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Curriculum for sculptures of the human figure in secondary schools : an historical, critical, and studio… Philipps, Agness 1984

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CURRICULUM FOR SCULPTURE OF THE HUMAN FIGURE I N SECONDARY SCHOOLS: AN HISTORICAL, C R I T I C A L , AND STUDIO APPROACH  by  Agness B. E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y  Philipps of British  Columbia,  1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f V i s u a l  and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s  i n Education  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April (6)  1984  Agness P h i l i p p s ,  1984  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  granted by  the head o f  department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  >E-6  (3/81)  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s s t u d y i s t o s e r v e as c u r r i c u l u m r e s o u r c e f o r t h e t e a c h i n g of s c u l p t u r e i n secondary developed  The  programme  t o a i d a c u r r i c u l u m b a s e d on h i s t o r i c a l  d i s c u s s i o n s o f a r t , and on  studio a c t i v i t i e s  s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e . mentation grades  schools.  and  critical  i n the area  I t i s t o f u r t h e r t h e 1984  of the P r o v i n c i a l A r t C u r r i c u l u m f o r Secondary  8 to  was  of impleSchools,  12.  To a s c e r t a i n t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f s u c h a r e s o u r c e , a s u r v e y British which  C o l u m b i a a r t t e a c h e r s was  confirmed  t h i s need.  major areas of the study: c e p t s and  c a r r i e d out i n February  A r e a c t i o n t o and  s e v e r a l themes o f s c u l p t u r e , and  art  Columbia a r t teachers i n February  teachers i n October  1983.  1983,  and  the  con-  studio processes  t h e m a k i n g o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e w e r e s o u g h t British  1980  e v a l u a t i o n of  the h i s t o r y of a r t , important  of  for  from  from  Burnaby  Respondents c o n f i r m e d the  useful-  ness of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m resource. The  s t u d y makes use o f a s e t o f 431  s l i d e s i n which  h i s t o r y o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d , P r e h i s t o r y to the present time. c u l t u r e s of the world, which as a s u b j e c t .  Such b r o a d  view of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l school In  the from  Examples are p r e s e n t e d of a l l  p e r m i t t h e use o f t h e human  coverage  was  figure  considered important i n  roots of B r i t i s h  Columbia  secondary  students. o r d e r t o d e l i m i t a t e t h e s t u d y , t h e theme o f t h e human  f i g u r e was  chosen f o r s e v e r a l reasons:  i t i s t h e most common  image i n s c u l p t u r e ; it  i t c o n s i s t s o f great c o m p l e x i t i e s  i s a most e x p r e s s i v e  dition.  t o o l f o r the p o r t r a y a l o f the human con-  Adolescence i s a time o f c o n s i d e r a b l e  s i t i v i t y and i s t h e r e f o r e of self-concept ance.  an a p p r o p r i a t e  growth and sen-  time f o r the formation  which i s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by p h y s i c a l appear-  I t i s p o s i t e d t h a t the study o f a great v a r i e t y o f s c u l p -  t u r e o f the human f i g u r e f u r t h e r s adolescents' Although the study deals with s c u l p t u r e ure,  o f form;  self-acceptance.  o f the human f i g -  the same methodology might be used f o r o t h e r areas o f the  visual arts.  I t i s meant t o provide v i a b l e and p r a c t i c a l  ass-  i s t a n c e t o a r t teachers i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f the h i s t o r y o f a r t as r e l a t e d t o the h i s t o r y o f humankind, i n the c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f major concepts o f s c u l p t u r e ,  i n the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f  themes o f s c u l p t u r e , and i n the p r o d u c t i o n by  students.  o f c r e a t i v e works  iv. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i  i  L I S T OF TABLES  v i i  L I S T OF PLATES  viii  L I S T OF SLIDES  i x  L I S T OF NAMES AND NATIONALITY OF SCULPTORS I D E N T I F I A B L E ON SLIDES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  . . . . .  xxxix xliv  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION Need f o r t h e S t u d y : S u r v e y R e s u l t s o f B.C. A r t T e a c h e r s R e g a r d i n g T e a c h i n g of S c u l p t u r e i n Secondary Schools  1  The P u r p o s e o f t h e T h e s i s  4  Why T e a c h S c u l p t u r e o f t h e Human Figure to Adolescents? II.  1  DEVELOPMENT OF THE CURRICULUM RESOURCES  11 16  Purpose o f S l i d e s  16  Unit Plans  16  Introduction t o Sculpture  18  H i s t o r i c a l Overview o f S c u l p t u r e o f t h e Human F i g u r e B a s e d o n 398 Slides  24  Anatomy o f t h e Human F i g u r e : The S k e l e t o n  36  . V.  Chapter  Page Study of Movement and P r o p o r t i o n s Through F i g u r e Drawing  45  Studio A c t i v i t i e s f o r the Making of S c u l p t u r e of the Human Body, Methods and M a t e r i a l s  49  The Maquette i n Clay  49  Terra-Cotta Sculpture  53  Metal S c u l p t u r e :  Cold Wire Bending  . . . .  58  P a p i e r Mache S c u l p t u r e  61  P l a s t e r of P a r i s on Armature  65  P l a s t e r of P a r i s f o r Carving  68  Concepts of S c u l p t u r e  74  Threedimensionality  74  Form, Shape, Mass, Volume, Monumentality . .  77  C r i t i c i s m and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Representations of the F i g u r e  82  Linear Sculpture  82  Block S c u l p t u r e  85  Super-realism  89  Pathos i n S c u l p t u r e  93  Religious Sculpture  99  Commemorative  Sculpture  Everyday S c u l p t u r e III.  CONCLUSION  104 109 114  Response t o Needs, the 19 8 3 Survey of A r t Teachers  114  Recommendations f o r Use W i t h i n Other Areas of A r t Education  116  Vi  Page BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX 1:  117 Needs Assessment - S c u l p t u r e Survey  123  APPENDIX 2:  Evaluation  128  APPENDIX 3:  S l i d e s No. 1 - 431  130  vii .  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1.  2.  Page A S e l e c t i o n o f 140 S l i d e s f o r a B r i e f Overview of the H i s t o r y of S c u l p t u r e of the F i g u r e f o r S e n i o r Secondary Students  30  A S e l e c t i o n of 86 S l i d e s f o r a More Condensed Overview o f S c u l p t u r e o f the F i g u r e Throughout the Ages, Around the World, f o r J u n i o r Secondary Students  34  viii.  LIST OF PLATES  Plate 1.  2.  Page H a l f L i f e - s i z e F i g u r e s Under C o n s t r u c t i o n i n the A r t Room  8  Enlargement o f the Maquette w i t h P l a s t e r o f P a r i s on Armature  9  3.  D i s p l a y o f Student Work  10  4.  P r o p o r t i o n s o f the S k e l e t o n  5.  Gesture Drawing with the Skeleton  43  6.  Gesture Drawing with the S k e l e t o n  44  .  42  ix. L I S T OF S L I D E S Slide 1.  Venus o f W i l d e n m a n n l i s l o c h b o n e , N e a n d e r t h a l , c. 70,000  2.  Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f l i m e s t o n e , Ah i n . , P a l e o l i t h i c ,  c. 21,000  B.C.  Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f l i m e s t o n e , Ah i n . , P a l e o l i t h i c ,  c. 21,000  B.C.  Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f l i m e s t o n e , Ah i n . , P a l e o l i t h i c , c. 21,000  B.C.  3. 4.  B.C.  5.  Venus o f L a u s s e l l i m e s t o n e , 17 i n . , P a l e o l i t h i c  6.  Venus o f L e s p u g u e i v o r y , 6 i n . , Magdalenian  7.  ( P a l e o l i t h i c ) , c . 15,000  Venus o f L e s p u g u e i v o r y , 6 i n . , M a g d a l e n i a n , c. 15,000  B.C.  8.  Venuses o f : (from l e f t t o r i g h t ) W i l l e n d o r f , Indus V a l l e y , Cyprus, A s l a s h , S y r i a .  9.  Marble Figure C y c l a d i c , E a r l y B r o n z e Age  10.  Statuettes C y c l a d e s , end o f 3 r d m i l l e n n i u m m a r b l e , 20 i n .  11.  Deity Figure 12 i n . , M i c r o n e s i a n .  12.  Bearded F i g u r e 32 i n . , M i c r o n e s i a n .  13.  Neck R e s t wood, lh i n . , Congo,  14. 15. 16.  Traitor wood w i t h r a f f i a  Africa.  skirt,  Fetish Figure wood w i t h t e x t i l e ,  B.C.  30 i n . , C o n g o , A f r i c a .  9% i n . , Congo,  Mother & C h i l d 15 i n . , N i g e r i a , A f r i c a .  Africa.  B.C.  Slide 17.  Mother & C h i l d 45 3/4 i n . , Congo, A f r i c a .  18.  Standing Figure wood, w i t h s h e l l a n d human h a i r , New Z e a l a n d .  17 3/4 i n . , M a o r i ,  19.  Wood C a r v i n g ( M o t h e r & C h i l d ) 3 3 % i n . , M e l a n e s i a n , New G u i n e a .  20.  Female F i g u r e human h a i r , c a n e s , woven s t r i n g , b e a d s , 104 cm. M e l a n e s i a n , New G u i n e a .  21.  Male & Female F i g u r e s wood a n d r a t t a n , M e l a n e s i a n , New  22. 23.  Guinea.  Ancestral Figures t r e e f e r n , 50 i n . - 40 i n . , P o l y n e s i a n , Goddess 14 7/8 i n . , P o l y n e s i a n ,  Fiji.  Tonga.  24.  Ancestral Figure wood, 1 7 % i n . , P o l y n e s i a n , E a s t e r I s l a n d .  25.  Crowned God s o l i d g o l d , p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , 15 3/4 i n . x 8% i n . , I n c a , South America, Peru.  26.  Seated Maiden t e r r a - c o t t a , 11 3/8 i n . , C o l i m a , c . 300-1000 A.D., Middle America, Mexico.  27.  Effigy p o t t e r y , 12 i n . , C o l i m a , M i d d l e A m e r i c a , M e x i c o .  28.  Adolescent s t o n e , 112.5 cm., H u a d i a c , 700-1000 A.D., Middle America, Mexico.  29.  Chac M o o l l i m e s t o n e , 5 8 % i n . l o n g , Mayan, 948-1697 A.D., Middle America, Mexico.  30.  Ballplayer t e r r a - c o t t a , 17 3/8 i n . , J a l i s c o , c . 300-1000 A.D., Middle America, Mexico.  31.  Dancer e a r t h e n w a r e , 2 2/3 i n . , Z a p o t e c - M i x t e c , c . 1200-1400 A.D., Middle America, Mexico.  xi. Slide 32.  Three F i g u r e s and W a l r u s stone, North American, I n u i t .  33.  Hunter w i t h Harpoon stone, North American,  Inuit.  Hunter w i t h Seal stone, North American,  Inuit.  Mother & C h i l d stone, North American,  Inuit.  36. ' M o t h e r & C h i l d stone, North American,  Inuit.  34. 35.  37. 38.  Pipe Figure s t o n e , 8 i n . , c. 1000-1700 A.D., N o r t h A m e r i c a n G r e a t Totem P o l e wood, N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n ,  Indian.  B.C.  39.  Two M o u r n e r s wood, 5 f t . 6 i n . , a n d 5 f t . 3 i n . , N o r t h A m e r i c a n Indian, Salish.  40.  Two House P o s t s wood, 5 f t . 2 i n . , a n d 5 f t . 9 i n . , N o r t h A m e r i c a n Indian, Kwakiutl.  41.  Kwakiutl Chief wood, 45 i n . , N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n , B.C.  42.  T s i m s h i a n D a n c i n g Shaman F i g u r e wood w i t h a b a l o n e s h e l l e y e s a n d h o r s e h a i r , 24 i n . , N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n , B.C.  43.  Shaman wood, 19 i n . , N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n , H a i d a .  44.  Woman o n a S e a M o n s t e r wood, 12 i n . , N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n , H a i d a , 1810.  45.  Naked Dancer c o p p e r , Ah i n . , c . 3000-1500 B.C.,  India.  Naked Dancer c o p p e r , Ah i n . , c. 3000-1500 B.C.,  India.  46. 47.  Visnu b r o n z e , 8h x 10 3/8 i n . , c. 9 t h c e n t u r y , I n d i a  (front)  xii.  Slide 48. 49. 50.  Visnu bronze,  8% x 10 3/8 i n . , c . 9 t h c e n t u r y , I n d i a ( r e a r )  Yakshi s t o n e , 1 s t c e n t u r y B.C.,  India.  Buddha s a n d s t o n e , 5 t h c e n t u r y A.D.,  51.  Buddha black c h l o r i t e , India.  52.  R a j r a n i Temple s a n d s t o n e , c. 1100 A.D.,  India.  32 x 18 i n . , l a t e  8th to 9th century,  India.  53.  Goddess T a r a (Mother & C h i l d ) s t o n e , 1 1 t h c e n t u r y A.D., I n d i a .  54.  The J i n a s ( c o n q u e r o r s ) 68 cm., 1 2 t h t o 1 3 t h c e n t u r y , I n d i a .  55.  S h i v a as N a t a r a j a b r o n z e , 1 2 t h t o 1 3 t h c e n t u r y A.D.,  India.  56.  Vasudhara b r o n z e , 18% x 15 3/4 i n . , c. 1 3 t h t o 1 4 t h c e n t u r y India.  57.  F a s t i n g Buddha 2nd o r 3 r d c e n t u r y , P a k i s t a n .  58.  Seated stone,  59.  Buddha 9th century,  Java.  C e l e s t i a l Dancer s a n d s t o n e , 1 0 t h c e n t u r y A.D.,  60.  Goddess Tara g i l d e d b r o n z e , 142.5 cm., S r i Lanka (Ceylon).  61.  C o l o s s a l Buddha 45 f t . , c . 450-500 A.D.,  62. 63.  Female F i g u r i n e t e r r a - c o t t a , 618-907 A.D., Musicians terra-cotta,  Viet  Nam.  10th t o 11th century,  China. China.  10 3/4 i n . , 618-906 A.D.,  China  A.D.,  xiii.  Slide 64. 65. 66. 67.  Guardian Figure s t o n e , 618-907 A.D.,  China.  Kneeling Worshipper mud w i t h s t r a w and h a i r , O l d Man i v o r y , Ming,  7 t h c e n t u r y A.D.,  China.  Kuan-Yin p o r c e l a i n , l a t e Ming,  China.  68.  Kuan-Yin wood, C h i n a .  69.  A m i d a Buddha b r o n z e , 37 f t . 4 i n . , c o l o s s a l ,  70. 71. 72. 73.  Figure wood, 27%  China.  i n . , 1 3 t h c e n t u r y A.D.,  Buddha S a t u e t t e b r o n z e , 1 7 t h c e n t u r y A.D.,  Japan. Japan.  Thailand  Praying Figure b r o n z e , 12 3/5 i n . , 1 7 t h t o 1 8 t h c e n t u r y A.D., Hari-Hara c. 7 t h c e n t u r y A.D.,  Thailand.  Cambodia.  74.  Dancers s t o n e , 1 2 t h c e n t u r y , C a m b o d i a , A n g k o r Thorn ( " C a p i t a l City")  75.  R e l i e f of P r o c e s s i o n of Troops Before the K i n g s t o n e , C a m b o d i a , A n g k o r V a t ( " C a p i t a l Temple")  76.  Female D i e t y 1 1 t h c e n t u r y A.D.,  Cambodia.  77.  M u c a l i n d a Buddha 35% i n . , 1 2 t h c e n t u r y , C a m b o d i a .  78.  The God marble,  79. 80.  Abu 3000-2500 B.C.,  S t a n d i n g Gudea d i o r i t e , c. 2400 B.C.,  Mesopotamia. Chaldean-Sumerian.  Winged Goddess t e r r a - c o t t a , 2000-1800 B.C.,  Neo-Sumerian.  XIV.  Slide 81. 82.  K i n g Hammurabi b l a c k b a s a l t , 1800-1700 B.C., Goddess A s t a r t e b r o n z e , 1400-1200 B.C.,  Neo-Sumerian.  Phoenician.  83.  King Assurnasirpal I I alabaster, 9th century, Assyrian.  84.  The H e r o G i l g a m e s h alabaster, 8th century, Assyrian.  85.  Figurine terra-cotta,  86.  Functionary & H i s Wife wood, 44 cm., 4 t h D y n a s t y , 2900-2750 B.C.,  87.  Sumerian.  Seated S c r i b e g r a n i t e , c. 2750 B.C.,  Egypt,  Egypt.  88.  K i n g M y c e r i n u s and W i f e s l a t e , c. 2680 B.C., E g y p t .  89.  Woman G r i n d i n g G r a i n l i m e s t o n e , C. 2650 B.C.,  Egypt.  90.  The S t u b b o r n Donkey l i m e s t o n e , c. 2650 B.C.,  Egypt.  91.  Seated S c r i b e l i m e s t o n e , 29 i n . , c. 2680-2540 B.C.,  Egypt.  Seated S c r i b e l i m e s t o n e , 29 i n . , c. 2680-2540 B.C.,  Egypt.  Seated S c r i b e l i m e s t o n e , 29 i n . , c. 2680-2540 B.C.,  Egypt.  92. 93. 94.  The M a y o r wood, C. 2600 B.C.,  Egypt.  95.  I n s p e c t o r o f S c r i b e s and W i f e l i m e s t o n e , C. 2565 B.C., E g y p t .  96.  Servant G i r l wood, c. 2000 B.C.,  Egypt.  Funeral - boat wood, c. 1900 B.C.,  Egypt.  97.  XV.  Slide 98.  Amenemhet I I I ( p h a r a o h ) g r a n i t e , c. 1820 B.C., E g y p t .  99.  S t a t u e t t e o f Imeret-Nebes c . 1800 B.C., E g y p t .  100.  Carpenters, Brewers, Musicians wood, c. 1780 B.C., E g y p t .  101.  Tuthmosis I I I g r e y b a s a l t , c. 1570 B.C., E g y p t .  102.  God Amon g o l d , c. 1460 B.C., E g y p t .  103.  The C o l o s s i o f Memnon q u a r t z i t e , 57 f t . 9 i n . ,  c . 1411-1372 B.C., E g y p t .  104.  T o r s o o f Armana P r i n c e s s r e d q u a r t z i t e , 29 cm., 1375-1350 B.C., E g y p t .  105.  Amenhotep I V ( E c h n a t o n ) l i m e s t o n e , c . 1370 B.C., E g y p t .  106.  P a i n t e d Wood F i g u r e s ( P h a r a o h i n l o w e r c e n t e r ) c . 1360 B.C., E g y p t .  10 7.  S t a t u e o f Woman c. 1350 B.C., E g y p t .  108.  G o d d e s s S e r k e t , P r o t e c t o r o f t h e Dead c . 1334-1325 B.C., E g y p t .  109.  Tutankhamun t h e H a r p o o n e r wood ( g i l d e d ) , 2 9 % i n . , c . 1334-1325 B.C., E g y p t .  110.  Tutankhamun t h e H a r p o o n e r wood ( g i l d e d ) , 2 9 % i n . , c . 1334-1325 B.C., E g y p t .  111.  C o l o s s a l S t a t u e s from Abu-Simbel s a n d s t o n e , c . 1250 B.C., E g y p t .  112.  C o l o s s a l S t a t u e s from Abu-Simbel s a n d s t o n e , c . 1250 B.C., E g y p t .  113.  F u n e r a r y F i g u r e o f Lady wood ( g i l d e d n e c k l a c e ) , 1 1 % i n . ,  114.  Queen Karomana b r o n z e , 59 cm., 22 D y n a s t y ,  c. 1580-1090 B.C., E g y p t .  950-730 B.C., E g y p t .  xvi. Slide 115.  Block-statue of Prophet s l a t e , c. 945 B.C., E g y p t .  116.  B l o c k - s t a t u e of P r i n c e c. 570 B.C., E g y p t .  117.  Kneeling Priest c . 55 0 B.C., E g y p t .  118.  "The D a t t a r i S t a t u e " o f a P r i e s t b l a c k d i o r i t e , c. 400 B.C., E g y p t .  119.  A p o l l o of Piombino b r o n z e , 76 i n . , c. 475 B.C.,  Greece.  A p o l l o of Piombino b r o n z e , 76 i n . , c. 475 B.C.,  Greece.  120. 121.  W a r r i o r f r o m t h e Temple o f A p h a i a . . m a r b l e , c . 475 B.C., Greece.  122.  F l u t e P l a y e r , from t h e L u d o v i s i Throne m a r b l e , c. 470-460 B.C., Greece.  123.  H a r m o d i u s and A r i s t o g e i t o n by A n t e n o r , bronze, Greece.  124.  Zeus f r o m A r t e m i s i o n b r o n z e , 82 i n . , c. 460 B.C.,  Greece.  Zeus f r o m A r t e m i s i o n b r o n z e , 82 i n . , c. 460 B.C.,  Greece.  Zeus f r o m A r t e m i s i o n b r o n z e , 82 i n . , c. 460 B.C.,  Greece.  125. 126. 127.  128.  129.  130.  Torso by P o l y k l e i t o s , b a s a l t , c. 450 B.C.,  Greece.  Discobolos by M y r o n , (Roman C o p y ) , m a r b l e , l i f e s i z e ,  c. 450 B.C.,  Greece.  Discobolos by M y r o n , (Roman C o p y ) , m a r b l e , l i f e s i z e ,  c . 450 B.C.,  Greece.  Athena Parthenos by P h i d i a s , m a r b l e , c o v e r e d i n i v o r y and g o l d , c o p y , 447-438 Greece.  B.C.,  xvii. Slide 131.  Dione & A p h r o d i t e , from the Parthenon by P h i d i a s , m a r b l e , 4 f t . 1 i n . , 442-438 B.C., Greece.  132.  R e l i e f , from the Parthenon by P h i d i a s , m a r b l e , 41 i n . , 442-438 B.C.,  133.  Ilissos m a r b l e , c . 438 B.C.,  Greece.  Greece.  134.  Aphrodite of Knidos by P r a x i t e l e s , marble, Greece.  135.  Youth from A n t i k y t h e r a b r o n z e , 6 f t . 5 i n . , c . 350 B.C.,  Greece.  Youth from A n t i k y t h e r a b r o n z e , 6 f t . 5 i n . , c. 350 B.C.,  Greece.  Youth from A n t i k y t h e r a b r o n z e , 6 f t . 5 i n . , c. 350 B.C.,  Greece.  136. 137. 13 8.  Marsyas, the c 300 B.C.,  139.  V i c t o r y of Samothrace marble, over l i f e - s i z e ,  14 0.  Satyr Greece.  V i c t o r y of Samothrace marble, over l i f e s i z e ,  c. 200 B.C., c. 200 B.C.,  Greece Greece.  141.  A p h r o d i t e o f M e l o s ( o r Venus de M i l o ) m a r b l e , 6 f t . 8 i n . , c. 100 B.C., Greece.  14 2.  Laokoon m a r b l e , 95 i n . ,  c . 100 B.C.,  143.  The B o r g h e s e G l a d i a t o r m a r b l e , c . 100 B.C., Greece.  144.  Naked L a n c e r b r o n z e , 5 t h c e n t u r y B.C.,  14 5.  Ombra bronze, Etruscan.  146.  Aphrodite b r o n z e , 33 cm.,  Greece.  Etruscan.  4 t h c e n t u r y B.C.,  Etruscan.  XVIXI.  Slide 147.  D i o n y s i o s and t h e Graces m a r b l e , e a r l y 2nd c e n t u r y A.D., Roman.  148.  Apollo t e r r a - c o t t a , 69 i n . , c . 500 B.C., E t r u s c a n .  149.  Gemma A u g u s t a e s a r d o n y x , 8 i n . x 9 i n . , 1 s t c e n t u r y A.D., Roman.  150.  P a t r i c i a n with Busts of Ancestors m a r b l e , l i f e s i z e , 1 s t c e n t u r y A.D., Roman.  151.  Augustus m a r b l e , 8 0 i n . , c . 20 B.C., Roman.  152.  Christ ivory,  153.  C r u c i f i x o f A r c h b i s h o p Gero p o l y c h r o m e d o a k , 969-971 A.D., Romanesque.  154.  Christ i n Glory c. 1090 A.D., Romanesque.  155.  The P e n t e c o s t s t o n e , 3 5 % f t . , c . 1132 A.D.,  Blessing l O t h - l l t h c e n t u r y A.D., B y z a n t i n e .  Romanesque.  156.  C h r i s t i n G l o r y , d e t a i l from t h e P e n t e c o s t s t o n e , c . 1132 A.D., Romanesque.  157.  Eve w i t h F o r b i d d e n F r u i t 1120-1135 A.D., Romanesque.  158.  L a s t Judgment early 12th century,  Romanesque.  15 9.  Adam & E v e Romanesque.  16 0.  Adam & E v e Gothic.  161.  Tomb o f Duke & W i f e c. 1230-1250 A.D., G o t h i c .  16 2.  The S y n a g o g u e s t o n e , c . 1230-1250 A.D., G o t h i c .  16 3.  The B l a c k P r i n c e copper g i l d e d , 1380, G o t h i c .  164.  Pieta wood, 3 4 % i n . , e a r l y  14th century,  Gothic.  xix. Slide 165.  V i r g i n and C h i l d i v o r y , 14 i n . , 1 4 t h c e n t u r y ,  166.  The B e a u t i f u l c. 1400 A.D.,  Madonna Gothic.  167.  Pieta c. 1400 A.D.,  Gothic.  Gothic.  16 8.  A Mourner by C l a u s S l u t e r , D u t c h , 1404-1410 A.D., G o t h i c .  16 9.  Four S a i n t s i n C o n v e r s a t i o n by N a n n i d i B a n c o , I t a l i a n , 1408-1413 A.D., G o t h i c .  170.  Madonna a n d C h i l d s t o n e , c. 1420 A . D . , . G o t h i c .  171.  Madonna w i t h A p p l e c. 1420 A.D., G o t h i c .  172.  Adam a n d E v e by R i e m e n s c h n e i d e r , German,  Gothic.  17 3.  P e n i t e n t Mary Magdalene by G r e g o r E r h a r t , German wood, l a t e G o t h i c .  174.  The V i r g i n w i t h t h e L a u g h i n g C h i l d by A n t o n i o R o s s e l l i n o , Italian, t e r r a - c o t t a , 20 i n . , m i d - 1 5 t h c e n t u r y .  175.  S t . George by D o n a t e l l o , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 7 f t . , 1415-1417  176.  177.  178.  179.  A.D.  David by D o n a t e l l o , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 7 5 % i n . , 1408-1409 David by D o n a t e l l o , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 64 i n . , 1434-1438 David by D o n a t e l l o , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 6 0 % i n . , 1438-1443  A.D.  A.D.  A.D.  Gates of P a r a d i s e by L o r e n z o G h i b e r t i , I t a l i a n , g i l d b r o n z e , 1425-1452 A.D.  XX .  Slide 180.  G a t e s o f P a r a d i s e , The S t o r y o f J a c o b and by L o r e n z o G h i b e r t i , I t a l i a n , detail.  181.  Madonna a n d C h i l d by L u c a d e l l a R o b b i a , I t a l i a n , e n a m e l l e d t e r r a - c o t t a , 1450-1460  A.D.  182.  David by A n d r e a d e l V e r r o c c h i o , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 4 f t . 1 i n . , c . 1475 A.D.  183.  Eve by A n t o n i o R i z z o , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , c . 1485 A.D.  184.  King Arthur by P e t e r V i s c h e r , German, b r o n z e , 1513 A.D.  185.  Apollo Fountain by Hans V i s c h e r , German, b r o n z e , 1532 A.D.  186.  Perseus by B e n v e n u t o C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 1545-1554 A.D.  187.  Perseus by B e n v e n u t o C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 1545-1554 A.D.  188.  V i r t u e Overcoming V i c e by B e n v e n u t o C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 9% i n . , 1 6 t h c e n t u r y A.D.  18 9.  V i r t u e Overcoming V i c e by B e n v e n u t o C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 9% i n . , 1 6 t h c e n t u r y A.D.  190.  V i r t u e Overcoming V i c e by B e n v e n u t o C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 9% i n . , 1 6 t h c e n t u r y A.D.  191.  Diana of Anet by J e a n G o u j o n , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1548-1555 A.D.  19 2.  Nymph, f r o m F o u n t a i n i n P a r i s by J e a n G o u j o n , F r e n c h s t o n e , 1548-1549 A.D.  Esau  xxi. Slide 193.  Mercury by G i o v a n n i d a B o l o g n a , b r o n z e , 1564 A.D.  194.  Juno by G i o v a n n i d a B o l o g n a ,  Flemish-Italian,  Flemish-Italian.  195.  Nymph by B a r t o l o m m e o A m m a n a t i , b r o n z e , 1563-1575 A.D.  196.  C h a r l e s V. & I s a b e l l a by Pompeo L e o n i , I t a l i a n , R o y a l Mausoleum, E s c o r i a l , g i l d e d  Italian,  bronze,  197.  Study f o r F o u n t a i n F i g u r e by G i o v a n n i d a B o l o g n a , Flemish-Italian, t e r r a - c o t t a , L. 19 i n . , c . 1600 A.D.  198.  Study f o r F o u n t a i n F i g u r e by G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a , Flemish-Italian, t e r r a - c o t t a , L. 19 i n . , c. 1600 A.D.  199.  Pieta by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 60 i n . , 1498-1500 A.D.  200.  Pieta by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 69 i n . , 1498-1500 A.D.  201.  Torso of a Youth by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , 4 5/8 i n . , c . 1489 A.D.  20 2.  David by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1 8 % f t . , 1501-1504 A.D.  203.  David by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 18% f t . , 1501-1504 A.D.  204.  David by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1 8 % f t . , 1501-1504 A.D.  205.  Christ by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1513-1516 A.D.  1597 A.D.  xxii. Slide 206.  Bacchus by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1513-1516 A.D.  207.  Moses by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , marble,  1513-1516,  1542-1545 A.D.  208.  Slave by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 90% i n . , 1513-1516 A.D.  209.  Slave by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 86% i n . , 1513-1516 A.D.  210.  Slave by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , marble  211.  Victory by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 8 f t . 6 3/4 i n . , c . 1520 A.D.  212.  Victory by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 8 f t . 6 3/4 i n . , c . 1520 A.D.  213.  Squatting Figure by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D.  214.  Tomb o f G i u l i a n o de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D.  215.  Day by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 7 i n . , L. 1 2 % i n . , c . 1524 A.D,  216.  Day, Tomb o f G i u l i a n o de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D.  217.  N i g h t , Tomb o f G i u l i a n o de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D.  218.  Tomb o f L o r e n z o de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D.  xxiii. Slide 219.  R i g h t Hand o f L o r e n z o de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , 4 3/4 i n . , c . 1524 A.D.  2 20.  Dawn by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , h. 7 i n . , 1. 8% i n . , c . 1524 A.D.  221.  Dawn, Tomb o f L o r e n z o de M e d i c i . by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D.  222.  L e f t Arm, S h o u l d e r & P a r t o f B a c k by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , L. 10 3/4 i n . , c . 1524 A.D.  223.  Dusk, Tomb o f L o r e n z o de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D.  224.  Madonna a n d C h i l d by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1530-1534 A.D.  225.  Pieta of Florence by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 7 f t . 8 i n . , 1550-1556 A.D.  2 26 .  Pieta- o f Florence by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , detail.  227.  Pieta of Florence by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , detail.  228.  Rondanini P i e t a by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 6 f t . 4 i n . , 1550-1564 A.D.  229.  The M e r c i f u l C h r i s t by J u a n M a r t i n e z M o n t a n e z , S p a n i s h , p o l y c h r o m e d wood, c . 16 0 3 A.D.  230.  Pieta by G r e g o r i o F e r n a n d e z , Spanish, p o l y c h r o m e d wood, 1616-1617 A.D.  231.  The A b d u c t i o n o f P e r s e p h o r e by G i a n L o r e n z o B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1621-1622 A.D.  xxiv. Slide 2 32.  David by G i a n L o r e n z o B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , d e t a i l , m a r b l e , 1623 A.D.  2 33.  A p o l l o & Daphne by G i a n L o r e n z o B e r n i n i , m a r b l e , 1624 A.D.  234.  A p o l l o & Daphne by G i a n L o r e n z o B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , d e t a i l , m a r b l e , 1624 A.D.  235.  The E c s t a s y o f S t . T e r e s a by G i a n L o r e n z o B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1645-1652 A.D.  236.  S t . Jerome by G i a n L o r e n z o B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 6 f t . 4 i n . , 1661-1663 A.D.  237.  S t . Susanna by F r a n c o i s D u q u e s n o y , F l e m i s h , m a r b l e , o v e r - l i f e s i z e , 1629-1633  A.D.  S t . Andrew by F r a n c o i s D u q u e s n o y , F l e m i s h , m a r b l e , 14 f t . 11 i n . , 1627-1639  A.D.  238.  Italian,  2 39.  F o u n t a i n o f t h e F o u r R i v e r s (Danube, N i l e , G a n g e s , R i o de l a P l a t a ) by G i a n L o r e n z o B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1648-1651 A.D.  240.  Milo of Crotona by P i e r r e P u g e t , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 8 f t . 10 i n . , 1671-1683  A.D.  241.  The G a r o n n e ( r i v e r ) by A n t o i n e C o y s e v o x , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1685-1686 A.D.  242.  The A s s u m p t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n by E g i d Q u i r i n Asam, German, s t u c c o , l i f e s i z e , 1718-1725 A.D.  243.  S t . Gertrude by J a c i n t o V i e i r a , P o r t u g u e s e , p a i n t e d wood, c. 1725 A.D.  244.  L ' A m i t i e (Madame de Pompadour) by J e a n - B a p t i s t e P i g a l l e , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 5 f t . 2 i n . , 1750-1751 A.D.  XXV.  Slide 245.  Bather by E t i e n n e - M a u r i c e F a l c o n e t , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 2 f t . 7 i n . , 1757 A.D.  246.  Bather by E t i e n n e - M a u r i c e F a l c o n e t , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 2 f t . 7 i n . , 1757 A.D.  24 7.  Venus by J o h a n T o b i a s S e r g e i , m a r b l e , l i f e s i z e , 1770s  Swedish, A.D.  248.  Pieta by F r a n z I g n a z G u n t h e r , German, wood, 64 i n . , 1774 A.D.  249.  Peter the Great by E t i e n n e - M a u r i c e F a l c o n e t , b r o n z e , 1766-1777 A.D.  250.  S t . Bruno by J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h , s t u c c o , 1776 A.D.  251.  Diana by J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h , m a r b l e o r i g i n a l , c. 1776 A.D.  25 2.  Diana by J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h , b r o n z e v e r s i o n , c. 1776 A.D.  253.  George Washington by J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1785-1791 A.D.  254.  The Bad T h i e f by 0. A l e i j a d i n h o , c. 1798 A.D.  255.  Feasting d e t a i l of 18th century p r e s e p i o , wood , t e r r a - c o t t a and c l o t h .  256.  Venus V i c t r i x ( P a u l i n e B o n a p a r t e ) by A n t o n i o C a n o v a , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1808 A.D.  257.  Perseus by A n t o n i o C a n o v a , marble.  French,  Brazilian,  Italian,  xxv i . Slide 258.  Venus I t a l i c a by A n t o n i o C a n o v a , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 5 f t . 8% i n . , 1805-1812  259.  Young N e a p o l i t a n F i s h e r m a n by F r a n c o i s Rude, F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1831-1832 A.D.  26 0.  M e r c u r y A t t a c h i n g H i s Wings by F r a n c o i s Rude, F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 8 f t . 2 i n . , 1828-1834  A.D.  Playing with a Tortoise  261.  La M a r s e i l l a i s e by F r a n c o i s Rude, F r e n c h , s t o n e , 1833-1836 A.D.  262.  Ophelia by A u g u s t e P r e a u l t , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 2 9 % i n . x 7 9 % i n . , 1843  A.D.  A.D.  263.  Ugolino by J e a n - B a p t i s t e C a r p e a u x , F r e n c h , p l a s t e r , 6 f t . 5% i n . , 1860-1862 A.D.  264.  The P r o d i g a l Son by C o n s t a n t i n M e u n i e r ,  Belgian,  265.  Hercules the Archer by A n t o i n e B o u r d e l l e , F r e n c h ,  266.  The S t a t u e o f L i b e r t y by F r e d e r i c - A u g u s t e B a r t h o l d i , F r e n c h , hammered c o p p e r , 90 m., 1886 A.D. ( c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s ) .  267.  The S t a t u e o f L i b e r t y by F r e d e r i c - A u g u s t e B a r t h o l d i , F r e n c h , hammered c o p p e r , 90 m., 1886 A.D. ( c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s ) .  26 8.  The Age o f B r a s s by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1876 A.D.  269.  The Age o f B r a s s by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1876 A.D.  270.  l'Eveil by A u g u s t e R o d i n ,  271.  French,  S t . John the B a p t i s t P r e a c h i n g by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1878 A.D.  xxvii. Slide 272.  S t . John the B a p t i s t P r e a c h i n g by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1878 A.D.  273.  S t . John the B a p t i s t P r e a c h i n g by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1878 A.D.  274.  The T h i n k e r ( f r o m t h e G a t e o f H e l l ) by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880 A.D.  275.  The T h i n k e r ( f r o m t h e G a t e o f H e l l ) by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880 A.D.  276.  The T h i n k e r ( f r o m t h e G a t e o f H e l l ) by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , s t o n e , 1879-1900 A.D.  277.  The T h r e e Shadows ( f r o m t h e G a t e o f H e l l ) by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880 A.D.  278.  A Shadow ( f r o m t h e G a t e o f H e l l ) by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880 A.D.  279.  The C a r y a t i d by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880-1881 A.D.  2 80.  Eve by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1881 A.D.  2 81.  Eve by A u g u s t e R o d i n , 1881 A.D.  French,  282.  Study f o r a Burgher of C a l a i s by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , bronze  28 3.  Three Fauns by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , p l a s t e r , 1882 A.D.  284.  The Once B e a u t i f u l H e a u l n i e r e by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , 1885 A.D.  xxviii. Slide 285.  Danaid by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1885 A.D.  286.  The K i s s by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1886 A.D.  287.  The K i s s by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1886 A.D.  288.  The B a t h e r by A u g u s t e R o d i n , 1888 A.D.  289.  The P r o d i g a l Son by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1889 A.D.  290.  Balzac by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , p l a s t e r , 1897 A.D.  291.  