UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Dance in education : a focus on aesthetic development Neale, Aileen Mary 1995

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1995-0520.pdf [ 7.22MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0054840.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054840-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054840-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054840-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054840-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054840-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054840-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0054840-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0054840.ris

Full Text

DANCE I N  EDUCATION:  A FOCUS ON A E S T H E T I C  DEVELOPMENT  by A I L E E N MARY N E A L E B.Ed., Diploma In Education)  The  University  of  Saskatchewan,  Education (Visual The U n i v e r s i t y o f  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED  and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s B r i t i s h Columbia, 19  I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S  FOR THE DEGREE  M A S T E R OF  OF  ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE (Curriculum  We a c c e p t to  the  this  1965  Studies)  thesis  required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y August  STUDIES  as  conforming  standard.  OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  1995  (Aileen Mary Neale,  1995  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  available for reference  copying  of  department publication  this or  thesis by  of this  for  his thesis  and  study.  for  her  CiAAAJA^jJ^nnJ  The University of British Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Columbia  AjLffanJ^LAJ 7\  that  agree be  it  is  gain shall  not  permission.  Department of  requirements  may  representatives,  financial  the  I agree  I further  scholarly purposes  or  of  d^AA^Lu^  that  the  an  advanced  Library shall make  permission for  granted  by the  understood be  for  that  allowed without  head  it  extensive of  copying  my or  my written  11  ABSTRACT This nurture  study  for  ages.  theory  (1953),  aesthetic  described  aesthetic  as  the is  observer; which  viewer's  arts  by H u i z i n g a  various  concludes  indeed it  that  seen  of  by e f f e c t i v e aesthetic  grow a e s t h e t i c a l l y results  provide  aesthetic  to  eye  Langer world  of  snapshots  of  experience,  intellect  both  for  and  the  and  dancer  a  and  special  focuses  the  such engagement  are  teachers.  growth are  evident,  in individual  students  ways;  from complex combinations  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and e x p e r i e n t i a l  maturation.  the  developmental  and r e c o g n i z e d as  Opportunities  understanding  the  of  development.  i n dance  the  representing  Significant  engagement o f  i n v a r i a b l y draws  used  classroom  in light  to  and the  of  the  growth  entry  were  Four  by Suzanne  participants  evident  may b e  study.  (1984).  stages  Observations,  examined  (1950),  its  journals,  aesthetic  developed  simultaneous  stages  a l l ages  aesthetic  of  learning through  structured  While  social,  the  attention.  carefully  of  of  growth at  emotions,  quality  m u l t i p l e case  v o i c e d by the  The s t u d y  the  student  model o f Malcolm Ross  descriptions  defined  of  development,  education.  The f i n d i n g s were  symbolic  student  this  provided a picture  range of  play  i n dance  and e x a m i n a t i o n s  c o l l e c t data  settings a  on a e s t h e t i c  and assessment,  interviews, to  focuses  factors,  as  well  of as  Ill  The study concludes  t h a t assessment of a e s t h e t i c growth  i s p o s s i b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e i n dance education,  informing  both i n s t r u c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . When the p a l p a b l e , significant  l e a r n i n g which takes p l a c e i n  dance i s  r e c o g n i z e d , the d i s c i p l i n e should take a s t e p forward t o assume i t s r i g h t f u l r o l e as one of the f o u r a r t s c o n t r i b u t i n g r i c h l y t o the whole education of the c h i l d .  iv T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  Abstract Table List  of of  i i Contents  iv  Figures  vi  Acknowledgement  v i i  C H A P T E R ONE -  INTRODUCTION  Statement of the Problem Rationale Constraints Conclusion O u t l i n e of the Study C H A P T E R TWO -  - METHOD  Methodology Choosing Sites Gaining Access Participants The G r a d e E i g h t and G r a d e N i n e / T e n S i t e The Grade F i v e S i t e The G r a d e T w o / T h r e e S i t e Data C o l l e c t i o n Participant Observation Observer Role Interviews Student Journals G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the Findings Data A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Summary C H A P T E R FOUR -  5 6 11 14 15  R E V I E W OF L I T E R A T U R E  Aesthetic Learning A e s t h e t i c Theory The A c q u i s i t i o n o f A e s t h e t i c G r o w t h R o s s ' s Model o f A e s t h e t i c Development Factors I n f l u e n c i n g A e s t h e t i c Growth A s s e s s i n g A e s t h e t i c Growth i n Dance Conclusion CHAPTER THREE  1  T H E CLASSROOM N A R R A T I V E  Student Development The Grade T w o / T h r e e C l a s s . A n a l y z i n g Dance  17 19 22 26 29 32 36 37 38 39 41 42 43 45 47 47 50 51 53 55 58 58 60 62 62 64 67  V  E v i d e n c e o f A e s t h e t i c Engagement The Ten Y e a r O l d s ' C l a s s A n a l y z i n g Dance E v i d e n c e o f A e s t h e t i c Engagement T h i r t e e n Year O l d s : Grade E i g h t A n a l y z i n g Dance E v i d e n c e o f A e s t h e t i c Engagement F o u r t e e n , F i f t e e n , and S i x t e e n Year O l d s : Grade N i n e / T e n A n a l y z i n g Dance E v i d e n c e o f A e s t h e t i c Engagement Student Growth Moments o f G r o w t h Steady Growth Summary CHAPTER F I V E  -  CONCLUSIONS  R e l a t i n g Findings to the L i t e r a t u r e Dance As S y m b o l i c A r t Form R o s s ' s Model of A e s t h e t i c Development Dance and P l a y Summary C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s F i n a l Words REFERENCES APPENDIX A Sampling  97 103 105 110 I l l 113 105  D I S C U S S I O N OF T H E F I N D I N G S  C o n d i t i o n s Which Promote A e s t h e t i c Development Dance The T e a c h e r O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r C r e a t i n g and Composing P r a c t i c e and H a r d Work Working w i t h Peers Observation of Models Confidence Summary CHAPTER S I X -  70 76 80 81 84 87 93  118 in 118 119 122 125 126 128 132 138 141 141 141 144 153 155 157 160 162 167 167  Frame  APPENDIX B Sample I n t e r v i e w Sample I n t e r v i e w  One Two  170 170 174  vi List  of  Figures  Figure 1.  Summary o f  Data C o l l e c t i o n  2.  Summary o f  Ross's  Model  Sources  of Aesthetic  48 Development  145  vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I  wish  knowledge,  to  thank  support,  my s u p e r v i s o r s  and committee  and encouragement  for  throughout  their  this  project. Dr. wisdom, always  Ronald MacGregor steered sound  available,  qualitative mentor,  her  a d v i c e were  To  friend,  teaching of  she  dance.  am v e r y g r a t e f u l  would  i n the not  my f a m i l y  encouragement.  humor.  But i t  is  that  owe t h e  purposefully  Dr. Donald  I of  to  the  Dr. Jean  art  of  Cunningham,  greatest  debt  of  inspiration for  this  study;  the  wonder  Her encouragement  and  practical  the  project.  force to  been  members,  the  with  Fisher,  i n t r o d u c e d me t o  study.  have  ship  i n t r o d u c e d me t o  source  a sustaining  participated project  patiently  She was t h e  possibilities  I  and g e n t l e  methodology.  teacher,  gratitude. through  advice,  the  throughout three  teachers  Without t h e i r  who  generous  help  patience  and  possible. thank-you  for  and  this  1 DANCE IN EDUCATION: A FOCUS ON AESTHETIC DEVELOPMENT Chapter One - I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s study concerns dance as a s c h o o l s u b j e c t and as an a r t form. W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e study  identifies  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c stages i n student development and ways i n which a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y can be r e c o g n i z e d and n u r t u r e d . A e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y i s o f c e n t r a l importance it  i n dance, as  i s i n a l l t h e a r t s , f o r i t i s w i t h i n t h i s dimension  that  both t h e emotions and the i n t e l l e c t a r e engaged s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . S i g n i f i c a n t understandings and powerful a c t s of c r e a t i v i t y may r e s u l t from t h i s engagement (Lankford, 1991). W i t h i n t h e a e s t h e t i c dimension which i s common t o the performer and the observer, the dancer  communicates  f e e l i n g s , images, and i d e a s , while t h e observer these q u a l i t i e s . E x p r e s s i v e elements  intuits  and i d e a s are  understood through each i n d i v i d u a l ' s experience and comprehension. Doing, f e e l i n g , and performing a r e but one f a c e t o f a e s t h e t i c growth. F u l l e r development takes  into  account t h e a b i l i t y t o a p p r e c i a t e , a n a l y z e , and i n t e r p r e t from a s p e c t a t o r ' s p o i n t of view. In r e c e n t time, the growth o f dance on t e l e v i s i o n , and on f i l m , has allowed us t o look a t ways i n which c h i l d r e n and young a d u l t s respond t o and l e a r n about  dance.  Student i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , d e s c r i p t i o n s , and responses t o  2 v a r i e d examples of dance on v i d e o are p a r t of the data c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s study. The doing and the o b s e r v a t i o n of dance are examined s e p a r a t e l y even though t h e r e i s c o n s t a n t i n t e r p l a y between these two ways of understanding dance as they grow and develop i n the i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s study spends as much time on student r e a c t i o n s t o dance as o b s e r v e r / a n a l y s t as with the dancer as p e r f o r m e r / i n t e r p r e t e r . The use of these  two  s t r a n d s of a n a l y s i s , g i v e s a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e about ways t h a t dance can be p r o g r e s s i v e l y enjoyed and  understood.  Research has been done on the a c q u i s i t i o n and n u r t u r e of a e s t h e t i c response i n the v i s u a l a r t s , music, and drama. V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have developed models f o r a e s t h e t i c growth i n those a r e a s . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h , however, has been done i n dance, and no such models f o r a e s t h e t i c development exist.  T h i s study then, has no precedent. No one  attempted  has  t o monitor and d e s c r i b e a e s t h e t i c development i n  dance, and no p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n dance has asked q u e s t i o n s i n the same way  as t h i s study. I n v o l v i n g students and  classroom t e a c h e r s , t h i s study p r o v i d e s needed data f o r t e a c h i n g and understanding dance i n e d u c a t i o n . For reasons t h a t are l a r g e l y h i s t o r i c a l , r e s e a r c h i n dance e d u c a t i o n i s minimal. The p o s i t i o n of dance has been an ambivalent one, plagued by i d e a s t h a t i t i s not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r men  ( C a r t e r , 1984), t h a t i t i s a s s o c i a t e d  3 w i t h the e r o t i c , and t h a t i t s focus i s the body and not the mind (Hanna, 1983). While these f a c t o r s have i n f l u e n c e d dance performance, they have been damaging i n the extreme f o r dance e d u c a t i o n , making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r dance t o be an e x c i t i n g a r t form on par w i t h the o t h e r a r t s . School dance has come t o depend l a r g e l y on s o c i a l forms, l o s i n g the power of performance, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and a e s t h e t i c development. A l l the e x p r e s s i v e elements have been played down o r l o s t . There have been a few e x c i t i n g s c h o o l dance programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p o s t World War I I B r i t a i n . But these programs, as w e l l , have e x i s t e d i n the face of g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y g i v e n the i d e o l o g y surrounding dance. Because the popular n o t i o n of dance tends t o be narrowly i n t e r p r e t e d , and because t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e misunderstanding of dance as a s c h o o l s u b j e c t ,  clarification  of what i s meant by dance may be u s e f u l . Terms such as " c r e a t i v e movement" and " c r e a t i v e dance", which are a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c u l a r l i m i t e d forms, are not a p p r o p r i a t e . Rather "dance", the p r e f e r r e d term, i s b r o a d l y d e f i n e d i n t h i s study. I take the view t h a t dance i m p l i e s the c o n s t a n t i n t e r p l a y of e x p r e s s i v e , dramatic, t r a d i t i o n a l and i n n o v a t i v e elements l i n k e d by a common a e s t h e t i c t h r e a d . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e of dance i n c l u d e s dance as pure d e s i g n , dance drama, f o l k - d a n c e , dance composition and a t t e n t i o n t o  4 the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aspects of dance. Divergent t h i n k i n g and c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g enabled through formal d i r e c t t e a c h i n g , i n d i r e c t t e a c h i n g and student g e n e r a t i o n of dances are c e n t r a l t o t h i s understanding o f dance. The a e s t h e t i c dimension  i s woven  throughout.  The r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d B r i t i s h Columbia C u r r i c u l u m Guide i n Dance (1994) o f f e r s new hope f o r the i n c l u s i o n of dance i n the s c h o o l t i m e t a b l e , and f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of the c o n t r i b u t i o n which dance can make i n the education of the i n d i v i d u a l . In B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s , dance, along w i t h v i s u a l a r t s , music, and drama i s a mandatory s u b j e c t u n t i l the end of grade s i x , and i s one of the f o u r a r t s which may be o f f e r e d t o students i n the years which f o l l o w . T h i s M i n i s t r y document p r o v i d e s a framework  f o r the t e a c h i n g  of dance. I t focuses on the elements o f movement t h a t comprise dance, on processes of composing and i n t e r p r e t i n g dance, on the r o l e s of performing and audience, and on dance i n s o c i e t i e s other than our own. experiences may  Within t h i s  framework,  a p p r o p r i a t e l y combine t o p r o v i d e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development of s k i l l s ,  kinesthetic  awareness, and i n t e l l e c t u a l growth. A e s t h e t i c v a l u e s are c e n t r a l t o a l l these aspects of dance, e n r i c h i n g t h e i r v a r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Thus, a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  understanding  of dance i s b u i l t i n an incremental manner i n v o l v i n g p r o g r e s s i v e development. Ever i n c r e a s i n g understanding of how  form and f e e l i n g combine t o make meaning  i s complemented  5  by growing knowledge o f the s t r u c t u r e o f dance. A e s t h e t i c i n s i g h t i s r e c o g n i z e d as the t r a n s f o r m i n g element: i t i m p l i e s knowing and f e e l i n g . I f dance i s t o become a v i t a l , meaningful  school  s u b j e c t , t h e focus must be p l a c e d on t h a t element which l i n k s t o g e t h e r and v i v i f i e s these v a r i o u s ways o f knowing: t h a t i s a e s t h e t i c growth. G u i d e l i n e s designed t o assess a e s t h e t i c development are r e q u i r e d and w i l l ,  i t i s hoped, l e a d t o more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g i n dance e d u c a t i o n . Research a e s t h e t i c growth i n v o l v i n g primary, secondary  into  i n t e r m e d i a t e , and  s c h o o l students seems most t i m e l y . T h i s r e s e a r c h  i s concerned  with ways t h a t c h i l d r e n and o l d e r students  enjoy, understand,  and f i n d meaning i n dance e x p e r i e n c e s .  Statement of t h e Problem To b u i l d s u c c e s s f u l c u r r i c u l a , t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d with dance education need ways t o observe  and assess student  development. The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s addressed 1.  i n t h i s study a r e :  How do behaviours a s s o c i a t e d with a b s o r p t i o n i n t h e task  r e v e a l a e s t h e t i c development? 2 . How do behaviours a s s o c i a t e d with e x p r e s s i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n r e v e a l a e s t h e t i c development?  6 Langer's writing Ross's this  symbolic theory  on p l a y  and  model o f  the  of  freedom  aesthetic  the it  arts,  Huizinga's  brings  development  to  dance,  provide  and  frameworks  for  study.  Rationale The  importance  education said  to  1984),  is  be  to  organization  central provide  of  the  The a e s t h e t i c education 1982). forms  i f  it  the  one  (p.40).  to  to  hand,  or  dance  itself  Dance  involves the  emotions.  art  an  i n education  through of  an  art  art  is  the  as  (Stinson, of  "serves...to  between  making,  on t h e  other"  movement  other.  or  or  generalized  representation  as  engagement o f  and  Dancers  the  intellect  feeling  insights.  and  from  of  Schools Division,  well  aesthetic  in  "The c r e a t i o n  abstracted  Education,  been  (Ross,  dance  form  expression  concrete  has  the  physical s k i l l , and  arts  1989).  to  informing the  kinesthetic  transforming  for  (Abbs,  interaction  meaning  in quality  learning  essential  to  feeling  The s i m u l t a n e o u s  play to  is  (1953)  w i t h each  (Ministry  arts  feeling" which of  form i s  o r i g i n a l idea  of  considered  Langer  personal  Aesthetic  i n education  be  and t o  image,  convey t h e i r  gives  arts  relation  Finding  idea  development  a u n i f y i n g framework  s y m b o l i c o f human  on t h e  the  value  experience  is  According  establish  the  aesthetic  widely recognized.  the  and  of  the  1986) and  knowing  7 Decision critical  making i n the  t h i n k i n g and the  sensory  activity gives  play to  of  reflection,  settings  are and  knowledgeably Dance learning.  is,  life,  i n many w a y s ,  The s h e e r  joy of  and o f  the  time,  dance partakes  with the an  the  the  (1950)  part  of play,  and t h a t  of  (p.  165).  As p a r t  of  natural  conduit  to..."rhythm  gifts  of  aesthetic  Much has arts. arts other  (This  is  arts  are  is  obvious  concern concerns  said  offered  the  of  c h i l d ' s world  1 1  about the i n the  (p.  is  in  the  essential of  is  use  of  same  an  play,  (is)  identity" dance  the  offers  noblest  10).  interrelationships to  For example, of music.  Further,  the  the  to  of new  each  fine  of  the  narratives  fundamental from  arts,  the  kinesthetic  Dance  the  inseparable  A l l of  dance  At the  relationship  and c o n n e c t i o n s  a wide range  visual arts.  aesthetic  of  dance  introductions  by dance.  i n space  for  characterizes  and harmony,  l i n k s w i t h drama.  w i t h images of  almost  Entry points  made t o  "...the  perception. ..  apparent  curricula.)  response make  been  the  that  cope  world.  undeniable.  claims that  one  a  participation,  individuals to  modern  creativity  Huizinga  direct  These  The e x h i l a r a t i o n  arts.  integral  qualities  physical involvement  is  for  educational  ideal vehicle  physical effort of  of  equipping  a l l ages.  space  the  in a variety  and c o m p e t e n t l y  engages c h i l d r e n o f  all  and c o m p r e h e n s i o n .  highly valued i n everyday  opportunities  of  Aesthetic  qualities  offers  development  discrimination. imagination,  arts  the  including  8  dance, are means f o r understanding  and communicating human  experience. Given these p o s i t i v e s , one may education i s minimal, Answers may  be found  w e l l wonder why  dance  and a c t u a l l y f e a r e d by many t e a c h e r s . i n w i d e l y h e l d p e r c e p t i o n s of dance,  which are r o o t e d i n h i s t o r y . P u r i t a n s of the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth dance was flesh"  century f e a r e d the e r o t i c p o t e n t i a l of dance;  c o n s i d e r e d " s i n f u l submission  (Fallon, 1979,  p. 7 6 ) .  t o the power of the  In a d d i t i o n , by the e a r l y  t w e n t i e t h century, the male i n b a l l e t became synonymous with homosexuality.  In o t h e r words, dance has been surrounded  by  s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s p r e j u d i c e . In s p i t e of the immense freedom of our own  s o c i a l times and the open e r o t i c i s m of  dance i n popular c u l t u r e , these p r i o r s t e r e o t y p e s  still  a f f e c t dance as an a r t and as a s c h o o l s u b j e c t . Parents, concerned  t h a t education should ensure f i n a n c i a l l y  rewarding  jobs f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , seldom see dance as a c a r e e r o p t i o n , or as a rewarding  leisure pursuit.  There are a l s o p r a c t i c a l reasons why  dance programs are  not w i d e l y o f f e r e d i n s c h o o l s . Dance t o be f u l l y  effective  and e n j o y a b l e , r e q u i r e s space f o r movement. Many a c t i v i t i e s compete f o r such space i n s c h o o l s ; expansion f a c i l i t i e s i s l i m i t e d by budgetary  of s t r a i n e d  r e s t r a i n t s . Dance  education c l a s s e s have not been made a requirement  i n pre-  s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n e d u c a t i o n . As a consequence, t e a c h e r s who  themselves had no dance i n s c h o o l , l a c k r e l e v a n t  9 background equipped their  a n d t r a i n i n g . N o t o n l y may t e a c h e r s  to  teach  ability  to  circumstances, is  dance, assess  the  day.  If  teach,  dance  curriculum, research  to  and the  experience with  dance.  also the  are  greatest  must  l i e at  have  need  for  been  must  dance.  heart which  teach  for  force  be  subject  the  and  students  i n the  in  and  dance,  school  the  overcome.  Scholarly  c u r r i c u l a r support  to  its  and  earlier,  primarily  Clearly,  from  dance  of the focus  nature  of  aesthetic  a c q u i s i t i o n and growth the  focus  on the  music and drama,  benefits  studies  love to  examined the  i n dance.  the  these  fundamental.  As noted  to  in  historical  i n c l u d e dance  Y e t few w o u l d deny t h a t  essential  through  reasons,  become a v i b r a n t  attention  t o p i c has  some a t t e n t i o n to  to  development of  individual.  Under  approaching t h i s  a l l these  certain barriers  Researchers  on t h i s  of  educational benefits  assessment m a t e r i a l s  the  of  decide not  is  no c o n f i d e n c e  children's progress.  many t e a c h e r s who w o u l d  who b e l i e v e i n t h e they  have  teachers.  As a consequence  that  they  uncertainty  overwhelming for  practical,  but  feel i l l -  but  of  visual with  aesthetic  with  attention  experience  i n education,  on a e s t h e t i c  research  arts  less  i f children  experience.  the  There  are the is  in  to  is  realize aesthetic  an  learning in  evident and  10 Contemporary models of the  other  arts:  precedents  for  interesting and Housen by Ross Ross  (1984)  Ross's  indeed,  take  Studies educators  has  have  been  which  "I  for  adapt the  is  well  from  of  i n the  which  dance  of  for  last  As  profiles  to  other  artistic  because  dance  can,  works. growth are  on the  further  The  Columbia  Support  importance  to  of  schools  materials, aesthetic  teachers  c u r r i c u l u m . The f i n d i n g s o f basis  and  growth.  considerable  one  useful  appropriateness  in British year.  I  this  research  developmental  evaluation. All evaluation. than  this.  d i s c i p l i n e s must The a r t s , They must  but mount  are  scheme  of  as  and  would not,  assessment  offered  arts,  it  the  and are  (1987)  about  The p r e p a r a t i o n  education  example,  then  aesthetic  lead to  For  and m u s i c .  i f these  other  of  provide  visual  speculated  c u r r i c u l a depend  guidelines are  these  arts,  i n dance.  drama,  taken  investigate  published i n the  timely,  arts, have  i n each  developed by Parsons  1987)  i n v a r i o u s ways.  implementing the are  been  visual  to  point  and t a s k s  including response  have  some s u b s t a n c e  elements  interpretation  curriculum  investigations  says,  be d i f f i c u l t  concepts  visual  i n A r t , Drama, and M u s i c :  areas."  to  i n the  development  and t h e  in Pariser,  p.126)  found to  think,  similar  (cited  (1984,  be  drama,  frameworks  development to  music,  aesthetic  continuously refine  e s p e c i a l l y dance,  means  must  an o n g o i n g d e f e n c e  do  of  more  against  of  11 m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n i n the s c h o o l system by demonstrating  that  t a n g i b l e , s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e . I f dance i s t o assume a more v i s i b l e presence i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , i t must have c o n f i d e n c e i n i t s own  aesthetic  criteria.  T h i s q u a l i t a t i v e study, which i n v e s t i g a t e s a e s t h e t i c growth i n dance, uses case study d e s i g n . The  techniques  used as the p r i n c i p a l means of data c o l l e c t i o n are d i s c u s s e d the methodology chapter.  Constraints When I undertook  t h i s study I was  aware t h a t a e s t h e t i c  growth would not easy t o determine. Breakthroughs  in  c h i l d r e n ' s understanding are not always r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e . The ephemeral nature of dance must be c o n s i d e r e d when o b s e r v i n g and a s s e s s i n g a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s . Each movement and gesture i n dance passes i n a moment; i t cannot  be  r e p l a y e d . C l e a r l y , c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n and note t a k i n g were of prime  importance.  Ongoing data c o l l e c t i o n confirmed my b e l i e f a e s t h e t i c refinement was  that  h i g h l y observable i n growing  e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , and i n degrees of engagement and a b s o r p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s . C e r t a i n dancers stood out by v i r t u e of what Nachmanovitch (1990) r e f e r s t o as "raw 11  c r e a t i v e power  (p. 119). Others showed a e s t h e t i c awareness i n l e s s  dramatic, but very r e a l ways, through the e x t e n s i o n of ideas w i t h t h e i r own  o r i g i n a l work, and through the p r o j e c t i o n of  12 f e e l i n g s i n t o t h e i r dancing. The students, too, r e c o g n i z e d a e s t h e t i c engagement i n one another. In cases where a e s t h e t i c engagement was  l e s s c l e a r l y seen, a n a l y s i s  r e l a t i n g the v a r i o u s data p e r s p e c t i v e s proved  and  helpful.  The r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a e s t h e t i c development c o u l d indeed be r e a d i l y observed was able to recognize i t ,  c r u c i a l : i f the students and I were  so would t e a c h e r s . In f a c t , the  s p e c i a l knowledge t h a t t e a c h e r s have of t h e i r students g i v e s them even g r e a t e r i n s i g h t s . I t should be noted, however, t h a t "growth and development" i s o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d as t h a t which occurs i n the i n d i v i d u a l , over the long term, i n f a n c y through adolescence. T h i s study p r e f e r s a approach;  from  "snapshot"  each of the s e t t i n g s c o n t a i n s c h i l d r e n of  p a r t i c u l a r age. Something i s l o s t i n i n d i v i d u a l  one  continuity,  but the study does p r o v i d e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l data c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of v a r i o u s age groups. The phrase "growth and development" should be t r a n s l a t e d w i t h t h a t emphasis r a t h e r than one grounded i n i n d i v i d u a l age-stage p r o g r e s s i o n . F i n d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s i t e s f o r the study presented challenges.  As dance i s not widely taught i n s c h o o l s , such  classrooms were few. A common t h r e a d which I sought classrooms which comprised  the r e s e a r c h s i t e , was  t e a c h e r s ' shared experience, knowledge, and  i n the  the  understanding  r e s u l t i n g from having taken U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  dance c l a s s e s . A range of ages among the students was  needed  13  i n order t o provide I recognized  my  a broad p i c t u r e of developmental  good f o r t u n e when t h r e e exemplary s i t e s  became a v a i l a b l e . L i m i t a t i o n s i n my  c h o i c e s of s e t t i n g s ,  however, meant t h a t a degree of p r e - s e l e c t i o n was among the students of three of the f o u r age The  stages.  involved  groups s t u d i e d .  j u n i o r secondary dance s e t t i n g s , were French  immersion c l a s s e s ; t h i s v o l u n t a r y students who  program drew a number of  were prepared f o r c h a l l e n g e .  As w e l l , the dance  c l a s s e s o f f e r e d t o each of these grades were e l e c t i v e s , chosen by the students from a small number of  possibilities,  although students s i g n i n g up were not always aware of dance emphasis i n the course. The c l u b was  a voluntary  a c t i v i t y . The  although i n e x p e r i e n c e d , volunteer  the  grade f o u r / f i v e / s i x dance dance c l u b  students,  were p e r s o n a l l y committed enough t o  t o attend dance c l u b on t h e i r own  time. Only i n  the grade two/three c l a s s , where every student i n t h i s r e g u l a r classroom took p a r t i n the dance a c t i v i t i e s , was  a  s i t e f r e e from p r e - s e l e c t i o n . A f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n t on the study was  that children's  i n s i g h t s are not always amenable t o a r t i c u l a t i o n or p h y s i c a l expression.  Verbal  and w r i t t e n responses by the c h i l d r e n ,  e s p e c i a l l y the seven and t h e i r vocabulary and  e i g h t year o l d s were l i m i t e d by  t h e i r f a c i l i t y with language.  C h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o w r i t e and t h e i r l e v e l s of a r t i c u l a t e speech v a r i e d and  i n some cases d o u b t l e s s  d e t e r r e d the  child  14  from f u l l e x p r e s s i o n o f i d e a s . S u c c e s s f u l assessment, i n those cases, was the product of c o n s t a n t and s e n s i t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n . Through these means o f data c o l l e c t i o n w i t h d i f f e r e n t age groups,  d i s c e r n a b l e stages have emerged. These  stages should p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l h e l p f o r t e a c h e r s i n assessing t h e i r students.  Conclusion While the importance  o f a e s t h e t i c development i n dance  i s widely r e c o g n i z e d , l i t t l e r e s e a r c h e x i s t s r e g a r d i n g the nature o f i t s a c q u i s i t i o n . Yet, the examination o f e x i s t i n g models of a e s t h e t i c development i n each o f t h e o t h e r a r t s (music, drama, and the v i s u a l a r t s ) can p r o v i d e the impetus f o r s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n dance. A l l e g a t i o n s , o f t e n i l l - f o u n d e d o r misconceived, but n e v e r t h e l e s s p e r s i s t e n t , which c r e a t e c h a l l e n g e s f o r such a study have been c o n s i d e r e d : t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h homosexuality,  the a s s o c i a t i o n of dance with the body and  not the mind. The l a c k o f developmental  dance experience i n  the s c h o o l s , thus l i m i t i n g study o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and the ephemeral nature of dance which makes assessment i n dance c h a l l e n g i n g , have been mentioned as c o n s t r a i n t s . Yet i f dance i s t o assume i t s p l a c e along with the other a r t s and its  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o education i s t o be r e a l i z e d and v a l u e d ,  study of the a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r o f dance education i s e s s e n t i a l . A p r o p o s a l has been o u t l i n e d f o r f o c u s i n g  15 assessment of  aesthetic  growth i n dance  embodiment  aesthetic  comprehension  of  on t h e  as  well  individual's as  response  to  performance. Studies useful  to  which  investigate  educators  interpretation  of  i n v a r i o u s ways.  c u r r i c u l a c a n be  appropriateness  of  further  Assessment,  growth.  description  concepts  of those  informing  and s h a p i n g  i n f o r m e d as  to  of  for  be  aesthetic  lead  teacher  and  to  benefit  learning  i n dance.  and  the  which w i l l  and e v a l u a t i o n w i l l  experiences  be v a l u a b l e  growth w i l l  The p r e p a r a t i o n  and t a s k s  aspects  accompany d e v e l o p m e n t a l assessment w i l l  aesthetic  from  which  Such student,  l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g  in  the  classroom. All means  of  disciplines, including evaluating the  discipline.  The a r t s ,  ongoing defence that in  tangible  this  education,  e s p e c i a l l y dance,  area  of  to  provides  thesis  must  be  s i g n i f i c a n t to  aesthetic  consists  of  towards  that mount  an  demonstrating  taking place.  should contribute  learning in  a critical  is  work of  m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n by  Outline The  must  elements  significant learning  important  acquisition  important  against  knowledge which w i l l dance  dance,  to  the  education,  Research  a body o f future  and t o  of the  general.  of the  Study  s i x chapters.  review of  literature  Chapter related  two to  the  16  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Chapter t h r e e d e s c r i b e s the methods used i n the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the data. Chapter f o u r takes the form of a classroom  n a r r a t i v e , combining  o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e f l e c t i o n s on dance e x e r c i s e s conducted i n t h r e e s e t t i n g s . Chapter f i v e r e s t a t e s the r e s e a r c h and d i s c u s s e s the f i n d i n g s , d e s c r i b i n g the of students of v a r i o u s ages, evidence  questions  characteristics  of a e s t h e t i c  engagement, and i n s t a n c e s of growth. C o n d i t i o n s which g i v e r i s e t o student growth and f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e t o a e s t h e t i c growth are a l s o d i s c u s s e d . Chapter s i x r e l a t e s the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study t o the body of l i t e r a t u r e which i s r e l e v a n t t o i t , s t a t e s c o n c l u s i o n s , and suggests d i r e c t i o n s for further research.  17 Chapter  Two -  Review of  Aesthetic Attention of  aesthetic  but  not  imbalance.  In the  three  Huizinga, play  of  for  he  encourages aesthetic  other  helpful  are  provides a  of  aesthetic  Within  arts,  visual its  this  of  the  state  study  his  and drama,  aesthetic ideas  (1950)  of and  Langer's  qualities to  of  dance;  the  role  on  of  the  absorption  maturity.  for  in  i m a g i n a t i o n and  Ross's theories  Furthermore,  they  and have  that  concern His ideas  take  us  into  implications for  developmental model draws  are  attention  to  in dance  absence.  Developments over the study  aesthetic  philosophical  l i b e r a t i n g the  in relation to  arts,  this  a broad perspective  activity.  music,  on  (1984).  draws a t t e n t i o n  into that  to  emphasis  evident:  nurture  visual  in redressing  imagined school settings,  the  its  of Johan Huizinga  hand,  p l a y as  development  needs.  the  with  and the  Malcolm Ross  arts  study  aesthetic  curriculum  through  the  life.  a c q u i s i t i o n and  and complex domain o f  those  individual  particularly readily  the  the  a step  extensive  of  sees  drawing the  takes  educator,  on the  in social  subject,  to  study,  (1953),  theory  foundation  given  special footholds  those  symbolic  Learning  i n music, drama,  This  i n dance  Suzanne Langer finally  been  response  i n dance.  development  theory,  has  Literature  aesthetics  as  past an  decade  important  have  placed value  component  of  a  on  18 quality  education  important are  germane  1991). are  content  of  for  of  life.  any o f the  arts  provision  of  the  on the  at  "I  am p e r s u a d e d  general  education  and  i n whatever  the  numinous"  is  (p.  x).  ordinary,  It  of  at  is  have  the  the  feeling  and  examined the its  the  The f o c u s  of  that  drama,  but  in  field  the  visual  with  less  of dance  163).  arts,  with  attention  reason  the  arts  the  sacred  means and  promise of of  in  of  rising  illumination  and  s p i r i t , w h i c h makes  the  desirable.  to  the  (p.  the  by whatever  of  moments  attention  primarily  -  hope o r  experience with individual.  aesthetic  p r o v i d e d by R o s s ,  function of  creative  once m y s t e r i o u s  Researchers  "Study of  a crucial  dimension i s  experiences  b e i n g enveloped by the  aesthetic  that,  enriches  can b e . . . t h r o u g h  give children  medium -  qualitative  thinking  posits  which  in a l l  p r o v o c a t i v e and c o m p e l l i n g  that  to  best  (Pioli,  abilities  in  value orientation"  most  themselves,  achievement  aesthetic  (1990)  its  aesthetic  (1984).  above the  Fowler  enable  and a s s i s t  manner  an a e s t h e t i c  But perhaps focus  and p e r c e p t u a l  awareness,  life  "...an  imaginative growth"  can f u r n i s h people w i t h  o f what  while  i n s t r u c t i o n i n and o f  sensory  making. In t h i s  metaphor  The a r t s ,  school curriculum,  many f a c e t s  of  arts.  i n t e l l e c t u a l and  aesthetic  of the  decision  for  area  The h e i g h t e n e d  part  areas  to  i n the  nature  of  aesthetic  g r o w t h and a c q u i s i t i o n by research  has  some a t t e n t i o n to  dance.  