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Teaching practicum for secondary school student-teachers: a model for the National University of Lesotho… Lefoka, Pulane Julia 1994

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TEACHING PRACTICUM FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT-TEACHERS: A MODEL FOR THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LESOTHO (NUL) by PULANE JULIA LEFOKA Secondary Teacher Certificate STC, Lesotho National Teacher Training College, (1979) Dip.Ed., National University of Lesotho, (1981) B.Ed., National University of Lesotho, (1986) A THESI S SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUmEMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction / We accept this thesis as conforming I _ tp th$ required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1994 ® Pulane Julia Lefoka, 1994 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of O l f l f t 1 CJJLLUff) <g 'JflSJfeUcTiOH The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date © ^ OH _5i_ DE-6 (2/88) Abstract This study takes as its point of departure the need to reform teaching practicum at the National University of Lesotho. It examines the literature devoted to the teaching practicum, identifying and appraising various models for the teaching practicum, and extracting principles for the conduct of the teaching practicum. The principles developed are then applied to the development of a framework for the teaching practicum at the National University of Lesotho. The study recommends a reflective inquiry approach in which student-teachers undertake a supervised teaching practicum and an induction year based upon a combination of Schon's model of a reflective teaching practicum and Zeichner's inquiry oriented teacher education. ii Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of contents iii The figure vi Acknowledgements vii CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Background 1 The Lesotho Primary and Secondary Education System 2 A brief history of teacher education in Lesotho 3 National Teacher Training College Teacher Education Structure 4 Teaching practicum at the National Teacher Training College 5 National University of Lesotho Teacher Education Structure 6 Background to the problem 10 The problem 13 The objectives 13 Rationale 14 CHAPTER II Literature Review 16 Section I 17 The complexity of the enterprise. 17 Preparing for the teaching practicum teaching 22 The teaching practicum supervision team 25 Section II 31 A life long teacher education program 31 Reflection and induction in teacher education 33 Reflection-on/in-action 33 Some key factors. 3 7 The practicum setting: 3 7 Coaching the reflective practitioner: 3 8 The models/supervision methods/approaches: 40 Summary 42 The induction program 45 Justification for induction programs 46 The induction program goals 48 The mentor teachers/the mentor teams 49 The induction program models 52 Research on induction program 53 iii Summary 54 CHAPTER III 55 The Teaching Practicum: Critical Feature 55 The main teacher education program categories 55 Diversity in teaching practicum theory 56 The teaching practicum models/theoretical orientations 58 The teaching practicum time-frame 69 The teaching practicum context 73 Financial implications for reform in teacher education 77 Summary 79 CHAPTER IV 81 The National University of Lesotho Teaching Practicum: The Reflective-Inquiry Model 81 Justification 81 The theory 86 The teaching practicum principles 87 Phase I 91 Part I Second year teacher education students: Second Semester January to 91 Part II Third year Teacher Education Students: First and second semesters, August to December and January to May 92 Phase II 94 Fourth Year Teacher Education Students: Second Semester, January to April. 94 The seminar 97 Phase III 98 Teaching Practicum: June, July to August 98 Part I Part II 100 Part III The debriefing meetings 102 Part IV Evaluation 102 Phase IV 103 The induction program 103 Program evaluation 104 Summary 105 iv CHAPTER V 109 Discussion 104 The rationale 110 The context ill Journal writing 112 Curriculum modification 113 Towards a model 114 Supervision of teaching practicum 117 The teaching practicum triad 119 Evaluating the "reflective inquiry" teaching practicum model 121 Collaboration 123 Collaboration among the student teachers 124 Collaboration between the Institute of Education and the Faculty of Education 124 Collaboration with the NTTC Field-Based Supervisors 125 Collaboration with the secondary Schools 12 6 Supporting Sponsor Teachers/Mentor Teachers 127 Summary 128 References 130 Appendix 136 v The figure The diagrammatic representation of the Reflective-Inquiry Model proposed for the National University of Lesotho 90 vi Acknowledgements I'll invest my money in people. W.K. Kellogg My sincere gratitude goes to the W.K. Kellogg Foundation for the financial and professional support they provided me throughout my entire stay and study in Canada. The Foundation's financial support enabled me to devote my time entirely to my studies and to my son. I also wish to register my indebtedness to members of my thesis Committee. I thank Dr. Charles Ungerlieder, my program advisor and committee member, for his support--both personal and professional during my studies. Dr. Ungerleider was always a phone call away during difficult times--in both my academic and personal life. Dr. Tony Clarke was an invaluable mentor during the final critical phase of my Master's program. I learned a tremendous amount through the feedback support, and advice he gave me during the countless readings of my thesis. Thank you to Dr. Gaalen Erickson, who acted as my external examiner despite his incredibly hectic schedule. His constant support throughout my studies at U.B.C. was most appreciated. I was most fortunate to have this unique committee of teacher-educators; my memorable experience with them is the pride that I take back with me to Lesotho. I also feel fortunate to have been a graduate student in the Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction. In this Centre, there exists a community that provides a supportive environment under the guidance of the Director, Dr. John Willinsky, and his associates, Dr. Hillel Goelman, and Dr. Ian Wright. The Centre's flexibility in allowing individual graduate students to build individual, self-satisfying programs of study enabled me to choose courses that were relevant to me as an individual. A special message of appreciation also goes to friends and families both in Lesotho and Canada. Thank you Lerato Mahakoe, Ann Hawson, Vera Radyo, Selena Hardley, and Beth Coleman. My thanks to John Gillis, a friend and colleague outside of the educational field, who read the final draft and asked important questions that enabled me to revise and refine this document. Two very special families, the sebatane and the Fords helped me throughout my time as a graduate student. The Sebatane were a vital link that helped me maintain contact with my life in Lesotho. I owe special thanks to the Ford family whose caring nature, love, and generosity made my stay in their home the most enjoyable time of my live in Canada. I felt a member of their family as we shared cultural feast and festivals together. Last but not least, to my son Letlotlo, who has been the most encouraging and supporting member of my family. Being with him all the time gave me the strength I needed and allowed me to take time from my studies and join him in his adventures. vii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Teacher education is a complex undertaking that can be divided into two stages. The first stage is pre-service education, which generally takes into account all formal and informal education leading to certification. The second stage is termed in-service education, which focuses on, but is not limited to, the first year of teaching in the classroom setting. The diverse elements of the pre-service education evolve as a result of the influence of many factors, a number of which are an aside to the specific teacher education program models. The pre-service education program's primary elements are complementary life experiences, extensive course work in educational theory, observational field-work and practical teaching experiences. Each of these elements is granted a specific weight in terms of the extent of their individual influences on the structure and organization of the teacher education program. The study reported here is intended for the Lesotho context. It is important to note the extent to which socio-economic and historical context influence practice. Therefore, an understanding of the Lesotho context is important for exploring the strengths and successes of current structures and incorporating them into a proposed model of change. A brief overview of the Lesotho educational system will provide a perspective from which one can 1 constructively critique the teacher education program at the National University of Lesotho. The Lesotho Primary and Secondary Education System Lesotho primary education is structured as a seven year programme, at the end of which a primary school leaving examination is administered. Students who successfully complete the primary school leaving examination (commonly known as PSLE) proceed to a three year junior secondary education programm. At the end of junior secondary, students sit for a Junior Certificate (JC) examination. Successful students then proceed through senior secondary education where they prepare for the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate (COSC) examination. If they successfully complete all twelve years of primary and secondary schooling are awarded either a level of COSC or a GCE (the General Certificate in Education - a certificate awarded to senior high school students who fail only English language in their COSC examination), students are eligible to apply to any of Lesotho's institutions of higher education (Lesotho Technical Colleges, Agricultural Colleges, the Schools of Nursing, etc.). Students obtaining a first or a second class COSC have better opportunities of being admitted to post-secondary institutions. However, a good pass at Junior secondary is acceptable for entrance to most institutions of higher education with the exception of the National University of Lesotho. 2 A brief history of teacher education in Lesotho The first teacher training college in Lesotho was established in 1945 by church missionaries. The purpose of this original college, according to Hall (1969), was to train "good native teachers for their Southern African mission" (p.l.). A number of missionary-run colleges and, subsequently, a university were introduced over the years. These colleges prepared primary school teachers, while the university concentrated primarily on training senior secondary school teachers. Some secondary school teachers were offered an Advanced Teacher Certificate program by the missionary-run teacher training college. Primary teacher preparation in Lesotho remained under religious control until 1975, after which the pre-existing denominational teacher training colleges were phased out by the Lesotho government. The denominational colleges were amalgamated into one government-controlled teacher training college, the National Teacher Training College (NTTC). This institution, unlike the former colleges, aims at preparing teachers of all denominations for a range of educational levels and institutions in the Lesotho nation. NTTC teacher education structure is different from that of the Faculty of Education at the National University of Lesotho (NUL). One of the differences is that while NTTC prepares primary and junior secondary school teachers, the NUL prepares teachers for senior secondary schools. Another major difference is in the scheduling of the terms academic programs vis-a-vis the timing of the primary and secondary school sessions, {diagram of time-line} 3 The NTTC terms match the primary and secondary schools' academic sessions, which run January to June, and July to December. In contrast, the semesters of the National University of Lesotho run January through May, and resume from mid-August through mid-December. While the teaching practicum at NTTC falls within the second session for primary and secondary schools, the NUL teaching practicum straddles both the first and the second school sessions. The NUL teaching practicum starts at the beginning of June, two weeks before secondary schools close for winter break. The six-week practicum continues in the last two weeks of July when secondary school students return from the winter break, until the middle of August when the University reopens for its first semester. The principle argument put forth for this arrangement is that the Faculty of Education at NUL is understaffed and can only support the practicum (that is provide Faculty supervision) if it is timed outside of the regular semesters. National Teacher Training College Teacher Education Structure. The National Teacher Training College offers three levels of teaching certificate programs, as well as a technical teaching diploma program. The certificates offered are the PTC or Primary Teachers' Certificate, the APTC or Advanced Primary Teachers' Certificate', and the STC or Secondary Teachers' Certificate. NTTC admits students into these programs from a variety of academic backgrounds. For example, a student applying for admission to primary school teacher education program at NTTC does not 4 necessarily require COSC (the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate awarded to senior secondary graduates with proficiency in English). Students holding either a GCE or a junior secondary certificate (JC) can also apply for admission. Applicants possessing a COSC standing have the highest rate of acceptance into the programs, followed by GCE and JC certificate holders. In the majority of cases, students holding a first or a second class pass at COSC are automatically admitted into the secondary teacher education program. Also, it is not uncommon to find graduated NTTC students with primary teaching certificate (PTC) subsequently enrolling in the secondary program. Furthermore, NTTC admits students who have completed three years in technical colleges and want to become teachers. These students are admitted into a diploma program in Secondary Technical Teacher Education. Teaching practicum at the National Teacher Training College The duration of the teacher education programs at NTTC are three years. Student-teachers spend their first year in the college studying both professional teaching theory and general academic subjects. During the first half of their second year, student-teachers continue with the college course work and are at the same time engaged in orientation to teaching practicum. Orientation to the practice of teaching begins with micro-teaching / peer-teaching experiences. This is followed by student-teacher's presentations of mini-lessons in the elementary and secondary school classrooms. In the practice of mini-lessons, small groups of four to five 5 students are directly supervised in primary and/or secondary classroom environments by their NTTC academic instructors. The group of student-teachers sit together in a classroom as each presents a mini-lesson. This mini-lesson practice is conducted twice-monthly for four months. This practice leads directly to the next phase of the teacher education program, the teaching practicum. The teaching practicum in the primary and secondary schools begins in the second half of the second year of study. In order to give student-teachers opportunities to acquire teaching experiences, they are placed in the schools throughout the country. Here, students assume full responsibility for teaching either their speciality subjects, in the case of secondary and diploma student-teachers, or all subjects in the case of primary student-teachers. Supervision of student-teachers in their teaching practicum is a responsibility of field-based Internship Supervisors1. The college also engages Cooperating Teachers2 to work very closely with the Internship Supervisors in supervising student-teachers. National University of Lesotho Teacher Education Structure The Teacher Education program at the National University of Lesotho is a four-year concurrent undergraduate program. COSC 1 S c h o o l - b a s e d internship supervisors are NTTC instructors prepared to stay in the teaching practicum sites in order to be with the student-teachers on a full-time basis. 2 The cooperating teacher is the North American equivalent to a sponsor teacher. Cooperating teachers are school-based classroom teachers who help student teachers. 6 candidates holding a first class pass and a good pass in English language are automatically admitted to the program. Teachers holding secondary teacher certificates (STC) from NTTC are also admitted directly to the program. Originally, the two groups were offered different degree programs; BA.Ed for COSC graduates and B.ED for STC graduates. Until recently, B.Ed student-teachers were exempted from the teaching practicum. Starting from August 1992, all teacher education students will study towards a B.ED, and all will undertake a teaching practicum. Students enrolling in the NUL teacher education program are supposed to major in at least two teaching subjects offered in faculties other than the Faculty of Education. The Faculty of Education is, however, responsible for advising student-teachers about the appropriate faculties from which they can select relevant teaching courses. For example, students would be expected to choose teaching subjects from the Faculty of Humanities instead of the Faculty of Law because courses in law are not taught at either the primary or secondary school levels (see National University of Lesotho Calendar 1991/92, p. 94-95). Education student-teachers depend on other faculties for disciplinary content knowledge. The Faculty of Education is however responsible for the teaching of methodology and curriculum studies courses. A student-teacher intending to become a language teacher for example, would be required to also register in Curriculum Studies course in Language Education, a course offered in the Department of Language Education in the Faculty of Education. 7 The concurrent nature of the NUL teacher education program puts some constraints on the positioning and timing of the teaching practicum. If a teaching practicum were to be scheduled concurrent to the students' programs of non-education courses in the Humanities, students in the Faculty of Education would be at a disadvantage in terms of the time available to attend classes and to complete the required assignments for their courses. In 1986 the National University of Lesotho Commissioned a team of evaluators to study its teaching practice (teaching practicum). Specifically, the evaluators were to examine "problems related to the effective execution of teaching practice and make recommendations and suggestions for improvement" (1986. p.l). The Commission noted several problems inherent in the NUL concurrent teacher education program. For example, the Commission identified what they termed an "inter-departmental" problem. It suggested that a "holistic planning" approach be adopted. From this report we learn that a holistic approach "requires the planning of a sector, system, or institution as a single whole rather than a sum of its aggregate parts" (1986, p.9). One would like to believe then that the proposed holistic planning would enable NUL to make necessary plans for an acceptable teaching practicum. Furthermore, holistic planning would presumably involve those faculties working with student-teachers to participate in the teaching practicum. One of the NUL teaching practicum program inadequacies is the centralized supervision of student-teachers. In current practice, NUL teaching practicum is the sole responsibility of the faculty 8 instructor. This practice assumes that the university supervisor is the only legitimate educator to supervise student-teachers in their practicum experiences. Student-teachers in the NUL Faculty of Education do not receive formalized supervision support from the schools in which they conduct their teaching practicum. Furthermore, the quality of supervision conducted by faculty instructors, while they alone are responsible for all observation and supervision, has its shortcomings due in part to the workload of the instructors. In the case of NUL, supervising instructors only provide minimal help to the individual student-teacher partly because they supervise several student-teachers consecutively. Balch and Balch (1987), in a review of teacher education programs in other countries, observe that research in the area of teacher education clearly shows that the cooperating/sponsor-teacher has a strong influence upon the student-teacher in the teaching practicum. The authors point out that, the cooperating teacher is characterised by students as "supportive, enthusiastic, pleasant and challenging" (p.2). The cooperating teacher, unlike the faculty supervisor, is more familiar with such things as the school's social climate and recent innovations in the school system. Through their years of teaching, practicing teachers accumulate experiences that are useful in assisting student-teachers interpret and improve upon their own teaching experiences and skills. In current practice at NUL, however, the support provided for the individual student-teacher is seen by many educators as inadequate; it does not reflect the importance that 9 experienced educators attach to the practice of close supervision of the student-teacher by practicing teachers in the practicum setting. Background to the problem The preceding overview provides the past and the current state of pre-service teacher education configurations at NTTC and NUL. The overview further illuminates the teacher education structural differences in these institutions. This background information also clarifies the fact that NTTC conduct a lengthy and more closely supervised teaching practicum compared to the NUL six-week, narrowly, supervised teaching practicum. The 1986 NUL teaching practicum Commission identified several shortcomings of the NUL teacher education program. The report comments that the central issue was "length and positioning" of the practicum. This issue, the report notes, was commented upon by all people interviewed. The evaluators observe that "there was general agreement that more time must be given to the teaching practice" (1986 p.22) . Despite the Commission's call for a re-examination of the practicum experience, little change has been made to the program. The teaching practicum duration, for example, was extended from four weeks to six weeks. Some might argue that this was a 50% increase and that this should be considered as a substantial change. However, there is a danger in proposing and implementing increases in the teaching practicum duration alone without proposing methods and identifying resources that would guide and 10 monitor the students throughout the teaching practicum, regardless of its duration. This was the case, in my view, when the 1986 Commission proposed several structural alternatives for NUL without providing a guide of how supervision was going to be undertaken. The scope of the alternative models suggested by the 1986 NUL Teaching Practice Commission was far-ranging and included the following: a five year program; a ninth semester add-on; an eight semester model; winter vacation periods; and a three-year plus one-year structure. Several alternatives to a fifth year structure were also suggested. These included the establishing of a winter school, cumulative teaching practice during years II, III and IV and establishing a demonstration/night school under the supervision of the Faculty of Education (1986. p.23). The advantages and disadvantages of each option were discussed (See appendix). The Commission concluded that "from the evidence presented that the Fifth Year Internship, the Ninth Semester and the Eight Semester options are all associated with insurmountable problems and therefore recommends the adoption of the degree plus PCE route" (1986, p.29). Regardless of the warning about structural problems associated with the fifth year option, NUL selected the option. Fortunately, this idea was rejected by the student teachers themselves. The NUL Education student-teachers went on strike to protest the University's decision to implement the Internship scheme (See Commission 1986). The report further shows that the Ministry of Education did not approve of the idea either. Other possible 11 alternatives were: "having an initial Teaching Practice between year II and III under school supervision, followed by a formal 6 week Teaching Practice between year III and IV by the university, followed by a further 18 weeks teaching practice between July and December after 4th year" (1986, p.7-8). However, as has already been pointed out, none of these alternatives has been implemented even on a trial basis. A reasonable question to ask is: Why has this institution not implemented any of these alternative models?. The alternative structures proposed by the 1986 commission, as with any educational change, have financial implications. The report admits this: The Ministry of Education also endorsed a minimum of 12 weeks of Teaching Practice for all students. It saw the lengthening of the course (9th semester or 5th year) as defeating the intention of making teaching more attractive while also costing the Government more, instead of stabilizing training costs or reducing them (1986, p.7). Indeed, a common complaint of educators is that educational reforms or changes are impeded by bureaucratic and fiscal constraints. However, in previously released reports of studies and evaluation of the NUL program not excluding the Commissions 1986 report, little has been said about alternatives such as encouraging students-teachers to become reflective teachers during their micro-teaching experiences, the post-certificate induction program, and several other options which do not necessarily require extensive financial support. A combination of the existing structure with a less expensive model could be an appropriate 12 answer for NUL teaching practicum. The problem It is not for lack of studies that the teaching practicum in the Lesotho University context has not been more revised and improved, but rather that this is an extremely complex undertaking. However, the 1986 Commissions Report, the latest of these reports, reveals that the structure of the actual supervision of the teaching practicum was not studied by this Commission. In other words, this report does not provide evidence about the extent to which University supervisors provide student-teachers with the opportunity to inquire and reflect on their teaching experiences in their teaching practicum settings. The emphasis was on extending the practicum and assuming that such an extension will automatically bring about competency in student teaching practice. The objectives This theses will argue that the above assumption is false and will present an argument for a model which is not concerned so much about length in terms of duration (i.e.quantity) of the teaching practicum, but rather in terms of how that time is used towards the goal of educating skilled and competent teachers (i.e. quality). The model presented in this thesis aims to strengthen the NUL teaching practicum program and ultimately accelerate and improve the professional development of the student-teachers as they embark on their teaching careers. A wide selection of the current 13 literature on models of teaching practicum has been reviewed. A model will be derived from that literature which is complementary to and compatible with the current fiscal and political constraints and circumstances of the Teacher Education Program at the National University of Lesotho. This study will specifically address the following objectives: 1. Identify the theoretical orientations that frame the design of teaching practica. 