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Responding to racism: measuring the effectiveness of an anti-racism program for secondary schools Culhane, Stephen F. 1995

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Responding to Racism: Measuring t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an A n t i - R a c i s m Program f o r Secondary S c h o o l s . By Stephen F. Culhane .A., B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM STUDIES We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d stand_ard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1995  ©  Copyright  Stephen F. Culhane, 1995  ..  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Abstract  T h i s t h e s i s r e p o r t s on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an t r a i n i n g program implemented a t secondary and Richmond i n February  anti-racist  s c h o o l s i n Vancouver  and March of 1995.  The program used  Responding t o Racism; a guide f o r High School Students, by the author, w i t h John Kehoe and L i l y Yee.  prepared  Training involved  t h r e e hours of a n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y e x e r c i s e s from Responding t o Racism.  A p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t c o n t r o l group d e s i g n was  measure: r e t e n t i o n o f g i v e n models f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n c i d e n t s , post-treatment  racist  l e v e l s of racism, and b e h a v i o r a l  r e a c t i o n s d u r i n g a staged r a c i s t  incident.  Ten s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s from two p o p u l a t i o n of 262  employed t o  students.  s c h o o l s made up a sample  F o l l o w i n g h a l f - d a y workshops, t h r e e  t e a c h e r s c a r r i e d out the program w i t h a t o t a l of s i x c l a s s e s of e i t h e r grade 9 or 11 s t u d e n t s .  Four a d d i t i o n a l c l a s s e s continued  w i t h r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m t o serve as the C o n t r o l sample. C u l t u r a l D i v e r s i t y S c a l e (Kehoe, 1982,  1984), was  p r e t e s t t o e s t a b l i s h C o n t r o l t o Experimental  The  g i v e n as a  group e q u i v a l e n c y .  A p o s t t e s t W r i t t e n Response t o R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s instrument, t o measure knowledge of how  t o respond  to a r a c i s t  incident,  found a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e between Experimental C o n t r o l groups, (t=(3.83) p.<.001).  used  and  P o s t - t r a i n i n g l e v e l s of  r a c i s m , e v a l u a t e d through the Evidence o f Racism S c a l e , were not significantly different  (+.16Sd). ii  The f i n a l postmeasure, the R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e (Culhane,  1995), found s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t among a sample  of 68 students (40-Exp./28-Cntl.),  (t=(3.33) p.<.001). Students  undergoing treatment were i n the 68th p e r c e n t i l e of C o n t r o l students on the W r i t t e n Response t o R a c i s t i n c i d e n t s , and the 92nd p e r c e n t i l e  (+.47Sd),  (+1.23Sd) of C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s on  from the R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e .  results  Experimental students  d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e when compared t o C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s on items p e r t a i n i n g t o empathy f o r the v i c t i m s of racism.  The r e s u l t s suggest the program was  most s u c c e s s f u l i n  changing behaviour, over a t t i t u d e s , w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t - t e r m time p e r i o d .  Responding t o Racism p r o v i d e d students w i t h methods f o r responding t o r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s which were e v i d e n t on w r i t t e n and b e h a v i o r a l measures.  Support given t o the v i c t i m s of the r a c i s t  i n c i d e n t s , o p p o s i t i o n t o the p e r p e t r a t o r s , and p o s i t i v e  attempts  t o l i m i t the r a c i s m i n each i n c i d e n t were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y more apparent  i n responses of Experimental students over C o n t r o l .  r e s u l t s r e a f f i r m the u t i l i t y of r o l e - p l a y a n t i - r a c i s t and v a l i d a t e the use of Responding t o Racism as an package f o r use i n secondary  The  training,  effective  s c h o o l s e t t i n g s , n o t a b l y i n regards  t o changing student behaviour i n r a c i a l l y - m o t i v a t e d  iii  situations.  