The A t h l e t e by A u g u s t e Rodin', F r e n c h , 1903 A.D.  292.  By t h e S e a by A u g u s t e R o d i n , F r e n c h , p l a s t e r , 1906-1907 A.D.  293.  S c u l p t u r e e x h i b i t e d a t t h e E x p o s i t i o n o f 1900 Grand P a l a i s , P a r i s .  294.  Flora by A r i s t i d e M a i l l o l , b r o n z e , 1912 A.D.  295.  A c t i o n i n Chains by A r i s t i d e M a i l l o l , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 7 f t . , 1905-1906 A.D.  296.  T a l l Venus ( d e t a i l ) by A r i s t i d e M a i l l o l ,  297.  French,  French,  French,  La S e r p e n t i n e by H e n r i M a t i s s e , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 2 2 % i n . , 1909 A.D.  xxix. Slide 298.  Venus V i c t o r i o u s by A u g u s t e R e n o i r , F r e n c h 1914 A.D.  299.  Dancer by E d g a r D e g a s , F r e n c h , b r o n z e & t u l l e s k i r t , 1921 A.D.  300.  Eve by R o g e r de l a F r e s n a y e , b r o n z e , 1910 A.D.  301.  Kneeling Figure by W i l h e l m L e h n b r u c k , German, c a s t s t o n e , 5 f t . 9 i n . , 1 9 1 1 A.D.  302.  Thinker by W i l h e l m L e h n b r u c k , 1913-1914 A.D.  303.  Young Man S t e p p i n g Up by W i l h e l m L e h n b r u c k , German, b r o n z e , 1913-1914 A.D.  304.  Dancer by J a c q u e s L i p c h i t z , b r o n z e , 1913 A.D.  French,  German,  Lithuanian,  305.  U n i q u e Forms o f C o n t i n u i t y i n S p a c e by Umberto B o c c i o n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 44 i n . , 1913 A.D.  306.  S e a t e d Man w i t h G u i t a r by J a c q u e s L i p c h i t z , L i t h u a n i a n , b r o n z e , 23 i n . , 1918 A.D.  307.  Woman w i t h C h i l d on H e r L a p by K a t h e K o l l w i t z , German 39 cm.  308.  R u s s i a n B e g g a r Woman by E r n s t B a r l a c h , German, 2 3 cm., 19 0 7 A.D.  309.  S i n g i n g Man by E r n s t B a r l a c h , German, b r o n z e , 1928 A.D.  310.  Boy w i t h F l u t e by Renee S i n t e n i s ,  German,  XXX .  Slide 311. 312. 313.  The R u n n e r by Renee S i n t e n i s , Standing G i r l by L u d w i g K a s p e r ,  German. German.  O l d Man R e a d i n g by G e r h a r d M a r c k s ,  German.  314.  The S t o n e , Arm o f t h e P r o l e t a r i a t by I v a n D. S h a d r e , R u s s i a n .  315.  Torso by I v a n M e s t r o v i c , J u g o s l a v .  316.  Torso by G u s t a v V i g e l a n d ,  Norwegian.  T a l l Eve by C h a r l e s D e s p i a u ,  French.  317. 318.  Woman Combing H e r s e l f by P a l P a t z a y , H u n g a r i a n .  319.  Spring by E u g e n S z e r v a t i u s z ,  Hungarian.  Death o f P e t o f i by T i b o r S z e r v a t i u s z ,  Hungarian.  Small Idol by T i b o r S z e r v a t i u s z ,  Hungarian.  320. 321. 322.  Woman w i t h C a t by A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e n k o , R u s s i a n , b r o n z e , H. 34 cm., 1910 A.D.  323.  The K i s s by C o n s t a n t i n B r a n c u s i , R o u m a n i a n .  3 24.  The Embrace by C a r l o s B r a c h o ,  325. 326.  Torso by J e a n  Mexican.  (Hans) A r p ,  French.  Onward by A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e n k o , R u s s i a n , H. 55 cm., 1925 A.D.  Slide 327.  Don Q u i z o t e by J u l i o G o n z a l e s , S p a n i s h , w e l d e d i r o n , 1929 A.D.  328.  Montserrat by J u l i o G o n z a l e s , b r o n z e , 1937 A.D.  329.  Seated F i g u r e by E m i l i o G r e c o ,  330.  Spanish,  Italian.  Standing Figure by G a s t o n L a c h a i s e , b r o n z e , 1932 A.D.  French-American,  331.  Young G i r l by M a r c e l G i m o n d , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1934 A.D..  332.  Man w i t h Sheep by P a b l o P i c a s s o , S p a n i s h , b r o n z e , 86% i n . , 1944 A.D.  333.  The S t o r m by G e r m a i n e R i c h i e r , b r o n z e , 69 i n . , 1949  334.  Venus by M a r i n o M a r i n i , 1945 A.D.  Italian,  335.  Pomona by M a r i n o M a r i n i , 1949 A.D.  Italian,  336.  Wrestler by M a r i n o M a r i n i ,  French, A.D.  Italian.  3 37.  Madonna a n d C h i l d by J a c o b E p s t e i n , A m e r i c a n - E n g l i s h , 1952 A.D.  338.  Young G i r l on a C h a i r by Giacomo M a n z u , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , c. 43 i n . , 1955 A.D.  339.  Lady o f V e n i c e , I by A l b e r t o G i a c o m e t t i , S w i s s , b r o n z e , 1956 A.D.  34 0.  Family by Gunnar N i l s s o n , b r o n z e , 1959 A.D.  Swedish,  xxxii. Slide 341.  Maquettes by H e n r y M o o r e , in h i s studio.  English,  342.  R e c l i n i n g and S e a t e d S m a l l F i g u r e s by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , bronze.  343.  Reclining Figures by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , bronze.  34 4.  The N o r t h h a m p t o n Madonna by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , 1943-1944 A.D.  345.  F a m i l y Group by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , H. 16 i n . , 1947 A.D.  346.  K i n g and Queen by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 6% f t . , 1951-1953  34 7.  A.D.  Warrior with Shield by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h b r o n z e , H. 60 i n . , 1953-1954  A.D.  348.  The M a k i n g o f : W a r r i o r w i t h by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , H. 60 i n .  349.  Reclining Figure: Arch Leg by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 174 i n . , 1969-1970 A.D.  350.  Reclining Figure: A r c h Leg by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 174 i n . , 1969-1970 A.D.  351.  Reclining Figure: Arch Leg by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 174 i n . , 1969-1970 A.D.  352.  W a l k i n g Man by G e o r g e S e g a l , A m e r i c a n , p l a s t e r , m e t a l & wood, 1966  353.  Shield  A.D.  Man i n C h a i r by G e o r g e S e g a l , A m e r i c a n , p l a s t e r & wood, H. 50 i n . , 1969  A.D.  xxxiii. Slide 354.  G i r l P u t t i n g on S c a r a b N e c k l a c e by G e o r g e S e g a l , A m e r i c a n , p l a s t e r , wood, m e t a l , g l a s s , 84 x 45 x 45 i n . , 1975 A.D.  355.  G i r l Undressing by Reg B u t l e r , E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 1953-1954 A.D.  356.  Nude by Reg B u t l e r , E n g l i s h , p a i n t e d b r o n z e , 296 cm., 1976-1977 A.D.  357.  A State of P e r i l by Karol Broniatowski, mixed media, l i f e s i z e .  35 8.  Women and Dog by M a r i s o l , F r e n c h , wood, p l a s t e r , c l o t h e s ,  Polish,  72 i n . , 1964 A.D.  359.  Three G i r l s : Sitting by R i c h a r d A. M i l l e r , American, b r o n z e , 22 i n . , 1966 A.D.  360.  M i l o r d l a Chamarre by J e a n D u b u f f e t , F r e n c h , p a i n t e d f a b r i c and p o l y e s t e r  r e s i n c o s t u m e , 1972 A.D.  361.  Embracing Lovers by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , m a r b l e , 36 i n . , 1970 A.D.  36 2.  Embracing Lovers by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , m a r b l e , 36 i n . , 1970 A.D.  363.  G i r l with Dolphin by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , e r e c t i n g t h e s t a t u e , 1973 A.D.  364.  G i r l with Dolphin by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 192 i n . , 1973 A.D.  365.  Dancer w i t h B i r d by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , p l a s t e r f o r b r o n z e , 96 i n . , 1974 A.D.  366.  Dancer w i t h B i r d by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , p l a s t e r f o r b r o n z e , 96 i n . , 1974 A.D.  xxxiv. Slide 36 7.  P o r t r a i t o f Paddy by B r u n o L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , c a s t f r o m t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 14 i n . , 1970 A.D.  368.  Brushing Hair by B r u n o L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 18 i n . , 1974 A.D.  36 9.  Nude by B r u n o L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , bonded b r o n z e , c a s t from c l a y o r i g i n a l ,  1975 A.D.  370.  A f t e r the Bath by B r u n o L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , c a s t f r o m t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 22 i n . , 1976 A.D.  371.  Repose by B r u n o L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , c a s t f r o m t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 15 i n . , 1976 A.D.  3 72.  Nude by B r u n o L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , c a s t f r o m t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 11 i n . , 1976 A.D.  373.  A r d e n A n d e r s o n & N o r a Murphy by J o h n de A n d r e a , A m e r i c a n , p o l y e s t e r a n d f i b r e g l a s s , p o l y c h r o m e d i n o i l , 1972 A.D.  374.  F l o r i d a Shopper by Duane H a n s o n , A m e r i c a n , m i x e d m e d i a , l i f e s i z e , 1973 A.D.  375.  Woman B a t h i n g by D a r i o M o r a l e s , C o l u m b i a n , b r o n z e , 48 x 48 x 31 cm., 1979 A.D.  376.  Woman B a t h i n g by D a r i o M o r a l e s , C o l u m b i a n , b r o n z e , 48 x 48 x 31 cm., 1979 A.D.  377.  Torso by D a r i o M o r a l e s , C o l u m b i a n , b r o n z e , 113 x 84 x 40 cm., 1979 A.D.  378.  Torso by D a r i o M o r a l e s , C o l u m b i a n , b r o n z e , 113 x 84 x 40 cm., 1979 A.D.  379.  Table, Leonard by A n d r e B a r e l i e r , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 110 x 100 x 80 cm., 1974 A.D.  XXXV.  Slide 380.  S e p t e m b e r 1975 by C o l e t t e W h i t e n , C a n a d i a n , m i x e d m e d i a , c . 91 x 33 i n . , 1975 A.D.  381.  Lover by Mary F r a n k , E n g l i s h - A m e r i c a n , u n g l a z e d c e r a m i c , 23 x 44 x 25 i n . ,  1977 A.D.  382.  S t a n d i n g Nude O l d Woman by F r a n c e s c o Z u n i g a , C o s t a R i c a n - M e x i c a n , b r o n z e , 1974 A.D.  383.  Dialog by F r a n c e s c o Z u n i g a , C o s t a R i c a n - M e x i c a n , b r o n z e , 1979 A.D.  384.  G i r l with Mirror by J o s e p h E r h a r d y , A m e r i c a n - F r e n c h , b r o n z e , H. 140 cm., 1980 A.D.  385.  Louis St. Laurent by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , one & h a l f l i f e s i z e , 1976 A.D.  386.  G i r l i n Wetsuit by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , l i f e s i z e , 1972 A.D.  387.  G i r l i n Wetsuit by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , t h e c l a y s c u l p t u r e , l i f e s i z e , 1972 A.D.  388.  C h r i s t t h e Teacher by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , f i r s t maquette.  389.  C h r i s t t h e Teacher by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , s c a l e model o f a r m a t u r e , Armature and S e c t i o n of f i b r e g l a s s c a s t s .  390.  C h r i s t t h e Teacher by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , clay sculpture, details.  391.  C h r i s t t h e Teacher by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , assembly o f f i n a l s c u l p t u r e , f i b r e g l a s s ,  392.  Jennifer by E l e k I m r e d y , b r o n z e , 14 i n . ,  Hungarian-Canadian, 1970 A.D.  16 f t . , 1 9 6 1 A.D.  xxxvi. Slide 393.  Jennifer by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , 14 i n . , 1970 A.D.  394.  Jennifer by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , 14 i n . , 1970 A.D.  395.  Goddess o f J u s t i c e by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , 12 f t . , 1981 A.D.  396.  Goddess o f J u s t i c e by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , . Armature on t u r n t a b l e and upper p a r t i n c l a y ,  397.  Goddess o f J u s t i c e by E l e k I m r e d y , H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , 12 f t . , 1981 A.D.  39 8.  S c u l p t o r Robert Ipousteguy, w o r k i n g on p l a s t e r f i g u r e s ,  French, 1981 A.D.  399.  M a l e Nude by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , drawing.  Italian,  400.  F i g u r e Drawing by A u g u s t e R o d i n ,  French.  F i g u r e Drawing by A u g u s t e R o d i n ,  French.  F i g u r e Drawing by A u g u s t e R o d i n ,  French.  401. 402. 403.  S e a t e d Woman d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , 1921 A.D.  404.  Seated Figure d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , 1923-1924 A.D.  405.  S t a n d i n g Man d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , 1921 A.D.  406 .  S e a t e d Nude d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , 1927 A.D.  xxxvii. Slide 407.  408.  409.  410.  411.  M o t h e r and C h i l d d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , 1927 A.D.  English,  F a m i l y Groups d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , 1941 A.D.  English,  S h e l t e r Scene d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , 1941 A.D.  English,  P i n k & Green S l e e p e r s d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , 1941 A.D.  English,  Women W i n d i n g W o o l , The P r e s e n t a t i o n d r a w i n g s by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , 1942-1943  A.D.  412.  The F a m i l y , p r o j e c t f o r s c u l p t u r e , d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , E n g l i s h , 1944 A.D.  413.  Two R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e s d r a w i n g by H e n r y M o o r e , 1966 A.D.  414.  The S k e l e t o n f r o n t and r e a r  English  view.  415.  S k e l e t o n and M u s c l e s f r o n t view.  416.  S k e l e t o n and rear view.  417.  M u s c l e s o f t h e Body side view.  418.  A d u l t body p r o p o r t i o n s side view.  419.  The g r o w i n g b o d y ' s p r o p o r t i o n s  4 20.  Two  4 21.  The Movements o f t h e Neck by J e n o B a r c s a y , H u n g a r i a n .  422.  S t u d i e s o f a Hand by J e n o B a r c s a y , H u n g a r i a n .  Muscles  views of the  skull  xxxviii. Slide 423.  S t u d i e s o f Feet by Jeno Barcsay, Hungarian.  424.  The S k e l e t o n i n motion.  425.  The S k e l e t o n i n motion.  4 26.  The S k e l e t o n i n motion.  4 27.  The S k e l e t o n i n motion.  4 28.  The S k e l e t o n i n motion.  429.  The S k e l e t o n i n motion.  4 30.  Study of F o r e s h o r t e n i n g by Jeno Barcsay, Hungarian.  431.  Study of F o r e s h o r t e n i n g by Jeno Barcsay, Hungarian.  xxxi . x  L I S T OF NAMES AND NATIONALITY OF SCULPTORS I D E N T I F I A B L E ON SLIDES  Slide 123.  A n t e n o r , Greek  127.  Polykleitos,  128.  Myron,  Greek  12 9.  Myron,  Greek  130.  Phidias,  Greek  131.  Phidias,  Greek  132.  Phidias,  Greek  134.  Praxiteles,  16 8.  Claus S l u t e r ,  16 9.  Nanni d i Banco,  172.  R i e m e n s c h n e i d e r , German  173.  Gregor E r h a r t ,  174.  Antonio Rossellino,  Greek  Greek Dutch Italian  German Italian  175 - 178.  Donatello,  Italian  179 - 180.  Lorenzo G h i b e r t i ,  Italian  181.  Luca d e l l a Robbia, I t a l i a n  182.  Andrea d e l V e r r o c c h i o ,  183.  Antonio Rizzo,  Italian  184.  Peter Vischer,  German  18 5.  Hans V i s c h e r ,  Italian  German  186 - 190.  Benvenuto C e l l i n i ,  Italian  191 - 192.  Jean Goujon, French  193 - 194.  G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a ,  Flemish-Italian  Slide 197  - 198.  G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a ,  195.  Bartolommeo Ammanati,  196.  Pompeo L e o n i ,  199  - 228.  and  399.  Flemish-Ital  Italian  Italian  Michelangelo Buonarroti, I t a l i a n Michelangelo Buonarroti, I t a l i a n  229.  Juan M a r t i n e z Montanez, Spanish  230.  Gregorio Fernandez,  231 - 236. and 237  239.  - 238.  Spanish  Gian Lorenzo B e r n i n i ,  Italian  Gian Lorenzo B e r n i n i ,  Italian  F r a n c o i s Duquesnoy, F l e m i s h  240.  P i e r r e Puget,  241.  A n t o i n e Coysevox,  24 2.  E g i d Q u n i n Asam, German  243.  Jacinto Vieira,  244.  Jean-Baptiste Pigalle,  245  - 246.  and  French French  Portuguese French  Etienne-Maurice F a l c o n e t , French  249.  Etienne-Maurice F a l c o n e t , French  24 7.  Johan  Tobias Sergei,  248.  F r a n z I g n a z G i i n t h e r , German  250 254.  - 253.  Swedish  J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h  0. A l e i j a d i n h o ,  Brazilian  256  - 258.  A n t o n i o Canova,  259  - 261.  F r a n c o i s Rude, F r e n c h Preault,  Italian  26 2.  Auguste  French  26 3.  J e a n - B a p t i s t e Carpeaux,  264.  C o n s t a n t i n Meunier, B e l g i a n  French  xli Slide 265. 266  Antoine B o u r d e l l e , French - 26 7.  Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi,  268 - 292. &  Auguste  Rodin,  French  400 - 4 0 2 .  Auguste  Rodin,  French  294 - 296.  Aristide Maillol,  29 7.  Henri M a t i s s e , French  29 8.  Auguste  299.  Edgar Degas, F r e n c h  300.  R o g e r de l a F r e s n a y e ,  French  Renoir, French  French  301 - 303.  Wilhelm Lehnbruck,  304 & 306.  Jacques  German  Lipchitz, Lithuanian  305.  Umberto B o c c i o n i ,  307.  Kathe  Kollwitz,  Italian  German  308 - 309.  E r n s t B a r l a c h , German  310 - 3 1 1 .  Renee S i n t e n i s , Kasper,  German  312.  Ludwig  313.  Gerhard Marcks,  German  314.  I v a n D. S h a d r e ,  Russian  315.  Ivan M e s t r o v i c , Jugoslav  316.  Gustav V i g e l a n d , Norwegian  317.  Charles Despiau,  318.  P a l Patzay,  319.  Eugen S z e r v a t i u s z ,  German  French  Hungarian Hungarian  320 - 3 2 1 .  Tibor Szervatiusz,  322 & 326.  Alexander Archipenko,  323.  French  Hungarian Russian  C o n s t a n t i n B r a n c u s i , Roumanian  xlii Slide 324.  Carlos Bracho, Mexican  3 25.  Jean Arp, French  327 - 328.  Julio  Gonzales, Spanish  329.  E m i l i o Greco,  330.  Gaston L a c h a i s e ,  3 31.  M a r c e l Gimond, F r e n c h  332.  Pablo Picasso, Spanish  333.  Germaine  334 - 336.  Italian French-American  Richier,  French  Marino M a r i n i ,  Italian  337.  Jacob E p s t e i n , American-English  338.  Giacomo Manzu,  339.  Alberto Giacometti,  340.  Gunnar N i e l s s o n ,  Italian Swiss  Swedish  341 - 351.  Henry Moore, E n g l i s h  .•403 - 413.  Henry Moore, E n g l i s h  352 - 354.  George  355 - 356.  Reg B u t l e r ,  Segal,  American  English  357.  Karol Broniatowski,  Polish  358.  Marisol,  359.  R i c h a r d A. M i l l e r ,  360.  Jean Dubuffet, French  French American  361 - 366.  D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h  36 7 - 372.  Bruno L u c c h e s i ,  373.  J o h n de A n d r e a ,  374.  Duane H a n s o n , A m e r i c a n  375 - 378.  Italian-American  American  D a r i o M o r a l e s , Columbian  xliii. Slides 379.  Andre B a r e l i e r ,  French  380.  C o l e t t e Whiten,  Canadian  381.  Mary F r a n k , E n g l i s h - A m e r i c a n  382 384. 385 398.  - 383.  Francesco Zuniga, Costa  Joseph Erhardy, - 397.  Rican-Mexican  American-French  E l e k Imredy,  Robert Ipousteguy,  Hungarian-Canadian French  421  - 423.  Jeno B a r c s a y ,  Hungarian  430  - 431.  Jeno B a r c s a y ,  Hungarian  xliv.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would  like  t o t h a n k t h e members o f my t h e s i s  committee,  P r o f e s s o r Penny G o u l d s t o n e a n d P r o f e s s o r Roy L e w i s a n d , i n p a r ticular,  t h e c h a i r m a n o f my c o m m i t t e e , P r o f e s s o r Graeme  Chalmers,  whose h e l p a n d g u i d a n c e was v i t a l t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s thesis. I w i s h t o acknowledge  t h e Burnaby  S c h o o l B o a r d , whose  gen-  e r o s i t y o f g r a n t i n g me f i v e m o n t h s e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e made t h e research for t h i s I would  thesis  also like  possible.  t o t h a n k my d e a r f r i e n d s L i z z i e  Jensen,  A l i c e Edstrom, and Joan G a m b i o l i f o r t h e i r p r a c t i c a l h e l p w i t h slides,  t y p i n g and p r o o f r e a d i n g , and f o r m o r a l s u p p o r t and en-  c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m them a s w e l l a s o t h e r f r i e n d s . I dedicate this thesis  t o t h e memory o f my l a t e g r a n d f a t h e r ,  G y u l a P h i l i p p , who b r o u g h t me, when I was 12 y e a r s o l d , t h e f i r s t lump o f c l a y w h i c h I t u r n e d i n t o a f i g u r e .  1.  Chapter  I  INTRODUCTION Need f o r t h e S t u d y : Regarding  S u r v e y R e s u l t s o f B.C. A r t T e a c h e r s  the Teaching  o f S c u l p t u r e i n Secondary  Schools  S c u l p t u r e i s an a n c i e n t a r t , a n d b e c a u s e o f i t s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y and t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t y , a d r a s t i c a l l y branch  of the visual arts.  t e a c h i n g o f secondary  different  Recognition of i t s value i nthe  school students  in British  Columbia has  b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d by i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t o t h e S e c o n d a r y A r t C u r r i c u l u m by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n .  However, a r t t e a c h e r  t r a i n i n g a t u n i v e r s i t y may n o t i n c l u d e t h e s t u d y o f and  techniques  of sculpture.  concepts  S t u d i o work i n s c u l p t u r e i s a  l e n g t h y and complex p r o c e s s .  The n e e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o s e l e c t  areas o f u s e f u l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ,  and p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l  development f o r teachers experienced  i n areas  art,  twodimensional  seemed d e s i r a b l e . At the annual  in April  conference  of B r i t i s h  The t e x t o f t h i s  n a i r e appears as Appendix 1 o f t h i s  Firstly,  writer  on p o s s i b l e needs and a t t i t u d e s t o t h e t e a c h -  ing of sculpture.  The  Columbia a r t t e a c h e r s ,  1 9 8 0 , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d by t h i s  to g a i n feedback  istic  of  s c u l p t u r e survey  question-  thesis.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o s e e k a n s w e r s t o t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . s h o u l d s c u l p t u r e be t a u g h t  t o do s o i n s e c o n d a r y  schools?  and i s i t t e c h n i c a l l y Secondly,  real-  how i s i t o r  2. s h o u l d i t be p r e s e n t e d ? history  Are areas  of s t u d i o , c r i t i c i s m ,  ( W e s t e r n o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l ) , and  T h i r d l y , a r e t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n and  concepts  t o be  art  included?  r e a d i n e s s t o t e a c h i t ade-  q u a t e o r i s more t r a i n i n g n e e d e d e i t h e r a t u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l through  p r o f e s s i o n a l development?  The  number o f r e s p o n d e n t s  were t h i r t y - t w o .  t a b u l a t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r i t s h o u l d be o u t o f 32 a n s w e r e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e .  R e s u l t s were t a u g h t , and  Whether t e a c h e r  a n s w e r e d y e s by  30, no by  i n t h i s a r e a was The  The  q u e s t i o n of adequate  b r o k e n down t o j u n i o r and  responses  quately prepared not adequately  2.  and  was  training  s e n i o r secondary  lev-  t o j u n i o r g r a d e s w e r e 12 o u t o f 32 n o t  ade-  20 y e s , b u t t o s e n i o r g r a d e s 25 o u t o f  prepared  In s p i t e of these  32  training  should i n c l u d e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the t e a c h i n g of s c u l p t u r e  els.  or  and  only 7 s a i d t h a t they  felt  32  competent.  r e s u l t s , o r p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f know-  l e d g e , e q u i p m e n t and  f a c i l i t i e s were not c o n s i d e r e d  M e t h o d o l o g y as t o how  problems.  the respondent a r t teachers  taught  s c u l p t u r e , leaned h e a v i l y towards s t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s .  They  con-  c e n t r a t e d on m e t h o d s s u c h  This  was  as how  s c u l p t u r e was  f u r t h e r supported  by t h e i r a n s w e r s t o t h e  t o t e s t t h e i r own  studio proficiency.  stated earlier,  do m o s t c o m p l e x t e c h n i q u e s  e m p h a s i s on  Amazingly,  Quiz" which although  The  trained  o f s c u l p t u r e , some o f w h i c h , or r e a l i s t i c  p o s s i b i l i t y presents  itself  to to  i n this  f o r use  t h a t due  was  as  t h e y d i d p r o f e s s t o be a b l e  w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , are not necessary schools.  "Quick  25 o u t o f 32 d i d n o t f e e l a d e q u a t e l y  teach s c u l p t u r e i n s e n i o r grades,  lic  made.  to  i n pubthe  s t u d i o w o r k , many t e a c h e r s m i g h t h a v e e n d e a v o u r e d  t o g a i n knowledge o f t h e a r t s and  f r o m "how  t o " b o o k s , p r e v a l e n t i n many a r e a s  crafts.  J u s t as emphasis  on s t u d i o work emerged f r o m t h e r e s p o n s e s  t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t became c l e a r how and a r t h i s t o r y w e r e n e g l e c t e d .  areas of  criticism  None o f t h e r e s p o n d i n g a r t  t e a c h e r s t a u g h t c o n c e p t s s u c h as m a s s , f o r m , m o n u m e n t a l i t y , d i d t h e y use s c u l p t u r e  f o r discussion or c r i t i c i s m .  They d i d  n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e use o f p h o t o g r a p h s , f i l m s , and t h e " l i v i n g " viewed from a l l need  slides  s c u l p t u r e w i t h i t s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y when sides.  F u r t h e r m o r e none seemed t o i n d i c a t e  f o r v i e w i n g and d i s c u s s i o n o f s c u l p t u r e f r o m a l l  students' m u l t i c u l t u r a l roots. of Western  art!  to the  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y d i d n o t A t p r e s e n t , w i t h the advent of a  new  S e c o n d a r y A r t C u r r i c u l u m , t h e s e answers m i g h t have  new  n e e d s i n t h e a r e a s o f h i s t o r y and I n t h e a r e a o f why  a  cultures  o f the w o r l d w h i c h would have i n d i c a t e d a s e n s i t i v i t y  use examples  nor  reflected  criticism.  s c u l p t u r e s h o u l d be t a u g h t and w h a t i t  h a s t o o f f e r t h a t o t h e r f o r m s o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s do n o t p r o v i d e , many r e s p o n d i n g t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e d s e n s i t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g servations.  These v a r i e d  f r o m t h e g e n e r a l , s u c h as  "children  seem t o e n j o y t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l w o r k , " and t h a t t h e y " d o n ' t enough such e x p e r i e n c e , " o r t h a t  "most a r t programmes  only twodimensional forms," to s p e c i f i c s ,  such as  ob-  get  emphasize  sculpture  being  "more p h y s i c a l , " t h a t i t p r o v i d e s " o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a i n  skill  i n use o f new  which encourages  tools,"  that i t i s a " t a c t i l e experience"  t h e "use o f s e n s e s i n t o u c h , " and t h e  "using  o f hands f o r o t h e r t h a n c u t , p a s t e , c o l o u r , " o r even f o r " b l i n d  4.  exercises."  One  d i m e n s i o n s and  respondent observed that s c u l p t u r e  proportions"  but  t h i s m i g h t be more so t h a n any  d i d not other  Another person wrote t h a t s c u l p t u r e  elaborate  "teaches  i n which  form o f the v i s u a l "gives the  overall  perception  i m p r o v e s due  ( f r o m a l l s i d e s , t o p and ments p o i n t t o o t h e r  cess,"  and  stamina."  t h a t by One  appreciated,  bottom).." Two  the  doing  perspec[that]  t o added a p p r e c i a t i o n o f  sculpture  additive/subtractive thinking  it,  students  "learn sustained  pro-  artistic  o f t h e more c o n t r o v e r s i a l comments s t a t e s  sculptural activity  depth  i n t e r e s t i n g f u r t h e r com-  l e a r n i n g outcomes, namely, t h a t  a s s i s t s i n "developing  arts.  threedimensional  a s p e c t t h a t d r a w i n g o r p a i n t i n g c a n ' t d e v e l o p , CthatH t i v e becomes more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d and  way  that  " i s a n a t u r a l development of a t t r i b u t e s  C t h a t H t h e human m i n d p o s s e s s e s . " In c o n c l u s i o n , I quote those teachers be  g a v e what  r e g a r d e d as t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l r e a s o n f o r t h e  s c u l p t u r e i n secondary schools. "important  i n making students  environment," another that and  who  a third  simply  The  aware o f the  "the w o r l d  i s not  twodimensional,"  "gives  b a s e d on  students  an  see."  Thesis  o r i g i n a l r a t i o n a l e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n  c u l u m m a t e r i a l s was  of  threedimensional  form w h i c h i s what t h e y  Purpose of the  teaching  said that sculpture i s  stated that sculpture  idea of threedimensional  The  One  could  a perceived  of these  curri-  lack of preparation  for  5.  instruction i n sculpture. is  supported  scheduled  i n t h e new P r o v i n c i a l S e c o n d a r y A r t C u r r i c u l u m  forfull  became a c u t e .  Inasmuch as t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e  implementation  i n September 1984, t h e p r o b l e m  One o f t h e f i v e v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a s  of that  c u r r i c u l u m deals with the teaching o f s c u l p t u r e through the study o f a r th i s t o r y , the p r a c t i c e of a r t c r i t i c i s m ,  and t h e  making o f s c u l p t u r e .  T h i s t h e s i s i s meant t o p r o v i d e v i a b l e a n d  practical  t o teachers o f a r t f o r the implementation  suggestions  o f t h e s c u l p t u r e s e c t i o n o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m . S c u l p t u r e d e a l s w i t h themes s u c h  a s t h e human f i g u r e ,  t r a i t u r e , a n i m a l s , n a t u r a l forms and g e o m e t r i c s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e , and m a n i f e s t s  itself  s c u l p t u r e i n t h e round o r as a r e l i e f .  por-  shapes i n ab-  i n two t y p e s o f w o r k : In order t o d e l i m i t a t e  t h i s s t u d y , a d e c i s i o n h a d t o be made a s t o w h i c h theme a n d which type o f s c u l p t u r e t o use. c h o s e n ; i t i s more d i f f i c u l t  S c u l p t u r e i n t h e r o u n d was  because o f i t s f u l l  threedimensional  q u a l i t y , and i t s g r e a t e r c o n t r a s t t o a l l t h e o t h e r expressions i n a r t .  The theme o f t h e human f i g u r e was s e l e c t e d ,  again f o ri t s . r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y for  i t s potential  twodimensional  and c o m p l e x i t y o f form, and  f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth i n a d o l e s c e n t s .  E x p o s u r e t o t h e m u l t i t u d e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e human figure originating and  i n d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s , d i f f e r e n t time  by a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f a r t i s t s  periods,  s h o u l d communicate t h e v a l u e  p l a c e d on t h e human body a s a w o n d r o u s l y e x p r e s s i v e t o o l p o r t r a y a l o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n .  The b r o a d  f o r the  use and t h e mani-  f o l d a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e human f i g u r e c r e a t e d by s c u l p t o r s h i s t o r ically  and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y  should a i dadolescents  i n accepting  6.  themselves which To  a s t h e y a r e , e v e n i f t h e y do n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e i d e a l  t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m e d i a makes them want t o r e s e m b l e .  strengthen the self-esteem of adolescents a t t h i s  sensitive  s t a g e o f t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t i s one o f t h e g o a l s o f t h i s lum r e s o u r c e . through  A t t h e same t i m e , a n o t h e r  g o a l may be a c h i e v e d  t h e study o f a r t h i s t o r y , which w i l l  enable  l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e time p e r i o d s , p l a c e s o f o r i g i n , of  given a r t i s t s through Men  curricu-  students t o and s t y l e s  study o f t h e works on t h e s l i d e s .  a n d women a r e p o r t r a y e d i n s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e , a n d  t h e i r hopes, a s p i r a t i o n s , sorrows  and d e s p a i r , as w e l l as  achievements f i n d e x p r e s s i o n t h e r e , and c a l l R e f l e c t i n g o n w h a t t h e work t e l l s  for interpretation.  us about t h e s o c i e t a l and  p e r s o n a l v a l u e s o f i t s t i m e , d e v e l o p i n g empathy w i t h t h e f e e l i n g s a n d i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e a r t i s t who made t h e f i g u r e , w i l l vide the vocabulary  f o r reasoned  preciation of the a r t i s t ' s will  criticism,  role i n society.  as w e l l as an apSuch d i s c u s s i o n  b r i d g e t h e gap b e t w e e n d i v e r g e n t c u l t u r e s , a n d s p a n  ences i n time.  differ-  E x a m p l e s o f c r i t i c i s m b a s e d o n a number o f  themes a r e p r o v i d e d a s s u g g e s t i o n s o f how t o a p p r o a c h ical  pro-  such  crit-  analysis. S t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s were c a r e f u l l y  bility  i n t h e secondary  selected for their  school setting.  A l l u n i t p l a n s have  b e e n t h o r o u g h l y a n d r e p e a t e d l y t e s t e d by m y s e l f Preparatory a c t i v i t i e s  i n c l u d e f i g u r e drawing,  i n the classroom. t h e study of an-  atomy, and t h e making o f a maquette; a l l c o n s i d e r e d p r i o r t o involvement  i n s t u d i o work.  m a t e r i a l s a r e d e t a i l e d and s p e c i f i c ,  suita-  Suggested  important  methods and  b u t they i n c l u d e fewer i n  7.  number t h a n t h e P r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m .  This i s a deliberate  o m i s s i o n , a s many o f t h e m a t e r i a l s a n d p r o c e s s e s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e g u i d e seem, i n my e x p e r i e n c e , b e y o n d t h e s c o p e ondary  s c h o o l t i m e t a b l e and f a c i l i t i e s  e x p e r t i s e o f most a r t t e a c h e r s . s t u d e n t work d e m o n s t r a t e  of the sec-  and beyond t h e t e c h n i c a l  However, as p h o t o g r a p h s  (see P l a t e s  1, 2 a n d 3 ) , m o s t  o f some satis-  f a c t o r y o u t c o m e s c a n be a c h i e v e d b o t h a t t h e b a s i c a n d t h e a d vanced  l e v e l w i t h these studio a c t i v i t i e s .  