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The "Mark-Making Book" : catalyst supporting parental involvement in Art Education in early childhood Pisichko, Maria 1997

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THE "MARK-MAKING BOOK Catalyst Supporting Parental Involvement i n Art Education i n Early Childhood by MARIA PISICHKO Honours B.A. Visual Arts, University of Ottawa, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Curriculum Studies and Instruction We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1997 copyright: Maria Pisichko, 1997 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia,1 I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 7 DE-6 (2/88) XX ABSTRACT Adult involvement i n a young chi l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning as an area of study i s only beginning to unfold. The intent of t h i s thesis i s to lend support to t h i s trend of thought by exploring the "mark-making book" as a catal y s t f o r parental involvement i n art education i n earl y childhood. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s concerned with examining the role of the "mark-making book" as a l i n k supporting a young c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning within the school and the home. The "mark-making book" i s a sketchbook/scrapbook concept that allows f o r independent use on the part of the c h i l d and guided learning mediated by the parent. I t i s grounded i n s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i v i s t theory, drawing upon the work of Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky and his perspectives on the value of adult i n t e r a c t i o n , tools, play, and the role of a f f e c t i n motivation. The research addresses the following questions: 1. How do the parents use the "mark-making book" i n the home environment? 2 . What are the parental attitudes toward the "mark-making book" experience? 3. How do these attitudes evolve as a re s u l t of active engagement over a period of time? 4. What value do parents at t r i b u t e to the ideas of active involvement i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning? Exploratory descriptive research i n the form of multiple cross-case study analysis was used f o r the purposes of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The teacher as "investigator" conducted two sets of audio-taped I l l interviews with eight p a r t i c i p a t i n g parents, whose four year o l d chi l d r e n attended a nursery program at an i n n e r - c i t y school i n Winnipeg. The data r e s u l t i n g from these interviews gives evidence of favourable parental support towards the "mark-making book" concept. Parents also indicated that as they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i t s use with t h e i r c h i l d , they r e f l e c t e d on t h e i r childhood memories and educational experiences, then drew comparisons with the learning experiences associated with school and home use of the mark-making book. Three themes emerged as the res u l t of studying parental and c h i l d involvement with the mark-making book. Enjoyment, self-development and understanding are the essence of the mark-making book experience. The study was further supplemented with data c o l l e c t e d from parent-teacher interviews at the s t a r t of the academic year, f i e l d notes c o l l e c t e d during i n - c l a s s use of the mark-making books, parent comment sheets, as well as informal conversations with parents i n school h a l l ways and during home v i s i t a t i o n . Reflective journals and photo journals were used to document mark-making book a c t i v i t y within the school environment. The study concludes that the mark-making book serves as a manageable and e f f e c t i v e means of addressing the needs of both parents and c h i l d r e n i n terms of t h e i r a f f e c t i v e , cognitive and a r t i s t i c learning. These favourable r e s u l t s should encourage further research into mark-making book use, both within the school and the home environments. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents i v Acknowledgements v i i i Dedication x Chapter 1: The Study 1.1) Introduction 1 1.2) Character of Wellington School's Nursery Program . 5 1.3) From Sketchbook to Mark-Making Book 8 1.3a) Spring of 1993 - Early Beginnings 9 1.3b) Autumn of 1993 - Explorations with Sketchbook Use 10 1.3c) Autumn of 1994 - Explorations with the Concept of the Mark-Making Book 12 1.4) Statement of the Problem 14 1.5) Method of Research 14 1.6) Key Terms 15 1.6a) S h i f t 15 1.7) Limitations 16 1.7a) Case Study Research 16 1.7b) Status of the "Teacher as Investigator" . . . 18 1.7c) Setting and Time 18 1.7d) Selection of Parent Participants 19 1.7e) Compiling the Literature Review S p e c i f i c to Parental Involvement i n a Child's A r t i s t i c Learning 2 0 1.8) Organization 2 0 Chapter 2 : Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 2.1) Goals 21 2.2) The Mark-Making Book and Vigotsky's Perspectives on Early Childhood Education 22 2.2a) The Mark-Making Book and Adult Interaction . . 25 2.2b) The Mark-Making Book as "Tool" 26 2.2c) Mark-Making Book Use Through the Notion of "Play" 27 2.2d) Mark-Making Book Use and the Role of Af f e c t i n Motivation 28 2.3) Teacher Involvement i n a Child's A r t i s t i c V Learning 3 0 2.4) Parental Involvement i n a Child's Learning Development 32 2.5) Parental Involvement i n a Child's A r t i s t i c Learning 35 2.6) The Sketchbook as a Way of Making Meaning 3 8 2.7) Early Childhood Education and Sketchbook Use . . . . 39 2.8) Mark-Making Book Goals as Compared with Sketchbook Use 42 2.9) Conceptual Framework of the "Mark-Making Book" . . . 45 2.9a) Visual Awareness Component 44 2.9b) Art Appreciation Component 48 2.9c) Children's Literature Component 50 2.9d) Parent-Initiated Component 51 2.9e) P i c t o r i a l Production Component 54 Chapter 3: Method o f Research 3.1) Teacher Investigator as "Instrument" 58 3.1a) Reflective Journaling . 60 3.2) Method of Study 6 0 3.2a) Setting and Time Frame 61 3.2b) Classroom Use of the Mark-Making Book 62 3.2c) Home Use of the Mark-Making Book 63 3.2d) Preparing Parents for Mark-Making Book Use . . 63 3.3) Selection of Parent Participants 64 3.3a) Family P o r t r a i t s 65 3.3b) P r o f i l e of Nursery Child 66 3.3c) F i e l d Notes 66 3.3d) Photo Journaling 67 3.4) Interviews 68 3.4a) Interview Questions 6 8 3.4b) Interviewing Strategies 68 3.4c) P i l o t Interview 70 3.4d) Method of Analysis 70 Chapter 4 : Case S t u d i e s : 4.1) Case Study # 1: The Chandar Family 73 4.1a) Family P o r t r a i t 73 4.1b) Anthony Chandar - nursery c h i l d 74 4.1c) Interview #1 75 4. Id) Interview #2 84 4.2) Case # 2: The Gallant Family 102 4.2a) Family P o r t r a i t 102 v i 4.2b) Frankie Walker - nursery c h i l d 102 4.2c) Interview # 1 110 4.2d) Interview #2 110 4.3) Case # 3: The Guttieres Family 124 4.3a) Family P o r t r a i t 124 4.3b) Charlene Guttieres - nursery c h i l d 124 4.3c) Interview #1 126 4.3d) Interview #2 134 4.4) Case # 4: The Lee Family 152 4.4a) Family P o r t r a i t 152 4.4b) L i n g l i n g Lee - nursery c h i l d 153 4.4c) Interview # 1 154 4.4d) Interview #2 161 4.5) Case # 5: The Reyes Family 175 4.5a) Family P o r t r a i t 175 4.5b) Bobby Reyes - nursery c h i l d 176 4.5c) Interview #1 177 4.5d) Interview #2 . . . 188 4.6) Case # 6: The Santos Family 2 02 4.6a) Family P o r t r a i t 202 4.6b) Ashley Santos - nursery c h i l d 203 4.6c) Interview #1 204 4.6d) Interview #2 214 4.7) Case # 7: The Tiongco Family 22 9 4.7a) Family P o r t r a i t , 229 4.7b) Crystal Tiongco - nursery c h i l d 230 4.7c) Interview # 1 231 4.7d) Interview #2 . 239 4.8) Case # 8: The Wong Family 254 4.8a) Family P o r t r a i t 254 4.8b) Jenny Wong - nursery c h i l d 255 4.8c) Interview #1 256 4.8d) Interview #2 265 Chapter 5: Summary and Presentation of Data 280 5.1) Research Question One 280 5.1a) Who Used the "Mark-Making Book"? 280 5.1b) When was the "Mark-Making Book" used? 281 5.1c) Where was the "Mark-Making Book" used? . . . . 282 v i i 5.Id) What length of time was the "Mark-Making Book" used? 2 83 5.1e) What strategies were used to i n i t i a t e the use of the "Mark-Making Book"? 2 83 5.2) Research question Two 2 84 5.3) Research question Three 2 85 5.3a) A f f e c t i v e Response 285 5.3b) Perceived Learning . 289 5.3c) Components of the Process 2 91 Chapter 6: Findings of the Study 6.1) Research Question Four 305 6.1a) Enjoyment 305 6.1b) Self-Development 307 6.1c) Understanding 309 Chapter 7: Implications and Recommendations 313 References 318 V L L L ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank my thesis committee for a s s i s t i n g me with r e f i n i n g and completing my thesis: to Dr. Graeme Chalmers f o r supporting the concept of the mark-making book, to Dr. Anthony Clarke f o r h i s mentoring ways, and to Dr. Glen Dixon f o r d i r e c t i n g my further i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the realm of parental involvement i n ea r l y childhood education. There were other spec i a l people whose encouragement and assistance played a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the i n i t i a t i o n , continuation and completion of t h i s thesis: To Nadine Calver, P r i n c i p a l , Wellington School, Winnipeg, Manitoba, f o r wholeheartedly supporting t h i s research study. To Roger Legrande, V i c e - p r i n c i p a l , Wellington School, f o r valuing i t s merits, To Mrs. Helen Bitney, my teacher's aide and frie n d , who played a valuable role the research process, To Dorte Froslev for her friendship and "sparking" the idea of the mark-making book, To Dr. Wayne Serbrin and Dr. Joan Walters, University of Manitoba, fo r t h e i r encouragement to p e r s i s t with such a worthwhile to p i c . To Dr. Anna Kindler f o r sharing her expertise i n ea r l y childhood art education, To Michael, G a i l , Arne, and David Mandell, my Vancouver family who made my many sojourns away from my family f i r s t c l ass, To Marian McDermot, P r i n c i p a l , Corpus C h r i s t i School, Vancouver, B.C., f o r her friendship and int e r e s t i n the concept of the mark-making book. i x To Dr. Michael Fox, Dean, The Collegiate, University of Winnipeg, Paula Gangloff, and Dr. Wilf Schlosser. Without t h e i r technical support t h i s f i n a l hard copy would not be complete. And, esp e c i a l l y , to my husband Dr. Ken Pisichko f o r his unending support and his understanding of the rocky road of graduate work. X Dedicated to Andrew - My Leonardo Matthew - my Michelangelo Without t h e i r i n s p r i a t i o n , the mark-making book would not e x i s t . CHAPTER 1: THE STUDY The marks and symbols which young children produce with much concentration and ease intrigue us -- a r t i s t s , educators, psychologists, and parents -- adults who witness and wonder at t h i s process which i s universal and predictable, and invented anew by every human c h i l d . (Christine Thompson, 1994, p. v) 1.1) I n t r o d u c t i o n Art education i s recognized as an e s s e n t i a l component of a high q u a l i t y e a r l y childhood program (Dixon and Chalmers, 1990), and many teachers r e a d i l y admit that art as a way of learning i s part of t h e i r d a i l y routine. To what extent, however do they provide meaningful learning experiences i n t h i s area? The basic problem i s that i n some ways current curriculum does not demand enough of children, and i n other ways i t demands too much of the wrong thing. (Bredekamp & Rosegrant 1993, p. 11) Over the years, school funding has been r e a d i l y made avai l a b l e t support resource r i c h and well equipped child-centred learning environments. As a r e s u l t , children are provided with various opportunities to experience learning through play with toys, art materials, books and equipment that they may not necessarily have at home. Although these e f f o r t s are perceived by many educators, teachers, and parents as having greatly improved learning within the e a r l y childhood domain, the meaningful teaching of art s t i l l needs to be readdressed. 2 As an e a r l y childhood teacher with a background i n art education, my past and present observations of early childhood programs continue to give evidence that teachers s t i l l vary i n t h e i r approach when dealing with art education. The three ways i n which learning through art i s s t i l l presented are congruent with methods that are deeply embedded i n art education t r a d i t i o n . There are those teachers, who choose to follow the writings of Viktor Lowenfeld (1970) defined by Feeney & Moravick (1987) as a "studio-oriented perspective". The in t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s approach, by most teachers, i s one that addresses a ch i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning by only providing art materials, tools and space. The intent i s to allow children to independently explore, f e e l i n g s , ideas by experimenting with a rt media with l i m i t e d teacher support. This approach, however, releases the teacher of any teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , with the pote n t i a l of tr e a t i n g the subject of art as an aside (Kindler, 1996; Pisichko, 1994). From the perspective of parents, some may wonder why t h e i r c h i l d keeps drawing the same images over and over again, or ones s i m i l a r to t h e i r peers; why t h e i r c h i l d constantly brings home muddied paintings, or doesn't bring artwork home at a l l . Chapman, (1978) credit s Walter Smith, British/American design and art educator of the 1870's and 1880's f o r leaving a legacy of "step-by-step books" and a c t i v i t i e s with "exact how-to-do-it i n s t r u c t i o n s " (p. 7). Over the years, teachers have had d i f f i c u l t y departing from the use of such a c t i v i t i e s . Colouring work-sheets are s t i l l used on a regular basis. Although teachers claim 3 these a c t i v i t i e s are not substitutes for art, the message communicated supports the notion of colouring books which parents w i l l i n g to purchase to appease t h e i r children. Aside from the two above approaches to art education, most teachers s t i l l r e l y on product-oriented art a c t i v i t i e s that Edwards & Nabors (1993) define as "cookbook art projects". Teachers argue that these a c t i v i t i e s have value since, "Children l i k e doing them" (Pisichko, 1994). Unfortunately, however, they usually f a l l under the guise of " c r a f t ideas" which are obtained from c r a f t k i t s or books that support learning experiences involving: working with preselected materials, following step-by-step instructions, thus, completing a " l i k e a r t i f a c t " that i s representative of the k i t or book i l l u s t r a t i o n . Although current early years art education teachings recognize and discourage the use of product-oriented a c t i v i t i e s , (Bresler, 1993; Edwards & Nabors, 1993; Kindler, 1996), teachers s t i l l support t h e i r use with the argument that they can address seasonal celebrations, and act as "treasured keepsakes" (Pisichko, 1994), that appeal not only to the c h i l d , but to the parents, as well. The consequences to a ch i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning as a r e s u l t of these practices have long since been recognized by both art and e a r l y childhood educators (Feeney & Moravick, 1987; F i e l d i n g , 1989; Kindler, 1995, 1996; Kolbe, 1993; Spodek, 1993). In recent years, therefore, attempts have been made by educators, teachers and even parents to explore researching a l t e r n a t i v e ways of teaching and learning through 4 art education. Bredekamp and Rosegrant (1993) encourage teachers within the f i e l d of early childhood to consider change by stating, the curriculum i t s e l f has many potentials; i t i s not s t a t i c and predetermined, but rather a dynamic, developing e n t i t y that changes as we acquire new knowledge and apply i t d i f f e r e n t l y to i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n and groups (p. 11). The concept of the mark-making book i s one attempt to provide teachers, and parents with an altern a t i v e means of supporting a ch i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. Its use i s si m i l a r to a sketchbook/scrap book concept that enables the c h i l d to engage i n self-expression, s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n , and i n i t i a t e dialogue with adults and peers (Dyson, 1988, 1990) . The teacher, however, plays a central role by i n i t i a t i n g i t s use both i n the nursery and home environments. The f i v e components of the mark-making book: v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, children's l i t e r a t u r e , p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and p i c t o r i a l production, and i t s method of use can provide unique ea r l y childhood learning experiences through a r t . The mark-making book can act l i k e a cat a l y s t that can unlock a chi l d ' s knowledge and understanding; learning that has been acquired i n the home environment as well as at school. The use of the mark-making book i s prim a r i l y based on the early childhood perspectives of Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky; and, his notion of the "zone of proximal development". The mark-making book functions under the premise that i f one engages a c h i l d i n new ways of learning through p l a y f u l adult interaction, the c h i l d i s capable of going beyond i t s present l e v e l of development. Therefore, s i g n i f i c a n t 5 adults i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e such as teachers and parents can play a v i t a l r o l e i n how a c h i l d perceives and responds to i t s world. 1.2) The Character of Wellington School's Nursery Program From the e a r l i e s t years forward, children need to be guided i n a vast array of personal experiences ranging from simple, everyday events to more elaborate ones. Sensitive a d u l t - c h i l d sharing i s the key leading to s i g n i f i c a n t learning. Give children e x c i t i n g things to say and they w i l l f i n d ways to express them. (Oole, 1980, p. 18) The concept of the mark-making book evolved over a period of three years within the context of a nursery program that focused on art as a way of learning; one which was developed at Wellington School, Winnipeg, Manitoba during the years 1992- 1996. Several goals of t h i s s p e c i f i c nursery program, i n terms of a young c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning, were aligned with the three components of developmentally appropriate practice i n early childhood art education as i d e n t i f i e d by Colbert and Taunton, (1992). . Children need many opportunities to create a r t . . Children need many opportunities to look at and ta l k about a r t . . Children need to become aware of art i n t h e i r everyday l i v e s (cited i n S c h i l l e r , 1995, p. 26). Of the f i v e learning components within mark-making books conceptual framework, four originated from the design of the nursery program: v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, children's l i t e r a t u r e , and p i c t o r i a l production. Each of these components was explored i n the 6 nursery environment under the umbrella of a chosen theme, with the teacher taking on a more active and p l a y f u l role i n terms of adult-c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n . A c t i v i t i e s representative of each of these components were an i n t e g r a l part of the d a i l y learning routine shared by both the children and t h e i r teacher. To further i l l u s t r a t e , i f the ch i l d r e n and t h e i r teacher c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y chose to study the theme, "Fun i n the Snow", a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y might include: t a l k i n g about ones experiences with snow; looking at and t a l k i n g about photographs depicting scenes of families enjoying winter a c t i v i t i e s ; looking at snow through a magnifying glass or allowing c h i l d r e n to play at the water-table f i l l e d with snow. In terms of p i c t o r i a l production, the teacher might i n v i t e children to draw t h e i r interpretations of snowflakes, then maybe p l a y f u l l y explore d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s of drawing snowflakes using the elements of design. The art appreciation a c t i v i t y might focus on William Kurelik's painting, "Fox and Geese", shown i n his book, A Prairie Boy's Winter, which depicts an age old winter game that has been played by young Canadian chi l d r e n f o r years. A large c i r c l e i s made i n the snow, then divided into pie s l i c e s creating paths for children to chase each other i n and around. One c h i l d i s assigned the role of the "fox" while the rest of the c h i l d r e n play the "geese". The aim of the game i s f o r the "fox" to attempt to catch most of the geese as they run around. The l a s t "goose" not caught i s the winner. Whether using s l i d e form or the image i n the book the teacher can begin the art appreciation a c t i v i t y 7 by r e l a t i n g to the children the winter games she/he enjoyed as a c h i l d ; ask which games they enjoy the most; then turn to the art image and ask the c h i l d r e n questions i n terms of what they see i n the painting and t h e i r feelings about i t . The art appreciation component could conclude with the children at some point playing the, "Fox and Geese", game outdoors during school time, then being encouraged to play i t while at home with family and friends. P i c t o r i a l production connected with the art appreciation component might i n v i t e c h i l d r e n to draw f u l l length drawings of themselves using coloured markers and an 8 1/2" by 11" piece of paper. Pr i o r to the a c t i v i t y , the teacher and the children would have talked about what, they looked l i k e , and compared one another's appearances with the use of a mirror. The teacher could p l a y f u l l y draw a f u l l length drawing of herself as the c h i l d r e n look on. Once each f u l l length drawing was completed, i t would be cut out, then each c h i l d would have the opportunity to pin t h e i r drawing any where on a paper imitation of the game mounted on a large b u l l e t i n board. The children's l i t e r a t u r e a c t i v i t y would not only involve reading a story related the theme "Fun i n the Snow" but would also e n t a i l c l o s e l y looking at and discussing the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . P i c t o r i a l production would involve i n v i t i n g children to draw i n response to the story or the theme. The unique nature of our program began a t t r a c t i n g parents who were earnestly interested i n new approaches to learning. At the time, they were only f a m i l i a r with t r a d i t i o n a l nursery programs of previous 8 years, thus, they had no other models with which to compare. Due to our open door p o l i c y , the c u r i o s i t y of parents caused them to v i s i t the nursery class on a regular basis. They would anticipate ways of learning they were accustomed to as children. Parents would volunteer t h e i r time to prepare materials or read s t o r i e s . However, often they would conclude the day by p a r t i c i p a t i n g with t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n ways of learning that they had never experienced before. As time passed, parents came to learn the merits of an enriched nursery program focusing on learning through art education, and they began reappraising what they perceived as a q u a l i t y nursery program. These changes i n attitude were revealed during ongoing discussions with parents throughout the f i r s t year, 1991-1992. In t h e i r opinion, the art centred curriculum enriched the q u a l i t y of learning within the context of a nursery s e t t i n g . As a r e s u l t of these favourable responses from parents, we were encouraged to explore other d i r e c t i o n s i n a rt education that might further enrich our nursery program, namely the sketchbook/j ournal. 1.3) From Sketchbook to Mark-Making Book There are those who choose the swampy lowlands. They d e l i b e r a t e l y involve themselves i n messy but c r u c i a l l y important problems and, when asked to describe t h e i r methods of inquiry, they speak of experience, t r i a l and error, i n t u i t i o n , and muddling though. (Schon, 1983, p. 43) P r i o r to t h i s research project, the use of sketchbook/ journals 9 within a nursery or kindergarten environment was not common pr a c t i c e i n Winnipeg School D i v i s i o n # 1 schools. This claim i s based on notations of casual conversations with other nursery and kindergarten teachers while attending i n - s e r v i c i n g sessions. The notion of using sketchbooks on a regular basis never seriously crossed t h e i r minds. From t h e i r perspective, most children were already engaged i n drawing during free play. Assigning additional class time to such an a c t i v i t y would be at the expense of other a c t i v i t i e s deemed more valuable. One teacher, however, did mention that she made 8" x 12" drawing booklets for each of her nursery children to document t h e i r drawing development. They were only used once a month then set aside. The drawing booklets were shown to parents during parent-teacher interviews as a means of assessment then sent home at the end of each year. 1.3a) Spring of 1993 - Early Beginnings The Wellington School nursery program began i t s explorations with the notion of the sketchbook/journal during the autumn of 1993. This action was prompted p a r t i a l l y due to our convictions that sketchbook/journaling would be developmentally appropriate f o r t h i s age group, but also as a res u l t of hints and clues that were communicated by children and t h e i r parents during the previous spring. On one occasion, our teacher's aide chose to engage several r e s t l e s s c h i l d r e n i n the making of a "book" at the c r a f t table. They were given 10 a choice of 5" x 5" coloured construction paper to make the cover and the use of the "stapler" to bind the blank pages i n between. Once the ch i l d r e n were f i n i s h e d making their' "books", they were free to draw and/or p r i n t whatever they wished. Before long, other children took notice of the ongoing a c t i v i t y around the c r a f t table and began requesting to make t h e i r own "books". The pleasure derived from t h i s experience was evident since many children persisted with t h i s a c t i v i t y u n t i l the end of the year. Not only did the children enjoy making t h e i r marks, drawings, and exploring t h e i r ways of making l e t t e r s and numbers, but they also used the "books" as a means of engaging i n conversation with other children, and of course, with t h e i r parents. It was fa s c i n a t i n g to observe children v o l u n t a r i l y using t h e i r drawings as springboards for s t o r y t e l l i n g . Their most captive audience was t h e i r parents. 1.3b) Autumn of 1993 - Explorations with Sketchbook Use Sketchbook use was implemented during the l a t e r part of October, once we reached our maximum enrolment, and the nursery c h i l d r e n become f a m i l i a r and comfortable with the nursery routine. Due to our l i m i t e d budget, we used 8.5" X 12" coloured construction paper f o r the front and back covers, s t a p l i n g regular d i t t o paper i n between. Children selected t h e i r own colours f o r the sketchbook covers and helped with the s t a p l i n g . I n i t i a l l y , sketchbook use was encouraged during our one hour of free play, however, not a l l children chose to become involved. 11 Many of them were too preoccupied with playing at the various learning centres to take an i n t e r e s t . Since we also wanted to observe how chi l d r e n responded to sketchbook use during large groups s i t t i n g s , we chose to explore various times of the day that would be most su i t a b l e . Finding class time for children to use sketchbook, however, was not such a simple task. We attempted to have the children use the sketchbook each day p r i o r to the beginning of each c l a s s . Unfortunately, t h i s decision did not benefit a l l children since many didn't come earl y enough to make the a c t i v i t y worthwhile. We, f i n a l l y , chose to use the sketchbooks either on the carpeted f l o o r or at worktables during the l a s t f i f t e e n minutes of the day. Children appeared more s e t t l e d during t h i s period of time. They had t h e i r snack and were ready to s o c i a l i z e on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . We observed c h i l d r e n enjoyed t h i s designated sketchbook time since a party type atmosphere accompanied the experience. Children took the opportunity to explore t h e i r ways of drawing, chat with peers close by, share s t o r i e s , compare or t a l k about one another's drawings. As a r e s u l t of regular sketchbook use, we observed c e r t a i n patterns of behaviour beginning to develop amongst several of the nursery children; these behaviours were r e a d i l y supported by t h e i r parents. Aside from drawing i n the sketchbook, some chi l d r e n chose to embellish t h e i r sketchbooks by bringing additional drawings from home, f l a t items such as s t i c k e r s , and even photos of themselves to glue into t h e i r sketchbooks. The sketchbooks became valued treasures; 12 symbolic of i d e n t i f y i n g with one's s e l f . Even more i n t e r e s t i n g was the notion of g i f t g iving that evolved from the experience. Additional drawings and s t i c k e r s separate from those intended for the sketchbooks, began appearing i n the form of g i f t s f o r the teacher. Should the c h i l d be absent from school, the " g i f t s " were conscientiously passed on either along with s i b l i n g s or parents. In some cases, the parents would take the time to mention why and how the ch i l d r e n drew the picture. The notion of drawing evolved not only as a means of self-expression, but as a way of communication. This communicated to myself, as a teacher, that parents were taking an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r children's self-expression and p i c t o r i a l production. 1.3c) Autumn of 1994 - Explorations with the Concept of the Mark-Making Book We chose to have the nursery children construct t h e i r own mark-making books beginning i n mid September. Each c h i l d was given the opportunity to make t h e i r own personal mark-making book using the binding machine borrowed from the l i b r a r y . The s t r u c t u r a l design of the mark-making book followed the one used i n Dr. Anna Kindler's class at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia during the summer of 1994. The name, "mark-making" book was decided upon as we observed the c h i l d r e n p l a y f u l l y make marks, scribbles, and squiggles i n t h e i r attempts to explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of self-expression. Classroom use of the mark-making book was s i m i l a r to that of the sketchbook the previous year, with two exceptions. Aside from allowing children to f r e e l y express t h e i r ways of drawing, we also i n v i t e them to respond to various topics related to the current theme we were exploring. Parental involvement i n the mark-making book was not considered u n t i l parents themselves began expressing an interest i n how t h e i r c h i l d r e n were using t h e i r mark-making books during class time. The notion of home use had never crossed our minds. We began sending the mark-making book home i n mid November on a bi-weekly basis with an information sheet o u t l i n i n g i t s use. No set plan was followed other than sending the mark-making book home on weekends, expecting i t to return with the c h i l d on the following Monday; encouraging parents to spend at least 15 minutes of q u a l i t y time using the mark-making book with t h e i r c h i l d ; allowing f o r the opportunity to f r e e l y draw what ever came to mind; and being given the option of gluing-in items of a f l a t nature. On occasion, a story book would be sent home accompanied i n the bag by the mark-making book; otherwise, parents and children where free to explore the use of the mark-making book on t h e i r own. A good proportion of parents followed through with the using the mark-making book with t h e i r children. This response encouraged us to further explore the use of the mark-making book from the perspective of parental involvement i n a young c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. 1 . 4 ) Statement of the Problem The problem investigated i n t h i s exploratory, de s c r i p t i v e study i s to apply Lev Vygotsky's t h e o r e t i c a l perspectives (Vygotsky, 1978) on ear l y childhood education to parental involvement i n the context of the "mark-making book" phenomenon; and how the mark-making book serves as a c a t a l y s t supporting parental involvement i n a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study w i l l attempt to examine the rol e of the mark-making book as a l i n k between the c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning within the school and home. It w i l l explore parental attitudes towards the "mark-making book" experience, and the value a t t r i b u t e d by the parents through t h e i r active involvement i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. The following four research questions w i l l be addressed: 1. How do the parents use the "mark-making book" i n the home environment? 2. What are the parental attitudes toward the "mark-making" book" experience? 3. How do these attitudes evolve as a r e s u l t of active engagement over a period of time? 4. What value do parents at t r i b u t e to the ideas of active involvement i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning? 1.5) Method of Research This exploratory case study research r e l i e s on methods grounded i n ethnographic techniques, pr i m a r i l y the, "interview". A "purposive sample" (Merriam, 1991, p. 154) of eight parents p a r t i c i p a t e d i n two 15 sets of audio taped interviews conducted by the author. Biographical questions had been addressed during previous parent-teacher interviews at the s t a r t of the school year. A structured interview was designed taking into account the s i x question types as recommended by Patton (1980) as c i t e d i n Merriam, (1991, p. 78). The data derived from these interviews were transcribed for analysis. Analysis involved reading and rereading the two sets of eight transcripts, and employed coding deductively and inductively using the constant coding method. Cross-case analysis was use to i d e n t i f y patterns and themes across responses. F i e l d notes r e s u l t i n g from each of the eight interview were immediately inputed into a lap top computer at the close of each interview session. 1.6) Key Terms 1.6a) S h i f t - "If someone's opinion or a s i t u a t i o n s h i f t s or i s shif t e d , i t changes s l i g h t l y . " (Cobuild, 1996, p.732) The data analysis i s presented using the concept of " s h i f t " to indicate parental changes i n attitude towards the mark-making book experience over an extended period of time. S h i f t s are noted i n each of the eight case studies by comparing the i n i t i a l , evolving, and f i n a l p a r t i c i p a n t responses using two sets of interviews. In several case studies, evident s h i f t s i n attitude towards the mark-making book, occurred within a couple of weeks of i t s use, a l l of which are documented within the f i r s t set of interviews, e.g., Case Study # 4: The Reyes family. Other s h i f t s only became evident once comparisons were drawn between interviews one and two, e.g., Case Study # 6: The Santos family which indicated the development of a more p o s i t i v e attitude towards the art appreciation component. Cross-case analysis of s h i f t s concludes the study. 1.7) Limitations The l i m i t a t i o n s surrounding t h i s research project p r i m a r i l y deal with the following issues: 1.7a) Case Study Research Hersen & Barlow (1984) acknowledge the weakness and strengths of case study research by r e f e r r i n g to the use of case studies i n the context of psychoanalytic, psychotherapeutic, and p s y c h i a t r i c l i t e r a t u r e s . Their arguments, however, can e a s i l y be applied to the f i e l d of education. They question whether the case study method i s a sound method of in v e s t i g a t i o n i n the following ways: Even when the case study method i s applied at i t s best (e.g., Lazarus, 1973), the absence of experimental control and the lack of precise measures for target behaviours under evaluation remain mitigating factors (p. 167). In defence of case study research, however, they continue: Of course, proponents of the case study method (e.g., Lazarus and Davidson, 1971) are well aware of i t s inherent l i m i t a t i o n s as an evaluative t o o l , but they show how i t can be used to advantage to generate hypotheses that l a t e r may be subject to more rigorous experimental scrutiny (p. 168). Hersen & Barlow (1984) conclude by i d e n t i f y i n g the seven advantages of case study use, a l l of which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e to the concept of the mark-making book. They are as follows: . foster c l i n i c a l innovation; (a way of introducing a new approach to support a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning) . cast doubt on theoretic assumptions; (a way of questioning Viktor Lowenfeld's perspectives on art education) . permit study of rare phenomena ; (a way of investigating children and parents who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the mark-making book experience) . develop new technical s k i l l s ; (a way of i n v i t i n g children and parents to explore and experiment with various media and tools) . buttress t h e o r e t i c a l views; (a way of supporting Vygotsky's perspectives on the earl y childhood education and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning) . r e s u l t i n refinement of techniques; and, (a way of i n v i t i n g children and parents to investigate endless p o s s i b i l i t i e s when exploring the functions of the elements of design) . provide c l i n i c a l data to be used as a departure point f o r subsequent controlled investigations, (p. 168) (as evidence of adult involvement i n a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning, the concept of the mark-making 18 book could be used to further explore t h i s way of learning i n other nursery settings) 1.7b) The Status of the, "Teacher as Investigator" The investigator i s an i n d i v i d u a l i s of immigrant parentage, middle class, a parent, and by profession an ea r l y childhood teacher, as well as, an art s p e c i a l i s t . She was raised i n an inner c i t y area i n Ottawa, Canada, much l i k e the one where she currently teaches and chose to conduct t h i s research. Therefore, the outcome of t h i s study i s l i m i t e d to her personal and professional experiences, her understanding of the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on the topic, and the p a r t i c u l a r research experience. S u b j e c t i v i t y i s an issue since personal bias can be a concern i n terms of the r e l a t i o n s h i p the teacher may have, i n t h i s case, with the parent p a r t i c i p a n t s . The strength of teacher as "investigator", however, l i e s with her intimate knowledge of the s e t t i n g and the surrounding circumstances of l i f e within an immigrant community. 1.7c) Setting and Time The research study was l i m i t e d to an inner c i t y school s e t t i n g were the student population r e f l e c t s the character of the surrounding community i n terms of the various ethnic, c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s and socioeconomic groups. The investigator chose to conduct the research at her place of work using the actual nursery classroom where the 19 mark-making books are used on a d a i l y basis by the 4 year o l d chi l d r e n i n her care; and, where t h e i r parents would f e e l most comfortable during the interview process. 1.7d) Selection of Parent Participants The research data was c o l l e c t e d from parents whose chi l d r e n attended two d i f f e r e n t nursery settings within one school. Two c r i t e r i a were followed i n the s e l e c t i o n of the parent p a r t i c i p a n t s . It was not possible to randomly select parent pa r t i c i p a n t s since the school i s situated i n a multil i n g u a l , as well as a m u l t i c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . Therefore, one of the main c r i t e r i a used to chose parents was based on t h e i r a b i l i t y to c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e i n the English language. The other c r i t e r i a was based on t h e i r willingness to conscientiously use the mark-making book throughout the duration of the research project. I n i t i a l l y , ten parent participant were i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the research project. Prior to the f i r s t set of structured interviews, however, two families chose to leave the school and move to another neighbourhood. One other parent had second thoughts about the idea of being audio-taped, therefore, chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e . One mother who couldn't attend the i n i t i a l 2 school interviews when parent selections were made, expressed interest i n the research project. She was i n v i t e d to become a participant, r a i s i n g the number to eight parents p a r t i c i p a n t s . 2 0 1.7e) Compiling the Lit e r a t u r e Review S p e c i f i c to Parental Involvement i n a Child's A r t i s t i c Learning A body of rigorous and careful research supporting parental involvement i n a chi l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning i s only beginning to unfold. 1.8) Organization Chapter two presents a review of the l i t e r a t u r e supporting the conceptual framework of the mark-making book. Chapter three d e t a i l s the s e t t i n g and the time frame. Chapter four presents eight de t a i l e d family p o r t r a i t s , including p r o f i l e s of each nursery c h i l d ; and interviews one and two reformatted to present the c o l l e c t e d interview data i n category form. Chapter f i v e summarizes and- i l l u s t r a t e s the categories found i n each of the eight sets of interviews with regard to the f i r s t three research questions. Chapter s i x presents the resul t s and findings i n the data to answer the fourth research question. Chapter seven presents implications and recommendations f o r theory, p r a c t i c e and further research. 21 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE New research, new philosophies, new s o c i e t a l pressures of an era suggest that contemporary teaching methodologies are i n error, or less than optimal, and that new techniques should be adopted. (Fielding, 1989, p.45) The above statement was i n d i c a t i v e of a p r e v a i l i n g trend of thought which has dominated the l i t e r a t u r e i n early childhood and art education f o r years. In response, educators, and p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n both f i e l d s have immersed themselves i n the challenging process of reappraising e a r l y childhood art education, and the role of art as a "way of learning". New directions are being explored s e t t i n g i n motion ways of learning through art that are contributing to p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n early childhood art education curriculum. 2.1) Goals The main premise behind the concept of the mark-making book i s to act as a cat a l y s t supporting parental involvement i n e a r l y childhood art education. The intent of the following l i t e r a t u r e review i s to define the mark-making book i n the l i g h t of current art and e a r l y childhood education trends; ones that give support to the concept and i t s implementation. The notion of adult involvement i n a young c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning w i l l be aligned with s o c i a l c o n s t r u e t i v i s t theory supported by the e a r l y childhood perspectives of Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky. The s p e c i f i c issues of teacher and parent involvement i n 22 a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning w i l l be addressed i n the context of current research practices. Attention w i l l also be given to the l i t e r a t u r e supporting sketchbook use and the f i v e components that comprise the conceptual framework of the mark-making book: v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, children's l i t e r a t u r e , p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and p i c t o r i a l production. 2.2) The Mark-Making Book and Vygotsky's P e r s p e c t i v e s on E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n Vygotsky's perspectives on the value of adult in t e r a c t i o n , tools, play, and the role of a f f e c t i n motivation i n ea r l y childhood are central to the successful use of the mark-making book. Implementing these ways of teaching i n the school and home environments can r e s u l t i n children being motivated to achieve high l e v e l s of learning through what Vygotsky defines as the c h i l d ' s "zone of proximal development". It i s the distance between the actual developmental l e v e l as determined by independent problem solving and the l e v e l of po t e n t i a l development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or i n co l l a b o r a t i o n with more capable peers. (Vygotsky, 1978, p,86) Various authors have attempted to describe t h i s abstract concept i n terms of metaphorical images such as, "a bandwidth of competence", (Brown & Reeve, 1987 as c i t e d by Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1993) which i s found to ex i s t within, "the boundaries of the zone of proximal 23 development..." (p. 45). Bredekamp & Rosegrant (1993) further elaborate by s t a t i n g that within these boundaries the c h i l d can demonstrate a b i l i t i e s with varying kinds and amounts of aid. Observing and supporting the c h i l d , the teacher integrates i n s t r u c t i o n and assessment, a l l the while coming to understand the ch i l d ' s thinking processes more f u l l y (p. 45). Dyson (1990) presents working within a c h i l d ' s zone of proximal development under the guise of "weaving", one that portrays teachers as helping children weave l i t e r a c y from the r i c h d i v e r s i t y of resources they bring to school with them -- resources nurtured by t h e i r intentions i n varied learning spaces (p. 211). The zone of proximal development has also been defined by Simpson (1996) as the "bridge" ...between where the student i s and where s/he i s going i s i n the hands of the educator. Construetivists believe that bridge must be one that encourages the student to b u i l d meaning throughout the crossing (p. 54). Wood, Bruner & Ross (1975) have associated i t with a " s c a f f o l d " . They elaborate i n the following way. The s c a f f o l d , as i t i s known i n bu i l d i n g construction, has f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; i t provides support; i t functions as a t o o l ; i t extends the range of the worker; i t allows the worker to accomplish a task not otherwise possible; and i t i s used s e l e c t i v e l y to a i d the worker where needed. (cited i n Greenfield, 1984, p. 118) In the context of the mark-making book concept, the zone of proximal development could further be defined as a s p e c i f i c "realm" of learning e x i s t i n g within each young c h i l d ; one that can only be 24 addressed by the p l a y f u l actions of a s i g n i f i c a n t adult and/or peer who can captivate the attention of the c h i l d , and "spark" a new perspective on established ways of knowing, and/or introduce new ways of learning. The conceptual framework of the mark-making book and i t s use i s systematically designed to s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i s t adults with teaching within a chi l d ' s zone of proximal development. The r e s u l t i n g e f f o r t s on the part of both the teacher and parent support a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning simultaneously with a f f e c t i v e and cognitive development. Vygotsky further defines the zone of proximal development by st a t i n g that i t ... defines those functions that have not yet matured but are i n the process of maturation, functions that w i l l mature tomorrow but are currently i n an embryonic state. These functions could be termed the "buds" or "flowers" of development rather than the " f r u i t s " of development. The actual developmental l e v e l characterizes mental development retrospectively, while the zone of proximal development characterizes mental development prospectively. (Vygotsky/ 1978, p. 86) The concept of the mark-making book attempts to support such "growth" within the zone of proximal development. Vygotsky's theories, s p e c i f i c a l l y those dealing with adult interaction, the use of tools, the notion of play, and recognizing the rol e of a f f e c t i n motivation are the primary means employed to provide meaningful learning through the mark-making book experience; ones that support a c h i l d ' s way as s/he moves onto a higher l e v e l of learning. They are aligned with 25 mark-making book use i n the following ways: 2 . 2 a ) The Mark-Making Book and Adult Interaction It i s i n the course of i n t e r a c t i o n between ch i l d r e n and adults that young learners i d e n t i f y e f f e c t i v e means fo r remembering -- means made accessible to them by those with more highly developed memory s k i l l s . (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 125) As s i g n i f i c a n t others, the teacher and parent both play equally important roles i n the use of mark-making book. In the school environment, the concept of the mark-making book i n v i t e s the teacher and c h i l d to share t h e i r ways of knowing, and explore new ways of learning on an i n d i v i d u a l or group basis. The advantage of using the mark-making book i n the home environment i s that i t f a c i l i t i e s learning on a one-to-one basis. The parent i s encouraged to engage the c h i l d i n the accompanying mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s , by du p l i c a t i n g the simple teaching ways used i n the classroom. This allows f o r continuity i n terms of teaching strategies, and empowers the parent to su c c e s s f u l l y step into the c h i l d ' s zone of proximal development as they both p a r t i c i p a t e i n the use of the mark-making book. In the process of doing so, the parent assume two r o l e s : as "co-teacher", the parent plans, i n i t i a t e s , and mediates learning through the use of the mark-making book; as, "co-participant", the parent and c h i l d j o i n t l y share feelings, ideas, and experiences. 26 2.2b) T h e M a r k - M a k i n g B o o k a s " T o o l " The search for method becomes one of the most important problems of the entire enterprise of understanding the uniquely human forms of psychological a c t i v i t y . In t h i s case, the method i s simultaneously prerequisite and product, the tool and the res u l t of the study. (Vygotsky, 1978,cited i n Newman & Holzman, 1993, p. 32) The mark-making book concept can be viewed as a method -- a tool i n which art i t s e l f -- a tool i s the centre of learning. Walsh (1993) supports the notion of art as tool by stating, Art i s a human construction, a tool that humans beings use to make sense of t h e i r existence, of themselves as human beings, as people. It i s not a medium for transporting meaning or beauty or truth. It i s a tool f o r constructing meaning. (Walsh, 1993, p. 20) Newman & Holzman (1993) attempt to c l a r i f y Vygotsky's theory of "tool use" by stating, Tools f o r re s u l t s are analogous to (as well as producers of) cognitive equipment (e.g. concepts, ideas, b e l i e f s , attitudes, emotions, intentions, thought and language) that are complete ( f u l l y manufactured) and usable f o r a p a r t i c u l a r purpose (p. 38). They further elaborate by c i t i n g Bruner (1987) as he addresses the matter of tools i n the English e d i t i o n of Volume 1 of The Collected Works of L.S. Vygotsky, Bruner states, ... instrumental action i s at the core of Vygotsky's thinking -- action that uses both physical and symbolic tools to achieve i t s ends through the use of tools, man changes himself and his culture.... tools, whether p r a c t i c a l or symbolic, are i n i t i a l l y "external': used outwardly on 27 nature or i n communicating with others. But tools a f f e c t t h e i r user: language, used f i r s t as a communicative t o o l , f i n a l l y shapes the minds of those who adapt to i t s use (p. 39). Vygotskian theory of instrumental action through t o o l use i s supported by the mark-making book. Serving as a catalyst, i t simultaneously allows teachers and parents to mediate a young c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i v e , a r t i s t i c and cognitive learning development. It operates as a physical t o o l i n conjunction with mark-making media. As a tangible means of supporting learning through art, i t allows an adult to systematically guide a c h i l d to make meaning of i t s world through the f i v e components of: v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, children's l i t e r a t u r e , parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and p i c t o r i a l production. The mark-making book functions as a symbolic to o l by allowing the adult to communicate to the c h i l d s o c i e t a l and c u l t u r a l ways of knowing valued by the school and home environments. 2 . 2 c ) M a r k - M a k i n g B o o k U s e T h r o u g h t h e N o t i o n o f " P l a y " Play creates a zone of proximal development f o r the c h i l d . In play a c h i l d always behaves beyond his average age, above his d a i l y behaviour; i n play i t i s as though he were a head t a l l e r than himself. (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 102) P l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n i s the means by which the teacher or parent i n i t i a t e s and sustains learning throughout mark-making book experience. The use of humour, variations i n one's tone of voice, 28 f a c i a l expressions, gestures and the use of props, (Szekley, 1990) a l l can contribute i n captivating the c h i l d ' s attention and imagination. These strategies have proven to motivate children to take further r i s k s and to problem solve as they involve themselves i n self-guided drawing a c t i v i t i e s , or choose to p a r t i c i p a t e i n mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s that are based on a s p e c i f i c theme (Pisichko, 1996) . In the contexts of the school and the home, teachers and parents are encouraged to assess a c h i l d ' s mood and to f i n d appropriate times to use the mark-making book. The intent i s not to force the c h i l d into p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t s use. Instead, the teachers and parents, as co-p a r t i c i p a n t s , are encouraged to engage i n p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n taking on the more s p e c i f i c r o l e as "performer" as defined by Szekley (1990); one who can i n i t i a t e , " . . . f a n t a s t i c ideas and the general promotion of play." (p. 15). Vygotsky (1978) confirms the value of play as a way of learning by s t a t i n g that play i s , "not the predominant feature of childhood but i t i s a leading factor i n development (p. 101). Therefore, ignoring the notion of play would a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of the learning experience and ultimately lead to a loss of i n t e r e s t i n mark-making book use. 2.2d) M a r k - M a k i n g B o o k U s e a n d t h e R o l e o f A f f e c t i n M o t i v a t i o n The challenge i n early childhood education i s to f i n d ways to generate the important processes f o r learning, including shared attention, i n t e r a c t i o n and communication, and symbolic thinking within a highly i n t e r a c t i v e and emotionally expressive r e l a t i o n s h i p . 29 (Wieder & Greenspan, 1993, p. 83) One of the goals of the mark-making book i s to systematically empower a parent to guide a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning within i t s home environment. The processes of learning, e s p e c i a l l y those r e l a t i n g to the emotions, can most e f f e c t i v e l y be addressed through the re l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the parent and the c h i l d . This argument i s supported by Wieder and Greenspan (1993). They advocate the notion that a c h i l d ' s cognitive and emotional processes need to be simultaneously addressed i n order f o r a c h i l d to learn how to, "...communicate and use language, problem solve, and the development of self-esteem" (p. 77). This i s one aspect of Vygotsky's zone of proximal development that has received l i t t l e attention when h i s theories were f i r s t being introduced. Wieder & Greenspan (1993) argue that, Even though Vygotsky's early theory of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) i d e n t i f i e d how an adult guides the c h i l d ' s learning through d i r e c t i v e s , feedback and demonstrations u n t i l the c h i l d learns to take over or regulate his or her own a c t i v i t y ( i . e . , attention, communication, memory, problem solving, action, or manipulation of objects), his emphasis on a f f e c t as the motivating force i n thinking d i d not get integrated into l a t e r studies. (Vygotsky, 1987, p. 78) The issue of addressing a f f e c t as a motivating force i n thinking i s c r i t i c a l to the successful use of the mark-making book. If ignored, c h i l d r e n w i l l be less w i l l i n g to take r i s k s i n terms of v e r b a l l y and v i s u a l l y expressing t h e i r ways of knowing. 