhead, 1991; Ducharme, 1996; Jackson, 1986; Zimpher, 1989). Teacher educators, t o some extent, r e l y on knowledge about t h e i r student teachers i n d e c i d i n g what and how t o present i n f o r m a t i o n . We see i n the l i t e r a t u r e a r e c o g n i t i o n among teacher educators t h a t they need to honor student t e a c h e r s 1 backgrounds and 16 e n t e r i n g b e l i e f s i n order t o help them make sense of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l program experiences. And yet another way to examine the l e a r n i n g t o teach question i s to focus on processes and o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n l e a r n i n g t o teach (e.g., Brown, C o l l i n s , & Duguid, 1989; Cobb, 1994; Feiman-Nemser & Buchmann, 1986; L a n i e r , 1986; Lave, 1988; S t r i k e & Posner, 1985). These s t u d i e s concentrate on the how of l e a r n i n g t o teach, i n c l u d i n g both c o g n i t i v e processes and l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I decided to focus p r i m a r i l y on the content of l e a r n i n g t o teach because i t addresses a b a s i c , p r e s s i n g question f o r seconded teachers as they assume t h e i r f u n c t i o n s as teacher educators: What do beginning teachers need to learn? Answers t o t h i s question bear on d e c i s i o n s about the c u r r i c u l a and pedagogy of teacher education. Content of l e a r n i n g t o teach. Seconded teachers devote a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of t h e i r time and energy as u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y advisors d e c i d i n g what teachers should be able t o do. A barometer of a u s e f u l teacher education program, seconded teachers agree, i s how w e l l i t prepares student teachers t o assume t h e i r r o l e s as beginning teachers. The tasks enumerated as being important are c o n s i s t e n t with those that Reynolds (1992) o u t l i n e d : 1. Plan lessons that enable students to r e l a t e new l e a r n i n g t o p r i o r understanding and experience. 17 2. Develop rapport and personal i n t e r a c t i o n s with students. 3. E s t a b l i s h and maintain r u l e s and r o u t i n e s that are f a i r and appropr i a t e t o students. 4. Arrange the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the classroom i n ways t h a t are conducive t o l e a r n i n g and that f i t the academic task. 5. Represent and present s u b j e c t matter i n ways t h a t enable students t o r e l a t e new l e a r n i n g t o p r i o r understanding and that help students develop metacognitive s t r a t e g i e s . 6. Assess student l e a r n i n g u sing a v a r i e t y of measurement t o o l s and adapt i n s t r u c t i o n according to the r e s u l t s . 7. R e f l e c t on t h e i r own a c t i o n s and students' responses i n order t o improve t h e i r t eaching. (P- 26) The idea of t h i n k i n g about a knowledge base i n t h i s way i s c o n s i s t e n t with the view that teaching i s a p r a c t i c a l endeavor. Personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge. In order t o understand more f u l l y the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t seconded teachers make to teacher education programs, i t i s worthwhile t o consider t h e i r personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The knowledge and p e r s p e c t i v e s that seconded teachers possess and communicate t o student teachers 18 r e f l e c t s t h e i r values, b e l i e f s , and personal p h i l o s o p h i e s about teaching; views grounded i n the world of p r a c t i c e . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e i r ideas about l e a r n i n g how to teach. The p r a c t i c a l knowledge of seconded teachers r e f e r s t o t h e i r knowledge about classroom s i t u a t i o n s , and the p r a c t i c a l dilemmas they encounter i n the act of teaching. Underlying the idea of p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s the no t i o n t h a t teachers r e l y on a personal, c o n t e x t - s p e c i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e i r work as teachers. Although seconded teachers acknowledge the importance of s u b j e c t matter content, they are concerned with h e l p i n g student teachers develop "pedagogical content knowledge." Shulman (1987) defin e s pedagogical content knowledge as tha t " s p e c i a l amalgam of content and pedagogy t h a t i s uniquely the province of teachers, t h e i r own s p e c i a l form of p r o f e s s i o n a l understanding" (p. 8). The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study encouraged student teachers t o be c r e a t i v e i n planning lessons and u n i t s . They emphasized t h e i r own school experience i n transforming the cu r r i c u l u m f o r t h e i r p u p i l s , a form of e x p e r t i s e that some f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y l a c k . Seconded teachers a l s o emphasized t o student teachers the n o t i o n t h a t M i n i s t r y of Education c u r r i c u l u m documents (Integrated Resource Packages) are e s s e n t i a l l y general g u i d e l i n e s . By demonstrating pedagogical techniques, seconded teachers hoped t o i n s p i r e t h e i r student teachers t o make the cu r r i c u l u m come a l i v e f o r the l e a r n e r . 19 This leads t o another aspect of personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge, namely knowledge of l e a r n e r s , i n c l u d i n g knowledge of l e a r n i n g s t y l e s and c h i l d development. E a r l y i n t h e i r methods courses, seconded teachers recognized that some student teachers had an o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c v i s i o n of teaching. They pleaded with student teachers to focus more on the p u p i l than the c u r r i c u l u m per se. S u c c e s s f u l teaching was p e r c e i v e d as a l i b e r a t i n g experience f o r not merely a s s u r i n g p u p i l s achieve expected t e s t scores. They d i s p l a y e d the same c a r i n g a t t i t u d e about t h e i r student teachers as they had f o r elementary and secondary p u p i l s . On the s u r f a c e , i t might seem t h a t teacher educators have a good understanding about what teachers need t o l e a r n . Because much of the research i s fragmented, however, teacher educators themselves debate the content of a student teacher's program. Cooperating Teachers i n Teacher Education D e f i n i n g r o l e s and expectations. Much of the l i t e r a t u r e on cooperating teachers focuses on t h e i r r o l e i n the practicum. Morrisey (1980) notes t h a t the p o s i t i o n of cooperating teacher i s "a low s t a t u s p o s i t i o n , " even though "the l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b e s the cooperating teacher as the s i n g l e most important person i n p r e - s e r v i c e teacher education" (p.3). The G r i f f e n i n q u i r y (1983) found that the cooperating teacher's r o l e i s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d e i t h e r on a general l e v e l through i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c i e s or on an i n d i v i d u a l cooperating 20 teacher l e v e l through i n d i v i d u a l r e f l e c t i o n and d e c i s i o n . In t h a t study, cooperating teachers r e p o r t e d l i t t l e systematic o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n s i n student teaching except t o note that they b e l i e v e d they were somehow t o help student teachers. The nature of t h a t help was seldom c l a r i f i e d with any p r e c i s i o n . Other s t u d i e s , such as Applegate and L a s l e y (1984); and Shippy (as c i t e d i n Garland & Shippy, 1991, p. 38), found l i t t l e consensus among cooperating teachers regarding expectations f o r t h e i r r o l e . Koerner (1992) noted that "although the cooperating teacher i s v i t a l t o student teaching, l i t t l e has appeared i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e about being a cooperating teacher . . . and l i m i t e d i nformation has appeared about student teaching from the cooperating teacher's p o i n t of view" (p. 46). There i s nevertheless some consensus i n the l i t e r a t u r e about expectations f o r the cooperating teacher r o l e . Grimmett and R a t z l a f f (1986) e l i c i t e d from student teachers, cooperating teachers, and u n i v e r s i t y advisors the s p e c i f i c expectations they h e l d f o r the r o l e of the cooperating teacher. Grimmett and R a t z l a f f (1986) i d e n t i f i e d f i v e r o l e expectations t h a t appear t o transcend the bounds of time and context. From the s t u d i e s they analyzed, the cooperating teacher i s i n v o l v e d i n 1. p r o v i d i n g student teachers with b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n (regarding school r u l e s , p o l i c i e s , p h y s i c a l set-up of the school and classroom) t o enable adjustment 21 to the practicum s i t u a t i o n ; 2. ensuring student teacher a c q u i s i t i o n of resource m a t e r i a l s (teacher's manual, textbooks, and teaching a i d s ) ; 3. i n v o l v i n g student teachers i n planning and e v a l u a t i n g l e a r n i n g experiences; 4. conferencing with student teachers at r e g u l a r l y scheduled times; 5. e v a l u a t i n g student teacher progress and development through r e g u l a r observation and feedback, (p.46) Two important p o i n t s seem c l e a r i n these expectations f o r cooperating teachers (Grimmett & R a t z l a f f , 1986). F i r s t , cooperating teachers are expected t o help student teachers develop s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o teaching and classroom management. Second, cooperating teachers are expected t o encourage i n student teachers a sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l development by p r o v i d i n g them with support and guidance on a day-to-day b a s i s . Because the seconded teachers i n my study w i l l have p r e v i o u s l y been cooperating teachers, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o examine and compare t h e i r knowledge of l e a r n i n g t o teach and t h e i r expectations f o r t h e i r r o l e s as p r e v i o u s l y been teacher educators as they move to the f a c u l t y f o r the du r a t i o n of t h e i r secondment and then r e t u r n t o schools. Classroom teachers, however, t o some degree d e f i n e f o r themselves t h e i r r o l e as cooperating teachers. Koerner (1992) s t a t e s that cooperating teachers use two major 22 "sources" to d e f i n e t h e i r r o l e . F i r s t , they draw upon t h e i r own experiences as student teachers t o empathize with t h e i r student teachers and to guide them during the practicum. Koerner (1992) r e p o r t s t h a t because "cooperating teachers [view] the personal r e l a t i o n s h i p with the student teacher as of primary importance, they [ b e l i e v e ] i t [ i s ] v i t a l t o e s t a b l i s h the communication necessary to develop and nurture t h a t bond" (p. 52). The support and encouragement that o f t e n r e f l e c t s the personal r e l a t i o n s h i p between student teacher and cooperating teacher i s downplayed by Grimmett and R a t z l a f f ; e i t h e r i t wasn't important enough f o r a statement unto i t s e l f or i t i s assumed i n #4. Second, cooperating teachers, i n p a r t , construe t h e i r r o l e i n the practicum as a response to what they p e r c e i v e as a l a c k of communication and support from the u n i v e r s i t y f o r themselves and f o r student teachers (Koerner, 1992). A d j u s t i n g to the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g . Expecting seconded teachers to adapt to the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g without d i f f i c u l t y , minimizes or f a i l s t o acknowledge the r e a l i t y t h a t s e v e r a l somewhat d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s c o - e x i s t on u n i v e r s i t y campuses. The l a c k of widespread agreement among p a r t i c i p a n t s about the cooperating teacher r o l e r e s u l t s i n p a r t from schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s being very d i s t i n c t i n s t i t u t i o n s with d i f f e r e n t goals, o b j e c t i v e s , and commitments. Brown, C l a r k , and S o r r i l l (1987) suggested t h a t d i f f e r i n g expectations are rooted i n 23 the i d e o l o g i c a l d i v e r s i t y which emanates from i n e v i t a b l y d i f f e r e n t conceptions of teaching, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l divergence between those i n v o l v e d i n school and u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g s , the a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the •student and the experienced p r a c t i t i o n e r , and the widely h e l d b e l i e f s t h a t theory and p r a c t i c e are d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s which present almost i n t r a c t a b l e problems t o those who seek to i n t e g r a t e them. (p. 3) S i m i l a r l y , Raths, Katz, and McAninch (1989) d e s c r i b e two p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e s : One of these c u l t u r e s i s a s s o c i a t e d with the world of the researcher, the s c i e n t i s t who seeks to understand and generate new knowledge. The second, has to do with the arena of the p r a c t i t i o n e r , the t r a i n e r , the developer who a p p l i e s knowledge to complex and demanding i n d i v i d u a l cases and i n t u r n t r a i n s others to do the same. (p. 106) Mclntyre (1984) and Grimmett and R a t z l a f f (1985) have a l s o i d e n t i f i e d the ambiguity of expectations which p a r t i c i p a n t s hold f o r the practicum. As seconded teachers come to terms with the complexities and ambiguities of teacher education inherent i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g , i t i s reasonable to expect them t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r own classroom teaching p r a c t i c e s and 24 draw upon them when they work with student teachers. I n t e r a c t i n g with student teachers may serve as a t r i g g e r f o r r e c a l l of i n c i d e n t s from t h e i r p r a c t i c e , thus s e r v i n g i n some ways t o i d e n t i f y p r o f e s s i o n a l development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Therefore, research on c o l l a b o r a t i o n between schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s might be u s e f u l i n understanding the r o l e and knowledge of seconded teachers i n u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g s . Cuban (1991) p o i n t s out that, viewed from at l a r g e , the primary focus of a u n i v e r s i t y i s the promotion of s c h o l a r s h i p ; the primary focus of a f a c u l t y of education i s the p r e p a r a t i o n of beginning teachers; and the primary focus of a school or d i s t r i c t i s p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t o c h i l d r e n or youth. In e f f o r t s t o transcend these d i f f e r e n t f o c i , school and u n i v e r s i t y personnel need to c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o v i s i o n of the highest q u a l i t y of education f o r c h i l d r e n and youth through designing and d e l i v e r i n g q u a l i t y p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs f o r teachers. Power and A u t h o r i t y i n Education Complicating the t r a d i t i o n a l cooperating teacher r o l e are i s s u e s of power and a u t h o r i t y between school and u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g s . T y p i c a l l y , c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y members have l i t t l e impact on d e f i n i n g t h e i r r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Cornbleth and E l l s w o r t h (1994) r e p o r t that one of the ways t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s dominate the p a r t n e r s h i p i n v o l v i n g c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y " i s by e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with i n d i v i d u a l teachers . . . r a t h e r than 25 with schools or d i s t r i c t s from which c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y members are to be s e l e c t e d " (p. 240). Generally, i n d i v i d u a l teachers are i n no p o s i t i o n t o c h a l l e n g e h i e r a r c h i c a l u n i v e r s i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , or the e s t a b l i s h e d f a c u l t y groups and campus norms. In other words, c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y members are at a s i g n i f i c a n t disadvantage i n comparison t o u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y because they have l e s s formal power and a u t h o r i t y i n the teacher education s e t t i n g . Why power and a u t h o r i t y ? There are two reasons f o r a n a l y z i n g i s s u e s of power and a u t h o r i t y i n teacher education. F i r s t , as Nyberg (1981) suggests, i s s u e s of power e x i s t i n every aspect of s o c i a l l i f e : O r g a n i z a t i o n and power are conjugal concepts . . . . Where there i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , there i s power; where there i s power, there i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . I f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e i n s o c i a l l i f e then i t i s a l s o t r u e that power i s i n e v i t a b l e i n a l l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , (p. 43) Second, seconded teachers are p o t e n t i a l l y key persons i n the teacher education program, but they o f t e n f i n d themselves p u l l e d i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s by the needs and d e s i r e s of student teachers, the somewhat d i f f e r e n t p r i o r i t i e s of some cooperating teachers, and the s t i l l d i f f e r e n t p r i o r i t i e s and expectations of f a c u l t i e s of education. In order t o understand teacher education and 26 f i e l d experience b e t t e r , a number of i s s u e s , i n c l u d i n g those of power and a u t h o r i t y , need to be examined. C l a r i f y i n g power and a u t h o r i t y . The l a c k of d i s c u s s i o n about power among educators probably c o n t r i b u t e s to the r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l understanding of power that most of us possess. Indeed, when power i s mentioned i n the e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , Nyberg (1981) p o i n t s out, i t i s o f t e n used "without d e f i n i t i o n , as i f people already had a c l e a r understanding of i t s meaning" (p. 10). Most of the l i t e r a t u r e on how power operates i n schools has focused on the p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e i n managing teachers and students (e.g., Fairholm & Fairholm, 1984). Thinking of power only i n t h i s way, as e s s e n t i a l l y an act of h i e r a r c h i c a l domination, tends to dismiss or minimize the power and i n f l u e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l teachers w i t h i n the school and u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g s . French and Raven (1959) suggest that " i n a d d i t i o n t o l e g i t i m a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y d e r i v e d power, there are a l s o i n f o r m a l and l e s s p r e d i c t a b l e forms of i n d i v i d u a l power" (p. 8). I f power and a u t h o r i t y are d e f i n e d as only i n s t i t u t i o n a l phenomena, then i t becomes a d i f f i c u l t task t o d e s c r i b e a c c u r a t e l y or to analyze complex s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s such as those which occur during p r e s e r v i c e teacher education. Power and a u t h o r i t y i n teacher education. Although is s u e s of power and a u t h o r i t y have been di s c u s s e d i n education (e.g., Apple, 1982; Bowles & G i n t i s , 1976; Karabel & Halsey, 1977), few have t a l k e d about power 27 on a f a c e - t o - f a c e l e v e l ( B a d a l i , 1994; McNay & B a d a l i , 1994, Tom, 1997). Giroux (1980) says that understanding is s u e s of power and a u t h o r i t y i s fundamental to a b e t t e r conception of teacher education. There are four reasons f o r t h i s c l a i m . F i r s t , i t must be acknowledged that schools do e x i s t w i t h i n and are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by power s t r u c t u r e s ; the matter of power r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s inescapable. Second, teacher education programs r e f l e c t t r a d i t i o n s and s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s t h a t are l i n k e d t o notions of meaning and c o n t r o l . Giroux (1980) b e l i e v e s t h a t i f "questions of meaning can be a s s o c i a t e d with notions of a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l , the i s s u e can be r a i s e d as t o whose sets of meaning s t a l k behind . . . teacher education programs" (p. 6). A great deal can be l e a r n e d by q u e s t i o n i n g the assumptions of power and a u t h o r i t y t h a t are hidden w i t h i n the course content of such programs. T h i r d , i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o the purposes of teacher education programs are e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l i n nature. Giroux (1980) suggests t h a t , i n the most general sense, teacher education programs represent s o c i a l i z i n g agencies that embody r u l e s and patterns f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g and l e g i t i m i z i n g c a t e g o r i e s regarding competence, achievement, and success. Moreover, they serve t o d e f i n e s p e c i f i c r o l e s (teacher, student, p r i n c i p a l ) through the language they use and the assumptions and research they c o n s i d e r e s s e n t i a l t o the p r o f e s s i o n , (p. 8) 28 Fourth, student teachers are o f t e n unprepared t o recognize and handle the v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s and p r a c t i c e s t h at c o l l i d e and compete f o r dominance i n teacher education programs. Giroux (1988) i s c r i t i c a l of teacher education when he suggests that "student teachers f r e q u e n t l y r e c e i v e the impression that classroom c u l t u r e i s f r e e of ambiguity and c o n t r a d i c t i o n " (p. 187). In many r e s p e c t s , teacher education programs have not given teachers the means they r e q u i r e t o view teaching as problematic. Gender and power. I t i s c l e a r t h a t seconded teachers r e j e c t the notion of "power-over" student teachers. Nevertheless they are powerful i n terms of a more "feminine" conception of power ( G i l l i g a n , 1982; M i l l e r , 1988; O'Neil & Egan, 1993; Robertson, 1992). Power has g e n e r a l l y meant the a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l others but, as we have seen, seconded teachers are more l i k e l y t o view power as consensus, mutuality, p a r t n e r s h i p , support, and guidance. This "feminine" conception of power (Cook, 1993) i s more c o n s i s t e n t with t h e i r v i s i o n of themselves and what i t means to be an e f f e c t i v e teacher educator. Background L i t e r a t u r e C l i n i c a l F a c u l t y i n Teacher Education I now wish to turn my a t t e n t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o seconded teachers who are r e f e r r e d t o i n the l i t e r a t u r e under va r i o u s names i n c l u d i n g c l i n i c a l or adjunct f a c u l t y , teachers i n residence, and f a c u l t y 29 a s s o c i a t e s . L i t t l e formal research e x i s t s about c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y members' r o l e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and careers because many of the par t n e r s h i p s between schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s are r e l a t i v e l y new. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y r o l e p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t e d of s u p e r v i s i n g student teachers. With resp e c t t o t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , E l l s w o r t h and A l b e r s (1991) noted that cooperating teachers may be only p a r t i a l l y r e c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e i r r o l e i n the d i r e c t i o n of becoming teacher educators. That i s , cooperating teachers appear t o be ap p l y i n g the mentor model of one-on-one experience-based problem s o l v i n g t o the new s t r u c t u r e . . . r a t h e r than s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e i r r o l e toward t h a t of the teacher educator. . . . (p. 27) S i m i l a r l y , Cornbleth and E l l s w o r t h (1994) found i n t h e i r study t h a t s e v e r a l c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y members had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n seeing themselves i n r o l e s other than as cooperating teachers or supe r v i s o r s of student teaching. Some Canadian s t u d i e s of seconded teachers. Only a few st u d i e s have documented the experiences of seconded teachers i n Canadian f a c u l t i e s of education. Adams (1993), f o r example, examined the seconded Practicum A s s o c i a t e p o s i t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and the U n i v e r s i t y A s s o c i a t e p o s i t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary. The a s s o c i a t e s were classroom teachers who were seconded t o f a c u l t i e s of education from t h e i r school d i s t r i c t s f o r a 30 one- or two-year term. They i n s t r u c t e d i n a v a r i e t y of courses and supervised student teachers. Adams' study d e t a i l e d how f i v e a s s o c i a t e s progressed through what she c a l l e d phases or o r i e n t a t i o n s t h a t i n some ways p a r a l l e l teaching careers ( a n t i c i p a t i n g , commencing, e s t a b l i s h i n g , enacting, re-viewing, renewing, r e - a l i g n i n g , r e - e n t e r i n g , and r e t r o s p e c t i n g , p. 28). Within these phases, Adams documented how the r o l e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and experiences a f f e c t e d a s s o c i a t e s p e r s o n a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y . In her summary comments, she suggested t h a t because of d i m i n i s h i n g budgets and r e - e v a l u a t i o n of teacher education programs, i t i s c o nceivable t h a t the number of seconded teacher p o s i t i o n s w i l l decrease or t h e i r r o l e may be r e d e f i n e d . In another Canadian study, Maynes, Mcintosh, and Wimmer (1998) explored a group of adjunct p r o f e s s o r s i n v o l v e d i n s u p e r v i s i o n of f i e l d experiences at the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . They were concerned about the u n i v e r s i t y dependence on " e x t e r n a l s , " otherwise known as r e t i r e d and part-time teachers employed t o supervise student teachers. Among other i s s u e s , Maynes, Mcintosh, and Wimmer focused on "the absence of a formal recruitment and s e l e c t i o n process f o r making these appointments . . . [and] the ' h i t and miss' nature of t h e i r connection to the u n i v e r s i t y such that the e x t e r n a l s ' knowledge of our program . . . was uneven at best" (p. 3). They concluded t h a t the s o l u t i o n t o the q u a l i t y s u p e r v i s i o n i s s u e was not t o a t t r a c t more members of the academic community, but to 31 focus on the recruitment and s e l e c t i o n process of the e x i s t i n g group of e x t e r n a l s . At Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , a research p r o j e c t i s c u r r e n t l y underway t o document the experiences of f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t e s i n the teacher education program. Warsh (1996), f o r example, examined the experiences of approximately one hundred former f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t e s a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e i r two-year secondment t o the u n i v e r s i t y . Warsh found t h a t many former f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t e s pursued a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s because they were u n s a t i s f i e d remaining as classroom teachers. In a r e l a t e d study, Dawson (1996) analyzed data from f i v e p r o f e s s o r s regarding t h e i r r o l e i n working with f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t e s i n the teacher education program. Dawson argued t h a t major d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t w i t h i n school and u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e s , and t h a t f a c u l t y and f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t e s o f t e n value d i f f e r e n t forms of knowledge. Issues of power and a u t h o r i t y were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as being important. As p a r t of the same research p r o j e c t , Beynon (1996) examined how f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t e s n e g o t i a t e two key t r a n s i t i o n s from school t o u n i v e r s i t y and from being teachers of c h i l d r e n t o teachers of a d u l t s as they assume the tasks of teacher education. Green and P u r v i s (1995) remind us t h a t there has been almost no research that examines the experiences of teachers r e t u r n i n g t o the classroom a f t e r completing 32 graduate s t u d i e s . They found t h a t at the U n i v e r s i t y of Lethbridge part-time and f u l l - t i m e graduate s t u d i e s had a p o s i t i v e impact on the manner i n which teachers thought about t h e i r teaching. In a d d i t i o n , they found t h a t when teachers returned t o the school community, they b e l i e v e d that colleagues resented t h e i r new knowledge. Other s t u d i e s of seconded teachers. In a review of 20 teacher education programs t h a t i n c l u d e some form of c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y i n teacher education, Cornbleth and E l l s w o r t h (1994) found three major types of c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y r o l e s : (1) an enhanced status of the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of the cooperating teacher through t i t l e changes, i n c r e a s e d p r e p a r a t i o n and p r e r e q u i s i t e s , and r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ; (2) a d d i t i o n a l involvement of classroom teachers i n teaching u n i v e r s i t y courses; and (3) broader p a r t i c i p a t i o n by classroom teachers i n teacher education program planning, admissions, and other d e c i s i o n making (p. 218). Cornbleth and E l l s w o r t h (1994) l i n k e d the c r e a t i o n of c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y p o s i t i o n s i n teacher education t o i d e n t i f i e d problems i n American education (e.g., The Holmes Group, 1990; Carnegie, 1986). G i l s t r a p and B e a t t i e (1996) examined c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y i n other American p r o f e s s i o n a l development school s i t e s . They found t h a t as teachers become c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y , they take on numerous r o l e s i n c l u d i n g mentor, coach, communicator, counselor, s u p e r v i s o r , e v a l u a t o r , r e f l e c t i v e 33 p r a c t i t i o n e r , school leader, researcher, and c o l l a b o r a t o r (p. 16). In the United States, many of the reforms a s s o c i a t e d with p r o f e s s i o n a l development schools overlap with the c r e a t i o n of an expanded r o l e f o r c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y . Hohenbrink (1993), K a r l s b e r g e r (1993), and S h e r r i l l (1993), i n t h e i r s t u d i e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l development school p r o j e c t s , a l l d e s c r i b e d c l i n i c a l educator r o l e s t h a t evolved as pa r t of those p r o j e c t s . Howey (1992) i d e n t i f i e d as one of e i g h t general goals f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development schools the development of c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y who can guide novice teachers. Howey and Zimpher (1994) concluded that the p r e p a r a t i o n of c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y members i s l i m i t e d and suggested t h a t v a r i o u s l i t e r a t u r e s (e.g., teacher s o c i a l i z a t i o n s t u d i e s , expert-novice s t u d i e s , s t u d i e s of beginning teachers' b e l i e f s , teachers' reasoning) be employed t o design a program of st u d i e s f o r c l i n i c a l members beyond the simple o r i e n t a t i o n that seems t o be the norm i n most i n s t i t u t i o n s . As a springboard f o r designing the o r i e n t a t i o n needed by c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y and t o understand more f u l l y the c o n t r i b u t i o n s they may make t o teacher education, more knowledge about t h e i r understandings of l e a r n i n g t o teach and t h e i r perceptions of the r o l e they p l a y i n teacher education and how e i t h e r or both of these change during secondment i s r e q u i r e d . 34 This study addresses t h i s need and i s guided by the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h questions with regard t o beginning, c o n t i n u i n g , and formerly seconded teachers. 1. What general expectations are h e l d as to t h e i r r o l e d e f i n i t i o n and r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t by teachers seconded t o u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d teacher education? 2. Do seconded teachers change t h e i r perceptions of t h e i r r o l e s during the secondment experience? I f so, how do these perceptions change? 3. What knowledge of l e a r n i n g t o teach i s h e l d by seconded teachers on beginning secondment? 4. Do seconded teachers change t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of l e a r n i n g t o teach during secondment? I f so, how do these perceptions change? P o t e n t i a l C o n t r i b u t i o n of the Study In Profession of Medicine, E l i o t F r e i d s o n (1970) argued that the "everyday p h y s i c i a n " i s expected t o s o l v e concrete, o f t e n complex and ambiguous problems, l a r g e l y i n i s o l a t i o n from h i s or her c o l l e a g u e s . According t o Freidson, the s e t t i n g and the demands of p r a c t i c e c o n t r i b u t e t o a worldview q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the o r i e n t a t i o n of medical r e s e a r c h e r s . The present study draws upon the work of Freidson (1970) by u t i l i z i n g h i s conception of the " c l i n i c a l m e n t a l i t y , " (see Chapter 3) and applying i t to the experiences of seconded teachers as they make the t r a n s i t i o n from classroom teacher t o u n i v e r s i t y -based teacher educator. 35 The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h i s study are (1) to update the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o the r o l e of the seconded teacher i n p r e s e r v i c e teacher education programs. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study may enhance seconded teachers' r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r r o l e s i n p r e s e r v i c e teacher education and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o i n s e r v i c e education; (2) to i n c r e a s e our understanding of the c o n t r i b u t i o n of seconded teachers t o teacher education at a time when there are p o l i t i c a l and economic pressures being exerted on ed u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o assess the c o n t r i b u t i o n of seconded teachers i n t h e i r programs. Many teacher education i n s t i t u t i o n s have lengthened programs and time i n schools i n the b e l i e f t h a t school-based " p r a c t i c a l " t r a i n i n g i s the most v a l u a b l e component of p r e s e r v i c e teacher education. The trend toward more school-based t r a i n i n g (e.g., witness the move toward p r o f e s s i o n a l development schools i n the United States) i n e v i t a b l y gives cooperating teachers, seconded teachers, and other part-time teacher educators an even more i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n determining the substance and nature of student teacher l e a r n i n g ; and (3) to f a m i l i a r i z e seconded teachers with the continuum of p r o f e s s i o n a l development so that they w i l l not only understand t h e i r own f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the context of the continuum but a l s o e x p l a i n i t t o others who may come to see o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o f e s s i o n by ho s t i n g student teachers. 36 Overview of the Remaining Chapters There are e i g h t chapters i n t h i s study. In Chapter 2, I d e s c r i b e the methodology I used i n c o l l e c t i n g data from seconded teachers. In Chapter 3, I present the major themes concerning seconded teachers' experiences as they make the p r o f e s s i o n a l development t r a n s i t i o n from classroom teacher to u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d teacher educator. As seconded teachers make the t r a n s i t i o n from classroom teacher t o teacher educators, they play two d i s t i n c t r o l e s . The r o l e of the u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r i s the focus of Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, I concentrate on seconded teachers as f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . Chapter 6 i s an a n a l y s i s of the shared r e f l e c t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study. In Chapter 7, I present seconded teachers' experiences as they r e t u r n t o the school community a f t e r secondment. And i n Chapter 8, I draw con c l u s i o n s , i d e n t i f y i m p l i c a t i o n s , and make suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research. 37 CHAPTER 2 - METHODOLOGY This chapter d e t a i l s the research methods used i n t h i s study, s p e c i f i c a l l y : p e r s p e c t i v e of the study, data sources, data gathering, data a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , e t h i c a l i s s u e s , and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. T h e o r e t i c a l P e rspectives Informing the Study Teacher education i n s t i t u t i o n s operate w i t h i n a d e f i n e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e that serves s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s . Many of the premises and r u l e s t h a t guide teacher education programs go unquestioned by p a r t i c i p a n t s , o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n complex problems being d e f i n e d as b a s i c a l l y t e c h n i c a l . Popkewitz (1979) suggests that the "language, m a t e r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s of teacher education e s t a b l i s h p r i n c i p l e s of power, a u t h o r i t y , and r a t i o n a l i t y f o r [educating teachers] and guid i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l conduct. These pat t e r n s of thought and work are not n e u t r a l and cannot be taken f o r granted" (p. 1). R e a l i t y i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d (Berger & Luckmann, 1966; Brown, C o l l i n s , & Duguid, 1989; Bruner, 1986; diLeonardo, 1991; G a l l , 1991; Gergen & Gergen, 1991; Guba & L i n c o l n , 1989; Martin, 1987; Radway, 1984; Riger, 1992; Wertsch, 1991). Taking a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i v i s t p e r s p e c t i v e means f o c u s i n g not on formal i n s t i t u t i o n s themselves but on the processes by which people experience and make sense of t h e i r l i v e s . This i s p r e c i s e l y what i s attempted i n t h i s study. 38 Recognizing t h a t seconded teachers p e r s o n a l l y c o n s t r u c t knowledge about teaching i s fundamental t o understanding the way i n which they f u l f i l l t h e i r r o l e s as i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . I n d i v i d u a l s do not c o n s t r u c t knowledge i n i s o l a t i o n . Indeed, the s o c i a l s e t t i n g and the i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n i t i n f l u e n c e the manner i n which i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s t r u c t knowledge about the world. Hennessey (1993) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o " s i t u a t e d c o g n i t i o n , " f i n d i n g t h a t l e a r n i n g i s a process of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l s e t t i n g s . According t o Suchman ( c i t e d i n Hennessey, 1993), s i t u a t e d c o g n i t i o n widens our c a p a c i t y t o problem-solve: (a) to recognize the c r i t i c a l r o l e of the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l circumstances i n which a c t i o n s are s i t u a t e d , when i n t e r p r e t i n g those a c t i o n s ; and (b) t o encompass t h i n k i n g as a p a r t of c u l t u r a l l y organized a c t i v i t y which i s c a r r i e d out w i t h i n a community of p r a c t i t i o n e r s . In t h i s view, l e a r n i n g i s a process of e n c u l t u r a t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l l y organized p r a c t i c e s , through which s p e c i a l i z e d l o c a l knowledge, r i t u a l s , p r a c t i c e s , and vocabulary are developed. The foundation of a c t i o n i s no longer an extraneous problem but the e s s e n t i a l resource that makes knowledge p o s s i b l e and a c t i o n s meaningful, (p. 2) 39 The work of Lave and Wenger (1991) i s a l s o u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g how seconded teachers make sense of the u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e . They present the notion t h a t l e a r n i n g occurs i n communities of p r a c t i c e , and as people gain access t o a community they become i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d . According t o Lave and Wenger, "the form t h a t the l e g i t i m a c y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n takes i s a d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of ways of belonging, and i s t h e r e f o r e not only a c r u c i a l c o n d i t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g , but a c o n s t u i t i v e element of i t s content" (p. 35). They suggest that entry t o a community r e s u l t s from a process they c a l l " l e g i t i m a t e p e r i p h e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " This means that an i n d i v i d u a l gains access to a community through growing involvement over a p e r i o d of time. Newcomers move from p e r i p h e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n towards f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . While t h i s i s o c c u r r i n g , i n d i v i d u a l s are i n v o l v e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g new i d e n t i t i e s f o r themselves. Lave and Wenger (1991) s t a t e t h a t the key t o l e g i t i m a t e p e r i p h e r a l i t y i s access by newcomers t o the community (p. 100). Because the p e r i o d of l e g i t i m a t e p e r i p h e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f f o r seconded teachers ( u s u a l l y between one and two y e a r s ) , they d i d not become absorbed i n the " c u l t u r e of p r a c t i c e " (p. 95). "To become a f u l l member of a community of p r a c t i c e , " Lave and Wenger (1991) w r i t e , "requires access t o a wide range of ongoing a c t i v i t y ; o l d timers, and other members of the community; and to information, resources, and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n " (p. 101). 40 Data Sources In August, 1996 The Teacher Education O f f i c e at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n which the study was based, mailed a copy of my l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n , which o u t l i n e d the study, t o p r o s p e c t i v e v o l u n t e e r s . I met p r o s p e c t i v e volunteers at the o r i e n t a t i o n meeting (August 27, 28) of new f a c u l t y , i n c l u d i n g elementary and secondary seconded teachers. Some volunteers agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study i n advance of these meetings; others gave t h e i r consent i n person. A group of 17 seconded teachers (5 f i r s t - y e a r seconded teachers, 8 c o n t i n u i n g seconded teachers, and 4 teachers who re-entered the school system a f t e r secondment who were not at the o r i e n t a t i o n meetings) was s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study from among a number who volunteered t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I r e j e c t e d approximately ten i n d i v i d u a l s because t e c h n i c a l l y they were not seconded teachers. These were graduate students who were assigned s i m i l a r teaching and s u p e r v i s i n g d u t i e s t o seconded teachers. Aggregate P r o f i l e s A t r a d i t i o n a l form of q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s has been t o use s i n g l e case s t u d i e s . Cases are u s u a l l y presented as " i n d i v i d u a l s , " but cases may a l s o represent instances of a l a r g e r phenomenon. In an e f f o r t t o present the d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s i n a context, i t made sense t o c o n s t r u c t four aggregate p r o f i l e s . In c r e a t i n g p r o f i l e s , I adapted w e l l documented s t r a t e g i e s f o r cross-case a n a l y s i s (Abbott, 41 1992; Denizen, 1989; Eisenhardt, 1989; F i s c h e r & Wertz, 1975; Gladwin, 1989; Huberman, 1991; P e r s o l , 1985; Yin, 1984, 1991). This approach was an e f f e c t i v e method of p r e s e n t i n g seconded teachers' experiences at the u n i v e r s i t y . I created these p r o f i l e s by combining data from s e v e r a l cases. Year one seconded teachers are represented by a composite p r o f i l e that I have c a l l e d "Brenda," l i k e w i s e , c o n t i n u i n g seconded teachers are represented by "Frank," graduate student seconded teachers are represented as "Sarah," and former seconded teachers are r e f e r r e d t o as "Gerald." In other words, seventeen v o i c e s are captured i n the s t o r i e s of Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald. Once I began an a l y z i n g the data, i t became c l e a r t o me t h a t c e r t a i n major themes emerged t h a t were common t o c e r t a i n "groups" ( f i r s t - y e a r seconded teachers, c o n t i n u i n g seconded teachers, and formerly seconded t e a c h e r s ) . I chose t o present the data i n aggregate p r o f i l e s because there was l e s s v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n groups than between groups. Had t h i s not been so, i t would have been necessary to provide a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of each category. Brenda appears as an elementary teacher with e i g h t years of teaching experience. She has worked i n the same school s i n c e moving to B r i t i s h Columbia from Ontario where she completed a Bachelor of Education Degree. Her primary teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was grade 2/3. She has supervised two student teachers p r i o r t o secondment to the u n i v e r s i t y . 