Students w i l l  knowledge o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e body, t h e y w i l l c e i v e i t as u n i f i e d fragmented  form, thereby overcoming  v i e w o f t h e body.  s e n s e s , and g a i n s k i l l s Furthermore,  they w i l l  Students w i l l  their  gain  come t o p e r frequently  use t h e t a c t i l e  w i t h t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s o f s c u l p t u r e . e x t e n d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n span  l e n g t h i e r involvement, which  such work i n s c u l p t u r e  through necessitates.  A l t h o u g h t h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e human f i g u r e o n l y , much o f the methodology might  be t r a n s f e r r e d t o o t h e r a r e a s o f s c u l p t u r e .  Plate Half l i f e - s i z e  1  f i g u r e s under c o n s t r u c t i o n  i n the  a r t room  Plate Enlargement o f the maquette  2  w i t h p l a s t e r o f P a r i s on  armature  Plate 3 D i s p l a y o f s t u d e n t work  11.  Why T e a c h S c u l p t u r e o f t h e Human F i g u r e t o A d o l e s c e n t s ?  We a r e s u r r o u n d e d by a n a t u r a l a n d man-made e n v i r o n m e n t threedimensionality.  Indeed,  of  the centre of our personal uni-  verse, the manifestation of our existence, i s our very threed i m e n s i o n a l body. appearance  I n t e r e s t i n , and awareness o f t h e p h y s i c a l  o f t h e body i s h e i g h t e n e d i n a d o l e s c e n c e .  Through-  o u t l i f e we may a t t i m e s l o v e o r h a t e o u r b o d i e s b u t a l w a y s part of our self-image i s determined appearance  by t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e  of i t .  Adolescence, a time o f tumultuous tivity,  growth  and g r e a t  sensi-  i s a good t i m e t o o p e n l y d e a l w i t h a s p e c t s o f a r t i s t i c  i n t e r e s t s a n d c o n c e r n s w i t h t h e human f i g u r e .  V i e w i n g and d i s -  c u s s i n g s l i d e s o f s c u l p t u r e made b y a m u l t i t u d e o f s c u l p t o r s , originating  f r o m v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and t i m e p e r i o d s o f  human h i s t o r y b u t a l l e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e f i g u r e , a f f o r d a broadening o f t h e spectrum our s o c i e t y .  Individual  i n our m u l t i c u l t u r a l  i n which  t h e human body i s v i e w e d i n  f a m i l y customs and taboos v a r y  s o c i e t y b u t a s i d e from t h i s ,  greatly  the influence  o f t h e media t h r o u g h t e l e v i s i o n and a d v e r t i s i n g i s c l e a r l y t o wards "youth c u l t u r e " Tiegs."  and t h e b e a u t i f u l ,  s l i m body o f a " C h e r y l  Our a d o l e s c e n t s who do n o t m e a s u r e up t o t h e i d e a l o f  our North American  s o c i e t y c o u l d be s e r i o u s l y damaged i n t h e i r  s e l f - e s t e e m u n l e s s c o n c e p t s o f t h e human b o d y , o t h e r t h a n m e d i a h e l d and appearance-based,  a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o them.  Subject  a r e a s s u c h a s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o r b i o l o g y no d o u b t make t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e body a s a m i r a c u l o u s l y  con-  efficient creation.  Y e t t h e v i s u a l a r t s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r  s c u l p t u r e , c a n a d d a most v a l u a b l e d i m e n s i o n . Feldman  (197 3) c o m p a r e s s c u l p t u r e t o o t h e r f o r m s o f v i s u a l  a r t s when he s a y s t h a t ,  "The c a p a c i t y o f s c u l p t u r e , no m a t t e r  what i t s m a t e r i a l s , t o occupy in  real  space and t o compel  belief  i t s a l i v e n e s s d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from p a i n t i n g and g r a p h i c a r t  in general" larly  ( p . 328).  This aliveness of sculpture i s particu-  e f f e c t i v e when i t d e a l s w i t h t h e human f i g u r e .  as a r u l e ,  Sculpture,  s t a n d s by i t s e l f a n d d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  as p a r t o f t h e w o r k .  I f i t u s e s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e human  we o f t e n s e e o u r s e l v e s i n i t , a n d i n t h i s "everyman."  The s c u l p t o r may c h o o s e  figure,  s e n s e i t may become  f r o m t h e y o u n g o r t h e grow-  ing  f i g u r e , t h e mature o r t h e d e c a y i n g f i g u r e , t h e h e a l t h y o r  the  ill,  a n d f r o m many body t y p e s o f d i f f e r i n g p r o p o r t i o n s .  addition to these, there are the i n f i n i t e the  In  v a r i e t i e s o f poses,  body i n m o t i o n o r a t r e s t , t h e u s e f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f  e m o t i o n s , t h o u g h t and a c t i o n s .  D e s p a i r o r hope, happiness o r  s o r r o w , d e p r e s s i o n o r e l a t i o n , h e r o i s m o r c o w a r d i c e , boredom o r tranquillity,  e x c i t e m e n t o r a c t i o n , a r e among t h e many moods  w h i c h c a n be e x p r e s s e d w i t h t h e human f i g u r e t h r o u g h t h e h e i g h tened s e n s i t i v i t y of the a r t i s t .  I n a d o l e s c e n c e many o f t h e  above f e e l i n g s a r e s t r o n g l y m a n i f e s t and r a p i d l y t h e r e f o r e exposure  alternating,  t o the study o f sculpture o f the f i g u r e a t  t h i s t i m e t h r o u g h h e i g h t e n e d empathy, c a n l e a v e a l a s t i n g impression . The  i m p r e s s i o n gained from t h e study o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e  f i g u r e f r o m d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s a n d p l a c e s c a n be l i b e r a t i n g f o r  our a d o l e s c e n t s . draped  L o o k i n g a t , and  t a l k i n g a b o u t how  body e x p r e s s e s b e l i e f s and  t u r e c a n be i n t e r e s t i n g and w h i l e v i e w i n g and  c u s t o m s o f t h e t i m e and  insightful.  discussing a multitude of s l i d e s ,  which  f o r c e , i t s d i g n i t y and  u s e , and  i s much more t h a n s k i n - d e e p .  acceptance worldwide  They w i l l  as o l d as m a n k i n d , and  a f f e c t e d i n the acceptance  the  students  i t s expres-  therefore a certain  "beauty"  also learn of  o f t h e f i g u r e as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f o u r and  cul-  A t t h e same t i m e ,  a r e bound t o p e r c e i v e t h a t e a c h body t y p e o r age h a s sive  t h e nude o r  the  humanity,  a r e bound t o be f a v o u r a b l y  o f t h e i r own  a p p e a r a n c e and o f them-  selves. The ical  p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact  of h i s t o r i c a l  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i g u r e may  activity.  be  o v e r v i e w and  f u r t h e r b r o a d e n e d by s t u d i o  They seem t o p r e p a r e t h e g r o u n d  f o r e x p r e s s i o n and  c r e a t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e by t h e s t u d e n t s This p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y to d i r e c t l y a f i g u r e o f t h e i r own  themselves.  and o p e n l y d e a l w i t h  making not o n l y i n v o l v i n g the  tactile  senses but a c t i v a t i n g a l e a r n i n g process r e g a r d i n g the t i o n s o f t h e body w h i c h of  crit-  l e a d s away f r o m a f r a g m e n t e d  propor-  perception  t h e body t h e y seem t o p o s s e s s , t o a u n i f i e d image o f i t .  a n e x a m p l e , a d o l e s c e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e i r arm f r e q u e n t l y d o n ' t know how body.  and  h a n d b u t most  i t relates proportionately to  They a r e o f t e n s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t h e arm  would have t h o u g h t ,  As  t h e e l b o w n e a r t h e w a i s t and  their  longer than t h e hand  they  ending  not f a r above t h e knee.  Or e l s e t h e y know t h a t t h e y h a v e s h o u l -  d e r s b u t do n o t know how  t h e arm  i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e body.  c o v e r i e s of t h i s nature are frequent w h i l e they are working  Dison  14.  a figure.  A t t h i s p o i n t m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e s may  t w e e n j u n i o r and  s e n i o r secondary school  I t i s observable  i n my  own  a l s o l e s s knowledge  or even l a c k knowledge of c e r t a i n p a r t s o f  They seem m o s t l y  to struggle to achieve  body.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe that they  a r e a b e t w e e n w a i s t l i n e and  waist.  Leaving  out the  related to t h e i r  lower  sexuality.  l o i n s and  T h o s e who  great d i f f i c u l t i e s or simply general  choose the  modelling  puppet-like  v i e w s t h e work o f a w h o l e Senior  students,  t h e body.  ing  a great  f u r t h e r suppor-  female f i g u r e  experience inhibition  Further, there i s a  l a c k o f i n v e n t i v e n e s s o f move-  g r o u p , e s p e c i a l l y o b v i o u s when  i n c o n t r a s t , even i f w i t h o u t  They m a n i f e s t  a much i n c r e a s e d  l e n g t h o f t i m e w o r k i n g on  t o demand a c c u r a c y  ally,  they  use  one  previous  s c u l p t u r e of the  a great v a r i e t y of poses. g i v e way  t e r p r e t a t i o n s of a t h l e t e s i n a c t i o n . s u b j e c t c h o s e n t o be e x p r e s s e d  t a n t l e a r n i n g outcomes a r e the  The  now  feeling  i n t e r e s t i n spend-  i n d e p i c t i n g t h e body  s t i f f e r poses of j u n i o r students  the  create  class.  They t e n d and  the  inhibitions  t r a i n i n g i n a r t , seem t o h a v e a b e t t e r k n o w l e d g e o f and for  out  legs to  the b r e a s t s e i t h e r from  s t i f f n e s s and  ment i n t h e w o r k o f t h i s age  a t t a c h the  boys t o choose t o  because of l a c k of knowledge.  the  often leave  T h i s p o i n t m i g h t be and  of  a likeness to a  trunk might suggest  t e d by t h e t e n d e n c y o f b o t h g i r l s a male f i g u r e .  be-  students.  body.  the  observed  c l a s s e s t h a t grade 8 or 9 s t u d -  e n t s have l e s s a p p a r e n t i n h i b i t i o n s but proportions  be  figure.  realisticbrooding,  to frequent i n -  However, r e g a r d l e s s  w i t h the  lengthened  f i g u r e , other  a t t e n t i o n span,  of importhe  15.  s t a y i n g power w i t h one p r o j e c t e x t e n d i n g and t h e i n t e r e s t and p r i d e t h e y ished product. by m a t u r e  These i n d e e d  take  i n the q u a l i t y of the  fin-  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r t created  artists.  Our d e p e n d e n c e on and r e l a t i o n s h i p important  o v e r s e v e r a l weeks,  p a r t o f how we c o p e w i t h l i f e  understanding  to our bodies itself.  An  f o r m s an increased  o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and t h e e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y o f t h e  human b o d y , w h e t h e r o u r own  o r t h a t o f o u r f e l l o w men  enhance t h e q u a l i t y o f o u r l i f e . time t o g a i n such knowledge.  A d o l e s c e n c e i s an  can o n l y appropriate  Chapter I I  DEVELOPMENT OF THE CURRICULUM RESOURCES  Purpose o f S l i d e s  The use  s l i d e s a r e o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e as a l l u n i t  them a s l e s s o n  aids.  A major part  voted to the s e l e c t i o n of sculpture, be  be  o f t h e r e s e a r c h was d e -  and s l i d e s o f t h e s e had t o  made f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a l l t h e f a c e t s  in this thesis.  Beyond t h i s ,  u s e d i n many o t h e r The  first  of sculpture  lessons.  consideration  t i r e history of sculpture  i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f works f o r to illustrate  o f t h e human f i g u r e  1980's, w o r l d w i d e , and from a l l c u l t u r e s  sculptures  of the figure.  i o n was made t o k e e p i t a s a g r o u p f o l l o w i n g  willingness  ual b e l i e f s .  which  produced  Prehistory.  to d i s t o r t the figure  Pre-  A l -  i t was p l a c e d  and f u n c t i o n a l  connections;  f o r the expression of r i t -  Further grouping of the s l i d e s follows  geographical  areas such as t h e F a r E a s t , t h e M i d d l e E a s t , and Egypt. this point  From  t h e s l i d e s cover t h e major areas o f the h i s t o r y o f  Western a r t .  to  f o r which t h e d e c i s -  i t would not belong there,  t h e r e f o r t h e sake o f t h e s t y l i s t i c the  from P r e h i s t o r y  i n t o convenient chapters.  t h e n came P r i m i t i v e A r t ,  though c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y  t h e en-  To a c h i e v e s u c h c o v e r a g e , t h e r e l e -  v a n t h i s t o r y o f a r t was d i v i d e d h i s t o r y was f i r s t ,  explored  t h e s l i d e s have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o  s l i d e s was a n a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g p u r p o s e :  the  plans  By t h e 1 7 t h c e n t u r y , t h e g r o u p i n g becomes  chronological. century  The many movements i n W e s t e r n a r t o f t h e 2 0 t h  are not considered  representation of styles, purpose.  The f i n a l  i n detail,  although  s o t h e s l i d e s m i g h t be u s e d f o r t h i s  slides illustrating  clude s c u l p t o r s o f t h e f i g u r e from both i c a , up t o a n d i n c l u d i n g 1 9 8 1 .  the h i s t o r y of a r t i n E u r o p e a n d N o r t h Amer-  C o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o r e p -  r e s e n t i n g s e v e r a l l o c a l Lower M a i n l a n d This broader  there i s s u i t a b l e  sculptors of the figure.  b u t more s u p e r f i c i a l c o v e r a g e was a b a n d o n e d i n f a -  v o u r o f an i n - d e p t h a p p r o a c h t o one V a n c o u v e r s c u l p t o r , E l e k I m r e d y , whose work s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e b e y o n d t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t , many o t h e r a r e a s  of this curriculum.  sculptors are featured i n d e t a i l entitled,  "Teaching  Sculpture:  Lower  Mainland  i n Susanne M c F e e l y ' s t h e s i s a r a t i o n a l e and r e s o u r c e k i t "  (1983). As w e l l a s g i v i n g a n o v e r v i e w 398  slides also provide  of concepts  of the history of art, the  the underpinnings  f o rthe i l l u s t r a t i o n  o f s c u l p t u r e such as t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , f o r m , mass,  volume, monumentality, as w e l l as f o r t h e s u b j e c t areas for c r i t i c a l  discussion.  chosen  The t o p i c s w h i c h a r e u s e d f o r a r t  c r i t i c i s m a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e a s a m p l e o f many more p o s s i b i l ities.  One c o u l d c h o o s e o t h e r  s c u l p t u r a l t h e m e s , o r make com-  p a r i s o n s between s t y l e s o r a r t i s t s . a resource  The s l i d e s c o u l d s e r v e a s  a n d a s l e s s o n a i d s i n many a r t t e a c h i n g  Studio a c t i v i t i e s  situations.  a r e a l s o e n h a n c e d by t h e u s e o f t h e  s l i d e s , a n d 33 s l i d e s a r e i n c l u d e d t o h e l p w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f a r t anatomy a n d f i g u r e  drawing.  In a d d i t i o n t o a l l the a f o r e c i t e d p r a c t i c a l purposes, the s e l e c t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e s was a l s o made w i t h t h e c o n s t a n t  purpose  18.  i n m i n d t h a t t h e y a r e t o be v i e w e d by a d o l e s c e n t s . included,  and some were l e f t  i n t e r e s t of adolescents. have been m i s s e d . s l i d e s , others cluded  will  out, with  Works w e r e  the aim o f sparking the  I n v a r i a b l y , works o f importance might  F o r t h e s a k e o f l i m i t i n g t h e t o t a l number o f  were e x c l u d e d .  I t i s posited  t h a t what i s i n -  be u s e d , a n d u s e f u l , i n t h e t e a c h i n g  o f t h e human f i g u r e i n s e c o n d a r y  Unit  of sculpture  schools.  Plans  Introduction to Sculpture Rationale: To  present a general  qualities cepts  overview o f s c u l p t u r e , i t s unique  as opposed t o o t h e r  areas o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s , t h e con-  i t i n v o l v e s , a n d t h e m e t h o d s and m a t e r i a l s  used i n i t s  making. Goal: Students w i l l and  comprehend t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  most o f t h e t w o d i m e n s i o n a l v i s u a l  sculpture  arts.  Objectives: - An i n t r o d u c t o r y k n o w l e d g e o f c o n c e p t s s u c h a s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y and monumentality. - A general door and i n d o o r  knowledge o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between outsculpture.  - An o v e r v i e w o f m e t h o d s a n d m a t e r i a l s and  indoor  sculpture.  used i n outdoor  Resources: Slides:  Lesson  No.  211  and  213  No.  139  and  140  No.  3 and  No.  388  and  391  No.  215  and  216  No.  51 and  No.  39,  42,  No.  251  and  4  69 45 and  46  252  aids:  Endeavour t o purchase t u r e such as the  a good q u a l i t y r e p l i c a o f a  "Venus de M i l o " o r t h e " T h i n k e r " by R o d i n , o f  which you need t o have a p h o t o g r a p h s i z e , t a k e n f r o m one m o u n t e d on Materials  sculp-  of at l e a s t  8" by 11"  in  angle, u s u a l l y the f r o n t a l p o s i t i o n ,  and  cardboard. f o r student  use:  Notebook t o take n o t e s . Discussion: - H o l d up a p i e c e o f p a p e r  to demonstrate  twodimensional object looks l i k e .  Ask  what a  truly  students to give  you  examples o f o t h e r t r u l y o r n e a r l y t w o d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s i n our environment, c a n be  found.  s u c h as b i l l b o a r d s , r e c o r d s , p a n c a k e s . We  Not many  a r e o u r s e l v e s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l and m o s t t h i n g s  s u r r o u n d i n g us a r e 3 D.  T h e s e h a v e h e i g h t , w i d t h and  depth.  - W h e r e a s a r t i s t s w o r k i n g on a 2 D s u r f a c e m o s t l y t r y t o c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n o f shape, shape and  d i s t a n c e and d e p t h , i n s c u l p t u r e  form are m a t e r i a l l y p r e s e n t .  20.  - Sculpture which i s f u l l y as " s c u l p t u r e i n t h e r o u n d . "  threedimensional i s referred to  H o l d up t h e r e p l i c a o f a s c u l p t u r e  you have a c q u i r e d , o r an o r i g i n a l one i f y o u have i t , and t h e p h o t o g r a p h o f i t , b o t h f a c i n g t h e s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e same a n g l e . Ask  them t o k e e p t h e i r e y e s o n t h e s c u l p t u r e w h i c h y o u now v e r y  slowly should turn, completing a f u l l the  d i f f e r e n c e i n appearance  o t h e r angles seen. Milo"  circle.  Draw a t t e n t i o n t o  o f t h e s c u l p t u r e f r o m t h e many  W e l l known s c u l p t u r e s s u c h a s t h e "Venus de  o r M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s " D a v i d " a r e sometimes n o t r e c o g n i z e d i f  a p h o t o g r a p h i s shown o f them t a k e n f r o m a d i f f e r e n t a n g l e . S c u l p t u r e i n t h e r o u n d must l o o k d i f f e r e n t a n d s a t i s f a c t o r y all  angles.  I t c o u l d be p h o t o g r a p h e d  from  f r o m up t o 36 0 a n g l e s .  T h e r e f o r e t h e s c u l p t o r must work o n i t f r o m a l l  angles, prefer-  ably developing i t evenly while turning i t constantly. - C o l o u r i s t h e l i f e b l o o d o f p a i n t i n g ; i t i s i t s most i m p o r t a n t d e s i g n element.  C o l o u r i s seldom used i n s c u l p t u r e ;  its  i s form.  major d e s i g n element  l i g h t a n d shadow.  Form c a n a p p e a r c h a n g e d by  A s c u l p t u r e c o m p l e t e d c a n b e , a n d must be s u b -  j e c t e d t o c h a n g i n g l i g h t a n d shadow b u t w h i l e i t i s c r e a t e d , a n d in  o r d e r t o ensure t h e p u r i t y and completeness o f form as t h e  s c u l p t o r wishes i t t o e x i s t ,  i t must be made i n e v e n l i g h t a n d  p r e f e r a b l y northern l i g h t which i s l e a s t l i k e l y shadows.  to cast  strong  Form c a n t r u l y be c o m p r e h e n d e d n o t o n l y by t h e e y e b u t  a l s o by t o u c h .  I t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o t o u c h a l l  sculpture to  e n j o y i t more c o m p l e t e l y . - Photographs  o f s c u l p t u r e can n o t r e a l l y convey  impact o f i t s presence i n space.  the f u l l  As we h a v e s e e n , many p h o t o -  g r a p h s w o u l d h a v e t o be s e e n t o do j u s t i c e t o t h e c h a n g i n g  forms  21.  and  shapes. see  But  i t on  the  s i z e of a s c u l p t u r e i s a l s o o n l y a guess  if  we  on  a photograph even i f i t i s s m a l l i n a c t u a l i t y .  is  r e f e r r e d t o as  monument, and  a photograph.  Some s c u l p t u r e l o o k s v e r y  "monumentality."  The  to the  The  s c u l p t o r when he  he must know w h e t h e r i t i s g o i n g  t o be  i s what  word o r i g i n a t e s from  monuments w e r e commonly l a r g e .  sculpture i s important  This  large  s i z e of  plans  a  a piece,  so  located outdoors or i n -  doors. - O u t d o o r s c u l p t u r e i s s u r r o u n d e d by o p e n a i r , s k y and  o f t e n b u i l d i n g s nearby.  I t s s c a l e must be  l a r g e f e a t u r e s o f b u i l d i n g s and be  seen.  I t a l s o must be  of nature.  of durable  r e l a t e d to  I t must be  m a t e r i a l s as  I n d o o r s c u l p t u r e can  terial  room, m o s t l y o f s m a l l e r  d e p e n d i n g on  Discuss  w i t h the  the  students  any  the  big  to  i t i s exposed  to the weather year around. and,  above,  be  o f any  ma-  size.  outdoor s c u l p t u r e i n your  area.  I f i n the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, examples  can  discussed,  are  be  Examples a r e :  or v i s i t e d  "Gassy J a c k "  i f fieldtrips i n Gastown; the  Harman i n f r o n t o f t h e P a c i f i c  Press  a  possibility.  "Family"  by  Jack  b u i l d i n g ; "Bannister  and  L a n d y " by J a c k Harman a t t h e P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n ; t h e " K n i f e ' s E d g e " by H e n r y Moore on  Little  Mountain; the  George N o r r i s i n f r o n t o f the P l a n e t a r i u m , able materials  and  f o r o u t d o o r s c u l p t u r e d e p e n d on  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d m e t a l i s a p r i o r i t y , m a t e r i a l s g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e s t o n e and, - M a j o r g r o u p s o f m a t e r i a l s a r e as Stone, c o n s i s t i n g of the hardest,  "Crab"  many more. the  although  Suit-  climate.  long  In  lasting  more r e c e n t l y ,  fibreglass.  follows:  g r a n i t e ; t h e most  by  popular,  m a r b l e ; and stone.  s o f t e r o n e s s u c h as  limestone,  Stone i s q u a r r i e d ; i t i s p a r t of a mountain.  famous q u a r r i e s  f o r marble are  q u a r r i e s to p i c k out  in Italy.  a p a r t i c u l a r block  d i d t h i s i n h i s time i n I t a l y . ist—Verona  t h e r e a r e many k i n d s Africa: life."  sculpture.  o f woods u s e d .  t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t The  an a l l o y , and  most f a v o u r e d  can  o r dark brown. silver,  be  The plastics  s u c h as  Michelangelo  there  ex-  examples. and  wood comes f r o m  "lignum v i t a e , " the  "wood o f  a r e many i n b e t w e e n  group of m a t e r i a l s used f o r s c u l p t o r s i s bronze, which i s green or  gold  s t e e l , aluminum, g o l d itself  and  as i t o x i  outdoors.  group of m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e s  the a l l important  s e v e r a l more.  u s e d i n more t h a n one leads  to  the.:modern  f i b r e g l a s s or r e s i n s , p l a s t e r of P a r i s , con-  c r e t e or cast stone, s c u l p t u r e , and  by  hardest  C o p p e r i s r a r e l y u s e d by  Miscellaneous  This  The  Other metals used are  even d e t e r i o r a t e s  most  for sculpture  t r e a t e d t o become c o l o u r e d  among o t h e r s .  d i z e s and  of stone.  group of m a t e r i a l s  s o f t e s t wood i s b a l s a , and  i s the  The  T h o s e famous q u a r r i e s s t i l l  ebony w h i c h i s b l a c k , o r The  soap-  S c u l p t o r s o f t e n go  red marble or Carrara white marble are  Wood i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t  Metal  s a n d s t o n e and  c l a y or t e r r a - c o t t a  Some o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s c a n  be  way.  to the  final  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h a t o f methods used  t o make s c u l p t u r e . - Two  fundamentally  in sculpture.  The  t a k i n g away o r  carving.  B u i l d i n g up,  o p p o s e d m e t h o d s c o v e r most s t u d i o work  processes are:  o r a d d i n g may  be  b u i l d i n g up  or adding,  and  done i n c l a y , o r p a p i e r mache, o r  p l a s t e r o f P a r i s on w i r e , o r m e t a l p i e c e s  soldered  or  welded  together,  or constructed  f r o m b a l s a wood, c a r d b o a r d , e t c .  C l a y w o r k may be l e f t i n c l a y , f i r e d i n a k i l n formed i n t o t e r r a - c o t t a cast  trans-  ( b a k e d e a r t h ) s c u l p t u r e , o r i t may be  i n t o p l a s t e r of P a r i s or bronze, or other materials.  i s a l s o u s e d t o b u i l d up s c u l p t u r e  but i f l e f t without  i n t o a more p e r m a n e n t m a t e r i a l , i t c o u l d to  and t h u s  Wax  casting  easily deteriorate  due  heat.  T a k i n g away, s u b t r a c t i n g o r c a r v i n g  takes place  when a b l o c k o f  s t o n e , wood, o r p l a s t e r o f P a r i s i s r e d u c e d t o a s c u l p t u r e quoting ous."  Michelangelo,  "removing t h e m a t e r i a l which i s s u p e r f l u -  V i s u a l i z i n g the f i n a l  sculpture  what i s n e e d e d c a n be g r e a t l y a i d e d version  by,  of the sculpture  i n o r d e r n o t t o remove  by t h e m o d e l l i n g  of a  small  i n c l a y , r e f e r r e d t o as a "maquette."  -Demonstrate the f o l l o w i n g aspects of the u n i t w i t h the appropriate  slides.  S l i d e s No. 211 a n d 2 1 3 , " V i c t o r y , " by M i c h e l a n g e l o , a s s e e n three  angles,  from  a n d No. 139 a n d 1 4 0 , " V i c t o r y o f S a m o t h r a c e , "  s e e n f r o m two a n g l e s ,  t o demonstrate the v a r i e d views  pre-  s e n t e d by 3 D. S l i d e s No. 3 a n d 4, t h e "Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f , " expected small  size.  t o show i t s u n -  No. 388 a n d 3 9 1 , " C h r i s t t h e T e a c h e r , "  by  I m r e d y , a n d No. 215 and 216, "Day," f r o m t h e M e d i c i  by  M i c h e l a n g e l o , t o show m a q u e t t e and f i n a l  tomb  sculpture.  S l i d e s 51 a n d 6 9 , b o t h "Buddha" f i g u r e s o f s t o n e a n d b r o n z e , t o demonstrate inadequacy o f photographs t o guess s i z e o f w o r k , 32 i n c h e s t o 37 f e e t  respectively.  S l i d e s No. 39 a n d 4 2 , B r i t i s h the  first  24 i n c h e s .  C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s ' wood f i g u r e s ,  5 f t . 6 i n c h e s and 5 f t . 3 i n c h e s , t h e second A l s o s l i d e s No. 45 a n d 46 o f t h e "Naked D a n c e r  made o f c o p p e r , f r o m I n d i a , a n d o n l y 4% i n c h e s i n s i z e . These i l l u s t r a t e  the large differences i n size not v i s i b l e  from t h e photographs. S l i d e s No. 251 a n d 2 5 2 , " D i a n a , " by Houdon, t h e f i r s t  the marbl  o r i g i n a l w h i c h needed t h e v e g e t a t i o n as s u p p o r t f o r t h e f i g u r e , and t h e l a t e r bronze v e r s i o n w h i c h c a r r i e s t h e upright the  figure without support with the innate strength of  metal.  H i s t o r i c a l Overview o f S c u l p t u r e o f the Human F i g u r e B a s e d o n 398 S l i d e s Rationale: In figure. to  s c u l p t u r e , a r t i s t s h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y d e p i c t e d t h e human An o v e r v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f h u m a n k i n d c a n be t r a c e d  some e x t e n t t h r o u g h t h e h i s t o r y o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human  f i g u r e , as most c u l t u r e s p e r m i t t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f i t .  To  l o o k a t s u c h work d a t e d f r o m 70,000 B.C. t o 1981 A.D., w o r l d wide, through t h e eyes o f p r e h i s t o r i c , p r i m i t i v e ,  and s o p h i s t i -  cated a r t i s t s ,  e x p a n d s h o r i z o n s a n d may make t h e s t u d e n t s t a k e  pride i n their  humanity.  Goal: Students w i l l  be g i v e n a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e d i v e r s i t y o f h u -  man i m a g e s f r o m t h e I c e Age o f t h e N e a n d e r t h a l e r s t o t h e u r b a n d w e l l e r s o f p r e s e n t day N o r t h A m e r i c a , from p r i m i t i v e  societies  o f p a s t and p r e s e n t , and f r o m c u l t u r e s those s u r v i v i n g  and t h r i v i n g  extinct  as w e l l a s f r o m  today.  Objectives: Students w i l l  grow i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h u m a n i t y ' s  f o r s u r v i v a l , and o f a r t used  f o r the expression of feelings  b e l i e f s throughout the centuries. ability igin,  discussing Lesson  They w i l l  t o r e c o g n i z e h i s t o r i c a l epochs,  and s p e c i f i c s c u l p t o r s '  styles, countries  of o r -  aids:  study a r t h i s t o r y  list  of s l i d e s i s arranged according t o per-  in detail,  This w i l l  the following  Prehistoric  enable students t o  as s e e n t h r o u g h s c u l p t u r e  human f i g u r e , p r e s e n t e d o v e r s e v e r a l  lessons.  way:  - f r o m 70,000  B.C.  21,000  B.C.  15,000  B.C.  3,000 B.C. S l i d e No. 2.  develop the  w o r k s as a r e s u l t o f v i e w i n g and  i o d s and s t y l e s o f a r t h i s t o r y .  1.  also  and  the s l i d e s .  The c o m p l e t e  grouped  struggle  Primitive Micronesian African  ( 1 1 , 12)  (13 - 17)  Melanesian  (18 - 21)  Polynesian  (22 - 24)  South American Middle American  (25) (26 - 31)  1-10  of the  Slides are  26 .  Inuit  (32 - 26)  North American Indian  3.  (37 - 44) S l i d e No.  11 - 44  S l i d e No.  45 - 77  S l i d e No.  78 - 85  Far Eastern India  (45 - 56)  Pakistan Java  (57)  (58)  V i e t Nam  (59)  S r i L a n k a (60)  4.  China  (61 - 68)  Japan  (69 - 70)  Thailand  (71 - 72)  Cambodia  (73 - 77)  Near and M i d d l e Mesopotamian  Eastern  (78)  Chaldean-Sumerian Neo-Sumerian Phoenician  (79)  (80 - 81)  (82)  Assyrian  (83-84)  Sumerian  (85)  5.  Egyptian  S l i d e No.  86 -• 118  6.  Greek  S l i d e No.  119 -  143  7.  Etruscan  S l i d e No.  144 -  148  8.  Roman  S l i d e No.  149 -  151  9.  Byzantine  S l i d e No.  152  10.  Romanesque  S l i d e No. 153 - 159  11.  Gothic  S l i d e No . 160 - 173  12.  Renaissance  S l i d e No. 174 - 198  13.  Mannerism  S l i d e No. 199 - 228  14.  17th and 18th Century  S l i d e No. 229 - 255  (Baroque  & Classical)  15.  19th  Century  S l i d e No. 256 - 293  16.  20th  Century  S l i d e No. 294 - 398  19th and 20th century a r t were purposely s i m p l i f i e d and movements such as Impressionism,  Expressionism, Fauvism, Cub-  ism, Futurism, Dada, F o r m a l i s t , C o n s t r u c t i v i s t ,  Surrealist,  Conceptualism were omitted, as they were f e l t to be o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s  thesis.  However, i f e i t h e r a p r e l i m i n a r y overview  i s to be g i v e n  to the students, or the h i s t o r y o f a r t through the f i g u r e not to be taught i n depth, two shortened l i s t s of s l i d e s  follow,  as Tables 1 and 2.  These are recommended  f o r study f o r S e n i o r  or J u n i o r Secondary  students r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  and w i l l permit an  overview o f s c u l p t u r e of the f i g u r e both h i s t o r i c a l l y and cross-culturally. Discussion: Show the s l i d e s , a group a t a time.  Where a p p l i c a b l e d i s -  cuss the h i s t o r i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l s e t t i n g , and the n a t i o n a l and s o c i a l background o f the a r t i s t s .  Students should do t h e i r  own r e s e a r c h , and be prepared to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the works. as f o l l o w s .  An example of such a c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n might be  28.  Prehistoric art: of  E a r l y Man.  talk  about  the environmental  N e a n d e r t h a l s l i v e d d u r i n g t h e I c e Age a s w e l l  d u r i n g t h e somewhat warmer I n t e r - G l a c i a l P e r i o d . art  conditions  Neanderthal  was f o u n d m o s t l y i n c a v e s , and seemed t o h a v e b e g u n  35,000 y e a r s a g o , p e a k e d 15,000 y e a r s a g o , and f a d e d y e a r s ago.  as  about  10,000  More t h a n 200 c a v e s w e r e f o u n d , many o f t h e s e i n t h e  S o u t h o f F r a n c e and t h e N o r t h o f S p a i n , b u t a l s o i n t h e N e a r a n d M i d d l e E a s t , a s w e l l as i n A f r i c a . Fossil  r e c o r d s o f N e a n d e r t h a l man w e r e f i r s t  f o u n d i n 1856  A.D.,  i n t h e v a l l e y o f t h e N e a n d e r R i v e r i n Germany.  first  c a v e was d i s c o v e r e d due t o an a c c i d e n t , when a h u n t e r ' s  dog  fell  into i t at Altamira, Spain.  t h e c a v e was f i r s t  The v e r y  D u r i n g t h e dog's r e s c u e ,  seen w i t h i t s w a l l s f u l l  o f superb  paintings.  The owner o f t h e l a n d where A l t a m i r a l i e s e x p l o r e d t h e c a v e s , and publicized his findings.  He d i e d b e f o r e t h e a r t o f t h e c a v e  b e l i e v e d t o be made by E a r l y Man. of  t h e supreme s k i l l s  was  I t was n o t a c c e p t e d b e c a u s e  of i t s a r t i s t s .  O n l y when e v i d e n c e  mounted w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y o f many c a v e s was c a v e a r t a c c e p t e d as  genuine. Several so-called  "Venus" f i g u r e s w e r e f o u n d a t p r e h i s t o r i c  s i t e s ; t h e o l d e s t c a r v i n g o f bone d a t e d a s f a r b a c k a s 70,000 y e a r s ago its  ( S l i d e No. 1 ) , w h i c h  "modern" s i m p l i c i t y .  i s remarkable  a n d most m o v i n g i n  D a t i n g f r o m a l a t e r p e r i o d , more  such  f i g u r e s w e r e f o u n d ; t h r e e o f t h e s e d a t e d f r o m 21,000 B.C. t o 15,000 B.C. and  ( S l i d e No. 2 - 7 ) .  H o w e v e r , more p a i n t e d c a v e a r t  fewer f i g u r e s s u r v i v e d , which might  s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s e f i g u r e s , and w h i c h  be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y were  c a r r i e d around  as a m u l e t s .  