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Curriculum for sculptures of the human figure in secondary schools : an historical, critical, and studio… Philipps, Agness 1984

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CURRICULUM FOR SCULPTURE OF THE HUMAN FIGURE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: AN HISTORICAL, CRITICAL, AND STUDIO APPROACH by Agness P h i l i p p s B. Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 (6) Agness P h i l i p p s , 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 >E-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i s t o s e r v e as c u r r i c u l u m r e s o u r c e f o r the t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e i n secondary s c h o o l s . The programme was d e v e l o p e d t o a i d a c u r r i c u l u m based on h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f a r t , and on s t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e a r e a o f s c u l p t u r e o f the human f i g u r e . I t i s t o f u r t h e r the 1984 i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r t C u r r i c u l u m f o r Secondary S c h o o l s , grades 8 t o 12. To a s c e r t a i n the u s e f u l n e s s o f such a r e s o u r c e , a s u r v e y o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r t t e a c h e r s was c a r r i e d o ut i n F e b r u a r y 1980 which c o n f i r m e d t h i s need. A r e a c t i o n t o and e v a l u a t i o n o f the major area s o f t h e s t u d y : t h e h i s t o r y o f a r t , i m p o r t a n t con-c e p t s and s e v e r a l themes o f s c u l p t u r e , and s t u d i o p r o c e s s e s f o r t h e making o f s c u l p t u r e o f the human f i g u r e were sought from B r i t i s h Columbia a r t t e a c h e r s i n F e b r u a r y 1983, and from Burnaby a r t t e a c h e r s i n October 1983. Respondents c o n f i r m e d the u s e f u l -ness o f t h i s c u r r i c u l u m r e s o u r c e . The s t u d y makes use o f a s e t o f 431 s l i d e s i n which the h i s t o r y o f s c u l p t u r e o f the human f i g u r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d , from P r e h i s t o r y t o the p r e s e n t t i m e . Examples a r e p r e s e n t e d o f a l l c u l t u r e s o f the w o r l d , which p e r m i t the use o f t h e human f i g u r e as a s u b j e c t . Such broad coverage was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n view o f t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l r o o t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . In o r d e r t o d e l i m i t a t e t h e s t u d y , the theme o f the human f i g u r e was chosen f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : i t i s the most common image i n sculpture; i t consists of great complexities of form; i t i s a most expressive tool for the portrayal of the human con-d i t i o n . Adolescence i s a time of considerable growth and sen-s i t i v i t y and i s therefore an appropriate time for the formation of self-concept which i s greatly influenced by physical appear-ance. It i s posited that the study of a great variety of sculp-ture of the human figure furthers adolescents' self-acceptance. Although the study deals with sculpture of the human f i g -ure, the same methodology might be used for other areas of the vis u a l arts. I t i s meant to provide viable and p r a c t i c a l ass-istance to art teachers i n the discussion of the history of art as related to the history of humankind, i n the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of major concepts of sculpture, i n the c r i t i c a l analysis of themes of sculpture, and i n the production of creative works by students. i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF PLATES v i i i LIST OF SLIDES i x LIST OF NAMES AND NATIONALITY OF SCULPTORS IDENTIFIABLE ON SLIDES x x x i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . x l i v C h a p ter I . INTRODUCTION 1 Need f o r the Study: Survey R e s u l t s o f B.C. A r t Teachers R e g a r d i n g T e a c h i n g o f S c u l p t u r e i n Secondary S c h o o l s 1 The Purpose of t h e T h e s i s 4 Why Teach S c u l p t u r e o f the Human F i g u r e t o A d o l e s c e n t s ? 11 I I . DEVELOPMENT OF THE CURRICULUM RESOURCES 16 Purpose o f S l i d e s 16 U n i t P l a n s 16 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S c u l p t u r e 18 H i s t o r i c a l Overview o f S c u l p t u r e o f the Human F i g u r e Based on 398 S l i d e s 24 Anatomy of the Human F i g u r e : The S k e l e t o n 36 . V. Chapter Page Study of Movement and Proportions Through Figure Drawing 45 Studio A c t i v i t i e s for the Making of Sculpture of the Human Body, Methods and Materials 49 The Maquette i n Clay 4 9 Terra-Cotta Sculpture 5 3 Metal Sculpture: Cold Wire Bending . . . . 58 Papier Mache Sculpture 61 Plaster of Paris on Armature 65 Plaster of Paris for Carving 68 Concepts of Sculpture 74 Threedimensionality 74 Form, Shape, Mass, Volume, Monumentality . . 77 C r i t i c i s m and Interpretation of Representations of the Figure 82 Linear Sculpture 82 Block Sculpture 85 Super-realism 89 Pathos i n Sculpture 93 Religious Sculpture 99 Commemorative Sculpture 104 Everyday Sculpture 109 II I . CONCLUSION 114 Response to Needs, the 19 8 3 Survey of Art Teachers 114 Recommendations for Use Within Other Areas of Art Education 116 V i Page BIBLIOGRAPHY 117 APPENDIX 1: Needs Assessment - Sculpture Survey 123 APPENDIX 2: Evaluation 128 APPENDIX 3: Slides No. 1 - 431 130 v i i . LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. A Selection of 140 Slides for a B r i e f Overview of the History of Sculpture of the Figure for Senior Secondary Students 30 2. A Selection of 86 Slides for a More Condensed Overview of Sculpture of the Figure Throughout the Ages, Around the World, for Junior Secondary Students 34 v i i i . LIST OF PLATES Plate Page 1. Half L i f e - s i z e Figures Under Construction i n the Art Room 8 2. Enlargement of the Maquette with Plaster of Paris on Armature 9 3. Display of Student Work 10 4. Proportions of the Skeleton . 42 5. Gesture Drawing with the Skeleton 4 3 6. Gesture Drawing with the Skeleton 44 i x . LIST OF SLIDES S l i d e 1. Venus o f W i l d e n m a n n l i s l o c h bone, N e a n d e r t h a l , c. 70,000 B.C. 2. Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f l i m e s t o n e , Ah i n . , P a l e o l i t h i c , c. 21,000 B.C. 3. Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f l i m e s t o n e , Ah i n . , P a l e o l i t h i c , c. 21,000 B.C. 4. Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f l i m e s t o n e , Ah i n . , P a l e o l i t h i c , c. 21,000 B.C. 5. Venus o f L a u s s e l l i m e s t o n e , 17 i n . , P a l e o l i t h i c 6. Venus o f Lespugue i v o r y , 6 i n . , M a g d a l e n i a n ( P a l e o l i t h i c ) , c. 15,000 B.C. 7. Venus o f Lespugue i v o r y , 6 i n . , M a g d a l e n i a n , c. 15,000 B.C. 8. Venuses o f : (from l e f t t o r i g h t ) W i l l e n d o r f , Indus V a l l e y , C y p r u s , A s l a s h , S y r i a . 9. M a r b l e F i g u r e C y c l a d i c , E a r l y Bronze Age 10. S t a t u e t t e s C y c l a d e s , end o f 3rd m i l l e n n i u m B.C. m a r b l e , 20 i n . 11. D e i t y F i g u r e 12 i n . , M i c r o n e s i a n . 12. Bearded F i g u r e 32 i n . , M i c r o n e s i a n . 13. Neck Rest wood, lh i n . , Congo, A f r i c a . 14. T r a i t o r wood w i t h r a f f i a s k i r t , 30 i n . , Congo, A f r i c a . 15. F e t i s h F i g u r e wood w i t h t e x t i l e , 9% i n . , Congo, A f r i c a . 16. Mother & C h i l d 15 i n . , N i g e r i a , A f r i c a . S l i d e 17. Mother & C h i l d 45 3/4 i n . , Congo, A f r i c a . 18. S t a n d i n g F i g u r e wood, w i t h s h e l l and human h a i r , 17 3/4 i n . , M a o r i , New Zealand. 19. Wood C a r v i n g (Mother & C h i l d ) 33% i n . , M e l a n e s i a n , New Guinea. 20. Female F i g u r e human h a i r , canes, woven s t r i n g , beads, 104 cm. M e l a n e s i a n , New Guinea. 21. Male & Female F i g u r e s wood and r a t t a n , M e l a n e s i a n , New Guinea. 22. A n c e s t r a l F i g u r e s t r e e f e r n , 50 i n . - 40 i n . , P o l y n e s i a n , F i j i . 23. Goddess 14 7/8 i n . , P o l y n e s i a n , Tonga. 24. A n c e s t r a l F i g u r e wood, 17% i n . , P o l y n e s i a n , E a s t e r I s l a n d . 25. Crowned God s o l i d g o l d , p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , 15 3/4 i n . x 8% i n . , I n c a , South A m e r i c a , P e r u . 26. S e a t e d Maiden t e r r a - c o t t a , 11 3/8 i n . , C o l i m a , c. 300-1000 A.D., M i d d l e A m e r i c a , Mexico. 27. E f f i g y p o t t e r y , 12 i n . , C o l i m a , M i d d l e A m e r i c a , Mexico. 28. A d o l e s c e n t s t o n e , 112.5 cm., H u a d i a c , 700-1000 A.D., M i d d l e A m e r i c a , Mexico. 29. Chac Mool l i m e s t o n e , 58% i n . l o n g , Mayan, 948-1697 A.D., M i d d l e A m e r i c a , Mexico. 30. B a l l p l a y e r t e r r a - c o t t a , 17 3/8 i n . , J a l i s c o , c. 300-1000 A.D., M i d d l e A m e r i c a , Mexico. 31. Dancer earthenware, 2 2/3 i n . , Z a p o t e c - M i x t e c , c. 1200-1400 A.D., M i d d l e A m e r i c a , Mexico. x i . S l i d e 32. Three F i g u r e s and Walrus s t o n e , N o r t h American, I n u i t . 33. Hunter w i t h Harpoon s t o n e , N o r t h American, I n u i t . 34. Hunter w i t h S e a l s t o n e , N o r t h American, I n u i t . 35. Mother & C h i l d s t o n e , N o r t h American, I n u i t . 36. ' Mother & C h i l d s t o n e , N o r t h American, I n u i t . 37. P i p e F i g u r e s t o n e , 8 i n . , c. 1000-1700 A.D., N o r t h American I n d i a n . 38. Great Totem P o l e wood, N o r t h American I n d i a n , B.C. 39. Two Mourners wood, 5 f t . 6 i n . , and 5 f t . 3 i n . , N o r t h American I n d i a n , S a l i s h . 40. Two House P o s t s wood, 5 f t . 2 i n . , and 5 f t . 9 i n . , N o r t h American I n d i a n , K w a k i u t l . 41. K w a k i u t l C h i e f wood, 45 i n . , N o r t h American I n d i a n , B.C. 42. T s i m s h i a n Dancing Shaman F i g u r e wood w i t h a b a l o n e s h e l l eyes and h o r s e h a i r , 24 i n . , N o r t h American I n d i a n , B.C. 43. Shaman wood, 19 i n . , N o r t h American I n d i a n , H a i d a . 44. Woman on a Sea Monster wood, 12 i n . , N o r t h American I n d i a n , H a i d a , 1810. 45. Naked Dancer copper, Ah i n . , c. 3000-1500 B.C., I n d i a . 46. Naked Dancer co p p e r , Ah i n . , c. 3000-1500 B.C., I n d i a . 47. V i s n u b r o n z e , 8h x 10 3/8 i n . , c. 9th c e n t u r y , I n d i a ( f r o n t ) x i i . S l i d e 48. V i s n u b r o n z e , 8% x 10 3/8 i n . , c. 9th c e n t u r y , I n d i a ( r e a r ) 49. Y a k s h i s t o n e , 1 s t c e n t u r y B.C., I n d i a . 50. Buddha sandstone, 5th c e n t u r y A.D., I n d i a . 51. Buddha b l a c k c h l o r i t e , 32 x 18 i n . , l a t e 8 t h t o 9th c e n t u r y , I n d i a . 52. Raj r a n i Temple sandstone, c. 1100 A.D., I n d i a . 53. Goddess Ta r a (Mother & C h i l d ) s t o n e , 11th c e n t u r y A.D., I n d i a . 54. The J i n a s (conquerors) 68 cm., 12th t o 13th c e n t u r y , I n d i a . 55. S h i v a as N a t a r a j a b r o n z e , 12th t o 13th c e n t u r y A.D., I n d i a . 56. Vasudhara b r o n z e , 18% x 15 3/4 i n . , c. 13th t o 14th c e n t u r y A.D., I n d i a . 57. F a s t i n g Buddha 2nd o r 3rd c e n t u r y , P a k i s t a n . 58. Seated Buddha s t o n e , 9th c e n t u r y , J a v a . 59. C e l e s t i a l Dancer sandstone, 10th c e n t u r y A.D., V i e t Nam. 60. Goddess Tara g i l d e d b r o n z e , 142.5 cm., 10th t o 11th c e n t u r y , S r i Lanka ( C e y l o n ) . 61. C o l o s s a l Buddha 45 f t . , c. 450-500 A.D., C h i n a . 62. Female F i g u r i n e t e r r a - c o t t a , 618-907 A.D., C h i n a . 63. M u s i c i a n s t e r r a - c o t t a , 10 3/4 i n . , 618-906 A.D., China x i i i . S l i d e 64. G u a r d i a n F i g u r e s t o n e , 618-907 A.D., C h i n a . 65. K n e e l i n g Worshipper mud w i t h s t r a w and h a i r , 7 t h c e n t u r y A.D., C h i n a . 66. Old Man i v o r y , Ming, C h i n a . 67. Kuan-Yin p o r c e l a i n , l a t e Ming, C h i n a . 68. Kuan-Yin wood, C h i n a . 69. Amida Buddha br o n z e , 37 f t . 4 i n . , c o l o s s a l , Japan. 70. F i g u r e wood, 27% i n . , 13th c e n t u r y A.D., Japan. 71. Buddha S a t u e t t e b r o n z e , 17th c e n t u r y A.D., T h a i l a n d 72. P r a y i n g F i g u r e b r o n z e , 12 3/5 i n . , 17th t o 18th c e n t u r y A.D., T h a i l a n d . 73. H a r i - H a r a c. 7th c e n t u r y A.D., Cambodia. 74. Dancers s t o n e , 12th c e n t u r y , Cambodia, Angkor Thorn ( " C a p i t a l C i t y " ) 75. R e l i e f o f P r o c e s s i o n o f Troops B e f o r e t h e K i n g s t o n e , Cambodia, Angkor Vat ( " C a p i t a l Temple") 76. Female D i e t y 11th c e n t u r y A.D., Cambodia. 77. M u c a l i n d a Buddha 35% i n . , 12th c e n t u r y , Cambodia. 78. The God Abu m a r b l e , 3000-2500 B.C., Mesopotamia. 79. S t a n d i n g Gudea d i o r i t e , c. 2400 B.C., Chaldean-Sumerian. 80. Winged Goddess t e r r a - c o t t a , 2000-1800 B.C., Neo-Sumerian. XIV. S l i d e 81. K i n g Hammurabi b l a c k b a s a l t , 1800-1700 B.C., Neo-Sumerian. 82. Goddess A s t a r t e b r o n z e , 1400-1200 B.C., P h o e n i c i a n . 83. K i n g A s s u r n a s i r p a l I I a l a b a s t e r , 9 t h c e n t u r y , A s s y r i a n . 84. The Hero Gilgamesh a l a b a s t e r , 8 th c e n t u r y , A s s y r i a n . 85. F i g u r i n e t e r r a - c o t t a , Sumerian. 86. F u n c t i o n a r y & H i s Wife wood, 44 cm., 4 t h Dynasty, 2900-2750 B.C., Egypt, 87. Seated S c r i b e g r a n i t e , c. 2750 B.C., Egypt. 88. K i n g M y c e r i n u s and W i f e s l a t e , c. 2680 B.C., Egypt. 89. Woman G r i n d i n g G r a i n l i m e s t o n e , C. 2650 B.C., Egypt. 90. The Stubborn Donkey l i m e s t o n e , c. 2650 B.C., Egypt. 91. Seated S c r i b e l i m e s t o n e , 29 i n . , c. 2680-2540 B.C., Egypt. 92. Seated S c r i b e l i m e s t o n e , 29 i n . , c. 2680-2540 B.C., Egypt. 93. Seated S c r i b e l i m e s t o n e , 29 i n . , c. 2680-2540 B.C., Egypt. 94. The Mayor wood, C. 2600 B.C., Egypt. 95. I n s p e c t o r o f S c r i b e s and Wife l i m e s t o n e , C. 2565 B.C., Egypt. 96. S e r v a n t G i r l wood, c. 2000 B.C., Egypt. 97. F u n e r a l - boat wood, c. 1900 B.C., Egypt. XV. S l i d e 98. Amenemhet I I I (pharaoh) g r a n i t e , c. 1820 B.C., Egypt. 99. S t a t u e t t e o f Imeret-Nebes c. 1800 B.C., Egypt. 100. C a r p e n t e r s , Brewers, M u s i c i a n s wood, c. 1780 B.C., Egypt. 101. Tuthmosis I I I grey b a s a l t , c. 1570 B.C., Egypt. 102. God Amon g o l d , c. 1460 B.C., Egypt. 103. The C o l o s s i o f Memnon q u a r t z i t e , 57 f t . 9 i n . , c. 1411-1372 B.C., Egypt. 104. Torso o f Armana P r i n c e s s r e d q u a r t z i t e , 29 cm., 1375-1350 B.C., Egypt. 105. Amenhotep IV (Echnaton) l i m e s t o n e , c. 1370 B.C., Egypt. 106. P a i n t e d Wood F i g u r e s (Pharaoh i n lower c e n t e r ) c. 1360 B.C., Egypt. 10 7. S t a t u e o f Woman c. 1350 B.C., Egypt. 108. Goddess S e r k e t , P r o t e c t o r o f t h e Dead c. 1334-1325 B.C., Egypt. 109. Tutankhamun the Harpooner wood ( g i l d e d ) , 29% i n . , c. 1334-1325 B.C., Egypt. 110. Tutankhamun the Harpooner wood ( g i l d e d ) , 29% i n . , c. 1334-1325 B.C., Egypt. 111. C o l o s s a l S t a t u e s from Abu-Simbel s a n d s t o n e , c. 1250 B.C., Egypt. 112. C o l o s s a l S t a t u e s from Abu-Simbel sandstone, c. 1250 B.C., Egypt. 113. F u n e r a r y F i g u r e o f Lady wood ( g i l d e d n e c k l a c e ) , 11% i n . , c. 1580-1090 B.C., Egypt. 114. Queen Karomana b r o n z e , 59 cm., 22 Dynasty, 950-730 B.C., Egypt. x v i . S l i d e 115. B l o c k - s t a t u e o f P r o p h e t s l a t e , c. 945 B.C., Egypt. 116. B l o c k - s t a t u e of P r i n c e c. 570 B.C., Egypt. 117. K n e e l i n g P r i e s t c. 55 0 B.C., Egypt. 118. "The D a t t a r i S t a t u e " o f a P r i e s t b l a c k d i o r i t e , c. 400 B.C., Egypt. 119. A p o l l o o f Piombino b r o n z e , 76 i n . , c. 475 B.C., Greece. 120. A p o l l o o f Piombino b r o n z e , 76 i n . , c. 475 B.C., Greece. 121. W a r r i o r from t h e Temple o f A p h a i a . . m a r b l e , c. 475 B.C., Greece. 122. F l u t e P l a y e r , from t h e L u d o v i s i Throne m a r b l e , c. 470-460 B.C., Greece. 123. Harmodius and A r i s t o g e i t o n by A n t e n o r , b r o n z e , Greece. 124. Zeus from A r t e m i s i o n b r o n z e , 82 i n . , c. 460 B.C., Greece. 125. Zeus from A r t e m i s i o n b r o n z e , 82 i n . , c. 460 B.C., Greece. 126. Zeus from A r t e m i s i o n b r o n z e , 82 i n . , c. 460 B.C., Greece. 127. Torso by P o l y k l e i t o s , b a s a l t , c. 450 B.C., Greece. 128. D i s c o b o l o s by Myron, (Roman Copy), m a r b l e , l i f e s i z e , c. 450 B.C., Greece. 129. D i s c o b o l o s by Myron, (Roman Copy), m a r b l e , l i f e s i z e , c. 450 B.C., Greece. 130. Athena P a r t h e n o s by P h i d i a s , m a r b l e , c o v e r e d i n i v o r y and g o l d , copy, 447-438 B.C., Greece. x v i i . S l i d e 131. Dione & A p h r o d i t e , from the P a r t h e n o n by P h i d i a s , m a r b l e , 4 f t . 1 i n . , 442-438 B.C., Greece. 132. R e l i e f , from the P a r t h e n o n by P h i d i a s , m a rble, 41 i n . , 442-438 B.C., Greece. 133. I l i s s o s m a r b l e , c. 438 B.C., Greece. 134. A p h r o d i t e o f K n i d o s by P r a x i t e l e s , m a r b l e , Greece. 135. Youth from A n t i k y t h e r a b r o n z e , 6 f t . 5 i n . , c. 350 B.C., Greece. 136. Youth from A n t i k y t h e r a b r o n z e , 6 f t . 5 i n . , c. 350 B.C., Greece. 137. Youth from A n t i k y t h e r a b r o n z e , 6 f t . 5 i n . , c. 350 B.C., Greece. 13 8. Marsyas, t h e S a t y r c 300 B.C., Greece. 139. V i c t o r y o f Samothrace m a r b l e , o v e r l i f e - s i z e , c. 200 B.C., Greece 14 0. V i c t o r y o f Samothrace m a r b l e , o v e r l i f e s i z e , c. 200 B.C., Greece. 141. A p h r o d i t e o f Melos (or Venus de M i l o ) m a r b l e , 6 f t . 8 i n . , c. 100 B.C., Greece. 14 2. Laokoon ma r b l e , 95 i n . , c. 100 B.C., Greece. 143. The Borghese G l a d i a t o r m a r b l e , c. 100 B.C., Greece. 144. Naked L a n c e r b r o n z e , 5 t h c e n t u r y B.C., E t r u s c a n . 14 5. Ombra b r o n z e , E t r u s c a n . 146. A p h r o d i t e b r o n z e , 33 cm., 4 t h c e n t u r y B.C., E t r u s c a n . X V I X I . S l i d e 147. D i o n y s i o s and t h e Graces m a r b l e , e a r l y 2nd c e n t u r y A.D., Roman. 148. A p o l l o t e r r a - c o t t a , 69 i n . , c. 500 B.C., E t r u s c a n . 149. Gemma Augustae sardo n y x , 8 i n . x 9 i n . , 1 s t c e n t u r y A.D., Roman. 150. P a t r i c i a n w i t h B u s t s o f A n c e s t o r s m a r b l e , l i f e s i z e , 1 s t c e n t u r y A.D., Roman. 151. Augustus m a r b l e , 8 0 i n . , c. 20 B.C., Roman. 152. C h r i s t B l e s s i n g i v o r y , l O t h - l l t h c e n t u r y A.D., B y z a n t i n e . 153. C r u c i f i x o f A r c h b i s h o p Gero polychromed oak, 969-971 A.D., Romanesque. 154. C h r i s t i n G l o r y c. 1090 A.D., Romanesque. 155. The P e n t e c o s t s t o n e , 35% f t . , c. 1132 A.D., Romanesque. 156. C h r i s t i n G l o r y , d e t a i l from t h e P e n t e c o s t s t o n e , c. 1132 A.D., Romanesque. 157. Eve w i t h F o r b i d d e n F r u i t 1120-1135 A.D., Romanesque. 158. L a s t Judgment e a r l y 12th c e n t u r y , Romanesque. 15 9. Adam & Eve Romanesque. 16 0. Adam & Eve G o t h i c . 161. Tomb of Duke & Wife c. 1230-1250 A.D., G o t h i c . 16 2. The Synagogue s t o n e , c . 1230-1250 A.D., G o t h i c . 16 3. The B l a c k P r i n c e copper g i l d e d , 1380, G o t h i c . 164. P i e t a wood, 34% i n . , e a r l y 14th c e n t u r y , G o t h i c . x i x . S l i d e 165. V i r g i n and C h i l d i v o r y , 14 i n . , 14th c e n t u r y , G o t h i c . 166. The B e a u t i f u l Madonna c. 1400 A.D., G o t h i c . 167. P i e t a c. 1400 A.D., G o t h i c . 16 8. A Mourner by C l a u s S l u t e r , Dutch, 1404-1410 A.D., G o t h i c . 16 9. Four S a i n t s i n C o n v e r s a t i o n by Nanni d i Banco, I t a l i a n , 1408-1413 A.D., G o t h i c . 170. Madonna and C h i l d s t o n e , c. 1420 A.D.,.Gothic. 171. Madonna w i t h Apple c. 1420 A.D., G o t h i c . 172. Adam and Eve by Rie m e n s c h n e i d e r , German, G o t h i c . 17 3. P e n i t e n t Mary Magdalene by Gregor E r h a r t , German wood, l a t e G o t h i c . 174. The V i r g i n w i t h the Lau g h i n g C h i l d by A n t o n i o R o s s e l l i n o , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , 20 i n . , mid-15th c e n t u r y . 175. S t . George by D o n a t e l l o , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 7 f t . , 1415-1417 A.D. 176. D a v i d by D o n a t e l l o , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 75% i n . , 1408-1409 A.D. 177. D a v i d by D o n a t e l l o , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 64 i n . , 1434-1438 A.D. 178. D a v i d by D o n a t e l l o , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 60% i n . , 1438-1443 A.D. 179. Gates o f P a r a d i s e by Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I t a l i a n , g i l d b r o n z e , 1425-1452 A.D. XX . S l i d e 180. Gates of P a r a d i s e , The S t o r y o f Jacob and Esau by Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I t a l i a n , d e t a i l . 181. Madonna and C h i l d by Luca d e l l a R o b b i a , I t a l i a n , e n a m e l led t e r r a - c o t t a , 1450-1460 A.D. 182. D a v i d by Andrea d e l V e r r o c c h i o , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 4 f t . 1 i n . , c. 1475 A.D. 183. Eve by A n t o n i o R i z z o , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , c. 1485 A.D. 184. K i n g A r t h u r by P e t e r V i s c h e r , German, b r o n z e , 1513 A.D. 185. A p o l l o F o u n t a i n by Hans V i s c h e r , German, b r o n z e , 1532 A.D. 186. Perseus by Benvenuto C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 1545-1554 A.D. 187. P e r s e u s by Benvenuto C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 1545-1554 A.D. 188. V i r t u e Overcoming V i c e by Benvenuto C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 9% i n . , 16th c e n t u r y A.D. 18 9. V i r t u e Overcoming V i c e by Benvenuto C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 9% i n . , 16th c e n t u r y A.D. 190. V i r t u e Overcoming V i c e by Benvenuto C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 9% i n . , 16th c e n t u r y A.D. 191. Diana o f Anet by J e a n Goujon, F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1548-1555 A.D. 19 2. Nymph, from F o u n t a i n i n P a r i s by Jean Goujon, F r e n c h s t o n e , 1548-1549 A.D. x x i . S l i d e 193. Mercury by G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a , F l e m i s h - I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 1564 A.D. 194. Juno by G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a , F l e m i s h - I t a l i a n . 195. Nymph by Bartolommeo Ammanati, I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 1563-1575 A.D. 196. C h a r l e s V. & I s a b e l l a by Pompeo L e o n i , I t a l i a n , R o y a l Mausoleum, E s c o r i a l , g i l d e d b r o n z e , 1597 A.D. 197. Study f o r F o u n t a i n F i g u r e by G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a , F l e m i s h - I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , L. 19 i n . , c. 1600 A.D. 198. Study f o r F o u n t a i n F i g u r e by G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a , F l e m i s h - I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , L. 19 i n . , c. 1600 A.D. 199. P i e t a by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 60 i n . , 1498-1500 A.D. 200. P i e t a by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 69 i n . , 1498-1500 A.D. 201. Torso o f a Youth by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , 4 5/8 i n . , c. 1489 A.D. 20 2. D a v i d by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 18% f t . , 1501-1504 A.D. 203. D a v i d by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 18% f t . , 1501-1504 A.D. 204. D a v i d by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 18% f t . , 1501-1504 A.D. 205. C h r i s t by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1513-1516 A.D. x x i i . S l i d e 206. Bacchus by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1513-1516 A.D. 207. Moses by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1513-1516, 1542-1545 A.D. 208. S l a v e by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 90% i n . , 1513-1516 A.D. 209. S l a v e by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 86% i n . , 1513-1516 A.D. 210. S l a v e by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m arble 211. V i c t o r y by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 8 f t . 6 3/4 i n . , c. 1520 A.D. 212. V i c t o r y by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 8 f t . 6 3/4 i n . , c. 1520 A.D. 213. S q u a t t i n g F i g u r e by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D. 214. Tomb o f G i u l i a n o de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D. 215. Day by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 7 i n . , L. 12% i n . , c. 1524 A.D, 216. Day, Tomb of G i u l i a n o de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D. 217. N i g h t , Tomb o f G i u l i a n o de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D. 218. Tomb o f Lorenzo de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D. x x i i i . S l i d e 219. R i g h t Hand o f Lorenzo de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , 4 3/4 i n . , c. 1524 A.D. 2 20. Dawn by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , h. 7 i n . , 1. 8% i n . , c. 1524 A.D. 221. Dawn, Tomb o f Lorenzo de M e d i c i . by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D. 222. L e f t Arm, S h o u l d e r & P a r t o f Back by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , L. 10 3/4 i n . , c. 1524 A.D. 223. Dusk, Tomb of Lorenzo de M e d i c i by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1519-1534 A.D. 224. Madonna and C h i l d by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1530-1534 A.D. 225. P i e t a o f F l o r e n c e by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 7 f t . 8 i n . , 1550-1556 A.D. 2 26 . P i e t a - o f F l o r e n c e by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , d e t a i l . 227. P i e t a o f F l o r e n c e by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , d e t a i l . 228. R o n d a n i n i P i e t a by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 6 f t . 4 i n . , 1550-1564 A.D. 229. The M e r c i f u l C h r i s t by Juan M a r t i n e z Montanez, S p a n i s h , polychromed wood, c. 16 0 3 A.D. 230. P i e t a by G r e g o r i o Fernandez, S p a n i s h , polychromed wood, 1616-1617 A.D. 231. The A b d u c t i o n o f Per s e p h o r e by G i a n Lorenzo B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1621-1622 A.D. x x i v . S l i d e 2 32. David by G i a n Lorenzo B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , d e t a i l , m a r b l e , 1623 A.D. 2 33. A p o l l o & Daphne by G i a n Lorenzo B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1624 A.D. 234. A p o l l o & Daphne by G i a n Lorenzo B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , d e t a i l , m a r b l e , 1624 A.D. 235. The E c s t a s y o f S t . Teresa by G i a n Lorenzo B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1645-1652 A.D. 236. S t . Jerome by G i a n Lorenzo B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 6 f t . 4 i n . , 1661-1663 A.D. 237. S t . Susanna by F r a n c o i s Duquesnoy, F l e m i s h , m a r b l e , o v e r - l i f e s i z e , 1629-1633 A.D. 238. S t . Andrew by F r a n c o i s Duquesnoy, F l e m i s h , m a r b l e , 14 f t . 11 i n . , 1627-1639 A.D. 2 39. F o u n t a i n o f t h e Four R i v e r s (Danube, N i l e , Ganges, R i o de l a P l a t a ) by G i a n L o r e n zo B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1648-1651 A.D. 240. M i l o o f C r o t o n a by P i e r r e P uget, F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 8 f t . 10 i n . , 1671-1683 A.D. 241. The Garonne ( r i v e r ) by A n t o i n e Coysevox, F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1685-1686 A.D. 242. The Assumption o f the V i r g i n by E g i d Q u i r i n Asam, German, s t u c c o , l i f e s i z e , 1718-1725 A.D. 243. S t . G e r t r u d e by J a c i n t o V i e i r a , P o r t u g u e s e , p a i n t e d wood, c. 1725 A.D. 244. L ' A m i t i e (Madame de Pompadour) by J e a n - B a p t i s t e P i g a l l e , F r e n c h , marble, 5 f t . 2 i n . , 1750-1751 A.D. XXV. S l i d e 245. B a t h e r by E t i e n n e - M a u r i c e F a l c o n e t , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 2 f t . 7 i n . , 1757 A.D. 246. B a t h e r by E t i e n n e - M a u r i c e F a l c o n e t , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 2 f t . 7 i n . , 1757 A.D. 24 7. Venus by Johan T o b i a s S e r g e i , Swedish, marble, l i f e s i z e , 1770s A.D. 248. P i e t a by Franz Ignaz Gunther, German, wood, 64 i n . , 1774 A.D. 249. P e t e r the G r e a t by E t i e n n e - M a u r i c e F a l c o n e t , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1766-1777 A.D. 250. S t . Bruno by J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h , s t u c c o , 1776 A.D. 251. Diana by J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h , marble o r i g i n a l , c. 1776 A.D. 25 2. Diana by J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h , bronze v e r s i o n , c. 1776 A.D. 253. George Washington by J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1785-1791 A.D. 254. The Bad T h i e f by 0. A l e i j a d i n h o , B r a z i l i a n , c. 1798 A.D. 255. F e a s t i n g d e t a i l o f 18th c e n t u r y p r e s e p i o , wood , t e r r a - c o t t a and c l o t h . 256. Venus V i c t r i x ( P a u l i n e Bonaparte) by A n t o n i o Canova, I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 1808 A.D. 257. P e r s e u s by A n t o n i o Canova, I t a l i a n , m a r b l e . xxv i . S l i d e 258. Venus I t a l i c a by A n t o n i o Canova, I t a l i a n , m a r b l e , 5 f t . 8% i n . , 1805-1812 A.D. 259. Young N e a p o l i t a n Fisherman P l a y i n g w i t h a T o r t o i s e by F r a n c o i s Rude, F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1831-1832 A.D. 26 0. Mercury A t t a c h i n g H i s Wings by F r a n c o i s Rude, F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 8 f t . 2 i n . , 1828-1834 A.D. 261. La M a r s e i l l a i s e by F r a n c o i s Rude, F r e n c h , s t o n e , 1833-1836 A.D. 262. O p h e l i a by Auguste P r e a u l t , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 29% i n . x 79% i n . , 1843 A.D. 263. U g o l i n o by J e a n - B a p t i s t e Carpeaux, F r e n c h , p l a s t e r , 6 f t . 5% i n . , 1860-1862 A.D. 264. The P r o d i g a l Son by C o n s t a n t i n M e u n i e r , B e l g i a n , 265. H e r c u l e s the A r c h e r by A n t o i n e B o u r d e l l e , F r e n c h , 266. The S t a t u e o f L i b e r t y by F r e d e r i c - A u g u s t e B a r t h o l d i , F r e n c h , hammered copper, 90 m., 1886 A.D. ( c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s ) . 267. The S t a t u e o f L i b e r t y by F r e d e r i c - A u g u s t e B a r t h o l d i , F r e n c h , hammered copper, 90 m., 1886 A.D. ( c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s ) . 26 8. The Age o f B r a s s by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1876 A.D. 269. The Age o f B r a s s by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1876 A.D. 270. l ' E v e i l by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , 271. S t . John the B a p t i s t P r e a c h i n g by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1878 A.D. x x v i i . S l i d e 272. S t . John the B a p t i s t P r e a c h i n g by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1878 A.D. 273. S t . John t h e B a p t i s t P r e a c h i n g by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1878 A.D. 274. The T h i n k e r (from the Gate o f H e l l ) by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880 A.D. 275. The T h i n k e r (from t h e Gate o f H e l l ) by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880 A.D. 276. The T h i n k e r (from the Gate o f H e l l ) by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , s t o n e , 1879-1900 A.D. 277. The Three Shadows (from t h e Gate o f H e l l ) by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880 A.D. 278. A Shadow (from the Gate o f H e l l ) by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880 A.D. 279. The C a r y a t i d by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1880-1881 A.D. 2 80. Eve by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1881 A.D. 2 81. Eve by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , 1881 A.D. 282. Study f o r a Burgher o f C a l a i s by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , bronze 28 3. Three Fauns by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , p l a s t e r , 1882 A.D. 284. The Once B e a u t i f u l H e a u l n i e r e by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , 1885 A.D. x x v i i i . S l i d e 285. Danaid by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1885 A.D. 286. The K i s s by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1886 A.D. 287. The K i s s by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , m a r b l e , 1886 A.D. 288. The B a t h e r by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , 1888 A.D. 289. The P r o d i g a l Son by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1889 A.D. 290. B a l z a c by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , p l a s t e r , 1897 A.D. 291. The A t h l e t e by Auguste Rodin', F r e n c h , 1903 A.D. 292. By t h e Sea by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h , p l a s t e r , 1906-1907 A.D. 293. S c u l p t u r e e x h i b i t e d a t the E x p o s i t i o n o f 1900 Grand P a l a i s , P a r i s . 294. F l o r a by A r i s t i d e M a i l l o l , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1912 A.D. 295. A c t i o n i n Cha i n s by A r i s t i d e M a i l l o l , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 7 f t . , 1905-1906 A.D. 296. T a l l Venus ( d e t a i l ) by A r i s t i d e M a i l l o l , F r e n c h , 297. La S e r p e n t i n e by H e n r i M a t i s s e , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 22% i n . , 1909 A.D. x x i x . S l i d e 298. Venus V i c t o r i o u s by Auguste R e n o i r , F r e n c h 1914 A.D. 299. Dancer by Edgar Degas, F r e n c h , bronze & t u l l e s k i r t , 1921 A.D. 300. Eve by Roger de l a F r e s n a y e , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1910 A.D. 301. K n e e l i n g F i g u r e by W i l h e l m Lehnbruck, German, c a s t s t o n e , 5 f t . 