42 Frank appears as a secondary mathematics teacher with twenty three years of experience. He has worked i n two s e n i o r secondary schools, the l a s t nine years s e r v i n g as department head. He i s a c t i v e i n h i s p r o v i n c i a l s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t a s s o c i a t i o n and has made numerous workshop pr e s e n t a t i o n s to c o l l e a g u e s . His primary teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was Mathematics 11, 12. He has supervised eleven student teachers during h i s c a r e e r . Sarah appears as an elementary teacher who requested a leave of absence from her school d i s t r i c t i n order to begin a master's degree i n teacher education. She has s i x years of teaching experience, mostly at the grade 6/7 l e v e l . In the year preceding secondment, Sarah took a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n her school's a c c r e d i t a t i o n process. She i s very i n t e r e s t e d i n i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o teacher p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and r e f l e c t i o n . She had supervised one student teacher. Gerald appears as a secondary teacher with twelve years experience. Although educated as an elementary teacher, he accepted a secondary appointment upon graduation. He was i n v o l v e d i n s e v e r a l e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s s c h o o l . For the l a s t e i g h t years, h i s primary teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has been E n g l i s h 8, 9, 10 and S o c i a l Studies 8. He has supervised f i v e student teachers. The Teacher Education Program I t might be u s e f u l at the outset to say a l i t t l e b i t about the teacher p r e p a r a t i o n program i n which these 43 seconded teachers were i n v o l v e d . A l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study were employed i n e i t h e r the elementary or secondary twelve-month teacher education program which leads to a post-baccalaureate Bachelor of Education degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Student teachers are assigned t o schools f o r a t o t a l of 15 weeks i n t h e i r academic year (a two-week secondary pre-practicum experience occurs i n October, and a 13-week extended practicum i n January - May; a two-week elementary pre-practicum experience occurs i n January, and a thirteen-week extended practicum i n March - June). A l l students e n r o l l i n s u b j e c t - s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n courses p r i o r t o undertaking the extended practicum. Secondary student teachers normally s p e c i a l i z e i n teaching i n one or two c u r r i c u l u m areas. In order t o give them time to r e f l e c t and t o observe i n classrooms, the maximum teaching l o a d d u r i n g the extended practicum i s expected to be, f o r the l a s t h a l f of the practicum, approximately e i g h t y percent of the sponsor teacher's normal teaching l o a d . Data Gathering I c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n by means of three semi-s t r u c t u r e d i n terviews conducted between September 1996 and June 1997. A f t e r informing the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n my study of my i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r views on p r e s e r v i c e teacher education, I began the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w with somewhat open-ended questions designed t o r e v e a l something about t h e i r understandings of t h e i r r o l e s as u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and 4 4 faculty advisors, as well as to investigate t h e i r knowledge of learning to teach. Each interview required approximately sixty minutes. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and stored on computer disk. Questions such as the following served as starting points; other questions arose i n response to particular comments and, at times, I asked for c l a r i f i c a t i o n or expansion. Not a l l questions apply equally to both presently and previously seconded teachers. Interview One 1. Why did you choose to become a seconded teacher in the teacher education program? 2 . What course(s) w i l l you be teaching this year? 3 . What are your expectations and goals for this course? What are your expectations and goals for yourself as a faculty advisor working with student teachers i n their practicum? 4 . What do you feel you know about teaching that w i l l be important for your student teachers to learn or also know? 5. How do you plan to share what you know with student teachers? 6. T e l l me about your experiences as a seconded teacher l a s t year. What stands out i n your memory as important? How have your experiences influenced your i n i t i a l expectations for your role as an instructor and faculty advisor? 45 7. Since l e a v i n g the u n i v e r s i t y , have you changed any of your ideas about your r o l e as a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r ? F a c u l t y advisor? Sponsor teacher? Interview Two 8. T e l l me about your experience thus f a r as a seconded teacher. What stands out i n your memory as being important? 9. Have you r e v i s e d your views about your r o l e as a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r ? F a c u l t y advisor? I f so, what are the sources of your r e v i s e d views about your r o l e i n the teacher education program? 10. What expectations do you have f o r y o u r s e l f as a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r i n the extended practicum? 11. What are your c u r r e n t views about the nature and process of teacher education? 12. Do you f e e l you were s u c c e s s f u l t h i s year i n ach i e v i n g your goals? 13. Do you f e e l c o n s t r a i n e d i n any way i n the r o l e you pl a y i n the teacher education program? I f so, can you comment on the sources of those c o n s t r a i n t s ? Interview Three 14. What are your expectations f o r the courses you w i l l be teaching and f o r practicum s u p e r v i s i o n next year? 15. W i l l you do anything d i f f e r e n t l y as a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r next year? F a c u l t y advisor? 46 16. From a p r o f e s s i o n a l development p e r s p e c t i v e , what d i d you l e a r n about teacher education d u r i n g the y e a r ( s ) ? 17. In what ways, i f any, d i d your u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g c o n t r i b u t e t o your sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l development? 18. What b e n e f i t s have you experienced as a r e s u l t of your experience as a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r ? F a c u l t y advisor? School advisor? Classroom teacher? 19. Do you expect or plan to make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o your colleagues or school as a r e s u l t of your experience as a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r and f a c u l t y advisor? I f so, how do you e n v i s i o n t h i s happening? 20. Would you advise a c o l l e a g u e t o s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r secondment? Why? Why not? Data A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The purpose of my study was to understand more c l e a r l y the experiences of seconded teachers i n the teacher education program through the use of Glaser and Strauss's (1967) grounded theory approach. The aim of t h i s method i s to b u i l d a understanding that i s f a i t h f u l t o and t h a t i l l u m i n a t e s the area under study. Strauss and Corbin (1990) de f i n e the approach as "a q u a l i t a t i v e research method t h a t uses a systematic set of procedures t o develop an i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d grounded theory about a phenomenon" 47 (p. 24). "One does not begin with a theory, then prove i t , " w r i t e Strauss and Corbin (1990); r a t h e r , "one begins with an area of study and what's r e l e v a n t t o that area i s allowed t o emerge" (p. 23). Before I began the formal process of o r g a n i z i n g the data contained i n the in t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s , I c r e a t e d f i v e f i l e s t h a t enabled me t o manage and organize the l a r g e amount of data the i n t e r v i e w process had generated. The identity files c o n t a i n information about the seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study (e.g., name, years of teaching experience, a l t e r e d i d e n t i t y ) . The tape file i n c l u d e s the coded audio-taped recordings from each i n t e r v i e w . The document file c o n s i s t s of dated o r i g i n a l r esearch m a t e r i a l s . This f i l e was p a r t i c u l a r l y important because i t ensured that even a f t e r data were copied f o r a n a l y s i s and f i l i n g , the o r i g i n a l context was always e a s i l y determined. The content file contains copies of o r i g i n a l data, and the process file i n c l u d e s a r e c o r d of each step taken i n the research process. In t h i s l a s t f i l e I i n c l u d e d personal r e f l e c t i o n s on the d e c i s i o n s I took about the way i n which the research was conducted. My f i r s t c hallenge was t o organize and make i n i t i a l sense of the data. I t was obvious from the very beginning that I needed t o reduce the huge volume of info r m a t i o n before I co u l d i d e n t i f y patterns and c o n s t r u c t a s u i t a b l e framework t o present f i n d i n g s . During s e v e r a l readings of the i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s , prominent themes began t o 48 emerge. These themes were to become the b a s i s f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h i s t h e s i s . The process, i n some d e t a i l , ( a f t e r Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1990) was as f o l l o w s : Coding began with words t h a t d e s c r i b e d what appeared t o be going on among seconded teachers i n the teacher education program. The exact words used by seconded teachers were o f t e n catchy and meaningful. I h i g h l i g h t e d a l l i n t e r e s t i n g and provocative comments. While I was reading and re-reading the blocks of information, I asked myself s e v e r a l questions about s p e c i f i c words, phrases, and sentences that occurred r e p e t i t i v e l y i n the data (see Strauss, 1987, p. 30 f o r g u i d e l i n e s f o r open co d i n g ) . While coding words and phrases from the i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s , I p a i d a t t e n t i o n not only t o blocks of info r m a t i o n that seemed t o f i t together but a l s o t o any instances t h a t seemed t o stand o u t s i d e the common experience. I t r i e d not to take anything f o r granted, because t o do so i s t o f o r e c l o s e on the many p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t may be b u r i e d i n the data. In the course of my study, I found that a continuous process of comparison was necessary i n order t o l i n k blocks of information t o one another. This was accomplished through the constant comparison of data items with other data items u n t i l s e c t i o n s went together i n l a r g e blocks or seemed to d e s c r i b e something. E v e n t u a l l y , these blocks of information were brought together i n t o one l a r g e f i l e . The next step was to a s s i g n some l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e and importance t o each block of 49 info r m a t i o n . Once each block was h i g h l i g h t e d , I reorganized each quote under i t s t e n t a t i v e heading. From the beginning of data c o l l e c t i o n , I made in f e r e n c e s and drew t e n t a t i v e c o nclusions t o d e s c r i b e what was happening, n o t i n g r e g u l a r i t i e s , p atterns, and explanations. While reading the i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s , I spontaneously recorded my ideas about emerging themes i n an e f f o r t t o capture connections w i t h i n the data. The r e s u l t was many memos documenting what I thought was emerging from the data. In a d d i t i o n , I recorded personal observations immediately a f t e r each i n t e r v i e w . I n t e r p r e t i n g the data i s c l e a r l y the most c h a l l e n g i n g component of data a n a l y s i s . For Patton (1990) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n v o l v e s e x p l a i n i n g the f i n d i n g s , answering "why" questions, a t t a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e t o p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t s , and p u t t i n g patterns i n t o an a n a l y t i c framework. I t i s tempting t o rush i n t o the c r e a t i v e work of i n t e r p r e t i n g the data before doing the d e t a i l e d , hard work of p u t t i n g together coherent answers t o major d e s c r i p t i v e questions. But d e s c r i p t i o n comes f i r s t . The d i s c i p l i n e and r i g o r of q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s depend on pr e s e n t i n g s o l i d d e s c r i p t i v e data . . . i n such a way t h a t others reading the r e s u l t s can understand and draw t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , (p. 375) 50 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , then, means g i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the data by p r o v i d i n g explanations, making i n f e r e n c e s , i n v e s t i g a t i n g r i v a l or competing explanations, and drawing c o n c l u s i o n s . K i r b y and McKenna (1989) summarize t h i s process i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: Data a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t s of moving data from category t o category (constant comparison), l o o k i n g f o r what i s common ( p r o p e r t i e s ) and what i s uncommon ( s a t e l l i t e s ) w i t h i n c a t e g o r i e s and between c a t e g o r i e s . The data i s [ s i c ] arranged and rearranged u n t i l some measure of coherence becomes evident, (p. 146) When I look back on the research process, I remember a great deal of excitement i n conducting the f i r s t i n t e rviews with seconded teachers. I was pleased to d i s c o v e r that they were very a r t i c u l a t e i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r experiences. E t h i c a l Issues Researchers would agree that a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a study should be f u l l y informed about the research before they agree to p a r t i c i p a t e . One of the features of q u a l i t a t i v e research designs, however, i s t h a t questions, observations, and t h e o r i e s emerge over the course of the study. Brickhouse (1992) reminds us that "researchers must always be cognizant that e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are not over when i n i t i a l consent i s o b t a i n e d — t h e y are j u s t beginning" (p. 96). The r e s e a r c h e r - p a r t i c i p a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e r e f o r e , i s problematic because the i n i t i a l 51 consent r e c e i v e d from a p a r t i c i p a n t may not be adequate t o cover the e n t i r e research p r o j e c t as i t evolves. In a d d i t i o n , the researcher should be s e n s i t i v e t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some p a r t i c i p a n t s may not be prepared t o dis c u s s and cope with i s s u e s t h a t might r e f l e c t n e g a t i v e l y on them or, i n the case of teachers, on t h e i r schools or the teaching p r o f e s s i o n . In a study concerning the sharing of f i e l d notes and re p o r t s with p a r t i c i p a n t s , Tobin (1992), f o r example, h i g h l i g h t s one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n p r o v i d i n g teachers with analyses of t h e i r t eaching. "When a researcher chooses t o focus on a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e of the teacher and t o ignore others, there i s a p o t e n t i a l problem i f the teacher has given low p r i o r i t y t o the r o l e on which the re s e a r c h e r has focused" (p. 108). My d e c i s i o n t o provide i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s t o seconded teachers i s based on my b e l i e f t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r them t o have some input i n t o the research process. A f t e r each round of in t e r v i e w s , they were given a copy of the i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t . They were asked t o read i t f o r accuracy and encouraged t o make notes i n the margins about anything they wished t o c l a r i f y , r e t r a c t , change, or expand. Although seconded teachers were not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n data a n a l y s i s , the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were i n many ways a j o i n t e f f o r t between me and the seconded teachers. During the second and t h i r d i n t e r v i e w s , I shared my p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s with seconded teachers. I asked them i f my " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " of t h e i r 52 t r a n s c r i p t made sense t o them. I t was during these moments tha t seconded teachers were engaged, t o some degree, i n the i n t e r p r e t i v e process. Doing research that promotes dialogue between teachers and researchers may, as Brickhouse (1992) hopes, " l e a d t o new understandings of teaching and teachers. I d e a l l y , t h i s w i l l strengthen the bonds between students, teachers, and researchers, and simultaneously improve the q u a l i t y of teaching, l e a r n i n g , and re s e a r c h " (p. 101). To the extent t h a t other Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s employ seconded teachers i n teacher education programs, there i s l i k e l y t o be some s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i r experiences. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study Three l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h i s study are: aggregate p r o f i l e s ; gender of p a r t i c i p a n t s ; and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o some seconded teachers. Presenting data i n aggregate p r o f i l e s opens the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l might be l o s t i n the r e p o r t i n g process. Aware of t h i s p o t e n t i a l problem, I decided, while w r i t i n g the f i n a l d r a f t (Chapters 3 - 7), to re-read the o r i g i n a l t r a n s c r i p t s , an exhausting but worthwhile task because i t convinced me t h a t I had presented the data f a i r l y . I am a l s o convinced that i t would have been redundant and cumbersome t o present seventeen i n d i v i d u a l case s t u d i e s . Of the seventeen p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study, only f o u r were male. Although I d i d not o r i g i n a l l y set out t o compare 53 male-female p e r s p e c t i v e s and d i d not p e r s i s t i n doing so, i t might have been p r e f e r a b l e t o have s i m i l a r numbers of male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s . Some of the teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study t o l d me that they had agreed, i n pa r t , because they knew me through my a s s o c i a t i o n with the P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching course. They i n d i c a t e d t h a t they might not have agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e otherwise. On the other hand, the m a j o r i t y of the teachers who d i d volunteer had no p r i o r knowledge of me whatsoever. 54 CHAPTER 3 - ENTERING AND INTERPRETING THE UNIVERSITY CULTURE This chapter explores seconded teachers' experiences as they make the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned p r o f e s s i o n a l development t r a n s i t i o n from classroom teacher t o u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d teacher educator. Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald came to the p o s i t i o n with d i f f e r e n t expectations based on t h e i r experiences as teachers and former cooperating teachers. Each had high expectations f o r secondment; none sought the p o s i t i o n t o "escape" classroom teaching. Instead, they approached secondment as a p r o f e s s i o n a l development opportunity. As one might expect, the t r a n s i t i o n from the school community to the u n i v e r s i t y community i s problematic i n a number of ways. Seconded teachers, f o r example, reported inadequate o r i e n t a t i o n procedures as w e l l as minimal contact with f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y , both aspects of secondment th a t d i s a p p o i n t e d them. Instead of being i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e as a whole, seconded teachers' comments suggest that they r e s o r t e d t o a "community w i t h i n a community," a theme that w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. P a r t of the reason f o r t h e i r c r e a t i n g t h e i r own community has to do with t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g teacher i d e n t i t i e s and t h e i r p r i m a r i l y p r a c t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on teaching and l e a r n i n g . In the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s chapter, I introduce an overarching concept which permits an explanation of the 55 manner i n which they c o n s t r u c t t h e i r r o l e s as u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and. f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s : the " c l i n i c a l mind." Freidson's (1970) co n s t r u c t i s u s e f u l when attempting t o understand seconded teachers' experiences because i t summarizes teachers' worldviews which have been reported i n both the c u r r i c u l u m research and r e s e a r c h on teacher t h i n k i n g . Second, I w i l l o u t l i n e s i x stages of secondment: seeking the p o s i t i o n ; preparing f o r secondment; expressing s e l f doubts; a d j u s t i n g to the tempo and workload; working with a d u l t l e a r n e r s ; and l o o k i n g f o r support (Chapter 7 deals with r e - e n t r y to school d i s t r i c t s , and Chapter 8 connects teacher i d e n t i t i e s and communities of p r a c t i c e as a way t o e x p l a i n seconded teachers' e x p e r i e n c e s ) . C l i n i c a l Consciousness and Teaching A study from o u t s i d e the f i e l d of teacher education i s h e l p f u l i n understanding that teaching promotes a c e r t a i n type of o r i e n t a t i o n t o knowing, problem s o l v i n g , and a c t i n g . Freidson's (1970) study of the medical p r o f e s s i o n h i g h l i g h t s , the p h y s i c i a n ' s need to r e a c t t o complex problems, l a r g e l y i n i s o l a t i o n from c o l l e a g u e s . This s e t t i n g , and the need to take a c t i o n , he argued, i s very d i f f e r e n t from the o r i e n t a t i o n of medical r e s e a r c h e r s . He l a b e l e d the p h y s i c i a n ' s worldview the " c l i n i c a l m e n t a l i t y . " Freidson's c o n s t r u c t was adapted f o r the f i e l d of t e a c h i n g and teacher education by McAninch (1993), and re-named " c l i n i c a l consciousness." 56 The C l i n i c a l Mind Freidson (1970) found t h a t c l i n i c i a n s ' "way of l o o k i n g at the world" (p. 169) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f i v e elements: 1. the aim i s a c t i o n , not knowledge. 2. a b e l i e f i n what he [she] i s doing. 3. a crude pragmatism, r e l y i n g on r e s u l t s . 4. t r u s t i n personal, f i r s t h a n d experience. 5. emphasis on the idea of indeterminacy or un c e r t a i n t y , not the i d e a of r e g u l a r , s c i e n t i f i c behavior. These f i v e elements are des c r i b e d more f u l l y below as a p o s s i b l e frame f o r understanding seconded teachers' worldview of teaching and l e a r n i n g , a worldview t h a t i n f l u e n c e s how they c o n s t r u c t and enact t h e i r r o l e s w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g . F i r s t , c l i n i c a l l y minded people tend t o intervene when faced with a problem. According t o Freidson, c l i n i c i a n s take a c t i o n even when they may not have a c l e a r r a t i o n a l e f o r doing so: Suc c e s s f u l a c t i o n i s p r e f e r r e d , but a c t i o n with very l i t t l e chance f o r success i s t o be p r e f e r r e d over no a c t i o n at a l l . There i s a tendency f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r t o take a c t i o n f o r i t s own sake on the spurious assumption that doing something i s b e t t e r than doing nothing, (p. 168) 57 When having t o sol v e problems, the c l i n i c a l l y minded i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y t o attempt some s o r t of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s t e a d of de l a y i n g a c t i o n i n favor of f u r t h e r study. Second, people who possess a c l i n i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n tend to have f a i t h i n the e f f i c a c y of t h e i r a c t i o n s . T h i s means that the c l i n i c i a n might keep teaching i n ways f o r which there i s no c l e a r r a t i o n a l e . According t o Fre i d s o n , "Given a commitment t o a c t i o n and p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s , i n the face of ambiguity the p r a c t i t i o n e r i s more l i k e l y t o manifest a c e r t a i n w i l l t o b e l i e v e i n the value of h i s [her] a c t i o n s than t o manifest a s k e p t i c a l detachment" (pp. 168-169). T h i r d , a r e l i a n c e on f i r s t h a n d experience i n d e c i s i o n making i s fundamental to the c l i n i c a l l y minded p r a c t i t i o n e r . When an i n t e r v e n t i o n f a i l s , the p r a c t i t i o n e r i s l i k e l y t o t r y something e l s e . The focus i s on the immediate problem, r a t h e r than on long-term i m p l i c a t i o n s . Another way of l o o k i n g at t h i s i s t o po r t r a y the c l i n i c i a n as a person c h a r a c t e r i z e d by something of a t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r approach. Fourth, c l i n i c a l l y minded people r e l y p r i m a r i l y on f i r s t h a n d experience, r a t h e r than on theory or book knowledge. Experience i s considered most important, whereas theory and t e x t s are l e s s valued sources of knowledge. Freidson goes f u r t h e r t o suggest t h a t the simple p r i z i n g of f i r s t h a n d experience i s p o s s i b l y problematic because p r a c t i t i o n e r s are then more prone t o i n t e r p r e t t h e i r 58 experiences i n u n a n a l y t i c a l ways. R e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e can be p e r c e i v e d as undermining t h e i r "gut f e e l i n g s " or i n t u i t i o n s . F i n a l l y , c l i n i c i a n s have a d i s t r u s t f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Because they work with i n d i v i d u a l s i n dynamic s e t t i n g s , p r a c t i t i o n e r s tend to h i g h l i g h t the d i f f e r e n c e s between s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r than t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s . This means that a p r a c t i t i o n e r g e n e r a l l y d e f a u l t s to h i s or her own experience, i n t u i t i o n , and i n s t i n c t i n a s s e s s i n g a remedy. While i t might be t r u e that p r a c t i t i o n e r s tend to dismiss a b s t r a c t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , F r e i d s o n argued that p r i n c i p l e s of p r a c t i c e evolve from an i n d i v i d u a l ' s experience. This i s an important p o i n t because c l i n i c i a n s have t h e o r i e s , but t h e i r source i s d i f f e r e n t from those of r e s e a r c h e r s . This i s not t o suggest that c l i n i c i a n s are i r r a t i o n a l i n t h e i r a c t i o n s , but r a t h e r t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y d i f f e r s from that of the s c i e n t i s t : The r a t i o n a l i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d and t e c h n i c a l ; i t i s a method of s o r t i n g the enormous mass of concrete d e t a i l c o n f r o n t i n g him [her] i n h i s [her] i n d i v i d u a l cases. The d i f f e r e n c e between c l i n i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y and s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l i t y i s t h a t c l i n i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y i s not a t o o l f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n or d i s c o v e r y of general p r i n c i p l e s , as i s the s c i e n t i f i c method, but only a t o o l f o r 59 s o r t i n g the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s of p e r c e i v e d and hypothesized f a c t s , (p. 171) Freidson (1970) suggested that i n d i v i d u a l i s m and s u b j e c t i v i s m are important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i n i c a l l y minded. Each person c o l l e c t s a s e r i e s of personal experiences, and because the p r a c t i t i o n e r " i s so absorbed i n and i s o l a t e d by h i s [her] own work, he [she] i s l i k e l y t o see and evaluate the world more i n terms of h i s [her] own experience than i n terms of what a u t h o r i t i e s t e l l him [ h e r ] " (pp. 170-171). C l i n i c a l Consciousness Among Teachers Freidson's (1970) c o n s t r u c t i s u s e f u l i n the educa t i o n a l domain f o r s e v e r a l reasons. Most important, i t provides i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of teachers' knowledge claims, and how they approach problem s o l v i n g . Much has been w r i t t e n about the l a c k of systematic research on teachers' p e r s p e c t i v e s towards knowing. Feiman-Nemser and Floden (1986), f o r example, wrote, "Teachers have not been seen as possessing a unique body of p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and e x p e r t i s e . The p r e v a i l i n g view among most researchers i s that teachers have experience while academics have knowledge" (p. 512). This would suggest that c l i n i c a l consciousness g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t eaching p r o f e s s i o n . There i s an emerging body of l i t e r a t u r e , however, r e c o g n i z i n g teachers' p r a c t i c a l c r a f t knowledge (Blumberg, 1989; Grimmett & MacKinnon, 1992; 60 Kohl, 1986; Tom, 1984; Zeichner, Tabachnick & Densmore, 1987). Several studies reported the importance of teachers' firsthand experience (e.g., Grant & Sleeter, 1985; Hargreaves, 1984). Clearly, firsthand experience provides teachers with a basis from which to make decisions, as well as a f i l t e r for new information. Huberman's (1983) description of teachers' orientation toward knowledge and problem solving i s also useful i n understanding the work of teachers. He wrote: The global image emerging from the c l a s s i c and recent studies of knowledge use by teachers i s that of p r a c t i c a l l y oriented professionals drawing c h i e f l y on t h e i r own and t h e i r peers' experience to resolve problems or otherwise modify their instructional practices. Recourse to more s c i e n t i f i c , distant, and noneducational sources i s infrequent. . . . There i s a good deal of recipe c o l l e c t i n g , enabling teachers to expand th e i r instructional repertoires, t h e i r bag of t r i c k s . These recipes are traded on the basis of a validation that i s c r a f t embedded and highly experiential; ideas, techniques, products, and explanations of classroom l i f e that "worked for me" are circulated among users, but undergo an i n t u i t i v e test—how the message or product 61 f e e l s or f i t s — b e f o r e being t r i e d out i n the classroom, (pp. 483-484) Teacher Education and the C l i n i c a l Worldview The research on teachers' f i r s t h a n d experiences may i n d i c a t e t h a t teachers d i s p l a y a c l i n i c a l consciousness. The seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study a l s o e x h i b i t e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t F r e i d s o n attached to the c l i n i c i a n . Before secondment, Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald were f i r m l y entrenched i n t h e i r school communities. They d e f i n e d themselves as "experienced p r a c t i t i o n e r s . " Frank, f o r example, noted "there's not much I haven't seen before. I'm c o n f i d e n t that when I t a l k t o student teachers, I have a f a i r l y d i v e r s e background of handling problems." Brenda a l s o r e l i e d on her experience i n working with student teachers: I t o l d student teachers about a s i t u a t i o n t h a t occurred to me i n my f i r s t year of teaching. I t was a s i t u a t i o n i n which a grade 10 p u p i l came t o c l a s s l a t e , d i s r u p t i n g the r e s t of the students. This wasn't the f i r s t time i t had happened. I confronted him, and I mean I r e a l l y confronted him. I had had enough of h i s d i s r u p t i v e behavior. I ended up making the student even more d e f i a n t and I threw him out of c l a s s . I t e l l my student teachers what I was t h i n k i n g at the time and why I acted i n that way. The p o i n t of the s t o r y 62 i s t h a t , over the years, I learned through experience how to handle s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . You can't l e a r n t h a t kind of s t u f f i n books. There i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r experience. Brenda's s t o r y i s j u s t one example of how seconded teachers transmit a c l i n i c a l worldview t o a r e c e p t i v e group of student teachers. Before proceeding any f u r t h e r , I wish t o make i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t h a t I am not suggesting that i n d i v i d u a l s who possess a c l i n i c a l consciousness are somehow l e s s adequate teachers or teacher educators. On the cont r a r y , I recognize the i n t u i t i v e , p r e s e n t - o r i e n t e d t h i n k i n g , and act i o n s demanded of classroom teachers. In order t o get a f e e l f o r the somewhat l o n g i t u d i n a l nature of t h i s study, I d e s c r i b e teachers' experiences as they move through stages of secondment s t a r t i n g by d i s c u s s i n g the f i r s t i n c l i n a t i o n toward secondment. Stages of Secondment Seeking the P o s i t i o n Most of the seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study d i d not a c t i v e l y seek the p o s i t i o n . Instead, other people, most notably f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s they worked with i n the practicum, encouraged them t o apply. Frank, f o r example, d e s c r i b e d how he found out about the p o s i t i o n t h a t was u l t i m a t e l y o f f e r e d t o him: I was a cooperating teacher f o r a number of years and I had b u i l t up a s o l i d r e l a t i o n s h i p 63 with the f a c u l t y a d v i s o r . She t o l d me t h a t she was moving on to other t h i n g s . She encouraged me to apply f o r her vacant p o s i t i o n . I was t h r i l l e d t o be asked and even happier when the p o s i t i o n was o f f e r e d to me. Having experience as cooperating teachers convinced Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald that they had an accurate understanding of the p o s i t i o n . Frank expected h i s work as a cooperating teacher to come i n handy: I always enjoyed the contact I had with student teachers and cooperating teachers. I f e l t l i k e I had a p r e t t y good understanding of the teacher education program, and the r o l e and expectations f o r student teachers, cooperating teachers, and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . When eve r y t h i n g was s a i d and done, I accepted the p o s i t i o n because I thought I could make a p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e and help student teachers. As w e l l , i t would be a n i c e change t o be p a r t of the u n i v e r s i t y community. Gerald's journey from the school community t o the u n i v e r s i t y , however, was d i f f e r e n t . A f t e r completing a master's degree, h i s a d v i s o r i n v i t e d him t o do workshops f o r student teachers. "I was p e t r i f i e d at f i r s t , " Gerald noted, "so I s a i d no." Gerald appeared t o be an accomplished and c o n f i d e n t teacher, and yet he was somewhat 64 intimidated at the prospect of working with student teachers i n the university setting: I couldn't keep saying no, so I eventually accepted. That sounds awful doesn't i t ? I figured that i f they had that much confidence i n me I should give i t a t r y . It never occurred to me that I was 'university material.' This i s good evidence of the separation of the two cultures. I n i t i a l l y , Gerald's secondment lasted four months. He does not r e c a l l being formally interviewed for the position, nor does he remember i f the position was advertised. Like Gerald and Frank, Brenda was encouraged to apply for the position. A professor from whom she had taken a graduate course a few years e a r l i e r contacted her and asked her to apply for a vacant secondment. "After thinking about the offer," Brenda recalled, "I thought i t would be a nice change of pace to teach a methods class." Seconded teachers acknowledged that they welcomed a change of pace, viewing i t as a renewal opportunity. "It wasn't a l i f e - l o n g dream or anything," Brenda noted, "but because I had b u i l t up relationships with people at the university, I found out through the grapevine that some faculty were either r e t i r i n g or going on sabbatical." At the outset, I said that most teachers did not actively seek secondment. Sarah, however, l e f t the classroom to pursue a master's degree i n teacher education. 65 Secondment was not i n i t i a l l y something she had anticipated. She acknowledged that she was seeking a change from classroom teaching: I enjoyed teaching, but I f e l t the need for a change. I could have asked for a transfer to another school, but the appeal of coming to the university to do graduate work and be paid as a seconded teacher was an excellent opportunity, one that doesn't come around very often. Like Gerald, Frank did not i n i t i a l l y consider secondment as a career option, but when the opportunity presented i t s e l f , he f e l t that i t was too good an offer to pass up: I was r e a l l y pleased to be offered the position. It seemed l i k e the right time for me to make a change. I've always enjoyed the contact I've had with student teachers. There were a few negative things happening i n my school and I thought that i t would be a good time to do something else for awhile. I was motivated, however, primarily out of a sense of commitment to help students become effe c t i v e classroom teachers. Except for Sarah, seconded teachers did not actively pursue the position. Had i t not been for the encouragement and support of faculty advisors, i t i s unlikely that they would have applied at a l l . 66 Preparing f o r Secondment: The O r i e n t a t i o n In the l a s t week of August, the Teacher Education O f f i c e i n v i t e d seconded teachers, along with many of the other people assigned d u t i e s i n p r e s e r v i c e teacher education, t o a s e r i e s of o r i e n t a t i o n meetings designed t o acquaint them with the teacher education program. Course coor d i n a t o r s and experienced i n s t r u c t o r s shared program p h i l o s o p h i e s , o u t l i n e d p o l i c y , suggested assignments, d e s c r i b e d e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , and answered questions. I know from personal experience t h a t these meetings can be both exhausting and e x h i l a r a t i n g . As newcomers to the u n i v e r s i t y , i n d i v i d u a l s are confronted with the d i f f i c u l t task of t r y i n g t o make sense of the teacher education program, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n i t . Seconded teachers commented about the o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g they r e c e i v e d from the Teacher Education O f f i c e and t h e i r departments, t r a i n i n g t h a t was intended t o ease t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n t o the u n i v e r s i t y . R e c a l l i n g the i n i t i a l phase of her secondment, Sarah was c r i t i c a l of u n i v e r s i t y expectations f o r her and the other newly appointed seconded teachers. "What s u r p r i s e d me the most," she s a i d , "was that there was no t r a i n i n g . There was the assumption t h a t i f you can teach grade two, you can teach u n i v e r s i t y students. Part of the o r i e n t a t i o n should have helped us d e a l with teaching a d u l t s . " During the f i r s t week of her secondment, Brenda was s u r p r i s e d t o d i s c o v e r how things worked at the u n i v e r s i t y and how l i t t l e formal support was a v a i l a b l e : 67 I thought there would be more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to t a l k t o other people who were already teaching at the u n i v e r s i t y . I was a b i t insecure about working with a d u l t s , having no experience doing so. During the f i r s t few weeks there were very few o p p o r t u n i t i e s to share ideas and get organized because everyone was so busy. I was confronted with having to deal with so many new things on my own. I asked seconded teachers to comment on the extent t o which the o r i e n t a t i o n meetings helped them prepare f o r t h e i r r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . O v e r a l l , seconded teachers g e n e r a l l y appreciated the e f f o r t s of course co o r d i n a t o r s during o r i e n t a t i o n meetings, as w e l l as the support and encouragement they r e c e i v e d from more experienced seconded teachers, s e s s i o n a l s , and p a r t time f a c u l t y . Brenda, however, acknowledged t h a t there was not enough time t o process a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n : I was q u i t e overwhelmed to say the l e a s t . I t was a l i t t l e scary s i t t i n g there and t r y i n g t o s o r t out what the year would look l i k e . I f e l t a b i t l i k e a beginning teacher. I had a l l these u n f a m i l i a r courses to teach; I had a l l t h i s planning t o do; and I had almost no time t o do i t . 68 Seconded teachers were i n unanimous agreement t h a t they needed more time to plan t h e i r courses. Frank d e s c r i b e d the f i r s t few weeks of h i s secondment: We met i n l a t e August f o r a few days and I began teaching the f o l l o w i n g week. I had a massive binder of i n f o r m a t i o n . We t a l k e d about course p h i l o s o p h i e s , marking c r i t e r i a , and other p o l i c y . Even then, however, I d i d n ' t know what was expected of me. I was l e a r n i n g as I went along. I was o f t e n only one day ahead of my student teachers which made i t r a t h e r s t r e s s f u l . I n i t i a l l y , the "time press" a s s o c i a t e d with the p o s i t i o n was a constant source of s t r e s s . As w e l l , the d i f f e r e n t focus of schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s c r eates c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t perceptions of what i s important to know, a theme that w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. At the beginning of t h e i r secondments, teachers were understandably concerned about p r a c t i c a l i s s u e s such as room l o c a t i o n s , s u p p l i e s , s e c r e t a r i a l support, l i b r a r y p r i v i l e g e s , and resources. Because they had l i t t l e time to organize course m a t e r i a l s , seconded teachers resented "wasting time" over things that they s a i d c o u l d have been done e a r l i e r . Gerald, f o r example, complained: I couldn't b e l i e v e how long I had to wait i n l i n e t o get keys t o my o f f i c e . This might sound l i k e a p e t t y t h i n g , but i t was f r u s t r a t i n g at the time. I had t o p i c k up my keys at the same 69 p l a c e where they i s s u e parking permits so you can imagine what the l i n e ups were l i k e the week before c l a s s e s s t a r t . I must have been i n l i n e f o r two hours. This c o u l d have been done e a r l i e r and I'm not sure why someone e l s e couldn't get the keys f o r me. During the second i n t e r v i e w with teachers, I asked them to r e f l e c t on the i n i t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n they r e c e i v e d from the u n i v e r s i t y . Frank l i n k e d the o r i e n t a t i o n t o what he c a l l e d the "fragmented nature" of the teacher education program. He s a i d , "The meetings helped me l e a r n about s p e c i f i c courses but I f e l t l i k e I was on my own i n t r y i n g t o f i g u r e out the whole program. There wasn't enough time to do everything." Sarah's comments about the o r i e n t a t i o n were s i m i l a r t o what the others s a i d : The o r i e n t a t i o n p e r i o d was too s h o r t . I t h i n k i t should be viewed as p a r t of our p r o f e s s i o n a l development, a b a s i c requirement t o help us understand our r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the program, not j u s t s p e c i f i c courses. Meetings should go on f o r a couple of weeks r a t h e r than a few days. Maybe a r e t r e a t of some s o r t would be a good i d e a . Recognizing that they could be b e t t e r prepared as seconded teachers, Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald suggested ways t h a t the o r i e n t a t i o n might be improved. Gerald, f o r example, advocated a mentoring program f o r new 70 s t a f f . He des c r i b e d a conversation he had with one of the course c o o r d i n a t o r s : I wanted t o know i f there was someone I co u l d go t o i f I needed help. I asked i f there was anyone i n the F a c u l t y of Education who could act as my mentor. I was r e a l l y d i sappointed to d i s c o v e r t h a t there wasn't a formal mentor program. At l e a s t i n most school d i s t r i c t s there i s some s o r t of a s s i s t a n c e f o r beginning teachers. The same s o r t of t h i n g should be a v a i l a b l e at the u n i v e r s i t y . Seconded teachers' comments r e v e a l the inadequacy of the o r i e n t a t i o n program. A more "coherent overview of the e n t i r e teacher education program," they s a i d , would be an improvement. Expressing S e l f Doubts and Loneliness In the e a r l y days of secondment, Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald expressed doubts about t h e i r a b i l i t y t o handle the new p o s i t i o n . Gerald, f o r example, s a i d , "I never dreamed t h a t I would end up teaching at the u n i v e r s i t y . I'm mentioning t h i s because I am the f i r s t person i n my f a m i l y to graduate from a post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n . " Frank a l s o worried about whether or not he was "up to the challenge" of teaching at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l : I remember how I f e l t at the end of the f i r s t week. I was r e a l l y scared going out to the u n i v e r s i t y as a classroom teacher. I remember 71 d r i v i n g out to the campus and t h i n k i n g to myself t h a t i t had been a great week! I f I can teach here, I can teach anywhere. I t was a r e a l l y empowering experience. Frank, too, was apprehensive about meeting student teachers f o r the f i r s t time. "I was nervous before meeting student teachers because they already had degrees i n a number of areas. They were b r i g h t , a r t i c u l a t e , and more knowledgeable than I am i n those f i e l d s . " The f i r s t few weeks of secondment were c r u c i a l i n s e t t i n g the tone f o r what was to f o l l o w and i n c l a r i f y i n g expectations and d e f i n i n g r o l e s . As w e l l , a s p e c i a l bond developed among those teachers who began secondment together, c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a "community w i t h i n a community" phenomenon. Some seconded teachers had more d i f f i c u l t y than others adapting to t h e i r new r o l e s . Indeed, some were uncomfortable i n t h i n k i n g of themselves as teacher educators, viewing f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s o r s as the " r e a l teacher educators." Brenda s a i d , "In my heart of hearts, I am a classroom teacher, p l a i n and simple." I r o n i c a l l y , the l i t e r a t u r e (e.g., Ducharme & Ducharme, 1996) suggests that f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y a l s o p r e f e r to d i s t a n c e themselves from the l a b e l of teacher educator. Who wants t o be teacher educators? Who owns the programs? Who holds t h i s task i n high p r i o r i t y ? This theme w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 8. 