p r o p o r t i o n s of these  Because o f the exaggerated  feminine  f i g u r e s , t h e y a r e p r e s u m e d t o be  fertility  figures.  The  h a r s h c o n d i t i o n s o f c l i m a t e made t h e s u r v i v a l  E a r l y Man  p o s s i b l e o n l y i f he/she e x i s t e d i n r e a s o n a b l e  N e a n d e r t h a l man  m i g h t not have u n d e r s t o o d  how  numbers.  c h i l d r e n were  c r e a t e d b u t he knew women b o r e t h e m a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s u r v i v a l d e p e n d e d on them.  "Sympathetic  of  m a g i c " was  group's  used  to  b r i n g about success i n the hunt, t h e r e f o r e the animal p a i n t i n g s on t h e c a v e w a l l s . used  Similarly,  the female  f i g u r e s were  f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the race. Neanderthal  fossil  r e c o r d s d a t e E a r l y Man  a b o u t 100,000 y e a r s ago,  North America, the sea l e v e l  possibly and  appearing interglacial  Human p o p u l a t i o n e n t e r e d  f r o m S i b e r i a , when g l a c i a t i o n  lowered  they could cross the B e r i n g S t r a i t .  m i g h t h a v e b e g u n 40,000 y e a r s ago. l e a s t 20,000 y e a r s ago.  They r e a c h e d  This  South  America  G r a d u a l l y , i n most p a r t s o f  w o r l d , t h e h u n t i n g - a n d - g a t h e r i n g way agriculture.  as  d u r i n g t h e somewhat warmer  p e r i o d o f 130,000 - 70,000 y e a r s ago.  at  fertility  o f l i f e was  r e p l a c e d by  T h i s b e g a n i n some p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d a s much a s  10,000 y e a r s a g o ,  and  i n the Americas was  a b o u t 5,000 y e a r s  The  c a v e a r t o f E a r l y Man  art  w h i c h becomes e v i d e n t i n t h e l a t e r C y c l a d i c f i g u r e s  r e p l a c e d by a g e o m e t r i c  a b o u t t h e t h i r d m i l l e n i u m B.C.  ( S l i d e No.  9 and  s o n b e t w e e n t h e s t y l e s o f t h e P r e h i s t o r i c and f i g u r e s c a n be  the  s e e n on S l i d e No.  8.  10).  ago.  style  A  of  dated compari-  C y c l a d i c "Venus"  30 .  ^,J^  Table 1  A S e l e c t i o n o f 140 S l i d e s f o r a B r i e f of the H i s t o r y  ,^  Overview  of Sculpture of the Figure  f o r S e n i o r Secondary Students  1  Prehistoric  Slide  3 it  4  No.  60  Sri  61  China  Lanka  64  Primitive:  69  Japan  16  Nigeria  71  Thailand  19  New  72  24  Easter  26  Mexico  Guinea Island  76  II  Cambodia Near E a s t :  27  H  83  Assyria  28  ii  86  Egypt  29  H  89  30  n  91  33  Inuit  92 95  35 39  N. Am.  Indian Salish  41  Kwakiutl  102  Far  104  East:  96  »  ••  45  India  105  49  n  108  »  51  II  109  »  57  Pakistan  110 116  31.  S l i d e No. 121  Greco-Roman:  168  Greek  172  Gothic  15th i  ii  ii  123  173  Late  125  176  Donatello  130  178  133  179  134  180  138  182  Verrocchio  139  187  Cellini  14 0  188  H  141  189  II  142  190  II  144  Etruscan  146 14 9  Roman  150 155  Romanesque 1 2 t h C.  199  II  Ghiberti II  Michelangelo  202  II  203  II  204  II  215  II  156  216  157  218  159  219  it  160  Gothic  1 3 t h C.  222  it  166  "  1 4 t h C.  223  H  167  .  228  Gothic  232  S l i d e No.  Bernini  294  Maillol  303  Lehmbruck  233  ii  2 34  II  309  Barlach  240  Puget  311  Sintenis  242  As am  314  Shadre  243  Vieira  319  Szervatiusz  249  Falconet  323  Brancusi  251  Houdon  324  Bracho  336  Marini  252 256  Canova  339  Giacometti  262  Preault  340  Nilsson  264  Meunier  345  Moore  266  Bartholdi  347  II  267  II  354  Segal  268  Rodin  355  Butler  269  „  356  It  271  358  Marisol  272  359  Miller  273  365  Wynne  275  »  366  284  »  367  287  »  371  II  293  Paris  372  II  E x h i b . 1900 A.D.  Lucchesi  S l i d e No.  373  de Andrea  374  Hanson  375  Morales  376  II  377 382 383 388 391  Zuniga II  Imredy  Table 2  A Selection  o f 86 S l i d e s  Sculpture Around  S l i d e No.  f o r a More C o n d e n s e d  o f t h e F i g u r e Throughout  Overview o f  the Ages,  the World, f o r J u n i o r Secondary Students  1  Prehistoric  4  Near Slide  84  Assyria  Primitive:  89  Egypt  15  Congo  91  11  18  New  92  H  26  Mexico  102  II  Zealand  No.  East:  28  it  108  II  33  Inuit  110  it  35  II  116  II  41  N. Am. Far  49 51  Indian  East:  India II  Greco-Roi 123  Greek  125  ti  135  ti  57  Pakistan  136  II  60  Sri  137  it  64  China  141  ii  Lanka  65  146  Etruscan  69  Japan  149  Roman  71  Thailand  151  ii  35.  S l i d e No. 171  Gothic  174  "  1 5 t h C.  Slide  No. 345  Moore  347  178  Donatello  353  Segal  193  da  355  Butler  199  Michelangelo  364  Wynne  Bologna  202  366  208  367  215  370  216  374  Hanson  222  375  Morales  Lucchesi  232  Bernini  376  251  Houdon  379  Barelier  384  Erhardy  252 25 8  Canova  386  2 71  Rodin  387  272  388  275  389  287  390  294  Maillol  391  309  Barlach  392  310  Sintenis  395  Imredy  397  311 329  Greco  39 9  Michelangelo  336  Marini  40 4  Moore  338  Manzu  406  339  Giacometti  412  .  "  drawing "  36.  Anatomy o f t h e Human F i g u r e :  The  Skeleton  Rationale: The in  skeleton i s of v i t a l  importance t o a r t i s t s i n t e r e s t e d  d e p i c t i n g t h e human f i g u r e a s i t i s t h e " a r m a t u r e " w h i c h  holds  i t up, g o v e r n s i t s p r o p o r t i o n s ,  motions.  e n a b l e s and r e s t r i c t s i t s  Study o f t h e s k e l e t o n i s a necessary i n t r o d u c t i o n t o  w o r k i n g w i t h t h e f i g u r e i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s , a n d c a n be o f p a r t i c u l a r advantage t o adolescents and  who do  n o t see p r o p o r t i o n s  who l a c k k n o w l e d g e o f t h e i n n e r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r own b o d -  ies. Goal: Students w i l l  g a i n k n o w l e d g e o f anatomy o f t h e human f i g u r e .  Objectives: Seeing and drawing t h e s k e l e t o n i n terms o f : -  proportions  - physical  functions  - structural  strength  - l i m i t a t i o n o f movement. Resources: S l i d e s No. 414 t o 4 2 0 . P l a t e s No. 4, 5 and 6. Lesson a i d s : 1.  Prepare large  ( 2 3 " by 36") d r a w i n g o n M a n i l l a T a g f r o m  P l a t e No. 4 i n s i m p l i f i e d  form by f i r s t d i v i d i n g t h e  paper i n e i g h t h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n s . number 1, r e p r e s e n t s  t h e head w i t h o u t  The t o p s e c t i o n , t h e neck and i s  the measure used f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e body.  37.  2.  3.  Prepare l a r g e  (24" by  36")  drawing on M a n i l l a Tag  views of the  s k u l l i n s i m p l i f i e d form by using  No.  views of the  4 20,  two  s k u l l , f r o n t a l and  Obtain X-rays of the s k u l l , chest, from a l a b o r a t o r y  and  Try to get a d u l t and  of  two  Slide  the  side.  p e l v i s , hands, f e e t , e t c .  d i s p l a y taped on to the windows. c h i l d X-rays to demonstrate d i f f e r e n c e  in size. Materials  f o r student  Graph paper 12" P l a i n paper  use: by  18"  ( m a n i l l a or  cartridge)  Pencils Discuss by u s i n g - Function "holds us up"  the l a r g e v i s u a l of P l a t e No. of the  and  skeleton  as the i n t e r n a l framework which  enables movement.  Compare s k e l e t o n  s t r u c t u r e of wood frame f o r houses and buildings.  We  - Skull: about 1 to 2. protects  inner  s t e e l frame f o r h i g h - r i s e  p o i n t to r a t i o of f a c i a l area to r e s t which i s Emphasize domelike s t r u c t u r e which houses Point  t e c t s deeper set eyes.  and  to brow area which protrudes and  pro-  P o i n t to shortness of nose bone which  a l l o w s great d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  and  to  f o r g e t i t s r o l e because i t i s hidden from view.  the b r a i n .  - Spine:  4.  s i z e and  shape of noses.  e x p l a i n t h a t v e r t e b r a e are s m a l l e s t  grow i n s i z e downward u n t i l the t a i l b o n e .  t h i c k e s t i n the neck as the g r e a t e s t  The  i n the  neck  cortex  is  number of nerves l e a d  to  the hands i n order to enable them to do a m u l t i t u d e of movements unmatched anywhere i n the body. - Chest:  i t s shape resembles a basket.  Individual ribs  38.  are  f r a g i l e but  bility  t h e i r number and  to protect v i t a l  o r g a n s s u c h as t h e  a l l o w f o r e x p a n s i o n and - Pelvis: dates v i t a l  the  shape g i v e s  c o n t r a c t i o n when  overall  o r g a n s s u c h as  strength  heart  i s one  flexi-  lungs,  and  breathing.  shape r e s e m b l e s a b o w l , i t accommothe  source of  life.  Point to  f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e b e t w e e n m a l e and This  and  and  female  o f t h e means o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f an  the  pelvis.  unknown s k e l e -  ton. - Arms:  d e m o n s t r a t e y o u r s e l f and  students f i n d t h e i r elbow along waistline,  and  t o the knee. not  see  and  t h e w h o l e arm This  i s an  i n c l u d i n g the  ing;  i t e n a b l e s c i r c u l a r m o t i o n , and  o f t h e h a n d and p u t t i n g the by  students  t h e e l b o w w h i c h has  stand  re-  i n the world.  P o i n t to the  with  of the hand about e q u a l t o the  height  - Legs: s t a r t a t the  the end  body between s e c t i o n s inward to the  trunk  4 and  5.  ground i n order  and  are  find  o f one's f a c e arms  by and  the from too  small.  l e n g t h o f l e g s n e e d s t o be of the  will  s t u d e n t s o f t e n make t h e  s h o r t , t h e y a l s o make t h e h a n d s f a r t o o  It  students that  f i n g e r s o v e r o n e ' s f a c e , you  J u s t as  hand  size  base o f the hand n e a r the w r i s t t o one's c h i n ,  chin to h a i r l i n e .  do  i t i s capable of making.  d e m o n s t r a t e y o u r s e l f and  s t r e t c h i n g the  size  close  have s t u d e n t s s t u d y t h e i r  actions  the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o o l  the  j o i n t which i s l i k e a b a l l - b e a r -  D e m o n s t r a t e and  t h e many movements and  have  most s t u d e n t s  having the  E x p l a i n about the  is  shoulder  and  hand r e a c h e s  important proportion  up.  and  the v i s u a l  t h e i r body w h i c h i s a t  i s b e s t d e m o n s t r a t e d by  s t r i c t e d motion.  on  the  emphasized.  They  halfway point of  From t h e h i p j o i n t  the  legs  to b e t t e r c a r r y the weight of  the angle the  body.  The  h i p j o i n t i s the  l a r g e s t j o i n t i n t h e body and  resembles a b a l l - b e a r i n g l i k e the e l b o w , a l s o has  shoulder.  r e s t r i c t e d movement b u t  ment o f t h e k n e e i s e x a c t l y o p p o s i t e - Hands and  Feet:  they are  j o i n t s which enables a greater  the  f e e t , an  f e e t are  knee, l i k e  t o t h e one  of the  - Neck:  elbow. bones  r a n g e o f movement, and  capacity to carry weight.  as much s m a l l e r by  for  Emphasize  l a r g e r t h a n one's hands, a n o t h e r p a r t o f the  is often depicted  body w h i c h  up  the  head.  M e n t i o n t h a t d a n c e r s must h a v e l o n g n e c k s w h i c h t h e y use p r e s s i o n o f e m o t i o n s by m o v i n g t h e h e a d .  There are  ant  One  i n t h e nape o f t h e n e c k , t h e o t h e r and left  cross d i a g o n a l l y forward and  r i g h t of the hollow  s e c o n d s e t has  the  head. two  that  students.  i t resembles a column t h a t holds  s e t s o f m u s c l e s w h i c h move t h e  the  d i r e c t i o n a l move-  composed o f many s m a l l  and  increased  the  The  i t too  for  two  ex-  import-  set i s v e r t i c a l l y  s t a r t each behind the  ear  t o meet a t t h e b a s e o f t h e  throat,  below the  This  "Adam's a p p l e . "  l o n g e s t L a t i n name o f a l l t h e  muscles:  "sternocleidomastoideus." - Proportions:  as  s e e n on  t h e v i s u a l , t h e a d u l t body i s  d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t p a r t s , the head w i t h o u t  the neck b e i n g  measure; i t goes seven t i m e s i n t o the h e i g h t o f the body, sometimes o n l y  s i x and  t i o n s are d i f f e r e n t , grows v e r y  little  a h a l f times.  as  The  s e e n on S l i d e No.  the or  g r o w i n g body's p r o p o r 419,  because the  head  after birth.  Activities: 1.  S t u d e n t s d r a w on  12"  by  18"  graph paper o r , i f not  obtain-  a b l e , on p l a i n p a p e r , d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n s  40.  the on 2.  frontview  of the skeleton  and t h e s i d e v i e w  t h e same p a p e r , a s d i s p l a y e d  S t u d e n t s draw t h e s k u l l  on t h e l a r g e  o f t h e body visual.  from t h e f r o n t and s i d e v i e w  on t h e  same s h e e t o f p a p e r a s d i s p l a y e d o n t h e s e c o n d l a r g e These a c t i v i t i e s  involve the reduction  i n the s i z e of the  d r a w i n g s compared t o t h e v i s u a l s b u t a r e o t h e r w i s e Yet  t h e y a r e most i m p o r t a n t a s an e x e r c i s e w h i c h  izes the students with o f t h e body.  Follow  the proportions,  above a c t i v i t i e s  visual.  height  copied.  familiar-  and w i d t h  by s h o w i n g s l i d e s f o r  more d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f n e c k movements, h a n d a n d f e e t movem e n t s , on S l i d e s No. 4 2 1 , 422 a n d 4 2 3 . slides of the skeleton  Follow  with  further  i n m o t i o n , S l i d e s No. 4'24 t o 429.  Assignments: Provide  written description of specific a c t i v i t i e s  f o r m e d by a p e r s o n , s u c h a s :  - climbing  a  per-  ladder  - f a l l i n g o f f t h e r o o f o f a house - s i t t i n g on a c h a i r and d r i n k i n g a cup o f t e a - playing soccer  o r any o t h e r  sport. S t u d e n t s a r e t o draw s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o r c h o o s e one a c t i v i t y  Further  only,  and make i t by r e p e t i t i o n o f s t a g e s o f  t h e movement i n t o a " f l i p " e a s i e r assignment.  the skeleton  book.  Encourage sideviews  f o r an  See P l a t e s No. 5 a n d 6 f o r e x a m p l e s .  discussion:  E x p l a i n the concept of "foreshortening" model o r y o u r s e l f .  with  a student  Show:  1.  f r o n t a l v i e w o f an arm  2.  f r o n t a l view of the upper  3.  v i e w S l i d e s No.  430  stretched s t r a i g h t forward,  and  l e g of a s i t t i n g  431 t o s t u d y  figure,  foreshortening  of the r e c l i n i n g f i g u r e . Further  activity :  Borrow f u l l - s i z e  real skeleton  and a r r a n g e on t a b l e i n s i t t i n g d r a p e r y o r a h a t t o l e s s e n any i n t e r e s t and  from your Resource  or r e c l i n i n g pose w i t h r e p u l s i o n o r f e a r , and  some heighten  humour.  Students are to p i c k a d e t a i l or p o r t i o n of the such as:  Centre  the s k u l l ,  skeleton  a t h i g h , the p e l v i s , the ribcage, a  foot  o r a h a n d , and make a d e t a i l e d , t o n a l s t u d y i n p e n c i l o r i n k . You may  w i s h t o assemble  these parts i n t o a  c o l l a g e of a l l the students'  work a s a g r o u p  (possibly distorted) project.  42.  Plate Proportions  4  of the  Skeleton  Plate  5  Gesture Drawing w i t h the  Skeleton  Plate  6  Gesture Drawing w i t h the  Skeleton  S t u d y o f Movement and Figure  Proportions  Through  Drawing  Rationale: F i g u r e d r a w i n g f r o m l i v e m o d e l s has a c t i v i t y e n g a g e d i n by  sculptors.  f o r c l o s e r o b s e r v a t i o n of the humans as w e l l as  f o r study  b e e n , and  I t provides  an  still  i s an  opportunity  g r e a t r a n g e o f body s t r u c t u r e s i n  of proportions  o f t h e b o d y , and  of  movements s u i t a b l e f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n s c u l p t u r e . An  approximation  of t h i s  i n the p u b l i c school  s t u d i o a c t i v i t y can  s y s t e m by  using  be  achieved  "works o f a r t " w h i c h  t h e nude body i n s u i t a b l e p o s e s a l t h o u g h  seen through the  reveal eyes  of a s c u l p t o r . Goal: Students w i l l one  l e a r n to capture  a twodimensional  surface,  o r more v i e w s o f a human body i n m o t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d i t s p r o -  p o r t i o n s , l e a r n a b o u t body t y p e s ity  on  t o work as  and  g e n e r a l l y h a v e an  i f f r o m a nude m o d e l i n a s t u d i o  opportun-  setting.  Obj e c t i v e s : - An  a l t e r n a t e method t o the maquette i n c l a y f o r  a s c u l p t u r e of the - An  figure.  opportunity  to put  i n t o e f f e c t knowledge gained  p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e body t h r o u g h t h e - Observation f e c t the  study  o f m u l t i p l e body t y p e s  of and  of  the  anatomy. a g e s as t h e y  af-  figure.  - Concentrated istic  planning  " l o o k i n g " at the  f i g u r e as an  image f o r a r t -  expression. By  controlling  the  l e n g t h of time f o r each pose,  achieving  a speeding  up o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f mass and movement, and  c o r d i n g i t on  re-  paper.  Resources: S l i d e s number:  26,  28,  110,  125  and  126,  135  232,  245  and  246,  252,  256,  273,  274  and  275,  283,  287,  309,  310,  311,  340,  355,  367  Lesson  137,  314,  t o 372,  143,  91 and  109 213,  259,  268"and 269,  271,  272  291,  292,  392  and  294,  296,  330,  331,  394,  399  300,  333, to  and 215, and  301,  336,  303,  338,  408.  18"  a s e x a m p l e s some l a r g e s i z e g e s t u r e d r a w i n g s , by  24",  of figures  l i n e s and  i n d i c a t i o n of shading w i t h touches  of charcoal.  Show S l i d e s No.  399  t o 413  M i c h e l a n g e l o , R o d i n and  Materials  f o r student  styles  Moore.  use:  by  24"  drawing  18"  by  24"  n e w s p r i n t and m a n i l l a p a p e r  board  f o r each  student  clips  Conte crayon D i s c u s s i o n and - S e t up  Use  i n some i n s t a n c e s  as e x a m p l e s o f d r a w i n g  18"  Bulldog  pre-  from s l i d e s o r from models.  conte or c h a r c o a l to achieve wider  of  96,  202,  329,  187,  92,  195,  318,  383,  89,  aids:  Prepare ferably  313,  and  60,  i n brown, b l a c k , e t c .  demonstration: room f o r p r o j e c t i n g s l i d e s .  Have s t u d e n t s s i t  f a c i n g the screen but not too f a r t o the l e f t or r i g h t of s c r e e n , o r t h e image w i l l  appear  the  distorted.  - Demonstrate t h e need t o f a c e s c r e e n where s l i d e s  will  47.  appear head  j u s t a s one w o u l d  f a c e t h e model.  Avoiding turning  f u r t h e r s r e t e n t i o n o f image a n d o n l y o n e ' s e y e s n e e d  lifted  sheets o f paper c l i p p e d t o i t .  of  be  t o t h e s c r e e n a n d down t o t h e p a p e r .  - E a c h s t u d e n t s h o u l d have a d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h  act  one's  A f f i x bulldog c l i p  several  away f r o m e x -  c e n t r e o f board o t h e r w i s e i t c o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h f u l l use the paper.  Emphasize  i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a n g l e between t h e eye  and t h e p a p e r w h i c h i s t o be a t a b o u t 6 5.°  T h e r e f o r e the paper  s h o u l d be c l i p p e d t o t h e d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h t h e b u l l d o g c l i p a n d the  b o a r d i n an u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n r e s t i n g on one's l a p and l e a n -  ing  a g a i n s t a t a b l e o r t h e back o f a c h a i r .  I t must be h e l d up-  r i g h t o r l e n g t h w i s e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e shape o f t h e image o f e a c h slide. - P r e p a r e c o n t e c r a y o n s t i c k s by b r e a k i n g them i n h a l f . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t as i t w i l l pencil.  d i s c o u r a g e use o f t h e c o n t e as a  Show how t o u s e i t o n i t s s i d e w h i c h i s a u s e f u l p r o -  cedure f o r q u i c k l y mapping o u t t h e whole  image.  Encourage  stu-  d e n t s t o draw a s l a r g e a s t h e p a p e r w i l l  a l l o w , w i t h f r e e and  sweeping motions, c o n c e n t r a t i n g t o c a p t u r e t h e motion o f t h e f i g ure  w i t h o u t any d e t a i l s .  will  s u c c e e d n o t o n l y i n g e t t i n g t h e movement b u t m a n a g i n g t h e  s p a c e on t h e p a p e r In  As t h e y become more e x p e r i e n c e d , t h e y  so t h a t t h e w h o l e  figure  i s l o c a t e d on i t .  t h e b e g i n n i n g i t i s more i m p o r t a n t t o draw l a r g e s i z e  e v e n i f some p a r t s o f t h e f i g u r e w i l l  figures  n o t f i t on t h e p a p e r .  - F i r s t p r o j e c t S l i d e s No. 399 t o 408, w h i c h a r e e x a m p l e s of  d r a w i n g s by M i c h e l a n g e l o , R o d i n a n d M o o r e .  Point out the  many l i n e s w h i c h s e a r c h o u t t h e f o r m a n d movement, t h e b r o a d e r ones i n d i c a t i n g  some s h a d i n g t o e m p h a s i z e  shapes, and t h e  48.  g e n e r a l l a c k o f "one - Now s l i d e and  begin projecting s l i d e s  from the l i s t .  Discuss  each  encourage o b s e r v a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l minutes before  ning drawing which  perfect line."  activity.  P o i n t t o t h e g e n e r a l shape o f t h e  o f t e n f i t s a t r i a n g l e or square,  to the l o c a t i o n of  beginimage the  h e a d r e l a t e d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e body d e p e n d i n g on t h e movement, t o t h e w e i g h t the r e s u l t i n g  o f t h e body i f o n . one  r i s e o f t h e p e l v i s and  supporting leg  l o w e r i n g of the  shoulder  on t h e s i d e o f t h a t l e g , t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f h a n d s and ted  t o e a c h o t h e r , and  slide  suggests  to  t o ensure  d a t e d on t h e p a p e r . r e l a x e d arm  s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s as t h e  feet  particular  t o rough out g u i d e l i n e s i n the s t y l e t h a t the whole f i g u r e w i l l  be  Encourage s t u d e n t s t o draw l a r g e , w i t h a  sweeping o v e r the paper even i f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g i t  i s more d e s i r a b l e t h a n a s m a l l , t i m i d d r a w i n g students progress through  This  on t h e l a r g e  s e v e r a l days of d r a w i n g ,  activity  first,  s u c h a s t h i s seems v e r y d i f f i c u l t  b u t a m a z i n g p r o g r e s s i s made t h r o u g h  - Timing  Draw-  to students  days of  experience.  the s t u d i o s i t u a t i o n where  model h o l d s each pose f o r a l i m i t e d  l e n g t h of time.  utes, to f i v e or ten minutes,  and  Vary  the min-  l a t e r t o an o c c a s i o n a l s t u d y  w i t h shading, of f i f t e e n or twenty  grows w i t h v o l u m e , and  Ex-  the  f r o m v e r y s h o r t warm-up s k e t c h e s o f no more t h a n two  developed  at  the l e n g t h of p r o j e c t i n g each s l i d e i s v i t a l .  p l a i n t h a t t h i s approximates  time  paper.  do t r y t o  make them g e t t h e w h o l e f i g u r e w e l l p l a c e d on t h e p a p e r . ing  of  accommo-  m i g h t r e s u l t i n n o t g e t t i n g a l l t h e f i g u r e on t h e p a p e r .  As  rela-  you.  - D e m o n s t r a t e how a " s t i c k man"  such  and  students w i l l  minutes.  Skill  h a v e many u n f i n i s h e d  l o o k i n g drawings.  C a t c h i n g t h e movement o f t h e  must be  l i k e a gesture  done f a s t ,  - Student  s h o u l d use  sculpture-model  drawing.  newsprint  first  and,  w i t h more  exper-  ience, m a n i l l a or c a r t r i d g e paper. - D i s c u s s work e a c h day one  t o w a r d s end  example o f a l l s t u d e n t s ' work.  drawing  activity  A t t h e end  to help with o f t h e day  o f p e r i o d , and  A l s o walk around  at  least  during  suggestions.  of f i g u r e drawing  have s t u d e n t s  se-  l e c t , w i t h your h e l p , perhaps four to f i v e drawings.  These, i f  g i v e n e x t r a t i m e , may  without  be  f u r t h e r developed  w i t h conte  p r o j e c t i n g the s l i d e s .  Hold a c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n of these  i n g s a f t e r you  t i m e t o mark them.  h a v e had  Studio A c t i v i t i e s  f o r the Making of  draw-  Sculpture  o f t h e Human B o d y , M e t h o d s and M a t e r i a l s The  maquette i n c l a y .  Rationale: I n s c u l p t u r e t h e m a q u e t t e may to drawing  because i t i s important  be v i e w e d as an  to plan a piece of s c u l p t u r e  i n a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l medium c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e q u a l i t y of the f i n a l p i e c e .  threedimensional  Drawing, even from s e v e r a l a n g l e s ,  a s a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e l a r g e r p i e c e , may to the concepts  alternative  o f , s c u l p t u r e , such  as  form,  be  found  less  s h a p e , mass  related and  volume. Goal: Students  will  be  a b l e t o p l a n a p i e c e o f work i n a  medium s u c h as c l a y by r o u g h i n g  flexible  o u t i t s shape from a l l a n g l e s .  50.  Resources f o r student Material: Tools:  use:  clay with  grog  (sculpture  - wooden m o d e l l i n g -  small as  tools  metal turntables  used i n  clay)  ( f i n i s h i n g wheels)  ceramics  - p l a s t i c bags - spray b o t t l e f o r water Lesson  (plant  mister)  aids:  S l i d e s No;.  197  and  No.  201,  No.  341  No.  388,  198  215,  216,  389,  390  220,  and  221,  219,  222  391.  Discussion: Project  s l i d e s and  explain  ger  piece of  sculpture,  often  ent  material,  G i o v a n n i da  i n the  I t lacks  been f i r e d  material  the  a r t i s t may he  an  the  subsequently i n a  Show S l i d e s No. inches long  approximate plan  f i n i s h and  i n a k i l n and  ent  material  as  advantage of p l a n n i n g a  created  B o l o g n a , w h i c h i s 19  from c l a y , s e r v i n g figure.  round.  the  19 7 and and  wishes.  221,  are  i t a t any Such a  such s t u d i e s .  show two  w o r k s by  out  larger has  t h e r e b y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a more p e r m a n Therefore  l a t e r stage to enlarge i t i n "plan"  l a t e r carved i n marble l i f e - s i z e 222  by  d e t a i l of a f i n a l p i e c e but  any  i n c l a y i s c a l l e d a maquette.  - M i c h e l a n g e l o a l s o used t h i s technique to p l a n  and  19 8  c a l l e d t e r r a - c o t t a , meaning baked e a r t h . use  differ-  i s roughed  f o r a much  lar-  or  S l i d e s No.  larger. 215  M i c h e l a n g e l o , the  the  S l i d e s No.  and first  216,  as  of each  work 201,  220 the  and  he 219  m a q u e t t e i n f i r e d c l a y , t e r r a - c o t t a , and work i n m a r b l e .  7"  The  maquettes are  341  shows m a q u e t t e s by  the  second the  12",  by  the  final  finals  life-  size. - S l i d e No. not  a l w a y s made o f  Paris.  t e r r a - c o t t a , but  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they are  p i e c e s i n stone or  to  a l s o carved from p l a s t e r small  s i z e models f o r  391,  a work by  the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f a 16  E l e k I m r e d y , show t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e as  are of  large  bronze. 388  - S l i d e s No.  the  H e n r y Moore w h i c h  a maquette to e r e c t i o n  Vancouver  sculptor,  f t . sculpture on  site  from i t s  i n Edmonton,  Alberta. Demonstration: - Open a bag  of  off a thick piece. tion  fresh clay.  P l u c k a p a r t and  "sticks" together.  so wet  that  I t does not  i t w o u l d become muddy.  a r o u n d t o make s t u d e n t s f e e l t h e p l a i n that as  the  the  a clay cutter  show how  crumble or  open p l a s t i c  bag  and  l e r p i e c e s they need. s h o u l d not  be  held  f o r p r e s e n t work. with.  The  by  addition  s h a p e by  Stress  of  is i t  clay  out  s h o u l d be  c l a y , as of  well  time.  kept i n s i d e  students should reach i n f o r the prevent early drying  Ex-  of the  an  smal-  clay i t  i n o n e ' s h a n d i n l a r g e r amount t h a n n e e d e d  sculpture  holding  To  condi-  c o n s i s t e n c y o f good c l a y .  i s working with  the  slice  c r a c k , nor  P a s s some b i t s o f  h e a t of one's hand t e n d s t o dry  c l a y one  to  c l a y i n good  a i r i f i t i s e x p o s e d t o i t f o r some l e n g t h  T h e r e f o r e the  the  Use  that  clay i s a material  must s l o w l y  small  a large  lumps.  grow f r o m t h e I t i s not  inside  t o be  lump i n o n e ' s h a n d .  one  builds  up  outward  squeezed  into  - Take t h e m e t a l t u r n t a b l e a n d p l a c e  t h e b o a r d on i t . S i t  down a t t h e l o w e s t c h a i r a n d s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s c u l p ture being  viewed a t e y e - l e v e l .  table f o rt a l l e r down b a s i n  students with anything  i n order  lump o f c l a y , p l a c e small  Y o u may h a v e t o r a i s e t h e t u r n -  t o bring i tcloser to eye-level.  Take a  lumps f r o m i t , p r o c e e d t o b u i l d up t h e s c u l p t u r e  the whole p i e c e  upside-  i n an open p l a s t i c bag a n d , by p l u c k i n g  from a l l a n g l e s by t u r n i n g t h e t u r n t a b l e  the  from a box t o an  i s roughed out,  frequently.  evenly O n l y when  start using modelling  t o o l s on  surface. - Spray t h e s c u l p t u r e w i t h a f i n e mist  it  i n the p l a s t i c bag.  in  so a i r cannot e n t e r  o f water and p l a c e  D e m o n s t r a t e how i t i s t o be w e l l  tucked  t h e bag and d r y o u t t h e s c u l p t u r e  between  classes. - D i s t r i b u t e one p l a s t i c b a g p e r s t u d e n t . piece  Give a small  o f m a s k i n g t a p e t o e a c h s t u d e n t f o r t h e i r name t o be w r i t -  t e n on and a t t a c h e d  to the outside  will  easily identify  look  i n s i d e t h e bag.  o f the p l a s t i c bag.  the i n d i v i d u a l pieces Stress  without having t o  the importance that only  t u r e goes i n t o t h e bag a t t h e end o f each p e r i o d . goes back i n t o t h e c l a y b i n (metal strong  p l a s t i c b a g , as i t c o u l d  This  garbage can w i t h  the sculp-  Leftover  clay  l i d ) or a  damage t h e s c u l p t u r e .  Also, the  c l a y c a n be k e p t i n b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n i n a common c o n t a i n e r .  Ap-  p o i n t m o n i t o r s t o check a t t h e end o f each p e r i o d whether t h e clay i s broken i n t o smaller the  l i d well closed;  ling tools dried.  ( i n order  lumps a n d w e t t e d i n t h e c l a y b i n a n d  a l s o t h a t t h e c l a y i s wiped o f f t h e modelnot t o plug  t h e s i n k ) , t h e n washed  a  n  d  - Store i n d i v i d u a l bag  and m i s t e d w i t h w a t e r u n t i l  m o r e , and  b u t t h e bag  i f i n the beginning i s left ajar.  before  Then do n o t wet  cracking.  i t is still  i t is fired  weeks. i n the  any-  This i s best  left  i n the  D e p e n d i n g on  the s i z e of  (anywhere f r o m 4 t o 6 i n c h e s ) , i t s h o u l d be  d r y f o r a b o u t two  plastic  bag,  Then g r a d u a l l y remove f r o m t h e  l e a v e t o dry i n the open.  maquette  finished.  dry very s l o w l y to prevent  accomplished  and  s c u l p t u r e w e l l wrapped i n the  I t must be c o m p l e t e l y  dry  bag  the  left  to  throughout  kiln.  - M a q u e t t e s n e e d no m o u n t i n g o r f i n i s h i n g i n any way t h e s u r f a c e as t h i s p r o c e s s  i s best r e s e r v e d f o r the  on  larger,  final sculpture. Terra-cotta sculpture. Rationale: Well finished terra-cotta and  d u r a b l e w o r k o f a r t , and  s c h o o l s where the time  s c u l p t u r e p r e s e n t s an  i s very s u i t a b l e i n  attractive  secondary  t o work on a p i e c e i s l i m i t e d by  the  p e r i o d ' s l e n g t h , a s w e l l as by t h e o v e r a l l a v a i l a b l e t i m e the s c u l p t u r e u n i t s w i t h i n the t o t a l  for  a r t programme.  Goal: Students man  will  complete a medium-sized s c u l p t u r e of the  f i g u r e which they w i l l  fire,  finish,  and mount i n a p r o f e s -  s i o n a l manner. Resources f o r student Material: Tools:  use:  c l a y w i t h grog  (sculpture clay)  - a s s o r t e d wooden m o d e l l i n g  hu-  tools  54.  - boards  (plywood)  - small metal turntables - plastic  (as used i n c e r a m i c s )  bags  - spray b o t t l e  (plant mister)  - wax p a p e r Lesson  aids:  Slides:  No. 26, 27 No. 367-372  Discussion: Show S l i d e s No. 26 a n d 27, a n d s t a t e t h e s c u l p t u r e s ' and e x p l a i n how a n d why t h e y h a v e s u r v i v e d i n s u c h g o o d tion  ages  condi-  ( t e r r a - c o t t a f i g u r e s from C o l i m a ) . Show S l i d e s No. 36 7-372 by t h e p r e s e n t d a y A m e r i c a n - I t a l i a n  s c u l p t o r L u c c h e s i , who w o r k s i n c l a y a n d p r o d u c e s s c u l p t u r e o f medium s i z e  terra-cotta  ( a r o u n d 12 t o 14 i n c h e s ) w h i c h a r e some-  times, a l s o c a s t i n bronze. E x p l a i n the advantages  of working i n t e r r a - c o t t a .  a r e : 1. w o r k i n g w i t h a f l e x i b l e medium s u c h a s c l a y  These  which  allows frequent a l t e r a t i o n s , 2. u s i n g t h e human f i g u r e on a s c a l e o f a r o u n d 12 i n c h e s i n length which permits working without armature.  Also  due t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e human b o d y , w h i c h h a s no g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n volume,  hollowing out i s not neces-  sary, 3. by f i r i n g it  t h e c l a y work i t becomes e x t r e m e l y d u r a b l e ;  does n o t c r a c k o r a l t e r  (unless i t i s dropped).  Remind t h e s t u d e n t s o f y o u r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e m a q u e t t e  in  c l a y , o r p l e a s e r e f e r t o i t i f y o u d i d n o t do a m a q u e t t e  w i t h t h e same s t u d e n t s .  I t i s e v e n more i m p o r t a n t t o h a n d l e  t h e c l a y t h e same way, as i t must r e m a i n takes a longer time t o complete.  moist as t h i s p r o j e c t  A t t h e same t i m e  attention  must be g i v e n e v e r y d a y t o t h e c l a y i n t h e b i n ( g a r b a g e wheels,  c a n on  w i t h l i d ) t o see t h a t i t r e m a i n s i n s m a l l p i e c e s and  t h e r e f o r e c a n e a s i l y be k e p t w e t . The work must a g a i n be k e p t a t e y e - l e v e l a n d be f r e q u e n t l y turned.  