30 2.3) Teacher Involvement i n a Child's A r t i s t i c Learning Vygotskian perspectives on early childhood education have su c c e s s f u l l y been applied i n the areas of language and l i t e r a c y education (Dyson, 1988, 1990; Mason & Sinha, 1993). In recent years, however, several authors have addressed his work i n the context of a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning (Chun-Min, 1995; Lund & Osborne, 1995; Kindler 1995, 1996; Thompson & Bales, 1991; Thompson, 1995, 1995); thus giving evidence supporting a slow but evident s h i f t i n paradigm; one showing the beginnings of a move away from the predominant influence of V i c t o r Lowenfeld. Over the years, his text, Creative and Mental Growth, has s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced the perceptions of art and e a r l y childhood educators on the meaning of a r t i s t i c learning. Lowenfeld's (1947-1987) notions of a r t i s t i c development are defined by Spodek (1993) as a "maturationist" view of a r t i s t i c expression i n young children, where art education follows development. Teachers and/or parents, therefore, should not intervene as children a c t i v e l y engage i n the making of meaning through a r t . It i s advised that c h i l d r e n should be l e f t on t h e i r own to experience and explore art materials with l i m i t e d adult support. In the school environment, other than supplying the c h i l d with materials, tools and encouragement, a teacher's main objective was to generally assess the c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c development. This stance has also been supported by the writings of Gardner (1976 & 1980) as c i t e d by Kindler (1995) and Thompson (1995) . Many art and ea r l y childhood education undergraduate programs s t i l l 31 emphasize methods courses that centre on "developmentally appropriate" i n s t r u c t i o n (Thompson, 1995). As a result, undergraduate students --as prospective teachers and parents are inadequately prepared i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g to extend to children the r i c h learning experiences connected with art education. Kindler (1993) supports the notion of teacher intervention i n early years art exploration, and j u s t i f i e s such a need through her research done i n preschool settings. From her observations, she takes the point of view that not a l l children begin to explore image making i n the same way. Kindler i d e n t i f i e s three approaches to drawing used by children, a l l of which to some extent could use some form of teacher intervention. There are those children who confidently began drawing without any form of assistance; others observed the work of t h e i r peers, then used those ideas to form t h e i r own; while the t h i r d group took t h e i r time to get started, unable to focus on the task at hand (Kindler, 1993). Kindler adamantly believes that the i n a b i l i t y f o r some children to engage i n meaningful a r t i s t i c expression i s mainly due to lack of intervention on the part of the early years teacher. Golomb (1993) concurs with Kindler's views and encourages the development of educational strategies to address t h i s concern. Exploration, however, needs to be done i n terms of the most appropriate methods, without imposing on a ch i l d ' s v i s i o n of r e a l i t y (Golomb, 1993) . Ekstrand (1991) supports the same observation as Kindler (1993). It i s uncommon to f i n d a l l children completely engaged 32 i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s at one time. Some need additional time to develop t h e i r ideas while others are too shy or insecure to ask for help. A l l children, however, given the opportunity and the attention of the teacher, w i l l eventually develop t h e i r own unique s t y l e -- that s p e c i a l approach towards drawing or painting that sets them apart from the re s t . It i s within the realm of t h e i r zone of proximal development that a teacher can further mediate t h e i r a r t i s t i c learning. 2.4) Parental Involvement i n a Child's Learning Development Parents are teachers every time they interact with a c h i l d . However, many parents do not perceive themselves as teachers, even as teachers of t h e i r own children. (Olmsted, 1991, p. 226) Parental involvement i n the mark-making book concept i s supported by a current trend i n education that recognizes the valuable r o l e parents can play as "teachers" i n the a f f e c t i v e and cognitive development of t h e i r c h i l d (Comer & Haynes, 1991; Vickers & Minke, 1995; and Stevens, J r . , Hough & Nurss, 1993). Parents have long since been recognized as a ch i l d ' s , " f i r s t teachers" (Berger, 1991; and Gordon, 1977). Berger (1991) argues, Before h i s t o r y was recorded, evidence indicates that parents were nurturers and educators of t h e i r c h i l d r e n through modeling, care giving, and guidance. They imparted s k i l l s , mores, and values of the time, influenced by t h e i r l i f e experiences, the environment i n which they l i v e d , and t h e i r culture (p.210). The contemporary image of parent as teacher i s aptly described by 33 Stevens, who states that Parents who play and ta l k with t h e i r children, who a s s i s t them i n exploring and manipulating t h e i r environment, and who provide new, in t e r e s t i n g experiences are more l i k e l y to have creative, curious and competent children. (Stevens, J r . , 1993, p. 339) Unfortunately, due to the demands of current socio-economic times, t h i s i s not always the case.. School systems, therefore, can contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to help families cope with the stresses of parenting and provide parents with strategies to support t h e i r c h i l d learning development. Powell (1991) recognizes the value of empowering parents as teachers. He argues, The parent education approach that c l o s e l y matches the expertise of schools i s to conceptualize parents as teachers. The home becomes an extension of the classroom, with suggested or prescribed parent-child a c t i v i t i e s approximating teacher-student exchanges. Presumably, such an approach i s comfortable to school personnel because the parent education content and process are within the technical reach of teachers, and classroom practices are extended and reinforced i n the home (p. 312). Project Head Start and the Perry Preschool continue to be exemplars of s o c i e t a l e f f o r t s to empower low income parents to become more involved as decision-makers and teachers i n the education of t h e i r c h i l d r e n (Zigler & Styfco, 1994). The concept of the mark-making book, however, i s more akin to the e f f o r t s of the Perry Preschool i n terms of, "attempts to continue the education process i n the c h i l d ' s home" (p. 271). "The Perry designers obviously respected parents f o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l contributions to the children's education and 34 empowered them to support the program's goals" (Zigler & Styfco, 1994, p.275). A good proportion of the current l i t e r a t u r e , dealing with parents as teachers, i s also addressing parents representative of a l l l e v e l s of the economic s t r a t a . Emphasis on a s s i s t i n g children with homework or involvement using enrichment a c t i v i t i e s i s a dominant theme. Joyce Epstein i n an interview with Brandt (1989) i d e n t i f i e s f i v e types of parent involvement, the fourth of which d i r e c t l y applies to the concept of the mark-making book. Parent involvement i n learning a c t i v i t i e s at home refers to p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s or c h i l d - i n i t i a t e d requests of help, and ideas or instructions from teachers f o r parents to monitor or a s s i s t t h e i r own children at home on learning a c t i v i t i e s (p. 25). The concept of the mark-making book i s r e f l e c t i v e of a trend amongst teachers to design enrichment a c t i v i t i e s l i n k i n g the preschool environment with home learning. Spewock (1991) discusses the merits of learning packets, "created by the s t a f f of the school d i s t r i c t ' s preschool parent t r a i n i n g program, contain information about c h i l d development and ideas to foster t h i s development -- e s p e c i a l l y i n language" (p. 28). Helm (1994) presents an innovative approach to support parent involvement i n whole language learning. "Family Theme Bags are c l o t h bags containing a stuffed animal or puppet, journal, storybook "What i f . . . ? " cards, songs, games, charts, and many more a c t i v i t i e s . " (p. 48) under the umbrella of s p e c i f i c themes. 35 2.5) Parents as Partners i n a Child's A r t i s t i c Learning Don't impose your own image on a c h i l d ! A l l modes of expression but the c h i l d ' s are foreign to him. We should neither influence nor stimulate the ch i l d ' s imagination i n any d i r e c t i o n which i s not appropriate to his thinking and perception. The c h i l d has his own world of experiences and expression. (Lowenfeld, 1947, p. 2) Lowenfeld's impassioned plea-for teachers not to influence a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning i s consistent with his advice to parents. I believe that the greatest contribution which a home atmosphere can make to the art of children i s not to i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r natural growth. Most children express themselves f r e e l y and c r e a t i v e l y i f adult interference does not i n h i b i t them. (Lowenfeld, 1955, p. 10) This perspective was p a r t i a l l y based on his personal experiences with fa m i l i e s whose case h i s t o r i e s indicated that school and/or family influences were having a negative e f f e c t on the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c unfolding, (Lowenfeld, 1947). This thesis argues, however, that s i t u a t i o n s such as these are s t i l l i n existence today; ones that are r e f l e c t i v e of c u l t u r a l l y rooted attitudes towards art education. Therefore, there i s a dire need to design ways of learning about art that can a f f e c t the ingrained attitudes of some teachers and parents. Vygotsky (1978), argues that a young c h i l d ' s world i s impacted by c u l t u r a l influences from the day of b i r t h . The ways of teachers and parents, however are not the only influences that have a s i g n i f i c a n t a f f e c t on how a c h i l d views the world. In the context of contemporary 36 North American society, children are not raised i n i s o l a t i o n of the f a s t paced world that surrounds them. Many are presented with a c u l t u r a l l y p l u r a l i s t i c environment; one that i s multifaceted i n terms of, "Behaviour patterns, symbols, i n s t i t u t i o n s , values, h i s t o r i c a l events..." (Copan, 1979, c i t e d i n Katz. 1991, p. 97). Katz (1991) brings attention to what she defines as " c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s " -- the various settings within which children are raised. Whether i t be i n the home environment, the neighbourhood, a daycare centre, or r e l a t i v e ' s home; they a l l have a d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t influence on how the c h i l d perceives and/or wants to perceive i t s world. In the context of a r t i s t i c learning, Chalmers (1992) further supports t h i s notion by s t a t i n g that, "Art e x i s t s within various s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l contexts" (p. 17). Therefore, the a r t i s t i c ways of parents or t h e i r lack of, as well as, a c h i l d ' s exposure to the multitude of v i s u a l media ranging from t e l e v i s i o n programming, video games, and the design of toys are a l l representative of the c u l t u r a l m i l i e u i n which the c h i l d i s raised. A c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning, therefore, i s not void of c u l t u r a l influences. It i s not uncommon to see c h i l d r e n w i l l i n g l y copying or adapting images from family members, peer, and popular culture and i d e n t i f y i n g with i t as t h e i r own. A s o l i d body of research addressing parental involvement i n a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning has yet to evolve. Only recently, has t h i s issue attracted the attention of art and e a r l y childhood educators. Szekely (1995) concurs with the notion of the home environment 37 supporting a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. He recognizes the current dilemma of Lowenfeld's long standing influence, Many parents (feeling) that art learning i s mysterious, sacred, unteachable, and unique i n i t s development. Some teachers even advise parents against "tampering with a r t . " I believe a l l parents can be e f f e c t i v e art "teachers" i n many subtle, yet e x p l i c i t ways (p. 16). Szekely further argues that, S k i l l s that become important i n art are learned by the c h i l d who i s allowed to be a parent's apprentice i n using a paint r o l l e r , hammer, or car-repair k i t or i n baking or cake decorating (p. 17). Museum and art g a l l e r y settings have extensively explored the notion of parental involvement i n a young c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning, (Matthais & Grey, 1994; Landau, 1986; McNamee, 1987; and P i s c i t e l l i , 1988). Parents are i n v i t e d with t h e i r children to v i s i t these venues and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s related to various art ex h i b i t s . Epstein (198 9) conducted a study at the middle years l e v e l , Effects of the Teacher Involve Parents in Schoolwork (TIPS) - Social Studies and Art Program on Student Attitudes and Knowledge, involving teachers and parents teaming together to support ways of learning through the integration of s o c i a l studies and art education. The program i s described i n the following ways: The program l i n k s art appreciation, history, and c r i t i c i s m to the middle school s o c i a l studies c u r r i c u l a . The program involves parents i n preparing (at home) or presenting (in school) lessons on well-known artwork. The evaluation found increasing student awareness of a r t i s t s and paintings, development of attitudes towards and preferences for d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of art, and student c a p a b i l i t y and willingness to convey t h e i r l i k e s and 38 d i s l i k e s (p. i i i ) . Johns (1994) conducted a survey involving over two hundred Ohio elementary art teachers to i d e n t i f y what parent involvement practices were most successful. The findings showed that The most popular a c t i v i t y was p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t r a d i t i o n a l parental organization such as the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) or the Parent-Teacher Organization (PTO) which support the ar.t program through fundraising, c o l l e c t i n g and providing art materials, and by becoming the audience f o r exhibits and programs (p. 16). Evidence of parent interest i n art education i s further v e r i f i e d i n various issues of the parent journal, PTA-Today, which featured such a r t i c l e s as, Why is Art Important for Your Child?, (Walsh, 1987), The Arts and the Technology Bandwagon, (Lehman, 1985), Make Art a Part of Your Child's World, (unauthored, 1988), and Let's Be Smart and Include Art, (unauthored, 1992) . These a r t i c l e s act as a form of advocacy to remind parents of the value of art education; and, they also educate parents how they as co-teachers can support t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning within the context of the school and the home. 2.6) The Sketchbook as a Way of Making Meaning "A sketch i s nowadays defined as a s l i g h t or rough drawing - and most people would agree that slightness and roughness are not necessarily f a u l t s - can even be vir t u e s i n that they imply freedom and spontaneity." (Wilkinson, 1974, p. 11) The notion of the sketchbook has t r a v e l l e d with mankind through many centuries. Numerous a r t i s t s , famous and unknown have r e l i e d on 3 9 the use of the sketchbook as a tangible means of recording t h e i r perceptions of l i f e (Robinson, 1995). A r t i s t s such as Cezanne could not be separated from sketchbook use. "The connected habits of drawing and dreaming were Cezanne's alone, and from them the private cahiers were indispensable" (p. 11, Gowing, 1988). The sketchbook was seen as a treasure trove r e f l e c t i n g ways of knowing that are deeply imbedded i n f e e l i n g s , ideas, and experiences. Whether the sketchbook was used to make marks and/or elaborate drawings, the r e s u l t i n g images always represented the markings of the mind; ones intimately recorded, explored and cherished. The sketchbook has also proved to be a valued t r a v e l l i n g companion due to i t s p o r t a b i l i t y . Whether i n pocket or pouch, i t i s ready for use at a moments notice capturing a f l e e t i n g thought or a memorable scene. B r i t i s h a r t i s t , J.M.W. Turner constantly r e l i e d on i t s use as he recorded his travels throughout B r i t a i n , (Wilkinson, 1972) and his frequent v i s i t s to the Continent (Wilton, 1982) . 2.7) Early Childhood Education and Sketchbook Use The sketchbook slowly came to lose some of i t s popularity amongst a r t i s t s and the general populous with the onset of technological innovations, s p e c i f i c a l l y the camera, fi l m , and more recently computer wizardry. Although i t continues to be valued at the upper l e v e l s of art learning, i n many cases i t s use i s not a mandatory requirement. Only recently, has an interest i n the notion of sketchbooks surfaced 40 i n e a r l y childhood education l i t e r a t u r e . In some cases, the wording "sketchbook" has been changed to accommodate i t s s p e c i f i c use. Thunder-McGuire (1992) promotes the notion of the " A r t i s t s ' Books" a form of sketchbook/journaling where ch i l d r e n explore t h e i r worlds, t h e i r ways of knowing through drawing and writing focusing on one of the following themes: f i c t i v e imagination, autobiography, and studies. My accounts of the creation of these books revolve around the children's bookmaking as an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e p r a c t i c e which o n t o l o g i c a l l y fused personal meaning into a whole (p. 21). Lund's (1994) version of the sketchbook f a l l s under the guise of the "ideakeeper"; a form that departs from the bound drawing pad. It i s described the following way. Idea-keepers were 9 1/2" x 11 1/2" three-holed cardstock folders that I i n i t i a l l y f i l l e d with ten sheets of p l a i n white paper and ten sheets of l i n e notebook paper. Extra idea-keeper paper was stored i n an accordion f i l e f o l d e r and held a v a r i e t y of papers that included sheets of wallpaper, g i f t wrap, construction paper, and pastel color paper...Our goal was to provide opportunities f o r self-guided continuous a c t i v i t y that i n v i t e d drawing and writing processes. We wanted to o f f e r children a way to decide and choose the ideas and material that nurtured t h e i r personal expression (p. 22). Lund c i t e s several authors who support the use of the sketchbook and encourage self-guided drawing a c t i v i t y , namely Dyson (1989); Thompson & Bales (1991); and Szekely (1988). Thompson (1995) continues to explore i t s merits by arguing that, Sketchbooks provide a bounded area available for exploration of images and ideas, a format for the pursuit of personal 41 projects and an occasion f o r sharing theories about the world and i t s representation through symbols (p. 10). Whether under the guise of the a r t i s t ' s book, ideakeepers, or the mark-making book, implementation of sketchbook use at the e a r l y years l e v e l p r i m a r i l y depends upon whether the teacher values the concept. Thus far, research indicates that i t i s a valuable way for a c h i l d to make meaning. Teachers need only to devise ways and means to i n i t i a t e and continue sketchbook use as part of the d a i l y class routine. Support f o r sketchbook use i s growing throughout a l l l e v e l s of public education. If children developed a f a m i l i a r i t y and a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards i t s use at the early childhood l e v e l , they w i l l be more w i l l i n g to accept and meet the secondary school requirements that are leaning towards some means of sketchbook/ journaling. A recent University of B r i t i s h Columbia graduate thesis completed by D. Froslev, M.A., (1994) places value on the sketchbook/journal i n the context of art education and defends i t s compulsory use at the high school l e v e l . She argues, ...the sketchbook i s a v e r s a t i l e and engaging medium for meaningful, contextual learning, and a viable means f o r evaluating progress and achievement (p. 132). The current Senior I Art: Interim Guide (Manitoba, 1993) requires the use of the "idea journal" at the high school l e v e l , as well. It i s defined (p. 21) as enabling students to: . plan projects . gather resources and research materials . do preliminary drawing and experiment with media . explore and document t h e i r personal creative processes 42 2.8) Mark-Making Book Goals as Compared with Sketchbook Use The goals of the mark-making book and i t s use can best be defined by a l i g n i n g them with B e t t i & Sale's (1980) general d e f i n i t i o n of the sketchbook. . The sketchbook takes art out of the studio and brings i t into d a i l y l i f e (p. 242) . The concept of the mark-making book s p e c i f i c a l l y supports the notion of parents systematically guiding t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. Although the nursery teacher i n i t i a t e s i t s use with the chi l d r e n i n the classroom environment, she also sends the mark-making book and accompanying a c t i v i t i e s with each c h i l d every Friday to be used at home. Parents are encouraged to supervise and support t h e i r c h i l d ' s s e l f - d i r e c t e d drawing a c t i v i t y and/or i n v i t e the c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . . The f i r s t consideration i n choosing a sketchbook i s that i t be portable, a comfortable size to carry" (p. 242). The 8.5" x 12" design of the mark-making book conveniently allows the c h i l d ' s to carry i t i n a back-pack. . Any materials are appropriate for a sketchbook (p. 242). Whether at school or at home, children are i n v i t e d to work i n the mark-making book with a v a r i e t y of mark-making media: p e n c i l , crayons, coloured markers, charcoal, paints, etc. . A sketchbook i s an id e a l place to juggle form, ideas, and materials" (p. 242). Children are free to express t h e i r feelings, imaginings, and 43 perceptions as they explore mark-making, s c r i b b l i n g -- drawing with various media. . Keeping a sketchbook i s an important extension of classroom a c t i v i t y " (p. 242). Children are also i n v i t e d to p i c t o r i a l l y respond i n the mark-making book to the current theme being explored i n c l a s s . . You should use your sketchbook d a i l y (p. 244). One of the main functions of the mark-making book i s to l i n k school and home learning, thus supporting d a i l y use. During the week, the nursery children are i n v i t e d to use the mark-making book i n the nursery environment either at free play, or during designated mark-making book time f o r 10-15 minutes at the end of the day. In the home environment, parents are i n v i t e d to i n i t i a t e the use of the mark-making book with t h e i r c h i l d for 10-15 minutes on weekends. . The sketchbook could function as both a verbal and v i s u a l journal (p. 249). Aside from f a c i l i t a t i n g children to f r e e l y explore fee l i n g s , imaginings, and perceptions through drawing, the mark-making book i s also a place f o r children to shape l e t t e r s , numbers and write simple words; and i t serves as a tangible tool to i n i t i a t e dialogue with adults and peers. . While your approach to keep a sketchbook i s serious, p l a y f u l improvisation should not be minimized (p. 250). Children quickly come to learn to care for t h e i r mark-making books under the supervision of an adult. P l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n , however, 44 through the use of verbal and v i s u a l dialogue with peers, teachers, or parents i s at the centre of mark-making book use. The mark-making book has no connection to the work-book concept where children proceed from page to page colouring within pre-drawn shapes or laboriously-p r a c t i s i n g the writing of l e t t e r s . . It i s a place to record c r i t i c a l and personal comments on what you have read, seen, and experienced (p. 249). The mark-making book also serves both as a too l for ch i l d r e n to p i c t o r i a l l y respond to the components of v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, children's l i t e r a t u r e , and p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The intent of these components i s to provide new ways for teachers and parents to support a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. . The sketchbook serves as a repository, a memory bank f o r information and feelings that might escape i f you do not jot them down (p. 249). The mark-making book functions as r e f l e c t i v e t o o l . Setting aside time f o r children to look through t h e i r mark-making books i s just as valuable as encouraging them p i c t o r i a l l y respond to the experiences with the classroom or home environments. . Through these records you can trace your growth as an a r t i s t (p. 251). The use of the mark-making book over an extended period of time encourages a young c h i l d to unfold i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , emotionally, --a r t i s t i c a l l y . Although teachers and parents are able to observe a c h i l d ' s progress on a regular basis, i t s true value l i e s i n the c h i l d being able to self-assess his/her work. 45 2.9) Conceptual Frame Work of the Mark-Making Book Art provides a unique means of promoting growth i n personal and s o c i a l development. In addition, knowledge of art contributes to an understanding of l i f e and humanity across time and place. Therefore, art i s a vehic l e through which the aims of general education can be achieved; but at the same time, i t i s a subject area i n i t s own right, worthy of study f o r what i t can t e l l c h i l d r e n about themselves and t h e i r world. (K-6 Art, 1983, p. 3) The conceptual framework of the mark-making book provides a system of learning that i s comprised of f i v e components: v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, children's l i t e r a t u r e , p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and p i c t o r i a l production. These components are representative of the current early childhood education trends recommending s p e c i f i c ways of mediating a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. When the mark-making book i s being used under the umbrella of a given theme, each component i s dependent on the other to provide a whole learning experience. Therefore, teachers and parents provide c h i l d r e n with connected ways of learning supported through p l a y f u l a d u l t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n ; ones that can be explore with equal s a t i s f a c t i o n both i n the school and at home. 2.9a) Visual Awareness Component Seeing comes before words. The c h i l d looks and recognizes before i t can speak. (Berger, 1972, p. 7) Engaging nursery children i n learning experiences which emphasize 46 the development of sensory perception i s recognized as an e s s e n t i a l component of an early childhood education curriculum, (Loeffler, 1992; Read, et a l 1993) . In doing so, we better equip children to, "learn about the world around them through the f i v e senses -- seeing, hearing, f e e l i n g , tasting, smelling and through the kinaesthetic sense, the sense of muscular movement" (Read, et a l , 1993, p. 296) . Based on our observations of the nursery children at Wellington School and t h e i r ways of drawing and painting, however, we believed that developing v i s u a l perception needed to play a more dominant r o l e . We began our learning explorations with indoor and outdoor v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s ; and responded to these experiences by drawing i n our mark-making books. Teachers should keep i n touch with t h e i r students 1 i n t e r e s t s through children's books, t e l e v i s i o n programs, toys, science f i c t i o n magazines, computer games, and so f o r t h . (Szekely, 1988, p. 9) Szekely (1988) supports the notion of both children and teachers, "planning f o r the sharing of experiences and observations" (p. 6). In the context of indoor a c t i v i t i e s , these ways of learning are an i n t e g r a l part of most nursery programs. " C i r c l e time" or "talk about time" provide opportunities where teachers and children can t a l k about sp e c i a l happenings that occurred on weekends, or show and t a l k about cherished items, brought from home. Szekely (1988 & 1996) and McGreevy (1990) s p e c i f i c a l l y focus on the meaningful ways of learning connected 47 with children's c o l l e c t i o n s ; ones that can support the development of v i s u a l perception at home as well as at school. Whether c o l l e c t i o n s are comprised of natural or man made items such as sea s h e l l s , pebbles, stamps, t i c k e t stubs, micro machines or stuffed animals, ch i l d r e n learn, " . . . s k i l l s of selection, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , l a b e l l i n g , organization and presentation..." (McGreevy, 1990, p.33), and they are also presented with an opportunity to, "seek out what i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y appealing" (Szekely, 1988, p. 9). Early childhood educators are r e v i s i t i n g other ways of presenting meaningful learning experiences; ones that support perceptive s k i l l development beyond the confines of nursery play area. Children are i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s that investigate l i f e i n a garden, (Cole, 1990; and Furman, 1990), or explore the natural environment as seasons change (Galvin, 1994). The learning experiences derived from these outdoor explorations, ...can help children to r e f l e c t on colours, patterns, and textures; focus on t i n y flowers; or watch a spider spin a web. These experiences w i l l help children learn to cherish the beauty around them and may motivate creative expression i n art, blocks, movement, song, story and poem. (Feeney & Moravick, 1987, p. 11) Young children are capable, independently or with the assistance of an adult or capable peer, to fi n e tune t h e i r perceptive s k i l l s e i t h e r at school or at home. Emphasis on vocabulary development, bringing attention to the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design within ones constructed or natural environment, exploration with various art 48 media, and p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n with one's teacher, peer, or parent, can equip children to go beyond t h e i r immediate l e v e l of v i s u a l perception to the l e v e l Madeja (1997) describes as, "the sophisticated responder" (p. 2). The mark-making book and the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s can be the tools -- the catalysts enabling a young c h i l d to work toward t h i s way of being. 2 . 9 b ) Art Appreciation Component Parents and teachers can have great fun learning about art with children. There i s no better guide than a c h i l d , f o r chi l d r e n look at every picture with fresh eyes and honesty; they look stra i g h t into a picture to absorb what i s there and they respond i n s t i n c t i v e l y . (Micklethwait, 1993, p. 4) The art appreciation component enables children to connect with and respond to the feelings, perceptions and ideas of a r t i s t s who represent various ways of making meaning. It opens doors into a world of images that can engage c h i l d r e n . i n fascinating imaginings never experienced before; ones they can rel a t e to, or ponder upon. Teaching art appreciation to young children i n an early childhood classroom environment has been shown to be developmentally appropriate f o r over a decade. Many early childhood teachers, however, s t i l l hesitate to include learning through art appreciation as an i n t e g r a l part of t h e i r program. This could be mainly due to t h e i r u n f a m i l i a r i t y with t h i s aspect of art learning. Over the years, art and early childhood educators, teachers and even parents have attempted to address the 49 attitudes that teachers hold towards the teaching of art appreciation. Simple, yet meaningful, ways to teaching art appreciation i n the classroom environment have been explored with young children; ones that can e a s i l y be adapted to home learning. Cole & Schaefer (1990) ; Payne (1993) ; Wolf (1990) ; Ende-Saxe (1991) ; Szekely, (1991) ; Aylward et a l (1993) ; and Dixon & Tarr (1988) support learning through art appreciation from d i f f e r e n t points of view. However, whether the conclusions are based on formal research findings, explorations and observations within the classroom, or parenting, a l l agree that teaching art appreciation has a legitimate place i n ea r l y childhood education. Chapman (1978) recommends the teaching of art appreciation through adult involvement when children are engaged i n looking at works of a r t . The manner i n which a young c h i l d encounters a work of art i s just as important as the q u a l i t y of the work i t s e l f ; i n every, case, adults play a v i t a l r o l e i n determining what children notice about a p a r t i c u l a r work and how children f e e l about the very process of encountering works of art (p. 154). Not only does Chapman (1978) encourage acquiring c o l l e c t i o n s of art to be kept i n the classroom environment of "looking and seeing" a c t i v i t i e s , and short v i s i t s to art museums, (p. 155) but also, The preschool c h i l d should have opportunities to become acquainted with the range of media that a r t i s t s use. In addition to l i v e demonstrations by a r t i s t s , touchable examples are appropriate means of bu i l d i n g f a m i l i a r i t y with media. Small paintings or samples of encaustic, egg tempera, o i l , watercolour, and fresco might be designed by parents or s t a f f from l o c a l museums or college art departments (p. 159). 50 2.9c) Children's Literature Component The enormous talents invested i n picture books tend to remain unappreciated, frequently, because of the viewer's lack of appropriate information. The r i c h resources provided by publishers are there to be studied, enjoyed i n t h e i r own r i g h t . Such aesthetic insights are also the ones needed to generate the extended pleasures awaiting children--indeed, a l l of us--in the larger universe of the v i s u a l a r t s . (Marantz, 1992, p. 12) Children and parents can experience various ways of learning as they p a r t i c i p a t e i n the children's l i t e r a t u r e component. Aside from reading a story, poem, or rhyme, both the parent and c h i l d can spend time looking and t a l k i n g about t h e i r favourite i l l u s t r a t i o n s , (Mitchell, 1995). According to Lechner (1993) A close examination of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n picture books can bring to children's attention the wide v i s u a l vocabulary and range of expression that a r t i s t s employ to t e l l a story, and can increase children's enjoyment and understanding of the challenges of a r t i s t i c expression (p. 40) . Fine (1996) further elaborates by stating that children, ...can think about the use of colour, l i n e , shape, media, and s t y l e used by the i l l u s t r a t o r (p. 32). The images evoked through reading children's l i t e r a t u r e are worthy of capturing on paper. The mark-making book i s a means for c h i l d r e n to draw t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a story or a poem. It' s an opportunity f o r children to graphically change the ending of a story, or draw another episode involving t h e i r favourite character. The children's l i t e r a t u r e component i s also a spring board for c h i l d r e n to 51 o r a l l y and g r a p h i c a l l y t e l l t h e i r own s t o r i e s . Walsh (1993) concurs by stating, "...children are competent s t o r y t e l l e r s . Story t e l l i n g i s deeply s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y i n the construction of meaning, of culture i t s e l f . And art i s a powerful form of story t e l l i n g " (p. 20). Children are n a t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d to l i s t e n to s t o r i e s being t o l d by others, and they enjoy o r a l l y and graphically t e l l i n g s t o r i e s of t h e i r own. However, due to time constraints placed on teachers, us u a l l y only the reading of s t o r i e s can be f a c i l i t a t e d within the classroom environment. Therefore, encouraging and developing ways of s t o r y t e l l i n g can e a s i l y be done i n the home. Parent involvement i n such a c t i v i t i e s can lead children to develop self-confidence i n using both verbal and graphic dialogue, thus learning to value these ways of constructing meaning. 2.9d) P a r e n t - I n i t i a t e d Component The parent i s curriculum creator and educator. Parents are responsible f o r the development of t h e i r children. The parent must be seen as the responsible person by program personnel (Honig, 1979, p. 79) Parents need to know that t h e i r ways of knowing are recognized and valued by the school. They should be encouraged, therefore, to share t h e i r attitudes, habits, c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s -- ways of l i v i n g i n the context of the mark-making book. The intent of the parent-i n i t i a t e d component i s to serve t h i s purpose. The three preceding 52 components: v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, and children's l i t e r a t u r e served as examples of the types of experiences that could be used to f a c i l i t a t e learning through the mark-making book. The p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d component i s open-ended i n terms of the learning experiences that parents might want to share with t h e i r c h i l d . Parents, however, are presented with a problem-solving s i t u a t i o n where they are encouraged to r e f l e c t on t h e i r early childhood learning experiences; and to evaluate what they currently deem developmentally appropriate to teach t h e i r c h i l d (Newman, 1996, p. 238). Parents are not r e s t r i c t e d to the ongoing monthly theme i n terms of the a c t i v i t y they choose. The only s t i p u l a t i o n i s that they use the mark-making book as a means of responding to a parent or c h i l d planned learning experience. If parents are at a loss f o r ideas, possible suggestions are included i n the accompanying mark-making book a c t i v i t y sheets. Television, picture books, family outings, c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n with immediate and extended family members can serve as motivating factors and sources of ideas; ones that can be used as a basis f o r drawing i n the mark-making book. These are aligned with the suggested ways as c i t e d by Newman (1995), as she elaborates on the valuable learning experiences associated with a c t i v i t i e s such as c o l l e c t i n g treasured items such as rock, seashells, cards and stamps. The f i r s t two can be investigated i n terms of shape, colour, and texture (p. 170) then interpretations drawn i n the mark-making book. The l a t t e r two can e a s i l y be glued into the mark-making book for 53 purposes of reference and r e f l e c t i o n . Newman (1995) c i t e s H. Gardner (1991) as supporting t h i s way of learning; one that reinforces the l i f e s k i l l s of understanding categories and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The subject of family t r i p s i s also deemed as a valuable learning experience, (Newman, 1996). Subjects that children may have d i f f i c u l t y mastering i n an abstract classroom s e t t i n g w i l l come a l i v e on a well-planned t r i p . Map reading, s p e l l i n g , vocabulary, distance and time ca l c u l a t i o n , money a l l o c a t i o n , meteorology and c u l t u r a l awareness can a l l be enhanced as your family tr a v e l s together (p. 296). Even the simple acts of a parent taking t h e i r c h i l d for a walk around the block to observe the autumn leaves or to experience the f r e s h l y f a l l e n snow present valuable ways of learning (Newman, 1996) . Many things that are taken f o r granted, such as the colours of a leaf or the unusual shapes of flowers, can be brought to a ch i l d ' s attention through games of "detective" or "I spy" (p. 167). Addressing the issue of celebrating c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s through the use of the mark-making book opens the door for parents to s p e c i f i c a l l y address t h e i r family's c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . Chalmers (1992) argues that many ways of teaching art i n the school environment focus on the studio side of a r t i s t i c learning. Have we too often thought of a m u l t i c u l t u r a l art program as being one where students make Ukrainian Easter eggs one week, do some Japanese paper f o l d i n g another, and then, perhaps, make a totem pole to complete the "unit"? In other words have we thought of m u l t i c u l t u r a l art education as a few a c t i v i t i e s , a unit or two, r e s u l t i n g i n take-home products, but not as an "attitude" (p. 20)? 5 4 The home environment, therefore, i s a place where parents can be encouraged to share with t h e i r children the r i c h t r a d i t i o n s of t h e i r c u l t u r a l roots; ones that may have been temporarily or permanently set aside i n order to conform to the greater c u l t u r a l m ilieu. Family values towards ways of celebrating and how l e i s u r e time i s spent ultimately shape a c h i l d ' s a sense of being. The use of the mark-making book allows f o r expressing ways of knowing and learning about one's culture through drawing, or even attaching f l a t items such as photographs, f e s t i v e cards -- treasured tokens celebrating c u l t u r a l ways. In the context of the Ukrainian Easter Egg (Pysanka), applying the batik method to the decoration of eggs i s only one aspect of the learning experience. Pysanka painting i s a widely practised form of painting i s a widely practised form of decorative art i n Ukraine. The p r a c t i c e originated i n the p r e h i s t o r i c * T r y p i l i a n culture. Ukrainian pysanky have a symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e . They symbolize spring, renewed l i f e , and resurrection and have thus become associated with the celebration of *Easter. Today pysanky are also appreciated as works of a r t . (Kubijovyc, 1984, p.781) Parents of Ukrainian decent might want to use the mark-making book to explore drawing the various pysanka symbols with t h e i r c h i l d , or have the c h i l d design his/her own. 2.9e) P i c t o r i a l Production Component Children learn speech patterns through imitating t h e i r parents, s i b l i n g s , and peers, even i n an atmosphere of 55 benign neglect. On the other hand, the development of drawing requires paper and drawing tools, assigned space, scheduled time and, above a l l , the active i n t e r e s t and encouragement of caring adults. (Bob Steele, undated, p. 2) The intent of the p i c t o r i a l production component i s not n e c e s s a r i l y to provide a c h i l d with a means to produce, "pleasing v i s u a l images" (Hippie, 1985, p.255 as c i t e d i n Dyson, 1988, p. 26), or to support, "drawing as a preliminary stage i n the development of written language" (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 113). In the context of the mark-making book, drawing occupies a central p o s i t i o n since i t i s a c h i l d ' s inherent way of making meaning, and i s a tangible means for a c h i l d to see and r e f l e c t upon what s/he believes to be important. It i s through making-making, s c r i b b l i n g , squiggling, drawing that a c h i l d can, "make emotional and conceptual "sense" out of perceived phenomena." (Baker, 1990, p. 21). Therefore, The mark-making book concept recognizes drawing as a way of thinking (Simmons III, 1995); as a language i n i t s own right (Steele, undated) -- a v i s u a l language; one that i s comprised of an "alphabet" of i t s own i n terms of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design; one that i s a more immediate and e f f e c t i v e communicator than p r i n t ; one that dominates our every waking hour i n subtle and e x p l i c i t ways ranging from the design of products we use to the t e l e v i s i o n programming we watch. Drawing has long since been recognized as a universal language amongst children. It i s i d e n t i f i e d with, "highly conceptual symbol 56 systems that we c a l l pictures, alphabets, and numbers" (Baker, 1990, p. 21). However, s o c i e t a l pressures constantly force teachers to s t i l l place more emphasis on reading, writing and the use of numbers as a way of "learning". Davis (1993) supports t h i s argument by further s t a t i n g that, ...drawing i s most often taught as a means rather than as an end. Whether i t i s used to introduce c h i l d r e n to a p i c t o r i a l code en route to the more "important" code of words or as a sugar p i l l to make more "serious" academic subjects more palatable, graphic symbolization i s infrequently p r i o r i t i z e d i n i t s own right (p. 91). If drawing i s not encouraged on an ongoing basis i n the home environment, i t eventually gives way to the dynamics of the family's l i f e s t y l e that might appear more appealing. A c t i v i t i e s such as sports, watching t e l e v i s i o n or being mesmerized by computer games play a more dominant role as to how l e i s u r e time i s spent. As a r e s u l t , c h i l d r e n at some point come to question the value of t h e i r natural way of making meaning and begin tre a t i n g i t as an aside. This perceptive i s supported by Steele who argues that, "drawing-as-language requires c a r e f u l nurturing and does not survive i n a atmosphere of neglect" (Steele, undated, p. 2). A way of teaching drawing-as-language i n both the school and home environments i s through an a c t i v i t y : "I draw--you draw", a means of "graphic dialogue" which supports a c h i l d ' s drawing and narrating a b i l i t i e s , (Wilson & Wilson, 1981). They argue that, "the c h i l d can more e a s i l y pass through the early stages of graphic development to a 57 greater fluency i n the language of a r t " (p. 50) i f involved i n t h i s form of p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n with a s i g n i f i c a n t adult or peer. This way of learning i s e a s i l y adapted to mark-making book use, and presents teachers and parents with a meaningful way of becoming involved i n a ch i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. 58 CHAPTER 3: METHOD OF RESEARCH "Phenomenology provides an understanding of a concept from the pa r t i c i p a n t s ' views of t h e i r s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s " (Schumacher and McMillan, 1993, p. 376). The mark-making book as a phenomenon was investigated from two points of view: the teacher as investigator; and the parent p a r t i c i p a n t as "...eyewitness to the things he or she describes" (Michrina and Richards, 1996, p. 146). Parent c u r i o s i t y towards the mark-making book prompted attempts to document i n a more systematic fashion the nature of the book and i t s usage. A modified case study approach was selected as the method of inquiry. Attempts w i l l be made to construct cases around the i n d i v i d u a l impressions of a group of eight parents and t h e i r children who used the mark-making book. This exploratory, descriptive research w i l l deal with parental involvement i n the use of the mark-making book. This chapter w i l l focus on the following issues: . i t w i l l describe the role of the teacher investigator as "instrument"; . i t w i l l describe the methods used to c o l l e c t and analyze the data s p e c i f i c to the mark-making book study including s e t t i n g and time frame, s e l e c t i o n of parent participants, school and home use of mark-making book, preparing parents for mark-making book use, family p o r t r a i t s , p r o f i l e s of nursery children, structured interviews, interview strategies, p i l o t interview, method of analysis, f i e l d notes, and r e f l e c t i v e and photo journaling. 3.1) Teacher Investigator as "Instrument" Using the case study method enabled the teacher investigator to 59 j u s t i f y the future of the mark-making book as a viable means of supporting a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning both i n the school and home environment. McCracken (1988) c i t e s Miles (1979) as he elaborates on the ro l e of the investigator as instrument. This metaphor i s applicable to the nature of the "mark-making book" study since " . . . i t emphasizes that the investigator cannot f u l f i l q u a l i t a t i v e research objectives without using a broad range of his or her own experience, imagination, and i n t e l l e c t i n ways that are various and unpredictable" (Miles, 1979, p. 597, as c i t e d i n McCracken, 1988, p. 18). From the perspective of teacher as investigator, c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n on my ear l y childhood learning experiences, professional t r a i n i n g , teaching experiences, and the p r i v i l e g e of being a parent a l l contributed to the shaping of the mark-making book concept. "The self-as-instrument process works most e a s i l y when i t i s used simply to search out a match i n one's experiences for ideas and actions that the respondent has described i n the interview" (McCracken, 1988, p. 19). Deciding to i n v i t e parents as pa r t i c i p a n t s i n the exploration of the mark-making book phenomenon was based on my need to validate the concept from t h e i r point of view. It would also appease my c u r i o s i t y as to how they would respond to a learning experience that I valued, not only as a teacher, but as a parent of two young sons. Sharing ways of knowing can only enhance the rewards and ease the f r u s t r a t i o n s of r a i s i n g young children. My own observations of how children i n my care and t h e i r parents shared t h e i r ways of knowing with myself as "teacher" 60 only confirmed that t h i s was the right d i r e c t i o n to take. 3.1a) R e f l e c t i v e Journaling Re f l e c t i v e journal entries should include such things as thoughts, feelings, presuppositions, and personal h i s t o r y . . . for i t i s through r e f l e c t i o n that the investigator discovers personal biases, projections, and transference, and becomes aware of "challenges". (Michrina & Richards, 1996, p. 65) The process of r e f l e c t i n g on my personal h i s t o r y as a learner, teacher, and parent played a v i t a l role i n why and how the concept of the mark-making book evolved. It also prepared me to stand firm as a teacher and parent i f challenged on whether i t s use i n a nursery environment was a worthy endeavour. Was the mark-making book concept indeed developmentally appropriate practice; or was i t just a means promoting my personal bias of overvaluing art education? These were questions I was prepared to answer and defend. 3.2) Method of Study Case studies are appropriate for exploratory and discovery-oriented research. Exploratory studies, which examine a topic i n which there has been l i t t l e previous research, are designed to lead to further inquiry. (Schumacher & McMillan, 1993, p. 377) This exploratory descriptive research dealt with c h i l d and parent involvement i n the use of the mark-making book. It involved a cross-case study methodology of eight selected parents whose 4 year o l d 61 c h i l d r e n attended an i n n e r - c i t y school i n Winnipeg, Manitoba. 3.2a) Setting and Time Frame Wellington School, an N-6 elementary school s e t t i n g with an approximate enrolment of over 300 students, serves an e t h n i c a l l y , c u l t u r a l l y , and socioeconomically diverse community situated i n Winnipeg's inner-core. The area was o r i g i n a l l y s e t t l e d by Swedish immigrants. With each i n f l u x of new immigration, however, the community began to change, becoming more m u l t i c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t i n character. Families of German, Polish, Portuguese, and Ukrainian descent eventually came to l i v e i n the area. As each group became upwardly mobile, however, families chose to move and to l i v e i n more affl u e n t areas of Winnipeg. During the time of t h i s research study, which was conduction between August 1995 to March 1996, Asian, Aboriginal, and Portuguese families were the dominant groups. At the s t a r t of each academic year, involving parents i n the l i f e of Wellington School i s a f i r s t p r i o r i t y . The administration and teachers acknowledge the value of parental involvement, and i t s impact on the climate of the school and the academic performance of the ch i l d r e n as a whole. As a parent-friendly school, many of the extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and fund r a i s i n g events are organized with the help of parents and school s t a f f . It was not uncommon to have annual potluck dinners with a m u l t i c u l t u r a l flavour where families and school s t a f f are i n v i t e d to share. The parent council i s very active i n 62 organizing the annual white elephant sale, managing the parenting room, reading s t o r i e s to groups of children, and providing the standard volunteer support by a s s i s t i n g teachers with cutting and preparing materials for classrooms. At the time of t h i s research study, one morning nursery class and one afternoon nursery class were i n place with a maximum enrolment of 26 ch i l d r e n i n each. One teacher and a teacher's aide cared f o r both classes. 3.2b) Classroom Use of the Mark-Making Book Both nursery classes were i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the mark-making book experience on a d a i l y basis during the 1995-96 school year. The mark-making book was used i n the classroom s e t t i n g i n the following ways: . At the end of each morning and afternoon class the chi l d r e n were given the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r mark-making book for approximately 15 minutes. During that time the children chose: to r e f l e c t on the book's contents, to use i t as a means of i n i t i a t i n g dialogue between classmates and teachers, and/or to draw a pi c t u r e . . At least once a week, children were i n v i t e d to draw i n t h e i r mark-making books i n response to a topic or an idea within a theme that was talked about and explored during a whole group gathering. . Every Monday, during talk-about-time, children were given the opportunity to talk about the recent entries they made i n t h e i r mark-making books during the past weekend. 63 3.2c) Home Use of the Mark-Making Book Aside from supporting a chi l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning, another reason for using the mark-making book i n the home environment was to encourage parents to spend q u a l i t y time with t h e i r c h i l d . Parents and c h i l d were both encouraged to use the mark-making book f o r at least 15-20 minutes on weekends when l e i s u r e time was more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . The mark-making book and a r t - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were sent home with each c h i l d every Friday, and returned the following Monday. Parents were advised to use the mark-making book i n the following two ways: . They could choose to involve t h e i r c h i l d i n a r t i s t i c learning by using the accompanying mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s sent home by the teacher. . The parents, could use a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r own design or those of t h e i r children. In each case parents were reminded to supervise t h e i r c h i l d when using the mark-making book. 3.2d) Preparing Parents for Mark-Making Book Use A l l parents were prepared to use the mark-making book with t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the following four ways: . P r i o r to the s t a r t of the school year, during parent-teacher interviews, a l l parents were b r i e f e d on the goals and the use of the mark-making book i n the school and home environment. In addition, they given simple written information i n the form of a l e t t e r summarizing the mark-making book concept. 64 Due to the open door p o l i c y of the Wellington school nursery program, a l l parents were i n v i t e d to observed and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . This opportunity allowed them to observe subtle and sen s i t i v e ways of teaching as the teacher engaged i n p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n with the children. Whether attending to the children on a group or i n d i v i d u a l basis, the teacher presented ways of learning that were simple yet subtle and s e n s i t i v e to the needs of children. Accepting the value of t h i s experiences, parents would i n turn adopt these same strategies at home with t h e i r c h i l d . The teacher would always be i n attendance each Monday morning and afternoon to accept the mark-making books as each c h i l d enter the nursery class. This was an opportunity to quickly look at mark-making book entries, praise children and parents for t h e i r e f f o r t s ; encourage i t s use i f parents were lax over the weekend; or answer any questions parents might have. Festive a c t i v i t i e s such as Christmas, or Valentine's Day p a r t i e s whether planned during school or a f t e r school hours served two purposes: they allowed nursery parents and t h e i r c hildren to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f e s t i v i t i e s ; however, they also provided the teacher with less formal opportunities to engage parents i n casual conversation dealing with any concerns they might have pertaining to mark-making book use. The mark-making books would be displayed for parents and children to share t h e i r accomplishments with others i n attendance. 3.3) Selection of Parent Participants A good informant should exhibit q u a l i t i e s of good memory, enjoyment of the process of t a l k i n g about the past, self-confidence i n his or her narration, and d e t a i l e d knowledge about events. (Michrina & Richards, 1996, p. 146) Eight parents from a group of 52 p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the mark-making book research study. The process of s e l e c t i o n took place during i n i t i a l parent-teacher interviews during lat e August, 1995. Each 65 parent who had enroled a c h i l d i n either the morning or the a f t e r school nursery program was interviewed according to a l i s t of parent names and assigned interview times compiled by the Wellington School o f f i c e s t a f f . As each interview progressed, i t was noted whether a parent met the above c r i t e r i a as defined by Michrina and Richards (1996), displayed an a b i l i t y to c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r impressions of the mark-making book i n the English language, and was w i l l i n g to conscientiously use the mark-making book throughout an extended period of time. The f i r s t ten parents who met these c r i t e r i a were i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. Each was informed that they would be asked to share t h e i r thoughts and reactions to the mark-making book experience v i a audio taped recordings during two structured interviews scheduled to take place i n November of 1995 and March of 1996. By the middle of October, three parents for various reasons d i d not continue with the study. One parent, however, who had enroled her c h i l d at a l a t e r date, expressed interest i n the study and was i n v i t e d to j o i n the remaining seven parents r a i s i n g the number of pa r t i c i p a n t s to a t o t a l of eight. 