9 i n . , 1911 A.D. 302. T h i n k e r by W i l h e l m Lehnbruck, German, 1913-1914 A.D. 303. Young Man S t e p p i n g Up by W i l h e l m Lehnbruck, German, b r o n z e , 1913-1914 A.D. 304. Dancer by Jacques L i p c h i t z , L i t h u a n i a n , b r o n z e , 1913 A.D. 305. Unique Forms o f C o n t i n u i t y i n Space by Umberto B o c c i o n i , I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , 44 i n . , 1913 A.D. 306. Seated Man w i t h G u i t a r by Jacques L i p c h i t z , L i t h u a n i a n , b r o n z e , 23 i n . , 1918 A.D. 307. Woman w i t h C h i l d on Her Lap by Kathe K o l l w i t z , German 39 cm. 308. R u s s i a n Beggar Woman by E r n s t B a r l a c h , German, 2 3 cm., 19 0 7 A.D. 309. S i n g i n g Man by E r n s t B a r l a c h , German, b r o n z e , 1928 A.D. 310. Boy w i t h F l u t e by Renee S i n t e n i s , German, XXX . S l i d e 311. The Runner by Renee S i n t e n i s , German. 312. S t a n d i n g G i r l by Ludwig K a s p e r , German. 313. O l d Man Reading by Gerhard Marcks, German. 314. The Stone, Arm o f the P r o l e t a r i a t by Ivan D. Shadre, R u s s i a n . 315. Torso by I v a n M e s t r o v i c , J u g o s l a v . 316. Torso by Gustav V i g e l a n d , Norwegian. 317. T a l l Eve by C h a r l e s D e s p i a u , F r e n c h . 318. Woman Combing H e r s e l f by P a l P a t z a y , H u n g a r i a n . 319. S p r i n g by Eugen S z e r v a t i u s z , H u n g a r i a n . 320. Death o f P e t o f i by T i b o r S z e r v a t i u s z , H u n g a r i a n . 321. S m a l l I d o l by T i b o r S z e r v a t i u s z , H u n g a r i a n . 322. Woman w i t h Cat by A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e n k o , R u s s i a n , b r o n z e , H. 34 cm., 1910 A.D. 323. The K i s s by C o n s t a n t i n B r a n c u s i , Roumanian. 3 24. The Embrace by C a r l o s B r a c h o , Mexican. 325. Torso by Jean (Hans) A r p , F r e n c h . 326. Onward by A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e n k o , R u s s i a n , H. 55 cm., 1925 A.D. S l i d e 327. Don Q u i z o t e by J u l i o G o n z a l e s , S p a n i s h , welded i r o n , 1929 A.D. 328. M o n t s e r r a t by J u l i o G o n z a l e s , S p a n i s h , b r o n z e , 1937 A.D. 329. Seated F i g u r e by E m i l i o Greco, I t a l i a n . 330. S t a n d i n g F i g u r e by Gaston L a c h a i s e , F r e n c h - A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , 1932 A.D. 331. Young G i r l by M a r c e l Gimond, F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 1934 A.D.. 332. Man w i t h Sheep by P a b l o P i c a s s o , S p a n i s h , b r o n z e , 86% i n . , 1944 A.D. 333. The Storm by Germaine R i c h i e r , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 69 i n . , 1949 A.D. 334. Venus by Marino M a r i n i , I t a l i a n , 1945 A.D. 335. Pomona by Marino M a r i n i , I t a l i a n , 1949 A.D. 336. W r e s t l e r by Marino M a r i n i , I t a l i a n . 3 37. Madonna and C h i l d by Jacob E p s t e i n , A m e r i c a n - E n g l i s h , 1952 A.D. 338. Young G i r l on a C h a i r by Giacomo Manzu, I t a l i a n , b r o n z e , c. 43 i n . , 1955 A.D. 339. Lady o f V e n i c e , I by A l b e r t o G i a c o m e t t i , S w i s s , b r o n z e , 1956 A.D. 34 0. F a m i l y by Gunnar N i l s s o n , Swedish, b r o n z e , 1959 A.D. x x x i i . S l i d e 341. Maquettes by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , i n h i s s t u d i o . 342. R e c l i n i n g and Seated S m a l l F i g u r e s by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , b r o n z e . 343. R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e s by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , b r o n z e . 34 4. The Northhampton Madonna by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1943-1944 A.D. 345. F a m i l y Group by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , H. 16 i n . , 1947 A.D. 346. K i n g and Queen by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 6% f t . , 1951-1953 A.D. 34 7. W a r r i o r w i t h S h i e l d by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h b r o n z e , H. 60 i n . , 1953-1954 A.D. 348. The Making o f : W a r r i o r w i t h S h i e l d by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , H. 60 i n . 349. R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e : A r c h Leg by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 174 i n . , 1969-1970 A.D. 350. R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e : A r c h Leg by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 174 i n . , 1969-1970 A.D. 351. R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e : A r c h Leg by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 174 i n . , 1969-1970 A.D. 352. W a l k i n g Man by George S e g a l , A m e r i c a n , p l a s t e r , m e t a l & wood, 1966 A.D. 353. Man i n C h a i r by George S e g a l , A m e r i c a n , p l a s t e r & wood, H. 50 i n . , 1969 A.D. x x x i i i . S l i d e 354. G i r l P u t t i n g on Sca r a b N e c k l a c e by George S e g a l , American, p l a s t e r , wood, m e t a l , g l a s s , 84 x 45 x 45 i n . , 1975 A.D. 355. G i r l U n d r e s s i n g by Reg B u t l e r , E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 1953-1954 A.D. 356. Nude by Reg B u t l e r , E n g l i s h , p a i n t e d b r o n z e , 296 cm., 1976-1977 A.D. 357. A S t a t e o f P e r i l by K a r o l B r o n i a t o w s k i , P o l i s h , mixed media, l i f e s i z e . 35 8. Women and Dog by M a r i s o l , F r e n c h , wood, p l a s t e r , c l o t h e s , 72 i n . , 1964 A.D. 359. Three G i r l s : S i t t i n g by R i c h a r d A. M i l l e r , A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , 22 i n . , 1966 A.D. 360. M i l o r d l a Chamarre by Jean D u b u f f e t , F r e n c h , p a i n t e d f a b r i c and p o l y e s t e r r e s i n costume, 1972 A.D. 361. Embracing L o v e r s by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , m a r b l e , 36 i n . , 1970 A.D. 36 2. Embracing L o v e r s by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , m a rble, 36 i n . , 1970 A.D. 363. G i r l w i t h D o l p h i n by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , e r e c t i n g the s t a t u e , 1973 A.D. 364. G i r l w i t h D o l p h i n by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , b r o n z e , 192 i n . , 1973 A.D. 365. Dancer w i t h B i r d by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , p l a s t e r f o r b r o n z e , 96 i n . , 1974 A.D. 366. Dancer w i t h B i r d by D a v i d Wynne, E n g l i s h , p l a s t e r f o r b r o n z e , 96 i n . , 1974 A.D. x x x i v . S l i d e 36 7. P o r t r a i t o f Paddy by Bruno L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , c a s t from t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 14 i n . , 1970 A.D. 368. B r u s h i n g H a i r by Bruno L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 18 i n . , 1974 A.D. 36 9. Nude by Bruno L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , bonded b r o n z e , c a s t from c l a y o r i g i n a l , 1975 A.D. 370. A f t e r t h e Ba t h by Bruno L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , c a s t from t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 22 i n . , 1976 A.D. 371. Repose by Bruno L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , c a s t from t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 15 i n . , 1976 A.D. 3 72. Nude by Bruno L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n , b r o n z e , c a s t from t e r r a - c o t t a , H. 11 i n . , 1976 A.D. 373. Arden Anderson & Nora Murphy by John de Andrea, A m e r i c a n , p o l y e s t e r and f i b r e g l a s s , polychromed i n o i l , 1972 A.D. 374. F l o r i d a Shopper by Duane Hanson, A m e r i c a n , mixed media, l i f e s i z e , 1973 A.D. 375. Woman B a t h i n g by D a r i o M o r a l e s , Columbian, b r o n z e , 48 x 48 x 31 cm., 1979 A.D. 376. Woman B a t h i n g by D a r i o M o r a l e s , Columbian, b r o n z e , 48 x 48 x 31 cm., 1979 A.D. 377. Torso by D a r i o M o r a l e s , Columbian, b r o n z e , 113 x 84 x 40 cm., 1979 A.D. 378. Torso by D a r i o M o r a l e s , Columbian, b r o n z e , 113 x 84 x 40 cm., 1979 A.D. 379. T a b l e , Leonard by Andre B a r e l i e r , F r e n c h , b r o n z e , 110 x 100 x 80 cm., 1974 A.D. XXXV. S l i d e 380. September 1975 by C o l e t t e W h i t e n , Canadian, mixed media, c. 91 x 33 i n . , 1975 A.D. 381. L o v e r by Mary F r a n k , E n g l i s h - A m e r i c a n , u n g l a z e d c e r a m i c , 23 x 44 x 25 i n . , 1977 A.D. 382. S t a n d i n g Nude O l d Woman by F r a n c e s c o Z u n i g a , C o s t a R i c a n - M e x i c a n , b r o n z e , 1974 A.D. 383. D i a l o g by F r a n c e s c o Z u n i g a , C o s t a R i c a n - M e x i c a n , b r o n z e , 1979 A.D. 384. G i r l w i t h M i r r o r by Joseph E r h a r d y , A m e r i c a n - F r e n c h , b r o n z e , H. 140 cm., 1980 A.D. 385. L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t by E l e k Imredy, H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , one & h a l f l i f e s i z e , 1976 A.D. 386. G i r l i n W e t s u i t by E l e k Imredy, H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , l i f e s i z e , 1972 A.D. 387. G i r l i n W e t s u i t by E l e k Imredy, H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , the c l a y s c u l p t u r e , l i f e s i z e , 1972 A.D. 388. C h r i s t the Teacher by E l e k Imredy, H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , f i r s t maquette. 389. C h r i s t the Teacher by E l e k Imredy, H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , s c a l e model o f armature, Armature and S e c t i o n o f f i b r e g l a s s c a s t s . 390. C h r i s t t he Teacher by E l e k Imredy, H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , c l a y s c u l p t u r e , d e t a i l s . 391. C h r i s t the Teacher by E l e k Imredy, H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , assembly o f f i n a l s c u l p t u r e , f i b r e g l a s s , 16 f t . , 1961 A.D. 392. J e n n i f e r by E l e k Imredy, H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , 14 i n . , 1970 A.D. x x x v i . S l i d e 393. J e n n i f e r by E l e k Imredy, Hu n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , 14 i n . , 1970 A.D. 394. J e n n i f e r by E l e k Imredy, Hu n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , 14 i n . , 1970 A.D. 395. Goddess o f J u s t i c e by E l e k Imredy, Hungar i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , 12 f t . , 1981 A.D. 396. Goddess o f J u s t i c e by E l e k Imredy, H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , . Armature on t u r n t a b l e and upper p a r t i n c l a y , 397. Goddess o f J u s t i c e by E l e k Imredy, Hu n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n , b r o n z e , 12 f t . , 1981 A.D. 39 8. S c u l p t o r Robert I p o u s t e g u y , F r e n c h , w o r k i n g on p l a s t e r f i g u r e s , 1981 A.D. 399. Male Nude by M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n , d r a w i n g . 400. F i g u r e Drawing by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h . 401. F i g u r e Drawing by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h . 402. F i g u r e Drawing by Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h . 403. Seated Woman drawing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1921 A.D. 404. S e a t e d F i g u r e drawing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1923-1924 A.D. 405. S t a n d i n g Man drawing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1921 A.D. 406 . S e a t e d Nude drawing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1927 A.D. x x x v i i . S l i d e 407. Mother and C h i l d d r a wing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1927 A.D. 408. F a m i l y Groups drawing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1941 A.D. 409. S h e l t e r Scene drawing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1941 A.D. 410. P i n k & Green S l e e p e r s drawing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1941 A.D. 411. Women Winding Wool, The P r e s e n t a t i o n drawings by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1942-1943 A.D. 412. The F a m i l y , p r o j e c t f o r s c u l p t u r e , d r a wing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h , 1944 A.D. 413. Two R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e s drawing by Henry Moore, E n g l i s h 1966 A.D. 414. The S k e l e t o n f r o n t and r e a r view. 415. S k e l e t o n and M u s c l e s f r o n t view. 416. S k e l e t o n and Mus c l e s r e a r view. 417. Muscles o f the Body s i d e v i e w . 418. A d u l t body p r o p o r t i o n s s i d e v i e w . 419. The g r o w i n g body's p r o p o r t i o n s 4 20. Two views o f the s k u l l 4 21. The Movements o f the Neck by Jeno B a r c s a y , H u n g a r i a n . 422. S t u d i e s o f a Hand by Jeno B a r c s a y , H u n g a r i a n . x x x v i i i . Slide 423. Studies of Feet by Jeno Barcsay, Hungarian. 424. The Skeleton i n motion. 425. The Skeleton i n motion. 4 26. The Skeleton i n motion. 4 27. The Skeleton i n motion. 4 28. The Skeleton i n motion. 429. The Skeleton i n motion. 4 30. Study of Foreshortening by Jeno Barcsay, Hungarian. 431. Study of Foreshortening by Jeno Barcsay, Hungarian. x x x i x . LIST OF NAMES AND NATIONALITY OF SCULPTORS IDENTIFIABLE ON SLIDES S l i d e 123. A n t e n o r , Greek 127. P o l y k l e i t o s , Greek 128. Myron, Greek 12 9. Myron, Greek 130. P h i d i a s , Greek 131. P h i d i a s , Greek 132. P h i d i a s , Greek 134. P r a x i t e l e s , Greek 16 8. C l a u s S l u t e r , Dutch 16 9. Nanni d i Banco, I t a l i a n 172. Riemenschneider, German 173. Gregor E r h a r t , German 174. A n t o n i o R o s s e l l i n o , I t a l i a n 175 - 178. D o n a t e l l o , I t a l i a n 179 - 180. Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I t a l i a n 181. Luca d e l l a R o bbia, I t a l i a n 182. Andrea d e l V e r r o c c h i o , I t a l i a n 183. A n t o n i o R i z z o , I t a l i a n 184. P e t e r V i s c h e r , German 18 5. Hans V i s c h e r , German 186 - 190. Benvenuto C e l l i n i , I t a l i a n 191 - 192. Jean Goujon, F r e n c h 193 - 194. G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a , F l e m i s h - I t a l i a n S l i d e 197 - 198. G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a , F l e m i s h - I t a l 195. Bartolommeo Ammanati, I t a l i a n 196. Pompeo L e o n i , I t a l i a n 199 - 228. M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n and 399. M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i , I t a l i a n 229. Juan M a r t i n e z Montanez, S p a n i s h 230. G r e g o r i o Fernandez, S p a n i s h 231 - 236. G i a n Lorenzo B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n and 239. G i a n Lorenzo B e r n i n i , I t a l i a n 237 - 238. F r a n c o i s Duquesnoy, F l e m i s h 240. P i e r r e Puget, F r e n c h 241. A n t o i n e Coysevox, F r e n c h 24 2. E g i d Qunin Asam, German 243. J a c i n t o V i e i r a , P o r t u g u e s e 244. J e a n - B a p t i s t e P i g a l l e , F r e n c h 245 - 246. E t i e n n e - M a u r i c e F a l c o n e t , F r e n c h and 249. E t i e n n e - M a u r i c e F a l c o n e t , F r e n c h 24 7. Johan T o b i a s S e r g e i , Swedish 248. Franz Ignaz G i i n t h e r , German 250 - 253. J e a n - A n t o i n e Houdon, F r e n c h 254. 0. A l e i j a d i n h o , B r a z i l i a n 256 - 258. A n t o n i o Canova, I t a l i a n 259 - 261. F r a n c o i s Rude, F r e n c h 26 2. Auguste P r e a u l t , F r e n c h 26 3. J e a n - B a p t i s t e Carpeaux, F r e n c h 264. C o n s t a n t i n Meunier, B e l g i a n x l i S l i d e 265. A n t o i n e B o u r d e l l e , F r e n c h 266 - 26 7. F r e d e r i c - A u g u s t e B a r t h o l d i , F r e n c h 268 - 292. Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h & 400 - 402. Auguste R o d i n , F r e n c h 294 - 296. A r i s t i d e M a i l l o l , F r e n c h 29 7. H e n r i M a t i s s e , F r e n c h 29 8. Auguste R e n o i r , F r e n c h 299. Edgar Degas, F r e n c h 300. Roger de l a F r e s n a y e , F r e n c h 301 - 303. W i l h e l m Lehnbruck, German 304 & 306. Jacques L i p c h i t z , L i t h u a n i a n 305. Umberto B o c c i o n i , I t a l i a n 307. Kathe K o l l w i t z , German 308 - 309. E r n s t B a r l a c h , German 310 - 311. Renee S i n t e n i s , German 312. Ludwig K a s p e r , German 313. Gerhard Marcks, German 314. I v a n D. Shadre, R u s s i a n 315. I v a n M e s t r o v i c , J u g o s l a v 316. Gustav V i g e l a n d , Norwegian 317. C h a r l e s D e s p i a u , F r e n c h 318. P a l P a t z a y , Hungarian 319. Eugen S z e r v a t i u s z , H u n g a r i a n 320 - 321. T i b o r S z e r v a t i u s z , H ungarian 322 & 326. A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e n k o , R u s s i a n 323. C o n s t a n t i n B r a n c u s i , Roumanian x l i i S l i d e 324. C a r l o s Bracho, Mexican 3 25. Jean A r p , F r e n c h 327 - 328. J u l i o G o n z a l e s , S p a n i s h 329. E m i l i o Greco, I t a l i a n 330. Gaston L a c h a i s e , French-American 3 31. M a r c e l Gimond, F r e n c h 332. P a b l o P i c a s s o , S p a n i s h 333. Germaine R i c h i e r , F r e n c h 334 - 336. Marino M a r i n i , I t a l i a n 337. Jacob E p s t e i n , A m e r i c a n - E n g l i s h 338. Giacomo Manzu, I t a l i a n 339. A l b e r t o G i a c o m e t t i , Swiss 340. Gunnar N i e l s s o n , Swedish 341 - 351. Henry Moore, E n g l i s h .•403 - 413. Henry Moore, E n g l i s h 352 - 354. George S e g a l , American 355 - 356. Reg B u t l e r , E n g l i s h 357. K a r o l B r o n i a t o w s k i , P o l i s h 358. M a r i s o l , F r e n c h 359. R i c h a r d A. M i l l e r , American 360. Jean D u b u f f e t , F r e n c h 361 - 366. David Wynne, E n g l i s h 36 7 - 372. Bruno L u c c h e s i , I t a l i a n - A m e r i c a n 373. John de Andrea, American 374. Duane Hanson, American 375 - 378. D a r i o M o r a l e s , Columbian x l i i i . S l i d e s 379. Andre B a r e l i e r , F r e n c h 380. C o l e t t e W h i t e n , Canadian 381. Mary Frank, E n g l i s h - A m e r i c a n 382 - 383. F r a n c e s c o Z u n i g a , C o s t a R i c a n - M e x i c a n 384. Joseph E r h a r d y , A m e r i c a n - F r e n c h 385 - 397. E l e k Imredy, Hungarian-Canadian 398. Robert I p o u s t e g u y , F r e n c h 421 - 423. Jeno B a r c s a y , H u n g a r i a n 430 - 431. Jeno B a r c s a y , H u n g a r i a n x l i v . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank the members o f my t h e s i s committee, P r o f e s s o r Penny Gouldstone and P r o f e s s o r Roy Lewis and, i n p a r -t i c u l a r , t h e chairman o f my committee, P r o f e s s o r Graeme Chalmers, whose h e l p and guidance was v i t a l t o the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I w i s h t o acknowledge t h e Burnaby S c h o o l Board, whose gen-e r o s i t y o f g r a n t i n g me f i v e months e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e made the r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my dear f r i e n d s L i z z i e J e n s e n , A l i c e Edstrom, and Joan G a m b i o l i f o r t h e i r p r a c t i c a l h e l p w i t h s l i d e s , t y p i n g and p r o o f r e a d i n g , and f o r moral s u p p o r t and en-couragement from them as w e l l as o t h e r f r i e n d s . I d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o the memory o f my l a t e g r a n d f a t h e r , G y u l a P h i l i p p , who brought me, when I was 12 y e a r s o l d , the f i r s t lump o f c l a y which I t u r n e d i n t o a f i g u r e . 1. Chapter I INTRODUCTION Need f o r t h e Study: Survey R e s u l t s o f B.C. A r t Teachers  Re g a r d i n g t h e Tea c h i n g o f S c u l p t u r e i n Secondary S c h o o l s S c u l p t u r e i s an a n c i e n t a r t , and because o f i t s t h r e e d i m -e n s i o n a l i t y and t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t y , a d r a s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t branch o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s . R e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s v a l u e i n the t e a c h i n g o f secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been e s t a b l i s h e d by i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t o the Secondary A r t C u r r -i c u l u m by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . However, a r t t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g a t u n i v e r s i t y may n o t i n c l u d e t h e s t u d y o f c o n c e p t s and t e c h n i q u e s o f s c u l p t u r e . S t u d i o work i n s c u l p t u r e i s a l e n g t h y and complex p r o c e s s . The need, t h e r e f o r e , t o s e l e c t a r e a s o f u s e f u l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l development f o r t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d i n areas o f t w o d i m e n s i o n a l a r t , seemed d e s i r a b l e . At the an n u a l c o n f e r e n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r t t e a c h e r s , i n A p r i l 1980, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d by t h i s w r i t e r t o g a i n feedback on p o s s i b l e needs and a t t i t u d e s t o the t e a c h -i n g o f s c u l p t u r e . The t e x t o f t h i s s c u l p t u r e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n -n a i r e appears as Appendix 1 o f t h i s t h e s i s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o seek answers t o t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t l y , s h o u l d s c u l p t u r e be t a u g h t and i s i t t e c h n i c a l l y r e a l -i s t i c t o do so i n secondary s c h o o l s ? S e c o n d l y , how i s i t or 2. s h o u l d i t be p r e s e n t e d ? Are a r e a s o f s t u d i o , c r i t i c i s m , a r t h i s t o r y (Western o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l ) , and c o n c e p t s t o be i n c l u d e d ? T h i r d l y , are t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n and r e a d i n e s s t o t e a c h i t ade-quate o r i s more t r a i n i n g needed e i t h e r a t u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l o r t h r o u g h p r o f e s s i o n a l development? The number o f resp o n d e n t s were t h i r t y - t w o . R e s u l t s were t a b u l a t e d t o the q u e s t i o n whether i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t , and 32 o u t o f 32 answered i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . Whether t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g s h o u l d i n c l u d e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e was answered yes by 30, no by 2. The q u e s t i o n o f adequate t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a was broken down t o j u n i o r and s e n i o r secondary l e v -e l s . The r e s p o n s e s t o j u n i o r grades were 12 o u t o f 32 not ade-q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d and 20 y e s , but t o s e n i o r grades 25 out o f 32 not a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d and o n l y 7 s a i d t h a t t h e y f e l t competent. I n s p i t e o f t h e s e r e s u l t s , o r perhaps because o f l a c k o f know-l e d g e , equipment and f a c i l i t i e s were not c o n s i d e r e d problems. Methodology as t o how t h e r e s pondent a r t t e a c h e r s t a u g h t s c u l p t u r e , l e a n e d h e a v i l y towards s t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s . They con-c e n t r a t e d on methods such as how s c u l p t u r e was made. T h i s was f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e i r answers t o the "Quick Q u i z " which was t o t e s t t h e i r own s t u d i o p r o f i c i e n c y . A m a z i n g l y , a l t h o u g h as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , 25 out o f 32 d i d not f e e l a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d t o t e a c h s c u l p t u r e i n s e n i o r g r a d e s , they d i d p r o f e s s t o be a b l e t o do most complex t e c h n i q u e s o f s c u l p t u r e , some o f w h i c h , i n t h i s w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , a r e not n e c e s s a r y o r r e a l i s t i c f o r use i n pub-l i c s c h o o l s . The p o s s i b i l i t y p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t h a t due t o t h e emphasis on s t u d i o work, many t e a c h e r s might have endeavoured t o g a i n knowledge from "how t o " books, p r e v a l e n t i n many a r e a s of the a r t s and c r a f t s . J u s t as emphasis on s t u d i o work emerged from the responses t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t became c l e a r how a r e a s o f c r i t i c i s m and a r t h i s t o r y were n e g l e c t e d . None o f the r e s p o n d i n g a r t t e a c h e r s t a u g h t c o n c e p t s such as mass, form, monumentality, nor d i d they use s c u l p t u r e f o r d i s c u s s i o n o r c r i t i c i s m . They d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e use o f p h o t o g r a p h s , f i l m s , s l i d e s and the " l i v i n g " s c u l p t u r e w i t h i t s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y when viewed from a l l s i d e s . Furthermore none seemed t o i n d i c a t e a need f o r v i e w i n g and d i s c u s s i o n o f s c u l p t u r e from a l l c u l t u r e s o f the w o r l d w h i c h would have i n d i c a t e d a s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' m u l t i c u l t u r a l r o o t s . On the o t h e r hand, t h e y d i d n o t use examples o f Western a r t ! A t p r e s e n t , w i t h the advent o f a new Secondary A r t C u r r i c u l u m , t h e s e answers might have r e f l e c t e d new needs i n the a r e a s o f h i s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m . I n the a r e a o f why s c u l p t u r e s h o u l d be t a u g h t and what i t has t o o f f e r t h a t o t h e r forms o f the v i s u a l a r t s do not p r o v i d e , many r e s p o n d i n g t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e d s e n s i t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g ob-s e r v a t i o n s . These v a r i e d from t h e g e n e r a l , such as " c h i l d r e n seem t o e n j o y t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l work," and t h a t t hey "don't g e t enough such e x p e r i e n c e , " o r t h a t "most a r t programmes emphasize o n l y t w o d i m e n s i o n a l forms," t o s p e c i f i c s , such as s c u l p t u r e b e i n g "more p h y s i c a l , " t h a t i t p r o v i d e s " o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a i n s k i l l i n use o f new t o o l s , " t h a t i t i s a " t a c t i l e e x p e r i e n c e " which encourages the "use o f senses i n t o u c h , " and t h e " u s i n g o f hands f o r o t h e r t h a n c u t , p a s t e , c o l o u r , " o r even f o r " b l i n d 4. e x e r c i s e s . " One respondent o b s e r v e d t h a t s c u l p t u r e "teaches dimensions and p r o p o r t i o n s " but d i d not e l a b o r a t e i n which way t h i s might be more so t h a n any o t h e r form o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s . A n other p e r s o n wrote t h a t s c u l p t u r e " g i v e s t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a s p e c t t h a t d r awing o r p a i n t i n g c a n ' t d e v e l o p , CthatH p e r s p e c -t i v e becomes more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d and a p p r e c i a t e d , [ t h a t ] o v e r a l l p e r c e p t i o n improves due t o added a p p r e c i a t i o n o f depth (from a l l s i d e s , t o p and bottom).." Two i n t e r e s t i n g f u r t h e r com-ments p o i n t t o o t h e r l e a r n i n g outcomes, namely, t h a t s c u l p t u r e a s s i s t s i n " d e v e l o p i n g the a d d i t i v e / s u b t r a c t i v e t h i n k i n g p r o -c e s s , " and t h a t by d o i n g i t , s t u d e n t s " l e a r n s u s t a i n e d a r t i s t i c stamina." One o f the more c o n t r o v e r s i a l comments s t a t e s t h a t s c u l p t u r a l a c t i v i t y " i s a n a t u r a l development o f a t t r i b u t e s CthatH the human mind p o s s e s s e s . " I n c o n c l u s i o n , I quote t h o s e t e a c h e r s who gave what c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as the most fundamental r e a s o n f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e i n secondary s c h o o l s . One s a i d t h a t s c u l p t u r e i s " i m p o r t a n t i n making s t u d e n t s aware o f the t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l environment," a n o t h e r t h a t "the w o r l d i s not t w o d i m e n s i o n a l , " and a t h i r d s i m p l y s t a t e d t h a t s c u l p t u r e " g i v e s s t u d e n t s an i d e a o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l form w h i c h i s what t h e y see." The Purpose o f t h e T h e s i s The o r i g i n a l r a t i o n a l e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s e c u r r i -culum m a t e r i a l s was based on a p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r 5. i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c u l p t u r e . Inasmuch as t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e i s s u p p o r t e d i n the new P r o v i n c i a l Secondary A r t C u r r i c u l u m s c h e d u l e d f o r f u l l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n September 1984, the problem became a c u t e . One o f t h e f i v e v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a s o f t h a t c u r r i c u l u m d e a l s w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e t h r o u g h the s t u d y o f a r t h i s t o r y , the p r a c t i c e o f a r t c r i t i c i s m , and the making o f s c u l p t u r e . T h i s t h e s i s i s meant t o p r o v i d e v i a b l e and p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s t o t e a c h e r s o f a r t f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s c u l p t u r e s e c t i o n o f the new c u r r i c u l u m . S c u l p t u r e d e a l s w i t h themes such as t h e human f i g u r e , p o r -t r a i t u r e , a n i m a l s , n a t u r a l forms and g e o m e t r i c shapes i n ab-s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e , and m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n two t y p e s o f work: s c u l p t u r e i n the round o r as a r e l i e f . I n o r d e r t o d e l i m i t a t e t h i s s t u d y , a d e c i s i o n had t o be made as t o which theme and which type o f s c u l p t u r e t o use. S c u l p t u r e i n t h e round was chosen; i t i s more d i f f i c u l t because o f i t s f u l l t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l q u a l i t y , and i t s g r e a t e r c o n t r a s t t o a l l t h e o t h e r t w o d i m e n s i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n a r t . The theme o f t h e human f i g u r e was s e l e c t e d , a g a i n f o r i t s . r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y and c o m p l e x i t y o f form, and f o r i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth i n a d o l e s c e n t s . Exposure t o t h e m u l t i t u d e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e human f i g u r e o r i g i n a t i n g i n d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s , d i f f e r e n t t ime p e r i o d s , and by a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f a r t i s t s s h o u l d communicate t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on t h e human body as a wondrously e x p r e s s i v e t o o l f o r the p o r t r a y a l o f the human c o n d i t i o n . The broad use and the mani-f o l d appearance o f the human f i g u r e c r e a t e d by s c u l p t o r s h i s t o r -i c a l l y and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y s h o u l d a i d a d o l e s c e n t s i n a c c e p t i n g 6. themselves as they a r e , even i f they do not conform t o the i d e a l w hich t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the media makes them want t o resemble. To s t r e n g t h e n t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f a d o l e s c e n t s a t t h i s s e n s i t i v e s t a g e o f t h e i r development i s one o f the g o a l s o f t h i s c u r r i c u -lum r e s o u r c e . A t the same t i m e , a n o t h e r g o a l may be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e stu d y o f a r t h i s t o r y , which w i l l e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e time p e r i o d s , p l a c e s o f o r i g i n , and s t y l e s o f g i v e n a r t i s t s t h r o u g h s t u d y o f the works on t h e s l i d e s . Men and women a r e p o r t r a y e d i n s c u l p t u r e o f the f i g u r e , and t h e i r hopes, a s p i r a t i o n s , sorrows and d e s p a i r , as w e l l as achievements f i n d e x p r e s s i o n t h e r e , and c a l l f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . R e f l e c t i n g on what t h e work t e l l s us about t h e s o c i e t a l and p e r s o n a l v a l u e s o f i t s t i m e , d e v e l o p i n g empathy w i t h the f e e l -i n g s and i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e a r t i s t who made the f i g u r e , w i l l p r o -v i d e the v o c a b u l a r y f o r reasoned c r i t i c i s m , as w e l l as an ap-p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t ' s r o l e i n s o c i e t y . Such d i s c u s s i o n w i l l b r i d g e t h e gap between d i v e r g e n t c u l t u r e s , and span d i f f e r -ences i n t i m e . Examples o f c r i t i c i s m based on a number o f themes a r e p r o v i d e d as s u g g e s t i o n s o f how t o approach such c r i t -i c a l a n a l y s i s . S t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s were c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r s u i t a -b i l i t y i n t h e secondary s c h o o l s e t t i n g . A l l u n i t p l a n s have been t h o r o u g h l y and r e p e a t e d l y t e s t e d by m y s e l f i n the c l a s s r o o m . P r e p a r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e f i g u r e d r a w i n g , the study of an-atomy, and the making o f a maquette; a l l c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t p r i o r t o i n v o l v e m e n t i n s t u d i o work. Suggested methods and m a t e r i a l s a r e d e t a i l e d and s p e c i f i c , but they i n c l u d e fewer i n 7. number th a n the P r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s i s a d e l i b e r a t e o m i s s i o n , as many o f t h e m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s suggested i n the g u i d e seem, i n my e x p e r i e n c e , beyond the scope o f t h e se c -ondary s c h o o l t i m e t a b l e and f a c i l i t i e s and beyond t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e o f most a r t t e a c h e r s . However, as photographs o f some s t u d e n t work demonstrate (see P l a t e s 1, 2 and 3 ) , most s a t i s -f a c