Make s t u d e n t s s t a n d up f r o m t i m e t o t i m e s o t h a t t h e y  a l s o e x a m i n e a n d work on t h e i r It  s h o u l d a l s o be l i f t e d  s c u l p t u r e as viewed  up, and w h i l e c a r e f u l l y  o n e ' s h a n d , w o r k e d on f r o m b e l o w . completed  If a sitting  from t h e u n d e r s i d e , i t w i l l  as i f i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n s l i c e d o f f . of  Encourage your  supported i n figure i snot  Therefore  possible but d i f f i c u l t  t h e development  important,  figure or a figure reclining.  t o complete  When f i n i s h e d , d o u b l e  I f a standing  check t h a t i t w i l l  s t a n d on i t s f e e t a n d b a l a n c e , b e f o r e i t i s d r i e d . i tw i l l  stand i fattached t o a  works on d u r i n g c l a s s .  while  be a b l e t o Once d r y a n d  s c u l p t u r e i t must be  t h e same one w h i c h  This w i l l  figure  base.  D u r i n g t h e days o f c o m p l e t i n g t h i s s t o r e d on i t s own s m a l l b o a r d ,  It i s  a standing figure i n t e r r a -  d e s i r e d , i t must be s u p p o r t e d w i t h a c o l u m n o f c l a y  fired,  partic-  figure.  c o t t a , a s one d o e s n o t u s e an a r m a t u r e .  worked on.  figure  s t u d e n t s t o p i c k one o f t h e many, many p o s -  s i b l e poses f o r a s i t t i n g  is  above.  result i n a partial  t h e s c u l p t u r e from a l l angles i s extremely  u l a r l y when i t s s u b j e c t i s t h e human  from  the student  protect the r e l a t i v e  fragility  of t h e f i g u r e w h i l e moist.  Before  p u t t i n g i t away f o r t h e n e x t  p e r i o d , i t n o t o n l y must be s p r a y e d but  i n t h e advanced stage  with a fine mist  of water  o f work t h e n a r r o w e r p a r t s such as  a r m s , l e g s o r h e a d s h o u l d be w r a p p e d g e n t l y i n w e t p a p e r so d r y i n g o f t h e s e torso.  p a r t s does n o t g e t ahead o f t h e t h i c k e r  This r e t a r d i n g of the d r y i n g process  when t h e p i e c e b e g i n s fired. bag  towel  i t s final  should  drying process  a l s o be done  before  i t is  Before  t h e f i g u r e on t h e b o a r d i s p u t i n t o t h e p l a s t i c  and t u c k e d  i n f o r t h e n e x t d a y , s l i d e a s m a l l p i e c e o f wax  p a p e r between t h e s c u l p t u r e and t h e b o a r d as even a s h e l l a c k e d b o a r d m i g h t soak up m o i s t u r e  from t h e s c u l p t u r e  prematurely.  Remove t h e p a p e r when y o u work o n t h e f i g u r e . Do n o t a l l o w s t u d e n t s w h i l e they work. ish.  T h i s r e s u l t s i n a t o o smooth, t e x t u r e l e s s f i n -  If a relatively  scrape  t o wet t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e f i g u r e  smooth f i n i s h  i s desired, i ti s better to  the "leather-hard" clay surface with a wire  loop  tool  later. Should p a r t s o f a s c u l p t u r e break while important  to follow this  in  F o r e x a m p l e , a h e a d may n o t s t a y on  f i g u r e i f t h e two m a j o r s e t s o f m u s c l e s  (one p a i r  t h e neck, t h e second s e t coming from behind  diagonally  i t is  process:  1. c h e c k t h e anatomy. the  i n progress,  forward  the ear  t o t h e base o f t h e neck i n f r o n t )  a r e n o t b u i l t up i n c l a y . 2.  I f a crack  a p p e a r s , do n o t r e p a i r on t h e s u r f a c e  as  reoccur.  i t will  with s l i p .  Slip  Dig i n along  the crack  and  only fill  i s t h e same c l a y a s y o u a r e u s i n g ,  only  mixed w i t h water to a very 3.  I f a l e g , arm  t h i c k , creamy  o r h e a d b r e a k s o f f , r o u g h up  faces of the breakage w i t h a p o i n t e d " t o o t h marks."  L o a d some s l i p  together w i t h the slip  around the  When t h e  on one  second s u r f a c e .  joint;  i t will  F i r e work as y o u Finishing Materials:  to prevent  would greenware i n  suggestions - white  floor  excess  glue. slow process  of  Thorough d r y i n g ,  blow-up i n the  kiln.  sculpture:  wax  - a s s o r t e d c o l o u r s o f shoe - old  press  ceramics.  f o r the bisqued  paste  sur-  create  Smear t h e  a c t as  two  s u r f a c e and  f i g u r e s are completed, f o l l o w the  weeks p e r h a p s , i s i m p o r t a n t  the  t o o l to  d r y i n g as o u t l i n e d f o r t h e m a q u e t t e i n c l a y . two  consistency.  polish  toothbrushes  - j ars - v a r i o u s s i z e wood p i e c e s  f o r base  of  sculpture - felt -  ( b l a c k o r brown)  "Weldbond"  glue  - sand paper - linseed o i l , stain,  varnish  Cover each s c u l p t u r e w i t h a l a y e r of paste toothbrush  with a c i r c u l a r motion, u n t i l  any  T h i s s e a l s t h e p o r e s and  more. Mix  jar  i t w i l l not  p r o t e c t s i t from  e a c h c o l o u r o f shoe p o l i s h w i t h w h i t e  to reduce s t r e n g t h of c o l o u r .  o r b l a c k w h e r e d e s i r e d on  the  wax,  Use  using soak  up  dust.  f l o o r wax  various colours of  f i g u r e , with a separate  the  in a brown  toothbrush  58. kept  f o r each c o l o u r .  first up  You need t o r e s e r v e some f o r t h e c l e a n  l a y e r o f f l o o r wax.  With dry e x t r a toothbrushes,  polish  the high points of the sculpture to give i t h i g h l i g h t s . P i c k a s q u a r e o f wood a p p r o p r i a t e i n s i z e a n d o f t h e r i g h t  h e i g h t so t h a t i t e n h a n c e s , n o t d w a r f s t h e s c u l p t u r e . the  frame i s t o a p a i n t i n g , t h e base i s i m p o r t a n t  You  may h a v e t o l a m i n a t e  shape.  to  to a sculpture.  to get the right  L e f t o v e r wood f r o m I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n  good s o u r c e . and  some wood t o g e t h e r  J u s t as  classes i s a  "Weldbond" g l u e w i l l work t o l a m i n a t e  t h e wood,  i s a l s o u s e d f o r g l u e i n g t h e s c u l p t u r e t o the> b a s e . doing t h i s ,  c u t and g l u e a p i e c e o f f e l t  Prior  t o t h e bottom o f  t h e wood, s t a i n o r o i l w i t h l i n s e e d o i l o r v a r n i s h t h e r e s t o f t h e wood b a s e .  Sandpaper t h e bottom o f t h e s c u l p t u r e where i t  t o u c h e s t h e b a s e , a n d g l u e on t h e s c u l p t u r e . Metal  sculpture:  cold wire  bending.  Rationale: Metal  sculpture with wire belongs t o the building-up o r  a d d i t i v e techniques transition  and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  f r o m d r a w i n g t o s c u l p t u r e b e c a u s e w i t h w i r e one i s  a b l e t o "draw" t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l l y . leading s t r a i g h t t o the f i n a l steps.  suitable to provide a  I t i s also a direct  sculpture without  method  intermediate  As w e l l , due t o t h e i n n a t e s t r e n g t h o f t h e m e t a l ,  larger  and more o p e n p i e c e s c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d , a n d t h e s c u l p t u r a l c e p t o f v o l u m e a s o p p o s e d t o mass c a n be  con-  achieved.  Goal: Students ial  will  f o r a planned  understand  the importance o f choice of mater-  p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e , f o r example:  wire  enables  the a r t i s t running,  to  c o n s t r u c t t h e f i g u r e i n extreme m o t i o n , such as  f o r w h i c h c l a y , f o r i n s t a n c e , w o u l d n o t be  suitable.  Obj e c t i v e : Students w i l l  c o n s t r u c t a m e t a l s c u l p t u r e b a s e d on t h e h u -  man f i g u r e f r o m v a r i o u s t y p e s  o f w i r e and copper s h e e t i n g , and  mount i t on a wooden b a s e . M a t e r i a l s f o r student use: - n e e d l e n o s e p l i e r s and o t h e r - wire -  pliers  cutters  snips  - C-clamps -  hammers  - small  nails  - v a r i o u s s q u a r e p i e c e s o f wood f o r b a s e - stovepipe - copper - wire  hangers  sheeting  - outdoor telephone on  wire  wire  coat  - copper  wire o r black annealed  the inside  cable:  soft, multicoloured  wires  ( i f obtainable)  D i s c u s s i o n and a c t i v i t i e s : Begin  w i t h a s e s s i o n on c o n t i n u o u s  l i n e d r a w i n g a s an i n -  t r o d u c t i o n t o , and w i t h emphasis on, "drawing" ally with  threedimension-  wire.  D i s t r i b u t e a length of s o f t wire, approximately per  student.  each s t u d e n t ,  two m e t r e s  G i v e o u t n e e d l e n o s e p l i e r s and o t h e r p l i e r s t o i fpossible.  Have s t u d e n t s  begin  experimenting  60.  w i t h t h e w i r e by b e n d i n g  or l o o p i n g i t , or making s p i r a l s  p e n c i l s but p u l l i n g these a p a r t , always and w o r k i n g  w i t h depth  over  consciously turning i t  t o g e t away f r o m t w o d i m e n s i o n a l i t y .  A f t e r the i n i t i a l s e s s i o n of experimentation w i t h w i r e  and  p l i e r s , g e t t h e s t u d e n t s t o p l a n on p a p e r t h e a p p r o x i m a t e u r e t h e y w i s h t o make. f i g u r e , as we technique  E n c o u r a g e s t r o n g movement f o r t h e i r  w o u l d s e e i n v a r i o u s s p o r t s o r i n d a n c e , as  i s most s u i t a b l e  b a l a n c e , and  f o r open form,  the o p p o s i t e of bulk.  unnecessary  As  Note:  f o r with t h i s technique  nails. in  a r e most  and  images.  I n s t r u c t t h e s t u d e n t s who  the wire coat hangers,  skeleton for their  on p a p e r ,  C-clamps, coat hangers, base,  disordin-  hammer  want t o make f i g u r e s  sculpture.  to a s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n of The  and the  heavier wire of t h i s skeleton add  i n t e r e s t through  T h i s s k e l e t o n s h o u l d be n a i l e d down on a t e m p o r a r y  i n g ) wooden b a s e ,  i n o r d e r t o see w h e t h e r i t s t a n d s  s i r e d pose, o r perhaps i t needs a d d i t i o n a l on a t e m p o r a r y  support.  i n the  w i t h the t h i n n e r , s o f t e r w i r e .  con(work-  de-  Having i t  base i s a l s o v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n o r d e r t o f r e e  hands f o r w o r k i n g  and  either  c l a m p them i n t h e C - c l a m p ,  s u p p o r t t h e f i g u r e b e t t e r and w i l l  trast.  X-ray  a n d / o r l a r g e r t h a n a b o u t 10 i n c h e s h i g h , t o  f a s h i o n what w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d  will  "see-through,"  r o u g h p i e c e s o f wood f o r " w o r k i n g "  extreme motion  o p e n up  n o t o n l y u s e s up a l o t  s t u d e n t s f i n a l i z e t h e i r p l a n s by d r a w i n g  pliers,  tend-  N e g a t i v e - p o s i t i v e spaces  t r i b u t e the f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s : ary  precarious  m a t e r i a l ( w i r e ) , but i s c o n t r a r y to the best e f -  fect achieved with i t . called  relatively  this  Some s t u d e n t s h a v e t h e  ency t o wind the w i r e too t i g h t l y , which of  fig-  both  61. '  S t u d e n t s who  are doing  s m a l l e r f i g u r e s do n o t  s t r e n g t h of the coat hanger w i r e but the  should  nevertheless  remainder of the  proximating  f i g u r e can  be  for  a t t e m p t e d as c l o s e l y  t h e human anatomy as d e s i r e d by  w i t h needlenose p l i e r s to i n d i c a t e j o i n t s , muscles t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l l y ,  o r b o n e s s u c h as r i b c a g e . w i t h the  "outlining"  or even shaping  Finally,  soft, coloured wire  using knots  from telephone  mets, weapons, u m b r e l l a s ,  e t c . can  u r e o r f i g u r e s must t h e n be attached  be  l i n s e e d o i l to f i n i s h down s c u l p t u r e and  internal  Use  be  added can  The  final  fig-  r o u g h wooden b a s e  stain, varnish  or  t h e wood, s t a p l e " w i t h g u n t a c k e r or. n a i l  glue  a piece of f e l t  under the base.  a t e wooden b a s e s c o m b i n e d w i t h c o p p e r s h e e t i n g may s u i t a b l e f o r the  organs  which hats, h e l -  fashioned.  to a w e l l - f i n i s h e d base.  made  cables which  removed from the  ap-  shapes  e m b e l l i s h m e n t s can  e v e n be woven, a n d / o r w i t h c o p p e r s h e e t i n g . f r o m  if  use  strength.  The  and  the  s o f t w i r e , perhaps doubled, to c o n s t r u c t a s k e l e t o n  visual  and  need  s u b j e c t matter of the  be  Elabor-  attempted  figure i n wire.  Papier-mache s c u l p t u r e . Rationale: N e w s p a p e r and  wallpaper  m a t e r i a l s f o r the classroom s c u l p t u r e can students.  be  constructed  I t provides  paste  are the  teacher,  cheapest a v a i l a b l e  yet large s i z e ,  lightweight  f r o m i t by b o t h j u n i o r and  t h e c h a n c e t o make l a r g e s c u l p t u r e more  e a s i l y w i t h the a d d i t i v e or build-up process,  culminating  t h e m o s t i n d e s t r u c t i b l e p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e w h i c h c a n be w i t h ease w i t h i n the  senior  l i m i t a t i o n s of the Secondary  in  made  School.  Goal: Students w i l l t u r e and  be  get  involved  e n c o u r a g e d by  the  i n the b u i l d i n g of l a r g e r  sculp-  r e l a t i v e ease of m a n i p u l a t i n g  the  m a t e r i a l without the n e c e s s i t y of keeping to a d e f i n i t e p r i o r p l a n or u s i n g  an  armature.  t a n e i t y than c l a y , wire  Papier-mache a l l o w s  f o r more s p o n -  or p l a s t e r .  Obj e c t i v e : Students w i l l but  will  be  sculpture  able  begin with  a small  t o d e p a r t f r o m i t and  c l a y m a q u e t t e as a  produce a l a r g e r s i z e d  t h a n t h e y would have d a r e d t o a t t e m p t i n o t h e r  t u r a l m a t e r i a l s where a r m a t u r e s f o r l a r g e r p i e c e s dispensable.  They w i l l  be  able  i n c l u d e s e v e r a l c o l o u r s , not  recommended f o r use  - wallpaper  use:  paste  - b i t t e r alum  (potassium aluminium' s u l f a t e )  - t i s s u e paper i n a s s o r t e d -  colours  paints  - s h e l l a c or  varnish  - paper c u t t e r -  bucket  - small containers -  newspaper  - wax  paper  with  lids  sculp-  w o u l d be i n -  t o choose a f i n i s h which  ture . M a t e r i a l s for student  plan  i n other  will sculp-  Activities: The  making o f a c l a y maquette i s a d v i s a b l e as a  p o i n t , although indeed  departure  starting  f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n may  occur,  i t s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d .  D i s t r i b u t e newspaper t o each s t u d e n t , as w e l l as l o n g , narrow s t r i p s o f newspaper c u t w i t h t h e paper c u t t e r . long s t r i p s w i l l  These  be t u r n e d i n t o s h o r t e r p i e c e s , a s n e e d e d  dur-  ing construction. Mix  i n a bucket,  a box o f w a l l p a p e r p a s t e  and w a t e r  accord-  i n g t o t h e r e c i p e o n t h e b o x , o r s i m p l y a d d t h e powder t o t h e w a t e r t o g e t a t h i c k cream c o n s i s t e n c y . f o r adding  t h e powder t o a v o i d c l o t s .  or, better s t i l l , add  w i t h your  Y o u may u s e a s t r a i n e r M i x w i t h a wooden s p o o n  h a n d t o g e t a smooth p a s t e .  Now  a good p i n c h o f alum t o t h e p a s t e , m i x , and d i s t r i b u t e  smaller containers with l i d s . paste  The a l u m p r e v e n t s  into  the wallpaper  f r o m g o i n g b a d and c h e e s y , a n d l i d s k e e p i t f r o m d r y i n g  out. Cover working paste  i s less likely Students  oughly and  s u r f a c e s w i t h wax p a p e r t o w h i c h  wallpaper  to stick.  must t a k e s h e e t s o f n e w s p a p e r , c r u m p l e i t t h o r -  a n d r u b i t v i g o r o u s l y i n o r d e r t o b r e a k down t h e f i b r e ,  make t h e n e w s p a p e r p l i a b l e .  of shapes, vaguely  Then s t u d e n t s  form l a r g e clumps  appropriate f o r the planned  sculpture, sprin-  k l e w a l l p a p e r p a s t e among t h e c r u m p l e d f o r m ,  and a t t a c h clumps  t o e a c h o t h e r w i t h n e w s p a p e r s t r i p s t o h o l d them t o g e t h e r . s h o u l d a v o i d u s i n g t o o many s t r i p s e l s e i t w i l l  look l i k e  i d u a l p a c k a g e s , i n s t e a d o f l a r g e forms used t o b u i l d  They indiv-  up t h e  general ens,  shape.  As w a l l p a p e r  does n o t  stick  a t t h e d a i l y c l e a n - u p e a c h work i n p r o g r e s s  ported  t o h o l d i t s d e s i r e d shape u n t i l  more p a s t e  used, the  slower  However, once d r i e d , the ever  paste  s c u l p t u r e becomes s t o n e  Final tives:  e v e n w o r d s as t h e y be  i n what-  i s great  need  be  create  Surface  tex-  chosen from these a l t e r n a add  interesting  f r o m t h e p a p e r i m a g e s s u c h as e y e s ,  are a p p r o p r i a t e .  a p p l i e d to s e a l the  surface.  Other  s c u l p t u r e i n one,  o r many  to c r e a t e a d d i t i o n a l c o l o u r s or shades.  l a t t e r tends t o u n i f y the sections.  or anything  s c u l p t u r e more t h a n t h e use  same day.  Lack of armature lends w i t h p a p i e r - m a c h e , and it  of  and The  several  T i s s u e p a p e r c o n t a i n s d y e s w h i c h c o l o u r hands  else i n contact with i t ,  even from hands the  or  possibili-  c o l o u r s , or e l s e t i s s u e paper i n c o l o u r s , t o r n i n t o patches using overlapping  or  A t h i n l a y e r of v a r n i s h  t i e s are e i t h e r using p a i n t to cover  painted  with  c u t s t r i p s o f news-  s c u l p t u r e made o f n e w s p a p e r , and  t o u c h e s by c u t t i n g o u t  s h e l l a c may  hard  added.  f i n i s h o f t h e work may  leave  i t becomes.  This w i l l  a smooth s u r f a c e .  t u r a l e f f e c t s , s u c h as h a i r made o f t h i n l y be  The  i n unnecessary dips  s m a l l amounts o f c r u m p l e d p a p e r w i t h p a s t e .  p a p e r , may  sup-  the p o s s i b i l i t y of changing i t .  t o go o v e r t h e e n t i r e s u r f a c e , f i l l i n g  f o r m and  must be  the h e a v i e r  When t h e w h o l e f i g u r e i s r o u g h e d o u t , t h e r e  i n n e r t e n s i o n of the  i t hard-  i t dries overnight.  i t d r i e s and  shape i t d r i e d i n , w i t h o u t  until  and  i t i s hard  t o remove  I t d o e s come o f f h a n d s e v e n t u a l l y .  greater  freedom to t h i s  because of the  s t r e n g t h of the  technique material  i s e v e n p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d an u p r i g h t f i g u r e i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l  p o s i t i o n , and  stand  i t up when d r y .  P l a s t e r o f P a r i s on a r m a t u r e . Rationale: S c u l p t u r e made w i t h a t h i n l a y e r o f p l a s t e r o f P a r i s u p o n an  i n t e r n a l wire armature can y i e l d  tical and  w i t h i n the Secondary School  timetable.  day,  without  t h e l a r g e s t s i z e work  setting with i t s  prac-  facilities  I t c a n be s e t a s i d e and w o r k e d on f r o m d a y t o  s p e c i a l care taken  s c u l p t u r e remains s t i l l  between s e s s i o n s .  Very  large  l i g h t enough i n w e i g h t t o be e a s i l y  h a n d l e d by a l l s t u d e n t s . Goal: Students w i l l  have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  t o work on a v e r y  piece of s c u l p t u r e , using the a d d i t i v e , build-up process still and  relatively  f l e x i b l e material allowing gradual  large with a  development  a measure o f change.  Objective: Students w i l l quette.  They w i l l  p l a n t h e l a r g e work by f i r s t  doing  h a v e more f r e e d o m i n c h o o s i n g  f i g u r e as t h e s t r o n g w i r e  armature they w i l l  a c l a y ma  a pose f o r the  construct w i l l per  m i t movement o f t h e f i g u r e a n d e x t e n d e d e x t r e m i t i e s , i f d e s i r e d Depending on t h e s i z e o f t h e f i g u r e , time f o r c o m p l e t i o n be  c o n s i d e r a b l e , thus encouraging students  t o persevere  project. Materials  f o r student use:  - p l a s t e r o f P a r i s , t o be u s e d w i t h - chicken  wire  - stovepipe  wire  caution  will with a  - i r o n o x i d e s o r powder t e m p e r a  p a i n t t o c o l o u r the  plaster  - burlap - rubber b a l l ,  cut i n half  - scissors, pliers, - nails, - small  spoon,  knife  hammer basin  - wooden b o a r d - flexible - wax  container f o r dry p l a s t e r  paper o r t a r paper  - metal spatulas, large to very  small  Activities: Have s t u d e n t s p r e p a r e a c l a y m a q u e t t e for  the l a r g e s c u l p t u r e .  pose  C o n s i d e r a b l e freedom t o choose  plan the  f o r t h e f i g u r e i s p o s s i b l e b u t e x t r e m e m o t i o n , s u c h as a  r u n n i n g f i g u r e , w i l l need for  as a d e t a i l e d  strength.  The  a h e a v i e r a r m a t u r e , p a r t l y o f wood,  a r m a t u r e , h o w e v e r , must r e m a i n i n t e r n a l ,  e r e d c o m p l e t e l y by t h e p l a s t e r o f  cov-  Paris.  S t u d e n t s must d e c i d e t h e s i z e o f t h e work t h e y want t o do. Half l i f e s i z e ible are  o r even  full  lifesize  f i g u r e s are e n t i r e l y  b u t , o f c o u r s e , a r e more s u i t a b l e f o r s e n i o r s t u d e n t s t h a t f e w e r i n number, r e d u c i n g d a y - t o day A b o a r d i s n e e d e d as a w o r k i n g b a s e .  s t o r a g e space  f i g u r e must be  formed  needs.  I f wood i s u s e d  p a r t o f t h e a r m a t u r e , i t must be n a i l e d t o t h e b a s e . the  pliers  and  as  Parts of  f r o m c h i c k e n w i r e w h i c h c a n be  i n t o t h e shapes needed f o r v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e f i g u r e ,  squeezed then  s t o v e p i p e w i r e used t o a t t a c h the p a r t s t o each o t h e r  s e c u r e l y , and a l s o f i n a l l y ter  poss-  n a i l e d to the working base.  i s n e c e s s a r y t o keep b o t h hands f r e e f o r work.  The  The  lat-  armature  must s t a n d ple  f i r m l y on t h e b a s e so t h a t t h e  f i g u r e does not  when l a t e r w e i g h e d down w i t h p l a s t e r . Cut  long.  burlap  strips  1% t o 2 i n c h e s w i d e and  Make p l e n t y as i t w i l l be  as i f i t was  used t o cover  bandaged from hand t o f o o t .  of t h i n p l a s t e r of P a r i s mixture strip  of burlap  i n t h e p l a s t e r and  t h e base t o w h i c h the decide  on  final  proceed to cover strips.  decided  on  tic  bag  a l l of  the  Now  sculpture.  White g i v e s  i t m i g h t be  I f colour i s desired, experio r powder t e m p e r a p a i n t s  d r y as c o l o u r i s l i g h t e r  t h e c o l o u r , mix  a  appro-  Make p a t c h e s o f s a m p l e c a s t s t o  Wait u n t i l  a half lifesize  each  l a y e r of p l a s t e r w i l l adhere.  ment w i t h r e d o r b l a c k i r o n o x i d e s  c i d e on c o l o u r .  Dip  form  the d e s i r e d c o l o u r of the  w i t h dry p l a s t e r .  the whole f i g u r e  This w i l l  f o r the planned s c u l p t u r e .  mixing  inches  Make a s m a l l amount  l i f e l e s s a p p e a r a n c e t o t h e human f i g u r e , b u t priate  4 t o Ah  i n h a l f rubber b a l l .  c h i c k e n wire armature w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g  ing  top-  a bucket f u l l  by  de-  then.  Hav-  of dry p l a s t e r f o r  figure with colour, store w e l l sealed i n a plas-  or other  container.  i t s a b i l i t y to set.  P l a s t e r exposed to a i r w i l l  Students should  use  the h a l f rubber  lose ball  o r a s m a l l b a s i n t o make s m a l l b a t c h e s o f p l a s t e r t o v e r y  thick  cream c o n s i s t e n c y  the e n t i r e work w i t h a  thin  rubber b a l l  ease  layer.  The  first use  slowly cover  advantage of u s i n g the  w i t h w h i c h i t can garbage.  and  Use  be  cleaned  a s p o o n and  l a y e r of p l a s t e r .  metal spatulas  t u r n i n g i t i n s i d e out  into  the  o r d i n a r y t a b l e k n i f e t o smooth on As  t h e work p r o g r e s s e s ,  f o r s u r f a c e t e x t u r e and  s t r i n g , w o o l o r any when f i r s t d i p p e d  by  i s f o r the  m a t e r i a l can  be  students  details.  the  should  Fibre,  used f o r h a i r or c l o t h i n g  i n p l a s t e r , i f such a f i n i s h  i s desired.  68.  P r o v i d e wax p a p e r s h e e t s o r t a r p a p e r t o c o v e r w o r k i n g face. of  sur-  T h i s c a n be s h a k e n o f f i n t o t h e g a r b a g e f r e q u e n t l y a n d ,  course,  reused.  Very  l a r g e work d o e s n o t n e e d a b a s e a s much a s s m a l l e r  p i e c e s do.  H o w e v e r , e x h i b i t i n g l a r g e work c a n t r u l y be a c h a l -  lenge. Footnote of  t o another  use o f p l a s t e r o f P a r i s , namely, t h a t  c a s t i n g n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e molds from i t .  called  " w a s t e m o l d s , " where t h e n e g a t i v e i s d e s t r o y e d when t h e  positive  i s cast, i s a relatively  s i m p l e p r o c e s s when t h e r e a r e  o n l y two h a l v e s t o t h e n e g a t i v e m o l d . for  Use o f s o -  portraits.  undercuts  Such i s m o s t l y  The human f i g u r e i s f a r more c o m p l e x , w i t h  and n e g a t i v e s p a c e s ,  the making o f a p i e c e mold.  and almost  always n e c e s s i t a t e s  T h i s i s a v e r y complex p r o c e s s and  not p r a c t i c a l w i t h i n s h o r t c l a s s p e r i o d s i n Secondary Also, j u s t i f i c a t i o n use  f o rcasting  original,  the case  Schools.  f o r making p i e c e molds l i e s m a i n l y i n i t s  i n m e t a l , o r o f m a k i n g a number o f c o p i e s o f t h e  and i s t h u s h a r d l y f e a s i b l e i n t h e Secondary a r t p r o -  gramme. Plaster of Paris  f o r carving.  Rationale: P l a s t e r o f P a r i s i s a most e c o n o m i c a l the s u b t r a c t i v e process o f c a r v i n g .  m a t e r i a l t o use f o r  I t i s suitable to imitate  t h e c o l o u r s a n d t h e s h a p e o f s t o n e b l o c k s b u t i t i s a much e a s ier material to carve. method, and needs l i t t l e  I t y i e l d s t h e f i n a l work by t h e d i r e c t special  f i n i s h i n g t o achieve  a..durable  piece of can in  sculpture.  By  e x p e r i e n c e the the  carving  excitement of  i n p l a s t e r of P a r i s , the  students  emerging s c u l p t u r e  hidden  block.  Goal: Students w i l l  be  e n c o u r a g e d , and  n e c e s s a r y to v i s u a l i z e the  final  t o c a r v e , as what i s removed c a n produce a w e l l  will  sculpture not  be  f i n i s h e d , s o l i d piece of  find i t increasingly before they  replaced.  begin  They  will  sculpture.  Objective: Students w i l l  p r e p a r e a s u i t a b l e m a q u e t t e i n c l a y as  and  necessary guide f o r the  the  process of  tate  carving,  a d a p t i n g the  solution.  carving  of  a c c i d e n t s may  a larger piece.  Students w i l l  experience greatly  ties  i n h a n d l i n g an  inflexible material  will  hopefully  l e a r n t o enjoy the  also  to  f i n d an  necessi-  alternate  increased  s u c h as  difficul-  plaster,  but  solidity  and  strength  powder t e m p e r a t o c o l o u r  the  plaster  inherent i n i t . Materials  for student  - clay  f o r the  - p l a s t e r of  use:  maquette Paris  - i r o n o x i d e s and -  chisels  -  mallets  - old  lino cutting  - paring  knives  - old dental  tools  tools  plan  During  happen w h i c h w i l l  o r i g i n a l m a q u e t t e and  a  70.  - m i l k c a r t o n s , s t r o n g p l a s t i c bags o r s i m p l e  wooden  boces f o r molds - liquid  soap  - buckets - p l a s t i c , - wax  flexible  paper or t a r paper  - t h i n foam r u b b e r p i e c e s -  milk  Lesson a i d s : S l i d e s No.  215 and 216, 220 and 2 2 1 , 251 a n d 252, and 285, 310, 3 1 1 , 308 and  D i s c u s s i o n and  282  309, 322 and  324.  activities:  Show s l i d e s o f M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s  t e r r a - c o t t a models  (No.  and 2 2 0 ) , and t h e l i f e s i z e m a r b l e s c u l p t u r e s b a s e d on them 216 and 221) .  Discuss  t h e need f o r t h e maquette  plan the f i n a l  s c u l p t u r e , and t h e h e l p i t p r o v i d e s  The m a q u e t t e  shape o f t h e b l o c k Emphasize  a l s o serves  (No.  a s an a i d t o  f r o m e a c h s i d e a s a g u i d e t o what m i g h t be removed plaster block.  215  by u s i n g i t from the  i n determining  the  t o be c a s t .  the inherent  s t r e n g t h and weak p o i n t s o f p l a s t e r  o f P a r i s as a m a t e r i a l , namely, t h e i m p r e s s i o n  of strength  and  h e a v i n e s s o f f o r m i t c o n v e y s when t h e s c u l p t u r e i s k e p t as a compact  design,  but i t s u n s u i t a b i l i t y  f o r p r o t r u d i n g shapes o f  l e s s e r t h i c k n e s s than the r e s t o f the form. man  Related  t o t h e hu-  f i g u r e , p o s e s must be c h o s e n o f t h e body a t r e s t , n o t i n  movement, and arms and l e g s must be k e p t c l o s e t o t h e b o d y . S u i t a b l e p o s e s a r e numerous s i t t i n g o n e s , o r e v e n l y i n g down as w e l l , but negative  space between  p a r t s o f t h e body m u s t be k e p t  a t a minimum.  Show s l i d e s o f R o d i n ' s w o r k , No.  f i g u r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r c a r v i n g , b u t No. S i m i l a r l y , No.  310  o t h e r h a n d , No. and  No.  324  S l i d e No.  251,  f e e t , and  except i n the  309,  the b l o c k .  red or black  No.  by B a r l a c h , No.  252,  by  Archipenko  support  the  any  metal.  o r p a l e g r e e n and, iron oxide—from  i f any  s u c h as  of these  g l a z e m a t e r i a l s — o r powder  w i t h the dry p l a s t e r .  Make s m a l l  of c o l o u r .  p l a s t e r , although  f o r t h e human f i g u r e .  standard  sample  Students  i t looks  I f a c o l o u r i s chosen,  s i z e b u c k e t you  kg o f p l a s t e r (about h a l f o f the  pale  i s chosen,  p a t e u s i n g , as i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o m a t c h t h e c o l o u r For  of  the bronze v e r s i o n , without  a much l a r g e r amount o f d r y p l a s t e r w i t h i t t h a n y o u  enough.  standard  c o u l d be sack).  antici-  closely  heeding Keep t h e  10-15 col-  oured dry p l a s t e r i n a separate  container; basins or buckets  suitable.  f o r t h e i r s i z e and  cartons  Choose t h e c o n t a i n e r s  are  b a g s c a n be  for limited small size sculpture. used to pour the  liquid  i t , and a l s o p l a c i n g i t w i t h t h e bag w h i c h i t can obtained  be  shape.  Strong  p l a s t e r i n t o and  a different  are  Milk  plastic by  tying  i n t o another container  removed when i t h a r d e n s , more f l e x i b i l i t y  to achieve  on  prepare the maquette, prepare f o r c a s t -  to remain w i t h white  rather l i f e l e s s mix  322  the  A l s o show Houdon's " D i a n a , "  c a s t s , l e t dry, to determine s u i t a b i l i t y might opt  appropriate.  Suggest c o l o u r s to i m i t a t e stone,  t e m p e r a p a i n t t o mix  a bronze  S i n t e n i s , u n s u i t a b l e ; on  s t r e n g t h of the  students  p i n k , p a l e grey use  and  by  2 85 most  i n marble, carved w i t h the necessary  A f t e r the ing  308  311,  by B a r l a c h e f f e c t i v e .  p l a n t s at her support  and  282,  from is  s h a p e d b l o c k as w e l l as a l a r g e r  s i z e d one.  Wooden b o x e s n e e d be hammered t o g e t h e r  b l o c k s of p l a s t e r but e r a l brushings  w i t h t h e wood.  the  seams o f t h e box  s l o w l y so l i t t l e plaster  soap t o p r e v e n t  Before  longer  paper t o ease c l e a n i n g .  escape a t the  and  fies. touch ely  at very  stir  prevent  fill  P l a c e on  Slowly  the  sure  i t t o e l i m i n a t e lumps.  h o u r s and  add  Only  Stirring process the  i t  solidi-  f e e l s warm t o  S e t a s i d e c o n t a i n e r s , and  l a t e r u s e wet  into  water's  s i n k s i n t o the water.  t h i c k cream c o n s i s t e n c y , b e f o r e  f i r s t , and  I f you  news-  i t w i t h an open p a l m  Have y o u r c o n t a i n e r r e a d y t o p o u r  t h i s process.  everything clean.  to  box.  follows:  d r y p e a k s f o r m on  c l e a n up e v e r y t h i n g w i t h p l a s t e r on  sink.  the  s e t t i n g of the p l a s t e r which i s a chemical  the garbage can  the  shaking  longer  P l a s t e r s e t s w i t h i n a few during  As  work n e a r a s i n k , make v e r y  Keep a d d i n g u n t i l  is irreversible.  p l a s t e r , now  p r o c e e d as  q u i c k l y block the d r a i n .  t h e p l a s t e r no  the  pouring  s m a l l e s t amount o f p l a s t e r o f P a r i s g e t s  a t t h i s t i m e s h o u l d you s p e e d s up  seams.  f u l l with c o l d water.  the dry p l a s t e r - b y the h a n d f u l ,  s u r f a c e and  seal  l e a k s f r o m weak p o i n t s o f t h e  I f you  s i n k because i t w i l l  i n t o the water.  sev-  the p l a s t e r from f u s -  p o u r p l a s t e r i n t o a box,  the p l a s t e r f o r pouring,  t h a t not even the  with  from the o u t s i d e w i t h f r e s h c l a y ,  the bucket t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  the  you  plaster will  s e t s , i t no  To m i x  t h e y h a v e t o be w e l l p r e p a r e d  of l i q u i d  ing  for larger  i t , by  the  immediat-  scraping i t into  paper towels  t o wipe  A v o i d w a s h i n g t h i n g s w i t h p l a s t e r on them i n do,  l e t a l o t of water run through the  sink  plugging i t .  Provide  l a r g e p i e c e s o f wax  t h e t a b l e s where s t u d e n t s  work.  paper or t a r paper to These can  be  cover  shaken i n t o  the  73.  g a r b a g e and  reused  each  time.  C a r v i n g must b e g i n w i t h t h e m a q u e t t e i n s i g h t . m i g h t use it  Students  a p i e c e o f c h a r c o a l t o s k e t c h on t h e p l a s t e r b l o c k  m i g h t be  difficult  i f i t i s moist.  However, the p l a s t e r  b l o c k must be k e p t w r a p p e d i n p l a s t i c w h i l e work i s i n as  i t i s e a s i e r to carve  a moist  s h o u l d use  l a r g e r c h i s e l s and  ing  s i z e of the  on t h e  from a l l s i d e s . and  b l o c k t h a n a wet  Students  progress  one.  Students  heavier mallets at f i r s t ,  s c u l p t u r e , and  rough out  depend-  the e n t i r e  o f t h e s c u l p t u r e , away f r o m t h e i r  n e e d e d , and k n i v e s and  they  s h o u l d use p r o g r e s s i v e l y  lighter mallets.  E v e n t u a l l y no m a l l e t i s  c a n work w i t h o l d l i n o c u t t i n g t o o l s ,  d e n t a l t o o l s i f you  t h e s c u l p t u r e t u r n i n g and  outside  hands.  