3 . 3 a ) Family P o r t r a i t s The data f o r each family p o r t r a i t was gathered during nursery school interviews that are normally held at the beginning of each school year. Additional data was gathered throughout the year while engaging i n casual conversations with parents and family before and 66 a f t e r school, and during home v i s i t a t i o n s during August 1996. Once each family p o r t r a i t was written, changes were made accordingly. 3 . 3 b ) P r o f i l e of Nursery C h i l d A p r o f i l e of each nursery c h i l d follows the family p o r t r a i t . Information pertaining to each c h i l d was gathered during parent-teacher interviews conducted at the st a r t of the academic year. The intent was to bring focus to the c h i l d i n terms of i t s a c t i v i t i e s within the home and school environments. 3 . 3 c ) F i e l d Notes The intent of f i e l d notes as defined by Michrina and Richards (1996) i s to record the context of interactions and interviews as well as to provide descriptions of behaviours and dialogues (p. 61). F i e l d notes were recorded v i a laptop computer a f t e r each interview. For example, once the general parent-teacher interview was conducted i n lat e August, f i e l d notes were used to record general observations s p e c i f i c a l l y of those parents who agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the research project and of those who declined to p a r t i c i p a t e . Although i t was made cle a r to each parent that they were under no o b l i g a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the research project, the noting of behaviours such as body language and the tone of voice helped me judge whether the volunteering parents f e l t pressured to appease me (their c h i l d ' s teacher). As a res u l t of these negotiations, some parents were asked 67 once again, but a week l a t e r , whether they were s t i l l w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s . In one case, a parent declined a month a f t e r consenting to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the research. The two structured interviews that followed were documented i n the same manner. Once again, notations were made regarding the pa r t i c i p a n t s ' behaviours and dialogues during each interview. 3.3d) Photo Journaling Photographs provide s t r i k i n g l y descriptive data, are often used to understand the subject, and i t s products are frequently analyzed inductively. (Knopp & Bogdan 1982, p. 102) Photo journaling enabled myself as researcher to capture s p e c i a l moments throughout the mark-making book experience. Whether photographing children using the mark-making book i n the nursery environment, out i n the Childrens' Garden, or on a f i e l d t r i p , the images helped the children, t h e i r parents, and myself to r e f l e c t and learn. The f a c i a l expressions of children as they shared t h e i r ideas, looked at one another's work, the evidence of learning from another c h i l d ' s way of knowing, children intensely concentrating on the task at hand, sharing a giggle or two, or proudly showing a mark-making book entry as I passed with the camera i n hand are reminders that the mark-making book experience i s worthwhile. 68 3.4) Interviews A structured interview format was used to study the mark-making phenomenon. The interview categories and questions were prepared p r i o r to interview schedule. Merriam (1991, p. 78) c i t e s Denzen (1970), j u s t i f y i n g the appropriateness of t h i s approach. It i s a means of t r a n s l a t i n g the research objectives into s p e c i f i c and perhaps even measurable language, and i t i s a way of motivating respondents to share t h e i r knowledge of the phenomenon being studied. (Denzen, 1970) 3.4a) Interview Questions Merriam (1991) c i t e s s i x question types as i d e n t i f i e d by Patton (1980, p. 207) that can be used to obtain d i f f e r e n t types of information from respondents. They are as follows: experience/ behaviour questions, opinion/value questions, f e e l i n g questions, knowledge questions, sensory questions, background/demographic questions (p. 78). The interview protocol, used during both interviews, took into consideration the f i r s t f i v e question types. The background or demographic questions were asked of a l l 52 parents during the i n i t i a l parent-teacher interview conducted i n the early autumn. 3.4b) Interviewing Strategies The nature of your interviewing w i l l depend on the nature of the 69 group you are studying (Michrina and Richards, 1996, p. 146). Of the ten chosen parent p a r t i c i p a n t s , ultimately eight agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the mark-making book research project. They were representative of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l and socio-economic character of the surrounding community. The interviewing strategies were adjusted to address the state of mind of each of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g parents. Although each of the eight parents consented to audio-tape interviews, most parents were i n a state of unease during the i n i t i a l part of the f i r s t set of interviews. This s i t u a t i o n was anticipated, therefore l i g h t humour was used before and during each interview as a strategy to ease possible tensions. As a r e s u l t , parents became relaxed and began to enjoy the experience. In one case, however, a parent became so nervous that she requested to temporarily cancel the interview u n t i l a l a t e r time when she f e l t more composed. She returned within the week i n a better state of mind. Another parent persisted with the interview, but had d i f f i c u l t y answering questions due to her nervousness. Her answers, therefore, were b r i e f and i n some cases my questions remained unanswered. The second set of interviews flowed more smoothly. Light humour was s t i l l used before and during the second set of interviews, and the attitude of a l l parents was more relaxed than during the f i r s t set. Another strategy used to aid parents with t h e i r answers was the use of "auto-driving" (McCracken, 1988) . Auto-driving i s a useful prompting strategy because i t helps to both foreground and o b j e c t i f y 70 aspects of the respondents' experience that are otherwise d i f f i c u l t to bring into the interview (p. 37). The mark-making book was made avail a b l e i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of parents experiencing d i f f i c u l t y r e c a l l i n g s p e c i f i c experiences. In several cases, during each of the structured interviews, parents did use the mark-making book as "auto-driving" to refresh t h e i r memory. 3.4c) P i l o t Interview An addi t i o n a l parent was i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p i l o t interview to determine the effectiveness of the interview protocol. The interview was conducted between myself and the parent a f t e r school hours, i n the nursery class, a week p r i o r to the f i r s t set of interviews which were scheduled to be conducted during the l a t t e r part of November 1995. It was concluded, from the stand point of the parent p a r t i c i p a n t , that the questions could be answered with ease, and the one hour length of the interview was not an issue. 3.4d) Method of Analysis Analysis of the interview t r a n s c r i p t s involved using the constant coding method as defined by Glaser & Strauss (1967) " -- q u a l i t a t i v e comparing and contrasting each topic and category to determine the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each" (cited i n Schumacher and McMillan, 1993, p. 487). Each set of tra n s c r i p t s , eight i n t o t a l , was f i r s t read and reread, then coded to i d e n t i f y s h i f t s i n parents' 71 responses towards the mark-making book experience. Cross-case analysis was used to i d e n t i f y emerging patterns and central themes. 72 CHAPTER 4 : CASE STUDIES This chapter presents eight case studies, each comprised of four parts: (1) a family p o r t r a i t describing the character of the family within the context of t h e i r s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l , economic, and l i n g u i s t i c association; (2) a det a i l e d description of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t i e s within both home and school environments; (3) the f i r s t interview conducted with the consenting parent. It was reformatted to show s p e c i f i c categories within which i n i t i a l s h i f t s i n attitude towards the mark-making book and i t s use may have occurred. The categories are as follows: 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value: a. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book; b. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? c. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book; d. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book; 2. Components of the Mark-Making Book Learning Process: a. Parent-Initiated Component: nature of the a c t i v i t y , value of the a c t i v i t y , learning through the a c t i v i t y ; b. Art Appreciation Component: nature of the a c t i v i t y , value of the a c t i v i t y , learning through the a c t i v i t y ; c. Parents' Choice of Component: nature of the a c t i v i t y , value of the a c t i v i t y , learning through the a c t i v i t y ; 3. The Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning; 4. Other; and (4) the second interview, conducted with the same parent, structured to follow the same order as det a i l e d i n interview one with the exception of the following categories: 73 A. Response to the mark-making book's use over an extended period of time. (This category replaced, "Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book".) 4. Most Valuable Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Mark-Making Book 5. Continued Use of the Mark-Making Book The intent of including both interviews one and two within the case design i s to a s s i s t the reader i n noting the following: concluding s h i f t s i n attitude towards the mark-making book and i t s use; and knowledge gains that may have occurred as a r e s u l t of using the mark-making book over an extended period of time. 4.1 Case Study # 1: The Chandar family 4.1a) Family P o r t r a i t Mr. and Mrs. Chandar are of East Indian decent, o r i g i n a l l y from Guyana. Mrs. Chandar immigrated to Canada i n 1980 with her parents and four brothers through the sponsorship of her older s i s t e r . Several years l a t e r , i n 1990, Mr. Chandar immigrated to Canada through the sponsorship of his wife. Mrs. Chandar completed grade ten i n addition to s e c r e t a r i a l t r a i n i n g i n Guyana before s e t t l i n g i n Winnipeg. Over the years, she has worked i n the garment trade and at an egg processing plant. Upon the b i r t h of her only son, Anthony, Mrs. Chandar chose to stay home u n t i l he was of school age. Currently, she i s working as a clerk with an insurance company. Mr. Chandar completed Grade 12 i n Guyana, and i s presently working i n the shipping and 74 receiving department of a grain company. The Chandar family share a home with Mr. Chandar's mother several blocks from Wellington School. They chose to l i v e i n t h i s community since extended family and close friends l i v e i n the same v i c i n i t y . 4.lb) Anthony Chandar - nursery c h i l d - age four Anthony stayed at home with his mother before he began attending Wellington School's nursery program. His d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s usually included: watching children's programming on t e l e v i s i o n , looking at books and l i s t e n i n g to his mother read during story-time, using colouring books, playing with toys, and going on outings with h i s mother. Anthony p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed story-time with h i s mother. Mrs. Chandar made i t a point to read to Anthony on a d a i l y basis. Reading books i s a valued pastime i n the Chandar household. Anthony showed no interested i n drawing even though Mrs. Chandar encouraged the a c t i v i t y from time to time. He preferred playing with his trucks and t r a i n s . Anthony adjusted to the Wellington School nursery s e t t i n g with ease. Each day he would be accompanied by Mrs. Chandar's father to and from school. He was a d e l i g h t f u l l i t t l e boy who always maintained a cheerful d i s p o s i t i o n . As with most boys his age, he enjoyed dramatic play, sand and water table a c t i v i t i e s , playing with blocks, and transportation toys. At f i r s t , Anthony chose not to draw or paint during free play. However, as he used the mark-making book on a regular basis i n the school and home environments, he came to value 75 drawing as a way of making meaning. 4.1c) Interview # 1 - Mrs. Chandar 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Chandar's i n i t i a l attitude the - mark-making book was very favourable. She stated, "I think i t was a very good idea because when I was a l i t t l e g i r l I didn't have a chance to do that" (p. 1). 2. Mrs. Chandar believed the most valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the mark-making book was i t s role i n supporting q u a l i t y time spent with one's c h i l d and parent-child communication. She stated, "I'd get to spend more time with my k i d --explore things, and see what he'd learned or what he would accomplish from i t " (p. 1).. B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? Anthony i s an ear l y r i s e r . Mrs. Chandar stated that usually he would awaken Sunday morning at s i x - t h i r t y . Both she and Anthony would use the mark-making book at the dining room table f o r about 2 0 - 3 0 minutes e i t h e r at that time, or with the rest of the family a f t e r breakfast. She stated, "One time I had every body involved: my mother-in-law, my nephew, my husband, and him" (p. 1). 76 C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Chandar enjoyed using the mark-making book with Anthony because i t enabled her to share spec i a l moments with her son. She stated, "One day he made a picture of himself, and he wants to draw his grandma. So he sat his grandma beside him and says, "Grandma I ' l l draw a pi c t u r e of you. He looks at her and says, "Grandma, you have grey h a i r and black h a i r . So he did. He put grey h a i r and black hair, and that's Grandma" (p. 1). 2. Mrs. Chandar observed Anthony enjoyed using the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s and the mark-making book by his enthusiastic response. She stated, "He was always excited and w i l l i n g to do these a c t i v i t i e s . Every time he brought the book home he said, "Mom, I have homework t h i s weekend." And, always would get up Sunday morning because I work Saturday nights and Friday nights. So he would get up Sunday morning, and f i r s t thing he says i s , "Mom, I have to get my homework done." So he's r e a l l y looking forward to getting i t done" (p. 2). 3. Mrs. Chandar believed that i t was a valuable experience f o r her and Anthony. She observed he had become more confident i n express-ing h i s thoughts. She stated, "Yes, I think so because he could t e l l me i f I say one colour, he'd say, "No, Mom t h i s i s not so. I t ' s , " t h i s " , colour. Like you have to use d i f f e r e n t colours or you'd have to use some sparkles, or he'd t e l l me that i t ' s not right or his i s r i g h t . He'd look at the picture and give his idea about something he thought" (p. 3). Mrs. Chandar continued to say, "More, he'd even t e l l 77 my husband, "Dad, you can't put i t that way. You have to put i t t h i s way or you have to use t h i s colour (p. 3). D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Chandar believed that there were quite a few things she learned by using the mark-making book and the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "Well, there are quite a few things that I never even thought of asking my kid. Like asking those questions, because l i k e I figured that he might learn eventually by himself. But, reading those l e t t e r s or a c t i v i t y sheets -- there were quite a few questions that were, I think, very important asking your k i d l i k e : colours, shapes, l i n e s . I never even thought of asking him or counting those l i n e s and a c t i v i t i e s " (p. 3) . 2. Aside from learning about the elements of design through the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s , Mrs. Chandar observed that Anthony learned, "... a l i t t l e b i t of maths. I think he learned a l i t t l e b i t of science" (p. 3). 2. Components of Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y The p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s Mrs. Chandar chose to do would begin with a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y and conclude with the use the mark-making book. Mrs. Chandar stated, "We had a f a l l a c t i v i t y where 78 we went outside. We sort leaves. We come inside and ir o n them on wax paper, chip crayons, shave crayons and ir o n them on the wax paper, make d i f f e r e n t shapes -- tal k about the leaves,the edges and colours." Anthony glued his experiment into the mark-making book once i t was completed. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar observed that Anthony enjoyed t h i s a c t i v i t y as much as she did. She stated,"... because he thought making the mess was fun -- putting i t a l l over the table, and he doesn't have to clean i t " (p. 2) . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar believed that both she and Anthony learned something new while doing t h i s p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t y . She stated, " I learned, we both learned about that wax could melt. I never even thought i t could melt. I thought that i t would just s t i c k on" (p. 3). B. Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday, Anthony would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. He and Mrs. Chandar would both look at the art v i s u a l and use the questions as a guide to tal k about the art work and the 79 a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y concluded with Anthony being i n v i t e d to draw a picture i n response to the theme. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Chandar believed that i t was valuable to teach art appreciation to young children. She stated, "Yes, I do. Because i t ' s more of a h i s t o r y -- background, which I didn't even learn when I was a l i t t l e k i d . And I think i t w i l l help him s t a r t i n g from such a young age knowing these l i t t l e things. Because he's t e l l i n g me s t o r i e s about them a f t e r " (p. 4). b. The most enjoyable aspect of t h i s a c t i v i t y was when Mrs. Chandar observed how Anthony would get the rest of the family involved." She stated, "Well, I t r y to do things with Anthony sometime, but i t doesn't work that way. You know he says, "I don't want to do that, Mom, I want to watch T.V." But having t h i s book at home, he gets everyone involved, s i t t i n g down or asking them questions. You know, "Dad can you show me how to do t h i s . " , and I think i t ' s r e a l l y , r e a l l y nice having t h i s book at home and getting everyone involved i n i t " (p. 4). c. Mrs. Chandar did not f i n d t h i s a c t i v i t y challenging i n terms of being d i f f i c u l t to do. Instead, she stated, "Well, we always take paper and draw on the side, and then everyone just compare t h e i r drawings see which one i s the best. My husband and I -- we always f i g h t , mine i s better and he knows whose i s the best drawing" (p. 4) . 80 This i n t e r a c t i o n amongst family members occurred a f t e r they a l l talked about the art appreciation v i s u a l . Mrs. Chandar stated, "Right, to see who i s the better a r t i s t -- my husband always wins -- I'm a lousy drawer" (p. 5). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. She believed that using the mark-making book with the attached coloured art v i s u a l s was a good way to teach Anthony about art appreciation because as she stated, "... there were quite a few weekends I had my r e l a t i v e s over, and he would show them what he d i d and what he glued i n i t , and he talked about what he learned. Just looking at the pictures i n his mark-making book and t a l k i n g about what he learned about the pictures i n his mark-making book. Taking him to a l i b r a r y or an art g a l l e r y -- I think h e ' l l just see that, but I don't think he would remember what he saw f o r such a long time" (p. 4). b. Mrs. Chandar considered the accompanying art appreciation questions adequate i n terms of what Anthony needed to be asked. She stated, "It was pretty well written out on the hand-outs, and most of my questions were i n there" (p. 4). c. Mrs. Chandar admitted that she personally learned more about art and a r t i s t s by using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Anthony. As she referred i n Anthony's mark-making book to the Pablo Picasso's painting, e n t i t l e d , "Mother and Child", she stated, "I never knew that Picasso drew something l i k e that. Because I always think he's an 81 abstract a r t i s t " (p. 5). d. Mrs. Chandar believed that Anthony learned from the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s i n two ways: F i r s t , he was able to emotionally respond to the image, she stated, "He was t e l l i n g me about mother Picasso -- how he, "loves", the baby. He was asking me questions l i k e , "Mummy do you love me the way she loved the baby that was i n her arms?" And asked.me questions about what he was doing when he was a l i t t l e baby, or how did we carry him i f we took him l i k e that, or i f we had him s i t t i n g l i k e that l i k e a mother" (p. 2). Second, Mrs. Chandar observed that Anthony attempts to draw a picture i n response to the art v i s u a l . She stated, "By looking at the picture, he t r i e s to do the same as the picture looks, so I think he's doing a l i t t l e b i t better drawing. Just thinking off his head to draw something, think he's having a hard time doing that. Looking at the picture -- i t ' s a l i t t l e easier on him" (p. 5). C. Parent's Choice of Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar chose to t a l k about v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s . They could, f o r example, involve exploring some aspect of the natural environment; or investigating an object or a r t i f a c t by looking and 82 t a l k i n g about i t i n terms of i t s o r i g i n , and p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar and Anthony both enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s . Anthony enjoyed going outdoors, i n v e s t i g a t i n g the natural environment, and c o l l e c t i n g items of i n t e r e s t ; f o r example, pebbles, autumn leaves, etc. Mrs. Chandar observed how intensely motivated Anthony became when he involved himself i n these a c t i v i t i e s . The most enjoyable moments that occurred during of these a c t i v i t i e s were when Mrs. Chandar engaged the both immediate and extended family members. She stated, "I think i t ' s getting everyone involved i n my family because everyone's curious as to what's going to happen next" (p. 5). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t i e s Mrs Chandar believed that these a c t i v i t i e s had a p o s i t i v e impact on Anthony's learning. She stated, "Like, I never thought of taking him outside and looking at leaves and things l i k e that. I r e a l l y -- I accomplished a l o t from doing that. Like, you can teach your c h i l d by taking him outside and looking at the leaves or t a l k i n g about the snow or snowflakes or things l i k e that, which I enjoy doing with him, also" (p. 2). Anthony would also make-up st o r i e s based on his experiences, then he would draw a p i c t o r i a l response i n his mark-making book. She 83 stated, "Because he v i s u a l i z e d things, he looked at things then he would make hi s s t o r i e s then he would want to draw something the same way of doing i t or going outside and looking at something. I think he's exploring more" (p. 5). 3 . Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mrs. Chandar supported the notion that the mark-making book was an e f f e c t i v e t o o l l i n k i n g school and home learning. She stated, "I think the mark-making book i s r e a l l y good because I look at -- Anthony w i l l come home and t e l l me what happened at school. But, I r e a l l y wouldn't know what i t i s a l l about u n t i l I look at the book and see what he d i d or learn about. I think i t s a r e a l l y good idea having the mark-making book" (p. 6). 4 . Other Mrs. Chandar added, "I think the mark-making book should be involved i n every school because I think parents can always spend half an hour extra l i s t e n i n g to t h e i r c h i l d , what they learned at school and help them. Maybe they w i l l even learn some more" (p. 6) . 84 4.Id) Interview # 2 - Mrs. Chandar 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Response to the mark-making book's use over an extended period of time Mrs. Chandar maintained that the mark-making book was a, "good idea". She did, however, stated, "I didn't know what i t was going to end up to be. But now, I see that my son has made great improvements." She also stated, "At the f i r s t time, he wasn't r e a l l y interested. He though i t was just something that he had to get done. But, now he finds i t r e a l l y , r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g " (p. 1). Mrs. Chandar also observed that once Anthony f i n i s h e d using the mark-making book, he'd take scrap paper and continue drawing, attempting to shape l e t t e r s , numbers or write his name. Mrs. Chandar believed that the use of the mark-making book motivated Anthony to i n i t i a t e his own mark-making a c t i v i t i e s . She concluded by saying, "So once he gets on a r o l l with the book, he's on the b a l l " (p. 2). Since September, Mrs. Chandar observed many changes i n Anthony's not only i n his attitude towards the mark-making book, but also i n h i s learning development. She stated that Anthony i s , "... v i s u a l i z i n g things, shapes, animals, what l i v e s i n what, and I think he's getting better i n hi s a r t i s t work, too" (p. 1). In addition, she stated that Anthony enjoys f i n d i n g out every weekend i f he has homework. Mrs. Chandar concluded by saying, "Even when he takes his book home he 85 l i k e s to t a l k about what he did at school (p. 1). S h i f t : Parent's i n i t i a l feelings towards the concept of the mark-making book were confirmed as i t was used over an extended period of time. The c h i l d grew to enjoy using the mark-making book. Int. #1 Using the mark-making book enabled the parent to experience a way of learning with her c h i l d that was denied to her when she was young. Int. #2 It supported her chi l d ' s a f f e c t i v e and cognitive development; her chi l d ' s imagination and creative expression. B. How the Mark-Making Book was used? Mrs. Chandar continued to use the mark-making book with Anthony every Sunday morning. Usually they would work at the dining room table a f t e r breakfast f o r 20 to 30 minutes. Mrs. Chandar stated, "At times he'd even ask my opinion. H e ' l l ask my nephew. Also, he looks and l i k e s to take his own pictures and draw. See i f he can draw i t . If he can't then h e ' l l get help. Also, he l i k e s to take his book home also to my cousin's place and everyone t e l l s him how proud they are because they knew he wasn't a very good a r t i s t at s t a r t i n g . He never wanted to prac t i c e drawing -- anything. So, he's r e a l l y into his book now" (P- 1) • 86 S h i f t : Int. # 2 The mark-making book began t r a v e l l i n g to the cousin's home. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Chandar enjoyed using the mark-making book with Anthony because the experience enabled her to share spec i a l moments with her son. In t h i s example, Mrs. Chandar i s r e f e r r i n g to the art v i s u a l by Vincent Van Gogh, e n t i t l e d , "Starry Night". She stated, "Yes, I do l i k e i t very much because there's some pictures that I wouldn't even look into l i t t l e d e t a i l things. And he says, "Look at the sun colour." or "Look at the moon." or "When at night i t would be dark." or he would say l i t t l e things l i k e that. You wouldn't even think that he would know or notice. Like looking i n pictures. So he r e a l l y observed l i t t l e things" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. #1 The use of the mark-making book enabled the parent to spend q u a l i t y time her c h i l d ; i t supported her c h i l d ' s meaning making through drawing; the parent observed her c h i l d independently i n i t i a t e an a c t i v i t y through the use of the mark-making book. Int. #2 The parent enjoyed spending "quality time" with her c h i l d ; the use of the mark-making book supported parent-child communication. 2. Mrs. Chandar believed Anthony enjoyed the mark-making book by how he independently attempted to involve the rest of the family. She stated, "After doing i t , he phones his cousin a f t e r school and says, "I had to do t h i s at school and I had to draw t h i s . He t a l k s ! He even took i t to her house and showed her the sea s h e l l . And t a l k about the sea s h e l l , and what animal l i v e i n there. He was pretty excited about that sea s h e l l " (p. 2). The following comments ref e r to the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y that was used for the, "Sea Creatures", theme. S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent observed her chi l d ' s enthusiastic response to the use of the mark-making book. Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d use the mark-making book as a communication t o o l . 3. Mrs. Chandar f e l t that using the mark-making book was a valuable experience for both her and Anthony. She stated, "I think so because there are times where Anthony wasn't too keen on what he was doing, but having the book, working with him through the year -- I wouldn't have done so much drawing or spend so much time with him, ta l k i n g about things and see what he learned. At f i r s t , he was very lousy about that. I t r i e d to teach him from a young age to draw, but he never paid attention. Looking at his book now, he's r e a l l y , r e a l l y doing better (p. 2). 88 S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent observed the use of the mark-making book developed ch i l d ' s self-esteem. Int. #2 The parent enjoyed spending, "quality time", with her c h i l d ; the use of the mark-making book supported parent-chiId communication. D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Chandar f e l t that there were quite a few things she learned by using the mark-making book and the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s . She observed that every a c t i v i t y offered a new learning experience f o r both the parent and the c h i l d . Mrs. Chandar referred to the children's l i t e r a t u r e component when she stated, "I read a l o t to him, but I never thought that having him picking out his favourite picture and t a l k about i t , or what he observed i n a picture or i n an art work i n a book --'cause I read, but I never asked him any questions l i k e that so I think the mark-making book and the a c t i v i t i e s he took home was r e a l l y -- I learned that he learned more by t a l k i n g about pictures and st u f f too (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. #1 & #2 The parent learned new teaching strategies through the use of the mark-making book; the parent learned the value of supporting her ch i l d ' s learning development. 2. Mrs. Chandar observed that Anthony was presented with multiple 89 ways of learning through the use of the mark-making book and the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s . She s p e c i f i c a l l y referred to the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y that was used for the, "Holiday Mail", theme. She stated, "Well, the a c t i v i t y where we had to c o l l e c t stamps -- he learned how to match the stamps. He was even asking questions why there were numbers on them. He'd count them. He even wanted to know why there were d i f f e r e n t designs on them. Why i t ' s -- they have Santa -- they have a flag? He wants to know why there are people on them? Who are those people on the stamps? So he r e a l l y was interested i n the stamps because he r e a l l y wanted to know what those things represented on the stamps", (p. 3) . The a c t i v i t y concluded with Anthony designing his idea of a stamp. S h i f t : I n t . #1 & #2 The parent observed the use of the mark-making book enabled her c h i l d to learn i n many ways. A. P a r e n t - I n i t i a t e d Component 1. Nature o f the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar usually asked Anthony what he would l i k e to do, or what he would l i k e to draw. She r e c a l l e d two occasions that were quite memorable: 90 a. "Heart" A c t i v i t y The f i r s t occasion took place around Valentine's day. Anthony decided to do an a c t i v i t y focused on the theme of, "Hearts". Mrs. Chandar stated that he said, "Mom, we could do some hearts" (p. 3)! She continued by saying, "So, he didn't want to use crayons, but wanted to use the paint set. So he says, " I ' l l do some hearts" (p. 3) . b. "Dragon" A c t i v i t y The second occasion involved Anthony f i n d i n g an image i n the newspaper that he wanted to cut out and draw. Mrs. Chandar stated, "... we were s i t t i n g and he was looking i n the paper with his Grandma and he saw a dragon i n a picture. He said, "Mom, I think I'm going to get that p i c t u r e f o r my mark-making book because those two l i t t l e kids look very scared i n the picture and the dragon looks very scary." So he wanted me to staple i t into his book. He got my nephew to draw a part of i t because he couldn't do the head, but he did the body" (p. 3) . 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar found value i n these a c t i v i t i e s because she observed that Anthony was motivated through the mark-making book to i n i t i a t e these a c t i v i t i e s on his own. 91 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. "Heart" A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar said that Anthony made the following comment, "Mom, I cannot do a heart" (p. 3). She r e p l i e d by saying, " I ' l l draw one f o r you f i r s t , and then you can do one on your own." So he looks at mine and he takes a paintbrush and says, "OK!". Mrs. Chandar stated that he proceeded to do one with a very t h i n l i n e and one with a fuzzy l i n e . Then he said, "Mom, I make two d i f f e r e n t shapes of heart" (p. 3). b. "Dragon" A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar stated that Anthony, "...did the t a i l and he said, "Mom! Mom! Look! I am able to f i n i s h the dragon ' cause I can do the body, but I cannot do the head." And I says, "Well, I'm proud of you, s t i l l . The head i s hard to do. Even I cannot do that." So, he was r e a l l y --he wanted to do the scary kids, but he looked at i t and said, "Mom, I cannot do that. I think I ' l l do that another day" (p. 3) . S h i f t : Int. #1 & Int. #2 Both parent and c h i l d enjoyed the parent-i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s and experienced new ways of learning. Int. #2 The c h i l d was asked to i n i t i a t e a mark-making book a c t i v i t y . 92 B . Art Appreciation A c t i v i t i e s 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday of the month, Anthony would bring home his mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. Both he and Mrs. Chandar would s i t together, look at the art v i s u a l and use the questions as a guide to t a l k about the art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Mrs. Chandar i n v i t i n g Anthony to draw i n his mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Chandar f e l t that the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s were worthwhile teaching because Anthony was able to learn by looking at the art v i s u a l s . She stated, "... he looked at what the a r t i s t has done. He thinks about the colours that they used; the shapes of things, and he uses his own imagination doing what he f e e l s -- what he wants" (p. 4). When Anthony chose to p i c t o r i a l l y respond to Matisse's painting, e n t i t l e d , "Goldfish", Mrs. Chandar observed him using h i s imagination and a b i l i t y to problem solve as he drew his version of an aquarium. She stated, "He w i l l put a square aquarium. He doesn't say, 'Well, I have to do what the a r t i s t done'" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent expressed regret not experiencing such 93 learning; the experience motivated her c h i l d to engage i n o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g . Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d develop perceptive and problem-solving s k i l l s ; her c h i l d was motivated to express l i k e ideas as those of the a r t i s t , and express feelings v e r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y . b. Mrs. Chandar f e l t that the most enjoyable aspect of t h i s a c t i v i t y was l i s t e n i n g to Anthony as he created s t o r i e s around what he saw i n the art v i s u a l s . She stated, "I enjoyed l i s t e n i n g to Anthony t a l k about h i s s t o r i e s i n the mark-making book. H e ' l l look at the picture, and h e ' l l t e l l me, "Well, Mom this, one represents t h i s thing." There was one -- "Starry Night". He says, "Mom, that one i s very spooky. We could use i t for Halloween." I'd say, "Why use i t f o r Halloween?", he says, 'Because the wind i s blowing and i t makes i t a l l spooky and dark.'" Mrs. Chandar further stated, "Yes, he l i k e d i t very much. He l i k e s Halloween because he says that's when you get candies and a l l that s t u f f . So, he r e a l l y l i k e d i t . He said, 'Mom, we'll have that picture f o r Halloween'" (p. 5): S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent observed her ch i l d ' s self-confidence unfold. Int. #2 The experience motivated her c h i l d to engage i n o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g . c. Mrs. Chandar did not f i n d these a c t i v i t i e s challenging i n terms of being d i f f i c u l t to do. She stated, "I didn't have any problem 94 or any challenge" (p. 5). S h i f t : No s h i f t occurred between interviews one and two. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t i e s a. Mrs. Chandar believed that using the mark-making book with the art v i s u a l s was a good way to teach Anthony about art appreciation. She observed that he would regularly f l i p back and f o r t h through the mark-making book looking at the art v i s u a l s , and what he had drawn. Mrs. Chandar stated that Anthony could be c r i t i c a l about hi s drawings. She r e c a l l e d one occasion when he said to his father, "Dad, I'm good here, but I'm not good here" (p. 4). Mrs. Chandar further stated, "If i t wasn't for the mark-making book and the art work that was glued i n i t , I don't think he would have seen any art work because I never thought of taking him to an art g a l l e r y or -- I never thought myself that art i s that important fo r a four year old k i d " (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent observed her c h i l d using art appreciation v i s u a l s as a means of "show and t e l l " whenever v i s i t i n g with r e l a t i v e s . Int. #2 The parent observed that her c h i l d would r e v i s i t the art appreciation v i s u a l s and r e f l e c t on the learning experience; and, she observed her c h i l d develop c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s . 9 5 b. Mrs. Chandar considered the accompanying art appreciation questions adequate i n terms of what Anthony needed to be asked. She stated, "Yes, I f i n d i t was he l p f u l because there were some questions there that I wouldn't even think of asking -- but reading the sheet, I get ideas what next I maybe should ask. I make up my own l i t t l e questions apart from that. It gives me a good idea about what to ask for " (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent only used the accompanying art appreciation questions. Int. #2 Using the accompanying art appreciation questions empowered parent to formulate her own questions. c. Mrs. Chandar admitted that she personally learned more about art and a r t i s t s . She stated, "Well, I never even thought about paying close attention to a r t i s t ' s work. I look at pictures and then I look at -- I never thought painting a starry, s t a r r y night p i c t u r e would be an important idea. But, I looked at that and you can learn a l o t from that. Also, painting an aquarium, you look at an aquarium, but you never thought -- painting i t and putting a l i t t l e b i t of trees around i t . It makes i t look so nice. I also learn about the d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s that I never knew before. So, i t r e a l l y helps you to know a l l these paintings paint by someone d i f f e r e n t " (p. 5). 9 6 S h i f t : Int. #1 & Int. #2 The parent believed she developed a new appreciation for art and the ways of a r t i s t s . d. Mrs. Chandar believed that Anthony learned, as she stated, "... to v i s u a l i z e his own l i t t l e ideas from looking at the picture (the art v i s u a l ) , and then compare the two, which one i s the best. And, I always t e l l him his pictures look great because I want him to f e e l proud of himself 1 1 (p. 6 ) . S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent observed her c h i l d being able to emotionally r e l a t e to art appreciation v i s u a l s ; she also observed her c h i l d using the art appreciation v i s u a l s as a means of supporting his attempts at drawing. Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d developing c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s ; and, observed her c h i l d ' s imagination stimulated as result of the a c t i v i t y . C. Parent's Choice of Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar preferred doing the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s with Anthony. She referred to two themes i n which the nursery c h i l d r e n were involved: "Bed-time" and "Sea Creatures". S h i f t : No s h i f t occurred between interviews one and two. 97 2. Value of the Activity-Mrs. Chandar believed that the most enjoyable aspect of these a c t i v i t i e s was Anthony's responses to any questions she might have asked him. She stated, "I was very proud of Anthony because he always came up with a very smart answer. Like, everything I asked him --he had an answer for i t " (p. 6 ) . S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent was able to engage other family members i n the a c t i v i t y ; she observed her c h i l d develop perceptive s k i l l s ; and become motivated about learning. Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d becoming more s e l f -confident i n his attempts to v e r b a l l y express h i s way of knowing; the mark-making book supported parent-child communication. 3 . Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Chandar believes the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s were meaningful learning experiences for Anthony. She stated, "I would l i k e to see what Anthony i s learning from v i s u a l i z i n g things. For example, he uses sea s h e l l s . I ask him questions and he w i l l say -- answer my questions from what he thinks: What kind of creature l i v e s i n there? Why i s i t shaped l i k e that? So, I think, he's more v i s u a l i z i n g things. He also did a patchwork for a q u i l t , and he picked what colour was there and made his own picture i n his mark-making book, and he was t e l l i n g me there was rough f a b r i c s there -- f a b r i c s that were very 9 8 smooth" (p. 6). Mrs. Chandar concluded by saying, "And, he even would t e l l me d i f f e r e n t words that I even never thought he'd learn about. Like, he would just say, "my comforter" or "my g u i l t " (p. 6). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent experienced personal learning as the r e s u l t of a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g with her c h i l d i n the use of the mark-making book; and, she observed her c h i l d engage i n o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g , and drawing i n the mark-making book as a result of the a c t i v i t y . Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d using his imagination as he responded to s p e c i f i c questions; and, she observed her c h i l d mastering new vocabulary. 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mrs. Chandar continued to support the notion that the mark-making book was a good too l to l i n k school and home learning. She stated, "I think the mark-making book i s a good idea because I can r e l a t e and look back on what Anthony did, and also know what he did at school. Because, i f i t were not. for the mark-making book, I would have no idea what he d i d i n school. I ask him what he did at school, but when he brings the mark-making book on weekends, h e ' l l say, "Mom, we d i d t h i s . " H e ' l l look. H e ' l l turn the pages, and (Anthony would continue saying), "We d i d t h i s , and we did t h i s . Mrs. Bitney helped me with t h i s , and Mrs. Pisichko helped me with t h i s , and then that's what I did by myself." Mrs. Chandar concluded by saying, I think the mark-making book i s a good way to relay what he did i n school" (p. 6). 99 S h i f t : No s h i f t occurred between interviews one and two. 4 . Most Valuable C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Mark-Making Book Mrs. Chandar attributed the growth i n Anthony's self-confidence, i n terms of his meaning-making a b i l i t i e s , to the use of the mark-making book She stated, "The most valuable thing about the mark-making book i s the l e v e l of Anthony's confidence i n the a b i l i t y to come up with his idea and his a b i l i t y to draw. Before he didn't -- he was scared to come up with his ideas. But, now he fe e l s he i s getting better i n drawing, and he could see more what he could draw" (p. 7). S h i f t : Int. #1 The mark-making book experience supported q u a l i t y time with one's c h i l d ; and, the mark-making book experience supported parent-child communication. Int. #2 The mark-making book experience supported c h i l d ' s emotional development. 5. Continued Use of the Mark-Making Book Mrs. Chandar encouraged the continued use of the mark-making book at the nursery l e v e l . She based her opinion on her own observations of her son's growth. Mrs. Chandar stated, "I think so because looking from what Anthony did, he was a very poor a r t i s t and what he started o f f with and what he f i n i s h e d -- the l e v e l now that he i s drawing -- I 100 think i t ' s good" (p. 7). 6. Other Mrs. Chandar stated, "He also made me make a book at home for him i n which he wants to put sti c k e r s and when he does good art work he says, "I need a gold star." And he says, "now when I'm drawing you have to c a l l me, "an a r t i s t . " "I'm not Anthony." So, he's r e a l l y , r e a l l y proud f o r what he'd done" (p. 7). At the end of the interview, Mrs Chandar was asked i f there was anything she wanted to add, she stated, "There was one day the mark-making book was on the table and my s i s t e r was looking at i t . They have two kids that go to school and they don't have anything l i k e that i n t h e i r school. And she was asking me, "Why you have t h i s . " I said, "It's a new thing and they are tr y i n g i t out at the school." She f l i p p e d through Anthony's book, and she said i t ' s a good idea. So she has ideas from Anthony's book, and she looked at some of the ques-tions, and she's started to do that with her own kids, too. Before I was using colouring books for Anthony, but now from what I learned from the mark-making book, I don't buy any colouring books any more. I just make my own mark-making book for Anthony, and buy stamps or buy my own l i t t l e things to for him to do at home. I think Anthony's now at the stage where i f he don't have h i s mark-making book h e ' l l work on paper and he fe e l s confident what he learns. He can do i t by himself 101 without someone teaching him. So, h e ' l l be s i t t i n g writing, then h e ' l l ask me at the end, "Mom, did I do i t right?" I ' l l say, "Yes, sure you did i t r i g h t . So, he have more confidence i n himself, not only with the mark-making book, but by doing i t on paper. Now, that I have my brother bringing scrap paper; he would go on and on, taking sheets, working on i t , and he -- before he never did that. He never even, he was too scared to take a paper and even write on i t . He never f e l t he was even good to do that" (p. 7). 102 4.2) Case Study # 2 - The Gallant Family 4.2a) Family P o r t r a i t Ms. Gallant i s a single parent of three children. Her two youngest children, daughter, Frankie Walker, age 4, and son, Jason, age 10,both attend Wellington School. The eldest daughter, Connie, age 21, l i v e s on her own. Currently, Ms. Gallant i s earning her grade 12 standing through an adult education upgrading program. Over the past few years, she and her children have become, reacquainted with t h e i r aboriginal culture. Ms. Gallant i s of Ojicree decent and wishes to pass on her c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c heritage to her children. They re g u l a r l y attended t r a d i t i o n a l ceremonies and gatherings. As a r e s u l t of t h i s study, Ms. Gallant became an active volunteer at Wellington School. She assumed the role of, "resident a r t i s t " , i n the nursery program, and has regularly assisted with o f f i c e related c l e r i c a l duties on a volunteer basis. 4.2b) Frankie Walker - nursery c h i l d - age four Frankie was accustomed to staying at home with her mother before she began attending Wellington School's nursery program. Her d a i l y routine included: playing with toys, drawing, using colouring books, and watching children's programming on T.V. or Disney videos. When Ms. Gallant was q u i l t i n g or sewing, she became a w i l l i n g helper. Frankie's appreciation f o r drawing was influenced by her brother Jason who drew continuously. One day at school, i n passing, he stated, "I was s i t t i n g 103 drawing when Frankie came along, looked at what I was doing, then t r i e d to draw what I was drawing." Frankie began attending our nursery-program i n l a t e October. She was somewhat shy from the outset. As friends were made, however, she became more relaxed and p l a y f u l . Frankie was attentive during c i r c l e - t i m e and enjoyed singing songs and dramatic play. During choice time she chose painting, drawing, and working at the c r a f t table, and playing i n the house centre. Frankie, e s p e c i a l l y , enjoyed snuggling i n one the bean bags to look at books. Using the mark-making book was also one of Frankie's favoured a c t i v i t i e s . Aside from w i l l i n g l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t s use during group time, she occasionally chose to working i n i t during free play at the drawing centre. 4.2c) Interview # 1 - Ms. Gallant 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book 1. The concept of the mark-making book was appealing to Ms. Gallant. She stated, "I thought i t was a good idea because i t would bring us closer together" (p. 1). 2. Ms. Gallant believed the most valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the mark-making book was the p o s s i b i l i t y that i t might support her daughter's a r t i s t i c learning. She stated, "I thought i t ' d make her a 104 better a r t i s t or something -- she'd draw better when she got older --and maybe she'd be an a r t i s t , one day" (p. 1). B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used Ms. Gallant was the only family member who assisted Frankie with the use of the mark-making book. Usually they would work at the dining room table on a Sunday f o r about 20 -30 minutes. Ms. Gallant stated, "Sometimes, I just give her crayons, and l e t her do the drawing he r s e l f . For a few minutes, I just l e t her draw what she wants. But, most of the time I do s i t down and see how she's doing" (p. 1). C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Ms. Gallant admitted that she enjoyed using the mark-making book with Frankie. She stated, "I just l i k e the way she was drawing. She looked r e a l l y cute." ... I just l i k e watching her" (p. 2). Further on i n the interview, Ms. Gallant stated, "I r e a l l y l i k e d going out with her -- the leaves" (p. 4). She made t h i s comment with reference to a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y which i n v i t e d parents to take t h e i r c h i l d r e n to a l o c a l park to look at and c o l l e c t autumn leaves. 2. Ms. Gallant observed that Frankie enjoyed the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s by her enthusiastic behaviour when she brought i t home. She stated, "... she r e a l l y looks forward at bringing i t home every weekend. And, she comes home and i s r e a l l y happy about i t . She wants to do i t right away, but we have to wait u n t i l we have more time" 10 (p. 2). 3. Ms. Gallant had d i f f i c u l t y answering the following question: Was i t a valuable experience for you and your child? In what ways? D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book Ms. Gallant had d i f f i c u l t y d i r e c t l y answering the following questions: 1. What did you personally learn while using the a c t i v i t i e s that accompanied the mark-making book? 2. What do you think your c h i l d learned by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n these a c t i v i t i e s ? 2. Components of Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant chose to i n i t i a t e a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y . She suggested to Frankie to go outside and play i n the fresh f a l l e n snow. Ms. Gallant observed her from the window as she made snow angels, and attempted to make a snowman. Once Frankie returned from the outdoors, Ms. Gallant showed her how to make paper snow-flakes; then glue them into her mark-making book. The use of the mark-making book concluded with Frankie drawing a picture i n response to the outdoor experience. 106 2 . Value of the Activity-Ms. Gallant enjoyed doing the p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s with Frankie. She stated, "Just being with her, and -- just to see how she reacted to drawing the pictures" (p. 8). She observed that Frankie enjoyed gluing the snowflake i n her mark-making book. 3 . Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant observed that Frankie was learning by just playing out i n the snow. She stated, "Well, she noticed that she could make things out of the snow" (p. 4). Ms. Gallant referred to the snowflakes that were glued i n the mark-making book when she stated, "I made t h i s one f o r her, but I l e t her cut these out by hers e l f " (p. 3). Aside from observing Frankie drawing snow angels and snowmen, Ms. Gallant also observed Frankie problem solve. She stated, "We didn't have those white crayons so she used blue" (p. 4). B. Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday of each month, Frankie would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. She and Ms. Gallant would both look at the art v i s u a l and use the questions as a guide to talk about the art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y would conclude by Ms. Gallant i n v i t i n g Frankie to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. 107 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Ms. Gallant b r i e f l y stated, "yes -- I guess so I don't know what to say" (p. 5), when she was asked i f i t was worthwhile teaching art appreciation to young children. b. Ms. Gallant b r i e f l y stated, "...watching her draw" (p. 6), when she was asked whether the experience was enjoyable. c. Ms. Gallant b r i e f l y stated, "No, I never did" (p. 6) when she was asked whether she found the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging (p. 6). 3 . Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. When Ms. Gallant was asked whether including art v i s u a l s i n the mark-making book was a good way to teach art appreciation, she stated, "I think that t h i s i s OK. It teaches them to learn about other people's drawings" (p. 6). b. Aside from using the accompanying questions, Ms. Gallant f e l t she had no questions of her own to contribute. She b r i e f l y stated, "I don't think so" (p. 6). c. Ms. Gallant believed that using the art v i s u a l s resulted i n a personal learning experience. She learned that she could e a s i l y teach Frankie about t h e i r c u l t u r a l heritage. Ms. Gallant referred to Ted Harrison's painting e n t i t l e d , "Sled of Dreams". She stated, "Well, --these are Eskimos, right? ...I want her to learn about her own culture, too" (p. 6). 108 d. Ms. Gallant believed that using the art appreciation v i s u a l s resulted i n a meaningful learning experience for Frankie. She observed that Frankie noticed the d i f f e r e n t colours used i n Harrison's painting, e s p e c i a l l y the colour of the snow. Ms Gallant stated, "she made the snow a d i f f e r e n t colour. And, I t o l d her that's OK" (p. 7). C. Parents' Choice Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant chose to ta l k about a parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t y that inadvertently combined learning through v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, and p i c t o r i a l production. She r e c a l l e d a pow-wow they both attended where Frankie observed the r i t u a l and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a dance. Upon returning home, Frankie happened to notice a painting of a pow-wow scene i n the l i v i n g room. She stopped and looked at i t . Ms. Gallant noticed Frankie observing the painting. Shortly a f t e r , she suggested to Frankie that she draw her int e r p r e t a t i o n of the theme i n her mark-making book. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant found value i n t h i s a c t i v i t y because i t supported t h e i r c u l t u r a l heritage. She also believed that Frankie must have thought i t was a meaningful experience since she followed through with the suggestion of drawing a picture of a pow-wow dance i n her mark-making book. Ms Gallant observed that Frankie engaged i n the 109 a c t i v i t y without any h e s i t a t i o n . She stated, "she has more confidence ...she's more sure of herself" (p. 9). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant believed that both she and Frankie learned from the parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . She observed that Frankie was learning to express her feelings, perceptions and ideas through her drawings i n the mark-making book. She stated, "Like, when she's drawing the feelings come out on paper" (p. 9). 