been to  music  Yet there  e d u c a t i o n who w o u l d d e n y  that  are  and few  19 aesthetic to  experience  realize  the  is  essential  greatest  benefits  aesthetic  values  should  Hanstein,  1990,  Stinson,  In  fact,  aesthetic.  critical  1979;  very  at  core  of  dimension physical  in distinguishing  children  are  education,  (Schmitz,  1990;  dance  of  and  dance  involves  dance,  the  comprising  emotional  dimensions,  f r o m movement  (Stinson,  McColl,1979).  engagement o f imaginative spirit  (Stinson,  experience intellect  implies and  1982,  symbols  through  "Art  the  is  ).  as  Various  Noverre, feature  16th  an  art,  aesthetic  century  external  being  imitated"  to  the  (1988,  of  not  the  gives  detached (1953)  symbolic of form to  theories  enabling Such a s t i r r i n g  whole  articulate  forms  ballet  the  work  is  its  human  p.31).  is  in  are feelings.  feeling"  (p.  movement. beginning  by Jean  Jacques  distinguishing  reference  itself-its  Gelbard,  arts  i n dance,  "The  and  of  reflective"  form t o  feelings  exist  master.  self  or  perhaps o r i g i n a t e d  imitation theory  object  experiences.  w h i c h we g i v e of  simultaneous  emotions,  For Langer  imitation theory  of  the  intuitive,  creation  Dance  the  and  involvement  p.72).  Theory  involves the  and t r a n s f o r m i n g  "...immediate  with  in  definition  affective,  Aesthetic  40  from dance its  Aesthetic  the  If  1982).  The a e s t h e t i c  sensuous and is  the  lie  i n dance.  focus  to  an  on the  idea  or  subject  20 Formalism,  another  aesthetic  Monroe B e a r d s l e y ( c i t e d "believes  that  direct(ing) holds of  are  in Carter,  a perceptual  our a t t e n t i o n  to  aesthetic  (p.  formal  66).  Formal  Dancer and choreographer  holds  formalist view,  pure  Gelbard,  or  beauty 1988,  Dance  that  of her p.  states  that  i n contemporary dance states  o f paramount  (p.13).  Dewey w r o t e  "It  that  regard  to  their  it"  not  want  only  to  to see  in  medium o f the  "The image  the  (cited  should  creative  body.  dancer's  Thinking images  is  the  great  gets  out  of  i n Brigham,  p.  be  ability,  give of  and  an  concrete the feeling  and i d e a s .  any s u b j e c t  27).  to  of  instrument  images w h i c h he h i m s e l f  have  endeavors  i n any form  education students  the  (1948),  education  technique  importance  Laban  knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e  What a c h i l d  simply  new d a n c e  I n dance  g i v e form t o  instruction. him i s  the  that,  is  to  does  purposes.  aim which  to  that  definite  i n t e l l e c t u a l knowledge w i t h  interact  "one  (cited  integrate  through the  by the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  movements"  finally  world  Beardsley  G e o r g e B a l a n c h i n e , who  mentioned  to  he  qualities  body,  influential,  representation  which  32).  whose work and w r i t i n g  education"  properties,  but  i n e d u c a t i o n has  been h i g h l y  object,  b a l l e r i n a represents her  by  Beardsley  properties,  may b e o b j e c t i v e l y a p p r e h e n d e d  k n o w whom t h i s  expressed  u n i t y and r e g i o n a l  observer.  the  1983).  is  a function of  the  is  an a r t w o r k  a performance"  claims,  view,  forms  John  of presented with  21 The p o s i t i o n s basis  for  theories views  theory of  expressed  i n dance  b y L a n g e r a n d b y Goodman f o r m  i n education.  L a n g e r a n d Goodman c o u l d  (Gelbard,  1988).  approach  a performance  looking  the  performance" Langer of  termed  to  for  Carter  instances  exemplification, or  a  he  "might  of  expression  cognitive significance of (  expressionist  (1983)  According  outlining  be  performance  symbolically.  representation,  The s y m b o l i c  Goodman c l a i m s t h a t  operates  a  as  a way o f  particular  p.66).  (1953),  whose  Goodman, c o n t e n d s  we g i v e a r t i c u l a t e  that  form to  position aligns the  arts  are  closely with  symbols through  that which  feelings.  An a r t w o r k i s more t h a n an a r r a n g e m e n t o f g i v e n t h i n g s even q u a l i t a t i v e t h i n g s . Something emerges from the a r r a n g e m e n t o f t o n e s o r c o l o r s , w h i c h was n o t t h e r e b e f o r e , and t h i s r a t h e r t h a n t h e a r r a n g e d m a t e r i a l i s the symbol of s e n t i e n c e . . . t h e making of the expressive form i s the c r e a t i v e process t h a t e n l i s t s a man's utmost t e c h n i c a l s k i l l i n the s e r v i c e of h i s utmost c o n c e p t u a l p o w e r , i m a g i n a t i o n . N o t t h e i n v e n t i o n o f new o r i g i n a l t u r n s , nor the a d o p t i o n o f n o v e l themes m e r i t s the word ^ c r e a t i v e ' but the making o f any work s y m b o l i c o f f e e l i n g , even i n the most c a n o n i c a l c o n t e x t and manner (p.40). In  dance,  representation is  the  is  created  form i s to  medium o f  awareness, (Ministry  ideas  of  is  the  which gives  and f e e l i n g s  expression.  through which  sought  Ideas  are  the  dancer;  refined  p a i r i n g o f m o t i o n and  awareness of  Education,  of  aesthetic  energy,  the  body dance  kinesthetic  space,  (Schools D i v i s i o n ) ,  as  the  and  1986).  form  22  Langer  writes,  . . . w i t h h i s own b o d y - f e e l i n g [ t h e d a n c e r ] understands the g e s t i c forms t h a t are i t s i n t e r w o v e n , b a s i c e l e m e n t s . He c a n n o t s e e h i s o w n f o r m a s s u c h b u t h e knows i t s a p p e a r a n c e - t h e l i n e s d e s c r i b e d by h i s body a r e i m p l i e d i n t h e s h i f t s o f h i s v i s i o n , e v e n i f he i s d a n c i n g a l o n e and are guaranteed by the r h y t h m i c p l a y of h i s muscles, the freedom w i t h which h i s impulses s p e n d t h e m s e l v e s i n c o m p l e t e and i n t e n d e d movements (cited i n Ministry of Education, (Schools D i v i s i o n ) , 1 9 8 6 . p . 11) "The dance experience (Ministry Ideas  of of  is  the  a concrete dancer  Education,  and f e e l i n g s  dancer  to  power  lies  symbolic  reach  representation  [which]  may b e r e f i n e d  extension  of  How i s  aesthetic  of  others"  p.11).  by  the  the  greatest  beyond the  literal  to  individual  of  the  of  i n c r e a s i n g l y complex s t r a t e g i e s .  arts  grows c o g n i t i v e l y ,  (Carter,  exercised  performance,  i n the and  performance.  1983).  In dance,  are  The a r t s  impressions  "Performances  thought  are  aesthetic  of  those  and responses  of  to  grow  repertoire regarded  aesthetic  t h i n k i n g and r e f i n e m e n t  i n the  nurtured?  acquiring a  c o g n i t i v e symbols through which  place  Growth  a c q u i r e d and  the  the  potency;  of Aesthetic  as  is  and expressed  ideas  awareness  Knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  take  1986,  personal  forms.  The A c q u i s i t i o n  many a s  the  communicated to  (Schools D i v i s i o n ) ,  various degrees  i n the  is  of  endeavors  understanding the  responding to  by  them,  to  such  23 as  criticism  related  and a e s t h e t i c  cognition" (Carter,  Parsons h e l p us  theory,  to  cognitive  (1987)  posits  understand approach  to  Feldman and G o l d s m i t h Parsons,  (1987)  1983, that  represent p.  developmental to  aesthetic  response  emphasize  the  arts  however,  that  the  stages  has  i n response  distinction  one  development. in  Cognitive  a l l cultures,  only  through  while  sustained  universals  judgement  non-universal,  to  Parsons'  biologically birth  by c u l t u r e .  understanding refinement, underlines development  Both agree t h a t  i f  it  will  require  instruction.  the  need  to  progressively  aesthetic  highest  mastered  for  (1957).  aesthetic  instruction, experience  degrees This  as  is from  of position  understanding  the  is  contends,  According  t h i n k i n g and d o i n g are  for  students.  " F e e l i n g s " , she 101).  the  aesthetic  learning opportunities  sensitivity in  articulated"(p.  Sheets-Johnstone,  people  aesthetic  the  by Langer  are  g r a d u a l l y shaped  achieve  T h a t we c a n t e a c h affirmed  aesthetic  and u n i v e r s a l ,  create  that  through  to  of  is  a c h i e v e d by a l l  claim  refined  position that  inherent  an  particularized interaction with  Feldman and G o l d s m i t h  opposed  is  aesthetic  cognitive non-universals  environment. is  are  of  to  between  important  i n an a c c o u n t  a  value.  and n o n - u n i v e r s a l c o g n i t i v e development consider  can  and t h a t  universal  to  arts-  61).  responses  (1987),  important  to  "can  be  Maxine  inseparable  in  the  24 performers'  mental  rather  a means f o r  dance  than  process.  Sheets-Johnstone  Thus  movement  conveying  is  thought.  the  In  thought  relation  to  claims,  To be t h i n k i n g i n movement means t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i s u n f o l d i n g as i t i s b e i n g c r e a t e d by a mindful body, a k i n e s t h e t i c i n t e l l i g e n c e i s f o r g i n g way i n t h e w o r l d , s h a p i n g and b e i n g s h a p e d b y t h e developing pattern surrounding i t (cited i n Carter, 1983, p. 63). Improvisation randomly; sets  the  claims which  rather, stage  that  performer  is  for  to  magic  capitalize  "Practice",  declares  take  when  the  Nachmanovitch skills  become  Such p r a c t i c e moment,  small  Nachmanovitch experiment,  occur  allows  from  the  the  surprises  and  (1990) unconscious  permits  (1990)  dancer  occur.  "comes  from  a sense of  wonder"  68).  Huizinga  from  (1950)  "game",  pervasive  p.42).  "But",  that  lives, and  mind,  play  in  embodied  out  various  in ritual,  us,  whatever  i n Nachmanovitch,  carried  its  civilization  for  significant  Huizinga distinguishes  Huizinga informs  (cited  exploration,  draws on t h e  on p l a y .  sports,  acknowledge  matter"  (1990)  showing  i n our  statecraft,  you  on t h e  over  compulsion,  Nachmanovitch of  until  does not  preparation  moments.  improvisation.  to  (p.  here,  intense  practice  imaginative  playful  described  through  for  it  allows  as  its  writing "play"  forms  the  itself"  is  arts,  (Nachmanovitch,  " i n acknowledging play  1950,  voluntarily  is,  it  p.42).  for  its  a l l -  is  play,  not  Play is own s a k e .  joyful It  is  25 disinterested,  in that  appetites,  it  in  time  but  and  Huizinga intensity  and  play"  play  and  very  the  from the  using  the  1990,  p.  order  and  essence,  may b e  India  is  insight.  rules,  lies  as  pulled "into p.43)  "lila".  and  and  of  is  defined  play"  in its  ordinary  materials  of  P l a y as  ( p . 2)  powers  special  of  a form of  realms  play;  chosen  it  is  form"  context  become  original art  and opening  one's  the  a n d may e v e n  well-spring of  " C r e a t i v e work i s  divine free  enabling  of  imagination  free  speculation  (Nachmanovitch,  42).  Huizinga field  its  acts  known i n  freedom  d r i v e n by wants  "The p r i m o r d i a l q u a l i t y  (Nachmanovitch,  speculation  not  absorption.  Ordinary of  is  does have  space.  claims,  it  of  posits  aesthetics.  qualities...of  that  play  functions  " P l a y . . . i s invested  aesthetic  perceiving  in things"...  recognizes  spontaneous  perception... (p.10).  aesthetic  Ross  largely w i t h the  we a r e  in  the  noblest  capable  of  (1984)  it  is  noted,  development  in  children's  play. An  important  made b y H u i z i n g a particularly absorption  connection (1950).  perfect  and  underline  dance as  Dance can  i n v i t e the  dancing  "Dancing i s  form of  freedom  between  of  a natural child  a particular  playing"  play  (p.  i n dance,  form f o r  into  the  and p l a y i n g  165). its  and  The  spontaneity,  aesthetic  natural  is  engagement.  world  of  play,  26 permitting of  e x p l o r a t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .  i m a g i n a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n  fully  absorbed  can r e s u l t  engagement.  In  fact,  absorbed  is  doubtful  i t  aesthetic enabled an  by the  recent  are  (1984),  models o f  those  development  relevance  of  drama.  aesthetic  specific closely  to  related  development Ross  in  has  response  He d e s c r i b e s  range  from  precedes  least  is  The  most  i n Lachapelle, 1991),  Ross  Development  study  i n the  exist.  examines  visual  has  the  the  arts,  development  hoped t h a t  special  music  and  include or  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f  should prove  to  constructed  for four  one.  each  relevant  to  of music,  are  this  aesthetic  drama,  is  a  or  scale  and the levels,  the  level  very of  first  purely  of  visual which  complexity.  level, It  a developmental  broad categories  greatest  Pre-aesthetic level  as  dance.  arts.  The  This  aesthetic  research  (1984)  aesthetic  it  for  absorption,  development  (cited  being grounded  dance,  of  or  study  model o f Ross which  A s no m o d e l s o f  engaged  examined i n t h i s  of Aesthetic  (1987).  aesthetic  become  engagement.  o f Housen  and Parsons  is  is  necessary  The f r e e d o m  play,  Model  focus  to  aesthetic  individual  the  present.  aesthetic  Ross's Several  that  s p i r i t of  i n d i c a t i o n of  the  interaction  freedom  in significant  unless  quality is  along with  The  category,  pragmatic  27 attachment practical central  and p e r c e p t i o n , outcome  life  livelihood, At of  as  one,  a purely  Along w i t h importance own s a k e ,  there  Level  right.  as  authenticity of  important. affective  perception  (p.  respect  and  and mental  a thing  a  in  degree  itself,  discrimination, coherences" to  perception  the  (p.  122).  form f o r  being of  its  the  the  object,  bearer  of  uniqueness Criticism  well  as  to  the  in  its  qualities  S e n s i t i v i t y to  j u d g e m e n t s may b e m a d e , as  is  quality.  operations.  and coherence  there  of  of  such  56).  uniqueness  of  a  nourishment,  recognizes  57)  is  with  Attention,  moved from t h e  quality"  "having  linked  (p.  as  for  as  status,  assigned  of  or  The a p p r e c i a t i o n  discriminating uniqueness  and v a l u e  and g e n u i n e n e s s  our  seen  feeling  having form,  of  love,  perception,  Disinterested  "We h a v e  recognition  worthy  is  two,  experience  of  intuitive  directly  Detachment,  form i s  powers  by Ross  efficiency"  Attentional  The a r t  "...the  is  security,  communication,  detachment.  and...  i n mind t h a t  issues  level  engaging  described  own to  the  that  it  quality calls  is becomes  into  play  and  with sensitivity s o c i a l and  to  aesthetic  interrelationships. At  level  many d i f f e r e n t deeper,  three,  meanings  metaphorical  represent expression  are is  Tacit  the  Attention,  into  the  art  form.  awareness o f what  i n t r i n s i c to important.  this  There  stage; is  individual Ambiguity  the  object  the  means  freedom  reads  to  and  may of  engage  in  a  28 imaginative "Empathy, to  get  the  exploration  that  feeling  artistic  mental  and  is  the  into  touch  on a l l t h r e e  different  sensuous  emotional  levels  are  and  there  not  are  realism  be  points  to  one and  Ross' they  very  but  of  scale  with  at be  that  feeling.  personal the  meaning,  very  composite  123).  Ross  an  heart  of  of  stresses  that  i n d i v i d u a l may  on d i f f e r e n t  the  of  aesthetic  from t h a t  agreement.  that  Both of  of  levels  in  then  development  Parsons  these  i n d i v i d u a l moves  expressionism,  to  (1987),  researchers' from a stage  a stage  of  of  symbolic  reflection.  model  indicate  aesthetic  to  a n d may b e  different  of  indicate  operation  lies  (p.  discrete,  levels,  identify  likely  resources"  forms  areas.  to  findings  invest  forms  is  Although Ross'(1984) appears  to  a b i l i t y to  response  these  and  and  the  other  models  f e a s i b i l i t y of  response.  As Ross  are  significant  developing  (1984,  p.126)  in  models  that  of  says,  I have s p e c u l a t e d about development i n A r t , Drama, and M u s i c : i f t h e s e p r o f i l e s a r e t o b e f o u n d t o h a v e some s u b s t a n c e t h e n i t w o u l d n o t I t h i n k be d i f f i c u l t to a d a p t t h e scheme t o o t h e r a r t i s t i c a r e a s . " If  the  visual  identification s h o u l d be growth  of  arts,  discernable  possible  i n dance,  music,  as  to  identify  well!  and  levels such  drama  allow for  in aesthetic levels  in  the  growth,  aesthetic  it  29 Factors Even though  i n d i v i d u a l s may p a s s  stages  there  attain  a much g r e a t e r  than  is  Influencing Aesthetic  others.  Ross  pyschological, Prior  l i t t l e  Lankford,  well  as  exposure  learnings. about  and  higher  and  levels  in a  and the  the  pluralism,  of  to  Gans  form and  (1974),  is  as  as  valuable  we  by  gradually  subcultural  (Parsons,  1990,  along with  individual  the  the  aesthetic  standards  standards  constitute  of  substance.  identifying five  "because of  DeSouza,  to  p.  effort, master  domain.  needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  standards  learned  a subject,  push  w h i c h we  aesthetic  about what  interaction" of  developments.  and community  influence  meanings,  interest,  According  people  of  home  of  individual  "heavily affected  D e t a i l e d knowledge  motivation,  exist  are  factors  ( K o r o s c i k , Osman,  assumptions  their  and p a t t e r n s  interacting  of  will  sophistication  a window t h r o u g h  art  mass m e d i a  enculturated,  context 137).  to  same  individuals  along with  become  the  and c u l t u r a l  Environments  Networks of  artworks,  become  experience,  1992).  some  mentions  a work o f  through  aesthetic  emotional  of meaning,  v i e w and remember in  (1984)  and  that  degree of  mental,  knowledge  construction  doubt  Growth  publics  d i v e r s i t y of  the  basis  who m a k e s i m i l a r c h o i c e s  its  of  the  members  Gans d i s c u s s e s  taste  and v a l u e s "  values  dictate aesthetic  and c u l t u r e s  and disagreement  (p. of  society  68).  a taste  for  Shared  about  values  culture,  s i m i l a r reasons  which  and  and are  a  30 taste  public. The c a t e g o r i e s  identified  by Gans  culture,  upper-middle culture,  culture,  and q u a s i - f o l k c u l t u r e "  draws  its  membership from  (p.71).  an e l i t e  and u s e r - o r i e n t e d  creator-oriented  view pays  between covert  form,  symbolism"  culture in  the  the  enjoy  (p.  the  processes  method,  76).  High  social  class,  attention  s u c h as  the  and o v e r t  created,  ofcreation.  more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d ,  but  are  the  relationships and  segment less  scholarly  which  The  "to  The u s e r - o r i e n t a t i o n less  low  includes  content  The u s e r - o r i e n t e d  products  "high  culture,  perspectives.  explicit  of c u l t u r a l products substance,  are  lower-middle culture,  creator-oriented  construction  (1974)  of  high  interested focuses  aspects  of  on  the  culture. The u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s (1974)  as  quality  innovation  than  Large  culture  This  i n form,  but  high  middle  is  a well-educated group which  mass m e d i a .  culture,  culture  nor with  prefers  is  links  not  is  catered  concerned  between method  more s u b s t a n t i v e ,  less  to  by  with and  abstract  themes  culture. numbers  of  c u l t u r e which rejects  preferring  public  d e s c r i b e d by Gans  the is  representational  catered  most h i g h  an emphasis  population are to  b y mass  and u p p e r - m i d d l e  on s u b s t a n c e  themes,  found i n the  and those  media.  This  culture,  favoring which  lower-  romantic  r e i n f o r c e the  and ideas  31 and  feelings  enhance  of  the  of  publics,  semiskilled workers, culture.  "They f i n d  effeminate,  totally  concern  for  feature  with  social  values,  culture  or  and  same s e x u a l  comedies,  as  the of  s c h o o l as the  There aesthetic  are  p. is  89). no  with often  of  the  good and  power.  in its  source  the  taste  cultures  or  class.  school attended,  a player,  for  evil,  growth s p e c i f i c to  be  dance.  low  on  culture  melodrama,  content"  (p.93).  differentiation and p u b l i c s t o  be  Educational Gans c o n t e n d s ,  or worse,  of the  w h i c h must  of  workers  (1974)  This position  better  consciousness  factors  Gans  and emphasis  cultural choices.  aesthetic  1974,  of unskilled  major  socioeconomic level and t h e  also  Themes  between  the  that  do w i t h  issues.  consists  segregation  the  much t o  but  and t h e r e  themes d e a l i n g  and m o r a l i t y p l a y s  views of  rejection  "a s i m p l e r v e r s i o n of  between  achievement,  substance,  and  skilled  in their  only dull  low purchasing  culture  Gans i d e n t i f i e s  of  and  prevailing.  low s t a t u s  the  not  conflict  low c u l t u r e  action  clarify  mainly of  and s e n s a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  Quasi-folk  this  to  problems  s u c h as  good e v e n t u a l l y  describes  consist  may b e h o s t i l e  ideas  dramatization  culture's  which  subordinate  abstract  contemporary  with  to  i m m o r a l , and s a c r i l e g i o u s . . . ( G a n s ,  Form i s  with  Form f u n c t i o n s  substance.  Low c u l t u r e and  culture.  have  validates  i n the  shaping  population. considered  which  Dance seems t o  be  affect the  32 l e a s t known of the a r t s , c o n s i d e r e d by many t o be  frivolous,  c e r t a i n l y not a s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m p r i o r i t y . Laban (1950) perhaps the d e f i n i t i v e advocate of dance education  points  out, "Compared with what i s known concerning the other  arts,  our knowledge i n the f i e l d of the a r t of movement i s very scanty"  (p. 1 ) . As a consequence of t h i s l a c k of v a l u e  i s l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h i l d r e n t o experience i n dance i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g .  Sparshott  the tendency t o ignore dance as..."the  there  and grow  (1992) r e f e r s t o  a v e r s i o n of the gaze"  (p. 75). In a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y , t h e r e i s a need t o overcome i n h e r e n t c u l t u r a l boundness and t o a c q u i r e s e n s i t i v i t y t o the a e s t h e t i c of movement and gesture  of  dance d e r i v e d from other c u l t u r e s (Kealiinohomoku, c i t e d i n K e r r , 1993). Any  examination  of a e s t h e t i c development i n  dance must take i n t o account these and other f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e p e r c e p t i o n s of dance.  A s s e s s i n g A e s t h e t i c Growth In Dance These o b s t a c l e s notwithstanding, development i n dance i s overdue.  a t t e n t i o n to a e s t h e t i c  Present e d u c a t i o n a l  reform  i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e s i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l f o u r a r t s , i n c l u d i n g dance u n t i l grade seven. T h e r e a f t e r c h o i c e s among the a r t s may  be made by the i n d i v i d u a l  student.  Furthermore, a c u r r i c u l u m f o r dance has been p u b l i s h e d . i f dance i s t o assume a more v i s i b l e presence i n the  But  school  c u r r i c u l u m , i t should be nurtured and e v e l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o  33 its  i n t r i n s i c features  strands  of understanding  embodiment the in  and p a r t i c u l a r  of  aesthetic  c h i l d ' s response  to  dance,  that  is  that  o b s e r v i n g dance  i n dance  focuses  i m p l i e s both knowing and  contribute  to  and P h i l p o t t  (1986)  impressions.  Facility  important.  understanding medium i s  of  are  possibilities,  with to  the  required.  expression  greater  g i v e form  In order  technique  and  ideas,  feelings,  movement e l e m e n t s choice within  as  transcending  the  from  of  rules  expression  Nachmanovitch (1990),  freedom  technique"  for  (1992)  and  a medium, of  an  that  self  the to  timing,  is  and c o n v e n t i o n s  on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  declares  that  draw upon rhythm,  informed choices  self  reflected  to  the  as  movement  Elements  based  p o s s i b i l i t i e s for  create,"  s h o u l d be  well  Bergmann  exercise  Thus,  as  according to  structures  is  child's  area.  feeling.  which  Both  on a q u a l i t y o f  such expressiveness  and dynamic v a r i a t i o n s ,  the  comprehension of dance,  a developing s e n s i b i l i t y i n this Assessment  discipline.  given explore  (Arnold  "we n e e d  1986)."To both  (p.73).  I f , i n o r d e r t o be c r e a t i v e ( o r a e s t h e t i c a l l y s e l f expressive) c h i l d r e n or students are to exercise c h o i c e , t h e y need t o be shown what c h o i c e s c a n be made, a n d t h e y r e q u i r e some c r i t e r i a w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e t h e m t o d i s c r i m i n a t e , t o make c r i t i c a l j u d g e m e n t s (Chapman c i t e d i n A r n o l d , 1986, p . 5 4 ) . Arnold children's  further dance  understanding,  suggests  c a n be  skill  seen  i n the  that  self  expression  i n . . . "their form  of  in  critical  a movement  vocabulary  34 [and]  use  refers  of  to  imaginative powers"  "the  sense of  transformation" while  Logan  (p.  (1984,  total  73)  dimension".  Thus t h r o u g h  imaginative  powers  go beyond t h e  literal  Nachmanovitch  speaks the  use  (1982)  connection  achieved during  of  a  of  expressive  embodiment is  Stinson  involvement,  w h i c h may b e  p.301)  the  (p.56).  "non-verbal  and dance,  metaphoric  and  o f m u l t i p l e meanings  which  possible.  (1990)  also  acknowledges,  . . . t h e u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t may b e f u l l wrong notes, o r a performance by a s t r e e t m u s i c i a n w h e r e we may b e m o v e d t o t e a r s , i m m o b i l i z e d w i t h a p a l p a b l e f e e l i n g o f awe" ( p . 119) These  rare  and s p e c i a l performances  Nachmanovitch,  place  "raw c r e a t i v e  power".  the  necessary  refinement  its  promise,  elements. highly  the  us  i n the  While to  enable  challenges  and  dance  those  of  dance  in  folk  member  educators  of that  f o r m may p r o v i d e  the  reach  transforming  leaps  out  western  o f many W e s t e r n  to  dance  d e r i v i n g from style  calls  at  us,  undeniable.  of  group  societies  i n c l u d e a w i d e r range traditions  cultures  However, d i f f i c u l t i e s  assess the  the  he  i n t u i t i v e to  s p i r i t and emotion are  Recognition of  society.  the  to  o f what  knowledge o f  The m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e  than  presence  A e s t h e t i c knowing i n a c t i o n  visible  forms.  according  of  arise  other  an e t h n i c  is  according to  and a e s t h e t i c s  essential  the  is  "Dance  best  other a  to  technique  judged by  standards  dance  i n such  w h e n we a t t e m p t  cultures.  group  of  a  prevalent  in  35 that of  culture  1993,  p.  39).  the  true  context  meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e which  can b r i n g to  a  particulars African  even  dances.  criticism  of  acceptance  She a r g u e s  without  European-derived Including guest serves  not  but  elements  for uniform  for  c r i t e r i a and  forms  a range  students  with  Aesthetic  elements  are  assessed,  body o f  "A v e n e r a b l e basic  work on t h e research  other  i n dance.  "Making a case  is for  calls  of the for  study with  aesthetic  direction.  art"  a consistent  1979,  This  dance  i n dance  (p.  and  nurture its  education,  as art  a focus  i n the  44).  and  irrelevant  knowledgeable traditions,  however,  Sparshott  aestheticeducation p.  for  traditions.  there  philosophers of  aesthetics  there  and  dance  these  arts,  t r a d i t i o n regards  arts....[yet]  criteria  by  each c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n .  the  literature  best  found i n a l l  through  of  acquaint  Compared t o  knowledge  aesthetics.  to  of  to  regional  acknowledgement  o f dance  representing  representatives  failure  only  acknowledges  imposing unnecessary  a range  artists,  (1993)  i n common a e s t h e t i c  a l l dance,  arises  situation.  Kariamu Welsh Asante  the  The p o s s i b i l i t y  m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the  grasp of  ..."(Kerr,  of  is  not  (1985) one  on the  declares  of the  [have] 94).  a significant that,  most  done  little  However,  what  aesthetic,  sustained a l l children"  (McColl,  developmental approach is  a step  in  that  to  36  Conclusion This the of  chapter  importance dance  education  has  of placing  education.  dance  as  as  theory  considerable  of  well  the  the  research  as  arts, on t h e  Ross,  the  "aesthetic  which dance.  sought  chapter  will  understanding  have  been  centre  Langer's  Huizinga's  in  methods  aesthetic  is  served  dance.  assessment  o u t l i n e the  factors  examined.  model c o n s t r u c t e d for  on  inform  r o l e which  development  about  the  on Suzanne  important  stages"  focuses  and h i s t o r i c a l  draws  provides a promising basis The n e x t  which  and on Johan  by p l a y i n p r o m o t i n g a e s t h e t i c Finally,  social  study  which  learning at  a school subject  The framework o f symbolic  aesthetic  Aesthetic theories  i n dance,  challenging  reviewed l i t e r a t u r e  in  by  Malcolm  dance.  of the  development  study in  37 Chapter This  research  dance  education  dance  program of  University education arts  to  project  the  offer  unique  studies  required  and a  a dance with  dance  realized  that  dance  was an  from  connection to  a marvellous,  the  intellect,  wondrous  experience  became  it  until  that as  of  art  form  and the  dance  i n s u c h a way t h a t  the  aesthetic  awareness  realized.  s h o u l d be  central  by  Jean,  involved It  was  grew,  taught  I  a  discipline.  play  full  a only  expressive  meant both  was  should  i n s c h o o l , but  This to  apart  learning vehicle.  could  was t a u g h t  in  soon  aesthetic.  c h i l d r e n whom I  me t h a t  be  I  a n d my u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the  been  learning  expression which  arts  could  had  personal  taught  learning p o s s i b i l i t i e s of this  form  focus  quite  Dance,  i n l e a r n i n g i n the  the  the  for  had  class,  role  power o f  point  children, a natural  to  of  an a i d t o  In Jean's  integral  form  classes  clear  in  believing  my p r o g r a m o f  music c l a s s e s .  that  the  involved  my a r e a s  until  kinesthetic  eager  the  significant if  the  further  increasingly  taught.  joyous  activity for  took  It  learner  the  class.  I  was  been  to  of  Education at  o f my l i f e ,  arts  which  I  I have  a l t h o u g h movement was u s e d  its  my i n t r o d u c t i o n  and s i g n i f i c a n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s  music classes  As  with  Physical  most  visual  My e x p e r i e n c e minimal,  for  As a teacher  music and the  of  Columbia.  arts  Method  Cunningham, c o o r d i n a t o r  School  British  -  began  by D r . Jean  i n the  learning. been  of  Three  that  the  teaching  38  and the l e a r n i n g . The a e s t h e t i c i s a t work f o r both the performer  and f o r the observer i n dance. The  communicates  performer  f e e l i n g s , images, and i d e a s , and the observer  apprehends these elements i n i n d i v i d u a l ways. These two aspects o f a e s t h e t i c response  are i n t e r r e l a t e d and  c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of the i n d i v i d u a l .  All  a s p e c t s of dance, d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s , k i n e s t h e t i c awareness, and i n t e l l e c t u a l growth, have a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s a t t h e i r c o r e ; understanding  i s b u i l t over time, d e v e l o p i n g  progressively. My c o n v i c t i o n grew t h a t more knowledge was needed about how a e s t h e t i c growth o c c u r r e d and c o u l d be n u r t u r e d i n dance. In order t o p r o v i d e meaningful  dance education f o r  t h e i r students, t e a c h e r s needed g u i d e l i n e s f o r l e a r n i n g experiences and assessment which c e n t e r e d on the development of a e s t h e t i c growth. Impetus was added with the promise of a new B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education Dance C u r r i c u l u m Guide.  Here was an area badly i n need of r e s e a r c h ; the next  s t e p f o r me was t o undertake a t h e s i s which would c o n t r i b u t e t o understanding a e s t h e t i c growth i n dance.  Methodology The d e c i s i o n t o study a e s t h e t i c growth i n dance was accompanied by a search f o r a methodology which would b e s t f a c i l i t a t e t h i s i n q u i r y . Case study d e s i g n , which a l l o w s f o r  39 the  in-depth  development case  study  understanding i n dance,  approach  natural  settings"  gaining  insights  of  of  seemed  of  aesthetic  particularly appropriate.  The  1988,  students  p.  257)  seemed  understanding  in  promising  and  for  enjoyment  dance. As case  individuals permit  the  study or  design  "may i n v o l v e  documents",  study  individual  of  (MacMillan,  aesthetic  children of various  ages.  "a f u n c t i o n i n g s p e c i f i c or  1994,  p.236).  individual  This  cases,  study, is  selected  this  the  richest  opportunity to  the  subject  of this  (1989) most  suggest  "likely  not  sites  widely are  imposed order  to  to  yield  taught  limited.  several  important ages;  choices  In  of  to  in British  therefore  I  sought  three  were  appeared  in is  a  system"(Stake, is  of  fifteen  site  and  offered  Schumacher  (p.  and  395).  schools,  research  events As  dance  possible  questions  selection process.  aesthetic  growth i t  who r e p r e s e n t e d sites  which  development,  situations,  the  of  those  aesthetic  Columbia  addition,  students  would  study.  data..."  c r i t e r i a on the  observe  it  individual  it  MacMillan  persons,  gain a broad picture  sites,  Sites  observe  fruitful  of  p.180)  a bounded  study  research.  it  Each  a m u l t i p l e case  for  1989,  c o m p r i s e d as  Choosing Sites  any number  g r o w t h as  case,  is  such as  " c a r e f u l l y planned observations  (Stake, into  a phenomenon  where  a range  I might  In  was of  observe  40 grade  two,  engaged  grade  i n dance  five,  and grade  teachers  knowledge,  o f dance  would  and e x p e r i e n c e  British  Columbia dance  classes  placed  Teachers as  well  children  share  from  selected  technique  common  are  and composing.  dance/movement  ... is  taught  (Werner,  1990,  p.  133).  students  successfully develop t h e i r  in  creative  study  the  British  Such  settings  themselves, thus  to  to  my s t u d y  currently  problem s o l v i n g  with  to  offer  e x p l o r e movement,  made  process  that of  their  expressive, a  process-  and  for to  awareness.  finding  wherein  ideas. the  have  dance  classes  aims  to  engage  consistent  G u i d e i n Dance students express A l l of  appropriate  and  indirect  opportunities  and t h u s  opportunity  grow i n a e s t h e t i c  considerations  ideas  Direct  that  Columbia Curriculum  afford  the  and  in providing structures  important  for  that  through  own  of  these  uses p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , d i s c o v e r y ,  play a part  selected  that  learning.  explore  "Creative,  teaching  was  feel  in  important,  to  was  University  The t e a c h i n g  opportunity  o r i e n t e d method t h a t  It  they  understandings,  on c h i l d - c e n t e r e d  and s t y l e  s h o u l d have  exploration"  as  sites  having taken  classes.  importance  own i n c r e a t i n g artistic  for  i n child-centered classrooms as  students  activity.  An a d d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t the  eight  to  (1994).  think  feelings,  for and  these  sites  a  challenge.  41 Gaining T o my g o o d f o r t u n e , sites  presented  university education dynamic French was  grade  themselves.  class  brought  classmate teacher  of  in a  as  the  collaboration,  and  in his  ideal  for  this  from  site  September  to  February three  eager  in  June.  classes  extending  but  to  to  the  offered the  dance  study  to  experienced  This  in  thesis.  His  my s u g g e s t i o n of  a  dance  a  topic of his  a  too,  of  d a n c e made h i s  classes  research. eight  and a grade I  had  when t h e  class  not  from  intended to  focus  on  possiblity  only  arose  nine/ten  of  class,  completed the  include students  added  conducted  class  on p r e v i o u s y e a r s . has  class  nine/ten  i n c l u d e a grade  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  students  Claude,  He  to  for  a former  school.  Originally, but  project  junior high  teaching  January,  class  with  nine/ten  was t e a c h i n g d a n c e  comprised a grade  only,  do s o .  An a c t i o n r e s e a r c h  seven years,  i n response  The f i r s t  and grade  and t e a c h i n g c o l l e a g u e .  f o c u s i n g on dance  settings  eight,  me i n t o c o n t a c t  immersion s e t t i n g  enthusiasm both  Access  age  who h a d  The a d d i t i o n o f  invaluable insights  to  I  was  range, been the this  study. The s e c o n d s i t e former  student  separate of  one  age  of hers  groups  such dance  Cynthia,  was s u g g e s t e d  a teacher  by Jean  Cunningham. A  h a d o r g a n i z e d and was t e a c h i n g  i n her  s c h o o l dance  g r o u p was d r a w n f r o m of ten  years  club. grade  experience,  The  three  membership  five/six. agreed  to  my  42 collecting club  data  for  this  colleague  also  taken  students year.  i n her  a grade sixth  University  development  courses.  