2. Outline the literature on reflective practice with the purpose of integrating it in the NUL teaching practicum model. 3. Design a reflective-inquiry model for the National University of Lesotho. 4. Detail the strategy for the implementation of a model of reflective inquiry. Rationale This theses is conceived with the intention of providing an alternative model of teaching practicum that can be useful in a context in which extending the teaching practicum is not feasible. Importantly, this proposed model will take into consideration constraints to implementation as identified from the reaction to the previously proposed model of reform of the teaching practicum element of NUL's Teacher Education Program (specifically the 1986 Commissions proposals). Three key constraints stand out: the budget; the concurrent nature of the B.Ed, program; and the incompatible schedules of the NUL and the secondary school system. This proposed model is 14 designed around these constraints and present a workable model of teaching practicum reform, based on models of reflective practice, that could be implemented in a timely fashion in NUL. 15 Chapter II Literature Review Teacher educators and researchers are increasingly calling for reform in pre-service teacher education. From the literature, it is apparent that the major concern is on producing a "competent teaching force". The Holmes Group report (1987), (a report by the U.S. Deans of the Faculties of Education) in illustrating the reasons for reforming teacher education, points out that "the better a teacher is educated, the better an education that teacher potentially can provide" (p.l). Chapter II will be presented in two sections. The first section will examine issues that impede change in teacher education programs. For example, the section will illustrate, in the North American context, how and why reform is constrained by the teaching practicum as it is currently practiced. The review will look into the current approaches to teaching practicum and how these relate to full-time teaching. The second section reviews proposed alternatives that fulfil the criteria of professional development and maintenance of standards. For example, some teacher education institutions are considering reflection on teaching and induction programs as possible solutions to problems associated with teacher education. The literature suggests that these concepts guide current reform efforts. Therefore, time will be spent on reviewing the literature specific to these two concepts in light of the impact they appear 16 to have on efforts to conceptualize teacher education as a continuum. Section I Any proposal of reform of pre-service teacher education programs brings into play a variety of factors. These intersecting factors range from the complex nature of teacher education, the practice of supervision of student-teachers in real teaching environments, and the environments of the schools in which student-teachers practice their teaching. The idiosyncratic natures of the different factors often produce areas of incompatibility which result in the 'unsuccessful' implementation of proposed changes. The complexity of the enterprise. Doyle (1990) and Goodlad (1991), point out that teacher education encompasses multiple components that operate at different levels of the enterprise. This complexity affects the pace at which reform efforts can be implemented. Some theorists see reform as constrained by "lack of connectedness between the schooling enterprise and the preparation of those who staff it" (Goodlad, 1991, p.5). Goodlad's point raises an interesting issue: schools, although used by faculties of education for purposes of teaching practicum, are administered by a different body. Goodlad is suggesting that teacher education programs depend on the availability and cooperation of schools in order to give the student-teachers the 17 opportunity to undergo the teaching practicum process. Additionally, teacher educators depend on the availability and cooperation of schools in order to undertake research which can inform the teacher education practice. Yet in practice, despite this implied interdependence, the interaction between these two groups is inadequate. In 1987, the Holmes Group discussed issues related to the reliance on the schools' cooperation. They suggested several solutions to this problem. The Holmes Group very strongly recommended that professional schools2 be opened. They further indicated that the opening of the professional schools would reduce the problems encountered in depending heavily on public schools for their cooperation in conducting the teaching practica. Professional Development Schools, in addition to improving teacher education, . . .would expand opportunities for strengthening knowledge and practice: to test different instructional arrangement under different working and administrative conditions. Innovative professional practice would be developed, demonstrated, and critically evaluated at these exemplary sites before being disseminated elsewhere (Holmes Group Report, 1987, p.13) (My emphasis). Bowman (1990) elaborates on the interrelationship between Faculties of Education and the Public School System and suggests a new direction. In a review of teacher education in the province of Professional School, in this context, are schools that are run by teacher education faculties for purposes of creating a controlled environment for conducting teaching practica. 18 British Columbia, Canada, Bowman comments that "reforms in teacher education and reforms in schools should go hand in hand" (p.11). However, he does not investigate the feasibility of such a proposition, given the fact that public schools agenda is viewed as different from that of the teacher education institutions. This brings us to yet another constraint that may affect teacher education reform efforts; societal demands and expectations. Doyle (1990), notes: "Ideally, teacher education exists to produce and maintain a continuous supply ... of highly talented and motivated teachers for the nation's classrooms" (p.5). This stipulation requires teacher education institutions to prepare teachers to fit into the existing school structure and not vice-versa. In discussing the "good employee paradigm" as it affects teacher preparation, Doyle (1990) points out that, according to this paradigm,... . . .effective teacher education prepares candidates in the prevailing norms and practices of classrooms and schools. The ideal teacher, in this framework, is one who can efficiently cope with the "real world" of schooling. The emphasis is on training and socialization for the job of teaching- as it exists (p.5) (My emphasis). The above constraint is an example of an external force that affects the preparation of teachers. Thus, as attempts are made to bring about changes in teacher education, consideration of such external forces, in addition to forces created within the environment of the Faculties of Education, have to be carefully considered. In describing some of the problems associated with the teacher 19 education faculties, Goodlad (1991) points out that education boundaries are ill defined, making it difficult for reform efforts specific to teacher education to be implemented. Goodlad (1991) argues that teacher education curriculum is: ...scattered about in the liberal arts departments, in the schools and colleges of education in various adjunct relationships, and in the nearby schools where student teachers are received. Just assembling this diverse group isn't easy. Bringing all together for purposes of defining a mission and program requires a Herculean effort. Not surprisingly, the curriculum is incoherent, lacking in mission and organizing elements to tie the whole together (p.6). This may be particulary so when we view other elements that constitute the foundation of teacher education. The process, the structures and the orientations that guide program formulations are but a few issues in which teacher education is grounded. Feiman-Nemser (1990), in her review of the literature, recapitulates the orientations that guide teacher education program formulations. According to Feiman-Nemser's literature review, there are five dominant orientations: • an academic orientation "highlights the fact that teaching is primarily concerned with the transmission of knowledge and the development of understanding. Traditionally associated with liberal arts education and secondary teaching, the academic orientation emphasizes the teacher's role as intellectual leader, scholar, and subject-matter specialist" (p.221), • a practical orientation focuses "attention on the elements of craft, technique, and artistry that skilful practitioners reveal in their work. It also recognizes that teacher deal with unique situations and that their work is ambiguous and uncertain" (p.222), • a technological orientation "focuses attention on the knowledge and skills of teaching. The primary goal is to prepare teachers who can carry out the task of teaching 20 with proficiency" (p.223), • a personal orientation "places the teacher-learner at the centre of the educational process. Learning to teach is construed as a process of learning to understand, develop, and use oneself effectively" (p.225), • a critical/social orientation "combines a progressive social vision with a radical critique of schooling" (p.226) . Teacher education institutions no doubt will find elements of each of these orientations in their program. Further, the above distinctions are useful as they help to illustrate program structures. Each one of the above orientations places an emphasis on particular responsibility for teacher education. Furthermore, these orientations provide an overview of what may guide a pre-service education review. However, ...collectively they do not represent a set of equally valid alternatives from which to choose. [Instead, they] constitute a source of ideas and practices to draw on in deliberating about how to prepare teachers in a particular context. Each orientation highlights different issues that must be considered, but none offers a fully developed framework to guide program development (Feiman-Nemser, 1990, p.227). The implication is that reform efforts may not bring similarity between institutions in the program that they offer. Feiman-Nemser (1990) admitted as much when she said that... . . .a plurality of orientations and approaches exists because people hold different expectations for schools and teachers, and because, in any complex human endeavour, there are always more goals to strive for than one can achieve at the same time (p.227). Teacher educators, therefore, might be required to make choices from the orientation in designing a program which best suits the 21 institutional interests and needs. Feiman-Nemser argues that teacher educators cannot avoid making choices about what to concentrate on. Although there may be differences observed in various teacher education programs, the teaching practicum seems to be at the heart of all reform literature. The literature clearly argues that pedagogical knowledge acquired in the schools of teacher education has to be demonstrated in the teaching practicum component of the program. Shulman (1987) claims that: ... pedagogical content knowledge is of special interest because it identifies the distinctive bodies of knowledge for teaching. It represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction (p.8). Shulman (1987) emphasizes that the key to distinguishing the knowledge base of teaching lies at the intersection of content and pedagogy. Thus, pre-service teacher education can be regarded complete only if its students can demonstrate that they can "transform the content knowledge [they] possess into forms that are pedagogically powerful" (p.15). It is through undergoing the process of teaching practicum that education students can demonstrate their acquired skills and knowledge, particularly. Preparing for the teaching practicum Most teacher education faculties require their students to 22 acquire micro-teaching4 experiences as a form of preparation for the teaching practicum. Micro-teaching experiences enables student teachers to explore their understanding of the learned teaching skills. Micro-teaching is "a combination of a conceptual system for identifying precisely specified teaching skills with the use of video-tape feedback to facilitate growth in these teaching skills" (Peck and Tucker, 1973, p.951). Some researchers have studied the relationship of micro-teaching to the teaching practicum. The studies of the 1960s reported in the literature show strong relationships between micro-teaching and the teaching practicum experiences. Peck and Tucker (1973) report that studies undertaken by Allen and Fortune (1967), Fortune, Cooper and Allen (1967), Cooper and Stroud (1967), Emmer and Millet (1968) and Davis and Smoot (1969), indicate that student-teachers exposed to this process performed at a "higher level of teaching competence than a comparable group of students [and] showed a significantly more desirable patterns of teaching behaviour" (Peck and Tucker, 1973, p.952). However, the 1990's studies refute earlier findings which claimed that there was a noticeable relationship between micro-teaching experiences to student teachers' actual teaching. According to (Copeland, cited in Carter, 1990), the Micro-teaching in this context refers to the laboratory experiences whereby student teachers teach mini-lessons to their peers. 23 acquisition of teaching skills in a laboratory setting did not predict their use by student teachers in classrooms ... the use of skills was dependent, rather, on the ecology of the classroom in which the student teacher taught (p.292). Schaller (1993) reports an interesting finding whereby student teachers themselves reported that the methods they had learned and practiced in the laboratory do not work "nearly as well" with pupils in real classrooms. These contradictions suggest the need for a re-examination of the impact of laboratory experiences. The use of laboratories might therefore depend on the goals for using them. However, the studies of the 1990s could ask questions such as: What part might laboratory experiences play in teacher education reform initiative? Micro-teaching might focus on reflection on laboratory experiences vis-a-vis practicing teaching skills. Teaching Practica Since teaching is "essentially a learned profession," (Shulman, 1987, p.9) student-teachers have to be placed in the schools where they can gain experience in teaching "real" students. Most schools of thought view the teaching practicum as forming an integral part of teacher education. It provides student-teachers with the opportunity to practice the theory learned during their pre-service training. Fullan, Connelly and Watson (1987) contend that the practicum is often seen as the key element in pre-service teacher education. According to these authors, "it is widely, indeed almost universally, agreed that field-based experience is a necessary component in teacher education" (p.35). 24 Fullan et al. (1987) cautions us that research suggests that teaching practicum as it operates is "ineffective in helping students relate theory and practice in teaching" (p.35). The authors provide a variety of reasons for the observed problems. These involve such things as the supervisory teams, the actual supervision process, and the school enterprise, among others. The teaching practicum supervision team The teaching practicum team is viewed by many writers as a triad; a three-person group involving the student-teacher, the faculty advisor and the sponsor teacher. Each member of the triad holds different status which affects the process and supervision of the teaching practicum. For example, the associate teacher and the faculty advisor, due to their various experiences, bring to the practicum different supervision skills. Practicum critiques view this situation as "forces" that pull student teachers in different directions. The associate teachers' supervision skills, their expertise and/or training and the criteria used for selecting them are but a few concerns discussed in the literature. Potthoff (1993), points out that the literature portrays the need for substantial improvement in how sponsor teachers are selected and trained. There are conflicting views about how this might occur. According to Housego (1992) , "cooperating teachers are not all equally knowledgeable regarding teaching or to the same degree skilled in supervision" (p.61). More important, faculties of 25 education have no set criteria for matching student-teachers with associate teachers (Bruneau, 1993) . The major criterion with regard to cooperating teacher selection, "appears to be a willingness to work with pre-service teachers" (Mclntyre, 1983 cited in Potthoff, 1993) . If student-teachers continue to be placed under the responsibility of people who may have not received proper training, how can teacher educators be sure that student-teachers benefit from this experience? The point to be made, though, is that change affecting teacher education has to embrace the other members of the triad as well. Fullan, Connelly and Watson (1987) express dissatisfaction with the current situation of associate teacher selection and preparation. They suggest that "altering and enhancing the roles of associate teachers and student teachers must figure prominently in the reform" (p.36) deliberations. Thus, literature strongly supports involvement of associate teachers. "The cooperating teacher often appears to be the most important person in helping teachers come to understand what it means to teach" (Olson and Carter 1989, cited in Potthoff, 1993 p.254). Some consider associate teachers as possessing the qualities of mentors. As mentors, associate teachers would be expected to be more caring, giving student-teachers attention and being helpful to the 'would-be teachers' (Bowman, 1990; Bruneau, 1992) . The importance of associate teachers input is especially valued by proponents of traditional-craft teacher education. Zeichner (1983) discusses the traditional-craft theory in teacher education. He views the idea of attaching student-teachers 26 to a master teacher as giving student-teachers the opportunity to accumulate knowledge about teaching by "trial and error". Student-teachers can do so in the presence of experienced associate teachers. With assistance from the associate teacher, the student-teacher could master a repertoire of technical skills of teaching (Zeichner, 1983) . Zeichner goes on to say that: A master-apprentice relationship is seen as the proper vehicle for transmitting the 'cultural knowledge' possessed by good teachers to the novice. Despite the reluctance of university teacher educators to affiliate themselves with this conception of teacher education, the 'traditional-craft' paradigm is still alive and well in U.S. teacher education today in the form of the typical student teaching experience (p.5). Zeichner (1983) discusses other teacher education orientations; the behaviouristic teacher education whose primary concern is fostering the development of skill in an actual performance of a predetermined task, and the personalistic teacher education orientation, which, amongst others, seeks to promote the psychological maturity of prospective teachers. While each of these teacher education orientations may be viewed as important and relevant in teacher preparation, the traditional craft orientation seems to be more pertinent to the student-teachers' and associate-teachers' relationship in the practicum setting. The other category in supervision of teaching practicum embraces faculty of education representatives. In some Canadian institutions, the faculty advisor can be any of the following people: a sessional supervisor, a faculty associate, a graduate 27 student, or a faculty member. At the University of British Columbia, (A Canadian Institution) the faculty representative must be an experienced teacher who has been specially prepared for the responsibility of supervising student-teachers. In the majority of cases however, the faculty advisor, unlike the sponsor-teacher plays a unique role. They provide assistance to student-teachers, they represent the faculty vision, and at the same time assess student's performance (Bruneau 1992, p.20). According to this author the role of the faculty advisor in the practicum setting is much more important than that of the sponsor teacher because as the Faculty representative they also have to be particularly careful about conveying the Faculty's goal through ensuring that student's maintain the Faculty expectations. The role of faculty advisor as it relates to reform needs to be examined closely. Do the different people holding the position of faculty advisor (faculty associates, graduate student, sessional teachers and faculty member) view themselves as upholding the same values? Do they follow similar supervision patterns? Do faculty advisor themselves undergo any training? How are these team members selected to the position of faculty advisor? Housego (1990) points out that selection of university advisors needs substantial review. She argues that teacher education institutions cannot continue to provide "few enticements for faculty to undertake supervision" (p,61). One of the most striking problems related to faculty advisors is the fact that supervision at the secondary level is faced with 28 division in the university advisor roles. According to Bruneau (1993), these roles consist of subject specialist on one hand and generalist supervision on the other. The subject specialist advisor's knowledge base and expertise in the student-teacher's chosen subject can be helpful to the student-teacher's request for help on the content taught. The generalist advisor, unlike the subject specialist could be viewed as paying more attention on emphasizing the 'likenesses' across subject-matter, rather than the uniqueness in each subject. Bruneau's suggestions, however, fall short of demonstrating whether there is a possibility of reinforcing either type to play a dual but useful role. Thus, Bruneau provides us with a situation that challenges future reform plans particulary supervision of secondary school student teachers. The third and equally important member of the triad is the student-teachers themselves. Relationships between student-teachers and the supervision teams are well documented. Researchers debate the magnitude of these relationships and show that student-teachers' hold a junior position on this triad. Researchers note that student teachers are apprehensive about the teaching practicum experiences. One of their concerns centres on practicum assessment. "Typically, evaluation occurs over a short period of time in a setting governed by pre-existing norms and orchestrated by a cooperating teacher who retains primary responsibility" (Potthoff, 1992, p.265). Potthoff (1992) provides suggestions based on the findings on his study: Student teacher performance evaluation--Better way? He argues that the: 29 ...assessment systems should be context sensitive. Rating scales, which seldom provide contextual cues, imply a standardization of experience which does not exist. Contextual factors clearly influence what student teachers do and how they do what they do. Context makes it difficult for some students to fail and difficult for others to succeed (p.271). The important message here is that student-teacher assessment needs to be reviewed if teacher education is to be reformed. Student teachers may require a different form of assessment, one that involves them in ways that will enhance their teaching experiences. Another area that is closely related to student-teachers' role in the teaching practicum triad is their preparedness to teach. The literature is concerned about such issues as student-teachers readiness to teach, their attitude toward the teaching practicum, and their conceptions of the teaching practicum. If student-teachers do not feel prepared to teach (reported below) it can be assumed that they might not feel comfortable in participating in discussions that involves their teaching experiences and that their role in the teaching practicum triad might not be a prominent one. Carter (1990) and Housego (1992) discuss the process of preparing student-teachers and how they (student-teachers) feel about the process. Carter (1990) concentrates on the extensive preparation that is aimed at ensuring that student-teachers enter the teaching practicum feeling prepared to teach. The author contends that though efforts are made to prepare student-teachers for teaching practicum, nothing can ensure feeling prepared to teach. While Housego (1992) studied the student teachers' feeling of preparedness to teach, personal efficacy, and teaching efficacy 30 in the University of British Columbia secondary teacher education program (as per the title of the article). Housego (1992) reports that there was no significant increase in the average rating of feeling prepared to teach in the final four months of a twelve month teacher education program. The literature reviewed in the above section leads us into the next question: Can the teaching practicum be structured such that the process might be useful to student-teachers? The section that follows presents suggestions on how teacher education programs can be structured such that it can benefit students-teachers. Section II A life long teacher education program One of the critical questions is whether teacher education can produce competent teachers given the constraints inherent in this enterprise. Bowman (1990) and Jackson (1993) both make a point that learning to teach is a lifelong process. According to Jackson, "beginning teachers are not going to have a fully developed knowledge base to guide their curricular decisions" (p.24). This suggests that teacher education can only introduce its candidates to the concept of teaching, help them acquire basic teaching skills, create situations for practice, but cannot be expected to produce completely perfect teachers. Further professional development has to be provided beyond the pre-service teacher education component. Fullan, Connelly and Watson (1987) argue that 31 the area of continuing professional development for teachers has "been much neglected and needs serious attention" (p.23). If we accept that learning to teach is a lifelong activity then we must seek ways that will make this continuity a profitable exercise. The literature review on teacher education reform abounds with research on teacher education as a continuum. One school of thought supports the notion that student-teachers should be taught to reflect on their teaching. Another school supports and advocates collaboration among teacher education stake holders. Those who propose collaboration, suggest that induction programs can assist student-teachers as they progress in their teaching career. The NCATE [National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education] report (1987, cited in Bowman 1990) provides justification for continuity, teacher education: not a single time bound activity but a continuing process of career development. Teachers have a right to expect superior initial preparation that provides them with the knowledge and skills to enter the field; they also have a right to expect systematic evaluation, feedback and support during the first year of teaching and an integrated program for continued professional development(p.25). Varah, Theine, Parker (1986), Jensen (1987), Fullan, Connelly and Watson (1987), Fullan and Steigelbauer (1991) and Mathot (1988) discuss some of the problems experienced by the first and second year teachers. New teachers are said to encounter discipline problems, classroom management problems, feelings of isolation, 32 difficulty using teaching materials, and difficulty in evaluating students' work. Fullan and Stiegelbauer (1991) point out that efforts must be made to assist beginning teachers because these teachers face overwhelming situations. They point out that: whether those teachers experience the sink-or-swim ndividualism characteristic of traditional school culture ... or the inbuilt support of collaborative work cultures makes a huge difference in whether they stay in the profession and how good they will become if they do. . . . , but there are few things as deterministic of the entire career of a teacher as getting off to a disastrous or a strong start (p.3 04). Reflection and induction in teacher education An understanding of beginning teachers dilemmas and the need for assisting them during their initial stages of their professional life brings us to the last section of this chapter; the need for introducing student-teachers to reflective practice during their teaching practicum and induction programs when they finally graduate and join the profession. Reflection-on/in-action One of the concerns of Faculties of Education, educators and teacher education researchers which is constantly singled out in the literature is preparing student-teachers to engage in "reflective practice" in their daily teaching experiences. The 33 search for ways of employing this concept in the curriculum of teacher education is an active area of research. The literature abounds with interpretations of what "reflective practice" can mean for teacher-educators. For many researchers, the incorporation of theory on reflective practice into the teacher education curriculum is a positive move. Most of the literature claims that, if student- teachers can be provided with the opportunity to develop as reflective practitioners, their teaching will be enhanced. Teacher educators are beginning to realize that while the aim of teacher education is to produce "highly competent" teachers, the number of years spent in teacher education nor the well designed theoretical programs offered cannot fully ensure that graduates leave their institutions fully prepared for the teaching profession. Student-teachers are said to enter the profession still uncertain about how they should handle the difficult situations and sometimes unexpected events they encounter in classroom situations. This problem can be attributed to the fact that classroom life is highly unpredictable. The ways in which the experienced teachers handle classroom problems cannot be addressed fully in the university classrooms. Hence the promotion of the theory of "reflective practice." Ross (1990) points out that: ...the ability to reflect about the practice does not develop in one course or even in a few courses. Enabling pre-service students to be reflective requires the development of a clearly articulated program of study (p.97). 34 This means that helping the student teacher to become "reflective" requires teacher-educators to provide student-teachers with situations that will enable them to gain practical experience in this area. D.A. Schon (1983), through his work entitled "The Reflective Practitioner" has laid a foundation to the current deliberations and research studies concerning "reflective practice". Some teacher educators have tested the applicability of this concept in the student teaching practica. The works of MacKinnon and Erickson (1988) and that of Clarke (1990) in which Schon's concept is tested with student-teachers in teaching practica, are but a few examples of how seriously teacher educators are promoting reflective practice in teacher education. The reasons for these efforts are obvious: "the development of competent and reflective teachers is a value toward which most teacher educators would strive..." (Richardson, 1990, p.12) As more and more educators/researchers show interest in reflection, interpretations of what this theory means for teacher education proliferate. Some interesting insights into reflective theory are summarized by Grimmett (1988) in the following passage: Reflection ... engages practitioners in a 'conversation' with the problematic situation . . . frames are imposed which highlight certain aspects of phenomena at work in the situation; problems are set, the situation framed, and problem-solving actions are generated (p.9). The point he is making is that the reflective processes necessary for dealing with the disparate situations encountered in the classroom situation are primarily developed through experience in that 35 environment rather than through theoretical learning. But Grimmett's interpretation leads us to yet other interesting questions: Can beginning teachers engage in the type of reflection that Grimmett is referring to? If not, why not? And how can teacher educators help their student-teachers achieve this level of reflection? The literature tells us that the beginning of a teaching practicum is a very difficult time for most student - teachers. Student-teachers have problems adjusting to the new setting, relating theory to practice, and conceptualizing the task of teaching. The problem of student-teachers adjusting to the teaching practicum is evidently considered pertinent since it is dealt with by Reynolds (1992) and Mackinnon and Erickson (1988). The latter authors point out that: The beginning of practicum is likely to be very confusing and mysterious since the competence to be learned cannot simply be told to the student in a way that he or she could at that point understand (p.119). The emphasis here is that, regardless of how helpful supervisors can be, student-teachers are apprehensive of this new world in which they are asked to play a major role, that is, of teacher. The authors caution that in helping student-teachers to become reflective, there is need to be tactful and make use of approaches that will encourage reflective teaching habits. Thus, the factors that enable the student-teachers to reflect in-action, as it is illuminated by the preceding insights, will be discussed in this section. 36 Some key factors. A multitude of factors that can encourage student-teachers to reflect on and in action are discussed in the literature. Some of the key factors that enable the development of reflection on and in action in a student-teacher practicum setting will be addressed. The practicum setting: While student-teachers may be introduced to the concept of reflection in some of their methods courses, this setting does not provide them an opportunity to explore the concept in very meaningful manner. In the field of education therefore, reflection requires that student-teachers be placed in an action setting to enable them to understand and use the concept. Fortunately, teacher education is structured such that student-teachers experience micro-teaching and the teaching practica at some point in their program. According to MacKinnon and Erickson (1988) "one important feature of the practicum setting is that it provides a 'virtual' world,.." (p.118 also see Schon 1987, p.170). Immersed in the everyday classroom life, student-teachers can be afforded the opportunity to try practice reflection. Bowman (1990), in commenting on Schon's concept of reflection, emphasizes that one "learns one's business by practice, then reflection on that practice "(p.36). However, not all settings are conducive to enabling student-teachers to practice reflection effectively. According to Ross (1990) , "field settings must provide a supportive and challenging environment" (p.109). It is important 37 that field settings be seen to allow student-teachers to develop teaching reflectively. Grimmett (1988) takes this point further by pointing out that settings in which real reflection can be developed are those which "precipitate puzzles or surprises for the professional practitioner" (p.13). The implication here is that settings should not only be supportive, but should present problems so that student-teachers can begin to realize that there are events in teaching which do require them to reflect on/in their teaching. However, learning to become a reflective practitioner, as suggested by Bowman raises a variety of questions, a key question being: is engagement in practice teaching, in itself, enough to foster reflection? The immediate answer would be no. There are other factors that must be considered in order to create a supportive setting. For example, the student-teacher must be mentored by a supervisor, who Schon prefers to call the "coach". Coaching the reflective practitioner: Let us briefly examine the role of a "coach" and subsequent implications in developing reflection during the teaching practicum. The word "coach" is commonly used in the field of sports. A coach is someone who demonstrates, supervises, initiates dialogue, experiments, and is available during practice. But we also note that a coach can never take the place of a player during competitions. Schon (1983) suggests that "coaching" can be summarized by the following characterization: "through advice, criticism, description, demonstration, and questioning, one person 38 helps another learn to practice reflective teaching in the context of doing" (p.19). If we can accept that the supervisor assumes the role of a "coach" as described by Schon, then a "coach" has to be a model, and in being a model would be expected to perform some or all activities associated with coaching. Some authors are suggesting higher recognition of the place of observation and dialogue during the practicuin. Schon (1988) classifies the implications of coaching in this manner: In order to get to the inner relationship, a coach must always pass through the outer one. In other words, a coach gets to the teacher's interaction with kids ... only through the medium of an interaction with the teacher. And in this interaction, one often finds vulnerability, anxiety, and defensiveness (p.22). While Ross (1990) argues that "common meaning" can be pursued by "listening effectively to students and determining how a student is interpreting the communication of the teacher educator ..."(p.106). By showing the relationship between dialogue and developing reflection, these authors suggest that the process of coaching needs to be sensitive to each student's ability to conceptualize. If good relationships are established between teacher-educator and student-teacher, better outcomes will likely follow. The coach must be available to guide the student through the teaching practicum period. Valli (1990) stresses the importance of inviting students to take "risks" and assuring them through dialogue that their "mistakes" are normal and that they should not hesitate to share their experiences. Valli indicates that: 39 In a relational approach, reflection seems to have two purposes. The first purpose is to provide the ground for caring relations and communities. The prospective teacher must be given the opportunity to reflect so that the supervisor or teacher educator can enter into his or her reality (p.49) . It is important that teacher educators establish this relationship as they encourage the development of Schon's "reflective practitioner." Dialogue is an instrument through which feedback can be provided and can be seen as a cooperative effort by two people where listening takes place, information is given, and appropriate responding takes place. Student-teachers must be willing to share their experiences with their supervisors,- only then can supervisors learn about their problems. Thus the literature indicates that the student-teacher dialogue is seen to increase if and when the coach/ supervisor's approach encourages it. The models/supervision methods/approaches: Although the supervisor can facilitate reflection on/in action, he/she can only do so through employing specific methods. Several approaches that can be used to encourage reflection on/in practice are provided in the literature. MacKinnon and Erickson explore Schon's three models: the "follow me" model, the "joint experimentation" model and the "hall of mirrors" model. Although these models are discussed separately, this does not mean that supervisors have to use one at a time or even separate them during practice. It would not be surprising to find that supervisors using all three to address different situations. 40 The "follow-me model is particularly important at the initial stages of the teaching practicum. This is the stage whereby student- teachers are still struggling with the reality of being in a real classroom with real students. At this stage student-teachers need to learn from the classroom teachers some of the techniques required in classroom teaching. According to Schon, the dominant pattern in a "follow-me" model is "demonstration and imitation;" (p. 215) Schon points out that the underlying message for this model is that student-teachers should in reality act in similar patterns to that of their coach. Thus, student-teachers are invited to experiment with what they consider to be essential features of the coach's demonstration. (See Schon, 1987, p.215) In a "joint experimentation" model, student-teachers can be gradually helped to conceptualize the classroom setting and the practicum expectations. This model assumes that the supervisor provides a supporting and "nurturing" environment in which the student will feel encouraged to take the initiative. The joint experimentation further assumes that the supervisor also reflects on his/her practice and shares the experiences with the student. Thus, as Gillis (1988) puts it, student-teachers must be guided through their experimentation process. Schon's "joint experimentation" model as interpreted by Mackinnon and Erickson shows that the coach takes an exploratory, analytic stance: the coach joins the student in experimenting in practice, assessing the student's ways of framing problems and acting in uncertain situations" (p.119). The purpose of joint experimentation is 41 grounded in supportive environments. Thus, the coach has to interact closely with the student in order to provide the student an opportunity to reflect on /in practice. It becomes more meaningful if both parties are willing to share their reflection experience which moves us to Schon's third model. Schon's third model is a hall of mirrors. In this model both the student-teacher and the coach have reached a stage where they can discuss each other's reflection. In this model, the coach mirrors the very reflective practice he/she is encouraging in the student-teacher; while the coach too thinks about his/her coaching actions. Schon points out that in a hall of mirrors: . . . student and coach continually shift perspective. They see their interaction at one moment as a reenactment of some aspect of the student's practice; at another, as a dialogue about it; and at still another, as a modelling of its redesign. In this process, they must continually take a two-tiered view of their interaction, seeing it in its own terms and as a possible mirror of the interaction the student has brought to the practicum for study. In this process, there is a premium on the coach's ability to surface his own confusion. To the extent that he can do so authentically, he models for his student a new way of seeing error and 'failure' as opportunities for learning, (p.297)(My emphasis) Summary In opening this section I indicated that concerned teacher-educators are beginning to consider the importance of reflection on/in action in teacher education. I have also identified some ways in which this can be incorporated into the teaching practicum. Some of the motivations for developing reflective practica stem from the 42 belief by educators that the teaching practicum is the best place for beginning to illuminate reflecting on/in action. The literature about the possible rewards for enabling student-teachers to experiment with reflection on/in action suggests that teachers can move from just reflecting on/in action to solving teaching problems. Russell, Munby, Spafford, and Johnston (1988) point out that reflection in-action is seen as the process in which a professional, responding to puzzle and surprises in the context of practice, reframes a problem in a way that suggests new lines of action (p.70) (my emphasis) . Thus, there seems to be a promising future for Schon's "reflective practitioner" in modern teacher education curriculum. Further, the literature supports the notion of encouraging and facilitating reflective practice during the teaching practicum. However, some authors caution about problems associated with reflection in-action, the "second level" of reflection. While most published researchers maintain that reflection on action can be developed by student-teachers during the practicum, reflection in-action may be too complicated to be developed at the teaching practicum level. Gillis (1988) and Mackinnon and Erickson (1988) take similar positions on this notion. Gillis observes that reflection in-action might be promoted within a supervisory setting, especially if supervisors use the "clinical supervision" model. The author notes that while the teaching practicum is probably the most appropriate place for this activity to occur, "it seems unlikely to occur with much frequency" (p.52). Gillis's 43 concern is with the constraint of time, which is to say, the relatively short duration of the practicum. He seems to suggest that for reflection in-action to be successful, more time is required. MacKinnon and Erickson (1988) draw a similar conclusion. They submit that reflection on-action is mostly easily accomplished in a practicum setting, while reflection in-action "can indeed be encouraged, (but) it is extremely difficult and threatening because of the lack of experience and the limited repertoire of most novice teachers" (p.134). And further to this, Bowman (1990) sees the roles of teacher educators as that of initiators and facilitators; but because of the limited time that teacher educators spend with the student-teachers, they should ideally collaborate more fully with their peers throughout the profession. This, Bowman thinks, could ensure that "in the future, somewhere down the road, will emerge the reflective practitioner" (p.9)(my emphasis). By submitting that reflection in-action cannot be easily developed during the teaching practicum, the authors are suggesting that teacher educators have to accept that they can initiate these developments, but this is only one of many steps towards the development of student-teachers into mature reflective practitioners. Initiating reflection on and in-action in teacher education is a positive step toward enhancing "competence" in teacher education. It is a step which can lead to providing "reflective practice for all teachers, at all stages of their career. ... It is both a key goal of teacher education and the informing characteristic of each 44 step in the teacher education continuum" (Fullan, Connelly and Watson,1987,p.6). Preparing student-teachers to become reflective practitioners as well as mounting induction programs for all beginning teachers in all contexts seems to be the focus of reform efforts in the 1990's literature. The induction program Let's face it. The new teacher who opens the classroom on Monday may have graduated last Friday. That teacher may have moved to a new area and lived alone for the first time. All of a sudden, he or she is expected to be an adult and a professional, and an exceptionally competent one at that (John Mahaffy, cited by Jensen 1986, p.l). This section will discuss what an induction program is, why it is important for teachers such as the one described in the above citation, and the models of induction programs. Induction may be thought of as a supportive program for the beginning teacher. For Fullan, Connelly and Watson (1987) induction means "a relatively structured, supportive and progressive entry (of new teachers) into the early years of teaching" (p.23). This idea is elaborated in McDonald's definition of induction. He defines it as "encompassing the mastery of two tasks: the effective use of skills of teaching and adapting to the social system of the school" (McDonald 1980b, cited by Varah, Theune & Parks, 1986, p. 33). Induction therefore is the extension of the teacher education curriculum intended to form a bridge between the pre-service and in-service teacher education. One would imagine that 45 the induction programs are typically developed to orient the new teachers into the profession of teaching. The emphasis here is that induction is a component of the learning continuum that encompasses teacher professional development throughout their career. Justification for induction programs The literature on induction programs suggests that there are several reasons for proposing that the teaching profession attend to the importance and/or relevance of induction to the profession. Induction programs raise a number of interesting issues, such as supervision of new teachers. Jensen (1986) notes that "school principals are frequently reluctant to monitor the performance of new teachers" (p.5) particularly during the first months of their teaching. This of course is a paradox. If the teachers are not assisted, they: . . . tend to experience difficulties, particularly in discipline and classroom management, (that may) compound as the school year progresses. Without supervision and feedback, they may repeat costly errors (Jensen, 1986, p.5) . The important message is that, due to lack of support, these teachers tend to socialize themselves into the profession, and in the process of doing so, develop teaching behaviours that may not be conducive to their professional development. Jensen (1986) contends that when socialization is a solitary act, new teachers: 46 ... learn both the job of the teacher and the culture of the school by observing staff members rather than by-communication: the newcomer is reluctant to betray lack of knowledge or competence, and experienced teachers do not wish to be seen as meddlers (p.5). The above comment suggests that both experienced and new teachers rarely discuss each other's expectations, concerns, and/or problems due to, in part, the fact that the school system is setup such that each teacher lives in his/her own isolated 'world' . For example, regardless of the fact that the new teachers are quite inexperienced, they may be entrusted with the full responsibilities of teaching from the first day of their teaching career but have little opportunity to engage in meaningful discussion about these responsibilities. To prevent the perpetuation of this situation and to reduce the possible mistakes that may be made by such teachers, Huling-Austin (1986) proposes that the profession must consider itself responsible for the well-being of all its members and in particular its new members. The author argues that as part of their responsibility, the experienced professionals should provide appropriate induction programs for the new teachers. An implicit assumption is that the new teachers who have been assisted through the induction program will grow professionally through collegial support and assistance. A contemporary of Jensen's goes on to state that although induction programs vary from one institution to the other, "their one commonality is that they all promote a high level of interaction-among the beginning teachers, administrators, and colleagues" (Huling-Austin, 1986, p.7). 