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Ms. Gallant's response to t h i s question was i n the form of the following b r i e f statement, "Yes, It's a good idea" (p. 9). 4. Other At the close of the interview, Ms. Gallant made the following comments: Ms. Gallant stated, "I wish that her dad would get more involved with her, too. Like, he hasn't --he hasn't even done one page with her since she started -- the same with Sheldon, her brother. He doesn't get involved with her, either" (p. 4). Ms. Gallant further stated, " I never r e a l l y had someone to work with when I was young" (p. 8). Ms. Gallant concluded by stating, "I just wanted to suggest that 110 -- maybe you could give them assignments that have d i f f e r e n t --cultures, and the other children w i l l learn about other ethnic backgrounds. And, I think they could learn a l o t from doing t h i s " (p. 10). 4.2d) Interview # 2 - Ms. Gallant 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Response to the mark-making book's use over an extended period of time Ms. Gallant maintained a p o s i t i v e attitude towards the mark-making book experience. She stated, "I think i t ' s a worth while project because the children learn i n advance what's going to be expected of them when they reach a higher l e v e l of education next year" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent anticipated parent-child bonding. Int. # 2 The parent believed children would be more prepared for kindergarten. B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? Several changes occurred as to the use of the mark-making book. Ms. Gallant stated, "Her s i s t e r Connie -- she helps to p r i n t i n the I l l book with her. Connie works with her and teaches her. She drew a picture f o r Frankie" (p. 1). Ms. Gallant concluded by stating, "We usua l l y do i t a f t e r she gets home af t e r school, and we usually do i t on Sundays, as well, for a few minutes to a half hour" (p. 1). Further on i n the interview, Ms. Gallant r e c a l l e d an incident where Frankie's father chose to supported Frankie's a r t i s t i c learning. She stated, "She t r i e d to draw i t (a hamster) by herself, but r e a l l y got frustr a t e d . Her dad decided to draw.one for her. She got the idea that she could draw one on her own and she did. And, i t looks r e a l l y good" (p. 2) . S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent pointed out that i n i t i a l l y only she and her c h i l d used the mark-making book and preferably on Sundays. Int. # 2 The parent explained that use of the mark-making book s h i f t e d to include Friday afternoon. Her eldest daughter, and her youngest c h i l d ' s father chose to share the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a s s i s t i n g with the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Ms. Gallant maintained that she s t i l l enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the mark-making book experience with Frankie. She stated, "Yes, I r e a l l y enjoy i t . I could see she had a r e a l idea as to what she was drawing" (p. 1). 112 S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent explained that she enjoyed spending q u a l i t y time her with c h i l d . Int. # 2 The parent noted that her c h i l d enjoyed expressing her thoughts through drawing. 2. Ms. Gallant observed that Frankie continued to enjoy p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the mark-making book experience. She stated "...she talked about i t . And I think she was r e a l l y happy to work i n the book. And she was always so anxious to show me what she had done and what she drew" (p. 1). Further on i n the interview, Ms Gallant stated, "She looks excited when she has the chance to work i n the mark-making book, and what she's accomplished i n i t " (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent commented on her chi l d ' s enthusiastic response to the notion of using the mark-making book. Int. # 2 The parent pointed out that her c h i l d enjoyed using the mark-making book, and she enjoyed showing and t a l k i n g about the mark-making book entries. In addition, the youngster l i k e d the attention she received from engaging i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . 3. Ms. Gallant maintained that the use of the mark-making book was a valuable experience f o r both her and Frankie. She stated, "Yes, I think i t was a good experience f o r both of us. It showed that she had some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that can come i n useful i n the future. And she draws on her own. Maybe, that's why she draws" (p. 1 ) 113 S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent explained that the book developed a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n her c h i l d . She added that her c h i l d independently engaged i n drawing as meaning making. D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Ms. Gallant believed that the mark-making book experience contributed to her own personal learning. She stated, "I personally r e a l i z e d that my c h i l d was learning more than I r e a l i z e d . I r e a l i z e d myself that I wasn't spending as much time with her as I needed to" (p. 2) . S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent observed that her c h i l d was learning more than she had anticipated and commented that the approach supported her c h i l d ' s learning development. 2. Ms. Gallant believed that the use of the mark-making book supported Frankie's learning development. She stated, I think that she learns a l o t by using the mark-making book because by looking through i t , I r e a l i z e she's drawing better, and she knows her colours better -- also making her own l e t t e r s " (p. 4). Ms. Gallant further stated, "Frankie c a l l s i t her homework, so i t shows she w i l l be able to handle more r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . It seems she knows a l i t t l e more about her 114 numbers and words. She surprises me sometimes, when she comes out with these new words. I think s h e ' l l have a good vocabulary by the time she reaches Grade 1" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent explained that the mark-making book enabled her c h i l d to learn i n multiple ways. 2. Components of Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant i n v i t e d Frankie to do a p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t y that was based on v i s u a l awareness. She stated, "There was t h i s one day when I asked her what she wanted to draw. She couldn't decide so I t o l d her to draw her hamster that we got recently" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent decided to i n i t i a t e an a c t i v i t y . 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant maintained that she enjoyed doing the parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t e s with Frankie. She appreciated the fact that she was given the opportunity to decide what a c t i v i t i e s were to be done i n Frankie's mark-making book. She stated, "I r e a l l y enjoyed the parent-115 i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s because i t allowed me to come up with my own ideas as to what my daughter might want to do i n the mark-making book" (p. 2) . Ms. Gallant also observed that Frankie enjoyed doing the a c t i v i t i e s , as well. She stated, "She r e a l l y l i k e d i t " (p. 2), i n reference to a drawing Frankie made of the family hamster. S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent explained that she and her c h i l d enjoyed the p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . She also stated that she valued her chi l d ' s way of making meaning through drawing, and noted that she could independently problem-solve. Int. # 2 The parent stated that she appreciated the opportunity to have an influence on her ch i l d ' s learning. She also observed that her c h i l d could problem-solve with the assistance of an adult. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant maintained that the parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were meaningful learning experiences for both Frankie and hers e l f . She made the following observation as Frankie learned through t h i s s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y . She stated, "She t r i e d to draw i t (the hamster) by herself, but r e a l l y got frustrated. Her dad decided to draw one f o r her so she got the idea that she could draw one on her own and she did. She r e a l l y l i k e d i t ; and, i t looks r e a l l y good" (p. 2). 116 S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated that the approach allows parents to support t h e i r c h i l d ' s drawing explorations. B. Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday of the month, Frankie would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. Both she and Ms. Gallant would s i t together, look at the art v i s u a l s , and t a l k about the art work and the a r t i s t . Instead of using the accompanying art appreciation questions, however, Ms. Gallant chose to use her own. The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Ms. Gallant i n v i t i n g Frankie to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated she used the accompanying art appreciation questions. Int. # 2 The parent chose to use her own questions. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Ms. Gallant maintained that the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s were worthwhile teaching young children. She also stated, "As a matter of fact, I bought her a painting having to do with native culture, and she r e a l l y l i k e d i t . After, she sat down at the kitchen table and 117 started drawing i t on her own" (p. 2). Ms Gallant continued to say, "It was her fourth birthday that just passed... She's a pow-wow dancer and I just wanted her to -- to remember that part of her Indian culture" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated that as a result of learning through the art apprecation component, she was motivated to purchase a work of a r t . b. Ms. Gallant maintained that she enjoyed using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Frankie. She stated, "What I enjoyed most about t h i s a c t i v i t y i s that Frankie and I are beginning to spend more time with each other and -- you know i t seems that we have a stronger bond" (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent was able to watch her c h i l d make meaning through drawing. Int. # 2 The parent stated the experience supported parent-chiId bonding. c. Ms. Gallant did not f i n d the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging. As a matter of fact, she stated, "No, not r e a l l y . We just f e l t comfortable about doing what we wanted to" (p. 3). 118 S h i f t : No s h i f t occured between interviews one and two. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. Ms. Gallant maintained that using the mark-making book with the accompanying coloured art v i s u a l s was a good way to teach Frankie about art appreciation. She stated, "Yes, I do think i t ' s important because I do think i t w i l l teach them that there are people that have to take the time to paint and draw t h e i r own ideas" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated she believes the art v i s u a l s teach children how a r t i s t s make meaning. Int. # 2 The parent stated that the experience teaches c h i l d r e n that one needs to "take the time" to make meaning. b. Ms. Gallant preferred not to use the accompanying question sheets that came along with the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "Actually, I preferred to ask my own questions because i t made i t easier f o r me and my c h i l d to know what we r e a l l y want to say about the paintings" (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent chose to use the accompanying art appreciation questions. Int. # 2 The parent chose to use her own questions. 119 c. Ms. Gallant maintained that using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s contributed to a meaningful learning experience. She commented that she was surprised how Frankie responded to the art appreciation a c t i v i t y that included Matisse's painting, e n t i t l e d , "Goldfish". She stated, "I personally learned that I was surprised that she could put her own ideas on a piece of paper and she never saw a g o l d f i s h bowl before, and she made i t round. I was surprised about that" (p. 3) . S h i f t : I n t . # 1 The parent learned that she could teach her c h i l d the family's c u l t u r a l heritage through art appreciation. I n t . # 2 The parent learned that her c h i l d was able to p i c t o r i a l l y response to themes depicted i n works of art . d. Ms. Gallant maintained that using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s resulted i n a meaningful learning experience f o r Frankie. She stated, "On the, painting there was only four g o l d f i s h , but when she counted them she said there was seven because of the r e f l e c t i o n . And she knew the shapes, and she knew how many leaves were on the plants. And she knew these were plants s i t t i n g on the table. She knew there were two plants s i t t i n g on the table. And she knew the colour of the g o l d f i s h " (p. 3). S h i f t : I n t . # 1 The parent observed her c h i l d using her imagination and solving problems. The experience supported learning about the elements of design. I n t . # 2 The parent observed her c h i l d developed s k i l l s of perception. The learning experience also supported the learning of colours, shapes and simple math concepts. C . P a r e n t s ' C h o i c e C o m p o n e n t 1. N a t u r e o f t h e A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant preferred doing parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s with Frankie. In addition to attending c u l t u r a l events, they enjoy occasionally taking a drive i n the country. S h i f t : P a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were the most favoured. 2. V a l u e o f t h e A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant maintained that she enjoyed doing the p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s with Frankie. She stated, "I just l i k e being with her and teaching her things -- d i f f e r e n t things" (p. 4). Ms. Gallant observed that Frankie enjoyed these outings. She stated, "She's r e a l l y happy when we go to places, e s p e c i a l l y to pow-wow's because s h e ' l l go out and dance, e s p e c i a l l y with older people. She'1 make new friends there" (p. 4). 121 S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent valued being able to teach her c h i l d the family's l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l heritage. She observed that the a c t i v i t y supported her c h i l d ' s emotional development. Int. # 2 Both parent and c h i l d enjoyed the a c t i v i t y . In addition, the parent observed that the a c t i v i t y allowed her to have an influence on what her c h i l d learned. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Ms. Gallant maintains that the parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were meaningful learning experiences for both herself and Frankie. During a family outing to Shoal Lake, Ontario, she noticed how observant Francie had become. Ms. Gallant said, "We had to go onto t h i s gravel road to get there. She noticed i t was a r e a l l y winding road, and she was having l o t s of fun. And she noticed a l l the trees" (p. 4). Upon returning home, Frankie responded to the experience by drawing i n her mark-making book. S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed her c h i l d learn to express f e e l i n g , perceptions and ideas through drawing. Int. # 2 The parent pointed out that c h i l d was able to develop perceptive s k i l l s . 122 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Ms. Gallant maintained that the notion of the mark-making book was a valuable l i n k between school and home learning. She stated, "I think that she learns a l o t by using the mark-making book, because by looking though i t , I r e a l i z e she's drawing better, and she knows her colours better. Also making her own l e t t e r s , and I also know what's being taught to her on a regular basis" (p. 4). Further on Ms. Gallant stated, "... and I have a good idea what's going on i n school since I can see she's matured a l i t t l e since she's started the mark-making book" (p. 4). Ms. Gallant made an observation while looking through the mark-making book that one of the a c t i v i t i e s done at school was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to what she and Frankie were working on at home. She stated, "It was i n t e r e s t i n g because when I looked at the, "Bed-time", theme. I noticed that there were patches of c l o t h on one page (of the mark-making book), and I found i t i n t e r e s t i n g because now I am making a q u i l t f o r her at home, and she helps me with i t . And she counts the pieces of material that I cut, and t e l l s me how many of each shape there are, and we r e a l l y enjoy each other's company when we do i t " (p. 2) . S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent believed the mark-making book was a "good idea". She valued the mark-making book was a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l . The parent also observed that the 123 mark-making book e f f e c t i v e l y communicated her c h i l d ' s development i n many areas of learning. Int. # 2 The mark-making book concept bridged school and home learning, and supported her ch i l d ' s emotional development. 4 . Most Valuable C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Mark-Making Book Ms. Gallant valued the strong bond that developed between her and Frankie. However, she also valued Frankie learning, "a l o t about the numbers and words" (p. 5). and fact that Frankie, "draws a l o t better than she d i d at the beginning" (p. 5).Ms. Gallant a t t r i b u t e s the improvement i n Frankie's drawing as a re s u l t of the continued use of the mark-making book. She stated, "She r e a l l y didn't draw much but since she got the mark-making book she came a long way" (p. 5). S h i f t : P r i o r to the use of the mark-making book, Ms. Gallant believed the use of the marking book could support her ch i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. Int. #2 The parent learned that the use of the mark-making book supported parent-child bonding; i t continued to support the mastery of vocabulary, and learning of simple math concepts; and continued to support her daughter's a r t i s t i c learning. 5. Continued Use of Mark-Making Book Ms. Gallant supported the continued use of the mark-making book at the nursery l e v e l . She stated, "Yes, I think i t ' s a good idea because ch i l d r e n would have -- w i l l be more prepared f o r the next 124 grade" (p. 5) . 6. Other Ms. Gallant had no further comments to make. 4.3) Case Study # 3 - The Guttieres family 4.3a) Family P o r t r a i t Mr. and Mrs. Guttieres are o r i g i n a l l y from the Phi l i p p i n e s . Mr. Guttieres immigrated to Canada with his family as a teenager i n 1981. Mrs. Guttieres followed with her.family a year l a t e r . Both parents completed high school and continued t h e i r education at a l o c a l Winnipeg community college. Mr. Guttieres holds grade 12 standing from a l o c a l Winnipeg high school and a diploma i n restaurant management. Mrs. Guttieres completed grade 12 i n the Philippines, and holds a c e r t i f i c a t e i n data entry. Currently, Mr. Guttieres i s a daytime restaurant supervisor with a popular Winnipeg hotel, while Mrs. Guttieres i s employed as a cashier with a l o c a l f i s h i n g and hunting store. The couple met and married i n Winnipeg, and have a 4 year o l d daughter named Charlene. They chose to continue l i v i n g i n t h i s neighbourhood due to the proximity of family and r e l a t i v e s who reg u l a r l y care f o r t h e i r daughter. 4.3b) Charlene Guttieres - nursery c h i l d - age four Charlene was fortunate to stay at home with at least one parent. 125 Mr. and Mrs. Guttieres arranged t h e i r work schedules i n order that at least one of them would be home during the day caring f o r Charlene. She experienced the regular routine of going on outings, playing with toys, using colouring books, watching children's programming on t e l e v i s i o n , and being read to at bedtime. Drawing and painting were p a r t i c u l a r l y encouraged since both parents personally enjoy doing these a c t i v i t i e s . Charlene was allowed to use a v a r i e t y of mark-making tools : p e n c i l s , pens, crayons, markers and paints. She usually engaged i n drawing and painting a c t i v i t i e s i n the company of her parents. The topics she chose to draw or paint about varied. Charlene i s also encouraged to speak F i l i p i n o as well as English at home since both Mr. and Mrs. Guttieres believe i n preserving t h e i r c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c heritage. Charlene was somewhat shy when she f i r s t started attending Wellington School's nursery program. She would often be observed q u i e t l y drawing, or painting at the easel. A f t e r a couple of weeks, however, Charlene became more sociable once she made friends and became more f a m i l i a r with the nursery routine. She began to p a r t i c i p a t e more during c i r c l e - t i m e , e s p e c i a l l y when songs were sung; and enjoyed playing i n the house and dress-up centres. Using the mark-making book i n the nursery s e t t i n g was one of Charlene favourite a c t i v i t i e s . She would chose to use i t independently during free play, as well as, during mark-making book time. Aside from drawing i n i t or working on a collage, she took pride i n showing other c h i l d r e n the 126 work she had done at home. 4.3c) Interview # 1 - Mr Guttieres 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book l . a . When Mr. Guttieres was f i r s t introduced to the mark-making book project he was concerned that i t might not be appropriate f o r chi l d r e n so young. He stated, "I was kind of l i k e hesitant. Is t h i s r e a l l y f o r nursery" (p. 1)? l.b. Mr. Guttieres questioned the value of the mark-making book. He stated, "I mean I thought i t was r e a l l y a l i t t l e too much f o r just a k i d that i s just s t a r t i n g out at school" (p. 1). S h i f t : The parent's attitude changed towards using the mark-marking book once the family began using i t each weekend. He stated, "...when I started using i t , I began to see what i t was a l l about. It was wonderful! Not only f o r my daughter, but fo r myself, as well. It's as i f I'm going back to school and doing i t a l l over again -- get to draw pictures and learn the colours and a l l that. I thought i t was an excellent idea" (p. 1). B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? The Guttieres family always worked i n the mark-making book every Saturday night on the bed i n Charlenes room. There have been times, however, when Mr. Guttieres and Charlene would wait u n t i l ten o'clock 127 Friday night f o r Mrs. Guttieres to come home from work. They enjoy doing things together. Usually they went beyond the suggested twenty minutes. Mr. Guttieres admitted that, "Most of the time we got ca r r i e d away, sometimes for 45 minutes. We were just having so much fun we didn't want to stop" (p. 2). C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mr. Guttieres enjoyed using the mark-making book. He stated, "I absolutely enjoyed the mark-making book -- not only about the drawing and a l l that because I l i k e drawings. When I was i n high school I did a l o t of drawings and that's where my daughter picked up. It's kind of nice to see my daughter you know, even to be able to draw shapes and that. It's a st a r t f o r a l i t t l e g i r l " (p. 2 ). 2. Mr. Guttieres observed that Charlene enjoyed using the mark-making book. He stated, "...when she brings the mark-making book on Friday, she'd show i t to us l i k e she's very excited. She'd say, "Dad, look what I've done. Like you know at school, and I appreciate i t and you know. It's kind of nice to see that, enthusiasum i n our daughter" (p. 3). 3. Mr. Guttieres believed i t was a valuable learning experience once he started using the mark-making with the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s . He stated, "...when I got into i t , and saw what i t was a l l about -- I mean, i t was wonderful. I mean not only f o r my c h i l d , but for myself, as well. It's as i f I'm going back to school, and doing i t 128 a l l over again. Getting to draw pictures, learning the colours, and a l l that. I thought i t was an excellent idea" (p. 1). Mr. Guttieres continued to state, "Well, I would say -- l i k e I have friends that have kids that go to d i f f e r e n t schools. At work when I t a l k to them about the mark-making book, they were, "impressed", that my daughter was doing a l l t h i s , and she's only i n nursery. And you know, they thought that my daughter i s a r e a l l y smart k i d and that. But I said, "You know, she's not r e a l l y . It's just how you teach your kids. Plus, t h i s mark-making book gives her a l o t of time to spend with t h i s book, you know, and drawing s t u f f and.instead of just playing around the house you know. This i s a wonderful idea just to -- you know not to have your k i d just watching T.V. They'll be doing something valuable for themselves rather than just doing nothing at home" (p. 3). D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mr. Guttieres believed he learned something from each of the components. He stated, "I l i k e a l i t t l e b i t of everything" (p. 3). Mr. Guttieres s p e c i f i c a l l y saw value i n the v i s u a l awareness component. He stated, "They'd learn what outdoors i s a l l about. They playing i n the snow. You would experience what i t ' s a l l about, not just t a l k i n g about. It's there. You touch i t . You f e e l i t " (p. 4). He also believed the art appreciation component was worth-while including, as well. Mr. Guttieres stated, "They would see v i s u a l l y what the a r t i s t was t r y i n g to portray" (p. 3). 129 2. Mr. Guttieres observed that while p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s , Charlene experienced multiple ways of learning which he believed were meaningful. He referred to a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y as an example. Mr. Gutteries stated, "I showed her how to make a snowman, and then she made a snowman for h e r s e l f . You know there i t s e l f , she learned how to b u i l d a snowman. I think that you know, just by showing i t to her she r e a l l y learned something" (p. 4). He concluded by saying, "I think i t ' s important you know. They learn a l o t " (p. 4). 2. Components of Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Guttieres preferred taking Charlene on family outings then l a t e r having her respond to the experience by drawing i n her mark-making book. He stated, "We decided to go, and we played i n the playground, and we sli d e d , we ran around, we played b a l l and a l l that s t u f f " (p. 5). 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Guttieres believed there was value i n the experience. He stated, "I mean i t ' s a wonderful experience. You never get to do that unless you have a k i d or somebody to play with. It's a wonderful experience. It's l i k e being a k i d again" (p. 5). 130 3 . Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mr Guttieres believed t h i s was a meaningful learning experience. Once the family returned home, Charlene proceeded to draw a picture of the s l i d e i n her mark-making book. Mr. Guttieres stated, "...she responded to that, and she started drawing, v i s u a l i z i n g i n her mind what that s l i d e looked l i k e and she t r i e d to portray i t on the paper (p. 5) . B . Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday of the month, Charlene would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. She and her parents would look at the art v i s u a l and use the questions as a guide to talk about the art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Mr. and Mrs. Guttieres i n v i t i n g Charlene to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Mr. Guttieres believed i t ' s worthwhile teaching art appreciation to young children. He stated, "I think i t i s . I mean, when I was a young kid, I l i k e d drawings. We didn't have t h i s , or I'd be an a r t i s t " (p. 5). b. Mr. Guttieres believed these a c t i v i t i e s were enjoyable because 131 he was able to observe his c h i l d v e r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y respond to the themes depicted i n the art v i s u a l s . He s p e c i f i c a l l y referred to Pablo Picasso's painting, "Mother and Ch i l d " . Charlene l i k e d t h i s a r t v i s u a l because she could emotionally r e l a t e to the mother and c h i l d image. She also noticed that the mother image had long h a i r and so d i d she. Mr. Guttieres observed his daughter as she attempted to draw long h a i r . He stated, "She did i t on her own. She had a l i t t l e b i t of bangs" (p. 7). c. Mr. Guttieres did not f i n d the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging. He d i d state, however, that i t might be challenging f o r a c h i l d do respond to the theme, "But, i t ' s you know, by just doing t h e i r best, by doing your best, and whatever you can do with i t . I think i t ' s important" (p. 7). 3. L e a r n i n g Through the A c t i v i t i e s a. Mr. Guttieres believed that including the art v i s u a l s with the mark-making book was a good idea. However, he stated, " I t might not be convenient fo r every parent, but i f you have the spare time, I think i t ' s wonderful to take them to the art g a l l e r y . I do i t sometimes. I'd do i t a l l the time i f I could, but i t ' s nice not only f o r your kid, but f o r yourself, as well" (p. 6 ) . b. Mr. Guttieres believe the art appreciation questions were h e l p f u l . He stated,"I think everything I wanted to ask was a l l i n here. So, I don't think that I wanted to add anything" (p. 6 ) . 132 c. Mr. Guttieres observed that Charlene enjoyed sharing h i s enthusiasum f o r a r t . "I personally enjoyed the art appreciation i n the beginning. I personally enjoy art, and my daughter does, too. And i t shows that she does l i k e a r t . So I'm r e a l l y happy. Back i n school I r e a l l y l i k e d a r t " (p. 7). d. Mr. Guttieres observed Charlene experience multiple ways of learning. She was able to v e r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y express her feeli n g s , perceptions and ideas towards the art v i s u a l s . In the following statement Mr. Guttieres was r e f e r r i n g to Pablo Picasso's painting e n t i t l e d , "Mother and Child". He stated, "It makes her think. By being a mother you don't just feed your daughter, you give them love" (p. 7) . C. Parent's Choice of Component Mr. Guttieres enjoying a l l of the mark-making book components. He stated, "I would'like a l l of them" (p. 7). He did, however, s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r to the children's l i t e r a t u r e component. 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every t h i r d Friday of the month, Charlene would bring home a children's book with an accompanying a c t i v i t y sheet. The story would be read then Mr. Guttieres and Charlene would each chose a favourite i l l u s t r a t i o n to tal k about. The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Charlene being i n v i t e d to draw a picture i n her mark-making 133 book i n response to the theme. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Guttieres enjoyed spending, as he stated, "quality time" (p. 1). with Charlene. He was able to observe her enthusiastic behaviour as they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a c t i v i t y together. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mr. Guttieres believed he learned something new with each book Charlene brought home from school. He stated, "I learned something by reading a children's book. You know, I'd say, "Hey I didn't ever read t h i s before. It's kind of e x c i t i n g you know for your daughter. Then you ask a question after, and you know you'd ask her what she l i k e d the most about the story and she would t e l l you. It shows what she picked-up or what she learned from that book that you just read her" (p. 8) . 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mr. Guttieres believed that the mark-making book was very useful for both the parent and teacher. He stated, "It shows you, how your c h i l d i s doing i n school and how she p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a l l the a c t i v i t i e s i n school. You would see i n the mark-making book how she would progress and -- l i k e i n her work. I think she's done an excellent job. From day one you compare the drawings that she d i d 134 f i r s t time and up to t h i s time. I mean i t r e a l l y shows that she has r e a l l y come a long way. I think every k i d should do that. I t ' s a way of communicating between teachers and parents" (p. 8). 4. Other Mr. Guttieres stated, "I'd l i k e to be an a r t i s t , but i t ' s just that fact that my parents said, "Oh, you're not going to make any money i n drawing pictures, I mean that's why I was kind of disappointed. That's why I l i k e i t to be there for my daughter. I think i t ' s kind of important because kids sometimes cannot show t h e i r true f e e l i n g s . But drawing into a paper or something, i t r e a l l y shows you what they f e e l inside or that they wanted to portray" (p. 5). 4.3d) Interview # 2 - Mr. Guttieres 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Use A. Response to the mark-making book's use over an extended period of time Mr. Guttieres stated, "Well, now I f e e l more comfortable using the mark-making book than when we f i r s t started using i t . It seems l i k e Charlene can just draw by herself. She needs very l i t t l e help now from what I can see. You know she can pretty much draw what she sees. Like a shape, you know. She can draw i t just by looking at i t . But, I think that's one great thing about t h i s mark-making book. It teaches 135 her to draw shapes, and you know a l l tht kind of s t u f f " (p. 1). S h i f t : The parent's apprehensive attitude towards the concept of the mark-making book changed once the family began p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t s use. Int. # 1 The parent r e a l i z e d there was value i n the use of the mark-making book. It was a pleasurable and meaningful learning experience. Int. # 2 The parent became more confident - with the rol e of "co-teacher" the longer he used the mark-making book with his c h i l d . Parent was e s p e c i a l l y impressed with his daughter's drawing progress. 2. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? The Guttieres family began spending more time using the mark-making book with Charlene. Mr. Guttieres stated, "When she brings the book home, i t says 2 0 minutes, but we a c t u a l l y spend more time, now. Mr. Guttieres stated, " . . . i t becomes a routine for me and my wife to just work with my daughter, you know -- on the weekends -- on Saturday night, or whatever, Sunday night...I think that i t becomes part of our l i f e -- using t h i s mark-making book" (p. 1). The family continued to enjoy using the mark-making book i n the bedroom. On occasion, however, i t was taken along when the family went to v i s i t with grandparents. \ 136 S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated that the use of the mark-making book s h i f t e d to include Sunday evening; i t t r a v e l l e d to grandparents homes; and, i t s use became a routine. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mr. Guttieres maintained that he enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the mark-making book experience with Charlene. He stated, "We seem to have a l o t of fun using i t , and we just got ca r r i e d way" (p. 1). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent valued the "quality time" spent with h i s c h i l d . He also observed that the use of the mark-making book supported parent-chiId communication. Int. # 2 The parent emphasized the "fun" associated with the a c t i v i t y . 2. Mr. Guttieres observed that Charlene continued to enjoy p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the mark-making book experience. He stated, "I'd say a month a f t e r the mark-making book was introduced to her, we're seeing more and more of her drawing" (p. 2). Mr. Guttieres continued by saying, "I think she enjoys them (the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s ) very much so. She comes home from school on Friday and says,"Mommy, Daddy t h i s i s what I have to do! I mean i t ' s just Friday. Relax! We'll do i t on maybe Saturday. Everytime she comes home on Friday, i t ' s l i k e l e t ' s do t h i s , now. She's so anxious to get started now on whatever 137 she brings home - her homework" (p. 3). Further on i n the interview, Mr. Guttieres stated, ".. . I t ' s good for us as parents to see thatenthusiasm i n our c h i l d at a very young age" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed his c h i l d enjoyed showing and ta l k i n g about the work done i n the mark-making book. In addition, c h i l d enjoyed attention received f o r work done i n the mark-making book. \ Int. # 2 The parent observed that his c h i l d looked forward to using the mark-making book. 3. Mr. Guttieres continued to believe that the use of the mark-making book was a valuable experience for several reasons: a. He observed that when the mark-making book traveled to his parents home, his parents were, as he stated, "...impressed that . Charlene was able to do a l l t h i s , you know for a young age. When I was growing up I was lucky i f I was to do a l l these things. My parents were r e a l l y impressed with her that she was able to do a l l these things. I think i t ' s great" (p. 2). b. Mr. Guttieres also observed that using the mark-making book brought them closer together. He stated, "It's that parent-daughter bonding. It gives us time to talk and have fun at the same time" (p. 3). c. Mr. Guttieres also believed the mark-making book also supported Charlene's emotional development. He stated, "But t h i s 138 mark-making book w i l l help b u i l d her self-esteem and make her f e e l good about herself and know that she's doing great. It shows i n the book" (p. 3). d. Mr. Guttieres stated that using the mark-making book was habit forming. He stated, "Another thing I want to mention i s because Charlene brings her mark-making book on a regular basis now, I've found that every Friday i t sort of becomes a routine f o r her, you know. It's l i k e a good habit that you have -- you have to do i t to better yourself. So I think that's one of the reasons why, you know, she's getting better at drawing people. It's l i k e me getting up at f i v e o'clock i n the morning, even on my days o f f . It's one of those regular things. It's a normal routine for me. Even on my days o f f , I get up at f i v e o'clock i n the morning. I'm up. I think that's one good thing -- you don't have a choice. You have to do i t . So, i t ' s sort of good for you. I gives you encouragement, i t gives you...things to look forward to a l l the time" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that using the mark-making book, enabled him to r e l i v e making meaning through drawing with h i s c h i l d . Parent believed that using the mark-making book occupied his c h i l d ' s time i n meaningful ways. Int. # 2 The parent stated that due to the mark-making book's p o r t a b i l i t y , i t traveled to the grandparents home. The mark-making was valued as a communication t o o l amongst family members. It supported his c h i l d ' s emotional development and parent-child bonding. Parent 139 observed that the mark-making book supported the notion of forming good habits. D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mr. Guttieres believed that p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the mark- making book experience contributed to his own personal learning. He stated, "Well, I learned that the a c t i v i t e s that accompanied the mark-making book are not just learning how to draw and a l l that. There's other things besides drawing. Actually, learning from something -- l i k e when the teacher sends the sea s h e l l s home. It's not just the sea s h e l l s . You examine i t , and v i s u a l i z e what kind of creature l i v e s i n that sea s h e l l . It's sort of science, as well, you know" (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated he learned the value of outdoor play as a meaningful learning experience. Parent learned that the art v i s u a l s supported v i s u a l dialogue. Int. # 2 The parent stated that accompanying mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s supported the development of his c h i l d ' s perceptive s k i l l s and imagination. He added that science was being taught through the v i s u a l awareness component. 2. Mr. Guttieres maintained that the mark-making book experience supported Charlene's learning i n several ways. He observed s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n his daughter's approach to drawing. Mr. Guttieres stated, "It seems l i k e Charlene can just draw by h e r s e l f . She needs very 140 l i t t l e help now, from what I see. You know she can pretty much draw what she sees. Like a shape, you know. She can draw i t just by looking at i t . I think that's one great thing about t h i s mark-making book --i t teaches her to draw shapes, and you know a l l that kind of s t u f f " (p. 1). Further on i n the interview, he stated, "Absolutely! Guaranteed change i n terms of how to draw the hands. Before i t was just a s t i c k . Now i t ' s more of a shape not just a l i n e you know. It's a b ig change" (p. 4). Mr. Guttieres also observed his daughter was involved i n a c t i v i t i e s that supported learning through science and the use of one's imagination. He stated, "...my daughter learns about science and nature. My daughter w i l l be able to imagine what kind of creature l i v e s i n the sea s h e l l . So, I think that science and by using her imagination, she w i l l be able to draw that creature l i v i n g i n that sea s h e l l " (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that he observed that h i s c h i l d learned through adult guided a c t v i t i e s , p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n , and shared ways of knowing. Int. # 2 The parent noted s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n c h i l d ' s way of drawing. His c h i l d was becoming more f a m i l i a r with the elements of design. In addition, parent observed that his c h i l d was learning about science and her perceptive s k i l l s were developing. 141 2. Components of Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Guttieres and his wife chose to continue with parent-i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s based on v i s u a l awareness. He stated, "You know, we got her mittens and jackets. We f e l t , you know, the textures and we showed her how i t was done, was made, and a zipper. You know, we made her f e e l how i t was made and how i t f e l t . S h i f t : Int. # 1 & # 2 The parent stated that p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s occurred outdoors. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Guttieres believed there was value i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . He stated, "We take f o r granted what we wear, now, i n the winter time. We don't r e a l i z e there's more to i t than meets the eye (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent associated the a c t i v i t y with childhood memories of play. Int. # 2 The parent observed that s p e c i f i c family values could be taught through the mark-making book. 142 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y > Mr. Guttieres believe t h i s was a meaningful learning experience. He stated, "This i s a c t u a l l y a learning experience f o r her...we were a c t u a l l y t r y i n g to, you know t r y i n g to make her draw some of her outer wear. But, then she i n s i s t e d that we show her how to draw a jacket and then we sort of mentioned i t to her that we shouldn't. But, then she said, "Please Daddy, can you just do i t for me?" I said, "OK, honey, I ' l l do i t for you. Then she saw me, you know, drawing the jacket. I guess by drawing i t for her, i t made her think about myself and her mom. We're interested i n her, the things she learns. Then she f i l l e d i n the rest and coloured the jacket, and next time she can s t a r t thinking how to do her own jacket next time" (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed that his c h i l d was able to r e c a l l experiences through drawing i n the mark-making book Int. # 2 The parent stated that he was able to support h i s ch i l d ' s way of drawing. B . Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday of the month, Charlene would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. She and her parents would s i t together, look at the art v i s u a l s , and use the questions as a guide to t a l k about the 143 art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Mr. and Mrs. Guttieres i n v i t i n g Charlene to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2 . Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Mr. Guttieres maintained that i s was worthwhile teaching art appreciation to young children. He referred to a drawing Charlene di d based on the, "Sea Creature", theme. He stated, "I think she d i d a f a n t a s t i c drawing. By looking at the picture, and the shapes, and the colour. Just by looking at i t , you can v i s u a l i z e i t i n your mind what kind of texture, or how i t f e e l s " (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated he regretted not experiencing such learning during his early childhood. Int. # 2 The parent stated that he was impressed to observe h i s c h i l d expressing through drawing l i k e ideas as those of the a r t i s t . b. Mr. Guttieres maintained that both he and his wife continued to enjoy doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Charlene. They valued the opportunity of spending "quality time" with t h e i r daughter. Mr. Guttieres stated, "Well, the most enjoyable i s doing i t with our daughter and working with her and by just seeing her drawing d i f f e r e n t shapes and colouring d i f f e r e n t things and -- i t ' s excellent" (p. 6 ) . 144 S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated he enjoyed observing his c h i l d express personal feelings, perceptions, and ideas through drawing i n response to the themes depicted i n the art v i s u a l s . Parent enjoyed engaging i n v i s u a l and verbal dialogue with his c h i l d , thus learning from one another's point of view. Int. # 2 The parent stated he enjoyed the "quality time" spent with his c h i l d . c. Mr. Guttieres did not f i n d the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging i n terms of d i f f i c u l t to do. He stated, "Actually, no there wasn't anything challenging about i t . As usual, she's w i l l i n g to do i t or work with us. There's nothing challenging f o r her" (p. 6 ) . S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent's anticipated concern that a c h i l d might have d i f f i c u l t y responding to the theme was not expressed as i n interview one. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. Mr. Guttieres continued to believed that using the mark-making book with the accompanying coloured art v i s u a l s was s t i l l a good way to teach Charlene about art appreciation. He referred to Matisse's painting e n t i t l e d , "Goldfish". He stated, "...by looking at the picture, the shapes, and the colours...you can learn from i t . He continued to say, "...my daughter could count how many gold f i s h were i n there...the shape of the leaves" (p. 5). As a r e s u l t , Mr. Guttieres 145 believe Charlene drew what he thought was a, " . . . f a n t a s t i c drawing," i n her mark-making book. S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that he observed his c h i l d was learning to engage i n v i s u a l and verbal dialogue through the use of the art v i s u a l s . Int. # 2 The parent observed his c h i l d was developing perceptive s k i l l s , learning about the elements of design i n a d i f f e r e n t context, as well as simple math concepts. b. Mr. Guttieres considered the accompanying art appreciation questions h e l p f u l . He stated, "I probably wouldn't know where to s t a r t . I'm glad that these questions that they sent home -- instead of us coming up with the questions that we wanted to ask out daughter. What she thinks about t h i s art appreciation. It's set up f o r us, you know. It' s l i k e a guideline where we ask our daughter what she thinks about i t , and why? What she sees i n the painting? What part of the painting i n t e r e s t s her the most? It's a good thing that we have these questions because we don't teach art appreciation to our kids by ourselves. By having these art vi s u a l s and questions, we have these quidelines. I t ' s very good. I t ' s a learning experience f o r us, as well" (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated that using the art appreciation 146 questions gave a parent a better idea as to how to proceed with the a c t i v i t y . c. Mr. Guttieres observed that he personally learned more about art and a r t i s t s by using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Charlene. He further stated, "I l i k e art myself so I l i k e to, you know, i n s t i l that i n my daughter's young mind -- that art appreciation i s very important for everyone, you know. Not just the drawing part of i t , but what you can learn from i t " (p. 6). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that he learned that his c h i l d shared his love for a r t . Int. # 2 The parent believed the experience offered him an opportunity to learn more about art and a r t i s t s . d. Mr. Guttieres observed that aside from learning about the elements of design, Charlene was given the opportunity to t a l k about the art v i s u a l from her point of view. He credited the art appreciation questions for enabling t h i s learning to occur. He stated, "It's l i k e a guideline where we ask our daughter what she thinks about i t , and why? What she sees i n the painting? What parts of the painting i n t e r e s t her the most? It' s a learning experience fo r us, as well" (p. 5). 147 S h i f t : Int. # 1 & # 2 The parent observed his c h i l d was able to v e r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y express personal feelings,perceptions, and ideas about works of a r t . He observed that the a c t i v i t i e s supported development of c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s . C. Parent's Choice of Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Guttieres chose to r e f e r to an a c t i v i t y based on the "Sea Creature" theme that combined v i s u a l awareness, one's imagination, and p i c t o r i a l production. Charlene, along with her parents, was i n v i t e d to examine the sea s h e l l i n terms of the elements of design; imagine what kind of l i t t l e creature might have l i v e d i n the sea s h e l l ; then draw a picture i n the mark-making book i n reponse to the experience. S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent recognized value of another mark-making book component. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Guttieres admitted t h i s family enjoyed doing t h i s a c t i v i t y . He stated, "By doing these a c t i v i t i e s , we had a l o t of fun. The one I'm r e f e r r i n g to i s the sea s h e l l a c t i v i t y . A f t e r drawing a l l kinds of sea s h e l l s and shapes and forms --we had fun. And, then we wound up colouring them, and painting -- painting them, a c t u a l l y " (p. 6 ) . 148 S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent associated the a c t i v i t y with spending "qu a l i t y time" with one's c h i l d . Int. # 2 The parent associated the a c t i v i t y with having fun with one's c h i l d . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y The v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y i s the one I chose because we sense that she's making v i s u a l contact with the things that she sees and f e e l s ; and, she w i l l be able to see things and draw"(p. 6) . The parent stated that he and his c h i l d found the children's l i t e r a t u r e a c t i v i t i e s to be meaningful learning experiences, as well as enjoyable. He observed his c h i l d ' s willingness to express points of view towards the d i f f e r e n t elements contained within each story. The parent observed his c h i l d was developing s k i l l s of perception by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the v i s u a l awarness a c t i v i t i e s . He also noted that the a c t i v i t y supported c h i l d ' s drawing explorations. 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between Home and School Learning Mr. Guttieres saw value i n the mark-making book experience as a communication too l between the c h i l d , the parent, and the school. He stated, "Your k i d can learn so much, and you can learn so much from your kid, and what they learned at school" (p. 3). Further on during the interview, Mr. Guttieres stated, "Actually, the mark-making book S h i f t : Int. # 1 Int. # 2 149 i s very useful because we could a c t u a l l y see our daughter's progress. You know, how she's doing i n school. It's there for us to see how much better she's getting i n terms of drawing her shapes and colouring. It's excellent (p. 6)! S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent valued the mark-making book as a communication tool i n terms of what learning occurred at school and a tangible record of h i s c h i l d ' s learning progress. Int. # 2 The parent learned i n many ways through the use of the mark-making book. 4. Most Valuable C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Mark-Making Book Mr. Guttieres found the mark-making book experience most valuable i n terms of being able to observe his daughter's learning progress, and being able to spend more time with her. He stated, "We can go back and see and look how good she's doing. And, another thing was you know, the time we spent with our daughter working with the mark-making book. You know i t gives us qu a l i t y time by doing i t " (p. 7). S h i f t : Int. # 1 Pri o r to i t s use, the parent questioned the value i n the mark-making book. Int. # 2 The parent stated that both he and his wife found value i n the mark-making book i n terms of the "quality time" spent with t h e i r c h i l d ; and, i t s value as a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l . 150 5 . Continued Use of the Mark-Making Book Mr. Guttieres recommended the mark-making book continued use at the nursery l e v e l . He stated, "Absolutely! I think i t should be continued because I think i t ' s very important that they have t h i s mark-making book. It's sort of a good s t a r t f o r kids to have t h i s . By having t h i s mark-making book i t gives them something to b u i l d on. It gives them confidence and other things l i k e being able to appreciate a r t " (p. 7). 6. Other When Mr. Guttieres was asked i f he wanted to comment on anything else i n reference to the mark-making book, he made the following commments. "Yes, actually, I'd l i k e to talk about t h i s l i t t l e poem that her teacher put i n her mark-making book. I t ' s , "Under the dark there i s a star". And, actually, by just reading t h i s poem she'd be able to imagine drawing a star. And, then i t says, "Under the s t a r there i s a tree. And, then she draws a tree under a star. And, then i t says, "Under a tree there i s a blanket. And, she a c t u a l l y drew a blanket. And, "Under a blanket there i s me. And, she a c t u a l l y d i d draw her s e l f . I think i t ' s wonderful. I was so impressed, you know, about her. By just reading t h i s poem, she a c t u a l l y v i s u a l i z e d and think that she could be able to draw these things by just imagining" (p. 7). Mr. Guttieres believed that as a re s u l t of the mark-making book, Charlene began to constantly draw whenever the opportunity arose. He 151 stated, "I'd say a month a f t e r the mark-making book was introduced to her. We're seeing more and more of her drawing -- even sometimes i n the car -- even sometimes shopping. I mean she's asking us f o r a piece of paper and a pen. When we go grocery shopping the k i d gets bored. She wants to do things instead of running around the shopping mall. She l i k e s to do things l i k e s i t around the shopping cart and then she asks you f o r a piece of paper and a pen. Then she s t a r t s drawing things. Even when we're at other people's homes, l i k e my parents' home, you know, instead of watching TV, I've noticed now she l i k e s to s i t down and draw" (p. 2). Mr. Guttieres believed the reason why she was behaving i n t h i s manner was due to, as he stated, "...because I think we encourage her a l o t . Whatever she does or whatever she draws, we always give her a p o s i t i v e , you know. We always acknowledge what she draws and we t e l l her how b e a u t i f u l i t i s , and that sort of thing. I think that's a very important thing for kids to hear, e s p e c i a l l y from her parents or from her teacher. Give her a pat on the back and say, 'You know, you're doing great.' It's very very important for kids to know that they're doing great" (p. 2). 152 4.4) Case Study #4 - The Lee family 4.4a) Family P o r t r a i t Mr. and Mrs. Lee are o r i g i n a l l y from eastern China. Both are p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained. Mr. Lee holds an undergraduate degree i n science from h i s home country, i n addition to an M.A. and a Phd i n b i o l o g i c a l science from the University of Manitoba. Presently, Mr. Lee i s a research b i o l o g i s t with Manitoba I n s t i t u t e of C e l l Biology which i s a f f i l i a t e d with the Cancer Foundation, at the Health Sciences complex, i n Winnipeg. As of September 1996, however, he w i l l be doing post doctoral work at Harvard University. Mrs Lee was a p r a c t i s i n g a r c h i t e c t i n China f o r four and a h a l f years before she immigrated to Canada. Since Mrs. Lee i s unable to practise her profession while l i v i n g i n Manitoba, she chose to work towards a computer science degree at the University of Manitoba. Mr. and Mrs. Lee were married i n China, but were temporarily separate i n 1986 when Mr. Lee was awarded a graduate scholarship.to study at the University of Manitoba. Although i t was a t r y i n g time f o r the couple, Mr. Lee stated, "It was the only way to leave China." Mrs. Lee joined him i n 1988. Several years l a t e r t h e i r only c h i l d L i n g l i n g was born. The family chose to l i v e i n t h i s neighbourhood due to the proximity of Mr. Lee's place of work, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of good q u a l i t y daycare f a c i l i t i e s , and close fri e n d s . This arrangement allows Mrs. Lee to f r e e l y continue her u n i v e r s i t y studies knowing that L i n g l i n g i s well cared f o r during the day at the daycare centre, and i f necessary, i n the evening while 153 staying with friends. The main language spoken at home and within t h e i r s o c i a l c i r c l e i s Mandarin. The Lee family adamantly believe i n maintaining t h e i r c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c heritage. 