72 Sarah r e c a l l e d much of her f i r s t year i n the f o l l o w i n g way. "I r e s i s t e d being the teacher I knew I was. I r e a l l y s t r u g g l e d because I knew I was doing things that I d i d n ' t th i n k were very good but I was attempting t o do what was expected of me." I n i t i a l l y , Sarah admitted that she was confused about her r o l e a t the u n i v e r s i t y . She was the seconded teacher who was most c r i t i c a l of the u n i v e r s i t y f o r i t s l a c k of "systematic support" i n h e l p i n g her and others make the t r a n s i t i o n t o the u n i v e r s i t y . By the second year, Sarah's views were tempered somewhat, but she s t i l l d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as a person who "danced t o the beat of a d i f f e r e n t drummer." She decided t o emphasize what she thought was most important f o r h e l p i n g p r o s p e c t i v e candidates l e a r n t o teach, worrying l e s s about what the u n i v e r s i t y might t h i n k . C l e a r l y , Sarah was happier with her performance i n the second year. She added, "I was r e a l l y nervous throughout the f i r s t year. I never f e l t comfortable about what I was doing. I n i t i a l l y , I f e l t l i k e an impostor." In a d d i t i o n , Sarah s a i d she f e l t c o n s t r a i n e d by the demands of some student teachers. "They expected me t o t e l l them e x a c t l y how t o teach. I was more i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g them to t h i n k about teaching, not j u s t about techniques and s t r a t e g i e s . " Sarah seems not to r e f l e c t the " c l i n i c a l mind" as much as Brenda, Frank, and Gerald. Her work as a graduate student shaped somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y her i d e n t i t y as a teacher educator. 73 A l l seconded teachers t a l k e d about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s they e s t a b l i s h e d with student teachers as being important to t h e i r i d e n t i t y as i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . Brenda was somewhat s u r p r i s e d t o d i s c o v e r t h a t student teachers accepted her so r e a d i l y as a c r e d i b l e " a u t h o r i t y " on teaching. She was pleased t h a t she and her students developed a t r u s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . "They l i s t e n e d t o every word I s a i d . I wasn't used t o t h a t . I r e a l i z e d t h a t I was i n a very powerful p o s i t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r t h i n k i n g . " I t must be acknowledged t h a t there i s an e n t i r e l i t e r a t u r e t o be found on the concept " a u t h o r i t y , " which i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as " l e g i t i m a t e power." Benne (1970), f o r example, says: A u t h o r i t y i s always a f u n c t i o n of concrete human s i t u a t i o n s however l a r g e or complex the s i t u a t i o n may be. I t operates i n s i t u a t i o n s i n which a person or group, f u l f i l l i n g some purpose, r e q u i r e s guidance or d i r e c t i o n from a source ou t s i d e himself [ h e r s e l f ] . . . the i n d i v i d u a l or group grants obedience t o another person or group which claims e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n mediating the f i e l d of conduct or b e l i e f as a c o n d i t i o n of r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e , (pp. 392-393) In other words, power i s l i n k e d t o a u t h o r i t y through both d e l e g a t i o n and some form of consent, the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of de l e g a t i o n h i n g i n g on a group's acceptance of and consent to the leader's p l a n . A u t h o r i t y u l t i m a t e l y r e f l e c t s a 74 r e l a t i o n s h i p between people with d i f f e r e n t amounts of power; or as Bendix (1960) puts i t , " a u t h o r i t y i n v o l v e s a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between r u l e r s and r u l e d " (p. 295). Neiman (1986) discusses a u t h o r i t y i n education, suggesting t h a t there are two types of a u t h o r i t y : s o c i a l -p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y and epistemic a u t h o r i t y . Teachers, he point s out, must be both " i n charge" and " i n a u t h o r i t y . " Teachers are granted t h e i r s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y by v i r t u e of t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n the school's o r g a n i z a t i o n . Beyond t h i s r o l e , they are granted epistemic a u t h o r i t y by v i r t u e of t h e i r knowledge of the subjects they teach. For another v e r s i o n of a u t h o r i t y , Nyberg (1981) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between " a u t h o r i t y t o oversee" ( s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l , economic, l e g a l , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ) and " a u t h o r i t y t o e x e r c i s e , " i n p a r t i c u l a r i n education, t o e x e r c i s e judgment over c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n . Brenda was a h i g h l y motivated i n d i v i d u a l who t r i e d t o please her department heads and course c o o r d i n a t o r s . During secondment, she never completely l e f t behind her i d e n t i t y as a classroom teacher. "I s t i l l f e l t l i k e I was re p r e s e n t i n g my school and d i s t r i c t ' s r e p u t a t i o n when working with student teachers. I always attempted t o po r t r a y my school i n a p o s i t i v e l i g h t , not only with student teachers but a l s o with other seconded teachers and f a c u l t y . " The f i r s t few months of secondment were c h a l l e n g i n g f o r her as she t r i e d t o r e c o n c i l e her personal 75 expectations f o r the r o l e with those of the u n i v e r s i t y . Brenda s a i d : The f i r s t month was a sink or swim s i t u a t i o n ; i t was p r e t t y f r i g h t e n i n g . In preparing my l e c t u r e s , I would read a textbook and then t r y t o r e l a t e the content t o my own experiences as a teacher. I was a l i t t l e unsure of what the u n i v e r s i t y expected of me. Goodlad (1990) noted "that [seconded teachers] s t r a d d l e two c u l t u r e s , t h a t of the u n i v e r s i t y and that of the K-12 school system" (p. 154). I t i s important t o recognize t h a t p a r t of the d i f f i c u l t y i n making the t r a n s i t i o n from schools t o the u n i v e r s i t y i s adapting to the m u l t i p l e communities t h a t are f i r m l y entrenched on u n i v e r s i t y campuses. Elementary and secondary schools are more o f t e n thought of as s i n g u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s , or as Kagan (1990) says, "places of a common p r o f e s s i o n a l c u l t u r e with a sense of s i m i l a r goals and purposes" (p. 50). Approximately s i x weeks i n t o secondment, Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald commenced working with student teachers during a two-week o r i e n t a t i o n i n school s e t t i n g s . The f a c u l t y a d v i s i n g r o l e confirmed t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s as teachers. Brenda described the two-week practicum: Being back i n the schools as a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r made me t h i n k about who I am and what I do f o r a l i v i n g . I began t h i n k i n g , 'What am I doing at the u n i v e r s i t y ? I'm a teacher.' 76 Brenda's experience was important f o r her because i t a f f i r m e d her i d e n t i t y as a teacher. She worried, however, that over time she could p o t e n t i a l l y be "cut o f f " from both school and u n i v e r s i t y communities. "I would s i t a t the back of the room watching the student teacher and t h i n k i n g t h a t I am not p a r t of t h i s school community e i t h e r . I s i t there and watch, and take notes but I miss being i n a school and being p a r t of a group." Working at the u n i v e r s i t y meant l e a v i n g behind c o l l e a g u e s , f r i e n d s , and p u p i l s . They continued t o i d e n t i f y themselves with t h e i r former sc h o o l s . At various stages of secondment, the teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study reported f e e l i n g s of l o n e l i n e s s . Sarah s a i d : I'm s u r p r i s e d by how l o n e l y I f e e l . Maybe i t ' s because I've been out on practicum and I've l o s t c ontact with other f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . But I t h i n k I was f e e l i n g a l i t t l e l o n e l y before. The u n i v e r s i t y can be a very l o n e l y p l a c e . I was used to the constant dialogue of a s t a f f room. When I came to the u n i v e r s i t y , a l l that dialogue stopped. This has been hard f o r me t o adjust t o . Brenda, an elementary teacher, had the misfortune of being assigned an o f f i c e with secondary seconded teachers. "They were very supportive but they were never there because our schedules were t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t . I t was a very l o n e l y time. There was nobody t o t a l k t o . " Gerald, back i n h i s 7 7 school d i s t r i c t , r e c a l l e d the e a r l y days of h i s secondment. "I remember saying t o my non-teaching f r i e n d s how l o n e l y I was. I t h i n k i t had something t o do with the way the p o s i t i o n i s designed." Although the teachers s a i d they experienced some degree of l o n e l i n e s s while at the u n i v e r s i t y , i t was most acute when f u l f i l l i n g the r o l e of the f a c u l t y a d v i s o r . Frank enjoyed going i n t o schools but he acknowledged, " I t was the l o n e l i e s t job I've ever had i n some ways. I r e a l l y f e l t a l i e n a t e d from my work l i f e , p a r t l y because I was always on the road. There was never a c e n t r a l p l a c e f o r me to put down some r o o t s . " Seconded teachers described the f i r s t semester of secondment as both rewarding and c h a l l e n g i n g . O v e r a l l , the t r a n s i t i o n from the school community t o the u n i v e r s i t y was more d i f f i c u l t t h a t they had a n t i c i p a t e d . A d j u s t i n g t o the Tempo and Workload Seconded teachers made numerous comments about t h e i r teaching workloads. By the end of her f i r s t semester, Brenda was ready f o r a v a c a t i o n : I am s u r p r i s e d at the p h y s i c a l exhaustion t h a t I f e l t at the end of each c l a s s . This was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r the P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching course. There was always t h a t moment when I would be e r a s i n g the chalkboard at the end and I would f e e l the p h y s i c a l exhaustion. I t was 78 something beyond my experience as a classroom teacher. L i k e Brenda, the more experienced seconded teachers a l s o r e p o r t e d some d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g t o the tempo and workload of the p o s i t i o n . Sarah, f o r example, de s c r i b e d her t i r e d n e s s as a " f a c t of l i f e . " "In the f a l l semester of both years, I was very, very, very t i r e d ! I t was overwhelming teaching three courses and s u p e r v i s i n g student teachers. The second semester i s l e s s busy, nowhere near the h e c t i c pace of the f i r s t semester." Seconded teachers reported that they were working harder than they had expected. "My day s t r e t c h e d to f i t a l l the things t h a t I had t o do," Gerald r e c a l l e d . "As a classroom teacher, I had a much b e t t e r idea of what to expect. At the u n i v e r s i t y , however, I f i n d myself working long hours i n the evening and on weekends." Gerald was not the only i n d i v i d u a l t o make t h i s o b servation. In f a c t , they sometimes joked t h a t , as seconded teachers, they were r e -l i v i n g the student teaching experience. The immediate pressure of a d j u s t i n g t o the r o l e took a t o l l on some seconded teachers. Sarah, i n d e s c r i b i n g her f i r s t year, s a i d , "Last year I was r e a l l y s t r e s s e d out. I was l o s i n g weight and I wasn't s l e e p i n g . Some of my f r i e n d s were concerned about me, but I managed." Gerald, too, had problems j u g g l i n g h i s personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e . "The f i r s t semester of secondment was exhausting. I t a f f e c t e d me 79 and my f a m i l y q u i t e a l o t . I needed the hol i d a y s t o recuperate and re-charge my b a t t e r i e s . " Seconded teachers a l s o kept i n contact with s c h o o l -based c o l l e a g u e s , who they s a i d l i k e d t o tease them about t h e i r "cushy" u n i v e r s i t y p o s i t i o n . Frank defended himself to c olleagues on numerous s o c i a l occasions. He s a i d : My colleagues have the idea t h a t I don't work as hard as they do. But I t e l l them about the hours i t takes me to prepare f o r my c l a s s e s . I can't b e l i e v e how busy my l i f e i s . In f a c t , my whole l i f e has changed s i n c e coming t o work at the u n i v e r s i t y . In the second year of t h e i r tenure at the u n i v e r s i t y , seconded teachers expected the tempo and workload t o ease due t o t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y with the r o l e . They reported, however, t h a t they were almost as busy. Gerald, f o r example, s a i d t h at "at l e a s t i n the second year I knew what to expect. I s t i l l spent a l o t of time planning but i t was much l e s s s t r e s s f u l . " Working with A d u l t Learners: How Should I Know? Working with a d u l t l e a r n e r s was both rewarding and c h a l l e n g i n g . At the beginning of her secondment, Brenda p r e d i c t e d , " A l l student teachers w i l l be h i g h l y motivated a d u l t s . This i s a b i g car e e r choice f o r them, and I expect them t o be very committed t o t h e i r s t u d i e s . I'm r e a l l y l o o k i n g forward t o working with them." Frank compared the d i f f e r e n c e s i n working with student teachers with secondary 80 p u p i l s . "For the f i r s t time i n a long time, I f e l t l i k e a teacher again because I could concentrate on the m a t e r i a l . I d i d n ' t have t o worry about being i n t e r r u p t e d every f i v e minutes by someone asking t o go to the washroom." Seconded teachers, however, were s u r p r i s e d t o d i s c o v e r that not a l l student teachers were "model l e a r n e r s . " Gerald, r e c a l l i n g the second year of h i s tenure at the u n i v e r s i t y noted, "I was disappointed i n some student teachers' a t t i t u d e s . They complained a l o t , and some of them d i d n ' t come to c l a s s . Then, they had the g a l l t o complain about t h e i r grades. What d i d they expect?" A l l of the seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study expected student teachers t o attend a l l c l a s s e s . They were shocked and disappointed when t h i s was not the case because they viewed attendance as p a r t of a teacher's p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Sarah admitted that "maybe I was naive, but I thought attendance was mandatory i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l program. I t i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t h a t they attend c l a s s e s with t h e i r peers i n order t o get the f u l l b e n e f i t of the program." I n i t i a l l y , at l e a s t , seconded teachers thought i t would be e a s i e r teaching a d u l t s . Sarah observed: F i r s t of a l l , I th i n k a person has t o r e a l l y want t o work with a d u l t s . Let's face i t , t h a t ' s not the main reason we wanted t o be seconded. But i t i s the r e a l i t y of the work. As much as I l i k e t o draw analogies between teaching 81 c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s , there i s a b i g d i f f e r e n c e i n terms of how you deal with them. I've watched other people come to the u n i v e r s i t y who have had a hard time working with a d u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y elementary teachers. Secondary teachers are more l i k e l y t o be comfortable with u n i v e r s i t y schedules, tempo, and grading p r a c t i c e s . Gerald, too, wondered why some elementary teachers had d i f f i c u l t y working with a d u l t l e a r n e r s : Elementary teachers are used to working with small c h i l d r e n . They f i n d themselves at the u n i v e r s i t y but there i s l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n about the d i f f e r e n c e s i n teaching c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . Although I b a s i c a l l y used the same p r i n c i p l e s of teaching, there were d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t I learned along the way. Gerald concluded that " s u c c e s s f u l seconded teachers have t o be able to deal 'eyeball t o e y e b a l l ' with student teachers. Secondary teachers are more used t o doing t h i s . I don't accept the idea t h a t any s u c c e s s f u l classroom teacher w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y do w e l l as a seconded teacher." Seconded teachers acknowledged t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with student teachers are d i f f e r e n t than the r e l a t i o n s h i p s they had with elementary and secondary p u p i l s . "You have to keep your d i s t a n c e as a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r , " Frank warned, "because i t ' s not the same as 82 when you're a classroom teacher. I t took me a while t o f i g u r e t h i s out." Sarah s a i d t h a t she had learned a great deal about h e r s e l f a f t e r working with student teachers. "There are boundaries," she noted, "that have t o be respected. Otherwise, you could get i n t o t r o u b l e . " By December of the f i r s t year of her secondment, Brenda evaluated her r e l a t i o n s h i p s with her student teachers i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. "I had d i f f i c u l t y , at f i r s t , m aintaining a p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s t a n c e . I'm not sure why but i t was e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t working with student teachers who were having t r o u b l e a d j u s t i n g t o the program." P a r t of the d i f f i c u l t y i n adapting t o working with adult l e a r n e r s r e l a t e s t o the a c c e l e r a t e d nature of course work at the u n i v e r s i t y . Gerald s a i d , "I was used t o having the same p u p i l s f o r a whole year. We had time t o get to know one another but a t the u n i v e r s i t y e v e r y t h i n g i s so urgent. I have them f o r about 13 weeks. There are some obvious downsides a s s o c i a t e d with the pacing of courses." Adapting t o the much l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t y was problematic f o r seconded teachers. On the one hand, they s a i d they enjoyed the "freedom" and "autonomy" a s s o c i a t e d with the u n i v e r s i t y . On the other hand, the support network t h a t they r e l i e d on as classroom teachers had vanished. Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald had s e v e r a l coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r personal d i s p o s i t i o n s and previous experiences. The most common s t r a t e g y was t o seek support from other seconded teachers. 83 Looking f o r Support: Other Seconded Teachers to the Rescue Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald were complimentary of more experienced seconded teachers f o r the informal support they provided. Seconded teachers o f t e n met to d i s c u s s planning i s s u e s . Brenda was g r a t e f u l f o r the help she r e c e i v e d . "As someone who i s new to the p o s i t i o n , the more experienced people have been very welcoming. They have been very good about sharing t h e i r ideas with me." Gerald r e c a l l e d the v o l u n t a r y informal meetings he attended i n the f i r s t year of h i s secondment: We met every week over c o f f e e . We shared resources and we t a l k e d about what we planned t o do i n f u t u r e c l a s s e s . We a l s o t a l k e d about any problems we were having. That was important because there weren't many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r seconded teachers t o meet and t a l k t o other seconded teachers about our experiences. That support group was amazing. I t was r e a l l y h e l p f u l because I d i d n ' t have t o r e i n v e n t the wheel. The i n f o r m a l meeting that seconded teachers d e s c r i b e d had a t h e r a p e u t i c dimension. One of the most important aspects was seconded teachers' "peace of mind" from r e a l i z i n g that t h e i r experiences were s i m i l a r t o what other, more experienced i n s t r u c t o r s were doing. This became evident when d i s c u s s i n g and sharing assignments. Frank d e s c r i b e d some of the informal meetings he attended: 84 We t r i e d t o make sure t h a t student teachers were t r e a t e d f a i r l y i n m u l t i - s e c t i o n e d courses. I know, as an i n s t r u c t o r , I found i t r e a l l y h e l p f u l when other people gave me copies of t h e i r p l a ns. This was e s p e c i a l l y important f o r me during the f i r s t few weeks of my secondment when everything seemed to be happening so q u i c k l y . Seconded teachers a l s o set aside time t o meet i n f o r m a l l y as f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . Some of them scheduled meetings "on the road," which was more d i f f i c u l t because they were spread out over a l a r g e geographic area. Sarah d e s c r i b e d how i t worked: The other f a c u l t y advisors and I would p l a n our observations i n the morning i n a s i m i l a r area so that we c o u l d more e a s i l y meet f o r lunch. I t was worth the scheduling h a s s l e because otherwise, we worked i n i s o l a t i o n . The practicum i s such a busy time; i t seemed I was always on the run. T a l k i n g to other f a c u l t y advisors was u s e f u l because I r e a l i z e d t h a t my experiences were not unique. Seconded teachers organized t h e i r own support; the f a c u l t y n e i t h e r suggested nor designed i t . Sarah, who was c r i t i c a l of the u n i v e r s i t y l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p i n p r o v i d i n g formal support f o r seconded teachers, had t h i s t o say about being a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r : 85 E a r l i e r I t a l k e d about the l a c k of support f o r new people teaching courses, but I have the same c r i t i c i s m as i t a p p l i e s t o the f a c u l t y a d v i s i n g r o l e . I can only speak f o r myself, but I t h i n k there i s a l a c k of community among f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . What I mean i s t h a t you have to take the i n i t i a t i v e i n b u i l d i n g one. I was lucky i n t h a t a group of us decided to meet c a s u a l l y i n our homes. We t a l k e d about a l l kinds of t h i n g s . But why are there no conversations t a k i n g p l a c e i n the u n i v e r s i t y ? I wonder about some of the other seconded teachers. What about them? In summary, seconded teachers found support among other seconded teachers. But what about c u r r i c u l u m departments? To what extent d i d departments support seconded teachers' membership i n the u n i v e r s i t y community? The answer to t h i s question i s that some departments were more a c t i v e than others i n supporting seconded teachers and making them f e e l welcomed. Frank's experience was p o s i t i v e : My department r e a l l y embraced me as one of t h e i r own. I was lucky. They always i n c l u d e d me i n e v e r y t h i n g . They asked my o p i n i o n on t h i n g s . I must say, however, that other seconded teachers t o l d me that t h e i r experiences 86 were d i f f e r e n t . I got the f e e l i n g t h a t they were on the f r i n g e of t h i n g s . I mentioned e a r l i e r t h a t teachers who began secondment together developed a s p e c i a l bond. P r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f r i e n d s h i p s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y end with secondment. Although Gerald was no longer working at the u n i v e r s i t y , he s t i l l kept i n touch with formerly seconded teachers: There are about f i v e of us who s t i l l meet. We s t a r t e d t o get together a f t e r the P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching course i n my f i r s t year. Our f r i e n d s h i p has continued to t h i s day. We go out to dinner about once a month. I t h i n k we bonded because of the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s and because of our work experiences. But f o r me, i t has been a great opportunity to t a l k t o other people about my secondment experience. A f t e r a l l , nobody e l s e seemed t o care. Seconded teachers were g e n e r a l l y complimentary about the Teacher Education O f f i c e i n i t s e f f o r t s t o provide " t e c h n i c a l support" as i t might p e r t a i n t o things l i k e c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n techniques or w r i t i n g r e p o r t s . Sometimes, however, teachers s a i d they needed a more personal and immediate type of a s s i s t a n c e i n d e a l i n g with problems. Other seconded teachers were not always h e l p f u l . Sarah, f o r example, had d i f f i c u l t y r e l a t i n g t o o l d e r and more experienced seconded teachers. "There were only a few 87 other people i n the same age range as myself. Most of the f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , were 15 to 20 years o l d e r , and they were at very d i f f e r e n t stages of t h e i r c a r e e r s . " Sarah n o t i c e d the power dimension i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s : I would sometimes t a l k t o them about what I was doing and some of the challenges or problems that came up. I wanted t o have a conv e r s a t i o n with them, but they were more i n t e r e s t e d i n g i v i n g me s o l u t i o n s . I t h i n k they saw t h e i r r o l e more as my teacher, but I was l o o k i n g f o r a c o l l e a g u e . The only t h i n g t h a t I can t h i n k of i s t h a t i t had something to do with the f a c t t h a t I'm c o n s i d e r a b l y younger than them. Sarah b e l i e v e d that they meant w e l l but she d i d not l i k e being p e r c e i v e d as a student. Seconded teachers do not develop a secure i d e n t i t y as teacher educators, i n p a r t , because of the uneven support of c u r r i c u l u m departments and p o s s i b l y the l a c k of personal and focused help they sometimes d e s i r e . I t seems they want entry to the u n i v e r s i t y community but know i t i s short-term and g a i n i n g entry may not be the best investment of t h e i r l i m i t e d time and energy. Although seconded teachers are given r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r many of the p r a c t i c a l dimensions of teacher education, they remain on the periphery, never f u l l y g a i n i n g entry to the "mainstream" u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e . The work of Lave and Wenger (1991) i s h e l p f u l i n t r y i n g t o 88 make sense of seconded teachers' experiences (See Chapter 8) Chapter Summary In t h i s chapter, Freidson's c o n s t r u c t , " c l i n i c a l m e n t a l i t y , " was introduced and a p p l i e d t o the f i e l d s of teaching and teacher education. I have suggested t h a t t h i s c o n s t r u c t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the p e r s p e c t i v e s of the seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study. An important source of the c l i n i c a l m e n t a l i t y can be t r a c e d t o the present-minded, a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d work of teachers. Some researchers have suggested that i f a c l i n i c a l m e n t a l i t y works i n p r a c t i c e , then teacher educators should promote i t s use i n teacher education programs. For example, Yinger (1987) used the term "language of p r a c t i c e " i n s t e a d of c l i n i c a l m e n t a l i t y t o c h a r a c t e r i z e experienced teachers' worldviews. In upcoming chapters, I examine teachers' experiences as they progress through d i f f e r e n t stages of secondment. 89 CHAPTER 4 - TAKING ON THE IDENTITY OF THE UNIVERSITY INSTRUCTOR As seconded teachers make the t r a n s i t i o n from classroom teacher t o teacher educator, they p l a y two d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n s . The r o l e of the u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r i s the focus of t h i s chapter. Two dominant themes emerged from the i n t e r v i e w data: b r i n g i n g r e a l i s m to the teacher education program; and e v a l u a t i n g course achievement. In Chapter 5, I w i l l concentrate on seconded teachers as f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . Whether working as a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r or a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r , seconded teachers serve as mentors, coaches, counselors and evaluators as evidenced i n the comments of the p a r t i c i p a n t s of t h i s study. Although the r o l e s are o verlapping and interdependent, each merits i n d i v i d u a l d e s c r i p t i o n . Seconded teachers i n t h i s study considered the r o l e of mentor t o be h i g h l y rewarding. Most d i c t i o n a r i e s d e f i n e a mentor as a person who i s a "wise, l o y a l a d v i s o r , or perhaps teacher." Throughout t h e i r secondment, by encouraging, modeling, and p r o v i d i n g feedback, Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald helped student teachers achieve a high l e v e l of performance. An e f f e c t i v e mentor must demonstrate a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t r u s t , openness, and f l e x i b i l i t y , because i t i s not always easy t o accommodate the needs of student teachers. 90 C l e a r l y , being a mentor means being a r o l e model, s e r v i n g as a source of information, and o c c a s i o n a l l y l e n d i n g a sympathetic ear. Since teaching and mentoring are s i m i l a r , seconded teachers r e a d i l y embrace the mentoring r o l e . In another r o l e , as coaches, seconded teachers become guides and f a c i l i t a t o r s . The coach attempts t o impart the knowledge, s k i l l s , and b e l i e f s needed f o r e f f e c t i v e teaching. S k i l l f u l guidance i s needed t o encourage student teachers t o explore the o f t e n ambiguous nature of teaching. The emphasis i s on h e l p i n g another reach f u l l p o t e n t i a l i n the l i t t l e time a v a i l a b l e . Whenever p o s s i b l e , the seconded teachers i n t h i s study shied away from g i v i n g d i r e c t advice. Instead, they helped student teachers i d e n t i f y a v a r i e t y of problems and f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r movement toward s o l u t i o n s . The counselor's r o l e i s a l s o p a r t of the seconded teachers' job. Counseling s k i l l s are needed because many student teachers s t r u g g l e with changes i n t h e i r personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s as they make the t r a n s i t i o n from student t o beginning teacher. Counseling s k i l l s are a l s o needed t o help student teachers deal with the exhaustion and s t r e s s t h a t i s f r e q u e n t l y a p a r t of the practicum experience. Counselors ask questions which promote r e f l e c t i o n and self-assessment, enabling student teachers t o evaluate t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s and a c t i o n s . 91 Through counseling, seconded teachers are able to share the experience of t h e i r own student teaching, as w e l l as the f i r s t few years of teaching. Remembering those experiences and sharing them with student teachers, who sometimes f i n d the n a r r a t i v e s u p p l i e d by the a d v i s o r d i f f i c u l t t o imagine, i s an e f f e c t i v e p a r t of performing the r o l e of counselor. A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study d e c l a r e d t h a t the most d i f f i c u l t r o l e i s that of the evaluator. In p a r t , the d i f f i c u l t y of the r o l e depends on the l e v e l of success they have had i n other r o l e s . For example, i f t r u s t and support has been e s t a b l i s h e d through e f f e c t i v e mentoring and dialogue, then e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be e a s i e r f o r both seconded teacher and student teacher. Seconded teachers are a c u t e l y aware that a s s i g n i n g a grade may a f f e c t a student teacher's f u t u r e employment. But the r o l e of e v a l u a t o r i n v o l v e s more than g i v i n g a grade. P r o v i d i n g constant feedback i s c e n t r a l t o the student teacher's p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. Seconded teachers sometimes become very possessive of t h e i r student teachers, c r e a t i n g a s i t u a t i o n i n which i t may be d i f f i c u l t or awkward to provide c r i t i c a l feedback. Therefore, the seconded teacher who wants t o avoid h u r t i n g the student teacher's f e e l i n g s may choose to avo i d g i v i n g c r i t i c a l feedback. At the same time, however, seconded teachers acknowledge that the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of 92 teaching r e q u i r e s high performance standards f o r i n i t i a l teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n . B r i n g i n g Realism to the Teacher Education Program The p r o f e s s o r i a t e may o f t e n be "out of touch" with schools. The Teacher Education O f f i c e expects seconded teachers to b r i n g r e a l i s m t o the teacher education program: by p r e s e n t i n g fundamentals of teaching; by modeling teaching s t r a t e g i e s ; by connecting theory and p r a c t i c e ; and by sharing n a r r a t i v e s . Each of these sub-themes w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . Bv Presenting Fundamentals of Teaching Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald t r i e d t o b r i n g r e a l i s m t o the teacher education program i n the methods and f o u n d a t i o n a l courses they taught i n the program. This was accomplished through p r e s e n t i n g t o student teachers those aspects of teaching that they p e r c e i v e as fundamental to good p r a c t i c e . In the P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching course, i n which they were a l l i n s t r u c t o r s , they were o b l i g e d t o focus student teachers on the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : assuming the r o l e of the teacher; i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning; i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s ; assessment, e v a l u a t i o n , r e p o r t i n g ; and classroom management. For example, Gerald s a i d : I t r y t o model what I would do i n a classroom. I t r y t o f i n d out what my students already know. I want to get a sense of who they are. When I presented m a t e r i a l to student teachers, I would always t a l k about the o b j e c t i v e s of 93 s e l e c t i n g one s t r a t e g y versus another. I always t r i e d t o b r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n back to what i t would look l i k e i n a classroom. They exposed student teachers to the " d a i l y r e a l i t i e s " of teaching, hoping to f a c i l i t a t e a smooth t r a n s i t i o n from course work t o the practicum. R e c a l l i n g t h e i r own student teaching, as w e l l as t h e i r work as cooperating teachers, was h e l p f u l . In the b e l i e f t h a t student teachers need some "general t o o l s " p e r t a i n i n g t o l e s s o n planning and classroom management s t r a t e g i e s , seconded teachers emphasized " s u r v i v a l s k i l l s . " For example, Brenda commented: I open up doors f o r them, I give them s k i l l s and processes f o r d e a l i n g with the f r u s t r a t i o n s of l e a r n i n g t o teach. I t r y to expose them t o a v a r i e t y of techniques. For example, they have to develop a one hundred lesson s y l l a b u s i n d e t a i l f o r the methods course I teach. S i m i l a r l y , Frank s a i d , "At the beginning I t h i n k i t ' s important t o give student teachers the nuts and b o l t s of how t o teach." Sarah tended t o view her r o l e somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y , n o t i n g : I want t o engage my student teachers i n s u b s t a n t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s about what i t means t o teach and what i t means to l e a r n . I want them t o move beyond the easy answers and 94 the biases they come i n t o the teacher education program with. I give them time t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r a c t i c e and I want them t o r e l a t e i t t o theory. Sarah pl a c e d the student teacher's l e a r n i n g at the center of the l e a r n i n g - t o - t e a c h process. She encouraged and expected p r o s p e c t i v e teachers t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . Her emphasis was on teaching s p e c i f i c behavior, s k i l l s , or content knowledge, but a l s o on the q u a l i t y of the experience, s i m i l a r t o Zeichner's (1983) "process of becoming r a t h e r than merely a process of educating someone how to teach" (p. 5). When asked what the major c o n t r i b u t i o n of seconded teachers i s t o the teacher education program, Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald began by d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r own student teaching experiences. They r e c a l l e d s e v e r a l of t h e i r education p r o f e s s o r s who had been out of the classroom f o r so long they were no longer able t o provide r e l e v a n t information t o student teachers. They were a l l somewhat c r i t i c a l of f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y members. Frank, f o r example, noted: Some f a c u l t y haven't been i n a classroom f o r twenty years. Some of the same p r o f e s s o r s who were here when I was a student teacher are s t i l l on f a c u l t y . I think t h a t student teachers have a l e g i t i m a t e c r i t i c i s m of some of t h e i r 95 p r o f e s s o r s who are out of touch with what goes on i n today's classrooms. C l e a r l y , seconded teachers' p r a c t i c a l knowledge of teaching d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from many f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y members. Bv Modeling Teaching S t r a t e g i e s Frank disc o v e r e d that being a seconded teacher was a great deal more c h a l l e n g i n g that he had a n t i c i p a t e d . He had to develop new r o u t i n e s , new m a t e r i a l s , and new forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n . The amount of time r e q u i r e d to prepare f o r the courses he taught was overwhelming. He f e l t compelled to plan m e t i c u l o u s l y because he was not used to working with a d u l t l e a r n e r s . Seconded teachers t o l d me they modeled vari o u s i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r student teachers, hoping t o prompt them i n t o t h i n k i n g l i k e teachers. In d e c i d i n g what to emphasize, they r e c a l l e d t h e i r own student teaching experiences. Gerald noted: When I was a student teacher, I thought that I had t o c r e a t e everything from s c r a t c h . I learned r a t h e r q u i c k l y that was very d i f f i c u l t and time consuming. Now as an i n s t r u c t o r , I encourage student teachers t o adapt lessons and u n i t s that are already a v a i l a b l e . I t h i n k they should spend the time on developing and r e f i n i n g t h e i r teaching s t r a t e g i e s , not worrying about where the ideas came from i n the f i r s t p l a c e . To reduce student teachers' anxiety, seconded teachers, i n t h e i r c l a s s e s , t y p i c a l l y modeled 9 6 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , management, i n s t r u c t i o n a l , assessment and e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r use i n the practicum. The s t r a t e g i e s they s e l e c t e d and t h e i r goals f o r the courses they taught, are i n e x t r i c a b l y r e l a t e d . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study employed a v a r i e t y of s t r a t e g i e s designed to introduce student teachers t o the s u b t l e t i e s of teaching, the most common of which was d e b r i e f i n g t h e i r l e s s o n s . L i k e the others, Frank d e s c r i b e d h i s r a t i o n a l e f o r such a s t r a t e g y : I t r i e d t o expose the r a t i o n a l e f o r my lessons to my student teachers. For example, my o b j e c t i v e s f o r whatever we were doing, why I s e l e c t e d a c e r t a i n s t r a t e g y t o prove a p o i n t , and how I was going to assess or evaluate t h e i r performance. I want my student teachers to see how I p l a n the l e s s o n so that they would understand the importance of planning. Seconded teachers tended to " e d i t o r i a l i z e " t h e i r own p r a c t i c e as teacher educators. Sarah, f o r example, t a l k e d about her d e s i r e f o r a democratic classroom i n which student teachers would f e e l f r e e t o challenge and question her i n s t r u c t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Therefore, i n an e f f o r t t o engage her students i n c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of her p r a c t i c e as a teacher and teacher educator, Sarah always e x p l a i n e d her r a t i o n a l e when demonstrating i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . In a d d i t i o n t o r e c o g n i z i n g the value of d e b r i e f i n g l e s s ons, 97 Sarah a l s o commented on the i n f l u e n c e that graduate courses had on her u n i v e r s i t y teaching: In my courses I was reading people l i k e Shulman, Zeichner, and Britzman. I was searching f o r the essence of t h e i r understandings of teaching and teacher education. Then as an i n s t r u c t o r , I was working with student teachers but Shulman was s t i l l with me. The opportunity t o explore the l i t e r a t u r e had a profound e f f e c t on my u n i v e r s i t y teaching, and I suspect i t w i l l i n f l u e n c e my teaching when I r e t u r n t o my school d i s t r i c t next year. By Connecting Theory and P r a c t i c e D e b r i e f i n g lessons was an attempt t o engage student teachers i n making connections between theory and p r a c t i c e . Dewey c a l l e d f o r teaching t o be a lea r n e d p r o f e s s i o n , i n which teachers possess the d i s p o s i t i o n and s k i l l t o continue t o study t h o u g h t f u l l y t h e i r own p r a c t i c e throughout t h e i r c a r e e r s . "Unless a teacher i s such a student, he [or she] may continue t o improve i n the mechanics of school management, but he [or she] cannot grow as a teacher, an i n s p i r e r , and d i r e c t o r of s o c i a l - l i f e " (Dewey, 1904, p. 15). The i n t e l l e c t u a l q u a l i t y t h a t Dewey saw as v i t a l t o teachers i s t h i s c a p a c i t y f o r growth, f o r theory and p r a c t i c e t o "grow together out of and i n t o the teacher's personal experience" (p. 15). 98 Dewey's argument i s f o r c e f u l because he addressed the problem of choosing between teaching as an expression of personal judgment and teaching as a s c i e n t i f i c endeavor. He i n s i s t e d t h a t the dichotomy i s a f a l s e one; i t i s not a choice between personal experience and i n t u i t i o n or scien c e , but a question of how the l a t t e r can inform and l i b e r a t e the former. The personal and the s c i e n t i f i c must work together. Otherwise, Dewey argued, teachers w i l l f a l l i n t o the t r a p of empiricism, dependent on precedent and t r i a l and e r r o r . Seconded teachers emphasized the c o n t e x t - s p e c i f i c nature of teaching because they wanted student teachers t o understand the complexities of teaching. They wanted student teachers t o develop the s k i l l s needed t o s e l e c t and implement " t r i e d and t r u e " teaching s t r a t e g i e s , ones that they b e l i e v e s u c c e s s f u l teachers s u b s c r i b e t o . Seconded teachers emphasized t h a t a teacher i s r e q u i r e d t o make numerous d e c i s i o n s during a t y p i c a l day. According t o Brenda: Student teachers have no idea how demanding the job r e a l l y i s . You can't be p a s s i v e . When you have t h i r t y p u p i l s demanding your a t t e n t i o n , you have t o make a l o t of d e c i s i o n s . Sometimes you make the wrong choice but with experience, g e n e r a l l y a teacher i s able t o s i z e up the s i t u a t i o n c o r r e c t l y . This i s a very d i f f i c u l t s k i l l f o r student teachers t o develop. 99 Gerald, i n commenting about h i s p r a c t i c e , noted: Sometimes a s t r a t e g y i s more e f f e c t i v e than a t other times because you are d e a l i n g with people. A teacher must examine the reasons why something i s e f f e c t i v e and then t r a n s f e r i t to a s i t u a t i o n where i t i s not e f f e c t i v e . There i s no r e c i p e . There i s evidence p o i n t i n g t o teachers' r e l i a n c e on f i r s t h a n d experience i n d e c i s i o n making (Grant & S l e e t e r , 1985; Hargreaves, 1984; Jackson, 1968; L o r t i e , 1975). F i r s t h a n d experience provides both a reason f o r many teachers' d e c i s i o n s , and a lens through which new i n f o r m a t i o n i s viewed. Jackson (1968), i n studying teachers' t h i n k i n g about classroom events, found t h a t teachers tend to be "confident, s u b j e c t i v e , and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l views. Doyle and Ponder (1977-1978) r e f e r r e d t o the pragmatic elements i n teacher decision-making as the " p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c . " Based on t h e i r examination of c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , they concluded t h a t teachers t y p i c a l l y l a b e l proposals f o r change as e i t h e r " p r a c t i c a l " or " i m p r a c t i c a l " based upon t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n of how problematic i t w i l l be t o implement them i n t h e i r classrooms. Seconded teachers perform an important r o l e i n i n t r o d u c i n g student teachers to the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e i r s ubject areas and grade l e v e l s . Seconded teachers' comments r e v e a l that " s u b j e c t i v e knowing" i s e s s e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g the job done. S u b j e c t i v e knowing i s the t h i r d of 100 the f i v e ways of knowing ( s i l e n c e , r e c e i v e d knowing, s u b j e c t i v e knowing, procedural knowing, and constr u c t e d knowing) proposed by Belenky, C l i n c h y , Goldberger, and Tarul e (1986) and f o l l o w i n g on the work of Perry (1970) and G i l l i g a n (1982). Belenky, C l i n c h y , Goldberger, and Tarule's (1986) study examines how women from various s o c i a l c l a s s backgrounds and age groups view knowledge and i t s sources. S u b j e c t i v e knowing, i n which the source of the t r u t h i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s gut f e e l i n g , personal experience, and i n t u i t i o n , i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study. The f i n d i n g s of experts or scho l a r s are simply viewed as other opinions based on d i f f e r e n t experience. This p r i z i n g of f i r s t h a n d experience and i n t u i t i o n i s accompanied by some d i s t r u s t of books as a source of knowledge. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s u b j e c t i v e knowing i s pragmatism, a focus on what works or f e e l s r i g h t . This p e r s p e c t i v e embraces not only a crude empiricism and pragmatism, but a l s o an element of p a r t i c u l a r i s m with re s p e c t t o teaching. The women i n the study by Belenky and others were i n e f f e c t saying that one has to experience the problem f i r s t h a n d i n order t o know what t o do. Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald were motivated t o apply f o r seconded teaching p o s i t i o n s because they had always enjoyed working with student teachers i n the ca p a c i t y of cooperating teachers and they wanted t o be more cu r r e n t i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . They were accustomed t o teaching c h i l d r e n or adolescents and had some d i f f i c u l t y 1 0 1 a d j u s t i n g t o teaching a d u l t s . Brenda de s c r i b e d the f i r s t few months at the u n i v e r s i t y : U n t i l I was a c t u a l l y standing i n f r o n t of student teachers, I wasn't r e a l l y sure what to expect. I have to admit i t was q u i t e a shock working with a d u l t s . They were a l o t more needy that I had expected. I thought they would be much more independent and motivated as a group. I had a l i t t l e t r o u b l e at f i r s t a d j u s t i n g my t h i n k i n g . Before s e r v i n g as seconded teachers, they expected a l l student teachers t o be h i g h l y motivated and r e c e p t i v e to l e a r n i n g how t o teach. They were e x c i t e d about s h a r i n g t h e i r personal i n s i g h t s and e x p e r t i s e about c h i l d r e n , adolescents, and teaching. Brenda summed up her a t t i t u d e t h i s way: I assumed that a l l student teachers would be motivated to l e a r n how to become the best teacher p o s s i b l e . I was a l i t t l e d i s appointed when I came across student teachers who seemed r e s i s t a n t t o l e a r n i n g . They had d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g t h e i r heads i n t o the minds of teachers. When I began my secondment I j u s t assumed t h a t a d u l t l e a r n e r s would be motivated but I found t h a t some student teachers were almost as immature as some of my elementary p u p i l s . 102 Seconded teachers acknowledged that student teachers enter programs of teacher p r e p a r a t i o n with s t r o n g l y h e l d b e l i e f s about the work of teaching (Britzman, 1986; Weinstein, 1990). Student teachers have developed these views a f t e r years of being exposed t o pedagogical modeling and i n t e r a c t i n g with peers and teachers. B o l i n (1990) maintains t h a t student teachers begin t h e i r program i n the b e l i e f t h a t they already know how t o teach. Tensions develop between student teachers, seconded teachers, and other teacher educators when t h e i r b e l i e f s come i n t o c o n f l i c t . In summary, seconded teachers expose student teachers t o p r a c t i c a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s . T h e i r main goal i s t o make t h e i r courses as p r a c t i c a l as p o s s i b l e i n the b e l i e f t h a t t h i s i nformation w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a t r o u b l e f r e e practicum experience. As w e l l , because t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s are rooted i n the school s e t t i n g , they focus on p r a c t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s and techniques t h a t they b e l i e v e student teachers need t o master i n order t o be e f f e c t i v e teachers. By Sharing N a r r a t i v e s In order t o understand more f u l l y the c o n t r i b u t i o n t hat seconded teachers make to teacher education programs, i t i s u s e f u l t o examine t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge and the manner i n which they share i t with student teachers. I w i l l attempt t o show that the knowledge and p e r s p e c t i v e s that seconded teachers possess and communicate t o student 103 teachers r e f l e c t t h e i r values, b e l i e f s , and personal p h i l o s o p h i e s about teaching, views grounded i n the world of p r a c t i c e . Furthermore, the c o n t r i b u t i o n of seconded teachers to teacher education programs may indeed address some of the concerns that Schwab (1983) de s c r i b e d i n a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s on the p r a c t i c a l i n which he argued that t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge was o f t e n i n the wrong form, rendering i t u s e l e s s to many i n d i v i d u a l s . He was concerned, i n p a r t , with how knowledge claims are s t r i p p e d of t h e i r i n q u i r y o r i g i n s , producing what he c a l l e d a " r h e t o r i c of c o n c l u s i o n s . " Seconded teachers avoided communicating conclusions and i n s t e a d t r a n s m i t t e d i n q u i r y through the s t o r i e s they t o l d student teachers. The p r a c t i c a l knowledge of seconded teachers i s d e c e p t i v e l y simple. P r a c t i c a l knowledge u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o teachers' knowledge about classroom s i t u a t i o n s , as w e l l as the p r a c t i c a l dilemmas they encounter i n the act of teaching. Underlying the idea of p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s the noti o n that teachers r e l y on a personal, c o n t e x t - s p e c i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e i r work as teachers. According t o Elbaz (1983), p r a c t i c a l knowledge . . . encompasses f i r s t h a n d experience of students' l e a r n i n g s t y l e s , i n t e r e s t s , needs, strengths and d i f f i c u l t i e s , and a r e p e r t o i r e of i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques and classroom management s k i l l s . The teacher knows the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the school and what i t r e q u i r e s , of teachers and students 104 . . . . This experiential knowledge i s informed by the teacher's theoretical knowledge of subject matter, and of areas such as c h i l d development, learning and social theory, (p. 5) According to this view, pr a c t i c a l knowledge i s largely influenced by one's experiences i n the everyday world of teaching. Similarly, Clandinin (cited in Fenstermacher, 1994, p. 10) sees personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge as in the person's past experience, i n the person's present mind and body and i n the person's future plans and actions. It i s knowledge that r e f l e c t s the individual's p r i o r knowledge and acknowledges the contextual nature of that teacher's knowledge. It i s a kind of knowledge carved out of, and shaped by situations; knowledge that i s constructed and reconstructed as we l i v e out our stories and r e t e l l and r e l i v e them through processes of r e f l e c t i o n . Taken together, the p r a c t i c a l knowledge and personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge of teachers reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e leads one to conclude that, f i r s t , teachers' knowledge i s highly personal and dynamic; and second, thinking about knowledge and teaching i n this way r e f l e c t s the context-s p e c i f i c nature of teaching. What i s important for the present argument i s that seconded teachers possess p r a c t i c a l knowledge, and 105 i n working with student teachers they exposed beginning teachers t o what C a r t e r (1989) c a l l s , the "depth and breadth of teaching knowledge." This argument begins with the assumption that l e a r n i n g to teach i s i n h e r e n t l y complex and ambiguous. The dilemma i s how t o share t h i s complex and p a r t i c u l a r knowledge with student teachers. Having seconded f a c u l t y teach methods courses may be h e l p f u l i n f o c u s i n g students i n i t i a l l y t o "think l i k e teachers," p a r t i c u l a r l y about t e c h n i c a l matters of i n s t r u c t i o n and management. I t i s i n methods courses, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h a t seconded teachers d e s c r i b e and model t h e i r values, b e l i e f s , and personal p h i l o s o p h i e s d i r e c t l y f o r student teachers, o f t e n through the s t o r i e s they t e l l as w e l l as the way they teach. In a moment, I w i l l d i s c u s s the manner i n which seconded teachers i n c o r p o r a t e s t o r i e s i n t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y teaching but f i r s t , l e t me say that I t h i n k that p r e s e r v i c e teachers gain at l e a s t some understanding of what i t means to teach through the v i c a r i o u s experiences of working with seconded teachers. I t i s through "shared i n q u i r y " t h a t student teachers might uncover some of the hidden and obscure r e l a t i o n s h i p s between, f o r example, theory and p r a c t i c e . In other words, seconded teachers help student teachers generate m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and s o l u t i o n s t o given problems. "In the P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching course," Sarah noted, "case s t u d i e s prompted student teachers t o consider a l t e r n a t i v e s ways of d e a l i n g with everyday 106 problems. I t r i e d to draw their attention to readings, whenever possible, so that they would learn to support th e i r opinions and decisions." If Carter (1990) i s correct i n her assertion that "attention i n teacher education has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been focused on what teachers need to know and how they can be trained, rather than on what they actually know or how that knowledge i s acquired" (p. 291)," then the knowledge of seconded teachers i s important because they are i n a unique position to observe the process of teacher education from both a school and a university perspective. In a time when facult i e s of education are attempting to improve th e i r preservice programs, the knowledge of these educators i s an important source for informing the practice of preservice teacher education. Next I w i l l describe the nature of seconded teachers' stories, a strategy they use to engage student teachers i n thinking about their emerging practice. When asked why they t o l d student teachers stories about th e i r classroom experiences, seconded teachers said i t was an effective strategy to engage student teachers i n thinking about the highly personal and complex nature of teaching. Brenda, i n her f i r s t year of secondment, t o l d more stories to her student teachers than the others, focusing on s p e c i f i c types of situations: 107 I o f t e n t o l d s t o r i e s where I got myself i n t o a bad s i t u a t i o n . Student teachers always ask me what I would do d i f f e r e n t l y now. I thin k about how I've grown and changed over the years and I share my t h i n k i n g with them. They seem t o appreciate the f a c t t h a t I'm being honest about some of the d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s I've had t o deal with as a teacher. By the end of the f i r s t year, Brenda admitted that she had l a r g e l y r e l i e d on her classroom experience t o engage student teachers i n d i s c u s s i o n s about l e a r n i n g and teaching. L i k e the other seconded teachers, Brenda used s t o r i e s t o expose student teachers t o what she c a l l e d the "mul t i p l e dimensions of teaching": I spent s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of time d e b r i e f i n g my r a t i o n a l e f o r what I d i d , hoping that student teachers would recognize my s t o r y as an exemplar of good p r a c t i c e . When they f i n d themselves i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n during practicum or i n t h e i r f i r s t year of teaching, I hope they t h i n k of me. Obviously, seconded teachers t o l d s t o r i e s about recent classroom teaching experiences. They a l s o t o l d s t o r i e s about the f i r s t few years of t h e i r teaching c a r e e r s . Gerald, f o r example, r e v e a l e d h i s shortcomings as a beginning teacher: I admit t o my student teachers that when I began teaching I r e a l l y d i d n ' t understand some r e a l l y 108 important things about teaching. For example, I thought teaching was b a s i c a l l y about information p r o c e s s i n g but how I came t o r e a l i z e t h a t there were much more important things such as the process of l e a r n i n g and empowering c h i l d r e n t o become i n t e r e s t e d , motivated l e a r n e r s and, most important, g i v i n g them o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o make d e c i s i o n s and problem-solve. I t i s c l e a r from t h e i r comments that seconded teachers b e l i e v e one of t h e i r primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s t o share what they know about teaching so t h a t student teachers might l e a r n from the mistakes of others. F a c i l i t a t i n g meaningful d i s c u s s i o n about teaching, however, r e q u i r e s time. The compressed nature of course work, t y p i c a l l y 13 weeks, f o r c e d seconded teachers t o do everything at an a c c e l e r a t e d pace. Although seconded teachers g e n e r a l l y acknowledged the importance of t e l l i n g s t o r i e s , they a l s o recognized that the s t r a t e g y was problematic. Sarah, f o r example, was somewhat r e l u c t a n t t o share her s t o r i e s With student teachers because she was concerned that student teachers would i n t e r p r e t her s t o r i e s as a r e c i p e f o r t h e i r own teaching. Sarah noted: I'm r e a l l y cautious about t e l l i n g student teachers a l o t of s t o r i e s about my teaching because I don't want them t o be me. I want them t o f i g u r e i t out f o r themselves. I always 1 0 9 preface what I'm saying by t e l l i n g them what I chose t o do and s t r e s s i n g t o them that every teacher i s d i f f e r e n t . My own u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d teaching experiences confirm some of Sarah's concerns. To some extent, I too have worked with student teachers who are desperate f o r r e c i p e s that they th i n k they can adopt i n t h e i r own p r a c t i c e . When s t o r i e s are an important p a r t of an i n s t r u c t o r ' s r e p e r t o i r e , however, some student teachers might g e n e r a l i z e t h a t theory i s l e s s important than p r a c t i c e , or that theory and p r a c t i c e are un r e l a t e d . When student teachers do t h i s , I am suggesting that s t o r i e s are problematic because they are p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d and l e s s t h e o r y - r e l a t e d . And f i n a l l y , seconded teachers who t e l l s t o r i e s as exemplars of t h e i r knowledge may be unknowingly perpetuating the problem that some student teachers have i n making connections between theory and p r a c t i c e . E v a l u a t i n g Course Achievement Seconded teachers acknowledge with r e s e r v a t i o n s that as evaluators they possess power over student teachers. Regardless of how they might p r e f e r t o conceive of t h e i r r o l e , i n the end they become e v a l u a t o r s . Let me make i t c l e a r t h a t e v a l u a t i o n has two p a r t s . The emphasis here i s on e v a l u a t i n g course work and p r o j e c t s . In Chapter 5 , I des c r i b e how f a c u l t y advisors f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e t o the teaching p r o f e s s i o n f o r ensuring t h a t only the very best student teachers r e c e i v e t h e i r recommendation. They 1 1 0 d e s c r i b e d t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s i n passing minimally s a t i s f a c t o r y student teachers. This i s a r a t h e r s t r i n g e n t stance. One wonders how s u c c e s s f u l they would have been had t h i s standard been i n p l a c e . A d j u s t i n g t o Teaching Adults Teachers began secondment expecting student teachers t o d i s p l a y an open-mindedness and r e s i l i e n c y i n l e a r n i n g t o teach. Very e a r l y on as i n s t r u c t o r s , however, they became aware of what they described as o v e r l y competitive student teachers. Student teachers who were more concerned about t h e i r grades than about l e a r n i n g how t o teach caused a great d e a l of f r u s t r a t i o n f o r them, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n m u l t i p l e s e c t i o n courses. Frank s a i d : I've become r e a l l y f r u s t r a t e d about grades and i t ' s compounded because there i s a move i n t h i s f a c u l t y t o reduce grade i n f l a t i o n . This hasn't been a problem f o r me because I t h i n k I mark c o n s i s t e n t l y , and I don't d i s h out a l o t of A's t o student teachers. I f i n d student teachers are f r u s t r a t e d because they're g e t t i n g s t r a i g h t A's i n a l l t h e i r other courses and I give them B's and C s . Overcoming some of the confusion surrounding e v a l u a t i o n i s problematic. Brenda observed: There are problems stemming from the f a c t t h a t we don't want to be seen as g i v i n g away grades but at the same time we are d e a l i n g I l l with u n i v e r s i t y graduates. We give them a r e l a t i v e l y simple task. We j u s t d r i l l e d and d r i l l e d those l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s u n t i l they c o u l d w r i t e them o f f the top of t h e i r heads. Then, we c r e a t e an assignment i n which they can't r e a l l y f a i l unless something goes t e r r i b l y wrong. I expect them to do w e l l and I'm confused on how I should approach the grading of those assignments. Seconded teachers' f r u s t r a t i o n stems, i n p a r t , from the problems of a s s e s s i n g student teachers i n courses t h a t they themselves had no p a r t i n d e s i g n i n g . Gerald acknowledged that i f he were given the chance t o teach the course again, he would mark d i f f e r e n t l y saying, "I used c r i t e r i a r e f e r e n c e d assessment t o i t s worst." When I asked Sarah what she had learned- from her e v a l u a t i v e r o l e she s a i d , " i f I have t o f a i l a student teacher i n the f u t u r e , I w i l l make sure I f a i l the person by more than f i v e marks so i t w i l l be harder f o r the person t o appeal." G i v i n g Honest Feedback Perhaps i n order to reduce the powerful impact of e v a l u a t i o n , Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald emphasized the importance of being honest with student teachers when g i v i n g feedback. Gerald's comments are s i m i l a r t o what the others s a i d : I l earned that with a d u l t s , the best t h i n g i s t o be honest, even though sometimes i t would have been 112 e a s i e r t o be l e s s t r u t h f u l . For example, i t would have been e a s i e r f o r me t o i n f l a t e the student's mark and to t e l l him that e verything w i l l be f i n e . But i t wouldn't be i n the student's best i n t e r e s t . I t h i n k I was c a r i n g by the v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t I t o l d him the t r u t h . I t wouldn't have been c a r i n g of me to downplay h i s problems because somebody was going t o have t o be honest with him somewhere down the l i n e . G i v i n g feedback t o student teachers i s an important p a r t of the work seconded teachers do. Openness, t a c t , and diplomacy are e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s i n e f f e c t i v e communication. L i s t e n i n g i s as important as t a l k i n g . Covey (1989) encourages people t o go beyond a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g and t o engage i n the highest l e v e l of l i s t e n i n g — e m p h a t h e t i c l i s t e n i n g . Emphathetic l i s t e n i n g i s d e s c r i b e d as l i s t e n i n g t h a t "gets i n s i d e another person's frame of r e f e r e n c e . You look out through i t , you can see the world the way they see the world, you understand t h e i r paradigm, you understand how they f e e l " (p. 240). This i s the k i n d of l i s t e n i n g t h a t seconded teachers need t o model when working with student teachers. Sarah noted the importance of l i s t e n i n g : During my methods c l a s s , a student teacher was d e s c r i b i n g what she had done during the practicum. I t sounded l i k e she had done a wonderful job i n engaging her p u p i l s . While 1 1 3 l i s t e n i n g t o her, I r e s i s t e d the urge t o i n t e r r u p t and t e l l the c l a s s about my own experiences which, i t seemed t o me were s i m i l a r . I r e a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with what the student teacher described. I t was l i k e she was d e s c r i b i n g something that had already happened t o me. I t was a weird f e e l i n g . One of the aspects that seconded teachers d i s l i k e d about t h e i r r o l e was supporting underachieving student teachers. Brenda, i n p a r t i c u l a r , expressed r e g r e t t h a t her best student teachers r e c e i v e d l e s s feedback and a t t e n t i o n I couldn't b e l i e v e how much time I spent with t h i s student teacher. Don't get me wrong, I wanted the student teacher t o be s u c c e s s f u l and I know i t i s pa r t of my job to help, but I couldn't help but f e e l uneasy because I had p l e n t y of exemplary student teachers who were j u s t as e n t i t l e d t o my support. I remember f e e l i n g g u i l t y t h a t I d i d n ' t have enough time t o spend with those student teachers. I f e l t l i k e I was abandoning them somehow. Dealing with Student F a i l u r e Seconded teachers are r e l u c t a n t t o f a i l student teachers because they know that a f a i l e d course grade on t h e i r t r a n s c r i p t s w i l l prevent them from c o n t i n u i n g i n the program. Frank's comments h i g h l i g h t h i s discomfort i n the evaluator r o l e : 114 It i s a d i f f i c u l t role because I r e a l i z e that the decisions I make have a huge impact on student teachers' l i v e s i For some, they have given up good jobs to pursue a teaching career. They have families and f i n a n c i a l commitments. They f e e l l i k e they have to be successful; they are under a l o t of pressure. Seconded teachers, however, were frustrated when they f e l t they had no other choice but to pass "minimally competent" student teachers. Frank made this point quite succinctly, "When we say that a student teacher has s a t i s f i e d the requirements of the Faculty of Education, we are not necessarily saying that person has the professional q u a l i t i e s to become a good teacher." Seconded teachers were in unanimous agreement that unless a student teacher was a "total disaster" they would pass th e i r courses. Understandably, they were concerned about the professional repercussions of passing people they described as merely satisfactory student teachers. Gerald pointed out that, "we don't need a l l the teachers who graduate these days. We can afford to be more discriminating i n who should receive a teaching c e r t i f i c a t e . " Chapter Summary Seconded teachers brought realism to the teacher education program. They began secondment aware of student teachers' c r i t i c i s m of "out of touch" faculty. Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald took on the roles of mentor, 115 coach, counselor, and evaluator i n an e f f o r t t o ease the t r a n s i t i o n from student t o beginning teacher. One of the most powerful ways they shared t h e i r knowledge with student teachers was through the s t o r i e s they t o l d . Seconded teachers t o l d s t o r i e s not only about t h e i r classroom adventures, but a l s o about t h e i r experiences as cooperating teachers, and even about t h e i r student teaching days. They presented fundamentals of teaching by f o c u s i n g on the c u r r i c u l u m and the l e a r n e r , but they were c a r e f u l t o o f f e r "suggestions" r a t h e r than " r e c i p e s . " P a r t of becoming an e f f e c t i v e teacher, they b e l i e v e d , was being able t o match the "best teaching s t r a t e g y " t o the p a r t i c u l a r s e t of classroom circumstances. In an e f f o r t t o problematize teaching they downplayed t h e i r e x p e r t i s e , acknowledging that they d i d not have a l l the answers. This meant that Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald presented an image of teaching t h a t very c o n s i d e r a b l y r e l i e d on f i r s t h a n d experience. 116 CHAPTER 5 - TAKING ON THE IDENTITY OF THE FACULTY ADVISOR In this chapter, I contrast two major themes characterizing the function of the faculty advisor as understood by seconded teachers: mutuality and support; and evaluation of practicum experiences. Communication i s a umbrella concept that occurs i n both themes. F i r s t , I w i l l describe three styles of communication (authoritarian, l a i s s e z - f a i r e , and democratic) that characterize seconded teachers' work as faculty advisors. For each style, seconded teachers employ either a "lock step" or "talking around" structure of communication. Second, r e f l e c t i o n as an aspect of communication (developed i n Chapter 6) i s introduced. I w i l l outline the experience of providing stimuli for r e f l e c t i o n and some of the problems of both seconded teachers and student teachers on the journey toward being r e f l e c t i v e about their practice. Approaches to Communication The faculty advisor's role overlaps that of the cooperating teacher. Both are expected to observe, provide feedback, and encourage and support the student teacher. The nature of feedback varies from being very directive to i n s i s t i n g the student teacher frame the answers to his or her own questions with minimal help (Al-duaij-Abdulaziz, 1986; Blackbourn, 1983; Blumberg, 1980; Ginkel, 1983; Glickman & Bey, 1990, Rossicone, 1985). 1 1 7 A u t h o r i t a r i a n . Less experienced f a c u l t y advisors are more s t r u c t u r e d i n the support they provide student teachers. Brenda, a f i r s t year f a c u l t y a d v i s o r , d e f i n e d meaningful feedback as " t a l k i n g t o student teachers about what I see happening i n the l e s s o n and I present my observations t o help them recognize the things they don't see. I go through a s t r u c t u r e d or "lock step" approach t o observation so that I have documented evidence." Brenda s t r e s s e d the importance of communicating her r o l e and the procedural outcomes to student teachers. "I t r y to be c l e a r t o student teachers about the r o l e . I'm very p r e s c r i p t i v e about my r o l e and what the student teacher should expect to happen i n the practicum." Brenda's approach t o p r o v i d i n g feedback seems to be toward the a u t h o r i t a t i a n end of the communication spectrum. L a i s s e z - f a i r e . Sarah, a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r and f u l l - t i m e graduate student working towards a master's degree, s t r e s s e d a d i f f e r e n t type of r o l e . "I am a m i r r o r . I r e f l e c t back t o the student teacher what they d i d and what they are saying i n the d e b r i e f i n g s e s s i o n . " Sarah i n t e n t i o n a l l y encouraged her student teachers to take ownership of t h e i r own l e a r n i n g and she was somewhat c r i t i c a l of student teachers who viewed l e a r n i n g t o teach as merely a t e c h n i c a l endeavor, thereby r e v e a l i n g a p o s i t i o n toward the opposite end of the communication continuum. 1 1 8 Democratic. Feedback from experienced f a c u l t y advisors tended to be l e s s s t r u c t u r e d . They were more l i k e l y t o engage student teachers i n conversations about teaching g e n e r a l l y , r a t h e r than f o c u s i n g on s p e c i f i c remedies t o problems they observed i n a student teacher's p r a c t i c e . Although p o s i t i o n i n g on a continuum i s d i f f i c u l t , Frank seemed t o be l e s s f o r c e f u l and d i r e c t than Brenda and more w i l l i n g to give h i s own views than Sarah, thus p o s i t i o n i n g himself more c e n t r a l l y . Frank commented: I wanted t o spend more time with student teachers, j u s t t a l k i n g about teaching i n general. I gave student teachers a chance t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r a c t i c e without me p o i n t i n g t o the bigger things that they need to know. I gave them more time t o t a l k about what they're going through and worried about, things that are c h a l l e n g i n g them. A c t i n g more on the humanistic s i d e . F a c u l t y advisors l i k e Frank i n v i t e d cooperating teachers i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s about teaching. Others, l i k e Sarah, conducted weekly sessions f o r student teachers and cooperating teachers where the agenda was t y p i c a l l y set by them. "These were u s u a l l y one hour, round t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s . I would i n v i t e school s t a f f with e x p e r t i s e i n a c e r t a i n area or they might be people who hold d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s about teaching t h a t c o u l d broaden the d i s c u s s i o n f o r student teachers." Sarah delegated 119 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o student teachers f o r o r g a n i z i n g and c h a i r i n g the sessions i n the b e l i e f t h a t student teachers should take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g , a common theme among a l l f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . Zimpher, deVoss, and Nott (1980) found that the most important r o l e played by f a c u l t y a dvisors derives from the u n c r i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between cooperating teachers and student teachers. They found that cooperating teachers do not provide c r i t i c a l feedback to student teachers about t h e i r teaching, and without f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , student teachers would be l e f t t o t h e i r own devices t o analyze t h e i r teaching performances. In t h i s study, on the c o n t r a r y , the m a j o r i t y of f a c u l t y advisors f e l l i n t o the p o s i t i v i s t approach to s u p e r v i s i o n , whereby they tended to diagnose problems during observation, p r e s c r i b e e f f e c t i v e courses of a c t i o n with reinforcement, and evaluate to see i f the o b j e c t i v e s were mastered. Before going any f u r t h e r , I wish to c l a r i f y two i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o communication. F i r s t , the way i n which f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s g i v e feedback to student teachers provides a u s e f u l i l l u s t r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t language and l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s . For i n s t a n c e , when d i s c u s s i n g how a l e s s o n progressed with student teachers, a few f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s noted t h a t they tended to be i n d i r e c t because they d i d not want to discourage t h e i r student teachers. They i n t e n t i o n a l l y " t a l k e d around" i s s u e s , hoping t h a t student teachers would take a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n t r y i n g t o make 120 sense of t h e i r teaching. D e l p i t (1988) contends t h a t , "when acknowledging and expressing power, one tends towards e x p l i c i t n e s s . . . . When de-emphasizing power, there i s a move toward i n d i r e c t communication" (p. 284). No doubt, t h i s c o u l d be a problem f o r student teachers who l i k e l y expect s p e c i f i c and d e t a i l e d c r i t i q u e s of t h e i r performance. Second, issues of communication and e v a l u a t i o n are in t e r t w i n e d . Student teachers begin the practicum l a r g e l y unaware that cooperating teachers and f a c u l t y a dvisors might be uncomfortable i n the e v a l u a t i o n r o l e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s complicated when expectations f o r e v a l u a t i o n are postponed u n t i l the r e l a t i o n s h i p has a chance t o develop and p a r t i c i p a n t s have come to know one another on a personal l e v e l . Indeed, some student teachers may be at a l o s s t o e x p l a i n why they d i d not r e c e i v e c r i t i c a l feedback from f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . Part of the answer may come from N e i l , Chamber, Cl a r k , Swarbrick, and Wackett (1993) who suggest t h a t cooperating teachers (and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s — s e c o n d e d teachers who were once cooperating teachers) p e r c e i v e two r o l e types n a t u r a l t o t h e i r practicum e v a l u a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f i r s t r e f l e c t s how cooperating teachers ( f a c u l t y advisors) l i k e t o t h i n k of themselves, while the second r o l e makes them uneasy because i t means being the expert: With capable, p e d a g o g i c a l l y experienced independent candidates, the cooperating 121 teacher i s c a l l e d upon to serve as i n t e r a c t i v e coach. Coaching means mutually s e l e c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s , p a r t n e r s h i p s i n c l a s s - t i m e , sharing of l o g s , a l o t of o r a l communication, and fi n e - t u n e d c u r r i c u l u m planning and p r e s e n t a t i o n . On the other hand, the l e s s secure candidate with l i t t l e t eaching experience needs more s t r u c t u r e . In t h i s case the cooperating teacher i s c a l l e d upon t o emphasize h i s or her r o l e as an e v a l u a t o r / l e a d e r . More modeling i s then necessary on the p a r t of the cooperating teacher, with the c o n s i s t e n t u n d e r l y i n g aim of p o s i t i v e l y working on the candidate's confidence l e v e l , (p. 13) At i t s simplest, being the evaluator clashes with f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s ' image of p a r t n e r s h i p s and augments t h e i r discomfort with being perceived as experts. Perhaps the r e l u c t a n c e of some f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s to accept t h e i r a u t h o r i t y i n the practicum can be t r a c e d to t h e i r " v i s i o n " of t o t a l e q u a l i t y between themselves and student teachers. Neiman (1986) poin t s out t h a t "only a r e l a t i o n s h i p of t o t a l e q u a l i t y can be claimed [to] avoid i n d o c t r i n a t i o n " (p. 66), an a s s e r t i o n that might be debated. R e f l e c t i o n The theme of r e f l e c t i o n w i l l be developed i n Chapter 6 but because r e f l e c t i o n i s an aspect of communication i t i s appropriate that I make some p r e l i m i n a r y comments. Seconded 1 2 2 teachers attempt to prompt student teachers' r e f l e c t i o n by-f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on t h e o r y / p r a c t i c e l i n k s ; asking student teachers to keep j o u r n a l s ; shadowing student teachers; and v i d e o t a p i n g student teachers i n the classroom. Focusing A t t e n t i o n on Theory/Practice Links Seconded teachers c o n s c i o u s l y a l e r t e d student teachers to the connections between u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d course work and the practicum. The f o l l o w i n g view expressed by Sarah was common t o a l l f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s : The practicum i s where t h e i r l e a r n i n g comes together, where a l l the things we t a l k e d about i n courses i s [ s i c ] seen such as the r o l e of the teacher, p r o f e s s i o n a l i s s u e s , planning, classroom management, assessment and e v a l u a t i o n . I enjoy being able t o connect student teachers' experiences back to what I've done with them at the u n i v e r s i t y . Student teachers l e a r n t o teach by t a l k i n g about teaching. We l e a r n t o teach by l i s t e n i n g t o other people's s t o r i e s . C e r t a i n l y , one of the ways t h a t student teachers l e a r n about teaching i s by t a l k i n g t o and observing experienced i n d i v i d u a l s and by l i s t e n i n g t o t h e i r s t o r i e s . Asking Student Teachers t o Keep Journals F a c u l t y advisors encouraged student teachers t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r practicum experiences i n a v a r i e t y of ways. Sarah, f o r example, asked her student teachers t o keep a j o u r n a l : 1 2 3 I ask them to w r i t e r e f l e c t i o n s about t h e i r observations. We t a l k about how t o r e f l e c t on something and how t o be c r i t i c a l . My student teachers w r i t e to me and I w r i t e back. The dialogue begins with them t h i n k i n g and w r i t i n g . During my meetings with student teachers, I t a l k with them about what they've w r i t t e n . Shadowing Student Teachers In an e f f o r t t o encourage student teachers t o be t h o u g h t f u l about t h e i r p r a c t i c e , Frank d e s c r i b e d an ambitious observation c y c l e he was o r g a n i z i n g f o r h i s student teachers: I plan t o shadow, at l e a s t once, every one of my student teachers f o r h a l f a day so t h a t , not only am I observing one l e s s o n i n i s o l a t i o n , but I want to observe the t r a n s i t i o n s between les s o n s . I ' l l a l s o f o l l o w them around at lunch and recess to see how they i n t e r a c t with p u p i l s . Frank helped h i s student teachers to be accountable f o r examining t h e i r own teaching p r a c t i c e by f o c u s i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the connection between theory and p r a c t i c e . In an e f f o r t t o develop a broader base from which t o r e f l e c t , Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald encouraged student teachers to observe other cooperating teachers and student teachers across subject areas and grade l e v e l s . In a d d i t i o n 124 to exposing student teachers t o a v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g s t y l e s , they a l s o encouraged peer support and c o l l e g i a l i t y . Videotaping Student Teachers i n the Classroom Videotaping was another s t r a t e g y used by some f a c u l t y advisors t o encourage student teachers to analyze and r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r a c t i c e . F a c u l t y advisors employed vid e o t a p i n g i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Frank, f o r example, explained: I go through the video with the student teacher and we t a l k about what happened. I zero i n on s p e c i f i c p o i n t s t h a t support my own observations. I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y important that I have evidence to support whatever claims I make about student teachers' performances. Videotaping was j u s t another way of c o l l e c t i n g data. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , Frank used v i d e o t a p i n g t o confirm h i s observations and impressions of student teachers. I can only speculate about the extent to which the student teacher might have b e n e f i t e d from the e x e r c i s e . Brenda, a f i r s t year f a c u l t y a d v i s o r , t o l d me she was r e l u c t a n t a t f i r s t t o videotape a student teacher, but a f t e r doing so she was g e n e r a l l y pleased with the r e s u l t . She decided t o videotape a student teacher who was having d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g t o being the teacher. "I was q u i t e honest with the student teacher and I suggested that more p r a c t i c e working with students would be b e n e f i c i a l because I c o u l d see that there was some growth but i t was slower than other 125 student teachers." While Frank encouraged student teachers to view the videotape alone i n the hope that they would be astute enough t o i d e n t i f y what was happening, other f a c u l t y a d visors l i k e Brenda p r e f e r r e d t o view the tape with the student teacher. O v e r a l l , they used v i d e o t a p i n g s p a r i n g l y and of t h e i r own v o l i t i o n . I t was not a requirement or expectation from the F a c u l t y of Education. Equipment was scarce and i t was l o g i s t i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o schedule observation v i s i t s f o r student teachers s c a t t e r e d across school d i s t r i c t s . Although seconded teachers acknowledged the value a s s o c i a t e d with r e f l e c t i o n , i t was not without i t s problems. The challenges that Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald faced i n making the s h i f t from "mentor" t o "evaluator" c r e a t e d problems, some of which w i l l be dis c u s s e d next. While f a c u l t y advisors t o l d me that they encouraged student teachers to r e f l e c t on t h e i r practicum experiences, they d i d not appear t o question t h e i r own assumptions about the extent to which student teachers were able to r e f l e c t i n a meaningful manner about t h e i r teaching p r a c t i c e . Researchers have suggested, however, t h a t student teachers are g e n e r a l l y prompted to engage i n a very l i m i t e d range of classroom a c t i v i t i e s which makes r e f l e c t i o n problematic (Howey, 1986; K i l l i a n & Mclntyre, 1986; Tabachnick, Popkewitz, & Zeichner, 1979-1980). In a d d i t i o n , seconded teachers were not always sure what they should look f o r i n 1 2 6 a student teachers' performance. Often, they r e l i e d on student teachers to t e l l them what they should focus on. Sarah, f o r example, s a i d , "When I confirmed with the student teacher t h a t I would be observing them teach, I asked them f i r s t t o give me suggestions on things they wanted me t o look f o r . T y p i c a l l y i t was classroom management, or things l i k e q u e s t i o n i n g techniques." I now wish to t u r n my a t t e n t i o n t o the f i r s t major theme emerging from the data c o l l e c t e d from seconded teachers employed as f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . M u t u a l i t y and Support: The F i r s t Hat A l l f a c u l t y a dvisors d e s c r i b e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with student teachers as p a r t n e r s h i p s . The s i m i l a r i t y among t h e i r answers h i g h l i g h t s the common conception of f a c u l t y advisors with regard to t h e i r r o l e . Why Support? T h e i r d e s i r e to be seen mentors and coaches r a t h e r than experts i s due, i n p a r t , to t h e i r viewing student teachers as pseudo-colleagues. One might speculate why t h i s i s so. P o s s i b l y they experienced unsupportive f a c u l t y a d visors when they were student teachers or perhaps t h e i r emphasis on being mentors and coaches i s rooted i n t h e i r c u r r e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s of l e a r n i n g and teaching. E i t h e r way, f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s d e f i n e d themselves as "mutually supportive" of student teachers. During our i n t e r v i e w s , Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald o f t e n d e s c r i b e d t h e i r own student teaching experiences when I asked them about t h e i r 1 2 7 r o l e s as f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . They a l l echoed the sentiments of Frank, who s a i d , "I r e a l l y t r i e d t o be supportive by being there f o r the student teachers because I r e a l i z e d t h a t the practicum was going to be a t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r them." Brenda, a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r i n the f i r s t year of her secondment d e s c r i b e d her r o l e , "I am l i k e a coach. The students are my f u t u r e c o l l e a g u e s . I t r y t o emphasize the f a c t t h a t i t ' s one teacher h e l p i n g another one out." As partners and f a c i l i t a t o r s , f a c u l t y a dvisors p r e f e r to s t r e s s a personal and c a r i n g dimension of the f a c u l t y a d v i s i n g r o l e . According to Sarah, "I help them become more independent i n t h e i r teaching p r a c t i c e . . . I h o l d up m i r r o r s f o r student teachers, f o r them t o see what they're doing . . . i t ' s r e a l l y a supportive r o l e . " Gerald d e s c r i b e d h i s r o l e i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . "I am the advocate f o r the student teacher. I f student teachers can't r e l y on me f o r whatever they need, then they don't have anyone e l s e t o go t o . " Gerald's comment i s i n t e r e s t i n g because cooperating teachers are t y p i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as being the most supportive person i n the practicum. Indeed, a l l f a c u l t y a dvisors p e r c e i v e d themselves as being a t l e a s t as important as cooperating teachers i n supporting student teachers' l e a r n i n g t o teach. Ways to Support In the b e l i e f t h a t t h e i r support and encouragement w i l l a s s i s t student teachers i n the t r a n s i t i o n from student 1 2 8 t o beginning teacher, f a c u l t y advisors support student teachers i n a number of ways. For some, l i k e Frank, i t u s u a l l y comes down t o s i t u a t i o n s when they teach a l e s s o n and things don't go as they planned. I get them t o t h i n k about what r e a l l y went wrong. I go over the l e s s o n and I p o i n t out things that were problematic and I focus t h e i r t h i n k i n g on d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s t h at r e s u l t e d i n a f a i l e d l e s s o n . This i s e s p e c i a l l y important when the cooperating teacher sees things d i f f e r e n t l y than the student teacher or myself. The advocacy r o l e i s taken very s e r i o u s l y by f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , i n p a r t , perhaps because they are cognizant of the sometimes problematic nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between cooperating teacher and student teacher. They commonly p o i n t to p o t e n t i a l l y d i v i s i v e i s s u e s such as p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t s , scheduling problems, and unsupportive cooperating teachers. Being an advocate i n v o l v e s l o o k i n g out f o r the best i n t e r e s t s of student teachers, and o c c a s i o n a l l y mediating between them and cooperating teachers. Although i t was sometimes d i f f i c u l t f o r f a c u l t y a d visors t o arrange meeting times when both cooperating teachers and student teachers c o u l d attend, i t was during three-way d e b r i e f i n g sessions that f a c u l t y a dvisors provided c l a r i f i c a t i o n about the teacher education program 129 as w e l l as s p e c i f i c feedback regarding student teacher performance l e v e l s . A n t i c i p a t i n g the p o s s i b l e i s o l a t i o n and lack of support some beginning teachers w i l l experience, f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s want to provide strong support f o r t h e i r student teachers' i n i t i a l teaching experiences. Lack of p r o f e s s i o n a l support i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as a major reason c i t e d by teachers f o r l e a v i n g the p r o f e s s i o n ( B i l l i n g s l e y & Cross, 1991; Darling-Hammond, 1984; Gold & Roth, 1993). Comments from f a c u l t y a dvisors are c o n s i s t e n t with Gold's (1996) f i n d i n g s concerning the need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l support f o r student teachers: Beginning teachers need t o develop the s k i l l and understanding needed t o acquire and t o d e l i b e r a t e on t h e i r c o n t i n u a l l y expanding knowledge base, t o think c r i t i c a l l y and r e f l e c t i v e l y about t h e i r own p r a c t i c e , and to analyze how they impart the academic content t o t h e i r students. They a l s o must be a s s i s t e d with e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r a c t i o n s through the use of sound theory and research, developing the c a p a c i t y t o be r e f l e c t i v e , e v a l u a t i n g themselves based on o b j e c t i v e understanding, and l e a r n i n g how to handle the consequences of t h e i r a c t i o n s , (p. 562) In sum, f a c u l t y advisors provided two major types of support t o student teachers: 1) pedagogical support that i n c l u d e s h e l p i n g student teachers with knowledge, s k i l l s , and s t r a t e g i e s t h a t are necessary t o be e f f e c t i v e teachers; and 2) p s y c h o l o g i c a l support, the purpose of which i s t o 130 b u i l d the student teacher's s e l f confidence and sense of e f f i c a c y . Pedagogical versus p s y c h o l o g i c a l support. During the i n i t i a l phase of student teaching, f a c u l t y advisors a n t i c i p a t e d t hat p s y c h o l o g i c a l support of student teachers would be most important, b e l i e v i n g t h a t they were already competent i n planning lessons and u n i t s . They discovered, however, that t h e i r i n i t i a l expectations f o r student teachers were in a c c u r a t e , l e a d i n g them t o give more i n s t r u c t i o n a l l y - r e l a t e d support than they had thought necessary. Frank, f o r example, noted: I was s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d out t h a t the very student teachers I taught on campus, the ones with which I spent a great deal of time on