47 The observation by Jensen (1986) and Hulling-austin (1986) , suggest that induction programs have the potential to provide strong links that connect experienced professionals with new members. Through induction programs, one might argue, a new community is born each year: A community of professionals that takes care of its inexperienced members in order to strengthen the calibre of the profession as a whole. The induction program goals Induction programs are receiving much attention because of the role they play particularly for the new teachers. One of the major concerns about the new teachers (as illustrated by the proponents of induction) is that many leave the profession due to problems they encounter during their first few years of teaching. Induction program therefore are seen as potential in overcoming such problems. The importance of induction programs is underlined in several induction program reports. According to the following reports induction programs are based on the understanding that they provide professional support to the new teachers. This is particularly helpful in that the profession may be able to retain more teachers than has been previously the case. Theune and Parker (1986), The Mission School District (1990), The Ontario Ministry of Education report (1988), Jensen (1987), Hulling-Austin (1986) and Fullan and Stiengelbauer (1991) lay out some interesting induction program goals. According to Hulling-Austin the following goals can serve as 48 a guide for those intending to implement these ideas: • To improve teaching performance: A more realistic goal for induction program is to provide the support and assistance necessary to develop those beginning teachers who enter the profession and who have the requisite abilities and personal attributes to become successful teachers (p.2). • To increase the retention of promising beginning teachers during the induction years. If an induction program is successful in assisting beginning teachers to make a smooth transition into the teaching profession, one may realistically expect the teacher retention during the induction years (p.3). • To promote the personal and professional well-being of beginning teachers. Many beginning teacher experience personal and profession trauma during their first year without the support of an induction program. ... Teacher induction programs can serve as personal and professional support to beginning teachers... (p.4) If the above goals are used in structuring an induction program, such a program can be expected to improve the performance of new teachers, particularly if these teachers are provided with an ongoing support and assistance grounded in a clearly articulated, context-specific vision of what constitutes reflective practice alternatives. It is through such efforts that the teaching profession can be seen to promote both the personal and professional well-being of student-teachers. (See Hulling-Austin, 1986). The mentor teachers/the mentor teams For the most part, induction programs have been proposed and implemented by schools rather than by teacher education institutions. However, there are few reported instances (such as Verah, Theune and Parker's 1986, report) where induction programs 49 have been initiated and supported by institutions of higher learning. The common practice of schools being responsible for induction programs is however understandable. It is within the school setting where experienced mentors are found. Thus, in order to improve the quality of the new teachers, efforts should be made to reconceptualize the traditional roles and responsibilities of these mentor teachers. In other words, in order for the teaching profession to achieve the induction program's goals, there is a need to identify the team of professionals who should be charged with the responsibility of orienting the new teachers to the workplace and the teaching profession culture. The process of assigning the new teachers to the experienced teachers and/or mentor teachers requires a set of criteria particularly if we accept that not all teachers posses the mentoring skills. Jensen (1987) Maintains that selection of the mentor teachers must be done very carefully. He writes that: If the school's induction program includes the appointment of mentor teachers, the selection of the mentors is critical. Research and common sense both suggest that a capable teacher who teaches the same subject at the same grade level and within the same instructional style could be most helpful to a new teacher (p.19). Verah, Theune and Parker discuss the responsibilities to be assumed by the mentor teachers. These include such things as assisting: • the inductee in understanding the nature of the learners; ...the curriculum... (and) understanding the total school 50 program, and • serving as resource for inductee by...planning for teaching;... identifying sources of information about teaching, the school and community (p.34) The Ontario Ministry of Education report (1988) broadens the description of the mentor teacher by describing such persons as an "experienced teacher assisting the inductee's entrance into the profession by providing support, counselling, guidance into the school and community life, and opportunities for professional activities" (p.32). This description clarifies the fact that the mentor teachers are expected to do more than just helping the new teachers with their classroom problems and/or instruction. The mentor teachers should instead be seen to be more than academic associates. They should in some cases act as counsellors to the new teachers. Some induction reports note that in order for induction programs to be useful, new-teachers, have to be given the opportunity to select the professionals with whom they feel comfortable. The Mission School District report (1991) indicates that pairing the "mentors and proteges was voluntary, based upon relationships established in the first month of school year" (p.l). If one is to accept this citation, then one has to note that assigning new teachers to mentor teachers should be flexible in order to allow the new teachers to make their own selection. According to this school of thought, one would assume that the new teachers should be introduced to the concept of induction during their orientation into the school culture in order to enable them 51 to spend the first month consciously studying the experienced teachers's instructional behaviours and/or attitudes. The important message is that the mentor teacher must be an experienced teacher with expertise of the sorts described above that distinguish him/her from the rest of the teachers in the school. He/she must also be capable of helping new teachers to improve their instructional skills as well as helping the new teacher adjust to the new social environment. The induction program models In the light of what has been discussed above, it would seem important to note that an effective induction program model has to be designed in order to achieve the program goals. Several induction models are suggested in the literature. According to Jensen (1987) they may be grouped into three broad categories: • A common model uses the experienced teacher as mentors or sponsor, providing the newcomer with legitimate access to a colleagues expertise. ...mentor teachers may provide formal classroom observation in a clinical supervision format(p.7). • Another model of induction emphasizes increased supervision and coaching by the site administrator or by the district's staff development personnel and proposes to consider the first year of teaching as an internship, one that features intensive feedback from district supervision (p.7). • Still another model combines the energies of school and higher education personnel. In this structure, teacher educators work with school district administrators and classroom teachers to ensure that the new teacher's transition from student teaching to full-time teaching is smooth (p.7). 52 Jensen's (1986) models provide a useful framework that can guide those institutions that are keen to design induction programs. The inclusion of the university teacher educator as shown in Jensen's third model means that where this model is practiced, the implication is that teacher education has moved to a world of interconnectedness and interdependencies, a world in which no one institution is fully responsible of educating the teachers. This increased awareness requires both teacher educators and experienced school based professionals to collaborate in the efforts to assist the new teachers. Research on induction programs Although most of the current literature on teacher education innovations supports the employment of induction programs, the literature seems to be more rhetorical than empirical; induction literature is mostly found in school district's or Ministries of Education's reports. Perhaps this suggests that this theory has not been extensively researched. Fullan, Connelly and Watson (1987) report that "Some temporary or longer induction programs have been in operation in other provinces (Alberta) , and other countries (Australia, Britain, United states), ..." (p.36). The authors maintain that a lot can be learned from the experiences of these countries. They further note that many induction programs were experiments, which had to be discontinued "as initial funds ran out." It is not clear however whether there has been any follow-up 53 studies on the effectiveness of induction programs in the above mentioned situations. Summary In spite of the fact that research on the significance of induction programs has not been extensive, the reports cited in this section illuminate that induction is relevant to enhancing teaching practice. A properly structured induction program can contribute to the professional development of the new teachers. For example, an institution that is interested in the notion of reflective practice might structure its induction program so that the work of reflection initiated in pre-service teacher education can be continued. The implication of involving teacher educators as explained in this section is that the teacher educators can help their graduate smoothly adjust into the workplace and by so doing strengthen the links between teacher education and the school that hire the graduates. 54 CHAPTER 111 The Teaching Practicum: Critical Feature This chapter examines the teaching practicum models used in the North American context and the theory that guides the development of such models. It asks questions such as: What is the theoretical frameworks that guide the development of teaching practicum models? What are the intended outcomes of individual models? Why do certain models work better than others? What are the nature of opportunities presented to student teachers under prevalent models? Why are some models considered better than others? What teaching practicum experiences help student-teachers achieve the teacher education goals in each of the models? The knowledge of conceptual theories can help teacher educators examine the major role of the teaching practicum in student teaching. Such knowledge can be used in developing a teaching practicum model appropriate for specific institutional context. The main teacher education program categories Traditionally teacher education programs have been divided into two main categories: The concurrent and the consecutive teacher education programs. The concurrent program refers to a teacher education program taken concurrently with an undergraduate degree, while the consecutive program means that teacher education is taken for one or two years after the completion of an 55 undergraduate degree. (See the Ontario Ministry of Education report, 1988 and Fullan, Connelly and Watson, 1987). However, these traditional categories employ varying models of teaching practicum corresponding to the purposes that teacher educators in individual Faculties of Education believe should be achieved. Some of these purposes will become clearer in the discussion of various orientations. A concurrent program might include, for example, a distributed field experience (student teachers attending practicum at certain intervals throughout a one year program of study) . The same experiences might be practiced in a consecutive teacher education program. For example, the University of Botswana runs a concurrent teacher education program. Student teachers in this university undergo a teaching practicum in March, in June and throughout July. Unlike the University of Botswana, the University of British Columbia in Canada runs a consecutive teacher education program for secondary student-teachers who undergo teaching practicum at intervals; a two week practicum in the fall and then a thirteen week practicum in winter. Administrative "necessities" aside, one might conclude that these examples demonstrate that the theories and/or beliefs held by teacher educators in various institutions influence the way teaching practicum models are designed and/or framed. Diversity in teaching practicum theory In answering the question "What are the current teaching 56 practicum models?", it is important to examine the theoretical teaching practicum orientations that guide the development of teaching practicum models. These orientations were mentioned in chapter two of this paper. They are revisited here to examine how they relate to the variety of teaching practicum structures found in teacher education. This examination will illuminate the diversity of program structures and the factors that have contributed to that diversity. The assumptions that weigh the value of different approaches to field experiences are derived from the theoretical orientation adopted in framing teaching practicum models. That is to say, different theoretical models lead to very different teaching practicum models. It is not surprising therefore that there is no universal teacher education practicum model. Part of the reason for the differences observed in teaching practicum models may be due to the fact that individual institutions frame their goals such that they are applicable to their context. Zeichner (1983) concurs with this view. He points out that: . . . there has been too little discussion, . . ., of the goals of teacher educators who hold distinctly different positions about many of the valuative questions underlying paradigmatic orientations. As a consequence of this lack of open debate over the goals and purposes ... (the) models of both research and practice in teacher education tends to be limited in number and narrow in scope and are too closely tied to paradigmatic orientations that are dominant at particular points in time. (p.3) It is therefore understandable that the goals of the program 57 dictate the model for the teaching practica. This study will attempt to evaluate these theories and recommend an appropriate foundational theory that can serve a model for the Lesotho university. The teaching practicum models/theoretical orientations Many researchers discuss the theory of the teaching practicum curriculum under conceptual frameworks or orientations. Several theoretical orientations have been identified and discussed in the literature; the "behaviouristic, " the "personalistic," the "traditional-craft," and the "inquiry-oriented" approach (see Zeichner, 1983, and Feiman-Nemser, 1990,). This list is not exhaustive, there are other important theoretical orientations discussed in the literature, but these four orientations capture many variations discussed in the literature. Part of the reason for their popularity is that they have been identified as "comprising the major approaches" particularly in the United states where in the recent years Teacher Education discussions focused on theoretical orientations. (See Zeichner, 1983, p.7). However, Zeichner (1983) cautions that these orientations should not be viewed synonymous to specific teacher education programs. He points out that institutions can incorporate some elements "from two or more general orientations into single paradigm" (p.7). Several researchers discuss these orientations as they relate to the teaching practicum program design. See Guyton and Mclntyre (1990), Zeichner (1993), Zeichner and Liston (1987), Feiman-Nemser 58 (1990), Dunbar (1981) Collins, Brown, and Newman (1989), Fullan, Connelly and Watson (1987), Tom and Valli (1990) and Bowman (1991). These researchers and writers indicate that the ways in which teaching practica are implemented in various institutions varies greatly. This diversity could be regarded as a healthy sign of programs responding to specific contextual needs in teacher education. In other words, the field of Teacher Education is too complex to settle for a single teaching practicum model. Bowman (1991), in his review of the teacher education programs in the province of British Columbia in Canada, states this position best when he says that he supports the variation of program structures used in these institutions as opposed to a "blanket program." The section that follows briefly examines how (according to the above mentioned researchers) these theoretical orientations direct the teaching practicum models. The first orientation, known as "behaviourist," emphasises that the teaching practicum should enable student-teachers to develop skills that are both observable and related to school children's learning. Those who believe in this theory might structure a teaching practicum such that performance would be a measure of ability to increase children's learning. The goal would be to determine whether the student-teacher can demonstrate the competency in the skills to promote meaningful learning. This orientation therefore seeks to prepare student-teachers to follow the established school's norms. In other words, student-teachers would go to schools to perfect the teaching methods they have been 59 taught in their professional studies courses. Zeichner (1983) points out that, the concern with this orientation is "with fostering the development of skill in an actual performance of a predetermined task" (p.4) . Valli (1992) points out that in behaviouristic teaching practica, the student-teacher needs to demonstrate adequate teaching competency based on effective teaching research. Teacher educators who believe in this orientation are concerned about the self-perceived needs and concerns of prospective teachers. (See Zeichner 1983 p.3). Critics of this approach argue about the fact that student-teachers whose teaching practicum is grounded in this theory play little part in determining the substance and direction of their preparation program. Student-teachers are expected to "pursue predetermined tasks even if the content is inappropriate" (Zeichner, p.3, 1983). Teacher educators who support this theory have to describe and decide on the "specific" behaviours they expect the student-teachers to demonstrate as a result of teaching practicum experience. This situation creates a problem in that "behaviours" (even in one's normal life) are unpredictable and can not always be defined in advance because the exact context of the future is not known to those who describe the program nor the student teachers. (See Zeichner, 1983) Another problem with this orientation is that the ways in which student-teachers carry out teaching performance would have to be related to the expectations of the classroom teacher and not in what the student-teachers believe. This approach is criticised for not allowing student-60 teachers to think and to reflect on their teaching actions. (See Valli, 1992) The second orientation, "personalistic," places little emphasis on development of teaching skills in student teaching because its purpose is to promote "psychological" maturity of student-teachers. (See Guyton and Mclntyre, 1990). This orientation is consequently useful in helping student teachers reorganize their "perceptions and beliefs" about the process of teaching. Thus, the teaching practicum that is framed on this theory does not emphasize teaching skill development; it allows student-teachers to take risks in real practical situations by giving them a supportive atmosphere that would enable them to "try their wings." The purpose of a model framed on this theory would be to design a practicum that allows student-teachers to learn what "they need to know" and to experience the problems encountered in an authentic professional setting. The literature states that in the actual setting, the student-teachers would be encouraged to "take risks" and discover adequacy and enhancement of their professional life. In practice student-teachers nurtured through this orientation would be placed at the centre of educational learning, allowing them to discover "personal meaning." It would ask such questions as: Do student-teachers understand the process they are going through? How do they see themselves growing in this process? How do they see themselves becoming effective in this process? As Feiman-Nemser (1990) notes "learning to teach is (a) transformative process, not just a matter 61 of acquiring new knowledge and skills" (p.227). It can be assumed that student-teachers nurtured under this theory would become independent in handling unfamiliar classroom encounters and that this transformation can be expected to occur after student-teachers completed the teaching practicum process that supports personal growth. Zeichner (1983), in supporting the fact that this orientation promotes the psychological maturity of prospective teachers, argues that teacher education is a form of adult development, a process of "becoming" rather than merely a process of educating someone how to teach. It is through giving them some degree of independence that they may gradually mature into the practice of teaching while they are practicing to become teachers. In questioning the effectiveness of a teaching practicum model based on the "personalistic" theory, Feiman-Nemser (1990) asks "Can a personally oriented pre-service education promote a view of good teaching and, at the same time, encourage students to develop their theories and discover methods that work for them?" (p.225). The third type, commonly referred to as a "traditional-craft" orientation, is concerned with encouraging student-teachers to view teaching as a craft. Some educators refer to this approach as a process of apprenticeship (See Feiman-Nemser, 1990, p.516). Typically, student-teachers would be attached to an experienced teacher to observe and experiment with the tools appropriate for the discipline and at the same time would be using the language in the setting in which they are placed. The explicit intention of this orientation is that student-teachers can learn to become 62 teachers and/or learn to teach through being in the field with practicing teachers. This is supposed to enable them to become good apprentices, because they would be given the opportunity to practice and in the process acquire the skill and "craft knowledge" through being involved in the daily activities of the practicing teacher. Andrew (1983) provides an example of a program that employs the traditional-craft theory. He describes a five-year teacher education program in which "the first phase of the program is a semester course that places the student as a teaching assistant in the schools (exploring teaching)." (p.21). Andrew's (1983) case indicates that student-teachers in the described program are placed in the schools even before they are taught any teaching methods. The purpose of a teaching practicum approach such as the one described by Andrew (1983) is to allow student teachers to gain teaching knowledge by observing and participating in the activities of the classroom teacher. Brown, Collins and Duguid (1989) refer to this situation as "learning through cognitive apprenticeship" (p.37). The authors argue that "cognitive apprenticeship methods try to enculturate students into authentic practices through activity and social interaction in a way similar to that evident-and evidently successful-in craft apprenticeship" (p.37). Thus, student-teachers are inducted into a community of practitioners and a world of practice (See Feiman-Nemser 1990, p.222). By placing student-teachers in the real "world" of teaching, the proponents of this approach maintain that student-teachers gain the knowledge of teaching by "trial and error" in a 63 community and wisdom of experienced practitioners (See Zeichner, 1983) . The knowledge gained through this kind of experience is referred to as "craft knowledge". Grimmett and MacKinnon (1992) describe this form of knowledge as "a particular form of practice-related professional knowledge which is constructed by teachers in the context of their lived experiences and work" (p.8) . Thus, craft knowledge can be best acquired through participating in a practicum setting supported by experienced and effective teachers. This theory is not without critics either. According to the literature, although this approach allows student-teachers to build a repertoire of technical skills of teaching as well as to gain craft knowledge, it does not necessarily guarantee that student-teachers prepared through this model will be able to make proper judgements about what ought to be done in difficult situations or unexpected teaching circumstances. (See Feiman-Nemser 1990, and Zeichner, 1983) . Another problem is that experienced teachers are not necessarily effective teachers of student-teachers. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that being assigned to an experienced teacher necessarily implies that each student-teacher will benefit from such an experience. The literature describes some mentor teachers as "drill sergeants," or "laisser-fair neglector." The main weakness of this orientation therefore, is that it encourages, through imitation of associate teachers, unquestioning maintenance of the status quo. Moreover, this model does not allow student-teachers to "inquire" and reflect on their actions because they focus on learning from observing the actions of their associate 64 teachers. Tom and Valli (1990) add that the most difficult aspect of this model is that there is really little consensus on what is meant by craft knowledge. Thus, making it even more difficult for teacher educators to decide on what aspects of teaching experiences student-teachers have to know as they participate in the school setting, observe their associate teachers, and learn to teach. There is a growing interest in the literature about the forth and final theoretical framework known as the "inquiry-oriented" approach. This approach is said to be important because it allows student-teachers to explore the possibility of inquiring into their practice during their teaching practicum. Bowman (1991), in contrasting the apprenticeship model of teacher education to inquiry oriented approach, has argued forcefully that: . . . although vocational or apprenticeship type model of teacher preparation have many essential practical elements in them, they are too narrow, too survival oriented, to stimulate critical reflection. Those programs that emphasize professional knowledge lend themselves more to reflection, to broadening and deepening the teacher's understanding, but not if those studies are isolated from practice for then they tend to be perceived as irrelevant, (p.66) The emphasis of the inquiry-oriented approach is to give student-teachers an opportunity to investigate their teaching and consequently their teaching context as they play the role of experimental inquirers. The practicum that is grounded in inquiry-oriented theory gives student-teachers opportunities to learn to "reflect" on their classroom actions and ask themselves questions, such as, why they behave in the way they do and how they should in future react in similar situation. By exploring the possibilities 65 of being actively involved in their classroom actions student-teachers would develop new knowledge about themselves and about how to handle difficult or unexpected situations. Zeichner (1983) supports the notion of facilitating inquiry into one's teaching practice. He views the prospective teacher as an active agent in his or her own preparation for teaching. Since the literature shows that the teaching practicum duration is not always long enough to ensure full understanding of inquiry into one's actions, it is suggested that teacher educators explore the possibility of experimenting with the use of this approach in the teacher education laboratories. The current literature strongly supports engaging student-teachers in the process of inquiry while they are still on campus. According to Guyton and Mclntyre (1990), teacher educators are advocating the re-emphasis of professional laboratories. These authors maintain that, in the laboratory, student-teachers can begin to test applicability of concepts, and that they can also reflect on their actions. The proponents of an inquiry based practicum believe that this orientation requires student-teachers to be in the field of practice for a reasonable period in order to enable them to practice becoming inquirers. Teacher educators who are interested in this theory would have to ensure that student-teachers spent sufficient time in the practicum setting. The objective would be to give them time to be familiar with the situation in which they are to play a new role of teaching and then to let them practice reflecting on their actions. The major purpose of this orientation 66 is to enable student-teachers to understand their own practice and the situations in which this practice is carried out. More importantly they would be expected to improve their practice through being conscious and analytical about their actions. Another objective might be to consider the time to be spent in the teaching practicum. In other words, inquiry into one's teaching requires sufficient time in order to learn in the culture of the school to explore this concept. It is through allowing student-teachers to practice inquiring into their practice that their teaching skills can improve as they move away from the constraints of acting according to the expectations of sponsor-teachers or their faculty advisors to acting according to their own professional beliefs about teaching and learning. Another objective could be to give student-teachers a variety of teaching and observational experiences so that they might have enough time to inquire into their own practice and to reflect on other such inquiries. Applegate and Shaklee (1983) report on the Kent State University experience. Their program is based on the assumption that student-teachers work with mentor teachers for an extended period of time providing student-teachers an opportunity for "knowledge integration and reflection to occur" (p.67). The goal of a program such as the one described by Applegate and Shaklee (1983) would be to encourage student-teachers to analyze their own practice and that of the assisting mentor teachers. (See Zeichner and Liston 1987 and Zeichner, 1983) . Zeichner (1983) points out that because the inquiry oriented approach: 67 . . . views the teacher as an active agent in his or her own preparation for teaching and assumes that the more a teacher is aware of the origins and consequences of his or her actions and of the realities that constrain these actions, the greater is the likelihood that he or she can control and change both the actions and constraints, (p.6) The inquiry oriented approach to the teaching practicum has to be planned such that student-teachers are encouraged to inquire into their practice while they are on campus as well as during the teaching practicum. Nodie Oja, Diller, Corcon and Andrew (1992) explain that their 5-year teacher education program at the University of New Hampshire is designed such that student-teachers are encouraged "to make thoughtful, effective classroom decisions" (p.3). According to these authors, student-teachers in this University explore the possibility of inquiry by participating in support groups that encourage them to "comment on each others papers and to construct their own agendas for co-exploration" (p.7). In other words, they begin to experience reflective practice by helping each other to reflect on their documented thoughts. The student-teachers of this university work live in a supportive community that involves other student-teachers as well as members of supervisory triad throughout the program. From the examples provided above, it becomes clear that this orientation requires a community of scholars who can collaborate in the effort to encourage competency in student teaching. The literature clearly argues that professionally trained teachers should first and foremost be able to inquire into teaching and think critically about their work. 68 The promise of an "effective" application of the inquiry-oriented approach in teacher education is, naturally, questioned by some educators. In discussing some problems that may be encountered in implementing this approach to the teaching practicum, Guyton and Mclntyre (1990) note that one can and will encounter individual professional teachers and whole institutions with intransigent attitudes towards change. Additionally, curricula and instruction are often highly structured and inflexible, making it difficult for student-teachers to explore the possibility of experimenting with the inquiry-oriented approach. Furthermore, in designing innovative inquiry-oriented learning strategies such as reflective practice, teacher educators often assume that sponsor teachers can and will assist student-teachers to inquire into their own practice. However, without offering these sponsor teachers orientation to the new approaches to teacher education, the sponsor teachers will lack the skills and the motivation to assist their students. Another drawback associated with the inquiry-oriented approach is that it requires extensive time to master reflective practice, a length of time that is arguably much greater than the fixed duration of the teacher education program. Thus, it is a valid concern that many student-teachers may leave the practicum without sufficient practice. The teaching practicum time-frame Several factors affect the design of the teaching practicum models: the context in which the program is run, the purpose for a 69 particular teaching practicum model, the administration of the teaching practicum, the process of student supervision, the people involved in the field experiences, the financial implications, as well as the positioning and time-frame for the teaching assignment. Some of these factors have been discussed in the preceding chapters. The context, the financial implications and the time-frame are related to the rationale for the model to be proposed for the Lesotho context in the next chapter and will be discussed there. These factors have been identified by the 1986 Lesotho University Commission as constraining efforts to improve the teaching practicum model. The literature abounds with both the positioning of the teaching practicum in relation to the entire teacher education program as well as the length of time that student-teachers spend in field experience. For example, in some programs, student-teachers go out on teaching practica twice a year, in others they might be in the schools for the whole year. Another variation is that some programs prefer to have student-teachers go for their teaching practicum at the end of the program so that they do not necessarily have to return to campus after the completion of their teaching practicum, while others, as in the case of Andrew (1983), begin their program of study in the schools, return to the campus and finish their program in the schools. Andrew (1983) points out that the third phase of the program "-the fifth year of study -usually includes a full school year internship plus one or two summers of graduate course work" (p.21). While this diversity of 70 time-frame and positioning of teaching practica relates to the teaching practicum model and its purpose, it also demonstrates that the scheduling of teaching practicum is very complicated. A brief examination of the current practices concerning time-frame might help to illustrate the above raised point. Bowman (1991) , in a review of the state of teacher education in the Province of British Columbia, where three teacher education institutions are located, observes that there is a variety of time-frames in the three institutions. He reports that the extended practicum at the University of Simon Fraser is fourteen weeks, thirteen for the University of British Columbia, and eight weeks at the University of Victoria. Bowman (1991) further points out time scheduling within these institutions: the University of Simon Fraser offers a practice based program with fifty percent of time spent on campus and fifty percent in the schools, while the University of British Columbia has divided its practicum into two blocks of time: two weeks of school orientation and thirteen weeks of teaching practicum. Thus, 30% of the program is spend on the teaching practicum. The University of Victoria offers an internship program of eight weeks. The programs differ because of the history of an individual institution, their size, their complexity and their conceptual approaches. Fullan, Connelly and Watson (1987) in a review of the teacher education practices in the province of Ontario, recommend that there be a two-year internship period defined as the equivalent of ten months full-time, with a fifty percent teaching appointment in 71 each of the two years. They point out that the focus of the proposed internship program would be supervised reflective practice and that the period of internship would be devoted to developing professional expertise through teaching practice, observation, and reflection. The Ministry of Education in Ontario also conducted a review of the teacher education programs in the province of Ontario. A recommendation of the review Committee was that student-teachers undergo a sixty-days teaching practicum. The Review Committee believed that this period would enable student-teachers more "opportunities to be with children and young people and to engage in the activities of teaching" (p.20). This extended time will also give student-teachers more opportunities for reflective practice and for involvement in the schools' extra curricular activities. The most prominent feature in the literature on time-frame as discussed in the above examples is the stark contrast between length of time to be spent in the teaching practicum and the positioning of the practicum in the Canadian teacher education institutions. The observed differences however, help to illustrate the difficulty of designing a practicum teaching model, especially scheduling the time to be spent in the practicing schools. While it may be true that the most important step in designing such programs would be identifying what the practicum should be intended to achieve, it becomes difficult to decide on the issue of time. The variety of time schedules as well as the positioning of the teaching practicum practiced in the North-American context is 72 diverse. Wong and Osguthorpe (1993) point out that the factors affecting program decisions are complex and often misunderstood. They provide an interesting example indicating that there is confusion about the use of terms by teacher educators: "One institution's 'extended' program may be less rigorous and take less total time than another institution's 'extended' program" (p.69). The important message however, is that context still plays an important role in determining the goals for a teaching practicum program. The teaching practicum context Another important factor to be considered in designing a teaching practicum model is context. In this regard, context refers to the social, historical, and political settings of the school in which student-teachers are placed. As indicated in the preceding chapters, schools are built for school children and not for the purpose of teacher education. Schools are administered by a different body from that of the Faculties of Education. In some contexts such as in Lesotho for example, the school calender year is different from that of the university; (See Chapter I). For a student-teacher to begin teaching in a classroom in which the regular grade teacher has already established certain norms might be difficult. Designing a teaching practicum model appropriate for the orientation that one believes in can be constrained by the context. The context might pose a variety of problems. First, the 73 distance between the schools as well as from the university campus might have some important bearing on teaching practicum. For example, if the purpose of the program is to help student-teachers foster reflective practice in student teaching, then placing student-teachers in schools not easily reached by faculty advisors might be a disadvantage because they might spend excessive time travelling to and from schools instead of spending time in ways that can be profitable to the student-teachers. In short, it would seem important that in designing a model for teaching practicum, teacher educators consider the implications that such a model could have for both the student-teachers and the other participants in the program. Guyton and Mclntyre (1990), in discussing the problems associated with the context in which teaching practicum is undertaken, ask a very interesting question: Does the ecology of the public school support student-teachers? Sometimes, for example, following the inquiry oriented approach might not be feasible if the class sizes are large and student teachers are not supported by the system. For example, Lesotho class sizes are very large. In a study that investigated the teaching and learning strategies in Lesotho Primary School classrooms, Chabane, Lefoka and Sebatane (1989) found that the average class sizes in various standards ranged "from 54 to 98 in the lowland schools and from 41 to 84 in the mountain schools." (p.74) And further, such class sizes lend themselves to a drill and practice teaching mode rather than on interaction reflective inquiry mode. In this context student-74 teachers are not supported by the system in that they have to teach a class regardless of its size. This situation applies for both primary and secondary school student-teachers. Guyton and Mclntyre (1990) propose that one way of solving the problem of a large class size is by placing several student-teachers in one school so that they can help each other inquire into their practice. With regard to secondary school student-teachers this may be an alternative worth considering. At secondary level, a student-teacher teaches one subject and since they do not have to be in their classrooms all the time, they could use their non-instructional time to discuss their experiences, their perceptions, and several other important issues that relate to their teaching with their colleagues. In other words, student-teachers within the same institution who teach the same subject and the same grade (but in different divisions) may be able to support each other both professionally and socially by sharing their experiences, observing each other's lessons from time-to-time and by giving each other feedback. Guyton and Mclntyre (1990) contend that the context of the public school is not, in the majority of cases, presented as a positive influence on student-teacher development. Specifically, the class sizes are not designed to accommodate the professional development of student-teachers. But this situation is beyond the control of most of the teacher education institutions. While building schools or centres for teacher education practice does not seem possible, particulary for countries with limited economic 75 resources such as Lesotho, innovations in teacher education have to be designed to fit the school system as it is structured and not vice versa. In an attempt to solve other problems such as the those associated with the desperate geographic placements of student-teachers and the problem of sustaining high levels of motivation while serving in difficult situations, teacher educators might consider placing regional supervisors in locations that are a great distance from the university. The Lesotho National Teacher Training College adopted this strategy since its inception in 1975. Field-based supervisors (commonly known as Intern Supervisors) are placed throughout the country so that they can visit student-teachers on a regular basis. (See Sebatane, Bam, Mohapeloa, Mathot and Pule (1987.) There is an indirect benefit to placing student-teachers in a variety of situations. For example, teacher educators may learn from the experiences of student-teachers what to incorporate in their program to prepare their graduates for a variety of situations. One of the possible solutions to the problem of the context is suggested by Guyton and Mclntyre (1990). They refer to what they call a "centre concept." This is a strategy whereby student-teachers are placed in large groups in district schools that may be hundreds of miles away from the university. The university faculty members based in the centre coordinates and supervises the student-teachers. Since such a faculty member would be in the student's practicum setting all the time, it can be assumed that student-teachers will benefit from such an 76 arrangement. In other words, several possibilities of helping student-teachers to become competent, reflective practitioners can be explored. The context also involves the sponsor teachers who participate in teacher education field experiences. The implications are that while teacher educators need to recognize and use the resource in the field, "the outstanding task (is) to orient teachers whose schools receive student teacher about the purpose of the new model and what role they are expected to play" (See Fullan, 1991, p.295) . This problem might be attended to by the faculty advisor who is placed in the centre. Such a member can run training workshops for the sponsor teachers. Another advantage of placing the faculty associate in the schools is finance. Staying in the same district with the student-teachers would reduce the amount of money spent on travelling between the schools. Financial implications for reform in teacher education Research into teacher education has been extensive. The purpose of conducting studies in teacher education is to inform practice. The literature shows that impact of research on change is reported to be slow. Wong and Osguthorpe (1993) observe that teacher educators respond slowly to issues suggested in the research literature. These authors observe that innovations such as extending teacher education programs beyond the 4-year baccalaureate have taken some institutions a long time to adopt. 77 Moreover, institutions take a long time before the issuance of national proposals. This (as indicated in chapter 1) is particularly true with the National University of Lesotho. Changing a program structure involving extensive costs can be a stumbling block for innovation. Fullan, Connely and Watson (1987),say that a major obstacle to employing qualified faculty members "to fulfil the changing and more demanding needs of new curricula and methods in the schools and in the faculty of education" (p.27), is insufficient funding. Although insufficient is the major constraint studies that inform educators about the financial implications for reform efforts are not common. According to Guyton and Mclntyre (1990), very little is known about the costs of educational field programs. Studies on this issue indicate that "although programs are expanding with the increase of pre-student teaching experiences, the overall budgets for the program, when inflation is taken into account, have decreased" (p.521) . This observation may be true for some contexts but for Lesotho the reverse might be true. For example, in 1987, the Lesotho National Teacher Training College assigned a team of Consultants to evaluate and make recommendations on the College's Internship Programme (See Sebatane, Bam, Mohapeloa, Mathot and Pule, 1987) Although this team of Consultants recommended that this second year of internship was the most vital part of the program, the Ministry of Education decided to reduce it to six months because the Ministry considered it to be expensive. Another example 78 is that part of the NUL delay to implement the 1986 recommendations is financial. For the Lesotho context, therefore, net budgeting support has decreased. Summary There is no universally recognized teaching practicum model; different teacher educators hold different understandings of what should inform an ideal teaching practicum curriculum. For example, some models of teaching practica may be based on a combination of one, two or more orientations. Defining which model is prevalent is difficult because as Fullan (1991) rightly observes, the quality of program experiences probably varies from one institution to another. He points out that until very recently there has been very little information on the particular characteristics of programs that might make a difference. It is apparent therefore that individual teacher education institutions will continue to develop models based on their beliefs, the time-frame, as well as the context in which the practicum is undertaken. Obviously, the way teacher educators view the purpose of the teaching practicum has direct impact on the types of teaching practicum models conducted in teacher education. Some of the most important features of designing a teaching practicum model are its purpose and conceptual framework. Lasley and Applegate (1982) maintain that the important task for teacher educators is to develop a common set of beliefs concerning what student-teachers must know and be able to do. However, the model that is grounded in 79 involving student-teachers in inquiry practice appears to be of particular interest to this educator as it fulfils many of the demands required by today's teaching. The proponents of this model suggest that student-teachers be given the opportunity to participate actively as classroom observers and teachers. The approach is based on the theory that student-teachers should be encouraged to question their practice with the assistance of faculty advisors and/or sponsor-teachers. 