t o r y outcomes can be a c h i e v e d b o t h a t t h e b a s i c and the ad-vanced l e v e l w i t h t h e s e s t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s . S t u d e n t s w i l l g a i n knowledge o f the p r o p o r t i o n s o f the body, t h e y w i l l come t o p e r -c e i v e i t as u n i f i e d form, t h e r e b y overcoming t h e i r f r e q u e n t l y fragmented view of the body. S t u d e n t s w i l l use t h e t a c t i l e s e n s e s , and g a i n s k i l l s w i t h t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s o f s c u l p t u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y w i l l e x t e n d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n span t h r o u g h l e n g t h i e r i n v o l v e m e n t , w h i c h such work i n s c u l p t u r e n e c e s s i t a t e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h the human f i g u r e o n l y , much o f the methodology might be t r a n s f e r r e d t o o t h e r a r e a s o f s c u l p t u r e . P l a t e 1 H a l f l i f e - s i z e f i g u r e s under c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the a r t room P l a t e 2 Enlargement o f the maquette w i t h p l a s t e r o f P a r i s on armature P l a t e 3 D i s p l a y o f s t u d e n t work 11. Why Teach S c u l p t u r e o f the Human F i g u r e t o A d o l e s c e n t s ? We a r e surrounded by a n a t u r a l and man-made environment o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . Indeed, the c e n t r e o f our p e r s o n a l u n i -v e r s e , t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f our e x i s t e n c e , i s our v e r y t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l body. I n t e r e s t i n , and awareness o f the p h y s i c a l appearance o f t h e body i s h e i g h t e n e d i n a d o l e s c e n c e . Through-out l i f e we may a t t i m e s l o v e o r hate our b o d i e s but always p a r t o f our s e l f - i m a g e i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e appearance o f i t . A d o l e s c e n c e , a t i m e o f tumultuous growth and g r e a t s e n s i -t i v i t y , i s a good time t o o p e n l y d e a l w i t h a s p e c t s o f a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t s and concerns w i t h t h e human f i g u r e . V i e w i n g and d i s -c u s s i n g s l i d e s o f s c u l p t u r e made by a m u l t i t u d e o f s c u l p t o r s , o r i g i n a t i n g from v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and time p e r i o d s o f human h i s t o r y but a l l e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h the f i g u r e , a f f o r d a br o a d e n i n g o f t h e spectrum i n which the human body i s viewed i n our s o c i e t y . I n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y customs and taboos v a r y g r e a t l y i n our m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y but a s i d e from t h i s , t he i n f l u e n c e o f the media t h r o u g h t e l e v i s i o n and a d v e r t i s i n g i s c l e a r l y t o -wards "youth c u l t u r e " and the b e a u t i f u l , s l i m body o f a " C h e r y l T i e g s . " Our a d o l e s c e n t s who do not measure up t o the i d e a l o f our N o r t h American s o c i e t y c o u l d be s e r i o u s l y damaged i n t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m u n l e s s c o n c e p t s o f the human body, o t h e r t h a n media-h e l d and appearance-based, a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o them. S u b j e c t areas such as p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o r b i o l o g y no doubt make con-t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e body as a m i r a c u l o u s l y e f f i c i e n t c r e a t i o n . Y e t t h e v i s u a l a r t s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r s c u l p t u r e , can add a most v a l u a b l e d i m e n s i o n . Feldman (197 3) compares s c u l p t u r e t o o t h e r forms of v i s u a l a r t s when he says t h a t , "The c a p a c i t y o f s c u l p t u r e , no m a t t e r what i t s m a t e r i a l s , t o occupy r e a l space and t o compel b e l i e f i n i t s a l i v e n e s s d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from p a i n t i n g and g r a p h i c a r t i n g e n e r a l " (p. 328). T h i s a l i v e n e s s o f s c u l p t u r e i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y e f f e c t i v e when i t d e a l s w i t h t h e human f i g u r e . S c u l p t u r e , as a r u l e , s t a n d s by i t s e l f and does not i n c l u d e the environment as p a r t o f t h e work. I f i t uses the s u b j e c t o f the human f i g u r e , we o f t e n see o u r s e l v e s i n i t , and i n t h i s sense i t may become "everyman." The s c u l p t o r may choose from the young o r the grow-i n g f i g u r e , t h e mature o r t h e d e c a y i n g f i g u r e , t h e h e a l t h y o r the i l l , and from many body t y p e s o f d i f f e r i n g p r o p o r t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e , t h e r e a r e the i n f i n i t e v a r i e t i e s o f p o s e s , the body i n motion o r a t r e s t , the use f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f emotions, t h o u g h t and a c t i o n s . D e s p a i r o r hope, h a p p i n e s s o r sorrow, d e p r e s s i o n o r e l a t i o n , h e r o i s m o r c o w a r d i c e , boredom o r t r a n q u i l l i t y , e x c i t e m e n t o r a c t i o n , a r e among t h e many moods which can be e x p r e s s e d w i t h t h e human f i g u r e t h r o u g h the h e i g h -t e n e d s e n s i t i v i t y o f the a r t i s t . I n a d o l e s c e n c e many o f t h e above f e e l i n g s a r e s t r o n g l y m a n i f e s t and r a p i d l y a l t e r n a t i n g , t h e r e f o r e exposure t o the s t u d y o f s c u l p t u r e o f the f i g u r e a t t h i s time t h r o u g h h e i g h t e n e d empathy, can l e a v e a l a s t i n g im-p r e s s i o n . The i m p r e s s i o n g a i n e d from t h e study o f s c u l p t u r e o f the f i g u r e from d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s and p l a c e s can be l i b e r a t i n g f o r our a d o l e s c e n t s . L o o k i n g a t , and t a l k i n g about how the nude or draped body e x p r e s s e s b e l i e f s and customs o f the time and c u l -t u r e can be i n t e r e s t i n g and i n s i g h t f u l . At the same t i m e , w h i l e v i e w i n g and d i s c u s s i n g a m u l t i t u d e o f s l i d e s , the s t u d e n t s a r e bound t o p e r c e i v e t h a t each body type o r age has i t s e x p r e s -s i v e f o r c e , i t s d i g n i t y and use, and t h e r e f o r e a c e r t a i n "beauty" which i s much more th a n s k i n - d e e p . They w i l l a l s o l e a r n o f t h e acceptance o f t h e f i g u r e as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f our humanity, worldwide and as o l d as mankind, and a r e bound t o be f a v o u r a b l y a f f e c t e d i n the a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i r own appearance and o f them-s e l v e s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact o f h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w and c r i t -i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f the f i g u r e may be f u r t h e r broadened by s t u d i o a c t i v i t y . They seem t o p r e p a r e t h e ground f o r e x p r e s s i o n and c r e a t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e by the s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i r e c t l y and o p e n l y d e a l w i t h a f i g u r e o f t h e i r own making not o n l y i n v o l v i n g the t a c t i l e senses b u t a c t i v a t i n g a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o p o r -t i o n s o f the body which l e a d s away from a fragmented p e r c e p t i o n of t h e body t h e y seem t o p o s s e s s , t o a u n i f i e d image of i t . As an example, a d o l e s c e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e i r arm and hand but most f r e q u e n t l y don't know how i t r e l a t e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t o t h e i r body. They a r e o f t e n s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d the arm l o n g e r t h a n they would have t h o u g h t , the elbow near the w a i s t and the hand endi n g not f a r above the knee. Or e l s e they know t h a t t h e y have s h o u l -d e r s but do not know how t h e arm i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e body. D i s -c o v e r i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e a r e f r e q u e n t w h i l e t h e y are w o r k i n g on 14. a f i g u r e . A t t h i s p o i n t marked d i f f e r e n c e s may be o b s e r v e d be-tween j u n i o r and s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . I t i s o b s e r v a b l e i n my own c l a s s e s t h a t grade 8 o r 9 s t u d -e n t s have l e s s apparent i n h i b i t i o n s but a l s o l e s s knowledge of p r o p o r t i o n s o r even l a c k knowledge o f c e r t a i n p a r t s o f the body. They seem m o s t l y t o s t r u g g l e t o a c h i e v e a l i k e n e s s t o a body. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o o b s e r ve t h a t they o f t e n l e a v e o u t t h e a r e a between w a i s t l i n e and l o i n s and a t t a c h the l e g s t o the w a i s t . L e a v i n g out the lower t r u n k might suggest i n h i b i t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s e x u a l i t y . T h i s p o i n t might be f u r t h e r suppor-t e d by t h e tendency o f b o t h g i r l s and boys t o choose t o c r e a t e a male f i g u r e . Those who choose th e female f i g u r e e x p e r i e n c e g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s m o d e l l i n g t h e b r e a s t s e i t h e r from i n h i b i t i o n o r s i m p l y because of l a c k o f knowledge. F u r t h e r , t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l p u p p e t - l i k e s t i f f n e s s and l a c k o f i n v e n t i v e n e s s o f move-ment i n the work o f t h i s age group, e s p e c i a l l y o b v i o u s when one views th e work o f a whole c l a s s . S e n i o r s t u d e n t s , i n c o n t r a s t , even i f w i t h o u t p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g i n a r t , seem t o have a b e t t e r knowledge o f and f e e l i n g f o r t h e body. They m a n i f e s t a much i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n spend-i n g a g r e a t l e n g t h o f time w o r k i n g on s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e . They t e n d t o demand a c c u r a c y i n d e p i c t i n g t h e body r e a l i s t i c -a l l y , and t h e y use a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f p o s e s . The b r o o d i n g , s t i f f e r poses o f j u n i o r s t u d e n t s g i v e way now t o f r e q u e n t i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a t h l e t e s i n a c t i o n . However, r e g a r d l e s s of the s u b j e c t chosen t o be e x p r e s s e d w i t h the f i g u r e , o t h e r impor-t a n t l e a r n i n g outcomes a r e t h e l e n g t h e n e d a t t e n t i o n span, the 15. s t a y i n g power w i t h one p r o j e c t e x t e n d i n g o v e r s e v e r a l weeks, and the i n t e r e s t and p r i d e t h e y t a k e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f the f i n -i s h e d p r o d u c t . These i n d e e d a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a r t c r e a t e d by mature a r t i s t s . Our dependence on and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o our b o d i e s forms an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f how we cope w i t h l i f e i t s e l f . An i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e and the e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y o f t h e human body, whether our own o r t h a t o f our f e l l o w men can o n l y enhance t h e q u a l i t y o f our l i f e . A d o l e s c e n c e i s an a p p r o p r i a t e time t o g a i n such knowledge. Chapter I I DEVELOPMENT OF THE CURRICULUM RESOURCES Purpose o f S l i d e s The s l i d e s a r e o f paramount importance as a l l u n i t p l a n s use them as l e s s o n a i d s . A major p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h was de-v o t e d t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e , and s l i d e s o f t h e s e had t o be made f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a l l t h e f a c e t s o f s c u l p t u r e e x p l o r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . Beyond t h i s , t h e s l i d e s have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o be used i n many o t h e r l e s s o n s . The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the s e l e c t i o n o f works f o r s l i d e s was an a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g purpose: t o i l l u s t r a t e t he en-t i r e h i s t o r y o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e from P r e h i s t o r y t o the 1980's, w o r l d w i d e , and from a l l c u l t u r e s which produced s c u l p t u r e s o f t h e f i g u r e . To a c h i e v e such c o v e r a g e , t h e r e l e -v a n t h i s t o r y o f a r t was d i v i d e d i n t o c o n v e n i e n t c h a p t e r s . P r e -h i s t o r y was f i r s t , t hen came P r i m i t i v e A r t , f o r which t h e d e c i s -i o n was made t o keep i t as a group f o l l o w i n g P r e h i s t o r y . A l -though c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y i t would not b e l o n g t h e r e , i t was p l a c e d t h e r e f o r t h e sake of the s t y l i s t i c and f u n c t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s ; the w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s t o r t t h e f i g u r e f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f r i t -u a l b e l i e f s . F u r t h e r g r o u p i n g o f the s l i d e s f o l l o w s g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s such as the F a r E a s t , the M i d d l e E a s t , and Egypt. From t h i s p o i n t t h e s l i d e s c o v e r t h e major a r e a s o f the h i s t o r y o f Western a r t . By the 17th c e n t u r y , the g r o u p i n g becomes c h r o n o l o g i c a l . The many movements i n Western a r t o f the 20th c e n t u r y a r e not c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t a i l , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s s u i t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t y l e s , so t h e s l i d e s might be used f o r t h i s p urpose. The f i n a l s l i d e s i l l u s t r a t i n g the h i s t o r y o f a r t i n -c l u d e s c u l p t o r s o f t h e f i g u r e from b o t h Europe and N o r t h Amer-i c a , up t o and i n c l u d i n g 1981. C o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o r e p -r e s e n t i n g s e v e r a l l o c a l Lower M a i n l a n d s c u l p t o r s o f t h e f i g u r e . T h i s b r o a d e r but more s u p e r f i c i a l coverage was abandoned i n f a -vour o f an i n - d e p t h approach t o one Vancouver s c u l p t o r , E l e k Imredy, whose work s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e beyond the h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t , many o t h e r a r e a s o f t h i s c u r r i c u l u m . Lower M a i n l a n d s c u l p t o r s a re f e a t u r e d i n d e t a i l i n Susanne McFeely's t h e s i s e n t i t l e d , "Teaching S c u l p t u r e : a r a t i o n a l e and r e s o u r c e k i t " (1983). As w e l l as g i v i n g an o v e r v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f a r t , t h e 398 s l i d e s a l s o p r o v i d e the u n d e r p i n n i n g s f o r t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s o f s c u l p t u r e such as t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , form, mass, volume, monu m e n t a l i t y , as w e l l as f o r t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s chosen f o r c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n . The t o p i c s which a r e used f o r a r t c r i t i c i s m and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e a sample o f many more p o s s i b i l -i t i e s . One c o u l d choose o t h e r s c u l p t u r a l themes, o r make com-p a r i s o n s between s t y l e s o r a r t i s t s . The s l i d e s c o u l d s e r v e as a r e s o u r c e and as l e s s o n a i d s i n many a r t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . S t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s a r e a l s o enhanced by the use o f t h e s l i d e s , and 33 s l i d e s a r e i n c l u d e d t o h e l p w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f a r t anatomy and f i g u r e d r a w i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o a l l the a f o r e c i t e d p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , the s e l e c t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e s was a l s o made w i t h the c o n s t a n t purpose 18. i n mind t h a t t h e y a r e t o be viewed by a d o l e s c e n t s . Works were i n c l u d e d , and some were l e f t o u t , w i t h the aim o f s p a r k i n g the i n t e r e s t o f a d o l e s c e n t s . I n v a r i a b l y , works o f im p o r t a n c e might have been m i s s e d . F o r t h e sake o f l i m i t i n g t he t o t a l number o f s l i d e s , o t h e r s were e x c l u d e d . I t i s p o s i t e d t h a t what i s i n -c l u d e d w i l l be used, and u s e f u l , i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e i n secondary s c h o o l s . U n i t P l a n s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S c u l p t u r e R a t i o n a l e : To p r e s e n t a g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w o f s c u l p t u r e , i t s unique q u a l i t i e s as opposed t o o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s , t h e con-c e p t s i t i n v o l v e s , and the methods and m a t e r i a l s used i n i t s making. G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l comprehend t h e d i f f e r e n c e between s c u l p t u r e and most o f the t w o d i m e n s i o n a l v i s u a l a r t s . O b j e c t i v e s : - An i n t r o d u c t o r y knowledge o f co n c e p t s such as t h r e e d i m e n -s i o n a l i t y and monumentality. - A g e n e r a l knowledge o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between o u t -door and i n d o o r s c u l p t u r e . - An o v e r v i e w o f methods and m a t e r i a l s used i n outdoo r and i n d o o r s c u l p t u r e . Resources: S l i d e s : No. 211 and 213 No. 139 and 140 No. 3 and 4 No. 388 and 391 No. 215 and 216 No. 51 and 6 9 No. 39, 42, 45 and 46 No. 251 and 252 Lesson a i d s : Endeavour t o purchase a good q u a l i t y r e p l i c a o f a s c u l p -t u r e such as the "Venus de M i l o " o r the " T h i n k e r " by R o d i n , o f which you need t o have a photograph o f a t l e a s t 8" by 11" i n s i z e , t a k e n from one a n g l e , u s u a l l y the f r o n t a l p o s i t i o n , and mounted on c a r d b o a r d . M a t e r i a l s f o r s t u d e n t use: Notebook t o t a k e n o t e s . D i s c u s s i o n : - H o l d up a p i e c e o f paper t o demonstrate what a t r u l y t w o d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t l o o k s l i k e . Ask s t u d e n t s t o g i v e you examples o f o t h e r t r u l y o r n e a r l y t w o d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s i n our environment, such as b i l l b o a r d s , r e c o r d s , pancakes. Not many can be found. We are o u r s e l v e s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l and most t h i n g s s u r r o u n d i n g us a r e 3 D. These have h e i g h t , w i d t h and depth. - Whereas a r t i s t s w o r k i n g on a 2 D s u r f a c e m o s t l y t r y t o c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n o f shape, d i s t a n c e and d e p t h , i n s c u l p t u r e shape and form a r e m a t e r i a l l y p r e s e n t . 20. - S c u l p t u r e w h i c h i s f u l l y t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i s r e f e r r e d t o as " s c u l p t u r e i n t h e round." H o l d up the r e p l i c a o f a s c u l p t u r e you have a c q u i r e d , o r an o r i g i n a l one i f you have i t , and t h e photograph o f i t , both f a c i n g the s t u d e n t s from the same a n g l e . Ask them t o keep t h e i r eyes on t h e s c u l p t u r e which you now v e r y s l o w l y s h o u l d t u r n , c o m p l e t i n g a f u l l c i r c l e . Draw a t t e n t i o n t o the d i f f e r e n c e i n appearance o f t h e s c u l p t u r e from t h e many o t h e r a n g l e s seen. W e l l known s c u l p t u r e s such as the "Venus de M i l o " o r M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s " D a v i d " a r e sometimes not r e c o g n i z e d i f a photograph i s shown o f them t a k e n from a d i f f e r e n t a n g l e . S c u l p t u r e i n t h e round must l o o k d i f f e r e n t and s a t i s f a c t o r y from  a l l a n g l e s . I t c o u l d be photographed from up t o 36 0 a n g l e s . T h e r e f o r e the s c u l p t o r must work on i t from a l l a n g l e s , p r e f e r -a b l y d e v e l o p i n g i t e v e n l y w h i l e t u r n i n g i t c o n s t a n t l y . - C o l o u r i s the l i f e b l o o d o f p a i n t i n g ; i t i s i t s most im-p o r t a n t d e s i g n element. C o l o u r i s seldom used i n s c u l p t u r e ; i t s major d e s i g n element i s form. Form can appear changed by l i g h t and shadow. A s c u l p t u r e completed can be, and must be sub-j e c t e d t o cha n g i n g l i g h t and shadow but w h i l e i t i s c r e a t e d , and i n o r d e r t o ensure t h e p u r i t y and completeness o f form as the s c u l p t o r w i s h e s i t t o e x i s t , i t must be made i n even l i g h t and p r e f e r a b l y n o r t h e r n l i g h t w h i c h i s l e a s t l i k e l y t o c a s t s t r o n g shadows. Form can t r u l y be comprehended n ot o n l y by t h e eye but a l s o by t o u c h . I t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o t o u c h a l l s c u l p t u r e t o enjo y i t more c o m p l e t e l y . - Photographs o f s c u l p t u r e can not r e a l l y convey the f u l l i mpact o f i t s p r e s e n c e i n space. As we have seen, many photo-graphs would have t o be seen t o do j u s t i c e t o the cha n g i n g forms 21. and shapes. But the s i z e o f a s c u l p t u r e i s a l s o o n l y a guess i f we see i t on a photograph. Some s c u l p t u r e l o o k s v e r y l a r g e on a photograph even i f i t i s s m a l l i n a c t u a l i t y . T h i s i s what i s r e f e r r e d t o as "monumentality." The word o r i g i n a t e s from monument, and monuments were commonly l a r g e . The s i z e o f a s c u l p t u r e i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s c u l p t o r when he p l a n s a p i e c e , so he must know whether i t i s g o i n g t o be l o c a t e d o u t d o o r s o r i n -d o o r s . - Outdoor s c u l p t u r e i s s u r r o u n d e d by open a i r , sky above, and o f t e n b u i l d i n g s nearby. I t s s c a l e must be r e l a t e d t o the l a r g e f e a t u r e s o f b u i l d i n g s and o f n a t u r e . I t must be b i g t o be seen. I t a l s o must be o f d u r a b l e m a t e r i a l s as i t i s exposed t o the weather y e a r around. Indoor s c u l p t u r e can be o f any ma-t e r i a l and, depending on t h e room, m o s t l y o f s m a l l e r s i z e . D i s c u s s w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s any outdoor s c u l p t u r e i n y o u r a r e a . I f i n the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, examples can be d i s c u s s e d , o r v i s i t e d i f f i e l d t r i p s a re a p o s s i b i l i t y . Examples a r e : "Gassy J a c k " i n Gastown; the " F a m i l y " by J a c k Harman i n f r o n t o f the P a c i f i c P r e s s b u i l d i n g ; " B a n n i s t e r and Landy" by J a c k Harman a t t h e P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n ; the " K n i f e ' s Edge" by Henry Moore on L i t t l e M ountain; th e "Crab" by George N o r r i s i n f r o n t o f t h e P l a n e t a r i u m , and many more. S u i t -a b l e m a t e r i a l s f o r o u t d o o r s c u l p t u r e depend on t h e c l i m a t e . I n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d m e t a l i s a p r i o r i t y , a l t h o u g h l o n g l a s t i n g m a t e r i a l s g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e stone and, more r e c e n t l y , f i b r e g l a s s . - Major groups of m a t e r i a l s a r e as f o l l o w s : Stone, c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e h a r d e s t , g r a n i t e ; t h e most p o p u l a r , marble; and s o f t e r ones such as l i m e s t o n e , sandstone and soap-s t o n e . Stone i s q u a r r i e d ; i t i s p a r t o f a mountain. The most famous q u a r r i e s f o r marble a r e i n I t a l y . S c u l p t o r s o f t e n go t o q u a r r i e s t o p i c k out a p a r t i c u l a r b l o c k o f s t o n e . M i c h e l a n g e l o d i d t h i s i n h i s t ime i n I t a l y . Those famous q u a r r i e s s t i l l ex-i s t — V e r o n a r e d marble o r C a r r a r a w h i t e marble a r e examples. Wood i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t group o f m a t e r i a l s f o r s c u l p t u r e and t h e r e a r e many k i n d s o f woods used. The h a r d e s t wood comes from A f r i c a : ebony which i s b l a c k , o r " l i g n u m v i t a e , " t h e "wood of l i f e . " The s o f t e s t wood i s b a l s a , and t h e r e a r e many i n between M e t a l i s the t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t group o f m a t e r i a l s used f o r s c u l p t u r e . The most f a v o u r e d by s c u l p t o r s i s b r o n z e , which i s an a l l o y , and can be t r e a t e d t o become c o l o u r e d g reen o r g o l d o r dark brown. Other m e t a l s used are s t e e l , aluminum, g o l d and s i l v e r , among o t h e r s . Copper i s r a r e l y used by i t s e l f as i t o x i d i z e s and even d e t e r i o r a t e s o u t d o o r s . The M i s c e l l a n e o u s group o f m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e s the.:modern p l a s t i c s such as f i b r e g l a s s o r r e s i n s , p l a s t e r o f P a r i s , con-c r e t e o r c a s t s t o n e , t h e a l l i m p o r t a n t c l a y o r t e r r a - c o t t a s c u l p t u r e , and s e v e r a l more. Some o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s can be used i n more th a n one way. T h i s l e a d s t o t h e f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h a t o f methods used t o make s c u l p t u r e . - Two f u n d a m e n t a l l y opposed methods c o v e r most s t u d i o work i n s c u l p t u r e . The p r o c e s s e s a r e : b u i l d i n g up o r a d d i n g , and t a k i n g away o r c a r v i n g . B u i l d i n g up, o r a d d i n g may be done i n c l a y , o r p a p i e r mache, o r p l a s t e r o f P a r i s on w i r e , o r m e t a l p i e c e s s o l d e r e d o r welded t o g e t h e r , o r c o n s t r u c t e d from b a l s a wood, c a r d b o a r d , e t c . Claywork may be l e f t i n c l a y , f i r e d i n a k i l n and thus t r a n s -formed i n t o t e r r a - c o t t a (baked e a r t h ) s c u l p t u r e , o r i t may be c a s t i n t o p l a s t e r o f P a r i s o r b r o n z e , o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . Wax i s a l s o used t o b u i l d up s c u l p t u r e but i f l e f t w i t h o u t c a s t i n g i n t o a more permanent m a t e r i a l , i t c o u l d e a s i l y d e t e r i o r a t e due t o h e a t . T a k i n g away, s u b t r a c t i n g o r c a r v i n g t a k e s p l a c e when a b l o c k o f s t o n e , wood, o r p l a s t e r o f P a r i s i s reduced t o a s c u l p t u r e by, q u o t i n g M i c h e l a n g e l o , "removing the m a t e r i a l which i s s u p e r f l u -ous." V i s u a l i z i n g t h e f i n a l s c u l p t u r e i n o r d e r not t o remove what i s needed can be g r e a t l y a i d e d by t h e m o d e l l i n g o f a s m a l l v e r s i o n o f t h e s c u l p t u r e i n c l a y , r e f e r r e d t o as a "maquette." -Demonstrate t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e u n i t w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e s l i d e s . S l i d e s No. 211 and 213, " V i c t o r y , " by M i c h e l a n g e l o , as seen from t h r e e a n g l e s , and No. 139 and 140, " V i c t o r y o f Samothrace," seen from two a n g l e s , t o demonstrate the v a r i e d views p r e -s e n t e d by 3 D. S l i d e s No. 3 and 4, the "Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f , " t o show i t s un-e x p e c t e d s m a l l s i z e . No. 388 and 391, " C h r i s t t h e Teacher," by Imredy, and No. 215 and 216, "Day," from the M e d i c i tomb by M i c h e l a n g e l o , t o show maquette and f i n a l s c u l p t u r e . S l i d e s 51 and 69, b o t h "Buddha" f i g u r e s o f sto n e and b r o n z e , t o demonstrate inadequacy o f photographs t o guess s i z e o f work, 32 i n c h e s t o 37 f e e t r e s p e c t i v e l y . S l i d e s No. 39 and 42, B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n s ' wood f i g u r e s , the f i r s t 5 f t . 6 i n c h e s and 5 f t . 3 i n c h e s , the second 24 i n c h e s . A l s o s l i d e s No. 45 and 46 o f the "Naked Dancer made o f cop p e r , from I n d i a , and o n l y 4% i n c h e s i n s i z e . These i l l u s t r a t e t he l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e not v i s i b l e from the photographs. S l i d e s No. 251 and 252, "Diana," by Houdon, the f i r s t t he marbl o r i g i n a l which needed t h e v e g e t a t i o n as s u p p o r t f o r the f i g u r e , and the l a t e r bronze v e r s i o n which c a r r i e s the up-r i g h t f i g u r e w i t h o u t s u p p o r t w i t h the i n n a t e s t r e n g t h o f the m e t a l . H i s t o r i c a l Overview o f S c u l p t u r e o f the Human F i g u r e Based on 398 S l i d e s R a t i o n a l e : In s c u l p t u r e , a r t i s t s have c o n s i s t e n t l y d e p i c t e d the human f i g u r e . An o v e r v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f humankind can be t r a c e d t o some e x t e n t t h r o u g h t h e h i s t o r y o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e , as most c u l t u r e s p e r m i t t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f i t . To l o o k a t such work d a t e d from 70,000 B.C. t o 1981 A.D., w o r l d -wide, t h r o u g h the eyes o f p r e h i s t o r i c , p r i m i t i v e , and s o p h i s t i -c a t e d a r t i s t s , expands h o r i z o n s and may make the s t u d e n t s t a k e p r i d e i n t h e i r humanity. G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l be g i v e n an o v e r v i e w o f the d i v e r s i t y o f hu-man images from t h e Ice Age o f t h e N e a n d e r t h a l e r s t o the urban d w e l l e r s o f p r e s e n t day N o r t h A m e r i c a , from p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s o f p a s t and p r e s e n t , and from c u l t u r e s e x t i n c t as w e l l as from those s u r v i v i n g and t h r i v i n g t o d a y . O b j e c t i v e s : S t u d e n t s w i l l grow i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f humanity's s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l , and o f a r t used f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f f e e l i n g s and b e l i e f s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r i e s . They w i l l a l s o d e v e l o p the a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e h i s t o r i c a l epochs, s t y l e s , c o u n t r i e s o f o r -i g i n , and s p e c i f i c s c u l p t o r s ' works as a r e s u l t o f v i e w i n g and d i s c u s s i n g t h e s l i d e s . Lesson a i d s : The complete l i s t o f s l i d e s i s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o p e r -i o d s and s t y l e s o f a r t h i s t o r y . T h i s w i l l e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o stu d y a r t h i s t o r y i n d e t a i l , as seen t h r o u g h s c u l p t u r e o f the human f i g u r e , p r e s e n t e d o v e r s e v e r a l l e s s o n s . S l i d e s a r e grouped t h e f o l l o w i n g way: 1. P r e h i s t o r i c - from 70,000 B.C. 21,000 B.C. 15,000 B.C. 3,000 B.C. S l i d e No. 1 - 1 0 2. P r i m i t i v e M i c r o n e s i a n (11, 12) A f r i c a n (13 - 17) M e l a n e s i a n (18 - 21) P o l y n e s i a n (22 - 24) South American (25) M i d d l e American (26 - 31) 26 . I n u i t (32 - 26) N o r t h American I n d i a n (37 - 44) S l i d e No. 11 - 44 3. F a r E a s t e r n I n d i a (45 - 56) P a k i s t a n (57) J a v a (58) V i e t Nam (59) S r i Lanka (60) China (61 - 68) Japan (69 - 70) T h a i l a n d (71 - 72) Cambodia (73 - 77) S l i d e No. 45 - 77 4. Near and M i d d l e E a s t e r n Mesopotamian (78) Chaldean-Sumerian (79) Neo-Sumerian (80 - 81) P h o e n i c i a n (82) A s s y r i a n ( 8 3 - 8 4 ) Sumerian (85) S l i d e No. 78 - 85 5. E g y p t i a n S l i d e No. 86 -• 118 6. Greek S l i d e No. 119 - 143 7. E t r u s c a n S l i d e No. 144 - 148 8. Roman S l i d e No. 149 - 151 9. B y z a n t i n e S l i d e No. 152 10. Romanesque Slide No. 153 - 159 11. Gothic Slide No . 160 - 173 12. Renaissance Slide No. 174 - 198 13. Mannerism Slide No. 199 - 228 14. 17th and 18th Century Slide No. 229 - 255 (Baroque & Classical) 15. 19th Century Slide No. 256 - 293 16. 20th Century Slide No. 294 - 398 19th and 20th century art were purposely s i m p l i f i e d and movements such as Impressionism, Expressionism, Fauvism, Cub-ism, Futurism, Dada, Formalist, Con s t r u c t i v i s t , S u r r e a l i s t , Conceptualism were omitted, as they were f e l t to be outside the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . However, i f either a preliminary overview i s to be given to the students, or the history of art through the figure not to be taught i n depth, two shortened l i s t s of slides follow, as Tables 1 and 2. These are recommended for study for Senior or Junior Secondary students respectively, and w i l l permit an overview of sculpture of the figure both h i s t o r i c a l l y and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y . Discussion: Show the s l i d e s , a group at a time. Where applicable d i s -cuss the h i s t o r i c a l and geographical setting, and the national and s o c i a l background of the a r t i s t s . Students should do t h e i r own research, and be prepared to par t i c i p a t e i n the discussion of the works. An example of such a class discussion might be as follows. 