of  grade  once w e e k l y ,  agreed  sessions. the  to  year  five/six  British  since  the  that  the  she  Columbia  had been  teacher,  that  class,  of teaching,  dance  was t a u g h t  Kathryn,  dance  teaching  beginning of  data  i n her  and the  curriculum dance  the  to  project  would  would b r i n g to  her  school  classroom  students  by  who h a d  who w e l c o m e s c h a l l e n g e s ,  my g a t h e r i n g  She f e l t focus  two/three  Kathryn  An e n t h u s i a s t i c  readily  from  i n the  sessions. The t h i r d s i t e ,  a  study  she  dance  benefit  the  dance  class. Of  these  four  self-selection. classes, chosen  grade  by the  The g r a d e after  eight  from  class,  The dance  indirectly involve  j u n i o r secondary  and grade  students  five/six  three  nine/ten,  a small  or  dance  noon h o u r ,  club,  c l u b on t h e i r  class,  where  i n the  every dance  own t i m e . student  are  Only  in this  electives,  of p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  which  once w e e k l y ,  club students,  although  i n the  took  is  a  voluntary  to  grade  regular  place  inexperienced,  volunteer  a c t i v i t i e s , was a s i t e  student  dance-drama  number  p e r s o n a l l y committed enough t o  dance  part  The two  s c h o o l and a t  activity. were  groups,  attend two/three  classroom  free  from  took  self-  selection. Participants Within  each c l a s s  three  or  four  s t u d e n t s were  chosen  43 for  focused  study  i n accordance  criteria  were  who w e r e  available to  range  ages and d e v e l o p m e n t a l  of  student with chosen. chosen  access,  obvious  Students i n order  starting  point  was t r u e  of  in  the  year  that  the  three  sought.  of  racial  backgrounds  classes  long term  as  course  sites site  were  of  lower  as  possible  eight  and the  teacher  in a  grade  the  the  and  sampling  public  school  j u n i o r secondary  school.  The  of  the  drew s t u d e n t s  s c h o o l had a t o t a l  neighborhood,  few s c h o o l s  a French immersion program  of  ethnic  were  was one  group  observe  classes  it  large  were  nine/ten  i n a middle class  a  of  second  Site  located  This  in their  mainland.  was  it  that  This  students;  same t e a c h e r  i n order  school  level,  a  younger  of various  by one  offering  from  to  No  were  classes.  opportunity  taught  because  the  a  was  experience  dance  the  The G r a d e E i g h t and Grade N i n e / T e n The g r a d e  problems  who w e r e  Students  girls,  selected.  observed  the  with  chosen  representative  i n the  no d a n c e  students  growth.  were  behaviour  be  and  The  a n d who r e p r e s e n t e d  involving  classes  Boys  stages,  This allowed the  effect  would be  l i t t l e or  the  s c h o o l dance  actively  interviewed,  growth could  grade nine/ten  of  be  sampling c r i t e r i a .  and gender.  learning or  with  over  age,  with  from v a r i o u s  i n the  at  the  students  district junior-secondary  elementary  school population of requiring English  but  schools.  752, Second  including Language  44 support,  and the  one-third  of  the  French immersion program which  involved  students.  French  immersion were p r e s e n t , early  that  dance-drama  class  and the  was s c h e d u l e d grade  half  of the  able  to  class  year.  was t h e  electives  of  immersion,  only  arts  and  that  a fifty-five  five  out  of  The g r a d e first  semester  January. the  enrolled, class  five  knew o n l y  same  students, focus.  eight of  the  elective  dance-drama  of the  year,  i n the  English  program,  is  part  second  dance-drama class  were this  of the  r u n on an e i g h t  minute  year,  of  from  twenty-three got  There were  elementary two g i r l s  or  French  day  class  is  p e r i o d o c c u r r i n g on  to  students  Some o f  others  two o t h e r  students dance.  the  students  in  the  end  of  enrolled  were  added  in  to  the  who h a d come  chosen  but  students  students  For t h i s  were  the  were  eventually thirty  and two b o y s ,  in  was o f f e r e d  September  school program.  focus  experience  class  underway,  them b o y s .  one  A l l of the  previous  the  dance-drama  the  Originally,  list.  eight  to  eight.  new s c h o o l y e a r  class  an e l e c t i v e  semester  e l e c t i v e which  for  days  first  The s c h o o l i s  w h i c h means  as  French immersion students  from  scheduled  the  late  The g r a d e  dance-drama  Although  program.  timetable,  i n the  nine/ten  choose  immersion  the  cadre,  was o f f e r e d  French immersion students.  elective  as  is  streams  immersion. This  the  A l l three  from  study  four  for  special  were t h i r t e e n ,  and none  had  45 The d a n c e - d r a m a in  the  second  eighteen another  immersion years.  of  for  had been  class  for  of  the  the  I  chose  grade  ten;  in  girls grade  ten,  class  h a d no d a n c e ballet  Jeanette  had taken  previous  dance  girls  for  the  from  lessons  from  outside seven  age  three  nine.  second time.  age  the  boy were  i n grade  experience  lessons  dance  were  of  study,  and the  format  interesting  help  focused  in  A l l of  K a y , who  of this to  ten,  three.  Eric  had  older attend  homes the  including  Elementary, enjoys  which  a setting  b u i l t to  is  in a  which  c a p i t a l i z e on the  owned by l e s s  affluent  s c h o o l . The t o t a l a  no  Site  district,  new homes  is  class.  neighboring  overlooks the  T h e c o m m u n i t y c o m p r i s e s m i d d l e i n c o m e f a m i l i e s who l i v e the  the  experience.  Kent A u s t i n school  the  for  two g i r l s  i n the  Nancy had t a k e n  The Grade F i v e  One o f  other  were  students  half  v a r i e d the  the  one  was t a k i n g  remained  With  knew  of  dance-drama  student  class  a l l students.  four  and one b o y .  the  consisted  two and a  teacher  offered  French  i n the  and one  As the  same  or  were  class  was  The s t u d e n t s  the  and a h a l f  students  nine/ten  This  two b o y s .  each group,  girls  the  year.  second year,  for  grade  i n many o f  third time.  the  for  the  one  the  and c h a l l e n g i n g f o r teacher,  of  including  classes  for  the  they  A number  elective class  semester  students as  elective  large  group  of  view.  Nearby  f a m i l i e s whose  school population is  English  Second Language  city. in are  children 425, students.  46  The g r a d e opened  to  prepare study  four/five/six  new m e m b e r s h i p  for  took  preparing  place for  the  This  arrived  little  dance  in  previous  study  were  criteria  at  a noon hour  late.  some o f  new t o  Of t h o s e  having  emigrated  number  of  the  the  dance  about  to  for  this  c l u b met  while  an h o u r  after  from  also  new t o  danced  at  her  previous  taking  private  dance  lunches  had been  selected  help the  of  three.  the  students  therefore  dance  focus  who m e t  in  students  year.  so t h a t  Another g i r l  one  One o f  reduced  but  s c h o o l . The f o u r t h  girl,  Ruth,  the  focus  the  selected,  year,  A l l of  dance  were  school this  lessons.  this  The  Chinese-Canadian, last  club  the  teacher.  selected  and  minutes.  i n the  for  the  interviewed,  to  and  the  gym w e a r b e f o r e  Hong Kong i n t h e  students  forty-five  few a d d i t i o n a l  two were  be  for  because  Four students  the  selected,  was  five.  a  a l l girls,  declined to  focus  their  students club.  Jennifer,  grade  for  members  chosen w i t h  girls.  girls  eat  took  the  c l u b m e m b e r s h i p was  these  the  Changing i n t o  also  years,  were  that  t w i c e w e e k l y , once  longer to  class  Although  time  Observations  t i m e was a c t u a l l y s h o r t e r  took  a  November i n o r d e r  and  performance.  c l u b met  sometimes  after  over the  and once  minutes.  in early  c l u b was o r g a n i z e d  a Christmas performance.  The d a n c e school,  dance  girls  had was were  in  47 The Grade T w o / t h r e e Pebble  Site  Beach Elementary  neighborhood which borders school  population  The g r a d e this to  September. the this  class  This  on t h e  in a  beach  place  Sometimes  front.  class  dance  class  Most o f  i n a scheduled  w h i c h was  gym p e r i o d ,  a d d i t i o n a l gym t i m e w a s  continue  took  place  class  until  on the  teacher,  Kathryn,  detailed  observation.  in  early  available  and  January,  and  for  boys  and  eleven  selection choose  two and t h r e e  grades  grades  children,  Simone was t a k i n g h i g h l a n d d a n c e  had taken  some  dance  were  lessons.  f o r m a l dance  figure  summarizes  girls. the  students  for  two and t h r e e ,  two b o y s ,  chosen.  Of  more and  these  lessons,  The b o y s ,  and  Donald  and  experience. the  data  collection  sources.  Data Major were  strategies  participant  analysis.  for  Collection data  observation,  collection for i n t e r v i e w i n g and  for  February.  outlined, four  of  nine  i n December,  Two g i r l s ,  had no p r e v i o u s  from  Observations  h e l p e d me t o  early  part  o'clock.  criteria  The f o l l o w i n g  the  ten  comprised ten  Focusing  Craig,  desirable  e v e r y Wednesday m o r n i n g s t a r t i n g  could  study  located  Caucasian.  two/three  school took  nine-thirty  is  is  this  study  document  Anna  48  pBSERVA  mONS  O C U S| ISTUDENTS  p T U D E N T| INTERVIEWS  SITE 1  SITE 1  SITE 2  SITE 3  GRADE 8  GRADE 9/10  GRADE 5  GRADE 2/3  Sept. - Jan.  Feb - June  Nov. -Dec.  Nov. - Jan.  31 occasions  27 occasions  7 occasions  9 occasions  M e g a n , WillJ James, Danielle  Kay, Eric, Nancy, Jeanette  Ruth, Jennifer,] Patricia  Simone, AnnaJ Craig, Donald  Sept. 20, Nov.l 21, Jan. 30.  April 25- Nancy  Dec. 16  Dec. 2  Dec. 17  Jan.-Informal  May 3 - Kay June 5Jeanette  E A C H E INTERVIEWS  Mar. 27  Eric.j  As for grade 8  June - Formal T U D E N Tl UOURNALS  Journals  No journals  Journals  Figure 1  Summary of Data C o l l e c t i o n  Journals  Sources  The use o f these v a r i o u s means of data c o l l e c t i o n p r o v i d e d important t r i a n g u l a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i n g  t o t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y of  49 the  study.  their  A further  responses  disagreeing,  to  or  my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ,  no o b s e r v a t i o n s  repeatable,  being  seen" Since  (Flick, this  procedures I  used  case  to  fashion.  necessity  site  interest.  data.  to  are  clarify  phenomenon  is  241). four  sites,  i n data  researcher  procedures  every  collection  in a l l  conducted  in  cases, a  (1983)  flexibility  in  note order  processes,  and c o n t e x t s  which would b r i n g r i c h  meaning to  the  found as  class  in session  were  dance  Similarly,  conduct Thus, rather  the it  that  c l u b and the determined i n the  dance  the  two o r  study.  seemed  to  of  phenomena  of  l o g i s t i c s a n d my g r o w i n g  differences  was p o s s i b l e  than  students  well,  i n procedure. grade the  of  the  times  I  In the  dance  permission  end o f the  dance  students  had  One i n t e r v i e w w i t h  sufficient.  time  observations  club setting,  interview the  three  The  two/three  number  i n t e r v i e w s was g i v e n a t  when p l a n n i n g t h e focus  the  aspects,  I  unique  the  once  also  involved  As the  to  However, H e r r i o t t and F i r e s t o n e  over which  term.  sites.  collection  determined  to  design  p.  maintain consistency  experience  possible.  1994,  in  interpretations  ways t h e  of maintaining a certain  recognize the  each  study  a l l the  common d a t a  similar the  at  different  i n Stake,  a t t e m p t w a s made t o  of  t r i a n g u l a t i o n serves  meaning by i d e n t i f y i n g  teachers  corroborating,  providing additional insights  "Acknowledging that perfectly  c h e c k was p r o v i d e d b y t h e  anticipated  each  grade  only  of  the  50 two/three this  site,  reason,  fruitful grade  As the  willingness occur  late  the  to  term,  were  from  behaviours  students  observations viewing,  supplemented  two  twenty-seven of  arose  on  took  students'  interviews  from  of  to  this  observations  interview.  and  the  perspectives  teacher,  were these  of  great  too,  naturally  of  these  number  occasions, occasions. semesters,  of  This  revealed dance.  importance,  a  As  particularly  greatest  given  f o c u s . My  context,  dance were  teacher.  observation hours  i n the  The  d u r i n g and a f t e r  appropriate  settings: and  of  on  and  received special note.  sessions,  the  focussed  students,  received the  i n any o t h e r  by those  as  and a p p r e c i a t i o n  j u n i o r secondary  on t h i r t y - o n e  length  which  a variety of  d u r i n g dance  The g r e a t e s t the  and t r u s t  An a d d i t i o n a l advantage  and the  movement q u a l i t i e s ,  film  the  e s p e c i a l l y between  growing understanding  selected  seemed  acceptance  arranged  the  Observation  students  nonverbal  I  For  more  interviews with  included i n the  interactions,  between  be  i n t e r v i e w s depended  freely,  term.  interview.  occasion also  students' the  i n the  proved to  Formal  on one  questions,  Observation verbal  of  speak  i n the  Participant  the  success  t i m i n g was t h a t over  data.  students  Gaining  shy  conversations  gathering  nine/ten  time.  s t u d e n t s were  informal  for  sufficient.  the  i n the grade  were  grade  spent  eight  nine/ten of  in  class  class  was  in part  because  and the  greater  complexity of  on  the the  51 learning  at  these  grade  levels,  special  c o l l a b o r a t i o n between  myself.  A s we w e r e  involved compare events  both  observation our  of  were  able  other,  to  dialogue,  and t o  projects  with  greater  respected  This  colleague  class  reactions  rare  This  Claude,  for  able  perspective  and t e s t  confidence  and which to  interpretations  researchers,  direction of  the  projects  we w e r e  and  dual  of  our  created  in that  data  with  we  the  individual  i n view of  of  research  this  a s s o c i a t i o n and c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h proved to  be one  of  the  a  many b e n e f i t s  of  research. The number  defined seven  by the  of  January  class  and  of  was o b s e r v e d  Atkinson,  to  I  nor p.  be  to  club,  on n i n e  participant  part  of  that  fortunately 14).  club  took The  occasions  actions  whose v i e w s I  is  w h i c h we s t u d y .  the is  observation  social  that  students,  place  on  grade in  December,  world  observer  and responses  hoped t o  capture,  acknowledging  "There  is  i n order  necessary"  As a p a r t i c i p a n t  influenced the  and t e a c h e r s  dance  dance  role.  w a y i n w h i c h we c a n e s c a p e it;  the  i n November and December.  Fundamental  study  the  of  February.  Observer  ourselves  observations  duration  occasions,  two/three  that  because  teacher,  dance  question,  shape the  cross-checking.  this  the  on an o n - g o i n g b a s i s . is  the  also  embarking on r e s e a r c h  observations,  an o p p o r t u n i t y w h i c h  but  no  to  (Hammersley & I  recognized  of  the  students  and t h a t  by  52 participating significant cannot  I  altered  step out  my r o l e .  boundary  o f my own b i a s e s , (Ely et  My a i m w a s t o  between  My r o l e grade  setting  as  two/three  be  observer class  v a r i e d from  the  the  club setting,  however,  encouragement  teacher.  In the  with  the  class  grade  to  entire  the  eight  I  A t one  e v a l u a t i n g them.  the  students  from  point the  the  trips  order  to  teachers  the  also  of  as  were  classroom  challenged,  teacher.  who  In  gave  and I  assisting  followed  small  to  thought  could  have  This  that  inhibited note,  unless  meant  drama  in  Observations  by  data.  supplemented,  or  I  the  frequent  office  the  I  I  note-taking  writing.  contributed  and by  one where  immediately adjacent  each c l a s s  the  classes,  I wished to  record verbatim conversations.  observations each  to  nine/ten  insights  my r o l e  In  occasion.  an o b s e r v e r  perception  more a n d a v o i d e d d i r e c t  quick  class.  participant  students  participated  were  the  i n my o n g o i n g  and r e d e f i n e d  and t e a c h e r  to  groups,  re-evaluated  students  on  on one  which often  As t h i s  sharing  sensitive  hard-working students  realized that  was  class  I was  small  positive critiquing  observations,  walking  class  and grade  by working w i t h  presentations.  I  b l i n d e d by  and more  I was v e r y much t h e  words o f  idea that  stranger.  even t e a c h i n g  participated  p.22)  constantly  f r i e n d and  the  made me " l e s s  al,  observer, dance  i n many w a y s ,  and i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Working w i t h  my own s u b j e c t i v i t i e s " of  the  the  My o w n supported  by  53 Interviews Interviews source  of  data,  individual's regard  to  excerpts give  with  aesthetic  of dance.  follows:  the  be  or  month,  and the  last  brackets  at  Interviews beginning,  interviews drama  middle,  make a  The f i r s t in  the  grade  semester with  room i n t h e setting.  informant.  stands  each  grade  for  the  numeral the  voice  tones,  eight  class  other  interested  accompanied the  to  addition,  participants' as  either  stands  the  for  T h i s code  appears  were  term.  conducted  Four  students  i n the  additional  i n the  research  at  dance-  project  and  contribution. eight each  i n t e r v i e w s were of  experience,  facial  film  quotation.  with  Transcribing the  r e l i v e the  me  the  interview,  year.  the  focus  taped,  and  and then  A  and t o  early  seminar  private  transcribed  interview tapes myself  expressions,  voices.  conducted  students.  l i b r a r y provided a comfortable  me t o  on  i n t e r v i e w s was c o d e d  and end o f the  A l l i n t e r v i e w s were  immediately.  for  In  allowing  the  The n e x t  conducted  who w e r e to  Each of  end o f  of dance,  interviews permitted  each  numerals  i n the  were  class  who w a n t e d  to  third.  the  c o l l e c t data  or  numeral  second,  important  and when o b s e r v i n g c l a s s m a t e s  heard.  first  to  an  in  provided verbatim data, to  were  both  Taping the  first,  the  comprehension  undivided attention  own v o i c e s  similarly  providing opportunity  her/himself  transcripts  in  students  allowed  add r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y  and g e s t u r e s  which  the  54 The i n s i g h t s time of  the  provided a baseline  the  spoke did  which  semester somewhat  not  yet  could  and nervousness this  new d a n c e  with  the  same  semester,  were  quite  interviews  came t o  well.  students  in  be  with  at  e n d o f my t i m e  this  approval  club.  interviewed,  the  the  apprehension embarked  and the  on  conducted  growing confidence  and  they  these  later  k n e w me b e t t e r .  somewhat  be no g r e a t  one  be  of  a  "status  interviewed  their  The  as  own l e a r n i n g  the  as  told  me a s  conducted  c l u b performance,  site.  and  thus  timing  occurred  d i s t r i c t with  regard  to  until  that  disadvantage,  five  two o t h e r s , be  s t u d e n t s were  This  a regular grade  five  dance  conferred  and a n x i o u s t o  particular,  they  the  me a b o u t  grade  i n the  from  k n e w me a s  Although  excited  after  was n o t  proved to  students  as  as  end o f  asking to  tell  the  occasion,  interviewing  students  dance.  on one  because  regarded  to  the  were more v o l u b l e a t  students  eager  Interviews  the  express  duration  of  they  this  the  interviews  midpoint,  p o s s i b l y because  other  A l l were  to  The s t u d e n t s  interviews,  with  able  as  subsequent  the  me a t  interviews,  feelings  excitement In  at  Although  initial  revealed  along with  with  which growth over  i n the  they  students  they  shared  be r e f e r e n c e d .  adventure.  understanding.  thing",  to  guardedly  know me,  students  figure  as  by t h a t  declined to  teacher  to  the  time  the  hall  the  dance  be  i n f o r m e d me,  interviewed. Jennifer,  we p r o c e e d e d  However,  who a t t e n d e d  student their  point.  were  in outside  a  55 c l a s s r o o m w h e r e we c o n d u c t e d things  to  say".  answered  my q u e s t i o n s learned  able  describe  and t h e i r  over  students.  their  were  These  classroom,  at  somewhat  held for  also  the  place  sessions  enjoyment  great  faith  the  become b e t t e r with  class, were  teacher's  dancers.  these  greater  I  the  i n the  that in  were  period  the  I  had  the once  these begun  students  were  They d i d t e l l  to  class. help  conduct  a  children, feeling that  and more s p o n t a n e o u s l y  two/three  back of  As  dance  ability  grade  w h i c h was a t  limited.  d i d not  They  parents.  the  i n the  had  enjoyed  club.  and d e l i g h t  shortly after  i n the  "she  students  over  young students.  and p r o g r e s s  in their  the  dance  conducted with  for  that  understood,  growing confidence  shy and r e s p o n s e s  interview  of  i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d  took  their  yielded  course  they  trepidation,  and r e a s s u r i n g  observation  what  as  a special classroon centre  conversations  to  the  performance  Interviews  private  about  excitement,  culminating  interviews,  T h e r e was no h e s i t a t i o n  and had to  the  me o f  They  placed  them t o  learn  second  observations  occurring  information. Interviews interviews  were  with  held with  C l a u d e , and K a t h r y n ;  way c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Student  also  Cynthia  the  teachers:  and the  and D r . Jean  in-depth  other,  a  three  Cunningham.  Journals  Student secondary  journals  dance-drama  were  a course  classes.  component  Students  were  of the directed  junior by  the  56 teacher their  to  reflect  in their  own p r o g r e s s  i n dance,  describe  their  critique  video excerpts  required  elements  small The to  the  of  insights  into  various  of the  a g e s met  performance  dances,  to  source  of  documents  growth and  nature for  of  short  nor d i d students  their  of  dance.  contributed  the  dance  classes, of  over  steps,  or  wrote  another  of the  The g r a d e they  important  dance  keep  was n o t  regular  students  a defined part  time of  journals.  who m o d e l l e d r e f i n e m e n t  the  helping  Ongoing  c l u b where  teacher,  data  ideas.  awareness.  did  one  to  well.  and s t y l e .  There  are  s t u d e n t s w a t c h i n g one  capture  two/three  regularly.  which guided t h e i r  as  a special students  The t e a c h e r  responses.  "The p a r t  I  enjoyed  the  movements  I  used...",  "What I  The of  many  another  the  The an  students technique,  instances to  learn  style. kept  journals  p r o v i d e d frame  Such frames  most...",  for  growing  on t e c h n i q u e  the  ideas  information,  emphasis  and o b s e r v e d  to  identify  symbols f o r  instructional  in  to  provided a g o a l - i n - v i e w which necessitated  watch the  to  dances,  develop  their  as  progress,  in class,  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  viewing v i d e o examples  instruction,  seen  views about  student  student  about  develop v i s u a l  a rich  such things  group's  feelings  group  and t o  about  their  dance  students'  these  Because  period,  of  appreciation  analysis  or  and  i n peer  were t h u s  construct  enjoyment,  of  reactions  group dances,  journals  journals  "It  as,  made me  noticed...".  In  "I  in  which  sentences learned..  1 1  ,  feel...","The some c a s e s  the  57 students in  used  dance.  added  drawings to  The w r i t t e n  a dimension to  communicate what  responses the  of  they  children of  growing picture  of  understood a l l  ages  their  understanding. Original  plans  videotaping  as  examples  dance.  eight  of  class,  for  a means  the  this to  study  capture  included the student  setting  which  I  and a t t e n t i o n ,  c a u s i n g me t o  lose  focus.  the  left  it  c a m e r a was  interactions  of  "cutting  and making faces  up"  scrupulously of  As dance  especially an  essential  but  i n the  intrusion,  that  i n front  addition,  camera.  number  requires  confidence. the  s h o u l d be  of videos,  mainly of  to  consumed  any  students  or  interesting  form  eye. affected  by  the  of r i s k - t a k i n g , the  camera  and d e l a y i n g  The t e a c h e r  v i d e o camera  used  camera,  seemed  students,  grade  my o b s e r v a t i o n  instead  junior years,  the  It  and  seldom caught  any o t h e r  a good d e a l  m i d d l e and  of  the  camera  many s t u d e n t s  growth of  it  for  of the  inhibiting  ongoing use that  featuring  avoiding dancing or  interaction In  unmanned  significance,  i n the  accessed.  my e n e r g y If  of  interactions  The v i d e o c a m e r a was u s e d  first  use  and  s h o u l d be  I  were  the  decided  discontinued,  record performances.  performances,  became  A small  successfully  made. All  of  observation,  these  data  collecting  interviews,  processes,  and document  participant  analysis  proved  58 effective, several  yielding a useful  sources  of  data  body o f  information.  p r o v i d e d means t o  The  triangulate  that  c o l l e c t i o n i n each  site  information. Throughout the  teacher  Their  and  special  serving  as  the I  period  of  discussed  insights  the  were  corroboration  be  of  is  hoped  practical  naturalistic 1988), the  interpret that  the  use  rather  w i t h the  reader  that  for  the  study  findings  dance  i n the  the  findings  collected  of  this  What  is  Clearly, own w a y s .  study  are  data  was  study  selecting,  data,  material.  Findings case  study  intended  on t r a n s f e r  1989).  findings.  the  of  (Stake,  knowledge  teachers  to  encouraged  to  will  Based on the  meaningful  t e a c h e r s may b e  will  is  scientific generalization  resting  the  body o f  analysis  and  ways  them  to  in  include  Interpretation  a d v i s e d by Hammersley and A t k i n s o n  conception  written  the  the  and the  daily curriculum.  Data  the  of  in their  of  to  other  teachers.  than  (Jorgensen,  own p r a c t i c e ,  of  to  focus  their  As  the  happenings  added  Generalizability It  data  ongoing, of  was  the  part  of  the  (1983),  research  process  problem and c o n t i n u i n g u n t i l  produced.  categorizing,  "It  is  a systematic  synthesizing,  and  analysis from  the  process  of  interpreting  to  59 provide  explanations  of  the  (MacMillan  and Schumacher,  and  issues  which  the  focus  of  collection, For of  the of  gave  critical  role  shaped  became  peers.  These  study  for  Student data  to  confidence  individual  and express  an outcome Data  further  data  a  number  such  structures  which  create  to  were  and compose,  were  work i n groups which  processes  (of  of  with  emerged  question,  as  and  observations  as  "What  aesthetic  as  an  student to  enter  important it  became  success. fully  theme  which  emerged  in  aesthetic  factor apparent,  Possessing  into  aesthetic of  reading  confidence  activities,  take  a n a l y s i s was b o t h  O b s e r v a t i o n s were  in freed  risks, as  l e a r n i n g and communication i n the  from  was r e l a t e d  what was k n o w n . U n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n f i d e n c e  i n the  to  development,  a fourth  was a n o t h e r  Confidence,  complex ways t o  there  considerations  the  themes  occur?"  collection  development.  that  critical  became for  Patterns,  directly related  class to  interest"  interviews.  aesthetic  students  of  direction of  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  helpful  414).  and  teacher,  very important  are  development)  pivotal  the  was u n d e r w a y ,  conditions  the  evident  and hard work. A l s o  i n dance,  was  of  opportunities  models  the  it  p.  and w h i c h were  both observations  example,  practice  the  study,  1989,  c o n d i t i o n s which promoted  the  the  emerged  s i n g l e phenomenon  dance  data.  descriptive  and  examined and a n a l y z e d i n  interpretative. descriptive  60 terms,  that  aesthetic analysis ideas,  is,  understanding focused  as  well  and enjoyed their  how t h e y  as  to  to  of dance  Interpretive  understanding,  part  of  for  addition,  In  o f dance  the  next  students changed,  along with  their  understood  analyzed  for  student's of  their  own  growing  and  in  their  analyzed. f o c u s e d upon the nurture  the  of  student  significance of aesthetic  development  in  interpreted supports  are  findings of discussed.  involved  the  they  to  as  the  curriculum.  chapter,  and t e a c h e r s  This  form  in their  evidence which  i n the  and d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s  the  f i n d i n g s may b e  a growing body o f  inclusion  give  and p e r c e p t i o n s  assessing  these  of  of  group.  and f e e l i n g s  teacher  and f o r  to  views both  were  age  i n t e r v i e w s were  ideas  analysis  these descriptions  In  to  a picture  v e r b a l l y what  picture  Students'  g i v e form  understanding  dance.  ability  Student the  to  student  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  i n dance.  ability  each  express  contribution to  growth  of  on s t u d e n t s '  i n dance.  appreciation  contributed  names  i n the  of the  the  interpretive  Names o f study  school  the  have  been  settings.  Summary This growth  qualitative  i n dance,  -participant written  used  study, case  observation,  responses  were  the  which  study  investigated  design.  interviews, principal  Several  aesthetic techniques  and c o l l e c t i o n means  of  data  of  61 collection. with  most  Data were c o l l e c t e d over the  collection  i n some s i t e s  I n my r o l e  of participant  of the  dance  opportunity  to  classes  observe  at  other,  their  Data  teacher,  collection  aesthetic  and enjoyed dance. provided  another  Through the additional data to  the  as  site.  This  children  in  they  questions  asked  with  each  understood  i n each  site  data.  of data  to  the  development,  collection  c o n t r i b u t e d by each teacher was germane  at  myself.  children  observations the  g a v e me  interacted  and on ways t h a t  Teacher  year,  I was p r e s e n t  and i n e v i t a b l y w i t h  v a r i o u s means  that  specific  each  dimension to  insights  resulted  observer,  f o c u s e d on growth and  refinement,  a  occurring concurrently.  selected  classroom/gymnasium contexts  period of  the  research  i n the  study.  and  and  the  class,  problem and  62 Chapter  Four -  The C l a s s r o o m N a r r a t i v e  Student The  Kindergarten to  published (1994)  sets  aspects both  by the  of  out  student  their  dance  at  his/her  each  It  age will  dance  that  that  student  learning  active,  and  where  experience  Interest,  students' the  these  each and and  readiness  p r o f i l e of  at  and  growth  chapter  i n the  discuss  the  I will  study.  ways s t u d e n t s  evidence  and a b s o r p t i o n  gave  form  describe  In the of  shown by i n d i v i d u a l s .  of  as  a  an  to  the  context  aesthetic  students  of  these  in  each  groups,  understanding  Examples and d e s c r i p t i o n s ideas  in presentation  and o f  are  students'  drawn from  awareness  are  particular  may b e  engaged.  conditions wherein Each teacher  set  of  the  expression  field  aesthetic  about  I  in  observations. There  in  progress  be t h o u g h t  proceeded  is  is  ability,  Developmental  might w e l l  each  a l l  rate.  this  group  i n the  was u n i q u e .  i n dance  continuum along which  In  is  of  of dance.  follows  student  Education  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f  own l e v e l  a l l played a part  shown by s t u d e n t s  individual  They s t a t e  and a group p r o c e s s ,  understanding  progress.  for  practice.  was r e a d i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d i n d a n c e ,  developmental  in  of  Plan  Learning which guide  i n a v a r i e t y of ways.  started  background  Columbia M i n i s t r y  Principles of  an i n d i v i d u a l  principles  Grade Twelve E d u c a t i o n  British  educational  accomplished  Development  framing  63 specific ways.  aesthetic  However, a l l t h r e e  things:  thinking  experience. thought used  experiences  processes  appropriate  effective elements accent,  use  and f l o w  feelings  was  less  contrast,  descriptive,  carefully  effective No  engagement  of  evident  the  to the  thought  following  provision  emotions,  and I w i l l  insights,  which  use  of  the  aesthetic  balance,  and  Engagement  Although  they  structured  and emphasized  of  opportunities  any t i m e can o n l y  imagery, v i s u a l and the  students'  concerns  of  any depth  can occur  be  and  setting  to  of  and f e e l i n g .  observer,  teachers'  Students  student  of  proved to  be  motivators.  representation  In  at  chosen music,  problems which r e l a t e d  within  unity,  readily structured.  two  aesthetic  engaged  o f movement,  of  for  Lessons were  variety,  use  particular  stage  lessons  i n movement s e q u e n c e s .  However, the  in  combine i n  material,  elements  the  structures  were p r o v i d e d , e m o t i o n a l response encouraged.  set  own i d e a s .  thematic  of the  s u c h as  constructed  their  students  which  by p r o v i d i n g  and extended  around  teachers  and f e e l i n g ,  Carefully  for  and t y p i c a l  the  engagement  focus  on the  conceptions  Descriptions indicate these  groups  as  as  I  will of  differences  absorption  both the of  the  intellect the  and  students.  own p r i o r i t i e s ,  o f what was o f  aesthetic  v a r i a t i o n s , apong the  between  are  show.  describe  responses  group had t h e i r  value.  well  of  examples w i l l  paragraphs,  for  each age  as  Degrees  without  individuals.  It  age is  hoped the  that  reader  forms,  these to  descriptions  recognize  i n dance,  as  will  aesthetic  highly  paint  engagement  a young, years.  the  teacher  enthusiastic  characterized provided  of  this  grade two/three  a vibrant  techniques  by much s t u d e n t  for  proud to  image development  of  for  six  centres  student  describe  their  was  place,  a c t i v i t y . Many  The c h i l d r e n were  and  various  class  teaching  learning  s t i m u l a t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  exploration.  in its  Class  woman who h a d b e e n  H e r c l a s s r o o m was  enabling  observable.  The G r a d e T w o / T h r e e Kathryn,  a picture  the  abundantly  evident  artwork. V e r y much an a d v o c a t e Kathryn  believed that  taught with  special  of  dance  a child-centered  provided the  opportunities  for  approach,  c h i l d r e n whom  development.  She  she said:  Dance o f f e r s s t u d e n t s a medium f o r e x p r e s s i o n . C h i l d r e n of t h i s age, because t h e i r language i s o f t e n not w e l l developed, simply a r e n ' t always able to e x p r e s s what t h e y f e e l i n words o r i n w r i t i n g . Through the p h y s i c a l c o n n e c t i o n , dance opens c h i l d r e n up. I t i s v i t a l t h a t ( c h i l d r e n ) be g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c r e a t i n g , and f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r i d e a s ( 10695). As the struck  grade two/three  by t h e i r  bubbly enthusiasm,  anticipation  of  were  i n loose  dressed  allowed shoes  them t o  and s o c k s ,  students  the  dance  move f r e e l y .  the  high energy,  activities  c l o t h i n g or  entered  to  come.  exercise  gym I and  The  wear  the  side  of  the  happy  children  which  They h u r r i e d l y removed  p l a c i n g them a t  was  their  gym.  The  large play  space and  of the  leap,  which  body movements, had not  yet  themselves  reached  make-believe,  For  their  asked,  familiar  part  snow i n t h e  of  into this  activity,  h e l p i n g them t o to  suddenly  transformed  them t o  to  they  generally and  i n t u i t i v e ways  world  drew on what portray  most  inform  their  knew.  able  preceded  forest  branches  play. When with  to  enter  preparation  portrayals.  into a small  games  burdened  were  Careful  of  they  a tree  children  at  this  draw upon images which  and t w i s t e d t r e e s ,  were  T h e gym was  of wonderfully  sagging under  the  weight  snow. Students  not  only  i n the  what  they  movements. the  hands"  physical  by t h e i r  also  (of  of  lesson drawing trees,  familiar  of  were c r i t i c a l  i n and s k i l l e d  pretense.  an a r t  large As  them i n t h e i r  they  a dance,  including  gnarled  to  dead o f w i n t e r ,  wholeheartedly  in  run,  teacher.  interested  interpretations  as  were  to  freedom.  i n spontaneous  by the were  gloried  and apparent  children  reacting  directions given  invitation  d i d ! Students  a s t a g e when t h e y  or others,  Many c h i l d r e n of  they  r u s h i n g speed  unselfconscious, to  gym was a n a p p a r e n t  eager  pleasure  Donald  dance), (11294).  m e d i u m was made  and e n t h u s i a s t i c  w r i t t e n accounts  enjoyed most,  i n the  the  said that  in their students his  participation,  journals.  When  mentioned high  favorite  part  was,  w h e r e we w e r e g o i n g b a c k a n d f o r t h Anna  said that  the  part  clear  of dance  but  asked action  "The  end  hitting  that  she  66 had  enjoyed  commented such  as  the  on the  pleasure  also  which various  they  enjoyed  gave  she  and h e r  step...  washing  step.  on t h i s  one  partner  a n d we made  When a s k e d w h y i t  was  replied,  "Because  we're  window."  Familiar  images  said,  I walk then obvious  made  u p some  together  c a l l e d the kind  physical  Anna  movements  " I  I  and  like  a  dance  another  from i t  forth  it  criss-cross"  "We t o o k  new s t e p s  with  sensations  enjoyment  up.  We u s u a l l y m o v e b a c k  s t e p we p u t  students  leaping".  them.  o v e r my f e e t .  several  in particular  particular  Simone d e s c r i b e d w i t h  step that  in fact,  took  twirling,  movements  crisscross  (11294).  dance  was t w i r l i n g ;  "cartwheeling,  Students  when I  most  with  another  each  step"  washing step,  like  the other  (11294)  Simone  o f moving our hands washing  p r o v i d e d Simone w i t h  ideas  for  the her  dance. When a s k e d or  as  "tall  little please.  take  you can",  apparent  responsive  or to  to  the  such  show a p a r t i c u l a r  praise,  and t h e  specific positive they  were  consciousness  with  their  self-consciousness  as  " w i d e as  you  c h i l d r e n t r i e d very hard  volunteered  Although  some  positions  self-consciousness,  Many s t u d e n t s  movements  giving  as  to  and g r e a t  to  teacher  with  eagerness  demonstrate  position.  can"  They  to  particular were  worked c o n s t a n t l y  at  reinforcement. apparently  free  own c l a s s m a t e s , when p r e s e n t i n g  of the for  selfstudents others.  