l e s s o n planning were i n f a c t having problems. How c o u l d I not have n o t i c e d t h a t they d i d n ' t f u l l y understand l e s s o n and u n i t planning? Throughout the practicum, f a c u l t y a dvisors provided ongoing p s y c h o l o g i c a l support, but they focused p r i m a r i l y on i n s t r u c t i o n a l l y - r e l a t e d support. This type of support t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d d i s c u s s i n g with student teachers t h e i r l e sson o b j e c t i v e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , and assessment techniques. I t was c l e a r from t a l k i n g t o f a c u l t y a dvisors that they f e l t p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the success or f a i l u r e of t h e i r student teachers. This p o s s i b l y " p a t e r n a l i s t i c " a t t i t u d e can be l i n k e d t o t h e i r r o l e as 131 methods i n s t r u c t o r s . They introduce student teachers t o subje c t matter content and pedagogy and w i l l i n g l y take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r student teachers' a c h i e v i n g the r e l a t e d l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . Holding power and sharing i t . My f i n d i n g s r e v e a l that f a c u l t y a dvisors are very i n t e r e s t e d i n the general welfare of t h e i r student teachers. T h e i r focus on a supportive r o l e means th a t they are i n t e r e s t e d i n the " t o t a l person," which may account f o r t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o the student teacher's f e e l i n g s and concerns. M i l l e r (1988) suggests that t h i s type of support has a power dimension: Women have been most comfortable using . . . t h e i r power i f [they] b e l i e v e they are using [power] i n the s e r v i c e of others . . . . In ca r e t a k i n g and mutuality, one major component i s a c t i n g and i n t e r a c t i n g t o f o s t e r the growth of another on many l e v e l s — e m o t i o n a l l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . I b e l i e v e t h i s i s a very powerful t h i n g t o do, and women have been doing i t f o r a l l time, but no one i s accustomed t o i n c l u d i n g such e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n w i t h i n the notion of power, (p. 3) C e r t a i n l y the f a c u l t y advisors i n my study who were somewhat uncomfortable about acknowledging and t a l k i n g about power were not t h i n k i n g of power i n t h i s way. To some degree, they viewed themselves as powerless because they 132 f e l t c o n s t r a i n e d by i n s t i t u t i o n a l expectations f o r t h e i r student teachers i n the practicum. (This theme was explained i n Chapter 3) F a c u l t y advisors t a l k e d about the importance of c r e a t i n g a p o s i t i v e and f r i e n d l y environment i n which student teachers would f e e l c o n f i d e n t enough to take r i s k s i n planning l e s s o n s . By v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t these f a c u l t y a dvisors are more i n t e r e s t e d i n mutuality and support, they tended t o r e j e c t a "top-down" approach t o l e a d e r s h i p when f u l f i l l i n g the f a c u l t y a d v i s i n g r o l e . Instead, they appeared t o b e l i e v e i n a s t y l e of l e a d e r s h i p whereby everyone i s encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Dunlap and Goldman (1991) suggest, "Power as a system of f a c i l i t a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by mutuality and synergy w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context of p u b l i c schools" (p. 6). For Robertson (1992), "Women's l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s are expressed through communication patterns which are more t y p i c a l of c o l l e g i a l than a u t o c r a t i c endeavors" (p. 52). A c t u a l l y cooperating teachers, f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , and student teachers, i n a v a r i e t y of ways, do not have equal power. F a c u l t y advisors seem to b e l i e v e t h a t t o be an a u t h o r i t y means t o put down others. P e t r a Munro, a u n i v e r s i t y s u p e r v i s o r of student teachers, i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the l i n k i n g of a u t h o r i t y with the f e a r of " p u t t i n g down." Munro (1991) asked, "What r i g h t do I have to impose my values on these student teachers? and How 133 could they f r e e l y c o n s t r u c t t h e i r own knowledge when I was modeling and d i r e c t i n g them t o a t t a i n a c e r t a i n consciousness (1991, pp. 81-82)?" Munro concluded that being an a u t h o r i t y d i d not mean she was dominating her student teachers. Instead, she recognized that using her e x p e r t i s e t o engage them i n t h i n k i n g f o r themselves d i d j u s t the o p p o s i t e — i t broadened t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s on the practicum experience. E v a l u a t i o n of Practicum Achievement: The Second Hat F a c u l t y a d v i s o r s are remarkably c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r views and perceptions concerning t h e i r r o l e i n the practicum. They a l l recognize that the r o l e i n v o l v e s e v a l u a t i o n ; and they a l l expressed some uneasiness about e v a l u a t i n g student teachers. Problems A s s o c i a t e d with Being the Eva l u a t o r The challenges that Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald encountered i n making the t r a n s i t i o n from "mentor" t o "evaluator" w i l l be discu s s e d next. Switching from mentor t o judge. I t i s c l e a r from t h e i r comments that they b e l i e v e one of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s t o "screen" p r o s p e c t i v e teachers. Brenda, a f i r s t year f a c u l t y a d v i s o r , sums i t up t h i s way: I take the gatekeeper r o l e very s e r i o u s l y , even though I f e e l t h a t I a l s o have a great r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as an advocate t o my student teachers. When push comes to shove, I'm 134 o b l i g a t e d t o put the needs of the p r o f e s s i o n ahead of the needs of the student teacher. Sometimes, i t ' s a tough p o s i t i o n t o be i n . F a c u l t y advisors expect t h e i r student teachers t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n the practicum. When they are not s u c c e s s f u l , the gatekeeping r o l e i s a common source of s t r e s s . On the one hand, f a c u l t y advisors want t o ensure that student teachers experience an optimal practicum placement but on the other hand, they acknowledge t h a t not a l l student teachers w i l l be e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . For f a c u l t y a dvisors l i k e Frank, student teachers can meet a l l the c r i t e r i a on a c h e c k l i s t , but there i s s t i l l something missing t h a t i s a b s o l u t e l y c e n t r a l t o being an e f f e c t i v e teacher. When a student teacher has s a t i s f i e d the requirements of the F a c u l t y of Education, i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the same t h i n g as saying t h a t the student teacher has the p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i t i e s t o become a teacher. This t e n s i o n , the tens i o n between the F a c u l t y of Education's c r i t e r i a and a d v i s o r s ' personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l expectations f o r beginning teachers i s a constant source of s t r e s s . Other f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , l i k e Sarah, compared e v a l u a t i n g elementary p u p i l s and student teachers: I t ' s one t h i n g working with an e i g h t year o l d who i s s t r u g g l i n g , because the f o l l o w i n g year 135 I might be teaching them again i n a grade 3/4 s p l i t . When I'm working with c h i l d r e n , there i s p l e n t y of time f o r e v a l u a t i o n . I t ' s d i f f e r e n t with student teachers because they have t o be able t o teach now! S t r i k i n g a f a i r standard of performance. The pressure on student teachers t o perform as " e f f e c t i v e " teachers at the outset of t h e i r practicum was a common concern among f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . F a c u l t y advisors d e s c r i b e d the f i r s t f i v e years of t h e i r teaching careers as a time when they learned and r e f i n e d t h e i r teaching p r a c t i c e , and to expect student teachers t o be f u l l y competent a f t e r a one year program was i n t h e i r words, " r i d i c u l o u s . " They a l s o pointed out t h a t having a surplus of q u a l i f i e d teachers i n the province means that school d i s t r i c t s can be very d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n t h e i r h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s . F a c u l t y advisors expected student teachers t o d i s p l a y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t they a s s o c i a t e with good teaching i n c l u d i n g an open-mindedness t o teaching and l e a r n i n g , the a b i l i t y t o accept c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m about t h e i r performances, a thorough understanding of t h e i r s u b j e c t areas, and the a b i l i t y t o develop t r u s t and rapport with p u p i l s . F a c u l t y advisors s a i d they were very d i s a p p o i n t e d when student teachers d i d not l i v e up t o these b a s i c e x p e c t a t i o n s . Gerald, f o r example, remembered h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with a unsuccessful student teacher: 1 3 6 I had a student teacher who ended up withdrawing from the program. This person should not have been i n the classroom i n the f i r s t p l a c e . He di d n ' t do the work, and he di d n ' t get along with the c h i l d r e n . His students were bored, which l e d t o problems. Frank a l s o d e s c r i b e d h i s experiences with a weak student teacher: Right from the beginning, I had a f e e l i n g t h a t there was going t o be a problem. The student teacher had no rapport with h i s p u p i l s . A l s o , he was weak i n planning lessons and u n i t s . To make a long s t o r y short, I spent i n c r e d i b l e amounts of time with him, showing him how to go about o r g a n i z i n g l e s s o n s . One day, f o r example, I s a t with him f o r over three hours. I f e l t l i k e I was working a l o t harder than he was. He d i d n ' t improve and a f t e r a while h i s cooperating teachers and myself recommended t o him t h a t he withdraw from the program. He r e l u c t a n t l y accepted our recommendation. Having common and r e a l i s t i c standards with cooperating teachers i s sometimes problematic. This w i l l be di s c u s s e d at g r e a t e r length l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. Facing f a i l u r e . Because f a c u l t y advisors p r e f e r r e d t o thin k of themselves as supportive, they found i t very s t r e s s f u l when 137 they f e l t they had no other choice but to f a i l a student teacher. Instead, they p r e f e r r e d student teachers t o withdraw from the program of t h e i r own accord. Sarah sums up her f e e l i n g s t h i s way, "I wanted the student teacher t o make the d e c i s i o n h e r s e l f . I can't take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her l i f e d e c i s i o n s , but I d i d the r i g h t t h i n g i n being honest with her." Some f a c u l t y a dvisors expressed concern and f r u s t r a t i o n when they passed student teachers whom they c h a r a c t e r i z e d as minimally s a t i s f a c t o r y . Frank remembered, "I f e l t t h a t I was dishonest because the student teacher passed the practicum. I had no b a s i s on which t o f a i l him because he met the c r i t e r i a . I made my concerns c l e a r , however, i n the f i n a l r e p o r t I wrote." F a c u l t y advisors t y p i c a l l y measured the student teacher's performance by asking the question: "Would I want my c h i l d r e n taught by t h i s person?" For f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , having the dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of helper and eva l u a t o r sometimes creates problems i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with student teachers. The e v a l u a t i v e f u n c t i o n t h a t f a c u l t y advisors are expected t o perform may l e a d some student teachers t o t e l l a d v isors what they t h i n k they want t o hear ( B a d a l i , 1994) r a t h e r than r e f l e c t i n g on t h e i r personal p r a c t i c e i n meaningful ways. Gerald r e c a l l e d , the student teacher was t e l l i n g me about how he f e l t about the le s s o n I had j u s t seen him teach. He t o l d me he had spent a great deal of time t h i n k i n g about h i s o b j e c t i v e s f o r the l e s s o n 1 3 8 and he was a l i t t l e d i s appointed when the lesson d i d not work as w e l l as he had expected. The longer we t a l k e d , i t was p r e t t y obvious that he d i d n ' t r e a l l y understand the i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s choice of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . I'm not sure what he was r e f l e c t i n g on because there was no evidence of i t i n h i s teaching. He d i d n ' t see the reasons why the le s s o n was l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than he hoped. Without exception, f a c u l t y advisors d e f i n e d t h e i r r o l e i n supportive terms while simultaneously acknowledging the e v a l u a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y expected of them by the u n i v e r s i t y . There are two areas of concern f o r f a c u l t y advisors when e v a l u a t i n g student teachers. F i r s t , f a c u l t y advisors are uncomfortable i n being p e r c e i v e d as e x p e r t s — a s a u t h o r i t i e s on teaching. Experts have not n e c e s s a r i l y stopped l e a r n i n g ; indeed, they are l i k e l y t o be continuous l e a r n e r s . They emphasized the tremendous o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l growth a v a i l a b l e t o them on a d a i l y b a s i s when they work with student teachers. The second reason f o r f a c u l t y a dvisors expressing uneasiness about e v a l u a t i n g student teachers i s t h e i r discomfort with v i o l a t i n g t h e i r own conceptions of t h e i r r o l e s . F a c u l t y advisors d i d not want t o "put down" student teachers because t o do so challenged t h e i r v i s i o n of m u t u a l i t y and support. They r e a l l y confirm student expectations when they 139 are e v a l u a t o r s . While p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the practicum are expected t o f u n c t i o n i n a cooperative f a s h i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o f t e n transformed by the d i v e r s e expectations that each person b r i n g s t o the practicum. A r e a l i s t i c r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n i n the cur r e n t program i n c l u d e s e v a l u a t i o n , so t o des c r i b e the r o l e otherwise i s l i k e l y t o cr e a t e dissonance. Working with a d i v e r s i t y of cooperating teachers. Another sub-theme that emerged from f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r e v a l u a t i v e r o l e was the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r i n f l u e n c e as contrasted t o t h a t of cooperating teachers. While some s t u d i e s (Bennie, 1964; Boschee e t a l . , 1978; F r i e b u s , 1977; G r i f f e n e t a l . , 1983) show t h a t f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e over student teachers, other s t u d i e s (Koehler, 1984; Yee, 1969; Zimpher et a l . , 1980) i n d i c a t e that cooperating teachers have the major i n f l u e n c e on student teachers. F a c u l t y advisors who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study d e s c r i b e d two d i s t i n c t types of cooperating teachers. The f i r s t type of cooperating teacher volunteers out of a sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Gerald noted, "These were people who t y p i c a l l y were prepared t o spend s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of time with student teachers i n the hope of making them e f f e c t i v e beginning teachers." For Frank, "I've worked with wonderfully committed cooperating teachers. They give so much of themselves t o t h e i r student teachers. T h e i r 140 commitment i s unquestionable. These are people who are u s u a l l y motivated t o give something back t o the teaching p r o f e s s i o n . " The second type of cooperating teacher, according t o f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , i s o f t e n c o n s c r i p t e d by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or department personnel. Because these cooperating teachers are not n e c e s s a r i l y committed t o the r o l e , problems sometimes r e s u l t f o r t h e i r student teachers. This i s a sub-theme of e v a l u a t i o n i n that f a c u l t y a dvisors say i t i s necessary t o perform t h e i r r o l e d i f f e r e n t l y with "conscripted" cooperating teachers. They are concerned t h a t these types of cooperating teachers are l e s s l i k e l y t o provide the supportive feedback t h a t student teachers expect. I wish t o move beyond d i s c u s s i n g committed versus non-committed cooperating teachers. F a c u l t y a d v i s o r s i n t h i s study acknowledge a v a r i e t y of shortcomings i n the cooperating teachers with whom they worked. Sarah, f o r example noted, "Most cooperating teachers have not had any formal p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r r o l e . They l e a r n t h e i r r o l e as they go along through t r i a l and e r r o r , or mostly from copying what happened t o them when they, themselves, were student teachers." F a c u l t y advisors pointed out other problems such as cooperating teachers' incompetence and t h e r e f o r e poor planning. Gerald observed: There are s i t u a t i o n s where cooperating teachers had low expectations f o r student teachers. As w e l l , 141 t h e i r teaching p r a c t i c e i s f a r from i d e a l . This i s a problem because the student teacher sees t h e i r cooperating teacher teach i n a c e r t a i n way, and t h i n k i t ' s okay f o r them too. That can be a r e a l problem. Frank was f r u s t r a t e d by t h i s type of s i t u a t i o n : We can spend a great deal of time working with student teachers to help them t o understand what's i n v o l v e d i n being an e f f e c t i v e teacher but i t can be t o t a l l y negated by the p r a c t i c e t h a t they observe from t h e i r cooperating teacher. Brenda d e s c r i b e d her f e e l i n g s i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n : I t h i n k t h a t the amount of l e a r n i n g t h a t happens on the practicum v a r i e s , depending on the f a c u l t y a d v i s o r and the cooperating teacher. The practicum i s not n e c e s s a r i l y educative, and i n some s i t u a t i o n s , student teachers are l e a r n i n g things that are detrimental t o t h e i r development as teachers. Indeed, as Brenda pointed out, a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the practicum t r i a d should be h e l d accountable f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s . "The cooperating teacher i s the only person i n the t r i a d r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s not f o r m a l l y evaluated. I t h i n k t h i s i s r a t h e r odd." F a c u l t y advisors reported being f r u s t r a t e d i n working with l e s s than i d e a l cooperating teachers. Frank c r i t i c i z e d 1 4 2 the assumption t h a t f i r s t r a t e teachers end up working with student teachers and t h a t we never use people who are second r a t e . This assumption gives us a very l i m i t e d view of the world because i t s t a r t s t o look l i k e a l l our student teachers work with f i r s t r a t e cooperating teachers and t h a t i s simply not t r u e . Although f a c u l t y advisors acknowledge that being an e x c e l l e n t teacher i s an important i n g r e d i e n t i n being a cooperating teacher, that i n i t s e l f i s not enough t o c a r r y out the r o l e i n a t h o u g h t f u l manner. Gerald's comments are s i m i l a r t o what the others s a i d , "Some people are r e a l l y good teachers but they are not good cooperating teachers because they don't know how to l e t go of t h e i r c l a s s and stand back i n order t o l e t the student teacher take over." Complicating the matter s t i l l f u r t h e r i s the f a c t t h a t some cooperating teachers are inexperienced themselves. Although most cooperating teachers i n whose c l a s s e s the f a c u l t y a dvisors i n t h i s study worked had extensive teaching experience, they reported working with some cooperating teachers with only one year of teaching experience. As a r e s u l t of these concerns, f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s favored formal requirements f o r cooperating teachers. They most f r e q u e n t l y suggested mandatory student teacher s u p e r v i s i o n courses. 1 4 3 F i n a l l y , I wish to comment about the advocacy r o l e performed by the f a c u l t y a d v i s o r . The most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem by f a c u l t y a dvisors was p e r s o n a l i t y clashes between student teacher and cooperating teacher. When problems of t h i s nature surfaced, f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s u s u a l l y recommended the student teacher f o r another practicum placement. Frank commented: Sometimes cooperating teachers and student teachers don't match. I don't think there i s any p o i n t banging your head a g a i n s t the w a l l f o r the e n t i r e practicum t r y i n g t o make the r e l a t i o n s h i p work. I t ' s b e t t e r t o give the student teacher a p o s i t i v e experience because i t can be r e a l l y d e v a s t a t i n g f o r a student teacher i f they have a bad placement. Gerald d e s c r i b e d the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t from a recent experience with a cooperating teacher: The cooperating teacher was very much i n c o n t r o l of her p u p i l s and [she] t r e a t e d the student teacher more l i k e a high school p u p i l than l i k e a student teacher. The cooperating teacher b a s i c a l l y i n s i s t e d t h a t the student teacher use her teaching methodology a l l the time. I t was c l e a r t o me t h a t the student teacher was not going t o get much opportunity t o t r y new ideas. A r o l e s h i f t of s o r t s occurs. 144 Having p r e v i o u s l y played the r o l e of cooperating teacher, f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s had memories of the cooperating teacher-student teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p and f e l t more d i s t a n t , l i k e an " o u t s i d e r " or a " t h i r d wheel." Perhaps i t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o assume t h i s r o l e when one has been a recent cooperating teacher. The p o i n t I want to s t r e s s i s t h a t the f a c u l t y advisor-student teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d i f f e r e n t from the student teacher-cooperating teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p , a r o l e t h a t a l l seconded teachers had p r e v i o u s l y f u l f i l l e d . Chapter Summary Seconded teachers, as f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , are t o r n between being a "mentor" or "coach" and "evaluator." During the practicum, Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald adopted var i o u s communication and l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s i n the hope of engaging student teachers i n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . You w i l l r e c a l l t h a t as u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s they were r e l u c t a n t to g ive student teachers " r e c i p e s . " When working with student teachers i n schools, they adopted a s i m i l a r philosophy. In an e f f o r t t o make a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s aware of practicum expectations, they found themselves having t o defend u n i v e r s i t y p o l i c i e s with which they sometimes d i d not agree. The l a c k of c l e a r goals, r o l e s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s hinders teacher education programs i n general, but more s p e c i f i c a l l y hampers the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t r i a d r e l a t i o n s h i p . During student teaching, a major focus i s on s u p e r v i s i o n ; however, the p o t e n t i a l t o support student 1 4 5 teachers may not be met due to problems of communication and d e s c r i p t i o n of r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of student teachers, cooperating teachers, and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . 146 CHAPTER 6 - MAKING SENSE OF REFLECTION: CATALYSTS AND CONTENT This chapter i s an a n a l y s i s of the shared r e f l e c t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study. In t h e i r r o l e s as u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald are c a l l e d upon to be r e f l e c t i v e i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with student teachers. In other words, being r e f l e c t i v e about t h e i r classroom p r a c t i c e i s an important p a r t of t h e i r r o l e as seconded teachers. Not only r e f l e c t i v e content (checking foundations of one's b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e , improving planning s k i l l s , and v a l i d a t i n g i n t u i t i v e d e c i s i o n s ) , but a l s o c a t a l y s t s f o r r e f l e c t i o n are i d e n t i f i e d and discussed. Although a number of teacher education programs encourage r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e among student teachers ( E l l i o t t , 1991; Knowles, Cole, & Presswood, 1994; Wells, 1994; Zeichner & L i s t o n , 1987), there i s l i t t l e i n q u i r y i n t o the r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e of teacher educators (Brause & Mayher, 1991; Dana & Floyd, 1994; Heald-Taylor, Neate, Innerd, & Shantz, 1996; V a l l i , 1990). The i n c l u s i o n of the r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e of teacher educators i s a more recent development; indeed perhaps i t was assumed teacher educators would be i n h e r e n t l y r e f l e c t i v e . A l s o there i s l i t t l e emphasis on the shared aspect of r e f l e c t i o n , t h a t i s r e f l e c t i o n as stimulated by others, be they students, c o l l e a g u e s , mentors or s u p e r v i s o r s . I f , however, teachers, when they i n q u i r e i n t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n and p r a c t i c e as 147 teachers, become "owners of t h e i r own knowledge" ( C h e t c u t i , 1992), i t i s a t r u l y c e n t r a l component i n l e a r n i n g t o teach. Some Approaches t o R e f l e c t i o n An ample l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s around the concept of teacher r e f l e c t i o n . The notion can be t r a c e d t o Dewey's (1933) d e f i n i t i o n of r e f l e c t i v e teaching as " a c t i v e , p e r s i s t e n t , and c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of any b e l i e f or supposed form of knowledge i n l i g h t of the grounds that support i t " (p. 7). Although Dewey's work has remained i n f l u e n t i a l , the resurgence of i n t e r e s t i n teachers as r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r s can be t r a c e d more r e c e n t l y t o the w r i t i n g of Schon (1983, 1987), who argued that the m a j o r i t y of teachers' l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s from ongoing a c t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r d a i l y problems. According t o Schon (1983), r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r s analyze t h e i r t a k e n - f o r -granted p r a c t i c e s by being t h o u g h t f u l about t h e i r i m p l i c i t a c t i o n s . Through the r e f l e c t i v e process, understandings are surfaced, analyzed, and r e s t r u c t u r e d l e a d i n g t o f u t u r e a c t i o n (Schon, 1983). While e a r l y views of how knowledge informs teaching and l e a r n i n g assumed that knowledge o r i g i n a t e s from research, Schon (1987) moved beyond t h i s " t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l approach" because i t ignored the e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge developed by p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n edu c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . There are many other p e r s p e c t i v e s on r e f l e c t i v e teaching reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Research on teacher 148 thought processes (Clarke & Peterson, 1986), f o r example, sought t o inform teacher educators, not about what knowledge teachers should have, but i n s t e a d about the kinds of knowledge teachers can u t i l i z e i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e . Grimmett and MacKinnon (1992) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d teaching as c r a f t . They suggested t h a t Shulman's (1987) conception of pedagogical content knowledge i s s u i t a b l e t o a conception of c r a f t knowledge because i t i s rooted i n the experience of p r a c t i c e . Grimmett and MacKinnon, however, argued f o r an extension of Shulman's claims t o a l e a r n e r knowledge which they d e f i n e i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: Whereas pedagogical content knowledge concerns i t s e l f with teachers' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of su b j e c t matter content i n terms of how i t might be e f f e c t i v e l y taught, pedagogical l e a r n e r knowledge revolves around procedural ways i n which teachers deal r i g o r o u s l y and s u p p o r t i v e l y with l e a r n e r s . Though the "maxims" of c r a f t knowledge are u s e f u l i n g u i d i n g p r a c t i c e , they cannot r e p l a c e the r o l e of experience i n the development of c r a f t . Thus, pedagogical l e a r n e r knowledge can be d e f i n e d as pedagogical procedural information useful in enhancing learner-focused learning in the dailiness of classroom action, (p. 387) 149 C l e a r l y , one of the ways that c r a f t knowledge i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o teacher p r e p a r a t i o n programs i s through the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of seconded teachers as i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . Munby (1987) and Munby and R u s s e l l (1991) explored metaphors f o r teaching when they d e s c r i b e d t h e i r work as teachers. Louden (1991) i n v e s t i g a t e d personal aspects of teaching and d e c i s i o n making. He found that teachers r e f l e c t e d on personal and problematic concerns more than on t e c h n i c a l or c r i t i c a l i s s u e s . Another commonly o c c u r r i n g r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i s dialogue with other p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The b e n e f i t of teacher dialogue ( G i t l i n , 1990; L i t t l e , 1986) has been s t u d i e d i n school s e t t i n g s , but i t has been ignored i n teacher education. As teacher educators, seconded teachers are guided by personal frames of re f e r e n c e which are rooted i n t h e i r day-to-day experiences as classroom teachers. Frames of re f e r e n c e i n c l u d e a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s about various i s s u e s such as cu r r i c u l u m goals, processes of l e a r n i n g , v i s i o n s of good and bad teaching, c o l l e g i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and notions of school community. Taken together, these frames of re f e r e n c e c o n s t i t u t e a type of theory, a theory t h a t i s constructed from i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of past classroom events. The nature of teachers' work d i c t a t e s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number of t h e o r i e s , commonly r e f e r r e d t o as i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s (see Marland, 1995) are t a c i t l y h e l d by p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The underlying assumption of i m p l i c i t 1 5 0 t h e o r i e s i s t h a t teachers, through them, w i l l be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o understand what they do, thus becoming more e f f e c t i v e teachers. The avenues of r e f l e c t i o n t h a t have j u s t been o u t l i n e d are u s e f u l i n understanding how seconded teachers i n t e r a c t with student teachers as both i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald began with the assumption t h a t one of the best ways of l e a r n i n g how to teach i s to "problematize the act of teaching." Whenever p o s s i b l e , they presented to student teachers personal scenarios and v i g n e t t e s of p r a c t i c e , products of t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s . T h e i r r e f l e c t i o n , however, b e n e f i t e d not only student teachers. As w e l l , seconded teachers themselves developed a c l e a r e r understanding of t h e i r previous classroom p r a c t i c e . The key p o i n t I wish t o emphasize i s t h a t seconded teachers viewed the a c t i v i t y of r e f l e c t i o n as p r o f e s s i o n a l development. Before I d e s c r i b e c a t a l y s t s f o r seconded teachers' r e f l e c t i o n , I want t o p o i n t out that the r o l e of teachers i n t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l development has undergone some profound changes. P r o f e s s i o n a l development i s no longer seen as something done to teachers but as something t h a t teachers can do f o r themselves. The seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study made a conscious e f f o r t t o share t h e i r i n s i g h t s about teaching not only with student teachers but a l s o with other seconded teachers, cooperating teachers, and u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y . 151 Springboards to R e f l e c t i o n Seconded teachers b e l i e v e that r e f l e c t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of teachers' p r o f e s s i o n a l growth and development. Therefore, as seconded teachers, they attempt t o model good r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e f o r student teachers. In p a r t , t h i s means h e l p i n g p r o s p e c t i v e candidates to "think l i k e teachers." In the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s chapter, I o u t l i n e two f a c t o r s t h a t t r i g g e r seconded teachers' r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r p r a c t i c e as classroom teachers and teacher educators: (1) teaching u n i v e r s i t y courses, and (2) watching others teach. Teaching U n i v e r s i t y Courses: A Refresher Course The seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study d e s c r i b e d t h e i r time at the u n i v e r s i t y as " r e v i t a l i z i n g , " and " i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g , " as w e l l as " p r o f e s s i o n a l l y rewarding." They l i n k e d r e f l e c t i o n t o notions of p r o f e s s i o n a l development. For Sarah, having the time t o be thoughtful about her p r a c t i c e meant: I'm more focused because I'm f o r c e d t o t h i n k about what I'm doing, and why I'm doing i t . I'm v e r b a l i z i n g my p r a c t i c e f o r my student teachers. This i s a v a l u a b l e experience and one t h a t I t h i n k w i l l stay with me f o r a long time. At i t s simplest, seconded teachers noted t h a t i t was impossible f o r them to teach courses and i n t e r a c t with student teachers without r e f l e c t i n g . 1 5 2 Planning. The a c t of planning t o teach, they s a i d , r e q u i r e d them t o t h i n k about and a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r p r a c t i c e . Seconded teachers prepared t o teach t h e i r c l a s s e s i n a number of ways. For example, they read textbooks, researched a r t i c l e s , attended department meetings, and l i s t e n e d t o guest speakers. In remembering a methods c l a s s she taught, Brenda s a i d : When I prepared my lessons, I would s o r t through the textbook l o o k i n g f o r i d e a s . I was stru c k by the s i m i l a r i t y of my experiences with what was being portrayed i n the t e x t . As I gained confidence, I r e l i e d more and more on my own experiences i n d e c i d i n g what t o present t o student teachers. I used the textbook, but mainly t o s a t i s f y those student teachers who needed a c r u t c h . Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald's comments suggest t h a t they devoted a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of t h e i r day preparing f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . I t was common f o r them t o say th a t they spent three hours i n pre p a r a t i o n f o r every one hour of c l a s s time. Frank's experience was s i m i l a r t o Brenda's. " I t f e l t good t o see myself i n the research l i t e r a t u r e . I t boosted my confidence. I came t o r e a l i z e t h a t a l o t of the research i s j u s t of bunch of teacher's s t o r i e s . " What i s important, however, i s that a person must f i r s t be i n a p o s i t i o n t o 1 5 3 r e f l e c t . What I mean t o say i s that r e f l e c t i o n does not randomly occur. Instead, i t i s a d e l i b e r a t i v e process of thoughtfulness. I t i s important t o note that seconded teachers are unable t o s u s t a i n a r e f l e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n a f t e r they r e t u r n t o t h e i r classroom communities. Gerald noted: I t ' s not that I am j u s t too busy t o engage i n r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e but I t h i n k i t has more t o do with my co l l e a g u e s . I don't want t o sound o v e r l y harsh but they don't seem t o be very i n t e r e s t e d i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r teaching p r a c t i c e s . They're more focused on things l i k e workloads, and d e a l i n g with d i f f i c u l t parents and c h i l d r e n . Being a t the u n i v e r s i t y gave me a r e a l a p p r e c i a t i o n about how important r e f l e c t i o n can be, and yet, here I am. I t seems l i k e a d i s t a n t memory. The a c t of planning became somewhat e a s i e r f o r teachers i n the second year of secondment. A f t e r a d j u s t i n g t o the tempo and workload of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y appointments, they reported f e e l i n g l e s s s t r e s s and anxiety. S e l e c t i n g course m a t e r i a l s . As I mentioned at the outset, course m a t e r i a l s are a c a t a l y s t f o r r e f l e c t i o n . Case s t u d i e s , f o r example, were used by a l l seconded teachers who taught the P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching course, a r e q u i r e d f o u n d a t i o n a l course f o r a l l elementary and secondary student teachers. One of the 1 5 4 things that seconded teachers s a i d they r e a l l y l i k e d about using case s t u d i e s was t h a t they recognized themselves i n the cases. They thought that a case-based approach was a good method t o expose student teachers t o r e a l l i f e classroom dilemmas. As Gerald noted, "Cases p o i n t student teachers i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . They are asked t o consid e r complex problems from m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s . This helps them when they are confronted with s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s during t h e i r practicum." According t o Brenda, textbook m a t e r i a l s compliment case s t u d i e s . "I look through the textbook and I say to myself, I do t h a t , t h a t , and, t h a t . " Frank a l s o attempted to model good p r a c t i c e f o r h i s student teachers. " I t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g teaching a course when you are d e a l i n g with both the c o g n i t i v e l e v e l and the metacognitive l e v e l i n t r y i n g t o model f o r them and i n s t r u c t i n g them i n how to do i t i n the classroom." Gerald admitted t h a t he was not accustomed t o t h i n k i n g about h i s p r a c t i c e i n such d e t a i l : I was l o o k i n g at a textbook and I remembered what the author was t a l k i n g about. Yes, that was me. I know how t o do things because things t h a t worked stayed with me and I would go back t o that so i t becomes n a t u r a l . I t was l i k e r i d i n g a b i k e . For the l a s t twenty years, I probably wasn't c o n s c i o u s l y aware of what I was doing, now I c o n s c i o u s l y look f o r the connections. 155 Recognizing c l e a r connections between t h e i r theory and p r a c t i c e b o l s t e r e d seconded teachers' confidence as teachers and teacher educators. V a l i d a t i n g s e l f - i d e n t i t y . C l e a r l y , seconded teachers' i d e n t i t y was v a l i d a t e d when they recognized themselves i n the research l i t e r a t u r e . Sarah, f o r example, r e c a l l e d how she f e l t a f t e r previewing an a r t i c l e she had assigned t o student teachers i n her methods c l a s s . "Now that I'm r e - r e a d i n g the l i t e r a t u r e i n my s u b j e c t area, I see that what I do i s proven by research, t h a t what I do does i n f a c t work." Sarah, l i k e the other seconded teachers, s a i d t h a t being more c o n f i d e n t would make her a more e f f e c t i v e teacher. Frank d e s c r i b e d h i s secondment as a " r e f r e s h e r course" on teaching: I f e l t much sharper a f t e r being introduced to terms and ways of t h i n k i n g that were new to me. I loved i t ! I was somewhat dazzled by a l l the new t h i n k i n g . I a l s o remember f e e l i n g a l i t t l e bad that I d i d n ' t know the c u r r e n t research. Although acknowledging that he was "out of touch" with c u r r e n t research on teaching, Frank d i d not view t h i s as a problem. "Since coming t o the u n i v e r s i t y , I've read v a s t amounts of m a t e r i a l . This i s something I haven't done f o r a long time. Most teachers do not read very much. I f e e l l i k e I've made up f o r l o s t time." He went on to make the analogy, "When I'm teaching i n the schools I'm l e a r n i n g 5% 156 and working 95% of the time. As a seconded teacher, i t ' s a 50-50 p r o p o s i t i o n between l e a r n i n g and teaching. This i s why I enjoy i t so much." Next, I turn my a t t e n t i o n t o the second f a c t o r t h a t t r i g g e r s seconded teachers' r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r p r a c t i c e . Watching Others Teach The secondment experience gave each of these teachers o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r own p r a c t i c e , viewing i t from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s , and comparing themselves t o other experienced teachers. The teaching p r o f e s s i o n has commonly been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a p r o f e s s i o n whereby teachers work i n i s o l a t i o n from one another ( L o r t i e , 1975; Rosenholtz, 1989). We know that school c u l t u r e s do not promote teacher r e f l e c t i o n . Observing colleagues as p r o f e s s i o n a l development. The seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study embraced the opportunity t o observe both student teachers and cooperating teachers, as a personal form of p r o f e s s i o n a l development. Sarah lamented the f a c t t h a t teachers r a r e l y observe t h e i r colleagues i n classroom s e t t i n g s : I d e a l l y , classroom teachers should be i n each other's classrooms a l l the time but the r e a l i t y i s that doesn't happen. I thin k that's the best kind of p r o f e s s i o n a l development there i s . I've r e a l l y b e n e f i t e d from watching other people teach because I've been i n my 157 classroom alone f o r a number of years. I t ' s good to t a l k about teaching i n a r e a l context. I hardly ever have conversations with colleagues about teaching. I t ' s a sad s t a t e of a f f a i r s but there i s n ' t time i n a t y p i c a l day. S i m i l a r l y , Brenda s a i d : I t ' s l i k e a ' h e l i c o p t e r v i s i o n , ' when you get up above and hover and see e v e r y t h i n g . The f a c t t h a t I've gone i n t o v a r i o u s schools has given me the opportunity t o work with d i f f e r e n t people i n various s u b j e c t areas. I t has been v a l u a b l e t a l k i n g t o both beginning and seasoned teachers. The experience has been very rewarding. Gerald expressed a s i m i l a r view. " I f every teacher had the opportunity t o watch someone e l s e teach, I t h i n k we would have a much r i c h e r p r o f e s s i o n . " Beyond t h i s , McCullough and Mintz (1992) suggest that teacher education programs need to focus on g i v i n g student teachers o p p o r t u n i t i e s to not only p r a c t i c e r e f l e c t i v i t y but a l s o t o observe i t i n experienced teachers. Conferencing with student teachers. Observation alone, however, does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n t r i b u t e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l development. One might observe f a i l u r e s . The chance t o discuss what happened and why an approach was taken are key. 1 5 8 While seconded teachers described the b e n e f i t s of observing other teachers " i n a c t i o n , " they were disappointed with non-communicative cooperating teachers who d i d not d i s p l a y a " r e f l e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n . " This i s i n t e r e s t i n g because they acknowledged that when they were cooperating teachers, they a l s o had d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g the time t o be r e f l e c t i v e . Nevertheless, seconded teachers expected cooperating teachers t o demonstrate a r e f l e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n and t o t a l k about t h e i r teaching and r o l e s as teacher educators. In t h i s regard, Gerald noted: I worked with some cooperating teachers who were e i t h e r not 'great r o l e models' or they were too busy t o do a good job supporting the student teacher. They d i d n ' t seem t o get very much out of the experience. I sometimes wondered why they were cooperating teachers i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Perhaps Gerald's propensity t o be r e f l e c t i v e i n h i s dealings with f u t u r e student teachers has been enhanced. Seconded teachers recognize the time commitment that cooperating teachers assume i n being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a student teacher. Problems can a r i s e , however, i f cooperating teachers do not demonstrate or communicate enough of t h e i r p r a c t i c e , i n e f f e c t not repaying the student teacher l a b o r . 