Table  of Contents  CHAPTER  PAGES  i i  Abstract  i v - v  T a b l e o f Contents  v i - v i i i  L i s t of Tables I  INTRODUCTION  1-16  Problem and Overview R o l e - p l a y A n t i - R a c i s t Education Consortium Program: Responding  to  Racism  Hypotheses II  SIGNIFICANCE  16  O F T H E PROBLEM  17-25  Transformation A n t i - R a c i s m and R e a l i t y Measuring A n t i - R a c i s t T r a i n i n g III  REVIEW  OF THE LITERATURE  D E S I G N AND METHODOLOGY  *  Design Methodology Selection & Training Scoring B e h a v i o r a l S c o r i n g Examples Procedure V  17 20 24 26-49  Role-play Bandura S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Triandis Rokeach e t a l . Evidence o f R o l e - p l a y Success Consortium Design Measurement Devices IV  1 7 12  RESULTS  26 26 32 35 36 40 43 50-62  50 51 51 52 56 58 63-83  Knowledge o f How t o Respond t o Racism L e v e l s o f Racism & V i c t i m Empathy P o s i t i v e Response t o a R a c i s t I n c i d e n t Grade L e v e l A n a l y s i s Gender A n a l y s i s  iv  63 65 72 76 80  CHAPTER  PAGES  VI  SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N  84-86  VII  DIRECTIONS  87-89  VIII  REFERENCES  APPENDIX  A List  FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  90-95 96-101 96  o f Appendixes  Questionnaire I Questionnaire I I Questionnaire I I I Answer sheets APPENDIX  97 98 99-100 101-102  B  103-105  Group E q u i v a l e n c y Anova T-Tests APPENDIX  103 104  C  106-112  UBC E t h i c a l Review Acceptance Richmond Acceptance L e t t e r Vancouver Acceptance L e t t e r P a r e n t a l Permission L e t t e r Information Sheets Student Teacher XII  APPENDIX  D  APPENDIX  110 112 114-117  T r a i n i n g Package Excerpts XIII  106 107 108 109  E  114 118-122  Scores - Group Means Premeasure Postmeasure I Postmeasure I I Postmeasure I I I  118 118 119 120  v  List  of  Table  1  Group Equivalency  Table  2  Means - Written Reaction Racist Incidents  Table 3 Table  Table  Table  Table  Page 45 to Page 64  T-Tests - Written Reaction Racist Incidents  4  5  6  Tables  Tables  Means - Evidence Measure  of Racism  Overall  T-test of Racism  Means - Evidence  to Page 64 Page 66 Page 66  Means Post-Empathy Control to Experimental 7  9  & 8  Means & T-Test Written and Behavioral Measures  Means - T-Test Racist Behavioral Scale  Page 69 Page 71  Incident Page 73  i  Table  Table  10  11  Frequencies - Racist Behavioral Scale Group  Incident Page 74  Frequencies - Behavioral  Measure  Page 75  Table  12  Group Means - Behavioral  Table  13  Table  14  Grade Variance - Evidence of Racism Scale Grade Variance - Written Response to Racist Incidents  Table  Table  Table  15  16  17  Measure  Page 76  Page 77 Page 77  Post-Empathy by Grade - Experimental to Control  Page 78  Means - Behavioral by Grade.  Measure Page 79  Anova - Behavioral  Results vi  Page 79  Table 18 Table 19  Table  20  Table 21  Gender Means - Postmeasure  II  Page 81  Means by Gender - Post-Empathy  Page 81  Gender Anova - Post-Empathy  Page 82  Means by Gender - Racist Incident Scale  Table 22 Anova - Gender - Racist Scale  Behavioral Page 83  Difference Incident Behavioral Page 83  vii  I  Introduction  Problem  &  Overview  The p e r c e p t i o n of a growing problem i n t h e i r s c h o o l s l e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of f i v e Lower Mainland s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o become actively  i n v o l v e d i n implementing a model a n t i - r a c i s t  program.  T h i s group became known as the Consortium f o r P r e p a r a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n o f an A n t i - R a c i s t T r a i n i n g Package Students, h e r e a f t e r "the Consortium." meeting i n the S p r i n g of 1994.  The Consortium began  Over the next few months, the  author and L i l y Yee were employed racism.  f o r High School  t o gather c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s of  These came from e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e a c h e r s ,  s t u d e n t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and members of v a r i o u s associations.  cultural  Some t h i r t y of these i n c i d e n t s formed the b a s i s  f o r an a n t i - r a c i s t t r a i n i n g  package, adapted by the author and  John Kehoe: Responding t o Racism; a Guide f o r High School Students (Kehoe, Culhane, & Yee,  1995).  1  The next s t e p f o r the Consortium  was  t o implement the  program on a t r i a l b a s i s f o r the purpose of e v a l u a t i o n , which became the impetus f o r t h i s study. impact  Three aspects of a p o s s i b l e  of Responding t o Racism emerged f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n : i t s  e f f e c t s on r e d u c i n g l e v e l s o f r a c i s m ; whether i t encouraged a g r e a t e r sense of empathy toward the v i c t i m s of r a c i s m , r a t h e r than a strengthened sense of v i c a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the p e r p e t r a t o r s ; and f i n a l l y , whether the program would l e a d t o a b e h a v i o r a l change when students were p l a c e d i n an a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g racism.  