28. P r e h i s t o r i c a r t : t a l k about the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s of E a r l y Man. N e a n d e r t h a l s l i v e d d u r i n g the I c e Age as w e l l as d u r i n g the somewhat warmer I n t e r - G l a c i a l P e r i o d . N e a n d e r t h a l a r t was found m o s t l y i n c a v e s , and seemed t o have begun about 35,000 y e a r s ago, peaked 15,000 y e a r s ago, and faded 10,000 y e a r s ago. More t h a n 200 caves were fou n d , many o f t h e s e i n t h e South o f F r a n c e and the N o r t h o f S p a i n , but a l s o i n the Near and M i d d l e E a s t , as w e l l as i n A f r i c a . F o s s i l r e c o r d s o f N e a n d e r t h a l man were f i r s t found i n 1856 A.D., i n t h e v a l l e y o f the Neander R i v e r i n Germany. The v e r y f i r s t cave was d i s c o v e r e d due t o an a c c i d e n t , when a h u n t e r ' s dog f e l l i n t o i t a t A l t a m i r a , S p a i n . D u r i n g t h e dog's r e s c u e , the cave was f i r s t seen w i t h i t s w a l l s f u l l o f superb p a i n t i n g s . The owner o f the l a n d where A l t a m i r a l i e s e x p l o r e d t h e c a v e s , and p u b l i c i z e d h i s f i n d i n g s . He d i e d b e f o r e t h e a r t o f the cave was b e l i e v e d t o be made by E a r l y Man. I t was not a c c e p t e d because of the supreme s k i l l s o f i t s a r t i s t s . Only when e v i d e n c e mounted w i t h the d i s c o v e r y o f many caves was cave a r t a c c e p t e d as genuine. S e v e r a l s o - c a l l e d "Venus" f i g u r e s were found a t p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s ; t h e o l d e s t c a r v i n g o f bone d a t e d as f a r back as 70,000 y e a r s ago ( S l i d e No. 1 ) , which i s rema r k a b l e and most moving i n i t s "modern" s i m p l i c i t y . D a t i n g from a l a t e r p e r i o d , more such f i g u r e s were found; t h r e e o f t h e s e d a t e d from 21,000 B.C. t o 15,000 B.C. ( S l i d e No. 2 - 7 ) . However, more p a i n t e d cave a r t and fewer f i g u r e s s u r v i v e d , which might be a t t r i b u t e d t o the s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s e f i g u r e s , and which s u g g e s t s t h a t they were c a r r i e d around as a m u l e t s . Because o f t h e e x a g g e r a t e d f e m i n i n e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e s e f i g u r e s , t h e y a r e presumed t o be f e r t i l i t y f i g u r e s . The h a r s h c o n d i t i o n s o f c l i m a t e made the s u r v i v a l o f E a r l y Man p o s s i b l e o n l y i f he/she e x i s t e d i n r e a s o n a b l e numbers. N e a n d e r t h a l man might not have u n d e r s t o o d how c h i l d r e n were c r e a t e d b u t he knew women bore them and, t h e r e f o r e , the group's s u r v i v a l depended on them. "Sympathetic magic" was used t o b r i n g about s u c c e s s i n the h u n t , t h e r e f o r e the a n i m a l p a i n t i n g s on t h e cave w a l l s . S i m i l a r l y , the female f e r t i l i t y f i g u r e s were used f o r t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the r a c e . N e a n d e r t h a l f o s s i l r e c o r d s d a t e E a r l y Man as a p p e a r i n g about 100,000 y e a r s ago, d u r i n g t h e somewhat warmer i n t e r g l a c i a l p e r i o d o f 130,000 - 70,000 y e a r s ago. Human p o p u l a t i o n e n t e r e d N o r t h A m e r i c a , p o s s i b l y from S i b e r i a , when g l a c i a t i o n l o w e r e d the sea l e v e l and t h e y c o u l d c r o s s t h e B e r i n g S t r a i t . T h i s might have begun 40,000 y e a r s ago. They re a c h e d South America a t l e a s t 20,000 y e a r s ago. G r a d u a l l y , i n most p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , t h e h u n t i n g - a n d - g a t h e r i n g way o f l i f e was r e p l a c e d by a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s began i n some p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d as much as 10,000 y e a r s ago, and i n the Americas about 5,000 y e a r s ago. The cave a r t o f E a r l y Man was r e p l a c e d by a g e o m e t r i c s t y l e o f a r t w h i c h becomes e v i d e n t i n t h e l a t e r C y c l a d i c f i g u r e s d a t e d about the t h i r d m i l l e n i u m B.C. ( S l i d e No. 9 and 10). A c o m p a r i -son between the s t y l e s o f the P r e h i s t o r i c and C y c l a d i c "Venus" f i g u r e s can be seen on S l i d e No. 8. 30 . T a b l e 1 ^ , J ^ ,^ A S e l e c t i o n o f 140 S l i d e s f o r a B r i e f Overview  of t h e H i s t o r y o f S c u l p t u r e o f the F i g u r e  f o r S e n i o r Secondary S t u d e n t s 1 P r e h i s t o r i c S l i d e No. 60 S r i Lanka 3 61 China 4 it 64 P r i m i t i v e : 69 Japan 16 N i g e r i a 71 T h a i l a n d 19 New Guinea 72 I I 24 E a s t e r I s l a n d 76 Cambodia 26 Mexico Near E a s t : 27 H 83 A s s y r i a 28 i i 86 Egypt 29 H 89 30 n 91 33 I n u i t 92 35 95 » 39 N. Am. I n d i a n S a l i s h 96 •• 41 K w a k i u t l 102 F a r E a s t : 104 45 I n d i a 105 49 n 108 » 51 I I 109 » 57 P a k i s t a n 110 116 31. Greco-Roman: S l i d e No. 121 Greek 123 125 130 133 134 138 139 14 0 141 142 144 E t r u s c a n 146 14 9 Roman 150 155 156 157 159 160 166 167 Romanesque 12th C. G o t h i c 13th C. " . 14th C. 168 G o t h i c 15th i 172 i i i i 173 L a t e G o t h i c 176 D o n a t e l l o 178 I I 179 G h i b e r t i 180 I I 182 V e r r o c c h i o 187 C e l l i n i 188 H 189 I I 190 I I 199 M i c h e l a n g e l o 202 I I 203 I I 204 I I 215 I I 216 218 219 it 222 it 223 H 228 232 B e r n i n i S l i d e No. 294 M a i l l o l 233 i i 303 Lehmbruck 2 34 I I 309 B a r l a c h 240 Puget 311 S i n t e n i s 242 As am 314 Shadre 243 V i e i r a 319 S z e r v a t i u s z 249 F a l c o n e t 323 B r a n c u s i 251 Houdon 324 Bracho 252 336 M a r i n i 256 Canova 339 G i a c o m e t t i 262 P r e a u l t 340 N i l s s o n 264 Meunier 345 Moore 266 B a r t h o l d i 347 I I 267 II 354 S e g a l 268 Rodin 355 B u t l e r 269 „ 356 It 271 358 M a r i s o l 272 359 M i l l e r 273 365 Wynne 275 » 366 284 » 367 L u c c h e s i 287 » 371 I I 293 P a r i s E x h i b . 1900 A.D. 372 I I Slide No. 373 374 375 376 377 382 383 388 391 de Andrea Hanson Morales I I Zuniga I I Imredy T a b l e 2 A S e l e c t i o n o f 86 S l i d e s f o r a More Condensed Overview o f  S c u l p t u r e o f t h e F i g u r e Throughout the Ages, Around the Wo r l d , f o r J u n i o r Secondary S t u d e n t s S l i d e No. 1 P r e h i s t o r i c Near E a s t : 4 S l i d e No. 84 A s s y r i a P r i m i t i v e : 89 Egypt 15 Congo 91 11 18 New Zealand 92 H 26 Mexico 102 I I 28 i t 108 I I 33 I n u i t 110 i t 35 I I 116 I I 41 N. Am. I n d i a n Greco-Roi F a r E a s t : 123 Greek 49 I n d i a 125 t i 51 I I 135 t i 57 P a k i s t a n 136 I I 60 S r i Lanka 137 it 64 Ch i n a 141 i i 65 146 E t r u s c a n 69 Japan 149 Roman 71 T h a i l a n d 151 i i 35. S l i d e No. 171 G o t h i c S l i d e No. 174 " 15th C. 178 D o n a t e l l o 193 da Bologna 199 M i c h e l a n g e l o 202 208 215 216 222 232 B e r n i n i 251 Houdon 252 25 8 Canova 2 71 Rodin 272 275 287 294 M a i l l o l 309 B a r l a c h 310 S i n t e n i s 311 329 Greco 336 M a r i n i 338 Manzu 339 G i a c o m e t t i 345 Moore 347 353 S e g a l 355 B u t l e r 364 Wynne 366 367 L u c c h e s i 370 374 Hanson 375 M o r a l e s 376 379 B a r e l i e r 384 E r h a r d y 386 Imredy 387 388 389 390 391 392 395 397 39 9 M i c h e l a n g e l o drawing 40 4 Moore " 406 . " 412 36. Anatomy o f the Human F i g u r e : The S k e l e t o n R a t i o n a l e : The s k e l e t o n i s o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o a r t i s t s i n t e r e s t e d i n d e p i c t i n g t h e human f i g u r e as i t i s the "armature" w h i c h h o l d s i t up, governs i t s p r o p o r t i o n s , e n a b l e s and r e s t r i c t s i t s m o t i o n s . Study o f t h e s k e l e t o n i s a n e c e s s a r y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o w o r k i n g w i t h the f i g u r e i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s , and can be o f p a r -t i c u l a r advantage t o a d o l e s c e n t s who do not see p r o p o r t i o n s and who l a c k knowledge o f t h e i n n e r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r own bod-i e s . G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l g a i n knowledge o f anatomy o f t h e human f i g u r e . O b j e c t i v e s : S e e i n g and drawing t h e s k e l e t o n i n terms o f : - p r o p o r t i o n s - p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n s - s t r u c t u r a l s t r e n g t h - l i m i t a t i o n o f movement. Resources: S l i d e s No. 414 t o 420. P l a t e s No. 4, 5 and 6. Less o n a i d s : 1. P r e p a r e l a r g e (23" by 36") drawing on M a n i l l a Tag from P l a t e No. 4 i n s i m p l i f i e d form by f i r s t d i v i d i n g the paper i n e i g h t h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n s . The t o p s e c t i o n , number 1, r e p r e s e n t s the head w i t h o u t the neck and i s the measure used f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e body. 37. 2. Prepare large (24" by 36") drawing on Manilla Tag of two views of the s k u l l i n s i m p l i f i e d form by using Slide No. 4 20, two views of the s k u l l , f r o n t a l and the side. 3. Obtain X-rays of the s k u l l , chest, p e l v i s , hands, feet, etc. from a laboratory and display taped on to the windows. Try to get adult and c h i l d X-rays to demonstrate difference i n size. Materials for student use: Graph paper 12" by 18" P l a i n paper (manilla or cartridge) Pencils Discuss by using the large v i s u a l of Plate No. 4. - Function of the skeleton as the i n t e r n a l framework which "holds us up" and enables movement. Compare skeleton to inner structure of wood frame for houses and s t e e l frame for high-rise buildings. We forget i t s role because i t i s hidden from view. - S k u l l : point to r a t i o of f a c i a l area to rest which i s about 1 to 2. Emphasize domelike structure which houses and protects the brain. Point to brow area which protrudes and pro-tects deeper set eyes. Point to shortness of nose bone which allows great differences i n the size and shape of noses. - Spine: explain that vertebrae are smallest i n the neck and grow i n size downward u n t i l the tailbone. The cortex i s thickest i n the neck as the greatest number of nerves lead to the hands i n order to enable them to do a multitude of movements unmatched anywhere in the body. - Chest: i t s shape resembles a basket. Individual ribs 38. are f r a g i l e but t h e i r number and shape g i v e s s t r e n g t h and f l e x i -b i l i t y t o p r o t e c t v i t a l organs such as the h e a r t and l u n g s , and a l l o w f o r e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n when b r e a t h i n g . - P e l v i s : the o v e r a l l shape resembles a bowl, i t accommo-d a t e s v i t a l organs such as the s o u r c e of l i f e . P o i n t t o the f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e between male and female p e l v i s . T h i s i s one o f the means o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f an unknown s k e l e -t o n . - Arms: demonstrate y o u r s e l f and on t h e v i s u a l and have s t u d e n t s f i n d t h e i r elbow a l o n g t h e i r body which i s a t t h e w a i s t l i n e , and t h e whole arm i n c l u d i n g the hand re a c h e s c l o s e t o the knee. T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t p r o p o r t i o n most s t u d e n t s do not see and i s b e s t demonstrated by h a v i n g th e s t u d e n t s s t a n d up. E x p l a i n about the s h o u l d e r j o i n t w hich i s l i k e a b a l l - b e a r -i n g ; i t e n a b l e s c i r c u l a r m o t i o n , and t h e elbow w h i c h has r e -s t r i c t e d m o t i o n . Demonstrate and have s t u d e n t s s t u d y t h e i r hand and the many movements and a c t i o n s i t i s c a p a b l e o f making. I t i s the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o o l i n t h e w o r l d . P o i n t t o the s i z e of the hand and demonstrate y o u r s e l f and w i t h s t u d e n t s t h a t by p u t t i n g the base o f the hand near the w r i s t t o one's c h i n , and by s t r e t c h i n g the f i n g e r s o v e r one's f a c e , you w i l l f i n d the s i z e of t h e hand about e q u a l t o t h e h e i g h t o f one's f a c e from c h i n t o h a i r l i n e . J u s t as s t u d e n t s o f t e n make the arms t o o s h o r t , t h e y a l s o make the hands f a r t o o s m a l l . - Legs: the l e n g t h o f l e g s needs t o be emphasized. They s t a r t a t t h e end o f the t r u n k and a r e the h a l f w a y p o i n t o f the body between s e c t i o n s 4 and 5. From the h i p j o i n t t h e l e g s a n g l e i n w a r d t o t h e ground i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r c a r r y the w e i g h t o f t h e body. The h i p j o i n t i s the l a r g e s t j o i n t i n t h e body and i t t o o resembles a b a l l - b e a r i n g l i k e t h e s h o u l d e r . The knee, l i k e the elbow, a l s o has r e s t r i c t e d movement but the d i r e c t i o n a l move-ment o f the knee i s e x a c t l y o p p o s i t e t o the one o f t h e elbow. - Hands and F e e t : they a r e composed of many s m a l l bones and j o i n t s w h i c h e n a b l e s a g r e a t e r range o f movement, and f o r the f e e t , an i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y t o c a r r y w e i g h t . Emphasize t h a t f e e t a r e l a r g e r than one's hands, a n o t h e r p a r t o f the body w h i c h i s o f t e n d e p i c t e d as much s m a l l e r by s t u d e n t s . - Neck: i t resembles a column t h a t h o l d s up the head. Me n t i o n t h a t d ancers must have l o n g necks which t h e y use f o r ex-p r e s s i o n o f emotions by moving the head. There are two i m p o r t -ant s e t s o f muscles which move the head. One s e t i s v e r t i c a l l y i n t h e nape o f the neck, the o t h e r two s t a r t each b e h i n d t h e e a r and c r o s s d i a g o n a l l y f o r w a r d t o meet a t the base of t h e t h r o a t , l e f t and r i g h t o f t h e h o l l o w below the "Adam's a p p l e . " T h i s second s e t has t h e l o n g e s t L a t i n name o f a l l the m u s c l e s : " s t e r n o c l e i d o m a s t o i d e u s . " - P r o p o r t i o n s : as seen on the v i s u a l , t h e a d u l t body i s d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t p a r t s , t h e head w i t h o u t t h e neck b e i n g t h e measure; i t goes seven t i m e s i n t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e body, o r sometimes o n l y s i x and a h a l f t i m e s . The growing body's p r o p o r -t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t , as seen on S l i d e No. 419, because t h e head grows v e r y l i t t l e a f t e r b i r t h . A c t i v i t i e s : 1. S t u d e n t s draw on 12" by 18" graph paper o r , i f not o b t a i n -a b l e , on p l a i n paper, d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n s 40. t h e f r o n t v i e w o f the s k e l e t o n and the s i d e v i e w o f t h e body on the same paper, as d i s p l a y e d on the l a r g e v i s u a l . 2. S t u d e n t s draw the s k u l l from t h e f r o n t and s i d e v i e w on t h e same s h e e t o f paper as d i s p l a y e d on the second l a r g e v i s u a l . These a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e t h e r e d u c t i o n i n the s i z e o f the drawings compared t o the v i s u a l s but a r e o t h e r w i s e c o p i e d . Y e t t h e y are most i m p o r t a n t as an e x e r c i s e which f a m i l i a r -i z e s t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e p r o p o r t i o n s , h e i g h t and w i d t h o f the body. F o l l o w above a c t i v i t i e s by showing s l i d e s f o r more d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f neck movements, hand and f e e t move-ments, on S l i d e s No. 421, 422 and 423. F o l l o w w i t h f u r t h e r s l i d e s o f t h e s k e l e t o n i n m o t i o n , S l i d e s No. 4'24 t o 429. Assignments: P r o v i d e w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s p e r -formed by a p e r s o n , such a s : - c l i m b i n g a l a d d e r - f a l l i n g o f f the r o o f o f a house - s i t t i n g on a c h a i r and d r i n k i n g a cup o f t e a - p l a y i n g s o c c e r o r any o t h e r s p o r t . S t u d e n t s a r e t o draw s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e s k e l e t o n o n l y , o r choose one a c t i v i t y and make i t by r e p e t i t i o n o f s t a g e s o f the movement i n t o a " f l i p " book. Encourage s i d e v i e w s f o r an e a s i e r assignment. See P l a t e s No. 5 and 6 f o r examples. F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n : E x p l a i n the concept o f " f o r e s h o r t e n i n g " w i t h a s t u d e n t model o r y o u r s e l f . Show: 1. f r o n t a l v iew of an arm s t r e t c h e d s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , 2. f r o n t a l v iew o f the upper l e g o f a s i t t i n g f i g u r e , 3. view S l i d e s No. 430 and 431 t o s t u d y f o r e s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e r e c l i n i n g f i g u r e . F u r t h e r a c t i v i t y : Borrow f u l l - s i z e r e a l s k e l e t o n from your Resource C e n t r e and a r r a n g e on t a b l e i n s i t t i n g o r r e c l i n i n g pose w i t h some d r a p e r y o r a h a t t o l e s s e n any r e p u l s i o n o r f e a r , and h e i g h t e n i n t e r e s t and humour. S t u d e n t s a r e t o p i c k a d e t a i l o r p o r t i o n o f the s k e l e t o n such a s : t h e s k u l l , a t h i g h , t h e p e l v i s , t h e r i b c a g e , a f o o t o r a hand, and make a d e t a i l e d , t o n a l study i n p e n c i l o r i n k . You may w i s h t o assemble t h e s e p a r t s i n t o a ( p o s s i b l y d i s t o r t e d ) c o l l a g e o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s ' work as a group p r o j e c t . 42. P l a t e 4 P r o p o r t i o n s o f the S k e l e t o n P l a t e 5 G e s t u r e Drawing w i t h t h e S k e l e t o n P l a t e 6 Gesture Drawing w i t h the S k e l e t o n Study o f Movement and P r o p o r t i o n s Through  F i g u r e Drawing R a t i o n a l e : F i g u r e drawing from l i v e models has been, and s t i l l i s an a c t i v i t y engaged i n by s c u l p t o r s . I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c l o s e r o b s e r v a t i o n o f the g r e a t range o f body s t r u c t u r e s i n humans as w e l l as f o r s t u d y o f p r o p o r t i o n s o f the body, and of movements s u i t a b l e f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n s c u l p t u r e . An a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d i o a c t i v i t y can be a c h i e v e d i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system by u s i n g "works o f a r t " which r e v e a l the nude body i n s u i t a b l e poses a l t h o u g h seen t h r o u g h the eyes o f a s c u l p t o r . G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n t o c a p t u r e on a t w o d i m e n s i o n a l s u r f a c e , one o r more views o f a human body i n m o t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d i t s p r o -p o r t i o n s , l e a r n about body t y p e s and g e n e r a l l y have an o p p o r t u n -i t y t o work as i f from a nude model i n a s t u d i o s e t t i n g . Obj e c t i v e s : - An a l t e r n a t e method t o the maquette i n c l a y f o r p l a n n i n g a s c u l p t u r e o f the f i g u r e . - An o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u t i n t o e f f e c t knowledge g a i n e d o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f the body t h r o u g h the study o f anatomy. - O b s e r v a t i o n o f m u l t i p l e body t y p e s and ages as t h e y a f -f e c t the f i g u r e . - C o n c e n t r a t e d " l o o k i n g " a t t h e f i g u r e as an image f o r a r t -i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . By c o n t r o l l i n g the l e n g t h o f time f o r each pose, a c h i e v i n g a s p e e d i n g up o f the p e r c e p t i o n o f mass and movement, and r e -c o r d i n g i t on paper. Resources: S l i d e s number: 26, 28, 60, 89, 91 and 92, 96, 109 and 110, 125 and 126, 135 and 137, 143, 187, 195, 202, 213, 215, 232, 245 and 246, 252, 256, 259, 268"and 269, 271, 272 and 273, 274 and 275, 283, 287, 291, 292, 294, 296, 300, 301, 303, 309, 310, 311, 313, 314, 318, 329, 330, 331, 333, 336, 338, 340, 355, 367 t o 372, 383, 392 and 394, 399 t o 408. Lesson a i d s : P r e p a r e as examples some l a r g e s i z e g e s t u r e d r a w i n g s , p r e -f e r a b l y 18" by 24", o f f i g u r e s from s l i d e s o r from models. Use conte o r c h a r c o a l t o a c h i e v e w i d e r l i n e s and i n some i n s t a n c e s i n d i c a t i o n o f s h a d i n g w i t h touches o f c h a r c o a l . Show S l i d e s No. 399 t o 413 as examples o f drawing s t y l e s o f M i c h e l a n g e l o , Rodin and Moore. M a t e r i a l s f o r s t u d e n t use: 18" by 24" drawing b o a r d f o r each s t u d e n t 18" by 24" n e w s p r i n t and m a n i l l a paper B u l l d o g c l i p s Conte c r a y o n i n brown, b l a c k , e t c . D i s c u s s i o n and d e m o n s t r a t i o n : - Set up room f o r p r o j e c t i n g s l i d e s . Have s t u d e n t s s i t f a c i n g t h e s c r e e n but not t o o f a r t o the l e f t o r r i g h t o f the s c r e e n , o r t h e image w i l l appear d i s t o r t e d . - Demonstrate th e need t o f a c e s c r e e n where s l i d e s w i l l 47. appear j u s t as one would f a c e the model. A v o i d i n g t u r n i n g one's head f u r t h e r s r e t e n t i o n o f image and o n l y one's eyes need be l i f t e d t o the s c r e e n and down t o the paper. - Each s t u d e n t s h o u l d have a drawing board w i t h s e v e r a l s h e e t s o f paper c l i p p e d t o i t . A f f i x b u l l d o g c l i p away from ex-a c t c e n t r e o f board o t h e r w i s e i t c o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h f u l l use of t h e paper. Emphasize importance o f t h e a n g l e between t h e eye and the paper which i s t o be a t about 6 5.° T h e r e f o r e the paper s h o u l d be c l i p p e d t o the drawing board w i t h the b u l l d o g c l i p and the board i n an u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n r e s t i n g on one's l a p and l e a n -i n g a g a i n s t a t a b l e o r t h e back o f a c h a i r . I t must be h e l d up-r i g h t o r l e n g t h w i s e , depending on the shape o f the image o f each s l i d e . - P r e p a r e c o n t e c r a y o n s t i c k s by b r e a k i n g them i n h a l f . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t as i t w i l l d i s c o u r a g e use o f the co n t e as a p e n c i l . Show how t o use i t on i t s s i d e w h i c h i s a u s e f u l p r o -cedure f o r q u i c k l y mapping out t h e whole image. Encourage s t u -d ents t o draw as l a r g e as t h e paper w i l l a l l o w , w i t h f r e e and sweeping m o t i o n s , c o n c e n t r a t i n g t o c a p t u r e t h e mo t i o n o f t h e f i g -ure w i t h o u t any d e t a i l s . As t h e y become more e x p e r i e n c e d , t h e y w i l l succeed n ot o n l y i n g e t t i n g the movement b u t managing the space on t h e paper so t h a t t h e whole f i g u r e i s l o c a t e d on i t . I n the b e g i n n i n g i t i s more i m p o r t a n t t o draw l a r g e s i z e f i g u r e s even i f some p a r t s o f t h e f i g u r e w i l l not f i t on t h e paper. - F i r s t p r o j e c t S l i d e s No. 399 t o 408, which a r e examples of drawings by M i c h e l a n g e l o , Rodin and Moore. P o i n t out the many l i n e s which s e a r c h o ut the form and movement, t h e br o a d e r ones i n d i c a t i n g some s h a d i n g t o emphasize shapes, and the 48. g e n e r a l l a c k o f "one p e r f e c t l i n e . " - Now b e g i n p r o j e c t i n g s l i d e s from t h e l i s t . D i s c u s s each s l i d e and encourage o b s e r v a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l minutes b e f o r e b e g i n -n i n g drawing a c t i v i t y . P o i n t t o t h e g e n e r a l shape o f the image which o f t e n f i t s a t r i a n g l e o r s q u a r e , t o the l o c a t i o n o f the head r e l a t e d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f the body depending on the move-ment, t o the w e i g h t o f t h e body i f o n . one s u p p o r t i n g l e g and t h e r e s u l t i n g r i s e o f t h e p e l v i s and l o w e r i n g o f the s h o u l d e r on the s i d e o f t h a t l e g , t o the p o s i t i o n o f hands and f e e t r e l a -t e d t o each o t h e r , and such s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s as t h e p a r t i c u l a r s l i d e s u g g e s t s t o you. - Demonstrate how t o rough o u t g u i d e l i n e s i n t h e s t y l e o f a " s t i c k man" t o ensure t h a t the whole f i g u r e w i l l be accommo-date d on t h e paper. Encourage s t u d e n t s t o draw l a r g e , w i t h a r e l a x e d arm sweeping o v e r t h e paper even i f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g i t might r e s u l t i n not g e t t i n g a l l t h e f i g u r e on t h e paper. T h i s i s more d e s i r a b l e t h a n a s m a l l , t i m i d d r awing on the l a r g e paper. As s t u d e n t s p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h s e v e r a l days of d r a w i n g , do t r y t o make them get t h e whole f i g u r e w e l l p l a c e d on t h e paper. Draw-i n g a c t i v i t y such as t h i s seems v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o s t u d e n t s a t f i r s t , but amazing p r o g r e s s i s made t h r o u g h days of e x p e r i e n c e . - T i m i n g the l e n g t h o f p r o j e c t i n g each s l i d e i s v i t a l . Ex-p l a i n t h a t t h i s a p p r o x i m a t e s the s t u d i o s i t u a t i o n where th e model h o l d s each pose f o r a l i m i t e d l e n g t h o f t i m e . Vary the time from v e r y s h o r t warm-up s k e t c h e s o f no more th a n two min-u t e s , t o f i v e o r t e n m i n u t e s , and l a t e r t o an o c c a s i o n a l study d e v e l o p e d w i t h s h a d i n g , o f f i f t e e n o r twenty m i n u t e s . S k i l l grows w i t h volume, and s t u d e n t s w i l l have many u n f i n i s h e d l o o k i n g d r a w i n g s . C a t c h i n g t h e movement of the s c u l p t u r e - m o d e l must be done f a s t , l i k e a g e s t u r e d r a w i n g . - Student s h o u l d use n e w s p r i n t f i r s t and, w i t h more e x p e r -i e n c e , m a n i l l a o r c a r t r i d g e paper. - D i s c u s s work each day towards end o f p e r i o d , and a t l e a s t one example o f a l l s t u d e n t s ' work. A l s o walk around d u r i n g d r a w i n g a c t i v i t y t o h e l p w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s . At the end o f t h e day o f f i g u r e drawing have s t u d e n t s se-l e c t , w i t h y o u r h e l p , perhaps f o u r t o f i v e d r a w i n g s . These, i f g i v e n e x t r a t i m e , may be f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d w i t h c o n t e w i t h o u t p r o j e c t i n g t h e s l i d e s . H o l d a c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e draw-i n g s a f t e r you have had t i m e t o mark them. S t u d i o A c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e Making o f S c u l p t u r e  o f the Human Body, Methods and M a t e r i a l s The maquette i n c l a y . R a t i o n a l e : I n s c u l p t u r e t h e maquette may be viewed as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o d rawing because i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p l a n a p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e i n a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l medium c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l q u a l i t y o f the f i n a l p i e c e . Drawing, even from s e v e r a l a n g l e s , as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the l a r g e r p i e c e , may be found l e s s r e l a t e d t o the c o n c e p t s o f , s c u l p t u r e , such as form, shape, mass and volume. G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e t o p l a n a p i e c e o f work i n a f l e x i b l e medium such as c l a y by r o u g h i n g o u t i t s shape from a l l a n g l e s . 50. Resources f o r s t u d e n t use: M a t e r i a l : c l a y w i t h grog ( s c u l p t u r e c l a y ) T o o l s : - wooden m o d e l l i n g t o o l s - s m a l l m e t a l t u r n t a b l e s ( f i n i s h i n g wheels) as used i n c e r a m i c s - p l a s t i c bags - spray b o t t l e f o r water ( p l a n t m i s t e r ) L e s s o n a i d s : S l i d e s No;. 197 and 198 No. 201, 215, 216, 220, 221, 219, 222 No. 341 No. 388, 389, 390 and 391. D i s c u s s i o n : P r o j e c t s l i d e s and e x p l a i n the advantage o f p l a n n i n g a l a r -ger p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e , o f t e n c r e a t e d s u b s e q u e n t l y i n a d i f f e r -e n t m a t e r i a l , i n the round. Show S l i d e s No. 19 7 and 19 8 by G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a , w h i c h i s 19 i n c h e s l o n g and i s roughed out from c l a y , s e r v i n g as an a pproximate p l a n f o r a much l a r g e r f i g u r e . I t l a c k s the f i n i s h and d e t a i l o f a f i n a l p i e c e but has been f i r e d i n a k i l n and t h e r e b y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a more perman-ent m a t e r i a l c a l l e d t e r r a - c o t t a , meaning baked e a r t h . T h e r e f o r e the a r t i s t may use i t a t any l a t e r s t a g e t o e n l a r g e i t i n any m a t e r i a l he w i s h e s . Such a " p l a n " i n c l a y i s c a l l e d a maquette. - M i c h e l a n g e l o a l s o used t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o p l a n t h e work he l a t e r c a r v e d i n marble l i f e - s i z e o r l a r g e r . S l i d e s No. 201, 219 and 222 a r e such s t u d i e s . S l i d e s No. 215 and 216, as 220 and 221, show two works by M i c h e l a n g e l o , the f i r s t o f each the maquette i n f i r e d c l a y , t e r r a - c o t t a , and the second the f i n a l work i n m arble. The maquettes a r e 7" by 12", the f i n a l s l i f e -s i z e . - S l i d e No. 341 shows maquettes by Henry Moore which are not always made of t e r r a - c o t t a , b u t a l s o c a r v e d from p l a s t e r o f P a r i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y are t h e s m a l l s i z e models f o r l a r g e p i e c e s i n s t o n e o r b r o n z e . - S l i d e s No. 388 t o 391, a work by the Vancouver s c u l p t o r , E l e k Imredy, show the development o f a 16 f t . s c u l p t u r e from i t s p l a n n i n g s t a g e as a maquette t o e r e c t i o n on s i t e i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a . D e m o n s t r a t i o n : - Open a bag o f f r e s h c l a y . Use a c l a y c u t t e r t o s l i c e o f f a t h i c k p i e c e . P l u c k a p a r t and show how c l a y i n good c o n d i -t i o n " s t i c k s " t o g e t h e r . I t does not crumble o r c r a c k , nor i s i t so wet t h a t i t would become muddy. Pass some b i t s o f c l a y around t o make s t u d e n t s f e e l the c o n s i s t e n c y o f good c l a y . Ex-p l a i n t h a t the heat o f one's hand tends t o d r y out c l a y , as w e l l as t h e a i r i f i t i s exposed t o i t f o r some l e n g t h o f t i m e . T h e r e f o r e the c l a y one i s w o r k i n g w i t h s h o u l d be k e p t i n s i d e an open p l a s t i c bag and the s t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e a c h i n f o r t h e smal-l e r p i e c e s t h e y need. To p r e v e n t e a r l y d r y i n g o f t h e c l a y i t s h o u l d not be h e l d i n one's hand i n l a r g e r amount t h a n needed f o r p r e s e n t work. S t r e s s t h a t c l a y i s a m a t e r i a l one b u i l d s up w i t h . The s c u l p t u r e must s l o w l y grow from the i n s i d e outward by the a d d i t i o n o f s m a l l lumps. I t i s not t o be squeezed i n t o shape by h o l d i n g a l a r g e lump i n one's hand. - Take the m e t a l t u r n t a b l e and p l a c e the board on i t . S i t down a t the l o w e s t c h a i r and s t r e s s t h e importance o f the s c u l p -t u r e b e i n g viewed a t e y e - l e v e l . You may have t o r a i s e t h e t u r n -t a b l e f o r t a l l e r s t u d e n t s w i t h a n y t h i n g from a box t o an u p s i d e -down b a s i n i n o r d e r t o b r i n g i t c l o s e r t o e y e - l e v e l . Take a lump o f c l a y , p l a c e i n an open p l a s t i c bag and, by p l u c k i n g s m a l l lumps from i t , p r o c e e d t o b u i l d up the s c u l p t u r e e v e n l y  from a l l a n g l e s by t u r n i n g t h e t u r n t a b l e f r e q u e n t l y . Only when the whole p i e c e i s roughed o u t , s t a r t u s i n g m o d e l l i n g t o o l s on the s u r f a c e . - Spray t h e s c u l p t u r e w i t h a f i n e m i s t o f water and p l a c e i t i n the p l a s t i c bag. Demonstrate how i t i s t o be w e l l t u c k e d i n so a i r cannot e n t e r t h e bag and d r y o u t t h e s c u l p t u r e between c l a s s e s . - D i s t r i b u t e one p l a s t i c bag p e r s t u d e n t . G i v e a s m a l l p i e c e o f masking tape t o each s t u d e n t f o r t h e i r name t o be w r i t -t e n on and a t t a c h e d t o t h e o u t s i d e o f the p l a s t i c bag. T h i s w i l l e a s i l y i d e n t i f y t he i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o l o o k i n s i d e t h e bag. S t r e s s the importance t h a t o n l y the s c u l p -t u r e goes i n t o t h e bag a t t h e end o f each p e r i o d . L e f t o v e r c l a y goes back i n t o t h e c l a y b i n (metal garbage can w i t h l i d ) o r a s t r o n g p l a s t i c bag, as i t c o u l d damage the s c u l p t u r e . A l s o , the c l a y can be k e p t i n b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n i n a common c o n t a i n e r . Ap-p o i n t m o n i t o r s t o check a t t h e end o f each p e r i o d whether the c l a y i s broken i n t o s m a l l e r lumps and we t t e d i n the c l a y b i n and the l i d w e l l c l o s e d ; a l s o t h a t t h e c l a y i s wiped o f f t h e model-l i n g t o o l s ( i n o r d e r n o t t o p l u g the s i n k ) , then washed a n d d r i e d . - S t o r e i n d i v i d u a l s c u l p t u r e w e l l wrapped i n t h e p l a s t i c bag and m i s t e d w i t h w a t e r u n t i l f i n i s h e d . Then do not wet any-more, and dry v e r y s l o w l y t o p r e v e n t c r a c k i n g . T h i s i s b e s t a c c o m p l i s h e d i f i n the b e g i n n i n g i t i s s t i l l l e f t i n the bag, b u t the bag i s l e f t a j a r . Then g r a d u a l l y remove from t h e bag and l e a v e t o d r y i n the open. Depending on the s i z e o f the maquette (anywhere from 4 t o 6 i n c h e s ) , i t s h o u l d be l e f t t o dry f o r about two weeks. I t must be c o m p l e t e l y dry t h r o u g h o u t b e f o r e i t i s f i r e d i n the k i l n . - Maquettes