s c u l p t u r e emerges, they  s m a l l e r c h i s e l s and  piece  must h o l d t h e c h i s e l a t a 45°angle  a l w a y s hammer p i e c e s o f f f r o m t h e i n s i d e t o w a r d s t h e  As t h e  h a v e them.  to develop  paring  Remind them t o k e e p  i t evenly  from each s i d e .  To k e e p t h e p i e c e f r o m s l i p p i n g a r o u n d on t h e t a b l e , a p i e c e foam r u b b e r The  will  do  a base, but  t h i s t h e y need t o s e a l the p o r e s w h i c h  keep the s c u l p t u r e c l e a n e r over  time.  Use  In g e l o who  s u r f a c e t e x t u r e but  whole m i l k t o  c o n c l u s i o n , t e l l the students seemed t o c a r v e  s c u l p t u r e w i t h ease. s a y i n g t h a t he, the  f a t enough t o s e a l t h e  He  brush  great blocks of marble i n t o  a f t e r a l l , o n l y removed t h e  s c u l p t u r e was  there a l l along.  detract  pores.  the s t o r y about  responded to h i s admirers  be-  will  on t h e c a r v i n g ; i t i s t h i n enough n o t t o f o r m a c o a t and from the  of  hold i t s t i l l .  f i n i s h e d c a r v i n g s h o u l d be mounted on  fore students  but  Michelanbeautiful  with a  superfluous  shrug,  stone,  Concepts o f S c u l p t u r e Threedimensionality. Rationale: Most t h i n g s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a r e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l . s c u l p t u r e depth, in  which manifests  itself  c o n t r a s t w i t h much o f t w o d i m e n s i o n a l  optical  illusion.  In  i n form, i s a r e a l i t y , work where i t i s a n  P e r c e p t i o n o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y does n o t  seem i n b o r n i n m o s t p e o p l e  i n s p i t e o f i t s frequency  around  u s , t h e r e f o r e a t t e n t i o n n e e d s t o be d i r e c t e d t o i t i n t h e learning  process.  Goal: To  f o s t e r awareness o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n s t u d e n t s  even  a s t h e y v i e w s c u l p t u r e one s i d e a t a t i m e . Objective: Students ing  will  d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a c t u a l advanc-  and r e c e d i n g o f form, and  i t s c h a n g i n g c h a r a c t e r as t h e  same s c u l p t u r e i s v i e w e d f r o m d i f f e r e n t  angles.  Lesson a i d s : S l i d e s No. 2 a n d 3, 6 a n d 7, 45 a n d 4 6 , 47 a n d 4 8 , 91 a n d 92 a n d 9 3 , 1 0 5 , 109 and 1 1 0 , 1 1 3 , 124 a n d 125 and  1 2 6 , 135 a n d 136 a n d 137, 139 a n d 1 4 0 , 177,  186  a n d 1 8 7 , 188 a n d 189 a n d 1 9 0 , 197 a n d 198,  202  a n d 203 a n d 204, 211 and 2 1 2 , 245 a n d 246,  258, 275  268 a n d 2 6 9 , 271 a n d 272 a n d 2 7 3 , 274 and a n d 2 7 6 , 280 and 2 8 1 , 286 a n d 2 8 7 ,  75.  349  and 350 and  365 and  366,  393 and  394.  351,  377  361 and  and 378,  386  362,  363 and  and 387,  364,  392  and  Small, a c t u a l s c u l p t u r e , a r e p l i c a or student work, p r e f e r a b l y , but not n e c e s s a r i l y , of the human f i g u r e . Discussion: Hold up the s c u l p t u r e , t u r n i t slowly around. students' a t t e n t i o n to the changing d i f f e r e n t angles.  E x p l a i n how  Direct  image of the p i e c e  the  from  i n many p a r t s of the s c u l p t u r e  a p a r t i c u l a r form begins t o grow out of another, leads the around to a new  angle, and has another  eye  form emerge from i t .  This phenomenon helps to u n i f y a p i e c e of s c u l p t u r e , j u s t as i t makes our body whole.  The muscles connect  each p a r t of our  body, observable to the eye, such as the head grows out of the neck which i n t u r n emerges from the shoulders; from there the arms continue i n one d i r e c t i o n , the trunk i n another. l a r l y , on the f a c e , the nose or l i p s are not  "tacked on"  the nose i s growing out of the cheeks with the upward b r i d g e of muscles,  Simi-  swinging  and the c i r c u l a r muscles of the mouth, con-  nected to the cheeks and c h i n , have the l i p s only a t the t i p o f the  but  final  muscles.  Introduce the s l i d e s by t e l l i n g the students t h a t they see the same s c u l p t u r e s from two only one  angle a t a time.  to three angles, but of course  Thus the camera's lense has  selected  one angle f o r them and i t w i l l appear as a twodimensional on the screen.  will  image  Therefore they need to look f o r forms which  l e a d t h e i r e y e s a r o u n d t h e work e v e n i f t h e y w i l l n o t be a b l e to  t u r n t h e s c u l p t u r e t o see where i t l e a d s .  of  s u c h a f e e l i n g m i g h t be c o m p a r e d t o t h e c u r i o s i t y o f w h a t  l i e s beyond  a mountain  The a c q u i s i t i o n  o r the curve o f a road.  Some o f t h e s l i d e s p r e s e n t e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e  further  v i e w s o f t h e same w o r k , o t h e r s a r e s u r p r i s i n g l y d i f f e r e n t . complex  f o r m s o f t h e 17,000 y e a r o l d "Venus o f L e s p u g u e "  The  (No.  6 a n d 7) a r e e a s i e r p e r c e i v e d f r o m t h e s i d e v i e w (No. 7) a n d need  t o be v i e w e d a g a i n , t h e s e c o n d t i m e , f r o m t h e f r o n t .  s t a t u e o f " V i s h u " from 9 t h c e n t u r y I n d i a tentionally different  the  Pharaoh Echnaton.  (No. 47 a n d 48) i s i n -  from f r o n t and back, r e f l e c t i n g  r o l e s o f t h i s Hindu d e i t y .  The  multiple  S l i d e No. 105 shows two v i e w s o f  This slide  i s s u i t a b l e f o r study of ad-  v a n c i n g and r e c e d i n g form i n i t s h i g h l y r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f a l e s s t h a n p e r f e c t body.  Echnaton  which d i d not survive h i s r e i g n .  i n s t i t u t e d a new  religion  A r t i s t s were d i r e c t e d t o p o r -  t r a y him r e a l i s t i c a l l y w h i c h i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e i d e a l i z e d d e p i c t i o n o f o t h e r E g y p t i a n Pharaohs.  T h i s s l i d e , as  S l i d e s No. 1 1 3 , 177 a n d 2 5 8 , h a v e t h e a d d e d a d v a n t a g e  that they  c o m b i n e t w o v i e w s o f t h e same s c u l p t u r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . S l i d e s o f t h e Greek  statue, the "Victory of  Samothrace"  (No. 139 a n d 1 4 0 ) , p r e s e n t t h e u s u a l s i d e v i e w a n d t h e b a r e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e and o b v i o u s l y d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s f r o n t a l v i e w .  Simi-  l a r c o n c l u s i o n s m i g h t be a r r i v e d a t w i t h o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v i e w s o f t h e same f i g u r e . tory," i s exciting  One o f M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s s t a t u e s ,  f r o m one a n g l e  "Vic-  (No. 211) b u t most awkward  f r o m t w o o t h e r s (No. 2 1 2 ) - - h a r d l y e x p e c t e d f r o m a g r e a t m a s t e r !  77. Rodin's  " S t . John the B a p t i s t "  (No. 271 a n d 272 a n d 273)  p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y t h e movement o f w a l k i n g f r o m d i f f e r e n t angles.  Rodin's  "The K i s s "  (No. 286 a n d 2 8 7 ) , on t h e  o t h e r hand, b a r e l y s a t i s f i e s one's c u r i o s i t y o f t h e work's t o tality. and  Henry Moore's " R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e :  A r c h L e g " (No. 349  350 a n d 351) g i v e s a good a c c o u n t o f t h e s t r e n g t h  t h r e e d i f f e r e n t views o f h i s d e c e p t i v e l y s i m p l e forms. Wynne's " E m b r a c i n g  L o v e r s " (No. 361 a n d 362) n e e d s  through David  special  s t u d y t o v i s u a l i z e t h a t t h e s l i d e s a r e a c t u a l l y o f t h e same work.  F i n a l l y , E l e k Imredy's  "Girl  3 8 7 ) , s o w e l l known i n V a n c o u v e r  i n W e t s u i t " (No. 386 a n d  b u t m o s t l y f r o m t h e one a n g l e  o f t h e p o s t c a r d s , p r e s e n t s on S l i d e No. 387 t h r e e uncommon  views  of the f i n i s h e d c l a y statue i n the a r t i s t ' s • studio. Form, s h a p e , m a s s , v o l u m e ,  monumentality.  Rationale: Words s u c h a s f o r m , s h a p e , m a s s , v o l u m e , a r e common i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f s c u l p t u r e .  and m o n u m e n t a l i t y  Each s t a n d s f o r a con-  c e p t d e s c r i p t i v e o f s c u l p t u r e a n d t h e r e f o r e an e x a m i n a t i o n o f e a c h s h o u l d be a t t e m p t e d , i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a m e a n i n g f u l v o cabulary f o r adolescents. Goal: To f a c i l i t a t e  t h e usage  o f above terms i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  o f t h e q u a l i t i e s o f a g i v e n s c u l p t u r e , be i t t h e w o r k o f o t h e r a r t i s t s o r t h e s t u d e n t s ' own w o r k . Objectives: Students w i l l  l e a r n t o u n d e r s t a n d some u n i q u e e l e m e n t s o f  78.  sculpture,  and  they w i l l  be  able  t o use  t h e s e terms i n  discuss-  ion. Lesson  aids:  S l i d e s No.  2 and 79,  83,  263, S l i d e s No.  S l i d e s No.  21,  3 and  4,  98,  6 and  7,  and  200,  199  286-7, 290, 33,  39,  308,  45 'and  34,  51  207,  322,  and 210,  324,  46 , 55,  109  110, 257,  143,  185,  187,  188,  235,  283,  289,  297,  311,  327,  345,  355  77,  79,  4,  98,  6 and  107,  274-5-6, 290,  199  294,  and  7, and  309,  382  18,  330  and  333  and  407  (Monumentality)  28,  200, 341,  (335,  77, 225,  (Mass)  and  139,  3 and  and  224,  344  129,  2 and  69  124-5-6, 265,  (Volume)  51  and  69  and  215-6, 224, 342,  367),  344,  404  228,  349-50-51,  and  406  Discussion: Form as the  u n i t on Form can  negative  and  shape a r e be  be  solid  or  the  p o s i t i v e space  often  been d i s c u s s e d  within ,  of  a l l parts,  parts  w h o l e work a r e the  s i m i l a r to  i n t w o d i m e n s i o n a l work. although  Form  and  form tends  to  e l e m e n t , whereas shape i s a l s o element.  form i s b e t t e r  organization  w o u l d t e n d t o be  between s o l i d s ,  used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y ,  sculpture,  the  d e p t h has  void  a twodimensional design  whole  of  of  threedimensionality.  mostly a threedimensional  u s e d as the  a manifestation  In the  used to d e s c r i b e  including i t s inner  smaller  better unit  description  called  the  total  structure.  shapes, thus  i n comparison with  of  The  shape  form.  79.  A p a r t f r o m t h e use o f f o r m f o r t h e w h o l e w o r k ,  i t i s also  used  t o d e s c r i b e t h e q u a l i t y o f form, e.g., dense, heavy, s o l i d , thin,  fragile,  outward t h r u s t i n g .  f o r m , t h e r e a r e no s p e c i f i c  or  As a l l s c u l p t u r e c o n s i s t s  of  s l i d e s recommended f o r i t s s t u d y .  F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e x p l a i n i n g t h e c o n c e p t s o f mass v e r s u s volume,  i t m i g h t be u s e f u l t o i m a g i n e t h a t one w o u l d d r a p e a  s o f t c l o t h o v e r two s c u l p t u r e s s u c h a s t h e I n u i t w o r k s "Hunter w i t h Harpoon"  (No. 33) and  "Hunter w i t h S e a l "  W i t h i n t h e c l o t h e n c l o s e d i s t h e volume w o u l d a p p e a r l a r g e r t h a n No.  34.  of (No. 3 4 ) .  o f each work.  No.  33  "Hunter w i t h Harpoon" has o u t -  ward t h r u s t i n g forms w i t h s p a c e s between  them, and t h u s a p p e a r s  t o be l i g h t e r and t o h a v e g r e a t e r v o l u m e .  "Hunter w i t h  Seal,"  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s c h u n k y , h a s g r e a t d e n s i t y o f f o r m , no i n ternal  s p a c e s , and g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f heavy w e i g h t w h i c h  i s c a l l e d mass.  ( I f there are s u i t a b l e s c u l p t u r e s i n the c l a s s -  room, s t u d e n t work o r r e p l i c a s , y o u m i g h t d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s a c l o t h d r a p e d o v e r them.)  Similarly,  4 5 - 4 6 ) , "Tutankhamun t h e H a r p o o n e r " from A r t e m i s i o n "  t h e "Naked D a n c e r "  (No. 1 0 9 - 1 1 0 ) , and  (No. 124-5-6) c o n s i s t o f s l e n d e r ,  (No. 7 9 ) , "Amenenhet I I I "  by M i c h e l a n g e l o (No. 2 0 7 ) , w h i c h a r e a l l R o d i n ' s two w o r k s , "The  Three Fauns"  o f compact, and  "Zeus  to the  (No. 9 8 ) ,  (No. 283)  (No.  fragile,  o u t w a r d t h r u s t i n g s h a p e s and l a r g e v o l u m e s , c o m p a r e d " S t a n d i n g Gudea"  with  "Moses" solid  "The  mass.  Kiss"  (No. 286-7) a r e b o t h a p y r a m i d l i k e c o m p o s i t i o n , b u t w h i l e t h e f i r s t h a s many v o i d s and open  spaces  (which c o n t r i b u t e t o the  f e e l i n g o f l i g h t n e s s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r d a n c e ) , and volume,  "The  Kiss"  large  i s much t i g h t e r o f f o r m and o f s e e m i n g l y  80.  h e a v y mass.  S u c h c o m p a r i s o n c a n a l s o be made o f two o f H e n r y  Moore's works  (No. 344 a n d 3 4 5 ) , t h e f i r s t h a v i n g more mass,  the second volume.  Thus l a r g e r v o l u m e o f t e n means  lighter,  t h i n n e r forms e x t e n d i n g from a c o r e , o r i n t e r t w i n i n g b u t keepi n g s p e c i a l v o i d s b e t w e e n them.  The c o n c e p t o f mass i s b e s t  a p p l i e d when f o r m i s so o r g a n i z e d t h a t i t i s k e p t d e n s e , the case o f t h e f i g u r e , body.  and i n  the extremities are kept close t o the  A c o m p o s i t i o n o f more t h a n one f i g u r e s h o w i n g a l o t o f  m a s s , m i g h t a p p e a r a s i f c a r v e d f r o m t h e same b l o c k . t h e two G o t h i c P i e t a s 199-200).  Compare  (No. 164, 16 7) t o M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s (No.  See how he managed t o k e e p t h e c o m p o s i t i o n t i g h t a n d  s i m p l e , a n d how t h e i n c r e a s e d mass l e n d s g r e a t e r w e i g h t t o t h e image  depicted. For a n a l y s i s o f the concept o f monumentality,  i t m i g h t be  u s e f u l t o l o o k a t t h e o r i g i n o f t h e w o r d w h i c h i s "monument." Monuments a r e l a r g e .  They a r e e r e c t e d t o commemorate w o r t h -  while events or people, they d e p i c t the e s s e n t i a l s o f the eve n t s o r t h e p e o p l e , a n d a r e s o m e t i m e s t h o u g h t o f as most s u e - . c e s s f u l when k e p t s i m p l e , w i t h l i t t l e  movement, a n d s y m b o l i c  gestures. M o n u m e n t a l i t y i n a work i s n o t r e l a t e d t o s i z e . w h a t may i n r e a l i t y be v e r y s m a l l , w i l l ger.  In fact,  appear l i f e s i z e o r b i g -  Photographs o r s l i d e s are u s e f u l t o i l l u s t r a t e  t h i s , be-  c a u s e t h e y c a n m i s l e a d a b o u t t h e s i z e o f t h e w o r k , a n d make i t guesswork  t o judge t h e s c u l p t u r e ' s a c t u a l s i z e .  some o f t h e P r e h i s t o r i c  Considering  "Venus" f i g u r e s , t h e one f r o m W i l l e n d o r f  (No. 2 a n d 3 ) , t o t h o s e who do n o t know i t s a c t u a l s i z e , becomes  81.  a g r e a t s u r p r i s e when t h e y a r e shown S l i d e No. h e l d i n a h a n d and i t s a c t u a l  4, w h e r e i t i s  s i z e o f 4% i n c h e s i s r e v e a l e d .  L o o k i n g a t t h e "Venus o f L e s p u g u e " l a r g e , and h a v i n g no o t h e r s c a l e ,  (No. 6 and  7), i t also  l i k e t h e hand f o r t h e  t o compare i t w i t h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  seems  former  to believe that i t i s only  6 inches high. Monumentality sent i n others'.  i s p r e s e n t i n some s c u l p t o r s ' work and Henry Moore's maquettes  (No. 341 and 3 4 2 ) , i f  t h e y w e r e e a c h v i e w e d s e p a r a t e l y , c o u l d n o t be  distinguished  f r o m h i s v e r y l a r g e w o r k , s u c h as t h e " R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e : Leg"  (No. 3 4 9 - 5 0 - 5 1 ) ;  lifesize  large  (No.  Arch  j u s t as M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s "Dawn" a p p e a r s  on t h e m a q u e t t e  ble figure  ab-  221).  (No. 2 2 0 ) , as i t i s i n f a c t on t h e mar-  Monumentality g i v e s the appearance  of  size. Monumentality i s conveyed  unnecessary d e t a i l , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t we  a static  by s i m p l i c i t y o f f o r m , l a c k  s t i l l n e s s w h i c h may  seem-timeless  do n o t a n t i c i p a t e a f u t u r e m o t i o n ,  seems " w e i g h t y " i n i t s i m p o r t a n c e . does n o t g u a r a n t e e m o n u m e n t a l i t y .  " P o r t r a i t o f Paddy"  T h e r e h a s t o be a c o n t e n t  "Pomona" (No. 335)  (No. 367)  and  H e a v i n e s s o f mass, h o w e v e r ,  r e l a t e d t o the h e r o i c w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e work. trate this point, Marini"s  of  To  illus-  and L u c c h e s i ' s  h a v e t h e mass o f h e a v y b o d i e s ,  but not the content of heroism.  In c o n t r a s t , L a c h a i s e ' s "Stand-  ing Figure"  "The  Zuniga's  (No. 3 3 0 ) , R i c h i e r ' s  Storm"  " S t a n d i n g Nude O l d Woman" (No. 382)  (No.  333),  contain  and  the  s t r e n g t h , t h e p r i d e , t h e s u f f e r i n g o f a l l women, w h i c h makes t h e s e works monumental.  82. C r i t i c i s m and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Representations  of the Figure  Linear sculpture - the elongated,  t h e e t h e r e a l body.  Rationale: This aspect o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e endeavours t o convey  man's i n n e r n a t u r e  sacred,  as concerned w i t h  the supernatural or  a sense o f a u s t e r i t y , o t h e r - w o r l d l i n e s s , perhaps  even  a l i e n a t i o n , by e x t r e m e l i n e a r e l o n g a t i o n o f t h e b o d y w i t h imal threedimensionality. ferent periods  min-  U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s u c h work f r o m  o f h i s t o r y would f u r t h e r the adolescent's  dif-  appre-  c i a t i o n o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n . Goals: Students w i l l  l e a r n t o analyze  a n c e may seem t o them a t f i r s t  s c u l p t u r e which i n appear-  r i d i c u l o u s o r even r e p u l s i v e b u t  w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t e s deep i d e a s a n d e m o t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e y c a n perhaps  identify.  Objectives: Students w i l l the expressive realistic  d e v e l o p ways o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and d i s c u s s i n g  q u a l i t i e s o f s c u l p t u r e w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f an u n -  a n d d i s t o r t e d a p p e a r a n c e , t h e y may a t f i r s t  tend t o  rej ect. Lesson a i d s : The  f o l l o w i n g s l i d e s are suggested f o r d i s c u s s i o n :  No.  71:  "Buddha," T h a i l a n d ,  No.  144:  "Naked L a n c e r , " E t r u s c a n ,  17th century 5th century  83.  No.  145  "Ombra," E t r u s c a n  No.  14 6  " A p h r o d i t e , " E t r u s c a n , 4th c e n t u r y  No.  303  "Young Man S t e p p i n g Up," W i l h e l m  No.  320  "Death o f P e t o f i , "  No.  327  "Don  No.  339  "Lady o f V e n i c e I , " A l b e r t o G i a c o m e t t i  No.  346  " K i n g a n d Queen," H e n r y Moore  No.  355  "Girl  Lehmbruck  Tibor Szervatiusz  Quizote," J u l i o  Undressing,"  Gonzales  Reg B u t l e r  Discussion: B e g i n by d r a w i n g  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t e c h n i q u e a n d t h e mat-  erial,  m e t a l , w h i c h makes s u c h s l e n d e r a n d t a l l  ible.  As shown i n m o s t o f t h e a b o v e s l i d e s ,  most a t t r a c t i v e Szervatiusz  1  of metals, bronze.  work  3h m e t e r s h i g h .  (No. 320), w h i c h The s k i l l  t h e wood make t h i s Lead beauty,  sculpture poss-  s c u l p t o r s used t h e  The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s i s c a r v e d o f oak a n d i s  o f t h e s c u l p t o r and t h e hardness o f  l i n e a r work  possible.  t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t day i d e a l  the slimness c u l t u r e o f North America.  o f h e a l t h and  Foremost r e p r e -  s e n t a t i v e s o f t h i s a r e t h e h i g h l y p a i d , and admired in the fashion industry. h e i g h t and weight els.  The g r e a t c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n  i s necessary  was  models  their  f o r them i n o r d e r t o become mod-  They l o o k g r e a t d r e s s e d , b u t we n e v e r  the drapery o f f a s h i o n a p p a r e l .  role  s e e them w i t h o u t  An e x a m p l e o f e x t r e m e s l i m n e s s  t h e s u c c e s s f u l b u t g r o t e s q u e - l o o k i n g B r i t i s h model, Twiggy,  some y e a r s a g o . Reg  Butler's  " G i r l Undressing"  (No. 355) c o u l d be i n t e r -  p r e t e d , i n t h e above s e n s e , as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e N o r t h  84 .  American  i d e a l of youth and beauty.  B u t l e r succeeds i n making  us f o r g e t the l a c k of appeal i n her p r o p o r t i o n s , and t o  convey,  as she s t r e t c h e s and undresses, the awkwardness, the innocence, the awakening s e x u a l i t y of youth. Giacometti s 1  "Lady of Venice I "  hand, appears to have a shrunken,  (No. 339), on the other  emaciated body.  The  sculptor  succeeds i n the p o r t r a y a l of the human body with a minimum of mass but c o n s i d e r a b l e volume. conveys  The s u r f a c e t e x t u r e ' s roughness  a sense of s u f f e r i n g , f e a r , v u l n e r a b i l i t y , and combined  with the e f f e c t of her s l i m n e s s , she seems to s h r i n k from the world. Lehmbruck s "Young Man 1  Stepping Up"  (No. 303)  seems a t  f i r s t glance smooth and longlimbed, and suggests pure elegance. But the p o s i t i o n of the arms and head suggest a f r a g i l i t y , a s e n s i t i v i t y , an i n t r o v e r t e d man.  The pose of s t e p p i n g up  may  f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e youth, upward bound, towards the f u t u r e . In c o n t r a s t to Lehmbruck's youth, i t i s hard to d i s c e r n from the body of S z e r v a t i u s z ' work, perhaps  only from the head,  t h a t we are l o o k i n g a t the death of a young man. foremost poet of the Hungarian R e v o l u t i o n of 1848  P e t o f i i s the  language, and he died d u r i n g the  which he helped t o i n c i t e ,  l e a d , and  i n a g a i n s t the A u s t r i a n opporessors of Hungary.  The  fight  sculpture,  through the shrunken body, c l e a r l y shows s u f f e r i n g and  death,  but the elongated body, with i t s 3% meters h e i g h t towering over o r d i n a r y man,  becomes the symbol of y o u t h f u l p a t r i o t i s m to which  the a r t i s t wants us to look up t o . Moving from the 19th century back to the 5th and 4th  85.  c e n t u r y B.C., a n d E t r u s c a n a r t , a s shown on S l i d e s No. 145 a n d 146,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , we c a n b u t i n t e r p r e t w i t h 2 0 t h c e n t u r y  what t h e a r t i s t w i s h e d  t o express.  Relatively  little  eyes  i s known  a b o u t E t r u s c a n c u l t u r e , a s i t was o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n a n d was e v e n t u a l l y absorbed  i n t o t h e Roman E m p i r e .  Of t h e w e l l  b r o n z e s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f o u n d i n g o f Rome, d e p i c t i n g a and  known she-wolf  t h e t w i n s Romulus a n d Remus s u c k l i n g h e r , we know t h a t t h e  she-wolf  i s of Etruscan o r i g i n  form c i r c a  are l a t e r a d d i t i o n s from t h e 16th c e n t u r y . workmanship o f t h e she-wolf  suggest  500 B.C. a n d t h e t w i n s The r e a l i s m a n d  t h a t i t was n o t a l a c k o f  a b i l i t y w h i c h made t h e E t r u s c a n s c u l p t o r s d e p i c t t h e body a s s t y l i z e d and e l o n g a t e d , t o t h e p o i n t o f i n f i n i t e Man, a s he a p p e a r s i n "Ombra" a n d " A p h r o d i t e , " dow o f h i m s e l f .  Reaching  lightness.  i s a mere  t o t h e s k y , he i s n o t o f t h i s  shaworld.  H i s h e a d i n t h e c l o u d s , i s he t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f p r o f o u n d  relig-  i o u s s y m b o l i s m , o r o f t h e p a i n and d e s p a i r o f a d i s a p p e a r i n g race? S u c h a r e e x a m p l e s o f d i s c u s s i o n on d i s t o r t e d , ture of the figure. ture which,  cul-  i f p e r v e r t e d , can l e a d t o anorexia nervosa, the through  occasional states of  a l i e n a t i o n from s o c i e t y , o r the w i t h d r a w a l shyness,  experienced  i n pain  t o s p i r i t u a l h e i g h t s , a l l of these expressed  some s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human Block  sculp-  They l e a d us f r o m p r e s e n t d a y s l i m n e s s  i l l n e s s o f t h e young and r i c h ,  and  linear  figure.  s c u l p t u r e - t h e compact, t h e e a r t h y  body.  Rationale: A c e r t a i n k i n d o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e  uses  by  86 -  maximum mass, a minimum o f n e g a t i v e  shapes w i t h i n the  f o r m , and m i g h t r e q u i r e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e  overall  figure i n order  to  keep i t compact. This exaggerated reliability, n e e d t o be  s o l i d i t y c o n v e y s i d e a s , s u c h as  firmness,  t i m e l e s s n e s s , s t r e n g t h , or earthboundness which  discussed i n order  t o be  a p p r e c i a t e d by  adolescents.  Goals: Students  will  l e a r n t o c o n s i d e r p o s s i b l e meanings o f sculp-  t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e w h i c h t h e y r e j e c t e d as a b s u r d , have understood  likely  w o u l d have a t  o r e v e n d i s g u s t i n g , and  the ideas t h a t the  first  would t h e r e f o r e  s c u l p t o r wished to  not  express.  Objectives: Students  will  ideas expressed realistic,  be  a b l e t o d i s c u s s p o s s i b l e meanings  i n s c u l p t u r e of the  f i g u r e which, although  c o n v e y f u n d a m e n t a l f e e l i n g s and  f r o m t h e dawn o f h i s t o r y t o t h e  and  i d e a s common t o  not man  present.  Lesson a i d s : The  f o l l o w i n g s l i d e s are  some o f t h o s e  suitable to discuss  b l o c k - l i k e , compact s c u l p t u r e : No.  2 and  3:  "Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f "  No.  27  "Effigy,"  No.  33  "Hunter w i t h Harpoon,"  No.  35  " M o t h e r and  No.  115  "Block  No.  116  "Block Statue  No.  30 8  Colima  Child,"  Inuit  Inuit  Statue of Prophet,"  "Russian  Egypt  of P r i n c e , " Egypt  Beggarwoman," E r n s t  Barlach  87.  No. 309  "Singing Man," E r n s t  No. 321  "Small I d o l , " T i b o r  No. 322  "Woman with Cat," Alexander Archipenko  No. 323  "The  K i s s , " Constantin  No. 324  "The  Embrace," C a r l o s Bracho  No.  361 and 362:  Barlach Szervatiusz  Brancusi  "Embracing Lovers,"  David Wynne  Discussion: Consider  f i r s t the m a t e r i a l s and methods used i n t h i s  group o f s c u l p t u r e .  With one e x c e p t i o n ,  t h a t o f Archipenko's  "Woman with Cat," which i s made o f bronze, a l l these works are made o f n a t u r a l non-man-made m a t e r i a l s . one,  Clay i s used i n • o n l y  the Colima " E f f i g y , " which i s modelled.  carved,  hewn from wood and stone,  process.  A l l others are  a p h y s i c a l l y more demanding  These m a t e r i a l s are more s u i t a b l e t o use f o r convey-  i n g heaviness,  and compactness o f form.  This weightiness  ties  these works t o the e a r t h and conveys meaning, the opposite o f asceticism. E r n s t B a r l a c h , a German s c u l p t o r , was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s t r a v e l s i n R u s s i a .  His work, made o f wood, can be r e -  l a t e d t o I n u i t stone c a r v i n g s .  Both deal with o r d i n a r y man,  h i s s t r u g g l e s t o l i v e i n an h o s t i l e environment, c o l d c l i m a t e , vast landscape o f the tundra, where only the s t r o n g e s t  survive.  These stocky men must stay c l o s e t o the e a r t h , must r e l a t e and blend with  i t , and c a r r y the burden o f s u r v i v a l i n the harshest  of environments.  The d i f f e r e n c e between these two people and  t h e i r circumstances i s r e f l e c t e d i n the c h o i c e o f t o p i c s dep i c t e d by the a r t i s t s .  Russia  i s densely  populated,  and B a r l a c h  88.  symbolizes  i t s poor through  the j o y s and sorrows  t h e b e g g a r woman, a n d t h e l o n g i n g ,  o f s i m p l e man t h r o u g h  singing out his  I n c o n t r a s t , t h e I n u i t s a r e few i n t h e v a s t l a n d s c a p e . t i e s are closer the s k i l l ren,  t o n a t u r e and t h e e a r t h , which  Their  provides,  o f h u n t e r s , and t h e c a r e o f mothers f o r t h e i r  continued Another  soul.  through child-  survival.  comparison  m i g h t be made b e t w e e n t h e "Venus o f  W i l l e n d o r f , " a n d t h e " S m a l l I d o l " o f S z e r v a t i u s z on t h e one h a n d , a n d B r a n c u s i ' s "The K i s s , " B r a c h o s  "The E m b r a c e , " a n d  Wynne's " E m b r a c i n g L o v e r s " on t h e o t h e r .  A l l o f these  1  works  d e a l w i t h what m i g h t be c a l l e d t h e " s u r v i v a l o f t h e s p e c i e s . " The  fundamental  our approach  urge f o r s u r v i v a l i s i n a l l o f u s .  t o i t which  It is  c h a n g e d a s we c o m p a r e d t h e p r e h i s t o r i c  w i t h p r e s e n t day e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e i n g r e d i e n t f o r c o n t i n u e d life,  which In  i s love.  21,000 B.C. l i f e  must h a v e b e e n p r e c a r i o u s f o r man.  M o v i n g t o where t h e c l i m a t e a l l o w e d f o o d f o r s u r v i v a l , a n d b a t t l i n g w i t h t h e f o r c e s o f n a t u r e , man's s t r e n g t h l a y i n h i s numbers.  The e n v i r o n m e n t must h a v e p r e s e n t e d  a constant chain of  u n p r e d i c t a b l e e v e n t s , where t h e o n l y c o n s t a n t p o s i t i v e  factor  was  artist  woman, who p r o d u c e d  carved a pregnant body i n w h i c h shapes,  offspring.  So t h e p r e h i s t o r i c  woman, c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e  t h e c h i l d grew.  He c a r v e d i t i n s i m p l e , b a s i c  monumental i n i t s p r o p o r t i o n s , b u t s m a l l i n s i z e , so  it  c o u l d e a s i l y be c a r r i e d ,  to  i n s u r e t h e magic needed f o r fundamental  tence.  l i k e an a m u l e t ,  wherever they and c o n t i n u e d  S z e r v a t i u s z ' " S m a l l I d o l " seems no d i f f e r e n t  went, exis-  from t h e  89 .  "Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f , " As  only  t h e y a r e made 23,000 y e a r s  t h e a b o v e two w o r k s d e a l  m i g h t t h e y be c o n n e c t e d w i t h  directly with  apart.  c h i l d b e a r i n g , how  t h e s e c o n d g r o u p o f w o r k s by B r a n -  c u s i , B r a c h o a n d Wynne, w h i c h d e a l w i t h m a n i f e s t a t i o n s ical  l o v e , even i f s y m b o l i c a l l y ?  This  i s where t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  o f t h e b l o c k - l i k e , compact form o f t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s importance. in  Here, i n the f u s i o n o f these earthy  e a r t h l y j o y so c l e a r l y  otherworldliness,  i s of great  bodies,  united  f a r removed f r o m any s u g g e s t i o n  of  t h e a r t i s t s c o n v e y man's d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e  e a r t h , a n d o u r d e p e n d e n c e on e a c h o t h e r life  o f phys-  f o r the continuation of  t h r o u g h t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e l o v i n g embrace d e p i c t e d i n  these statues.  Should there  be a n e e d t o f u r t h e r  illustrate  the  d i r e c t i o n these works p o i n t  286  a n d 287) may be v i e w e d f o r c o n t r a s t , w h e r e t h e a r t i s t d e -  p i c t s the closeness  t o , R o d i n ' s " K i s s " ( S l i d e No.  o f two l o v i n g s o u l s w i t h a g e n t l e  physical  touch. Super-realism  - t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y , and polychromed body.  Rationale Some f i g u r e s c u l p t o r s o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y realistic  i n t e r p r e t e r s o f t h e human b o d y .  Of t h e o v e r  c o n t e m p o r a r y s c u l p t o r s whose work i s i n c l u d e d only  f i f t e e n have a b s t r a c t e d  the figure.  i n c l u d i n g younger and o l d e r a r t i s t s , istic  tend t o remain fifty  i n this thesis,  Although the majority,  have remained w i t h  real-  p o r t r a y a l s o f man, a f e w i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e a c h i e v e d a  super-realistic  representation.  T h e i r work a p p e a r s a t f i r s t  g l a n c e t o be a l i v i n g p e r s o n w i t h whom i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  becomes  90 .  unavoidable.  This  innovative  approach enables these  t o make s o c i a l comments w h i c h c a l l  artists  f o r d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r -  pretation . Goal: Students w i l l ing  r e a l i z e the r o l e a r t i s t s can play  t o s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l  critically  assess these  values  i n point-  o f s o c i e t y , and l e a r n t o  values.  Objectives: Students w i l l pletely  lifelike,  cize ordinary  discuss  t h e purpose o f making s c u l p t u r e  com-  t h e a b i l i t y o f s u c h work t o u p h o l d o r c r i t i -  occurrences i n our l i v e s .  Lesson a i d s : S l i d e s No. 3 5 3 , 3 5 3 , 354: 355, 367  356:  Segal  Butler  t o 372:  Lucchesi  373:  de A n d r e a  374:  Hanson  380:  Whiten  Discussion: E x p l a i n , a t f i r s t , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c r e a t i n g a s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e f r o m i m a g i n a t i o n , ing  o r by s o m e t i m e s  look-  a t a l i v i n g p e r s o n as a model, and t h e mechanics o f t a k i n g  a cast  from a l i v e person, which i s c a l l e d a " l i f e - c a s t . "  This  method m i g h t have o r i g i n a t e d i n an o l d t r a d i t i o n o f making a death-mask o f an i m p o r t a n t ,  o r b e l o v e d p e r s o n who h a s j u s t d i e d .  H o w e v e r , i f g r e a s e i s a p p l i e d t o t h e s k i n a n d g a u z e on t o p o f  it,  p l a s t e r c a s t s c a n be t a k e n o f l i v e p e o p l e , made i n s e c t i o n s  which are subsequently assembled f o r the purpose of c a s t i n g p o s i t i v e , which i s the  figure.  