felt  For  67 example, just  as  a grade  class  came  were  about  to  two g i r l s  previously hesitant they  seven  highly  enthusiastic  and shy,  everyone  including  happy  see.  for  a guest  the  they  grade  Likewise,  flushed  demonstration less  which  kind  paying  she  followed  nervous  attention  to  of  it  last  us"  concerned  you and t h e n  that,  confidence.  "I'm getting  just  fun"  L'Oiseau  danced  felt  show  that  that  w o u l d be  very  demonstrate particular Her  expressive  and  free,  for  feeling  self-conscious.  because  e v e r y b o d y ' s w a t c h i n g me  ones  do  to  it,  Anna,  so  self-  . . . " M a y b e some p e o p l e  might  used  she to  too,  everyone's felt  that  a bit  shy of  laugh  them  two/three  Exotique.' This  class film  and g r a c e f u l .  going i n front  viewed a b a l l e t featured  of  the  class  the  excerpt,  a male dancer  H i s movements  Following  or  was g r o w i n g i n  (11294).  j o y o u s l y and f r e e l y .  sensuous  less  girls,  teacher  had done w i t h  was  The  Dance  The g r a d e x  to  students  y o u t h i n k y o u m i g h t be  She a l s o  Analyzing  the  period,  became  self-conscious.  (11294).  something."  ...It's  from  S i m o n e , when a s k e d t o  and became  u s u a l l y the  conscious, at  dance.  a  space.  of  and w e ' r e  end o f  performing,  had a dance  Simone e x p l a i n e d r e a s o n s "I'm  about  seven  a movement w h i c h  sensitivity,  using  that  the  show t h e i r  r e q u i r i n g assurance  w o u l d do w e l l ,  to  i n at  were  who  light,  observation of  the  68 video  excerpt,  grade  two / t h r e e  students  d e v e l o p movements w h i c h m i g h t evoke t h e animal.  Craig,  eight  years  o l d , wrote  were  asked  spirit  in his  of  to  a  familiar  journal:  T o d a y I saw a v i d e o c a l l e d E x o t i c B i r d . What I n o t i c e d a b o u t t h e d a n c e was t h a t t h e d a n c e r moved v e r y q u i c k l y . Some w o r d s t o d e s c r i b e how t h e man m o v e d w e r e g r a c e f u l a n d s w i f t . T h e m o v e m e n t s I u s e d f o r my a n i m a l w e r e h e was r u n n i n g a r o u n d . I e n j o y e d m o v i n g l i k e a r a p t o r because I l i k e dinosaurs (11294). Simone,  eight  years  o l d , described the  same  dance.  "What I n o t i c e d a b o u t t h e d a n c e was i t was v e r y l i g h t , s o m e w o r d s t o d e s c r i b e h o w t h e man m o v e d w e r e l i g h t , h i g h t , ( s i c ) j u m p i n g , r u n n i n g and l i p i n g ( s i c ) . The m o v e m e n t s I u s e d f o r my a n i m a l w e r e s o f t . I e n j o y e d m o v i n g l i k e a b i r d b e c a u s e I l i k e how i t m o v e s . " Students  i n grade  interpretations bird.  Although  aspects  of  the  impressed with around,  with  levels of  interest  i n the  popularity  found  Craig  speed,  the  literal  man w a s p r e t e n d i n g describe  "graceful,  high  rather of  is  dinosaur,  lightness  to  made  the  swift",  u s i n g words s u c h as  activity  on t h e  the  able  essence  the  typical raptor,  than bird. of  hand,  and w i t h  his  is  bird  seems  "swiftly,  a boy o f the  *Jurassic  the  of the  dance  running these in  His  current Park'. the  which  appeared  film.  a  most  seven.  intrigued with  for  be  Craig's interest  w i t h movements w h i c h the  he  a g i l e movements w h i c h  p l e a s i n g . The a n i m a l c h o s e n  i n s p i r a t i o n from  to  qualitative  connecting  reflects  a c t i o n movie,  other  composed was a b i r d , their  is  movement,  of the  Simone, dancer's  o f movement;  moved v e r y q u i c k l y "  qualities high  two and t h r e e  to  she she draw  Of taking  the  large  Jurassic strong  number  Park.  imagery;  enjoying  balletic choices  dinosaurs  both with  i n the  and t h e y  the  the  able I  to  like  hands"  pick his  (11294). dance  move t h e i r  move t h e i r  I  neck.  relation  draft  of  the  influenced open  imagery.  costume  from  or with The  their  dance  to  No his  students'  growing knowledge of  for  dance  classmates."They  Simone  of  An  provides  also  Exotique film.  their  awareness  a particular  focused  culture  sources  dancer's  L'Oiseau  and a l l the  "because  liked  creatures  The s t u d e n t s were  c h i l d r e n expressed  emerging  He m o v e s h i s  in  these  drew upon i d e a s  D o n a l d was  admired,  probably  from  the  what  admired.  excerpts an  other  popular  choices.  v e r y much r e f l e c t e d  indicate  very  that  or  classical "L'Oiseau"  and t h e i r  style,  Although  dance.  the  expressed  was known a n d  she  but  birds,  v i d e o w h i c h we s h o w e d t h e m .  doubt  and a c c e p t i n g  c o n c e r n was  video  a number w e r e  were  Little  movements  world,  group,  i n s p i r a t i o n from the  equally  their  entire  like  on each  activities,  of  a peer  moves t h a t  created  of did  does...like  could  finish  I  and  like I  dance.  dancing,  1 1  jazz.  how  think  of  her  they they  are  (11294).  . . .Me a n d A n d r e a w e r e she  he  e x p l a i n why  by a s m a l l group  good and  in  dancing  i n d i c a t e d d e v e l o p i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and to  a l l  refinement  whose  he  Simone t o o ,  arms  they  q u a l i t y and  out  how t h e y  other"  appreciation  made  up t h i s  kind  of  totally ugly  taste doing step".  a  70 When a s k e d  why s h e  said  "draft",  really  what  we w e r e  that's  what  we d i d " ( 1 1 2 9 4 ) .  indicated  that  she  going to  she  do.  "It's  S o we c a n c h a n g e  In t h i s  was c a p a b l e  replied,  of  last  not  that  statement  and  she  r e f i n i n g and p o l i s h i n g  her  dance. In term,  a summary o f  students  ability  to  use  the  steps".  mentioned,  "to  that  she  own l e a r n i n g t o w a r d  i n v a r i a b l y commented  travelling  said  their  elements  o f movement  Many s t u d e n t s ,  show s l o w and had,  on t h e i r  "...learned  s u c h as  a  "to  use  Craig,  Simone,  how t o  end o f  acquired  including  fast".  the  among  others,  go f r o m h e a v y  to  light". Along with use  of  felt  space,  the  As one  to  through during said,  said,  "I  "I  dance  expressive  learned  felt  me."  Donald  feel  very  Evidence  students  like  added,  strong.  "I  expressed  and  into  express  my  Special feelings by Y o n i n a  their  enjoyed  the  growing  their  dance.  feelings and  enjoyment  and D o n a l d .  dancing because  Yonina  watching i t  made  me  1 1  of the  returned  and  a b a l l e r i n a and e v e r y b o d y was  Engagement  particular  laps  elements  how t o  described  of Aesthetic  On o n e three  were  and s p e e d ,  students mentioned  my b o d y m o v e m e n t s . " the  on e f f o r t  recognized emotions  Several  incorporate  girl  centering  students  while dancing.  ability  run  learnings  to  day t h e  teacher  had d i r e c t e d  g y m . When f i n i s h e d t h e their  places  on t h e  them  warm-up,  floor.  to  71 On t h i s out  day,  into the  various  large  space  d i r e c t e d the of  warm-up movements.  pointing, teacher eager.  Kathryn  and c i r c l i n g  fully  The e x e r c i s e s  The s t u d e n t s  moved on t o  spread through  were b i g ,  watching intently, they  to  gym. She l e d them  movements.  focused,  Thus p r e p a r e d ,  the  children  reaching,  followed  confident  the  next  the  and  part  of  the  lesson. Kathryn all  read  lesson kinds  of  in a line line"  demonstrated  paint.  One s t u d e n t  front  across with  thin  chart to  lines,  think of  In  that  peers.  think of a way t o  the to  step.  curved l i n e s , were  able  choose  imagine l i n e s  on  illustrate  to  "a  dark  sustained  illustrated  jagged  lines.  the  best  way t o  demonstrate  the  action.  demonstrations,  T h e r e was a r a n g e  of  step  present  w h i c h go a l o n g w i t h  It  volunteer,  to  a travelling  action,  considerably.  to  Having reviewed possible e f f o r t s ,  the  of the  lines  and  eager  were  art  Students  portray  spite  visual  a heavy f o r c e f u l ,  light  they  the  they  different  gym. A n o t h e r s t u d e n t  students  were asked t o  and t o  feelings  the  of  h a d made  was c h o s e n t o  a quick  confident  of t h e i r  students  children  children  demonstrated  was n o t e w o r t h y t h a t apparently  a c t i o n words which  She r e l a t e d  by a s k i n g the  The s t u d e n t  light  of  She r e m i n d e d t h e  lines with  gym f l o o r .  walk  a chart  p r e v i o u s day where t h e y  i n dance  line".  "a  together.  of the  effort the  pointed to  but  it.  the  the  They were  also to  responses  portrayals  from  in  varied which  show  72 indicated  different  There were speed. which also  stages  running steps  There were involved  literal  clearly  both  effect.  A portrayal  while  w h i c h were  considerable by one  girl  levels.  with  one  hand,  though  she  thought  incorporated she  embody i t s  essence.  because  a particular  midst  of  literal  and o f  But there  girls  up a t o y t o p ,  movement  in interpretation, of both thought  student the  other,  travelling  too,  with  portrayed  and h i g h and balance.  It  and had been  set  as  able  to  eye  them a p a r t  and a c t i v i t y . S h o r t  the  examples  and  f e e l i n g at  in  the  and  nevertheless age  low  was  c h i l d r e n d r e w my  q u a l i t y which  where  pleasing  invested  "Spinning",  light twirling,  these  with  the  This  a n d was  were  and boys  involved  floor.  through,  Both of  considerable  engagement  flying  slowed and s h i f t e d  had conjured  of  skipping,  groping with  the  students. with  by b o t h  f e e l i n g and empathy.  At times  the  mainly concerned  wings.  "staggering"  lurching unevenly across  s t e p had been w e l l  of  a n d f e e l i n g came t o g e t h e r of  chest  of  flapping of  portrayals  thought  his  understanding  demonstrations  some s e n s i t i v e  clutching  of  seven  reflect or  eight. On a n o t h e r as  Jean  of  detailed  day  students  Cunningham, a guest  responded to  the  class,  d e s c r i p t i o n and p r o v i s i o n  the  steps  of  painting a fence.  the  game,  they  were  to  As the  increasingly able  of  direct  l e d them by imagery,  students to  teaching, means  through  understood  incorporate  their  73 own i m a g e r y degrees  of  following  into  the  fence  engagement  i n and  description  engagement o f  one  painting.  s e n s i t i v i t y to  from f i e l d  student  Students  notes  when a s k e d  showed  the  records  to  various  task.  The  the  "paint  a  fence".  W a t c h i n g A n n a , I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t s h e i s a b s o r b e d i n t h e m a k e - b e l i e v e . Her eyes f o c u s on h e r f i n g e r s as t h e y w o r k . She t r u l y m i x e s h e r p a i n t s , t h e n b e n d i n g a t the k n e e s , she sweeps the p a i n t a c r o s s , her eyes f o l l o w i n g t h e p a i n t b r u s h . When s h e r e a c h e s h i g h , s h e b a l a n c e s p e r f e c t l y , e x t e n d i n g one t o e b e h i n d w h i c h forms a g r a c e f u l c o n t i n u o u s l i n e w i t h the l e n g t h o f her body. Anna  is  extending ideas.  the  own,  she  appeared the  catching  as  as  enter  directions  was t h e to  be  elongation shape  Other noted  to  For example,  her  that  able  her  g i v e n by Jean focus  on e a c h  extension acting of  i n the  students  imaginatively into  of  her  the  w i t h her aspect  toe.  of  own o r i g i n a l the  task  With this  i n t u i t i v e l y , enjoying  form gave  task,  action  the  her  and c r e a t i n g  the  fence-painting  feeling  an  eye-  process.  responses to  were  well.  Derek f o l l o w s the d i r e c t i o n s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n . H i s a c t i o n s , w h i l e not flowing, are f o r c e f u l . His feet r e m a i n f i r m l y p l a n t e d on t h e g r o u n d as he r e a c h e s across to p a i n t . H i s eyes f l i c k e r to other students he e n g a g e s i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . Donald  was  attended to  the task  painting,  involvement  i n the  that  no e v i d e n c e  of  particular  exploration  or  emotion.  I  but  there  witnessed  thoughtfulness,  was  not  i n Anna.  as  the There  imaginative  was  S i m o n e ' s p a i n t i n g i s v e r y f l o w i n g and s e n s i t i v e . She, t o o , reaches up h i g h , and r e a c h e s a c r o s s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s p o t s . T h i s work i s more t e n t a t i v e than A n n a ' s u t t e r a b s o r p t i o n . She seems t o t a k e a l i t t l e step back to survey the work. Although  t h e r e were  pleasing, to  she  appraise  appears to lack  of  extend  follows  her  reveal  the  ideas.  "Craig  does  rather  following gestures.  the  work, a  absorption  painting  passages  directions  almost  lack of and the  his  abruptly  confidence fact  is  whole the  that  for  focus,  the  eye.  the  her  There and  actions  rightness  were  step  back  tentativeness  does  not  leaning across little  flow.  doing a l l the  indeed.  for  attempt  to  the  He  is  suggested  is  her  is  evidence  set  apart  reach of  the  of the  On a n o t h e r  i n her  shapes t h a t day Kathryn  go a r o u n d t h e  told  circle,  things.  i n the  the  to  by s e v e r a l to  foot  engagement  with  every reason  attention  is  by  gaining  details,  with  of  it,  draw  both  arresting  quality  and r e f i n e m e n t  i n t u i t i v e sense she  step  and were  imaginative extension  and  this  is  and the  f e e l i n g which r e s u l t s  given,  There  sustained  extended  her  into  enjoying themselves  w o r k . Anna  and her  movement,  going to  the  are  w h i c h may a c c o u n t  she  c h i l d r e n entered  absorption,  her  thinking  they  future  Her u t t e r  of  which  1 1  s t e p make b e l i e v e v e r y w e l l  ideas  that  and w i t h  and  including  d i r e c t l y . Her  r e a c h i n g and  directions,  On t h e  believe  i n Simone's portrayal  of  of  the  creating. children that everyone,  they  in turn,  were doing  75 a  gesture,  This  holding i t  was done  for  for  three  a minute  words,  x  The c h i l d r e n had an o p p o r t u n i t y the of  feeling convincingly, expressing these Following  groups.  the saw.  teacher  gestures,  so t h a t  eyes  I were  into  then  she  students  thought she  students  who w e r e  crying",  of  "lived the  They gave "sad",  Another  and  ^fierce'. express  children's  ways  were  her  placed  emotion  The o t h e r  emotion based  feelings  and v e r y  arms  students, on what  well  Anna's  group  convincingly;  comfort.  and  person  Although  a l l  A n n a a g a i n d r e w my e y e b e c a u s e portrayal  appropriate it"  ways t o  of  the  were  such answers  able one  as  to  communicate  the  The  identify  g r o u p was  of  emotion.  i n a c o n v i n c i n g manner.  audience  we  and  very  around another  of  in  in  limbs low, sagging body,  w h i c h made t h e m t h i n k t h a t  "sadness".  see.  a v a r i e t y movements  s e n s i t i v i t y of her  but  and  a particular  i n a gesture  particular  fists,  find  put  the  actions  the  a tableau.  with  children participated,  emotion,  to  a way t o  other  Anna moved s l o w l y  the  only  of  see  communicated the  and h e l d them t h e r e ,  She n o t  *sad',  think  guess the  to  looked bereft,  averted,  others  g u e s s i n g went v e r y q u i c k l y .  sadness.  indeed  and t o  to  able  the  to  express  freeze  were  happy',  preparation,  some w h i c h  portrayed she  to  and  Students  indeed  this  then  the  emotions.  The g r o u p was t o  movement,  for  the  showing  "...the  people  One c h i l d  with  were  "weeping".  group portrayed  hopping around with  anger.  displays of  temper  shaking  caught  my  eye  76 with  his  across group then  effective  his  chests,  effort, another  teacher,  portrayal. with  too,  was  child  Kathryn,  his  face  amended  the  " T h e way h e ' s  jumping". Just  to  been  a  to  This  group understood  invest  o f ways t o  using their  responded  understanding also  able  with  guesses based  observation  to  of  significantly  to  strong  belief  observed,  "He seems m a d , "  I  had been  the  others.  drawn t o  the  He h a d b e e n  conveying anger, with  and  and  boy able  had  feeling.  movement  and b o d i e s .  in their able  the  it  Not a l l the  portrayals,  to  express  yet  a l l own  and s a t i s f a c t i o n .  The  they  by the  saw and u n d e r s t o o d .  appears,  can  and  students  their  emotion portrayed  had  the  students others This  contribute  learning.  of  the  i n the  dance  answered,  through  The Ten Y e a r The t e a c h e r  They  show t h i s  on what  others,  so.  The  an e m o t i o n and  enjoyment read  "Angry".  "Mad?"  portray  and were  were  This  how t o  faces  with  folded  by anger.  to,  and  t h e s e movements  equally effective  class  as  so were  able  drama,  look",  arms  Someone s a i d ,  thought  r e c o g n i z a b l e ways o f  repertoire  were  an angry  so c o n v i n c i n g ,  think of  answer  a s k e d why t h e y  got  with  distorted  e a s i l y guessed.  "Because h e ' s  who w a s  He f r o z e  is  dance  benefits  expensive  Olds' club, of  for  Class Cynthia,  dance  for  students.  expressed  students.  As  By o r g a n i z i n g  she  77 dance  clubs  for  each  age  four/five/six  and grade  opportunities  for  of  the  time  students,  she  seven  students,  she  at  expended  support  from  school colleagues  pleased  to  be  students  such as  style  rehearsal  with  declared dance  that.  afford  composition event,  club,  the  opportunities  the  between  ran  students,  number  of  an  after  of the  the  many  hope  film  school.  dance  and club  classrooms  that  as  Cynthia  students  the  for  next  exemplars.  In  provided  for  to  admit the  i n eagerly,  went  to  term  student any  invest  them o w n e r s h i p o f to  dance  with time-limited  her  that  gained were  emphasized technique  dance  opened  she  home a n d  of  were  the  dressing  success  drawn from  for  duties  the  who a t t e n d e d  to  required,  Parents  The l a r g e  structure  which gave  gym d o o r s they  makeup,  dance  Through  of  grades  H e r own  teaching  include opportunities of  which  and e f f o r t .  aspects  in sight,  structures  qualities  When t h e dance  the  she  She e x p r e s s e d  and v i e w i n g  s t u d e n t s were  to  but  and p a r e n t s .  ties  students  time to  within  expressive  that  goal  and w i t h  reinforced would  attests  club;  a performance  practices  effective  school concerts,  clothes,  i n strengthening  i n the  at  support.  many i n w o r k i n g  Cynthia  time  costuming,  and p r o v i d i n g backstage  initiative  no c o s t ,  included in various  preparations,  dress  created  had few unbooked noon h o u r s . of her  school  one/two/three,  beyond r e g u l a r  performances  parents,  grades  a commitment o f  and e f f o r t  enormous;  group,  the  waiting the  dance.  students  change  rooms  78 behind  the  stage to  remove t h e i r standing times.  shoes  change  and s o c k s .  directions to  At the  the  floor  all  were  practice  end o f  beside  into  time  stage,  teacher  agenda  the  day.  for  of nine  were  and t e n  club,  dance  a c t i v i t i e s . They were  optimism  and a b e l i e f  loved  participate  to  particularly  sequence  the  up I  that  could  parents,  can't  get  another  her  allowing  "I  were  her  to  perform at  this  They were  sit  on  When  in  the  part  in  the  general Jennifer,  declared,  who  "I  1 1  d e s c r i b e d how  doing a  prior to  to  was  nervous.  evening  this  (11294).  she  movement  she  the  knew t h a t  nervous  gym t w o  self-consciousness,  because  chance"  had  to  participating)  Patricia  times  to  the  take  is  it;  i f  I  Jennifer,  perform,  c o n f i d e n c e and composure was an a s s e t  Students critical.  others  to  and  teacher.  and i n s p o r t s  nervousness  the  that  the  do w e l l .  performance,  for  recognizing  assemble  o l d who w e r e  expressed  wrong number o f  described her  performance mess  they  also  i n a dance  of the  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a  during performance.  made m i s t a k e s  outside  and eager  i n dance  students  they  of  s h o w o f f my p o w e r . . . ( t h r o u g h  But these  Ruth  that  emerged,  would g i v e them  years  enthusiastic  and T - s h i r t s ,  would  i n front  the  dance  like  they  assembled,  Children  to  As they  run around the  this  the  shorts  to  understood her,  well. s t a g e were  aware  of  also  different  beginning to  be  skill  and  levels  self-  expressed  concern that  was c r i t i c a l I  was  good"  "really  for  of herself, (11294).  will)  do a good  a dancing part caused  when y o u d o n ' t  know" i n the  Ruth to  get  the  less  dance the  good.  words  of  resulted  one  "...never  (thought)  and t h a t  it  was  " i f  dancing poorly,  they'll  An u n s u c c e s s f u l  audition  of  reflect,  concerned  They agreed  movements  chorus  Patricia  Ruth s a i d that  job"  (11294).  skills.  an "It  out-of-school doesn't  feel  good  part".  The s t u d e n t s were or  she  interview,  d a n c i n g good and y o u ' r e  audience  production  l a c k e d needed  saying that  I n an  important...to  everyone's (the  they  that  with  what  a thorough  made  dances  mastery  i n a more p l e a s i n g  of  dance.  good  the  These  are  student:  T h a t [ q u a l i t a t i v e ] d i f f e r e n c e i s when y o u d o n ' t know them and y o u k e e p on f o r g e t t i n g them and when y o u g e t u s e d t o them y o u j u s t remember them and y o u r f e e t just d o i t . . . y o u c a n d o i t b e t t e r now t h a t y o u k n o w i t (11294). Jennifer in  dance,  recognized active  noting that  engagement o f  s u c h d a n c i n g was more  the  whole  enjoyable  self  to  watch. I t l o o k s d i f f e r e n t when t h e y ' r e more e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t h e i r moves. L i k e i n s t e a d o f j u s t g o i n g l i k e t h i s ( i l l u s t r a t e d a n o n c o m m i t t a l t e n t a t i v e movement) they w o u l d j u s t go ( i l l u s t r a t e s a v i b r a n t e x t e n d e d movement) l i k e that, rush i t sort of instead of just going slow..." (11294).  According important things.  If  to  to  Ruth,  ensure  you used  l e a r n i n g a n d u s i n g new m a t e r i a l  audience the  appeal.  old things  "You need  the  to  learn  dances would  be  was new  80 really  b o r i n g . You have  before"  club,  had a l a r g e  Because o f Concert  w h i c h met  practice  performance,  of the  viewing  and  film  never  Two d a n c e s ,  seductive  spiritual  i n tone  interviewed.  s c h o o l and at  images,  one  saw  i t  excerpts  reflect older  enthusiasm  preferred  of  on  classes.  dance was  other  the  teacher.  in  popular  dance and  more a b s t r a c t students  and  whom I  popular dance,  and commitment o f the  not  qualitative  students  involving  and the  noon  impending Christmas  were d i s c u s s e d by the  Jennifer  various  planned by the  was o f f e r e d when t h e  somewhat  important  time  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  performed.  the  after  learning experiences  differences  that  people  membership drawn from  limited  However,  club  the  Dance  The d a n c e  part  make s u r e  (11294).  Analyzing  hours,  to  dancers  feeling  made  an  difference.  . . . t h a t was r e a l l y f u n t o l o o k a t . . . t h e y w e r e s o e n t h u s i a s t i c with the scarves, i t ' s l i k e they r e a l l y e n j o y e d i t s o much t h a t t h e y w o u l d do i t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y a l l the time and they c o u l d n ' t stop (11294). This  dance,  popular  however,  culture  more c l o s e l y  resembled dance  s u p p l i e d by t e l e v i s i o n  was more r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t e d  than  the  images  and v i d e o s , other  more  and  of  thus  ambiguous  dance. Of dance  the  that  second dance, much b e c a u s e  i t  Jennifer looked  said, like  "I  didn't  like  s o m e t h i n g was  that  there  81 that  didn't  Ruth,  belong...(that)  on t h e  differences were  other  hand,  between  the  enjoyable Sheer  and  students  y o u r arms  that's  really  Patricia  and  change-kick"  look  feeling to  "I  (11294)..  like  both  engagement Jennifer  "...interesting  working hard  that  the  getting  was  a n d t h e y make y o u a muscle i n s i d e feels  the  w h e r e we h a v e  part  too,  expressed  described  and t h a t  Ruth,  dances  watch.  physical  are  boring"(11294).  concerned with  interviewed.  legs  declared,  i t  less  dances,  i n the  p l e a s i n g movement as that  was  interesting  pleasure  by a l l t h r e e  made  nice"  describes  a feel  them  (11294). kick-  sheer  physical  engagement. I f e l t good about t h a t p a r t . That p a r t w a s n ' t too h a r d , b u t i t was k i n d o f h a r d d o i n g t h e f o o t t h i n g . I l i k e d i t b e c a u s e I l i k e k i c k i n g my f e e t . I d o n ' t k n o w w h y , b u t I l i k e k i c k i n g my f e e t (11294). Evidence  of Aesthetic  On t h e dance the  first  day of o b s e r v a t i o n ,  club students  steps.  Engagement  that  they  would  She p r o v i d e d a l i t t l e  the  teacher  start  jingle,  "One-two-three-  repeated  as  concentrated  on t h e i r  feet.  tried  these  ragged  first  and t h e i r  The t e a c h e r softly,  eyes  movements, feet  fixed the  l i n e s of  came down h a r d  d i r e c t e d them t o  and c o r r e c t e d the  spaces  between  they As  students  on t h e  change  the  by l e a r n i n g a l l  step-back-step-front" , which they fiercely,  told  they were  floor.  places, dancers.  to  step  They  82 repeated  the  sequence  by t h e  teacher  and t o  relax a l i t t l e !  resulted were  the  less  to  several  bend t h e i r  times.  elbows as  A l l told,  this  to  freer,  became  do t h e  they  told  moved,  d i r e c t i v e at  improvement i n the lighter,  They were  this  time  lines.  The  dancers  smoother,  and  the  the  steps,  familiar  with  movements more p r e c i s e l y  and  flow.  s t e p by s t e p . and s t y l e  club teacher The t e a c h e r  through d i r e c t  to  touch the  example,  they  she  teaching,  reaching  club.  little  appeared  to  manner.  she  on  fully  engage  arid d e m o n s t r a t e d  instantly there  was  f o c u s e d on t h r e e  the  dance  technique  d i d not  imagery with  and  I  ignore  skill  each  "soft  in  child. hands"  were t w e n t y - t w o  to  do.  to  the  l o o k up and t o  but  as  hands  Patricia, she  sequences connect  to  to  be  the  a  who  moved steps,  do i n c r e a s i n g l y  various times,  her  the  student  however,  mastered  new t o  seemed  watching another  g a i n c o n f i d e n c e a n d was a b l e repeated  students  listened very hard,  noted her  know w h a t  As she  started  and t o  and g r a c e f u l l y , and as  seemed t o well.  spirit  Patricia  confused.  lightly  add t o  softly.  My a t t e n t i o n dance  yet  She u s e d  suggested  did a reach,  continued to  p l a c e d an emphasis  emotional connection.  order For  steps  As they  were a b l e  The dance  the  look  ragged.  dancers  with  to  in a visible  starting  lines  not  of  movements  she  in a  flowing  83 Jennifer,  on t h e  the  steps  and t h e r e  the  lunge or  reached  she  appeared  at  On t h e dances over  Jennifer part  style  to  with  w h i c h made  steps,  students.  This  Ruth,  the  did  flow,  and t o o  the  her  into  movements,  and rhythm were  clean,  ease,  good.  added u n t i l  the  and r o u t i n e s , and  finesse their  well-timed.  Both Jennifer  dancing with  stage with  students Both of  essential to  other  for  be  at  hand,  the  high  really  f i t  she  i t  and  feeling  exciting  thinking  i f a little  lost  to  watch.  challenge  d i d not  with  sharp  times.  for the  of  the  components, knowing,  thinking "feeling  work.  focused. at  and  add a d i m e n s i o n o f  aesthetic  a n d s o was n o t  was n o t  to  these  s t e p s was d i f f i c u l t nor  two  a special challenging  own a n d made  were h u r r i e d w i t h  commitment; happy,  their  part,  on the  of the  gestures  invest  helped the  were  Mastery  hard  i t  stretched  followed  steps  individual.  and f e e l i n g .  about  not  to  mastered  and had p r o v i d e d m o d e l i n g and imagery f o r  feeling,  good"  do,  one  had s e t  sensitivity and  the  was a b l e  able  she  have  and Lynn were d e v e l o p i n g  flowing,  were  to  days more s t e p s were  Jennifer  to  as  timing  sure,  The t e a c h e r the  flow  became  fell  appeared  Her eyes  Having mastered  which  Patricia  high.  ease and her  built.  time.  hand,  was a n i c e  following  were  movements  other  progress her.  Her  music.  quite  on t h e  edges  and  Y e t she  as  far.  movements  She l e a p t beat.  too  Her  lacked  seemed  perky  and  84 By p e r f o r m a n c e where  she  of  of  aesthetic  teacher  in  to  A less  have  the  is  be  placed Ruth  enjoyed. might  Ruth was,  students  row.  i n the  that  i n the  sensitive put  one  front  she  where  classes  who t a u g h t  had about  keeping with "definitely children  his  his  students  students on h i s  dance,  to  feel  priority  i n order  i n those  list.  activities  which  with  he  to  dancers  other see  short them.  Eight nine/ten  experience. and as  sought  to  In  a know  them i n t h e  provide  the  best arts,  experiences  Creating opportunities build  classes his  called  for  c o n f i d e n c e was were  students.  upon  high  structured  p h i l o s o p h y , and a t  growth for  i n Claude's classes  Ruth  teacher  own g r o w t h i n t h e  desire  H i s dance  the  and grade  teach  and t o  time promoted a e s t h e t i c  Grade  eight  to  stage  two  this,  could  students",  areas.  successful  ways w h i c h were c o n s i s t e n t same  Class:  his  and o f h i s  a spot  teaching  on t h e  He s p o k e o f  of  other  Her  and  more s p e c t a c u l a r  child-centered" teacher,  ways p o s s i b l e .  for  "focus  the  parents  grade  seven years  individually  especially  the  feeling.  child-centered  their  point  advanced  placed Ruth with  The T h i r t e e n Y e a r O l d s ' Claude,  than  of the  a  difficulties  a less  row,  less  reached  or the  in spite  front or  Instead  at  i n dance  noted  chosen to  front  thinking  i n sum,  understanding  It  the  yet  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s m a l l  finesse.  dancers.  Ruth had not  focused on e i t h e r  d a n c i n g was s t i l l lack  time,  in the  Lesson  students'  85 t h i n k i n g powers at  the  same  creating  time emphasized expressive  opportunities  Classes students was t h e good  for  the  in this  out  of  the  the  floor  way f o r space  first  the  or  this  floor  school, students year  This the  or  grade  eight  to  dance  entered  sat  i n the  the  on c h a i r s  students  i n the  first  stood  at  year  the  side  the  of  i n groups  class  as  for  of with  know one  secondary drew  district.  formed,  a group of  t h e r e was much more a c t i v i t y progressed.  of  arriving  d i d not  On o c c a s i o n a s t u d e n t for  centre  drama room  French immersion program  steps  back  a c t i v i t i e s were g r e e t e d  whole  year  curtains  an ambiance a b o u t  the  and o f t e n  a  inviting.  and f r i e n d s h i p s were  friends.  demonstrate  the  and s t a g e  v a r i o u s schools around the  i n groups  animatedly  many o f  which  gym. T h e r e was  they were q u i e t ,  get-acquainted  nine/ten  drama room,  The l i g h t i n g  eight  Students  as  the  T h e r e was  i n dance,  and  thus  were u s u a l l y p u l l e d  seemed  was b e c a u s e  from  but  grade  i n the  to  ideas,  growth.  activity,  i n grade  in pairs.  progressed  arrived  place  class.  space  session  enthusiasm  another.  for  elements,  and the  adjacent  was b r i g h t .  room. E a r l y  quiet  took  space  When s t u d e n t s  alone,  eight  be moved a r o u n d ,  room and t h e  their  aesthetic  grade  black floor  could  for  study,  backstage  sized  which  i n d e v e l o p i n g and e x t e n d i n g t h e i r  As  the  students talking would  friends.  and c o n v e r s a t i o n  practice On  the  before  86 During  first  classes  often  slow to  begin  field  notes describe  asked  to  i n the  knowledge  of  comfortable  some  was  other  age  adolescents,  they  sessions  important  i n the not  least  c a n be  In  of  school,  secondary  of  skill.  "Some p e o p l e guess  were  medium s u c h  Students' lack  At the  especially  it's  lessons  they  had  and h a d met  and  Early were  Students  selfacquired  a  felt  as  issue  students  addition,  as  yet  drawn  they  have  of  the  they  getting  (would h e l p ) "  of  the  how t o  lessons  (21194).  were  term  than  young  being  in  their  with  many  in  parts  all-important  ideas  using  and  a  feelings  adolescence.  their need  the  by  are  as  Further,  express  conscious  a clue  grade  from d i f f e r e n t  in place.  dance to  very  in  explained  a new s e t t i n g  beginning  not  in  self-consciousness  Connie expressed  easier  influential  intimidating in early  were  don't  extremely  t r a d i t i o n a l l y acknowledged  French immersion students  physical  classes.  session.  of which that  sensitivity.  friendships  until  were  when s t u d e n t s  T h i s may b e  other  peer  felt  more  study.  the  a group  district.  the  first  c r u c i a l here  year  the  panic"  and  first  of  of  students  friends.  considerably  factors,  parts  i n the  dance s t e p s ,  an  groups  of  that  particularly  revealed  stage  " f l u r r y of  w i t h new  eight  a  a  first  Confidence,  several  movement  in interviews  conscious  semester,  the  do t r a v e l l i n g s t e p s  revealed  dance,  i n the  to  dance  first,...  own  perceived  acquire  skills.  -like  me - a n d  so  think  I  I  more  87 Students technique James  i n order  to  claimed that,  through feet  recognized the  dance,  but  and s t e p s  importance  of  acquiring  e f f e c t i v e l y convey ideas  "You're the  trying to  thing  and s t u f f  is  portray  dance.  your  i f you've got  you can portray  in  feelings  those  happy o r  fast sad..."  (21194) Will, the  too,  people  had c a r e f u l l y a n a l y z e d t e c h n i q u e .  who t a k e  it  s e r i o u s l y and t h e y ' r e  their  movements  are  crisper  and when i t  their  movements  are  lighter  and s l o w e r "  In  the  grade  some p r e v i o u s years  of  skills  eight  dance  them dance.  of  experience,  experience.  and dance  class  Other  concentrated, to  be  light  (21194). five  r a n g i n g from  students  experience,  Megan n o t e d  thirty,  has  " Y o u know  students two t o  admired students  saying that  they  liked  had  five who h a d to  watch  that  T h e r e ' s l o t s o f people t h a t have taken dance a l r e a d y and I l i k e how t h e y c a n d a n c e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a l o t o f e x p e r i e n c e and I l i k e w a t c h i n g t h a t because it's u s u a l l y a b i t b e t t e r than everybody e l s e does (21194). James  admired the  experience. experience Analyzing  "I  apparent  guess  cause  it's  to  admire the easier  for  those  with  dance  students with them"  dance  (10994).  Dance  Some s t u d e n t s true  I  ease of  life  or  i n grade  that  p o p u l a r media such as  eight  approved dances  conformed w i t h music videos.  images  of  F o r James  that  dance the  were  seen  video,  in  88 Four  C o m i c M e n w h i c h d e p i c t e d men e n g a g e d  manly e x e r c i s e kicked in  "We w a t c h e d h o w t h e s e  and  guys  themselves  the  weird  was e n j o y a b l e .  in a skilled  butt  and used  sounds"  dedication,  these  (10994).  b i g metal  pots  He a d m i r e d t h e i r  deeming t h e i r  dance  a n d made  practice  w o r t h w h i l e and  a l l  these  and appropriate.  I t would have t a k e n a l o t o f t r a i n i n g . . . i t always t a k e s t i m e t o do and i t w o u l d have t a k e n a l o n g t i m e t o do t h a t b e c a u s e i t ' s a r o u t i n e and i t ' s s t e p s o v e r s t e p s o v e r s t e p s , j u s t r e p e t i t i o n and t h e y k e p t d o i n g t h e same t h i n g u n t i l i t t u r n e d o u t t o b e f u n n y ( 1 0 9 9 4 ) . A n o t h e r v i d e o was L'Oiseau toned  Exotique, featured  body s u i t  James'  response  response  shown a day o r  to  two l a t e r .  a male dancer  performing a sensitive to  this  clad  in a  balletic  v i d e o was q u i t e  This  video,  flesh-  dance.  different  from  his  Four Comic Men.  W e l l , I h a v e some v e r y s t r o n g f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h a t v i d e o . I d o n ' t know - I d i d n ' t r e a l l y l i k e i t b e c a u s e t h a t man w a s n u d e . ( L a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s e n t e n c e w a s almost w h i s p e r e d ) . I t h i n k i t would have been b e t t e r i f he was i n c o s t u m e as a b i r d o r s o m e t h i n g o r e v e n as a mime w h e r e t h e y h a v e t h o s e b o d y s u i t s i n s t e a d o f b e i n g n u d e . W h e t h e r i t made h i m w e i r d o r w h a t e v e r i t made h i m show p r i d e a n d s t u f f b u t i t was t o o f u n n y . I t w a s n ' t d a n c e t o u s ; i t was t h i s guy b e c o m i n g l i k e a s t r e a k e r or whatever (10994). James  d i d not  saying,  " H i s moves w e r e n ' t  James' his  offense  inability  conventions. look  for  acknowledge the  to  at  the  skill  that  hard"  L'Oiseau  move b e y o n d t h e  His rejection  ways t h a t  it  of  the  might have  involved  i n the  dancing,  (10994).  film  certain dance related  excerpt  indicated  limited d i d not to  his  allow  him  to  89 understandings propriety which  or  feelings.  The dance  because  a man w a s  involved  d i d not  behaviour  conform to  i n James'  models of  male a b o r i g i n a l dancers The d a n c e r s '  observed would of  by James  like  the  to  i n acceptance  likely  that  of  Danielle L'Oiseau  the  body,  described Her  i n grade  Exotique'.  dance  freedom of  of the  music  and a l l the  could  be  sliding  high  she  genres,  i t  seems  was c o n s i s t e n t  I  reception and more  with  James'  behaviour.  also  described the  and making h i g h rapid,  leaps,  used  leaps.  She  like  leaps,  the  but  T h e r e was a c a r e f r e e  dance  felt this  this  in a l l  graceful. there  was a  style  She commented on  a fairy.  she  and  because  and because little.  dancer  dancer  delicate,  interest  saying that  a fairy,  were  Although  in attitude  had seen  little  aggressive  a change  male  as  Australian  i n James'  dance  innocence,  representing  importance.  