1 5 9 R e f l e c t i v e Content The most common theme emerging through the s t o r i e s of Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald i s that t h e i r work as seconded teachers caused them to examine the foundations of t h e i r own b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e . Checking Foundations of One's B e l i e f s and P r a c t i c e Seconded teachers c h a r a c t e r i z e d secondment as the "best p r o f e s s i o n a l development" of t h e i r c a r e e r s . L i k e the others, Frank d e f i n e d h i s experiences as p r o f e s s i o n a l l y rewarding. " I t was the f i r s t time i n my c a r e e r t h a t I had the time t o r e f l e c t on my classroom teaching p r a c t i c e . " In a n t i c i p a t i o n of r e t u r n i n g to the school community, Frank s a i d : I've learned a great deal about teaching s i n c e coming t o the u n i v e r s i t y . What I mean i s that I now r e a l i z e t h a t I know a l o t about teaching. I j u s t hadn't thought about i t before. I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see how I teach when I r e t u r n to my classroom. Gerald was r e v i t a l i z e d by secondment: I can't b e l i e v e how much I've learned about some b a s i c t h i n g s . I t ' s embarrassing. In a course l i k e P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching, there are i s s u e s that I haven't c o n s c i o u s l y thought about s i n c e I went through the program, things l i k e w r i t i n g c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s , and developing and sharing assessment and e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a with p u p i l s . Maybe these 1 6 0 things were i n the back of my mind but they have been pushed t o the f o r e f r o n t because I've had t o teach them i n my methods course. I've a l s o learned from my student teachers. Sometimes I t h i n k that we, as teachers, get i n t o a 'rut.' We need to c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e ways of t h i n k i n g about t h i n g s . Brenda, too, acknowledged that secondment was a l e a r n i n g experience: I've learned a great d e a l . Secondment has taught me to r e a l l y look at the d i f f e r e n t components of teaching. Before I came to the u n i v e r s i t y I was prone to focus on the subject matter content of the courses I taught. This experience has f o r c e d me t o examine many of the s t r a t e g i e s I used as a teacher, things l i k e how I planned, my goals, assessment techniques and so on. I haven't c o n s c i o u s l y thought about some of these things s i n c e my own teacher education program. That sounds awful, doesn't i t ? What I mean i s t h a t i t ' s been u s e f u l sharing my b e l i e f s about teaching with student teachers. I t has made me sharper as a teacher because I'm more aware of other people's p e r s p e c t i v e s . I t h i n k I'm more w i l l i n g t o e n t e r t a i n other p e r s p e c t i v e s . To some extent, seconded teachers f e l t indebted t o student teachers because of the questions they asked. 1 6 1 Improving Planning S k i l l s In d e s c r i b i n g how h i s p r a c t i c e changed, Gerald i n d i c a t e d t h a t he planned more m e t i c u l o u s l y than before: I'm c e r t a i n l y more thoughtful about planning and teaching and about how a l l the d i f f e r e n t aspects of teaching f i t together. Planning and o r g a n i z i n g the c u r r i c u l u m was a b i g p a r t of my job as a methods i n s t r u c t o r . Before I was seconded, I d i d n ' t think about planning i s s u e s very o f t e n . A f t e r the f i r s t few years of teaching, i t j u s t seems t o come n a t u r a l l y . Much of what happened i n my classroom j u s t happened. Now I'm very conscious of my o b j e c t i v e s , s t r a t e g i e s , and assessment. I know I've changed my teaching. This i s not meant to suggest t h a t classroom teachers are u n r e f l e c t i v e . The i s s u e here has j u s t as much t o do with communication as with r e f l e c t i o n . The two are i n t e r t w i n e d . Part of the joy of secondment f o r Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald was being able t o t e l l t h e i r s t o r i e s , a s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s uncommon i n the school community. Sharing experiences and personal s t o r i e s with student teachers was viewed as a p r o f e s s i o n a l duty. In a d d i t i o n , i t a f f i r m e d t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s as classroom teachers. Sarah acknowledged: I t ' s been q u i t e wonderful, q u i t e dramatic because secondment has both v a l i d a t e d my teaching experience and pushed me even more. 1 6 2 I t ' s made me f e e l t h a t what I have t o o f f e r from my experience i n teaching i s important and v a l u a b l e but i t has a l s o made me r e a l i z e t h a t these student teachers b e t t e r have s t a t e of the a r t information as the best p r a c t i c e i n my f i e l d . E a r l y on i n her secondment, Brenda recognized the value of sharing her p r a c t i c a l i n s i g h t s with p r o s p e c t i v e candidates I t h i n k I've been very s u c c e s s f u l i n sharing what I do as a teacher with student teachers. A l o t of the things I d i d as a teacher, I d i d i n t u i t i v e l y . I know they were the r i g h t things t o do. That's my teaching s t y l e and I f e e l comfortable with i t . I f o r g o t about the theory years ago. Teaching courses t h a t i n v o l v e a l o t of theory, however, has brought i t back t o the fo r m a l i z e d l e v e l f o r me and I f e e l I'm b e t t e r able t o a r t i c u l a t e i t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y than I was when working with c h i l d r e n . Seconded teachers' comments i l l u s t r a t e a p e r s o n a l l y -constructed sense of teaching. Over the l a s t s e v e r a l years there has been the r e c o g n i t i o n that a great deal can be learned from the wisdom of teachers themselves. I n s p i r i n g C r i t i c a l Approaches Seconded teachers acknowledged the importance of developing a c r i t i c a l mindset, as i l l u s t r a t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 6 3 i n c r i t i q u i n g research versus r e a l i t y , t h e i r student teaching experiences, and teacher education programs. C r i t i q u i n g research versus r e a l i t y . Teachers acknowledged the importance of theory i n l e a r n i n g t o teach, but they were somewhat f r u s t r a t e d when they read e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e t h a t c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e i r own experiences. Brenda, f o r example, worried about student teachers who might be prone to o v e r s i m p l i f y i n g research f i n d i n g s : Sometimes I t h i n k researchers l e a d student teachers down the garden path. What they sometimes d e s c r i b e i s not very accurate. For example, some of the things w r i t t e n about classroom management appear so s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d but i n f a c t , i t i s one of the most complicated aspects of teaching. Student teachers are not sure whom to b e l i e v e . They read a r t i c l e s and textbooks but I suspect they r e l y on t h e i r own i n t u i t i o n and previous experiences. That's why the practicum i s so important. I don't t h i n k t h a t student teachers can ever be f u l l y prepared i n advance of the practicum. That's why the practicum i s so important to t h e i r growth as teachers. In an e f f o r t t o minimize the sometimes d i f f i c u l t t r a n s i t i o n from student t o beginning teacher, seconded teachers emphasized " p r a c t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s " t h a t worked f o r them. In 164 some ways, t h i s was problematic f o r seconded teachers because they, too, were i n t r a n s i t i o n from being a teacher to being a teacher educator. Frank observed: I'm always reading things i n my subject area when I'm i n the secondary school and I look f o r ways to use the i d e a s . I t r y out suggestions f o r lessons and t h i n g s ; and I f i n d i t q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g . But when I read the same kinds of m a t e r i a l as a methods i n s t r u c t o r , i t might s t i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g but now I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n how I can take the i d e a and teach i t to student teachers so that they can a c t u a l l y use i t . I'm using the same m a t e r i a l but l o o k i n g a t with a d i f f e r e n t s l a n t . In some ways, Frank's comments r e f l e c t h i s pedagogical content knowledge. Whereas Shulman t a l k e d about pedagogical content knowledge of teachers, there i s yet to emerge a coherent l i t e r a t u r e of teacher educators' pedagogical content knowledge. C r i t i q u i n g one's own student teaching experiences. Another theme among seconded teachers was t h a t they remembered t h e i r own student teaching. Sarah, f o r example, de s c r i b e d her teacher education program i n l e s s than glowing terms: I was very f r u s t r a t e d by my own teacher education program. I thought that most of 1 6 5 i t was u s e l e s s . When I was a student teacher, I f e l t l i k e I was t r e a t e d l i k e I wasn't very i n t e l l i g e n t . For example, many of my methods i n s t r u c t o r s taught me l i k e they taught t h e i r grade 3's. They gave me s t r a t e g i e s but I wasn't s a t i s f i e d . When I t h i n k about how I teach here, I'm teaching the way I wanted t o be taught as a new teacher. Frank, as w e l l , c r i t i c i z e d h i s i n i t i a l teacher education program: I t was 'mickey mouse.' Now I look at the program as a teacher educator. Some of my c r i t i c i s m s s t i l l h o l d. For example, I thin k there needs t o be o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r depth and [ c r i t i c a l ] t h i n k i n g . I t doesn't make much sense t o me i f our goal i s merely t o make student teachers conform. We need a p r o f e s s i o n t h at can stand up t o the c r i t i c s . One of the ways t o answer ed u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c s i s t o be c r i t i c a l ourselves about our p r a c t i c e . C r i t i q u i n g teacher education programs. Seconded teachers a l s o r e f l e c t e d on teacher education programs more g e n e r a l l y . In c r i t i q u i n g the teacher education program, Sarah noted: I t sounds obvious but we have t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e the program. We have t o f i n d out who these student teachers are. We can't j u s t have t h i s program and do i t t o student teachers as i f 1 6 6 they are a homogeneous group of a d u l t s because they are not. This i s one of the biggest problems of teacher education programs. I t h i n k there need to be programs w i t h i n programs. Gerald a l s o f e l t the need to i n d i v i d u a l i z e programs when, f o r example, he r e c a l l e d h i s i n i t i a l impression of working with student teachers: A l o t of what student teachers do i n the classroom i s a r e s u l t of who they are as people. A l o t of what they b r i n g to the program i s f a n t a s t i c . . . 1 t h i n k the key i s f i n d i n g out who they are. We need to do more as i n s t i t u t i o n s t o f i n d out who they.are. I t ' s amazing when you d i s c o v e r that you have people i n your c l a s s with graduate degrees, as w e l l as people who have fabulous l i f e experiences. You have student teachers who have taught ESL i n Japan, others have worked i n T h i r d World Countries, some are accomplished musicians, the l i s t goes on. I t h i n k we have a very t a l e n t e d group of people. The key i s t o somehow recognize t h e i r unique t a l e n t s so that they can be encouraged to make a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . Frank, too, suggested, "We need t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e the program and allow f o r d i f f e r e n c e s and a c t u a l l y be g l a d that 167 we have such a d i v e r s e student teacher p o p u l a t i o n . I don't thi n k we acknowledge how d i v e r s e they r e a l l y are." Chapter Summary Let me conclude by saying something about the d i f f e r e n c e s between a " t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l " approach t o teacher education and r e f l e c t i v e teacher education programs. A t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s l i m i t i n g because i t focuses on the HOW of teaching r a t h e r than on the WHY of teaching which embodies a r e f l e c t i v e component or stance. Although some researchers l i k e Kagan (1992) have suggested that teacher education programs should focus on s k i l l development and leave r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e f o r experienced teachers, the seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study suggested that student teachers are capable of r e f l e c t i n g on t h e i r emerging p r a c t i c e . Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald b e l i e v e t h a t h e l p i n g p r o s p e c t i v e teachers develop a r e f l e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n t o teaching, and encouraging them t o develop t h e i r own programs of p r o f e s s i o n a l development are key preparatory i n g r e d i e n t s f o r a s o l i d p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r . At i t s simplest, seconded teachers b e l i e v e a major goal of teacher education programs should be t o prepare r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r s who are committed t o continued p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. 168 CHAPTER 7 - RE-ENTERING THE SCHOOL DISTRICT Much has been w r i t t e n about the t r a n s i t i o n from student teaching t o beginning teaching (Greene & Campbell, 1993; Sarason, 1993), but l i t t l e r e s e a r c h examines the experience of teachers moving from the classroom t o the u n i v e r s i t y and then back again t o the classroom (DiPardo, 1993; Greene & P u r v i s , 1995; Hargreaves & F u l l a n , 1992). In t h i s chapter, I present f i v e major themes emerging from the data c o l l e c t e d from seconded teachers: preparing f o r r e -entry t o the school community; r e t u r n i n g t o the school community; a s s e s s i n g the b e n e f i t s of secondment; missing follow-up by the u n i v e r s i t y and school d i s t r i c t s ; and dreaming of extending secondment. Preparing f o r Re-Entry t o the School Community As seconded teachers neared the end of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y appointments, they prepared themselves t o r e t u r n to the school community. However, n e i t h e r they nor t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e schools were the same as when they l e f t t o begin secondment. Frank, f o r example, r e f e r r e d t o the impact of school d i s t r i c t and p r o v i n c i a l budget cuts on teachers' morale: The d i s t r i c t i s r i p p i n g the heart and soul out of the system. Budget cuts are demoralizing. I'm sure g l a d t h a t I'm not there at the moment. I t ' s going t o be tough going back t o a department that looks and operates d i f f e r e n t l y than i t d i d when I l e f t j u s t a short while ago. 1 6 9 As much as I had some apprehension about coming to the u n i v e r s i t y , I'm almost as apprehensive about going back because i t ' s not a very good atmosphere at the moment. Seconded teachers, l i k e Frank, c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y appointment as p o s i t i v e , j o k i n g l y r e f e r r i n g t o i t as a "vacation." He described h i s secondment as both e x c i t i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g . He f e l t , however, that i t was time t o r e t u r n t o what he r e f e r r e d t o as the " r e a l world." One aspect of r e t u r n i n g t o the school community that worried seconded teachers was not knowing t o which school they might be posted. Although they knew of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y when they began secondment, they had to deal with p r a c t i c a l matters such as commuting d i s t a n c e from home to school, and adapting t o u n f a m i l i a r students, parents, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and s t a f f . Worrying about these kinds of iss u e s was exacerbated by having t o go through t h e i r school d i s t r i c t ' s p o s t i n g process, something most of them had not done s i n c e e a r l y i n t h e i r teaching c a r e e r s . They were concerned t h a t they d i d not have much c o n t r o l or say about where they might be posted a f t e r secondment. Seconded teachers a l l b e l i e v e d t h a t they should not have had t o give up t h e i r previous teaching p o s i t i o n s i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Sarah described her experience: I was r e a l l y f r u s t r a t e d when I r e - a p p l i e d t o my d i s t r i c t . Although I've always been an 1 7 0 elementary teacher, the form asked me t o i n d i c a t e what subjects I wanted to teach, subjects l i k e mathematics, sci e n c e , h i s t o r y . This was o b v i o u s l y a form meant f o r secondary teachers. This r e a l l y bothered me. For the f i r s t time, i t occurred t o me t h a t perhaps I didn' t f i t i n t o the system anymore. In a d d i t i o n , Sarah had t o compete ag a i n s t people with more s e n i o r i t y . According to Sarah: Many high p r o f i l e d i s t r i c t p o s i t i o n s have disappeared. They have been e l i m i n a t e d and these people are going back i n t o the classroom. The group I was competing against had twenty or more years of teaching experience, whereas, I had seven years experience. Because of the way the c o n t r a c t works regarding s e n i o r i t y , I was nervous. Although Sarah acknowledged that the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g agreement p r o t e c t e d her p o s i t i o n , she would have p r e f e r r e d to see amendments to i t to recognize the unique c o n t r i b u t i o n that she and other seconded teachers make to teacher education. Sarah emphasized that her unique knowledge and s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s served as i n t e g r a l l i n k s among the u n i v e r s i t y , s chool, and p r o f e s s i o n a l communities. She f e l t t h a t her experience and e x p e r t i s e should somehow be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by her school d i s t r i c t when d e c i d i n g where she should be placed. 1 7 1 Seconded teachers wanted " f a i r e r " treatment. They f e l t t h a t the p o s t i n g process should be r e v i s e d t o make b e t t e r use of t h e i r knowledge, e x p e r t i s e , and s k i l l s . In sum, they d e s c r i b e t h e i r experiences of secondment as a resource the d i s t r i c t s f a i l t o u t i l i z e . Gerald r e c a l l e d how he f e l t before he accepted h i s c u r r e n t p o s t i n g : Not only are you back i n the general pool but you're a l s o at the end of the l i n e . You don't l o s e s e n i o r i t y but you have t o go by what's a v a i l a b l e . Teachers that are i n the system get f i r s t c h o i c e . What i s r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h a t i f I had returned t o my former school, I would have been given a p o s i t i o n that was impossible. I would have been r e a l l y unhappy because I would have had a b s o l u t e l y no choice about which c l a s s e s or grade l e v e l I would teach. I t would have been l i k e a beginning teacher coming i n t o a d i s t r i c t . In f a c t , t h a t reminds me, a number of my student teachers would have had wonderful p o s i t i o n s compared t o what I would have had. Gerald returned t o a d i f f e r e n t school i n h i s d i s t r i c t a f t e r secondment. He echoed many of the concerns r a i s e d by Sarah. He was disappointed i n h i s d i s t r i c t ' s s u s p i c i o n of h i s u n i v e r s i t y appointment, the " s u r v e i l l a n c e dimension," as he j o k i n g l y r e f e r r e d t o i t . He was fl a b b e r g a s t e d t h a t h i s d i s t r i c t wanted t o "see" him teach again before c o n s i d e r i n g him f o r d i s t r i c t p o s i t i o n s . "I haven't been i n 172 the trenches f o r a while, they wanted t o see how I perform. I t ' s r a t h e r i n s u l t i n g when you t h i n k about i t ! " Other seconded teachers, however, d i s p l a y e d a r a t h e r matter-of-f a c t a t t i t u d e about i t a l l . Brenda, f o r whom re - e n t r y was not so immediate, was not concerned about the p o s t i n g process. "The system owes me a job but i t remains t o be seen where." She may become more i n c r e a s i n g l y concerned with the p o s t i n g process c l o s e r t o r e - e n t r y . E a r l y on i n my d i s c u s s i o n s with seconded teachers, they i n d i c a t e d that they might c o n s i d e r p o s i t i o n s other than r e g u l a r teaching appointments. Frank, f o r example, s a i d t h a t he might consider an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n : There aren't c l e a r pathways f o r you t o f o l l o w when you've f i n i s h e d secondment. I'd l i k e t o go back t o teaching grade 7, but I thin k I need t o do something a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t , I need a challe n g e . I might apply f o r a v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s h i p . L i k e Frank, Sarah s a i d she might a l s o c o n s i d e r an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n but was more i n t e r e s t e d i n doing something r e l a t e d t o teacher education. "I might apply f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n . You would thi n k t h a t at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l , they might want t o have p o s i t i o n s open f o r people r e t u r n i n g from secondment t o help with teacher development and p r o f e s s i o n a l development." Sarah wanted a p o s i t i o n i n which she could apply some of her ideas about reforming teacher education programs. The p o s i t i o n t h a t 173 Sarah eventually accepted resulted, i n part, from the connections she made as a faculty advisor: The p r i n c i p a l of the school where I was a faculty advisor was someone I used to teach with years ago. This person has seen me as a teacher, and has seen me operate as a faculty advisor. We re-established our relationship when I was faculty advising. At that point she said i t was exciting what I was doing i n my master's work. She t o l d me that, when I came back into the d i s t r i c t , she wanted me to work with her. She was r e a l l y interested i n my career. She c a l l e d me about this position. There i s a l o t of freedom for me i n this position. I did this intentionally. I sought out a position where I was going to have a l i t t l e b i t of control about what happens. She admitted that her work as a faculty advisor showcased her talents to the p r i n c i p a l . "The princ i p a l watched me as a faculty advisor, she saw me i n a leadership role. She told me this i s what I should do next." Sarah's comments suggest a feeling of some entitlement which i s largely ignored by the d i s t r i c t s , none of which seems to have a special policy for the re-entry of previously seconded teachers. 174 Returning to the School Community Seconded teachers had mixed emotions when they returned to the school community. Even though they enjoyed secondment, teachers looked forward to renewing relationships with colleagues, parents, and pupils. Back to Tight Schedules When Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald began their university appointments, they thought that "university professors had i t easy." According to Brenda, professors don't teach very much when compared to classroom teachers. That has always been a b i t of a sore point with me. Before coming here, I thought t h e i r job was pretty "cushy." I guess I am beginning to appreciate that they do a l o t of other things besides teach. I can't believe how much time they spend i n meetings. It did not take long for seconded teachers to appreciate the "freedom" and tempo of the university setting. Frank commented: For the f i r s t time i n my career I was treated l i k e a professional. I could take a two hour lunch i f I wanted to, or I could go for a swim or a walk between classes. This was very l i b e r a t i n g because I couldn't help but think how different my professional l i f e was when I was i n the classroom setting. There, I never had enough time to even eat my lunch. There was always 175 some kind of i n t e r r u p t i o n . I have t o admit I r e a l l y enjoy the freedom of being here at the u n i v e r s i t y . Brenda a l s o enjoyed the freedom of the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g . "I get t o the u n i v e r s i t y at 8:30 a.m. and I can s i t i n my o f f i c e f o r f o r t y - f i v e minutes and go over my plans and do some reading. I walk i n my c l a s s e s f e e l i n g calm and ref r e s h e d . " Sarah a l s o compared her u n i v e r s i t y and school experiences: When I a r r i v e d at my school classroom at 8 a.m., there's students dropping by, there's parents c a l l i n g f o r me, I'm stopping f i g h t s i n the hallway. I t ' s chaos from the minute I walk i n to when I leave. There's no q u i e t space. Gerald, too, n o t i c e d the regimentation of the t y p i c a l school day. " I t was tough g i v i n g up the freedom that I had at the u n i v e r s i t y . I r e a l l y miss i t , i n t h a t r e s p e c t . The school schedule i s a l o t more c o n f i n i n g . " More S t r e s s - Less Stress? Gerald admitted that a part of him had been l o o k i n g forward t o r e t u r n i n g t o a f a m i l i a r environment and r o u t i n e s : Going back t o teaching was a chance not t o be under so much s t r e s s . Teaching i s more r o u t i n e and i t won't be as s t r e s s f u l as secondment was. The routines - of that job are not r o u t i n e . Sometimes I was teaching from 4 t o 7 p.m., and other times from 2 t o 4 p.m.. Other days I was teaching 1 7 6 from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., and even s t i l l students were b r i n g i n g me t h i n g s . The emotional demands at the end of those days was p h y s i c a l l y d r a i n i n g . There i s an element of calm that I've enjoyed s i n c e r e t u r n i n g the classroom. Nevertheless, Gerald, an experienced teacher, i n d i c a t e d t h at he encountered some d i f f i c u l t y when r e - a d j u s t i n g t o teaching adolescents: I'm f a i r l y organized and mature but I f e l t overwhelmed t h i s year d e a l i n g with a l l the issue s i n education. I f I f e l t overwhelmed at my age, with my experience, I can't imagine what i t ' s l i k e f o r student teachers and beginning teachers. I'm going t o focus on my p u p i l s , r a t h e r than worrying about e x t r a r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Tenuous R e l a t i o n s with Colleagues I asked seconded teachers t o speculate about any p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s they intended t o make when they returned t o the school community. Frank s a i d t h a t he d i d not want t o "rock the boat" because he was s e n s i t i v e t o how his colleagues might r e a c t t o h i s recent a f f i l i a t i o n with the u n i v e r s i t y . Frank p r e d i c t e d t h a t i t was going t o be a time t o slowly s e t t l e back i n t o t eaching: I don't want t o i n t i m i d a t e my c o l l e a g u e s . I t h i n k I need t o go i n t o the school and be r e a l l y q u i e t . I t h i n k i t w i l l be important t o j u s t spend time with 1 7 7 my students. I ' l l make that my p r i o r i t y , because I don't want to i s o l a t e anybody or i n t i m i d a t e people. Seconded teachers seem to want something, maybe r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r experience at the u n i v e r s i t y but yet they back o f f and do not accept what might come. Sarah, too, was concerned with the prospect of i n t i m i d a t i n g her co l l e a g u e s : I ' l l have t o be c l e a r on what I w i l l get i n v o l v e d with. Teachers i n my school assume I know a l o t about teaching. There are s e n i o r teachers whom I have a great deal of respect f o r , but I can't accept i t when they say I know more about teaching than they ever w i l l . Even though Sarah was the one who got the r e c o g n i t i o n and encouragement t o become a leader, she f e l t pressured by a d d i t i o n a l expectations placed on her by c o l l e a g u e s : People expect me to take on a l l these a d d i t i o n a l r o l e s . I ' l l have t o be very s e l e c t i v e about what I agree t o do, because I don't want t o get t o the p o i n t of where I was when I l e f t the classroom, being overwhelmed and not having the time t o t h i n k about what I was doing. She went on t o add, "I should be more p o s i t i v e about my r e t u r n t o teaching, but I'm not l o o k i n g forward t o i t at a l l . E v e n t u a l l y I w i l l get used t o i t , but i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t . " 1 7 8 C l e a r l y , the teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study were aware that they might be perc e i v e d as "experts" and "out s i d e r s " by e x i s t i n g school s t a f f . In a n t i c i p a t i o n t h a t t h i s might be the case, seconded teachers chose t o downplay t h e i r newly acquired i n s i g h t s about both teaching and the process of l e a r n i n g t o teach. I t i s l i k e a tax on whatever value secondment could c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o f e s s i o n . Gerald, f o r example, noted t h a t i t was j u s t e a s i e r t o f o l l o w a path of l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e . Gerald summed up what i t was l i k e f o r him when he returned t o the school community: When I returned I tended t o s i t towards the back and observe what was going on. I d i d n ' t make much of an e f f o r t t o support or c o n t r i b u t e to the school because I d i d n ' t know them and they d i d n ' t know me. In some ways, I thin k they were a l i t t l e s u s p i c i o u s of me because I was being i d e n t i f i e d as a u n i v e r s i t y person. I thought t h i s was a l i t t l e r i d i c u l o u s c o n s i d e r i n g that I had many years of teaching s e r v i c e i n the d i s t r i c t . In f a c t , I had more than most of the teachers I now found myself working with. I t was almost as i f what I had done as a teacher before going to the u n i v e r s i t y was diminished. No, not diminished, I should say almost f o r g o t t e n . Well I can t e l l you, I haven't f o r g o t t e n ! 1 7 9 F a l l i n g Back Into Bad Habits Over the course of the f i r s t three or four months of Gerald's r e t u r n to classroom teaching, he w r e s t l e d with both h i s i d e n t i t y and with p u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e the things he learned about teacher education as a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r and i n s t r u c t o r . When I spoke with him i n January, he was somewhat embarrassed that he had f a l l e n short of h i s own expectations: I found i t more d i f f i c u l t than I had a n t i c i p a t e d . I found myself f a l l i n g back i n t o some of the types of t eaching methods that r e a l l y weren't the best and knowing i t because I've been through t h i s process of working with other teachers and student teachers. I would catch myself and t h i n k i f someone was e v a l u a t i n g me, they would say that those are things you don't do but I d i d them. I d i d n ' t always have a very v a l i d reason f o r p i c k i n g a s t r a t e g y . For example, i t might be that a k i d won't stop humming, or i s making loud noises f o r too long and a l l of a sudden I r a i s e my v o i c e and say sharp t h i n g s . And yet, I know b e t t e r . In r e f l e c t i n g about h i s u n i v e r s i t y teaching experience, he pointed out how easy i t was to t a l k t o student teachers about the s o r t s of dilemmas they might encounter as teachers but he acknowledged t h a t , even with h i s e x p e r t i s e , sometimes he d i d things of which he was not proud. Reverting t o previous p r a c t i c e was a common occurrence 1 8 0 among seconded teachers, h i g h l i g h t i n g the immediacy with which teachers are f o r c e d to a c t . R e l u c t a n t l y , Gerald noted, "I've gone back to doing things e x a c t l y l i k e I was before because they work f o r me." Assessing the B e n e f i t s of Secondment: Experienced Changes The secondment experience gave each of these teachers o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r own p r a c t i c e , viewing i t from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s and comparing themselves t o other experienced teachers. Raised Personal Standards of Performance Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald expected t o be more " e f f e c t i v e " classroom teachers as a r e s u l t of the u n i v e r s i t y appointment. Brenda, f o r example, noted: I t h i n k i t w i l l take me l e s s time to do what I was doing before, because i t i s c l e a r e r t o me now. I have a b e t t e r understanding of the planning process. Secondment has been l i k e a r e f r e s h e r course. Being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r teaching courses has f o r c e d me t o t h i n k about what I know about teaching. Most of Brenda's new knowledge has come from reading and r e s e a r c h i n g t o p i c s she has had t o teach i n her courses. In a d d i t i o n , she was more c r i t i c a l of her own performance: I have higher standards of what counts as good teaching. I expect a l o t from my student teachers but I a l s o expect a great deal from myself. I thought I was a very e f f e c t i v e teacher 1 8 1 but s i n c e coming t o the u n i v e r s i t y I have had the opportunity t o thi n k about the ways I can be a more e f f e c t i v e teacher. I'm l o o k i n g forward t o adapting my p r a c t i c e when I r e t u r n t o the classroom s e t t i n g . Seconded teachers a l l reported t h a t they had become more tho u g h t f u l and a n a l y t i c a l about t h e i r teaching p r a c t i c e . Sarah s a i d : I t h i n k my teaching w i l l improve because now I am so aware of a l l the components of teaching. Observing student teachers and a n a l y z i n g teaching. Because of t h i s , I w i l l be more a n a l y t i c a l than I was i n the past. A l s o , t a k i n g graduate courses simultaneously has had a b i g impact on my t h i n k i n g . I was being f o r c e d by p r o f e s s o r s and classmates to c l a r i f y my assumptions and b e l i e f s about teaching i n a manner that I've never had to do before. I suspect that my experience as a seconded teacher has been d i f f e r e n t from the others. A common theme running through seconded teachers' s t o r i e s i s the importance they a t t a c h t o watching other people teach. The opportunity t o observe student teachers and cooperating teachers during the practicum i s important to t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l development. Working with student teachers and cooperating teachers i s a c a t a l y s t f o r r e f l e c t i n g on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s about teaching. 182 Frank, i n d e s c r i b i n g h i s i n t e r a c t i o n with student teachers and cooperating teachers i n the practicum noted: I've learned some r e a l l y good techniques on vari o u s components of teaching Shakespeare and poetry. I r a r e l y get the opportunity t o observe my colleagues i n a c t i o n . I always thought t h a t the l a c k of opportunity i n observing others i s one of the things that hampers our p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. Frank speculated that he might teach d i f f e r e n t l y as a r e s u l t of watching student teachers and cooperating teachers perform during the practicum: For the most pa r t , I p r e f e r r e d t o be a teacher who mainly used a d i r e c t approach. That's when I was most comfortable. But a f t e r seeing other approaches, I have t o admit that maybe I should t r y something d i f f e r e n t . I r e a l l y l i k e d how student teachers used group work. A l s o , I thi n k I w i l l allow p u p i l s t o take more d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . A p r o f e s s o r f r i e n d and I have been t a l k i n g about c o n s t r u c t i v i s t conceptions of teaching. Seconded teachers expanded t h e i r "teaching r e p e r t o i r e s " as a r e s u l t of t h e i r secondment. They "picked up" ideas from watching student teachers and cooperating teachers during the practicum, as w e l l as "borrowing" ideas 1 8 3 contained i n student teachers' assignments. Brenda, i n p a r t i c u l a r , "scrounged" f o r resources: I'm always l o o k i n g f o r b e t t e r resources, things I can use i n my classroom. When I was i n the classroom s e t t i n g , I was always on the lookout f o r resources. As a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r , I'm s t i l l l o o k i n g f o r these same types of resources, but i n s t e a d of using them with p u p i l s , I'm adapting them f o r student teachers. I f i n d t h i s t o be an i n t e r e s t i n g process I've been going through. I'm s t i l l a teacher at heart but my audience and purpose has changed. I f i n d myself l o o k i n g at resources I've put together f o r my student teachers and t h i n k i n g about ways I c o u l d use the s t u f f with my p u p i l s when I r e t u r n t o the classroom. I t ' s a win-win s i t u a t i o n . Expanded Resources Before r e t u r n i n g t o the school community, seconded teachers expected t o share new resources with c o l l e a g u e s . As Frank s t a t e d : I'm t a k i n g away from here a f a i r l y r i c h l i b r a r y of s t u f f t h a t I d i d n ' t come i n with, much of which I thin k could be h e l p f u l t o my c o l l e a g u e s . I'm c e r t a i n l y w i l l i n g t o share i t and I hope they w i l l be r e c e p t i v e . There i s no evidence i n the data, however, t h a t seconded teachers d i d share new resources with c o l l e a g u e s . The 1 8 4 reason, according to Gerald, "Everyone i s j u s t too busy. I t a l k t o the other teachers i n my department but I don't r e a l l y know them very w e l l . On occasion I've made resources a v a i l a b l e t o them but we don't p l a n together or anything." Increased Confidence Seconded teachers a l l b e l i e v e d that they had become more co n f i d e n t because of t h e i r secondment. The source of t h e i r new confidence r e s t s i n the f e e l i n g of being "current" with regard to e d u c a t i o n a l theory. Gerald had t h i s t o say: When I went back to the classroom I took a l l the things I had ordered i n my mind about how t o teach, the theory of i t because i t was a great chance t o r e f l e c t , t o read, to l e a r n about r e o r d e r i n g a l l the things I do i n the classroom. F i n d i n g , i n f a c t , t h a t a l l the things I was doing were v a l i d . There was a b i g jump i n my confidence. I learned t h a t theory i s very important to understanding my p r a c t i c e . Enhanced P r o f e s s i o n a l Language The language that seconded teachers used t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r teaching i s important i n understanding the d i f f e r e n c e s between school and u n i v e r s i t y communities. Frank, f o r example, admitted t h a t he d i d not possess a con c i s e language about teaching, e s p e c i a l l y when t a l k i n g about things l i k e c o n s t r u c t i v i s m . Over the term of h i s u n i v e r s i t y appointment, Frank recognized that he had 1 8 5 changed. "I can imagine that some of my colleagues may be somewhat i n t i m i d a t e d by the language I might use to des c r i b e my teaching. Before coming here I would never have used words l i k e epistemology and c o n s t r u c t i v i s m . " L i k e Frank, Sarah acknowledged t h a t she, too, t a l k e d d i f f e r e n t l y about teaching because of her u n i v e r s i t y appointment. An important dimension of the u n i v e r s i t y experience f o r Sarah, however, was her l i f e as a graduate student: I should not have t o apologize t o anyone f o r speaking i n a concis e language. Teaching i s a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d , and i t ' s about time that people recognized that teachers have a s p e c i a l i z e d language. I'm p r e t t y sure, however, t h a t many of my colleagues w i l l be i n t i m i d a t e d by my language, but I don't see why I should have t o tone i t down. Sarah seems "hot and c o l d . " At one time she worries about over extending h e r s e l f ; here she i s f o r c e f u l and " i n t h e i r face." M i s s i n g Follow-up by the U n i v e r s i t y and School D i s t r i c t As seconded teachers neared the end of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y appointments, they i n d i c a t e d t hat they wished t o maintain and somehow extend the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s they had developed i n t h e i r new r o l e s . Overshadowing t h e i r d e s i r e t o maintain l i n k s with the u n i v e r s i t y , however, was the f a c t t h at there was no f o l l o w up by e i t h e r the 186 university or the school d i s t r i c t concerning t h e i r secondment. Seconded teachers were frustrated by what they saw as a lack of opportunity to contribute to teacher education after their university appointments ended. Sadly, as Gerald pointed out: There i s no guarantee that we w i l l even work as cooperating teachers. The teachers i n this school, for example, voted as a staff not to host any student teachers this year. This vote was taken before I was placed i n this school, but here I am, an experienced teacher and teacher educator, and yet, there are v i r t u a l l y no teacher education opportunities available to me. I find this r e a l l y distressing. I'm sure that I am not the only one feeling this way. Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald were unanimous i n their condemnation of the lack of follow up by the university. As Gerald observed: You would think that the university would l i k e to get feedback on things we might suggest. After a l l , there were some things that could be improved. For example, I would l i k e to see more formal support offered to beginning seconded teachers before they start t h e i r duties, things l i k e coupling them with more experienced seconded teachers and full-time faculty. 1 8 7 In defending the poor follow-up by the u n i v e r s i t y , Frank speculated t h a t the high turn over i n seconded teachers creates a c o n d i t i o n i n which the u n i v e r s i t y becomes l a z y about worrying about t h e i r concerns and recommendations f o r improving the seconded teacher r o l e : Every year there are l o t s of new people h i r e d . When I began my second year at the u n i v e r s i t y , I remember s i t t i n g i n the o r i e n t a t i o n meeting and l o o k i n g around and t h i n k i n g t o myself t h a t I d i d n ' t know very many people. What happened to a l l of those people from l a s t year? I know tha t some of them returned to t h e i r school d i s t r i c t s but, nevertheless, I was a l i t t l e shocked t o r e a l i z e t h a t I was now a veteran seconded teacher when compared t o a l l those new people. I wasn't sure i f I was supposed to take new people under my wing. I was c e r t a i n l y w i l l i n g but I was a l s o concerned about g e t t i n g organized f o r teaching my own c l a s s e s . I remember how h e c t i c i t was l a s t year. That f i r s t semester i s a r e a l k i l l e r . Brenda, Frank, Sarah, and Gerald reported having conversations with former seconded teachers before and a f t e r they returned to the school community. According t o Frank, they, too, were disappointed i n the l a c k of f o l l o w up by the u n i v e r s i t y concerning t h e i r secondment: 1 8 8 I can thin k of l o t s of former seconded teachers i n the same s i t u a t i o n . There i s a c o n t i n u i n g education program at t h i s u n i v e r s i t y , and what a cadre of people seconded teachers who have taught at the u n i v e r s i t y and who have proven themselves i n d i f f e r e n t courses and programs would be. Seconded teachers would be a r e a l l y good group t o work i n t o some c o n t i n u i n g programs back i n the d i s t r i c t s . Frank's comment r e v e a l s a "here I am" stance. He wants the d i s t r i c t t o make use of h i s t a l e n t s . Seconded teachers were a l s o c r i t i c a l of t h e i r school d i s t r i c t s because they too d i d not appear t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r secondment. Gerald d e s c r i b e d the r e c e p t i o n he re c e i v e d when he returned t o the school s e t t i n g . "No one i n my school d i s t r i c t followed up on my secondment, no, no, no! I guess I'm s o r t of c y n i c a l but people get i n t h e i r own l i t t l e niche, they don't even know what questions t o ask." F e e l i n g Cut Off A l l seconded teachers viewed the u n i v e r s i t y appointment as " f a n t a s t i c p r o f e s s i o n a l development" and they wanted i t to continue. Frank acknowledged, "There was no expectation by the school d i s t r i c t as a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of gra n t i n g secondment. I t doesn't c o s t the d i s t r i c t anything; the u n i v e r s i t y pays my s a l a r y . I t costs the u n i v e r s i t y a l o t more." Frank speculated that things c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t . What i f formerly seconded teachers coordinated other 1 8 9 cooperating teachers? What i f they acted as l i a i s o n s among f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , cooperating teachers, and student teachers? What i f formerly seconded teachers were employed t o teach foundations or methods courses on school s i t e s ? Gerald d e s c r i b e d the l a c k of opportunity w i t h i n h i s school d i s t r i c t : I o f f e r e d my s e r v i c e s t o the personnel o f f i c e but people i n that o f f i c e are not r e a l l y aware of the powerful experiences I had at the u n i v e r s i t y . I o f f e r e d my s e r v i c e s , not to be pa i d f o r i t . I s a i d I would be happy t o work with any of the s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s ; I would be happy t o do some i n s e r v i c e with e n r o l l i n g teachers. I would be happy t o s t a r t a p r o j e c t at my school i f the d i s t r i c t wanted. I co u l d be the l i a i s o n person on s t a f f . I d i d n ' t want any e x t r a money or anything. I j u s t wanted t o extend and share some of the things I learned while at the u n i v e r s i t y but they took no n o t i c e . I'm a r e g u l a r teacher with normal d u t i e s . I t seems t o be a "Who do you thin k you are?" a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of d i s t r i c t s . One of the reasons t h a t seconded teachers were f r u s t r a t e d about the l a c k of f o l l o w up by the u n i v e r s i t y and school d i s t r i c t s was t h a t they knew p r e v i o u s l y seconded teachers who experienced s i m i l a r t h i n g s . Frank joked that he should s t a r t a cl u b f o r "recovering" seconded teachers, 190 a p l a c e where they could come together o c c a s i o n a l l y t o t a l k about t h e i r experiences i n l i g h t of the t r a n s i t i o n they make when r e t u r n i n g t o the classroom but a l s o how they might b e t t e r prepare and support those i n d i v i d u a l s who are about t o embark on secondment f o r the f i r s t time. Dreaming of Extending Secondment Seconded teachers i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would l i k e t o continue working with student teachers when they r e t u r n t o the school community. Obviously, the most common way f o r t h i s t o occur would be to again become cooperating teachers. What i s important i s t h a t seconded teachers have been changed by the f a c u l t y a d v i s i n g r o l e , i n p a r t i c u l a r . Working as a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r has given them new i n s i g h t i n t o the o f t e n d i f f i c u l t adjustments that both student teachers and cooperating teachers make working together i n the practicum. In an e f f o r t t o promote c o l l a b o r a t i o n among the vari o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n teacher education, seconded teachers made suggestions about ways to extend the r o l e . Sarah, f o r example, suggested that i t i s an advantage t o be a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r i n the same d i s t r i c t i n which she teaches: I b r i n g student teachers i n t o the d i s t r i c t as a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r . Then I have nothing to do with them. I t doesn't have t o be that way. A f t e r working with them f o r two years as a f a c u l t y a d v isor, the d i s t r i c t might h i r e 1 9 1 them as t e a c h e r s - o n - c a l l . A f t e r I r e t u r n to the d i s t r i c t , they could spend one morning per week with me i n my classroom, seeing what I do. We can b u i l d on the previous r e l a t i o n s h i p . I would s t i l l be supporting them but i n a d i f f e r e n t c a p a c i t y . I t i s not j u s t seconded teachers who might wish to extend the r e l a t i o n s h i p . According to Sarah, student teachers are a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n maintaining some aspect of the f a c u l t y advisor-student teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p : They would work with me one morning per week. Student teachers have suggested t h i s t o me. They want to be with me i n my classroom. They're not seeing t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p as over. They s t i l l want someone standing beside them . . . i t ' s l i k e another phase. I t makes sense t o me t h a t they move from the practicum arrangement t o some type of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p or way of being i n the classroom without t a k i n g on the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Frank p r e f e r r e d t o t h i n k of student teachers as "works i n progress." He suggested that he would be i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o working with f i r s t year teachers i n a part-time c a p a c i t y : A meeting would have t o be c a l l e d i n school time, otherwise nobody w i l l show up. The teachers would have t o be r e l e a s e d as part of a mentor program. I c o u l d act as a l i a i s o n i n b r i n g i n g together the d i f f e r e n t student teachers and cooperating teachers. 