The r e s u l t becomes an e x a c t r e p l i c a o f t h e m o d e l , and an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t .  In l i f e - c a s t i n g ,  p o s e he o r she i s u s e d , w h a t f i n i s h  who  E x a m p l e s o f two a r t i s t s ' 353,  354  and 380,  who  less  i s u s e d , i n what  i s a p p l i e d , and w h a t , i f  a n y , e n v i r o n m e n t i t i s p l a c e d i n , become t h e a r t i s t i c  352,  decisions  work c a n be s e e n on S l i d e s  No.  c h o s e t o l e a v e them i n w h i t e p l a s t e r  W h i t e n w i t h a smooth, S e g a l w i t h a rough s u r f a c e t e x t u r e . artists  Both  u s e an e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h f o r m s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e  sculpture. lonely  the  A d o l e s c e n t s m i g h t r e l a t e b e t t e r t o George S e g a l ' s  f i g u r e s , one p a c i n g up and down l a d e n w i t h w o r r y , a n -  o t h e r s i t t i n g h e l p l e s s l y and f o r l o r n i n a c h a i r , w a i t i n g f o r life, to  o r p e r h a p s i t s p a s s i n g , o r t h e g i r l who  m i g h t be  b r e a k o u t o f h e r l o n e l i n e s s by t h e s y m b o l i c a c t i o n o f d e c o r -  a t i n g h e r s e l f w i t h j e w e l l e r y , y e t s e e i n g o n l y h e r own the  trying  mirror.  The  r o u g h s u r f a c e t e x t u r e and t h e g h o s t l y  image i n white-  n e s s o f t h e f i g u r e s i s f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d by t h e o r d i n a r y j e c t s a n d t h e r e a l i s t i c c o l o u r s w h i c h s u r r o u n d them. very l i f e l i k e  They m i g h t t r i g g e r  s i o n i n us f o r t h e l o n e l i n e s s o f modern man, us o f e m p t i n e s s l u r k i n g t o e n g u l f us i f we to our  I t i s the  q u a l i t y o f t h e f i g u r e s w h i c h f o r c e us t o s e e i n  them o u r s e l v e s o r p e o p l e we know.  ing  ob-  compas-  o r perhaps warn  fail  t o g i v e mean-  lives.  Some a r t i s t s p o i n t where t h e i r  wish to carry the l i f e l i k e  appearance t o the  f i g u r e s n e e d t o be t o u c h e d t o c o n v i n c e us  that they are statues. figures i n r e a l i s t i c called  To a c h i e v e t h i s e f f e c t t h e y p a i n t  s k i n t o n e s , add r e a l h a i r t o them'.-and, i f  f o r , use c a r e f u l l y  (No. 355  and 356)  their  s e l e c t e d c l o t h e s on them.  Two  slides  show c o n v e n t i o n a l l y made s c u l p t u r e by  Reg  B u t l e r i n t h e mid-1950's, and p a i n t e d b r o n z e made by h i m i n 1977,  a s u i t a b l e comparison to i l l u s t r a t e  the e f f e c t of the  two  opposing techniques. S u p e r - r e a l i s m c a n be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t l i f e - c a s t i n g .  For  t h i s p u r p o s e , B r u n o L u c c h e s i ' s work o f t h e 1970's ( S l i d e s 367  t o 372)  i s included here.  H i s work i s m o d e l l e d and  f i r e d t o become t e r r a - c o t t a , o r c a s t i n b r o n z e . w h i c h t h e e f f e c t o f h i s work has compared t o  The  No.  either  difference  life-casting,  m i g h t be s t u d i e d h e r e , and seems t o r e l y on t h e c o l o u r o f t h e m a t e r i a l s he u s e s .  I f one w o u l d be a b l e t o i m a g i n e h i s work  p o l y c h r o m e d i n r e a l s k i n t o n e s , w i t h human h a i r a d d e d , t h e n , a t l e a s t on p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h c o n c e a l t h e s m a l l s i z e o f m o s t o f h i s s c u l p t u r e , one w o u l d t h i n k them " r e a l . "  B e i n g what t h e y  a r e , warm b r o n z e s and t e r r a - c o t t a s , t h e y seem s o f t and t e n d e r , and i n p l a c e o f s h a r p s o c i a l c o m m e n t a r y , we p e r c e i v e a t i o n of the beauty of the J o h n de A n d r e a ' s and 374)  ness o f t h e young  body.  and Duane H a n s o n ' s w o r k s  are l i f e - c a s t ,  celebra-  ( S l i d e No.  p o l y c h r o m e d , and l i f e s i z e .  c o u p l e i n de A n d r e a ' s w o r k - - t h e  a s l e e p , u n c o v e r e d , and r e m o t e  The  naked-  f a c t they are  from each o t h e r — s e e m s  to  convey  a s e n s e o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and t h e w o r s t k i n d o f l o n e l i n e s s , o f b e i n g l o n e l y e v e n when t o g e t h e r .  373  that  Hanson's " F l o r i d a Shopper," a f i x t u r e o f urban s o c i e t y ' s preoccupation w i t h shopping,  i s , a t t h e same t i m e , a c a r i c a t u r e  o f someone f r e q u e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , who gracefully old.  Perhaps i t i s the  c a n n o t grow  f e a r o f d y i n g w h i c h makes  t h i s o l d e r woman t r y t o t u r n t h e c l o c k b a c k and w e a r a m i n i skirt, her.  h e a v y c o s t u m e j e w e l l e r y and The  e x p r e s s i o n of her  . p o w e r f u l l y b r i n g s home t h e  a w i g w h i c h does n o t  f a c e i s h o s t i l e and  unhappy and i t  f a t e o f so many o l d women who  p e r h a p s w i d o w e d , as t h e y t e n d t o l i v e  l o n g e r , and who,  t h e y h a v e f a m i l y , a r e o f t e n f a r away f r o m them. n o t made a l i f e m e a n i n g f u l  f o r themselves  b u t o n l y i n c o n t e x t o f o t h e r s who i n t h e i r o l d age much n e e d l e s s  d e v o i d o f any  left  even i f  T h o s e who  i n t h e i r own  them b e h i n d ,  joys except  are  have  right,  are  left  t o spend time  with  shopping.  Adolescents  s h o u l d be  i a l messages i n t h e s e  a b l e t o f e e l and  super-realistic,  own  p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , and  and  loneliness bring.  forestall  understand  lifestyle,  and  soc-  They to  their  the sadness which emptiness  P a t h o s i n s c u l p t u r e - t h e human body by two and  the  l i f e - c a s t works.  m i g h t be a b l e t o a p p l y them i n t h e i r own  Michelangelo  suit  masters,  Bernini.  Rationale: Michelangelo  B u o n a r r o t i i s almost  universally  as t h e g r e a t e s t s c u l p t o r o f t h e human f i g u r e . w o r k s had  a profound  i n f l u e n c e on W e s t e r n a r t .  recognized  His mastery Therefore  and a  c l o s e r l o o k a t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g e n i u s w i t h t h e f i g u r e seems t o be  appropriate.  94'.  Gian Lorenzo his  lifetime,  B e r n i n i was as a d m i r e d  and a l s o l e f t  as M i c h e l a n g e l o  during  a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f w o r k , b u t  o v e r t i m e h i s s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e has p e r h a p s n o t s t o o d to  that of Michelangelo's.  B o t h were m a s t e r s  i ncontrasting  w a y s , and B e r n i n i ' s work c a n be u s e d a s a f o i l of  up  to set o f f that  Michelangelo.  Goal: S t u d e n t s , who w i l l skill  likely  respond  with admiration to the  o f c a r v i n g m a r b l e a n d t h e c a p t u r e o f i n t e n s e e m o t i o n s by  Bernini, w i l l  be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e t h e d e p t h o f  expression i n Michelangelo's  work.  Objectives: Students  will  compare a n d d i s c u s s t h e v i r t u o s o t e c h n i q u e  of  B e r n i n i , h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s of s t o r i e s which  in  time.  These w i l l  and p a t h o s Lesson  c a p t u r e a moment  be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f  form  i n M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s work w h i c h makes them t i m e l e s s .  aids:  S l i d e s No.  199 t o 2 2 8 , M i c h e l a n g e l o , and  No. 231 t o 2 3 5 , a n d 239, B e r n i n i Discussion: Talk about the l o n g l i f e 8 9 t h y e a r , and B e r n i n i in  of both, Michelangelo  i n t o h i s 82nd y e a r .  The f o r m e r  t h e 1 5 t h and 1 6 t h c e n t u r y , t h e l a t t e r m o s t l y  century.  During those  c o m m i s s i o n s by r u l i n g  -• i n t o h i s lived  i n the 17th  t i m e s a r t i s t s were employed f o r s p e c i f i c f a m i l i e s a s w e l l as t h e p o p e , who was a  r u l e r , w i t h t h e power and money t o pay  f o r these works.  Al-  t h o u g h a r t i s t s o f fame w e r e a d m i r e d , p e r h a p s o n l y i n M i c h e l angelo's  l i f e t i m e d i d t h e y become h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d , m a i n l y  cause o f h i s example.  He  was  not o n l y a g r e a t s c u l p t o r ,  a l s o a g r e a t p a i n t e r , a r c h i t e c t and as h a v i n g ine"  a d i v i n e spark  Michelangelo, Michelangelo  earned in  and  a genius was  poet.  They t h o u g h t  r e f e r r e d t o him  but of  l a t e r as t h e  him "div-  i n the t r u e sense o f the word.  very successful i n h i s l i f e t i m e  a g r e a t d e a l o f money.  He  and  gave most o f i t t o h i s f a m i l y  o r d e r t o r e s t o r e them t o t h e i r p r e v i o u s h i g h s t a n d i n g i n s o -  c i e t y , w h i c h was  partly  l o s t f o r l a c k o f money by t h e  M i c h e l a n g e l o was  born.  As much a s he  r e p u t a t i o n and w e l f a r e , he very simply, with l i t t l e s e l f completely profound  human f i g u r e was The  spent  little  the c e n t r a l  themselves  "David"  207). p l a n on  The  ( S l i d e s No. "David"  he  experienced be  Aspects  of t h i s  dignity  the s t r o n g , even  to h i s f i g u r e s i n the  Good e x a m p l e s o f t h e s e 203,  important  204),  and  "Moses"  first  traits  No.  unit  "Commemorative S c u l p t u r e - H e r o e s and V i l l a i n s , " can  are  (Slide  i s more e x t e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h e  l o o k i n g a t i t h e r e , we  the  topic.  imparted  202,  him-  c r e a t e d , of which  i n the h e r o i c , the proud,  h a l f of h i s c r e a t i v e l i f e .  lived  devoted  i s p e r h a p s t h e s i n g l e most  t h e a n g r y e x p r e s s i o n s he  He  t h e s e changes can  f r o m t h e s c u l p t u r e he has  d i g n i t y o f man  and he  During h i s long l i f e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l h i s s c u l p t u r e . manifest  on h i m s e l f .  m a t e r i a l comforts  to his a r t .  time  cared f o r h i s family's  c h a n g e s i n h i s p h i l o s o p h y , and  best understood  his  be-  see t h e p r i d e , t h e s t r e n g t h o f  but the  y o u n g man,  h i s angry f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , h i s l a c k of f e a r which  makes h i m  truly heroic.  i s t i c s while having which other  Michelangelo  achieved  t o work w i t h a d i f f i c u l t  s c u l p t o r s t r i e d but  could not  narrow, yet i t y i e l d e d to Michelangelo of the as  slim youth,  important,  expression. important  David.  i t was The  T h i s was  handle. 18%  anger.  I t has  this  strong  led h i s people also  these  sense of s u p e r i o r i t y over  the  man.  oppression  man  has  to endure.  the commissions f o r the  t h a t of the M e d i c i  s i o n s of  " S l a v e s " he  208,  and  210)  of r e b e l l i o n . shows how  t i o n o f age. "Day," and  the The  of the  life  were  s u f f e r i n g and  to r e f l e c t  the o p p o r t u n i t y struggle.  (three of these  The  these  "Victory" statue  f o r many many v e r -  shown on S l i d e s  portray a t t i t u d e s of submission, The  on  tombs o f t h e pope J u l i u s I I , and  t h i s p a t h o s and carved  outlook  H i s works begin  b r o t h e r s , gave him  f i g u r e s which express  chapel,  just  artistic  been s u g g e s t e d t h a t  the r e s u l t of h i s i n c r e a s e d understanding  212)  too  statue  sure of h i s b e l i e f s but  Many o f t h e c h a n g e s i n M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s  and  foot high  sacrificing  s u p e r i o r , who  e a r l y w o r k s e c h o t h e M a s t e r ' s own  209  marble  A block  f i g u r e from the Old Testament, t h a t of a  given to righteous  and  piece of  "Moses" s t a t u e g i v e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o  o f s l a v e r y f r o m E g y p t , a man  average  character-  a t e c h n i c a l feat but,  accomplished without  l e a d e r , p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y out  an  these  ( S l i d e s No.  of s t r u g g l e , 211  s t r e n g t h of youth triumphs over the symbols o f e a r t h l y time,  " N i g h t ! " ( S l i d e s No.  214  seem t o embody t h e t r a p man  t o 223),  No.  and exhaus-  "Dawn," "Dusk," of the  Medici  i s caught i n i n t h i s  life  w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y ends i n d e a t h .  Y e t t h e s o u l r i s e s and  erated i n the C h r i s t i a n a f t e r l i f e  s y m b o l i z e d by t h e  s t a t u e o f t h e c h a p e l , t h e "Madonna a n d The m a t u r e a r t i s t inner l i f e of  Child"  is  lib-  central  ( S l i d e No.  224).  t u r n e d away f r o m t h e h e r o i s m o f y o u t h t o t h e  o f m i d d l e age,  l e a r n i n g t o cope w i t h waning s t r e n g t h  t h e body b u t w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e o f d e a t h a h e a d o f As M i c h e l a n g e l o e n t e r e d r e a l l y o l d a g e , he became  him  increas-  i n g l y a b e t t e r C h r i s t i a n but i n a profound, i n n e r ,  spiritual  sense, not i n outward  Florentine  observations of r i t u a l .  His  P i e t a i s f a r removed f r o m t h e s e r e n e b e a u t y , b o t h i n t e r n a l  and  e x t e r n a l , of h i s e a r l y P i e t a  199,  120). end  ( S l i d e s No.  225,  226,  227  and  I n t h e F l o r e n t i n e P i e t a d e a t h i s a c c e p t e d w i t h j o y as  t o s u f f e r i n g and  afterlife  i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f C h r i s t and Mary  i s shown a s t h e d i v i n e  M i c h e l a n g e l o now  love a w a i t i n g the freed  seems t o h a v e a c c e p t e d d e a t h .  His l a s t  on w h i c h he w o r k e d o n l y d a y s b e f o r e h i s d e a t h , i s t h e Pieta  ( S l i d e No.  228).  The  M a s t e r , who  has  an  the spirit work,  Rondanini  sung t h e p r a i s e s  of  t h e i n c o m p a r a b l e b e a u t y o f t h e human body i n c o u n t l e s s s c u l p t u r e s , l e f t us h i s f i n a l has  legacy i n t h i s P i e t a .  l o s t a l l p h y s i c a l beauty, the rough  H e r e t h e body  shapes t r a n s f o r m i t  i n t o t h e s p i r i t , and M i c h e l a n g e l o g i v e s up t h e v i s i o n o f on e a r t h f o r t h e v i s i o n o f d i v i n e  grace.  Years a f t e r Michelangelo's death, the extremely artist  G i a n L o r e n z o B e r n i n i d i d n o t want t o w a l k  steps of Michelangelo. t u r e s t r o n g a c t i o n and ity  gifted  i n the  foot-  He w a n t e d t o be an i n n o v a t o r and emotion  of Michelangelo's f i g u r e s .  beauty  i n p l a c e o f the seeming I f one  cap-  passiv-  v i e w s M i c h e l a n g e l o as  9 8.  an i n t r o v e r t who showed us n o t w h a t t h e e y e s happening in  i n s i d e o f man, B e r n i n i was t h e e x t r o v e r t who c a p t u r e d  s t o n e what t h e c a m e r a c a n now c a p t u r e o n f i l m ,  and momentary s t r o n g e m o t i o n s , but f r e e l y expressed. of  s e e b u t what i s  frozen action  n o t suppressed and c o n t e m p l a t e d ,  He a c h i e v e d t h e s e e f f e c t s w i t h a m a s t e r y  technique never e q u a l l e d before o r a f t e r him i n marble.  While Michelangelo carved the figures contained i n the block of marble,  b u r s t i n g w i t h i n n e r energy  s i o n , B e r n i n i used  and m a n i f e s t i n g outward  s e v e r a l b l o c k s o f marble  ten-  t o add t o t h e f i g -  u r e s a n d e n a b l e them t o move, t o g e s t i c u l a t e i n a h i g h l y t h e a t r i c a l manner, h o l d i n g back n o t h i n g . h i g h drama, whether i n h i s " D a v i d " of  throwing the f a t e f u l  ( S l i d e No. 232) i n t h e moment  stone, o r i n mythological stories o f the  "Abduction o f Persephore" ing  He c h o s e t h e moments o f  ( S l i d e No. 2 3 1 ) , a n d o f A p o l l o p u r s u -  Daphne who, a moment b e f o r e c a p t u r e , t u r n s i n t o a t r e e  eluding per pursuer  ( S l i d e No. 2 3 3 , 2 3 4 ) .  w o r k s show t h e same e x a g g e r a t e d  emotions,  s t a s y o f S t . T e r e s a , " o r " S t . Jerome"  Bernini's  thus  religious  such as i n t h e "Ec-  ( S l i d e No. 2 3 5 , 2 3 6 ) , a n d  i t may w e l l show u s , a s i n d e e d he w a s , a v e r y r e l i g i o u s man who observed He  d i d n o t seem t o s t r u g g l e  erance this He  a l l t h e r i t u a l s and ceremonies  He f o u n d g r e a t e n j o y m e n t i n  and l i v e d i n s p l e n d o r ; a r i c h and h i g h l y  spent almost a l l h i s l i f e  the a r t i s t i c  faith.  f o r h i s f a i t h nor search f o r d e l i v -  from e a r t h l y s u f f e r i n g .  life  of his Christian  f a v o u r e d man.  i n Rome a n d b e c a u s e he  community o f h i s t i m e w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y  dominated a l l commis-  s i o n s g o i n g t o h i m , he l e f t h i s mark t h r o u g h h i s w o r k s i n Rome to  such a degree  t h a t some s a y t h a t Rome i s B e r n i n i .  He a l s o  99..  was as  a famous a r c h i t e c t a n d made many f o u n t a i n s f o r Rome,  " F o u n t a i n o f t h e F o u r R i v e r s " ( S l i d e No. 239) s y m b o l i z i n g  the g r e a t r i v e r s o f h i s p o l i t i c a l  time.  The m a s t e r y o f h i s  s t y l e i s most s i g n i f i c a n t , h o w e v e r , i n t h e t o t a l l y bodies those  ion  lifelike  and i n c r e d i b l e , s u p e r - r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s o f t h e f a c e s on bodies.  chisel,  One must s t a n d i n awe o f h i s s k i l l  and h i s a b i l i t y  t o capture  with the  the precise f a c i a l  express-  s h o w i n g a p a r t i c u l a r e m o t i o n o f t h e moment. Y e t one m i g h t p o s e t h e q u e s t i o n , i s l i f e  s t a g e where we a c t o u t o u r g r e a t moments? reflection,  gle  nothing but a  Or i s t h e r e t i m e f o r  a t i m e t o s o r t t h i n g s o u t , t o come t o t e r m s w i t h  uninvited occurrences,  to  such  a time, frequently, t o s u f f e r , to s t r u g -  a g a i n s t s u f f e r i n g , t o seek f o r h i g h e r meaning i n o u r l i v e s , s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s , and prepare  F o r i n s p i r a t i o n on t h e s e  f o r our i n e v i t a b l e  i s s u e s we must t u r n t o M i c h e l a n g e l o  who d e a l t w i t h them i n h i s own way, b u t h i s own way, his  end?  g r e a t a r t i s t r y , was t r a n s f o r m e d  through  into the universal condi-  t i o n o f a l l men. R e l i g i o u s s c u l p t u r e - t h e body o f Buddha a n d C h r i s t . Rationale: Man h a s g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n t o r e l i g i o n t h r o u g h images. tic,  Whether "pagan," w o r s h i p p i n g  such and  graven  many g o d s , o r m o n o t h e i s -  man h a s u s e d s c u l p t u r e f o r r e l i g i o u s p u r p o s e s  human h i s t o r y .  making  throughout  Few i m a g e s h a v e i n f l u e n c e d s o many, a n d o v e r  l e n g t h o f t i m e , a s Buddha h a s t h e r e l i g i o n o f t h e E a s t , C h r i s t , t h a t o f t h e West.  W h e t h e r we v i e w them a s h o l y men  10 0 .  or  p a r t o f a n d one w i t h God, i s a m a t t e r o f p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o n ,  but i n our m u l t i c u l t u r a l  s o c i e t y we s h o u l d l o o k a t r e p r e s e n t a -  t i o n s o f b o t h Buddha a n d C h r i s t a s e x a m p l e s o f t h e many w o r l d r e l i g i o n s p r e s e n t i n and m e a n i n g f u l t o members o f o u r s o c i e t y . Goals: Students w i l l  broaden  t h e i r understanding of r e l i g i o n s ,  o t h e r t h a n t h e i r own, w h i c h a r e m e a n i n g f u l t o m i l l i o n s o f people  living  o n t h i s e a r t h , some o f whom l i v e  r i g h t among u s ,  and d e v e l o p a c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t a s i m p o r t a n t i n c o n v e y i n g gious  reli-  ideas.  Objectives: Students w i l l events i n h i s l i f e ,  l e a r n about  Buddha t h e man, t h r o u g h  h i s impact on t h e l i f e  major  of millions  I n d i a t o J a p a n , a n d r e v i e w a n d compare J e s u s ' l i f e  from  and  influ-  ence on W e s t e r n c u l t u r e t o t h a t o f Buddha, as e x p r e s s e d  through  sculpture of the figure. Lesson  aids:  S l i d e s on Buddha: No. 50 ( C h i n a ) , 51 ( I n d i a ) , 57 58  (Pakistan),  ( J a v a ) , 61 ( C h i n a ) , 69 ( J a p a n ) , 71  l a n d ) , 77  (Thai-  (Cambodia).  S l i d e s on C h r i s t , and C h r i s t w i t h t h e V i r g i n  Mary:  No. 1 5 2 , 1 5 3 , 1 5 4 , 1 5 6 , 2 0 5 , 2 2 9 , 3 8 8 - 3 9 1 , No. 1 6 5 , 1 6 6 , 1 7 0 , 1 7 1 , 1 7 4 , 1 8 1 , 2 2 4 , 3 3 7 , 344, V i r g i n w i t h  child  Christ  io i .  No. 164, 167, 199 and 200, 225 a n d 226, 228, 248,  230,  Pieta  Discussion: T a l k a b o u t B u d d h a , t h e man, h i s p r i n c e l y o r i g i n s , how he was s h e l t e r e d f r o m s e e i n g a n y t h i n g u g l y , o r a n y o n e  suffering,  and how he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e many who s u f f e r e d  greatly  f r o m s i c k n e s s , f r o m p o v e r t y , a n d f r o m b e i n g members o f a l o w e r c a s t e w i t h o u t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r improvement. Talk about t h e c a s t e system  i n I n d i a , a n d compare i t w i t h  European c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages o r F e u d a l and w i t h o u r own N o r t h A m e r i c a n nants o f a c l a s s system,  freedom, which  times,  has hidden  rem-  even i n o u r s o c i e t y .  T a l k a b o u t how  r a n k , money,, p r e s t i g e g a i n e d f o r a c h i e v e m e n t ,  can i n f l u e n c e a  person's  life,  a n d what i t m u s t f e e l  l i k e being without  such  opportunity. Return t o the l i f e  o f B u d d h a , who, h a v i n g s e e n t h e m i s e r y  of  l o w l y p e o p l e , g a v e up h i s p r i n c e l y  to  the quest  life  and devoted  f o r f i n d i n g t h e remedy t o human s u f f e r i n g .  himself He b e -  came a n a s c e t i c , gave up a l l t h a t was c o m f o r t a b l e a n d p l e a s a n t in  life.  of  it', yet s t i l l  Finally, Bo,  He a l s o u n d e r t o o k  a p e r i o d o f f a s t i n g , and a l m o s t  d i d n o t f i n d t h e s e c r e t t o man's  died  happiness.  he s e a t e d h i m s e l f u n d e r t h e famous f i g t r e e , c a l l e d t h e  o r bodhi t r e e , a l a r g e t r e e w h i c h  and vowed n o t t o r i s e u n t i l  grows i n N o r t h e r n  he f o u n d e n l i g h t e n m e n t .  India,  During the  4 9 d a y s he s a t t h e r e , he was a t t a c k e d by demons w i t h v i s i o n s o f t e m p t a t i o n o f t h e f l e s h a n d o f w o r l d l y power a n d w e a l t h ( n o t u n l i k e C h r i s t i n t h e garden  o f G e t h s e m a n e ) ; he a l s o  endured  102 .  storms  and e a r t h q u a k e s .  He p e r s e v e r e d , a n d t h e t r u t h was r e -  v e a l e d t o h i m w h i c h he s e t o u t t o p r e a c h t o h i s f e l l o w men: to  e x e r c i s e d i s c i p l i n e and m o d e r a t i o n  compassion may l i v e  toward a l l other l i v i n g  i n w o r l d l y d e s i r e s , and  t h i n g s , i n o r d e r t h a t man  i n harmony w i t h t h e w o r l d .  Buddha's t e a c h i n g s c r e a t e d a g r e a t f o l l o w i n g i n h i s l i f e t i m e , a n d B u d d h i s t monks l e a d a l i f e  a c c o r d i n g t o h i s example.  B u d d h i s m s p r e a d f r o m I n d i a t o C h i n a and J a p a n , a n d t o o t h e r F a r - E a s t e r n c o u n t r i e s , and i t e x i s t s t o t h i s day i n t h o s e tries  as w e l l as i n Western s o c i e t y .  students could v i s i t  coun-  L o c a l l y , Lower M a i n l a n d  t h e new B u d d h i s t t e m p l e  i n R i c h m o n d , B.C.  Some p a r a l l e l s c a n be d r a w n b e t w e e n B u d d h a , t h e h o l y man, a n d the l i f e  o f Jesus C h r i s t , the founder o f C h r i s t i a n i t y .  Images o f Buddha a n d C h r i s t d i d n o t a p p e a r t u r i e s a f t e r t h e i r death.  f o r many  cen-  I n B u d d h a ' s c a s e , he f o r b a d e h i s f o l -  l o w e r s t o w o r s h i p h i m , b u t t h e y a l s o were r e l u c t a n t t o p i c t u r e h i m a s e a r t h l y man, a s he became o t h e r w o r l d l y t h r o u g h ment.  enlighten-  " B o d h i s a t t v a s " were e a s i e r t o p o r t r a y , because t h e y have  reached e n l i g h t e n m e n t , y e t chose and do g o o d .  t o r e m a i n on e a r t h t o p r e a c h  E a r l y C h r i s t i a n s were a l s o a f r a i d  to portray  C h r i s t who h a d r i s e n a f t e r d e a t h and r e t u r n e d t o God, h i s Father.  Living  were everywhere,  s o c l o s e t o t h e t i m e s when i m a g e s o f p a g a n gods they feared i d o l a t r y .  To p r e s e n t t h e d i v i n e  f i g u r e o f J e s u s a s e a r t h l y man t h e y t h o u g h t t o be The  E a s t e r n Church  but r e l u c t a n t l y and C h r i s t i a n i t y  continued i n i t s non-acceptance  allowed paintings.  sacrilegious. of statues  E v e n t u a l l y , both Buddhism  r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e o f commemorating i t s  103 .  founders with statues who  could not read,  f o r t h e sake o f t h e m u l t i t u d e  o f people  a n d who n e e d e d t o s e e what was p r e a c h e d t o  them. The  self-afflicted  s u f f e r i n g o f t h e Buddha t h r o u g h  c a t i o n o f t h e f l e s h and f a s t i n g t o near death, l i m i t e d comparison t o C h r i s t on t h e c r o s s .  mortifi-  might serve  as a  Both sought t o r e -  l i e v e mankind from s u f f e r i n g , t o h e l p t h e l o w l y , t h e downtrodden, to  and b o t h were w i l l i n g , and C h r i s t d i d , t o g i v e t h e i r  t h i s cause.  The B u d d h i s t  path  t o happiness i s c l o s e l y  ted t o the C h r i s t i a n doctrine of love. should  not k i l l ,  c a l l s meditation, t h e other Although  rela-  B o t h d e c r e e t h a t man  l i e , s t e a l , commit s e x u a l m i s c o n d u c t , harm h i s  fellow creatures, or think e v i l one  life  t h o u g h t , b u t spend time i n what prayer.  both Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y e v e n t u a l l y  commem-  o r a t e d o t h e r h o l y men a n d women w i t h s c u l p t u r e s o f t h e f i g u r e , t h e V i r g i n M a r y was c h o s e n t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r ,  with  s l i d e s d e p i c t i n g h e r w i t h e i t h e r t h e C h r i s t c h i l d , o r t h e dead Christ.  T h e s e p o r t r a y a l s o f some h i s t o r i c a l l y known  in  the l i f e  his  brief  of Jesus provide  s t a y on e a r t h .  episodes  us w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t s i g n p o s t s i n  P a i n t i n g s c a n i l l u s t r a t e many B i b l e  s t o r i e s , b u t s c u l p t u r e seems t o be a b l e t o show u s t h e e s s e n c e in  t h e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e happy i n n o c e n c e o f t h e C h r i s t c h i l d i n  c o n t r a s t t o t h e s u f f e r i n g and s a c r i f i c e o f C h r i s t on t h e c r o s s . Again,  on t h e l a p . o f  body o f C h r i s t b e f o r e timate  sacrifice.  t h e M o t h e r , t h e V i r g i n Mary, t h e dead i t h a s r i s e n becomes a s y m b o l o f t h e u l -  104 .  Commemorative s c u l p t u r e - h e r o e s a n d  villains.  Rationale: Man h a s t h e s e e d s o f b o t h n o b i l i t y a n d e v i l  i n him.  q u a l i t i e s c o u l d t u r n him i n t o a hero o r a v i l l a i n . and  Mythology  a n c i e n t h i s t o r y h a s many h e r o e s a n d some v i l l a i n s .  ent day N o r t h verse.  In pres-  A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y i t s o m e t i m e s seems t o be t h e r e -  Yet youth  with heroes,  These  has a g r e a t need t o r e j o i c e i n and i d e n t i f y  and t o b e t t e r d e a l w i t h v i l l a i n s .  T h i s need  seems  to  be b o r n e o u t by t h e d e g r e e o f r e s p o n s e t o T e r r y F o x , o r e v e n  to  the f i c t i t i o u s  w o r l d o f J.R.R. T o l k i e n , t h e w r i t e r .  tion f o ra better l i f e  a n d an i m p r o v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f a r t m i g h t be g a i n e d  from t h e examination  Inspira-  of the role  o f heroes and v i l -  l a i n s p e r s o n i f i e d i n some s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e . Goals: Students  will  gain understanding  p a s t and i n s p i r a t i o n h e r o e s and v i l l a i n s ing  f o r the present of the past.  of other  societies of the  from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  They w i l l  with  grow i n u n d e r s t a n d -  o f the r o l e a r t can play i n r e f l e c t i n g values of a given  culture. Objectives: Students  will  l e a r n t o d i s c u s s and c r i t i c a l l y  evaluate  s c u l p t u r e s o f t h e human f i g u r e o n t h e themes o f h e r o e s o r v i l lains. and  They w i l l  look a t s c u l p t u r e s from d i v e r s e  a t work by a v a r i e t y o f a r t i s t s .  societies  105.  Lesson a i d s : The by  f o l l o w i n g combination  t h e i r t o p i c , are suggested No.  No.  No.  41:  "Traitor"  Chief"  (North America)  54 and  123:  "The  r e l a t e d or  (Congo, A f r i c a ) , and  Jinas  (conquerors)"  " H a r m o d i u s and  A r i s t o g e i t o n " (Greece)  84 and  249  184  and  and  (Assyria),  "Peter the Great" Proletariat"  314  and  by F a l c o n e t ,  by  129  and  265  385:  "The  "The  and  144  and  "Naked L a n c e r "  Vischer,  S t o n e , Arm  of  the  Houdon,  and  291  and  311:  Borghese G l a d i a t o r "  (Etruscan), "Hercules  by B o u r d e l l e , "The  Hero  Imredy  " D i s c o b o l o s " by M y r o n , "The  Archer"  and  and  by S h a d r e , "George W a s h i n g t o n " by  "Louis St. Laurent"  (Greece),  253  "Kwakiutl  (India),  " K i n g A r t h u r " by  and  143  contrasted  for discussion:  14 and  Gilgamesh"  No.  of s l i d e s ,  A t h l e t e " by  Rodin,  the and  "The  R u n n e r " by S i n t e n i s No.  176  and  and  232:  177  and  "David"  Michelangelo, No.  186  and  178  187  and  and  by  and  182  and  202  and  203  and  D o n a t e l l o , by V e r r o c c h i o ,  204 by  by B e r n i n i  257:  "Perseus"  by C e l l i n i  and  by  Canova No.  1 2 1 " a n d 347: S h i e l d " by  No.  240  and  Quixote"  (Greece),  and  "Warrior  with  Moore  327: by  "Warrior"  "Milo of Crotona" Gonzales  by P u g e t , and  "Don  106 .  No.  207 a n d 271 a n d 272 a n d 2 7 3 : and  No.  No.  " S t . J o h n t h e B a p t i s t " by R o d i n  119 a n d 120 a n d 1 8 5 : and  "Moses" by M i c h e l a n g e l o ,  "Apollo o f Piombino"  (Greece),  " A p o l l o F o u n t a i n " by V i s c h e r  159 a n d 160 a n d 172 a n d 280 a n d 2 8 1 :  "Adam a n d E v e "  ( R o m a n e s q u e ) , ( G o t h i c ) , a n d by R i e m e n s c h n e i d e r , a n d "Eve" by R o d i n No.  138 a n d 206 a n d 254 a n d 158: (Greece), "Bacchus"  "Marsyas  by M i c h e l a n g e l o , "The B a d T h i e f "  by 0. A l e i j a d i n h o , a n d " L a s t J u d g e m e n t " No.  the Satyr"  263 a n d 264 a n d 2 8 9 :  (Romanesque)  " U g o l i n o " by C a r p e a u x ,  "The  P r o d i g a l S o n " by M e u n i e r , a n d "The P r o d i g a l S o n " by Rodin No.  188 a n d 189 a n d 190 a n d 213 a n d 233 a n d 234: Overcoming  V i c e " by C e l l i n i ,  "Virtue  "The A b d u c t i o n o f P e r -  s e p h o r e " by B e r n i n i , a n d " A p o l l o a n d Daphne" by Bernini Discussion: I n t r o d u c e t h e t o p i c w i t h a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f what a t t r i b u t e s w o u l d q u a l i f y a p e r s o n f o r b e i n g c a l l e d a. h e r o o r a villain.  C o n s i d e r s u c h h e r o e s o f o u r p r e s e n t s o c i e t y i n Canada  a s T e r r y F o x , Wayne G r e t s k y o r S t e v e P o d b o r s k i . w i t h men o f t h e p a s t o r o f o t h e r s o c i e t i e s ,  Compare them  such as Winston  C h u r c h i l l , M a r t i n L u t h e r K i n g , Mahatma G a n d h i , Anwar S a d a t , Pope J o h n P a u l I I , L e c h W a l e s a , Mohammed A l i , E l v i s John Lennon.  G i v e a l s o examples  of v i l l a i n s ,  Presley,  such as A d o l f  107.  Hitler,  the Ayattolah Khomeini, C l i f f o r d Olson the c h i l d  kil-  l e r , A l i Agca t h e Pope's would-be a s s a s s i n . What h a v e t h e h e r o e s a n d v i l l a i n s  i n common?  They b o t h  m i g h t r o u s e t h e m a s s e s , become a s y m b o l t o them, a n d a l e a d e r f o r good o r e v i l . oes  What t e l l s h e r o e s a n d v i l l a i n s  often s e t great  tasks  o t h e r s , and a c c o m p l i s h  gets  tough.  Her-  f o r themselves i n the i n t e r e s t of  them t h r o u g h much p e r s o n a l  They s u c c e e d a g a i n s t g r e a t o d d s , w h e r e v i l l a i n s going  apart?  sacrifice.  f a i l when t h e  Heroes' s e l f l e s s a t t i t u d e s are i n c o n t r a s t  t o t h e s e l f - c e n t r e d egoism and d i s r e g a r d o f t h e i n t e r e s t o f others  by v i l l a i n s .  N o b l e men may s u f f e r  a c a u s e o r f o r t h e good o f t h e i r the  inability  Villains  sub-human d e e d s .  a humble a t t i t u d e w h i l e  they perform  super-human  o f s o r r o w and s u f f e r i n g . a n d a s y o u d e a l w i t h e a c h exam-  ple, give the h i s t o r i c a l or p o l i t i c a l  work.  disappointment.  The b r i n g e r s o f j o y , f r e e d o m a n d h a p p i n e s s  showing the s l i d e s ;  or mythological  with  f e e l t h e h e a d i n e s s o f power w h i l e e n g a g e d i n  contrast with the bearers Begin  fellow-men i n c o n t r a s t  o f e v i l men t o s t a n d p a i n o r  Heroes m a i n t a i n deeds.  i n the interest of  background, the r e l i g i o u s  story, or s o c i e t a l values  a p p l i c a b l e t o each  By u s i n g t h e s u g g e s t e d s l i d e c o m b i n a t i o n s y o u w o u l d be  dealing with values  h e l d by p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , w i t h  accomplishment, with p o l i t i c a l ievement, w i t h bravery  military  leadership, with a t h l e t i c  i n the face o f great danger, w i t h the  p r i c e p a i d f o r w a r , w i t h r e l i g i o u s d e d i c a t i o n , w i t h human i n g s and t r a g i c m i s t a k e s , flesh.  