masculine  body c o v e r i n g s  S h e d i s c u s s e d how t h e  dancer,  freedom and o f  of  dancing  featuring  scanty  i m p r e s s i o n was one o f  of which  and  of  sense  difference  as  eight  t h e s e movements  initial  later  of different  appropriate  turning,  dance  w i t h o u t comment.  the  Australian  w e r e many d i f f e r e n t of  for  v a r i o u s male dancers  perceptions  in a kind  in a war-like,  but  and o t h e r s  growth  N  engaged  dramatic  account  the  his  world.  A v i d e o was s h o w n some w e e k s  dance.  offended  made o n e  Because of  that  the  was n o t  mood i n t h e  of  dance  the  think the  dancer central  90 heightened feel  student  details  see  use  happy and f r e e , This  as  by the  that  might  was a b l e  dance,  while  She was n o t  new t o  her  as  even a l i t e r a l  representing  feeling  of  age  own l i f e ,  them as  a source  of  comfort  in creating  thirteen ideas  that  we k n e w h o w t o  fairy, innocence. to  was a b l e  to  in  dance.  James  i t  see  share  familiar  describes  to  his  theme.  "We a l l  w a s p l a y e d a n d we a l l  p l a y so  to  threatening.  around a b a s e b a l l  k n e w w h a t b a s e b a l l was a n d how i t part  than  drew on what was  i n dance.  a dance  or  and was a b l e  rather  such  interpretation  freedom or  freedom conveyed i n the at  her  obvious,  a bird  such as  interesting, her  made  it.  bound by narrow c o n c e p t i o n s ,  Students  a  The dance  move b e y o n d t h e  concepts  She saw r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o the  liked  to  of costuming, or  the  costume.  and she  symbolize other  a genre  of the  became  had  easier"  (21194). Over t i m e , ideas  for  dance.  heightened of  take  at  the  students  Megan i n g r a d e  awareness.  the ideas  ideas and I  became more s e n s i t i v e t o  "Well  i n so  I  think,  eight  sometimes  expressed I  look  c a n have more x  0h,  I  can use  at  possible  this it  ideas.  I  that  for  and  just  kind look  (dance)'"  (21194). As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , v i d e o s and d a n c e r s ideas  which  after  two c o n s e c u t i v e c l a s s e s  ideas.  "I  students  think that  could  draw upon.  we w i l l  reflects try  to  Will's his  find  provided  journal  written  receptiveness  a way  to  to  91 incorporate following levels,  what  (the  day a f t e r  much s p a c e  considered  visitor)  viewing  for  a v i d e o he w r o t e ,  and c r e a t e d  application of  demonstrated  his  a mood". Here, learning to  us."  The  "They i n c l u d e d too,  their  he  own  group  dance. Many s t u d e n t s dance.  Will  ideas...I I  commented t h a t  never  t h i n k about  now"  found music to  thought  how i t  about  how  at  [music] so  I  of  ideas  for  " . . . t h i n k i n g up  made me  feel...now  c a n do t h a t  better  (30195).  although  an  a source  he was b e t t e r  m a k e s me f e e l  Group work o f t e n  the  be  ideas  this of  f a c i l i t a t e d the  required others.  flexibility  A s one  i d e a and s t i c k w i t h  ideas  and  it  kind  As t i m e went  of  possibilities for  the  dance  where words c o u l d  gets  of  ability  allowed,  transformed became  felt  that  into  ideas, to  accept  "You don't  Everybody combines t h e i r  expression  James  and the  student  on s t u d e n t s  the  course,  it.  generation  one"  own  (21194).  i n c r e a s i n g l y aware  i n dance. dance  Midway  could  get  of  through  communicate  not.  You c a n r e a l l y show what y o u t h i n k . . . w h a t y o u ' r e f e e l i n g even i f they (the audience) d o n ' t have words f o r i t . . . W i t h d a n c e y o u c a n show t h a t e x a c t same w a y , t h a t e x a c t same t h i n g y o u f e l t b e f o r e b u t y o u n e v e r know how t o d e s c r i b e i t i n w o r d s - t h e r e ' s h o t a w o r d for i t (21194). Sensitive performances, professional  to  the  qualitative differences  many s t u d e n t s w a n t e d t h e i r and g o o d .  Journal  entries  of  between  dances the  to  look  students  92 reveal  their  concern with  " . . . d o i n g as  well  as  the  other  groups." R e a l i s m was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t realism  is  comment, think of  "I  that's  or  a story In  with  redesign outback.  "  that  dramatic sure  of  and  "I  think  in a  later  realistically...", our  realism."  and  He  spoke  a whole group d a n c e . " . . . w e ' r e It  would have he  been b e t t e r  comes t o  a lake,  or  -  "I  in  y o u know  some  more  (30195).  group dances  large  have  crocodiles or  line  real,  using  to  James.  what you d o " ,  w h e r e we l o s t m o s t  Australian  kangaroos  no m a t t e r  preferred  how he w o u l d  the  of  important  to  James'  best  action.  moments w e r e  F o r e x a m p l e he  associated  showed freedom  ,  movements when he was d e p i c t i n g b a s e b a l l .  W h a t I l i k e d a b o u t t h e f i r s t t i m e w a s we w e r e d o i n g b a s e b a l l , s o we l e a r n e d t h e s t e p s a n d i t w a s n ' t a s h a r d b e c a u s e i t was e a s y movements a n d i t w a s n ' t l i k e d a n c e w h e r e i t w a s v e r y t e c h n i c a l . We w e r e t r y i n g t o d e s c r i b e e a s y t h i n g s l i k e w h a t d o e s i t l o o k l i k e when y o u comb y o u r h a i r w i t h o u t a m i r r o r , o r how y o u b r u s h y o u r teeth (21194). While case  for  r e a l i s m was  a l l students.  was s t r e n g t h leave  where groups  of  the  you d o n ' t to  Will,  in leaving  some t h i n g s  faculties  important  audience. want t o  t h i n k about  you t h i n k and s t u f f "  it  on the  a dance  unanswered  to  James, other  open t o  and thus  "Sometimes  make i t  too  or whatever  (21194).  to  this hand,  felt  engage the  precise its  good t h a t  the  there  interpretation,  it's  so  was n o t  to  thinking way  and you want fun.  It  makes  93  Evidence of A e s t h e t i c Engagement E a r l y i n the s c h o o l term s t u d e n t s were g i v e n a group assignment. Each group was t o do a two-minute  dance, d u r i n g  which t h e r e were f i v e music changes. Each music change meant a change i n dynamics and space. Claude had been t e a c h i n g toward t h i s assignment. In the l e s s o n s l e a d i n g up t o t h i s assignment, students had been i n t r o d u c e d t o and g i v e n a c h a r t of The Elements of Movement; Claude had demonstrated, g i v i n g examples of changes i n dynamics and use of space, f o l l o w i n g which the students e x p l o r e d and p r a c t i s e d these elements. To f u r t h e r s t u d e n t s ' understanding, v i d e o e x c e r p t s had been c r i t i q u e d i n terms of the elements of movement. In  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r assignment students were g i v e n an  open-ended to  n a r r a t i v e , e n t i t l e d , F r i d a y Night, around which  b u i l d t h e i r dance. The n a r r a t i v e was as f o l l o w s . I t i s F r i d a y n i g h t and you are p r e p a r i n g t o meet your f r i e n d s . You leave your house and walk t o meet them. You are g r e e t i n g them, when a l l of a sudden another member of your group a r r i v e s and t e l l s you of an i n c i d e n t which has happened. He t e l l s you t o f o l l o w , which the group does. The group sees the problem and reacts to i t .  Claude asked the students t o c o n s i d e r how they would how they would f e e l .  react,  He a s s i s t e d them i n t h i s p r o j e c t by  r e l a t i n g each step of the sequence t o one of the music e x c e r p t s , each of which p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l emotional engagement f o r the b u i l d i n g  story.  Claude had p r o v i d e d the s t u d e n t s w i t h the necessary s t r u c t u r e f o r them t o be s u c c e s s f u l . Within the s a f e t y of  94 these  parameters  ideas,  students  and c o u l d  feeling  as  they  Students  invest could  for  several  for  and r e f i n e  gained  as  we w e n t  practice  together  sessions  group,  from  the  three  boys  u n i s o n and c o n t r a s t i n g  the  story  boys'  made for in  line.  dance,  highly  as  well  desire  for  as  each  periods  to  presentation and  each  group  group.  After  group had  changes  for  it  the  which  by  i m p r o v e d and  w o u l d be p e r f o r m i n g .  this  practice  kind  girls'  dance  Steady  working together  their  into  ability of  were  free  they  use  had an  of the  in  account to  the  concept,  Their practices  space  well  and n a r r a t i v e  which took  performance  in  in putting  A l l members  original  larger  they  through a  moves.  worked  engaged  pattern  restricted  the  twice i n the  When t h i s  and  a c t i o n and the  and r e f i n e m e n t .  a narrow h a l l  and two g i r l s ,  variations  synchronized tight  suggestions  try  group to  moves,  T h e r e was b o t h  Immediately p r i o r to to  for  feedback,  b e g i n n i n g . They were  out  the  from  task.  class  provided to  and  confidence.  Will's  their  dances  Regular positive  improvement were  Claude and myself four  their  original  much s e n s i t i v i t y  worked i n groups  classmates.  or  as  own  particular  to  three  these with  their  the  practice  suggestions  use  bring to  compose, their  could  do  group  and  later  conducted of  space.  opportunity  drama room  improvement o c c u r r e d  where over  session. group performed  for  of transformational  their  peers,  experience.  Will  went  Up u n t i l  that  95 time  he was o b s e r v e d  instruction, movement. actually seemed  B u t when t h e  to  anticipating  flowed  others  vigor  of  his  u n i t y and h e i g h t e n e d  his  improvisation,too, It  was a s  transformed, dance. force  audience  was  first  acknowledged the Claude  said to  breakthrough! Not  apparent  to  once  as  He u s e d  dance  silent,  magic h o l d  of  of  movement. a  was  it  a  full  This  graceful. somehow moment  a kind  a n d made  kind  sequence,  l i e prone.  Will  create  then  new arm  movement became  and  was  actually  fight  he was t h i n k i n g i n t h e  the  Will space.  creating  In the  dramatic  to  dancers  t h o u g h he  swirl  intervals,  dance  his  and the  comfort,  the  stomach t o  i n the  of  of  spontaneous  exciting.  The  enthusiastically that  moment.  As the  "It  was a  teacher real  1 1  a l l aesthetic  are  next  me i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d ,  breakthroughs. ways t h a t  his  intuitively  enhanced  into  in  happened.  in turn.  a tentative  at  though  He a c t e d that  was  the  atmosphere.  onto  and t h a t  group  to  using greater  and apparent  voice at  had p r e v i o u s l y been by W i l l  i n place  extraordinary  and h i g h l i g h t i n g each  of  flip  was  attentive  wooden,  He m o v e d f r e e l y ,  improvised with  clean  somewhat  audience  He  what  i f  smoothly into  freely with the  enthusiastic,  something  come a l i v e !  E a c h movement  leading  be  and a c c u r a t e ,  performed,  gestures  to  understanding  At times, very real  the  viewer.  it  may o c c u r  is  realized in  in quiet  and s a t i s f y i n g t o  the  dramatic  moments, dancer,  in  and  96  Such an example may Group P r o j e c t which was  be found i n a p a r t of the l a r g e presented a t the c u l m i n a t i o n of the  term. There were i n d i v i d u a l , p a r t n e r , s m a l l group, and l a r g e group dances i n t h i s p r o j e c t . One  p a r t of the dance  r e p r e s e n t e d a v i l l a g e c e l e b r a t i o n , a send-off f o r a youth d e p a r t i n g on a symbolic voyage. Claude, the t e a c h e r , prepared the students by r e a d i n g them a s t o r y of such a journey, the i n i t i a t i o n i n t o adulthood. As w e l l , the students watched v i d e o examples of dances which p r o v i d e d r i c h imagery and examples of dance s t e p s . As t h i s dance o c c u r r e d l a t e i n the term, a l l students had experience i n a p p l i c a t i o n of the elements of movement. For one p a r t of the dance, Claude p r o v i d e d the s t r u c t u r e of a c i r c l e which was  t o i n v o l v e a l l the students  weaving around the young hero. Steps were i n d i v i d u a l l y designed ranging from a mere walk t o complex  rhythmic  p u l s i n g i n v o l v i n g the whole body. As the students danced i n the c i r c l e t o the music, they became v i s i b l y f r e e r , e n t e r i n g i n t o the dance with l a r g e r motions,  g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n s of  movement i n c l u d i n g improvised segments, and with enjoyment e v i d e n t i n the i n t e n s i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n brought t o the t a s k . My  eyes were drawn t o one student i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i s  g i r l used her whole body as she danced, she t w i r l e d as maintained  she  a complex rhythm p a t t e r n . Her arms were a t times  h e l d a l o f t , a t other times h e l d a t shoulder h e i g h t . Her f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n was  one of u t t e r a b s o r p t i o n i n the t a s k ;  97 she  seemed  able  to  dance  at  one w i t h  invest  a l l her  her  class  semester  Claude taught  classes  Claude  enjoyment  the  drama  with  grade  school year. class  for  create  Grade in  second  nine/ten  room p r o v i d e d t h e  was a  behold.  was o f f e r e d  grade  i n grade than  nine their  I marvelled at of  and t e n grade  9/10 the  semester, students.  necessary  their  dancing i n class,  space  and i n the  we11-motivated and a t t e n t i v e .  of  one  along with the  i n general  for  another.  my f i e l d  more  counterparts.  enthusiasm  task,  recorded  to  were  eight  group dances  beginning  to  In the  their  were  emotion to  lovely  eight  She  presentation.  i n dance and  ideas  music.  and S i x t e e n Year O l d s :  for  a dance  Students relaxed  of  the  and  original  Fifteen,  The dance  Once a g a i n ,  rhythm and the  own w h i c h w a s q u i t e  Fourteen,  first  the  and  apparent  presentation  They were  largely  The f o l l o w i n g  observations  at  of  on  comments the  term.  I am s u r p r i s e d i n t h e e x t r e m e a t t h e p l e a s u r e w h i c h t h e s e s t u d e n t s t a k e i n t h e d a n c e . The j o y o f movement i s almost palpable i n the groups which I o b s e r v e d . . . I am s u r p r i s e d a t t h e a b i l i t y a n d e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s t o p r e s e n t f o r one a n o t h e r . H a v i n g seen t h e hugely p a r a l y z i n g embarrassment o f grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s when a s k e d t o p r e s e n t f o r e a c h o t h e r o r e v e n t o move i n a g r o u p , t h i s seems q u i t e a m a z i n g . I t i s n o t t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e n o t e m b a r r a s s e d o r do n o t f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e t a k i n g a r i s k ; r a t h e r i t i s t h a t t h e y seem t o go ahead w i t h i t anyway, and t h a t t h e i r enthusiasm and d e s i r e t o dance seems t o t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r t h e s e o t h e r f a c t o r s . The movement h e r e i s n o t e x t r a o r d i n a r y , r a t h e r i t i s u n p o l i s h e d , but i n t e r e s t i n g . I t has a s p a r k o f commitment and o f e n t h u s i a s m .  98 It class,  is  important  eight  of the  second year, class  there  one  contributed  the  them t o  experience  (1990)  comes  playful  of  from of  lila)  lila)"  is  they  were  expressed  by the  the  the  students class,  after  they  who h a d  students previous felt  role  of out  practice  a sense  eight  were experiences group.  factors  of  from  o f wonder  in  aesthetic  acknowledged by  i n descriptions of and  the  taken  by the  i n some  (the  these  cases  practice:  compulsive experimentation  term,  practice  (the  impish  godlike  side  students  this  claimed  phenomenon was  than that  by the the  experience  class  grade  less  number o f  claimed  class  the  frequently  eight  students.  previous year's  experience  i n studio  made  dance  Observations confirmed students'  achieved levels of  a small  in this  self-conscious, p a r t i c u l a r l y at  students  or t h e i r  more c o m f o r t a b l e . that  grade  and p r a c t i c e were  borne  somewhat  of  in  the  for  (p.73).  beginning  Various  As i n the  comfort  " M a s t e r y comes  and from  nine/ten  attending  significant thresholds  Even t h o u g h a number o f that  were  these  i n t e n s i t y and a b s o r p t i o n , i n dance.  grade  students  Three of  feelings of  dedication  side  number o f  The i m p o r t a n t  Nachmanovitch  year.  Naturally,  reach  i n the  students  third  lessons.  The s t u d e n t s '  students'  the  dancers. to  that  eighteen  for  dance  accomplished  awareness.  note  was a s m a l l  some s t u d i o  allowing  to  comfort r e l a t i v e l y sessions.  Eric,  them  claims  quickly  sixteen  years,  99 who h a d no p r e v i o u s the  first  time,  experience  discussed  a n d who was  i n the  class  for  growing confidence.  At the beginning I found i t r e a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g to l e t m y s e l f go and do i t and g e t o v e r t h e f e a r and embarrassment. B u t I ' v e done i t f o r a w h i l e and i t ' s f i n e once y o u g e t t o know e v e r y o n e w e l l i n t h e c l a s s . . . I ' m r e a l l y c o m f o r t a b l e , I have no t r o u b l e d o i n g s t u f f anymore ( 1 0 6 9 5 ) . Some f e e l i n g s performances. dances  to  giggling  nervousness  Presentations  their or  of  p e e r s were  lack of their  dance,  before  right  moment,  the  ending.  Y e t , when t h i s  audience focused  of  parents  until  the  growing confidence Students need  for  form.  technique nine other  was  and t e n  of  "Le Loup", creating  dance  last  strikingly  one  moment.  to  through  because  concentration  than  know t h e  an  on the  the  aware  of  the  mastering of  disregard  technique.  h a d made  yet'"  grade  own d a n c e s  to  emotion  dance  to  performance.  their  chose  why t h e y  replied that  to  remained  by a group  teaching  focus  teacher,  they  students  perfect  later  p l a c e d on  dance  we d o n ' t  their  in this  demonstrated  and t o  by  nine  s i x t e e n were w e l l they  group  Practice contributed  students  student  term of  grade  less  The t e a c h i n g  by C l a u d e , the  choice,  a  and p e e r s ,  s t u d e n t s who w e r e  the  lost  w h i c h was m a n i f e s t  fourteen  i n the  was p e r f o r m e d  The i m p o r t a n c e  students.  emotions asked  of  early  For example,  teachers  very  accompany  a c c o m p a n i e d i n some c a s e s  focus.  presenting  made  did  such  to the  "When a  won't  come  100 Holly,  fourteen,  enjoyed  the  challenge  of  acquiring  technique. I l i k e d o i n g d a n c e s t h a t I know I c a n d o , b u t I h a v e n ' t done l i k e i f I have t o do a p i r o u e t t e o r s o m e t h i n g , and I h a v e n ' t done i t b e f o r e I l i k e d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w h e r e I c a n l e a r n t h a t new s t e p ( 1 0 6 9 5 ) . She d e s c r i b e d t h e step.  "I f e l t  satisfaction  r e a l l y good  that  'cause  followed  (in)  that  mastering  one  step  b e g i n n i n g w h e r e we d i d t h e  circle  I couldn't  figure  l e g movement.  when I  did it  like,  Then f i n a l l y  was  a  at  new  the  out  the  ^yeah!"  1  (10695) Absorption several  of  reflected appeared between not  the  that  engagement  students  different an  degrees  inverse  conscious  Eric,  i n dance  interviewed. of  was m e n t i o n e d  Students'  engagement.  and t o t a l  who e a r l i e r  d o i n g any dance,  to  engagement;  i n the  had grown t o  term  by  statements  However,  r e l a t i o n s h i p seemed  self-consciousness  co-exist.  could  or  felt  it  exist the  two  did  self-  a p o i n t where  he  say, I n e v e r g e t n e r v o u s , d u r i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e I j u s t go w i t h the f l o w , j u s t have fun w i t h i t . And then a f t e r I c a n t h i n k a b o u t w h a t I d i d w r o n g . I s o r t o f g e t mad sometimes i f I g o o f e d up and t h e n I g o t a bad mark f o r t h e g r o u p o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t a n d I g e t mad a t t h a t . D u r i n g i t I ' m i n t o i t and I d o n ' t r e a l l y n o t i c e i t . I don't r e a l l y get nervous or anything before (10695). Jeanette,  her  feelings  of  one  of  total  the  accomplished dancers,  describes  absorption.  When I ' m d a n c i n g I g e t t o t a l l y l o s t i n i t . . . s o m e t i m e s when I ' m d a n c i n g I d o n ' t h a v e e n o u g h p r e s e n t a t i o n because b a s i c a l l y I d o n ' t get l o s t i n what I ' m  101 d o i n g . . . I h a v e t h i s d a n c e c a l l e d , " B r i n g H i m Home" f r o m L e s M i s e r a b l e s ' and I ' m Jean V a l J e a n . And whenever I dance t h a t dance I d o n ' t hear a n y t h i n g I d o n ' t see anyone. I j u s t flow w i t h the music (10695). x  Students  v a l u e d d a n c e w h i c h was d i f f e r e n t  Eric  expressed  that  i t  as  his  c r i t e r i a for valuing  was d i f f e r e n t  -  original  and  or  original.  a dance  of  peers  experimental.  I t h i n k cause they s o r t of took a step f a r t h e r than anyone e l s e d u r i n g those p r e s e n t a t i o n s . . . e v e r y t h i n g e l s e was s o s e r i o u s a n d t h e i r s was a comedy; i t just s t r u c k me a s b e i n g d i f f e r e n t ( 1 0 6 9 5 ) Holly,  too,  copied  ideas  than not  p l a c e d a premium on o r i g i n a l i t y , which  original, really  so they  way"  (10695).  style  she  people  get  ideas  of  but  a friend  admired, He h a s  put  "...he  the  what  does.  she does  it.  -  has  looks really  -  nice"  that  so  "Oh t h a t  in a  his  fifteen  less its  looks  different  original  own e x t r e m e he  likes  and s i x t e e n had less  i n the  e v e r y t h i n g seems  Everything  Anything  i t  dances  to  style. do  (10695).  fourteen,  way s h e  say,  w e i r d movements;  o f q u a l i t y and s t y l e  "...just  from  whose h i g h l y  o f w h a t was g o o d a n d w h a t was  perceptions  just  made s t u d e n t - c r e a t e d  copy i t ,  very strange..."  Students  she  of  spoke o f  v e r y modern.  things  ideas  "...most  sort  Jeanette  He i s  felt  original...they watch...they  neat,  dancing  she  discussing  just  she  good. dance to  looks really  c a n be  (10595).  just  This of  flow  definite included  classmates, no  matter  nice every  fooling  time  around -  i t  102 Dance as  a p e r s o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t medium f o r  took  on p a r t i c u l a r  felt  that  dance  communicate. he  importance  in this  was a v e h i c l e t h r o u g h  Eric  emphasized that  in different  "...express  myself  emotions,  more  freely".  ways. in a  He s p o k e  group.  which they  through  had gained communication s k i l l s ,  communicate  age  the  allowing  He d e c l a r e d  lot  embarrassed  about  it;  him  of different  people  will  could process,  to he  could  ways,  of gaining courage,  other  Students  dance  that  u n d e r s t a n d i n g . " . . . i f y o u open y o u r s e l f up t o feel  expression  more  and  the  people,  not  to  accept  it"(10695). I ' v e l e a r n e d a l o t a b o u t how s y m b o l i s m i s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n d a n c e a n d how y o u c a n c o m m u n i c a t e n e a r l y a n y t h i n g t h a t you want t h r o u g h d a n c i n g o r t h r o u g h movements. J u s t t h a t you can use dance f o r n e a r l y anything (10695). Natalie, class  for  the  value  has  to  an e x p e r i e n c e d d a n c e r t h i r d year be  physical...Last me  ( i n dance)"  emotions  stressed year  declared, more -  who was "I  (10695).  Jeanette  f a c i l i t a t e d through  think the  dancing i s  we d i d e m o t i o n s  i n the  emotional  more t h a n  (in class)  enjoyed  dance  the  and  just it  expression  helps of  dance.  I t h e l p s you b r i n g out l i k e t h e f e e l i n g s and s t u f f and I l i k e t o do a l o t o f s t u f f t h a t has a l o t o f f e e l i n g i n i t . . . t h e r e a r e some d a n c e s t h a t I r e a l l y e n j o y w h a t I ' m d o i n g and I r e a l l y l i k e and I have deep f e e l i n g for (10695). Jeanette meaning.  continued to  discuss  the  process  of  communicating  103 . . . you have t o f e e l what y o u ' r e d o i n g . Cause you have t o i n t e r p r e t e v e r y s i n g l e move y o u do i n t o w h a t y o u ' r e u s i n g . L i k e i f y o u ' r e u s i n g " l o n g i n g " y o u h a v e t o make e v e r y t h i n g l o o k l i k e the f e e l i n g . 'Cause nobody e l s e f e e l s i t e x c e p t y o u a n d y o u h a v e t o make t h e m f e e l i t by w a t c h i n g you (10695). Analyzing  Dance  Students ways o f  in this  interpreting  discussed  age  group were  dance.  Natalie  multiple interpretations  intrigued with (sixteen  in  various  years)  dance.  Everyone w i l l i n t e r p r e t d i f f e r e n t l y . I d i d a dance t h i s y e a r c a l l e d " C o n f e s s i o n s " and even t o m y s e l f I had more t h a n one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . I t h i n k t h a t ' s what (makes) a r e a l l y good dance - i f y o u c a n i n t e r p r e t it f o r y o u r s e l f , b u t a l s o l e a v e an o p e n i n g f o r o t h e r p e o p l e t o i n t e r p r e t i t t h e i r own way a n d t h e y c a n a c t u a l l y b r i n g i t r i g h t i n t o them and i t c a n be personal (10695). Jeanette of  meaning  (fourteen  i n dance.  everything...some there you  are  just  have  to  When a s k e d interpretation Jeanette  i n the  "Yeah,  have  different  i f he  meanings  her  understandings  a different  that  are  f o r what  meaning  in  underneath...and  they're  saying,  and  so  (10695). could  Le Loup,  next  expressed  there's  meanings  look"  of  years)  suggest the  section  an  dance  of this  alternative  also  discussed  narrative,  by  Eric  replied, L i f e and D e a t h . I guess j u s t t h e s t r u g g l e between two f o r c e s , and t h e n (pause) - j u s t a s t r u g g l e , because t h e r e was a l o t o f c h a n g e i n p o w e r i n a l l t h a t c a u s e t h e w o l f had t h e power a t t i m e s and I guess t h e hunters they overcame i t (10695). Along with interpreted  the  understanding  o n many d i f f e r e n t  that  planes,  dances was t h e  might  be  ability  to  104 apply  themes  Loup,  a dance  from  dances  created  i n new w a y s .  by h e r  Jeanette  discussed  Le  group.  T h i s dance c o u l d have been i n t e r p r e t e d a l o t o f ways b e c a u s e i t ' s s i m p l y a d a n c e a b o u t b e i n g l o s t . So y o u c o u l d put i t i n the b i g c i t y and you c o u l d change the w o l f i n t o s a y a marauder and t h e n i t w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y d i f f e r e n t , i t w o u l d have more o f a gang s c e n e . Or y o u c o u l d change i t t o i n the d e s e r t o r change i t anywhere. Y o u c o u l d c h a n g e i t many d i f f e r e n t o t h e r w a y s . . . (10695). Students to  their  build  were  personal  skills  mentioned  as  aware  this  development  needed one  of  for  and p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s  life.  such s k i l l .  class/activity contributing  S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was As H o l l y  expressed  to  often  in  an  interview: I was a l w a y s a v e r y s h y p e r s o n when I was y o u n g e r a n d g r o w i n g u p . When I c a m e i n we d i d t h a t f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e i n f r o n t o f t h e s c h o o l . I t was t h e f i r s t t h i n g I ' v e e v e r done i n f r o n t o f a b i g g r o u p o f p e o p l e , and I f e l t good about i t a f t e r w a r d s because I l i k e d our d a n c e a n d I was p r o u d o f m y s e l f . . . I f y o u ' r e a s h y p e r s o n i t . . . t a k e s t h a t away. I f you can s t a n d i n f r o n t of a d i f f e r e n t group o f people and f e e l good about i t what y o u t a k e away f r o m i t i s a f e e l i n g o f accomplishment (10695). Natalie gains  too,  felt  that  i n self-esteem  the  feelings  of  provided through  accomplishment dance  were  and  invaluable.  I ' m a l o t s t r o n g e r p e r s o n than I would have been w i t h o u t d a n c i n g . I t r e a l l y b u i l d s up y o u r s e l f e s t e e m . . . A l o t o f p e o p l e w o n ' t go up on a s t a g e and t a l k l e t alone dance and express y o u r s e l f w i t h your b o d y . . . i t ' s l i k e the best f e e l i n g of accomplishment (10695). Eric  felt  him as  an  that  l e a r n i n g dance  individual  and h e l p i n g him t o  in  avoid  extended  "broadening being  his  ideas,  your choices"  "narrow minded"  assisting in  life  (10695).  105 When t h e video  excerpt  brought the  t e r m was u n d e r  to  from,  "Strictly  understand  dance.  himself  to  dance.  emotion  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  wondrous  performance.  Evidence  of Aesthetic  Following discussed Claude is  the  the use  were t o  symbolically?"  the  students  in this  and  imagery.  through the  viewing,  symbolism  the  assignment.  i n search  o f moods a n d  groups asked  creation  around,  the  seemed  permission had a theme creation  they to  be  class  scene.  symbolic,  that  to  have  could  Kay's  they  could  was u n d e r w a y , t h e y  had chosen;  their  new m u s i c , add  further  group had  a halt  process.  change  and help  a variety of  ground to the  class,  images which t h e y  music which they  selected which  a  to  provided inspiration  listened to  were g o i n g ahead w i t h Claude i f they  shared in  nine/ten  i n the  Music  Claude provided. I n i t i a l l y , to  of  results  performance  o f movement were  which  dance  grade  which were t o  their  ideas  infuses  "What c a n y o u communicate  elements  dances  is  losing  force  dance  i n the  build  putting  absorbed,  P r e v i o u s work i n drama  the  which  a  Engagement  explore,  knowledge of  Students  "heart"  he becomes  assigned group dances  they  the  class  A young dancer  The p o w e r f u l u n i f y i n g  film of  C l a u d e showed t h e  Ballroom".  and f e e l  Empowered t h u s , the  way,  were h i g h l y  their  while  music. With  ideas.  music  trouble  The group  and almost  could  other members his  immediately  Once t h e i r  successful  in  dance  106 putting  together  a dance  about  which  they  a l l  felt  enthusiastic. All with  the  their  groups  p l a n n e d and p r a c t i c e d t h e i r  own m u s i c i n a d i f f e r e n t  could  room.  groups  practice  separated  spot  by screens  One g r o u p p r a c t i c e d i n a h a l l ,  classroom,  and one  place  for  days.  Students  their  dances  several mood.  at  of  i n an a d j a c e n t  least  of the  presentation  dances  props  to  or  time to the  rest  costumes  eye mystery theme,  based  on a s e n s a t i o n a l  trial,  coats  with  dramatic  assignation  w h i c h was t h e  backs to  glasses,  and h a t s ,  leaped  guns  extended.  again,  The d a n c e r s facing  the  stage  of the  class.  up,  six  polish In  create  their  1990's  took  or  and  c o l l a r s turned  i n the  dance.  set  face  this  the  the  private  murder sunglasses,  time to  In trench  coats,  guns  side,  two on each  t h e n moved t h e i r  arms  drawn.  the  and Each  crouched  side  the  dark  leaped  then  the  for  began w i t h  mood, t h e y  the  including  s t a g e was s e t  The dance  audience,  formed a l i n e ,  right,  dance,  Here the  audience.  which  i n unison to  turn  Claude's  refine  i n keeping with  role  introduction.  dancers'  twirled  in  low.  Kay p l a y e d a c e n t r a l short  drama  were used t o  group  pulled  Two  p e r i o d on f i v e  Kay's  and h a t s  school.  classroom. Practices  For example,  wore t r e n c h  each  i n the  one g r o u p  class  worked d u r i n g t h a t  for  the  part  i n the  dances,  of  in with  Kay a l l  i n a u n i s o n move  107 from  left  bodies. from  right,  They shaded  one  side  pointing in  to  regrouped the  their  turning slowly  another,  "audience"  dancers  closing  all  jumped and t w i r l e d  stealthy facing they  steps  out  one way. T h e i r leaned,  guns  them out  on the  blinked  reveal that  at  dancers  the  dancers  laid  levels  When t h e y another,  centre,  freeze  coat  .  and h a t .  as  to  the  in  her  screen  away  were back  a  to  then  raising  line  side  same  different hat,  and  gun  on each  momentarily,  side.  then  and t h a t  disappearance,  The dance  as  sideways.  a l l i n the  coat,  her  they  big  into  side  to  other,  touched,  two dancers  propped against  time  dancers  shocked,  then  i n unison,  with  this  back toward each  Kay had disappeared,  were m y s t i f i e d  out  they  t r a v e l l e d from  first  guns  Simpson, Murderer!"  so t h a t  l i g h t s blacked out  i n a tableau,  different  of the  floor,  the  on t o  dividing  They a l l walked w i t h  Kay h u r r i e d l y took o f f  She s c r e a m e d ,  other  one  t h e n moved a g a i n t o  directions. laying  face  eyes  the  levels,  t w i c e f o r w a r d and back,  They drew t h e i r direction,  point.  centre.  first  different  stepped  to  i n unison  crouching again,  out,"O.J.  i n on a c e n t r a l  i n t o the  slowly  then  did a spin  others  their  crouched suddenly with  Kay, facing  called  all  guns  then  Rising  on each s i d e .  Kay and the  their  eyes,  d i r e c t i o n s and a t  The o t h e r back.  movement a c r o s s  identically.  different  from  to  a sustained  ended w i t h  each other  at  the  the  gazing  108 Although practicing manner,  eyes  and  student  her  movements,  living  engaged  i n Kay's  capture  the  this  the  dance.  performance  audience. work.  Evidence  of  aesthetic  groups  who d i d t h i s  interpreted  the  springboard  for  Jeanette also taken  group created  in  has  to  entertaining  some y e a r s a dance  connectedness each other continued  is  to  make i t is  focused,  their  was her and  absorbed  and f e e l i n g  are  e x t r a o r d i n a r y and  watching  may a l s o  assignment.  I  wariness,  to  aesthetic  be  seen  Each group  in  naturally  own way u s i n g m u s i c a s  of  of  dance  with  studio training.  Claude.  a  entitled,  Le Loup,  of big forests  and c o u l d  hear  was  movements  the  in a circle  explanation  , the  and c y c l e s ;  that  symbolized  wolf  l o n e l i n e s s which they of  dance.  facing circle  they  a l i e n a t i o n and  She  Jeanette's  which they  s i x dancers  Jeanette's  dance,  and s u r e ,  Both t h i n k i n g  t a k e n two y e a r s  m u s i c . The theme  the  she  enjoyed  ideas.  convey through the with  role;  awareness  assignment  "had a sense  the  i n an  Throughout the  The o b s e r v e r  at  they  group c l e a r l y  and conveyed the  for  understanding  has  dance  stood out.  appropriate  intense,  other  the  in this  w a t c h K a y . H e r movements were b o l d  followed  stealth  students  and p r e s e n t i n g  one  drawn t o  a l l the  cries"  worked  The dance  outward.  because  to  began  According  represented  were t u r n e d  away  l o n e l i n e s s . The  u s i n g sudden t u r n i n g movements,  with  from dance  contrasts  in  109 levels,  formations,  dancers  which  conflict.  speed  building The  on  one  this  dance  her  the  of  the  against back  the  group  bodies  then  to  circle with  a moment.  This  dancers  behind  the  the to  This  other the  ended  other. that  wolf.  and  their the  She was she  feeling  sprang  represented  she  as  the  part  a complete  is  in turn. one  and t h i s  by s t a n d i n g  other.  The d a n c e r s  each  slightly  effect  of  Then the after  was  the  other.  an o r i g i n a l ,  i n two l i n e s ,  in at  driving  floor  of  a  eyes  effective  other,  line arm  from  gestures  one  fall  was  arms  in to  limp  split-  device.  holding their  one  directly  crumpled to  The t i m i n g  lifeless,  o f mood  each  one  her  joyful  change  the  leading our dancers,  was t r u l y  sustained  after  body,  between  formed a  graceful,  up  intensity.  conflict to  her  forward,  sheer  fell  lined  remaining poised  a wolf!  sense of she  a l l were  She b e n t  head,  backward with  They used  had the  floor,  second,  and  i n happy communication w i t h  toward each  front  of unrest  dancers,  eyes,  between  a l l r e i n f o r c e d the  up and was t r a n s f o r m e d  dance.  cannon,  the  From h e r e  during which  turned  in  wild  and threw back her  dance.  others,  the  the  a p o i n t where  Jeanette  opposing her  sprang  churning,  of  movements  T h e r e was a t r e m e n d o u s and the  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  and r o v i n g  progressed  position for  one w i t h  space  tension.  side  arched  tense  expressions,  increasing  of  conveyed a f e e l i n g of  The t a u t ,  startled  of  use  They up,  feet  110 together,  very straight  They h e l d  their  manner  the  to  effective.  tall  This  and her  making complete use  she  showing i n her  and r e s p o n d i n g t o  Although contrast  to  the  others  Jeanette  remarkable. joyful  d e l i g h t at  howled  i n t r i u m p h as  and out  of  the  the  her  right  to  movements were  the  dramatic  and  the  stood  in  the  of her  body  expressively,  moment.  i n the  group danced w e l l ,  mood o f  success  She  line  end.  completed,  element,  i n every  the  a l l the  of their  t h e y made t h e i r  they  were  dancers  dance.  by  was one  They  way a c r o s s  less of  wolf-  the  floor  exit.  All  the  are  instances  Growth  examples p r o v i d e d of  section  will  present  another  teacher  is  reflecting  orderly highly  f o c u s was s u s t a i n e d .  face  Student  where growth i s  aesthetic  perspective  awareness  taking place.  h i g h l i g h t a few e p i s o d e s  from  the  at  This  data  of  growth.  I n some c a s e s  d e s c r i b i n g apparent  growth,  or  a student  which the may  be  on growth.  G r o w t h was d i f f e r e n t there  performance  who w a s o u t s t a n d i n g ,  However, the  in unison.  e x i t e d i n an  moved. J e a n e t t e moved i n t u i t i v e l y ,  reading  play  bowing  e n d i n g was p o l i s h e d a n d  was a n e x e m p l a r ;  and a c c u r a t e ,  intensity as  side.  then  p o s i t i o n , then  They m a i n t a i n e d the  Jeanette tight  final  and t a l l ,  for  each  individual.  