80 CHAPTER IV The National University of Lesotho Teaching Practicum: The Reflective-Inquiry Model In reforming a teacher education program, one has to consider factors that may influence the conduct of the practicum, factors as diverse as the context in which the program is conducted or the criteria for selecting experienced teachers who will participate in helping student teachers in their practicum settings. Additionally, some programs may require drastic changes while others might be reformed by changing only an element of the program. Whatever form change takes one has to study and choose theories that can best guide the development of such an appropriate model, the principles that will determine the organizational structures, and the procedures necessary for the successful execution of the new program. Justification Program designers or teacher educators suggest new approaches to teaching practicum based on research literature. Sometimes program structures are changed after the existing program has been evaluated and found lacking in one or more areas. At the National University of Lesotho the latter was the reason for suggesting teaching practicum program changes. The NUL 1986 Teaching Practice Commission was set up to study the teaching practicum structure and to make recommendations about possible alternatives to the 81 established model. The Commission suggested a variety of alternatives for changing the teaching practicum at the National University of Lesotho. (See Chapter I) Although the 1986 Teaching Practice Commission made viable recommendations for the reform of the teaching practicum at the National University of Lesotho, the report did not provide the theory that would have guided the application of the suggestions made. Furthermore the Commission did not articulate the principles and strategies for the implementation of any of the five models they proposed. In chapter I, it was indicated that little progress had been made towards significant change to the traditional model operating at the National University of Lesotho. However, the report offers some helpful insights into evaluation, history, and efforts that have been taken in the past and their implications for NUL's teacher education program. The model proposed in this paper is based on the belief that the 1986 efforts to reform the NUL teaching practicum are still necessary. In addition, current research described in this study on practicum structure should inform the redesigning of the teaching practicum program at NUL. Teacher education in the Faculty of Education at the National University of Lesotho (as in many institutions) is a broad program comprising of course work and a teaching practicum. This theses proposes a model for the teaching practicum in relation to those other elements of the teacher education program. Some of the rationale for focusing on the practicum is supported by the 1986 82 NUL Commission members, who along with other educators insist that "school based experience is of fundamental importance in any teacher training programme (The Commission report, 1986, p.22). Accepting that reform efforts at NUL have failed in the past, this proposal offers a model that will enhance student-teachers as active participants in teaching practicum setting. It suggests that there be change in the way in which the teaching practicum is structured -not a radical change but rather an improvement on the current model. It involves a new vision for the roles of the student-teachers, instructors, and subject teachers in the schools. Thus, the proposed model, unlike those suggested by the 1986 Teaching Practice Commission, entails rethinking the current practice and exploring the context of teaching practicum without changing the entire system. The model provides a theoretical basis that will support the development of independent professionals to learn, during their practicum, to collaborate with fellow students as well as experienced subject teachers in the schools. The model further draws some guiding principles and details on the activities to be made at each phase of the program. Much of the literature reviewed in the preceding chapters of this thesis is based upon the North American context. The models and the organizational structures of the teaching practicum suggested in the literature would, if used in Lesotho, have to be modified to suit that context. For example, most North American universities offer teacher education either after the first degree or as a four-year program followed by a professional year in a 83 Faculty of Education. Most universities have adopted the notion of an "extended teaching practicum" in which students spend a sustained time in the school setting. The history of teaching practicum in Lesotho shows that an extended practicum for NUL is impossible. (See chapter I) Other than the problems mentioned in chapter I, Lesotho still has a problem of large numbers of unqualified teachers working in the schools. One of the country's priorities therefore, is to increase the number of certificated teachers. Waiting for teachers to complete their program of studies after an undergraduate period of five years would act against the aim of preparing more teachers in order to combat the problem of shortage of certified teachers in the school system. Another example peculiar to North America teacher education institutions is that some institutions have experimented with new ideas such as helping student teachers to become reflective practitioners. Others have established policies that require regular evaluation of their programs. Although the reviewed literature clearly shows that institutions in the North American context still have enormous teacher education problems to overcome, to this educator, these institutions are advanced in many ways when compared with the situation in Lesotho. For example, extensive research on a variety of elements that constitute teacher education has been conducted over many years. Furthermore, change in many North American institutions has been informed by the research literature. Other teacher education institutions in Africa, for example 84 the University of Botswana, have moved a step ahead of NUL. According to Mannathoko and Chipeta (1990) student-teachers in this university present 40 minute video taped lessons (the length of a period in the school system) for their micro-teaching experiences. The video taped lessons are reviewed by the student-teachers to enhance reflection on their lessons. In proposing a model for reform in the teaching practicum at the University of Lesotho, it is important to consider that all reform efforts "must confront the question of what teachers need to know and how they can be helped to acquire and develop that knowledge." (Feiman-Nemser, 1990, p.218). Fullan, Connelly and Watson, (1987) caution, that when thinking about extending the teacher education program, it is important to have a solid rationale for doing so. When proposing a new program or changing certain elements of the program, it is important to ask the question not only how but why change the program? The rationale for the proposed model for the Lesotho University is that student-teachers be assisted to study their own teaching by engaging in "reflection" in practice. Reflective practice is an element of an inquiry-oriented approach to teacher education. This explains the reason for coining the words reflective-inquiry as the title for the model proposed in this study. The model recognizes several issues pertaining to successful implementation. For example, it will incorporate experienced teachers in the school whose knowledge may help student-teachers experiment with the new ideas in becoming reflective practitioners by inquiring into their own practice. 85 The theory-Three features distinguish the model proposed in this paper from the alternative models proposed by the 1986 NUL Commission of teaching practice. First, the model will facilitate inquiry by student-teachers into their practice. Second, student-teachers will be provided with a fully structured school experience that will enable them to spend a reasonable time with teachers in the school as they gradually settle into their practicum setting. Third, the teaching practicum will immediately precede the induction or the first year of teaching during which guidance by mentor teachers and the NTTC field-based supervisors will be a necessary and important continuation of their professional development. The basis for differentiating this model from the current NUL practicum model partly resides in Donald Schon's conceptualization of a reflective practicum. According to Schon (1983, 1987), a reflective practicum has three main features: learning by doing, coaching rather than teaching, and reciprocal reflection between student and coach. In developing this proposed model, an attempt will be made to integrate Schon's theory with the methods courses offered at NUL establishing an important link between theory to practice. The importance of linking theory to practice, especially in a reflective practicum, is emphasised by Clarke (1992), who notes that methods courses that explicitly linked theory to practice enhanced student-teacher's reflection. In order to facilitate reflective practice in student teaching, a number of things have to be considered. The proposed 86 model is inquiry based, requiring that student-teachers and instructors to work together from a common conceptualization of teaching. Furthermore, the primary objective for the practicum will be to provide student-teachers with opportunities to inquire into their own practice by using the theory of "reflective practice." (See Chapter two, section two: Reflective Practice in Teacher Education). Student-teachers in the present structure, receive 96% of course work from both the Education Faculty and the content Faculties. Teaching practicum constitutes 4% of the student-teacher's study program. The proposed model will maintain the course work structure but will, in addition to this, exceed the 4% in ways that will not affect the student-teachers' program of study. For example, the half day school visits will constitute 1% while the induction program will constitute 13% of the student's teaching practicum period. This will become clearer in the objectives and the strategy to be discussed in this chapter. The theoretical underpinning for this model is reflection. Shulman (1987) points out that reflection is: ... what a teacher does when he or she looks back at the teaching and learning that has occurred, and reconstruct, reenacts, and/or recaptures the events, emotions and the accomplishments. It is that set of process through which a professional learns from experience. It can be done alone or in concert, (p.19) The teaching practicum principles This model will facilitate reflective inquiry in student teaching during on-campus and off-campus teaching experiences. It 87 will • sensitise student teachers to the need to inquire reflectively into their teaching. The notion of school visits is an example whereby student-teachers might go out to document cases about teaching and return to campus to reenact the situation and reflect about the process. • cultivate the ability to share their experiences with fellow student-teachers, subject teachers and the faculty supervisors. The program is structured such that discussion and/or dialogue is facilitated throughout the entire teaching practicum phases. The dialogue will become useful particularly in the seminars to be held immediately after the micro-teaching experiences and the school-visits. • ensure that student-teachers are oriented toward independent teaching by gradually coaching them drawing upon the models of reflective practice: follow-me model, joint experimentation, and the hall of mirrors. The idea of nurturing the student-teacher through a guided practice, as would be the case with a student who is assisted through Schon's models will enable the student-teachers to eventually become independent about the conduct of their own teaching. Thus, the teaching practicum gives them an opportunity to explore their abilities to become reflective practitioners. 88 • engender self-confidence by allowing student-teachers to "learn the forms of inquiry by which competent practitioner reason their way, in problematic instances ..." (See Schon's argument that while student-teachers learn from the experiences of the coach, they, on the other hand, experiment, repeat certain activities for purposes of understanding their problems, and grow professionally through the process). 89 Phase IV (1 year) Application Experience r-i O ty (D •A H-This model will be carried out in phases. In each phase an attempt will be made to show the objective and the strategy that will be followed in order to achieve each objective. The key principle to the proposed teaching practicum model for NUL is to assist the student-teachers to become reflective inquirers into their own teaching "through a phased introduction to such practice." It is hoped that they will become competent in dealing with classroom problems as they are guided towards the profession of teaching. Phase I Part I Second year teacher education students: Second Semester January to May. Objective: Student-teachers will be introduced to the concept of reflective practice. The aim is to allow student-teachers to gain reflective inquiry knowledge that they will use in their practicum setting. Strategy This introduction will be integrated in their Introduction to Teaching (EDF201) course: This course addresses organization for classroom teaching; the structure and development of a unit of work and of an individual lesson. (See page 110 of the 1992-1993 NUL calender) As student-teachers begin to develop their lesson plans, 91 they will be encouraged to talk about their experiences preparing a lesson plan with their fellow students and their instructors. At this level students will be gradually introduced to the concept of reflective inquiry and how they can use dialogue to make explicit their understanding of the experience they are going through; the action on which they will reflect will be the act of designing and presenting their lesson plans to their fellow students. The use of dialogue in practicum settings is considered a critical element of reflective inquiry because it is through interaction that all participants will enter each other's world. Clarke's study illuminates the fact that the complementary practices of observation and dialogue enhance the student-teacher's reflection on their practice. Part II Third year Teacher Education Students: First and second semesters, August to December and January to May Objective The first semester continues to focus on the theory of reflective practice while the second semester will prepare student-teachers for the micro-teaching experiences. The purpose will be to explore various concepts and begin to use these concepts in their micro-teaching experiences. In other words, student-teachers might practice Schon's concept of reflection on-action. Micro-teaching will be conducted in the second semester. 92 Strategy Teaching skills and resources (EDF301) . This is a third year course that addresses communication theory as well as observation and simulation of classroom skills. Student-teachers will spend the first half of the third year learning more about the theory of reflective inquiry. According to Olaitan and Agusiobo (1981), student-teachers who lack theoretical knowledge that they need to use in their practicum setting experience greater difficulty in interpreting behaviours of their students and perhaps interpreting their own actions. Application of the reflective practice theory will become more meaningful as student-teachers engage in simulation activities in the micro-teaching experiences. In the second semester, student-teachers will spend time in the micro-teaching laboratories, conducting simulation exercises. Their lesson presentations will be video taped and the focus of seminars, to be held after the micro-teaching, will be to encourage student- teachers to discuss their experiences. In this suggested model, micro-teaching will take a different form from the current one. In the proposed model, micro-teaching experiences allow student-teachers to present mini lessons as is the current situation, but an additional seminar will be added in which student-teachers will watch their video lessons and reflect and comment on their actions. Other student-teachers will participate in this deliberation and provide constructive feedback and jointly reflect on the lessons. In discussing the importance of video taped micro-teaching lessons taught, Olaitan and Aguisiobo 93 (1982) point out that: ... the most important advantage of the video-taping in micro-teaching is that the student teacher can make an objective assessment of his own teaching by playing back the video-tape. He can also compare his own assessment of 'self during teaching with the assessment of his teaching by the supervisor or other cooperating students, (p.38) In order to support student-teachers' micro-teaching experiences, a group of instructors will participate in the micro-teaching and seminars. Olaitan and Agusiobo (1982) explain that "Micro-teaching is a scaled-down teaching encounter that has been developed as a preliminary experience in teaching." (p.38) According to these authors, the purpose of micro-teaching is to "develop professional competencies before practice teaching." (p.38) The use of video tape will help student-teachers to begin to experiment with reflection on practice. Moreover, experience will prepare them for the inquiry they will be making during their school visits. Phase II Fourth Year Teacher Education Students: Second Semester, January to April. Objective The purpose for the school visits will be two fold. It is important that prior to practicum experiences, student-teachers are, as Schon (1987) points out, initiated "into the traditions of a community of practitioners and the practice world they inhabit" (p.36). It is through the process of initiation that student-94 teachers begin to learn the teachers' conventions, constraints, languages, and appreciative systems, their repertoire of exemplars, systematic knowledge, and patterns of knowing-in-action. Additionally, student teachers will document the cases of the lessons observed. The strategy for recording cases will have been addressed in the course (EDF493). The fourth year of study offers a course Educational Enquiry EDF493-3. This course addresses the nature of educational research and methods of inquiry, classification of research design, research problems and several other topic areas (See 1992-1993 NUL Calender). This course is not directly relevant to the Lesotho secondary school student-teachers, because it does not help them become reflective practitioners. In other words, the student-teachers are taught theory that is of no immediate use to them. In this model the focus of this course will change to reflective inquiry. This is more relevant to their work than learning about the theory of undertaking research but not applying it. This course will prepare student-teachers for school visits. (Also see chapter III-the apprenticeship orientation). The emphasis here is to study how teachers reflect in action and on action. Thus, the cases might help them understand the case theory covered in EDF 493. Strategy Currently, NUL student-teachers do not have any form of practical orientation to schools. According to the literature, most teacher education institutions allow student-teachers to spend a 95 short time in schools observing teachers and, in some cases, they do some teaching during the orientation period. The University of British Columbia in Canada for example, offers a two-week orientation to the teaching practicum (see chapter III.) The University of Botswana offers the month of March for the orientation similar to that of the University of British Columbia. The proposed model will ensure that student-teachers spend half-day school visits once every two weeks for a period of four months during their fourth year of study. The purpose will be to observe subject teachers teaching the subject relevant to the individual student-teacher's area of interest. Spending half days observing teachers will allow student-teachers to note features that they think are outstanding about the observed lessons. The most important question will be "why" the observed teachers act in the ways that the student-teachers thinks are uncommon. Student-teachers will be encouraged to take notes on features that they think are peculiar to the practice of teaching. In other words, features that appear to be puzzles and require distinguished imagination before acting. Student-teachers will present their findings in the seminars to be held on campus after the school visits for group discussion. Classroom observations will be followed by a discussion between the student-teacher and the subject teacher. This situation will provide the student-teachers with opportunities to ask the teachers for clarification. Schon points out that: 96 ... verbal descriptions can provide clues to the essential features of a demonstration, and demonstrations can make clear the kind of performance denoted by a description that at first seems vague or obscure, (p.112) The seminar These seminars will be used for the purpose of reflecting on student-teachers' observations and interpretations of the situations they observed. The school visits will be followed by on-campus seminars. The purpose of the seminars is to allow student-teachers to share their findings with their fellow students. They will present the cases of the lessons they observed and the teacher's explanations of their actions. Where possible, the student-teachers will be allowed to act out the lessons. These presentations will enable both the fellow student-teachers and the instructors to analyze the cases and comment on how the student-teachers would have handled the situations if they were in the position of the observed teachers; thus, enabling student-teachers to visualize how professionals address unanticipated situations. The seminar will focus on distinguishing the reflection-in-action (that is, what the teacher was seen doing in class to address problematic situations from reflection-on-action, that is, the teacher's interpretation of her actions as described by the teachers after the lesson observations). Student-teachers will enter into what Schon (1987) calls executing "sequences of activity, recognition, decision, and adjustment without having, ... 'to think about it'" (p.26). Schon says this engagement in classroom activities is known as 97 spontaneous knowing-in-action that usually gets teachers through their working day. Thus, the student-teacher, by re-enacting either verbally or through imitation will enter into the teacher's world of practice. Phase III Teaching Practicum: June, July to August Objective The objective in this period will be to provide student-teachers with opportunities to teach. Teaching practicum is considered as the: ...first opportunity for the student teacher to participate in activities involved in teaching situations. It is also recognized as an experience of guided teaching in which student teachers assume increasingly responsibility for directing the learning of a group of pupils over a specific period of time. (Olaitan and Agusiobo, 1982, p.4) Strategy Part I The six-week NUL teaching practicum will be divided into two parts. The first two weeks of the practicum will focus on observing and imitating the subject teacher. This two weeks will employ Schon's "follow me model." The underlying theory for the "follow me" model is demonstration and imitation enhanced by dialogue between coach and student. Schon indicates that one way of helping 98 students understand the process of teaching is by demonstration. He gives an example of coaching in the context of designing. Schon writes, "a coach demonstrates parts or aspects of designing in order to help his student grasp what he believes she needs to learn and, in doing so, attributes to her a capacity for imitation" (p.107). Schon points out that it is acceptable to provide students with descriptions of what "coaches" do. This descriptions can help student-teachers learn to recognize peculiar qualities by taking students through actions. Actions, Schon argues, are necessary because students may not understand the coaches' descriptions. Instructors have to "act out their descriptions." Note that imitation in a reflective inquiry mode is deliberate. Schon argues that imitation in this context "presents itself as a process of selective construction. ...Imitative reconstruction of an observed action is a kind of problem-solving..." (p.108 and 109) Imitation is important particularly during the initial stages of the practicum. According to Schon students at the beginning of their practice "try to decipher the coach demonstrations and descriptions, testing the meaning she constructed by applying them . . . revealing in this way what she has made of things heard or seen" (p.293). It is "essential to learning, just insofar as students are initially unaware of what they need to learn, ..." (Schon, 1987, p.293) In agreeing with the notion of helping student-teachers during their initial stages of the practicum, Gore (1991) points out that, faced with classroom problems, the student-teacher often has less experience to draw on in making sense of his 99 or her experience. Gore urges teacher educators to present student-teachers with situations that can help to build a concrete sense of pedagogical thinking and acting. Part II In the final four weeks of the teaching practicum student-teachers will, under the guidance of the subject teacher and their instructors assume more teaching responsibilities. At this stage, the practicum will move towards Schon's joint experimentation and a hall of mirrors models. The subject teacher and the student-teacher will work as partners in inquiry. This means that both the subject teacher and the student-teacher will consciously inquire into their teaching. Schon suggests that the coach must suggest "ways of producing the intended qualities, inviting the student to join in a process of experimentation, teaching by demonstration the idea of practice as experiment" (p.181). The emphasis of the joint experimentation model is that student-teachers must feel free to set their own goals. Student-teachers must be allowed to try out what they think they want to learn. This will allow them to describe their actions and, more important, be able to inquire into their actions. The way in which individual subject teachers handle joint experimentation will vary from one teacher to another. This is acceptable because even student- teachers will be encouraged to select the parts of the observed lessons that they consider relevant to what they plan to practice, (see Schon, 1987) Most secondary school teachers have breaks between the 100 teaching of one or two lessons. This is a perfect opportunity for the student- teacher to discuss the subject teacher's lesson immediately after the lesson observation. The situation also allows the student-teacher to "act out" what he/she is trying to understand in the next lesson with a different group of students. For example, the subject teacher could teach the same topic in Form A 1 and the student-teacher can teach the same topic in Form A 2. However, Schon cautions that, in observing the student-teacher and in holding conferences after the student-teachers' lessons the coach might find that student-teachers are vulnerable particularly "in the early stage of the practicum," they may become defensive, and "the learning predicament can readily become a learning bind" (p.166). Given this situation, subject teachers must be cautious about the way they communicate with the students-teachers so that they in turn can be comfortable to share their predicaments. One of the strategies that the proposed model suggests is to place more than one student-teachers in the same course in one school. Where possible student-teachers who hold certificates in secondary teaching from the Lesotho Teacher Training College will be paired with those who are fresh from secondary school, enabling them to support each other. They can visit each others classes and they can arrange to meet after the lessons to share their views and give each other feedback. Further, in Schon's words, the experienced student-teachers might be able to "reflect on their own processes of inquiry, and examine their own shifting understandings..." (p.323). This 101 practicum will present challenging experiences to both the inexperienced student-teachers as well as the experienced student-teachers. This program will also allow student-teachers to continue with their explorations of the process of reflective inquiry practice. Part III The debriefing meetings Objective and strategy The end of the formal university practicum in August will be marked with a one week of debriefing meetings. The purpose will be to consolidate student - teacher' s teaching practicum experiences and to prepare student-teachers/graduates for the induction program. Additionally, the deliberations of the seminar will provide necessary feedback to the Faculty of Education. Documentation from this seminar will help in the efforts to improve the proposed model for the Lesotho context. The seminar will also encourage and support the reflective inquiry by discussing issues arising from practice in a roundtable discussion format. Part IV Evaluation Evaluation of student teaching practice is part of the practica experiences and a requirement by many teacher education institutions. The reflective practicum offers student-teachers opportunities to engage in informal evaluation of their practice. 