Three t e a c h e r s v o l u n t e e r e d t o take  p a r t i n the study a f t e r being made aware of the program c o n t a c t w i t h Consortium School D i s t r i c t s .  through  members from Richmond and Vancouver  These t e a c h e r s worked through the package w i t h  a t o t a l of s i x c l a s s e s , w h i l e f o u r other c l a s s e s made up C o n t r o l group.  the  P r i o r t o beginning the program, the t h r e e  p a r t i c i p a n t t e a c h e r s underwent a workshop t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n a t UBC,  where they became more f a m i l i a r w i t h Responding t o Racism,  i t s methods and  procedures.  F o l l o w i n g the r e t u r n of p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n forms,  and  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p r e t e s t e q u i v a l e n c y measure, students underwent one week o f a n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y a c t i v i t i e s as out i n Responding t o Racism.  laid  Students were g i v e n a v a r i e t y of  techniques f o r responding t o r a c i s t s i t u a t i o n s , and then  the  o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i s e these responses w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the role-play.  Two  measures were administered i n an 2  initial  p o s t t e s t , one week a f t e r t h e t r a i n i n g program.  P a r a l l e l i n g the  p r e t e s t , t h e f i r s t o f these measures was t h e L i k e r t - t y p e o f Racism S c a l e .  Evidence  The second post-measure t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d  sought evidence o f student r e t e n t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g package models f o r responding t o r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s .  Pre and p o s t t e s t  r e s u l t s were then c o r r e l a t e d f o r each grade l e v e l and each teacher.  F i n a l l y , c o r r e l a t i o n a l data was used t o e s t a b l i s h  d i f f e r e n c e s between C o n t r o l and Experimental groups,  f o r an  o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s o f t h e impact o f t h e Responding t o Racism t r a i n i n g program.  From t e n t o twelve days subsequent a s m a l l e r sample (Vancouver  t o the w r i t t e n posttests,  & Richmond, N=68; n=40 Experimental /  n=28 C o n t r o l ) underwent a c o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l measure, i n v o l v i n g a staged r a c i s t i n c i d e n t .  Students were p l a c e d i n a s i t u a t i o n  where r a c i s t words and a c t i o n s would a r i s e . i n v o l v e d a s k i n g students t o complete  a s h o r t survey o f t h e i r  a t t i t u d e s on a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s about classroom.  The s c e n a r i o  student autonomy i n t h e  Students from both C o n t r o l and Experimental  classes  were taken i n p a i r s t o a s m a l l i n t e r v i e w room, and asked t o complete  a b r i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t h e s t a t e d t o p i c w h i l e  working  w i t h two a d d i t i o n a l students, who were e x p l a i n e d t o be from a d i f f e r e n t secondary study.  s c h o o l t h a t was a l s o t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e  One o f these other students was a l r e a d y p r e s e n t when t h e  two s t u d e n t s a r r i v e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w room, w h i l e t h e o t h e r arrived shortly after.  In f a c t , these t h i r d and f o u r t h students 3  were p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s of a s i m i l a r age t o the students b e i n g measured.  The r e s e a r c h e r l e f t the room a f t e r a s k i n g the group t o complete  a s i n g l e survey sheet, on which they were t o r e c o r d  how  many i n the group agreed or d i s a g r e e d w i t h f o u r simple q u e s t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n s concerned whether students should be allowed t o eat food or wear "Walkmans" i n c l a s s , take advantage of empty p a r k i n g spots i n s t a f f p a r k i n g l o t s , and otherwise enjoy more c o n t r o l over what goes on i n t h e i r  classes.  As the groups worked through the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the  two  a c t o r s would become i n v o l v e d i n a minor argument over an aspect of one of the q u e s t i o n s .  T h i s argument would take on  overtones, and e v e n t u a l l y i n c l u d e r a c i s t words and The two  racial  attitudes.  students t o be measured were then e v a l u a t e d on  r e a c t i o n t o the r a c i s t exchange between the a c t o r s .  