F o r example:  ach-  fail-  w i t h weakness o f t h e s p i r i t o r o f t h e  108'.  The  s t o r y o f D a v i d and  T e s t a m e n t , 1 S a m u e l 16 and to  r e s e n t i n g h i s own then  show them t h e s l i d e s and  and  Goliath,  f a c e d each o t h e r i n b a t t l e , each  c o u n t r y and p e o p l e . (No.  176,  Read i t t o t h e  177,  178,  182,  the hands.  students  202,  203,  "David,"  t h e s t r e s s i s on t h e h e a d  t h a t he a l r e a d y had k i l l e d b e a r s  t h e y draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e reasons  head i s where t h e i d e a o r i g i n a t e d p o w e r f u l opponent. s e s s t h e i d e a and  But  beyond  for his victory.  f o r t h e means t o s l a y  In the s c u l p t u r e , David  still  The  the  seems t o  as-  t o be i n t h e p r o c e s s o f m a k i n g h i s d e c i s i o n  w h i l e h i s hands appear t o get ready "smooth s t o n e . "  c h a r a c t e r and  and  and w o l v e s t o p r o t e c t h i s  sheep, but p o i n t t o h i s f u t u r e p h y s i c a l growth.  w i t h the  and  A t t a c h e d t o t h e y o u n g b o d y , t h e l a r g e hands o f a  i n d i c a t e not o n l y the e a r l y m a t u r i t y o f young D a v i d ,  this,  rep  232).  In M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s  man  who  Old  17, g i v e s t h e b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e  the c o n t e s t between D a v i d , t h e young shepherd  the g i a n t P h i l i s t i n e ,  204  G o l i a t h , as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e  f o r the f a t a l  slingshot  M i c h e l a n g e l o t e l l s us more a b o u t  h e r o i c q u a l i t y of David the youngster, w i t h  the less  o b v i o u s means, t h a n t h e o t h e r s c u l p t o r s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n here. In  contrast to Michelangelo's,  i s B e r n i n i ' s "David."  B e r n i n i ' s i s m o s t a c t i o n - p a c k e d , c a p t u r i n g t h e moment o f reme p h y s i c a l e f f o r t c o u p l e d w i t h t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f tration,  a t t r i b u t e s o f any  outstanding athlete.  supconcen  Thus, B e r n i n i  " D a v i d " m i g h t be t h e most a p p e a l i n g t o a d o l e s c e n t s , e x c e p t t h o s e more t h o u g h t f u l s t u d e n t s , who  might p e r c e i v e the  of  absence  109.  of  t h e h e r o i c a s t h e r e a r e no i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e  vulnerability  of  y o u t h f a c i n g a f o r m i d a b l e opponent i n heavy armour.  What  see i s the h i g h l y t r a i n e d a t h l e t e , w e l l p r e p a r e d f o r t h e  we  chal-  lenge. D o n a t e l l o and V e r r o c c h i o b o t h d e p i c t e d t h e moment o f umph a f t e r t h e d e e d was Donatello  (No.  176)  a c c o m p l i s h e d by D a v i d .  and t h e V e r r o c c h i o show a p r o u d  i n g l y asking f o r applause. that of a hero.  The  p h y s i c a l accomplishment  expects rewards.  earliest David  exists without the  professional,  Y e t some p r o f e s s i o n a l a t h l e t e s  perform  g r e a t d e e d s i n a s p o r t b u t r e m a i n as i f h u m b l e d by t h e i r success. in  o u r own  Perhaps  this  i s t h e a t t r a c t i o n and t h e h e r o  than the l a t e r bronze  quality  " D a v i d s , " l e s s so t h e e a r l i e r  t e n d e r y o u t h w i t h the o u t s i z e d sword  his  hand, eyes  of Goliath s t i l l  d o w n c a s t , seems t o c o n t e m p l a t e  Inward-turned,  his fate.  in  t h e wonder o f h i s  r e l a x e d i n b o d y , he a p p e a r s  ment o f a h i g h e r power f u l f i l l i n g  as t h e  instru-  Thus D o n a t e l l o ' s  " D a v i d " m i g h t be t h e m o s t t r u e t o h i s b i b l i c a l  Everyday  marble  s c u l p t u r e , show D a v i d more as a h e r o .  The  bronze  own  Wayne G r e t s k y .  D o n a t e l l o ' s l a t e r two  deed.  seem-  This a t t i t u d e i s not i n keeping w i t h  d o u b t b u t t h e r e i s a s e n s e o f a Mohammed A l i , who  The  tri-  s c u l p t u r e - d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e common  theme.  man.  Rationale: T h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f s c u l p t u r e on t h e theme o f t h e f i g u r e , a r t i s t s h a v e s o m e t i m e s t u r n e d away f r o m  commemorating  i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s and o u t s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n f a v o u r o f t h e  110.  mundane a n d o f o r d i n a r y man.  These works c a n t e l l  a b o u t t h e s o c i e t y t h a t t h e s e common men l i v e d us,  through the communication o f a c t i v i t i e s  bridge  us s o m e t h i n g  i n , and o f t e n  help  and f e e l i n g s , t o  t h e gap t o a n o t h e r s o c i e t y , c u l t u r e , a n d a g e .  Goal: Students w i l l in  g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  depicting a society's l i f e  common man.  This w i l l  help  and v a l u e s  of the a r t i s t ' s  role  t h r o u g h images o f t h e  them t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h c u l t u r e s  e i g n t o them, and t h u s b r o a d e n t h e i r h o r i z o n  for-  and sense o f be-  l o n g i n g t o a shared humanity. Objectives: Students w i l l volved  discuss  s c u l p t u r e s h o w i n g o r d i n a r y man i n -  i n a c t i v i t i e s o f p l a y o r work, and e x p r e s s i n g  we a l l c a n a s s o c i a t e w i t h , a n d t h e y w i l l  learn to recognize  mon e l e m e n t s o f o u r l i v e s i n t h o s e o f o t h e r societies. times,  They w i l l  values  feelings com-  times and o t h e r  a l s o l e a r n t o see, i n works o f present  a n d b e l i e f s t h a t we h o l d .  The s e e m i n g l y common-  p l a c e c a n be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r c o m m e m o r a t i o n . Lesson a i d s : S l i d e s No. 30 a n d 31 ( M e x i c o ) ;  3 2 , 3 3 , 34 a n d 35  45,  4 6 , 6 3 , 65 a n d 66 ( C h i n a ) ;  86,  8 7 , 8 9 , 9 0 , 9 2 , 9 4 , 9 5 , 9 6 , 97 a n d 100  (Egypt);  1 2 2 , 129 ( G r e e c e ) ;  213  (Michelangelo);  259  ( R u d e ) ; 264 ( M e u n i e r ) ;  289,  74  (Inuit);  (Cambodia);  168 ( G o t h i c ) ;  255 ( 1 8 t h c e n t u r y  291 a n d 292 ( R o d i n ) ;  Presepio);  270, 276, 284, 288, 299 ( D e g a s ) ;  111. 301  (Lehmbruck); 304 and 306 ( L i p c h i t z ) ; 308  and 309 ( B a r l a c h ) ; 310 and 311 ( S i n t e n i s ) ; 313  (Marcks)' ;  318 (Patzay) ; 322 ( A r c h i p e n k o ) ;  324  ( B r a c h o ) ; 329 ( G r e c o ) ; 332 ( P i c a s s o ) ; 335  and 336 ( M a r i n i ) ; 338 (Manzu); 340 ( N i l s s o n ) ; 345  (Moore); 352, 353 and 354 ( S e g a l ) ; 355  and 356 ( B u t l e r ) ; 359 ( M i l l e r ) ; 367 t o 372 ( L u c c h e s i ) ; 373 (de A n d r e a ) ; 374 (Hanson); 375 and 376 ( M o r a l e s ) ; 379 ( B a r e l i e r ) ; 383 ( Z u n i g a ) ; 384 ( E r h a r d y ) ; and 392 (Imredy). Discussion: You might approach t h e d i s c u s s i o n by p o i n t i n g t o some o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s under which some o f t h e s l i d e s may be grouped. One such group might be under t h e g e n e r a l heading o f " p l a y . " I n c l u d e d under " p l a y " you might p u t m u s i c i a n s from China ( S l i d e No. 6 3 ) , t h e f l u t e p l a y e r from Greece  ( S l i d e No. 1 2 2 ) ,  L i p c h i t z ' s man w i t h g u i t a r ( S l i d e No. 306), B a r l a c h ' s s i n g e r ( S l i d e No. 309), and S i n t e n i s 310).  1  f l u t e p l a y i n g boy ( S l i d e No.  Compare t h e g r a c e f u l Greek g i r l d e e p l y engaged i n t h e  music she i s making w i t h t h e awkward, growing body o f t h e boy by S i n t e n i s . i s producing.  He, t o o , i s f u l l y g i v i n g h i m s e l f t o t h e tunes he Two d i f f e r e n t b o d i e s , t h e g i r l and t h e boy, both  s i t t i n g ; both c o u l d be anyone o f today making  music.  S t i l l under " p l a y " you might look a t dancers o r a t h l e t e s . Show t h e s l i d e s o f t h e dancer from Mexico  ( S l i d e No. 31) o f  600 t o 700 y e a r s ago, t h e one from I n d i a ( S l i d e No. 45, 46) o f 3,500 t o 5,000 y e a r s ago, from Cambodia ( S l i d e No. 74) from  112.  the  12th century, and Degas' dancer  e a r l y p a r t o f our century. b e a r i n g between the g i r l  ( S l i d e No. 299) from the  P o i n t to the s i m i l a r i t y o f pose and  from a n c i e n t I n d i a and the c l a s s i c a l  b a l l e t dancer by Degas. On the t o p i c of " s p o r t s " you can look a t the b a l l p l a y e r p o i s e d t o throw the b a l l  ( S l i d e No. 30) from the Mexico o f  300—1,000 A.D., then a t Myron's " D i s c o b o l o s " ( S l i d e No. 129) from Greece i n 450 B.C., ready t o throw the d i s c u s , and S i n t e n i s ' runner ( S l i d e No. 311) o f t h i s 20th c e n t u r y , a l l i n the moment of  action.  Rodin's a t h l e t e  of  t h i s c e n t u r y , seems t o be w a i t i n g f o r h i s turn o f a c t i o n ,  while M a r i n i ' s w r e s t l e r  ( S l i d e No. 291) from the beginning  ( S l i d e No. 336) from our times, r e s t s  between rounds. A group o f s l i d e s o f t h i s century and o f Western A r t commemorate mundane a c t i v i t i e s o f washing  and b a t h i n g , combing  one's h a i r , checking i n the m i r r o r f o r appearance or f o r putt i n g on j e w e l l e r y .  These works use the female f i g u r e , and i t  might be assumed t h a t t h i s i s as much an i n d i c a t i o n of women's p r e o c c u p a t i o n with t h e i r appearance p o r t r a y the female nude. 318,  as i t i s an o p p o r t u n i t y to  Show the f o l l o w i n g s l i d e s :  No. 288,  354, 355, 368, 370, 375, 376, 384, and 392, and ask the  students t o i d e n t i f y w i t h these a c t i v i t i e s .  P o i n t out how  g r a c e f u l and b e a u t i f u l these s c u l p t u r e s a r e , and how l i t t l e the average person might be aware o f t h e i r own appearance when deeply engaged i n such t r i v i a l ,  routine a c t i v i t i e s .  be f u r t h e r added t h a t keeping c l e a n and well-groomed  I t might has not  always been d e s i r a b l e i n s o c i e t y , and t h a t the frequency o f  113.  choosing t h i s t o p i c i s f a r more common i n our which r e f l e c t s our Further ily.  values.  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s the sculptures  ( S l i d e s No.  f a m i l y group woman and  lower s t a t u s of women i n -  of couples from Egypt from c. 3,000  95).  A f t e r t h a t , look at  Nilsson's  ( S l i d e No.  340)  showing an o l d e r and  a younger  a c h i l d without the presence of the  equal p r o t e c t o r s  ( S l i d e No.  345)  of the c h i l d r e n , and  ( S l i d e No.  How  much these f a m i l y p o r t r a y a l s , c r e a t e d and  discussion.  young mother  35,  25,  and  f a m i l y , and  the  might be a r r i v e d at as  reflec-  works d e p i c t -  graceful, dignified, self-confident old  from China's Ming Dynasty times respect  7 years  times, i s a worthwhile t o p i c f o r  Similar conclusions  The  f o r o l d age.  ( S l i d e No.  66)  Rodin's o l d woman ( S l i d e No.  lack of v a l u e ,  man  i s a f i g u r e of  o t h e r hand, i s a desperate, degraded person, and nakedness r e f l e c t s her  see  and woman are  t i o n s of s o c i e t a l v a l u e s by the comparison of two i n g o l d age.  Then  seemingly a l l alone i n the world.  downs of the nuclear  problems of our  father.  Lucchesi's  child  r e f l e c t the ups  371),  where man  and  v a l u e s and  fam-  86 and  Henry Moore's f a m i l y  ago,  history,  comparisons might be made on the theme of the  d i c a t e d on two B.C.  sense of  recent  284),  on  the  her wretched  a symbol of our  society.  114 .  Chapter I I I  CONCLUSION The  rationale  f o r the w r i t i n g of a sculpture  r e s o u r c e was t h e n e e d f o r i t i n s e c o n d a r y is  curriculum  schools.  Sculpture  n o t always t a u g h t as p a r t o f t h e a r t c u r r i c u l u m , and t h o s e  t e a c h e r s who do i n c l u d e i t h a v e o f t e n n o t s u f f i c i e n t to  background  t e a c h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f "making s c u l p t u r e " a n d " t a l k i n g  sculpture."  about  Teachers and s t u d e n t s need t o a c q u i r e an under-  standing of the vocabulary of s c u l p t u r e , which i s necessary f o r h i s t o r i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c r i t i c a l The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f works.  r e s u l t s o f t h e 1980 s u r v e y , c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e B r i t i s h  Col-  umbia A r t T e a c h e r s ' a n n u a l c o n f e r e n c e , c o n f i r m e d t h e need f o r this  study.  Secondary  R e i n f o r c e m e n t was f u r t h e r r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e new  A r t C u r r i c u l u m o f the M i n i s t r y o f Education which  c o n t a i n s s c u l p t u r e a s one o f t h e f i v e v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a s . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m i s s c h e d u l e d f o r S e p t e m b e r 1984,  thus adding urgency  to this  study.  R e s p o n s e t o N e e d s , t h e 198 3 S u r v e y o f Art  Teachers  A p r e s e n t a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e F e b r u a r y 19 8 3 A n n u a l ference of the B r i t i s h titled  Con-  Columbia A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , en-  "Ideas and t h r e e approaches  with encouraging r e s u l t s .  to the teaching of sculpture,"  An o v e r v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f s c u l p -  t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e was p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h s l i d e s .  Unit  115.  plans  i n the  area  of concepts,  a s t u d i o a c t i v i t y , and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a theme w e r e d i s c u s s e d .  Verne Smythe,  r e c o r d e r , wrote i n the J o u r n a l of the B r i t i s h Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n  (June 1983,  enjoyable,  s c h o l a r l y and  the  d i s t i n c t types of  "three  An  evaluation questionnaire,  t h e s i s , was  described  O c t o b e r 1983,  the  this  session.  The  used a f t e r another p r e s e n t a t i o n  The  confirm  a c q u i s i t i o n of copies  m e n t i o n e d , and  i t m i g h t be  and  handouts."  t o the Burnaby A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n .  of the m a t e r i a l .  was  slides  i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x 2 o f  ber of respondents at both presentations  peatedly  session  l e s s o n s , complete w i t h  d i s t r i b u t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s of the  same e v a l u a t i o n f o r m was  as  Columbia A r t  2_3:1) t h a t " t h e  u s e f u l , " and  critical  the  in A num-  usefulness  of s l i d e s i s r e -  considered  useful i n  the  f u t u r e to produce such a k i t .  Andy N e l s o n , A s s i s t i n g T e a c h e r  o f A r t i n B u r n a b y , w r i t e s , "we  want a c o p y f o r t h e  .  must s h a r e i t . "  . . so many g r e a t  w r o t e , " I hope y o u and  Ann  H e a l y , an  will  teaching  art."  to which the and  study  Another  p u b l i s h i n g y o u r s l i d e s and  medium—and  stated that CareD as  Some a r t t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d s , e.g.,  "the  ness of  teacher  lectures,"  ideas  can  such v a l u a b l e  "more s t u d i o  be  to  expressed s p e c i f i c  everyneeds  techniques"  more o f t h e theme a p p r o a c h e s t o a r t h i s t o r y and  discussions."  "cultural  A r t t e a c h e r s , J u n e Oddson, e m p h a s i z e d t h e  useful-  " e s p e c i a l l y the concept of t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , "  w e l l as t h e connection the  be  art teacher,  t r a n s f e r r e d t o any one  i d e a s ; you  district  " u s e s o f m a t e r i a l s , " and w i t h the  N e i l MacDonald wrote i n  s l i d e s as r e s o u r c e s ,  "names o f t h e a r t i s t s  as  to include l i s t s  - names o f s c u l p t u r e , " w h i c h was  of done.  116.  F u r t h e r d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l m i g h t be p l a n n e d f o r f u t u r e i n the  f o r m o f l o n g e r w o r k s h o p s , and  the  with a s e l e c t i o n of  s l i d e s as s u g g e s t e d i n t h e u n i t p l a n s . The  choice of subject matter f o r t h i s  o f t h e human f i g u r e , c o u l d be u n i t p l a n s , and ific be  m i g h t be  composition  pagan d e i t i e s  a d a p t e d by t e a c h e r s  "mother and  child,"  p e r c e p t i o n o f b e a u t y " as d e p i c t e d be  b a s e d on  opportunity  can  to express  lead to understanding society's values  what t h e y  of Art subject area  t r a i t u r e , and ner.  slides.  sculpture.  slides,  or  Such  lessons  t h o u g h t , as w e l l as  through  f e e l and  perceive  can  and  often  expresses  W i t h i n Other Areas  study  c o u l d be  r e p l a c e d by  por-  much o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y a p p l i e s i n a s i m i l a r man-  S t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s and  Once s t u d e n t s  t h e i r own  a s y o u n g a r t i s t s and  c o n c e p t s c o u l d a l s o be  applied to  themes t o o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e  gain confidence  c i s i n g t h e work o f a r t i s t s , criticize  the  Education  of t h i s  a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e , and arts.  r e l a t i v i t y of  beliefs.  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r Use  The  "the  o f t h e ways a r t q u e s t i o n s  and  themes m i g h t  s e l e c t e d w o r k s as  grow i n c r i t i c a l  spec-  "comparison between  i n the  photographs, or r e p l i c a s , or students' where s t u d e n t s  sculpture  to s u i t the  Further  from s e v e r a l c u l t u r e s , " or  D i s c u s s i o n s may  the  u s e d i n s e v e r a l o t h e r ways f o r  of i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s e s .  c h o s e n , s u c h as  study,  they  can  visual  i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and  criti-  be  to  b e t t e r persuaded  w o r k , w h i c h i s so e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r human  beings.  growth  117.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS:  A r n a s o n , H.H. H i s t o r y o f modern a r t . A b r a m s , I n c . , n.d.  New  York:  Harry  N.  A n t o n , F., & D o c k s t a d e r , F . J . P r e - C o l u m b i a n a r t and l a t e r Indian t r i b a l a r t s . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , I n c . , n.d. 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Charbonneaux,  J.  La s c u l p t u r e Grecque.  Paris:  C h a r b o n n e a u x , J . L e s s c u l p t u r e s de R o d i n . H a z a n , 1949. C h e n e y , S. Sculpture of the w o r l d : V i k i n g P r e s s , I n c . , 1968.  a history.  form.  Braun  Paris:  C h u r c h i l l , A.R. A r t f o r p r e a d o l e s c e n t s . New H i l l , I n c . , 1971. C l a r k , K. The n u d e , a s t u d y i n i d e a l B o o k s , I n c . , 1956.  New  New  York: New  York: & C i e , n.d.  Fernand York:  The  MacGraw-  York:  Pantheon  118.  C l a r k , K. Ltd.,  H e n r y Moore d r a w i n g s . 1978.  Devambez, P. Greek s c u l p t u r e . Company, 1961.  London: New  Thames and  York:  Hudson,  Tudor P u b l i s h i n g  D a v i s , D.J. B e h a v i o r a l emphasis i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . N a t i o n a l A r t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1975.  Reston,  Va.:  F e l d m a n , E.B. V a r i e t i e s of v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1973, and New Y o r k : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , I n c . , 19 73. Fraser,  D.  Primitive art.  London:  Thames and H u d s o n ,  G r a v e s , R. New L a r o u s s e e n c y c l o p e d i a o f m y t h o l o g y . The Hamlyn P u b l i s h i n g G r o u p , L t d . , 1974. Grohmann, W. The a r t o f H e n r y M o o r e . A b r a m s , I n c . , n.d. Hammacher, A.M. The and i n n o v a t i o n .  New  York:  New  Harry  1962. York: N.  e v o l u t i o n o f modern s c u l p t u r e , t r a d i t i o n New Y o r k : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , I n c . , n.d.  H i b b a r d , H. M a s t e r p i e c e s o f w e s t e r n s c u l p t u r e , from m e d i e v a l t o m o d e r n . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , n.d. H u g h e s , G. The s c u l p t u r e o f D a v i d Wynne 1968/1974. P h a i d o n P r e s s L i m i t e d , 1974. H u m b e r t , A. La s c u l p t u r e contemporair.e. A l b e r t M o r a n c S , 1954.  Paris:  London:  Editions  Huyghe, R., & J a c c o t t e t , P. French drawing of the 19th c e n t u r y . London: Thames a n d H u d s o n , 19 56. J a m e s , P. ( E d . ) . H e n r y Moore on s c u l p t u r e . and Co. ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . , 1966.  London:  Macdonald  J a n s o n , H.W. Key monuments o f t h e h i s t o r y o f a r t , a v i s u a l survey. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1959, and New Y o r k : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , I n c . , 195 9. J a n s o n , H.W. H i s t o r y o f a r t , a survey o f major v i s u a l a r t s from t h e dawn o f h i s t o r y t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1963, and New Y o r k : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , I n c . , 1963. Koczogh,  A.  K o l l e r , A., Main:  (Ed.).  Tibor  Szervatiusz.  Budapest:  & L e r n e t - H o e n i a , A. Marino M a r i n i . F i s c h e r B u c h e r e i K.G., 1961.  Corvina, Frankfurt  1978. am  L a s c u l p t u r e , methode e t v o c a b u l a i r e . I n v e n t a i r e G e n e r a l des Monuments e t d e s R i c h e s s e s A r t i s t i q u e s de l a F r a n c e . Paris: I m p r i m e r i e N a t i o n a l e , 1978. L e a k e y , R.E. 1981.  The m a k i n g o f m a n k i n d .  LeBrooy, P.J. M i c h e l a n g e l o models, Praun c o l l e c t i o n . Vancouver: P u b l i s h e r s , L t d . , 1972.  New  York:  E.P.  Dutton,  formerly i n the Paul C r e e l m a n & Drummond  L e i c h t , H. H i s t o r y of the world's a r t . and U n w i n , L t d . , 1952.  London:  George  von  Allen  L e v y , M. The human f o r m i n a r t ; t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n and p r a c t i c e o f f i g u r e d r a w i n g and p a i n t i n g . Liverpool: Odhams P r e s s Ltd., 1968. L u c i e - S m i t h , E. L a t e m o d e r n , t h e v i s u a l a r t s s i n c e 1945. York: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1976.  New  M c F e e l y , S. Teaching s c u l p t u r e : a r a t i o n a l e and r e s o u r c e k i t . Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , May 1983. M a c h o t k a , P. The n u d e , p e r c e p t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y . I r v i n g t o n P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1979.  New  M a l m s t r o m , M. T e r r a c o t t a , s c u l p t u r e by B r u n o L u c c h e s i . Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978. M a r q u e z , G.G. M a r t i n i e , A.H.  Morales. Rodin.  New  York:  Paris:  Aberbach  Brauri & C i e ,  M e r i l l a t , H.C. S c u l p t u r e w e s t and e a s t . & Company, 19 73. M o r r i s , D. York:  New  O s e k a , A., & S k r o d z k i , W. A r k a d y , 1977.  New  Wspotczesna  P a d o v a n o , A. The p r o c e s s o f s c u l p t u r e . & Company, I n c . , 1 9 8 1 .  New  F i n e A r t , 19 80. 1948. York:  Dodd, Mead  M a n w a t c h i n g , a f i e l d g u i d e t o human b e h a v i o r . H a r r y N. A b r a m s , I n c . , 1977.  M y e r s , B.S. A r t and c i v i l i z a t i o n . H i l l , 1967.  York:  New  York/Toronto:  McGraw-  rzezba polska.  Warsaw:  New  York:  Doubleday  P f e i f f e r , J.E. The c r e a t i v e e x p l o s i o n : an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e o r i g i n s o f a r t and r e l i g i o n . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1982.  120.  P i e r c e , J . S . From a b a c u s t o Z e u s , a handbook o f a r t h i s t o r y . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1977. P r a c h e , A. S c u l p t u r e i n t h e L o u v r e . V i l o , 1967.  Paris:  Fernand Hazan e t  R a n d a l l , R., & H a i n e s , E.C. D e s i g n i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s . Worcester: D a v i s P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 196 5. R e a d , H. A c o n c i s e h i s t o r y o f modern s c u l p t u r e . F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , I n c . , 1964. R e a d , H. The a r t o f s c u l p t u r e . P r e s s , 1969. R o g e r s , L.R. London:  Princeton:  New Y o r k :  Princeton  University  Sculpture, the appreciation of the arts/2. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969.  S a u e r l a n d t , M. M i c h e l a n g e l o . V e r l a g , 1941.  Leipzig:  K a r l Robert  S c h l e m m e r , 0. Man, t e a c h i n g n o t e s f r o m t h e B a u h a u s . Lund Humphrxes, 1971. S e l z , P. New i m a g e s o f man. 1959.  New Y o r k :  S m i t h , H. The r e l i g i o n s o f man. P u b l i s h e r s , 1965. T o l n a y , de C. M i c h e l a n g e l o . P r e s s , 1975.  T o r b r u g g e , W. P r e h i s t o r i c European Abrams, I n c . , 1968.  art.  London:  Museum o f M o d e r n A r t ,  New Y o r k :  Princeton:  Langewiesche  Harper  & Row,  Princeton  University  New Y o r k :  H a r r y N.  T r i e r , E. Form a n d s p a c e , s c u l p t u r e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1 9 6 8 . V i s u a l D i c t i o n a r y o f a r t , A. G r e e n w i c h , Conn.: G r a p h i c S o c i e t y L t d . , 1974.  New Y o r k  Wasserman, J . L . ( w i t h c o n t r i b u t i o n s by Cuno, J . B . ) . Three A m e r i c a n s c u l p t o r s and t h e female nude; L a c h a i s e , Nadelman, Archipenko. C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : F o g g A r t Museum, 1 9 8 0 . W e n t i n c k , C. The human f i g u r e , i n a r t f r o m p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y . Wynnewood: L i v i n g s t o n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 7 1 . Yoyotte, J . Treasures o f t h e Pharaohs. P u b l i s h i n g Company, 196 8.  Cleveland:  The W o r l d  121.  CATALOGUES AND PAMPHLETS:  A b o r i g i n a l and M e l a n e s i a n A r t . New S o u t h W a l e s , 1 9 7 3 .  Exhibition at A r t Gallery of  A r t s o f I n d i a a n d N e p a l , The N a s l i and A l i c e Heeramaneck Collection. B o s t o n : Museum o f F i n e A r t s , 1966. A r t s c a n a d a , 1 9 7 8 , XXV, 4-26. Barlach/Kollwitz. Catalogue o f e x h i b i t i o n . The P e t e r S t u y v e s a n t T r u s t f o r t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e A r t s , A u s t r a l i a , 1976-1978. Beaver, Magazine  o f t h e N o r t h , The, 1958, S p r i n g ,  B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l T e a c h e r s , June 1983, 23(3) . Canadian Eskimo  Art.  Ottawa:  40-47. for Art  Queen's P r i n t e r , 1966.  Connaissance des a r t s ,  1 9 8 1 , 1_7, 32-41.  C o n n a i s s a n c e des a r t s ,  1 9 8 1 , 2 1 , 86-88.  Eskimo A r t C a l e n d a r , 1970. L t d . , 1969.  Vancouver:  Grant-Mann L i t h o g r a p h e r s  Eskimo A r t C a l e n d a r , 1971. L t d . , 1970.  Vancouver:  Grant-Mann L i t h o g r a p h e r s  Human Form i n C o n t e m p o r a r y A r t , T h e . C a t a l o g u e o f e x h i b i t i o n by R. B e c k a n d R.A. M i l l e r . Durham: The Duke U n i v e r s i t y Museum o f A r t , 19 71. I n d i a n M a s t e r p i e c e s from t h e W a l t e r and Marianne Koerner C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975. L i v i n g American A r t i s t s and t h e F i g u r e . Catalogue o f e x h i b i t i o n Nov. 2 - Dec. 2-2, 19 74. Museum o f A r t , The P e n n s y l v a n i a State University. N a c k t e Mensch, A s p e k t e d e r A k t d a r s t e l l u n g i n d e r K u n s t , P e r . E x h i b i t i o n a t K u n s t h a l l e B r e m e n , 19 79. N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n A r t i f a c t s f r o m t h e H.R. M a c M i l l a n C o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 19 75. S i l v e r J u b i l e e E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary B r i t i s h S c u l p t u r e 1977, A. L o n d o n : Mathews M i l l e r D u n b a r , 1977.  122.  Treasures o f Tutankhamun, 1977, The. Calendar. The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , 1976. Treasures o f Tutankhamen, The. B a l l e n t i n e Books, 1979.  Desk d i a r y .  New York:  New York:  Weisberg, G.P., & Janson, H.W. T r a d i t i o n s and R e v i s i o n s , Themes from the H i s t o r y o f S c u l p t u r e . C l e v e l a n d : E x h i b i t i o n h e l d a t The C l e v e l a n d Museum o f A r t , 19 75. Werke E u r o p a i s c h e r P l a s t i k . Catalogue o f e x h i b i t i o n a t Haus der Kunst Munich, Munich: C a r l Gabler, 1950.  123.  APPENDIX 1  124.  APPENDIX 1 April  1980  NEEDS ASSESSMENT - SCULPTURE SURVEY  PLEASE F I L L OUT THIS QUESTIONNAIRE AND TION DESK IN THE BOX PROVIDED FOR I T .  LEAVE AT  THE  REGISTRA-  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u e s t e d by me, A g n e s s P h i l i p p s , a r t t e a c h e r a t A l p h a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l i n B u r n a b y , and g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a t U.B.C. A r t E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t . Y o u r i n p u t w i l l be u t i l i z e d i n my M a s t e r s T h e s i s and c o u l d f u r t h e r a r t e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . You n e e d n o t r e v e a l y o u r name and w h e r e y o u t e a c h , u n l e s s y o u want t o , t h e n y o u may be c o n t a c t e d by me a t a l a t e r d a t e . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e the grade l e v e l s you " y e s " o r "no." Thank y o u  f o r your  t e a c h , and  answer w i t h  cooperation.  NAME GRADE LEVELS TAUGHT  ADDRESS SCHOOL I.  In your 1.  opinion,  Should  s c u l p t u r e be t a u g h t  - elementary - secondary  in  grades grades  - a l l grades - specific  secondary  courses  2.  Why?  3.  I n w h i c h way c o u l d s t u d e n t s b e n e f i t f r o m an e x p e r i e n c e i n s c u l p t u r e w h i c h o t h e r f o r m s o f t h e V i s u a l A r t s do not provide?  125. 4.  Does s c u l p t u r e  t a k e more t i m e p e r  unit  - than a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i c schools - than other 5.  6.  Does s c u l p t u r e n e e d s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s  equipment?  they a v a i l a b l e i n secondary schools?  - Are  they obtainable?  Do y o u h a v e a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s s c u l p t u r e i n your school?  M e t h o d s and you  obtain  and  equipment t o  i t yourself?  Materials  1.  Do  2.  Do y o u t e a c h i t as an r e l a t e d to ceramics?  3.  Do y o u i n t r o d u c e i t u s i n g v i s u a l a i d s as s l i d e s , f i l m s , f i l m s t r i p s ? If  and  - Are  - D i d you II.  a r e a s s u c h as p a i n t i n g  teach  so, are - how  sculpture  as p a r t o f  independent u n i t ,  they o r i e n t e d  sculpture  not  such  to:  i s made  - famous s c u l p t o r s ' work f o r - sculpture  ceramics?  as p a r t o f t h e  discussion  h i s t o r y of  art  - s c u l p t u r e examples from a l l c u l t u r e s of the world - s c u l p t u r e examples f o r Western civilization 4.  Do y o u c o n d u c t f i e l d s c u l p t u r e ( i f any)?  trips  to study  local  5.  Do y o u d e a l w i t h s c u l p t u r a l c o n c e p t s , as m a s s , s h a p e , f o r m , m o n u m e n t a l i t y ?  such  - i f s o , how?  6.  Do y o u t e a c h b o t h m e t h o d s , t h e and t a k e - a w a y p r o c e s s ?  7.  What m a t e r i a l s - clay  do y o u  use  build-up  i n your  ( t e r r a - c o t t a , unglazed)  - p l a s t e r of P a r i s to  cast  - p l a s t e r of P a r i s to  carve  teaching?  teach  126 •  - plastics - P a p i e r mache with armature without  armature  - construction with wire - c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h paper - construction with balsa - any III.  Quick  other  *  Quiz  1.  Do  you  know what an a r m a t u r e i s ?  2.  Do  you  know how  t o make a p i e c e m o l d ?  3.  Do  you  know why  one  4.  Can  you  c a s t a wastemold?  5.  Can  you  f i n i s h p l a s t e r t o make i t l o o k  makes a p i e c e m o l d ?  l i k e bronze? 6.  Can  you  teach  repousse?  7.  Can  you  teach welded s c u l p t u r e ?  8.  Can  you  carve  from a b l o c k  of  - plaster? - stone? - wood? IV.  Important G e n e r a l i t i e s 1.  Do y o u b e l i e v e t h a t a r t t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g should i n c l u d e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the t e a c h i n g of sculpture?  2.  Do  you  f e e l adequately  of sculpture?  trained for  teaching  - i n j u n i o r grades? - i n s e n i o r grades?  3.  W o u l d you  be  i n t e r e s t e d i n more  - in-service i n sculpture - hands-on workshops - lesson plans - visual aids - summer c o u r s e s - evening  courses  '  - Curriculum f o r junior  secondary  - Curriculum f o r senior  secondary  A d d i t i o n a l p e r t i n e n t comments y o u may w i s h make, p l e a s e n o t e  below. Thank y o u  128.  APPENDIX 2  129. APPENDIX 2 EVALUATION B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers  1  Annual Conference  F e b r u a r y 1983  "IDEAS AND THREE APPROACHES TO THE TEACHING OF SCULPTURE I N SECONDARY SCHOOLS." A g n e s s P h i l i p p s , A l p h a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , B u r n a b y , B.C. Evaluation/Recommendation  Form  1.  One o f t h e v a l u a b l e ' a s p e c t s o f t h i s s e s s i o n was:  2.  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t i d e a s g a i n e d f r o m t h i s s e s s i o n a n d t h e h a n d - o u t s o n u n i t p l a n s b a s e d o n t h e human f i g u r e c o u l d be transferred to the teaching of other areas of sculpture?  3.  I n t e r m s o f i d e a s f o r t e a c h e r s , f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be given to the following aspects of sculpture:  4.  Y o u d i d n o t a s k A g n e s s , b u t y o u s h o u l d know t h a t :  APPENDIX 3 kj>l coloured s l i d e s i n Special C o l l e c t i o n s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . Address:  Library - Special Collections 1956 Main Mall University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Y3  

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