need no mounting o r f i n i s h i n g i n any way on t h e s u r f a c e as t h i s p r o c e s s i s b e s t r e s e r v e d f o r the l a r g e r , f i n a l s c u l p t u r e . T e r r a - c o t t a s c u l p t u r e . R a t i o n a l e : W e l l f i n i s h e d t e r r a - c o t t a s c u l p t u r e p r e s e n t s an a t t r a c t i v e and d u r a b l e work o f a r t , and i s v e r y s u i t a b l e i n secondary s c h o o l s where the time t o work on a p i e c e i s l i m i t e d by t h e p e r i o d ' s l e n g t h , as w e l l as by t h e o v e r a l l a v a i l a b l e time f o r t h e s c u l p t u r e u n i t s w i t h i n the t o t a l a r t programme. G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l complete a medium-sized s c u l p t u r e o f t h e hu-man f i g u r e w hich t h e y w i l l f i r e , f i n i s h , and mount i n a p r o f e s -s i o n a l manner. Resources f o r s t u d e n t use: M a t e r i a l : c l a y w i t h grog ( s c u l p t u r e c l a y ) T o o l s : - a s s o r t e d wooden m o d e l l i n g t o o l s 54. - boards (plywood) - s m a l l m e t a l t u r n t a b l e s (as used i n ce r a m i c s ) - p l a s t i c bags - s p r a y b o t t l e ( p l a n t m i s t e r ) - wax paper Lesson a i d s : S l i d e s : No. 26, 27 No. 367-372 D i s c u s s i o n : Show S l i d e s No. 26 and 27, and s t a t e the s c u l p t u r e s ' ages and e x p l a i n how and why they have s u r v i v e d i n such good c o n d i -t i o n ( t e r r a - c o t t a f i g u r e s from C o l i m a ) . Show S l i d e s No. 36 7-372 by the p r e s e n t day A m e r i c a n - I t a l i a n s c u l p t o r L u c c h e s i , who works i n c l a y and produces t e r r a - c o t t a s c u l p t u r e o f medium s i z e (around 12 t o 14 i n c h e s ) which are some-times, a l s o c a s t i n b r o n z e . E x p l a i n the advantages o f w o r k i n g i n t e r r a - c o t t a . These a r e : 1. w o r k i n g w i t h a f l e x i b l e medium such as c l a y which a l l o w s f r e q u e n t a l t e r a t i o n s , 2. u s i n g the human f i g u r e on a s c a l e o f around 12 i n c h e s i n l e n g t h which p e r m i t s w o r k i n g w i t h o u t armature. A l s o due t o the s t r u c t u r e o f the human body, which has no g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n volume, h o l l o w i n g o u t i s not neces-s a r y , 3. by f i r i n g t he c l a y work i t becomes e x t r e m e l y d u r a b l e ; i t does not c r a c k o r a l t e r ( u n l e s s i t i s dro p p e d ) . Remind the s t u d e n t s o f your d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the maquette i n c l a y , o r p l e a s e r e f e r t o i t i f you d i d not do a maquette w i t h t h e same s t u d e n t s . I t i s even more i m p o r t a n t t o ha n d l e  the c l a y t h e same way, as i t must remain m o i s t as t h i s p r o j e c t t a k e s a l o n g e r time t o complete. A t t h e same time a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n e v e r y day t o t h e c l a y i n the b i n (garbage can on whe e l s , w i t h l i d ) t o see t h a t i t remains i n s m a l l p i e c e s and t h e r e f o r e can e a s i l y be k e p t wet. The work must a g a i n be ke p t a t e y e - l e v e l and be f r e q u e n t l y t u r n e d . Make s t u d e n t s s t a n d up from time t o time so t h a t t h e y a l s o examine and work on t h e i r s c u l p t u r e as viewed from above. I t s h o u l d a l s o be l i f t e d up, and w h i l e c a r e f u l l y s u p p o r t e d i n one's hand, worked on from below. I f a s i t t i n g f i g u r e i s n o t completed from t h e u n d e r s i d e , i t w i l l r e s u l t i n a p a r t i a l f i g u r e as i f i t would have been s l i c e d o f f . T h e r e f o r e the development o f t he s c u l p t u r e from a l l a n g l e s i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t , p a r t i c -u l a r l y when i t s s u b j e c t i s t h e human f i g u r e . Encourage your s t u d e n t s t o p i c k one o f t h e many, many pos-s i b l e poses f o r a s i t t i n g f i g u r e o r a f i g u r e r e c l i n i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e but d i f f i c u l t t o complete a s t a n d i n g f i g u r e i n t e r r a -c o t t a , as one does not use an armature. I f a s t a n d i n g f i g u r e i s d e s i r e d , i t must be s u p p o r t e d w i t h a column o f c l a y w h i l e worked on. When f i n i s h e d , double check t h a t i t w i l l be a b l e t o s t a n d on i t s f e e t and b a l a n c e , b e f o r e i t i s d r i e d . Once d r y and f i r e d , i t w i l l s t a n d i f a t t a c h e d t o a base. D u r i n g t h e days o f c o m p l e t i n g t h i s s c u l p t u r e i t must be s t o r e d on i t s own s m a l l b o a r d , the same one which t h e s t u d e n t works on d u r i n g c l a s s . T h i s w i l l p r o t e c t t h e r e l a t i v e f r a g i l i t y o f t h e f i g u r e w h i l e m o i s t . B e f o r e p u t t i n g i t away f o r the nex t p e r i o d , i t not o n l y must be s p r a y e d w i t h a f i n e m i s t o f water but i n t h e advanced stage o f work t h e narrower p a r t s such as arms, l e g s o r head s h o u l d be wrapped g e n t l y i n wet paper t o w e l so d r y i n g o f t h e s e p a r t s does not get ahead o f the t h i c k e r t o r s o . T h i s r e t a r d i n g o f t h e d r y i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d a l s o be done when the p i e c e b e g i n s i t s f i n a l d r y i n g p r o c e s s b e f o r e i t i s f i r e d . B e f o r e t h e f i g u r e on t h e bo a r d i s p u t i n t o t h e p l a s t i c bag and t u c k e d i n f o r the next day, s l i d e a s m a l l p i e c e o f wax paper between t h e s c u l p t u r e and t h e board as even a s h e l l a c k e d b o ard might soak up m o i s t u r e from the s c u l p t u r e p r e m a t u r e l y . Remove t h e paper when you work on t h e f i g u r e . Do not a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o wet the s u r f a c e o f t h e f i g u r e w h i l e t h e y work. T h i s r e s u l t s i n a t o o smooth, t e x t u r e l e s s f i n -i s h . I f a r e l a t i v e l y smooth f i n i s h i s d e s i r e d , i t i s b e t t e r t o scra p e the " l e a t h e r - h a r d " c l a y s u r f a c e w i t h a w i r e l o o p t o o l l a t e r . S h o u l d p a r t s o f a s c u l p t u r e break w h i l e i n p r o g r e s s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o f o l l o w t h i s p r o c e s s : 1. check t h e anatomy. F o r example, a head may not s t a y on the f i g u r e i f t h e two major s e t s o f muscles (one p a i r i n t he neck, the second s e t coming from b e h i n d the ear d i a g o n a l l y f o r w a r d t o t h e base o f the neck i n f r o n t ) a r e not b u i l t up i n c l a y . 2. I f a c r a c k a p p e a r s , do not r e p a i r on t h e s u r f a c e o n l y as i t w i l l r e o c c u r . D i g i n a l o n g t h e c r a c k and f i l l w i t h s l i p . S l i p i s the same c l a y as you are u s i n g , o n l y mixed w i t h water t o a v e r y t h i c k , creamy c o n s i s t e n c y . 3. I f a l e g , arm o r head b r e a k s o f f , rough up the two s u r -f a c e s o f the breakage w i t h a p o i n t e d t o o l t o c r e a t e " t o o t h marks." Load some s l i p on one s u r f a c e and p r e s s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e second s u r f a c e . Smear the e x c e s s s l i p around the j o i n t ; i t w i l l a c t as g l u e . When the f i g u r e s are completed, f o l l o w the s l o w p r o c e s s o f d r y i n g as o u t l i n e d f o r the maquette i n c l a y . Thorough d r y i n g , two weeks p e r h a p s , i s i m p o r t a n t t o p r e v e n t blow-up i n the k i l n . F i r e work as you would greenware i n c e r a m i c s . F i n i s h i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the b i s q u e d s c u l p t u r e : M a t e r i a l s : - w h i t e p a s t e f l o o r wax - a s s o r t e d c o l o u r s o f shoe p o l i s h - o l d t o o t h b r u s h e s - j a r s - v a r i o u s s i z e wood p i e c e s f o r base o f s c u l p t u r e - f e l t ( b l a c k o r brown) - "Weldbond" g l u e - sand paper - l i n s e e d o i l , s t a i n , v a r n i s h Cover each s c u l p t u r e w i t h a l a y e r o f p a s t e wax, u s i n g t h e t o o t h b r u s h w i t h a c i r c u l a r m o t i o n , u n t i l i t w i l l n o t soak up any more. T h i s s e a l s the p o r e s and p r o t e c t s i t from d u s t . Mix each c o l o u r o f shoe p o l i s h w i t h w h i t e f l o o r wax i n a j a r t o reduce s t r e n g t h o f c o l o u r . Use v a r i o u s c o l o u r s o f brown o r b l a c k where d e s i r e d on t h e f i g u r e , w i t h a s e p a r a t e t o o t h b r u s h 58. k e p t f o r each c o l o u r . You need t o r e s e r v e some f o r the c l e a n f i r s t l a y e r o f f l o o r wax. W i t h d ry e x t r a t o o t h b r u s h e s , p o l i s h up t h e h i g h p o i n t s o f the s c u l p t u r e t o g i v e i t h i g h l i g h t s . P i c k a square o f wood a p p r o p r i a t e i n s i z e and o f the r i g h t h e i g h t so t h a t i t enhances, not dwarfs the s c u l p t u r e . J u s t as  t h e frame i s t o a p a i n t i n g , the base i s i m p o r t a n t t o a s c u l p t u r e . You may have t o l a m i n a t e some wood t o g e t h e r t o g e t t h e r i g h t shape. L e f t o v e r wood from I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s i s a good s o u r c e . "Weldbond" g l u e w i l l work t o l a m i n a t e t h e wood, and i s a l s o used f o r g l u e i n g t h e s c u l p t u r e t o the> base. P r i o r t o d o i n g t h i s , c u t and g l u e a p i e c e o f f e l t t o t h e bottom o f the wood, s t a i n o r o i l w i t h l i n s e e d o i l o r v a r n i s h the r e s t o f the wood base. Sandpaper the bottom o f the s c u l p t u r e where i t touches t h e base, and g l u e on t h e s c u l p t u r e . M e t a l s c u l p t u r e : c o l d w i r e b e n d i n g . R a t i o n a l e : M e t a l s c u l p t u r e w i t h w i r e b e l o n g s t o the b u i l d i n g - u p o r a d d i t i v e t e c h n i q u e s and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e t o p r o v i d e a t r a n s i t i o n from drawing t o s c u l p t u r e because w i t h w i r e one i s a b l e t o "draw" t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l l y . I t i s a l s o a d i r e c t method l e a d i n g s t r a i g h t t o the f i n a l s c u l p t u r e w i t h o u t i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p s . As w e l l , due t o t h e i n n a t e s t r e n g t h o f t h e m e t a l , l a r g e r and more open p i e c e s can be c o n s t r u c t e d , and t h e s c u l p t u r a l con-c e p t o f volume as opposed t o mass can be a c h i e v e d . G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h e importance o f c h o i c e o f mater-i a l f o r a pl a n n e d p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e , f o r example: w i r e e n a b l e s t h e a r t i s t t o c o n s t r u c t the f i g u r e i n extreme m o t i o n , such as r u n n i n g , f o r which c l a y , f o r i n s t a n c e , would not be s u i t a b l e . Obj e c t i v e : S t u d e n t s w i l l c o n s t r u c t a m e t a l s c u l p t u r e based on t h e hu-man f i g u r e from v a r i o u s t y p e s o f w i r e and copper s h e e t i n g , and mount i t on a wooden base. M a t e r i a l s f o r s t u d e n t use: - needlenose p l i e r s and o t h e r p l i e r s - w i r e c u t t e r s - s n i p s - C-clamps - hammers - s m a l l n a i l s - v a r i o u s square p i e c e s o f wood f o r base - s t o v e p i p e w i r e o r b l a c k a n n e a l e d w i r e - copper w i r e - w i r e c o a t hangers - copper s h e e t i n g - o u t d o o r t e l e p h o n e c a b l e : s o f t , m u l t i c o l o u r e d w i r e s on the i n s i d e ( i f o b t a i n a b l e ) D i s c u s s i o n and a c t i v i t i e s : B e g i n w i t h a s e s s i o n on c o n t i n u o u s l i n e d rawing as an i n -t r o d u c t i o n t o , and w i t h emphasis on, "drawing" t h r e e d i m e n s i o n -a l l y w i t h w i r e . D i s t r i b u t e a l e n g t h o f s o f t w i r e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y two metres per s t u d e n t . G i v e out needlenose p l i e r s and o t h e r p l i e r s t o each s t u d e n t , i f p o s s i b l e . Have s t u d e n t s b e g i n e x p e r i m e n t i n g 60. w i t h the w i r e by bending o r l o o p i n g i t , o r making s p i r a l s o v e r p e n c i l s but p u l l i n g t h e s e a p a r t , always c o n s c i o u s l y t u r n i n g i t and w o r k i n g w i t h depth t o get away from t w o d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . A f t e r the i n i t i a l s e s s i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h w i r e and p l i e r s , g e t the s t u d e n t s t o p l a n on paper t h e approximate f i g -u r e t h e y w i s h t o make. Encourage s t r o n g movement f o r t h e i r f i g u r e , as we would see i n v a r i o u s s p o r t s o r i n dance, as t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s most s u i t a b l e f o r open form, r e l a t i v e l y p r e c a r i o u s b a l a n c e , and the o p p o s i t e o f b u l k . Some s t u d e n t s have the t e n d -ency t o wind the w i r e t o o t i g h t l y , which not o n l y uses up a l o t of u n necessary m a t e r i a l ( w i r e ) , b u t i s c o n t r a r y t o the b e s t e f -f e c t a c h i e v e d w i t h i t . Note: N e g a t i v e - p o s i t i v e spaces are most  c a l l e d f o r w i t h t h i s t e c h n i q u e and " s e e - t h r o u g h , " X-ray images. As s t u d e n t s f i n a l i z e t h e i r p l a n s by drawing on paper, d i s -t r i b u t e t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s : C-clamps, c o a t h a n g e r s , o r d i n -a r y p l i e r s , rough p i e c e s o f wood f o r "working" base, hammer and n a i l s . I n s t r u c t the s t u d e n t s who want t o make f i g u r e s e i t h e r i n extreme m o t i o n and/or l a r g e r t h a n about 10 i n c h e s h i g h , t o open up t h e w i r e c o a t h a n g e r s , clamp them i n the C-clamp, and f a s h i o n what would c o r r e s p o n d t o a s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e s k e l e t o n f o r t h e i r s c u l p t u r e . The h e a v i e r w i r e o f t h i s s k e l e t o n w i l l s u p p o r t t h e f i g u r e b e t t e r and w i l l add i n t e r e s t t h r o u g h con-t r a s t . T h i s s k e l e t o n s h o u l d be n a i l e d down on a temporary (work-ing) wooden base, i n o r d e r t o see whether i t s t a n d s i n t h e de-s i r e d pose, o r perhaps i t needs a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t . Having i t on a temporary base i s a l s o v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n o r d e r t o f r e e b o t h hands f o r w o r k i n g w i t h the t h i n n e r , s o f t e r w i r e . 61. ' S t u d e n t s who a r e d o i n g s m a l l e r f i g u r e s do not need the s t r e n g t h o f t h e c o a t hanger w i r e but s h o u l d n e v e r t h e l e s s use the s o f t w i r e , perhaps d o u b l e d , t o c o n s t r u c t a s k e l e t o n f o r v i s u a l s t r e n g t h . The remainder o f the f i g u r e can be attempted as c l o s e l y ap-p r o x i m a t i n g the human anatomy as d e s i r e d by u s i n g k n o t s made w i t h needlenose p l i e r s t o i n d i c a t e j o i n t s , " o u t l i n i n g " shapes and muscles t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l l y , o r even s h a p i n g i n t e r n a l organs o r bones such as r i b c a g e . F i n a l l y , e m b e l l i s h m e n t s can be added w i t h the s o f t , c o l o u r e d w i r e from t e l e p h o n e c a b l e s which can even be woven, and/or w i t h copper s h e e t i n g . f r o m which h a t s , h e l -mets, weapons, u m b r e l l a s , e t c . can be f a s h i o n e d . The f i n a l f i g -ure o r f i g u r e s must th e n be removed from the rough wooden base and a t t a c h e d t o a w e l l - f i n i s h e d base. Use s t a i n , v a r n i s h o r l i n s e e d o i l t o f i n i s h the wood, s t a p l e " w i t h g u n t a c k e r or. n a i l down s c u l p t u r e and g l u e a p i e c e o f f e l t under the base. E l a b o r -a t e wooden bases combined w i t h copper s h e e t i n g may be attempted i f s u i t a b l e f o r the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f the f i g u r e i n w i r e . Papier-mache s c u l p t u r e . R a t i o n a l e : Newspaper and w a l l p a p e r p a s t e a r e the cheapest a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s f o r the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , y e t l a r g e s i z e , l i g h t w e i g h t s c u l p t u r e can be c o n s t r u c t e d from i t by b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r s t u d e n t s . I t p r o v i d e s t h e chance t o make l a r g e s c u l p t u r e more e a s i l y w i t h t h e a d d i t i v e o r b u i l d - u p p r o c e s s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e most i n d e s t r u c t i b l e p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e which can be made w i t h ease w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Secondary S c h o o l . G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l g e t i n v o l v e d i n the b u i l d i n g o f l a r g e r s c u l p -t u r e and be encouraged by the r e l a t i v e ease of m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f k e e p i n g t o a d e f i n i t e p r i o r p l a n or u s i n g an armature. Papier-mache a l l o w s f o r more spon-t a n e i t y than c l a y , w i r e o r p l a s t e r . Obj e c t i v e : S t u d e n t s w i l l b e g i n w i t h a s m a l l c l a y maquette as a p l a n but w i l l be a b l e t o d e p a r t from i t and produce a l a r g e r s i z e d s c u l p t u r e t h a n t h e y would have d a r e d t o attempt i n o t h e r s c u l p -t u r a l m a t e r i a l s where armatures f o r l a r g e r p i e c e s would be i n -d i s p e n s a b l e . They w i l l be a b l e t o choose a f i n i s h w hich w i l l i n c l u d e s e v e r a l c o l o u r s , not recommended f o r use i n o t h e r s c u l p -t u r e . M a t e r i a l s f o r s t u d e n t use: - w a l l p a p e r p a s t e - b i t t e r alum ( p o t a s s i u m aluminium' s u l f a t e ) - t i s s u e paper i n a s s o r t e d c o l o u r s - p a i n t s - s h e l l a c o r v a r n i s h - paper c u t t e r - b u c k e t - s m a l l c o n t a i n e r s w i t h l i d s - newspaper - wax paper A c t i v i t i e s : The making o f a c l a y maquette i s a d v i s a b l e as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , a l t h o u g h d e p a r t u r e from t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n may o c c u r , i n d e e d i t s h o u l d be encouraged. D i s t r i b u t e newspaper t o each s t u d e n t , as w e l l as l o n g , narrow s t r i p s o f newspaper c u t w i t h the paper c u t t e r . These l o n g s t r i p s w i l l be t u r n e d i n t o s h o r t e r p i e c e s , as needed d u r -i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . Mix i n a b u c k e t , a box o f w a l l p a p e r p a s t e and water a c c o r d -i n g t o the r e c i p e on the box, o r s i m p l y add the powder t o the water t o g e t a t h i c k cream c o n s i s t e n c y . You may use a s t r a i n e r f o r a d d i n g the powder t o a v o i d c l o t s . Mix w i t h a wooden spoon o r , b e t t e r s t i l l , w i t h your hand t o get a smooth p a s t e . Now add a good p i n c h o f alum t o t h e p a s t e , mix, and d i s t r i b u t e i n t o s m a l l e r c o n t a i n e r s w i t h l i d s . The alum p r e v e n t s the w a l l p a p e r p a s t e from g o i n g bad and cheesy, and l i d s keep i t from d r y i n g o u t . Cover w o r k i n g s u r f a c e s w i t h wax paper t o which w a l l p a p e r p a s t e i s l e s s l i k e l y t o s t i c k . S t u d e n t s must t a k e s h e e t s o f newspaper, crumple i t t h o r -o u g h l y and rub i t v i g o r o u s l y i n o r d e r t o break down the f i b r e , and make the newspaper p l i a b l e . Then s t u d e n t s form l a r g e clumps o f shapes, v a g u e l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the p l a n n e d s c u l p t u r e , s p r i n -k l e w a l l p a p e r p a s t e among t h e crumpled form, and a t t a c h clumps t o each o t h e r w i t h newspaper s t r i p s t o h o l d them t o g e t h e r . They s h o u l d a v o i d u s i n g t o o many s t r i p s e l s e i t w i l l l o o k l i k e i n d i v -i d u a l packages, i n s t e a d o f l a r g e forms used t o b u i l d up the g e n e r a l shape. As w a l l p a p e r p a s t e does not s t i c k u n t i l i t h a r d -ens, a t the d a i l y c l e a n - u p each work i n p r o g r e s s must be sup-p o r t e d t o h o l d i t s d e s i r e d shape u n t i l i t d r i e s o v e r n i g h t . The more p a s t e used, the s l o w e r i t d r i e s and the h e a v i e r i t becomes. However, once d r i e d , the s c u l p t u r e becomes sto n e h a r d i n what-ev e r shape i t d r i e d i n , w i t h o u t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c h a n g i n g i t . When the whole f i g u r e i s roughed o u t , t h e r e i s g r e a t need t o go o ver t h e e n t i r e s u r f a c e , f i l l i n g i n u nnecessary d i p s w i t h s m a l l amounts o f crumpled paper w i t h p a s t e . T h i s w i l l c r e a t e i n n e r t e n s i o n o f t h e form and a smooth s u r f a c e . S u r f a c e t e x -t u r a l e f f e c t s , such as h a i r made o f t h i n l y c u t s t r i p s o f news-paper, may be added. F i n a l f i n i s h o f the work may be chosen from t h e s e a l t e r n a -t i v e s : l e a v e s c u l p t u r e made o f newspaper, and add i n t e r e s t i n g t ouches by c u t t i n g out from th e paper images such as e y e s , o r even words as t h e y are a p p r o p r i a t e . A t h i n l a y e r o f v a r n i s h o r s h e l l a c may be a p p l i e d t o s e a l the s u r f a c e . Other p o s s i b i l i -t i e s a r e e i t h e r u s i n g p a i n t t o c o v e r s c u l p t u r e i n one, o r many c o l o u r s , o r e l s e t i s s u e paper i n c o l o u r s , t o r n i n t o p a t c h e s and u s i n g o v e r l a p p i n g t o c r e a t e a d d i t i o n a l c o l o u r s o r shades. The l a t t e r tends t o u n i f y the s c u l p t u r e more th a n t h e use o f s e v e r a l p a i n t e d s e c t i o n s . T i s s u e paper c o n t a i n s dyes w h i c h c o l o u r hands o r a n y t h i n g e l s e i n c o n t a c t w i t h i t , and i t i s h a r d t o remove even from hands the same day. I t does come o f f hands e v e n t u a l l y . Lack o f armature l e n d s g r e a t e r freedom t o t h i s t e c h n i q u e w i t h papier-mache, and because o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f the m a t e r i a l i t i s even p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d an u p r i g h t f i g u r e i n the h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n , and s t a n d i t up when d r y . P l a s t e r o f P a r i s on armature. R a t i o n a l e : S c u l p t u r e made w i t h a t h i n l a y e r o f p l a s t e r o f P a r i s upon an i n t e r n a l w i r e armature can y i e l d t h e l a r g e s t s i z e work p r a c -t i c a l w i t h i n the Secondary S c h o o l s e t t i n g w i t h i t s f a c i l i t i e s and t i m e t a b l e . I t can be s e t a s i d e and worked on from day t o day, w i t h o u t s p e c i a l c a r e t a k e n between s e s s i o n s . Very l a r g e s c u l p t u r e remains s t i l l l i g h t enough i n w e i g h t t o be e a s i l y h a n d l e d by a l l s t u d e n t s . G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o work on a v e r y l a r g e p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e , u s i n g t h e a d d i t i v e , b u i l d - u p p r o c e s s w i t h a s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y f l e x i b l e m a t e r i a l a l l o w i n g g r a d u a l development and a measure o f change. O b j e c t i v e : S t u d e n t s w i l l p l a n the l a r g e work by f i r s t d o i n g a c l a y ma q u e t t e . They w i l l have more freedom i n c h o o s i n g a pose f o r the f i g u r e as t h e s t r o n g w i r e armature they w i l l c o n s t r u c t w i l l p e r m i t movement o f the f i g u r e and extended e x t r e m i t i e s , i f d e s i r e d Depending on the s i z e o f the f i g u r e , time f o r c o m p l e t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r a b l e , t h u s e n c o u r a g i n g s t u d e n t s t o p e r s e v e r e w i t h a p r o j e c t . M a t e r i a l s f o r s t u d e n t use: - p l a s t e r o f P a r i s , t o be used w i t h c a u t i o n - c h i c k e n w i r e - s t o v e p i p e w i r e - i r o n o x i d e s o r powder tempera p a i n t t o c o l o u r the p l a s t e r - b u r l a p - r u b b e r b a l l , c u t i n h a l f - s c i s s o r s , p l i e r s , spoon, k n i f e - n a i l s , hammer - s m a l l b a s i n - wooden board - f l e x i b l e c o n t a i n e r f o r d r y p l a s t e r - wax paper o r t a r paper - m e t a l s p a t u l a s , l a r g e t o v e r y s m a l l A c t i v i t i e s : Have s t u d e n t s p r e p a r e a c l a y maquette as a d e t a i l e d p l a n f o r the l a r g e s c u l p t u r e . C o n s i d e r a b l e freedom t o choose the pose f o r the f i g u r e i s p o s s i b l e b u t extreme m o t i o n , such as a r u n n i n g f i g u r e , w i l l need a h e a v i e r armature, p a r t l y o f wood, f o r s t r e n g t h . The armature, however, must remain i n t e r n a l , cov-e r e d c o m p l e t e l y by the p l a s t e r o f P a r i s . S t u d e n t s must d e c i d e the s i z e o f the work t h e y want t o do. H a l f l i f e s i z e o r even f u l l l i f e s i z e f i g u r e s a r e e n t i r e l y p o s s -i b l e b u t , o f c o u r s e , are more s u i t a b l e f o r s e n i o r s t u d e n t s t h a t a r e fewer i n number, r e d u c i n g d a y - t o day s t o r a g e space needs. A board i s needed as a w o r k i n g base. I f wood i s used as p a r t o f t h e a r m a t u r e , i t must be n a i l e d t o t h e base. P a r t s o f the f i g u r e must be formed from c h i c k e n w i r e which can be squeezed i n t o t h e shapes needed f o r v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e f i g u r e , then p l i e r s and s t o v e p i p e w i r e used t o a t t a c h t h e p a r t s t o each o t h e r s e c u r e l y , and a l s o f i n a l l y n a i l e d t o the w o r k i n g base. The l a t -t e r i s n e c e s s a r y t o keep b o t h hands f r e e f o r work. The armature must s t a n d f i r m l y on the base so t h a t the f i g u r e does not t o p -p l e when l a t e r weighed down w i t h p l a s t e r . Cut b u r l a p s t r i p s 1% t o 2 i n c h e s wide and 4 t o Ah i n c h e s l o n g . Make p l e n t y as i t w i l l be used t o c o v e r the whole f i g u r e as i f i t was bandaged from hand t o f o o t . Make a s m a l l amount o f t h i n p l a s t e r o f P a r i s m i x t u r e i n h a l f r u b b e r b a l l . Dip each s t r i p o f b u r l a p i n t h e p l a s t e r and p r o c e e d t o c o v e r a l l o f the c h i c k e n w i r e armature w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g s t r i p s . T h i s w i l l form t h e base t o w h i c h the f i n a l l a y e r o f p l a s t e r w i l l adhere. Now d e c i d e on the d e s i r e d c o l o u r o f the s c u l p t u r e . White g i v e s a l i f e l e s s appearance t o the human f i g u r e , but i t might be appro-p r i a t e f o r the p l a n n e d s c u l p t u r e . I f c o l o u r i s d e s i r e d , e x p e r i -ment w i t h r e d o r b l a c k i r o n o x i d e s o r powder tempera p a i n t s by m i x i n g w i t h d r y p l a s t e r . Make p a t c h e s o f sample c a s t s t o de-c i d e on c o l o u r . Wait u n t i l d r y as c o l o u r i s l i g h t e r t h e n . Hav-i n g d e c i d e d on t h e c o l o u r , mix a b u c k e t f u l l o f dry p l a s t e r f o r a h a l f l i f e s i z e f i g u r e w i t h c o l o u r , s t o r e w e l l s e a l e d i n a p l a s -t i c bag o r o t h e r c o n t a i n e r . P l a s t e r exposed t o a i r w i l l l o s e i t s a b i l i t y t o s e t . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d use t h e h a l f r u b b e r b a l l o r a s m a l l b a s i n t o make s m a l l b a t c h e s o f p l a s t e r t o v e r y t h i c k cream c o n s i s t e n c y and s l o w l y c o v e r the e n t i r e work w i t h a t h i n l a y e r . The advantage o f u s i n g the r u b b e r b a l l i s f o r t h e ease w i t h w h i c h i t can be c l e a n e d by t u r n i n g i t i n s i d e out i n t o the garbage. Use a spoon and o r d i n a r y t a b l e k n i f e t o smooth on the f i r s t l a y e r o f p l a s t e r . As the work p r o g r e s s e s , s t u d e n t s s h o u l d use m e t a l s p a t u l a s f o r s u r f a c e t e x t u r e and d e t a i l s . F i b r e , s t r i n g , wool o r any m a t e r i a l can be used f o r h a i r o r c l o t h i n g when f i r s t d i p p e d i n p l a s t e r , i f such a f i n i s h i s d e s i r e d . 68. P r o v i d e wax paper s h e e t s o r t a r paper t o cov e r w o r k i n g s u r -f a c e . T h i s can be shaken o f f i n t o the garbage f r e q u e n t l y and, o f c o u r s e , r e u s e d . Very l a r g e work does not need a base as much as s m a l l e r p i e c e s do. However, e x h i b i t i n g l a r g e work can t r u l y be a c h a l -l e n g e . F o o t n o t e t o a n o t h e r use o f p l a s t e r o f P a r i s , namely, t h a t o f c a s t i n g n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e molds from i t . Use o f so-c a l l e d "waste molds," where the n e g a t i v e i s d e s t r o y e d when the p o s i t i v e i s c a s t , i s a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e p r o c e s s when t h e r e a r e o n l y two h a l v e s t o t h e n e g a t i v e mold. Such i s m o s t l y the case f o r p o r t r a i t s . The human f i g u r e i s f a r more complex, w i t h u n d e r c u t s and n e g a t i v e s p a c e s , and alm o s t always n e c e s s i t a t e s the making o f a p i e c e mold. T h i s i s a v e r y complex p r o c e s s and not p r a c t i c a l w i t h i n s h o r t c l a s s p e r i o d s i n Secondary S c h o o l s . A l s o , j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r making p i e c e molds l i e s m a i n l y i n i t s use f o r c a s t i n g i n m e t a l , o r o f making a number o f c o p i e s o f the o r i g i n a l , and i s t h u s h a r d l y f e a s i b l e i n the Secondary a r t p r o -gramme. P l a s t e r o f P a r i s f o r c a r v i n g . R a t i o n a l e : P l a s t e r o f P a r i s i s a most e c o n o m i c a l m a t e r i a l t o use f o r th e s u b t r a c t i v e p r o c e s s o f c a r v i n g . I t i s s u i t a b l e t o i m i t a t e t h e c o l o u r s and the shape o f stone b l o c k s but i t i s a much eas-i e r m a t e r i a l t o c a r v e . I t y i e l d s t h e f i n a l work by the d i r e c t method, and needs l i t t l e s p e c i a l f i n i s h i n g t o a c h i e v e a..durable p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e . By c a r v i n g i n p l a s t e r o f P a r i s , s t u d e n t s can e x p e r i e n c e the e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e emerging s c u l p t u r e h i d d e n i n the b l o c k . G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l be encouraged, and w i l l f i n d i t i n c r e a s i n g l y n e c e s s a r y t o v i s u a l i z e the f i n a l s c u l p t u r e b e f o r e t h e y b e g i n t o c a r v e , as what i s removed can not be r e p l a c e d . They w i l l produce a w e l l f i n i s h e d , s o l i d p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e . O b j e c t i v e : S t u d e n t s w i l l p r e p a r e a s u i t a b l e maquette i n c l a y as a p l a n and n e c e s s a r y g u i d e f o r t h e c a r v i n g o f a l a r g e r p i e c e . D u r i n g the p r o c e s s o f c a r v i n g , a c c i d e n t s may happen which w i l l n e c e s s i -t a t e a d a p t i n g the o r i g i n a l maquette and t o f i n d an a l t e r n a t e s o l u t i o n . S t u d e n t s w i l l e x p e r i e n c e g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n h a n d l i n g an i n f l e x i b l e m a t e r i a l such as p l a s t e r , but w i l l h o p e f u l l y a l s o l e a r n t o e n j o y the s o l i d i t y and s t r e n g t h i n h e r e n t i n i t . M a t e r i a l s f o r s t u d e n t use: - c l a y f o r the maquette - p l a s t e r o f P a r i s - i r o n o x i d e s and powder tempera t o c o l o u r the p l a s t e r - c h i s e l s - m a l l e t s - o l d l i n o c u t t i n g t o o l s - p a r i n g k n i v e s - o l d d e n t a l t o o l s 70. - m i l k c a r t o n s , s t r o n g p l a s t i c bags or s i m p l e wooden boces f o r molds - l i q u i d soap - b u c k e t s - p l a s t i c , f l e x i b l e - wax paper o r t a r paper - t h i n foam r u b b e r p i e c e s - m i l k L e s s o n a i d s : S l i d e s No. 215 and 216, 220 and 221, 251 and 252, 282 and 285, 310, 311, 308 and 309, 322 and 324. D i s c u s s i o n and a c t i v i t i e s : Show s l i d e s o f M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s t e r r a - c o t t a models (No. 215 and 220), and t h e l i f e s i z e m arble s c u l p t u r e s based on them (No. 216 and 221) . D i s c u s s the need f o r t h e maquette as an a i d t o p l a n t h e f i n a l s c u l p t u r e , and the h e l p i t p r o v i d e s by u s i n g i t from each s i d e as a g u i d e t o what might be removed from t h e p l a s t e r b l o c k . The maquette a l s o s e r v e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e shape o f t h e b l o c k t o be c a s t . Emphasize t h e i n h e r e n t s t r e n g t h and weak p o i n t s o f p l a s t e r o f P a r i s as a m a t e r i a l , namely, the i m p r e s s i o n o f s t r e n g t h and h e a v i n e s s o f form i t conveys when the s c u l p t u r e i s k e p t as a compact d e s i g n , but i t s u n s u i t a b i l i t y f o r p r o t r u d i n g shapes o f l e s s e r t h i c k n e s s than t h e r e s t o f the form. R e l a t e d t o the hu-man f i g u r e , poses must be chosen o f the body a t r e s t , not i n movement, and arms and l e g s must be k e p t c l o s e t o t h e body. S u i t a b l e poses a r e numerous s i t t i n g ones, o r even l y i n g down as w e l l , b u t n e g a t i v e space between p a r t s o f t h e body must be k e p t a t a minimum. Show s l i d e s o f Rodin's work, No. 282, a bronze f i g u r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r c a r v i n g , b u t No. 2 85 most a p p r o p r i a t e . S i m i l a r l y , No. 310 and 311, by S i n t e n i s , u n s u i t a b l e ; on t h e o t h e r hand, No. 308 and 309, by B a r l a c h , No. 322 by A r c h i p e n k o and No. 324 by Barlach e f f e c t i v e . A l s o show Houdon's "Diana," on S l i d e No. 251, i n m a r b l e , c a r v e d w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t o f p l a n t s a t her f e e t , and No. 252, the bronze v e r s i o n , w i t h o u t any s u p p o r t e x c e p t i n t h e s t r e n g t h o f the m e t a l . A f t e r the s t u d e n t s p r e p a r e the maquette, p r e p a r e f o r c a s t -i n g the b l o c k . Suggest c o l o u r s t o i m i t a t e s t o n e , such as p a l e p i n k , p a l e grey o r p a l e green and, i f any o f t h e s e i s chosen, use r e d o r b l a c k i r o n o x i d e — f r o m g l a z e m a t e r i a l s — o r powder tempera p a i n t t o mix w i t h the dry p l a s t e r . Make s m a l l sample c a s t s , l e t d r y , t o d etermine s u i t a b i l i t y o f c o l o u r . S t u d e n t s might opt t o remain w i t h w h i t e p l a s t e r , a l t h o u g h i t l o o k s r a t h e r l i f e l e s s f o r the human f i g u r e . I f a c o l o u r i s chosen, mix a much l a r g e r amount o f d r y p l a s t e r w i t h i t than you a n t i c i -p a t e u s i n g , as i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o match the c o l o u r c l o s e l y enough. F o r the s t a n d a r d s i z e b u cket you c o u l d be h e e d i n g 10-15 kg o f p l a s t e r (about h a l f o f the s t a n d a r d s a c k ) . Keep the c o l -o u red dry p l a s t e r i n a s e p a r a t e c o n t a i n e r ; b a s i n s o r b u c k e t s are s u i t a b l e . Choose the c o n t a i n e r s f o r t h e i r s i z e and shape. M i l k c a r t o n s a r e f o r l i m i t e d s m a l l s i z e s c u l p t u r e . S t r o n g p l a s t i c bags can be used t o pour the l i q u i d p l a s t e r i n t o and by t y i n g i t , and a l s o p l a c i n g i t w i t h the bag i n t o a n o t h e r c o n t a i n e r from w h i c h i t can be removed when i t hardens, more f l e x i b i l i t y i s o b t a i n e d t o a c h i e v e a d i f f e r e n t shaped b l o c k as w e l l as a l a r g e r s i z e d one. Wooden boxes need be hammered t o g e t h e r f o r l a r g e r b l o c k s o f p l a s t e r but they have t o be w e l l p r e p a r e d w i t h s ev-e r a l b r u s h i n g s o f l i q u i d soap t o p r e v e n t the p l a s t e r from f u s -i n g w i t h t h e wood. B e f o r e you pour p l a s t e r i n t o a box, s e a l t h e seams o f the box from th e o u t s i d e w i t h f r e s h c l a y , p o u r i n g s l o w l y so l i t t l e p l a s t e r w i l l escape a t the seams. As t h e p l a s t e r s e t s , i t no l o n g e r l e a k s from weak p o i n t s o f the box. To mix t h e p l a s t e r f o r p o u r i n g , p r o c e e d as f o l l o w s : f i l l t h e bucket t h r e e - q u a r t e r s f u l l w i t h c o l d w a t e r . P l a c e on news-paper t o ease c l e a n i n g . I f you work near a s i n k , make v e r y s u r e t h a t not even the s m a l l e s t amount o f p l a s t e r o f P a r i s g e t s i n t o the s i n k because i t w i l l q u i c k l y b l o c k the d r a i n . S l o w l y add the d r y p l a s t e r - b y the h a n d f u l , s h a k i n g i t w i t h an open palm i n t o the w a t e r . Keep a d d i n g u n t i l d r y peaks form on the w a t e r ' s s u r f a c e and the p l a s t e r no l o n g e r s i n k s i n t o the w a t e r . Only a t t h i s t i me s h o u l d you s t i r i t t o e l i m i n a t e lumps. S t i r r i n g speeds up the s e t t i n g o f the p l a s t e r which i s a c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s and i s i r r e v e r s i b l e . Have your c o n t a i n e r ready t o pour the p l a s t e r , now a t v e r y t h i c k cream c o n s i s t e n c y , b e f o r e i t s o l i d i -f i e s . P l a s t e r s e t s w i t h i n a few hours and f e e l s warm t o the t o u c h d u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s . Set a s i d e c o n t a i n e r s , and immediat-e l y c l e a n up e v e r y t h i n g w i t h p l a s t e r on i t , by s c r a p i n g i t i n t o t h e garbage can f i r s t , and l a t e r use wet paper t o w e l s t o wipe e v e r y t h i n g c l e a n . A v o i d washing t h i n g s w i t h p l a s t e r on them i n the s i n k . I f you do, l e t a l o t o f water ru n t h r o u g h the s i n k t o p r e v e n t p l u g g i n g i t . P r o v i d e l a r g e p i e c e s o f wax paper o r t a r paper t o c o v e r the t a b l e s where s t u d e n t s work. These can be shaken i n t o the 73. garbage and r e u s e d each t i m e . C a r v i n g must b e g i n w i t h the maquette i n s i g h t . S t u d e n t s might use a p i e c e o f c h a r c o a l t o s k e t c h on t h e p l a s t e r b l o c k b u t i t might be d i f f i c u l t i f i t i s m o i s t . However, the p l a s t e r b l o c k must be k e p t wrapped i n p l a s t i c w h i l e work i s i n p r o g r e s s as i t i s e a s i e r t o c a r v e a m o i s t b l o c k t h a n a wet one. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d use l a r g e r c h i s e l s and h e a v i e r m a l l e t s a t f i r s t , depend-i n g on the s i z e o f the s c u l p t u r e , and rough out the e n t i r e p i e c e from a l l s i d e s . S t u d e n t s must h o l d the c h i s e l a t a 45°angle and always hammer p i e c e s o f f from th e i n s i d e towards the o u t s i d e o f t h e s c u l p t u r e , away from t h e i r hands. As t h e s c u l p t u r e emerges, t h e y s h o u l d use p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r c h i s e l s and l i g h t e r m a l l e t s . E v e n t u a l l y no m a l l e t i s needed, and they can work w i t h o l d l i n o c u t t i n g t o o l s , p a r i n g k n i v e s and d e n t a l t o o l s i f you have them. Remind them t o keep the s c u l p t u r e t u r n i n g and t o d e v e l o p i t e v e n l y from each s i d e . To keep the p i e c e from s l i p p i n g around on the t a b l e , a p i e c e o f foam rub b e r w i l l h o l d i t s t i l l . The f i n i s h e d c a r v i n g s h o u l d be mounted on a base, but be-f o r e s t u d e n t s do t h i s t h e y need t o s e a l t h e pores w h i c h w i l l keep the s c u l p t u r e c l e a n e r o v e r t i m e . Use whole m i l k t o b r u s h on the c a r v i n g ; i t i s t h i n enough not t o form a c o a t and d e t r a c t from the s u r f a c e t e x t u r e but f a t enough t o s e a l the p o r e s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t e l l t h e s t u d e n t s the s t o r y about M i c h e l a n -g e l o who seemed t o c a r v e g r e a t b l o c k s o f marble i n t o b e a u t i f u l s c u l p t u r e w i t h ease. He responded t o h i s a d m i r e r s w i t h a s h r u g , s a y i n g t h a t he, a f t e r a l l , o n l y removed the s u p e r f l u o u s s t o n e , the s c u l p t u r e was t h e r e a l l a l o n g . Concepts o f S c u l p t u r e T h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . R a t i o n a l e : Most t h i n g s i n the environment a r e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l . I n s c u l p t u r e d e p t h , which m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n form, i s a r e a l i t y , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h much o f t w o d i m e n s i o n a l work where i t i s an o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n . P e r c e p t i o n o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y does not seem i n b o r n i n most p e o p l e i n s p i t e o f i t s f r e q u e n c y around us, t h e r e f o r e a t t e n t i o n needs t o be d i r e c t e d t o i t i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . G o a l : To f o s t e r awareness o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n s t u d e n t s even as t h e y view s c u l p t u r e one s i d e a t a t i m e . O b j e c t i v e : S t u d e n t s w i l l d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a c t u a l advanc-i n g and r e c e d i n g o f form, and i t s c h a n g i n g c h a r a c t e r as t h e same s c u l p t u r e i s viewed from d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s . L e s s o n a i d s : S l i d e s No. 2 and 3, 6 and 7, 45 and 46, 47 and 48, 91 and 92 and 93, 105, 109 and 110, 113, 124 and 125 and 126, 135 and 136 and 137, 139 and 140, 177, 186 and 187, 188 and 189 and 190, 197 and 198, 202 and 203 and 204, 211 and 212, 245 and 246, 258, 268 and 269, 271 and 272 and 273, 274 and 275 and 276, 280 and 281, 286 and 287, 75. 349 and 350 and 351, 361 and 362, 363 and 364, 365 and 366, 377 and 378, 386 and 387, 392 and 393 and 394. Small, actual sculpture, a r e p l i c a or student work, preferably, but not necessarily, of the human figure. Discussion: Hold up the sculpture, turn i t slowly around. Direct the students' attention to the changing image of the piece from d i f f e r e n t angles. Explain how i n many parts of the sculpture a p a r t i c u l a r form begins to grow out of another, leads the eye around to a new angle, and has another form emerge from i t . This phenomenon helps to unify a piece of sculpture, just as i t makes our body whole. The muscles connect each part of our body, observable to the eye, such as the head grows out of the neck which i n turn emerges from the shoulders; from there the arms continue i n one d i r e c t i o n , the trunk i n another. Simi-l a r l y , on the face, the nose or l i p s are not "tacked on" but the nose i s growing out of the cheeks with the upward swinging bridge of muscles, and the c i r c u l a r muscles of the mouth, con-nected to the cheeks and chin, have the l i p s only at the f i n a l t i p of the muscles. Introduce the s l i d e s by t e l l i n g the students that they w i l l see the same sculptures from two to three angles, but of course only one angle at a time. Thus the camera's lense has selected one angle for them and i t w i l l appear as a twodimensional image on the screen. Therefore they need to look for forms which l e a d t h e i r eyes around the work even i f t h e y w i l l not be a b l e t o t u r n t h e s c u l p t u r e t o see where i t l e a d s . The a c q u i s i t i o n of such a f e e l i n g might be compared t o t h e c u r i o s i t y of what l i e s beyond a mountain o r the cu r v e o f a r o a d . Some o f t h e s l i d e s p r e s e n t e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e f u r t h e r views o f the same work, o t h e r s a r e s u r p r i s i n g l y d i f f e r e n t . The complex forms o f t h e 17,000 y e a r o l d "Venus o f Lespugue" (No. 6 and 7) are e a s i e r p e r c e i v e d from the s i d e v i e w (No. 7) and need t o be viewed a g a i n , the second t i m e , from the f r o n t . The s t a t u e o f " V i s h u " from 9th c e n t u r y I n d i a (No. 47 and 48) i s i n -t e n t i o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t from f r o n t and back, r e f l e c t i n g m u l t i p l e r o l e s o f t h i s Hindu d e i t y . S l i d e No. 105 shows two views o f the Pharaoh Echnaton. T h i s s l i d e i s s u i t a b l e f o r study o f ad-v a n c i n g and r e c e d i n g form i n i t s h i g h l y r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f a l e s s t h a n p e r f e c t body. Echnaton i n s t i t u t e d a new r e l i g i o n w h ich d i d not s u r v i v e h i s r e i g n . A r t i s t s were d i r e c t e d t o p o r -t r a y him r e a l i s t i c a l l y w hich i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o the i d e a l -i z e d d e p i c t i o n o f o t h e r E g y p t i a n Pharaohs. T h i s s l i d e , as S l i d e s No. 113, 177 and 258, have the added advantage t h a t t hey combine two views o f t h e same s c u l p t u r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . S l i d e s o f the Greek s t a t u e , t h e " V i c t o r y o f Samothrace" (No. 139 and 140), p r e s e n t the u s u a l s i d e v i e w and t h e b a r e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e and o b v i o u s l y d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s f r o n t a l v i e w . S i m i -l a r c o n c l u s i o n s might be a r r i v e d a t w i t h o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f views o f t h e same f i g u r e . One o f M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s s t a t u e s , " V i c -t o r y , " i s e x c i t i n g from one a n g l e (No. 211) but most awkward from two o t h e r s (No. 2 1 2 ) - - h a r d l y e x p e c t e d from a g r e a t master! 77. Rodin's " S t . John the B a p t i s t " (No. 271 and 272 and 273) p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o st u d y t h e movement o f w a l k i n g from d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s . Rodin's "The K i s s " (No. 286 and 287), on the o t h e r hand, b a r e l y s a t i s f i e s one's c u r i o s i t y o f the work's t o -t a l i t y . Henry Moore's " R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e : A r c h Leg" (No. 349 and 350 and 351) g i v e s a good account o f t h e s t r e n g t h t h r o u g h t h r e e d i f f e r e n t v iews o f h i s d e c e p t i v e l y s i m p l e forms. D a v i d Wynne's "Embracing L o v e r s " (No. 361 and 362) needs s p e c i a l s t u d y t o v i s u a l i z e t h a t the s l i d e s a r e a c t u a l l y o f the same work. F i n a l l y , E l e k Imredy's " G i r l i n W e t s u i t " (No. 386 and 387), so w e l l known i n Vancouver but m o s t l y from the one a n g l e o f the p o s t c a r d s , p r e s e n t s on S l i d e No. 387 t h r e e uncommon views o f the f i n i s h e d c l a y s t a t u e i n t h e a r t i s t ' s • s t u d i o . Form, shape, mass, volume, monumentality. R a t i o n a l e : Words such as form, shape, mass, volume, and monumentality a r e common i n d i s c u s s i o n s of s c u l p t u r e . Each s t a n d s f o r a con-c e p t d e s c r i p t i v e o f s c u l p t u r e and t h e r e f o r e an e x a m i n a t i o n o f each s h o u l d be a t t e m p t e d , i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a m e a n i n g f u l vo-c a b u l a r y f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . G o a l : To f a c i l i t a t e t he usage o f above terms i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the q u a l i t i e s o f a g i v e n s c u l p t u r e , be i t t h e work o f o t h e r a r t i s t s o r the s t u d e n t s ' own work. O b j e c t i v e s : S t u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n t o u n d e r s t a n d some unique elements o f 78. s c u l p t u r e , and they w i l l be able to use these terms i n d i s c u s s -i o n . Lesson a i d s : S l i d e s No. 2 and 3 and 4, 6 and 7, 34, 51 and 69 and 77, 79, 83, 98, 199 and 200, 207, 210, 224, 225, 263, 286-7, 290, 308, 322, 324, 344 (Mass) S l i d e s No. 21, 33, 39, 45 'and 46 , 55, 109 and 110, 124-5-6, 129, 139, 143, 185, 187, 188, 235, 257, 265, 283, 289, 297, 311, 327, 345, 355 (Volume) S l i d e s No. 2 and 3 and 4, 6 and 7, 18, 28, 51 and 69 and 77, 79, 98, 107, 199 and 200, 215-6, 224, 228, 274-5-6, 290, 294, 309, 341, 342, 344, 349-50-51, 330 and 333 and 382 (335, 367), 404 and 406 and 407 (Monumentality) D i s c u s s i o n : Form as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of depth has been d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n , the u n i t on t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . Form can be s o l i d or the v o i d between s o l i d s , s i m i l a r to negative and p o s i t i v e space i n twodimensional work. Form and shape are o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , although form tends to be mostly a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l element, whereas shape i s a l s o used as a twodimensional design element. In the d e s c r i p t i o n of the whole s c u l p t u r e , form i s b e t t e r used to d e s c r i b e the t o t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a l l p a r t s , i n c l u d i n g i t s i n n e r s t r u c t u r e . The p a r t s of the whole work are b e t t e r c a l l e d shapes, thus shape would tend to be the s m a l l e r u n i t i n comparison with form. 79. A p a r t from t h e use o f form f o r t h e whole work, i t i s a l s o used t o d e s c r i b e t h e q u a l i t y o f form, e.g., dense, heavy, s o l i d , o r t h i n , f r a g i l e , outward t h r u s t i n g . As a l l s c u l p t u r e c o n s i s t s o f form, t h e r e a r e no s p e c i f i c s l i d e s recommended f o r i t s s t u d y . For the purpose o f e x p l a i n i n g t h e c o n c e p t s o f mass v e r s u s volume, i t might be u s e f u l t o imagine t h a t one would drape a s o f t c l o t h o v e r two s c u l p t u r e s such as t h e I n u i t works o f "Hunter w i t h Harpoon" (No. 33) and "Hunter w i t h S e a l " (No. 34). W i t h i n the c l o t h e n c l o s e d i s the volume o f each work. No. 33 would appear l a r g e r t h a n No. 34. "Hunter w i t h Harpoon" has o u t -ward t h r u s t i n g forms w i t h spaces between them, and thus appears t o be l i g h t e r and t o have g r e a t e r volume. "Hunter w i t h S e a l , " on the o t h e r hand, i s chunky, has g r e a t d e n s i t y o f form, no i n -t e r n a l s p a c e s , and g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n o f heavy w e i g h t w h i c h i s c a l l e d mass. ( I f t h e r e a r e s u i t a b l e s c u l p t u r e s i n the c l a s s -room, s t u d e n t work o r r e p l i c a s , you might demonstrate t h i s w i t h a c l o t h draped o v e r them.) S i m i l a r l y , the "Naked Dancer" (No. 45-46), "Tutankhamun the Harpooner" (No. 109-110), and "Zeus from A r t e m i s i o n " (No. 124-5-6) c o n s i s t o f s l e n d e r , f r a g i l e , outward t h r u s t i n g shapes and l a r g e volumes, compared t o t h e " S t a n d i n g Gudea" (No. 7 9 ) , "Amenenhet I I I " (No. 9 8 ) , "Moses" by M i c h e l a n g e l o (No. 207), which a r e a l l o f compact, s o l i d mass. Rodin's two works, "The Three Fauns" (No. 283) and "The K i s s " (No. 286-7) a r e both a p y r a m i d l i k e c o m p o s i t i o n , but w h i l e the f i r s t has many v o i d s and open spaces (which c o n t r i b u t e t o the f e e l i n g o f l i g h t n e s s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r d a n c e ) , and l a r g e volume, "The K i s s " i s much t i g h t e r o f form and o f s e e m i n g l y 80. heavy mass. Such comparison can a l s o be made o f two o f Henry Moore's works (No. 344 and 345), the f i r s t h a v i n g more mass, the second volume. Thus l a r g e r volume o f t e n means l i g h t e r , t h i n n e r forms e x t e n d i n g from a c o r e , o r i n t e r t w i n i n g but keep-i n g s p e c i a l v o i d s between them. The concept o f mass i s b e s t a p p l i e d when form i s so o r g a n i z e d t h a t i t i s ke p t dense, and i n t h e case o f t h e f i g u r e , the e x t r e m i t i e s a r e k e p t c l o s e t o the body. A c o m p o s i t i o n o f more t h a n one f i g u r e showing a l o t o f mass, might appear as i f c a r v e d from t h e same b l o c k . Compare the two G o t h i c P i e t a s (No. 164, 16 7) t o M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s (No. 199-200). See how he managed t o keep the c o m p o s i t i o n t i g h t and s i m p l e , and how t h e i n c r e a s e d mass l e n d s g r e a t e r w e i g h t t o t h e image d e p i c t e d . F o r a n a l y s i s o f the concept o f monumentality, i t might be u s e f u l t o l o o k a t t h e o r i g i n o f the word which i s "monument." Monuments a r e l a r g e . They a r e e r e c t e d t o commemorate w o r t h -w h i l e e v e n t s o r p e o p l e , t h e y d e p i c t t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f t h e ev-e n t s o r t h e p e o p l e , and are sometimes thought o f as most sue-. c e s s f u l when k e p t s i m p l e , w i t h l i t t l e movement, and s y m b o l i c g e s t u r e s . M o n u m e n t a l i t y i n a work i s not r e l a t e d t o s i z e . I n f a c t , what may i n r e a l i t y be v e r y s m a l l , w i l l appear l i f e s i z e o r b i g -g e r . Photographs o r s l i d e s a r e u s e f u l t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , be-cause t h e y can m i s l e a d about t h e s i z e o f the work, and make i t guesswork t o judge t h e s c u l p t u r e ' s a c t u a l s i z e . C o n s i d e r i n g some o f the P r e h i s t o r i c "Venus" f i g u r e s , t h e one from W i l l e n d o r f (No. 2 and 3 ) , t o tho s e who do not know i t s a c t u a l s i z e , becomes 81. a g r e a t s u r p r i s e when they a r e shown S l i d e No. 4, where i t i s h e l d i n a hand and i t s a c t u a l s i z e o f 4% i n c h e s i s r e v e a l e d . L o o k i n g a t the "Venus o f Lespugue" (No. 6 and 7 ) , i t a l s o seems l a r g e , and h a v i n g no o t h e r s c a l e , l i k e the hand f o r the former t o compare i t w i t h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s o n l y 6 i n c h e s h i g h . M onumentality i s p r e s e n t i n some s c u l p t o r s ' work and ab-se n t i n o t h e r s ' . Henry Moore's maquettes (No. 341 and 342), i f they were each viewed s e p a r a t e l y , c o u l d not be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from h i s v e r y l a r g e work, such as t h e " R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e : A r c h Leg" (No. 349-50-51); j u s t as M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s "Dawn" appears l i f e s i z e on t h e maquette (No. 220), as i t i s i n f a c t on t h e mar-b l e f i g u r e (No. 221). Monumentality g i v e s t h e appearance o f l a r g e s i z e . M o numentality i s conveyed by s i m p l i c i t y o f form, l a c k o f unnecessary d e t a i l , a s t a t i c s t i l l n e s s w hich may seem-timeless i n t h e sense t h a t we do not a n t i c i p a t e a f u t u r e m o t i o n , and seems "weighty" i n i t s i m p o r t a n c e . H e a v i n e s s o f mass, however, does not guarantee monumentality. There has t o be a c o n t e n t r e l a t e d t o the h e r o i c which i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e work. To i l l u s -t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , M a r i n i " s "Pomona" (No. 335) and L u c c h e s i ' s " P o r t r a i t o f Paddy" (No. 367) have the mass o f heavy b o d i e s , but not t h e c o n t e n t o f h e r o i s m . I n c o n t r a s t , L a c h a i s e ' s "Stand-i n g F i g u r e " (No. 330), R i c h i e r ' s "The Storm" (No. 333), and Zuniga's " S t a n d i n g Nude O l d Woman" (No. 382) c o n t a i n the s t r e n g t h , t h e p r i d e , the s u f f e r i n g o f a l l women, which makes t h e s e works monumental. 82. C r i t i c i s m and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e F i g u r e L i n e a r s c u l p t u r e - t h e e l o n g a t e d , the e t h e r e a l body. R a t i o n a l e : T h i s a s p e c t o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e endeavours t o con-vey man's i n n e r n a t u r e as concerned w i t h the s u p e r n a t u r a l o r s a c r e d , a sense o f a u s t e r i t y , o t h e r - w o r l d l i n e s s , perhaps even a l i e n a t i o n , by extreme l i n e a r e l o n g a t i o n o f t h e body w i t h min-i m a l t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f such work from d i f -f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f h i s t o r y would f u r t h e r the a d o l e s c e n t ' s a p p r e -c i a t i o n o f the human c o n d i t i o n . G o a l s : S t u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n t o a n a l y z e s c u l p t u r e which i n appear-ance may seem t o them a t f i r s t r i d i c u l o u s o r even r e p u l s i v e but which communicates deep i d e a s and emotions w i t h which they can perhaps i d e n t i f y . O b j e c t i v e s : S t u d e n t s w i l l d e v e l o p ways o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d i s c u s s i n g t h e e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s o f s c u l p t u r e w h i c h , because o f an un-r e a l i s t i c and d i s t o r t e d appearance, they may a t f i r s t t e n d t o r e j e c t . L esson a i d s : The f o l l o w i n g s l i d e s a r e suggested f o r d i s c u s s i o n : No. 71: "Buddha," T h a i l a n d , 17th c e n t u r y No. 144: "Naked L a n c e r , " E t r u s c a n , 5 th c e n t u r y 83. No. 145 No. 14 6 No. 303 No. 320 No. 327 No. 339 No. 346 No. 355 "Ombra," E t r u s c a n " A p h r o d i t e , " E t r u s c a n , 4th c e n t u r y "Young Man S t e p p i n g Up," W i l h e l m Lehmbruck "Death o f P e t o f i , " T i b o r S z e r v a t i u s z "Don Q u i z o t e , " J u l i o G onzales "Lady o f V e n i c e I , " A l b e r t o G i a c o m e t t i " K i n g and Queen," Henry Moore " G i r l U n d r e s s i n g , " Reg B u t l e r D i s c u s s i o n : B e g i n by drawing a t t e n t i o n t o the t e c h n i q u e and the mat-e r i a l , m e t a l , which makes such s l e n d e r and t a l l s c u l p t u r e p o s s -i b l e . As shown i n most o f t h e above s l i d e s , s c u l p t o r s used t h e most a t t r a c t i v e o f m e t a l s , b r o n z e . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s S z e r v a t i u s z 1 work (No. 320), which i s c a r v e d o f oak and i s 3h meters h i g h . The s k i l l o f t h e s c u l p t o r and the hardness o f the wood make t h i s l i n e a r work p o s s i b l e . Lead the d i s c u s s i o n t o the p r e s e n t day i d e a l o f h e a l t h and beauty, the s l i m n e s s c u l t u r e o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . Foremost r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s o f t h i s a r e the h i g h l y p a i d , and admired r o l e models i n t h e f a s h i o n i n d u s t r y . The g r e a t c o n t r a s t between t h e i r h e i g h t and w e i g h t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r them i n o r d e r t o become mod-e l s . They l o o k g r e a t d r e s s e d , but we never see them w i t h o u t t h e d r a p e r y o f f a s h i o n a p p a r e l . An example o f extreme s l i m n e s s was t h e s u c c e s s f u l but g r o t e s q u e - l o o k i n g B r i t i s h model, Twiggy, some y e a r s ago. Reg B u t l e r ' s " G i r l U n d r e s s i n g " (No. 355) c o u l d be i n t e r -p r e t e d , i n t h e above sense, as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the N o r t h 84 . American i d e a l of youth and beauty. Butler succeeds i n making us forget the lack of appeal i n her proportions, and to convey, as she stretches and undresses, the awkwardness, the innocence, the awakening sexuality of youth. Giacometti 1s "Lady of Venice I" (No. 339), on the other hand, appears to have a shrunken, emaciated body. The sculptor succeeds i n the portrayal of the human body with a minimum of mass but considerable volume. The surface texture's roughness conveys a sense of suffering, fear, v u l n e r a b i l i t y , and combined with the e f f e c t of her slimness, she seems to shrink from the world. Lehmbruck 1s "Young Man Stepping Up" (No. 303) seems at f i r s t glance smooth and longlimbed, and suggests pure elegance. But the po s i t i o n of the arms and head suggest a f r a g i l i t y , a s e n s i t i v i t y , an introverted man. The pose of stepping up may further indicate youth, upward bound, towards the future. In contrast to Lehmbruck's youth, i t i s hard to discern from the body of Szervatiusz' work, perhaps only from the head, that we are looking at the death of a young man. Petofi i s the foremost poet of the Hungarian language, and he died during the Revolution of 1848 which he helped to i n c i t e , lead, and f i g h t i n against the Austrian opporessors of Hungary. The sculpture, through the shrunken body, c l e a r l y shows suffering and death, but the elongated body, with i t s 3% meters height towering over ordinary man, becomes the symbol of youthful patriotism to which the a r t i s t wants us to look up to. Moving from the 19th century back to the 5th and 4th 85. c e n t u r y B.C., and E t r u s c a n a r t , as shown on S l i d e s No. 145 and 146, i n p a r t i c u l a r , we can but i n t e r p r e t w i t h 20th c e n t u r y eyes what the a r t i s t w i s hed t o e x p r e s s . R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i s known about E t r u s c a n c u l t u r e , as i t was o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n and was e v e n t u a l l y absorbed i n t o the Roman Empire. Of t h e w e l l known bronze s c u l p t u r e o f the f o u n d i n g o f Rome, d e p i c t i n g a sh e - w o l f and the t w i n s Romulus and Remus s u c k l i n g h e r , we know t h a t t h e she- w o l f i s o f E t r u s c a n o r i g i n form c i r c a 500 B.C. and t h e t w i n s a r e l a t e r a d d i t i o n s from the 16th c e n t u r y . The r e a l i s m and workmanship o f t h e she-wolf suggest t h a t i t was not a l a c k o f a b i l i t y which made th e E t r u s c a n s c u l p t o r s d e p i c t t h e body as s t y l i z e d and e l o n g a t e d , t o the p o i n t o f i n f i n i t e l i g h t n e s s . Man, as he appears i n "Ombra" and " A p h r o d i t e , " i s a mere sha-dow o f h i m s e l f . Reaching t o the s k y , he i s not o f t h i s w o r l d . H i s head i n t h e c l o u d s , i s he the e x p r e s s i o n o f p r o f o u n d r e l i g -i o u s symbolism, o r o f the p a i n and d e s p a i r o f a d i s a p p e a r i n g r a c e ? Such a r e examples o f d i s c u s s i o n on d i s t o r t e d , l i n e a r s c u l p -t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e . They l e a d us from p r e s e n t day s l i m n e s s c u l -t u r e w h i c h , i f p e r v e r t e d , can l e a d t o a n o r e x i a n e r v o s a , t h e i l l n e s s o f the young and r i c h , t h r o u g h o c c a s i o n a l s t a t e s o f a l i e n a t i o n from s o c i e t y , o r the w i t h d r a w a l e x p e r i e n c e d i n p a i n and s h y n e s s , t o s p i r i t u a l h e i g h t s , a l l o f t h e s e e x p r e s s e d by some s c u l p t u r e o f the human f i g u r e . B l o c k s c u l p t u r e - t h e compact, t h e e a r t h y body. R a t i o n a l e : A c e r t a i n k i n d o f s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e uses 86 -maximum mass, a minimum of n e g a t i v e shapes w i t h i n the o v e r a l l form, and might r e q u i r e d i s t o r t i o n o f the f i g u r e i n o r d e r t o keep i t compact. T h i s e x a g g e r a t e d s o l i d i t y conveys i d e a s , such as f i r m n e s s , r e l i a b i l i t y , t i m e l e s s n e s s , s t r e n g t h , o r earthboundness which need t o be d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r t o be a p p r e c i a t e d by a d o l e s c e n t s . G o a l s : S t u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n t o c o n s i d e r p o s s i b l e meanings o f s c u l p -t u r e o f the human f i g u r e w h i c h they l i k e l y would have a t f i r s t r e j e c t e d as a b s u r d , o r even d i s g u s t i n g , and would t h e r e f o r e not have u n d e r s t o o d t h e i d e a s t h a t t h e s c u l p t o r w i s h e d t o e x p r e s s . O b j e c t i v e s : S t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e t o d i s c u s s p o s s i b l e meanings and i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e w h i c h , a l t h o u g h not r e a l i s t i c , convey fundamental f e e l i n g s and i d e a s common t o man from the dawn of h i s t o r y t o the p r e s e n t . L e s s o n a i d s : The f o l l o w i n g s l i d e s a r e some o f t h o s e s u i t a b l e t o d i s c u s s b l o c k - l i k e , compact s c u l p t u r e : No. 2 and 3: "Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f " No. 27 No. 3 3 No. 3 5 No. 115 No. 116 No. 30 8 " E f f i g y , " C o l i m a "Hunter w i t h Harpoon," I n u i t "Mother and C h i l d , " I n u i t " B l o c k S t a t u e o f P r o p h e t , " Egypt "B l o c k S t a t u e o f P r i n c e , " Egypt " R u s s i a n Beggarwoman," E r n s t B a r l a c h 87. No. 309 No. 321 No. 322 No. 323 No. 324 "Singing Man," Ernst Barlach "Small Idol," Tibor Szervatiusz "Woman with Cat," Alexander Archipenko "The Kiss," Constantin Brancusi "The Embrace," Carlos Bracho No. 361 and 362: "Embracing Lovers," David Wynne Discussion: Consider f i r s t the materials and methods used i n t h i s group of sculpture. With one exception, that of Archipenko's "Woman with Cat," which i s made of bronze, a l l these works are made of natural non-man-made materials. Clay i s used in•only one, the Colima " E f f i g y , " which i s modelled. A l l others are carved, hewn from wood and stone, a physically more demanding process. These materials are more suitable to use for convey-ing heaviness, and compactness of form. This weightiness t i e s these works to the earth and conveys meaning, the opposite of asceticism. Ernst Barlach, a German sculptor, was greatly influenced by his travels i n Russia. His work, made of wood, can be re-lated to Inuit stone carvings. Both deal with ordinary man, his struggles to l i v e i n an h o s t i l e environment, cold climate, vast landscape of the tundra, where only the strongest survive. These stocky men must stay close to the earth, must relate and blend with i t , and carry the burden of survival i n the harshest of environments. The difference between these two people and the i r circumstances i s r e f l e c t e d i n the choice of topics de-picted by the a r t i s t s . Russia i s densely populated, and Barlach 88. s y m b o l i z e s i t s poor t h r o u g h t h e beggar woman, and t h e l o n g i n g , the j o y s and sorrows o f s i m p l e man thr o u g h s i n g i n g o u t h i s s o u l . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e I n u i t s a r e few i n the v a s t l a n d s c a p e . T h e i r t i e s a r e c l o s e r t o n a t u r e and t h e e a r t h , w h i c h p r o v i d e s , t h r o u g h t h e s k i l l o f h u n t e r s , and t h e c a r e o f mothers f o r t h e i r c h i l d -r e n , c o n t i n u e d s u r v i v a l . A n other comparison might be made between t h e "Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f , " and the " S m a l l I d o l " o f S z e r v a t i u s z on the one hand, and B r a n c u s i ' s "The K i s s , " B r a c h o 1 s "The Embrace," and Wynne's "Embracing L o v e r s " on the o t h e r . A l l o f t h e s e works d e a l w i t h what might be c a l l e d t h e " s u r v i v a l o f the s p e c i e s . " The fundamental urge f o r s u r v i v a l i s i n a l l o f us. I t i s our approach t o i t which changed as we compared the p r e h i s t o r i c w i t h p r e s e n t day e x p r e s s i o n s o f the i n g r e d i e n t f o r c o n t i n u e d l i f e , w h ich i s l o v e . I n 21,000 B.C. l i f e must have been p r e c a r i o u s f o r man. Moving t o where the c l i m a t e a l l o w e d f o o d f o r s u r v i v a l , and b a t -t l i n g w i t h t h e f o r c e s o f n a t u r e , man's s t r e n g t h l a y i n h i s num-b e r s . The environment must have p r e s e n t e d a c o n s t a n t c h a i n o f u n p r e d i c t a b l e e v e n t s , where the o n l y c o n s t a n t p o s i t i v e f a c t o r was woman, who produced o f f s p r i n g . So t h e p r e h i s t o r i c a r t i s t c a r v e d a pregnant woman, c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h o s e p a r t s o f the body i n which the c h i l d grew. He c a r v e d i t i n s i m p l e , b a s i c shapes, monumental i n i t s p r o p o r t i o n s , but s m a l l i n s i z e , so i t c o u l d e a s i l y be c a r r i e d , l i k e an amulet, wherever they went, t o i n s u r e t h e magic needed f o r fundamental and c o n t i n u e d e x i s -t e n c e . S z e r v a t i u s z ' " S m a l l I d o l " seems no d i f f e r e n t from t h e 89 . "Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f , " o n l y t h e y a re made 23,000 y e a r s a p a r t . As t h e above two works d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h c h i l d b e a r i n g , how might t h e y be con n e c t e d w i t h t h e second group o f works by B r a n -c u s i , Bracho and Wynne, whi c h d e a l w i t h m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f phys-i c a l l o v e , even i f s y m b o l i c a l l y ? T h i s i s where the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e b l o c k - l i k e , compact form o f t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s i s of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . Here, i n the f u s i o n o f t h e s e e a r t h y b o d i e s , u n i t e d i n e a r t h l y j o y so c l e a r l y f a r removed from any s u g g e s t i o n o f o t h e r w o r l d l i n e s s , t h e a r t i s t s convey man's dependence on t h e e a r t h , and our dependence on each o t h e r f o r t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f l i f e t h r o u g h t h e symbolism o f the l o v i n g embrace d e p i c t e d i n th e s e s t a t u e s . S h o u l d t h e r e be a need t o f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e the d i r e c t i o n t h e s e works p o i n t t o , Rodin's " K i s s " ( S l i d e No. 286 and 287) may be viewed f o r c o n t r a s t , where the a r t i s t de-p i c t s the c l o s e n e s s o f two l o v i n g s o u l s w i t h a g e n t l e p h y s i c a l t o u c h . S u p e r - r e a l i s m - the contemporary, and polychromed body. R a t i o n a l e Some f i g u r e s c u l p t o r s o f the 20th c e n t u r y t e n d t o remain r e a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t e r s o f the human body. Of the over f i f t y contemporary s c u l p t o r s whose work i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , o n l y f i f t e e n have a b s t r a c t e d the f i g u r e . A l t h o u g h the m a j o r i t y , i n c l u d i n g younger and o l d e r a r t i s t s , have remained w i t h r e a l -i s t i c p o r t r a y a l s o f man, a few i n the p a s t decade a c h i e v e d a s u p e r - r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e i r work appears a t f i r s t g l a n c e t o be a l i v i n g p e r s o n w i t h whom i d e n t i f i c a t i o n becomes 90 . u n a v o i d a b l e . T h i s i n n o v a t i v e approach e n a b l e s t h e s e a r t i s t s t o make s o c i a l comments which c a l l f o r d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l r e a l i z e t h e r o l e a r t i s t s can p l a y i n p o i n t -i n g t o s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l v a l u e s o f s o c i e t y , and l e a r n t o c r i t i c a l l y a s s e s s t h e s e v a l u e s . O b j e c t i v e s : S t u d e n t s w i l l d i s c u s s the purpose o f making s c u l p t u r e com-p l e t e l y l i f e l i k e , t he a b i l i t y o f such work t o u p h o l d o r c r i t i -c i z e o r d i n a r y o c c u r r e n c e s i n our l i v e s . L e sson a i d s : S l i d e s No. 353, 353, 354: S e g a l 355, 356: B u t l e r 367 t o 372: L u c c h e s i 373: de Andrea 374: Hanson 380: Whiten D i s c u s s i o n : E x p l a i n , a t f i r s t , t he d i f f e r e n c e between c r e a t i n g a s c u l p -t u r e o f the human f i g u r e from i m a g i n a t i o n , o r by sometimes l o o k -i n g a t a l i v i n g p e r s o n as a model, and t h e mechanics o f t a k i n g a c a s t from a l i v e p e r s o n , w h i c h i s c a l l e d a " l i f e - c a s t . " T h i s method might have o r i g i n a t e d i n an o l d t r a d i t i o n o f making a death-mask o f an i m p o r t a n t , o r b e l o v e d p e r s o n who has j u s t d i e d . However, i f g r e a s e i s a p p l i e d t o t h e s k i n and gauze on top o f i t , p l a s t e r c a s t s can be t a k e n o f l i v e p e o p l e , made i n s e c t i o n s w hich are s u b s e q u e n t l y assembled f o r the purpose o f c a s t i n g t h e p o s i t i v e , which i s t h e f i g u r e . The r e s u l t becomes an e x a c t r e p l i c a o f t h e model, and l e s s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t . I n l i f e - c a s t i n g , who i s used, i n what pose he or she i s used, what f i n i s h i s a p p l i e d , and what, i f any, environment i t i s p l a c e d i n , become the a r t i s t i c d e c i s i o n s Examples o f two a r t i s t s ' work can be seen on S l i d e s No. 352, 353, 354 and 380, who chose t o l e a v e them i n w h i t e p l a s t e r Whiten w i t h a smooth, S e g a l w i t h a rough s u r f a c e t e x t u r e . B o t h a r t i s t s use an environment which forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s c u l p t u r e . A d o l e s c e n t s might r e l a t e b e t t e r t o George S e g a l ' s l o n e l y f i g u r e s , one p a c i n g up and down l a d e n w i t h w o r r y , an-o t h e r s i t t i n g h e l p l e s s l y and f o r l o r n i n a c h a i r , w a i t i n g f o r l i f e , o r perhaps i t s p a s s i n g , o r the g i r l who might be t r y i n g t o break out o f h e r l o n e l i n e s s by the s y m b o l i c a c t i o n of d e c o r -a t i n g h e r s e l f w i t h j e w e l l e r y , y e t s e e i n g o n l y her own image i n the m i r r o r . The rough s u r f a c e t e x t u r e and the g h o s t l y w h i t e -ness o f the f i g u r e s i s f u r t h e r emphasized by the o r d i n a r y ob-j e c t s and t h e r e a l i s t i c c o l o u r s which s u r r o u n d them. I t i s t h e v e r y l i f e l i k e q u a l i t y o f t h e f i g u r e s which f o r c e us t o see i n them o u r s e l v e s o r p e o p l e we know. They might t r i g g e r compas-s i o n i n us f o r the l o n e l i n e s s o f modern man, o r perhaps warn us o f emptiness l u r k i n g t o e n g u l f us i f we f a i l t o g i v e mean-i n g t o our l i v e s . Some a r t i s t s w i s h t o c a r r y the l i f e l i k e appearance t o t h e p o i n t where t h e i r f i g u r e s need t o be touched t o c o n v i n c e us t h a t t hey a r e s t a t u e s . To a c h i e v e t h i s e f f e c t they p a i n t t h e i r f i g u r e s i n r e a l i s t i c s k i n t o n e s , add r e a l h a i r t o them'.-and, i f c a l l e d f o r , use c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d c l o t h e s on them. Two s l i d e s (No. 355 and 356) show c o n v e n t i o n a l l y made s c u l p t u r e by Reg B u t l e r i n the mid-1950's, and p a i n t e d bronze made by him i n 1977, a s u i t a b l e comparison t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t o f the two o p p o s i n g t e c h n i q u e s . S u p e r - r e a l i s m can be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t l i f e - c a s t i n g . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e , Bruno L u c c h e s i ' s work o f t h e 1970's ( S l i d e s No. 367 t o 372) i s i n c l u d e d h e r e . H i s work i s m o d e l l e d and e i t h e r f i r e d t o become t e r r a - c o t t a , o r c a s t i n bronze. The d i f f e r e n c e w hich the e f f e c t o f h i s work has compared t o l i f e - c a s t i n g , m ight be s t u d i e d h e r e , and seems t o r e l y on the c o l o u r o f the m a t e r i a l s he u s e s . I f one would be a b l e t o imagine h i s work polychromed i n r e a l s k i n t o n e s , w i t h human h a i r added, t h e n , a t l e a s t on photographs which c o n c e a l t h e s m a l l s i z e o f most o f h i s s c u l p t u r e , one would t h i n k them " r e a l . " B e i n g what t h e y a r e , warm bronzes and t e r r a - c o t t a s , t hey seem s o f t and t e n d e r , and i n p l a c e o f sharp s o c i a l commentary, we p e r c e i v e a c e l e b r a -t i o n o f t h e beauty o f the body. John de Andrea's and Duane Hanson's works ( S l i d e No. 373 and 374) a r e l i f e - c a s t , polychromed, and l i f e s i z e . The naked-ness o f the young c o u p l e i n de Andrea's work--the f a c t t hey are a s l e e p , u ncovered, and remote from each o t h e r — s e e m s t o convey a sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and the w o r s t k i n d o f l o n e l i n e s s , t h a t o f b e i n g l o n e l y even when t o g e t h e r . Hanson's " F l o r i d a Shopper," a f i x t u r e o f urban s o c i e t y ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h s h o p p i n g , i s , a t the same t i m e , a c a r i c a t u r e o f someone f r e q u e n t i n N o r t h American s o c i e t y , who cannot grow g r a c e f u l l y o l d . Perhaps i t i s the f e a r o f d y i n g which makes t h i s o l d e r woman t r y t o t u r n t h e c l o c k back and wear a m i n i -s k i r t , heavy costume j e w e l l e r y and a wig which does not s u i t h e r . The e x p r e s s i o n o f her f a c e i s h o s t i l e and unhappy and i t . p o w e r f u l l y b r i n g s home the f a t e o f so many o l d women who are perhaps widowed, as t h e y t e n d t o l i v e l o n g e r , and who, even i f they have f a m i l y , a r e o f t e n f a r away from them. Those who have no t made a l i f e m e a n i n g f u l f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r own r i g h t , b u t o n l y i n c o n t e x t o f o t h e r s who l e f t them b e h i n d , are l e f t i n t h e i r o l d age d e v o i d o f any j o y s e x c e p t t o spend time w i t h much n e e d l e s s s h o p p i n g . A d o l e s c e n t s s h o u l d be a b l e t o f e e l and u n d e r s t a n d the s o c -i a l messages i n t h e s e s u p e r - r e a l i s t i c , l i f e - c a s t works. They might be a b l e t o a p p l y them i n t h e i r own l i f e s t y l e , and t o t h e i r own p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , and f o r e s t a l l t h e sadness which emptiness and l o n e l i n e s s b r i n g . Pathos i n s c u l p t u r e - t h e human body by two m a s t e r s , M i c h e l a n g e l o and B e r n i n i . R a t i o n a l e : M i c h e l a n g e l o B u o n a r r o t i i s a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as the g r e a t e s t s c u l p t o r o f t h e human f i g u r e . H i s mastery and works had a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on Western a r t . T h e r e f o r e a c l o s e r l o o k a t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g e n i u s w i t h t h e f i g u r e seems t o be a p p r o p r i a t e . 94'. G i a n Lorenzo B e r n i n i was as admired as M i c h e l a n g e l o d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e , and a l s o l e f t a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f work, but o v e r time h i s s c u l p t u r e o f the f i g u r e has perhaps not s t o o d up t o t h a t o f M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s . Both were masters i n c o n t r a s t i n g ways, and B e r n i n i ' s work can be used as a f o i l t o s e t o f f t h a t of M i c h e l a n g e l o . G o a l : S t u d e n t s , who w i l l l i k e l y respond w i t h a d m i r a t i o n t o t h e s k i l l o f c a r v i n g marble and t h e c a p t u r e o f i n t e n s e emotions by B e r n i n i , w i l l be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e the depth o f e x p r e s s i o n i n M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s work. O b j e c t i v e s : S t u d e n t s w i l l compare and d i s c u s s t h e v i r t u o s o t e c h n i q u e o f B e r n i n i , h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s of s t o r i e s which c a p t u r e a moment i n t i m e . These w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the s i m p l i c i t y o f form and pathos i n M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s work which makes them t i m e l e s s . L e s s o n a i d s : S l i d e s No. 199 t o 228, M i c h e l a n g e l o , and No. 231 t o 235, and 239, B e r n i n i D i s c u s s i o n : T a l k about t h e l o n g l i f e o f b o t h , M i c h e l a n g e l o -• i n t o h i s 89th y e a r , and B e r n i n i i n t o h i s 82nd y e a r . The former l i v e d i n t he 15th and 16th c e n t u r y , the l a t t e r m o s t l y i n t h e 17th c e n t u r y . D u r i n g those t i m e s a r t i s t s were employed f o r s p e c i f i c commissions by r u l i n g f a m i l i e s as w e l l as the pope, who was a r u l e r , w i t h the power and money t o pay f o r t h e s e works. A l -though a r t i s t s o f fame were admired, perhaps o n l y i n M i c h e l -a n g e l o ' s l i f e t i m e d i d t h e y become h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d , m a i n l y be-cause o f h i s example. He was not o n l y a g r e a t s c u l p t o r , but a l s o a g r e a t p a i n t e r , a r c h i t e c t and p o e t . They thought o f him as h a v i n g a d i v i n e spark and r e f e r r e d t o him l a t e r as t h e " d i v -i n e " M i c h e l a n g e l o , a g e n i u s i n t h e t r u e sense o f t h e word. M i c h e l a n g e l o was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s l i f e t i m e and earned a g r e a t d e a l o f money. He gave most o f i t t o h i s f a m i l y i n o r d e r t o r e s t o r e them t o t h e i r p r e v i o u s h i g h s t a n d i n g i n so-c i e t y , which was p a r t l y l o s t f o r l a c k o f money by t h e time M i c h e l a n g e l o was b o r n . As much as he c a r e d f o r h i s f a m i l y ' s r e p u t a t i o n and w e l f a r e , he s p e n t l i t t l e on h i m s e l f . He l i v e d v e r y s i m p l y , w i t h l i t t l e m a t e r i a l c o m f o r t s and he devoted him-s e l f c o m p l e t e l y t o h i s a r t . D u r i n g h i s l o n g l i f e he e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f o u n d changes i n h i s p h i l o s o p h y , and t h e s e changes can be b e s t u n d e r s t o o d from t h e s c u l p t u r e he has c r e a t e d , o f which the human f i g u r e was the c e n t r a l t o p i c . The d i g n i t y o f man i s perhaps th e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l h i s s c u l p t u r e . A s p e c t s o f t h i s d i g n i t y m a n i f e s t themselves i n t h e h e r o i c , the proud, t h e s t r o n g , even the angry e x p r e s s i o n s he i m p a r t e d t o h i s f i g u r e s i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f h i s c r e a t i v e l i f e . Good examples o f t h e s e t r a i t s a re h i s " D avid" ( S l i d e s No. 202, 203, 204), and "Moses" ( S l i d e No. 207). The "David" i s more e x t e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h e u n i t p l a n on "Commemorative S c u l p t u r e - Heroes and V i l l a i n s , " but l o o k i n g a t i t h e r e , we can see t h e p r i d e , t h e s t r e n g t h o f the young man, h i s angry f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , h i s l a c k o f f e a r w h i c h makes him t r u l y h e r o i c . M i c h e l a n g e l o a c h i e v e d t h e s e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s w h i l e h a v i n g t o work w i t h a d i f f i c u l t p i e c e o f marble w h i c h o t h e r s c u l p t o r s t r i e d but c o u l d not h a n d l e . A b l o c k too narrow, y e t i t y i e l d e d t o M i c h e l a n g e l o an 18% f o o t h i g h s t a t u e o f the s l i m y o u t h , D a v i d . T h i s was a t e c h n i c a l f e a t b u t , j u s t as i m p o r t a n t , i t was a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . The "Moses" s t a t u e g i v e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o t h i s i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e from the O l d Testament, t h a t o f a s t r o n g l e a d e r , p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y s u p e r i o r , who l e d h i s p e o p l e out of s l a v e r y from E g y p t , a man s u r e o f h i s b e l i e f s but a l s o g i v e n t o r i g h t e o u s anger. I t has been suggested t h a t t h e s e e a r l y works echo the M a s t e r ' s own sense o f s u p e r i o r i t y o v er t h e average man. Many o f the changes i n M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s o u t l o o k on l i f e were the r e s u l t o f h i s i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s u f f e r i n g and o p p r e s s i o n man has t o endure. H i s works b e g i n t o r e f l e c t t h e s e and the commissions f o r the tombs o f t h e pope J u l i u s I I , and t h a t o f the M e d i c i b r o t h e r s , gave him the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r many f i g u r e s w h i c h e x p r e s s t h i s pathos and s t r u g g l e . The many v e r -s i o n s o f " S l a v e s " he c a r v e d ( t h r e e o f t h e s e shown on S l i d e s No. 208, 209 and 210) p o r t r a y a t t i t u d e s o f s u b m i s s i o n , o f s t r u g g l e , and o f r e b e l l i o n . The " V i c t o r y " s t a t u e ( S l i d e s No. 211 and 212) shows how the s t r e n g t h o f y o u t h t r i u m p h s o v e r the exhaus-t i o n o f age. The symbols o f e a r t h l y t i m e , "Dawn," "Dusk," "Day," and "Night!" ( S l i d e s No. 214 t o 223), o f the M e d i c i c h a p e l , seem t o embody the t r a p man i s caught i n i n t h i s l i f e which e v e n t u a l l y ends i n d e a t h . Yet the s o u l r i s e s and i s l i b -e r a t e d i n the C h r i s t i a n a f t e r l i f e s y m b o l i z e d by the c e n t r a l s t a t u e o f the c h a p e l , t h e "Madonna and C h i l d " ( S l i d e No. 224). The mature a r t i s t t u r n e d away from the h e r o i s m o f youth t o t h e i n n e r l i f e o f m i d d l e age, l e a r n i n g t o cope w i t h waning s t r e n g t h o f the body but w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e o f d e a t h ahead o f him As M i c h e l a n g e l o e n t e r e d r e a l l y o l d age, he became i n c r e a s -i n g l y a b e t t e r C h r i s t i a n but i n a p r o f o u n d , i n n e r , s p i r i t u a l sense, not i n outward o b s e r v a t i o n s o f r i t u a l . H i s F l o r e n t i n e P i e t a i s f a r removed from the serene beauty, b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , o f h i s e a r l y P i e t a ( S l i d e s No. 225, 226, 227 and 199, 120). I n the F l o r e n t i n e P i e t a d e a t h i s a c c e p t e d w i t h j o y as an end t o s u f f e r i n g and i n the e x p r e s s i o n o f C h r i s t and Mary the a f t e r l i f e i s shown as the d i v i n e l o v e a w a i t i n g the f r e e d s p i r i t M i c h e l a n g e l o now seems t o have a c c e p t e d d e a t h . H i s l a s t work, on which he worked o n l y days b e f o r e h i s d e a t h , i s the R o n d a n i n i P i e t a ( S l i d e No. 228). The M a s t e r , who has sung t h e p r a i s e s o f the i n c o m p a r a b l e beauty o f t h e human body i n c o u n t l e s s s c u l p -t u r e s , l e f t us h i s f i n a l l e g a c y i n t h i s P i e t a . Here the body has l o s t a l l p h y s i c a l b e a u t y , t h e rough shapes t r a n s f o r m i t i n t o t h e s p i r i t , and M i c h e l a n g e l o g i v e s up the v i s i o n o f beauty on e a r t h f o r t h e v i s i o n o f d i v i n e g r a c e . Y e a r s a f t e r M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d e a t h , the e x t r e m e l y g i f t e d a r t i s t G i a n L o r e n z o B e r n i n i d i d not want t o walk i n t h e f o o t -s t e p s o f M i c h e l a n g e l o . He wanted t o be an i n n o v a t o r and cap-t u r e s t r o n g a c t i o n and emotion i n p l a c e o f the seeming p a s s i v -i t y o f M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s f i g u r e s . I f one views M i c h e l a n g e l o as 9 8. an i n t r o v e r t who showed us not what the eyes see but what i s happening i n s i d e o f man, B e r n i n i was the e x t r o v e r t who c a p t u r e d i n s tone what t h e camera can now c a p t u r e on f i l m , f r o z e n a c t i o n and momentary s t r o n g emotions, not su p p r e s s e d and c o n t e m p l a t e d , b u t f r e e l y e x p r e s s e d . He a c h i e v e d t h e s e e f f e c t s w i t h a mastery o f t e c h n i q u e never e q u a l l e d b e f o r e o r a f t e r him i n marble. W h i l e M i c h e l a n g e l o c a r v e d the f i g u r e s c o n t a i n e d i n the b l o c k o f ma r b l e , b u r s t i n g w i t h i n n e r energy and m a n i f e s t i n g outward t e n -s i o n , B e r n i n i used s e v e r a l b l o c k s o f marble t o add t o the f i g -u r e s and enable them t o move, t o g e s t i c u l a t e i n a h i g h l y t h e a t -r i c a l manner, h o l d i n g back n o t h i n g . He chose t h e moments o f h i g h drama, whether i n h i s "David" ( S l i d e No. 232) i n t h e moment of t h r o w i n g t h e f a t e f u l s t o n e , o r i n m y t h o l o g i c a l s t o r i e s o f t h e "A b d u c t i o n o f P e r s e p h o r e " ( S l i d e No. 231), and o f A p o l l o p u r s u -i n g Daphne who, a moment b e f o r e c a p t u r e , t u r n s i n t o a t r e e t h u s e l u d i n g p e r p u r s u e r ( S l i d e No. 233, 234). B e r n i n i ' s r e l i g i o u s works show the same e x a g g e r a t e d emotions, such as i n t h e "Ec-s t a s y o f S t . T e r e s a , " o r " S t . Jerome" ( S l i d e No. 235, 236), and i t may w e l l show us, as i n d e e d he was, a v e r y r e l i g i o u s man who obs e r v e d a l l t h e r i t u a l s and ceremonies o f h i s C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . He d i d not seem t o s t r u g g l e f o r h i s f a i t h nor s e a r c h f o r d e l i v -e r ance from e a r t h l y s u f f e r i n g . He found g r e a t enjoyment i n t h i s l i f e and l i v e d i n s p l e n d o r ; a r i c h and h i g h l y f a v o u r e d man. He spent a l m o s t a l l h i s l i f e i n Rome and because he dominated the a r t i s t i c community o f h i s time w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y a l l commis-s i o n s g o i n g t o him, he l e f t h i s mark t h r o u g h h i s works i n Rome to such a degree t h a t some say t h a t Rome i s B e r n i n i . He a l s o 99.. was a famous a r c h i t e c t and made many f o u n t a i n s f o r Rome, such as " F o u n t a i n o f t h e Four R i v e r s " ( S l i d e No. 239) s y m b o l i z i n g the g r e a t r i v e r s o f h i s p o l i t i c a l t i m e . The mastery o f h i s s t y l e i s most s i g n i f i c a n t , however, i n t h e t o t a l l y l i f e l i k e b o d i e s and i n c r e d i b l e , s u p e r - r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s o f t h e f a c e s on th o s e b o d i e s . One must s t a n d i n awe o f h i s s k i l l w i t h t h e c h i s e l , and h i s a b i l i t y t o c a p t u r e the p r e c i s e f a c i a l e x p r e s s -i o n showing a p a r t i c u l a r emotion o f t h e moment. Yet one might pose the q u e s t i o n , i s l i f e n o t h i n g but a sta g e where we a c t out our g r e a t moments? Or i s t h e r e time f o r r e f l e c t i o n , a time t o s o r t t h i n g s o u t , t o come t o terms w i t h u n i n v i t e d o c c u r r e n c e s , a t i m e , f r e q u e n t l y , t o s u f f e r , t o s t r u g -g l e a g a i n s t s u f f e r i n g , t o seek f o r h i g h e r meaning i n our l i v e s , t o s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s , and p r e p a r e f o r our i n e v i t a b l e end? F o r i n s p i r a t i o n on t h e s e i s s u e s we must t u r n t o M i c h e l a n g e l o who d e a l t w i t h them i n h i s own way, but h i s own way, t h r o u g h h i s g r e a t a r t i s t r y , was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o the u n i v e r s a l c o n d i -t i o n of a l l men. R e l i g i o u s s c u l p t u r e - the body o f Buddha and C h r i s t . R a t i o n a l e : Man has g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n t o r e l i g i o n t h r o u g h making graven images. Whether "pagan," w o r s h i p p i n g many gods, o r monotheis-t i c , man has used s c u l p t u r e f o r r e l i g i o u s purposes t h r o u g h o u t human h i s t o r y . Few images have i n f l u e n c e d so many, and ov e r such l e n g t h o f t i m e , as Buddha has t h e r e l i g i o n o f t h e E a s t , and C h r i s t , t h a t o f t h e West. Whether we vi e w them as h o l y men 10 0 . or p a r t o f and one w i t h God, i s a m a t t e r o f p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o n , but i n our m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y we s h o u l d l o o k a t r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n s o f both Buddha and C h r i s t as examples o f the many w o r l d r e l i g i o n s p r e s e n t i n and m e a n i n g f u l t o members o f our s o c i e t y . G o a l s : S t u d e n t s w i l l broaden t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l i g i o n s , o t h e r t h a n t h e i r own, whi c h a re m e a n i n g f u l t o m i l l i o n s o f pe o p l e l i v i n g on t h i s e a r t h , some of whom l i v e r i g h t among us, and d e v e l o p a c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t as i m p o r t a n t i n c o n v e y i n g r e l i -g i o u s i d e a s . O b j e c t i v e s : S t u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n about Buddha the man, t h r o u g h major e v e n t s i n h i s l i f e , h i s impact on t h e l i f e o f m i l l i o n s from I n d i a t o Japan, and r e v i e w and compare J e s u s ' l i f e and i n f l u -ence on Western c u l t u r e t o t h a t o f Buddha, as e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h s c u l p t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e . L e sson a i d s : S l i d e s on Buddha: No. 50 ( C h i n a ) , 51 ( I n d i a ) , 57 ( P a k i s t a n ) , 58 ( J a v a ) , 61 ( C h i n a ) , 69 ( J a p a n ) , 71 ( T h a i -land) , 77 (Cambodia). S l i d e s on C h r i s t , and C h r i s t w i t h the V i r g i n Mary: No. 152, 153, 154, 156, 205, 229, 388-391, C h r i s t No. 165, 166, 170, 171, 174, 181, 224, 337, 344, V i r g i n w i t h c h i l d i o i . No. 164, 167, 199 and 200, 225 and 226, 228, 230, 248, P i e t a D i s c u s s i o n : T a l k about Buddha, t h e man, h i s p r i n c e l y o r i g i n s , how he was s h e l t e r e d from s e e i n g a n y t h i n g u g l y , o r anyone s u f f e r i n g , and how he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e were many who s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y from s i c k n e s s , from p o v e r t y , and from b e i n g members o f a lo w e r c a s t e w i t h o u t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r improvement. T a l k about the c a s t e system i n I n d i a , and compare i t w i t h European c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages o r F e u d a l t i m e s , and w i t h our own N o r t h American freedom, which has h i d d e n rem-nants o f a c l a s s system, even i n our s o c i e t y . T a l k about how rank, money,, p r e s t i g e g a i n e d f o r achievement, can i n f l u e n c e a person's l i f e , and what i t must f e e l l i k e b e i n g w i t h o u t such o p p o r t u n i t y . R e t urn t o t h e l i f e o f Buddha, who, h a v i n g seen t h e m i s e r y of l o w l y p e o p l e , gave up h i s p r i n c e l y l i f e and devoted h i m s e l f t o t he q u e s t f o r f i n d i n g the remedy t o human s u f f e r i n g . He be-came an a s c e t i c , gave up a l l t h a t was c o m f o r t a b l e and p l e a s a n t i n l i f e . He a l s o undertook a p e r i o d o f f a s t i n g , and a l m o s t d i e d o f i t ' , y e t s t i l l d i d not f i n d t h e s e c r e t t o man's h a p p i n e s s . F i n a l l y , he s e a t e d h i m s e l f under t h e famous f i g t r e e , c a l l e d the Bo, o r bodhi t r e e , a l a r g e t r e e which grows i n N o r t h e r n I n d i a , and vowed n o t t o r i s e u n t i l he found e n l i g h t e n m e n t . D u r i n g the 4 9 days he s a t t h e r e , he was a t t a c k e d by demons w i t h v i s i o n s o f t e m p t a t i o n o f t h e f l e s h and o f w o r l d l y power and w e a l t h (not u n l i k e C h r i s t i n t h e garden o f Gethsemane); he a l s o endured 102 . storms and e a r t h q u a k e s . He p e r s e v e r e d , and t h e t r u t h was r e -v e a l e d t o him which he s e t out t o pre a c h t o h i s f e l l o w men: to e x e r c i s e d i s c i p l i n e and m o d e r a t i o n i n w o r l d l y d e s i r e s , and compassion toward a l l o t h e r l i v i n g t h i n g s , i n o r d e r t h a t man may l i v e i n harmony w i t h the w o r l d . Buddha's t e a c h i n g s c r e a t e d a g r e a t f o l l o w i n g i n h i s l i f e -t i m e , and B u d d h i s t monks l e a d a l i f e a c c o r d i n g t o h i s example. Buddhism s p r e a d from I n d i a t o C h i n a and Japan, and t o o t h e r F a r - E a s t e r n c o u n t r i e s , and i t e x i s t s t o t h i s day i n those coun-t r i e s as w e l l as i n Western s o c i e t y . L o c a l l y , Lower M a i n l a n d s t u d e n t s c o u l d v i s i t t he new B u d d h i s t temple i n Richmond, B.C. Some p a r a l l e l s can be drawn between Buddha, t h e h o l y man, and t h e l i f e o f J e s u s C h r i s t , the founder o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . Images o f Buddha and C h r i s t d i d not appear f o r many cen-t u r i e s a f t e r t h e i r d e a t h . I n Buddha's c a s e , he f o r b a d e h i s f o l -l o w e r s t o w o r s h i p him, but t h e y a l s o were r e l u c t a n t t o p i c t u r e him as e a r t h l y man, as he became o t h e r w o r l d l y t h r o u g h e n l i g h t e n -ment. " B o d h i s a t t v a s " were e a s i e r t o p o r t r a y , because t h e y have re a c h e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t , y e t chose t o remain on e a r t h t o p r e a c h and do good. E a r l y C h r i s t i a n s were a l s o a f r a i d t o p o r t r a y C h r i s t who had r i s e n a f t e r d e a t h and r e t u r n e d t o God, h i s F a t h e r . L i v i n g so c l o s e t o the t i m e s when images o f pagan gods were everywhere, t h e y f e a r e d i d o l a t r y . To p r e s e n t t h e d i v i n e f i g u r e o f J e s u s as e a r t h l y man t h e y thought t o be s a c r i l e g i o u s . The E a s t e r n Church c o n t i n u e d i n i t s non-acceptance o f s t a t u e s but r e l u c t a n t l y a l l o w e d p a i n t i n g s . E v e n t u a l l y , b o t h Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e o f commemorating i t s 103 . f o u n d e r s w i t h s t a t u e s f o r t h e sake o f t h e m u l t i t u d e o f p e o p l e who c o u l d not r e a d , and who needed t o see what was preached t o them. The s e l f - a f f l i c t e d s u f f e r i n g o f the Buddha t h r o u g h m o r t i f i -c a t i o n of the f l e s h and f a s t i n g t o near d e a t h , might s e r v e as a l i m i t e d comparison t o C h r i s t on the c r o s s . B o t h sought t o r e -l i e v e mankind from s u f f e r i n g , t o h e l p t h e l o w l y , the downtrod-den, and b o t h were w i l l i n g , and C h r i s t d i d , t o g i v e t h e i r l i f e t o t h i s cause. The B u d d h i s t p a t h t o h a p p i n e s s i s c l o s e l y r e l a -t e d t o the C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e o f l o v e . Both decree t h a t man s h o u l d n o t k i l l , l i e , s t e a l , commit s e x u a l m i s c o n d u c t , harm h i s f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s , o r t h i n k e v i l t h o u g h t , but spend time i n what one c a l l s meditation, t h e o t h e r p r a y e r . A l t h o u g h b oth Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y e v e n t u a l l y commem-o r a t e d o t h e r h o l y men and women w i t h s c u l p t u r e s o f t h e f i g u r e , the V i r g i n Mary was chosen t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , w i t h s l i d e s d e p i c t i n g her w i t h e i t h e r t h e C h r i s t c h i l d , o r the dead C h r i s t . These p o r t r a y a l s o f some h i s t o r i c a l l y known e p i s o d e s i n t h e l i f e o f J e s u s p r o v i d e us w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t s i g n p o s t s i n h i s b r i e f s t a y on e a r t h . P a i n t i n g s can i l l u s t r a t e many B i b l e s t o r i e s , b u t s c u l p t u r e seems t o be a b l e t o show us the essence i n t h e p o r t r a y a l o f the happy inn o c e n c e o f t h e C h r i s t c h i l d i n c o n t r a s t t o the s u f f e r i n g and s a c r i f i c e o f C h r i s t on t h e c r o s s . A g a i n , on the l a p . o f t h e Mother, t h e V i r g i n Mary, t h e dead body o f C h r i s t b e f o r e i t has r i s e n becomes a symbol o f the u l -t i m a t e s a c r i f i c e . 104 . Commemorative s c u l p t u r e - heroes and v i l l a i n s . R a t i o n a l e : Man has the seeds o f bo t h n o b i l i t y and e v i l i n him. These q u a l i t i e s c o u l d t u r n him i n t o a hero o r a v i l l a i n . M y thology and a n c i e n t h i s t o r y has many heroes and some v i l l a i n s . I n p r e s -ent day N o r t h American s o c i e t y i t sometimes seems t o be the r e -v e r s e . Y et y o u t h has a g r e a t need t o r e j o i c e i n and i d e n t i f y w i t h h e r o e s , and t o b e t t e r d e a l w i t h v i l l a i n s . T h i s need seems t o be borne out by the degree o f response t o T e r r y Fox, o r even t o t he f i c t i t i o u s w o r l d o f J.R.R. T o l k i e n , the w r i t e r . I n s p i r a -t i o n f o r a b e t t e r l i f e and an improved u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e o f a r t might be g a i n e d from t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f heroes and v i l -l a i n s p e r s o n i f i e d i n some s c u l p t u r e o f the f i g u r e . G o a l s : S t u d e n t s w i l l g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r s o c i e t i e s o f the p a s t and i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the p r e s e n t from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h heroes and v i l l a i n s o f the p a s t . They w i l l grow i n u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f t h e r o l e a r t can p l a y i n r e f l e c t i n g v a l u e s o f a g i v e n c u l t u r e . O b j e c t i v e s : S t u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n t o d i s c u s s and c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e s c u l p t u r e s o f the human f i g u r e on the themes o f heroes o r v i l -l a i n s . They w i l l l o o k a t s c u l p t u r e s from d i v e r s e s o c i e t i e s and a t work by a v a r i e t y o f a r t i s t s . 