102 Thus, as they inquire, share their experience with fellow students, instructors and subject teachers, they are to some extent examining their teaching ability. The literature is sceptical about teaching practica evaluation. (See chapter II). It is said to have negative impact of student-teachers. An assumption of the reflective-inquiry practicum is that it places value not only on student-teacher's performance but also on their ability to be reflective about their performance, they too need to be integral components of any evaluation of the student-teacher. Evaluation of NUL student-teachers will be completed at the end of August, enabling them to attend the convocation of degrees normally held in September. By this time, student-teachers will have applied for jobs in the school in their own locality. After the teaching practicum experiences have been completed graduates will begin their induction program. Phase IV The induction program Objective The induction program forms the final phase of the reflective inquiry model. The objective of this phase is to assist student-teachers to construct professional knowledge under the guidance of the field based NTTC internship supervisors and mentor teachers. Additionally, the first year of teaching, beginning in September, is intended to induct the first year teachers into their profession. These teachers will continue to explore the notion of 103 reflection-in-action in their first year of teaching. Many researchers support the notion of induction programs for the first year teachers. Fullan (1991) discusses the implications of extended programs. He notes that, due to problems that first year teachers always encounter even with the five-year teacher education program, "it becomes clear that a five-year, let alone a nine-month, pre-service program cannot possibly produce the complete starting teacher." (p.301) Fullan supports the notion of placing the teaching practicum at the very end of the program so that student-teachers will continue into their first year of teaching. This notion is supported by Shulman (1987) who suggests that educators should be concerned with how the extensive knowledge of teaching can be learned during the brief periods normally scheduled for teacher education. Strategy The induction program will be facilitated by the educators who are working in the schools. At the initial stage of the program implementation, the NTTC field-staff will help both the first year teachers and the mentor teachers. In training the mentor teachers in the process of helping the first-year teachers, these educators will at the same time be helping the first group of NUL inductees. Program evaluation The tendency for Lesotho institutions is to evaluate programs only when the need arises. For example, the 1986 Commission 104 referred to in this study, was initiated because the instructors were not happy with the length of time that student-teachers spent on the teaching practicum. The National Teacher Training College evaluated its internship program in 1987 because the Lesotho Ministry of Education felt it was an expensive model to teacher education. For the proposed model, evaluation will comprise an important element of the teaching practicum program. This program will be evaluated every two years. The purpose of this evaluation will be to collect data that can inform the decisions to improve the program. In the two years, there will be two groups of graduates in the field to participate in the evaluation exercise. The first group will consist of student-teachers who have completed their teaching practicum under the reflective inquiry approach. Another group will be the graduates who have completed the first year of teaching and have received guidance through the induction program. Summary Suggesting changes to program scheduling within complex administration structures such as NUL in which the context and the economy are not supportive of the changes is not an easy undertaking. It is, however hoped that this proposal will serve as a framework that can stimulate discussion about how the current teaching practicum model can be reformed. An inquiry oriented approach requires that student-teachers spend sufficient time in their schools (See chapter III) . The 105 current six-week teaching practicum time that constitutes merely 4% of the program of study will be supplemented with seminars, school visits, and induction programs. The quality of the time spent with student teachers is the most important element of this model. This model however, requires collaboration from a number of experienced educators in the field of teaching. For example, in order to support student-teachers during their induction programs, there needs to be people in the field who can ensure that NUL graduates are supported in their first year of teaching. The field-based NTTC Internship supervisors as well as mentor teachers will play an important role of continuing to assist NUL graduates. This chapter has proposed a model that will encourage student-teachers to explore their ability to experiment with the concepts of reflective inquiry in teaching. Furthermore, student-teachers will become increasingly competent decision makers about their own practice, based on their own inquiry, discussion with peers, sponsor teachers, and university supervisors. Through the inquiry oriented involvement, they will become increasingly competent in handling a variety of teaching challenges they are likely to encounter in teaching practice. The process will be enhanced by their participation in induction programs. This chapter has further suggested a model that allows the student-teachers to gain insights into the world of experienced teachers and how they use their craft knowledge to solve some of the unique classroom occurrences. On the other hand, it gives the student-teachers opportunities to inquire into their own 106 experiences beginning with the micro-teaching experiences and moving through to the practicum settings. To this, Schon says, the "coach and student, when they do their jobs well, function not only as practitioners but also as on-line researchers, each inquiring more or less consciously into his own and the other's changing understandings" (p.298) . Given these opportunities, one hopes that NUL student-teachers can exert more control over their teaching experiences other than when student- teachers feel compelled to conform to the teaching approaches or philosophies of their supervisors. (See Gore, 1991) This model will benefit both the student teachers and the subject teachers. Schon argues that teachers in the schools are not aware of their "knowing-in-action" that informs their teaching behaviour. It is through a well-structured process whereby each can learn more about each other's actions. Dialogue (see chapter II) helps each participant in the practicum setting understand another's world of teaching better. It is important that teachers, be they in-service or pre-service, share their ideas explicitly. Schon contends that "when inquiry into learning remains private, it is also likely to remain tacit. Free of the need to make our idea explicit to someone else, we are less likely to make them explicit to ourselves." (p.300) An important element of reflective practice is making explicit or problematizing the taken-for-granted assumptions that underlie our teacher practices. The model suggested requires cooperation between student-teachers and their subject teachers as well as collaboration 107 between fellow students. This model will require the National University of Lesotho to consider the fact that the schools have the resources that can be deployed for the benefit of the student-teachers. NUL has to accept the fact that often "life in the profession" is understood better by those who live it..." (See Schon, 1987, p. 306) This model offers NUL an alterative that recognises that some of the prevailing problems in African teacher education institutions cannot be easily solved. Olaitan and Agusiobo (1982), in writing about the problems faced by the teacher education institutions in Nigeria, Ghana, Gambia and Sierra Leone, pointed out that effective practice teaching in most developing countries is faced with many barriers such as: obtaining suitable periods for teaching practicum, providing adequate length of time for teaching, and internal physical barriers such as poor roads and transport to practicing schools for supervision. Since NUL shares similar problems, the model that can best suit this institution is the one that encourages student- teachers to inquire into their practice at each stage of the program and capitalize, through reform efforts on features of the current. This approach will ensure independent professional development once student-teachers move beyond their induction year. 108 Chapter V Discussion This study calls for an alternative model for teaching practicum in the context of the Teacher Education Program at the National University of Lesotho (NUL). Alternative teaching practicum models for NUL have been suggested before. Specifically, in 1986 several alternative models were examined but insignificant change in the teacher education program's teaching practicum was enacted (See chapter I) . Therefore, after almost eight years of the current practice, it is time to reform the NUL teaching practicum model. It is important that models of teaching practicum focus on the student-teacher's professional development in a manner in which student-teachers play the major role of inquiring into their own teaching and making efforts to improve it. In this study. Teaching Practicum: A Model for the National University of Lesotho, an attempt is made to formulate an alternative model for the NUL teaching practicum. The proposed model incorporates a theoretical frame to guide the implementation of the program. The terms reflective inquiry have been coined as a name for this NUL model of teaching practicum. Fundamental to this concept is student-teacher professional development as a consequence of thorough reflection on practicum experience. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight important themes discussed in the preceding chapters and then make suggestions for 109 the implementation of the reflective-inquiry program. The rationale Traditionally change within NUL in the area of the teaching practicum program has been slow and difficult to mount. It is almost a decade since the National University of Lesotho was furnished with recommendations to redesign the teaching practicum. It is apparent that the major constraints to the implementation of change have been financial as well as the concurrent nature of the NUL teacher education structure. Additionally, all the models suggested by the Commission focused on extending the teaching practicum beyond the six-weeks period without providing guidelines on how the extended period was going to be used to provide for the student-teachers' professional development. It is precisely the focus of the 1986 Commission's recommendations that has inspired the design of a model that focuses on student-teacher development within the given institutional structure and its prevailing constraints. It is my belief that given the theory in which this proposed model is grounded, student-teacher's competence can be enhanced if their teaching practicum experience is systematically guided and connected to a well supervised first year of teaching. This proposed induction year program will support the proposal for moving the formal/traditional six-week teaching practicum from the end of the third year to the end of the fourth year of study. 110 The context This study has examined research on teacher education, specifically research literature related to the teaching practicum. The reviewed literature has provided theories and principles that have framed the ideas for a model suitable for NUL. In other word, studying this literature has provided direction for a model appropriate for the National University of Lesotho. The literature suggests that although the teaching practicum is a fundamental element of most teacher education programs, the models of teaching practicum vary greatly. This educator finds that some of the established theories are appropriate to the NUL context. This is particularly true with inquiry oriented approach. While the theory that forms the basis for the proposed model may be used by many institutions, the ways in which it will be used in the implementation of this model will be distinctive and responsive to the Lesotho context. For example, the literature shows that the use of video tapes to capture student-teachers idiosyncrasies provides them with worthwhile feedback upon which they can further their professional development. In other words, video is a useful tool for engaging students in reflective inquiry into practice, to enable analysis of their lessons and interaction with their sponsor teachers (and possibly their fellow student-teachers). However, it is obvious that physical and financial constraints would prohibit the acquisition of video technology (particularly in the school setting) at the present time in the Lesotho context. As an 111 alternative and toward the same goals of reflective inquiry, I suggest the use of audio cassette tapes. The use of audio cassette tapes can motivate both the student-teachers and the sponsor teachers in a context in which advanced technology is not readily-available. The audio cassette tapes have been used in the Lesotho context before and were found helpful in enabling teachers to reflect on their teaching. According to Chabane, Lefoka and Sebatane (1986) the primary school teachers who listened to their audio taped lessons were excited to hear themselves on tape and were motivated to make efforts to change their teaching practice. It is therefore suggested that the proposed model also employ the use of audio material in the teaching practicum setting. The audio tapes may be used by both the sponsor teachers and student-teachers to tape their lessons, listen to the tapes together, and follow these activities with discussions/dialogue. This will provide them with additional data to analyze their teaching experiences. Journal writing Another inexpensive tool that the student teacher might use in a Lesotho context is a journal. Student-teachers can record the process of reflection about their teaching. The student-teachers can use the journal after their micro-teaching experiences, during the school visits and in their practicum setting. Journal entries made after the micro-teaching experiences can be used in the seminar dialogues. Journal recordings made during the school visits period might focus on their interpretation of the observed lessons. 112 It is assumed that this exercise will enhance the process of reflective inquiry and increase their participation in the after school seminars with other student-teachers. Journal writing will even be more beneficial in the practicum setting where student-teachers' dialogue will include sponsor-teachers, instructors and fellow student-teachers. More importantly the essence of journal writing is to provide student-teachers with their own reference material which can be used for reflective purposes with the aim of making explicit underlying assumptions, and their practice. Curriculum modification The 1986 NUL Teaching Practice Commission suggested that one of the problems of providing the students with a broader practicum experience is the possible disruption to the on-campus program and curriculum measurements,- student-teachers may not have access to all the required education courses. As an alternative to the practice of reflective inquiry in the context of the teaching practicum experience, aspects of reflective inquiry could be integrated into the existing elements of the on-campus programs. By proposing that the concept of reflective inquiry be integrated in the courses EDF201, EDF301 and EDF493 it is suggested that there be some curriculum modification. This suggestion recognises that there is a potential in gradual introduction to the concept of reflective practice in the existing courses. This introduction will enable the student-teachers to use this theory throughout the progressive phase of the proposed model. 113 Towards a model Several theoretical orientations used in designing the teaching practicum models have been discussed in chapter II of this paper: The "behaviouristic," the "personalistic" the "traditional-craft" and the "inquiry-oriented" approach (Zeichner 1983) being the four major orientations. An exhaustive review of the literature of these and other theoretical orientations has facilitated the designing of the proposed NUL teaching practicum model. I have proposed that the NUL model be inquiry-based, but I have borrowed Zeichner's idea that elements of various orientations can be incorporated to form a multi-dimensional model. By suggesting that student-teachers be assigned to subject teachers (which is not currently the case) and by encouraging student-teachers to be reflective about the inquiries they make about the teaching, I have already incorporated elements of various orientations. The proposed model would be implemented in phases, thus allowing the integration and the contextualization of reflective inquiry. The first phase would constitutes an essential condition for initiating reflective practice. During the second phase, student-teachers would visit subject teachers and document cases that would be the focus for discussion in the seminars, while the third and final phase that precedes the induction year takes the student-teacher into a practicum setting. The first phase dictates the theoretical introduction of reflective inquiry, closely followed by the systematic emphasis on reflective practice. A well articulated micro-teaching experience 114 will enhance the conceptualization of the theory and allow student-teachers to familiarize themselves further with the concept. The use of video tapes in the micro-teaching environment would provide the student-teachers with the means to reflect systematically on and modify their teaching behaviours. Several researchers have discovered that giving student-teachers the opportunity to reflect on their actions in micro-teaching enhances their competence and desire to experiment with reflective practice. This idea is supported by Guyton and Mclntyre (1990) Applegate and Shaklee (1983), Nodie Oja, Diller, Corcon and Andrew (1992) and Mannathoko and Chipeta (1990) . However, it should be stressed that this reflective emphasis should also be a collaborative effort involving both the student-teachers and their instructors in which the instructors provide feedback and evaluation specific to the video taped micro-teaching experience. The underlying theme of the second phase is reflective practice as it applies to real/observed (non-theoretical) teaching experiences. Currently NUL students do not receive initial school orientation prior to their actual teaching practicum, although school orientation is a common practice in most teacher education institutions. Allowing student-teachers to visit schools will enhance their understanding of the reality of the secondary school classrooms. Most important, the school visits in the proposed model are not just mere visitations whereby students would observe teachers teaching or be informed about the school expectations. These visits will be meaningful to the student-teachers in that 115 they will be collecting data on observed lessons in order to interpret it and share it with their fellow students in the after school visits seminars. In other words, student-teachers will be conducting mini case studies to use in learning about the reflective inquiry process. Moreover, student-teachers will, through these school visits, be able to play an active part in choosing the subject teachers with whom they feel comfortable working. In other words, a Mathematics and Science specialist will have the opportunity to visit both the Maths and Science teachers. This is a step towards involving student-teachers in selecting sponsor-teacher. The school visits are immediately followed by the actual teaching practicum. It is the school setting where the practice of Donald Schon's models of the reflective practicum will be more meaningful to the student-teachers. In the school setting, the student-teachers will, in the initial stages, be following the sponsor teachers and observing them. In other words, the "follow-me" model will be more practical because the student-teachers will have to imitate the sponsor-teachers in their own teaching experiences. Student-teacher together with their sponsor-teachers will move to the models of joint experimentation and a hall-of mirrors as they reflect on their teaching experiences through the latter stage of the practicum. The final phase that is outside the campus, is the induction year. It is proposed that the goal for the NUL induction program be slightly different from the NUL Science Education induction program 116 whose focus is to orient graduates to their working situation. The proposed induction program should "contain some degree of systematic and sustained assistance and not merely be a series of orientation meetings or a formal evaluation process used for teachers new to the profession ..." (See Huling-Austin, 1990, p.53 6) to support reflective inquiry. Supervision of teaching practicum The third and final phase has two distinct components: the six-week teaching practicum which is the culmination of the four-year teacher education program leading to the award of the teaching certificate, and secondly, the post-certificate induction program year. Close supervision, particularly in the frame of reflective inquiry, is seen as an integral element of both the pre-certificate teaching practicum and the post-certificate induction year program. Student teachers nurtured in this theory benefit from experienced teachers with whom they can interact. This idea is supported by among others, Zeichner (1983), Pothoff (1993) and Bruneau (1993) . However, NUL does not currently designate sponsor teachers to work with student-teachers during the teaching practicum period. For example, it is not uncommon to find student-teachers given full workload of teaching from their first day of teaching practicum. In situations such as this, student-teachers appear preoccupied with the practice of teaching rather than with any assessment of their own professional development. Overloading student-teachers thus 117 reduces their time to think about their own practice. This notion is supported by Clarke in his study entitled Student-Teacher Reflection in the Practicum Setting (1992). Clarke argues that an excessive "workload appeared to be detrimental to the student teachers' professional development" (p.190). It is therefore strongly suggested that NUL engage sponsor-teachers for the duration of the student-teacher practicum period with the expectation that the two work together throughout the practicum. Unfortunately, a compounding and difficult issue (also discussed in the literature) pertaining to supervision of the reflective teaching practicum is identification of qualified and experienced educators to act in the role of sponsor teacher. The literature shows that student-teachers benefit most from the support of experienced educators for their practicum experiences. At present, NUL does not have an established system whereby student-teachers can be supported by experienced sponsor-teachers. In order for student-teachers to reflect effectively on their teaching actions there has to be somebody to interact with about these experiences. Clarke (1992) notes that it is difficult "to determine whether or not a student (is) reflective through drop-in visits to the students' classroom." (p.176). Thus, student-teachers might benefit from daily dialogue with the sponsor teachers because they are with the student-teacher most of the teaching practicum period as opposed to the NUL instructors who drop in once in a while. The purpose of establishing a student-teacher/sponsor-teacher 118 relationship is two-fold. First, student-teachers will learn from observing the sponsor-teachers in their ways of teaching and, in particular, in addressing unexpected classroom encounters, thus using Schon's follow-me model. Second, student-teachers through a daily dialogue with their sponsor teachers will begin to interact with sponsor teachers in ways that will enable student-teachers to reflect on their own teaching experiences, thus moving into Schon's "joint-experimentation and hall of mirrors" models. Researchers such as Grimmett and MacKinnon (1992) support the notion of involving sponsor teachers in reflective teaching practicum. Their argument is that these teachers have accumulated knowledge from which student-teachers can learn by working closely with them. These authors argue that effective practicing teachers also learn to become competent by reflecting on their practice as a result of working with student- teachers. It is believed, that by giving the student-teachers the opportunity to reflect on their practice in the presence of effective and experienced teachers, the student-teachers will accelerate on their professional development. The teaching practicum triad This study further proposes that NUL explore the notion of fully functioning teaching practicum triad. A teaching practicum triad comprises of student-teacher, the sponsor-teacher and the faculty advisor. An ideal teaching practicum is the one in which more than one educator can participate in helping the student-teachers. Thus, student-teachers can learn from their faculty 119 instructors who seek connections between the student interpretation and presentation of the pedagogical theories taught in the Faculty of Education courses. The student-teacher, also can learn from the practicing sponsor teacher who is more conversant with the issues relating to actual teaching practice. This theses therefore proposes that NUL initiate a teaching practicum that involves the student-teacher, the sponsor-teacher and the university instructor. The type of triad proposed for NUL is based on Gore's (1991) "harmonious" triad theory. She suggests that a beneficial triad is the one in which all members collaborate in helping not only the student-teachers' professional development but also their own development. Gore notes that while there are differences of position held by each member of the triad which cannot be avoided, the triad must metaphorically focus on working collaboratively towards creating what she calls metaphorically "chamber music." In other words, the university instructor plays a significant role in enhancing the student teachers' reflective inquiry activities, the sponsor-teacher contributes in ways that the university instructor cannot, while the student-teacher focuses on her professional development in her own ways. Thus, according to Gore, "each individual contributes a different note, the sum of which is greater and more pleasing than any of the individual parts..." (p.270). It is suggested that NUL work towards establishing Gore's triad in which the different positions held by all members of the triad contribute "synergistically" towards the student teachers' teaching experiences. 