Although  w e r e d r a m a t i c moments when g r o w t h was e v i d e n t ,  more  I l l often and  understanding,  incrementally.  class over  was the  together  There  evident. time  of  slowly  knowledge, were  just  built  gradually  when g r o w t h o f  student  dance course,  and you can  skill  times  One a s t u t e  the  and  whole  interviewed said  "...everyone's  see  a  the  that  improved  quality  rising"(21194). Moments o f  Growth  Claude,  the  "moments  on the  relation  to  he  secondary  continuum"  both  performance nine/ten  junior  the  class  discussed  or  teacher,  "moments  and the  the  of  referred growth"  individual.  moment  of  to in  Following  growth  for  the  a  grade  group:  . . . i t ' s a n o t h e r moment- i t ' s j u s t a d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e , and t h i s i s t h e one t h a t a c t u a l l y g i v e s t h e m t h e g r o w t h now t o t h e n e x t s o r t o f l e v e l . O n c e t h e y ' v e b e e n w o r k i n g t o w a r d t h i s moment a n d i t ' s a l l t h e r e and t h e y know i t ' s c o m i n g up and t h e y ' v e done i t , n o t o n l y t h a t t h e y ' v e done i t b u t t h e y ' v e done i t v e r y w e l l . I t ' s g o i n g t o b e s o i m p o r t a n t f o r me now t o t a k e t h a t , r e c o g n i z e t h a t i t ' s been moment o f g r o w t h f o r t h e w h o l e g r o u p a n d f r o m h e r e w h a t c a n we l o o k t o now (10395) .  A n o t h e r moment eight kind  class, of  of  growth,  was d e s c r i b e d  transformation...".  explained,  "...watching  Each of  the  time  by Claude,  for  the  This growth  videos,  activities  this  whole  teacher  as,  which preceded  grade "...a  f o l l o w e d , as  exploring,  own p a r t i c u l a r  the  Claude  and w o r k i n g . " the  observation  of  g r o w t h made i t s  contribution  As  student  growth  is  not  assured,  but  is  rather  of  careful  planning,  the  pivotal role  of  the  to the  learning. outcome  teacher,  112 setting  the  learning  is  Claude to  an  stage  to  maximize student  interaction  and  underlined. also  discussed  individual  student  the  moment o f  i n her  growth i n  second year  of  relation  the  course.  . . . i t b u i l d s up f o r h e r . S h e ' l l c o o p e r a t e , she'll p a r t i c i p a t e , and do w e l l and t h e n t h e r e ' s s o r t o f a c l i c k a n d t h e r e ' l l b e a moment i n t h e c o u r s e w h e r e s h e j u s t becomes so f o c u s e d , i t ' s j u s t so i m p r e s s i v e t o watch. T h i s term s h e ' s a l r e a d y t h e r e , whereas l a s t time s h e was i n t h e c o u r s e i t was maybe a b o u t h a l f way through (10395).  Nachmanovitch, describe  too,  uses the  a s p e c i a l moment o f  concept  of  a  "click"  to  knowing.  A s t h e f o r m r e f i n e s t h e f e e l i n g , t h e Poem j u s t g e t s b e t t e r and b e t t e r and t r u e r t o t h e o r i g i n a l unnameable f e e l i n g a t i t s s o u r c e . . . T h e r e c o m e s a moment w h e n t h e whole t h i n g s l i d e s i n t o shape-you can almost hear the c l i c k - w h e n t h e f e e l i n g a n d t h e f o r m come i n t o a s t a t e o f harmony ( p . 1 1 1 ) . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l the  last  chapter,  spontaneous,  was  a dramatic  i n t u i t i v e response  Maxine  Sheets-Johnstone's  primed  through  and through  the  the  do w e l l  intensity  of  his  freedom.  "knowing i n the  in front  performance  insightful  of his is  knowing which  described  growth.  i n performance  additional practice.  to  of W i l l ,  moment o f  c a r e f u l l y planned  motivated  special  experience  only  we  In  of  He was  the  I n a d d i t i o n , he peers.  But  Will's  recognize  moment".  lessons  teacher was  the  explainable through  suffused  his  in  the  extraordinary  113 Steady  Growth  Growth took steady,  accompanied  realization entries with  various  that  reflect  their  changes,  perceived  were  guest  or  the  their  dances took  accompanied have  satisfaction  feelings  of  growth  in their  dances  statements  that  dances.  from such  were  enjoyment tendered  Jeanette, class  sources  and such  the  her  at  shape t h e i r  i n meaningful  the  progress  students  as  ideas  for  a video,  a  w i t h the  notion  of  current  dance.  As  often  "We a r e  i n grade nine,  growing a b i l i t y of  the  included  excitement as,  and  journal  Sometimes  discussed into  and  and  the  improvements  slow  Daily  and  shape,  dances  times  b e i n g made.  new m a t e r i a l  a good dance!"  at  often  student  this  was  This ongoing dialogue  needed  another  incorporating  was  students'  comments,  it  by i n c r e a s i n g  progress  dances.  strengthening  forms;  end o f  going  indicated  the  term,  to the  to  ways.  These l a s t d a n c e s a r e g o i n g t o be e x c e l l e n t b e c a u s e e v e r y b o d y has j u s t t h o u g h t h a r d and done e x a c t l y what t h e y want t o do w i t h them. And t h e y ' r e v e r y c r e a t i v e dances I must s a y ! (10695). After thus  presentations expressing  the  students  often  satisfaction  said,  "It  went  well",  w h i c h comes  from  steady  progress. Kay, initial couldn't  a grade ten  limitations get  into  student  i n the  a l l the  described  class.  "I  was  activities...!  earlier, really just  t o l d of shy  kept  and my  her I  114 movements year  short  just  w h e n we f i n a l l y  realize together At  like,  the  expression probably  One  an  dance or  by".  in front just  successful"  her  were  She c o n t i n u e d , of  felt  people  we h a d  i t  it  second year  what  (gentle  she  laugh)  something  I'd  I  made  me  a l l  (10595). i n the  dance  course,  g i v e n a c h o i c e o f medium f o r  idea,  "Last  the  would choose.  Kay s a i d ,  r e a l l y would.  Like  just  dance  because  I  for  you  "I'd a  can  anything!"(10595). performance  term,  comments  she  of  get  can d a n c e ! . . . I  end o f  presentation express  I  to  presented  a n d we w e r e  asked Kay i f  eight  and  occasion i n the  drew a t t e n t i o n  of the  teacher,  to  student  middle of the growth.  Claude, c l a r i f i e d  The  the  grade following  nature  of  the  achievement. I n f a c t t h e k i d s h a v e come a l o n g h u g e l y f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r . What w e ' r e s e e i n g h e r e , f o r M a t t and G a r y , f o r e x a mp l e , i s a huge s t e p f o r w a r d i n t h e dance t h e y d i d t o d a y . I t had a b e g i n n i n g , a m i d d l e and an e n d i n g ! T h e y c o m p l e t e d i t ! The o p e n e r was q u i t e c o m p e l l i n g . In a sense t h e y have l e a r n e d something here which w i l l apply to t h e i r l i v e s - take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , do y o u r b e s t , c o m p l e t e i t . E a r l i e r I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e y c o u l d have r i s k e d l i k e t h i s i n f r o n t of t h e i r peers (10395). U n d e r s t a n d i n g dance quality  of  beginning,  its  a unified  own w h i c h  sets  i t  a m i d d l e , and an end  understanding( consistent  as  with  McColl, Ross's  1979). Stage  whole,  or  apart,  in this  is  This One.  a point stage  that  of  it  has  case  a  aesthetic  of development  is  F o r t h e o t h e r t h r e e b o y s i t was q u i t e a l e a p f o r w a r d as w e l l . I t ' s j u s t t h a t t h e y were i n a sense, farther along to begin with. W i l l again rose to the occasion, making a dramatic s t a r t , l e a p i n g , concentrated, c o n f i d e n t and s t r o n g . They s u s t a i n e d t h e power a l m o s t t o t h e end ( 1 0 3 9 5 ) . Power,  a r e c u r r i n g word i n d e s c r i p t i o n of  participants or  i n the  absorption  stage  is  study  such as  congruent  indicates  that  with  ascribed  the  dance  intensity, to  t h i r d or  by  engagement,  divine play.  P o e t i c Stage  This  of  Ross  7  model.  Summary Each age  group  i n the  behaviours,  preferences,  progressive  understanding  responses  of  students.  observation/analysis growth is  a means the  task  of  and a b i l i t i e s . A g e n e r a l linked  contributed  emerged  to  a picture  to  depth  engagement of  of  aesthetic  students  afforded  a r t i c u l a t i o n of understanding  growth v a r i e d ,  including  gradual  and  student  of  what  ideas,  increased  one more means  i n dance. incremental  Patterns growth,  and  became  experience.  ages of  of  the  and a b s o r p t i o n  with the  from  feeling  i n w r i t t e n and v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n which the  pattern  of  Facility the  of  discrimination or  and e x p r e s s i o n  communication while related  age  i m a g i n a t i o n and sources  Presentation  were  to  self-awareness,  and v a l u e d ,  originality.  e x h i b i t e d a range  Both performance/interpretation  i n relation to  enjoyed  study  for of  in  116 dramatic for  moments  a whole  of  growth,  individual  growth,  age  responded  i n a l l of  the  aesthetically  i n dance.  These  eight  but  year  very real  olds  expressiveness see  i t  dance  i n the and  dance.  of  the  grade  We s e e  it  as  ten  well  dance,  i n the  fence,  to  the  o l d dance  i n grade  nine  complex and s u b t l e  draw upon are  factors  which play a part  Each teacher aesthetic through  set  growth.  the  generation  faculties  elements,  richly is  recognizable. has  soul or  may o b s e r v e classroom.  is  stage  By engaging  affective  engagement  the  to  creative  the  as  audiences  aesthetically  and r e c o g n i z e  of  the  Mystery  student  i n the  circle  moment  in  the  in deliberate  Loup. has  to  student's  ways t o  cognitive  of  ideas,  resulted.  are  their  expressive  Aesthetic instantly  drawn t o  engaged,  aesthetic  and  ensure  abilities  and  e m o t i o n a l and  qualitatively different Just  of  each  students'  dances  i n the  We  ideas.  and e x t e n s i o n induce  the  and  symbolism of Le  which  to  of  of the  and t e n ,  experience  form  the  club students.  and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s  give expressive  style  transformation  and t h e  to  from  absorption  Both maturity  ability  range  f e e l i n g and grace  student's  dramatic  excitement  responses  year  eight  mysterious  groups  aesthetic  p a i n t i n g the  in Will's  and  growth  group.  Students  literal,  and  the  students  engagement  dancer  and in  who  teachers the  117  In the various of  its  will  be  next  stages  of  chapter  aesthetic  presentation examined.  the  f i n d i n g s described here engagement,  revealed i n the  and t h e  many  faces  classroom observations  -  118 Chapter Conditions  Five  questions  How d o b e h a v i o u r s  with  aesthetic  that  associated  with  development?  To t h e  progressed:  processes  to  of  the  original  absorption  two,  What c o n d i t i o n s a r e  of  the  i n the  same  presented  i n the  introduction. Instead,  growth.  contained It  student  to  each  to  therefore,  is  i n the  to  argument  apparent  has  a l l the of  as  the  the  of  the  format  as  the  these  this  that  of  resulted  research  in  and compose,  study  questions  progressed for  the  nurture,  are  that  o f models and e x e m p l a r s ,  cooperation  with  certain  promotion of for  opportunities  and h a r d work,  observation  peers,  in  study.  teacher  practice  the aesthetic  examined  S u c c e s s f u l growth and development from  were  overlapped  been  were p a r t i c u l a r l y f a v o r a b l e  i n dance r o s e  they  on p r e s e n t i n g  not  study  research  elements  and p r e s e n t a t i o n  element  answers  growth.  create  responses  classroom interaction that  became  students  the  straightforward  The f o c u s ,  the  conditions  out  expression,  Although  isolation,  associated  for  classroom observations  questions  of  task  was a d d e d  helpful  separating  dynamics  i n the  are:  aesthetic  a third  precluded  continually.  study  How d o b e h a v i o u r s reveal  Dance  occur?  The n a t u r e  absorption,  Findings  prompted t h i s  e x p r e s s i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n  development? study  Discussion  Which Promote A e s t h e t i c Development i n  The r e s e a r c h  reveal  -  experience,  c o l l a b o r a t i o n and  and p r e s e n t a t i o n s  or  performances.  119 Each of  t h e s e made  student  learning in  Confidence factors  which  freedom  of  confidence dancer,  its  own c o n t r i b u t i o n t o  facilitate  dance.  was p a r t  of  contributed  student  to  growth,  student  and o f  growth.  expression,  focus,  and a b s o r p t i o n ,  is  i n the  development  critical  a n d was t h e r e f o r e  of  given attention  those  Linked  with  selfthe  individual  throughout  the  study.  The  Teacher The t e a c h e r  and development  played a c r i t i c a l i n dance.  aspects  to  teaching  student  success.  manifested  superior  opportunities  for  take  place,  student's so  is  that  became  take  teachers  to  previous for  be  were  a nurturing  place  growth could  be b u i l t .  many  for  i n the  study  creating  the  to  the  to  their  teacher  but  which  learning call  Teachers  environment,  and where  were  ground  involved  chapter,  structured  that  that  the  aesthetic  appropriate  apparent  growth  succeed.  i n t e l l e c t and e m o t i o n s .  establishing could  must  made c l e a r  and s e n s i t i v i t y i n  i n order  lessons  i n ways t h a t It  the  skill  i n the  i n student  e f f e c t i v e l y set  students  A p o i n t made repeating,  The d a t a  which  Each of  role  study  the did  contexts.  was k e y  one where  confidence  to  upon b o t h  i n the own  bears  in risk-taking  necessary  The p r e s c r i b e d P r o v i n c i a l  for  Curriculum  120 Guide  i n dance makes r e f e r e n c e  environment  that  respect  for  students  student  relationship.  Claude, "...up  things do." and  the  a type  me j u s t  as  Claude put  respect  the  types this  i t ,  d o . " Claude  "I'm  going  you,  but  to  secondary teacher,  I  teacher  take  (p.  involved  that  just  the  respect  types  I'm asking  students  of them  to  risk-taking  to  students  and t h i s  setting  will  modelling,  approached h i s  some r i s k s  teacher  [students]  of risks  A sincere  spoke of  them f o r d o i n g  "Not asking  e s s e n t i a l l y I'm  3).  o f an e f f e c t i v e  o f r a p p o r t where the  and t a k i n g  wouldn't  " . . . a nurturing  risk-taking"  was p a r t  junior  much as  For the as  encourages  to  do a n y t h i n g  I  directly,  might look  p r a c t i c i n g what  I  funny  to  preach"  (10395). Through m o d e l l i n g to  take  risks  teachers  activities.  students.  of  play.  wanting  actively  and w i t h  dance on the  following Thus,  Claude  experience  with  the  spot  i n the  advocates  for  to  share  arts,  to  their  led the  art,  in  dance  Claude  glee,  then  by  the  entered  the  a l l self-consciousness students  own g r o w t h i n t h e  i n t o the arts,  s u c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and t o  specifically  the  teachers  words suggested  enthusiasm,  teacher  willingness  e v i d e n t enjoyment  responded with  spoke of h i s  students  regards  light-hearted occasion  The s t u d e n t s  dispelled.  and as  as  r o l e models. A l l three  On o n e  demonstrated  activity  i n dance,  s e r v e d as  participated  of attitudes  dance.  world  and o f have  121 All Claude  teachers  stated,  strokes  "I  and g i v i n g  gave  students  just  keep  as  feeding that  much f e e d b a c k  c o m p l i m e n t i n g them and r e a l l y they  go"  necessitated As C y n t h i a ,  find  a search the  that  they  Setting continual  grade  five  seem t o  the  potential  providing  positive  site  and  confidence  as  Prior  performances  consuming,  adding to  Concern  for  teachers. to  student  Each of  to  opportunities,  work. to  do so w e l l .  I  (11294). to  be  a  them spoke  of  do so he u s e d  to  own r o l e  a house  by each for  a c t i v i t i e s often  teachers'  students  teacher the  classes.  became  a l l  already heavy workloads.  students often  of  metaphor:  f o u n d a t i o n upon which the  these the  try  might help students  learning experiences  was a l s o m a n i f e s t  f o c u s e d on s t u d e n t s  special opportunities. "I  "I  Claude described h i s  individual  saying,  do"  student  and o f o r g a n i z i n g l e a r n i n g  The t e a c h e r s  need  of  seemed  C o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e was s p e n t  and p r e p a r i n g  to  encouragement  don't  when I  teachers.  the  planning  such  their  confided,  success  thought  potential.  build.  teacher  up f o r  opportunities;  teacher  seemed  with  on the  all-important  do b e t t e r  which they  that  providing  the  building  them even i f t h e y  concern for  experiences  might  right  for p o s i t i v e aspects  students  each student's  the  providing  and encourage  realize  fire  feedback.  (10395)  On s o m e d a y s  praise  ongoing p o s i t i v e  who  Claude spoke o f  honestly believe that  d o i n g more o f what w e ' v e d o n e ,  given he's  by  one  more going  to  122 surprise a  role  that  Of very  everyone. will  a grade  important  I  can  sense t h a t . . . I ' m  going to  find  him  make h i m b l o o m . " five  for  student,  her,  a l l o w i n g her  assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " teacher  described  the  student  in particular  Cynthia said,  a chance  Kathryn, the  needs o f she  " D a n c e may to  grade two  various  be  grow and  to  /three  students.  Of  one  said,  Dance i s so good f o r s e l f - e s t e e m . . . Simone i s a b l e t o dance v e r y s e n s i t i v e l y , t o use the s y m b o l i c and y e t she d o e s n o t do w e l l i n o t h e r a r e a s o f s c h o o l and has l o w self-esteem. I t ' s so good f o r h e r !  Opportunities  for  C r e a t i n g and  The P r e s c r i b e d (1994)  uses  curriculum students  organizers.  are  reflection"  engaged  right that  p.  stated  in critical  selection,  3).  Claude,  building of  feel"(10395).  simply,  is  junior  and  composing  need  as  secondary  own d a n c e s  to  four  refinement,  d e f i n i t e l y on t h e  their  its  and  C u r r i c u l u m Outcomes  Kathryn, the  "The k i d s  of  combination,  the  Dance  one  t h i n k i n g such  Provincial  A n d s o my f o c u s  through they  Curriculum Guide i n  Through c r e a t i n g  (Prescribed  1994,  stated,"  Provincial  C r e a t i o n and C o m p o s i t i o n as  "...exploration,  Dance,  Composing  teacher  students  and the  the  freedom  teacher  to  create". Opportunities highly  for  v a l u e d by t h e  creating  students,  and  composing were  promoting  feelings  and  ownership  grade two/three  have  in  also of  123 ownership through the making.  In addition,  expression grade of  as  eight  the  the  methods,  of  c h o i c e and  such an approach  students  student,  teacher  exercise  created  discussed the  facilitated  their  than  relying  dances.  personal James,  child-centered  who i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e s e  rather  decision-  indirect  on d i r e c t  a  approach  teaching  teaching.  I don't think this is a teaching class; I think this i s a l e a r n i n g c l a s s . L i k e he d o e s n ' t t e a c h t h e stuff; y o u l e a r n s t u f f f r o m y o u r own e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h how y o u dance and what e l s e happens (21195).  Strong  links  involvement  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  Observations highly with  to  indicated that  engaged  enjoyment  created.  w e r e made b e t w e e n  i n these  students  sequences  spoke  make c h o i c e s o f f e r e d  enjoyment  compose and of  or  able  dances  to  that  i n appreciation of the  i n the  dance  and  create.  a l l ages were  a c t i v i t i e s and were  and p r i d e ,  One s t u d e n t  to  student  often  describe they  had  freedom  class.  I f s o m e o n e t e l l s me t o w r i t e a b o u t a c e r t a i n t o p i c I f i n d i t h a r d e r t h a n i f s o m e o n e j u s t t e l l s me t o w r i t e a s t o r y o f a n y k i n d t h a t I l i k e . So i t ' s a l m o s t t h e same when w e ' r e d a n c i n g h e r e ( 1 0 9 9 4 ) . Eric, freedom not  of  i n grade  ten,  linked  choice "...because  having the  more e n j o y a b l e  teacher and  i t  engagement  i t  doing the  i n the  task  makes y o u t h i n k more work f o r  makes y o u more  you.  interested  It in  with and  makes  i t  it"  (10695). The a b i l i t y by N a t a l i e ,  also  to  experiment  i n grade  ten.  and e x p l o r e f r e e l y was  valued  124 I l i k e t h e freedom, and t h a t ' s one o f t h e t h i n g s I l i k e and (the t e a c h e r ) g i v e s us - l o t s o f freedom. It's "How a b o u t t h i s ? L e t ' s t r y t h i s . I f t h a t d o e s n ' t w o r k , l e t ' s do s o m e t h i n g e l s e t o i m p r o v e i t " ( 1 0 6 9 5 ) . Creating dance "I  and composing a l l o w e d the  process  think  feel  its  like  dance"  i n meaningful ways, a  lot better  y o u know i t  highly  to  in  as  expressed  it  up y o u r s e l f because  such freedom  motivating, p e r m i t t i n g the and engaged  a c h o i c e o f what way w i t h  it"  The t e a c h e r of  engage  the  by N a n c y .  a n d y o u make a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  Jeanette,  so t h r o u g h l y enjoyed  the  make  to  you  the  (10595).  According  have  to  students  time,  numbers  of  the  of  students,  performance,  Jennifer  responded  think  some o f  dance.  Like  try  f i t  to  dances,  let  improvisation Providing discover room t h a n  experimentation which i n by the  to  students.  was  "If  d o . . . u s u a l l y y o u go  approach.  the  you  a l l  teaching  "I  of  approach.  t h i n k we s h o u l d them t o g e t h e r  A favourite  part  club students,  as  a  own m o v e s i n one was  of  and the  an  sequence.  created seen  constraints  pressing goal  and p u t  dance  students with  w o u l d be  of  k i d s make up t h e i r  (11294). of the  because  and the  own i d e a s  movement  i n groups  club,  a more d i r e c t  this  some o f  several  dance  used  to  our  them i n "  for  ultimately  (10695).  nearing  of  you want  is  opportunities  a different  in a class  to  explore,  dynamic i n the  where  only  direct  and dance  125 teaching sound  took place.  Students  l e v e l s sometimes  exchanges. directs  hum o f  of the  fully  Practice  during discussions  P r i s t i n e , uniform  was n e i t h e r  atmosphere  rose  order,  as  area  and a c t i v e l y  m i g h t be  engaged  P r a c t i c e s which went w e l l  terms  the  best  s a i d one g r a d e (30195).  "...practicing  them  them r i g h t . . . o r  of  come t o  her  want  to  forms. by  have  as  One s t u d e n t  Students  were  h a r d work often  student,  i n grade  dance  you would  with she  her  the  i f they  they  g r o u p when t h e y  ...to their  Effort  final  h a d more t i m e  spoke  didn't many  position  concentrate".  performance  for  get  no-one  took  a freeze  h e l p me t o  the  of  Another student  d e s c r i b e d how h e h e l d  I was a r o c k  " i f y o u do  until  needed.  in  become  end up s l o p p y and  they  and  described  two spoke  sequences)  small  felt  commented t h a t  been b e t t e r  eight  you dance"(11294).  frustration  "...imagining  Kyle  (the  else  see  practice  the  students.  hard work accomplished. "You w i l l  you can"  would  Rather  Work  success.  successful",  teacher  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  Many c o n n e c t i o n s w e r e d r a w n b e t w e e n  of  and  and  when t h e  p o s s i b l e nor d e s i r a b l e .  dance  and Hard  were much more a c t i v e  would  practice.  More s e r i o u s p r a c t i c e . . . . w o r k i n g g o i n g r i g h t t h r o u g h maybe a n o t h e r d a y o r t w o t o p e r f e c t a l o t o f t h e p a r t s . I t h i n k t h e b e g i n n i n g l o o k e d more p r o f e s s i o n a l t h a n t h e m i d d l e . . . a n d I t h i n k we p r a c t i c e d i t m o r e ( 3 0 1 9 5 ) .  126 Understanding through polish  a dance  helped the  performances  of others  professional  performances  of  the  semester,  dancers,  as  Working With In of  students  group to  present  feelings  of  In groups  students  d i d i n terms  of  the  of  classes  with cases  skill The  process the  to to  with  one  (10695).  the involved At the  admiringly  "how h a r d t h e y  their  with  in end  of  work".  which  could  of  work at  getting  ideas.  well  a l s o worked i n  the  ideas  group.  both  Teachers  felt  was an  that  i n the  skill,  and In  in  at  that  dance.  dance  three  creation mentioned  she  had a c q u i r e d s k i l l  people.  "I've  always had problems working and t h i s  by  year  class  independent  working  important  was o f t e n  over her  small  and  i n the  I'm very  that  some  along together  be d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h  a valuable l i f e  because  part  expressed  own p a r t  pooling  e a c h member o f  Natalie felt  being  members  Students  students  own d a n c e s ,  another's  other  work s u c c e s s f u l l y i n groups  students.  people,  spoke  to  down.  classes  had t o  and as  other  at  appreciated.  do o n e ' s  value of group work,  involvement  look  dancing involved  dance.  others  a b i l i t i e s of  students  learning  the  of the  create  listening  life  let  three  the  a coherent  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to  to  to  work r e q u i r e d  Peers  a l l four  not  to  was b e t t e r  a group and working t o g e t h e r  order  the  i n a new w a y . T h e e f f o r t  several  James  experience  in  class  working with helps!"  127 When a s k e d w h a t w a s going  to  develop i n dance,  replied,  "Well  group work, say t h a t up w i t h  with  a product  on t h e  ability  together.  the  (that  of  the  is  the  individuals a grade  "will  most)  evident  not  student,  felt  about,  come  (10395), dependent  and work  "Work t o g e t h e r  in thinking  to  necessarily  cohesive"  cooperate  were  is on  g r o u p w o r k m i g h t be to  nine  group had t o ,  everybody else  dance"  i f they teachers,  become q u i t e  experience  outcome o f t h e  Nancy,  go w e l l  students  C l a u d e , one o f t h e  t h i n k what has  students  that  what  I  for  c o o p e r a t i o n a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n . " He w e n t  rather  to  important  that  for  a  and s o r t  concentrate  dance  o f know  on  the  (10595).  Students especially feelings  valued opportunities  those  of  of  their  enjoyment  group work w i t h encouragement  their  were  to  work i n  own c h o o s i n g . Many e x p r e s s e d  and fun w h i c h  came f r o m  friends.  support  also  groups  Peer  important  factors  engaging  the in  and  in  feeling  successful. At  the  One s t u d e n t rejection her  same t i m e p e e r hesitated  and another  to  pressure  advance  his  ideas,  was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t  enthusiasm might appear  embarrassing  I know c a u s e  about  i t  i f you were  weird  because  and  was f e l t  to  not  her  peers,  you were the  only  one d o i n g  of  way  " . . . i t  you'd  individuals.  fearful  the  e v e r y b o d y was  enthusiastic  by  was k i n d  enthusiastic feel  kind  of  things"(10994).  of  128 One  incident  attention  by W i l l  was d i s c u s s e d of  Will  who  had an dance  their  group.  approach,  found  as  under  they  felt  and W i l l  a new,  were  highly  spoke  them d u r i n g p r a c t i c e s  three,  dance.  The f i n a l  and  the  Observation This  boys gained  particular of  study  focused  and v i e w i n g  dance.  several  forms.  artists  who v i s i t e d  outside  of the  to  the  dance  at  had  was  to  assigned  first  which  to  make  that  they of  enhanced  they  they  C l a u d e and  progress  strong,  added.  I  were,  their  by  It  seemed  fusing their  c o l l a b o r a t i o n which  any  incorporated  new d a n c e  the  from  story  They a l r e a d y  d i d make c h a n g e s  their  energy  on two s t r a n d s of  dance:  ideas  resulted.  the  active  dance  schools,  school which the and peer  was o b s e r v e d .  which contributed participation  O b s e r v a t i o n o f dance  E x c e r p t s from  classroom, that  was  a  Models  growth of understanding dance  of  told  and  different  Any time  a n d some c o s t u m i n g w h i c h  a l l three from  resulted.  performance  a  dance  extremely p o s i t i v e about  percussion that  ideas,  original  my  composition group,  had m e r i t .  finally  of both  all  dance  to  interviews,  accounts  reluctant  elements to  These  new b o y p r e s e n t e d  H o w e v e r , when t h e y  that  separate  way when a t h i r d s t u d e n t  When t h e  James  journals.  a two p e r s o n  idea that  their  g r o u p w o r k was b r o u g h t  and by J a m e s , i n  in their  and James  changes.  involving  videos,  performances  In addition,  took  by  attended, were  the  in  performing  performances classes  to  artists visitors  a l l part  teachers  of  the  modelled  129 or  demonstrated  teaching  steps  i n the  These learning  or  concepts  in various  of  to  Will  how i t ' s be  or  ways.  Students  expressed  done  people  new t h i n g s  well  of  Observing  kind  steps, a visit  smooth  exemplars  characteristic one  and to  movements  "the  of  ballet,  expressed  to  of  the  and  on t h e  formal  into  their  include particular  it's  find  it  supposed he  helps  l o o k s when  genres of  the  of  learn  group  enriched  it's  dance.  the  For  distinct  tango.  Following  students  composed  of  "funk".  the  dance  students'  students or  Following expressed sequences  in  movements  which v i s i t e d the movement  a  of  Craig,  school  sequences.  vocabulary  of moving which they  movements  "...to  disciplined qualities  own d a n c e s .  in class,  others  understand  of  d a z z l i n g gymnastic  p r o v i d i n g new w a y s  early  semester  focus,  flexibility to  an  stuff..."(21194).  to  particular  a desire  Watching dance a l s o  dance excerpts  flows  students  a performing  and w h i c h performed  incorporate  how i t  student professional  what  I  see  a s m a l l group  v i g o r and  Ache B r a z i l ,  movements,  and  to  In  i n the us.  dip" characteristic  w i t h the  grade two,  helps  commented  dance which c o n t r a s t e d ballet  way -  Later  and  helped  student  the  regular  that  i n observing  in a professional  "...watching  done,  found  performance.  value  cause you l e a r n  example,  for  look like..."(10994).  observed,  of  dance c o n t r i b u t e d  dancers provided exemplars  see  part  classrooms.  observations  interview,  as  could  critiques their  of  of  intentions  in their  own  130 dances. of  J a z z dance  i l l u s t r a t e d by a guest  movement o b s e r v a b l e  Observing dance  the  ideas.  dances It  another's  dances  movements  and  lots all  unusual to  after  performances  through  ideas  from  over attitude  observed, dancing,  "I  As Kay s a i d , not  what lot  towards  the  what  The t e a c h e r s  feelings.  frequently  concepts  Teachers  students  remember.  soft  teacher.  pillow"  the  i n the  students'  i t  of  trying  one  master  the  moves -  express  qualitative  Megan,  Another  too,  anything"  focus,  for  we  see  doing i t  t e a c h i n g movements to  beats,  "soft  the  a  need  or for  commentary,  hands"  help and  dance  were  i n students'  approach.  by  students  imagery and t o  as  -  (21194).  awareness  trigger  by  student  groups  So e v e n t u a l l y a f t e r  work,  their  by w a t c h i n g o t h e r s  such demonstrations  students'  it's  get  your feelings  accompanied m o d e l l i n g by the of  just  and I  (10595).  used counting the to  at  observing other  Such phrases  The e f f e c t s  observable  look  m o d e l l e d dance  such as  and d e s c r i p t i v e phrases  very  from  and d r a w i n g s t u d e n t s '  refinement.  to  source  more t h a n  (21294).  comes more n a t u r a l l y t h a n  sequences,  i n order  dance"  learned that  "We've l e a r n e d . . .  illustrating  students  their  knew y o u c o u l d  now I ' v e  expresses i t  was a n o t h e r  see  "I  just  w a t c h i n g v i d e o s and e v e r y t h i n g " added,  thereafter.  observing involved  them,  never  but  peers,  was n o t  o r movements. of  of their  dances  sequences  sequences.  Learning steps  i n student  provided  "like club  directly  focus  and  in  a  131 Observation another a  dances.  student's  also played a part  absence  students  taught  one  S o m e t i m e s s u c h t e a c h i n g was n e c e s s i t a t e d from  a performance.  who w a s l e a r n i n g o b s e r v e other  when s t u d e n t s  i n order  who o b s e r v e d t h e  to  Not only  master  process  the  by  d i d the dance,  provided  one  but  invaluable  coaching. The s t u d e n t s performed offered age  by t h e i r  the  groups  the  peers.  dancers  interested  The dance  i n dances  club  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  dress  see  i n a c t i o n . They watched c l o s e l y  observations small  were most  to  share.  group dances,  dances  Just  prior  to  a grade  eight  student  i n progress  and I  presentation  said,  can h a r d l y w a i t to  see  student,  going  some r e a l l y  good o n e s . . . "  The s t u d e n t s  one  dances,  in  their  another  admiration for  compliments during p r a c t i c e s ,  clapping  h e a r t i l y when i t  students  were o r i g i n a l l y  the  junior  had seen  ability  meaning  to  i n the  i n the  which  there's were  paying  Many o f  high  one and  by  the  up f o r b o t h o f c l u b because  o f dance by  o b s e r v i n g dance  write critically  dances  sign  seen  they  students  courses.  experiences  increasingly able  to  and f o r dance  demonstrations  enrolled  As s t u d e n t s '  t h e y were  attracted  of  them  presentations,  was a p p r o p r i a t e .  secondary courses  exciting  previously  their  another's  group  "I have  and a n o t h e r  be  different  a n d h a d many  performed!" to  and  rehearsal  a l l the  a class  "In this  created  to  about  appraise  dance.  grew, Over  technique,  they watched.  This  was  so  did  time mood,  and  132 particularly classes  evident  where  experience All  it  of  a  these  of  but  student  provide  was  because  growth,  considerable  nurture,  and composing,  practice  the an  is  and peer stage  support  for  important  of the  it  nine/ten  teacher  dance, set  and grade  dance.  creating  confidence  element, to  for  ground which  Student  to  eight  considerations,  observation  rich  grade  was p o s s i b l e  in critiquing  opportunities work,  i n the  discussed  to  growth.  additional  contributing  its  here,  hard  contributed  student  complexity of  and  relationship  separately.  Confidence As the  study  consciousness student the  asserted  confidence  for  enabled  growth, the  expressiveness performance. potential  and  It  a benchmark of  development  of  the  great  growth,  in  enabler  and a t  the  same  through  presentation  the  that  and complex r o l e  growth  in vibrant  Confidence promoted  from  of  self-  apparent  C o n f i d e n c e was t h e  style  detracted  student  became  important  manifestation  and the  confidence  a theme o f  itself.  p l a y e d an  l e a r n i n g of dance.  necessary time  progressed,  and  r e a l i z a t i o n of  ideas,  students'  whereas  lack  enjoyment  of  and  performance. To more necessary uses  the  to  fully  grasp  consider  body as  the  the  the  importance  very nature  medium o f  of  of  confidence,  dance  expression;  an  itself, emphasis  it  is  which on  133 the  body p l a c e s  vulnerability. are  acutely  junior can  aware  secondary  involved" others.  it  their  this for  five  some c a s e s w i t h  There  experience...I activities"  their  Will  (thirteen  put  "the  huge  dance it,  " I n dance  is  nowhere  to  dance  classes  for  hide  i t  risk-taking  i n front  the  a n x i e t y and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  their  student,  base  teacher  to  the  "How f r i g h t e n i n g  and  young people  interfered  students  level"  Claude,  who  -  of there  it's  is  total  (11294).  expressed  one  age  to  great  of young people  growing bodies. referred  who e n t e r e d  consciousness  those  at  i n a position of  especially true  a l l shows.  Students  the  of  grade  vulnerability"  words of  is  teacher,  (10395)  As the  no mask;  dancer  This  a c t u a l l y be  often  the  with  ability  freedom  of  to  part  take  " I was n e r v o u s  was r e a l l y s h y a n d (10595).  As dance  and t h e y  had  expectations, years)  I  little  commented  and  i n dance.  couldn't  it get  precedent  In  in the  was a  new  into  a l l  a new v e n t u r e  s u c h c o n c e r n was  time  Self-  expression  because  was  first  for  upon which  to  understandable.  i n h i n d s i g h t on h i s  initial  feelings. You f e e l e m b a r r a s s e d t o go a r o u n d d a n c i n g and s t u f f b e c a u s e n e v e r ! - y o u d o n ' t r e a l l y d o t h a t a l o t a n d now a l l o f a s u d d e n y o u ' r e jammed i n w i t h a b u n c h o f p e o p l e who y o u d o n ' t r e a l l y k n o w a n d y o u ' r e a s k e d t o g e t u p and dance around and s t u f f . I t ' s e m b a r r a s s i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and y o u d o n ' t r e a l l y know what y o u ' r e d o i n g and y o u ' r e t r y i n g t o j u s t do what y o u c a n and go t h r o u g h and e v e n t u a l l y y o u f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e and can j o i n i n w i t h everyone (30195).  134 Students deterrent it  well.  want  to  to  recognized that progress  "If you're  So y o u want  you'll  do f i n e "  and s u c c e s s .  embarrassed  do a n y t h i n g  stuff.  self-consciousness  and t h e n to  get  (30195).  A grade  you f e e l  what  r i d of  eight  student  expressed  put  don't  sloppy  embarrassment  His teacher  a  shy and you  y o u do g e t s the  was  and  and  it  another  way. If the students are not confident t h a t they can a c t u a l l y do i t ( d a n c e ) t h e y m i g h t go t h r o u g h t h e motions, but t h e y ' r e robbed of i t because they d o n ' t truly realize i t s f u l l potential; i t ' s just sort of going through the motions. Jennifer are  (ten  confident.  you're  not  confident better"  then  i t  described  afraid  to  more  can happen  go o u t  r e a l l y helps  you're  what  there  and...  . . . i f you're  enthusiastic  i f  you i f  more  and you  dance  (11294).  