192 My experience as a f a c u l t y a d v i s o r would be valu a b l e i n t h i s regard. Secondment has given me a broad a p p r e c i a t i o n of the whole l e a r n i n g t o teach process, and I thin k I am w e l l s i t u a t e d t o share what I know with the other key p a r t i c i p a n t s . When the practicum i s on, maybe I c o u l d get these people together once or twice a month. Even i n d i s t r i c t s where mentoring programs e x i s t , d i f f i c u l t i e s remain i n f i n d i n g ways to extend the secondment r o l e . As Sarah r e l a t e d : My d i s t r i c t has a mentoring program but they're not going t o r e l e a s e me t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t . Even though many people might l i k e the ide a , i t w i l l not come about because of f i n a n c i a l reasons. Even though many educators t a l k about the importance of good teacher education programs and i n d u c t i o n support, I thin k t h a t most of the t a l k i s j u s t t h a t ; i t ' s r h e t o r i c . Are we ever going t o get t o the p o i n t where a c t i o n r e p l a c e s the r h e t o r i c ? We can't a f f o r d , as a p r o f e s s i o n , t o keep on i g n o r i n g these kinds of i s s u e s . At some p o i n t , i t i s a l l going t o come back and haunt us. Sarah was r e f e r r i n g t o the f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s under which school d i s t r i c t s f i n d themselves op e r a t i n g . In an e f f o r t t o maximize s k i l l s , e x p e r t i s e , and knowledge acquired and r e f i n e d during secondment, Sarah 1 9 3 suggested ways should be found t o allow seconded teachers to go back and f o r t h between the u n i v e r s i t y and the school. She could t h i n k of no reason why secondment has to be a "one-shot d e a l . " As an a l t e r n a t i v e , Sarah suggested: I t would be wonderful t o have the career path of teaching four years, then be seconded f o r a year or two. The c o n t i n u a l going back and f o r t h between the classroom and the u n i v e r s i t y , . the two feeding back i n t o each other. I thin k t h a t would keep me ref r e s h e d , challenged, and on top of t h i n g s . Another v e r s i o n suggested by Brenda would see seconded teachers maintain some of t h e i r teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at the u n i v e r s i t y while simultaneously teaching c h i l d r e n or youth i n the school s e t t i n g . Sarah a l s o suggested: I would love t o be a type of r o v i n g teacher. A teacher educator would come i n t o a school and observe and go through the steps. I t would be l i k e r e - v i s i t i n g your practicum every f i v e years. This would be an e x c i t i n g p o s i t i o n but I don't know where i t e x i s t s . Her comments r e f l e c t her d e s i r e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n and maintenance of her col l e a g u e s , a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t seconded teachers a l l took s e r i o u s l y . Sarah added, "I'm not i n t e r e s t e d i n doing one-shot d e a l s . I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n l i v i n g the l i f e with teachers and en t e r i n g i n t o deep c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n by unpacking the 1 9 4 l e s s o n and l o o k i n g at i t i n a d i f f e r e n t way and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g i t . " Chapter Summary There was a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of f r u s t r a t i o n and resentment inherent i n the comments of seconded teachers as they prepared t o r e t u r n t o school d i s t r i c t s . Most of t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n was reserved f o r the p o s t i n g process i t s e l f . On the one hand, seconded teachers wanted " s p e c i a l treatment," a r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y appointments. On the other hand, however, when they returned t o the school community they i n t e n t i o n a l l y downplayed t h e i r e x p e r t i s e and "new knowledge about teaching." T h e i r dreams of extending the secondment p o s i t i o n were not r e a l i z e d . 1 9 5 CHAPTER 8 - CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The c o n c l u s i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n , and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research that appear i n t h i s chapter are drawn from the experiences of the seventeen seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study. This chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e s e c t i o n s : conclusions emerging from the research questions, c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o teacher education, reviewing the assumptions of the study, i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teacher education, and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research. Conclusions Emerging From The Research Questions Question One - What General Expectations Are Held As To T h e i r Role D e f i n i t i o n and Role F u l f i l l m e n t By Teachers Seconded To University-Based Teacher Education? In answer t o the f i r s t research question, f i v e general expectations emerged: being a r o l e model, being a l i a i s o n between schools and the u n i v e r s i t y , having input i n t o practicum placements, experiencing an o r i e n t a t i o n program, and working with h i g h l y committed student teachers. Expectations f o r being a r o l e model. I n i t i a l l y , seconded teachers c o n s t r u c t e d t h e i r r o l e s as u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a dvisors based upon t h e i r own student teaching experiences, and from t h e i r work as cooperating teachers. They acted as r o l e models when they attempted t o demonstrate " e f f e c t i v e " teaching p r a c t i c e s and techniques. Teachers viewed a technique as e f f e c t i v e i f i t had worked f o r them as classroom teachers. 196 They demonstrated t h e i r " f a v o r i t e " techniques to student teachers, mainly i n the methods c l a s s e s they taught, and to a l e s s e r extent i n the P r i n c i p l e s of Teaching course. These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with other s t u d i e s . For example, Adams (1993) noted t h a t seconded teachers took s e r i o u s l y the f a c t t h a t they were r o l e models and " f a c i l i t a t o r s of l e a r n i n g . " Seconded teachers discovered, however, t h a t demonstrating classroom techniques i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g was sometimes problematic. For example, seconded teachers complained about having t o share classroom space with other u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s . They missed having t h e i r own rooms i n which they could d i s p l a y students' work and s t o r e s u p p l i e s and other personal possessions. Teachers had d i f f i c u l t y a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e i r p r a c t i c e t o student teachers before they went on practicum. The seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study doubted that student teachers had a common frame of r e f e r e n c e t o understand classroom experiences. Seconded teachers were concerned t h a t student teachers assessed t h e i r performance and the s t r a t e g i e s they demonstrated from a "student" p e r s p e c t i v e , i n s t e a d of t r y i n g t o t h i n k " l i k e a teacher." This i s s u e i s not new i n teacher education and has been reported by other researchers (Feiman-Nemser & Featherstone, 1992; L o r t i e , 1975). Teachers described, f o r example, the chaos r e s u l t i n g from the f i r s t time they i n s t r u c t e d student teachers about jigsaw cooperative s t r a t e g i e s . In sum, seconded teachers r e - a d j u s t e d t h e i r 197 expectations about student teacher d i s p o s i t i o n s towards l e a r n i n g and teaching, and about being more p a t i e n t than they had thought necessary i n a s s i s t i n g student teachers t o i d e n t i f y the complexities of l e a r n i n g t o teach. Expectations f o r p r o v i d i n g l i a i s o n between school and u n i v e r s i t y . As f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , seconded teachers performed an important l i a i s o n r o l e between schools and the u n i v e r s i t y . For example, they c l a r i f i e d program goals and expectations f o r cooperating teachers. A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s occurs when f a c u l t y advisors give cooperating teachers copies of t h e i r own methods course o u t l i n e s . They found, however, that there was l i t t l e time t o exchange ideas and engage i n meaningful dialogue about anything but the student teachers' performances. On occasion, f a c u l t y a d visors attempted t o " s e l l " the teacher education program to school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and cooperating teachers. This occurred when they found themselves working i n u n f a m i l i a r schools, or when i t was the f i r s t time the school had hosted student teachers. A seconded teacher might h i g h l i g h t the strengths of the teacher education program, e x p l a i n s t r u c t u r e d course work as a good foundation f o r student teachers t o b u i l d on during the practicum and note the emphasis on l e s s o n and u n i t planning, E n g l i s h as a Second Language i s s u e s , and the i n t e g r a t i o n of technology i n a l l s u b j e c t areas. This i s c o n s i s t e n t with r e p o r t s that i n d i c a t e seconded teachers need e f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l 198 s k i l l s when working c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y with d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s i n the various e d u c a t i o n a l communities (Adams, 1993). Other s t u d i e s , (Beynon, Geddis, & Onslow, 1996; F r i e s e n , 1996) h i g h l i g h t e d the importance of n u r t u r i n g c o l l a b o r a t i v e partnerships between u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d teacher educators and cooperating teachers and other school personnel. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are c o n s i s t e n t with these r e p o r t s . As a newcomer t o the u n i v e r s i t y community i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o assume the r o l e of f a c u l t y a d v i s o r . Previous s t u d i e s on the s u p e r v i s i o n of student teachers by seconded teachers have shown that they a c t as important communication l i n k s , f a c i l i t a t o r s , c o n s u l t a n t s , and a d v i s o r s (Maynes, Mcintosh, & Wimmer, 1998). I t takes time f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o understand program goals and u n i v e r s i t y p o l i c i e s which are not always followed. For example, secondary student teachers are expected t o begin " p r a c t i c e " teaching at 20% of a f u l l teaching load, g r a d u a l l y b u i l d i n g t o 80% by the end of the practicum. As cooperating teachers, seconded teachers i n d i c a t e d t h a t sometimes they had ignored that p o l i c y . As f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , they were sometimes drawn to f o l l o w the preference of cooperating teachers, thus p u t t i n g student teachers i n p o t e n t i a l l y awkward p o s i t i o n s . Seconded teachers expected t o be a d i r e c t l i n k between schools and the u n i v e r s i t y . They b e l i e v e d they c o u l d narrow the gap between what they o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as the o v e r l y 199 t h e o r e t i c a l nature of u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d teacher education and the p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y of the schools, even though they sometimes acknowledged that they were "rusty" about theory. They i n d i c a t e d they could "pick up" the theory, as needed, and present i t to student teachers. According t o Ziechner (1990), student teachers are f r e q u e n t l y preoccupied with "excessive r e a l i s m . " Seconded teachers, too, b e l i e v e that the school classroom i s the r e a l world. Expectations f o r having input i n t o practicum placements. Seconded teachers b e l i e v e t h a t cooperating teachers should be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and t h e i r performances monitored. Seconded teachers expected t o have some input i n t o practicum placements and were very c r i t i c a l of p l a c i n g student teachers with cooperating teachers who were poor r o l e models. I f , at the c o n c l u s i o n of the f i r s t year of secondment, a seconded teacher brought h i s or her concerns to the practicum c o o r d i n a t o r and the f o l l o w i n g year discovered t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l whom they had l a b e l e d a " t e r r i b l e cooperating teacher" had been assigned another student teacher, there appears t o be reason f o r dismay. Expectations f o r an o r i e n t a t i o n process. Seconded teachers expected the F a c u l t y of Education t o take an a c t i v e r o l e i n easing t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n from the classroom t o the u n i v e r s i t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , they wanted infor m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to teaching a d u l t s . Seconded teachers expected a thorough i n i t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n program, 200 as w e l l as ongoing support throughout the year. The n e c e s s i t y of a w e l l organized o r i e n t a t i o n program f o r seconded teachers has been h i g h l i g h t e d i n other s t u d i e s (Adams, 1993; Cornbleth & E l l s w o r t h , 1994; Maynes, MCIntosh, & Wimmer, 1998). Because they thought of u n i v e r s i t i e s as b i g i n s t i t u t i o n s with ample budgets and resources, they a l s o assumed that someone l i k e a school v i c e p r i n c i p a l would help them understand the "job" they were expected t o perform. Needless to say, they were disappointed when they discovered there was no such person. Expectations f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y . Seconded teachers b e l i e v e that c o l l a b o r a t i o n among teachers improves teaching p r a c t i c e . Most of the seconded teachers, e s p e c i a l l y elementary people, i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were used to planning and c o l l a b o r a t i n g with other teachers. Before beginning secondment, teachers expected t o f i n d s i m i l a r c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s at the u n i v e r s i t y with f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y . They d i d not a n t i c i p a t e t hat the most supportive r e l a t i o n s h i p s would be with other seconded teachers, r a t h e r than with f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s of Adams (1993) and Dawson (1996) who reported seconded teachers' concerns with "out of touch" f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y , and the d i f f i c u l t y e s t a b l i s h i n g meaningful p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with p r o f e s s o r s . 201 Expectations of student teachers. The previous f i v e expectations are r e l a t e d t o t h e i r own p r a c t i c e , whereas t h i s one i s r e l a t e d t o the students with whom they worked. This study has demonstrated -that teachers began secondment expecting a l l student teachers t o be open-minded and e n t h u s i a s t i c l e a r n e r s . General student teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been reported elswhere i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Britzman, 1983; Goodlad, 1990; Howey & Zimpher, 1996; L a n i e r & L i t t l e , 1986; RATE 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990). For the most p a r t , seconded teachers enjoyed working with p r o s p e c t i v e candidates, but they were very disappointed and concerned that a m i n o r i t y of student teachers l a c k e d i n i t i a t i v e , determination, c o l l e g i a l m e n t a l i t y , and a c a r i n g d i s p o s i t i o n towards working with c h i l d r e n and youths, a l l q u a l i t i e s t h a t they s a i d are important t o being an e f f e c t i v e teacher. I t had not occurred t o them before beginning secondment that some student teachers might not be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n working with elementary or secondary p u p i l s , or even i n teaching as a ca r e e r . Seconded teachers expected student teachers t o be f u l l y committed. Seconded teachers a l s o expected student teachers t o be r i s k - t a k e r s . As experienced cooperating teachers, they t a l k e d about some of the "great" student teachers they had worked with over the years. I n e v i t a b l y , seconded teachers d e s c r i b e d student teachers who had d i s p l a y e d i n i t i a t i v e , confidence, and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o go "that e x t r a m i l e f o r p u p i l s . " They expected cooperating teachers t o be 202 supportive of student teachers, j u s t l i k e they s a i d they had been as cooperating teachers. Question Two - Do Seconded Teachers' Change T h e i r Perceptions Of T h e i r Roles During The Secondment Experience? I f So, How Do These Perceptions Change? In answer to the second question, i t was p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y three areas where perceptions were modified: r e -t h i n k i n g methods courses, r e l a t i n g t o student teachers, and e v a l u a t i n g student teachers' teaching performance. Re-thinking methods courses. The t r a n s i t i o n from classroom teacher t o u n i v e r s i t y -based teacher educator was more d i f f i c u l t and complex than teachers had a n t i c i p a t e d . By the end of t h e i r secondment, teachers acknowledged that they had had almost no l a s t i n g impact on the program design or the content of teacher education. A l l they could say was t h a t i n t h e i r methods courses, they were s u c c e s s f u l i n i n t r o d u c i n g the c u r r i c u l u m and some of the "best" techniques to engage p u p i l s i n l e a r n i n g . Previous s t u d i e s about seconded teachers' c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r e s e r v i c e teacher education (e.g., Adams, 1993) have shown that seconded teachers d e f i n e e f f e c t i v e teaching as p r a c t i c e t h at i s i n n o v a t i v e , responsive, and r e s p o n s i b l e . This study has demonstrated that seconded teachers go beyond the t e c h n i c a l and managerial aspect of teaching when d e f i n i n g and modeling classroom p r a c t i c e t o student teachers. Floden, McDiarmid, and Wiemer (1989) and Katz and Raths (1982) reported that methods i n s t r u c t o r s 203 o f t e n f a i l e d t o make e x p l i c i t goals and d e s i r e d outcomes of methods i n s t r u c t i o n . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study have demonstrated that seconded teachers' goals f o r t h e i r courses are c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o the a t t r i b u t e s they b e l i e v e to be fundamental f o r competent beginning teaching. I am a l s o saying that secondment, i n some ways, confirmed t h e i r views about teacher education programs, that the most important p a r t s are methods courses and the practicum, the same views, I suspect, they themselves h e l d as student teachers. R e l a t i n g t o student teachers. Seconded teachers acknowledged t h a t they had d i f f i c u l t y e s t a b l i s h i n g and maintaining p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with student teachers, c o n t r a r y to t h e i r e xpectations. They wondered, sometimes, i f they had had any l a s t i n g impact on the l i v e s of student teachers. P a r t of the reason f o r t h e i r f e e l i n g t h i s way was that they were unable to develop l o n g - l a s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with student teachers. Courses l a s t approximately 13 weeks, and every year a new group begins the program. Unless they happened to come i n t o contact with former student teachers i n t h e i r school d i s t r i c t s , they had l i t t l e knowledge of what happened to them. A number of s t u d i e s have h i g h l i g h t e d the importance of n u r t u r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with student teachers (Adams, 1993; B a d a l i , 1994; Kagan, 1993; Zimpher, deVoss, & Nott, 1980). I t i s c l e a r i n t h i s study that seconded teachers were i n v o l v e d to a .lesser degree 204 with student teachers than they had been with students i n t h e i r former classrooms. E v a l u a t i n g student teachers' teaching performances. A number of stu d i e s have h i g h l i g h t e d the complexities of e v a l u a t i n g student teachers' teaching performances (Guba, 1981; Guyton & McIntyre, 1990; Howey & Zimpher, 1989; Mclntyre, B i r d , & Fox, 1996; Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1982). E a r l i e r i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , I o u t l i n e d some of the problems t h a t seconded teachers a s s o c i a t e d with being an eva l u a t o r of student teachers 1 teaching performances. When they began secondment, teachers expected t o perform a gatekeeping r o l e , "weeding out" i n a p p r o p r i a t e teacher candidates. Cooper (1995) reported t h a t gatekeeping i s one of the major f u n c t i o n s of teacher education programs, concluding that the p o s s i b i l i t y of disagreements between cooperating teachers and f a c u l t y a dvisors i s q u i t e r e a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f poor communication has e x i s t e d . Seconded teachers' experiences as cooperating teachers had a profound impact on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . They reported working o c c a s i o n a l l y with very weak student teachers i n the past as cooperating teachers; t h e r e f o r e , they considered i t t h e i r duty t o counsel some student teachers out of the program before i t became too l a t e . On a few occasions, they admitted that they f e l t g u i l t y spending "too much time" with underachieving student teachers and having t o "cheat" exemplary student teachers of the a t t e n t i o n and support they deserved. In a d d i t i o n , they i n d i c a t e d t h a t they 205 readjusted t h e i r expectations when they discovered that the u n i v e r s i t y ' s standards were lower than t h e i r s . Seconded teachers, then, perceived themselves as gatekeepers t o the p r o f e s s i o n , but they f e l t undermined by the c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d by the u n i v e r s i t y . Question Three - What Knowledge Of Learning To Teach Is Held By Seconded Teachers On Beginning Secondment? In answer t o the t h i r d question, seconded teachers emphasized t o student teachers t h e i r own personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge; t h a t i s , knowledge t h a t they have acquired through working with elementary or secondary p u p i l s . I argue that the seconded teachers' knowledge of l e a r n i n g t o teach r e f l e c t s a type of " c l i n i c a l consciousness" (Freidson, 1970). As p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d i n the f i r s t chapter, seconded teachers possess p r a c t i c a l knowledge about teaching and l e a r n i n g . The knowledge of teaching t h a t they share with student teachers r e f l e c t s t h e i r values, b e l i e f s , and personal p h i l o s o p h i e s about teaching, views grounded i n the world of p r a c t i c e . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge has been reported by other researchers ( C l a n d i n i n & Connelly, 1987; Elbaz, 1983; Grimmett & MacKinnon, 1992). The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are c o n s i s t e n t with these r e p o r t s . Seconded teachers c o n s c i o u s l y impart t h e i r knowledge of teaching t o student teachers, i n the courses they teach and when s u p e r v i s i n g student teachers on practicum. As u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s , seconded teachers 206 focused student teachers on the processes i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g t o teach, as w e l l as on s p e c i f i c techniques a s s o c i a t e d with e f f e c t i v e teaching. This study has demonstrated t h a t seconded teachers possess p r i m a r i l y a personal and p r a c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n toward l e a r n i n g t o teach. For example, as methods i n s t r u c t o r s , seconded teachers encourage student teachers t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . Although they advocated and modeled s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , they focused student teachers on what they c a l l e d the ambiguous and complex nature of teaching. Whenever p o s s i b l e , seconded teachers emphasized the "wisdom" of t h e i r classroom p r a c t i c e . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are c o n s i s t e n t with Freidson's (1970) notion of " c l i n i c a l consciousness." Question Four - Do Seconded Teachers Change T h e i r Perceptions Of Learning To Teach During Secondment? I f So, How Do These Perceptions Change? In answer t o the f o u r t h question, i t was c l e a r that seconded teachers' perceptions of l e a r n i n g t o teach d i d not change during secondment. Instead, the experience served t o a f f i r m what they already b e l i e v e d i s important about teaching and l e a r n i n g : open-mindedness, compassion, c a r i n g and a c t i n g e t h i c a l l y towards p u p i l s , pedagogical content knowledge, and knowledge of the ed u c a t i o n a l context. One can see t h i s i n some of t h e i r admissions t h a t a f t e r r e t u r n i n g t o the classroom, they taught i n much the same way as before. Secondment, then, was an opportunity f o r 207 teachers t o r e f i n e t h e i r t h i n k i n g , r a t h e r than t o make r e v o l u t i o n a r y changes t o t h e i r b e l i e f s . These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with other s t u d i e s . For example, Beynon (1996), Kagan, Dennis, Igou, Moore, and Sparks (1993), and Kagan, Freeman, Horton, and Roundtree (1993) found that the secondment experience gave teachers o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r own p r a c t i c e , viewing i t from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Teacher Education O v e r a l l , the themes that have emerged i n t h i s study p o i n t t o f i v e general c e n t r a l i s s u e s : the c o n t r a s t between u n i v e r s i t y and school c u l t u r e s , s t r e n g t h of r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e , seconded teachers' commitment t o classroom teaching, seconded teachers' p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s , and secondment as p r o f e s s i o n a l development. I am now moving beyond the research questions, t a k i n g a broader view of the re l e v a n t i s s u e s . The Contrast Between U n i v e r s i t y and School Cult u r e s Seconded teachers make c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s between the u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e and the school c u l t u r e . One of the major d i f f e r e n c e s they i d e n t i f i e d was the workload and tempo of the average workday (Apple, 1986; Brookhart & Loadman, 1990; Feiman-Nemser & Floden, 1986). For most seconded teachers, the f l e x i b i l i t y of the workday was a l i b e r a t i n g experience. Even though they spent a great deal of time pre p a r i n g f o r c l a s s e s , they a l s o had time t o e s t a b l i s h new p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , attend l e c t u r e s , and t a l k t o 208 students and c o l l e a g u e s . Some teachers, however, missed the school-based community of support t h a t they were used to as classroom teachers. As a r e s u l t , some seconded teachers f e l t m a r g i n a l i z e d i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g . They were unsure as t o which community they belonged. C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n was the f a c t t h a t f o r those seconded teachers used to working i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a c t i v e l y seeking new p r o f e s s i o n a l working r e l a t i o n s h i p s was d i f f i c u l t i n the much l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t y . Even though s e v e r a l c u l t u r e s c o - e x i s t simultaneously on u n i v e r s i t y campuses and by extension i n f a c u l t i e s of education, teacher educators more or l e s s agree t h a t the u l t i m a t e goal of a teacher education program i s t o produce capable beginning teachers. Problems occur, however, because some components of teacher education programs are more valued than others. Seconded teachers, f o r i n s t a n c e , r e f l e c t the b e l i e f t h a t knowledge of p r a c t i c e i s what r e a l l y counts. Some tenured, u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d teacher educators, however, may b e l i e v e that p r a c t i c a l experience alone i s not enough t o promote a c r i t i c a l and r e f l e c t i v e understanding of the teaching experience. In Cornbleth and E l l s w o r t h ' s (1994) study of the r o l e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and careers of c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y members i n u n i v e r s i t y teacher education, they found that c l i n i c a l teachers (seconded teachers) were o f t e n described as "helping," " a s s i s t i n g , " and " p l a y i n g a secondary r o l e " t o tenured f a c u l t y , 209 supporting the assumption t h a t u n i v e r s i t y - g e n e r a t e d knowledge i s s u p e r i o r to other forms of knowledge. Strength of R e f l e c t i o n on P r a c t i c e The secondment experience provided teachers with o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r own p r a c t i c e . By assuming new r o l e s (Huberman, 1992) as u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d methods i n s t r u c t o r s i n teacher education programs, seconded teachers understood more c l e a r l y t h e i r own teaching p r a c t i c e . Rather than being a c a r e e r - a l t e r i n g experience, however, secondment was viewed as p r o f e s s i o n a l development, an opportunity to a f f i r m what seconded teachers already knew, and a source of t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e s f o r p r a c t i c e . What i s important f o r the present argument i s t h a t seconded teachers a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge ( C l a n d i n i n & Connelly, 1987; Elbaz, 1983; 1991) when they expose student teachers to the i n h e r e n t l y complex and ambiguous nature of teaching and l e a r n i n g . Therefore, using seconded f a c u l t y t o teach methods courses may be h e l p f u l i n f o c u s i n g students i n i t i a l l y t o "think l i k e teachers," p a r t i c u l a r l y about t e c h n i c a l matters of i n s t r u c t i o n and management. I t i s i n methods courses, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h a t seconded teachers d e s c r i b e and model t h e i r v alues, b e l i e f s , and personal p h i l o s o p h i e s d i r e c t l y t o student teachers, o f t e n through the s t o r i e s they t e l l . Seconded Teachers' Commitment to Classroom Teaching Seconded teachers c o n s t r u c t e d t h e i r r o l e i n terms of the student-teacher and seconded teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p , 210 r e g a r d l e s s of the s e t t i n g . Evidence of t h i s can be seen i n the way seconded teachers d e s c r i b e t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n with student teachers' performance, evoking the same kind of f e e l i n g they got when they watched t h e i r elementary or secondary students l e a r n . Seconded teachers were not seeking a career change. They viewed secondment as personal p r o f e s s i o n a l development and a renewal opportunity. As a r e s u l t of the experience, seconded teachers expected t o b r i n g a f r e s h i n s i g h t back t o t h e i r classrooms, and to continue working with student teachers as cooperating teachers. They a l s o expected t o assume some a d d i t i o n a l teacher education d u t i e s . Seconded Teachers' P r o f e s s i o n a l I d e n t i t i e s Becoming f u l l members of the u n i v e r s i t y community was c e r t a i n l y problematic f o r the seconded teachers i n t h i s study. They developed p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other seconded teachers but not with f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y . Gaining f u l l membership i n the teacher education community would probably have taken more time than i s a v a i l a b l e and more i n t e n t i o n a l i t y than i s planned w i t h i n the context of the teacher education community. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are c o n s i s t e n t with Dawson (1996) who argued that most f a c u l t y members remain o u t s i d e any.involvement with seconded teachers. Taking on the r o l e s of a u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r was both p r o f e s s i o n a l l y rewarding and problematic f o r the seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study. Two dominant i d e n t i t i e s were observable i n 211 seconded teachers: classroom teacher and graduate student. Each w i l l be discussed s e p a r a t e l y . Teacher i d e n t i t y . Seconded teachers took from the u n i v e r s i t y those viewpoints and o r i e n t a t i o n s to p r a c t i c e t h a t were congruent with p r e v i o u s l y h e l d images of t h e i r work and that provided reinforcement and v a l i d a t i o n of t h e i r experiences. While they were r e c e p t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y t o the t h e o r i e s and s k i l l s presented at the u n i v e r s i t y , they tended t o more f u l l y accept methods that had worked f o r them as teachers. By passing on t o student teachers those methods, they r e i n f o r c e d a " c l i n i c a l consciousness" (Freidson, 1970) and a personal p r a c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n (Connelly & C l a n d i n n i n , 1987; Elbaz, 1983) toward teaching. The foundation of seconded teachers' i d e n t i t i e s r e s t s i n the unique i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i r elementary and secondary teaching. As seconded teachers, they continue to d e r i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n from watching t h e i r p u p i l s , i n t h i s case student teachers, succeed but were somewhat f r u s t r a t e d by u n i v e r s i t y i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s . We have seen, however, t h a t seconded teachers' t r a n s i t i o n from the school t o u n i v e r s i t y community i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t and they r e a d i l y acknowledge t h e i r inexperience, v u l n e r a b i l i t y , and doubt. This was most apparent during the f i r s t semester of t h e i r appointments 212 when they sought support from u n f a m i l i a r u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d c o l l e a g u e s . Seconded teachers had s e v e r a l coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r personal d i s p o s i t i o n s and previous experiences, the most common being t o seek support from f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s . Another coping s t r a t e g y was compromise, whereby they c o n t r o l l e d the t e n s i o n between personal and i n s t i t u t i o n a l requirements, choosing, f o r example, to d e f i n e themselves as mentors and c o l l e a g u e s , r a t h e r than as e v a l u a t o r s . Graduate student i d e n t i t y . Some seconded teachers are a t the same time graduate students. T h e i r i d e n t i t i e s are perhaps more l i k e l y t o be s h i f t i n g or i n f l u x . They are more l i k e l y t o have sought secondment, considered l e a v i n g classroom teaching, and thought about perhaps pursuing an academic c a r e e r . They may t h e r e f o r e o c c a s i o n a l l y downplay t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s as classroom teachers e s p e c i a l l y when i n t e r a c t i n g with p r o f e s s o r s . When working with student teachers, however, they downplayed t h e i r graduate student i d e n t i t y , i n s t e a d promoting themselves as experienced classroom teachers. At times, seconded teachers were somewhat f r u s t r a t e d as they balanced t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y teaching and f a c u l t y a d v i s i n g with graduate s t u d i e s . As i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s , they spent l e s s time on the " t e c h n i c a l " s t r a t e g i e s of teaching and more time on the " s o c i a l " or " c r i t i c a l " dimensions of teaching. 213 In t h e i r methods courses, f o r example, they d i s c u s s e d some of the moral and e t h i c a l aspects of teaching, as w e l l as issues of p r o f e s s i o n a l development, iss u e s that they were simultaneously i n v e s t i g a t i n g as graduate students. In sum, seconded teachers maintained t h e i r i d e n t i t y as classroom teachers. E a r l y on, they recognized that t h e i r g r e atest source of support was o f t e n other seconded teachers. A f t e r r e t u r n i n g t o the school community, seconded teachers r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y appointments as "dreamlike," o f t e n as a "vacation" from the r i g o r s of classroom teaching. Secondment as P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Teachers viewed secondment as p r o f e s s i o n a l development because they were f o r c e d t o take on new r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (Yee, 1990). Taking on the seconded teacher r o l e enabled experienced p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o r e v i s i t and renew t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . I began t h i s study b e l i e v i n g t h a t teachers need t o be l i f e - l o n g l e a r n e r s (Smylie, 1995) and that secondment may provide teachers with o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g . Employing seconded teachers to teach methods courses and supervise student teachers connects p r e s e r v i c e teacher education of student teachers t o the c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g of experienced teachers (Darling-Hammond, 1994; F u l l a n , 1995). Seconded teachers were motivated out of a sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l development. T h e i r comments suggest t h a t classroom teachers should take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and 214 i n i t i a t i v e f o r t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l development. Indeed, I detected an " i f I can do i t , so can you" stance (the " i t " r e f e r r i n g t o secondment as p r o f e s s i o n a l development). They were unable, however, t o s u s t a i n t h a t a t t i t u d e a f t e r they returned t o the school community. Reviewing The Assumptions of The Study I began t h i s study with three assumptions about seconded teachers' p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o teacher education. Now that the study i s complete, I see the need t o r e - v i s i t each of the assumptions. Assumption One - P r e s e r v i c e Teacher Education Programs W i l l Be Improved I f P r a c t i t i o n e r s ' (e.g.. Seconded Teachers') S k i l l s And D i s p o s i t i o n s Are Made Part Of Classroom Knowledge And Discourse In Teacher Education Although seconded teachers and f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y have d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n p r e s e r v i c e teacher education, each c o n t r i b u t e s t o the l e a r n i n g of student teachers. The presence of seconded teachers adds c r e d i b i l i t y t o courses that f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y teach. By t h i s , I mean t h a t some student teachers recognize that many of the claims t h a t f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y make about teaching and l e a r n i n g are confirmed by the f i r s t h a n d experiences of seconded teachers. The involvement of seconded teachers, then, i n teacher education i s g e n e r a l l y seen t o be supplementing the "theory" ( o f t e n seen as the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y ) with " p r a c t i c e " (commonly viewed as the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the 215 classroom t e a c h e r ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, that seconded teachers may widen the gap between theory and p r a c t i c e r a t h e r than narrowing i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they assume l e g i t i m a c y based on a type of experience that they b e l i e v e the f a c u l t y l a c k s . Assumption Two - F a c u l t i e s Of Education Recognize The Advantage Of Having Cooperating Teachers ( P r e v i o u s l y Seconded Teachers) Who Understand The Philosophy, O b j e c t i v e s , And Sequence Of The P r e s e r v i c e Programs Of Which The Student Teachers Are A P a r t The r a t i o n a l e f o r i n v o l v i n g classroom teachers i n u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d teacher education i s p a r t l y l i n k e d t o the notion t hat formerly seconded teachers w i l l possess a b e t t e r understanding of the teacher education program, p o t e n t i a l l y enhancing t h e i r f u t u r e performance as cooperating teachers. P a r t of the p r o f e s s i o n a l development continuum I o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 1 suggests that seconded teachers w i l l p u b l i c i z e and e x p l a i n the continuum among colleagues and cooperating teachers. I t h i n k the assumption holds as s t a t e d , but i t may not be so e f f i c i e n t l y accomplished as i s envisioned. The new knowledge embodied i n the continuum of p r o f e s s i o n a l development i s not r e a d i l y shared p a r t l y because there are no p r o v i s i o n s f o r doing so. Other avenues f o r p u b l i c i z i n g the program must be kept open. Seconded teachers were somewhat f r u s t r a t e d and d i s a p p o i n t e d when they returned to the school community. They noted t h a t school d i s t r i c t s were not i n t e r e s t e d i n 216 t h e i r new knowledge. Furthermore, some formerly seconded teachers d i d not have o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o host student teachers, which was a "tragedy" i n t h e i r view, given the i n s i g h t and e x p e r t i s e they f e l t they had gained as seconded teachers. Assumption Three - By Each E n t e r i n g The S e t t i n g Of The Other, Seconded Teachers And U n i v e r s i t y F a c u l t y May Create And Improve Cooperative, Even C o l l a b o r a t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p s Seconded teachers leave the s e c u r i t y of t h e i r classrooms, where they were l i k e l y viewed as e s t a b l i s h e d and knowledgeable p r a c t i t i o n e r s , f o r the u n c e r t a i n t y of the u n i v e r s i t y , where they experience some degree of displacement. I t i s i n t h i s context that seconded teachers attempt t o make sense of the u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e . When I began t h i s study, I suspected that seconded teachers would blend i n t o the u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e but, i n s t e a d , they maintain t h e i r teacher i d e n t i t i e s w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e . As d i s c u s s e d i n the t h i r d chapter, seconded teachers r e v e r t t o a "community w i t h i n a community," never g a i n i n g f u l l membership i n the u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e . While seconded teachers view t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with one another as having an important impact on t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l growth, t h e i r impact on the f a c u l t y members i s minimal and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two c u l t u r e s was c o n s i d e r a b l y weaker than expected. 