120 The final phase of the proposed NUL practicum is the induction year. This phase is proposed because the literature emphasizes that preparing reflective practitioners requires extensive practice in the school setting, far beyond the limited time frame of the six-week practicum of the preceding phase. (See Chapter II of this theses: Schon's reflection-on-action and reflection-in-action). It is interesting to learn that, the NUL 1986 Teaching Practice Commission also expressed the necessity for an extended teaching practicum. Thus, in this model, it is proposed that an induction program for education students be the bridge between the NUL six-week teaching practicum and the professional years of the teaching practice. The NUL induction program will be the first year of teaching of its graduates. This program will focus on extending the reflective inquiry practice introduced in phases one through three. Thus, NUL graduates through the help of NTTC field-based supervisor and/or mentor teachers will explore Schon's notion of reflection in action. Evaluating the "reflective inquiry" teaching practicum model Evaluation of program structures is not very common in Lesotho. For example, the NUL teaching practicum structure has not been evaluated since 1986. It is believed that program evaluation should form part of the regular administration of teacher education program. (The criteria and methodology for such an evaluation program could be the subject of a supplementary proposal.) 121 Evaluating programs only when there is a crisis, such as is the case in 1986 of NUL, is problematic. "Crisis" evaluations have a tendency to leave out important elements of the program, as evaluation committees rush to collect information and produce reports required by administrators. In 1986, for example, the Commission failed to collect data from the student-teachers. This omission can result in student-teachers resistance to the reform efforts, as was the case at NUL in 1987 (See chapter I ). A debriefing seminar, to be held at the end of the teaching practicum session will provide data from the student-teachers about their reflective inquiry experiences. Data will also be collected from the sponsor-teachers at the same time. Data collected from the student-teachers and from the sponsor-teachers will provide useful information for NUL program designers, the NUL Faculty of Education and the adminstration. There are several benefits to yearly evaluation. One benefit is that up-to-date data will be collected in a consistent and timely fashion from the people who are experimenting with the theory of the reflective inquiry. Another benefit is that data collected from the debriefing seminars can be used almost immediately in the preparation program seminars of the incoming teacher education students. An evaluation should also be conducted at the end of the induction year program. In a similar manner, data would be collected from NUL graduate students, mentor teachers, as well as from the NTTC field-based supervisors. Evaluation at the end of the teaching practicum phase and evaluation at the end of the induction 122 program are necessary steps towards documenting the progress and process of the NUL teacher education programs. Collaboration The literature as discussed earlier (chapter II) shows that teacher education is a continuum. The argument is that teacher educators cannot be expected to do all that is required to prepare a fully competent teacher with the span of a pre-service program. Reflective practice, as pointed out in the literature, requires extensive time in order for students to reflect-on/in their teaching activities. Thus, it is important that the NUL six-week practicum be supplemented with a supervised and mentored induction program year. A reflective inquiry teaching practicum and associated induction program requires that NUL collaborate with secondary schools, other NUL departments as well as other teacher education institutions. The importance of collaboration with other educators and/or education institutions is supported by many teacher education researchers. Researchers such as Huling-Austin (1990), Doyle (1990), Goodlad (1991), Bowman (1990), Jackson (1993), Jensen (1986), Fullan (1991), the Ontario Ministry of Education (1988), Gore (1991) and Potthoff (1993) are among the many who consider collaboration as a valuable undertaking in bridging the gap between the needs and requirements in pre-service and in-service teacher education. 123 1. Collaboration among the student teachers The NUL student-teachers fall into two categories: students who hold teaching certificates from NTTC and those who are fresh from secondary school and do not hold such a certificate. Preparing student-teachers to collaborate among themselves will be encouraged in their micro-teaching experiences, school visits, as well as during the actual teaching practicum. As they begin their teaching practicum, student-teachers will be paired with other student-teachers according to their subject majors and their experiences. This strategy is intended to enhance their ability to assist each other in their efforts to improve their reflective inquiry skills. For example, student teachers-might observe each other's lessons and provide each other with peer level feedback. 2. Collaboration between the Institute of Education and the Faculty of Education The Institute of Education (IE), a research department of NUL in which this teacher-educator is a member, is charged with a number of responsibilities. One of IE's major roles in the educational system of Lesotho is to run staff-development workshops for in-service teachers. This department has, since 1990, been conducting workshops for primary school teachers on "instructional self-reflection skills." The potential of this department in participating in teacher preparation was already recognized by the 1986 Teaching Practice Commission. In the report, the Commission noted that the Institute of Education plays a major role in Lesotho 124 education because it provides in-service education for teachers. The Commission however, commented that "continual improvement of teachers' abilities by means of in-service courses should come as a follow-up on participation by the Institute of Education in pre-service education" (p.19). Therefore, this theses proposes that the Institute of Education now play a leading role in preparing pre-service student-teachers for the reflective-inquiry practicum. Furthermore, the department should collaborate with the NUL Faculty of Education in preparing both the sponsor teachers and the mentor teachers for the reflective practicum and the induction program respectively. The participation of the IE at this juncture is facilitated by the in-service training workshops focusing on "instructional self-reflective skills," and perhaps more important, because the IE has recently established a Teacher-Education Division. It is therefore quite relevant that this division collaborate with the Faculty of Education in the preparation of pre-service student-teachers as well as conduct training workshops for sponsor/mentor teachers. 3. Collaboration with the NTTC Field-Based Supervisors It is proposed that since NUL Faculty cannot supervise its graduate teachers scattered throughout the country, every effort be expended to make use of the talents and resources of affiliate teacher education organizations. This proposal is supported by the theory that the essence of reform is joint efforts to improve teacher education both at pre-service and in-service levels through 125 employing resources found in the schools. The idea of seeking the assistance of a (teacher education) college is supported by McNay (1993) who writes that in some instances, expertise can be found outside the faculties, particularly in the "community colleges." One such organization in Lesotho is the National Teacher Training College (NTTC). The NTTC is currently affiliated with the NUL Faculty of Education in the area of professional exchange. However, over the years, the NTTC has independently established a nationwide pool of qualified field-based internship supervisors who have gained valuable experience working closely with student-teachers. Therefore, it is recommended that the affiliation between NUL and NTTC be further developed towards utilizing the skills of this national system of field-based supervisors to collaborate in the preparation of NUL graduates in their professional development through teaching practice, specifically for the duration of the induction program year. 4. Collaboration with the secondary Schools NUL has been placing its student-teachers in the Secondary Schools for many years. In the current practice, student-teachers do not receive structured assistance from the Secondary School subject teachers. Since the notion of school visits as proposed for the second phase requires that student-teachers visit school, observe teachers, and that teachers participate as sponsor and mentor teachers, it is recommended that NUL enhance formal 126 collaboration with the schools that will participate in the student teaching practicum. Supporting Sponsor Teachers/Mentor Teachers It is important to emphasize that the concept of reflective-inquiry will be introduced for the first time at the National University of Lesotho. Therefore, the success of this three-phase model depends to a great extent on the building of a staff of well-trained sponsor/mentor-teachers (in addition, of course, to the development of an effective collaborative process which would guide the triad of student-teacher/instructor/mentor teacher). Researchers who have tested the theory of reflective practice note that this concept requires close and skilful supervision which will not be immediately available in Lesotho secondary schools. It is therefore proposed that school-based training serve the purpose of preparing the sponsor teachers for the task. This school-based training of sponsor teachers will be enhanced by participation in the actual teaching practicum. As sponsor teachers gradually assist student teachers through (Schon's "follow-me," "joint-experimentation" and "a hall of mirrors" models) , they will in turn be engaging in reflective inquiry within the scope of their own teaching and coaching experience. Thus, training will be context bound and more meaningful to the teachers than would be the case if they were given workshops away from their work situation; the process will benefit both the student-teacher and the sponsor teacher. 127 Clarke (1992) notes that the process of reflective practice by student-teachers and the sponsor teachers "...served as a professional development opportunity for students and sponsor teachers..." (p.199). This study suggests that sponsor teachers be given brief introductory preparation to the concept of reflective inquiry and that this be followed by experimentation and exploration with Schon's reflective practicum theory. Summary Many researchers, particularly in the 1990' s, strongly believe that preparing student-teachers to become reflective practitioners is an important goal. It is argued that reflective inquiry forms a basis for preparing competent teachers and it is to this end that the proposed model is devoted, specifically in the context of the National University of Lesotho's Teacher Education Program. The structure of the model enacts reflective inquiry through a variety of phases: in the content of the courses; in the micro-teaching experiences; in the observations taken during school visits; in the follow-up seminars; in the supervised practicum; and in the supervised induction program year of teaching. This model is designed so that NUL student-teachers develop skills for reflective inquiry and become competent teachers, nurtured by the systematic guidance of teacher educators. It is believed that reflective inquiry will lead to improved teaching as the competence of the student-teacher is developed more quickly by this approach. The assumption is that the idiosyncratic process of 128 reflective inquiry through all phases will allow the student-teachers to gain the knowledge that should improve their own practice. The issue of improved practice through reflective-inquiry is confirmed by Grimmett, MacKinnon, Erickson and Riecken (1992). They described their concept of reflection as the process of being thoughtful about one's teaching actions and behaviour, coupled with the efforts of contemplation that leads to conscious, deliberate changes of teaching habits and strategies. Therefore, the purpose of the reflective-inquiry model is to create a strategy-based, student/sponsor learning environment within the time constraints of the student-teacher practicum and induction-year program, in which the students/graduates professional development will be enhanced by inquiry in and on practice. 129 References Applegate, J. & Shaklee, B. (1983). 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Why We Need a Complete Redesign of Teacher Education. Journal of Educational Leadership 49 (3) 4-6, 8-10 Gore, J.M. (1991). Practicing What we Preach: Action Research & the Supervision of Student Teachers. In B.R. Tabanchnick, & K.Zeichner, (Eds.), Issues &Practices inquiry-Oriented Teacher Education.(pp.253-280). London: The Falmer Press. Guyton, E. and Mclntyre, D.J. (1990). Student Teaching and School Experience. In W.R. Huston and (Ed.), M. Haberman & J. Sikula (Ass. Eds.). A Handbook of Research on Teacher Education: A project of the Association of Teacher Educators, (pp.514-534) New York MacMillan Publishing Company 131 Grimmett, P.P. (1988). The nature of reflection conception in perspective. In P.P. Grimmett & G.L. Erickson (Eds.), Reflection in Teacher Education, (pp.5-15). New York: Teachers College Press. Grimmett, P.P. & MacKinnon A.M. (1992) An Alternative Conception of Knowledge for the Education of Teachers: Craft Knowledge. Review of Research in Education. 18 1-58 Grimmett, P.P. Mackinnon, A.M., Erickson, G.L. & Riecken, T.J. (1990) Reflective Practice in Teacher Education. In Clift R.T., Houston, W.R. & Pugach M.C. (Eds.) Reflective Practice in Education: An Analysis of Issues & Programs, (pp.20-38) New York:Columbia University. Hall, L.B. (1969) . A brief history of the Lesotho Training College, A brochure produced for the centenary of Lesotho training. Lesotho: Morija Printing works. Holmes Group Report (1987) . Reforming Teacher Education: The Impact of the Holmes Group Report. New York: Teachers College Housego, B.E.J. (1992). Monitoring Student Teachers' Feelings of Preparedness to Teach, Personal Teaching Efficacy, and Teaching Efficacy in a New Secondary Teacher Education Program. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research. XXXVIII(1) 49-64 Huling-Austin, A. (1986) . What Can and Cannot reasonably Be Expected from Teacher Induction Programs. Journal of Teacher Education. XXXVII(1) 2-5 Jackson, L.M. (1993). Tomorrow's Teacher: A Review of the Literature on the Qualities Required to be a Successful Teacher in the 1990s and Beyond (A report) The Maritine Province. Jensen, M.C. (1986) Induction Programs Support New Teachers and Strengthen Their Schools. Oregon School Study Council CSCC Bulletin. 3_0(D • Lasley, T.J. & Applegate, J.H. (1982). The Education of Secondary Teachers: Rhetoric or Reform? Journal of Teacher Education. 132 XXIII(1), 3-6. MacKinnon, A.M. (1988) . Taking Schon's Ideas to a Science Teaching practicum. In P.P. Grimmett &G.L. Erickson (Eds.), Reflection in Teacher Education, (pp.113-135) . New York: Teachers College. Mannathoko, C. & Chipeta, D.P. (1990) . Teaching Practice Evaluation: Supervisor's and Students' Perceptions of Teaching Practice in Botswana Secondary Schools, March, May & June.(Research Report) Botswana: University of Botswana, Faculty of Education. Mathot, G. (1988). Report on the induction programme IP. (Report) Science Education department: National University of Lesotho. McNay, M. (1992). Practicum Internship: Collaboration, The Continuum, And The "Whole School Context". In L. Beauchamp, A. Borys, M. Iveson,and J.K. McClay (Eds.), Cross and Horizons in teacher education. Proceedings of the Westcast 1992 Conference (pp.263-233). Edmondon:Alberta Ministry of Colleges and Universities (1988). Final Report of the Teacher Education review Steering Committee (Paper, September 1988). Mission School District, (1991). A mentor Programme for first year teachers. Programme Update. National University of Lesotho (1993). 1992/1993 Calender. Lesotho: Morija Printing Works. National University of Lesotho (1986). Study Commission on Teaching Practice, (report) Lesotho: National University of Lesotho. Nodie Oja, S., Diller, A., Corcoran, E. & Andrew, M.D. (1992). Communities of Inquiry, Communities of Support: The Five Year Teacher Education Program at the University of New Hampshire. In L. Valli (Ed.), Reflective Teacher Education: Cases and Critiques (pp.3-23). New York.-State University of New York Press. 133 Olaitan, S.O. & Aqusiobo O.N. (1981). Principles of Practice Teaching. Education in Africa. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Peck, R.F. & Tucker, J.A. (1973) . Research on Teacher Education. In R.M.W. Travers, (Ed.), Second Handbook of Research on Teaching (pp.940-971) . Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Company. Potthoff, D. (1992) . Student Teacher Performance Evaluation -- A Better Way? In L. Beauchamp, Borys, A., M. Iveson, & J.K. McClay, J.K. (Eds.), Crossroads & Horizons in teacher education. Proceedings of the Westcast 1992 Conference (p.264-2 71). Edmonton:Alberta Potthoff, D. (1992). Proposed Model For Working With Prospective Cooperating Teachers. In L. Beauchamp, A. Borys, M. Iveson, & J.K. McClay, (Eds.) . Crossroads & Horizons in teacher education Proceedings of the Westcast Conference)e) (pp.254-263. Edmondon:Alberta. Reynolds, A. (1992). What is competent beginning teaching? A review of the literature. Review of educational research. .62.(1) 1-35 Richardson, V. (1990). The Evolution of Reflective Education and Teacher Education. In R.T. Clift, W.R. Houston & M.C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education, (pp.3-19). New York: Teachers College Press. Ross, D.D. (1990) . Programmatic Structures for the preparation of reflective teachers. In R.T. Clift, W.R. Houston & M.C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education, (pp.97-118). New York: Teachers College Press. Russell, R., Munby, H. , Spafford, C , & Johnston, P. (1988). Learning the professional Knowledge of teaching: Metaphors, puzzles, and the theory-practice rela tionship.In P. Grimmett & G. Erickson (Eds.).Reflection in teacher education (pp.67-89). New York: Teachers College Press. Schaller, J. (1992) . Teacher Training And The Real World: Reactions of Education Student to Situations. In The Extended Practicum. In L. Beauchamp, A.Bory Iverson, M. & McClay, J.K. (Eds.) Crossroads And Horizons in Teacher Education. Proceedings of the Westcast 1992 Conference, (pp.284-291) Edmondon: Alberta. 134 Sebatane, E.M., Bam, V.M., Mohapeloa, &Pule,S.M. Mathot, G.(187). Consultancy report on the internship programme of the National Teacher Training College. (Research Report). Ministry of Education: Lesotho. Schon, D.A. (1983) . The reflective practitioner. How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Book. Schon, D.A. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practitioner: Towards a New Design for Teaching & Learning in the Profession. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Schon, D.A. (1988). Coaching the Reflective Teaching. In P.P. Grimmett and G.L. Erickson (Eds.) Reflection in Teacher Education (pp.19-38). New York: Teachers College. Shulman, L.S. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Havard Educational Review. 57.(1) 1-22. Zeichner, K.M. (1983). Alternative Paradigm Education. Journal of Teacher Education. XXXIV(3). Zeichner, K.M. Liston D.P. (1987) Restructuring teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education. 41(2) 3-20 Valli, L. (1992). Afterword. In L. Valli (Ed.), Reflective Teacher Education Cases and Critique. (p.213-225). Albany: State University of New York Press. Valli, L. (1990) . Moral approaches to Reflective Practice. In R.T. Clift, W.R. Houston & Pugach M.C. (Eds.). Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of Issues and programs (pp.39-56). New York: teachers College Press. Verah, J., Theune, W.S. & Parker, L. (1986). Beginning Teachers: Sink or Swim? Journal of Teacher Education. XXXVII (1) 30-35. Wong, M.J. & Osguthorpe, R.T. (1993) . The Continuing Domination of the Four-Year Teacher Education Program: A National Survey. Journal of Teacher Education. 44(1) 64-70 135 Appendix Fifth year Advantages 1. Supervision is over along period, as is evaluation. 2. Students would have sufficient time in school to become fully integrated into the life of the school 3 . Students would have opportunity to take classes throughout years A-E 4. There would be no interference with the programs of other faculties. 5. Students would have relatively few logistical problems in repeating course where necessary. Pis advan t age s 1. Students will not graduate in the same year as their peers. 2. Travelling expenses could be high for supervision unless student choice of schools was severely restricted. 3. Government have already expressed their dislike of this option. Ninth Semester Advantage 1. Supervision is over a long period, as is evaluation 2. Students would have sufficient time in school to become full integrated into the life of the school. 136 3. Students will have time to learn from their mistakes and to attempt remedial action. 4. Students would have opportunity to take classes throughout year A-E. 5. There would be no interference with the program of other faculties. 6. Students would have relatively few logistical problems repeating course where necessary. 7. Students on all education programmes could be treated in the same way. Disadvantages 1. Student will not qualify at the same time as their peers. There will be a delay of some six months. 2. Travelling expenses could be hight for supervision unless student choice of schools was severely restricted. 3. Government have already expressed their dislike of this option. 4. PGCE students would have only one semester at the university. Eighth Semester Advantages 1. supervision is over a long period, as is evaluation. 2. Students would have sufficient time in school to become full integrated into the life of the school. 137 3. Students will have time to learn from their mistakes and to attempt remedial action. 4. Students would have opportunity to take classes throughout years A-E. 5. PGCE student will qualify at the same time as their peers. 6. Teaching practice would, at present, be in the first half of a school year which should cause less disruptions in the schools. Pis advant age s 1. Students will take a reduced number of education and content courses and opportunities for further studies will be limited. 2. Students who fail compulsory course or pre-requisite courses may have problems in repeating a course and also in finding a programme. 3. Students will have a very restricted choice of programme. 4. Faculties will have to teach certain courses in the first semester, with a consequent risk of staffing problems. 5. Student will have to receive a substance allowance. Two (or three of four) vacation periods Advantage 1. Students will be able to do all their education courses as they do at present. 2. Compulsory courses can be repeated if necessary. 138 3. Courses can be taught in either semester 4. All the present content can be taught. 5. Students will retain the same freedom of choice of courses. 6. Travelling expenses will be minimal. 7. The students will receive their qualifications at the same time as their peers. 9. The first period will help the students in subsequent practices. Disadvant acres 1. The one year courses, such as PCE and Dip Sc Ed Agric, would be treated on a different basis. 2. Schools will have some student for four weeks and others for six. They would probably have to have at least four students. The four-week period may be disruptive for the schools. 3. Students will not have enough time to get to know their pupils properly and to learn by their mistakes. 4. Students will not have the opportunity to experience many aspect of the teaching profession outside the class-room. During the fourth year, devoted entirely to Education, other studies having been completed in the first three year. Advantage 1. There would be no interference with the program of other faculties. 139 2. Students would have relatively few logistical problems in repeating courses where necessary. 3. Students on all education programmes could be treated in the same way. 4. Students will qualify at the same time as their peers. 5. Relatively low costs. Pis advant age s 1. Other faculties will have to complete their programmes in three years. 2. Education courses will have to be concentrated into the final year. 3. Both Education and content course will have to be reduced in number. 4. Students will have a restricted choice of programm. 5. There will be large numbers of students doing teaching practice at the same time, with consequent staffing problems. 140 


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