t e r m went the  "I'm not  afraid  Students  into  years)  on,  linked  instead  of  yourself well"  Admiration performers  with  Connie found h e r s e l f ,  dances  expressing  confidence  about  it  more and  for  d i d not  those feel  r i s k - t a k i n g . Connie admired people  "...didn't  other  people."  Several  the  expression not  seem a f r a i d students  to  or  self-conscious,  be  who,  commitment,  students  with  class  As  (21194).  who p e r f o r m e d considered  vigor,  "putting  being shy  was e x p r e s s e d  who a p p a r e n t l y  expressiveness.  or  d a r i n g t^.hat  do a n y t h i n g  commented  or  might  i n tier i n front  on a c h a r a c t e r  of in  135 a video excerpt. didn't tried took  D a n i e l l e ' s words  k n o w how t o it.  a  I  do t h e  think that  dance  the  man  i n her  but  she  (actor)  j o u r n a l were, took a chance  liked  the  "She and  way  she  chance".  Claude, benefits  of  the the  j u n i o r secondary  teacher,  considered  r i s k - t a k i n g made p o s s i b l e  the  through  confidence. . . . c o n f i d e n c e w o u l d have them t a k e more r i s k s . A n d i n d o i n g so n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e more r i s k s y o u t a k e t h e b e t t e r dancer you become, but because o f the t y p e o f dance t h a t w e ' r e d o i n g the r i s k s t h r o u g h symbolism, through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , - these are also r i s k s that I e n c o u r a g e , n o t j u s t t h e r i s k s t h r o u g h movement. So i n terms of p u r e l y d a n c i n g . . . i t w i l l s u r e l y p l a y a large role...(10295). Performances students "More  were o f t e n  scared than  with  experience.  ...I  wasn't  the  first  as  as  with  a grade  "The f i r s t  nervous  there"  Although  time  the  on l a t e r it's  grade  I'm  described  and  herself,  anxiety  was t h e  presentations  two t h r e e  freedom and abandon  expressed  sort  anxiety,  as  eased  hardest I was  time doing i t  with  and  (11294).  conversation  feel  girl  your f i r s t  with  ages  five  presentation  self-consciousness  all  of greatest  w h e n we p r a c t i c e d . " B u t t h i s  one because  everyone's  dance  were the  at  times,  were observed  they  performing i n front  of  others.  In  by s t u d e n t s  i n performing i n a group rather  than  alone.  okay w i t h  it"  i f  it  (11294).  was  just  me a l o n e ,  but  to  expressed  felt  scared  the  too  comfort  of  Craig  students  in a  a of  "I'd group  136 The most to  frequently  g a i n i n g c o n f i d e n c e was g e t t i n g  the  class.  Grade e i g h t  elementary school,  schools  expressed  involved  i n the  for  they  students their  this  entry  comfortable learned  is  followed  one  in this  their  encouragement  one  another.  feelings  comfort with  confidence. prepared feel  as  do"  noted  was k i n d start  of -  "I  This feel  several  support  eight  important  put  it,  and do a n y t h i n g ,  other  students'  progressed,  the  you  think that  the  not  don't going  group;  they  groups".  growing confidence  "...from  I  to  performance  much a s  a bit  and  you're  as  after  a  "If you're  practice  so t h a t  and  dancing.  considered  I  was  growing s a t i s f a c t i o n  when d i s c u s s i n g a  -  more  offered  one  self-conscious  as  student  people  "...perhaps  class  grades  and r e l i e f  i f y o u know e x a c t l y what  the  of  expressed  class.  peer  in  secondary  other  of  expressed the  the  on b e h a l f  had time t o  as  junior  frequently  there  One t e a c h e r  nervousness  comfort  also  i n grade  as  a variety  students  met  This  their  go o u t  comfortable  Connie  the  just  (30195).  hadn't  was  As James,  it's  of  dance  have  i n students'  prepared  the  i n the  Students  factor  Being  year  students  by growing comfort  class...I  significant of  first  contributed  know o t h e r  o f many s u c h s i m i l a r .  names." to  to  which  coming from  Typically  developed friendships  journal  factor  c o n c e r n more t h a n  study.  self-consciousness  to  mentioned  beginning  e v e r y b o d y was  t h i n k everybody  just  and I at kind  137 of  adjusted Kay,  got  more  could  too,  it"  (30195).  described  comfortable  do a n y t h i n g  relation took  to  to  place  an for  her  with  growing freedom  the  people  i n dancing"  incident one  around  (10595).  illustrates  i n dance. me a n d t h e n  A conversation  the  "I  dramatic  I  in  change  that  student.  Interviewer: I f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r someone h a d s a i d t o y o u t h a t y o u w o u l d be s t a n d i n g up w i t h t h r e e p e o p l e i n f r o n t o f an a u d i e n c e and you would n o t know what y o u were g o i n g t o d a n c e what m i g h t y o u h a v e said? Response: W e l l I would have s a i d I would m y s e l f i n t h a t p o s i t i o n , ( l a u g h and pause) change. I guess I c o u l d n ' t help t h a t r e a l l had t o go w i t h t h e f l o w , and i f s o m e t h i n g h a v i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t I ' d j u s t i t (laughs) (30195). Confidence binding to  focus  that into  expressing  increasingly  to  the  dances  allowed her instead  yourself well."  comfortable,  i n observations  successful  dance  of  refinement  as  to  Freed from  s t u d e n t s were style.  described  a  "mood a n d his  about  i t  and  became  by c o n f i d e n c e  having  able  more  being shy  became  the  Melissa  "...put  As s t u d e n t s  characterized  and d i g n i t y " . W i l l  a very  success.  self-consciousness  confidence  Group performances described  of  with  on d a n c i n g e x p r e s s i v e l y and w i t h  expression  "power  associated  constraints  commented  not  was  never get Things y so I just changed l i k e h a v e t o do.  priority. were focus"  feelings  and  leading  up  performance.  Once y o u see o t h e r p e o p l e ' s y o u ' r e n o t as s h y and y o u w a n t t o make o t h e r p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t y o u ' r e g o o d a t something t o o so you t r y y o u r h a r d e s t and t h a t ' s w h a t ' s  138 h a p p e n e d t o me. I saw o t h e r p e o p l e w e r e d o i n g i t a n d i t j u s t makes y o u f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h what y o u ' r e d o i n g so y o u c a n do e v e r y t h i n g and t r y and p e r f e c t it t h a t much more ( 2 1 1 9 5 ) . Confidence asset  acquired through  and v a l u a b l e  life  tool.  dance  As H o l l y  was r e c o g n i z e d a s expressed  in  an  an  interview: I was a l w a y s a v e r y s h y p e r s o n when I was y o u n g e r a n d g r o w i n g u p . When I c a m e i n we d i d t h a t f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e i n f r o n t o f t h e s c h o o l . I t was t h e f i r s t t h i n g I ' v e e v e r done i n f r o n t o f a b i g group o f p e o p l e , and I f e l t good about i t a f t e r w a r d s because I l i k e d our dance and I was p r o u d o f m y s e l f . . . I f y o u ' r e a s h y p e r s o n i t . . . t a k e s t h a t away. I f you can s t a n d i n f r o n t of a d i f f e r e n t group o f people and f e e l good about i t w h a t y o u t a k e away f r o m i t i s a f e e l i n g o f accomplishment (10695). Natalie gains  too,  felt  that  in self-esteem  the  feelings  of  provided through  accomplishment dance  were  and  invaluable.  I ' m a l o t s t r o n g e r person than I would have been w i t h o u t d a n c i n g . I t r e a l l y b u i l d s up y o u r s e l f e s t e e m . . . A l o t o f p e o p l e w o n ' t go up on a s t a g e and t a l k l e t a l o n e dance and e x p r e s s y o u r s e l f w i t h y o u r b o d y . . . i t ' s l i k e the best f e e l i n g of accomplishment (10695) . The g r a d e  five  teacher,  Cynthia  said,  They g a i n c o n f i d e n c e t h r o u g h confidence that they learn s p a r e a s . . . after the performance as though t h e y were t h e s t a r s  performance...the i l l s over into other the c h i l d r e n were w a l k i n g of the school (11294).  Summary The l a s t have in  presented  the  study.  two c h a p t e r s , findings  chapter  four  i n r e l a t i o n to  Although the  answers  to  and c h a p t e r  each the  question  question  five, asked  have  not  139 been  considered  spirit  of  the  Through  research a focus  interpretation described ages. in  separately,  the  task  questions  on s t r a n d s  were  related  experience,  collaboration in  rich  of  to  Given  student within  safety  explore  original  to  create  The forms  given to  ideas  students'  growing aesthetic  experience,  working with  examples  dance,  ability  of to  relevant.  generate  and  teacher practice  and  and  aesthetic  exemplars,  own d a n c e s  could in  them w i t h  contributed and p r e s e n t  grow.  the  s t u d e n t s were  were  and  general  able  feeling.  r e f i n e d by  sensitivity. Practice  others,  formed  learning  understanding  feelings  in  they  provided the  invest  and  participation  Together  climate,  and t o  absorption  a l l played a part  their  a nurturing  various  sensibility.  chapter,  peers,  of  and  o f models  Teachers  create  Four  students  and compose,  aesthetic  ideas  Chapter  feeling,  growth i n dance.  which  of  of  in this  observation  success.  opportunities  relative to  to  the  observed.  growing aesthetic  and performances  students'  frameworks  been  of  ground which maximized student  promoted  cumulatively,  performance/  and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h  presentations  support  of  and e x p r e s s i o n  opportunities  hard work,  has  growing understanding  The c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d nurture,  rather  and o b s e r v a t i o n / a n a l y s i s ,  Presentation  the  but  the  and  and o b s e r v i n g a v a r i e t y  to  students'  ideas  of  increasing  w h i c h were  personally  a  140 Confidence  is  the  great  realization  of  potential,  origination  of  ideas  interacts enabler the  with  of  presentation  dance  with  of  feeling  style  promoting growth,  in presentation,  and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s .  a l l the  growth,  enabler,  other  the  elements  benchmark o f  aesthetic and s t y l e ,  the  i t  growth,  dancer  self-consciousness.  removes the  from  consciousness form  for  deep  feelings. In  chapter In  the  and p e r m i t s  the will  presentation  next be  chapter,  the free of  the  restraint  Total of  for  further  research  the  invest  able  to  absorption  expressive  imaginative imagery  of  the  will  be  to  self-  findings of this  examined i n l i g h t  once  to  be  exploration of  highly  at  and e s s e n t i a l  must  and the  literature  a d d i t i o n , c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations  suggestions  is  In order  move b e y o n d c r i p p l i n g performer  the  Confidence  as  learning.  and  as  made.  well  and  last  review. as  141 Chapter This study  final  chapter  together.  chapters w i l l review,  Six -  Conclusions  brings  The f i n d i n g s  be  discussed  are  further  Each o f  the  contributing  various  presented  in  and  the  light  related  to  strands  i n the  of  the  the  two  of  the  preceding  literature  questions  of  the  study.  through  which the  findings  philosophical  theory  underpinnings  for  forms  for  thought.  Ross's  the  and  model of  of  stages  arts of  the  play  as  Findings to  the  dances  enabler  the  as  symbolic provides  development  further  lens  important  student's of  a  Langer's  development  aesthetic  knowing c o n t r i b u t e s  Relating  provides  expression  of  provides  examined.  aesthetic  of  Huizinga's theory  aesthetic  may b e  examination  presentation  descriptions while  of  frameworks  and  i n the  arts,  stimulus  to  insights.  Literature  Dance As S y m b o l i c A r t Form The a r t s , of  human  images, body.  according to  feeling. ideas,  Dance  and  Through dance  symbolic (Ministry The body feeling.  feelings. forms,  is  Education used  as  the  (1953)  i n education  representations of  Langer  of  are  seeks  The medium o f  students their  (Schools  give  knowledge  the  symbolic form  expression  give concrete  Division  medium f o r  to  forms  of  is  to the  or  the  world  ),Victoria,  transformation  1986) of  142 Jeannette symbolic  dance  alienation. dance,  the  response. idea.  (aged  Although dancers  fact  i t  is  in  loneliness wolf  make a m e r e l y  extended  to  image," posits  an a b s t r a c t i o n  of  their  and  gave  rise  to  the  representational  and t r a n s f o r m e d  powerful form  the  group,  these  original  extended  Langer,  a symbol,  the  "lies  the  ideas. in  bearer  the of  an  (p.47) Likewise  Exotique"  to  Danielle  replication  Eric  p l a y i n dance.  Will,  which  extended  and o t h e r s They were  also  aware  too,  demonstrated  an awareness  the  interpretation James  film  and i n h i s  of  might have  i n the  been  or whatever  but  i t  funny".  the  dance  prevented  the  than  a  symbolic  power o f  symbolic  expression of of the  tolerance  capable  i t  But h i s  be c o n g r u e n t  him from  the  of  he o b s e r v e d .  made h i m w e i r d  to  rather  literal  ideas.  symbolic  of  both  ambiguity  in  in  dance.  dance which  was t o o  for  of  tool  response  beyond the  recognized the  an e f f e c t i v e  his  "L'Oiseau  bird.  as  to  dance,  freedom and i n n o c e n c e ,  of the  Natalie,  imagery  perceived the  embody i d e a s  She saw a n d f e l t  form  of  image o f t h e  d i d not  gave  power o f  at  the  Rather they  "The t r u e  idea"  and her  conveyed f e e l i n g s  The dance  that  fourteen)  fully  with  perceiving symbolic He d e c l a r e d  made h i m s h o w p r i d e desire the  exploring  for  and  his  i t  stuff  authenticity,  r e a l i t y of ideas.  "Whether  world,  for  143 But what gave  the  no p a r t i c u l a r  Jennifer, it  of  as  though,  was aware  a transforming  as  Anna,  although raptor, L'Oiseau each  of  of  Art, ability study as  as  to  they  students  students. the  It  is  greater  of  the  the  of  to to  a  has  students'  or  was  three age  which  lightness.  No  into  bird. power  in  its  The s t u d e n t s  in  the  s t i l l than  years  to  ideas  very the  oldest  younger.  effect  aesthetic  various other  factors  experience,  have  consciousness  played a part of  in  these  a significant role aesthetic  the  in  o f movement  younger  education  aesthetic  bird,  bird  greatest  sensitivity,  or  the  g i v e s y m b o l i c form  Danielle,  that  of  its  ability  apparent  study,  p o s s i b l e meanings  ideas.  two y e a r s  Dance e d u c a t i o n  development  has  i n addition to  values  of  speed  portrayal  individual  family  shaping  is  study,  factors  development.  practice,  the  but  Jeanette  recognizing  literal,  Observing the  different  Langer e x p l a i n s ,  i n the  Certainly,  the  than  grew o l d e r ,  olds  metaphor.  i n the  give  portrayals  whether  increasingly able  individual.  perhaps  read  to  noting details  g i v e s y m b o l i c form  were  students  and Simone were  painting a fence.  other  understanding  youngest  found a p p e a l i n g ,  dance,  year  q u a l i t y i n dance,  and a c c u r a t e  a t t e m p t w a s made t o the  the  Exotique entailed  child  of  The t e n  element.  Craig,  sensitive or  students?  i n d i c a t i o n of  The r e s p o n s e s such  younger  to  sensibility.  play  in  Ross's  Model  of Aesthetic  As mentioned Ross  (1984)  each  of visual  for  the  i n the  Development literature  developed a model of art,  music,  development  of  such models  h o l d s m u c h i n common w i t h  draws  on t h e  the  development  aesthetic  aesthetic  development  left  i n other  the  that  a similar  the  other  dance  scheme  arts,  development  i n dance,  of  dance.  study from  incremental  an a d a p t a b l e  structure  study  to  the  other  ( F i g u r e 2) for  is  i n dance  should provide a useful  teachers  i n assessing  examples  from  the  of Ross's  reader  to  understanding Stage  one  Stage  Two a g e s  olds,  the  One,  data  cited  framework  i n dance  of  of  from  dance.  in earlier aesthetic  make c o m p a r i s o n s  and t o  The d e v e l o p m e n t  students  correspond with Ross suggests  in this Ross's  that  the  to  of  basis  for and  examined  development  of  and  Descriptions  view  in  permit  student  perspective. ages  seven  research Stages  students  made  aesthetic  chapters  a broadened  student  arts  stages  R o s s ' s model encompasses  8-13.  youngest to  and t e a c h i n g  of  is  shown  describing  development  Stage  this  accommodation i s  applies  R o s s ' s model  i n the  The d e s c r i p t i o n s  expected  open  Since  would benefit  i n dance.  the  for  door  areas.  development  light  the  describing  problem f o c u s e d upon  R o s s ' s model which  concerns provide  premise  he  when  growth.  Since  between  of  aesthetic  and drama,  dance  logical  review chapter,  3 - 7 ,  and e i g h t study,  year  might  One a n d T w o .  show  and  increasing  In  be  145  A SUMMARY OF ROSS 'S MODEL OF AESTHETIC DEVELOPMENT LEVEL 3 years 14 +  "Metaphoric level. 'Poetic sign.' Tacit awareness; multi-dimensional meanings. New level of aesthetic coherence and expressiveness." (Ross,1984,p..2)."...clearly the level of imaginative feeling...(of discerned) correspondence' between our own life and the 'life' or ...'object' that confronts us..." (p.58). Acquired sense of ambiguity, "...disinterested respect for the thing itself (p. 57), interest in personal expressive form - ..."forms are symbolic statements in their own right, not simply imitations of scenes from life" (p.127). Form offers "...scope for affective projection and exploration" (p. 127). Emphasis placed on character development and on complex issues and tensions in relationships rather than on the story-line. Coherence of the overall structure more important than episodes. The art form "is regarded as pure...symbol...a symbolic act of significance in its own right" (p. 126). Self-consciousness accompanies self-awareness.  LEVEL 2 years 8-13  LEVEL 1 years 3-7  Disinterested Attention. "Increasing recognition of quality, greater ability to discriminate the good from the less good. Sensitivity to uniqueness and coherence (interrelationships social as well as aesthetic" (Ross, 1984, p.2). Form and convention of real-life drama important, and "interest in film and television as 'models' for material" (p. 126). Conformation with reality along with real-life issues and scenes are emphasized. "Desire to be true-to-life, to take scenes and issues from the real world and make their own versions conform to reality".(p. 126). Self-awareness and perception of skill or its lack are present. Awareness of skills or lack of skills becomes an inhibiting factor for the first time" (p. 126). There is preference for stories, which are coherent, consistent and which "end significantly...(There may be) adoption of stock material and subservience to cliche' (p. 126). "Increasing 'disinterest' meaning lack of practical associations/values. Form important for its own sake; it has inherent value and there is a perception of quality" (Ross, 1984, p. 1). "A degree of detachment allows some measure of freedom to the play of sensibility" (p. 57). Attention is given to the quality of a work over and above its function. The child does not identify with the object or part. "Deep commitment to the imaginative world created by play....lnhibitions are at their lowest" (p. 126).  PRE-AESTHETICl LEVEL years 0-2  "Pragmatic attachment and perception. The form/object implies practical consequences" (Ross, 1984, p. 1) This practical orientation is linked to "such central life issues as security, love, status, nourishment, livelihood, communication, efficiency' (p. 56).  Figure 2 summary of Ross's Model of Aesthetic Development  146 disinterest, Stage  allowing  Two, s t u d e n t s  discriminate  the  for  are  able  good from  The s t u d e n t s  i n the  worlds of  close  identification with play  play  roles,  degrees Ross  i n fence  of  and t o  the  and  less  study  A l l the  translate  them  In his  of  i n the  the  object  process  of  experience,  from  Kyle's  raptor,  Brazil  dancers,  stories, ideas drama,  that  of  is  films.  concern with  in film  forms  came  but  from  s u c h as  artists, in art  with  idea generation  the  Craig's detailed  able  to  varying  Stage  One,  referring  encounters  to,  and  Ross's  at  Stage  as  an  and t e l e v i s i o n as  and is  Stages  of  he  sees  the  Ache from  familiar  stages  important  Two w h e r e  and c o n v e n t i o n s  the  in  description  a l l three  e s p e c i a l l y at  culture  personal  s u c h as lessons,  as  (p.126).  movies as  Drawing upon what  consistent  in Ross's  important,  integration"  culture,  imagery  of popular  appears  interest  and  s t u d e n t s were  personal  dance  visiting  development,  The emergence ideas,  from  music,  i n dance  aesthetic  from  and by A n n a ' s  to  w o r l d . . . s i m u l a t e d and r e - e n a c t e d  for  popular  e v i d e n c e d by  description of  subjective  The s t u d e n t s ' i d e a s  In  better  able  i n t o movement w i t h  i n c l u d e s m a k e - b e l i e v e p l a y as  happenings  were w e l l  as  raptor,  of  sensibility.  good.  painting.  representative  of  r e c o g n i z e q u a l i t y and  fantasy,  the  effectiveness.  "Situations  part  pretend  to  present  enter  role  some e x e r c i s e  for  for  of  One a n d T w o . source a  of  "Greater  r e a l - l i f e drama  "models" and as  source  -  147 material" the  (1984,  125).  However, i t  s t u d e n t s made e q u a l u s e  example, dances.  L'Oiseau  sources  sterotypes  in their  Students of  body,  space,  to  and e i g h t  as  not  this  large  body movements  for  the  most p a r t  action,  According  as  -  sustained  challenge  students  movements  Laban's claim  develop naturally later" All  students  i n the  w h a t was m o d e l l e d b y t h e to  as  that  extension  of  for  given  study,  painting. While  most p a r t ,  sustained  while  teacher,  were the  quick sustained  quick  and  seem  to  movements  with  or  generally  and  her  in eight  own o r i g i n a l  of  were  were  year  i n seven year  interpretations  s t u d e n t s were c a p a b l e  accepting  shown on f i l m ,  appeared  refinement, ideas  enjoying  which would  "Light  whole  intuitive,  "First  light,  by  (p.21).  discern quality. This  Simone's desire  well,  to  free  the  move i n a more  enjoyed  open  Their  and r u n n i n g  speed  Other  their  shown.  immediate,  i s mostly concerned with  22).  s t i l l  involving  (1948)  and g r a d u a l l y l e a r n i n g t o  ballet  s t u d y made  uninhibited.  speed,  that  i n e v i t a b l y bound  i n the  d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s were High  are  study  used  noted  imagery f o r  Laban  manner"(p.  fence  students  imagery and are choices,  of  to  actions,  able  a source  and e i g h t  commonly f a v o r e d .  light  classical  seven  and spontaneous.  child  the  s h o u l d be  aged  and were  responses  of  of as  Exotique,  A t ages seven  different  use  p.  old Anna's  ones  literal  old  in  the  for  the  sensitive portrayals  in  148 movement w h i c h their  incorporated  emotional elements  his  description of  Stage  spontaneity  mentioned above,  inhibitions  are  While the  at  their  students  were  self-consciousness  and e i g h t  i n the  no m e n t i o n o f in  Stage  age to  of  this  be  recognizes part it  for  clear  model at  olds  severely This  been age  this  problem i s  have  seen  little  life,  narrow s o c i a l  i n the  "that  this  stage. beginnings  children of  Ross,  seven  however,  i n Stage  One o r  makes even  around of  between  crippling  12 a n d  Three,  14+,  even g r e a t e r .  and t h a t  dance  as  by t h i s  attitudes  applies  13.  13 y e a r s .  toward  Consider that  age  they  dance.  each found Ross  drama mention  Two:  that  I would modify and  i n drama.  form  was  not  and  to  i n the  Stage  thirteen  an a r t  from  Although  he d o e s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n at  self-consciousness  of  it  self-consciousness  ages  8 and  of  uncertainty  self-consciousness  Stage  effects  i n h i b i t e d students  d e s c r i b e d as  ten,  student  regarding  at  restraining  d i s t i n c t i o n made b e t w e e n  year  school  has  effects  students  cut  126)  situation.  revealed the  greatest  the  of his  evident  i n t o dance.  i n r e l a t i o n to  is,  were  Evident at  its  (p.  claiming  l a r g e l y u n i n h i b i t e d , the  which  confidence  at  lowest"  as  the  model.  study  freely  group.  well  Ross recognizes  such self-consciousness  self-consciousness entering  one,  as  performance  Two o f h i s  Yet,  lack  with  ideas. In  of  along  or  many as  may h a v e  this  fourteen In  dance  students part  of  absorbed  149 T h o s e s t u d e n t s who f o r m e d t h e study  had begun t o  show e v i d e n c e s  attitudes.  Awareness of t h e i r  in  year  the  ten  thirteen put  it,  less  year i f  well  students their they  o l d grade  she than  her  in their  needed This  the  to  that  of  and r e f i n e skill  or  lack  first  of  popular  was  and the  As one t e n the  evident  twelve  audience  i n order  becomes  an  to  students  or  eight  felt  inhibiting  as that  their reflect  o r who e x h i b i t e d "Awareness  old did  well  do to  and  year  w o u l d do as  one where  was n o t  However, t e n  which  this  on  ability.  of...skills  factor  for  the  126).  generation  students. dances  Two a s  such s k i l l s  time"(p. Idea  Stage  skill  Many s t u d e n t s  caused  p e e r s who h a d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e Ross d e s c r i b e s  of  they  group dances.  awareness  in  everyone would know. Grade  hope  practice  of  students.  i n front  group  self-critical  own l a c k  eight  peers  of  ten  club students  "messed up"  expressed  peers  best.  o l d dance  age  she  year  a concern for old Jennifer's  o b s e r v e d was c o n s i s t e n t  culture.  She d e s c r i b e d h e r  the  club  preference  with  favorite  dance  the  among  imagery of  dance  as  "professional". The to  negative  L'Oiseau  dancer  response,  Exotique,  revealed the  eight  student,  performed by a  influence of c u l t u r a l sterotypes  his  appropriate  i n male dance, are  a grade  a b a l l e t i c dance  formulating  particular  o f James,  attitudes  socialized  t o w a r d what he and a l s o , to  think of  the  felt  to  in  be  way m a l e s  serious  male  in  dance.  James'  150 response and  eight  negative be  s h o u l d be year  compared t o  olds to  judgements,  the  the  a source  of  imagery.  description  of  "Interest  and  as  source  conventions Two.  material  of  the  same  responses  excerpt.  in film  (and)  models of  the  response  we s e e  and t e l e v i s i o n  (p.126)  seven  found the  concern with  drama"  of  Rather than  younger students In James'  real-life  F o r James  the  the  popular culture  dance  to  Ross'  as  ^models'  forms  typical  forming  of  and Stage  became  prescriptive. James student  also  indicated a clear  generated  large  group dance  story  line.  "Desire to  from  the  excerpt  she  around are  as  James,  but  take  of  of  in the  r e a l i s m and  with  Ross's  scenes  own v e r s i o n s  interest  i n what,  Her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n saw t h e  dance  as  feelings.  Danielle's  response  Three.  responded  i n a much d i f f e r e n t  to  Stage  lack  thirteen,  o p e n i n g up r e a l m s  Ross's  to  a n d make t h e i r  innocence, her'own  its  realism  His criticism  consistent  -life,  who w a s a l s o  was one o f  genre.  literal;  be t r u e - t o  class.  for  Stage  and  issues  conform  to  126)."  Danielle,  dance  centered  real world  reality...(p.  response  i n the  These concerns  Two,  video  dances  preference  was  to  her,  less  symbolic  Ross declares  that:  the  way.  was a  of  freedom  with  and  same  Her new  concerned with  of understanding,  was c o n s i s t e n t  to  the  and related  attributes  of  151 The lose the the and Ross  t h i n g may s i g n i f y o t h e r t h a n i t s e l f a n d y e t n o t i t s own i d e n t i t y . T h i s i s t h e l e v e l o f m e t a p h o r , l e v e l of the expressive character of the sensuous, power l a t e n t i n a l l s e n s u o u s phenomena t o a r o u s e o r g a n i z e f e e l i n g i d e a ( s i c ) (Ross, 1984, p. 57).  also  states  "inevitability own l i f e the  that  and the  object  us."  This  that too  own d a n c e less  or  at  Stage  *life'  or  good.  aged  presence  of  and a s s e r t s  the  its  was a n a b i l i t y ten,  was  able  dancer's  engagement  whole  between  our  character  influence  of deficiencies  qualitative distinctions evident the  the  of  upon  response.  describe  of  is  correspondence'  awareness  others,  Jennifer,  x  there  in Danielle's  students' of  the us  was e v i d e n t  that  Three  we d i s c e r n  confronts  Along with  and  that  in  their  to  perceive  to  discern  within  good and  the  self.  I t l o o k s d i f f e r e n t when t h e y ' r e more e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t h e i r moves. L i k e i n s t e a d o f j u s t g o i n g l i k e t h i s ( i l l u s t r a t e d a n o n c o m m i t t a l t e n t a t i v e movement) t h e y w o u l d j u s t go ( i l l u s t r a t e s a v i b r a n t e x t e n d e d movement) l i k e that, rush i t sort of instead of just going slow... (11294). In the  other  dancer  special to  words  was aware  a n d was r e s p o n s i v e  quality.  dance  their  she  with  Likewise,  expression  of to  the  aesthetic  it,  Jennifer  engagement  perceiving i t and P a t r i c i a  and s t y l e ,  to  have  were  able  bringing feeling  to  dancing. Will,  aesthetic  i n grade awareness,  observations.  eight both  H i s moments  showed y e t  a greater  i n performance of  free,  and  intuitive,  degree  in  of  of  his  spontaneous  152 performance in  action.  in class,  He w a s w h o l l y  emotionally. allowing  is  i n the  he  it  dimensional  as  of  the  of  meaning o f  interpretations.  characteristic  example  Stage  of  of  the dance  the  i n order  viewer,  to  and t o of  allow  multiplicity  of Ross's model.  Metaphorical Level  p o s s i b i l i t i e s . He  aesthetic  d e s i r a b i l i t y of  T h i s awareness Three  the  c o g n i t i v e l y and  spoke  thinking faculties  various  describes  a vivid  absorbed,  Furthermore,  ambiguity  engage the for  were  because of  Ross its  multi-  writes:  The t h i r d l e v e l o f t h e l e v e l o f l a t e n t o r p o t e n t i a l meaning, of meaning a w a i t i n g r e a l i z a t i o n , o f c o n n e c t i o n s t o be made, t r u t h s t o be r e v e a l e d . The r e a l m as I have s a i d o f metaphor, o f s i g n . I t i s t h e poetic dimension of aesthetic experience (p.58). An e v e n more a d v a n c e d engagement poetic  i n dance,  consistent  d i m e n s i o n by R o s s ,  Jeanette.  The d a n c e ,  l e d by J e a n e t t e ,  symbolic  content  with was  a powerful as  apparent  performer  That  not  only incorporated  by J e a n e t t e ,  as  dance  with  by J e a n e t t e  intellect  observer this  description of year  i t  of  highly was  felt  and o t h e r s  by  invested  (sixteen),  This  the  could  multiple potential  Eric  old  and e m o t i o n .  was  the  be  meanings  and by N a t a l i e ,  sixteen. Another  ten  the  this  aesthetic  composed by a group  when p e r f o r m e d  i n many w a y s ,  was m a i n t a i n e d also  to  with  of  shown by f o u r t e e n  combination of  herself.  interpreted  was  Le Loup,  students  but  understanding  characteristic  was an e m p h a s i s  of  on p e r s o n a l  students  i n grade nine  expression.  Dance was  and seen  153 as  an o p p o r t u n i t y  and  ideas.  images  Students  Ross's  statements scenes  life"  students  guided the  had broken  (1950)  values  has  of  consistent are  its  simply imitations It  of  stereotypes  the  w o u l d seem  James and  zenith;  In In  are  that so  play the its  more  "The  that  which  close  beauty  connections  that of  developed  they  the forms  it  the  noblest  aesthetic  perception  (p.  166-167).  Huizinga's  words,  known t o  absorbs  Young c h i l d r e n are drawn t o  transported  out  possibilities p e r h a p s more  of  of  the  man"  player  possessed  the  fun  the  ordinary.  assuming  terrible,  dance a l l o w e d seven  of  of  free  dance-play, P l a y as  qualities  gifts  of  and  spirit,  and t o  of in  utterly. being  brings larger,  (Huizinga, 1950).  The p l a y f u l  year  to  old students  is  being  pretend  heroes,  body  Play,  completely a  hardly  human  w i t h rhythm and harmony,  in  of  Jennifer.  saturated  naturally  with  symbolic  p.126)  written  p l a y i n g and d a n c i n g  illustrating...  reaches  free  work,  students'  "...forms  not  1984,  distinctive  The  form i s  popular  Play  Huizinga  need  style.  Stage Three,  (Ross,  feelings,  b e i n g bound by  personal  own r i g h t ,  aesthetic  Dance and  than  expressive  of  in their  from  between  of  i n personal  description  o r i g i n a l thoughts,  on h i g h l y o r i g i n a l o r  development  interest  express rather  placed value  and the  these  to  feel  spirit  154 "beautiful",  as  Yonina  claimed, or  " p o w e r f u l " as  Donald  declared. The s e v e n world  and e i g h t  o f unabashed  trees,  raptors  Different  In  at  time,  collides  with  play.  of  one of  (Nachmanovitch,  course,  1990).  of  In  means  this  consciousness At but  age  there  was n o t  and o f  feelings  of  attained,  that  the  provide  transforms enter  means it  is  i n grade  nervousness  i n v i t a t i o n to painting a  evident,  with  occurs  free  play of  fall  from  a very real  free  the  grace  play with dance.  dependent  eight,  of  flow its  brings  reality  with  it  self-doubts. self-  This nine,  could  their  the  dances, students.  own l a c k o f  conflicted steps  with had  was  been evident.  beckoning absorption feeling quality  be  r e a d i l y seen Kay spoke  can  that  individual's ability  and t e n .  when p e r f o r m i m g t h a t  i n the  younger  and s t y l e  But the  upon the  the  of  do w e l l ,  along with  for  fence.  imagination  engaged  of  perceptions  When m a s t e r y  of  be  Anna's  when  and b i n d i n g  became  abandon  need t o  play unreservedly.  students  were  the  spectrum.  students  freedom.  enjoyment  the  artists  entering  itself.  the  their  The a t t i t u d e  little  l i m i t a t i o n s and accompanying  Growing self-awareness, skill,  be  good at  disenchantment  This  asserts  ten,  to  the  innocent  understanding dance  or  engagement  end o f  this  o l d s were  They needed  and b i r d s ,  degrees  absorption  year  in  to the  of  initial  s h o r t l y g a v e way t o  getting  "caught entry  up  i n the  into  the  absorption;  dance".  Lack  play world  absorption  of  self-consciousness  and p e r m i t s  in turn,  the  dispels  freedom  the  last  permits  of vestiges  of  self-consciousness. Will but  gave  h i m s e l f up t o  e v e n M a r y became  dance.  Both  world,  and t o  insights. revealed  students have  "When I ' m d a n c i n g dance I  that  just  dance  flow  absorption to  it  the  the  I I  with  said to  get don't  the  hear  of  i n a dramatic  repetitive have  lost  when she  I  don't  said,  see  This degree  become and  the  play  dancers,  in it...whenever  anything,  skill  the  imaginative  experienced  absorption  to  and  way,  circle  entered  freedom  most  totally  dancer  powers  is  of  its  music"(10695).  allows the  individual  m i g h t be  degree of  the  utmost  i n the  one  another  dance  immersed  experienced  Jeanette, yet  his  I anyone.  of  dance,  bringing  imagination of  which  capable.  Summary Descriptions the  aesthetic  recognized. both  at  It  symbolic  p l a y may b e  may b e  intellect  different  and examples  seen  observed  i n the  and emotions  represent experience  used  their is  by the  ideas  eye.  more  with  indicate  It  are  may b e  As such  centrality  engagement  qualitatively seen  sophisticated  the  that  unmistakably  simultaneous  and knowledge.  consistent  data  and  i n ways t h a t  and which draw the forms  from the  in  the  students  to  aesthetic of  symbolic  of  156 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a r t forms, as d e f i n e d by Langer  (1953).  The world of p l a y d e f i n e d by H u i z i n g a (1950) o f f e r s students a s a f e haven of a b s o r p t i o n where they may  explore  and c r e a t e with freedom and where p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a e s t h e t i c knowing may  be e x p l o r e d . The p e r s p e c t i v e s of  Langer and H u i z i n g a are h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t o understanding a e s t h e t i c development as i t appeared  i n the students of the  study. They r e i n f o r c e the congruence of the f i n d i n g s of the study w i t h Ross's framework of a e s t h e t i c development. There i s much correspondence  between the f i n d i n g s of  t h i s study and the a e s t h e t i c framework of Ross (1984).  The  f i n d i n g s support Ross's c l a i m t h a t a e s t h e t i c awareness i n the a r t s progresses w i t h the age and experience of the i n d i v i d u a l . The data i n d i c a t e t h a t c a r e f u l l y  designed  l e a r n i n g experiences which p l a c e a e s t h e t i c l e a r n i n g a t the core s e t the stage f o r growth. Through such e x p e r i e n c e s , the responses of the i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d both as  performer/  i n t e r p r e t e r and as o b s e r v e r / a n a l y s t i n dance became more sophisticated. Each of the t h r e e a e s t h e t i c stages d e s c r i b e d by Ross i s p r e s e n t i n the data w i t h v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x e m p l i f i e d . A d d i t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s t h a t adapt Ross's framework t o dance have been added from the data. S i g n i f i c a n t observable c r i t e r i a f o r a e s t h e t i c knowing i n dance may  be examined i n l i g h t of d e s c r i p t i o n s of the  157 various manner  stages  judgements  It  is  of  to  emerges  from  of  in this the  understandings. the  highest  age  levels of  are  be u s e f u l  to  purposes.  The d e v e l o p m e n t  awareness  at  the  core  is  l e a r n i n g i n the accessible,  not  In  aesthetic  one where  of  the  likely  offered  aesthetic  never in  dance.  r e c o g n i z i n g and  and more d e f e n s i b l e ,  identifying  place are  aesthetic  critical  context,  as  study  educational  c r i t e r i a which  educational  achieve  in this  and o t h e r  age.  individual.  