217 Implications f o r Teacher Education Two i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teacher education are d i s c u s s e d : absence of a formal recruitment process, and improving secondment. Absence of a Formal Recruitment, S e l e c t i o n , and Appointment Process The A s s o c i a t e Dean, Teacher Education i s the key-person i n the recruitment and h i r i n g of seconded teachers at the u n i v e r s i t y where t h i s study was conducted. Vacancies were r o u t i n e l y a d v e r t i s e d i n l o c a l newspapers and teacher j o u r n a l s . Although p o s i t i o n s were a d v e r t i s e d , most of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study had an " i n s i d e t r a c k " on those p o s i t i o n s because of t h e i r previous contacts with u n i v e r s i t y personnel or sometimes the A s s o c i a t e Dean. C l e a r l y , power favors the u n i v e r s i t y because the A s s o c i a t e Dean deals d i r e c t l y with i n d i v i d u a l teachers r a t h e r than with schools or school d i s t r i c t s . Seconded teachers have l e s s formal power and s t a t u s i n the teacher education s e t t i n g (Brookhart & Loadman, 1990; Cooper, 1988); f o r example, when enrollments f l u c t u a t e or resources d e c l i n e , they are v u l n e r a b l e because t h e i r s e r v i c e s c o s t the u n i v e r s i t y a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of money (the u n i v e r s i t y pays t h e i r school d i s t r i c t s a l a r i e s ) . As a r e s u l t , a recent trend has been t o employ more graduate students, r e t i r e d teachers, and other s e s s i o n a l and p a r t -time f a c u l t y , sometimes at a f r a c t i o n of the c o s t . In f a c t , from a p u r e l y f i n a n c i a l standpoint, school d i s t r i c t s c ould 218 save money i f they h i r e d a replacement teacher who i s lower on the s a l a r y g r i d . In any given year, there are more a p p l i c a n t s than seconded p o s i t i o n s . ' T h e "glamour" and " p r e s t i g e " a s s o c i a t e d with the u n i v e r s i t y i s enough t o " l u r e " some seconded teachers t o the u n i v e r s i t y , but I cannot help but wonder about the p o s s i b l e long-term i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c a r e e r s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest that the temporary, short-term nature of secondment, as i t now stands, i s p o t e n t i a l l y d etrimental t o t h e i r c a r e e r s . F i r s t , there i s the "displacement f a c t o r . " They r i s k being assigned t o d i f f e r e n t schools which means that they have t o r e -e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s with a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o l l e a g u e s , students, and parents. Second, the per c e p t i o n among some school d i s t r i c t s t h a t secondment i s l i k e a "vacation" could be d e t r i m e n t a l t o a teacher's being considered f o r promotion. Rather than u t i l i z i n g the new knowledge and s k i l l s t h a t seconded teachers develop during t h e i r time at the u n i v e r s i t y , d i s t r i c t s provide no c l e a r l y d e f i n e d career paths f o r i n d i v i d u a l s , a f t e r secondment. I t h i n k a b e t t e r approach would be to more c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t seconded teachers i n the f i r s t p l a c e . School d i s t r i c t s and the F a c u l t y of Education c o u l d enter i n t o more formal agreements about the h i r i n g and re-deployment of seconded teachers. This might i n v o l v e some extended teacher education r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s once secondment ends and 219 c o u l d of course have f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r both p a r t i e s . Complicating the matter s t i l l f u r t h e r i s the f a c t t h a t some teachers do not r e c e i v e o f f i c i a l n o t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r appointments u n t i l w e l l i n t o the summer. This means t h a t they have i n s u f f i c i e n t time t o prepare and organize themselves f o r the p o s i t i o n . Perhaps the appointment should o f f i c i a l l y commence August 1 i n s t e a d of September 1, i n order t o gi v e i n d i v i d u a l s enough time t o organize themselves and l e a r n about the teacher education program and t h e i r r o l e s w i t h i n i t . Improving Secondment Teachers l i k e n e d the f i r s t year of secondment t o t h e i r f i r s t year of teaching. They s a i d they sometimes f e l t l i k e beginning teachers i n that they were o f t e n l e f t t o t h e i r own devices i n l e a r n i n g about i n s t i t u t i o n a l expectations f o r themselves and student teachers. Indeed, seconded teachers commented t h a t they were i n a " s u r v i v a l mode" f o r much of the f i r s t year. T h e i r comments suggest that the F a c u l t y of Education could do a b e t t e r job of educating seconded teachers about not only the p r e s e r v i c e teacher education program but, s p e c i f i c a l l y , the expectations and r o l e s f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Organizing i n d i v i d u a l s i n small cohorts and a s s i g n i n g a c o o r d i n a t o r would provide seconded teachers with a more p e r s o n a l i z e d and immediate form of support. 220 A d j u s t i n g t o the much l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g has been c i t e d as a major f a c t o r i n a seconded teacher's t r a n s i t i o n from being a teacher t o teacher educator. Secondment c o u l d be improved i f the u n i v e r s i t y employed a v e r s i o n of a mentoring program. J u s t as seconded teachers act as mentors t o student teachers, they would l i k e to be mentored by experienced teacher educators. The i d e a t h a t someone from the u n i v e r s i t y can serve as a mentor t o seconded teachers i s problematic i f one begins from the p o s i t i o n t h a t mentoring i m p l i e s c e r t a i n t h i n g s . Bruneau's (1992) d i s c u s s i o n of f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s ' a c t i n g as mentors t o student teachers i s u s e f u l i n t h i n k i n g about u n i v e r s i t y personnel a c t i n g as mentors t o seconded teachers. She wrote, . . . the idea that someone i s a mentor f o r / t o someone e l s e c a r r i e s with i t the notion t h a t the mentoring (the care, the a t t e n t i o n and help) i s given (a) over a long p e r i o d of time, (b) by someone who has a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the person's t o t a l development and/or ca r e e r choice and (c) i n c l u d e s various kinds of help i n a d d i t i o n t o " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " support, (p. 5) The temporary nature of secondment makes any long term support u n l i k e l y . 221 Suggestions f o r Further Research A number of questions are r a i s e d as a r e s u l t of t h i s study. The f o l l o w i n g are suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research regarding seconded teachers' experiences i n teacher education: r e - e n t r y t o the school community and c a r e e r i m p l i c a t i o n s , power r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n teacher education, and research on teacher educators. Re-entry to the School Community and Career I m p l i c a t i o n s Further study of teachers a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e i r secondments would be a u s e f u l l i n e of i n q u i r y . Re-adjusting to being a classroom teacher was problematic i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l school c u l t u r e f a i l s t o accommodate the broader knowledge and experience that seconded teachers b r i n g with them upon r e - e n t r y . Teachers viewed secondment as a "step up" the c a r e e r ladder, but i t turned out t o be more of a l a t e r a l c a r e e r move. Upon r e - e n t r y to the school community, teachers sometimes found themselves i n l e s s d e s i r a b l e p o s i t i o n s than the ones they l e f t . A d d i t i o n a l documentation of formerly seconded teachers w i l l provide a b e t t e r understanding of career i m p l i c a t i o n s . Power R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n Teacher Education Further study about power and power r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n teacher education are worthwhile f o r three reasons. F i r s t , power and a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are l i n k e d t o the complicated r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p erceptions, and expectations t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s have f o r teacher education. Second, 222 e x i s t i n g power and a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s should make us question the p o l i t i c a l r a t i o n a l e of the practicum and of teacher education programs more g e n e r a l l y . T h i r d , understanding power and a u t h o r i t y more c l e a r l y w i l l help us analyze and question how key p a r t i c i p a n t s view goals and o b j e c t i v e s f o r teacher education, as w e l l as how pedagogical p r a c t i c e i s undertaken w i t h i n the program. I b e l i e v e a deeper understanding of how p a r t i c i p a n t s construe t h e i r r o l e s w i t h i n the complicated power s t r u c t u r e s of teacher education w i l l have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r any attempt to reform teacher education. Research on Teacher Educators Ducharme (1996), L a n i e r and L i t t l e (1986), and Richardson (1996) contend t h a t there i s a robust l i t e r a t u r e on p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers but missing from the body of research are s i m i l a r s t u d i e s of teacher educators. I t h i n k that more research on teacher educators' b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s w i l l have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teacher education reform, and be e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l i n improving e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . In Summary In the past, one of the most common forms of u t i l i z i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' involvement i n teacher education has been through the use of cooperating teachers. The t r i a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p among classroom teacher, p r e s e r v i c e teacher, and u n i v e r s i t y s u p e r v i s o r has been a source of r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g . 223 Goodlad (1990) c a l l e d f o r teacher leaders who are comfortable i n both the K-12 system and i n higher education. The seconded teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study made an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p r e p a r a t i o n of the student teachers with whom they worked, p r i m a r i l y by s h a r i n g t h e i r "wisdom" of p r a c t i c e . Seconded teachers are h i g h l y competent teacher educators who f u n c t i o n where the challenges p r i m a r i l y e x i s t — i n classrooms across the province. This research and w r i t i n g has prompted me t o examine myself as a teacher educator. L i k e the seconded teachers i n t h i s study, I have experienced some of the tensions they described. I t would be f a c i l e t o t h i n k that seconded teachers c o u l d or should handle the challenges a s s o c i a t e d with making the t r a n s i t i o n from teacher t o teacher educator without supportive systems i n p l a c e . To t h e i r c r e d i t , seconded teachers t h r i v e d i n t h e i r r o l e s as u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and f a c u l t y a dvisors because they are strong, i n n o v a t i v e , and committed teachers. 224 References Abbott, A. (1992). From cases to events: Notes on n a r r a t i v e p o s i t i v i s m . S o c i o l o g i c a l Methods and Research, 20., 428-455. Adams, A. (1993). U n i v e r s i t y practicum a s s o c i a t e s : Shadow f a c u l t y i n teacher education. Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Canada. A l - D u a i j - A b d u l a z i z , D. (1986). A study of the impact of s u p e r v i s o r y s t y l e on teachers' job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the secondary schools i n Kuwait. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 48, 12A Apple, M. (1986). Teachers and t e x t s . New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Applegate, J . H., & La s l e y , T. J . (1984). What cooperating teachers expect from f i e l d experience students Teacher Education, 24, 70-82. B a d a l i , S. (1994). Power and a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the practicum: Cooperating teachers' p e r s p e c t i v e s . Unpublished master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Western Ontario London, Ontario, Canada. Belenky, M., et a l . (1987). Women's ways of knowing. New York: Basic Books. Bendix, R. (1960). Max Weber: An i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t r a i t . Garden C i t y : Doubleday. Benne, K. (1970). A u t h o r i t y i n education. Harvard Educat i o n a l Review, 40(3), 385-410. Bennie, W. (1964). Campus s u p e r v i s i o n of student teachers: A c l o s e r look. Teachers C o l l e g e J o u r n a l , 36(3), 131-133. Berger, P., & Luckmann, T. (1967). The s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y . New York: Anchor Books. Berger, P., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y . New York: Anchor Books. Beynon, C , Geddis, A., & Onslow, B. (1996). I f t h i s i s a p a r t n e r s h i p , what's r e a l l y i n i t f o r schools? Journal of P r o f e s s i o n a l Studies, 4(1), 9-17. 225 Beynon, J . (1996). Our students, ourselves; Expectations, outlooks and approaches t h a t c l i n i c a l p r o f e s s o r s b r i n g t o teacher education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of Canadian S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education, St. Catharines, Ontario. B i l l i n g s l e y , B., & Cross, L. (1991). Teacher's d e c i s i o n s t o t r a n s f e r from s p e c i a l t o general education. The Journal of S p e c i a l Education, 24(4), 496-511. Blackbourn, R. (1983). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between teachers' perceptions of s u p e r v i s o r y behaviors and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward a p o s t - e v a l u a t i v e conference. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 45 694A. Blumberg, A. (1980). S u p e r v i s i o n and teachers: A p r i v a t e c o l d war (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan. B o l i n , F. (1990). Helping student teachers t h i n k about teaching: Another look at Lou. J o u r n a l of Teacher Education, 41(1), 10-19. Boschee, F., P r e s c o t t , D., & Hein, D. (1978). Do cooperating teachers i n f l u e n c e the e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy of student teachers? Journal of Teacher Education, 24(2), 57-61. Bowles, S., & G i n t i s , H. (1976). Schooling i n c a p i t a l i s t America. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Brause, R., & Mayher, J . (1991). Search and research: What the i n q u i r i n g teacher needs to know. London: Falmer. Britzman, D. (1986). C u l t u r a l myths i n the making of a teacher: Biography and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n teacher education. Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 56(4), 442-456. Brookhart, S., & Freeman, D. (1992). C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e n t e r i n g teacher candidates. Review of Educational Research, 62(1), 37-60. Brookhart, S., & Loadman, W. (1990). E m p i r i c a l evidence that s c h o o l - u n i v e r s i t y c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s m u l t i c u l t u r a l education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 6, 149-163. Brown, J . , C l a r k , R., & S o r r i l l , P. (1987). P r i n c i p a l practicum p a r t i c i p a n t s : A n a l y s i s of r o l e e x pectations. Paper presented at the Canadian S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 226 Brown, J . , C o l l i n s , A., & Duguid, P. (1989). S i t u a t e d c o g n i t i o n and the c u l t u r e of teaching. E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. ' Bruneau, S. (1992). The f a c u l t y advisor's involvement i n the student teaching practicum; N e c e s s i t y or luxury? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Student Teaching, Edmonton, A l b e r t a . Bruner, J . (1986). A c t i v e minds, p o s s i b l e worlds. Cambridge; Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press. Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy's Task Force on Teaching as a P r o f e s s i o n . (1986). A n a t i o n prepared: Teachers f o r the 21st century. Washington, DC: Author. C a r t e r , K. (1984). Teachers of teachers. In L. Katz, & J . Raths (Eds.), Advances i n teacher education ( V o l . 1, pp. 125-143). Norwood: Ablex P u b l i s h i n g Corporation. C a r t e r , K. (1989). Using cases t o frame mentor-novice conversations about teaching. Theory i n t o P r a c t i c e , 27 (3), 214-222. Ca r t e r , K. (1990). Teachers' knowledge and l e a r n i n g t o teach. In W. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 291-310). New York: Macmillan. C h e t c u t i , D. (1992). R e f l e c t i v e t eaching. M c G i l l J ournal of Education, 27(2), 237-251. C l a n d i n i n , J . , & Connelly, M. (1987). Teachers' personal knowledge: What counts as 'personal' i n s t u d i e s of the p e r s o n a l . Journal of Curriculum Stu d i e s , 19(6), 487-500. C l a r k , C , & Peterson, P. (1986). Teachers' thought processes. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 255-296). New York: Macmillan. Cobb, P. (1994). Where i s the mind? C o n s t r u c t i v i s t and s o c i o c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on mathematical development. E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher, 23(7), 13-20. Cook, E. (1993). Women, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and power: Im p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l i n g . A l e x a n d r i a : American Counseling A s s o c i a t i o n . 227 Cooper, J . (1995). S u p e r v i s i o n i n teacher education. In L. Anderson (Ed.), I n t e r n a t i o n a l encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education (pp. 593-598). Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press. Cooper, M. (1988). Whose c u l t u r e i s i t anyway? In A. Lieberman (Ed.), B u i l d i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l c u l t u r e i n schools (pp. 45-54). New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Cornbleth, C , & E l l s w o r t h , J . (1994). C l i n i c a l f a c u l t y i n teacher education: Roles, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and ca r e e r s . In K. Howey, & N. Zimpher (Eds.), Informing f a c u l t y development f o r teacher educators (pp. 213-247). Norwood: Ablex P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . Covey, S. (1989). Seven h a b i t s of h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e people. New York: Simon and Schuster. Cuban, L. (1991). Reforming schools and teacher education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American A s s o c i a t i o n of Colleges f o r Teacher Education, A t l a n t a , GA. Dana, N.,& Floyd, D. (1994). When teacher educators c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r a c t i c e s : A case study on teaching cases. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the A s s o c i a t i o n of Teacher Education, A t l a n t a . Darling-Hammond, L. (1984). Beyond the commission r e p o r t s : The coming c r i s i s i n teaching. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation. Darling-Hammond, L. (Ed.). (1994) P r o f e s s i o n a l development schools: Schools f o r developing a p r o f e s s i o n . New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Dawson, A. (1996). Tenure t r a c k f a c u l t y views of the c l i n i c a l p r o f e s s o r r o l e . Paper presented at the annual meetings of the S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education, St. Catharines, Ontario. D e l p i t , L. (1988). The s i l e n c e d dialogue: Power and pedagogy i n educating other people's c h i l d r e n . Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 58(3), 280-298. Denzin, N. (1989). I n t e r p r e t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n i s m . Newbury Park, CA: Sage. 228 Dewey, J . (1904/1977). The r e l a t i o n of theory to p r a c t i c e i n education. In J . Boydston (Ed.), John Dewey; The middle works, 1899-1924, V o l . 3: 1903-1906 (pp. 249-272). Carbondale, IL; Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press. (Reprinted from the T h i r d Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the S c i e n t i f i c Study of Education, 1904, Part 1, pp. 9-30) Dewey, J . (1933). How we t h i n k : A restatement of the r e l a t i o n of r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g t o the educative process. Boston: Heath. DiLeonardo, M. (1991). I n t r o d u c t i o n : Gender, c u l t u r e , and p o l i t i c a l economy: Feminist anthropology i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . In M. diLeonardo (Ed.), Gender at the crossroads of knowledge: Feminist anthropology i n the postmodern era, (pp. 1-48). Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press. DiPardo, A. (1993). When teachers become graduate students. E n g l i s h Education, 197-211. Doyle, W., & Ponder, G. (1977-1978). The p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c i n teacher decision-making. Interchange, 8(3), 1-12. Ducharme, E. (1993). The l i v e s of teacher educators. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Ducharme, E., & Ducharme, M. (1996). Development of the teacher education p r o f e s s o r i a t e . In F. Murray (Ed.), The teacher educator's handbook (pp. 691-714). San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass P u b l i s h e r s . Dunlap, D., & Goldman, P. (1991). Rethinking power i n schools. E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 27(1), 5-29. Eisenhardt, K. (1989). B u i l d i n g t h e o r i e s from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14, 532-550. Elbaz, F. (1983). Teacher's t h i n k i n g : A study of p r a c t i c a l knowledge. London: Croom & Helm. Elbaz, F. (1991). Research on teacher's knowledge: The e v o l u t i o n of a d i s c o u r s e . J ournal of Curriculum Stu d i e s , 23(1), 1-19. E l l i o t t , J . (1991). A c t i o n research f o r e d u c a t i o n a l change. P h i l a d e l p h i a : Open U n i v e r s i t y Press. E l l s w o r t h , J . , & A l b e r s , C. (1991). Roles and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the f i e l d team. Unpublished paper, BRIET, SUNY at B u f f a l o , NY. 229 Fairholm, G., & Fairholm, B. (1984). Sixteen power t a c t i c s p r i n c i p a l s can use t o improve management e f f e c t i v e n e s s . NASSP B u l l e t i n , May, 68-75. Featherstone, H. (1993). Learning from the f i r s t years of classroom teaching: The journey i n , the journey out. Teachers C o l l e g e Press, 95(1), 93-112. Feiman-Nemser, S. (1989). D e s c r i b i n g teacher education: A framework and i l l u s t r a t i v e f i n d i n g s from a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of s i x students. Elementary School J o u r n a l , 89(3), 365-378. Feiman-Nemser, S. (1990). Teacher p r e p a r a t i o n : S t r u c t u r a l and conceptual a l t e r n a t i v e s . In W. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 212-233). New York: Macmillan. Feiman-Nemser, S., Buckmann, M. (1986). The f i r s t year of teacher p r e p a r a t i o n : T r a n s i t i o n t o pedagogical t h i n k i n g ? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 18, 239-256. Feiman-Nemser, S., & Featherstone, H. (1992). E x p l o r i n g teaching: Reinventing an i n t r o d u c t o r y course. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Feiman-Nemser, S., & Floden, R. (1986). The c u l t u r e s of teaching. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed, pp. 505-526). New York: Macmillan. Feiman-Nemser, S., & R e m i l l a r d , J . (1996). P e r s p e c t i v e s on l e a r n i n g t o teach. In F. Murray (Ed.), The teacher educator's handbook (pp. 63-91). San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass P u b l i s h e r s . Fenstermacher, G. (1986). Philosophy of research on teaching. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 37-49). New York: Macmillan. Fenstermacher, G. (1994). The knower and the known: The nature of knowledge i n research on teaching. Review of Research i n Education, 20, 3-56. F i s c h e r , C , & Wertz, F. (1975). E m p i r i c a l phenomenological analyses of being c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d . In A. G i o r g i (Ed.), Phenomenology and p s y c h o l o g i c a l research (pp. 135-158). P i t t s b u r g h , PA: Duquesne U n i v e r s i t y Press. 230 Floden, R., McDiarmid, A., & Wiemers, N. (1989). What are they t r y i n g t o do? Perceptions on teacher educators' purposes. (Research Report no. 89-6). East Lansing Michigan: N a t i o n a l Centre f o r Research on Teacher Education (ED 320 854). Freidson, E. (1970). P r o f e s s i o n of medicine: A study of the s o c i o l o g y of a p p l i e d knowledge. New York: Dodd, Mead, & Company. French, J . , & Raven, B. (1959). The b a s i s of s o c i a l power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies i n s o c i a l order (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press. F r i e b u s , R. (1977). Agents of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n student teaching. Journal of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 70, 263-268. F r i e s e n , D. (1996). Toward educative community: Pushing the borders i n student teaching. Journal of P r o f e s s i o n a l Studies, 3(2), 15-24. F u l l a n , M. (1995). The l i m i t s and the p o t e n t i a l of p r o f e s s i o n a l development. In T. Guskey, & M. Huberman (Eds.), P r o f e s s i o n a l development i n education: New paradigms and p r a c t i c e s (pp. 253-267). New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Gage, M. (1978). The s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s of the a r t of teaching. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Gal, S. (1991). Between speech and s i l e n c e : The problematics of research on language and gender. In M. diLeonardo (Ed.), Gender at the crossroads of knowledge: Feminist anthropology i n the postmodern era (pp. 175-203). Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press. Garland, C , & Shippy, V. (1991). Improving the student t e a c h i n g context: A research-based program f o r cooperating teachers. A c t i o n i n Teacher Education, 8(2), 37-41. Gergen, K., & Gergen, M. (1991). Toward r e f l e x i v e methodologies. In F. S t e i e r (Ed.), Research and r e f l e x i v i t y (pp. 76-95). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. G i l l i g a n , C. (1982). In a d i f f e r e n t v o i c e : P s y c h o l o g i c a l theory and women's development. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press. G i l s t r a p , R., & B e a t t i e , K. (1996). The m u l t i p l e r o l e s of c l i n i c a l f a c u l t y . Bloomington, IN: Phi D e l t a Kappan. 231 G i n k e l , K. (1993). An overview of a study which examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between elementary school teachers' preference f o r s u p e r v i s o r y conferencing approach and conceptual l e v e l of development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Montreal, Canada. Giroux, H. (1980). Teacher education and the ideology of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . Journal of Education, 162, 5-27. Giroux, H. (1988). Schooling and the s t r u g g l e f o r p u b l i c l i f e : C r i t i c a l pedagogy i n the modern age. Minneapolis: U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press. G i t l i n , A. (1990). Understanding teaching d i a l o g i c a l l y . Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 91(4), 537-563. Gladwin, C. (1989). Ethnographic d e c i s i o n t r e e modeling. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The d i s c o v e r y of grounded theory. Chicago: A l d i n e . Glickman, C , & Bey, T. (1990). S u p e r v i s i o n . In W. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 549-566). New York: Macmillan. Gold, Y. (1996). Beginning teacher support. In J . S i k u l a (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 548-594). New York: Macmillan. Gold, Y., & Roth, A. (1993). Teachers managing s t r e s s and preventing burnout: The p r o f e s s i o n a l h e a l t h s o l u t i o n . London: Falmer. Good, T. (1990). B u i l d i n g the knowledge base of teaching. In D. G i l l (Ed.), What teachers need to know: The knowledge, s k i l l s , and values e s s e n t i a l t o good teaching. San F r a n c i s c o , CA: Jossey-Bass. Goodlad, J . (1990). B e t t e r teachers f o r our nations schools. P h i D e l t a Kappan, 72(3), 185-194. Grant, C , S l e e t e r , C. (1985). Who determines teacher work: The teacher, the o r g a n i z a t i o n , or both? Teaching and Teacher Education, 1, 209-220. Greene, M., & Campbell, C. (1993). Becoming a teacher: The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of teacher education. Edmonton, A l b e r t a : Department of Education. 232 Greene, M., & P u r v i s , C. (1995). The f o r g o t t e n l i n k : T r a n s i t i o n from graduate school t o classroom teaching. The A l b e r t a J o u r n a l of Educati o n a l Research, 2, 213-230. G r i f f e n , G. (1983). C l i n i c a l p r e s e r v i c e teacher education: F i n a l r e p o r t of a d e s c r i p t i v e study. A u s t i n , TX: The U n i v e r s i t y of Texas Research and Development Centre f o r Teacher Education. Grimmett, P., & Housego, B. (1983). I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n conference. Canadian A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 22, 8. Grimmett, P., & MacKinnon, A. (1992). C r a f t knowledge and the education of teachers. In G. Grant (Ed.), Review of research i n education, 18 (pp. 385-465). Washington, DC: American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n . Grimmett, P., & R a t z l a f f , H. (1986). Expectations f o r the cooperating teacher r o l e . J o urnal of Teacher Education, 37.(6), 41-50. Teacher Education. Grimmett, P., & R a t z l a f f , H. (1985). Role expectations f o r the student teaching t r i a d . Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the AERA, Chicago. Guba, E. (1981). C r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g the trustworthiness of n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r i e s . E d u c a t i o n a l Communication and Technology J o u r n a l , 29(2). 75-91. Guba, E., & L i n c o l n , Y. (1989). Fourth generation e v a l u a t i o n . Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Guyton, E., & Mclntrye, D. (1990). Student teaching and school experiences. In W. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of resear c h on teacher education (pp. 514-534). New York: Macmillan. Habermas, J . (1978). Knowledge and human i n t e r e s t s . London: Heinemann. Hargreaves, A. (1984). Experience counts, theory doesn't: How teachers t a l k about t h e i r work. Sociology of Education, 57, 244-254. Hargreaves, A., & F u l l a n , M. (1992). Understanding teacher development. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. 233 Heald-Taylor, G., Neate, T., Innerd, W., & Shantz, D. (1996). A teacher educator's r e f l e c t i v e i n q u i r y i n t o her p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . J o u r n a l of P r o f e s s i o n a l Studies, 4.(1), 57-65. Hennessey, S. (1993). S i t u a t e d c o g n i t i o n and c o g n i t i v e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p : Implications f o r classroom l e a r n i n g . Studies i n Science Education, 22, 1-41. Hohenbrink, J . (1993). The i n f l u e n c e of c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y teaching: U n i v e r s i t y and school. Unpublished manuscript, The Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , Columbus. Holmes Group. (1995). Tomorrow's schools of education. East Lansing, MI: Holmes Group. Housego, B., & B a d a l i , S. (1996). One year l a t e r : Beginning teachers focus on t h e i r program experiences. The A l b e r t a J o u r n a l of Edu c a t i o n a l Research (4), 378-394. Howey, K. (1986). The next generation of teacher preparation programs. In T. L a s l e y (Ed.), The dynamics of change i n teacher education (pp. 161-185). Washington, DC: American A s s o c i a t i o n of Colleges f o r Teacher Education. Howey, K. (1992). Teacher educators i n the United S t a t e s : Trends and i s s u e s . The Teacher Educator, 27(4), 3-11. Howey, K., & Zimpher, N. (1989). P r o f i l e s of p r e s e r v i c e teacher education: Inquiry i n t o the nature of programs. Albany: State U n i v e r s i t y of New York Press. Howey, K., & Zimpher, N. (1994). Leadership teams and networking: A s t r a t e g y f o r f a c u l t y development. In K. Howey & N. Zimpher (Eds.), Informing f a c u l t y development f o r teacher educators (pp. 15-50). Norwood, NJ: Ablex P u b l i s h i n g Company. Howey, K., & Zimpher, N. (1996). Patterns i n pr o s p e c t i v e teachers: Guides f o r desig n i n g p r e s e r v i c e programs. In F. Murray (Ed.), The teacher educator's handbook (pp. 465-505). San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass P u b l i s h e r s . Huberman, A. (1991). The p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e c y c l e of teachers. Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 91(1), 31-57. 234 Huberman, M. (1983). Recipes f o r busy k i t c h e n s . Knowledge: C r e a t i o n , D i f f u s i o n , U t i l i z a t i o n , 4, 478-510. Huberman, M. (1992). Teacher development and i n s t r u c t i o n a l mastery. In A. Hargreaves & M. F u l l a n (Eds.), Understanding teacher development (pp. 122-142). New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Imig, D., & Switzer, T. (1996). Changing teacher education programs. In J . S i k u l a (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 213-226). New York: Macmillan. Jackson, P. (1968). L i f e i n classrooms. New York: Rinehart & Winston. Jackson, P. (1986). On knowing how to teach. The p r a c t i c e of teaching. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Kagan, D. (1990). Teachers' workplace meets the p r o f e s s o r s of teaching: A chance encounter at 30,000 f e e t . J o urnal of Teacher Education, 40(4), 46-53. Kagan, D. (1993). P r o f e s s i o n a l growth among p r e s e r v i c e and beginning teachers. Review of Edu c a t i o n a l Research, 62.(2), 129-169. Kagan, D., Dennis, M., Igou, M., Moore, P., & Sparks, K. (1993). The experience of being a teacher i n r e s i d e n c e . American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l , 30(2), 426-443. Kagan, D., Freeman, L., Horton, C , & Rountree, B. (1993). Personal p e r s p e c t i v e s on a s c h o o l - u n i v e r s i t y p a r t n e r s h i p . Teaching and Teacher Education, 9(5/6), 499-509. Karabel, J . , & Halsey, A. (Eds.). (1977). Power and ideology i n education. New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press. Kar l s b e r g e r , H. (1993). Perceptions of teachers i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l development schools. Unpublished manuscript, The Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , Columbus. Katz, L., & Raths, J . (1982). The best i n t e n t i o n s f o r the education of teachers. A c t i o n i n Teacher Education, 4(1), 8-16. 235 Kennedy, M. (1987). Inexact s c i e n c e s : P r o f e s s i o n a l education and the development of e x p e r t i s e . In E. Rothkopf (Ed.), Review of research i n education ( V o l . 14, pp. 133-167). Washington, DC: American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n . K i l l i a n , J . , & Mclntyre, D. (1986). Q u a l i t y i n the e a r l y f i e l d experiences: A product of grade l e v e l and cooperating teachers' t r a i n i n g . Teaching and Teacher Education, 2(4), 367-376. Kirby, S., & McKenna, K. (1989). Experience research s o c i a l change: Methods from the margins. Toronto: Garamond Press. Knowles, J . , Cole, A., & Presswood, C. (1994). Through p r e s e r v i c e teachers' eyes: E x p l o r i n g f i e l d experiences through n a r r a t i v e s and i n q u i r y . Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan. Koehler, V. (1984). U n i v e r s i t y s u p e r v i s i o n of student teaching. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educat i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Koerner, M. (1992). The cooperating teacher: An ambivalent p a r t i c i p a n t i n student teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 43(1), 46-56. Lampert, M. (1985). How do teachers manage t o teach? Perspectives on problems i n p r a c t i c e . Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 55(2), 178-194. La n i e r , J . , & L i t t l e , J . (1986). Research on teacher education. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 527-569). New York: Macmillan. Lave, J . (1988). C o g n i t i o n i n p r a c t i c e : Mind, mathematics, and c u l t u r e i n everyday l i f e . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press. Lave, J . , & Wenger, E. (1991). S i t u a t e d l e a r n i n g : Legitimate p e r i p h e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press. L i s t o n , D., & Zeichner, K. (1991). Teacher education and the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of s c h o o l i n g . New York: Routledge. L i t t l e , J . (1987). Teachers as c o l l e a g u e s . In V. Koehler (Ed.), Educator's handbook: A research p e r s p e c t i v e . White P l a i n s , NY: Longman. 236 L o r t i e , D. (1975). Schoolteacher: A s o c i o l o g i c a l study. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press. Louden, W. (1991). Understanding teaching: C o n t i n u i t y and change i n teachers' knowledge. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Marland, P. (1995). I m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s . In L. Anderson (Ed.), I n t e r n a t i o n a l encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education (pp. 131-136). Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press. Martin, E. (1987). The women i n the body. Boston: Beacon. Maynes, B., Mcintosh, G., & Wimmer, R. (1998). Ensuring high q u a l i t y s u p e r v i s i o n i n f i e l d experience programs: The adjunct p r o f e s s o r s t r a t e g y at the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Student Teaching, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. McAninch, A. (1993). Teacher t h i n k i n g and the case method: Theory and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s . New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. McCullough, L., & Mintz, S. (1992). Concerns of p r e s e r v i c e students i n the USA about the p r a c t i c e of teaching. J ournal of Education f o r Teaching, 18(1), 59-67. McDiarmid, G. (1990). C h a l l e n g i n g p r o s p e c t i v e teachers' b e l i e f s during the e a r l y f i e l d experiences: A q u i x o t i c undertaking? Journal of Teacher Education, 41, 12-20. Mclntyre, D. (1984). A response to the c r i t i c s of f i e l d experience s u p e r v i s i o n . J ournal of Teacher Education, 35.(3), 42-45. McNay, M., & B a d a l i , S. (1994). Power and a u t h o r i t y i n the practicum. Paper presented a t the annual meeting of the Western Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Student Teaching, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Merseth, K. (1994). I n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and conceptual o r i e n t a t i o n s i n the design of teacher education programs: The examples of s i m u l a t i o n s , hypermedia, and cases. In K. Howey & N. Zimpher (Eds.), Informing f a c u l t y development f o r teacher educators (pp. 139-174). Norwood, NJ: Ablex P u b l i s h i n g Company. 237 M i l l e r , J . (1988). Women and power. In M. Braude (Ed.), Women, power, and therapy: Issues f o r women (pp. 1-10). New York: The Haworth Press. Morine-Dershimer, G. (1991). Learning t o th i n k l i k e a teacher. Teaching and Teacher Education, 7, 159-168. Morrisey, J . (1980). A review: Factors that a f f e c t cooperating teachers' r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the i n t e r n s h i p . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e NO. ED 218 219) Munby, H. (1986). Metaphor i n the t h i n k i n g of teachers. An ex p l o r a t o r y study. J o u r n a l of Curriculum Studies, 18(2). 197-209. Munby, H., & R u s s e l l , T. (1991). Refraining: The r o l e s of experience i n developing teachers' p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge. In D. Schon (Ed.), The r e f l e c t i v e t u r n (pp. 164-187). New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Munro, P. (1990). S u p e r v i s i o n : What's i m p o s i t i o n got to do with i t ? Journal of Curriculum and Sup e r v i s i o n , 7(1), 77-89. Murray, F. (1996). The narrow and broad reading of tomorrow's schools of education. E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher, 25.(5), 28-31. N e i l , R., Chambers, B., Clark, M., Swarbrick, J . , & Wackett, C. (1993). Practicum a s s o c i a t e s ' views on t h e i r r o l e and the program of p r e - s e r v i c e education. Education Canada, 8-14. Neiman, A. (1986). Education, power, and the a u t h o r i t y of knowledge. Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 88(1), 64-80. Nemser, S. (1983). Learning t o teach. In L. Shulman and G. Sykes (Eds.), Handbook of teaching and p o l i c y . White P l a i n s , NY: Longman. Nyberg, D. (1981). Power over power. New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park: Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . 238 P e a r s o l , J . (1985). C o n t r o l l i n g q u a l i t a t i v e data; Understanding teachers' value p e r s p e c t i v e s on a sex equ i t y education p r o j e c t . Paper presented a t the annual meeting of the American Educational Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Chicago. Perry, W. (1970). Forms of i n t e l l e c t u a l and e t h i c a l development i n the c o l l e g e years. New York; Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Popkewitz, T. (1979). Teacher education as s o c i a l i z a t i o n : Ideology or s o c i a l mission. Paper presented at the AERA Annual Meeting San F r a n c i s c o , A p r i l . Radway, J . (1984). Reading the romance: Feminism and the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women i n popular c u l t u r e . Chapel H i l l ; U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press. RATE I; Teaching teachers: Facts & F i g u r e s . (1987). Washington DC: American A s s o c i a t i o n of Colleges f o r Teacher Education. RATE I I ; Teaching teachers: Facts & F i g u r e s . (1988). Washington DC: American A s s o c i a t i o n of Colleges f o r Teacher Education. RATE I I I ; Teaching teachers; Facts & F i g u r e s . (1989). Washington DC: American A s s o c i a t i o n of Colleges f o r Teacher Education. RATE IV: Teaching teachers; Facts & F i g u r e s . (1990). Washington DC: American A s s o c i a t i o n of Colleges f o r Teacher Education. Raths, J . , Katz, L., & McAninch, A. (1989). A p l i g h t of teacher educators: C l i n i c a l m e n t a l i t i e s i n a s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e . In R. Wisniewski & E. Ducharme (Eds.), The pro f e s s o r s of teaching; An i n q u i r y (pp. 105-118). Albany, NY: State U n i v e r s i t y of New York Press. Reynolds, M. (Ed). Knowledge base f o r the beginning teacher. New York: Pergamon Press. Richardson, V. (1996). The r o l e of a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s i n l e a r n i n g t o teach. In J . S i k u l a (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 102-119). New York: Macmillan. Riger, S. (1992). E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l debates, f e m i n i s t v o i c e s : Science, s o c i a l values, and the study of women. American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 47, 730-740. 239 Robertson, H. (1992). Teacher development and gender eq u i t y . In A. Hargreaves, & M. F u l l a n (Eds.), Understanding teacher development (pp. 43-61). Columbia: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teachers' workplace. New York: Longman. Rossicone, G. (1985). The r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e l e c t e d teacher background versus preferences f o r s u p e r v i s o r y s t y l e and teacher perceptions of s u p e r v i s o r y s t y l e of s u p e r v i s i o n (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , St. John's U n i v e r s i t y ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 46, 321A. Sarason, S. (1993). The case f o r change: Rethinking the p r e p a r a t i o n of education. San F r a n c i s c o , CA: Jossey-Bass. Schon, D. (1983). The r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r . New York: Bas i c Books. Schwab, J . (1983). The p r a c t i c a l 4: Something f o r c u r r i c u l u m p r o f e s s o r s t o do. Curriculum Inquiry, 13(3), 239-265. S h e r r i l l , J . (1993). A q u a l i t a t i v e case study of the c l i n i c a l educator r o l e during a p i l o t year of implementation. Unpublished manuscript, The Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , Columbus. Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of a new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 51(1), 1-22. Smylie, M. (1995). Teacher l e a r n i n g i n the workplace: Impli c a t i o n s f o r school reform. In T. Guskey & M. Huberman (Eds.), P r o f e s s i o n a l development i n education: New paradigms and p r a c t i c e s (pp. 92-113). New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Strauss, A. (1987). Q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s f o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J . (1990). Basics of q u a l i t a t i v e r e search: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park: Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . S t r i k e , K., & Posner, G. (1985). A conceptual change view of l e a r n i n g and understanding. In L. West & A. Pines (Eds.), C o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and conceptual change. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 240 Tabachnick, B., Popkewitz, T., & Zeichner, K. (1979). Teacher education and the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s of student teachers. Interchange, 10(4), 12-29. Tobin, K. (1992). E t h i c a l concerns and research i n science classrooms: Resolved and unresolved dilemmas. Science Education, 76(1), 105-117. Tom, A. (1984). Teaching as a moral c r a f t . New York: Longman. Tom, A. (1997). The d e l i b e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p : A frame f o r t a l k i n g about f a c u l t y - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The A l b e r t a Journal of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, X L I I I ( l ) , 3-21. V a l l i , L. (1990). Teaching as moral r e f l e c t i o n : Thoughts on the l i b e r a l p r e p a r a t i o n of teachers. Paper presented at the n a t i o n a l forum of the A s s o c i a t i o n of Independent A r t s Colleges f o r Teacher Education. Warsh, M. (1996). And back again: C l i n i c a l p r o f e s s o r s and t h e i r r e t u r n to the schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education, St. Catharines, Ontario. Weinstein, C. (1990). Teacher education students' preconceptions of teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 40.(2), 53-60. Wells, G. (Ed.). (1994). Changing schools from w i t h i n : C r e a t i n g communities of i n q u i r y . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Wertsch, J . (1991). Voices of the mind: A s o c i o l o g i c a l approach to mediated a c t i o n . Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press. Wideen, M., & Mayer-Smith, J . (1996). Making the research on l e a r n i n g t o teach problematic. Paper presented at the annual meeting of Canadian S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education, St. Catharines, Ontario. Yee, A. (1967). The student teaching t r i a d : The r e l a t i o n s h i p of a t t i t u d e s among student teachers, c o l l e g e s u p e r v i s o r s , and cooperating teachers. A u s t i n TX: U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, C o l l e g e of Education. Yee, S. (1990). Careers i n the classroom: When teaching i s more than a job. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press. Yin, R. (1984). Case study research: Design and methods• Beverly H i l l s , CA: Sage. 241 Yin, R. (1991). A p p l i c a t i o n s of case study research. Washington, DC: Cosmos Corporation. Yinger, R. (1987). Learning the language of p r a c t i c e . Curriculum Inquiry, 17, 293-317. Zeichner, K. (1983). A l t e r n a t i v e paradigms of teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 34(3), 3-9. Zeichner, K. (1990). Changing d i r e c t i o n s i n the practicum: Looking t o the 1990's. J o u r n a l of Education f o r Teaching, 16(2), 105-132. Zeichner, K., & L i s t o n , D. (1987). Teaching student teachers t o r e f l e c t . Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 57, 23-48. Zeichner, K., & Tabachnick, B. (1982). The b e l i e f systems of u n i v e r s i t y supervisors i n an elementary student teaching program. Journal of Education f o r Teaching, 8(1), 35-54. Zeichner, K., Tabachnick, B., & Densmore, K. (1987). I n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s on the development of teachers' c r a f t knowledge. In J . Calderhead (Ed.), E x p l o r i n g teachers' t h i n k i n g (pp. 21-59). London: C a s s e l l s . Zimpher, N. (1989). The RATE p r o j e c t : A p r o f i l e of teacher education students. Journal of Teacher Education, 40.(6), 27-30. Zimpher, N., deVoss, G., & Nott, D. (1980). A c l o s e r look at u n i v e r s i t y student teacher s u p e r v i s i o n . Journal of Teacher Education, 31(4), 11-15. Zimpher, N., Howey, K. (1987). Adapting s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e t o d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s of teaching competence. Journal of Curriculum and S u p e r v i s i o n , 2(2), 101-127. Zimpher, N., & S h e r r i l l , J . (1996). P r o f e s s o r s , teachers, and leaders i n SCDES. In J . S i k u l a (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 279-305). New York: Macmillan. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0054850/manifest

Comment

Related Items