105. L e s s o n a i d s : The f o l l o w i n g c o m b i n a t i o n o f s l i d e s , r e l a t e d o r c o n t r a s t e d by t h e i r t o p i c , a r e suggested f o r d i s c u s s i o n : No. 14 and 41: " T r a i t o r " (Congo, A f r i c a ) , and " K w a k i u t l C h i e f " (North America) No. 54 and 123: "The J i n a s ( c o n q u e r o r s ) " ( I n d i a ) , and "Harmodius and A r i s t o g e i t o n " (Greece) No. 84 and 184 and 249 and 314 and 253 and 385: "The Hero Gilgamesh" ( A s s y r i a ) , " K i n g A r t h u r " by V i s c h e r , " P e t e r t h e G r e a t " by F a l c o n e t , "The Stone, Arm of t h e P r o l e t a r i a t " by Shadre, "George Washington" by Houdon, and " L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t " by Imredy No. 129 and 143 and 144 and 265 and 291 and 311: " D i s c o b o l o s " by Myron, "The Borghese G l a d i a t o r " ( G r e e c e ) , "Naked L a n c e r " ( E t r u s c a n ) , " H e r c u l e s t h e A r c h e r " by B o u r d e l l e , "The A t h l e t e " by R o d i n , and "The Runner" by S i n t e n i s No. 176 and 177 and 178 and 182 and 202 and 203 and 204 and 232: "David" by D o n a t e l l o , by V e r r o c c h i o , by M i c h e l a n g e l o , and by B e r n i n i No. 186 and 187 and 257: " P e r s e u s " by C e l l i n i and by Canova No. 121"and 347: " W a r r i o r " ( G r e e c e ) , and " W a r r i o r w i t h S h i e l d " by Moore No. 240 and 327: " M i l o o f C r o t o n a " by Puget, and "Don Q u i x o t e " by G o n z a l e s 106 . No. 207 and 271 and 272 and 273: "Moses" by M i c h e l a n g e l o , and " S t . John the B a p t i s t " by Rodin No. 119 and 120 and 185: " A p o l l o o f Piombino" ( G r e e c e ) , and " A p o l l o F o u n t a i n " by V i s c h e r No. 159 and 160 and 172 and 280 and 281: "Adam and Eve" (Romanesque),(Gothic), and by Riemen s c h n e i d e r , and "Eve" by Rodin No. 138 and 206 and 254 and 158: "Marsyas the S a t y r " ( G r e e c e ) , "Bacchus" by M i c h e l a n g e l o , "The Bad T h i e f " by 0. A l e i j a d i n h o , and " L a s t Judgement" (Romanesque) No. 263 and 264 and 289: " U g o l i n o " by Carpeaux, "The P r o d i g a l Son" by M e u n i e r , and "The P r o d i g a l Son" by Rodin No. 188 and 189 and 190 and 213 and 233 and 234: " V i r t u e Overcoming V i c e " by C e l l i n i , "The A b d u c t i o n o f P e r -sephore" by B e r n i n i , and " A p o l l o and Daphne" by B e r n i n i D i s c u s s i o n : I n t r o d u c e the t o p i c w i t h a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f what a t -t r i b u t e s would q u a l i f y a p e r s o n f o r b e i n g c a l l e d a. hero o r a v i l l a i n . C o n s i d e r such heroes o f our p r e s e n t s o c i e t y i n Canada as T e r r y Fox, Wayne G r e t s k y o r Steve P o d b o r s k i . Compare them w i t h men o f the p a s t o r o f o t h e r s o c i e t i e s , such as Winston C h u r c h i l l , M a r t i n L u t h e r K i n g , Mahatma Gandhi, Anwar Sadat, Pope John P a u l I I , Lech Walesa, Mohammed A l i , E l v i s P r e s l e y , John Lennon. G i v e a l s o examples o f v i l l a i n s , such as A d o l f 107. H i t l e r , the A y a t t o l a h K h omeini, C l i f f o r d O l s o n the c h i l d k i l -l e r , A l i Agca the Pope's would-be a s s a s s i n . What have the heroes and v i l l a i n s i n common? They both might rouse the masses, become a symbol t o them, and a l e a d e r f o r good o r e v i l . What t e l l s h eroes and v i l l a i n s a p a r t ? Her-oes o f t e n s e t g r e a t t a s k s f o r themselves i n the i n t e r e s t o f o t h e r s , and a c c o m p l i s h them t h r o u g h much p e r s o n a l s a c r i f i c e . They succeed a g a i n s t g r e a t odds, where v i l l a i n s f a i l when t h e g o i n g g e t s tough. Heroes' s e l f l e s s a t t i t u d e s are i n c o n t r a s t t o the s e l f - c e n t r e d egoism and d i s r e g a r d o f t h e i n t e r e s t o f o t h e r s by v i l l a i n s . Noble men may s u f f e r i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f a cause o r f o r the good o f t h e i r fellow-men i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e i n a b i l i t y o f e v i l men t o s t a n d p a i n o r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . Heroes m a i n t a i n a humble a t t i t u d e w h i l e they p e r f o r m super-human deeds. V i l l a i n s f e e l the h e a d i n e s s o f power w h i l e engaged i n sub-human deeds. The b r i n g e r s o f j o y , freedom and ha p p i n e s s c o n t r a s t w i t h the b e a r e r s o f sorrow and s u f f e r i n g . B e g i n showing the s l i d e s ; and as you d e a l w i t h each exam-p l e , g i v e t h e h i s t o r i c a l o r p o l i t i c a l background, the r e l i g i o u s o r m y t h o l o g i c a l s t o r y , o r s o c i e t a l v a l u e s a p p l i c a b l e t o each work. By u s i n g the suggested s l i d e c o m b i n a t i o n s you would be d e a l i n g w i t h v a l u e s h e l d by p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , w i t h m i l i t a r y a ccomplishment, w i t h p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p , w i t h a t h l e t i c ach-ievement, w i t h b r a v e r y i n the f a c e o f g r e a t danger, w i t h the p r i c e p a i d f o r war, w i t h r e l i g i o u s d e d i c a t i o n , w i t h human f a i l -i n g s and t r a g i c m i s t a k e s , w i t h weakness o f t h e s p i r i t o r o f the f l e s h . F o r example: 108'. The s t o r y o f David and G o l i a t h , as d e s c r i b e d i n the O l d Testament, 1 Samuel 16 and 17, g i v e s the background knowledge t o the c o n t e s t between D a v i d , t h e young shepherd and G o l i a t h , t h e g i a n t P h i l i s t i n e , who f a c e d each o t h e r i n b a t t l e , each r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s own c o u n t r y and p e o p l e . Read i t t o the s t u d e n t s t h e n show them the s l i d e s (No. 176, 177, 178, 182, 202, 203, 204 and 232). I n M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s " D a v i d , " the s t r e s s i s on t h e head and t h e hands. A t t a c h e d t o t h e young body, th e l a r g e hands o f a man i n d i c a t e not o n l y t h e e a r l y m a t u r i t y o f young D a v i d , and t h a t he a l r e a d y had k i l l e d b e a r s and wolves t o p r o t e c t h i s sheep, but p o i n t t o h i s f u t u r e p h y s i c a l growth. But beyond t h i s , t h e y draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e reasons f o r h i s v i c t o r y . The head i s where the i d e a o r i g i n a t e d f o r the means t o s l a y the p o w e r f u l opponent. I n t h e s c u l p t u r e , D a v i d s t i l l seems t o a s -sess t h e i d e a and t o be i n t h e p r o c e s s o f making h i s d e c i s i o n w h i l e h i s hands appear t o get ready f o r t h e f a t a l s l i n g s h o t w i t h the "smooth s t o n e . " M i c h e l a n g e l o t e l l s us more about the c h a r a c t e r and h e r o i c q u a l i t y o f D a v i d the y o u n g s t e r , w i t h l e s s o b v i o u s means, th a n the o t h e r s c u l p t o r s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n h e r e . I n c o n t r a s t t o M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s , i s B e r n i n i ' s " D a v i d . " B e r n i n i ' s i s most a c t i o n - p a c k e d , c a p t u r i n g the moment o f sup-reme p h y s i c a l e f f o r t c o u p l e d w i t h the h i g h e s t degree o f concen t r a t i o n , a t t r i b u t e s o f any o u t s t a n d i n g a t h l e t e . Thus, B e r n i n i "David" might be the most a p p e a l i n g t o a d o l e s c e n t s , e x c e p t o f t h o s e more t h o u g h t f u l s t u d e n t s , who might p e r c e i v e t h e absence 109. of t h e h e r o i c as t h e r e are no i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f y o u t h f a c i n g a f o r m i d a b l e opponent i n heavy armour. What we see i s the h i g h l y t r a i n e d a t h l e t e , w e l l p r e p a r e d f o r the c h a l -l e n g e . D o n a t e l l o and V e r r o c c h i o b o t h d e p i c t e d the moment o f t r i -umph a f t e r the deed was a c c o m p l i s h e d by D a v i d . The e a r l i e s t D o n a t e l l o (No. 176) and the V e r r o c c h i o show a proud D a v i d seem-i n g l y a s k i n g f o r a p p l a u s e . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h a t o f a h e r o . The p h y s i c a l accomplishment e x i s t s w i t h o u t doubt but t h e r e i s a sense o f a Mohammed A l i , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l , who e x p e c t s rewards. Y e t some p r o f e s s i o n a l a t h l e t e s p e r f o r m g r e a t deeds i n a s p o r t but remain as i f humbled by t h e i r own s u c c e s s . Perhaps t h i s i s t h e a t t r a c t i o n and t h e hero q u a l i t y i n our own Wayne G r e t s k y . D o n a t e l l o ' s l a t e r two " D a v i d s , " l e s s so the e a r l i e r marble t h a n t h e l a t e r bronze s c u l p t u r e , show D a v i d more as a h e r o . The t e n d e r y o u t h w i t h the o u t s i z e d sword o f G o l i a t h s t i l l i n h i s hand, eyes downcast, seems t o co n t e m p l a t e the wonder o f h i s deed. I n w a r d - t u r n e d , r e l a x e d i n body, he appears as t h e i n s t r u -ment o f a h i g h e r power f u l f i l l i n g h i s f a t e . Thus D o n a t e l l o ' s bronze "David" might be the most t r u e t o h i s b i b l i c a l theme. Everyday s c u l p t u r e - d e p i c t i o n s o f the common man. R a t i o n a l e : Throughout the h i s t o r y of s c u l p t u r e on the theme o f the f i g u r e , a r t i s t s have sometimes t u r n e d away from commemorating i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s and o u t s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n f a v o u r o f the 110. mundane and o f o r d i n a r y man. These works can t e l l us something about t h e s o c i e t y t h a t t h e s e common men l i v e d i n , and o f t e n h e l p us, t h r o u g h the communication o f a c t i v i t i e s and f e e l i n g s , t o b r i d g e the gap t o a n o t h e r s o c i e t y , c u l t u r e , and age. G o a l : S t u d e n t s w i l l g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a r t i s t ' s r o l e i n d e p i c t i n g a s o c i e t y ' s l i f e and v a l u e s t h r o u g h images o f t h e common man. T h i s w i l l h e l p them t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h c u l t u r e s f o r -e i g n t o them, and thus broaden t h e i r h o r i z o n and sense o f be-l o n g i n g t o a sh a r e d humanity. O b j e c t i v e s : S t u d e n t s w i l l d i s c u s s s c u l p t u r e showing o r d i n a r y man i n -v o l v e d i n a c t i v i t i e s o f p l a y o r work, and e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s we a l l can a s s o c i a t e w i t h , and t h e y w i l l l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e com-mon elements o f our l i v e s i n t h o s e o f o t h e r t i m e s and o t h e r s o c i e t i e s . They w i l l a l s o l e a r n t o see, i n works o f p r e s e n t t i m e s , v a l u e s and b e l i e f s t h a t we h o l d . The seem i n g l y common-p l a c e can be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r commemoration. L e s s o n a i d s : S l i d e s No. 30 and 31 ( M e x i c o ) ; 32, 33, 34 and 35 ( I n u i t ) ; 45, 46, 63, 65 and 66 ( C h i n a ) ; 74 (Cambodia); 86, 87, 89, 90, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97 and 100 ( E g y p t ) ; 122, 129 (G r e e c e ) ; 168 ( G o t h i c ) ; 213 ( M i c h e l a n g e l o ) ; 255 (18th c e n t u r y P r e s e p i o ) ; 259 (Rude); 264 ( M e u n i e r ) ; 270, 276, 284, 288, 289, 291 and 292 ( R o d i n ) ; 299 (Degas); 111. 301 (Lehmbruck); 304 and 306 ( L i p c h i t z ) ; 308 and 309 (Ba r l a c h ) ; 310 and 311 ( S i n t e n i s ) ; 313 (Marcks)' ; 318 (Patzay) ; 322 (Archipenko); 324 (Bracho); 329 (Greco); 332 ( P i c a s s o ) ; 335 and 336 ( M a r i n i ) ; 338 (Manzu); 340 ( N i l s s o n ) ; 345 (Moore); 352, 353 and 354 (Segal); 355 and 356 ( B u t l e r ) ; 359 ( M i l l e r ) ; 367 to 372 (Lucchesi); 373 (de Andrea); 374 (Hanson); 375 and 376 (Morales); 379 ( B a r e l i e r ) ; 383 (Zuniga); 384 (Erhardy); and 392 (Imredy). D i s c u s s i o n : You might approach the d i s c u s s i o n by p o i n t i n g to some or-dinary a c t i v i t i e s under which some of the s l i d e s may be grouped. One such group might be under the general heading of "play." Included under "play" you might put musicians from China ( S l i d e No. 63), the f l u t e player from Greece ( S l i d e No. 122), L i p c h i t z ' s man wit h g u i t a r ( S l i d e No. 306), Barlach's singer ( S l i d e No. 309), and S i n t e n i s 1 f l u t e p l a y i n g boy ( S l i d e No. 310). Compare the g r a c e f u l Greek g i r l deeply engaged i n the music she i s making w i t h the awkward, growing body of the boy by S i n t e n i s . He, too, i s f u l l y g i v i n g himself to the tunes he i s producing. Two d i f f e r e n t bodies, the g i r l and the boy, both s i t t i n g ; both could be anyone of today making music. S t i l l under "play" you might look at dancers or a t h l e t e s . Show the s l i d e s of the dancer from Mexico ( S l i d e No. 31) of 600 to 700 years ago, the one from I n d i a ( S l i d e No. 45, 46) of 3,500 to 5,000 years ago, from Cambodia ( S l i d e No. 74) from 112. the 12th century, and Degas' dancer (Slide No. 299) from the early part of our century. Point to the s i m i l a r i t y of pose and bearing between the g i r l from ancient India and the c l a s s i c a l b a l l e t dancer by Degas. On the topic of "sports" you can look at the ballplayer poised to throw the b a l l (Slide No. 30) from the Mexico of 300—1,000 A.D., then at Myron's "Discobolos" (Slide No. 129) from Greece i n 450 B.C., ready to throw the discus, and Sintenis' runner (Slide No. 311) of t h i s 20th century, a l l i n the moment of action. Rodin's athlete (Slide No. 291) from the beginning of this century, seems to be waiting for his turn of action, while Marini's wrestler (Slide No. 336) from our times, rests between rounds. A group of s l i d e s of t h i s century and of Western Art com-memorate mundane a c t i v i t i e s of washing and bathing, combing one's hair, checking i n the mirror for appearance or for put-tin g on jewellery. These works use the female figure, and i t might be assumed that t h i s i s as much an in d i c a t i o n of women's preoccupation with th e i r appearance as i t i s an opportunity to portray the female nude. Show the following s l i d e s : No. 288, 318, 354, 355, 368, 370, 375, 376, 384, and 392, and ask the students to i d e n t i f y with these a c t i v i t i e s . Point out how graceful and beautiful these sculptures are, and how l i t t l e the average person might be aware of the i r own appearance when deeply engaged i n such t r i v i a l , routine a c t i v i t i e s . I t might be further added that keeping clean and well-groomed has not always been desirable i n society, and that the frequency of 113. choosing t h i s topic i s far more common in our recent history, which r e f l e c t s our sense of values. Further comparisons might be made on the theme of the fam-i l y . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s the lower status of women i n -dicated on two sculptures of couples from Egypt from c. 3,000 B.C. (Slides No. 86 and 95). After that, look at Nilsson's family group (Slide No. 340) showing an older and a younger woman and a c h i l d without the presence of the father. Then see Henry Moore's family (Slide No. 345) where man and woman are equal protectors of the children, and Lucchesi's young mother and c h i l d (Slide No. 371), seemingly a l l alone i n the world. How much these family portrayals, created 35, 25, and 7 years ago, r e f l e c t the ups and downs of the nuclear family, and the values and problems of our times, i s a worthwhile topic for discussion. Similar conclusions might be arrived at as r e f l e c -tions of s o c i e t a l values by the comparison of two works depict-ing old age. The graceful, d i g n i f i e d , self-confident old man from China's Ming Dynasty times (Slide No. 66) i s a figure of respect for old age. Rodin's old woman (Slide No. 284), on the other hand, i s a desperate, degraded person, and her wretched nakedness r e f l e c t s her lack of value, a symbol of our society. 114 . Chapter I I I CONCLUSION The r a t i o n a l e f o r the w r i t i n g o f a s c u l p t u r e c u r r i c u l u m r e s o u r c e was the need f o r i t i n secondary s c h o o l s . S c u l p t u r e i s n o t always t a u g h t as p a r t o f the a r t c u r r i c u l u m , and tho s e t e a c h e r s who do i n c l u d e i t have o f t e n not s u f f i c i e n t background t o t e a c h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f "making s c u l p t u r e " and " t a l k i n g about s c u l p t u r e . " Teachers and s t u d e n t s need t o a c q u i r e an under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f s c u l p t u r e , w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y f o r h i s t o r i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c r i t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f works. The r e s u l t s o f t h e 1980 s u r v e y , c a r r i e d out a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l -umbia A r t Teachers' a n n u a l c o n f e r e n c e , c o n f i r m e d the need f o r t h i s s t u d y . R e i n f o r c e m e n t was f u r t h e r r e c e i v e d from t h e new Secondary A r t C u r r i c u l u m o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n which c o n t a i n s s c u l p t u r e as one o f the f i v e v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a s . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the new c u r r i c u l u m i s s c h e d u l e d f o r September 1984, t h u s a d d i n g urgency t o t h i s s t u d y . Response t o Needs, t h e 198 3 Survey o f  A r t Teachers A p r e s e n t a t i o n was g i v e n t o the F e b r u a r y 19 8 3 Annual Con-f e r e n c e o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , en-t i t l e d "Ideas and t h r e e approaches t o the t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e , " w i t h e n c o u r a g i n g r e s u l t s . An o v e r v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f s c u l p -t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e was p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h s l i d e s . U n i t 115. p l a n s i n the a r e a o f c o n c e p t s , a s t u d i o a c t i v i t y , and c r i t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a theme were d i s c u s s e d . Verne Smythe, as r e c o r d e r , wrote i n t h e J o u r n a l o f the B r i t i s h Columbia A r t  T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n (June 1983, 2_3:1) t h a t "the s e s s i o n was e n j o y a b l e , s c h o l a r l y and u s e f u l , " and d e s c r i b e d t h e s l i d e s and the " t h r e e d i s t i n c t t y p e s of l e s s o n s , complete w i t h handouts." An e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n c l u d e d as Appendix 2 o f t h i s t h e s i s , was d i s t r i b u t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e s e s s i o n . The same e v a l u a t i o n form was used a f t e r a n o t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n i n O ctober 1983, t o t h e Burnaby A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . A num-be r o f r e s p o n d e n t s a t b o t h p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o n f i r m the u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e m a t e r i a l . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o p i e s o f s l i d e s i s r e -p e a t e d l y mentioned, and i t might be c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l i n t h e f u t u r e t o produce such a k i t . Andy N e l s o n , A s s i s t i n g Teacher o f A r t i n Burnaby, w r i t e s , "we want a copy f o r t h e d i s t r i c t . . . so many g r e a t i d e a s ; you must share i t . " A nother t e a c h e r w r o t e , " I hope you w i l l be p u b l i s h i n g your s l i d e s and l e c t u r e s , " and Ann H e a l y , an a r t t e a c h e r , s t a t e d t h a t "the i d e a s can be t r a n s f e r r e d t o any medium—and CareD as such v a l u a b l e t o e v e r y -one t e a c h i n g a r t . " Some a r t t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d s p e c i f i c needs t o which th e s t u d y r e s p o n d s , e.g., "more s t u d i o t e c h n i q u e s " and more o f t h e theme approaches t o a r t h i s t o r y and " c u l t u r a l d i s c u s s i o n s . " A r t t e a c h e r s , June Oddson, emphasized th e u s e f u l -ness of " e s p e c i a l l y t h e c oncept o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , " as w e l l as t h e "uses o f m a t e r i a l s , " and N e i l MacDonald wrote i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s l i d e s as r e s o u r c e s , t o i n c l u d e l i s t s o f the "names o f t h e a r t i s t s - names o f s c u l p t u r e , " which was done. 116. F u r t h e r d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l might be p l a n n e d f o r the f u t u r e i n the form o f l o n g e r workshops, and w i t h a s e l e c t i o n o f s l i d e s as suggested i n the u n i t p l a n s . The c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t h i s s t u d y , the s c u l p t u r e o f t h e human f i g u r e , c o u l d be used i n s e v e r a l o t h e r ways f o r u n i t p l a n s , and might be adapted by t e a c h e r s t o s u i t the spec-i f i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s e s . F u r t h e r themes might be chosen, such as "mother and c h i l d , " "comparison between pagan d e i t i e s from s e v e r a l c u l t u r e s , " o r "the r e l a t i v i t y o f the p e r c e p t i o n o f b e a u t y " as d e p i c t e d i n t h e s l i d e s . D i s c u s s i o n s may be based on s e l e c t e d works as s l i d e s , o r p h o t o g r a p h s , o r r e p l i c a s , o r s t u d e n t s ' s c u l p t u r e . Such l e s s o n s where s t u d e n t s can grow i n c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t , as w e l l as t h r o u g h o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s what t h e y f e e l and p e r c e i v e can o f t e n l e a d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e ways a r t q u e s t i o n s and e x p r e s s e s s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s and b e l i e f s . Recommendations f o r Use W i t h i n Other Areas  o f A r t E d u c a t i o n The s u b j e c t a r e a o f t h i s s t u d y c o u l d be r e p l a c e d by p o r -t r a i t u r e , and much o f the methodology a p p l i e s i n a s i m i l a r man-ne r . S t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s and c o n c e p t s c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d t o a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e , and themes t o o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s . Once s t u d e n t s g a i n c o n f i d e n c e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and c r i t i -c i s i n g t h e work o f a r t i s t s , t h e y can be b e t t e r persuaded t o c r i t i c i z e t h e i r own work, w h i c h i s so e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r growth as young a r t i s t s and human b e i n g s . 117. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: Arn a s o n , H.H. H i s t o r y o f modern a r t . New York: H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . , n.d. Anton, F., & D o c k s t a d e r , F . J . Pre-Columbian a r t and l a t e r  I n d i a n t r i b a l a r t s . New York: H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . , n.d. B a r a s c h i , C. S c u l p t u r e o f t h e nude. B u c h a r e s t : M e r i d i a n e P u b l i s h i n g House, 1970. B a r c s a y , J . Anatomy f o r the a r t i s t . London: Octopus Books L t d . , 1976. B a z i n , G. The h i s t o r y o f w o r l d s c u l p t u r e . Secaucus: C h a s t w e l l Books I n c . , 1976. Baynes, K. A r t i n s o c i e t y . 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New York: W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978. Marquez, G.G. M o r a l e s . New Y o r k : Aberbach F i n e A r t , 19 80. M a r t i n i e , A.H. Rodin. P a r i s : Brauri & C i e , 1948. M e r i l l a t , H.C. S c u l p t u r e west and e a s t . New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 19 73. M o r r i s , D. Manwatching, a f i e l d g u i d e t o human b e h a v i o r . New York: H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . , 1977. Myers, B.S. A r t and c i v i l i z a t i o n . New Y o r k / T o r o n t o : McGraw-H i l l , 1967. Oseka, A., & S k r o d z k i , W. Wspotczesna r z e z b a p o l s k a . Warsaw: Ark a d y , 1977. Padovano, A. The p r o c e s s o f s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : Doubleday & Company, I n c . , 1981. P f e i f f e r , J.E. The c r e a t i v e e x p l o s i o n : an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e o r i g i n s o f a r t and r e l i g i o n . New Y o r k : Harper & Row, 1982. 120. P i e r c e , J.S. From abacus t o Zeus, a handbook o f a r t h i s t o r y . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1977. P r a c h e , A. S c u l p t u r e i n t h e L o u v r e . P a r i s : Fernand Hazan e t V i l o , 1967. R a n d a l l , R., & H a i n e s , E.C. Design i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s . W o r c e s t e r : D a v i s P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 196 5. Read, H. A c o n c i s e h i s t o r y o f modern s c u l p t u r e . New York: F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , I n c . , 1964. Read, H. The a r t o f s c u l p t u r e . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. Rogers, L.R. S c u l p t u r e , the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the a r t s / 2 . London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. S a u e r l a n d t , M. M i c h e l a n g e l o . L e i p z i g : K a r l Robert Langewiesche V e r l a g , 1941. Schlemmer, 0. Man, t e a c h i n g n o t e s from the Bauhaus. London: Lund Humphrxes, 1971. S e l z , P. New images o f man. 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Wynnewood: L i v i n g s t o n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1971. Y o y o t t e , J . T r e a s u r e s o f t h e Pharaohs. C l e v e l a n d : The World P u b l i s h i n g Company, 196 8. 121. CATALOGUES AND PAMPHLETS: A b o r i g i n a l and M e l a n e s i a n A r t . E x h i b i t i o n a t A r t G a l l e r y o f New South Wales, 1973. A r t s o f I n d i a and N e p a l , The N a s l i and A l i c e Heeramaneck  C o l l e c t i o n . B o s t o n : Museum o f F i n e A r t s , 1966. A r t s c a n a d a , 1978, XXV, 4-26. B a r l a c h / K o l l w i t z . C a t a l o g u e o f e x h i b i t i o n . The P e t e r S t u y v e s a n t T r u s t f o r t h e Development o f the A r t s , A u s t r a l i a , 1976-1978. Beaver, Magazine o f t h e N o r t h , The, 1958, S p r i n g , 40-47. B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l f o r A r t  Teac h e r s , June 1983, 23(3) . Canadian Eskimo A r t . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1966. Connaissance des a r t s , 1981, 1_7, 32-41. Connaissance des a r t s , 1981, 21, 86-88. Eskimo A r t C a l e n d a r , 1970. Vancouver: Grant-Mann L i t h o g r a p h e r s L t d . , 1969. Eskimo A r t C a l e n d a r , 1971. Vancouver: Grant-Mann L i t h o g r a p h e r s L t d . , 1970. Human Form i n Contemporary A r t , The. C a t a l o g u e o f e x h i b i t i o n by R. Beck and R.A. M i l l e r . Durham: The Duke U n i v e r s i t y Museum o f A r t , 19 71. I n d i a n M a s t e r p i e c e s from t h e W a l t e r and Marianne K o e r n e r C o l l e c -t i o n o f the Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1975. L i v i n g American A r t i s t s and t h e F i g u r e . C a t a l o g u e o f e x h i b i t i o n Nov. 2 - Dec. 2-2, 19 74. Museum o f A r t , The P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . N ackte Mensch, Aspekte der A k t d a r s t e l l u n g i n der K u n s t , Per. E x h i b i t i o n a t K u n s t h a l l e Bremen, 19 79. Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t i f a c t s from the H.R. M a c M i l l a n C o l l e c t i o n s o f the Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 19 75. S i l v e r J u b i l e e E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary B r i t i s h S c u l p t u r e 1977, A. London: Mathews M i l l e r Dunbar, 1977. 122. Treasures of Tutankhamun, 1977, The. Calendar. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1976. Treasures of Tutankhamen, The. Desk diary. New York: Ballentine Books, 1979. Weisberg, G.P., & Janson, H.W. Traditions and Revisions, Themes from the History of Sculpture. Cleveland: Exhibition held at The Cleveland Museum of Art, 19 75. Werke Europaischer P l a s t i k . Catalogue of exhibition at Haus der Kunst Munich, Munich: Carl Gabler, 1950. 123. APPENDIX 1 124. APPENDIX 1 A p r i l 1980 NEEDS ASSESSMENT - SCULPTURE SURVEY PLEASE F I L L OUT THIS QUESTIONNAIRE AND LEAVE AT THE REGISTRA-TION DESK IN THE BOX PROVIDED FOR IT. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u e s t e d by me, Agness P h i l i p p s , a r t t e a c h e r a t A l p h a Secondary S c h o o l i n Burnaby, and g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a t U.B.C. A r t E d u c a t i o n Department. Your i n p u t w i l l be u t i l i z e d i n my M a s t e r s T h e s i s and c o u l d f u r t h e r a r t e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . You need not r e v e a l your name and where you t e a c h , u n l e s s you want t o , then you may be c o n t a c t e d by me a t a l a t e r d a t e . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e the grade l e v e l s you t e a c h , and answer w i t h "yes" o r "no." Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . NAME ADDRESS GRADE LEVELS TAUGHT SCHOOL I . I n your o p i n i o n , 1. S h o u l d s c u l p t u r e be t a u g h t i n - e l e m e n t a r y grades - secondary grades - a l l grades - s p e c i f i c secondary c o u r s e s 2. Why? 3. I n which way c o u l d s t u d e n t s b e n e f i t from an e x p e r i e n c e i n s c u l p t u r e which o t h e r forms o f t h e V i s u a l A r t s do not p r o v i d e ? 125. 4. Does s c u l p t u r e t a k e more time p e r u n i t - t h a n a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s - than o t h e r a r e a s such as p a i n t i n g 5. Does s c u l p t u r e need s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s and equipment? - Are t h e y a v a i l a b l e i n secondary s c h o o l s ? - A r e t h e y o b t a i n a b l e ? 6. Do you have adequate f a c i l i t i e s and equipment t o t e a c h s c u l p t u r e i n your s c h o o l ? - D i d you o b t a i n i t y o u r s e l f ? I I . Methods and M a t e r i a l s 1. Do you t e a c h s c u l p t u r e as p a r t o f c e r a m i c s ? 2. Do you t e a c h i t as an independent u n i t , not r e l a t e d t o c e r a m i c s ? 3. Do you i n t r o d u c e i t u s i n g v i s u a l a i d s such as s l i d e s , f i l m s , f i l m s t r i p s ? I f s o , a r e t h e y o r i e n t e d t o : - how s c u l p t u r e i s made - famous s c u l p t o r s ' work f o r d i s c u s s i o n - s c u l p t u r e as p a r t o f t h e h i s t o r y o f a r t - s c u l p t u r e examples from a l l c u l t u r e s o f t h e w o r l d - s c u l p t u r e examples f o r Western c i v i l i z a t i o n 4. Do you conduct f i e l d t r i p s t o s t u d y l o c a l s c u l p t u r e ( i f any)? 5. Do you d e a l w i t h s c u l p t u r a l c o n c e p t s , such as mass, shape, form, monumentality? - i f s o , how? 6. Do you t e a c h b oth methods, the b u i l d - u p and take-away p r o c e s s ? 7. What m a t e r i a l s do you use i n your t e a c h i n g ? - c l a y ( t e r r a - c o t t a , unglazed) - p l a s t e r o f P a r i s t o c a s t - p l a s t e r o f P a r i s t o c a r v e 126 • - p l a s t i c s - P a p i e r mache w i t h armature w i t h o u t armature - c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h w i r e - c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h paper - c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h b a l s a - any o t h e r * I I I . Quick Quiz 1. Do you know what an armature i s ? 2. Do you know how t o make a piecemold? 3. Do you know why one makes a p i e c e m o l d ? 4. Can you c a s t a wastemold? 5. Can you f i n i s h p l a s t e r t o make i t l o o k l i k e bronze? 6. Can you t e a c h repousse? 7. Can you t e a c h welded s c u l p t u r e ? 8. Can you c a r v e from a b l o c k o f - p l a s t e r ? - stone? - wood? IV. Important G e n e r a l i t i e s 1. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t a r t t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g s h o u l d i n c l u d e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e ? 2. Do you f e e l a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d f o r t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e ? - i n j u n i o r grades? - i n s e n i o r grades? 3. Would you be i n t e r e s t e d i n more - i n - s e r v i c e i n s c u l p t u r e - hands-on workshops - l e s s o n p l a n s - v i s u a l a i d s - summer c o u r s e s - e v e n i n g c o u r s e s ' - C u r r i c u l u m f o r j u n i o r secondary - C u r r i c u l u m f o r s e n i o r secondary A d d i t i o n a l p e r t i n e n t comments you may w i s h make, p l e a s e note below. Thank you 128. APPENDIX 2 129. APPENDIX 2 EVALUATION B r i t i s h Columbia A r t T e a c h e r s 1 Annual C o n f e r e n c e F e b r u a r y 1983 "IDEAS AND THREE APPROACHES TO THE TEACHING OF SCULPTURE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS." Agness P h i l i p p s , A l p h a Secondary S c h o o l , Burnaby, B.C. Evaluation/Recommendation Form 1. One o f the v a l u a b l e ' a s p e c t s o f t h i s s e s s i o n was: 2. Do you t h i n k t h a t i d e a s g a i n e d from t h i s s e s s i o n and the hand-outs on u n i t p l a n s based on t h e human f i g u r e c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the t e a c h i n g o f o t h e r a r e a s o f s c u l p t u r e ? 3. I n terms o f i d e a s f o r t e a c h e r s , f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s o f s c u l p t u r e : 4. You d i d not ask Agness, but you s h o u l d know t h a t : APPENDIX 3 kj>l coloured slides in Special Collections, University of British Columbia Library. Address: Library - Special Collections 1956 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Y3 

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