4 . 4 b ) L i n g l i n g L e e - nursery c h i l d - age f o u r L i n g l i n g was i n f u l l - t i m e attendance at a daycare centre since the age of two. This enabled her to acquire the English language before she began attending Wellington School's nursery program. At home, as with most children, L i n g l i n g watched children's programming on t e l e v i s i o n and played with toys. Mrs. Lee, however, would spend a good deal of time drawing with her, and reading to her i n both i n Mandarin and i n English before bedtime. L i n g l i n g was a very enthusiastic learner when she attended the Wellington School nursery program. She was able to adjust e a s i l y since she was fluent i n English, and was f a m i l i a r with a daycare s e t t i n g . L i n g l i n g was very attentive during circle - t i m e , and she was w i l l i n g to share her thoughts and ideas on various topics. She preferred working at the c r a f t table, painting, drawing, looking at books and playing i n the house centre. She would usually be observed chatting with her friends or comparing her work with others while drawing or painting. L i n g l i n g enjoyed working i n the mark-making book whether during free play or during mark-making book time. L i n g l i n g made sure she made at least one entry. On occasion, she would complete several pages before she put her mark-making book away. 154 4.4c) Interview # 1 - Mrs. Lee 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Lee recognized the merits of the mark-making book from the outset. She thought the mark-making book and i t ' s accompanying a c t i v i t i e s were, "a good idea", f o r both the c h i l d and the parents. Mrs. Lee stated, "I always thought that I couldn't r e a l l y help L i n g l i n g i n her learning, but t h i s i s an opportunity f o r me, now" (p. 1) . 2. Mrs. Lee believed the most valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the mark-making book was i t ' s role i n documenting her c h i l d ' s learning. She stated, "It's going to be a s t a r t for her -- to write a h i s t o r y fo r h e r s e l f " (p. !)•. 2. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? Since Mrs. Lee had more spare time, she chose to work with L i n g l i n g i n the mark-making book. Mr. Lee only occasionally p a r t i c i p a t e d i f he wasn't working lat e at the Health Sciences Complex. The mark-making book was used during the day both on Saturday and Sunday. Mrs. Lee and L i n g l i n g usually spoke Chinese as they worked i n the mark-making book. Mrs. Lee stated, "Because I come from China, I c e r t a i n l y would l i k e her to keep-up with some Chinese. I hope she can speak Chinese and English" (p. 3). Once the housework was done, Mrs. 155 Lee and L i n g l i n g would s e t t l e at the coffee table i n the l i v i n g room to work i n the mark-making book. They would spend at least 2 0-30 minutes each day. Usually, L i n g l i n g would draw independently i n the mark-making book, or with the supervision and assistance of her mother. Jenny Wong, a f r i e n d of Linging's, who also attends the Wellington School nursery program, regularly v i s i t e d with L i n g l i n g . Both the Lee and Wong families were friends and l i v e d i n the same bui l d i n g . Should Jenny come v i s i t i n g when L i n g l i n g was working i n her mark-making book, she would be i n v i t e d to get her's so they could work together. Both l i t t l e g i r l s would work side by side conversing, and comparing as they drew. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Lee enjoyed using the mark-making book with L i n g l i n g . She e s p e c i a l l y enjoyed watching the p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n between L i n g l i n g and Jenny as they both worked i n t h e i r mark-making books. She stated, "It's r e a l l y good, and they both want to be good, and they both t r i e d to show me what they did. I was r e a l l y excited. I enjoyed i t " (p. 2). 2. Mrs. Lee observed that L i n g l i n g looked forward to the times they used the mark-making book. She stated, "Also, she r e a l l y enjoys working i n i t every time. I ask her do you want to work i n your mark-making book? She gets r e a l l y excited" (p. 1). Further on, Mrs. Lee stated, "The f i r s t thing she showed me was her mark-making book, 156 and what they d i d during the week" (p. 2). 3. Mrs. Lee believed using the mark-making book with L i n g l i n g was a valuable experience for the following reasons: a. They were both able to spend q u a l i t y time together. b. She observed that L i n g l i n g was motivated to learn through i t s use. She stated, "The f i r s t thing she showed me was her mark-making book, and what they did during the week" (p.> 2) . c. Mrs Lee was pleased that L i n g l i n g was able to experience using the mark-making book. She stated, "When I was a c h i l d , I didn't f e e l that much attention was given to the development of my a r t i s t i c s k i l l s . I think i t ' s very important, so I think t h i s i s a good time for my daughter to s t a r t . I r e a l l y don't want her to miss t h i s part of her education" (p. 6). D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Lee believes the use of: the mark-making book was a valuable learning experience. She stated, "The most enjoyable was the learning experience" (p. 5). She r e c a l l e d a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y which i n v i t e d the family to go out and experience the fresh f a l l e n snow. Mrs. Lee took a camera along to photograph the experience. She stated, "During the f i r s t snow f a l l , we b u i l t her the f i r s t snowman. She r e a l l y was excited. We took a picture" (p. 2). When the family returned home, L i n g l i n g was i n v i t e d to draw a picture i n response to what she d i d outdoors. Later on, the photograph of her and the snowman was glued into her mark-making book. 2. Mrs. Lee believed using the mark-making book was a meaningful 157 learning experience f o r L i n g l i n g . She stated, "Lingling c e r t a i n l y learned such things l i k e : how to count, she recognizes colours and shapes. And, she even write some Chinese words. She l i k e s i t . I'm r e a l l y excited" (p. 3 ) . Mrs. Lee observed progress i n Lingling's way of drawing. She did, however, state the following, "I usually draw a picture and L i n g l i n g follows me. That way I think she learns. I think she learns better. If I draw everything, she finds i t too d i f f i c u l t . But, i f I draw just one l i n e by l i n e , she sees i t . She can follow me. Af t e r I'm done, she fi n i s h e s - everything. I think i t ' s a good way, also" (p. 6 ) . 2. Components of the Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Lee w i l l occasionally take the opportunity to show L i n g l i n g how to write Chinese characters. This p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t y takes on the form of Mrs. Lee using a Chinese newspaper to show L i n g l i n g how simple Chinese words are written. She w i l l then show L i n g l i n g how to write each character that represents the word. The mark-making book i s used as a means of recording Lingling's attempts at writing Chinese characters and words. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y The Lee family value t h e i r c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c heritage. Mrs 158 Lee stated, "I don't want her to miss the chance. I know some people who were born i n China -- they have a c h i l d who can't speak Chinese. I t ' s too bad" (p. 3). Both she and L i n g l i n g enjoyed doing t h i s a c t i v i t y . Mrs. Lee stated, "She's always so excited to f i n d a word that she knows." (p. 3). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Aside from learning to write Chinese characters i n her mark-making book, L i n g l i n g was also encouraged to learn how to p r i n t the English alphabet, learn how to count, and write numbers. "She's r e a l l y proud of herself. She can do i t " (p. 3) stated Mrs Lee. B. Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday, L i n g l i n g would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. She and Mrs. Lee would both look at the art v i s u a l and use the questions as a guide to t a l k about the art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y would conclude by Mrs. Lee i n v i t i n g L i n g l i n g to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Ms. Lee f e l t that the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s were worth-while teaching young children. She stated, "Yes, I c e r t a i n l y 159 think so." Mrs. Lee continued to say, "This i s a good way to t e l l a story. Children are always interested i n a story" (p. 4). b. Mrs. Lee f e l t that the most enjoyable aspect of the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s was how e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y L i n g l i n g responded to each art v i s u a l . She referred to Ted Harrison's painting e n t i t l e d , "Sled of Dreams". Mrs Lee stated, "Yes, she c e r t a i n l y saw the animals -- the dogs, the birds, and the moon -- she was excited. L i n g l i n g always l i k e d the animals and things l i k e that" (p. 5). c. Mrs. Lee admitted that the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s were challenging from the outset. She stated, "Well, i t c e r t a i n l y i s not very easy at the beginning, but during the process of t h i s mark-making book, she learned how to concentrate and how to d i s c i p l i n e h e r s e l f --now, that's the st a r t of education." If she goes to school, she c e r t a i n l y has to concentrate, to s i t down, to be able to learn" (p. 5) . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t i e s a. Mrs. Lee believed that using the mark-making book with the accompanying coloured art v i s u a l s was a good way to teach L i n g l i n g about art appreciation. She observed that each art v i s u a l was a good q u a l i t y reproduction and the images were age appropriate. She stated, "Because the drawings that the a r t i s t s have made are of best q u a l i t y . Also t h i s picture shows the age of my c h i l d " (p. 4). b. Aside from the fact that Mrs. Lee found the accompanying art 160 appreciation questions h e l p f u l , she had ho further comments to make. c. Mrs. Lee believed that the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s were a meaningful learning experience. Mrs. Lee stated, "Just l i k e L i n g l i n g , I learned how to appreciate the colours, and the a c t i v i t y i n the pi c t u r e -- i t made me think, and f e e l something" (p. 5). d. Mrs. Lee observed that the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s provided meaningful learning experiences for L i n g l i n g . She referred to Ted Harrison's painting e n t i t l e d , "Sled of Dreams", when she stated that L i n g l i n g learned to, "appreciate the colours, and the a c t i v i t y i n the p i c t u r e " (p. 5). Mrs. Lee also observed that L i n g l i n g enjoyed sharing her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what was happening i n the art v i s u a l . Mrs. Lee continued to say, "She c e r t a i n l y was excited. She l i k e d the snow. She could describe the sky" (p. 5). She can t e l l me everything. She can t e l l me the story about i t " (p. 4). Lingling's f e e l i n g s , perceptions, and ideas towards the theme of the art v i s u a l were r e f l e c t e d i n the drawing she drew i n her mark-making book. C. Parent's Choice of Component 1. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs Lee found value i n a l l four mark-making components. She had no s p e c i f i c preference. Mrs. Lee observed that both she and L i n g l i n g were presented with d i f f e r e n t learning experiences while using each one. Mrs. Lee stated, "One i s not enough. Each of the four components presents a d i f f e r e n t way of teaching children" (p. 6). 161 2. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mrs. Lee recognizes the mark-making book as an excellent communication too l between home and school. She admits, "Yes, i t c e r t a i n l y i s a reminder f o r me, and I think f o r L i n g l i n g and for her teacher. Every time I saw the mark-making book, I appreciated what she had done and how she has developed. Also, I r e a l l y want to make things better. I want her teacher also to know that parents are helping t h e i r c h i l d r e n " (p. 6 ) . 3. Other On several occasions Mrs. Lee has shown the mark-making book to friends who also have young children i n other nursery programs. They were impressed with the idea, but on the other hand, were disappointed that they and t h e i r children haven't been able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n such an meaningful learning experience. The t i t l e , "Mark-Making Book", was appealing to Mrs. Lee. She stated, "I think that i t ' s a be a u t i f u l name" (p. 1). 4.4d) Interview # 2 - Mrs. L e e 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book Mrs. Lee continued to believe the concept of the mark-making book was "a good idea". She did, however, admit that she needed to 162 experience using the mark-making book to appreciate i t ' s value. She stated, "At the beginning, I was not very sure what we were going to do or what we were going to learn. Now, during t h i s time, the more we use i t the more we l i k e i t " (p. 1). S h i f t : No s h i f t i n attitude occurred during the f i r s t and second interviews. Int. # 1 The parent stated the mark-making book concept was a "good idea". Int. # 2 The parent stated that the extended use of the mark-making book reinforced the notion that i t would be a valuable learning experience. B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? The use of the mark-making book became a routine f o r both Mrs. Lee and L i n g l i n g . Mrs. Lee continued to accompany her daughter with the use of the mark-making book during Saturday or Sunday f o r at least 30 minutes. Ling Ling s t i l l preferred to work at the coffee table i n the living-room. On occassion, Mrs. Lee would i n v i t e Jenny to come and j o i n L i n g l i n g since both children enjoy each other's company while they work i n t h e i r mark-making books. The use of the mark-making book, however, did become a shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the both the Lee and Wong fa m i l i e s . Since Mr. Lee works late hours, and at times Mrs Lee needs to study, she was pleased that the Wong family was w i l l i n g to include L i n g l i n g when they are working with Jenny i n the 163 mark-making book. Both families have been close friends f o r quite some time so t h i s was a pleasurable arrangement. S h i f t : Int. # 2 Both the Lee and the Wong families began sharing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of using the mark-making book with each other's children. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Lee enjoyed using the mark-making book with L i n g l i n g . She stated, "Yes, I enjoyed i t . That's the time I can share with my daughter and learn with my daughter. It brings us closer together. Sometime I was so busy, but I always make time for that" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated she enjoyed observing the p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n between her c h i l d and a v i s i t i n g f r i e n d as they both used t h e i r mark-making books. Int. # 2 The parent observed using the mark-making book supported parent-child bonding. 2. Mrs. Lee believed that L i n g l i n g enjoyed using the mark-making book. She stated, "Yes, I think so. Just l i k e me, she wants the weekend to come. It's become l i k e a schedule. Every weekend she had to do the work, and she also enjoyed being with me to do the job" (p. 2). 164 S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed her c h i l d enjoyed showing what was done i n the mark-making book at school. The c h i l d enjoyed using the mark-making book. Parent observed her c h i l d enjoyed the attention received for the work done i n the mark-making book. Int. # 2 The parent stated her c h i l d looked forward to using the mark-making book. 3. Mrs. Lee believed that i t was a valuable experience f o r her and her c h i l d . She stated, "When we both work together, we are both laughing and learning at the same time" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed the mark-making book supported spending q u a l i t y time with one's c h i l d . Her c h i l d was motivated to use the mark-making book. Int. # 2 The parent observed that using the mark-making book was a pleasurable and meaningful learning experience f o r both her and her c h i l d . She regretted not experiencing such learning. D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Lee believed she personally learned from the a c t i v i t y sheets that were sent home every Friday. She stated, "I think they were very h e l p f u l . As a student most of the times I was busy. I don't have much time to think, but i f I have a hand out l i k e that I would be able to s i t down and think, and also learn. By a c t u a l l y teaching my daughter. I've improved my teaching s k i l l s . I a c t u a l l y think t h i s was 165 a worthwhile experience." She continued to say, "I r e a l i z e d that there are other ways to teach my daughter. Sometimes I think i t ' s better t h i s way for her age" (p. 2). Mrs. Lee continued to say, "I enjoyed seeing her learn many things from counting, reading, learning new words, using her imagination, drawing -- everything. I can see she's improving" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent learned that the simplest of a c t i v i t i e s such as family outings could evolve into meaningful learning experiences. Int. # 2 The parent discovered new ways to engage her c h i l d i n learning. Her c h i l d was learning more than she had anticipated. 2. Mrs. Lee believed using the mark-making book was a meaningful learning experience for L i n g l i n g . She stated, "She's has improved a l o t . B a s i c a l l y , she learned how to count. She can count from 1 to maybe almost 100. It's a big improvement. Before she went to school she not be able to do that. Also her writing s k i l l -- i t ' s much better. She can c e r t a i n l y write things she wants. A l l the c a p i t a l s she can write. She can already write everybody's name. She also learn to appreciate the a r t i s t ' s picture. She learned how to appreciate the art by v i s u a l i z i n g i t . She can put i t into her imagination. She can almost put i t i n her picture. Mrs. Lee continued to say, "Her drawing s k i l l s have c e r t a i n l y improved. I was r e a l l y surprised. I never thought she 166 had t h i s kind of s k i l l s . I thought drawing a picture maybe a challenge f o r her, but now I r e a l i z e for her age i t ' s important f o r her to imagine things, to v i s u a l i z e things and why the best learning i s through drawing -- not l i k e when we're older where we learn math --too abstract -- We can express ourselves by writing things l i k e a diary, but c e r t a i n l y at her age she can write a pi c t u r e -- she can express h e r s e l f " (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed the mark-making book supported her ch i l d ' s learning of simple math concepts, elements of design, writing Chinese characters, and ways of drawing. Her c h i l d responded to p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n , and through shared and guided ways of knowing. Int. # 2 The parent observed the mark-making book supported ways of learning about l e t t e r s and words. Her c h i l d ' s personal development was enriched by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . Drawing i n the mark-making book allowed her c h i l d to engage i n active inquiry enabling her to confidently express personal feel i n g s , perceptions, and ideas. 2. Components of Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y 1. Mrs. Lee addressed the issue of parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n terms of what she had previously done with L i n g l i n g i n comparison and the new learning experiences she was i n v i t e d to do through the use of the mark-making book. As Mrs. Lee used the mark-making book 167 a c t i v i t i e s , she was able to come up with her own ideas when i t came to thinking of parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "I've always read books to my daughter. I thought that's the way for her to learn things. But by doing the a c t i v i t i e s , the v i s u a l i z a t i o n , and asking my daughter questions, I r e a l i z e there are other ways to teach her. Also, i t ' s better. Sometime I think i t ' s a better way f o r her age because when asking questions she's always interested. By reading sometimes, she doesn't seem interested" (p. 2). Mrs. Lee s p e c i f i c a l l y found v i s u a l awareness a change. She stated, "I think so" (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent came to value new ways of teaching as a re s u l t of using the mark-making book and accompanying a c t i v i t i e s . Parent observed that use of the mark-making book supported the family's l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l heritage. Int. # 2 The parent explained that she experienced the value of other ways of learning. B. Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday, L i n g l i n g would bring home the mark-making book that included an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. She and Mrs. Lee would both look at and t a l k about the art v i s u a l using the questions as a guide to t a l k about the art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y concluded by Mrs. Lee i n v i t i n g 168 L i n g l i n g to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Lee believed that i t was worthwhile teaching art appreciation to children at such a young age. She stated, I t's never too earl y to learn about art appreciation. It's l i k e v i s u a l i z a t i o n . No d i f f e r e n t . Mrs. Lee was re f e r i n g to Matisse's painting e n t i t l e d , "Goldfish", when she stated, "They a l l l i k e d the picture of the f i s h . They enjoyed the colour, the shape of the f i s h , the story about the f i s h . It's a very good way to learn about t h i s " (p- 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed that the art v i s u a l s were a means of springboarding into o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g . Int. # 2 Art vi s u a l s motivated her c h i l d to engage i n v i s u a l and verbal diologue. b. Mrs. Lee found doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s very enjoyable. She once again referred to Matisse's painting e n t i t l e d , "Goldfish", when she stated, "After we talked about and appreciated t h i s picture, I asked my daughter to draw something. She drew a tank but the f i s h was above i t i n mid a i r , not i n the water. I asked, "Why?". She said, "The f i s h wanted to get out of the water and wanted to stay outside. She has a very good imagination. She thought the f i s h 169 was a b i r d -- i t had wings" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent enjoyed observing her c h i l d ' s enthusiasum as they both p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . Int. # 2 The parent enjoyed observing how her c h i l d used ways of problem-solving through drawing to express her imagination. c. Mrs. Lee didn't f i n d anything challenging about t h i s a c t i v i t y . She stated, "No, not r e a l l y . We enjoyed i t and she enjoyed i t most of the time. However, she continued to say, "One time there was an art v i s u a l that she had d i f f i c u l t y i n t e r p r e t i n g what i t was. I t was a painting by Vincent Van Gogh, e n t i t l e d , "Starry Night". It was probably too abstract for her to understand. When I asked her questions about i t , she answered i n an absolutely d i f f e r e n t way than I thought." Mrs. Lee continued to say, "I t r i e d to teach her how to enjoy t h i s p i c ture. I t r i e d to show her the wind, but she had d i f f i c u l t y seeing i t . But you can f e e l the wind i n the picture, j u s t by the way you f e e l . She had d i f f i c u l t putting i t into her works" (p. 5). However, Mrs. Lee i n her own way was able to eventually explain the concept to L i n g l i n g . She stated that, "Yes, she started f e e l i n g something. So the next time she sees a picture, she can t a l k about what she sees and how she fe e l s about i t " (p. 5). 170 S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent, i n i t i a l l y , found the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging due to her c h i l d ' s inattentive behaviour. The parent observed, however, as time passed, that the c h i l d learned to become more attentive. Int. # 2 The parent was also confronted with problem solving s i t u a t i o n s when attempting to engage i n v i s u a l and verbal dialogue with her c h i l d . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Lee believed that including the art v i s u a l s i n the mark-making book was a good way to teach art appreciation. She stated, "Yes, i t i s . I think i t ' s a good idea to.glue on the page because most of the time she goes back to look at i t . Every time she w i l l learn something d i f f e r e n t . It i s good. If i t ' s taken away, y o u ' l l forget. Because i t ' s glued into the mark-making book, you can ref r e s h your memory and learn things" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent noted that the art v i s u a l s were of good quality, and were age-appropriate for her c h i l d . Int. # 2 The parent observed that her c h i l d would independently turn to the art v i s u a l s glued i n the mark-making book, and would then r e f l e c t on the learning experience. b. Mrs. Lee believed that the art appreciation questions were use f u l . She stated, "Yes, they're h e l p f u l . The questions are 171 u s u a l l y the ones I would have asked. She continued by saying, "Sometime maybe I'd ask her, 'What do you think? What did you learn? What do you know?' She probably can't imagine more than that" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated she became empowered to ask questions of her own design. c. Mrs. Lee stated, "I r e a l i z e d that i f I'm able to explain i t i n some way, s h e ' l l be able to understand. She continued by saying, "You always have a d i f f e r e n t approach. In t h i s way I learned how to teach" (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent developed more of an i n t e r e s t i n art as she engaging i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with her c h i l d . Parent independently explored various teaching strategies to enable her c h i l d to benefit from the learning experience. d. Mrs. Lee believed that L i n g l i n g experienced meaningful learning while p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "Lots! Like what kind of colours, how many d i f f e r e n t colours, and shapes. How to use colour i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Through the art v i s u a l s she also learned to express her f e e l i n g s . She was able to f e e l 172 something about the picture" (p. 5). The a c t i v i t y concluded with L i n g l i n g drawing a picture i n response to the theme of the art v i s u a l . S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed her c h i l d v e r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y express personal feelings, perceptions, and ideas about the works of a r t . She also observed that the use of art v i s u a l s supported learning about elements of design; and were a means of springboarding into o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g . Int. # 2 The parent noted growth i n terms of her c h i l d ' s ways of learning as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the use of a r t appreciation v i s u a l s . C. Parent's Choice of Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Lee chose to t a l k about a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y that both she and L i n g l i n g i n i t i a t e d . Mrs. Lee stated, "Helen brought home a yellow flower (a d a f f o d i l from school). She r e a l l y enjoyed the colour -- the shape" (p. 6). Mrs. Lee encouraged and supported L i n g l i n g through the whole experience. She stated, "Everyday she watered i t to help i t survive. She said her teacher t o l d her so. She even drew a picture of i t because she knew that some day the flower would die and she would not be able to see i t " (p. 6). 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Lee believed t h i s experience they both shared was very 173 s p e c i a l . She thought the picture L i n g l i n g drew was, i n her words, "a b e a u t i f u l p i c t u r e . " . However, she stated, "One day the flower died. She was so sad. Li n g l i n g said, "I watered the flower everyday. What happened" (p. 6)? Mrs. Lee believes the flower w i l l always i n Lingling's memory because i t had been drawn. S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent came to value drawing as a sp e c i a l way of making meaning. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y L i n g l i n g was learning the value of drawing i n terms of recording the s p e c i a l moments that occured her l i f e . Mrs. Lee stated, "I had to explain to her what happened. By that she learned that plants die" (p. 6). Mrs Lee believes the flower w i l l always be i n Lingling's memory because i t had been drawn i n the mark-making book. S h i f t : Int. # 2 Both parent and c h i l d learned about the multidimensional nature of drawing. 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mrs. Lee stated, "It's very important to know what my daughter i s learning i n school. That's a good way to f i n d out. I look to see what she d i d i n school. I r e a l i z e what she learned; I r e a l i z e what I should 174 teach her at home. I think that by doing the teaching at home w i l l maybe encourage the teacher at school to r e a l i z e that the parents also want t h e i r c h i l d to get a good education." (p. 6 ) . S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent supported the notion that the mark-making book was a valuable communication too l l i n k i n g school and home learning. Int. #2 The parent stated she was more enthusiastic about the notion of the mark-making book l i n k i n g home and school learning since she had used i t over an extended period of time. 4 . Most Valuable C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Mark-Making Book Mrs. Lee stated, "I think i t ' s valuable by helping my daughter to achieve school work. A l l the e f f o r t can have good r e s u l t s . I saw my daughter's p o t e n t i a l . It r e a l l y encouraged me to teach my daughter, and encouraged her to learn i n the future" (p. 6) . S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent stated she anticipated that the most valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the mark-making book was i t s r o l e i n documenting her ch i l d ' s learning development. Int. #2 The parent i d e n t i f i e d several valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the mark-making book. They were as follows: i t supported her ch i l d ' s learning development; she observed her ch i l d ' s learning p o t e n t i a l ; the experience taught her the value of teaching one's c h i l d ; i t made her a better teacher. 175 5. Continued Use of the Mark-Making Book Mrs. Lee defines the mark-making book as an e f f i c i e n t way to support a c h i l d ' s learning, and i s developmentally appropriate f o r t h i s age. Mrs. Lee stated, "I would l i k e to recommend to a l l the school that t h i s i s a r e a l l y good way for the nursery age c h i l d . It's a wonderful way to learn. Also, I think i t ' s an e f f i c i e n t way because the c h i l d ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are suitable f o r i t " (p. 7). 6. Other Mrs. Lee stated, "I r e a l l y appreciate the e f f o r t the teacher has shown by teaching nursery age children. It's very d i f f i c u l t . These c h i l d r e n haven't gone to school before, and have had known no d i s c i p l i n e . But, t h i s program i s very good, e s p e c i a l l y the mark-making book. It's just l i k e a milestone for a c h i l d t h i s age. I think my daughter w i l l always keep t h i s mark-making book as a reminder, as a memory for both of us" (p. 7). 4.5) Case Study # 5 4.5a) Family P o r t r a i t - The Reyes Family Mr. and Mrs. Reyes are both from d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l and c u l t u r a l backgrounds. Mrs. Reyes i s Canadian born of E n g l i s h - I r i s h parentage. She completed grade 12 at a l o c a l high school and chose to attended college where she studied two years of business accounting. Mrs. Reyes 176 furthers her education by taking evening taxation courses. In the spring she works evenings with a l o c a l taxation firm processing taxation returns. During the day Mrs Reyes stays home and cares f o r t h e i r two young children: Bobby, age 4, and Cathy, age 3. Mr. Reyes i s f i r s t generation Canadian of F i l i p i n o decent. He and his older brother immigrated from the Philippines to Canada with his grand parents 10 years ago. Mr. Reyes completed grade 10 at a l o c a l Winnipeg high school, and i s currently working as a welder's apprentice. Mr. and Mrs. Reyes belong to very supportive f a m i l i e s . Both sets of grandparents care for the children when necessary. Once the couple married, Mrs Reyes' grandmother offered them her home at a reasonable rent. This arrangement worked out well since the rent was manageable; the home i s close to where Mr. Reyes' parents l i v e ; and Mrs. Reyes' can walk the chi l d r e n to school. 4.5b) Bobby Reyes - nursery c h i l d - age four Bobby was accustomed to staying at home with his mother and younger s i s t e r before he began attending Wellington School's nursery program. Both children would be read to on a regular basis, and taken on family outings such as v i s i t s to the zoo. During the day they were allowed to watch children's programming on t e l e v i s i o n or Disney movies, use colouring books, and to play with toys. Mrs. Reyes parents introduced Bobby to pen and paper. There was no s p e c i f i c emphasis placed on drawing or p r i n t i n g . Bobby was l e f t alone to do as he 177 pleased. Bobby was an eager and w i l l i n g l i t t l e "student" when he f i r s t s t a rted Wellington School's nursery program i n the f a l l . He took t h i s r o l e very seriously, and on occasion would caution other c h i l d r e n on t h e i r behaviour while at play. Bobby enjoyed a l l aspects of the nursery program. He was an attentive l i s t e n e r during c i r c l e time, and d e f i n i t e l y expressed his opinion when asked. Bobby's choice a c t i v i t i e s included sand and water play, story time, constructing at the c r a f t table, and playing with toys. Although his drawing s k i l l s were undeveloped, Bobby s t i l l enjoyed the act of drawing. He never chose to used the mark-making book during free play, but he d i d w i l l i n g l y p a r t i c i p a t e during mark-making book time. On several occasions he i n s i s t e d on completing his picture before he would consider going home. 4 . 5 c ) Interview # 1 - Mrs. Reyes 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book 1. When Mrs. Reyes was f i r s t introduced to the mark-making book concept during the f i r s t parent-teacher interviews i n September, she was not impressed with the idea. She stated, "I thought i t was just a bi g colouring book" (p. 1). 2. Mrs. Reyes would not at t r i b u t e any value to the use of the 178 mark-making book. She stated "I didn't see any point to i t " (p. 1). S h i f t : The parent's attitude towards using the mark-making book eventually changed as a r e s u l t of regularly using i t with her c h i l d on weekends, and observing the drawings he did during school hours. From her point of view, the parent noticed impressive changes i n her c h i l d ' s learning development. The mark-making book became a meaningful too l f o r h i s self-expression. He became more confident i n his drawing a b i l i t y ; his perceptive s k i l l s developed; and he became more expressive with h i s speech -- a l l of which she attributed to the use of the mark-making book. The parent r e a l i s e d that she was having fun as well as learning along with her c h i l d . B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? Mrs. Reyes and Bobby usually worked i n the mark-making book on Saturdays and Sundays. I n i t i a l l y , i t was an e f f o r t to use the mark-making book on a regular basis. At the beginning of the year, Mrs. Reyes worked on Sundays which li m i t e d the amount of time that she could spend with Bobby. The family f i n a l l y agreed to use the mark-making book between 12:00 - 3:00 p.m., Sunday afternoon. The favourite work space f o r Bobby was the kitchen table. As the year progressed, however, an additional overhead l i g h t was provided to help him with his work. At one point, Bobby i n s i s t e d that his parents buy him an "art table". Bobby took a keen interest i n the actual wording of the accompanying mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . He would a t t e n t i v e l y l i s t e n to Mrs. Reyes read the a c t i v i t y sheet word for word. Bobby didn't want to miss any d e t a i l s . When i t came time to a c t u a l l y draw; however, he would ask his mother to do i t . To avoid doing the drawing f o r him, 179 Mrs. Reyes would v e r b a l l y coax him into drawing by himself. This approach helped him gain enough self-confidence to eventually s t a r t drawing on his own. Mrs. Reyes observed that Bobby constantly chattered as he drew. When he fi n i s h e d the a c t i v i t y , Bobby would take h i s time putting away hi s crayons. His mother described t h i s as a s t a l l i n g t a c t i c to avoid clo s i n g the mark-making book. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs Reyes enjoyed spending time with Bobby. She stated that i t was, "more of a pleasure than a job" (p. 2). 2. Mrs. Reyes observed that Bobby enjoyed using the mark-making book based on the behaviour he displayed as soon as he got home from school. She stated, "Well, the f i r s t thing that my son did when he had i t was he showed me the picture that he had drawn which was almost the f i r s t time he had shown inte r e s t i n free form drawing at a l l . Before he would say, 'I can't do i t cause there i s no picture to draw. I can't do i t . ' So u n t i l he started school, he hadn't been drawing at a l l . He'd just say, 'You draw i t , and I ' l l colour i t ' (p. 1). Mrs. Reyes continued to say, "As soon as he finds out what the assignment i s , he t r i e s to figure out a way to convince me to do i t at that minute. No matter what else i s going on, he wants to get his crayons out and do i t " (p. 2). When i t was time to put the mark-making book away, Mrs. Reyes observed that he took his time. She stated, "When the a c t i v i t y ' s 180 f i n i s h e d , he spends about half an hour putting h i s crayons away, cause he's t r y i n g to make i t long, I think. Because i f he keep just one crayon out, h e ' l l f i n d just one more spot on that page to draw something. But, once he's got the corners f i l l e d cause he puts one i n each corner. Once he's got those f i l l e d there's no more room. He doesn't want anything to overlap" (p. 2). 3. Mrs. Reyes believed that using the mark-making book was a valuable experience fo r both her and Bobby. She stated, "Yes. What he does i n school matters to me. I want to know day by day. He doesn't r e a l l y t e l l me what goes on. H e ' l l say, "Oh, we played, we cleaned-up, we l i s t e n e d to a story. Oh, Yeah! and we had snack." And, that's about i t . " By looking through the mark-making book with Bobby, Mrs. Reyes was able to observe h i s learning progress almost d a i l y . She stated, "There's a picture there, and I can ask him about the p i c t u r e . And he says, "Oh, i t s t h i s or i t s that, and t h i s i s why we d i d i t . " He's very proud of his stars on the front" (p. 3). D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Reyes believed that using the mark-making book was a meaningful learning experience fo r herself, as well. She stated, "I learned a l o t of s t u f f that was l e f t out when I was younger. Like, when I went into nursery school, the teacher I had was not exactly a nursery school teacher. He was doing nursery, kindergarten and grade 1, a l l at the same time. So i t was kind of chaotic, and there wasn't 18 any i n d i v i d u a l attention. And, I think t h i s book guarantees i t , because i f the parent i s not there f o r the c h i l d then who w i l l be" (p. 3)? 2. Mrs. Reyes believed that through the use of the mark-making book, Bobby was exposed to many learning experiences. She stated, "Most important, he learned that he can have time by himself with one of us when the mark-making book i s used -- q u a l i t y time. And, of course, he learned how to write his name" (p. 3). Mrs. Reyes went on to r e c a l l one occasion which involved doing a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y on the theme, " F a l l time i n the Garden". She stated, "In the f a l l when he was out c o l l e c t i n g leaves, we went out as a family. It was not just me and my husband and my daughter. There was also my parents and grandmother. So, we a l l went out together, and he was having a b a l l ! He'd bring one leaf to me, and say, "Is t h i s a good one? Is t h i s a good one? So he learned about texture and colour and a l l other kinds of things. When he went home, he drew a tree i n h i s mark-making book. By the way, he can count, now. Anyway, he was drawing a tree and drawing straight l i k e across the page, and he said, "one, two, three, four, f i v e , six, seven, eight, nine, ten" (p. 3). Mrs. Reyes also observed that his drawing a b i l i t y improved. She stated, "He's a l o t better than he was. He w i l l t r y and draw i t . If he, i f he sees a picture, that he l i k e , or i f he thinks of a picture that he l i k e s , then he w i l l t r y to draw i t . Rather than say, "Well, I haven't done i t before, therefore, I can't. Which was how he was when 182 he started 1 1 (p. 3) . 2. Components of the Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated A c t i v i t i e s 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y The p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t y that Mrs. Reyes did with Bobby was a continuation of a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y that was done at school. Mrs. Reyes stated, "One day we took a bunch of snow --he had done that at school, too. We just took a bunch of snow, put i t i n a cup and he just sat i n the kitchen watching i t melt" (p. 4). 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Reyes enjoyed l i s t e n i n g to Bobby, and observing his response as he watched the snow melt i n the cup. She stated, "His comments were a r i o t . He would say, 'Well, i t ' s s t i l l there, but i t ' s not snow, any more.' Then he would look again and say, v0h, snow water!' She continued to stated, "He was so surprised when the melted snow became water" (p. 4). Then Mrs Reyes observed Bobby s t i r r i n g the contents of the cup, stopping and looking inside. He repeated t h i s behaviour f o r at l e a s t a minute when f i n a l l y Mrs. Reyes asked Bobby, "What are you playing with?" And, his reply was, "snow l e f t - o v e r s " . Then he proceeded to pour i t into the sink, and said, "Wash the cup. Let's do i t again" (p. 4). 183 3 . Learning Through the Activ ity Mrs. Reye 1s stated, "He was discovering learning on his own, and then t e l l i n g me about i t " (p. 4). She then stated that Bobby responded to the experience by drawing i n his mark-making book, "He keeps t r y i n g to draw snow i n the mark-making book, but he refuses to t r y any other colour but white. So i t ' s on the bottom of the page, but you just can't see i t -- i t ' s white on white" (p. 4 ). B. Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the Act iv ity Every second Friday, Bobby would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. He and Mrs.Reyes would both look at the art v i s u a l and use the questions as a guide to t a l k about the art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y concluded with Mrs. Reyes i n v i t i n g Bobby to draw a picture i n response to the theme. 2. Value of the Act iv ity a. Mrs. Reyes believed i t was worthwhile teaching art appreciation to young children. She stated, " D e f i n i t e l y , i f I had had that when I was growing up, I think that I would be more aware of the pictures around me. And as I said before, i t was crowded and we didn't get much of anything. They just put you at an easel and didn't give you any ideas on what to do, how to do i t . They gave you two colours 184 of paint and said, "Go to i t " (p. 5). b. Mrs. Reyes enjoyed observing the emotional connection Bobby made with c e r t a i n art v i s u a l s . She r e c a l l e d one occasion which involved a Pablo Picasso art v i s u a l , e n t i t l e d , "Mother and C h i l d . " Mrs. Reyes stated, "The Picasso -- that was the one that moved him the most. He said, "It was a mommy and an baby and they were cuddling before bedtime." And, he was showing me the ha i r and the l i n e s on her arm. She continued by saying, "For me, i t gave a s u r p r i s i n g indepth look at my son. He's ta l k a t i v e , but he doesn't r e a l l y express himself r e a l l y good, yet. But, the fact that he connected i t as a mother and a baby rather than j u s t two people, showed me that he's thinking about babies constantly. It also shows me that he i s aware of the bond, rather than j u s t someone you l i v e with -- that type of a thing" (p. 6). c. Mrs. Reyes didn't f i n d these a c t i v i t i e s challenging; however, as with the other a c t i v i t i e s , at f i r s t i t was d i f f i c u l t co-ordinating her work schedule with working i n the mark-making book. She stated, "Finding time i n the f i r s t three weeks. It was coming home at 11:30 on a Sunday night and finding Bobby s t i l l awake. I hadn't had time to work with him over the weekend so I b a s i c a l l y said, "It's time to do your homework." He didn't mind at a l l because he didn't want to go to bed" (p. 6). 18 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t i e s a. Mrs. Reyes believed that attaching an art v i s u a l i n the mark-making book was a good idea. She stated, "With the book, he has the picture right i n from of him, and he can look back at i t . He s t i l l looks back at the f i r s t art v i s u a l . But, i f you show s l i d e s or something l i k e that, they'd be gone and he'd never see i t again" (p.5). b. Mrs. Reyes found the accompanying art appreciation questions h e l p f u l since she had never done these types of a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "I found them a great help" (p. 5). c. Mrs. Reyes believed p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with her son enabled her to learn various teaching s t r a t e g i e s . She stated, "I learned that there are a l o t of d i f f e r e n t ways rather than the obvious to teach. There are a l o t more subtle ways where they don't r e a l i z e that they are learning" (p. 6). d. Mrs. Reyes observed Bobby counting the images he saw i n each v i s u a l . She stated, "the trees i n the f a l l time art v i s u a l , or the dogs i n the winter one. We t r i e d to get him away from counting snowflakes -- but he s t i l l wanted to t r y " (p. 6). He also became more expressive i n the use of language and i n his s t o r y t e l l i n g . Aside from saying nice picture, or happy picture, Bobby would create h i s own story based on what he saw i n the art v i s u a l . Mrs. Reyes stated, "One of the things he said about Picasso was the baby just had a bath" (p. 7). When she asked him how he could t e l l ? Bobby stated, "Because 186 mommy's cuddling him. He's a l l nice and clean" (p. 7). Bobby then turned to the mark-making book to draw his thoughts on the theme. C . P a r e n t s ' C h o i c e A c t i v i t i e s 1. N a t u r e o f t h e A c t i v i t y Mrs. Reyes preferred doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Bobby. She and Bobby would look at and t a l k about the art v i s u a l that was glued into i n the mark-making book i n terms of the accompanying art appreciation questions. Then Bobby would be i n v i t e d to draw a picture i n the mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2. V a l u e o f t h e A c t i v i t y Mrs. Reyes enjoyed doing these a c t i v i t i e s , because as she stated, "I think the art appreciation was a big, big, influence f o r my son" (p. 7). 3. L e a r n i n g T h r o u g h t h e A c t i v i t y Through the use of the mark-making book, Mrs. Reyes observed that Bobby was shown that he could do several things. She stated, "It showed him that he could draw. It showed him counting, s t u f f l i k e that. He i s beginning to pick colours. E s p e c i a l l y with the, "Sled of Dreams", art v i s u a l . (Mrs. Reyes referred to the art v i s u a l i n the mark-making book.) We d i d a l o t with that one, getting him to count the birds and the dogs. We talked about how cold i t must be because 187 they were outside i n the snow" (p. 7.). 3. The Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning. Mrs. Reyes valued the mark-making book as a useful means of l i n k i n g school and home learning. She stated, "Aside from saying, "Oh, we played, we cleaned, we listened, to a story." Bobby didn't discuss at any length what went on at school" (p. 3.) . She observed that he didn't bring many paintings or drawings home, so Mrs. Reyes found the mark-making book an invaluable means of documenting her son's learning both at school and at home. With the help of the mark-making book, she was able to keep track of her son's progress on a regular basis instead of waiting u n t i l parent-teacher interviews. Mrs. Reyes stated, "If the book wasn't there I'd be t a l k i n g to you l i k e every second day, b a s i c a l l y asking, 'What did he do yesterday because he won't t e l l me?', I'm not one of those parents who say, 'Oh, go to school son and have fun!', then assume that he's learning something" (p. 8). 4. Other Mrs. Reyes made no further comments. 188 4.5d) Interview # 2 - Mrs. Reyes 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Response to the mark-making book's use over an extended period of time Mrs. Reyes stated, "I'm thoroughly impressed with i t because i t has made him develop fa s t e r than I thought he would. He i s t o t a l l y enthusiastic about i t " (p. 1). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that her i n i t i a l negative at t i t u d e towards the mark-making book changed within a b r i e f period of time. Once she became accustomed to i t s use, she r e a l i z e d i t s value as a pleasurable and meaningful learning experience. Int. #2 The parent's respect f o r the mark-making book concept was further reinforce as she observed the progress i n her c h i l d ' s learning development through i t s use. B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? Mrs. Reyes found that using the mark-making book every weekend became a routine. Both she and Bobby work at the kitchen table between 20 minutes to an hour. The kitchen table i s Bobby's favourite spot since as Mrs Reyes stated, "We've got a specia l l i g h t put up above the kitchen table so i t l i g h t s up the whole table. He l i k e s that because i t creates shadows when he's drawing" (p. 2). 189 S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent observed that the use of the mark-making book became a regular routine. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Reyes found using the mark-making book enjoyable. She stated, "That's our time, just the two of us. So, once we s i t down we're i n our own l i t t l e world. I r e a l l y don't know how else to put i t . It' s just us" (p. 2)! S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed the use of the mark-making book was a pleasurable experience. Int. # 2 The parent stated she valued the "quality time" spent with her c h i l d . 2. Mrs. Reyes was convinced Bobby enjoyed using the mark-making. She stated, "I'd say by the amount of, for want of a better word, "Nagging", that I get from the time he gets home Friday morning, u n t i l the time we get around to using i t , I'd say, "Yes" (p. 2)! S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed that her c h i l d enjoyed showing and ta l k i n g about the work done i n the mark-making book; and the attention received f o r the work done i n the mark-making book; looked forward to using the mark-making book; and enjoyed working i n the mark-making book. 190 Int. # 2 The parent r e i t e r a t e d that her c h i l d looked forward to using the mark-making book. 3. Mrs. Reyes believed using the mark-making book a very valuable experience. She stated, "Yes, I'd say i t was very valuable because i t showed me a l o t of the s t u f f he should be learning and I'm not teaching him" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent valued the mark-making book as a means of communicating what her c h i l d was learning at school; and i t supported parent-child communication. Int. # 2 The use of the mark-making book showed the parent the value of parental involvement i n a c h i l d ' s learning development. D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book. 1. Mrs. Reyes stated, "Personally, I think I learned that there i s a l o t more developing going on at t h i s age. There's a l o t more than they show on Sesame Street. A l l they do i s the numbers and a l l that. With the mark-making book, I can t e l l that he's a c t u a l l y thinking f o r himself -- what he wants to draw. And, he's not doing i t because he has to, but because he wants to" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent learned that the mark-making book supported the notion of parental involvment. 191 Int. # 2 The parent r e a l i z e d that she underestimated her c h i l d ' s learning p o t e n t i a l . 2. Mrs. Reyes believed that each of the four mark-making components offered Bobby a v a r i e t y of learning experiences. She stated, "I think he learned that there i s more than one way to look at things. He learned to look at things more c l o s e l y . The books that are sent home -- the s t o r i e s are a l l d i f f e r e n t . He learned to appreciate a r t by being exposed to i t . I, myself, was never exposed to art, not u n t i l I was i n my teens. Then i t was, "Oh, Wow" A painting" (p. 3)! S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed her c h i l d learned the value of "quality time"; she prized the fact that her c h i l d could write his name; she observed her c h i l d was becoming more f a m i l i a r with the elements of design; and drawing i n the mark-making book allowed her c h i l d to engage i n active inquiry enabling him to confidently express personal feelings, perceptions, and ideas; her ch i l d ' s ways of drawing improved; the use of the mark-making book supported the learning of simple math concepts. Int. # 2 The parent observed her c h i l d developed his perceptive s k i l l s ; to learned through the books sent home from school; and developed an appreciation f o r works of a r t . 192 2. Components of the Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Bobby was given a wooden f i r e truck f o r Christmas. She noticed that Bobby was c a r e f u l l y looking at i t f o r several minutes. She f i n a l l y suggested that he might want to draw i t i n his mark-making book. S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated during both i n interviews that the p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were based on v i s u a l awareness experiences. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Reyes enjoyed watching Bobby examine what became his favour-i t e Christmas toy. She stated, "We had a nice l i t t l e t a l k about i t before he a c t u a l l y sat down and drew anything" (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent valued the "quality time" spent with her c h i l d ; and, the parent-child communication that transpired during the a c t i v i t y . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y While watching Bobby examine the wooden toy truck, Mrs. Reyes noticed that he was making several observations. She stated, "By 193 looking at i t f o r that long a time he r e a l i s e d that i t was d i f f e r e n t than his other toys because his others toys were made of p l a s t i c . He r e a l i z e d that i t looked d i f f e r e n t , i t f e l t d i f f e r e n t , and i t was heavier than the other ones" (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed her c h i l d was learning on his own; and, the use of the mark-making book supported her c h i l d ' s way of drawing. Int. # 2 The parent observed her c h i l d was developing h i s perceptive s k i l l s . B. Art Appreciation Component Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday, the mark-making book was sent with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. Mrs. Reyes and Bobby would look at the art v i s u a l and t a l k about what they saw using the questions.as a guide. The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Bobby drawing a picture i n the mark-making book i n response to the a r t v i s u a l . 1. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Reyes believed that i t was worthwhile teaching art appreciation to Bobby at such a young age. She stated, " I d e f i n i t e l y think i t ' s better to s t a r t him young than not to s t a r t him at a l l . I 194 don't know what any other teachers are going to teach him i n the future. At least, now, I know he's going to get some exposure other than just what I give him. I can give him exposure, but there aren't that many resources f o r art i n Winnipeg or anywhere else that I know of . S h i f t : I n t . # 1 The parent expressed regret not experiencing t h i s type of learning during her early childhood. I n t . # 2 The parent believed learning about works of art should s t a r t at a young age. b. Mrs. Reyes enjoyed observing Bobby's enthusiastic response when they did these a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "It was quite f a s c i n a t i n g to watch how he was going to react to each painting. The f i r s t p ainting he reacted i n a major p o s i t i v e way because i t was a mommy and a baby. And, then by the time we got to the, "Sled of Dreams", i t was, "Oh, wow, dogs! And then with the, "Starry Night", he was t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from anything I had seen up to that point" (p. 5). S h i f t : I n t . # 1 The parent enjoyed l i s t e n i n g to her c h i l d ' s point of viewas they engaged i n v i s u a l and verbal dialogue using the art v i s u a l s . I n t . # 2 The parent was fascinated with the various ways i n which her c h i l d responded to each of the art v i s u a l s . c. Mrs. Reyes didn't f i n d the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging. Aside from Bobby's i n i t i a l response to Van Gogh's painting e n t i t l e d , "Starry, Night", they both enjoyed being involved i n the a c t i v i t i e s . S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated she did not f i n d the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Reyes believed i t was a good idea to attach the art v i s u a l s to the mark-making book. She stated, "The picture i s a c t u a l l y i n the mark-making book so that he can go back to i t whenever he wants. He always brings i t home and goes over what he's done i n the week, then he goes back and looks at the ones he's l i k e d from before -- before he even s t a r t s drawing" (p. 4). S h i f t : No s h i f t occurred between interviews one and two. b. Mrs. Reyes stated that she found the accompanying questions very h e l p f u l . She stated, " Most of them gave me just kind of an idea of what to ask and then i t depends on how he reacts to the picture as to what kinds of d i f f e r e n t questions I ask. Like, the Starry Night 196 painting -- he didn't l i k e i t at a l l -- i t scared him. Mrs. Reyes continued by saying. "He didn't l i k e the dark part i n the painting. He talked about i t as i f i t was some kind of demon or something coming out of the ground. And his description of that p a r t i c u l a r p i c t u r e was that the demon was going to get the v i l l a g e . So I was kind of hesitant as to what kind of questions to ask him af t e r that. He l i k e d a l l the art v i s u a l s before that, but when he got to t h i s painting, he had such an opposite reaction. It was l i k e -- do I want to continue t h i s or do I want to save my son? But, since then he's calmed down. He goes back to the same painting now, and sees t h i s other s t u f f we talked about --which were the questions you had about the colours i n the sky and a l l that" (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. # 2 Mrs Reyes observed that c e r t a i n art images proved to be.unsettling to her c h i l d due to his v i v i d imagination. c. Mrs. Reyes was surprised to learn, as she stated, "...that kids see some strange things i n paintings. Other than that, I've learned that he sees a l o t more than I thought he did" (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent learned that there are se n s i t i v e and subtle ways to teach her c h i l d . 197 Int. # 2 The parent underestimated her c h i l d ' s perceptive a b i l i t i e s . d. Aside from exploring the elements of design, and learning to express his feelings about each of the art v i s u a l s , Mrs. Reyes believed that Bobby was slowing learning that thoughts, ideas can be expressed through art i n many d i f f e r e n t ways. She stated, "I think he's learned that there i s more to l i f e than just what he sees every-day. He's learned everybody does things d i f f e r e n t l y to show how they f e e l about things" (p. 6 ) . S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed that the art appreciation v i s u a l s supported the learning of simple mathematical s k i l l s ; supported her ch i l d ' s imagination; supported her c h i l d ' s o r a l s t o r y - t e l l i n g ways; and her c h i l d was able to verbaly and p i c t o r i a l l y express personal fee l i n g s , perceptions, and ideas about each art v i s u a l . Int. # 2 The parent observed that using the art appreciation v i s u a l s and the accompanying a c t i v i t y supported her c h i l d ' s learning of the elements design; and the development of c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s . C. Parents' Choice of Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every t h i r d Friday of the month Bobby would bring home a children's book with an accompanying a c t i v i t y sheet. Mrs. Reyes would read the book while Bobby would look at the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and l i s t e n 198 to the story. Once the book was read, they would t a l k about the story and the i l l u s t r a t i o n s by using the questions i n the a c t i v i t y sheet as a guide. The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Bobby being i n v i t e d to draw a pi c t u r e i n h i s mark-making book i n response the theme or the story. S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent and her c h i l d chose to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the art appreciation component. Int. # 2 The parent and her c h i l d chose to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the children's l i t e r a t u r e component. This s h i f t occurred as a re s u l t of the parent's desire to involve her c h i l d and herself i n another component. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Reyes found value i n t h i s a c t i v i t y f o r several reasons. Aside from enjoying the time spent with Bobby, she was pleased with the s e l e c t i o n of books that were being sent home. Bobby found the st o r i e s and i l l u s t r a t i o n very appealing. Mrs. Reyes stated, "The types of books that are being sent home are such a nice v a r i e t y " (p. 6 ) . She further stated, "What's most enjoyable i s just doing i t , and enjoying i t f o r myself because i t ' s just such a learning experience f o r me, never mind Bobby" (p. 7 ) ? S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed her c h i l d was motivated to learn 199 through the art v i s u a l s . Int. # 2 Both the parent and her c h i l d enjoyed reading the children's books; they found reading the various books enlightening. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y As Mrs. Reyes p a r t i c i p a t e d with Bobby i n the children's l i t e r a t u r e a c t i v i t i e s , she observed that he became quite arguementative i f the i l l u s t r a t i o n didn't correspond with the passage that was just read. She stated, "If the picture i s n ' t what he thinks i t ' s supposed to be, he argues with me. He says, 'No, i t ' s supposed to be t h i s way.' Mrs. Reyes further stated, "He l i s t e n s while I t e l l him why I l i k e the i l l u s t r a t i o n . He's very attentive while I t e l l him about i t , but when i t ' s his turn, I'd better be DAMN quiet, because i t ' s his turn. He b a s i c a l l y says, "It's my turn now -- YOU LISTEN TO ME" (p. 7)! Mrs. Reyes continued by saying, "He names most of the colours on the page that he knows. And, then he goes into which part of the story that he remembers the picture matching. A f t e r that he u s u a l l y t r i e s to draw a picture from his book or he gets me to write the t i t l e on the page then he t r i e s to write the t i t l e " (p. 7) . S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent observed that using the art appreciation v i s u a l s and the accompanying a c t i v i t y supported her c h i l d ' s way of drawing; the learning of simple mathematical concepts; the learning of colours; and supported v i s u a l and verbal dialogue between parent 2 0 0 and c h i l d . Int. # 2 The parent observed her c h i l d ' s willingness to express points of view towards each book that was read; her c h i l d became argumentative and demanding i n his behaviour as they both p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the reading of each book; her c h i l d was developing c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s ; her c h i l d developed perceptive s k i l l s ; discussing book i l l u s t r a t i o n s supported her son's learning of colours; her c h i l d was developing l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ; the a c t i v i t y supported her c h i l d ' s way of drawing and forming of l e t t e r s and words. 3 . Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mrs. Reyes observed that the mark-making book was useful as a means of l i n k i n g school and home learning. She stated, "If I d i d not have the mark-making book, I'd be spending a l o t more time hanging out i n the h a l l ways looking i n the windows." Mrs. Reyes continued by saying, "I need to know that he's learning something -- anything" (p. 8) . S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent r e l i e d on the mark-making book to informed her of the chi l d ' s learning progress at school. 4. Most Valuable C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Mark-Making Book Mrs. Reyes saw value i n the mark-making book i n terms of i t being a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l that has equipped her with ideas to further Bobby's learning. She stated, "Most valuable? The fact that we get to keep i t 201 at the end of the year. Getting the book gives me an idea of where he started from, where he has progressed to, and where we can take him --as f a r as his learning goes. We have a jump o f f point from now u n t i l he goes to kindergarten. We're planning on taking a t r i p t h i s summer, and I'd l i k e to expand on his education at the same time. I want to have something that gives me an idea of what I can teach him myself so that he has even advanced more before he goes to kindergarten next year" (p. 9 ) . S h i f t : P r i o r to the use of the mark-making book the parent asssociated the concept with that of a "big colouring book". She stated she didn't see any point to i t . Int. # 1 The parent stated she developed more of a p o s i t i v e attitude within a couple of weeks of i t s use. Int. # 2 The parent made the following claims i n support of the mark-making book: i t was a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l which enabled her to see her chi l d ' s progress on a regular basis; and i t provided a means of giving her d i r e c t i o n regarding as to how to proceed with her c h i l d ' s future learning. 5. Continued Use of the Mark-Making Book Mrs. Reyes strongly recommended the continued use of the mark-making book at the nursery l e v e l . From a parent's point of view, Mrs. Reyes believed that the use of the mark-making book was a valuable learning experience for both her and Bobby. She stated, "Because i t ' s done a l o t f o r my son, and I'm looking forward to using i t again next 202 year, but with my daughter" (p. 9 ) . 6. Other Mrs. Reyes made no further comments. 4.6) Case Study # 6: The Santos Family 4.6a) Family P o r t r a i t Mr. and Mrs. Santos are o r i g i n a l l y from Portugal. Mrs. Santos completed her grade 12 at a l o c a l Winnipeg high school, and obtained her dental assistant c e r t i f i c a t i o n at a l o c a l community college. Currently, she i s working as a f u l l time dental assistant. Mr. Santos complete his grade ten and chose work as a seasonal construction worker. In h i s spare time he cares for t h e i r three daughters. Mrs Santos' family t r a v e l l e d d i r e c t l y to Canada from Portugal when she was 5 years old. She learned to speak English while attending Wellington School, and spent one year attending Portuguese classes. Mr. Santos, on the other hand, came to Canada with his family v i a Bermuda at the age of nine. There he learned to speak the English language. His father worked i n the restaurant business for f i v e years before choosing the immigrate to Canada and s e t t l e i n Winnipeg. Both fami l i e s continue to speak Portuguese at home, and are a c t i v e l y involved with the Portuguese community. Since t h e i r marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Santos chose to share l i v i n g accommodations with Mr. Santos' parents. They l i v e i n the upper part of a duplex with t h e i r three young daughters, 203 while the grandparents l i v e on the main f l o o r . This i s a convenient arrangement since the grandparents care f o r the children while the parents are at work. 4.6b) Ashley Santos - nursery c h i l d - age four P r i o r to attending Wellington School's nursery program, Ashley was cared f o r during the day by either her grandparents or her father. Her d a i l y routine included: watching children's morning t e l e v i s i o n programming, playing with toys, using colouring books or drawing on blank paper, and playing outdoors. In the evening, Ashley p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed making c r a f t s and reading books with her mother and older s i s t e r A l i s o n . Ashley adjusted to the Wellington School nursery environment with ease. She reg u l a r l y came to v i s i t when her s i s t e r Ashley attended the program two years p r i o r . Ashley enjoyed many aspects of the nursery routine. A c t i v i t i e s such as drawing, painting or working at the c r a f t table seemed to come na t u r a l l y to her. It wasn't uncommon to see Ashley taking p i l e s of art work home. Ashley regarded the use of the mark-making book as just part of the regular routine. On occasion, she would chose to work i n i t during free play; otherwise, she'd wait u n t i l i t was used during mark-making book time. Ashley enjoyed sharing with other children what she had done i n her mark-making book the weekend before. Usually she would go to great lengths to describe what she drew or glue-in. 204 4.6c) Interview # 1 - Mrs Santos 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Use A. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Santos had mixed emotions about the concept of the mark-making book. Alison, her eldest daughter, who previously attended Wellington School's nursery program only used a sketchbook. There was no requirement f o r parental involvement. She stated, "It was scary. I thought, "What am I going to get involved in?"; "What's going to happen?; "What's the c h i l d going to get out of i t " (p. 1)? 2. Mrs. Santos i d e n t i f i e d two valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the mark-making book p r i o r to i t s use: i t s role i n documenting her c h i l d ' s ongoing learning at school. She stated, "I would get to see what she'd be doing -- a f i r s t hand view...and I wouldn't have to wait a few months to f i n d out something" (p. 1); and, i t s p o t e n t i a l i n supporting parental involvement. She concluded by stating, "I'd get involved i n something" (p. 1). 3. As Mrs. Santos used the mark-making book with Ashley; however, she began to release i t was a worthwhile experience. She stated,"I guess as we kept doing i t , I saw the involvement i n i t . That's why I saw that f o r both of us -- where she'd get the work. She just wouldn't just use i t i n one place. I'd be involved i n what's going on i n the school, and what she's doing and the whole b i t " (p. 1). 205 B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? Mrs. Santos and Ashley usually worked i n the mark-making book every Friday evening. They would both go down to the den i n the basement area of t h e i r home, s i t down on the f l o o r , and begin working i n the mark-making book. Mrs. Santos and Ashley would begin by t a l k i n g about what needed to be done, and then they would proceed to do the a c t i v i t y . On occasion, Mr. Santos would j o i n them. Ashley would take t h i s opportunity to involve her father by asking questions re l a t e d to the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . Mrs. Santos always attempted to make working i n the mark-making book a meaningful experience f o r Ashley. Usually, she and Ashley would spend t h i r t y minutes to an hour each time they worked i n the mark-making book. She stated, "We would take our time, and we wouldn't rush into i t -- we would take our time u n t i l she was fi n i s h e d " ( p. 2). However, Mrs Santos observed that at times Ashley would quickly f i n i s h c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s and say, "Fine, I'm leaving" (p. 2). On the other hand, i f f o r some reason the a c t i v i t y wasn't completed, Mrs. Santos and Ashley would continue Sunday evening. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Santos enjoyed using the mark-making book with Ashley from the perspective that they were both doing something together. She stated, "I enjoyed i t i n the way that i t was just me and her. Besides doing other things such as c r a f t s , we'd be t a l k i n g about something 206 d i f f e r e n t , and do something else. Ashley would sort of t r y to write something down, or draw, or whatever. I l i k e d the involvement i n i t " (p. 2). 2. Mrs. Santos observed that Ashley enjoyed using the mark-making book, e s p e c i a l l y doing the v i s u a l awareness and children's l i t e r a t u r e a c t i v i t i e s . There were times, however, where she preferred some a c t i v i t i e s over others. She stated, "I could t e l l she was r e a l l y i n t o i t , or i f she were involved" (p. 2). 3. Mrs. Santos believe using the mark-making book was a valuable experience. She stated, "I found a f t e r we d i d her work -- she was drawing on a piece of paper -- she'd say, "Can I put t h i s i n the book?" The mark-making book became her, "main thing". She s t i l l thinks highly of t h i s book. She does. I t ' s her mark-making book. I t ' s hers alone. Often Ashley w i l l say, "No one can help me." Sometimes A l i s o n (Ashley's older s i s t e r ) w i l l say, "Can I help?, and Ashley w i l l say, "No! -- No, you can't! This i s mine! This i s my homework" (p. 9)! D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Santos believed that the use of the mark-making book was a valuable personal learning experience. Mrs. Santos stated, "I found that every time we would look at a picture i t wouldn't be just, "Oh, that's nice -- i t ' s a boy or a g i r l , or a picture of t h i s or that. It would be more into d e t a i l , l i k e -- who do you think t h i s i s " (p. 3)? Mrs. Santos used an example with reference to the children's 207 l i t e r a t u r e a c t i v i t i e s . While working with Ashley, she came to the r e a l i z a t i o n that not only d i d her daughter respond to what the story was about, but, Ashley was also able to recognize the hidden meaning. She stated, "I was r e a l l y surprised that -- l i k e the one that she had, "The L i t t l e Red Hen", and the response that she gave me at the end was -- I said, "What do you think that you learned? And she says, "You have to give something to receive something." -- something l i k e that, but i n her own words. And I looked at her and I thought, Wow! You ac t u a l l y thought that! And, she got with that story -- she got the idea, she got the main idea" (p. 4). 2. Mrs. Santos observed two separate events where she noticed that Ashley had learned through the use of the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . One event was the re s u l t of a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y focusing on the " A l l About Me", theme. Mrs. Santos stated, "...since t h i s a c t i v i t y -- since then i t ' s l i k e , "Yes, I have my green eyes." She focuses more on what -- on the way she looks. A l l the colours, and the s i z e , and t h i s and that. Where as before, i t wasn't a b i g deal to her. And, how the h a i r was cur l y or i t ' s f l a t . So she r e a l l y -- I think with t h i s a c t i v i t y she learned more" (p. 5). The other event took place one evening when the family had just come home from an outing. Mrs. Santos stated, "We just parked the car and a l l of a sudden she goes, "Wow, Mom! Purple leaves! ...with that a c t i v i t y , i t made her r e a l l y notice the d i f f e r e n t leaves. And when we were i n • Toronto, again i t was, "Wow! Look at t h i s l e a f . " Mrs. Santos admitted 208 that, "I didn't think anything about i t . But since then I would point i t out with her" (p. 5). 2. Components of the Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Santos used a v a r i e t y of p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n conjunction with the mark-making book. They either focused v i s u a l awareness or children's l i t e r a t u r e . Ashley enjoyed family outings such as going to, "Tinkertown," a children's amusement park. Upon returning home, she would be i n v i t e d to respond to the experience by drawing i n her mark-making book. If Ashley had any t i c k e t stubs, she could include them i n the mark-making book, as well. Photographs, s p e c i a l l y of family events, was another means of motivation Mrs. Santos used to encourage Ashley to draw. She stated, "Yes, we referred to the photograph. We talked about what she did, where she went, what she was doing, and so we just began drawing a picture" (p. 6). On another occasion, they both made a, " l i t t l e " , book f i l l e d with Ashley's drawings i n response to the story e n t i t l e d , "The L i t t l e Red Hen" . Referring to the mark-making book, Mrs. Santos stated, "We jus t taped i t up on the side over here. And, as she was drawing, Ashley asked i f she could put i t i n her book" (p. 6). 209 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Santos enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a l l three a c t i v i t i e s , because as she stated previously, "I l i k e the involvement" (p. 1). Going on family outings, looking at photographs, making l i t t l e books, and drawing were a c t i v i t i e s that Mrs. Santos had previously done with her c h i l d r e n p r i o r to the mark-making book experience. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Santos had d i f f i c u l t y responding to the following question: What do you think your c h i l d learned by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the parent i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ? B . Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y On every second Friday of the month, Ashley would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. Both she and Mrs. Santos would s i t together, look at the art v i s u a l s and use the questions as a guide to t a l k about the art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Mrs. Santos i n v i t i n g Ashley to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Santos believed that i t was worthwhile teaching art appreciation to young children. She stated, "Yes, I do because at t h i s age you can a c t u a l l y get them to s i t down and look at something" (p. 7). Mrs. Santos agreed that children at t h i s age can be very active, however, she stated, "I found with the book and a l l -- you've got the book with the pi c t u r e . . . . She r e a l l y noticed the d e t a i l s and everything else i n the picture" (p. 7). b. Mrs. Santos admitted she enjoyed doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Ashley. She stated, "I enjoyed them a l l " (p. 9 ) . c. Mrs. Santos found using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging. She honestly stated, "It wasn't a problem, but I found i t the most d i f f i c u l t . . . I t was more d i f f i c u l t because we got to a c e r t a i n point, and she's waiting, and I just didn't have any more questions ...nothing comes to mind besides the questions you gave me. But with the other ones, l i k e with the book and the v i s u a l awareness -- one thing l e d to another" (p. 8). Later on i n the interview, Mrs. Santos stated "Art appreciation -- I found most d i f f i c u l t , but I think we a l l need a change" (p. 9). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Santos agreed that using the mark-making book with the accompanying coloured art v i s u a l s was a good way to teach Ashley about art appreciation. She stated, "Yes, d e f i n i t e l y ! ...I haven't gone to an art g a l l e r y , yet, you know -- we haven't gone around to look at paintings... t h i s way she's getting something out of i t " (p. 7) . 211 b. Mrs. Santos agreed that the accompanying art appreciation questions were h e l p f u l . Aside from discussing the elements of design with Ashley, she didn't know what else to t a l k about. Mrs. Santos stated, "With the art, I f i n d I need the help of the questions" (p- 7). c. Mrs. Santos believed that she personally learned through the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . She stated that using them helped her, "focus more on a r t . " I wouldn't say I didn't r e a l l y appreciate art before, but I c e r t a i n l y didn't look at the d e t a i l s of c e r t a i n things. Now, I notice that I r e a l l y look at the pictures" (p. 3). d. Mrs. Santos observed that the art v i s u a l s reinforced Ashley's knowledge of the elements of design; and stimulated her imagination as she talked about each one. On one occasion, while they were looking at Ted Harrison's painting e n t i t l e d , "Sled of Dreams", Mrs Santos stated, "Ashley said, 'They are s t a r t i n g to get ready for Christmas... He's bring the tree home, and they were playing outside. And, t h i s one was r e a l l y excited. She's happy Christmas i s coming'" (p. 7). Once Ashley f i n i s h e d t a l k i n g about the painting, she proceeded to draw a picture of a decorated Christmas tree i n her mark-making book. C. Parents' Choice Component Although Mrs. Santos admitted she enjoyed doing a l l of the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s ; she did, however, f i n d s p e c i f i c value i n doing 212 the v i s u a l awareness and children's l i t e r a t u r e a c t i v i t i e s . 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y a. The v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s i n v i t e d parents to take t h e i r c h i l d outdoors to experience, for example; walking through a park on an autumn day, and jumping into a p i l e of f a l l e n leaves; or just walking down the street picking-up various coloured leaves; or playing outdoors i n f r e s h l y f a l l e n snow and making a snow angel, or b u i l d i n g a snowman. Upon returning home, the parent would i n v i t e t h e i r c h i l d to draw a response to the experience i n the mark-making book. On occasion, a small object such as a sea s h e l l would be dropped into the mark-making book bag and sent home as part of a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y . Both the parent and c h i l d would be i n v i t e d to investigate the sea s h e l l and imagine what kind of creature might have l i v e d inside. The a c t i v i t y would conclude with the c h i l d drawing i n the mark-making book i n response to the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y . b. The children's l i t e r a t u r e a c t i v i t i e s simply involved the parent reading a story to t h e i r c h i l d . Once the story was read, both the parent and the c h i l d would each pick a favourite i l l u s t r a t i o n that they would t a l k about. The a c t i v i t y would conclude with the c h i l d drawing i n the mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Although Mrs. Santos admitted she enjoyed doing a l l of the 213 mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s ; she did, however, f i n d s p e c i f i c value i n doing the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s . In her words, "We a c t u a l l y d i d something" (p. 9). Whether i t was going on a family outing or i n v e s t i -gating something they found, she enjoyed sharing the experience with Ashley. b. The children's l i t e r a t u r e component was appealing because, as she stated, "It was as i f we were reading i n between the l i n e s , not ju s t from the story" (p. 8). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Santos s p e c i f i c a l l y referred to the children's l i t e r a t u r e a c t i v i t y . While working with Ashley, she came to the r e a l i z a t i o n that not only d i d her daughter respond to what the story was about, but, Ashley was also able to recognize the hidden meaning. She stated, "I was r e a l l y surprised that -- l i k e the one that she had, "The L i t t l e Red Hen", and the response that she gave me at the end was -- I said, "What do you think that you learned? And she says, "You have to give something to.received something." -- something l i k e that, but i n her own words" (p. 4). 3. Mark-Making Book as a Means of Linking School and Home Learning Mrs Santos agreed the mark-making book was an e f f e c t i v e means of l i n k i n g school and home learning. She stated, " Yes, I do think i t 214 was e f f e c t i v e -- i t was useful. And, I also found out what was going on at school, not l i k e you'd f i n d out at the end of a few months --what she's been doing, and the whole b i t . In that sense i t ' s great because she's working i n both places, not just the one" (p. 9) . 4. Other: Mrs. Santos had no further comments to make. 4.6d) Interview # 2 - Mrs. Santos 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Response to the Mark-Making book's use over an extended period of time Mrs. Santos stated, "Last time I though i t was great. I f i n d that since using i t longer, that from the beginning u n t i l today there was quite an improvement. I can see the improvement i n my daughter. In her l i s t e n i n g , i n her drawing, i n her looking at things and being able to put i t down on paper. It's looking at the book now and thinking about i t . I just think i t ' s something I can keep for the rest of Ashley's l i f e . I t ' s something I can treasure and say i t ' s something she d i d at the beginning of nursery -- from beginning u n t i l the end" (p. 1). As Mrs. Santos referred to Ashley's mark-making book, she stated further, "And the improvements. Look at the f i r s t page, and look at the l a t e s t page she's done" (p. 1). 215 The parent stated she was i n i t i a l l y hesitant about using the mark-making book; however, her a t t i t u d e changed once she began using i t with her c h i l d . She came to believe i t was a worthwhile experience i n terms of documenting her c h i l d ' s ongoing learning at school; and i t s p o t e n t i a l i n supporting parental involvement. The parent stated that she observed a d e f i n i t e improvement i n her chi l d ' s l i s t e n i n g , drawing, and perceptive s k i l l s . She also recognized the value of the mark-making book i n terms of a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l and a treasured keepsake. B. How the Mark-Making book was used? There was no set time or day when the mark-making book was used. Depending on the a c t i v i t y , Mrs. Santos and Ashley worked i n i t 20 to 40 minutes at a time usually on Friday night, or Saturday. Mrs. Santos stated, "Sometimes even on a Sunday. We'd play i t by ear" (p. 1). Working i n the mark-making book was made as p l a y f u l as possible. Mrs. Santos stated, "I l e t her decide where she wants to work. I don't say, "This i s work and i t has to be at a table with chairs. I l e t her work were she wants to. Sometimes, we'll work on the f l o o r or at her l i t t l e table. We play i t by ear" (p. 1). Mrs. Santos observed that Ashley usu a l l y chose to work only on the assigned a c t i v i t y . As soon as she f i n i s h e d drawing i n her mark-making book she would turn to another task. Lately, Ashley has be asking Mrs. Santos i f she can go ahead and draw independently. Mrs. Santos observed that using the mark-making book became a regular routine. She stated, "I found you get to a point where i t ' s S h i f t : Int. # 1 Int. # 2 216 just a routine. We d i d i t , she thought about i t , and she put i t down" (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated that she observed her c h i l d spent more time using the mark-making book independently; and the use of the mark-making book became a routine. These behaviours were not mentioned during the f i r s t interview. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Santos enjoyed using the mark-making book from the perspective that she and Ashley were spending time together. She admitted, however, there were times when the working i n the mark-making book had to be postponed f o r one reason or another. But sooner or l a t e r they would f i n d time on the weekend to do the a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "At times I f e l t bad about saying, 'Let's do i t l a t e r . ' But we'd always get down to doing i t " (p.2). S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated during both interviews that she enjoyed the, "quality time", spent with her c h i l d . 2. Mrs. Santos observed how Ashley enjoyed t a l k i n g to h e r s e l f as she looked at the drawings i n her mark-making book. She stated that Ashley would say, "This i s me and my bathtub. This i s me and my pyjamas. This i s me before I go to bed. This i s cookies and milk. This i s me eating cookies i n bed" (p. 3). Ashley's persistence and enthusiasm towards using the mark-making was both amusing and f r u s t r a t i n g at times. Mrs. Santos observed the longer they worked i n the mark-making book, the more enamoured Ashley became with i t . She stated, "Ashley would p e r s i s t e n t l y say, "Mom, the mark-making book. I have to do my work." over and over again u n t i l we f i n a l l y s t a r t e d the a c t i v i t y " (p. 2). Mrs. Santos continued by saying, "Do you know she made me go out one night to Safeway to get crayons. I t o l d her we could do i t tomorrow -- t h i s was Friday night! But she b a s i c a l l y continued to say, "It has to be done today." So guess where I went? " She concluded by saying, "I can see she loves working i n the mark-making book. Ashley often asks, "Can I do another one." That t e l l s me she's enjoying i t " (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated during both interviews that her c h i l d enjoyed using the mark-making book i n terms of looking forward to using the mark-making book; working i n the mark-making book; showing and ta l k i n g about the work done i n the mark-making book; and the attention received f o r the work done i n her mark-making book. 3. Mrs. Santos believed using the mark-making book was a valuable experience. She stated, "I think i t was. We would go into c e r t a i n things instead of looking just at one picture" (p. 2). 218 S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that her c h i l d had developed an attachment to the book. Int. # 1 Sc 2 The parent stated that she and her c h i l d enjoyed extending the learning experiences through the use of the mark-making book. D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Santos personally learned that exploring d i f f e r e n t teaching strategies enabled her to have an influence on how and what Ashley learned. On one occasion, Ashley decided she wanted to draw a frog i n her mark-making book, but stated she didn't know how to s t a r t . Mrs. Santos guided her through the drawing by r e f e r r i n g to pictures of frogs and t a l k i n g about the l i n e s , shapes, colours and textures that contributed to the appearance of the frog. She stated, "...we took our time, you know" (p. 3), as she commented on how long they took to do the drawing. Mrs. Santos referred to another drawing i n the mark-making book when she stated, "It took just as long to do the frog as i t d i d to t h i s " (p. 3). The re s u l t of the a c t i v i t y was a drawing that both Ashley and Mrs. Santos were pleased with. She stated, "She said, "I d i d it " . . . s h e was t h r i l l e d " (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that she was surprised to learn that her c h i l d was capable of c r i t i c a l thinking at such a young age. 219 I n t . # 2 The parent stated that she discovered new ways of teaching through the use of the mark-making book experience, simple strategies using s e n s i t i v e and subtle ways, to a c t i v e l y engage her c h i l d i n learning; she learned the value of parental support, and i t s e f f e c t on a c h i l d ' s learning development; and, she learned that the mark-making book provided tangible evidence of her c h i l d ' s learning development throughout the year. 2. Mrs. Santos observed Ashley encounter many learning experi-ences while engaging i n the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "I can see the improvement i n my daughter -- i n her l i s t e n i n g , i n her drawing, i n her looking at things" (p. 1). She also observed an improvement i n Ashley use of expressive language whether i s was t a l k i n g about the art v i s u a l s or her drawings i n the mark-making book. Mrs. Santos stated that on occasion Ashley would think out loud as she looked at her mark-making book drawing. She stated Ashley would say, "This i s me and my bath tub. This i s me and my pyjamas. This i s more before I go to bed, This i s cookies and milk. This i s me eating cookies and milk i n bed" (p. 3). S h i f t : I n t . # 1 The parent stated that she observed her c h i l d ' s perceptive s k i l l s develop. I n t . # 2 The parent stated that drawing i n the mark-making book allowed her c h i l d to engage i n active inquiry enabling her to confidently express personal feelings, perceptions, and ideas; she became more f a m i l i a r with the elements of design; her ways of drawing improved; her perceptive s k i l l s developed; the mark-making book became a tangible means for her to r e f l e c t on the 220 entries, and ve r b a l l y express her point of view on what had been accomplished; her l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s improved; and, the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s supported her earl y l i t e r a c y learning. 2. Components of Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Santos chose to talk about a p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t y that she and Ashley did based on a book about sea l i f e . The book was read and talked about, then Ashley decided to draw her impressions of sea l i f e i n her mark-making book. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs Santos enjoyed watching Ashley draw. She stated, "She drew a picture of an octopus, and a l l the legs didn't f i t . Instead of getting upset, she said, "That's f i n e . And there's a s t i c k y thing." ( r e f e r r i n g to part of the octopus' anatomy). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated she enjoyed the parental involvement associated with the use of the mark-making book. Int. # 2 The parent stated she valued the opportunity to observe her c h i l d draw. 221 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Santos believed that Ashley had experienced a drawing approach that was h e l p f u l . She stated, "She wanted to draw a frog, but she decided she didn't know how -- she has a habit of drawing things r e a l l y f a s t . So, we took our time, and we just looked at the picture, and drew the frog by t a l k i n g about each of the body parts. She d i d the body, and she d i d the arms and the legs, and then the eyes, and the whole i t , -- even the spots. It was a complete shock because she did a good job of i t " (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated she was surprised to learned that active parental involvement had a p o s i t i v e influenced on her ch i l d ' s drawing development. B. Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday, the mark-making book was sent home with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. Mrs. Santos and Ashley would look at the art v i s u a l and ta l k about what they saw using the questions as a guide. The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Ashely drawing a picture i n the mark-making book i n response to the art v i s u a l . 222 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Santos believed that i t was worthwhile p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Ashley. She stated, "Yes, I do. The thing i s that i f i t ' s not taught to her at t h i s young age, and since I don't take her to the art gallery, or anywhere else where there i s art, s h e ' l l miss out on learning about i t . Personally, I think i t ju s t give her that extra l i t t l e push. It encourages her to draw her ideas, e s p e c i a l l y i f someone famous did the same thing, too. If i t ' s not learned at school, and families don't take t h e i r k i d to see art, t h e y ' l l t o t a l l y miss out" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that she observed her c h i l d being responsive to the a c t i v i t i e s ; and she was developing perceptive s k i l l s . Int. # 2 The parent stated that she valued being given the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s ; and i t encouraged her c h i l d to draw ideas l i k e those of famous a r t i s t s . b. Mrs. Santos enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Ashley. She r e c a l l e d one occasion when she and Ashley were doing an art appreciation a c t i v i t y focusing on Matisse's painting, "Goldfish". She stated, "We talked about the colours, and the shapes and the f i s h . And, then automatically we started t a l k i n g about other animals that need water. We ended up drawing not only what 223 we were supposed to, but also the other animals we talked about." The surprise of doing t h i s was most enjoyable" (p. 6 ) . S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated that she enjoyed learning that the a c t i v i t i e s could e a s i l y be integrated with other learning experiences; she observed her c h i l d was motivated to expressed personal feelings, perceptions, and ideas through drawing as a result of the a c t i v i t i e s . c. Mrs. Santos didn't f i n d the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging. Instead, she stated, "Ashley was eager to do i t . She was a c t u a l l y looking forward to doing i t " (p. 5). Mrs. Santos r e c a l l e d the f i r s t time she d i d an art appreciation a c t i v i t y with Ashley. She admitted that she b a s i c a l l y went through the motions just to get i t done. However, she concluded by saying, "But, now I'm appreciating i t f o r what i t i s " (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent admitted that using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s was a challenging experience. Int. # 2 The parent stated that she came to value the experience. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Santos agreed that using the mark-making book with the accompanying coloured art vi s u a l s was an e f f e c t i v e way to teach Ashley 224 about art appreciation. She b r i e f l y stated, "Yes, i t ' s a good way to teach young children. Ashley can look back on them" (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that t h i s was the only opportunity her c h i l d would have to learn about works of a r t . Int. # 2 The parent stated that the art v i s u a l s enabled her c h i l d to conveniently r e f l e c t on previous art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . b. Mrs. Santos found the accompanying art appreciation questions h e l p f u l . However, she admitted that she could manage without them by asking Ashley such questions as: "What do you think of t h i s painting?", or "Could you t e l l me i f you see t h i s or that" (p. 5)? S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated that the accompanying art appreciation questions were h e l p f u l . Int. # 1 The parent stated she used her own questions. c. Mrs. Santos believed she benefited from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "Going back to the beginning of the book -- I was at the f i r s t assignment, I did i t , and that was i t . But, now I've noticed I'm not i c i n g the a r t . I'm n o t i c i n g and again i t ' s just something I'm noticing" (p. 5). 225 S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated that she observed the development of her own perceptive s k i l l s . d. Mrs. Santos observed that Ashley began looking more c l o s e l y at the art v i s u a l s . She stated, "Her eyes were a c t u a l l y wandering, not ju s t looking at one thing" (p. 6 ) . She referred to the art v i s u a l of Matisse's painting e n t i t l e d , "Goldfish", when she stated, "By doing the a r t appreciation a c t i v i t i e s , she talked about the colours, the shapes, counted the f i s h , and even the r e f l e c t i o n s " (p. 4 ) . The a c t i v i t y concluded with Ashley drawing a picture i n the mark-making book. S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated she observed the experience supported the learning of the elements of design; and stimulated her c h i l d imagination. Int. # 2 The parent stated the experience supported the development of her c h i l d ' s perceptive s k i l l s ; the learning of the elements of design, and simple mathematical concepts. C. Parents' Choice Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Santos chose to t a l k about a two part a c t i v i t y that involved v i s u a l awareness and the use of a c h i l d ' s imagination. The c h i l d r e n 226 were i n v i t e d to: examine a seashell then draw t h e i r impression of what i t looked l i k e ; then draw an imaginary sea creature whose home i t might be. S h i f t : Int. 1 & 2 The parent stated she favoured the v i s u a l awareness component. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Santos stated that the most enjoyable part of the a c t i v i t y was, "Trying to draw the creature. We had fun t r y i n g to imagine i t " (p- 6 ) . S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that she enjoyed the family outings that were associated with the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s . Int. # 2 The parent stated that both she and her c h i l d enjoyed using t h e i r imagination as they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Santos stated that by doing the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y , Ashley was able to, "notice very l i t t l e l i n e and shape, the texture, the whole b i t " (p. 6 ) . She went on to say, "We have some seashells at home, but she never r e a l l y noticed them. But, with the seashell that 227 was sent home from school, she held i t and noticed the shape and a l l the l i n e s . Then she drew i t i n her mark-making book with the l i n e s . A f t e r doing that, she noticed the ones we had at home. I thought, you know, doing the a c t i v i t y made her notice other things" (p. 6). Drawing the sea creature was somewhat challenging, but fun, nonetheless. Mrs Santos commented that even before Ashley began to draw i n her mark-making book, she said, "Oh, I don't know how to draw i t . " Mrs. Santos decided to help her by asking questions such as, "Does i t have eyes? Could i t look l i k e t h i s or l i k e that" (p, 6). They slowly f i n i s h e d the drawing and admitted that they were quite proud of the r e s u l t s (p. 6). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent chose to elaborate on the learning value of the children's l i t e r a t u r e component. She observed i t supported the development of her ch i l d ' s c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s . Int. # 2 The parent, once again, emphasized the learning value of the v i s u a l awareness component. She observed the development of her ch i l d ' s perceptive s k i l l s ; and, i t enabled her to support her chi l d ' s drawing explorations. 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mrs. Santos found the mark-making book a useful means of l i n k i n g school and home learning. She stated, "I f e e l i t ' s important because they're not just learning at school. I'm learning myself, and I know 228 exactly what she's been doing at school and at home" (p. 6). S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent supported the notion of the mark-making book l i n k i n g school and home learning during both interviews. 4. Most Valuable C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Mark-Making Book Mrs. Santos saw the mark-making book as a valuable r e f l e c t i v e t o o l . She stated, "I think i t i s very valuable when one can notice the way i n which a c h i l d seems to be growing from the beginning. Looking at the f i r s t drawing done i n September, and now looking at the one done l a t e l y -- the pictures are clearer -- more de t a i l e d (p. 7). S h i f t : P r i o r to the use of the mark-making book, Mrs. Santos i d e n t i f i e d two valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : documenting her c h i l d ' s ongoing learning, and supporting parental involvement. Int. # 2 The parent recognized that the mark-making book's value as a r e f l e c t i v e tool documenting her c h i l d ' s learning progress over an extended period of time. 5. Continued Use of the Mark-Making Book Mrs. Santos recommended that the mark-making book be used at the kindergarten l e v e l , as well as the nursery l e v e l . She stated, "I would recommend i t at the nursery l e v e l . When children draw i n the book they express everything they see, which right now i s the only way they know 229 how. At t h i s age, getting them to do a l l these d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s i s easier i f everything i s broken down. It's not just giving her one book and t e l l i n g her, 'Here, Draw! Let's just draw a picture to day.' Doing i t step by step with d i f f e r e n t components i s more h e l p f u l . I would recommend i t f o r kindergarten as well as nursery because i t ' s a way to express t h e i r ideas and feelings. It goes home and comes back. And, you see what they do at school, and you see what they do at home. And, i t gives you time to spend with your k i d alone" (p. 7 ) . 6. Other: Mrs. Santos had no other comments to make. 4.7) Case Study # 7 - The Tiongco family 4.7a) Family P o r t r a i t Mr. and Mrs. Tiongo both immigrated to Canada from the Phi l i p p i n e s with t h e i r families as young teenagers. They attended the same l o c a l high school i n Winnipeg. Mrs. Tiongco completed Grade 12 and went on to become a computer operator processing business reports. Mr. Tiongco completed Grade 11 and currently works as a q u a l i t y inspector with a telephone company. Although they keep i r r e g u l a r hours due to s h i f t work, both Mr. and Mrs. Tiongo are very committed to family l i f e , and t h e i r children's education. It's not uncommon to have one or both parents constantly d r i v i n g t h e i r four c h i l d r e n to various after-school a c t i v i t i e s . It's a supportive home environment where the 230 ch i l d r e n are encouraged to be studious, d i s c i p l i n e d and independent thinkers. The type of education t h e i r children receive i s of utmost importance. This i s evident i n the family's choice of schooling f o r t h e i r eldest children. I n i t i a l l y , they a l l attended the Wellington School nursery program. The following year, however, the ch i l d r e n were enroled i n a l o c a l Roman Catholic school. The family takes great pride i n t h e i r F i l i p i n o heritage and attempts to preserve t h e i r language by speaking the F i l i p i n o i n the home. Throughout the year, they p a r t i c i p a t e i n various c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s that are organized by the F i l i p i n o community. 4.7b) Crystal Tiongco - nursery c h i l d - age four P r i o r to attending Wellington School's nursery program, Crystal was accustomed to staying at home by ei t h e r her mother or grandmother before she attended Wellington School's nursery program. Her d a i l y routine included: watching children's programming on t e l e v i s i o n i n the morning, and playing with toys. Before her afternoon nap or bedtime she would be read a story. In the evening, Crystal would j o i n the older c h i l d r e n at the dining room table as they d i d t h e i r homework. She would observe how they worked, then on scrap paper she would draw or attempt to p r i n t . In the nursery setting, Crystal could be described as a very conscientious l i t t l e g i r l who revered her teacher and followed her every move. From the outset, Crystal proved to be very attentive 231 during c i r c l e - t i m e and quite focused i n her play. She needed, however, regular approval from the teacher. Whether i t was drawing, painting, or three dimensional work, i t was important f o r her to draw the attention of teacher so her work could be commented upon. Once receiving praise, she would confidently place i t i n her p o r t f o l i o or tuck i t away i n her cubby. Crystal' was a soft spoken c h i l d who r a r e l y smiled; however, she completely transformed once she was given the opportunity to act or sing. As the year progressed she became more animated and relaxed. The mark-making book was one of Crystal's p r i z e d possessions. It became her "homework book". She, " d u t i f u l l y " , used i t during free time or mark-making book time, and gently reminded her teachers when i t was time to take i t home. 4.7c) Interview # 1 - Mrs. Tiongco Crystal's father attended the i n i t i a l parent-teacher interview i n September. The idea of parents p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s learning through the use of the mark-making book on weekends was of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to him. His parting comment was, "Why wasn't t h i s done before when my other children attended the nursery program?" 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book l a . Mrs. Tiongco chose to represent the family as the main interview p a r t i c i p a n t i n the research study. She revealed during t h i s 232 interview that she was rel i e v e d to learn that the use of the mark-making book was only intended f o r weekends. Their hectic after-school schedule would have int e r f e r e d with the d a i l y home use of the mark-making book. She stated, "I thought i t would be an every day thing ...I said, "Oh, no! More work" (p. 1)! Mrs Tiongco, however, d i d admit that the weekend use of the mark-making book would benefit C r y s t a l . l b . P r i o r to i t s use, Mrs. Tiongo believed that the most valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the mark-making book was i t s role i n supporting the notion of homework, and as a means of supporting verbal and v i s u a l dialogue. She stated, "The idea that they are to do homework, and the idea that they'd be able to express t h e i r ideas, and how they f e e l about school or whatever they'd be t a l k i n g about" (p. 1). B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? The most appropriate time to work i n the mark-making book with Crystal was eit h e r during Sunday afternoon or that evening. The dining room table was a convenient place since the other children d i d t h e i r homework there, as well. Crystal wanted to be included with the group. It gave her the opportunity to work alongside with her brothers and s i s t e r s ; to observe what they were doing; and, to share with them what she had done. Mrs. Tiongco usually sat close to Cry s t a l , and helped her work i n the mark-making book. Occasionally, her eldest daughter would o f f e r to help. Although Mr. Tiongco thought the mark-making book was a good idea, he made no e f f o r t to use i t with C r y s t a l . Mrs. 233 Tiongco stated that he wasn't too sure how to go about i t . As the year progressed, however, and with some encouragement from the family, he eventually made the e f f o r t from time to time. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Tiongco enjoyed using the mark-making book with C r y s t a l . She stated, "Yes. A l i t t l e extra time that, you know, we're obligated to spend -- i t ' s d i f f e r e n t . At least you know that you have to read to her, and she knows that she has to do i t because i t has to be i n by Monday. So i t adds to her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " (p. 2). 2. Mrs. Tiongco observed that Crystal enjoyed using the mark-making book. She stated, "She r e a l l y works at i t . Now, she even has her own book. She pretends i t ' s her mark-making book. Af t e r supper she says, "Oh, I have to get to work" (p. 3)! Crystal p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed doing the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s . She enjoyed the opportunity of being able to take a walk outside with her mother. Mrs Tiongco stated, "The ones she enjoyed so f a r were walking i n the snow, and going outside to see what's there...she r e a l l y l i k e s drawing what she see from there" (p. 2). Mrs. Tiongco referred to the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s when she stated, "When you give us ideas on what to look for the pictures -- she's not r e a l l y into looking at pictures to see what's there" (p. 2). 3. Mrs. Tiongco believed that i t was a valuable learning experience. She stated, "It gives me an idea of where she's at. How 234 much she l i k e s the colours, when she draws things, or writes her name. It gives me an idea of what she can t e l l -- what she notices from the picture -- how imaginative she i s " (p. 2). D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Tiongco believed that using the mark-making book and the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s was d e f i n i t e l y a meaningful learning experience. She stated, "This i s new. I had other kids, and they didn't have anything l i k e t h i s i n nursery school or i n kindergarten. I think i t ' s a good idea" (p. 3). 2. Mrs. Tiongco observed that by using the mark-making book Crystal learned to be responsible. She stated, "She knows i t has to be done by Monday. She reminds me, 'My homework! My homework'" (p. 3)! Mrs. Tiongco further stated that she observed Crystal being more des c r i p t i v e i n her use of language and i n her drawings. 2. Components of Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated A c t i v i t i e s 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Tiongco f e l t that she was at a loss i n terms of thinking of innovative p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . She stated, "I prefer to have i t written" (p. 4). Instead, Mrs. Tiongco chose do the a c t i v i t i e s that she f e l t most comfortable with -- t a l k i n g with Crystal about various experiences then having her practice p r i n t i n g or draw i n the mark-235 making book. 2. Value o f the A c t i v i t y Both Mrs. Tiongco and Crystal enjoyed doing these a c t i v i t i e s . Mrs. Tiongco stated, "Yes, she always loved drawing. We always end-up t a l k i n g about what we d i d yesterday, or where we went, and we had to get her motivated" (p. 5). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y The a c t i v i t y concluded with family i n v i t i n g Crystal to use her mark-making book. Mrs. Tiongco stated, "Then we'd say, "Why don't you draw that, or write that" (p. 5). B . Art Appreciation A c t i v i t i e s 1. Nature o f the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday, Crystal would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. She and Mrs. Tiongco would both look at the art v i s u a l and use the questions as a guide to t a l k about the art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y would conclude by Mrs. Tiongco i n v i t i n g C r y s t a l to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2. Value o f the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Tiongco thought that i t was worthwhile teaching art 2 3 6 appreciation to Cr y s t a l . She stated, "She b a s i c a l l y recognized everything that was there, and she t r i e d to draw i t from her point of view" (p. 5). b. The most enjoyable aspect of using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s was s i t t i n g down with Crystal, looking at and t a l k i n g about the art v i s u a l s . Mrs. Tiongco stated, "To see what she l i k e d , how i t made her f e e l , and the way she pretended she was there" (p. 5). c. Mrs. Tiongco did not f i n d the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging; however, she observed that on a couple of occasions C r y s t a l was inattentive when they both looked at and talked about the art v i s u a l s . She stated, "Just looking at pictures sometimes -- when you give us ideas as to what to look f o r i n the pictures -- she'd rather t a l k about something else" (p. 2). Mrs Tiongco further stated, "Crystal just wants to draw. At times, you have to get a f t e r her to sort of concentrate on the picture. I guess she r e a l l y has to be interested i n the picture" (p. 7). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t i e s a. Mrs. Tiongco believed that using the mark-making book with the accompanying coloured art vi s u a l s was a good way to teach Crystal about art appreciation. She stated, "Yes, so they know what to look f o r . " Mrs. Tiongco continued to say, "It gives an idea what art i s " (p. 6) . b. Mrs. Tiongco didn't comment on whether the accompanying art 237 appreciation questions were h e l p f u l . She just stated, "We basically-followed the ins t r u c t i o n s " (p. 6). c. Mrs. Tiongco believed that doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s was personal learning experience, She stated, "It made me think...You know, i t kind of opens up your mind" (p. 7). Mrs. Tiongco, however, admitted, "I r e a l l y don't have time to s i t down and look at pict u r e s . Like, i t would be nice to go to a g a l l e r y or something and look at pictures" (p. 7). d. When Mrs. Tiongco was asked, "What do you think your c h i l d learned from these art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s ? " , she simply stated, "I asked her i f she wanted to be an a r t i s t , and she said, "No, but I ' l l r e a l l y t r y " (p. 7). C. Parents Choice Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Tiongco preferred doing the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s with C r y s t a l . They usually began the a c t i v i t y by taking a walk throughout t h e i r neighbourhood and observing t h e i r surroundings. Upon t h e i r return home, Crystal would be i n v i t e d to draw a picture i n response to the experience. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Tiongco stated, "I found that i t was the most enjoyable part. You know, being able to go out with you k i d and doing what 238 you're doing as part of school work -- thinking about what she was going to draw" (p. 7). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y On one occasion, Mrs. Tiongco stated, "I didn't t e l l her i t was about homework or anything. And, then we got i n , and I asked her, "Do you remember what we saw?" So she drew a van, snow and our neighbour's tree without the leaves" (p. 8). Mrs. Tiongco was pleased to learn that Crystal remembered most of the experience. She stated, "...we'd be walking there and she'd notice something I didn't think she'd remember. It was important to her because the next day I'd see her drawing or whatever" (p. 8) . 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mrs. Tiongco agreed that the mark-making book was useful i n terms of supporting school and home learning. She stated, "It kind of gives you an idea of how much they are w i l l i n g to do or able to do. You know, sometimes i n the nursery you r e a l l y would think they just play here play there. But, when they get home, you say, "Hey, You can write t h i s , or you can do t h i s . " It's just not songs and games at school. It opens up t h e i r minds, I would think" (p. 8). Mrs. Tiongco further stated, " I t makes the kids more responsible. They bring i t home, and they have to take i t back to school. That's one r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r i g h t there" (p.9). 4. Other Mrs. Tiongco stated, "...I know she's been enjoying t h i s book a l o t . I t ' d be nice to have th i s even i n kindergarten. The idea of them thinking, or her thinking that i t i s some kind of homework makes her f e e l proud and that builds up her self-esteem" (p. 9 ) . 4.7d) Interview # 2 - Mrs. Tiongco 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Response to the mark-making book's use over an extended period of time Mrs. Tiongco stated, "I f i n d that i t has helped her a l o t . Her drawing has improved, and when the weekend comes she knows that she has to do i t . Not that she has to, but she r e a l l y wants to because she r e a l l y enjoys i t a l o t . And l i k e before, she wants to draw more than she r e a l l y has to. She expresses her feelings towards whatever the theme i s through her drawings" (p. 1). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent supported the use of the mark-making book. Int. #2 The parent stated she observed her c h i l d was motivated to use the mark-making book; she became accustomed to a routine; and enjoyed expressing her feelings through drawing. 240 B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? Using the mark-making book became a share experience with the Tiongco family. Mrs. Tiongco stated, "A couple of times i t ' s been my ten year o ld daughter working with her. And, i t ' s usually when they have a book to read, and they t a l k about i t and then draw something about i t " (p. 1). Mrs. Tiongco continued to say, "Other times, i t ' s me or my husband. She wants both of us to be there" (p. 1). Usually the family works at the dining room table. The amount of time spent on the mark-making book depends on how long Crystal i s w i l l i n g to continue drawing. Mrs. Santos commented that Crystal w i l l spend at least half an hour drawing i n the mark-making book. There have been times where, as Mrs. Tiongco stated, "We have to t e l l her to stop" (p. 2). On occasion, the mark-making book travels to her cousin's home. As Mrs. Santos states, "She wants to show i t off to them. She t e l l s them that she has homework" (p. l ) . S h i f t : Int. #1 The father was apprehensive i n terms of using the mark-making with h i s c h i l d . Int. #2 Both parents became involved i n the use of the mark-making book; t h e i r c h i l d brought i t along when the family v i s i t e d r e l a t i v e s ; and t h e i r c h i l d used i t as a communication t o o l . 241 C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Tiongco enjoyed using the mark-making book. She stated, "It's got better for my husband, too" (p. 2). Although Mr. Tiongco supported the idea of the mark-making book, he f e l t he wasn't experienced enough to use the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s , and they would probably take too long to do. However, Mrs. Tiongco stated, "I t o l d him they just gave us an idea of what to talk about. And then I said, "So just s i t there and talk about the picture" (p. 2). Mrs. Tiongco further stated, "Sometimes we wrote a l i t t l e comment at end about how she reacted" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parents were becoming accustomed to the sense of routine, and the notion of spending, "quality time", with t h e i r c h i l d ; they also observed that the c h i l d was developing a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Int. #2 Both parents came to enjoy using the mark-making book with t h e i r c h i l d . 2. Mrs. Tiongco observed that Crystal enjoyed using the mark-making book. She stated, "Especially, when we do her mark-making book when her brother and s i s t e r do t h e i r homework assignments. She f e e l s l i k e one of them now. Not that we think of i t as a r e a l assignment f o r her, but i t makes her f e e l as i f she's one of them -- school kids" (p. 2) . 242 S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent observed her c h i l d was motivated to use the mark-making book on a regular basis; she preferred p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s because of the parental involvement; a rt appreciation a c t i v i t i e s at t h i s point were not appealing. Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d continued to enjoy using the mark-making book, e s p e c i a l l y when she worked together with s i b l i n g s . 3. Mrs. Tiongco believed using the mark-making book was a valuable experience. She stated, "Yes. The time we spent doing whatever -- i t was with her. Drawing or writing. She'd love to write about everything she's drawing" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. #1 The mark-making book was seen as a tangible means of "showing" the parent her ch i l d ' s learning development; It supported verbal, p i c t o r i a l , and written expression, as well as stimulating her imagination. Int. #2 The parent valued the, "quality time", spent with her c h i l d ; the use of the mark-making book continued to support p i c t o r i a l and written expression. D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mrs. Tiongco believed that using the accompanying mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s was a personal learning experience. She stated, "Sometimes i t ' s hard to get ideas of what to do so these questions or 243 suggestions r e a l l y helped us guide her long i n her learning. Mrs. Tiongco r e f e r r e d to the "Bedtime", v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y which involved taking a bath, then doing a drawing i n response the experience. She stated, "She even wanted us to give her a bath because she forgot what she does when she takes one. So, we did, and put her to bed, and d i d her mark-making book. She even drew a bed or something at that point. The idea of using a sea s h e l l as a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y was appealing to Mrs. Tiongco, as well. She stated, "They v i s u a l i z e d the texture, or what was inside there before. She brought i t home and t r i e d to draw i t . She could see a l l the l i t t l e designs i n i t . I think she thought there was a l i t t l e monster i n i t , so she t r i e d to draw a f r i e n d l y s h e l l . She t r i e d to think about the other types of sea s h e l l that she had at school" (p. 3). S h i f t : I n t . #1 The parent regarded the use of the mark-making book as a novel, and meaningful way to teach children. I n t . #2 The parent learned that the use of the mark-making book supported parent education i n terms of the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s ; i t stimulated her ch i l d ' s imagination; i t supported the learning of the elements of design; the development of perceptive s k i l l s ; and was a tangible means of reminding the c h i l d of the a c t i v i t i e s that transpired at school. 2. Mrs. Tiongco believed that using the mark-making book was a meaningful learning experience f o r Cry s t a l . She stated, "I think her 244 vocabulary has improved a l o t , too. Sometimes she'd come up with words that I never heard her say. I don't know i f she learned them from school or from T.V., or from whatever. I ask her where she learned them, and she says, 'Because I'm smart'. I can see i t through her drawings what they've learned. She's r e a l l y absorbing what they have done at school. And, she's showing me through her drawings and the colours that she uses, and through the counting. So, I'm sure they cover that at school. She has also learned through her mark-making book that, although she cannot write words yet or sentences, she can express her feelings about the picture or book, or whatever i t i s through her drawings and the colours that she uses" (p. 3). S h i f t : I n t . #1 The parent credited the use of the mark-making book f o r supporting her chi l d ' s vocabulary and p i c t o r i a l development; and fo r teaching her c h i l d a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n t . #2 The parent observed her c h i l d continued to be motivated to learn through the mark-making book whether at school or at home. Through i t s use, she was being taught that meaning making through drawing was valued as a means of self-expression. It continued to support vocabulary and p i c t o r i a l development; and the learning of simple math concepts. 245 2. Components of the Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Usually the a c t i v i t y involved t a l k i n g about what the family d i d on the weekend, or a sp e c i a l event. Crystal would be i n v i t e d to respond to the experience i n her mark-making book. Mrs. Tiongco stated, "Lets say i f we went outside, s h e ' l l t r y to draw the snow, i f we made a snowman" (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent stated she preferred to use the accompanying mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . However, she d i d i n i t i a t e conversations with her c h i l d that dealt with family outings or speci a l events, then she would be encouraged to p r i n t and draw i n the mark-making book. Int. #2 The parent continued to engage her c h i l d i n a c t i v i t i e s that encouraged her to r e f l e c t on family outings, then to draw her feelings about the experiences i n the mark-making book. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Tiongco found value i n t h i s a c t i v i t y because i t involved the entir e family at times. They enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s , and even taking about them afterwards. S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent regarded the mark-making as a valued means 2 4 6 of supporting her chi l d ' s love for drawing; and i t s use encouraged parent-chiId communication. Int. #2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s became a family a f f a i r . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Tiongco believed that Crystal was learning to value her thoughts by drawing them i n the mark-making book. She stated, "She t r i e s to describe what she did through her drawings, or what she experienced. So, she's learning to express herself, or to draw a l i t t l e journal" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent supported learning through the mark-making book by encouraging her c h i l d to draw or write about personal experiences. Int. #2 The c h i l d continued to be encouraged to draw or write about personal experiences i n the mark-making book. B . Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every second Friday of the month, Crystal would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. Both she and Mrs. Tiongco would s i t together, look at the art vi s u a l s and use the questions as a guide to t a l k about the a rt work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Mrs. Tiongco i n v i t i n g Crystal to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme of•the art v i s u a l . 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Tiongco believed that i t was worthwhile teaching art appreciation to young children. She stated, "I think i t i s . When I see other people interested i n art and i t makes me wonder because I myself am not into a r t . But I think that getting children acquainted with these ideas, or opening t h e i r minds to art -- i t ' s a good s t a r t . They might never get interested i n i t , but when they do i t at school, i t might be t h e i r f i e l d when they grow up" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent was able to observe her c h i l d ' s l e v e l of v i s u a l perception and her drawing response to the theme of the art v i s u a l . Int. #2 The parent supported the value of the art appreciation component from the point of view of the c h i l d . It exposed children to ways of knowing that could be of future benefit. b. Mrs. Tiongo observed that Crystal enjoyed doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s by the behaviour she displayed as she drew i n the mark-making book. She referred to a mark-making book entry that Crystal enjoyed drawing. It was a drawing response to Matisse's, 248 "Goldfish". She stated, "I think i t was a f t e r you had just talked about the painting. This painting was s t i l l fresh i n her mind, so she knew what to look f o r and draw" (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent enjoyed the parent-child communication that evolved as a resulted of engaging i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d enjoy p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . c. Mrs. Tiongco didn't f i n d the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging. She stated, "There wasn't anything challenging because i t just came natural for her, just to draw what she sees and observe and v i s u a l i z e -- what i t i s about t h i s a r t " (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent didn't f i n d the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s challenging, however, she observed her c h i l d preferred to draw instead of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d was more responsive to the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s over an extended period of time. She came to enjoy t a l k i n g about the art v i s u a l s and drawing i n response to the theme. 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. Mrs. Tiongco agreed that attaching coloured art v i s u a l s i n the mark-making book was a good idea. She stated, "I think so. It l e t s 2 4 9 them s i t down and look at the picture, and v i s u a l i z e the colours. And, i t gives them an idea of what art i s . It gives them a chance to respond to i t -- whether they l i k e i t or not. I t ' s a good idea" (p. 4) . S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent supported the use of the art v i s u a l s . She believed the experience allowed her c h i l d the opportunity to develop v i s u a l perception s k i l l s , and an appreciation f o r art. Int. #2 The parent continued to support the use of the art v i s u a l s . She valued the idea that children were given an opportunity to ve r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y respond to the various works of art and t h e i r themes. b. Mrs. Tiongco found the accompanying art appreciation questions very h e l p f u l . She stated, "It gives us an idea what to ta l k about. As I said, I'm not into art so I wouldn't know what to ta l k about, or what to look f o r . So we just followed the guidelines from there" (p. 5) . S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent acknowledged using the questions that accompanied each of the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . Int. #2 Due to her inexperience with art, the parent appreciated having the questions available to use with her c h i l d . 250 c. Mrs. Tiorigco learned that by doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with her daughter, as she stated, "I can see that she appreciates art i n some way by the way she looks at the p i c t u r e " (p.5). S h i f t : I n t . #1 The parent believed using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with her c h i l d contributed to her own personal learning. She was not f a m i l i a r with t h i s way of making meaning, and appreciated being given the opportunity to learn about a r t . I n t . #2 The parent learned that her c h i l d was becoming interested i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s by the way she looked at the art v i s u a l s . d. Mrs. Tiongco noticed that Crystal formed her own opinion about art and a r t i s t s while doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . She stated that Crystal believes that, "Drawing can make you famous" (p. 5). Mrs Tiongco continued to say, "She t e l l s me i t ' s been drawn by -- she doesn't remember the name, but i t ' s somebody that her teacher knows" (p. 5). S h i f t : I n t . #1 The parent didn't give a d i r e c t answer to t h i s question. It was clear by the c h i l d ' s response, however, that she eager to please her mother. I n t . #2 The parent observed that her c h i l d began to favourably respond to the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . 251 C. Parents' Choice of A c t i v i t i e s 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Tiongco chose to talk about a v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t y which involved parents c o l l e c t i n g postage stamps for the "Holiday Mail" theme. The intent of the a c t i v i t y was to have the c h i l d r e n look at and t a l k about the art work that was represented on the stamps. Then they glued them into t h e i r mark-making book with the help of an adult. The a c t i v i t y concluded by i n v i t i n g the children to draw a stamp design of t h e i r own i n t h e i r mark-making books. S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent preferred p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the v i s u a l awareness component. Int. #2 The parent continued to prefer p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the v i s u a l awareness component. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mrs. Tiongco observed that Crystal enjoyed doing t h i s a c t i v i t y . She stated, "Every day she asked i f we had any stamps. A l o t of the stamps my mom c o l l e c t e d from l e t t e r s she gets from back home" (p. 6 ) . S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent enjoyed taking her c h i l d on family outings, and enjoyed a n t i c i p a t i n g what might be drawn i n the mark-making book. Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d was independently 252 motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . 3 . Learning Through the Activity-Mrs. Tiongco noticed that Crystal began to take an i n t e r e s t i n what stamps were used for. She stated, "Because when she sees me wri t i n g a l e t t e r , she knows I have to get stamps f o r them. She has an idea about stamps" (p. 6 ) . S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent was pleased to observe the development of her c h i l d ' s v i s u a l perceptive s k i l l s ; and she also showed she was able to r e c a l l t h e i r family outings, through her drawings i n her mark-making book. Int. #2 The parent observed her c h i l d was motivated by the use of stamps. Not only because i t originated as a mark-making book a c t i v i t y , but the c h i l d also noticed her mother using stamps to post mail. 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mrs. Tiongco stated, "I think that t h i s mark-making book gives parents more of an idea of where the k i d i s at school, rather than the kids j u s t bringing some art work home everyday. Sometime we can't r e a l l y t e l l what i t i s that they've drawn, and we have to wait f o r the parent-teacher interview to learn about what they have done -- i n a couple of months or whatever i t i s . But with t h i s mark-making book, i t gives us an idea of where they stand or how they adapt to things" 253 (p. 6) . S h i f t : Int. #1 The parent valued the notion of the mark-making book regu l a r l y supporting school-home communication; and that i t s use developed i n children a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . It informed the parent what i s being taught at school, and of the progress i n her c h i l d ' s learning development. Int. #2 The parent continued to value the notion of the mark-making book supporting school-home communication. It reg u l a r l y informed the parent of what was being taught at school; and the progress i n her c h i l d ' s learning development. This tangible means of communication empowered the parent to immediately act upon any learning d i f f i c u l t i e s that may a r i s e . 4. Most Valuable Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Mark-Making Book Mrs. Tiongco stated, "I think i t ' s the time that we spend with our c h i l d doing the a c t i v i t i e s . I read somewhere that time i s the most valuable thing that you can spend on your children. So, no matter how busy we are, somehow i t s t i l l comes to me that i t ' s s t i l l very important that we spend time with them. Even through t h i s -- the mark-making book. Not that we don't spend time with them, but the bonding part i s there" (p. 6). S h i f t : Int. #1 P r i o r to the use of the mark-making book, the parent anticipated that the most valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the mark-making book were: i t ' s value i n supporting the 254 notion of, "homework", and acting as a tangible means of supporting a c h i l d ' s verbal and v i s u a l dialogue. I n t . #2 The parent came to r e a l i z e spending "quality time" was another a t t r i b u t e of the mark-making book experience. 5. C o n t i n u e d Use o f t h e M a r k - M a k i n g B o o k Mrs. Tiongco stated, "I'd strongly recommend i t . Not just f o r the time that I mentioned e a r l i e r -- the time spent with your children, but also I get to keep i t so i t ' s a good remembrance -- a keepsake. When they make drawings, you can't r e a l l y put them aside or keep them forever. But t h i s mark-making book i s a good idea. It helps them a l o t with t h e i r learning, too" (p. 6). 6. O t h e r Mrs. Tiongco had no other comments to make. 4.8) C a s e S t u d y # 8 - T h e Wong f a m i l y 4.8a) F a m i l y P o r t r a i t Dr. and Mrs. Wong were born and educated i n central China. P r i o r to immigrating Canada i n 1994, the family l i v e d i n New York C i t y where Dr. Wong spent two years completing post-doctoral work i n medical science at Rockerfeller University. Currently, Dr. Wong i s a medical researcher with the Manitoba In s t i t u t e of C e l l Biology which i s 255 a f f i l i a t e d with the Cancer Foundation at the Health Sciences complex i n Winnipeg. Mrs. Wong trained as a secretary i n China, and eventually became an administrative assistant with a Chinese pharmaceutical firm. This past year, she studied the English language at the Winnipeg Adult Education Centre. Mr. and Mrs. Wong's eldest c h i l d , four year o l d Jenny, was born i n China; while t h e i r young son Bowen i s American born. The Wong family chose to l i v e i n t h i s neighbourhood due to the loc a t i o n of Dr. Wong's place of work and daycare f a c i l i t i e s . The main language spoken at home and within t h e i r s o c i a l c i r c l e of i s Mandarin. The Wong family strongly believe i n maintaining t h e i r c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c heritage. 4.8b) Jenny Wong - nursery c h i l d - age four P r i o r to attending Wellington School's nursery program, Jenny stayed at home with her mother and young brother. Her knowledge of the English language was li m i t e d since the main language spoken at home and within the family's s o c i a l c i r c l e i s Mandarin. Jenny's d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , aside from watching children's programming on t e l e v i s i o n , playing with toys, and being taken on outings, included being read to i n Chinese and English, and being shown how write Chinese characters and p r i n t the English alphabet. Jenny's f i r s t month at Wellington School proved to be somewhat of a traumatic experience. As well as attending the Wellington School nursery program i n the morning, she was also sent to a l o c a l daycare 256 i n the afternoon. Each morning Jenny would cry f o r at least ten minutes. However, the comfort of being held close and hugging a cuddly toy eventually help her become calm. She eventually came to accept the nursery s e t t i n g and proved to be a very sociable l i t t l e g i r l . As she acquired the English language with ease, Jenny became more vocal during c i r c l e - t i m e , and thoroughly enjoyed singing and dramatic play when the opportunity arose. Drawing, painting, and working at the c r a f t time were a c t i v i t i e s Jenny chose to do on a d a i l y basis. She p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed using the mark-making book eith e r during free play or during mark-making book time. Aside from drawing i n i t or making a collage, Jenny would occasionally f l i p through the book, look at what she had previously accomplished then share her work with c h i l d r e n nearby. 4.8c) Interview # 1 - Mr. Wong 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Attitude Towards the Mark-Making Book 1. Mr. Wong's i n i t i a l attitude towards the mark-making book was very p o s i t i v e . He stated, "At that time, I though that i t was a great i d e a , . . . i t d e f i n i t e l y encourages parent and c h i l d communication... t h i s i s very good for a ch i l d ' s development. I wasn't too sure how well I could do, but since I f e l t i t was a good idea, I decided to go ahead" (p. 1). 257 2. Mr Wong believed the most valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the mark-making book was i t s role i n supporting parental involvement i n a ch i l d ' s learning. He stated, "I think the parent's involvement i n the development of the c h i l d ' s education i s very important, and at home you learn from the c h i l d what he or she learned at school. In the meantime, you spend time with your c h i l d , and you teach her something you learned from your childhood" (p. 1). 3. Now, that I've experienced using the mark-making book, I r e a l i z e i t d e f i n i t e l y encourages parent and c h i l d communication. I t ' s very good for a ch i l d ' s learning and physical development" (p. 1). B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? Each Friday a f t e r school, Jenny would show Mr. Wong her mark-making book and the accompanying a c t i v i t y sheet. He would place Jenny on his lap, read through sheet, then both of them would spend about t h i r t y minutes doing the a c t i v i t y . The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Jenny drawing a picture i n the mark-making book. C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mr. Wong admitted that he enjoyed using the mark-making book. He stated, "Oh, sure. D e f i n i t e l y . Sometimes, you f e e l the stress of work, but you get home, and l i t t l e c h i l d s i t s down on you lap and you read a book together. You forget a l l about your worries as you enjoy your c h i l d ' s company" (p. 2). 258 2. Mr. Wong admitted that there were a couple of times where Jenny l o s t i n t e r e s t a f t e r about f i f t e e n minutes and chose to do something else. However, i n general, both he and Jenny enjoyed the time spent together. He stated, " I ' l l read a story, then we might t a l k about what kind of a story i t i s , or what i t was about, or what colours she saw, or what's her favourite kind of a picture she l i k e s . So then we might go through a l l our pictures and t a l k i n g about them some more. Then she might t e l l me what she d i d i n school during the day" (p. 1). Mr. Wong admitted that he wasn't very good at drawing, but both he and Jenny would t a l k about the a c t i v i t y and get i t done. 3. Mr. Wong believed using the mark-making book with Jenny was a valuable experience. He stated, "I think that a parent's involvement i n a c h i l d ' s education i s very important" (p. 1). D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mr. Wong admitted that using the mark-making book was a meaningful personal learning experience. He stated, "At home you learn from the c h i l d what he or she learned at school. And, as you spend time with your c h i l d , you teach her things that you learned from your childhood" (p. 1). 2. Mr. Wong observed that Jenny experienced learning i n many ways. Mr. Wong stated, "She learned about colours shapes, and even how to investigate things, and even that nature matters. She f e e l s very good about what she has done. Now, she even writes Chinese characters. 259 From my point of view that's b ig progress" (p. 2). Mr. Wong further stated, "And now, she can write from one to twenty, and about ten Chinese characters" (p. 4). 2. Components of Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Wong attempted a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s with Jenny. He took the opportunity to use the mark-making book to teach Jenny how to write Chinese characters. He would write below her drawing i n Chinese instead of English. Mr. Wong would also encourage Jenny to draw i n her mark-making book. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y The Wong family values t h e i r c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c heritage. Mr. Wong took the opportunity to support Jenny's learning of Chinese through the use of the mark-making book. He also believed that drawing was a meaningful way for a young c h i l d to learn. Mr Wong stated, I have to admit I'm not good with drawing, but we did i t together" (p- 3) . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mr. Wong took the opportunity to teach Jenny about her c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c heritage. Referring to the writing of Chinese 260 characters, he stated, "Some words look l i k e a picture so when a student i s writing, she w i l l learn how to draw a picture -- that the same concept" (p. 2). Mr Wong also mentioned that Jenny can write about 10 Chinese characters. In terms of drawing, Mr. Wong stated, "She d e f i n i t e l y knows d i f f e r e n t colours, and how to mix d i f f e r e n t colours together, you know. And now, she draws a picture more b e a u t i f u l l y , not just a straight l i n e or a wavy l i n e " (p. 2). B . A r t Appreciation Component 1. Nature o f t h e A c t i v i t y Every second Friday, Jenny would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. She and Mr. Wong would both look at the art v i s u a l and use the questions as a guide to. t a l k about the art work and the a r t i s t . The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Jenny drawing i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. 2. Value o f t h e A c t i v i t y a. Mr. Wong believed that art appreciation was worthwhile teaching young children. He stated, "Oh yes, d e f i n i t e l y . I t ' s a good idea. It's never too early to get the children involved. Mr. Wong referred to Ted Harrison's painting e n t i t l e d , "Sled of Dreams", when he stated, "For example, t h i s i s about snow. Here we learn about using d i f f e r e n t colours to make the picture move, using 261 colour to express peoples feelings -- happy fe e l i n g s . Yes, t h i s i s a very good idea" (p. 3). b. Mr. Wong admitted that he enjoyed using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Jenny i n terms of the conversations they shared." He stated, "Oh yes, I showed her the picture and asked her questions about -- what was t h i s about? And, she would t e l l me, her point of view" (p. 3). c. Mr. Wong admitted that he did not f i n d using the art appreciation v i s u a l s challenging. He stated, "That was the most enjoyable part f o r me because as I said when I was a c h i l d , I didn't have the opportunity to learn about art appreciation. I would look at the picture, then look at the questions, and then do the a c t i v i t y with Jenny." Further on during the interview, however, Mr. Wong stated, "Since, I wasn't f a m i l i a r with art appreciation, I, f i r s t , had to learn about i t myself. So, i t was kind of challenging" (p. 6) . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. Mr. Wong admitted that using the mark-making book with the accompanying colour art v i s u a l s was a good way to each Jenny about art appreciation. He stated, "Yes, t h i s i s a very good way to teach art appreciation" (p. 3). b. Mr. Wong admitted that he found using the art appreciation questions h e l p f u l . He stated, "You just ask, "What i s i t about, or what are the people doing, or what kind of colours does she see" 262 (p. 4)? He further stated, "It was easy to understand" (p. 4). c. Using the mark-making book while doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s was a personal learning experience for Mr. Wong. He s p e c i f i c a l l y referred to a drawing Jenny drew i n response to the theme of an art v i s u a l . He stated, "I'm not that good with drawing, but when we do i t together, we learn from each other. Sometimes she draws something unusual. For example, she might use a d i f f e r e n t colour to draw something that normally wouldn't be that colour. But, she explains her point of view, and I learn something from her, too" (p- 4) . d. Mr. Wong observed that Jenny learned, "how to ta l k about art and how to draw" (p. 4). C. Parent's Choice of Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Of the four mark-making book components, Mr. Wong favoured the children's l i t e r a t u r e component the most. Every t h i r d Friday of the month Jenny would bring home a children's book with an accompanying a c t i v i t y sheet. Mr. Wong would read to her on his lap. "He stated, I would read the story i n both languages. F i r s t , i n Chinese, then i n English" (p. 5). Once he was done, they would t a l k about the story and the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n Chinese and English. The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Jenny being i n v i t e d to draw a picture i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme or the story. 263 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Wong enjoyed doing the children's l i t e r a t u r e component with Jenny. This was evident throughout the entire interview. Whenever he f e l t there was an opportunity to comment on the experience, he would describe i n d e t a i l what Jenny and he shared. He stated, "Oh, yes. The most enjoyable part was a f t e r I read the book and I showed her an example of the picture. I'd ask her, 'What i s i t about?', and she would give me her point of view. For example, whether i t was a story she l i k e d or a picture, she would compare i t to what might have happened at school. Some people might have done the same thing as i n the story or i n the picture. She would t e l l me i f the event was si m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t . That was most enjoyable" (p. 3). Mr. Wong continued to say, "After that she would t e l l me from her view, her version of the story. Sometimes i t ' s kind of funny because i t ' s from a four year old kid's view of how to look at the world. So, n a t u r a l l y I -- I w i l l learn something from that, I think" (p. 4 ). He also believed that doing t h i s a c t i v i t y was valuable because he was able to use the Chinese language while doing t h i s a c t i v i t y (p. 5). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mr. Wong found t h i s a c t i v i t y challenging i n a couple of ways. He stated, "Maybe you don't r e a l i z e how to be a teacher. During t h i s experience, you learn how to be a good f i r s t teacher. Secondly, you 264 might not f e e l comfortable t a l k i n g about the drawings during t h i s a c t i v i t y " (p. 5). He further stated, "It might be d i f f i c u l t , you know to get one story i n both languages" (p. 5). Mr. Wong took t h i s opportunity, as he stated, "to learn how to use both languages" (p. 5). He observed that Jenny learned to express her point of view i n terms of what she thought about the story. Mr. Wong was hoping that Jenny would learn to appreciate both the Chinese and English cultures. He stated, "I think i t would prepare her more for the future" (p. 5). 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mr. Wong wholeheartedly supported the notion of the mark-making book l i n k i n g learning between the school and the home environments. "Oh, t h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y a very good t i e to get the parents and the teacher i n the school together. Because as I said before, during t h i s process you w i l l learn what she did i n the school. At the same time you might f i n d what's a weak point and what's a strong point of your c h i l d . And I w i l l be more prepared f o r the future development of my daughter, fo r how to deal with the weak points, how to incorporate the strong points. You w i l l learn something from her too. You w i l l be more prepared to be a good f i r s t teacher. It's very important, I think every school should have t h i s kind of a program to encourage the planning of teachers working together for childrens' education" (p. 5) . 265 4. Other: "If we didn't have the mark-making book we'd probably spend time just watching t e l e v i s i o n . And, we wouldn't know what ch i l d r e n d i d at school. Maybe they're having problems, but you don't know" (p. 4). "I w i l l d e f i n i t e l y appreciate the teacher i n t h i s program to encourage the parents and the school working together f o r the children's education. D e f i n i t e l y a good idea. We should have t h i s program f o r every school. That would be very good f o r the childrens' future, f o r the nations's future" (p. 5). 4.8d) Interview # 2 - Mr. Wong 1. Mark-Making Book - Purpose and General Value A. Response to the Mark-Making Book's Use Over an Extended Period of Time Mr. Wong stated, "I think the mark-making book i s a r e a l l y good idea. It encourages parent-child communication. Jenny has learned a l o t . As I look through her mark-making book, I see she has done much better than before. I would say, -- largely, because of the mark-making book" (p. 1). S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent maintained that the mark-making book supported parent-child communication. Int. # 2 The parent credited the mark-making book f o r 266 contributing to his ch i l d ' s learning development. B. How the Mark-Making Book was Used? Mr. and Mrs. Wong both shared the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of working with Jenny i n the mark-making book every Saturday evening for about 3 0 minutes. Mr. Lee stated, "Usually on a Saturday night. A f t e r a whole week everyone i s t i r e d , so i t ' s Saturday" (p. 1). On occasion, both Jenny and L i n g l i n g work i n t h e i r mark-making books together i n ei t h e r Jenny's apartment or i n Lingling's. S h i f t : Int. # 2 The use of the mark-making book changed from Friday night to Saturday evening; and his c h i l d was re g u l a r l y joined by her f r i e n d to do the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . C. A f f e c t i v e Response to the Mark-Making Book 1. Mr. Wong enjoyed using the mark-making book with Jenny. He stated, "Oh, yes. There's no doubt about that. I ' l l keep saying t h i s for a long time. Why I say t h i s i s because now l i f e i s tough. You spend a whole day at work, and you come home, and a l i t t l e c h i l d wants share with you her or his ideas, or what she or he has done at the school. And, naturally, as you share t h i s experience with your c h i l d , you forget the stress of the day. That's very enjoyable" (p. 2). 267 S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated he enjoyed spending "q u a l i t y time" with his c h i l d while using the mark-making book. 2. Mr. Wong observed that Jenny enjoyed using the mark-making book whether she worked with her parents, independently, or with L i n g l i n g . Mr. Wong stated, "If I ask her, 'Do you want to t r y another one?' She i s w i l l i n g to do more" (p. 2). He continued to say, "When she f e e l s she's done well, she shows me her work -- she's very proud. I quite enjoy that" (p. 2). S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated that he observed that his c h i l d looked forward to using her mark-making book; she enjoyed working i n her mark-making book; she enjoyed showing and ta l k i n g about the work done i n her mark-making book. 3. Mr. Wong believed using the mark-making book was a valuable experience f o r both Jenny and him. He stated, "The most valuable thing about t h i s i s that i t encouraged parent-child communication. It tightens the key between you and your c h i l d -- you can learn something from your c h i l d . At the same time, you can teach a l o t of things to your c h i l d . It improved her schedule, and helped her gain more confidence" (p. 2). 268 S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that i t supported parental involvement. Int. # 2 The parent stated i t supported his c h i l d ' s s e l f -confidence, parent c h i l d bonding, parent-child communication, and i t s use became a routine. D. Perceived Learning Through the Mark-Making Book 1. Mr Wong believed he personally learned a way of teaching c h i l d r e n that was quite d i f f e r e n t from his own upbringing. He stated, "I grew up i n China. I see two d i f f e r e n t cultures. For example, i f the c h i l d did something not appropriate, i n our country the parents c r i t i c i z e . But over here the parent w i l l encourage the c h i l d . Before as parents, we c r i t i c i s e d . But now, we combine the two ideas together. We don't c r i t i c i s e too much. Sometime you need to encourage your c h i l d . In that case, she w i l l get confidence i n what he or she i s doing. So, I w i l l say that's an example of what I learned from t h i s one experience" (p. 2). Mr. Wong also believed that doing the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with Jenny revealed away of learning that he had never experienced before. He stated, "When I was a c h i l d , due to some reason, I d i d not have t h i s kind of opportunity. So, naturally, I didn't have much of an opinion about art appreciation. I didn't even know what to t a l k about. But during t h i s experience of using the mark-making book, I've benefited" (p. 3). 269 S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated i t supported parent-child communication. Int. # 2 The parent stated that he came to learn the value of supporting a young c h i l d ' s learning through encouragement; and, using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s exposed him to a way of learning he had never experienced before. 2. Mr. Wong observed Jenny and L i n g l i n g as they both worked i n the mark-making book. He stated, "I w i l l say during these two or three months, both of them have improved a l o t , and they found using i t quite enjoyable. Now, they seem to know what they want to do, and they express t h e i r ideas c o r r e c t l y . I would say they have made a l o t of progress" (p. 3). Mr. Wong also observed that Jenny had gained more confidence i n her drawing a b i l i t i e s . He stated, "Now, when she draws a picture, i t ' s done very quickly, and much better" (p. 1). Mr. Wong observed that Jenny learned what he believed were basic, " s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s " . He stated, "Along with learning about art appreciation, she also learned about colour, shape, simple math - counting. This i s a foundation f o r learning. We have t o l d them a l l the s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s " (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that i t supported h i s c h i l d ' s s e l f -esteem, the learning of the elements of design, simple science and math concepts, and the writing of Chinese characters. 270 Int. # 2 The parent stated that his c h i l d became more confident i n her ways of drawing. He noticed an improvement i n her drawing approach. The parent also repeated that h i s c h i l d was expose to simple science and math concepts, as well as art appreciation and learning about the elements of design. 2. Components of the Mark-Making Book Learning Process A. Parent-Initiated Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Usually Mr. Wong would ask Jenny i f she had any ideas as to what she might l i k e to do. He stated, " I ' l l read a story to her, show her how to count, I ' l l explain some Chinese characters to her, and t e l l her a story that way" (p. 3) . S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent continued to emphasized the learning of the Chinese language and the writing of Chinese characters. He also stated that he began to i n v i t e h i s c h i l d to contribute to the decision making process as to what they might do i n the mark-making book. 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Although Mr. Wong acknowledged that the p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were worthwhile doing, he stated that t h i s component was a, "tough one" (p. 3). He had d i f f i c u l t y thinking of a c t i v i t i e s on h i s own. The a c t i v i t i e s he did decide to do with Jenny r e f l e c t e d what he believed she might want or need to learn. He stated, "If the topic i s 271 decided at school, then I have something to prepare. But t h i s one i s too wide, so I imagine what she wants to do" (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated the use of the mark-making book support the learning of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l heritage; and that drawing was a valuable way of making meaning, therefore, his c h i l d was encouraged to draw. Int. # 2 The parent stated that he had d i f f i c u l t y deciding what other a c t i v i t i e s to do. 3 . Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mr. Wong took the opportunity to teach Jenny how to write Chinese characters i n the mark-making book (p. 3). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that h i s c h i l d was observed experimenting with colours, and that her approach to drawing improved. Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated that he continued to emphasize learning through the Chinese language, and the writing of Chinese characters. B. Art Appreciation Component 1. Nature of A c t i v i t y Every second Friday, Jenny would bring home the mark-making book with an attached art v i s u a l and accompanying art appreciation questions. She and Mr. Wong would both look at and t a l k about the art v i s u a l using the questions as a guide. The a c t i v i t y would conclude by 272 Jenny being i n v i t e d to draw i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme of the art v i s u a l . 2. Value of A c t i v i t y a. Mr. Wong f e l t that the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s were worth-while teaching young children. He stated, "Yes, I would say so. A c h i l d i s never too young to learn about art appreciation. A c h i l d might look at a art v i s u a l and f i n d that the idea of the painting i s s i m i l a r to what they were hoping to paint or draw about. The c h i l d might say, "My idea i s good!" Some people can paint that, so I can do that, too. This experience gives children more confidence, more opportunity to be proud of themselves, and what they are thinking about" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent emphasized the value of learning about colour. Int. # 2 The parent stated that he observed that the experience encouraged his c h i l d to express l i k e ideas as those of the a r t i s t ; and i t supported her a f f e c t i v e development. b. Mr. Wong enjoyed t a l k i n g to Jenny about each art v i s u a l . He stated, "It's an opportunity f o r the c h i l d to t e l l you what she l i k e s about i t . You know, sometimes you get a r e a l l y fresh idea, you know. How to look at the picture? How to appreciate i t " (p. 5)? 273 S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated that he enjoyed using the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s with his c h i l d . The experience supported parent-child communication. c. Mr. Wong didn't mention that he found the art appreciation questions challenging. Mr. Wong stated, "No, no, t a l k i n g about them, as I said on a previous occasion -- i t wasn't hard at a l l " (p. 4). 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y a. Mr. Wong believed that using the mark-making book with the accompanying coloured art v i s u a l s was a good way to teach Jenny about art appreciation. He was pleased with the fact that they were of such good q u a l i t y . He stated, "When the children look at i t , they might say, "Oh, my gosh! It's so b e a u t i f u l ! And i t ' s i n my mark-making book. They w i l l f e e l very proud" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated that, i n general, the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s were not challenging. S h i f t : Int. # 2 The parent stated that he observed that they were "good qu a l i t y " reproductions, and his c h i l d treasured the fact that they were glued into her mark-making book. 274 b. Mr. Wong believed that the accompanying art appreciation questions were very h e l p f u l . He stated, "Yes, the questions stated were quite d e t a i l e d -- they were very h e l p f u l . Mr. Wong would sometimes used hi s own ideas to question Jenny. An example he used was, "What i s the drawing supposed to predict" ( p. 4). He stated, "If the c h i l d drew the prediction, why did they draw i t ? From that predication, you w i l l know much better how the c h i l d i s thinking at that time" (p. 4). S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated that the accompanying art appreciation questions were very h e l p f u l i n terms of discussing each a r t v i s u a l . c. Mr. Wong believed he personally learned to appreciate d i f f e r e n t points of view i n terms of art appreciation. He stated, "Children have a d i f f e r e n t point of view -- sometimes you need to look at i t from d i f f e r e n t point of view" (p. 5). S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated that the use of the mark-making book supported parent-child communication i n terms of personally learning from each others' point of view. d. Mr. Wong observed that learning through the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s was a meaningful learning experience fo r Jenny. He ref e r r e d 275 to Matisse's painting, e n t i t l e d , "Goldfish", when he stated, "She t o l d me, "There are some f i s h over there", then I noticed i t was a r e f l e c t i o n --we talked about i t " (p. 5). Mr. Wong continued to say, "She learned about d i f f e r e n t colours, shapes, v i s u a l l i n e s , how to express ideas i n a d i f f e r e n t way -- using colours or shapes" (p. 6). These ideas were drawn i n Jenny's mark-making book. S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated that the art v i s u a l s supported learning about art through verbal and v i s u a l dialogue. Int. # 2 The parent stated that the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s supported the learning of the elements of design, and motivated his c h i l d to explore d i f f e r e n t ways of making meaning through drawing. C. Parent's Choice of Component 1. Nature of the A c t i v i t y Every t h i r d Friday of the month Jenny would bring home a children's book with an accompanying a c t i v i t y sheet. Mr. Wong would read the book while Jenny would look at the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and l i s t e n to the story. Once the story was read they would t a l k about i t and the i l l u s t r a t i o n s using the questions i n the a c t i v i t y sheet as a guide. The a c t i v i t y would conclude with Jenny being i n v i t e d to draw a pic t u r e i n her mark-making book i n response to the theme. 276 S h i f t : No s h i f t occurred i n terms of the parent choosing another component other than children's l i t e r a t u r e . Int. # 2 The parent stated that he chose to extend the a c t i v i t y by involving his c h i l d i n or a l s t o r y t e l l i n g . 2. Value of the A c t i v i t y Mr. Wong preferred doing these a c t i v i t i e s because as he stated, "You know, I know how to do these, so I can ta l k about them a l o t " (p. 6). Aside from spending time with Jenny, Mr. Wong believed there was a d d i t i o n a l value i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . By t e l l i n g the story, Mr. Wong stated, "I would t r y to praise her for what she did well - give her encouragement. But, sometimes she would get a l i t t l e b i t of c r i t i c i s m " (p. 6). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated that he valued the children's l i t e r a t u r e component i n terms of parent-child communication, and the fact that he could also use the Chinese language. Int. # 2 The parent stated once again that the component supported parent-child communication, i n addition to supporting his c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i v e development by empowering her to express her point of view. I t , also, motivated both parent and c h i l d to become more active i n or a l s t o r y t e l l i n g . 3. Learning Through the A c t i v i t y Mr. Wong observed that Jenny would r e a l i z e what he was attempting to do, so i n turn she would t e l l a story from her point of view. He stated, "Now, sometimes, she w i l l know that I am making up a story. Out of that, she w i l l make-up her own story t r y i n g to show that she did the ri g h t thing" (p. 6). S h i f t : Int. # 1 The parent stated he appreciated being given the opportunity to teach his c h i l d both i n Chinese and English. Int. # 2 The parent stated that the a c t i v i t i e s supported o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g , as well as, parent education. 3. Mark-Making Book as a Link Between School and Home Learning Mr. Wong admitted that the mark-making book suc c e s s f u l l y linked school and home learning. He stated, "You w i l l know what she or he learned at school, and you w i l l f i n d out what kind of progress has been made, and what needs to be worked on, right now. You get ideas to help you what to teach. This communication between school and the parents and the kids i s very important" (p. 6). S h i f t : Int. # 1 & 2 The parent stated that he valued being r e g u l a r l y informed about what was being taught at school; informing the parents of t h e i r c h i l d ' s learning progress; therefore, enabling the parent to deal with a r i s i n g learning problems; supporting parent-c h i l d communication, and supporting parent education. 278 4. Most Valuable C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Mark-Making Book Mr. Wong metaphorically described the mark-making book most valuable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as a " t i e " , between the kids and the parents and the school. We can make the kids more prepared for school. They have more confidence f o r l a t e r " (p. 7). S h i f t : P r i o r to using the mark-making book with his c h i l d , Mr. Wong anticipated i t value i n terms of: parental involvement i n a c h i l d ' s education, spending "quality time" with one's c h i l d , and par e n t - c h i l d communication. Int. # 2 The parent stated that he believed the use of the mark-making book supported a f f e c t i v e and cognitive development. 5 . Continued Use of the Mark-Making Book Mr. Wong recommended the mark-making book's continued use at the nursery l e v e l . He stated, "I would say i t should be recommended to the whole country, you know, -- the whole school system. I mean for homework. I would recommend t h i s f o r the whole nursery system" (p. 7). 6. Other: Mr. Wong observed that once the mark-making book research study had come to an end, as a family they missed using the mark-making book. He stated, " The l a s t two weeks Jenny hasn't been bring home the mark-making book. For the f i r s t time, there seemed to be something missing. I asked her where was her mark-making book. She said don't have i t t h i s week. During the second week, she asked me do some kind of drawing?' -- things l i k e that" (p. 6 ) . 