l e a r n i n g and which  broadest  a  a particular  understanding  for  this  made.  indicated very different  assessment  of  model o f  varied with  teachers  for  may b e  listed for  and d e s c r i p t i o n s  growth,  more  the  study  aesthetic  aesthetic  to  that  this  framework.  progress  Some i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l  The e x a m p l e s should  note  study,  same  adapted  student  characteristics  Development, Students  about  important  growth that number  o u t l i n e d by the  should  a result  of  be  this  study. Conclusions In  this  enjoyed,  that  aesthetic  and m a r v e l l e d at  was t a n g i b l e students  study,  in  themselves  student's  evaluated  awareness  i n students  expression;  awareness  to  validates  development  Implications  its  and p e r c e p t i b l e  aesthetic  verbal  and  transforming me,  the  to  was  power.  teachers,  noted, That and  of  this  study,  c a n and s h o u l d be  part  of  was e v i d e n t times  the  premise  school experience.  at  i n dance  it  Growing  in their  was m a n i f e s t  aesthetic  written in  the  and  i t the  158 presentation refinement,  of dance,  and e n a b l e d by a b s o r p t i o n  Aesthetic stages which of  model  adapted  aesthetic  aesthetic  for  responses  under that  must  i n the  are  to  significant  emphasis  (Stinson,  the  the  1982,  That  to  the  be  level.  aesthetic  development  that  arts  the  as  peripheral dance  be v a l u e d ,  be c o n s i d e r e d t o  i n other  character  assessment  aesthetic  teaching  of  i t  only  happens  must  aesthetic to  experience of  and  aesthetic  challenges  dance  i n dance  order  rigorous  to  "To f a i l  benefits  possibilities for  must  Ross's  for  Although  attainment  up g r e a t  arts  Ross's  arts.  of  development  opens  the  other  to  be  set  qualities  give the i n dance in  most is  to  education"  74).  aesthetic  the  developmental  engagement  Important  greatest  p.  task.  respects  central  of  child's  and  dance.  curriculum.  to  have  i n the  active  conditions.  appropriate  deny c h i l d r e n  in  a course  directed at  i n the  can provide a b a s i s  seek  dance  follows  certain are  dance  to  in certain  development  i f these  awareness  was s e e n  development  Teachers  learning  awareness  corresponded  model  of  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s p e c i a l q u a l i t y  of arts  dance  c a n be  i n education.  be  as  systematized  (Pioli,  in  and  Without accountability  i n s t r u c t i o n may a p p e a r  which draws on s y s t e m a t i c  In  i n s t r u c t i o n and assessment  school subjects.  and n o n e s s e n t i a l  assessed  1991).  to  be  Assessment  guidelines presents  a  in  159 convincing in  very r e a l ,  shake  off  the  frivolity as  case  for  as  a subject  complex l e a r n i n g s . negative  i n the  an e s s e n t i a l  opportunities  dance  for  is  rigor,  hoped t h a t  image o f b e i n g a mere  educational art  It  with  which  scene,  offers  expression  dance  may  indulgence  and r a t h e r  students  resulting  be  or  regarded  unique  o f knowledge and f o r  personal  development. Further education, done  research  for,  in this  as  is  noted  area.  benefit  chart  progress  instruction questions dance, this in  but  vein  from  would not  education,  but  i n dance  little  add v a l u a b l e  only  would  individual aesthetic  add t o  of  dance  research  has  Studies  understanding  surely benefit  dance  insights.  awareness?  arts  and  which  sequential  who t r u l y  in  been  n e e d s much w o r k  i n comprehensive,  What o f t h e  manifests  little  such research.  over time would  arise.  i n a l l aspects  earlier,  Assessment  would g r e a t l y student  needed  Other enjoys Studies  in  dance  education  in  general. There  is  established extremely study; cycle  no d o u b t  programs  fortunate  that  at  i n dance to  find  the  present  limits  three  research.  researchers  may n o t  may b e  established  w h e r e much n e e d e d  i n dance  provincial  is  thwarted.  curriculum, i t  is  I  exemplary s i t e s  other  research  time,  be  With  so  fortunate.  the  hoped t h a t  lack of was for  my  Thus,  a  potential  impetus dance  of the  programs  new will  160 become sites  established for  i n schools.  This i n turn  understanding  and a p p r e c i a t i n g  world...dance  as  involvement  the  of  offer is  feeling"  learning to  the  self  one  I  a powerful  choose  the depth  of  awareness of, universe  and the  and -  aesthetic  dynamics of  vastness change"  aesthetic  awareness at  of  learning.  good  art  and  its  realm  education, core...dancing (p.  24).  dance  in  children's  world  (Stinson,  1988).  "...feeling  for,  about  the  forces  space,  the  magnitude  affecting of  time,  1985).  education core,  that  choose...This  dimension of  (Costa,  the  is  children"  to  for  sensing,  recognized  awareness develops,  D e s i g n i n g q u a l i t y dance with  at  the  1979).  have  and the  intuitiveness  the  for  and r i c h n e s s  themselves  Emphasis on a e s t h e t i c  to  to  Children's  l e a r n i n g what  education first  of  all-inclusive  not  for  opportunity  processes  too,  form o f  grow,  and dance  to  offers  understandings  the  a unique  1985)  and what  would choose  Attention education  and r e l a t i n g  (Commission on  i n t r i n s i c l e a r n i n g may v e r y w e l l  the  primary vehicle  through  in Kiester,  learning to  music education, is  the  N a t i o n a l Dance A s s o c i a t i o n , (cited  could  are  form o f f e r s  whole s e l f ,  t h i n k i n g and  "Education bad,  an a r t  of the  Maslow dance  more  Words  "A c h i l d ' s body and sense  Dance o f  ensure  research.  Final  moving,  will  programs, programs  programs  that  are  161 responsive  to  children's  assessment,  offer  transformed  conception  it  is  the  untold  development  ongoing  exciting possibilities  of  education.  c h i l d r e n who w i l l  s h a p e new s o c i a l  through  attitudes  Within  this  w i n , a n d who w i l l towards  dance.  in  a  conception,  eventually  162 References Abbs, manifesto.  P . , (1989). Aesthetic education: Journal of Aesthetic Education,  A small 23., ( 4 ) ,  75-85.  A r n o l d , P . , (1986). C r e a t i v i t y , s e l f e x p r e s s i o n and dance. Journal of Aesthetic Education 20, (3), 49-58. r  Asante, K . W . , (1993). A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n dance i n curricula. Journal of Physical Education Recreation Dance, 64, (2), 48-51.  and  Bergmann, S . , ( 1 9 9 2 ) . The p r o c e s s / p r o d u c t d i c h o t o m y and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c r e a t i v e dance. Journal of A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , 26, ( 2 ) , 103-107. Brigham, D. 1., educational process. 32.  (1978). Studies  A r t and l e a r n i n g : in Art Education,  partners 19, (30,  in 25-  Carter, C , (1983). A r t and c o g n i t i o n : Performance, c r i t i c i s m , and a e s t h e t i c s . A r t Education, 36, (2), 61-67.  Past  Carter, C , (1984). and p r e s e n t . Theory  The s t a t e o f dance i n e d u c a t i o n : I n t o P r a c t i c e , 12, 293-299.  Commission on C h i l d r e n ' s Dance o f t h e N a t i o n a l Dance A s s o c i a t i o n . (1979). A proclamation i n the international year of the c h i l d p e r t a i n i n g to dance e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n and Dance, 5 0 , 7, 4 1 .  C o s t a , A . L . , (1985). A e s t h e t i c s : where t h i n k i n g o r i g i n a t e s . D e v e l o p i n g M i n d s : A Resource Book F o r T e a c h i n g Thinking (pp.118-119). R o s e v i l l e : Association for S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Development.  Ely, M . , Anzul, M . , Friedman, T . , & Garner, D.(1991). Doing q u a l i t a t i v e research: c i r c l e s w i t h i n c i r c l e s . London: the Falmer Press.  163 F a l l o n , D . , (1979). Disco dance: A b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n 50, 76-77.  4,  Feldman, H. F . , & Goldsmith, L . T . (1987). A e s t h e t i c judgement: Changes i n p e o p l e and changes i n domain. J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , 20, (4), 85-92. F o w l e r , C . , ( 1 9 9 0 ) . One n a t i o n u n d e r c u l t u r e d a n d u n d e r q u a l i f i e d . I n W. M o o d y ( E d . ) , A r t i s t i c Intelligences: I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r E d u c a t i o n ( p p . 1 5 9 - 1 6 9 ) . New Y o r k : Teacher's College Press.  Gans, H . J . , (1974). P o p u l a r c u l t u r e and h i g h c u l t u r e : A n a n a l y s i s a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f t a s t e . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s . Hammersley M . , and A t k i n s o n . P . , (1983) Ethnography: P r i n c i p l e s i n p r a c t i c e . London: Macmillan. G e l b a r d , E . F . , ( 1 9 8 8 ) . Dance an a e s t h e t i c p i e : An integrative view. Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 59, ( 5 ) , 3 0 - 3 3 . Jorgensen, D. L . , (1989). Newbury P a r k , C a : Sage.  Art  Hanna, J . , (1983) E d u c a t i o n , 23., ( 4 ) ,  Participant  observation.  The M e n t a l i t y and m a t t e r 75-85.  of  dance.  Hanstein, P . , (1990). Educating for the future-a post modern paradigm f o r dance e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n and Dance, 6 1 , ( 5 ) , 5 6 - 5 8 .  H e r r i o t t , R. E . , & F i r e s t o n e , W . A . , (1983). M u l t i s i t e q u a l i t a t i v e p o l i c y r e s e a r c h : O p t i m i z i n g d e s c r i p t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 12., ( 2 ) 1 4 - 1 9 .  H u i z i n g a , J . ( 1 9 5 0 V . Homo l u d e n s : A s t u d y element i n c u l t u r e . Boston: Beacon P r e s s . f  the 72,  of  the  K e i s t e r , G. J . , ( 1985). T o t a l education: A r t s a n a l y t i c a l with the aesthetic. Music Educator's (2), 24-27.  play  balance Journal  164 K e r r , K . , (1993). A n a l y s i s o f f o l k dance w i t h LMA-based t o o l s . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n and Dance, 64, (2), 38-40.  Laban, R . , (1948). Macdonald & Evans.  Modern e d u c a t i o n a l  dance.  London:  L a c h a p e l l e , R. L . , (1991). A e s t h e t i c development theory and s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g contemporary a r t t o adults. C a n a d i a n R e v i e w o f A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1 8 , (2) 1 0 0 - 1 1 3 . L a n g e r , S . , ( 1 9 5 7 ) . P h i l o s o p h y i n a new k e y Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press. Langer, S., S c r i b n e r ' s Sons.  (1953).  F e e l i n g and  form.  (3rd  New Y o r k :  ed.).  Charles  L a n k f o r d , E . L . (1992). A e s t h e t i c s : I s s u e s and i n q u i r y . NAEA. E . L o u i s L a n k f o r d and The O h i o S t a t e R e s e a r c h Foundation. L o g a n , M . , ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Dance i n the s c h o o l s : A account. T h e o r y I n t o P r a c t i c e , 23., 4 , 3 0 0 - 3 0 2 . M a c m i l l a n , J . H . , and in education: A conceptual Collins.  personal  Schumacher, S. (1989). R e s e a r c h i n t r o d u c t i o n (2nd e d . ) . Harper  M c C o l l , S . , ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Dance as a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n and Dance, 50, 44-46.  M i n i s t r y of Education (Schools D i v i s i o n ) , ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Dance i n drama. M e l b o u r n e : M i n i s t r y o f  life  Nachmanovitch, S., a n d a r t . New Y o r k :  7,  Victoria, Education.  (1990). Free p l a y : Improvisation St. M a r t i n ' s Press  P a r i s e r , D. (1987). Review of Michael Parsons's Understand Art. J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , 2 0 , 93-102.  How  in  We (4),  165 Parsons, M . J . , (1987). Talk about a p a i n t i n g : A cognitive developmental a n a l y s i s . Journal of Aesthetic E d u c a t i o n , 2 1 , (1) 3 7 - 5 5 .  P a r s o n s , M . J . , (1987). Assumptions about a r t and artworld: A response to c r i t i c s . Journal of Aesthetic Education, 20, ( 4 ) , 107-116. P a r s o n s , M . J . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . How we u n d e r s t a n d a r t : A c o g n i t i v e account of a e s t h e t i c experience. New Y o r k : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . P a r s o n s , M . J . , ( 1 9 9 0 ) . A e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y : The psychological context. Journal of Aesthetic Education, (1), 135-146.  24  P h i l p o t t , S . , (1986) A s s e s s m e n t i n d a n c e : an a c c o u n t of a small scale research project undertaken w i t h teachers. Assessment i n A r t s E d u c a t i o n , 6, 1 6 5 - 1 7 8 . P i o l i , R . T . , The s t a t e o f t h e a r t s i n e l e m e n t a r y school. Streamlined Seminar, National A s s o c i a t i o n of Elementary School P r i n c i p a l s , 10, 2, 1-4. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education. (1994). Guidelines f o r student r e p o r t i n g for the k i n d e r g a r t e n t o g r a d e 12 e d u c a t i o n p l a n . V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y of Education.  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y ( 1 9 9 4 ) . Dance c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e : I . r . p . e d . Ministry of Education.  Ross, M. (1984). Pergamon P r e s s .  The a e s t h e t i c  of Education. Victoria:  impulse.  Oxford:  Schmitz, N . , (1990). Key education i s s u e s - c r i t i c a l to dance education. Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 6 1 , 5, 59-61.  166 Sparshott, F . (1990). Contexts of dance. In R. A . Smith ( E d . ) , C u l t u r a l L i t e r a c y and A r t s E d u c a t i o n (pp. 7 3 - 8 7 ) . Urbana and C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s .  S p a r s h o t t , F . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Why p h i l o s o p h y n e g l e c t s the d a n c e . I n M . G r o s s & M . D . Cohen ( E d s . ) , What I s Dance? R e a d i n g s I n T h e o r y a n d C r i t i c i s m ( p p . 9 4 - 1 0 2 ) . New Y o r k : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press.  Stake, R. E . , (1994). Case S t u d i e s . L i n c o l n ( E d s . ) , Handbook o f Q u a n t i t a t i v e 246). Thousand oaks, C a l i f o r n i a : Sage.  In N . K . Denzin & Y. Research (pp.236-  Stake, R. E . , (1988). Case study methods i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h ; s e e k i n g sweet water. I n R . M . Jaeger ( E d . ) , Complementary Methods f o r Research i n E d u c a t i o n , (pp.253-265). Washington, D . C . : American Educational Research A s s o c i a t i o n .  Stinson, S., (1979). E v a l u a t i n g the c h i l d : Issues for dance educators. J o u r n a l of P h y s i c a l Education R e c r e a t i o n and Dance, 50, 7, 53-54. S t i n s o n , S . , (1982). C r e a t i v e dance f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n and Dance, 53, 4, 72-74.  Stinson, S., dance. Journal of 59, (7), 52-56.  (1988). Aesthetic experience i n c h i l d r e n ' s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n and Dance,  W e r n e r , P . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r movement. In W.J. Moody ( E d . ) , A r t i s t i c I n t e l l i g e n c e s : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Education, (pp. 129-134). New Y o r k : T e a c h e r ' s C o l l e g e Press.  167  APPENDIX A Sampling  Frame  GRADE NINE/TEN SITE Time:  Feb.  Mar.  April  May  June  1  1  1  1  1  2  2  2  2  *  2  3  3  3  3  * Int.  3  'G Block out of 8 block timetable  4  4  4  4  4  Day 1- no dance  5  5  5  5  5  6  6  6  6  6  Day 3 -1:50-2:44  7  7  7  7  7  Day 4 -no dance  8  8  8  8  8  Day 5 - 10:00-11:40  One semester Sept- Jan. 1  Int.  Day 2 -9:35-10:35  9 '  9  9  9  9  Day 6 -no dance  10  10  10  10  10  Day 7 -8:30 9:30  11  11  11  11  12  12  12  12  13  13  13  13  14  14  14  14  14  15  15  15  15  15  15  16  16  16  " 16  •  11  Day 8 -12:50 1:45  12  Changes due to:  13  irregularities in school timetable holidays professional days  17  17  17  17  17  special events  18  18  18  18  18  researcher to attend  19  19  19  19  19  20  20  20  20  20  21  21  21  21  21  22  22  22  22  22  23  23  23  23  '• Int.  24  *  24  24  24  25  25  25  26  26  27  27  28  28  * Int.  23 24  25  25  26  26  26  27  27  27  28  28  28  29  29  29  29  30  30  30  31  31  31  *  *  .  30 31  inability  People Teacher Students Visitors Drama Teacher Researcher Place: Drama room School hallway Classrooms - 2  168 GRADE EIGHT SITE  Sept.  Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  1  1  1  1  • 1  Time:  Jan  One semester Sept- Jan.  2  2  2  2  2  3  3  3  3  3  4  4  *  4  4  4  Day 1- no dance  5  5  *  5  5  5  Day 2-9:35-10:35  6  6  6  6  6  Day 3 -1:50-2:44  7  Day 4 -no dance  7  *  7  *  "G" Block out of 8 block timetable  7  7  8  8  8  8  9 '  9  9  9  _ .9  10  10  10  10  10  11  11  11  11  11  12  12  12  12  12  *  Changes due to:  13  13  13  13  13  *  14  14  14  14  14  irregularities in school timetable  15  15  15  16  16  16  •  e  15  *  15  16  *  16  17  17  18  18  19  19  4 O 1 0  researcher inability to attend  19  21  21  21  21  22  22  Teacher  22  22  23  23  23  Students  23  24  Visitors  24  24  25  25  25  26  26  26  27  27  27  28  Place:  28  28  Drama room  24  24  25  25  26  26  28  18  *  20  *  *  • *  27 *  18  professional days special events  19  21  27  17  holidays  20  20  *  17  Day 7 -8:30 9:30 Day 8 -12:50 1:45  20  Int.  22  17  *  19  20  23  *  Day 5 -10:00-11:40 Day 6 -no dance  28  *  29  29  29  29  29  30  30  30  30  30  31  31  31  31  31  *  People  Drama Teacher *  Researcher  School hallway »,lnt.  Classrooms - 2  169  GRADE FIVE SITE  Nov.  GRADE TWO/THREE SITE  Dec.  1  1  *  Grade 5  Nov.  Dec.  Jan  Time:  1  1  1  2  2  Nov. & Dec.  2  2  3  3  Wed. -3:15  3  3  3  4  4  Thurs. - 12:00"'  4  " 4  4  5  5  5  5  5  6  6  6  6  7  7  *  People  7  7  8  8  *  Teacher  8  8  8  9  9  Students  9  9  9  10  10  Parents  10  10  10  11  11  Other teachers  11  11  11  12  12  Researcher  12  12  12  13  13  3.  13  14  14  14  14  15  15  15  15  15  16  16  Int.  16  16  16  17  17  Tchr. Int.  17  17  •) 7  18  18  18 19  18  18  19  19  20  20  21  21  22  *  1  *  Place: School Gym  •  Grade 273 Time:  *, Int  2  6 *  7  13 *  14  19  19  Wed. - 9:00 10:00 a.m.  20  20  20  21  21  21  22  22  22  22  23  23  People  23  23  23  24  24  Teacher  24  24  24  25  25  Students  25  25  25  26  26  Visitor  26  26  26  27  27  Researcher  27  27  27  28  28  28  28  28  29  29  Place:  29  29  29  30  School Gym  30  30  30  31  31  30 31  *  31.  Nov.,Dec, & Jan.  31  *  170 APPENDIX B Sample Teacher Interview ( E x c e r p t s t a r t i n g Page  I n t e r v i e w One  Four)  I. I ' m wondering about you as a t e a c h e r t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s e t t h e k i d s up f o r  and what y o u do success?  R. ( P a u s e ) Umm, w e l l t h e f i r s t t h i n g , b e c a u s e o f t h e nature o f t h e c o u r s e , h a v i n g t o do t h i n g s w i t h t h e i r b o d y , and h a v i n g b e e n t h r o u g h d a n c e m y s e l f a n d r e c o g n i z i n g moments t h a t can c o m p l e t e l y f l o o r you and have you never s t e p p i n g b a c k o n t h e f l o o r , a n d how f r i g h t e n i n g i t c a n a c t u a l l y b e a t t h i s age l e v e l , i s t o s e t them up t o be a b l e t o t a k e r i s k s . And t h e n h a v i n g t a k e n t h e r i s k t h e y c a n see i t ' s v e r y discouraging. I t ' s d i s a p p o i n t i n g at times but i t ' s nothing t h a t y o u c a n ' t g e t r i g h t b a c k up and do a g a i n . A n d t h a t i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g f o r me. A n d t h e n n o t o n l y f o r t h e m p e r s o n a l l y , b u t f o r o t h e r s a r o u n d them i s t o see t h i s huge r i s k t h a t t h e y ' v e t a k e n a n d n o t t o - no p u t - d o w n s a n d down p l a y i t and t h i s t y p e o f t h i n g . But once I have the students u n d e r s t a n d t h a t r i s k t a k i n g i s o k a y , and I do t h a t by a d m i t t i n g r i g h t f r o m t h e s t a r t t h a t t h e r e a r e many o f y o u t h a t h a v e a l o t m o r e e x p e r i e n c e t h a n me i n d a n c e . B u t f o r my l o v e o f m o v e m e n t , a n d y o u know I ' m , g o i n g t o t a k e some r i s k s , and t h i s m i g h t l o o k k i n d o f funny t o y o u , b u t e s s e n t i a l l y I ' m j u s t p r a c t i c i n g what I p r e a c h . So s e t them up f o r r i s k - t a k i n g and j u s t r e a l l y t h r o u g h j o u r n a l s and c o n t a c t o u t s i d e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g up a t y p e o f r a p p o r t t h a t t h e y w i l l r e s p e c t me j u s t a s m u c h a s I r e s p e c t them f o r d o i n g the t y p e s o f t h i n g s and t a k i n g the t y p e s o f r i s k s t h a t I ' m a s k i n g them t o d o . So t h a t ' s t h e r a p p o r t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s , have them t a k e r i s k s , ensures t h a t s u c c e s s . I. I n o r d e r t o s e t a l l o f t h i s i n p l a y w h a t a r e some o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t y o u ' v e f o u n d a r e some e f f e c t i v e w a y s t o g e t k i d s i n t o d a n c e , some t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s perhaps? R. W e l l f i r s t , so t h a t t h e y w o n ' t be a f r a i d o f t h i s v o c a b u l a r y a s w e ' r e w o r k i n g w i t h t h i s l a n g u a g e new t o m o s t o f t h e m . So w o r k f r o m a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e r i g h t f r o m t h e c u r r i c u l u m t h e e l e m e n t s o f movement. L o o k i n g a t t h i s t a b l e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g how t h e e l e m e n t s - how w e ' r e g o i n g t o s t u d y t h e m a n d how t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o w o r k f o r u s l a t e r w h e n w e ' r e c r e a t i n g o u r own d a n c e s when w e ' r e l o o k i n g a t o t h e r d a n c e s . S o h a v i n g a common r e f e r e n c e p o i n t w h e r e students a r e a l l t h e r e a n d w e ' r e s t u d y i n g i t t o g e t h e r a n d we c a n s t a r t u s i n g t h a t v o c a b u l a r y so t h a t s o r t o f s t r u c t u r e is e s s e n t i a l l y , i n i t i a l l y - a g a i n , the i d e a o f showing and  171 demonstrating or I h a v e n ' t been a b l e t o demonstrate e v e r y t h i n g b u t o r g a n i z i n g m y s e l f so t h a t i f I c a n ' t do i t a r e s o u r c e p e r s o n w i l l come i n , b u t p e r i o d i c a l l y h a v i n g much o f what I want them t o do d e m o n s t r a t e d . Once t h a t ' s b e e n done and a g a i n t h e r i s k t a k i n g - t h e y f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e , t h e y s t a r t c r e a t i n g t h e i r own d a n c e s a n d t h e y f e e l a s e n s e o f ownership and I j u s t keep f e e d i n g t h a t s o r t o f f i r e w i t h p o s i t i v e s t r o k e s a n d g i v i n g a s much f e e d b a c k r i g h t o n t h e s i t e and complementing them and r e a l l y b u i l d i n g t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e as t h e y g o . I  Is  that  a key,  confidence?  R O h , a b s o l u t e l y , y e a h . A g a i n t h e i r age l e v e l , e v e r y t h i n g a b o u t t h e t e e n a g e r i n a s k i n g them t o dance and do c e r t a i n t h i n g s - i f t h e y ' r e n o t c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e y c a n a c t u a l l y do i t t h e y m i g h t go t h r o u g h t h e m o t i o n s b u t t h e y ' r e r o b b e d o f i t because they d o n ' t t r u l y d o e s n ' t r e a l i z e i t s full p o t e n t i a l , i t s just sort of going through the motions. I Do y o u f i n d t h a t w h e n k i d s come t o c o n f i d e n c e or t h a t they need t o b u i l d  you t h a t they lack up t h a t c o n f i d e n c e ?  R Y e a h , t h e r e a r e some a n d I t h i n k i t ' s q u i t e o b v i o u s , really hesitating w i t h t h e i r movement, a l w a y s w a n t i n g t o d u c k i n t h e b a c k w h e r e i t ' s d a r k a n d n o t be s e e n a l m o s t e v e r y t i m e I ' v e s t a r t e d a t e r m t h e r e have been one o f two o f those students. And they w i l l take the longest to g a i n the c o n f i d e n c e but I h o n e s t l y b e l i e v e t h a t upon l e a v i n g t h a t e v e r y o n e l e a v e s w i t h m o r e c o n f i d e n c e , some b e t t e r than o t h e r s b u t i t ' s b e e n my e x p e r i e n c e . I in  D o e s t h e l e v e l c o n f i d e n c e r e l a t e t o how f a r dance and t h e i r development and growth?  they  can  go  R (Pause o f 6 seconds ) I ' m not r e a l l y s u r e . Because the c o n f i d e n c e w o u l d have them t a k e more r i s k s . A n d i n d o i n g so n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e more r i s k s y o u t a k e t h e b e t t e r dancer you become, b u t because o f t h e t y p e o f dance t h a t w e ' r e doing the r i s k s through symbolism, through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , these are a l s o r i s k s t h a t I encourage, not j u s t the r i s k s t h r o u g h movement. So i n t e r m s o f p u r e l y d a n c i n g I ' m n o t s u r e - i t w i l l s u r e l y play a large r o l e , but not to the extent t h a t w o u l d be t h e o n l y i n g r e d i e n t . I  One  R  Yeah  ingredient.  I. T h e new d a n c e helpful?  curriculum,  do y o u f i n d  this  to  be  172 R. E x t r e m e l y . P r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e i t ' s n o t t h e way i t was p u t t o g e t h e r y o u d o n ' t have t o be a s p e c i a l i s t i n dance t o be a b l e t o t e a c h . Y o u h a v e t o b e someone who i s w i l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the language t h a t i s use throughout t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s u s e r f r i e n d l y and i t ' s n o t r e a l l y heavy on t e c h n i q u e and t h e r e f o r e i f you d o n ' t have the y e a r s o f t r a i n i n g y o u c a n s t i l l do i t and I b e l i e v e t h i s comes t h r o u g h v e r y c l e a r l y i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . So t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r s the s t r u c t u r e from which the c r e a t i o n o f the dances a n d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d s o f o r t h come i n t o p l a y . S o y e s , the curriculum i s r e a l l y h e l p f u l . I. G o o d . I know t h a t i n some d a n c e c l a s s e s t h a t t h e r e i s a n emphasis on d i r e c t t e a c h i n g , on t e a c h i n g them s t e p s , somewhat t e a c h e r c e n t e r e d and an e m p h a s i s t h a t i s p l a c e d on p e r f o r m a n c e . How d o e s t h a t r e l a t e t o w h a t y o u d o ? R. W e l l , I ' v e s t r u g g l e d w i t h t h o s e two t e r m s , performance and p r e s e n t a t i o n . I f you l o o k a t Thursday f o r i n s t a n c e , Thursday I would l i k e t o t h i n k o f as a p r e s e n t a t i o n . Not t o s a y t h a t s t u d e n t s c a n ' t h e l p t o s e t up f o r a p e r f o r m a n c e , b u t i t was I f i n d i t was o n t h e i n f o r m a l s i d e . E v e n when t h e a u d i e n c e came i n a n d s a t d o w n , t h e y w e r e v e r y c l o s e , very i n t i m a t e , a c t u a l l y f e e l i n g p a r t o f w h a t was g o i n g o n . N o t t o s a y t h a t i t i s n ' t h a p p e n i n g when i t ' s a p e r f o r m a n c e , b u t I a l w a y s t e n d t o t h i n k o f a p e r f o r m a n c e b e i n g somewhat more formal, f l a s h y , . . . yeah. I l i k e to think I follow the idea of p r e s e n t i n g r a t h e r than p e r f o r m i n g because I have a sense t h a t i t i s more i n f o r m a l . I. How w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e approach?  your p a r t i c u l a r  teaching  R. Hmmm. D e f i n i t e l y c h i l d - c e n t e r e d . R i g h t f r o m t h e s t a r t the j o u r n a l i s u n d e r s t o o d as a k i n d o f t o o l which I get t o k n o w t h e m a n d t h e y g e t t o k n o w me b e c a u s e we c o r r e s p o n d t h r o u g h t h e i r j o u r n a l , r i g h t away I t r y t o f i n d o u t t h r o u g h r e a d i n g d i f f e r e n t s t u f f t h a t t h e y s h a r e w i t h me - i t s t h e i r f e a r s where t h e i r s t r e n g t h s a r e , and know t h e s t u d e n t s as w e l l a s I c a n i n d i v i d u a l l y . T h a t ' s why I s a y , w i t h t h i s s m a l l e r g r o u p i t s more e a s i l y done t h a n compared t o a l a r g e r g r o u p . A n d s o my f o c u s i s d e f i n i t e l y o n t h e s t u d e n t s a n d r i g h t t h r o u g h b u i l d i n g o f t h e i r own d a n c e s a n d t h e o w n e r s h i p t h a t t h e y f e e l . A n d s o m e t i m e s I g e t - I s t r u g g l e w i t h how much s h o u l d I a c t u a l l y l e t t h e m h a v e a n d when s h o u l d I s t e p i n and i n d o i n g t h a t what do I d e s t r o y , so I f i n d t h a t ' s a t r i c k y area, but yes, student centered. I. What e l s e i s i m p o r t a n t develop i n dance?  for  students  i f they're  going  to  173 R. U h . . . W e l l I t h i n k what h a s become q u i t e e v i d e n t i s g r o u p w o r k , c o o p e r a t i o n a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n I ' v e s e e n many t i m e s y o u ' v e put the s t u d e n t s w i t h the most e x p e r i e n c e t o g e t h e r y e t t h e y w i l l n o t come up w i t h a p r o d u c t t h a t i s a s c o h e s i v e a s a g r o u p t h a t d o e s n ' t h a v e a s much e x p e r i e n c e , s o f e e d i n g from one a n o t h e r , n o t l o o k i n g a t a g r e a t i d e a and s a y i n g y o u k n o w — l o o k i n g a t i t c o m p e t i t i v e l y , y o u k n o w my i d e a i s b e t t e r than t h a t and t h a t s o r t o f d e a l , but from t h a t young age r e a l l y b e i n g a b l e t o work t o g e t h e r and no p u t - d o w n s t r y i n g as much as p o s s i b l e t o b r i n g t h a t t o l i g h t i s h u g e . So c o o p e r a t i o n , g r o u p w o r k . The o t h e r t h i n g a l s o - w e l l I s a y t e c h n i q u e b u t i n t h e way I u s e t h a t n o t i n t h e s e n s e n o t i n one f o r m , y o u know b a l l e t , j a z z , w h a t n o t , b u t t h e intent o f t h e movement a n d t h a t i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s more d e f i n e d i n t h e t a b l e , t h e e l e m e n t s o f movement, b u t f o r them t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e r e i s a p u r p o s e f o r t h a t movement a n d how t h e y e x e c u t e t h e movement s o t h a t ' s w h a t I mean b y t e c h n i q u e . And the i d e a o f r i s k t a k i n g and c o n f i d e n c e which we d i d d i s c u s s e a r l i e r .  174 S a m p l e I n t e r v i e w Two Grade E i g h t Student (Excerpt s t a r t i n g the  m i d d l e o f page  I. I'm g o i n g to ask you t o i n y o u r memory t o t h e f i r s t d i d you feel? R;  Really  uncomfortable  I.  Why d i d y o u f e e l  t h i n k back i f you can - d i g back c l a s s w h e n y o u f i r s t c a m e i n how  and  that  one.)  embarrassed.  way?  R. W e l l c a u s e - I knew l o t s o f p e o p l e b u t I d i d n ' t , r e a l l y t r u s t them and I t h o u g h t I m i g h t do s o m e t h i n g r e a l l y s t u p i d - I mean I d o t h a t a l o t a n y w a y s b u t . . . I.  Did the  R.  (Quickly)  I.  ..was  part  i t  about  or  something  like  that..  yeah. scarey?  R.  Yeah,  it  I.  What a b o u t  R.  Oh n o ,  was.  I.  D i d anybody e l s e  R.  Yeah.  I.  How c o u l d  speaking  that  I  d o i n g dance  was  okay. feel  t h i n k most you  French?  the  people  way y o u  did?  did.  tell?  R. W e l l we w o u l d j u s t s t a n d t h e r e . H e ' d t e l l u s w h a t t o d o a n d we w o u l d j u s t s t a n d t h e r e f o r a m i n u t e a n d w a i t f o r o t h e r p e o p l e t o s t a r t . We w o u l d n ' t j u s t a l l s t a r t a t t h e same t i m e ; w e ' d j u s t w a i t . I.  You d i d n ' t  R.  Yeah.  want  I. S o now t h i s t i m e changed f o r you?  to  be t h e  first  one? v  later,  2 1/2  months  later.  Has  that  R. Y e a h . T o t a l l y . I j u s t l o v e now I l i k e g o i n t h e r e I f e e l I c a n t r u s t p e o p l e , e v e n i f I d o n ' t know them v e r y w e l l , I f e e l I c a n t r u s t t h e m . I t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r i f I make a f o o l o f m y s e l f w h i c h i s good cause I do t h a t a l o t . And I l i k e b e i n g  175 - I wanted t o present f i r s t but I c o u l d n ' t because f o o t but I r e a l l y wanted t o , but I c o u l d n ' t . I. So y o u ' r e p r e t t y front of the group. R.  Yeah.  I.  Do y o u f e e l  comfortable with  y o u have more  ideas  doing -  o f my  dancing  in  now?  R. Y e a h , p r o b a b l y . A n d more w i t h t h e e m o t i o n a l t h i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , b u t n o t wit;h t h e movement, b u t w i t h i n t e r a c t i n g and the r e l a t i o n and yeah I guess.  and  I. Now i d e a s - y o u ' v e b e e n e x p l o r i n g d i f f e r e n t w a y s o f expressing ideas i n the c l a s s . A t f i r s t you d i d something t h a t was p r e t t y l i t e r a l , t h a t i s i f y o u ' r e c o m b i n g y o u r h a i r i t looks l i k e y o u ' r e combing your h a i r , but you've gotten i n t o m o r e s y m b o l i c k i n d s o f t h i n g s . C a n y o u t e l l me a n y t h i n g about that? R. I l i k e the s y m b o l i c t h i n g s a l o t b e t t e r because it's m o r e a b s t r a c t a n d p e o p l e c a n i n t e r p r e t t h e m i n t h e i r own w a y s . And i t ' s - more e m o t i o n a l and p e o p l e c a n g e t more i n t o i t w i t h the music and s t u f f . And the l i t e r a l t h i n g t h a t ' s o k a y , b u t j u s t t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y t h e r e ' s j u s t one i d e a i t ' s a l l t h e same b u t i t ' s n o t a s f r e e . I. L o v e l y . Then do y o u f e e l o v e r t h e t i m e o f t h i s c o u r s e t h a t y o u h a v e made p r o g r e s s i n b e i n g a b l e t o d o t h a t ? R.  Yeah,  probably.  I  think  so.  I. Can y o u i d e n t i f y i t when y o u ' r e w a t c h i n g someone v i d e o o r when someone e l s e i s d o i n g i t . I s i t e a s i e r t o do t h a t ? . R.  in a f o r you  Yeah.  I. When y o u w e r e d o i n g t h e d a n c e s i n t h e c l a s s . I s t h e r e anyone i n t h e c l a s s whose work y o u a d m i r e t h a t y o u l i k e t o w a t c h ? W i t h o u t n a m i n g t h e p e r s o n t e l l me w h y o r d e s c r i b e w h a t t h e y d o o r t e l l me w h a t y o u w a n t t o s a y . R. They have t h e i r d i s t i n c t s t y l e . And I ' m not s u r e . I j u s t l i k e d i t - i t j u s t h i t me. I j u s t l i k e d i t t h e f i r s t t i m e I saw i t and I r e a l l y l i k e d i t and l o t s o f o t h e r p e o p l e l i k e (said), O h my g o d , w h a t t h e h e c k . " I j u s t a l w a y s l i k e d i t . 1 1  I.  So i t ' s  R.  Yeah,  something personal different...  and  distinct?  176 I. A n d i t h a s a q u a l i t y t h a t d r a w s y o u r e y e s . What a r e t h e t h i n g s t h a t you have done t h a t have been fun and e n j o y a b l e ? R. The s y m b o l i c t h i n g s a r e t h e b e s t . D o i n g t h e g r o u p p r o j e c t s . I l i k e d e s i g n i n g o u r own d a n c e a n d p i c k i n g o u r own m u s i c . T h e f i r s t p r o j e c t t h a t we h a d w a s t o o m u c h o f a n o u t l i n e a n d i t was a l l t h e same m u s i c a n d s t u f f s o i t w a s n ' t a s i n t e r e s t i n g . L i k e t h e l a s t p r o j e c t t h a t we d i d w a s t h e b e s t c a u s e we c o u l d c h o o s e t h e m u s i c a n d d o a l l t h e choreography and s t o r y and a l l t h a t . I. When I s a i d t o y o u r g r o u p t h a t I f e l t d i s t u r b e d w h e n I w a t c h e d [ y o u r d a n c e ] was t h a t what y o u h o p e d t h a t I w o u l d feel? R. W e l l , I d i d n ' t r e a l l y t h i n k about t h a t . I d i d n ' t t h i n k t h a t was how i t was b u t y o u s a i d t h a t , I was g l a d t h a t t h a t ' s how y o u f e l t b e c a u s e t h a t ' s h o w y o u ' r e s u p p o s e d t o f e e l . But I hadn't r e a l l y thought about i t before t h a t . I. Y o u w e r e g l a d t h a t I was i n v o l v e d and e n g a g e d i n y o u r d a n c e . I f y o u had an i d e a , w o u l d i t be e a s i e r t o s p e a k i t E n g l i s h speak i t i n French o r to dance i t ?  in  R. Depends on t h e i d e a . L i k e i f i t ' s s o m e t h i n g more v i s u a l I m e a n l o t s o f t i m e I j u s t g e t i n s p i r e d I j u s t g o i n t o my l i v i n g room and I s t a r t d a n c i n g . A n d i f i t ' s s o m e t h i n g more symbolic o r v i s u a l then i t ' s a l o t e a s i e r t o dance i t , but i f i t ' s s o m e t h i n g more l i t e r a l o r then i t ' s easier to speak i t . I Fabulous, t h a t ' s great. Is there anything t h a t you can t h i n k of i n the dance area t h a t you would l i k e t o have happen t o h e l p y o u r l e a r n i n g ? The n e x t t h i n g y o u w o u l d l i k e t o have? R I want t o move - l i k e  be as g o o d as M o l l y t o do w e i r d t h i n g s ,  and J u n e . (laugh)  I want t o  able  to  I. I s t h e r e any d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e way t h a t y o u l o o k a t d a n c e now w h e n y o u s e e d a n c e g o i n g o n i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s like videos ,tv? R. W e l l now I l i k e a l o t m o r e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f d a n c e , l i k e b e f o r e I j u s t l i k e d , w e l l j u s t j a z z and b a l l e t , t h e t h i n g s t h a t w e r e m o s t common, b u t now w e l l I l i k e a n y k i n d s o f dance now. L i k e f o l k d a n c i n g , l i n e d a n c i n g , a n y t h i n g . I. Do y o u s e e i t d i f f e r e n t l y d o y o u t h i n k o o h , different about...  something  177 R. out I.  Yeah more s y m b o l i s m , and l o t s o f i t and I better. And do y o u a p p r e c i a t e i t i n any d i f f e r e n t  can pick  i t  way...  R. Y e a h , b e c a u s e I know i t ' s h a r d s o a n d I a p p r e c i a t e i t and I can s o r t o f r e l a t e t o i t . And I can s o r t o f u n d e r s t a n d how t h e d a n c e r i s f e e l i n g b e c a u s e I know how i t f e e l s t o d o i t and t o t r y t o e x p r e s s t h a t emotion o r whatever, so I can s o r t o f f e e l what t h e y ' r e f e e l i n g more t h a n b e f o r e .  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0054840/manifest

Comment

Related Items