280 CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY AND PRESENTATION OF DATA The intent of t h i s chapter i s to present summaries of cross-case case analysis i n order to answer each research question investigated. The summarized data was compiled using descriptive information gathered from two sets of structured interviews, and i n one case, from parental comment sheets. Categories within research questions generally follow the same order as presented i n the interview summaries. Parent p a r t i c i p a n t responses are presented i n descending order of most commonly stated response. Each response i s followed by the family's pseudonym f o r purposes of reference. 5.1) Research Question One: How do the parents use the "Mark-Making Book" i n the home environment? Parents responses focused on f i v e aspects of the mark-making book's use: (1) with whom i t was used; (2) when was i t used; (3) where was i t used; (4) the length of time i t was used; and (5) what strategies were used to i n i t i a t e the actual use of the mark-making book? 5.1a) Who Used the "Mark-Making Book"? Each of the eight parents who f i r s t committed themselves to using the mark-making book with t h e i r c h i l d continued to do so throughout the duration of the study. Variations with reference to who else used 281 the mark-making book with the c h i l d were s p e c i f i c to each home environment. In two separate cases, the mothers, from the outset, chose to j o i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g fathers and children with the use of the mark-making book. In two other cases, the fathers chose to j o i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g mothers and children with the use of the mark-making book, but only during the l a t e r part of the study. In the case of the Lee and the Wong families, both assisted each other with the use of the mark-making book due to the proximity of t h e i r dwellings, and t h e i r c o n f l i c t i n g work and study schedules. The novelty of the mark-making book and i t ' s accompanying a c t i v i t i e s attracted the int e r e s t of both older s i b l i n g s and extended family members. Occasionally, they would p a r t i c i p a t e by jo i n i n g the parent(s) and the c h i l d on family outings; engaging i n conversations dealing with s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s ; or pr a i s i n g the chil d ' s e f f o r t s on what has been done i n the mark-making book thus f a r . It was also.not common for these p a r t i c i p a n t s to t r y t h e i r hand at a s s i s t i n g with an a c t i v i t y ; whether i t was reading a story followed by using the mark-making book; a s s i s t i n g with a problem solving s i t u a t i o n dealing with p i c t o r i a l production; or just helping the c h i l d shape l e t t e r s of the alphabet. 5.1b) When was the "Mark-Making Book" Used? Parent p a r t i c i p a n t s were responsible for i n i t i a t i n g the use of the mark-making book with t h e i r c h i l d each weekend. Although c h i l d r e n may have requested to use the mark-making book upon immediate a r r i v a l 282 from school on Friday, i t ' s use usually depended upon the mood of the parent, planned weekend a c t i v i t i e s , or set work schedules. Saturday and Sunday appeared to be the most popular days; however there were no set times stated by parent p a r t i c i p a n t s . Three parent p a r t i c i p a n t s (Guttieres, Reyes and Santos) s p e c i f i c a l l y recognized that the regular use of the mark-making book on the weekends resulted i n the development of a regular routine that both they and t h e i r c h i l d r e n became accustomed to. 5.1c) Where was the "Mark-Making Book" used? Where the mark-making book was used depended upon where the parent and/or c h i l d f e l t most comfortable, and upon the physical layout of each home environment. Although the dining room was the most favoured space amongst three of the eight families, not a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g families l i v e d i n homes that accommodated .a formal dining area. The coffee table i n the l i v i n g room rated second followed by the kitchen table i n terms of where the mark-making book was used. This could have been due, once gain, to the f a c t that neither of these families had a dining room i n t h e i r homes or apartments. Although the Santos family does have a dining space i n t h e i r apartment, the den i n the basement area was regarded as the most appropriate space to use the mark-making book. It was a space that was generally used to do c r a f t work with the children or any other work that was defined as "messy". In the case of the Guttieres family, the 283 surface of Charlene's bed was quite appropriate; and, d e f i n i t e l y comfortable enough to accommodate both the parents and t h e i r c h i l d as they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the use of the mark-making book. Five of the eight fa m i l i e s recognized the p o r t a b i l i t y of the mark-making book. On occasion, i t would t r a v e l to the homes of r e l a t i v e s and frie n d s . 5.Id) What Length of time was the "Mark-Making Book" Used? The length of time attributed to the use of the mark-making book by each family ranged between 3 0 - 4 5 minutes with two extremes of 2 0 and 6 0 minutes. The time variations were s p e c i f i c to the family dynamics at that given point i n time. 5.1e) What Strategies were Used to I n i t i a t e d the Use of the "Mark-Making Book"? As previously stated, p r i o r to the beginning of the study, parent p a r t i c i p a n t s were b r i e f e d on how to approach the use of the mark-making book i n terms of only " i n v i t i n g " the c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t ' s use as opposed to " i n s i s t i n g " . The only s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s received by the parents participants were v i a the accompanying mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . These directions only pertained to how one might want to proceed with a given a c t i v i t y once the c h i l d agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the mark-making book's use. The strategies parent p a r t i c i p a n t s used to i n i t i a t e the use of the mark-making book were s p e c i f i c to each parent's way of knowing. For instance, Jenny would 284 i n t e n t i o n a l l y be placed on her father's lap when i t was time to t a l k about the mark-making book entries she did at school. In the case of the Guttieres family, the r i t u a l of getting comfortable on Charlene's bed was of utmost importance. Crystal Tiongco w i l l i n g l y joined her older s i b l i n g s each Sunday afternoon as they a l l d i d t h e i r "homework". Although Frankie Williams enjoyed using the mark-making book, her mother on occasion made i t cle a r to her that she was expected to use i t . Mrs. Santos, on the other hand, used p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n to motivate Ashley to use the mark-making book. In the case of the Chandar family, the use of the mark-making book was usua l l y one of the major events of the weekend. On several occasions, Mrs. Chandar harnessed the attention of a l l available family members as Anthony was about to begin i t ' s use. 5.2) Research Question Two: What are the parental attitudes towards the "Mark-Making Book" experience? Parental understandings and attitudes towards the mark-making book were very favourable once the study concluded. Although a l l eight parent p a r t i c i p a n t s did not necessarily express the same points of view towards the mark-making book experience, they s t i l l vehemently believed that the mark-making book concept was indeed a "good idea". The following responses are i n d i c a t i v e of the p o s i t i v e a ttitudes parents maintained towards the concept of the mark-making book: . i t supported a ch i l d ' s a f f e c t i v e and cognitive development; (Chandar, Lee, Reyes, Santos, Tiongco, and Wong) . i t supported a c h i l d ' s imagination and creative expression; (Chandar, Gallant, Santos, and Tiongco) . i t ' s use influenced a c h i l d ' s way of drawing; (Guttieres, Santos, and Tiongco) . i t was seen as a treasured item; (Santos and Tiongco) . i t enabled parents to experience a way of learning with t h e i r c h i l d that was denied them when they were young; (Chandar) . i t supported parent-child bonding; (Gallant) . i t prepared children for kindergarten; (Gallant) . parents f e l t empowered to teach t h e i r children; (Guttieres) . i t ' s use supported the learning of the elements of design. (Guttieres) . i t presented the parent with an opportunity to become involved i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s education; (Lee) . i t ' s use was a pleasurable and meaningful experience; (Reyes) . as a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l , the mark-making book enabled parents to "see" gradual improvement i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s learning development; (Santos) . i t developed a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the c h i l d ; (Tiongco) . i t encouraged parent-child communication; (Wong) 5.3) Research Question Three: How do these a t t r i b u t e s evolve as a r e s u l t of active engagement over a period of time? 5.3a) A f f e c t i v e Response to the "Mark-Making Book" Parental attitudes towards the mark-making book evolved as a 286 r e s u l t of personally experiencing and observing the pleasure derived from using i t with t h e i r c h i l d . 5.3al) Parent's Enjoyment Each of the eight parent participants admitted they derived personal enjoyment by using the mark-making book with t h e i r c h i l d . Parents responded i n the following ways: . they enjoyed spending "quality time" alone with t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; (Chandar, Gallant, Guttieres, Lee, Reyes, Santos, Tiongco, and Wong) . they enjoyed watching t h e i r children draw i n mark-making book; (Chandar and Gallant) . she enjoyed the parent-child bonding that evolved as a r e s u l t of mark-making book use; (Gallant and Lee) . she enjoyed the parent-child communication as the mark-making book was used; (Chandar) . she enjoyed observing her son independently i n i t i a t e a c t i v i t i e s through the use of the mark-making book; (Chandar) . he enjoyed being given the opportunity to r e l i v e childhood memories through play and a r t i s t i c learning; (Guttieres) . the "fun" associated with the mark-making book experience gave evidence that i t ' s use was habit forming; (Guttieres) . she enjoyed observing children interact with each other as they worked i n the mark-making book; (Lee) . the use of the mark-making book was a "pleasureable" experience; (Reyes) . she observed other family members enjoyed using the mark-making book with her c h i l d . (Tiongco) 287 5.3a2) Child's Enjoyment A l l eight parents observed t h e i r children display the following behaviours as the mark-making book was used i n the home se t t i n g : . c h i l d r e n looked forward to using t h e i r mark-making book; . ch i l d r e n enjoyed working i n t h e i r mark-making book; . ch i l d r e n enjoyed showing and t a l k i n g about the work done i n t h e i r mark-making book; . c h i l d r e n enjoyed the attention received for the work done i n t h e i r mark-making book. The following parent observations were s p e c i f i c to the p a r t i c u l a r family s i t u a t i o n : . c h i l d r e n enjoyed looking at and r e f l e c t i n g on the mark-making book entries; (Chandar, Reyes and Tiongco) . c h i l d r e n enjoyed sharing the mark-making experience with other children; (Lee and Wong) . chi l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t y s e t t i n g the book aside when i n v i t e d to do so; (Reyes and Tiongco) . as a r e s u l t of the enjoyment derived from the use of the mark-making book, the c h i l d became quite possessive and guarded the mark-making book from the prying hands of curious s i b l i n g s . (Santos) 5.3a3) Value of "Mark-Making Book Experience" The use of the mark-making book was deemed a valued experience by a l l eight parent p a r t i c i p a n t s . Their responses were as follows: . i t supports spending "quality time" with one's c h i l d ; (Chandar, Lee, and Tiongco) i t supports parent-chiId communication; (Chandar, Reyes, and Wong) i t supports parent-child bonding; (Guttieres and Wong) i t supported a ch i l d ' s self-esteem; (Chandar) i t taught children a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; (Gallant) i t motivates children to engage i n drawing independently; (Gallant) i t supports the notion of forming good habits; (Guttieres) i t enables parents to r e l i v e t h e i r childhood ways of learning (Guttieres) i t supported a ch i l d ' s emotional development; (Guttieres) i t functioned as a communication tool as the c h i l d shows and t e l l s what he or she has done; (Guttieres) the compact nature of the mark-making book, allows i t to be taken along when v i s i t i n g ones family; (Guttieres) i t occupies a c h i l d ' s time i n meaningful ways; (Guttieres) involvement i n the mark-making book shows parents new ways of learning; (Lee) the use of the mark-making book was appealing to children; (Lee) learning through the use of the mark-making book was a pleasurable and meaningful experience; (Lee) i t communicated what was being taught at school; (Reyes) i t supports parent-involvement i n a young c h i l d ' s learning; (Reyes) c h i l d r e n come to cherish the mark-making book; (Santos) parents and children are motivated to continue using the mark making book by extending learning experiences; (Santos) i t was a tangible means of "showing" a ch i l d ' s learning 289 developent; (Tiongco) . i t supports a c h i l d ' s verbal, p i c t o r i a l , and written development; (Tiongco) . i t ' s use stimulates of c h i l d ' s imagination; (Tiongco) . i t supported the development of a c h i l d ' s self-confidence; (Wong) . i t supported the notion of a "routine"; (Wong) 5.3b) Perceived Learning Through the "Mark-Making Book" Each of the eight parent participants believed that both they and t h e i r c h i l d r e n benefited from the learning experiences provided by the mark-making book. 5.3bl) Parent's Learning Experiences A l l of the eight parents participants admitted they experienced growth i n terms of t h e i r personal development. The following responses are representative of what the parents discovered as they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the mark-making book experience: . they discovered new ways of teaching through the mark-making book experience, simple strategies using sen s i t i v e and subtle ways to a c t i v e l y engage t h e i r children i n learning. (Chandar, Lee, Reyes, Santos, Tiongco, and Wong) . they r e a l i z e d the value of parental support and i t ' s e f f e c t on a c h i l d ' s learning development; (Chandar, Gallant, Santos) . they r e a l i z e d t h e i r c hildren were learning more than they had anticipated; (Gallant, Lee, and Reyes) . they observed that meaningful learning experiences could r e s u l t from the simplest of d a i l y routines and p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n with t h e i r c h i l d ; (Lee, Reyes, and Tiongco) . she learned the value of d i r e c t i n g her ch i l d ' s attention to book i l l u s t r a t i o n s ; (Chandar) . she learned that meaning making through drawing plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n supporting a young c h i l d ' s way of learning; (Lee) . she underestimated her ch i l d ' s p o t e n t i a l drawing a b i l i t y ; (Lee) . she learned that mark-making book provided tangible evidence of ch i l d ' s learning development throughout the year; (Santos) . she, as a parent, experiencing a new way of learning; (Tiongco) . he r e a l i z e d that both parent and c h i l d could learn from one another's way of knowing; (Wong) . hi s own personal development was enriched by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . (Wong) 5.3b2) Child's Learning Experiences Parent p a r t i c i p a n t s observed t h e i r children experience meaningful ways of learning through the use of the mark-making book. Their responses were as follows: . they observed that drawing i n the mark-making book allowed t h e i r c h i l d r e n to engage i n active inquiry enabling them to confidently express personal feelings, perceptions, ideas; (Chandar, Gallant, Guttieres, Lee, Reyes, Santos, Tiongco, and Wong) . they observed t h e i r children become more f a m i l i a r with the elements of design; (Chandar, Gallant, Guttieres, Lee, Reyes, Santos, Tiongco, and Wong) . they observed that t h e i r children's ways of drawing improved; (Chandar, Gallant, Guttieres, Lee, Reyes, Santos, and Tiongco) . they observed t h e i r children's perceptive s k i l l s develop; (Guttieres, Reyes, Santos, and Tiongco) 291 . they observed that the mark-making book was a tangible means for a c h i l d to r e f l e c t on the entries, and ve r b a l l y express h i s or her point of view on what had been accomplished; (Chandar, Santos, and Tiongco) . they observed that t h e i r children acquired a better understanding of simple mathematical concepts; (Gallant, Tiongco, and Wong) . they observed the mark-making book supported ways of learning about l e t t e r s and words; (Gallant and Lee) . they observed that t h e i r children began mastering new vocabulary; (Gallant and Tiongco) . they observed that t h e i r c hildren were exposed to simple science concepts; (Guttieres and Wong) . they observed that t h e i r children were able to learn from parental involvement by means of p l a y f u l interaction, and shared ways of knowing; (Guttieres and Wong) . they observed that the use of the mark-making book supported t h e i r children's learning of the family's l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l heritage; (Lee and Wong) . she observed that her c h i l d developed a good attitude towards school r e l a t e d work; (Gallant) . she observed that her ch i l d ' s personal development was enriched by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s ; (Lee) . she observed that her chi l d ' s l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s improved; (Santos) . she observed that the mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s supported her ch i l d ' s e a r l y l i t e r a c y learning. (Santos) 5.3c) Components of the Mark-Making Book Learning Process Parent p a r t i c i p a n t responses i n t h i s section of the chapter deal s p e c i f i c a l l y deal with: (1) the p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d component, (2) the art appreciation component, and (3) those components 2 9 2 parents valued the most. 5.3cl) Parent-Initiated Component The p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d component i n v i t e d each of the eight parent p a r t i c i p a n t s to choose and carry out with t h e i r c h i l d mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r own design -- ones they believed to be meaningful learning experiences. This problem-solving s i t u a t i o n caught parents by surprise. It was a s i t u a t i o n where they a c t u a l l y had an opportunity to share t h e i r ways of knowing with both t h e i r c h i l d and t h e i r learning environment of the school. It gave cause for parents to r e f l e c t upon t h e i r own childhood learning experiences and/or to draw upon more recent understandings of what, why and how a young c h i l d should learn. As a r e s u l t , parents chose ways of learning they f e l t most comfortable with or knew best. Six of the eight p a r t i c i p a t i n g parents appreciated being given the freedom to generate t h e i r own ideas regarding which a c t i v i t i e s could be supported through the use of the mark-making book. The remaining two parents admitted they i n i t i a l l y had d i f f i c u l t y deciding upon what a c t i v i t y to introduce to t h e i r c h i l d . The following statements were supported by a l l parent p a r t i c i p a n t s : . the a c t i v i t i e s were enjoyed as a re s u l t of the p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n observed and experienced by both the parent and the c h i l d ; . both parent and c h i l d participated, at some point, i n the decision making process as to how the mark-making book was used; 293 . parents came to learn that the simplest of a c t i v i t i e s could impact on t h e i r c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i v e and cognitive learning development; . whatever a c t i v i t i e s were decided upon, whether planned or spontaneous, they always resulted i n the c h i l d making a mark-making book entry; . t h e i r c h i l d was observed confidently expressing personal fee l i n g s , perceptions, and ideas. The following statements were supported by c e r t a i n f a m i l i e s : . the choice a c t i v i t i e s related to the v i s u a l awareness component were most popular; (Chandar, Gallant, Guttieres, Lee, Reyes, Santos, and Tiongco) . t h e i r c h i l d r e n were motivated to explore learning independently; (Chandar, Lee, Reyes, and Santos) . the parents were able to support the development of t h e i r children's way's of drawing; (Gallant, Guttieres, and Santos) . family values, those s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with one's l i n g u i s t i c and l i n g u i s t i c heritage, could be e a s i l y supported through the use of the mark-making book. (Gallant, Lee, and Wong) 5.3c2) Art Appreciation Component Art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s were included i n the mark-making book experience with the intent of presenting parents, as well as children, with a way of learning that they, i n most cases, had never experienced. 5.3c2i) Value of the A c t i v i t i e s a. A l l eight parents believed that the art appreciation 2 9 4 a c t i v i t i e s were worthwhile teaching t h e i r children. Not a l l parents; however, came to the same conclusions: . they observed t h e i r children develop perceptive s k i l l s ; (Chandar and Santos) . the experience supported t h e i r children's emotional development; (Chandar and Wong) . the parents expressed regret not experiencing t h i s type of learning during t h e i r early childhood; (Guttieres and Reyes) . they observed that the experience encouraged children to express l i k e ideas as those of the a r t i s t ; (Santos and Wong) . the experience supported her ch i l d ' s way of s t o r y t e l l i n g ; (Chandar) . her c h i l d was motivated to f r e e l y express thoughts v e r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y as the mark-making book was used; (Chandar) . the experience supported the development of problem solving s k i l l s ; (Chandar) . she believed that these a c t i v i t i e s could motivate parents to teach c h i l d r e n about t h e i r c u l t u r a l heritage; (Gallant) . she believed the learning of art appreciation should s t a r t at a young age; (Reyes) . he observed the experience supported his ch i l d ' s cognitive development; (Wong) b. Each of the eight parents pa r t i c i p a n t s found the a c t i v i t i e s to be personally enjoyable. Not a l l parents, however, shared the same opinion. Their responses were as follows: . they enjoyed observing how t h e i r children expressed personal feel i n g s , perceptions, and ideas through drawing; (Gallant, Guttieres, Lee, Santos, and Tiongco) . they enjoyed the "quality time" spent with t h e i r children; (Gallant and Guttieres) 295 . they enjoyed engaging i n v i s u a l and verbal dialogue with t h e i r c h i l d , thus learning from one another's point of view; (Tiongco and Wong) . she enjoyed l i s t e n i n g to her c h i l d ' s ways of s t o r y t e l l i n g ; (Chandar) . she enjoyed observing her c h i l d ' s self-confidence unfold; (Chandar) . she enjoyed observing her c h i l d ' s enthusiastic response to the art appreciation v i s u a l s ; (Lee) . she enjoyed learning that the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s could e a s i l y be integrated with other learning experiences. (Santos) c. Two of the parent participants found the a c t i v i t y challenging. This response was due to t h e i r u n f a m i l i a r i t y with such a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r lack of confidence to proceed. As they became more accustomed with the a c t i v i t i e s , both parents concluded that teaching art appreciation to t h e i r c h i l d wasn't as d i f f i c u l t as i n i t i a l l y a nticipated. One parent admitted i t was a d e l i g h t f u l way of learning from the c h i l d ' s point of view. 5.3c2ii) Learning Through the A c t i v i t i e s a. A l l eight parent participants believed that including coloured postcard s i z e art appreciation v i s u a l s was a good decision. They responded i n the following ways: . the art v i s u a l s enhanced the mark-making book as a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l ; c h i l d r e n could turn to the art appreciation v i s u a l at t h e i r l e i s u r e ; (Chandar, Lee, and Reyes) . they enabled t h e i r c h i l d to conveniently r e f l e c t on previous mark-making book experiences; (Reyes and Santos) 2 9 6 . they supported the development of c h i l d ' s c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s ; (Chandar) . they could be used as tools to engage i n "show and t e l l " with other family members; (Chandar) . they enabled children to see how others expressed t h e i r f e e l i n g s , perceptions and ideas; (Gallant) . they taught her c h i l d that people have to "take the time" to express t h e i r f e e l i n g and ideas; (Gallant) . they were seen as age appropriate; (Lee) . since they remained i n the mark-making book, t h i s enabled her c h i l d to learn something new each time the art v i s u a l s i s looked at; (Lee) . they could be used to integrate other learning experiences; (Santos) . they enabled the parent to engage i n v i s u a l and verbal dialogue with t h e i r c h i l d ; (Tiongco) . they motivated the c h i l d to v e r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y express her fee l i n g s , perceptions and ideas about s p e c i f i c themes; (Tiongco) . the learning experience were enhanced by the "good q u a l i t y " of the art v i s u a l s ; (Wong) . his c h i l d treasured the art v i s u a l s ; (Wong) b. A l l eight parents found the accompanying art appreciation questions h e l p f u l i n terms of guiding the learning experience with t h e i r c h i l d . One parent admitted that he would have experienced d i f f i c u l t y continuing with the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s without them. Four of the eight parents, however, eventually chose to include t h e i r own questions that were s p e c i f i c to what they wanted t h e i r c h i l d to learn. One parent i n p a r t i c u l a r departed from using the 297 accompanying questions during the l a t t e r part of t h i s research project. She chose to use her own questions. c. Each of the parent participants admitted they experienced personal growth while p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . This resulted i n a better understanding of themselves as teachers. They responded i n the following ways: . they developed more of an appreciation f o r a r t ; (Chandar, Santos, Tiongco, and Wong) . they discovered new ways of teaching through the art appreciation v i s u a l s , and simple strategies using s e n s i t i v e and subtle ways to a c t i v e l y engage t h e i r children i n learning; (Lee, Reyes, Santos, and Wong) . they believed they had been afforded an opportunity to develop a new appreciation of works of ar t ; (Chandar and Tiongco) . they never had an opportunity to learn about a r t ; (Reyes and Tiongco) . she developed an awareness of her chil d ' s p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y to express feelings, perceptions and ideas through language and drawing; (Gallant) . she learned she could e a s i l y teacher her c h i l d about her l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l heritage through works of ar t ; (Gallant) . he learned that his c h i l d shared his enthusiasm f o r a r t ; (Guttieres) . she learned her c h i l d was more perceptive than she had anticipated; (Reyes) . she observed the development of her ch i l d ' s perceptive s k i l l s ; (Santos) . she observed that learning through art appreciation could e a s i l y extend i n other learning experiences; (Santos) . she observed that her c h i l d came to appreciate looking and 29 t a l k i n g about works of a r t ; (Tiongco) . he observed that learning through art appreciation a f f o r d an opportunity to learn from one another's point of view; (Wong) d. A l l eight parent participants agreed that the use of the art appreciation v i s u a l s proved to be meaningful learning experiences f o r t h e i r children. Two parents, however, did admit that t h e i r c h i l d i n i t i a l l y d i d have d i f f i c u l t y developing an inter e s t i n the art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s . There were other parents who admitted that some art v i s u a l s were more appealing to t h e i r children then others. The parents responded i n the following ways i n terms of the art appreciation v i s u a l s being recognized as meaningful learning t o o l s : . c h i l d r e n were given the opportunity to ve r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y express personal feelings, perceptions, and ideas about works of a r t ; (Lee, Reyes, Tiongco, and Wong) . they supported the learning about the elements of design; (Gallant, Lee, Santos, and Wong) . they supported the learning of simple mathematical concepts; (Gallant, Reyes, and Santos) . they supported the development of c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s ; (Chandar and Reyes) . they supported t h e i r children's ways of or a l s t o r y t e l l i n g ; (Chandar and Santos) . they supported the development of t h e i r children's perceptive s k i l l s ; (Gallant and Santos) . they enabled both parent and c h i l d learning from one another as they engaged i n v i s u a l and verbal dialogue; (Santos and Wong) . they supported her a r t i s t i c learning; (Reyes) . they stimulated her ch i l d ' s imagination; (Santos) 299 5.3c3) Parent's Choice Components During each structured interview, parent pa r t i c i p a n t s were i n v i t e d to respond to those components they enjoyed doing the most with t h e i r children; and those most valued as meaningful learning experiences. Preference given to each mark-making book component was s p e c i f i c to each family. In f i v e of the eight cases, parent's choices did not vary between interviews one and two. In two of these cases, however, parents were compelled to discuss an additional component due to an emotional connection to a s p e c i f i c experience. In Mrs. Lee's case, although she maintained a l l four components were of value during both interviews, she chose to s p e c i f i c a l l y elaborate on a p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t y during interview two that she found e s p e c i a l l y endearing. As with Mrs. Santos, she chose to discuss the v i s u a l awareness component i n both instances, however, during the f i r s t interview she also referred to an endearing moment as she and her c h i l d engaged i n a children's l i t e r a t u r e a c t i v i t y . The three remaining parent p a r t i c i p a n t s chose to a l t e r t h e i r choices between interviews one and two. This was due to t h e i r desire to express t h e i r opinions about an another component that they found just as meaningful. The v i s u a l awareness component was the most popular followed by the p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d component, children's l i t e r a t u r e and f i n a l l y a rt appreciation. The following responses are s p e c i f i c to each family s i t u a t i o n . 300 V i s u a l Awareness Component: . parents observed the development of t h e i r children's perceptive s k i l l s ; (Chandar, Santos, and Tiongco) . parents enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a c t i v i t i e s associated with the v i s u a l awareness component; (Santos and Tiongco) . parents experienced personal growth while a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g with her c h i l d ; (Chandar) . c h i l d was motivated to engage i n the learning experience; (Chandar) . active engagement i n the a c t i v i t i e s associated with the component stimulated her c h i l d ' s imagination; (Chandar) . i t supported her c h i l d ' s mastering of vocabulary; (Chandar) . i t empowered her c h i l d to express his point of view; (Chandar) . i t enabled other family members to become involved; (Chandar) . i t enabled her to support ch i l d ' s drawing explorations; (Santos) . her c h i l d was exposed to new ways of learning through the various v i s u a l awareness a c t i v i t i e s experienced i n the school environment; (Tiongco) . i t offered her an opportunity to a c t i v e l y learn with' her c h i l d . (Tiongco) Parent-Initiated Component: Most p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s centred on v i s u a l awareness experiences concluding with the c h i l d drawing i n the mark-making book. . they observed that both they and t h e i r c h i l d enjoyed engaging i n the a c t i v i t i e s associated with the p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d component; (Gallant and Guttieres) . i t enabled t h e i r c hildren to express t h e i r feelings through drawing; (Gallant and Guttieres) . they were offered an opportunity to teach t h e i r c hildren the family's l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l heritage; (Gallant and Lee) . she was offered the opportunity to integrate various component of the mark-making book r e s u l t i n g i n the c h i l d becoming involved i n a multifaceted learning experience; (Gallant) . she was able to support her c h i l d ' s drawing explorations; (Gallant) . her c h i l d was motivated to engage i n the learning experience; (Gallant) . i t supported her ch i l d ' s emotional development; (Gallant) . i t developed his c h i l d ' s perceptive s k i l l s ; (Guttieres) Children's L i t e r a t u r e Component: . parent observed c h i l d ' s willingness to express points of view towards d i f f e r e n t elements contained within each story. (Reyes Santos, and Wong) . both the parent and the c h i l d enjoyed the "quality time" spent with each other; (Guttieres and Santos) . both the parent and the c h i l d found reading the s t o r i e s enlightening; (Reyes and Santos) . i t supported the mastering of vocabulary; (Reyes) . i t offered the parent and the c h i l d the opportunity to int e r p r e t the story using languages other that English; (Wong) . i t empowered the parent to take on the role of a "co-teacher"; (Wong) . i t supported his c h i l d ' s emotional development; (Wong) . i t i n s p i r e d the parent and the c h i l d to become active i n o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g ; (Wong) 302 Art Appreciation Component: . parent believed the art appreciation component has a p o s i t i v e influence on her ch i l d ' s emotional and cognitive development; (Reyes) . i t provided her c h i l d a means of engaging i n both v i s u a l and verbal dialogue; (Reyes) . there were s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n her ch i l d ' s way of drawing; (Reyes) 5.3c4) The "Mark-Making Book" as a Link Between School and Home Learning A l l eight parent participants strongly supported the notion that the mark-making book was e f f e c t i v e i n l i n k i n g school and home learning. Each of the parent participants responded i n the following ways: . i t communicated what a c h i l d i s learning at school; (Chandar, Gallant, Guttieres, Lee, Reyes, Santos, Tiongco, and Wong) . i t enabled parents to "see" t h e i r c h i l d ' s learning development; (Chandar, Gallant, Guttieres, Reyes, Santos, and Tiongco) . i t showed t h e i r c h i l d ' s emotional development; (Gallant, Tiongco, and Wong) . i t communicated the value of learning at home; (Lee, Santos, and Wong) . i t empowered parents to teach t h e i r children at home; (Lee and Wong) . i t showed teachers that parents are sin c e r e l y interested i n the education of t h e i r children; (Lee) . i t taught parents as well as children; (Santos) . i t supported parent-child communication; (Tiongco) 303 . i t i n s t i l l e d a sense of responsibly i n children; (Tiongco) . i t communicated more c l e a r l y what children are learning through art education, instead of parents attempting to understand the art work chi l d r e n p e r i o d i c a l l y brought home; (Tiongco) . i t enabled parents to a s s i s t with any learning problems; (Wong) 5.3c5) Most Valuble C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the "Mark-Making Book" Each of the eight parent participants recognized at le a s t one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c associated with the value of the mark-making book. In some cases, they i d e n t i f i e d as many as three. The mark-making book was i d e n t i f i e d as most valuable i n terms of the following: . a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l documenting a ch i l d ' s learning development, thus enabling both the c h i l d and the parent to a c t u a l l y "see" learning i n progress; (Guttieres, Lee, Reyes, Santos, and Wong) . parental involvement with a c h i l d ' s general learning development; (Gutteries, Lee, Santos, and Wong) . spending q u a l i t y time with one's c h i l d ; (Chandar and Tiongco) . supporting the notion of "homework". (Chandar and Tiongco) . supporting a c h i l d ' s emotional development; (Chandar and Wong) . supporting parent-child communication; (Chandar and Wong) . supporting a c h i l d ' s way of drawing; (Gallant and Chandar) . supporting parent-child bonding; (Gallant and Tiongco) . a means of giving parents d i r e c t i o n on how to proceed with a c h i l d ' s future learning; (Reyes) . a means of preparing children for kindergarten; (Wong) . a communication too l l i n k i n g school and home learning; (Wong) 5 . 3 c 6 ) Recommendation for Continued Use of the "Mark-Making Book" Each of the eight parent participants supported the continued use of the mark-making book. They gave the following reasons: . i t supported a c h i l d ' s way of drawing; . i t would prepare children f o r kindergarten; . i t supported a c h i l d ' s emotional development; . she observed that the mark-making book was developmentally appropriate f o r such young children; . i t l i n k s school and home learning; . i t recognizes drawing as a c h i l d ' s primary means of meaning making; . i t supports a c h i l d ' s self-expression through drawing; . i t i s a valuable learning experience for both parent and c h i l d ; . the learning components of the mark-making book were appealing; . i t supported parent-chiId bonding; . i t supported a c h i l d ' s emotional and cognitive development; . i t was valued as a r e f l e c t i v e t o o l ; . the mark-making book concept should be used i n a l l preschool programs. 3 0 5 CHAPTER 6: FINDINGS OF THE STUDY The problem of t h i s study was to investigate the concept of the mark-making book as a catalyst i n supporting parental involvement i n art education i n ea r l y childhood. The f i r s t research three questions were addressed within Chapter 5. The intent of t h i s chapter i s to explore the fourth and f i n a l research question. 6.1) Research Question Four: What value do parents a t t r i b u t e to the ideas of active involvement i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning? As a r e s u l t of t h i s descriptive exploratory research study, the mark-making book presented i t s e l f as a multifaceted communication t o o l that not only linked home and school learning, but presented unanticipated and valuable ways of learning. The eight parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a transformational learning experience from which the following three major themes evolved: enjoyment, s e l f -development, and understanding. 5.4a) Enjoyment The theme of enjoyment was the main d r i v i n g force behind the use of the mark-making book. The experience of i t ' s use proved to be of i n t r i n s i c value for both the parent and the c h i l d . This was confirmed by a l l eight parent pa r t i c i p a n t s during interviews one and two. One 306 parent s p e c i f i c a l l y described the use of the mark-making book as, "...more of a pleasure than a job" (Mrs. Reyes, Int. 1, p. 2). In one instance, however, p r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the use of the mark-making book, one parent did expressed concern over the issue of "homework", and how i t ' s use could be a s t r a i n on her already hectic weekly schedule. (Mrs. Tiongco, Int. 1, p. 1) She was r e l i e v e d once she heard that the mark-making book would only be used on weekends. The following comments were by the parent once she and her daughter engaged i n i t ' s use. . This mark-making book i s a very good idea not just to see t h e i r development throughout the year, but e s p e c i a l l y as a keepsake. . Looking at the photo and then drawing i t from t h e i r point of view was very e x c i t i n g because she makes l i t t l e comments as she draws each part. . Having to do an assignment once i n a while makes my l i t t l e one f e e l as a re a l student because she f e e l s proud to have her own homework l i k e her two brothers and s i s t e r . GREAT START!!! (taken from parent comment sheet, dated Oct 15, 1995, re: Mrs. Tiongco) The notion of "homework" i s usually associated with spending a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of time attending to a c h i l d ' s learning needs i n the home environment. This can prove to be s t r e s s f u l i f both parents are employed on a f u l l - t i m e basis; and, they s t i l l have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of attending to family and home i n t h e i r spare time. Since the use of the mark-making book could a f f e c t the regular routine within the home, anticipated t r a n s i t i o n a l or adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s 307 were considered as the conceptual framework of the mark-making book was being designed. Instead of i n v i t i n g parents and ch i l d r e n to use i t during the week, only weekend use was suggested. One of the main goals of the mark-making book experience i s to present both parents and t h e i r c h i l d with a memorable and enjoyable experience. Engaging parents and children i n p l a y f u l i n t e r a c t i o n as they learn new ways of knowing i s central to the enjoyment of the experience. Monighan Nourot and Van Hoorn, (1991) c i t e Garvey, (1977); Schwartzman, (1978); and Vygotsky, 1976, and concur with t h i s point of view as they state the following: Play also provides occasions for children to encounter the perspectives of others and to negotiate important new perspectives on objects, ideas, and feel i n g s , (p. 41) If the mark-making book experience had not continued to provide a source of enjoyment f o r both the parent and the c h i l d , i t would have been r e f l e c t e d i n terms of how often i t was used and the q u a l i t y of the e n t r i e s . This d i d not occur. Parents not only v e r b a l l y stated, during each of the interviews, that they enjoyed the mark-making book experience with t h e i r c h i l d during each of the interviews, but they also turned to s p e c i f i c mark-making book entries drawn by t h e i r c h i l d to show the p a r t i c u l a r drawing they cherished the most. 6.1b) Self-Development The mark-making book experience lead the eight parent p a r t i c i p a n t s through a process of self-development. As a r e s u l t , 308 constructive and growthful changes occurred i n t h e i r attitudes and behaviours towards t h e i r involvement i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. Parental acceptance of the mark-making book concept and involvement i t ' s use was mainly due to several factors: . t h e i r willingness to accept teacher advice and guidance; . t h e i r willingness to follow suggested ways of teaching as described i n each the accompanying mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s . . t h e i r willingness to p a r t i c i p a t e i n preplanned f e s t i v e a c t i v i t i e s that i n turn presented them with further opportunities to support t h e i r personal learning development, as previously discussed i n Chapter 3; The motivation exhibited by each of the eight parent p a r t i c i p a n t s i s l a r g e l y due to the willingness and e f f o r t s on the part of the teacher to assure that both they and t h e i r children experience success i n the use of the mark-making book. As the re s u l t of these experiences, parents, inadvertently, began to r e f l e c t on t h e i r own earl y childhood learning experiences. This gave them cause to assess the value of past experiences, and compare them with those associated with the mark-making book. As parents were presented with new ways of teaching, ones that were more subtle and sens i t i v e to the needs of t h e i r children, they observed t h e i r children favourably respond to t h e i r attentive ways and learning through the mark-making book experience. This process eventually empowered the parents to i d e n t i f y themselves with the notion of "co-teacher" i n the a r t i s t i c learning of t h e i r c h i l d . They chose to go beyond the assigned mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s and independently take r i s k s i n terms of i n i t i a t i n g t h e i r 309 own ideas i n the context of mark-making book use. As they began to problem solve and attempt a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r own design, or extend learning experiences based of mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s they came to integrate t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l ways. 6.1c) Understanding Time to play (not only i n the early childhood years), an environment to explore and investigate, materials which are basic to exploration and support from adults who observe, respond and encourage r e f l e c t i o n are four basic requirements which need attention i f children are to have the p o s s i b i l i t y of developing an open and enquiring mind and engaging i n f r u i t f u l and s a t i s f y i n g forms of expression. (White, 1993, p.109) The four basic requirements as defined by White, (1993) are r e f l e c t e d i n the statements parent participants made during interviews one and two. As they used the mark-making book and the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s over an extended period of time, they came to an understanding that without these fundamental supports meaningful learning experiences would not take.place i n the home. They came to understand the following: . the value of spending "quality time" with one's c h i l d . Parents came to the understanding that taking the time to p l a y f u l l y i n t e r a c t with t h e i r c h i l d on a regular basis presented new ways of learning, ones that were of benefit to both themselves and t h e i r c h i l d . Young children enjoy the company of adults i f learning i s 310 presented i n p l a y f u l ways. This i s a stage i n t h e i r young l i v e s where they quickly absorb learning experiences that involve observation, exploration, conversation, and working with simple to o l s . These experiences address t h e i r natural c u r i o s i t y , eagerness to learn, and the willingness to express ways of knowing. Parents observed that t h e i r c h i l d r e n favourably responded to the use of the mark-making book because the "time" was taken to present these learning experiences i n p l a y f u l ways i n the home environment. Children recognized they had t h e i r parents complete attention; and were aware that both they and t h e i r parents were involved i n sharing meaningful ways of learning. . aside from the school environment, learning can take place i n any amiable setting, whether within or beyond the home. Parents came to the understanding that learning need not take place only i n a formal school s e t t i n g . The home environment was able to present a wealth of meaningful learning experiences that may have been taken f o r granted. Family a c t i v i t i e s within or beyond the home can be extended into meaningful learning experiences f o r a c h i l d . Whether i t be making Ukrainian pysanky or origami at home, or attending a pow wow ceremony or even going to MacDonald's, a l l of these learning experiences can be responded to through the use of the mark-making book. . the simplest of materials such as a p e n c i l , markers, and blank paper are invaluable tools i n supporting a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning, as well as, his or her self-expression. Many parents are preoccupied with the notion of constantly buying 311 toys f o r t h e i r c h i l d . This need to have the " l a t e s t " toy may be to s a t i s f y t h e i r desire to play as much as t h e i r c h i l d . Children, however, eventually become bored or quickly outgrow most toys. As a re s u l t , toys and t h e i r parts begin to accumulate i n a l l corners of the home. Playing with household items such as pots and pans are sometimes more appealing to children than playing with toys that e a s i l y break apart or are comprised of so many parts that they require the assistance of an adult to be reassembled. In the case of using the mark-making book and the accompanying a c t i v i t i e s , parents came to understand that i t didn't take much encouragement to have t h e i r c h i l d r e n s i t down at a table, l y i n g on a bed, or on the f l o o r and a c t i v e l y engage them i n learning through conversation and drawing. Using such simple materials as mark-making and colouring tools, and the p l a i n blank pages of the mark-making book engaged t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n meaningful learning experiences that sustained t h e i r i n t e r e s t , captivated t h e i r imagination, and gave them a means of responding through fee l i n g s , ideas, and perceptions to t h e i r world around them. . emotional support plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n motivating a c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between parent and c h i l d plays a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the successful use of the mark-making book. Children respond to an attentive parent, one that provides encouragement as they both share t h e i r ways of knowing through conversation and drawing. Avoidance of mark-making book use on the part of the c h i l d would only 312 occur i f the presentation of i t ' s use was not regarded as. meaningful, and i f the parent lacked the s k i l l s of engaging t h e i r c h i l d . 313 CHAPTER 7: Implications and Recommendations The problem of t h i s study was to explore the mark-making book as a ca t a l y s t f o r parental involvement i n art education i n e a r l y childhood. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t was concerned with examining the r o l e of the mark-making book as a l i n k supporting a ch i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning within both the school and the home. The research questions were: 1) How do the parents use the "mark-making book i n the home envi ronment ? 2) What are the parental attitudes towards the "mark-making book" experience? 3) How do these attitudes evolve as a re s u l t of active engagement over a period of time? 4) What value do parents a t t r i b u t e to the ideas of active involvement i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning? This chapter w i l l deal with the implications, recommendations, and conclusions that arose as a re s u l t of t h i s exploratory, d e s c r i p t i v e research. 7.1) Implications for Practice Schools provide inputs consisting of opportunities, demands, and rewards f o r learning; the family provides inputs of attitude, e f f o r t , and conception of s e l f . (Carlson, 1993, p. 265) This study s u c c e s s f u l l y examined the p o t e n t i a l of the mark-making book to serve as a catal y s t supporting parental involvement i n art education i n early childhood. This q u a l i t a t i v e study involved eight 314 i n n e r - c i t y parent pa r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r nursery aged ch i l d r e n who attended the nursery program at Wellington School, Winnipeg, Manitoba. They represented families of varying socio-economic, c u l t u r a l and r a c i a l groups. Although each parent had his/her own p a r t i c u l a r experiences with the use of the mark-making book, a l l eight p a r t i c i p a t i n g parents concurred, at the close of the study, that the use of the mark-making book was worthwhile i n terms of l i n k i n g t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t i s t i c learning with the school and t h e i r home. Further evidence of the successful use of the mark-making book i s r e f l e c t e d i n the three themes that eventually emerged as a r e s u l t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n : enjoyment, self-development, and understanding. These themes came to l i g h t as the re s u l t of the interview data pertaining to parent and c h i l d responses to the f i v e mark-making book components: v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, children's l i t e r a t u r e , p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and p i c t o r i a l production. 7.2) Implications for Theory The conceptual framework of the mark-making book i s f i r m l y grounded i n Vygotskian theory. This study demonstrates how Vygotsky's notions of adult interaction, tools, play, and the role of a f f e c t on motivation as ways of teaching and learning contributed to the success of the mark-making book experience. Through the guidance and the use of s p e c i f i c teaching strategies provided by the nursery teacher, these notions took on a new meaning amongst parents. A l l eight parents 315 eventually came to accept the value of using of the mark-making book with t h e i r c h i l d . They were able to captivate t h e i r c h i l d ' s attention and "spark" a new perspective on established ways of knowing, and/or introduce new ways of learning. Parents were able to su c c e s s f u l l y step into t h e i r c h i l d ' s "zone of proximal development" and impact on his/her a f f e c t i v e , cognitive, and a r t i s t i c learning. In the process of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the systematic use of the mark-making book, the experience also impacted on the parents' "zone of proximal development". As they were empowered to assume the role of "co-teacher" parents were able to plan, i n i t i a t e , and mediate learning through the use of the mark-making book. As "co- pa r t i c i p a n t " , the parent and c h i l d j o i n t l y shared feelings, ideas, and experiences. 7.3 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r S t u d y The success of t h i s study has set the stage for further i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the concept of the mark-making book and the notion of l i n k i n g school and home learning. It gives evidence to earl y childhood professionals about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of involving parents i n a c t i v i t i e s encouraging a r t i s t i c development of t h e i r children, and increasing parent-teacher communication. The concept of the mark-making book should a t t r a c t early childhood professionals who are receptive to t h i s concept, and who are w i l l i n g explore ways of teaching and learning that may be unfamiliar. However, recommendations fo r the mark-making book's e f f e c t i v e implementation need to be taken 316 into c a r e f u l consideration i f success i s to be experienced by a l l involved. Although mark-making book school and home use was presented to parents as a requirement of Wellington School's nursery program during the f i r s t parent-teacher interview, a handout c l e a r l y o u t l i n i n g the goals of the mark-making book and the expectations of parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n was provided. Early childhood professionals who commit to using the mark-making book concept i n t h e i r classroom environment need to consider the following: . are they prepared to set aside time for d a i l y mark-making book use. . are they prepared to designed mark-making book a c t i v i t i e s intended f o r home use that correspond with the components of the mark-making book: v i s u a l awareness, art appreciation, children's l i t e r a t u r e , p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and p i c t o r i a l production. . are they prepared to pack and send (with the assistance of a teacher's a i d or parent volunteers) the mark-making book home each Friday with the nursery c h i l d . . are they prepared to follow up with parents i f the mark-making book i s not returned Monday morning, or i f the parent i s neglecting to used the mark-making book with t h e i r c h i l d . What strategies would they use? The following strategies have been used to encourage parental use of the mark-making book: . a photograph of the parent and c h i l d was taken during the f i r s t set of parent-teaching interviews p r i o r to the s t a r t of the nursery program. Once developed, the photographs were glued onto the front cover of the mark-making book. . photographs were taken of children using the mark-making book i n class or p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n other a c t i v i t i e s . They were also glued into the mark-making book. 317 . Each Monday, as children a r r i v e d with t h e i r parents or with day care workers, the mark-making book entries which were done on the weekend would be looked at, the c h i l d would be praised, and a s t i c k e r would be attached to the front cover. If a parent accompanied the c h i l d , i t was a good opportunity to b r i e f l y inquire how the parent f e l t about the book's use i n the home environment. Would the parent have any suggestions? . Once a week, during class time, the teacher would conference with each c h i l d about the use of the mark-making book and the en t r i e s . . Throughout the school year, the teacher would f i n d an opportune time to display the mark-making books. They are excellent conversation pieces during a school open house, a Christmas party, etc. . They are a means of assessment during parent-teacher interviews. 7.4 Conclusion We should respect our children's f i r s t drawings, those sc r i b b l e s which to us, look l i k e so much l i t t e r at the end of another exhausting day of being a parent. It i s so important to give very young children some confidence i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to make, to mark, to change the world a l i t t l e . (Dawn & Fred Sedgwick, 1993, p. 13) The concept of mark-making book i s simple, yet i t i s a synthesis of current art and ear l y childhood education philosophy. 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