their  S c o r i n g was  c a r r i e d out by the two a c t o r s , w i t h each student r e c e i v i n g a number on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e . r e c o r d e d immediately  Anecdotal i n f o r m a t i o n was  also  f o l l o w i n g each s e s s i o n , i n v o l v i n g i n p u t from  the a c t o r s and the r e s e a r c h e r , who  watched the exchanges through  a c o n c e a l e d opening t o a window i n t o the i n t e r v i e w room.  4  Assessment of each student  focused on the degree t o which  they became i n v o l v e d i n the i n c i d e n t , as w e l l as whether t h i s i n a s u p p o r t i n g or opposing manner, v i s a v i z the  was  racist  comments, the v i c t i m , or the p e r p e t r a t o r of the r a c i s t  attack.  As expected, the r e s u l t s from t h i s b e h a v i o r a l measure were the most i n t r i g u i n g aspect of the study. p r o v i d e potent evidence  Not  o n l y d i d these  f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t impact of the  program, but they a l s o o f f e r e d evidence  results training  of the u t i l i t y of  R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e as a simple,  unobtrusive,  measure of b e h a v i o r a l response f o l l o w i n g a n t i - r a c i s t R e s u l t s of t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n found students  the  training.  undergoing t r a i n i n g  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o oppose the r a c i s m than C o n t r o l students.  An  average Experimental  student  scored i n the 92nd  p e r c e n t i l e of C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s on the b e h a v i o r a l measure, whereby o n l y 8-percent of students  not being t r a i n e d scored h i g h e r  the average of the t r a i n e d group.  In comparison, students  from  the C o n t r o l group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o support r a c i s t comments i n the s c e n a r i o , t o p r o v i d e some form of  than  the  support  f o r the p e r p e t r a t o r , and t o worsen the s i t u a t i o n f o r the v i c t i m i n some manner.  These r e s u l t s suggest the R a c i s t I n c i d e n t  B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e b r i n g s assessment of a n t i - r a c i s t  training  programs much c l o s e r t o an accurate p r e d i c t i o n of impact student  behaviour,  on  than can be accomplished simply through the  use of w r i t t e n measures.  Moreover, the R a c i s t I n c i d e n t 5  B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e accomplishes  the e t h i c a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g process  of a c o v e r t measurement o f r a c i s m w i t h a r e l a t i v e minimum o f student d e c e p t i o n being necessary.  Although  students a r e unaware  they a r e being measured f o r t h e i r response t o t h e r a c i s m i n the s c e n a r i o s , they a r e aware they a r e being measured, and t h a t answers they g i v e a r e b e i n g w r i t t e n down on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e sheet.  Use o f the a c t o r s t o score the i n c i d e n t s  further  e l i m i n a t e s t h e need f o r v i d e o o r sound r e c o r d i n g , w h i l e a l s o a f f o r d i n g very d e t a i l e d data on student r e a c t i o n s , most o f which would be extremely d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n from sound o r v i d e o recordings.  6  Role-Play  in Anti-Racist  Education  A n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y t a r g e t s the a f f e c t i v e aspects of racism.  I t i s designed t o address the inadequacies o f C u l t u r a l  Information and Intergroup Contact s t r a t e g i e s  (McGregor, 1993),  two of the more p r e v a l e n t techniques i n a n t i - r a c i s t  education.  C u l t u r a l Information methods o f a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n seek t o l i m i t r a c i s t b e l i e f s by r e p l a c i n g what are u s u a l l y d e p i c t e d as c o n c e p t i o n s of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e born out of ignorance, w i t h more a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l of v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l groups. Contact approaches attempt replacement.  Intergroup  t o accomplish a s i m i l a r type of  They d i f f e r i n p r e f e r r i n g d i r e c t c o n t a c t between  members o f two o r more c u l t u r a l groups over o t h e r means t o t h i s end.  In c o n t r a s t , A n t i - r a c i s t R o l e - p l a y i n v o l v e s p l a c i n g  students  i n s i t u a t i o n s where they can p r a c t i s e responding t o r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s , without n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v i n g a g r e a t d e a l of c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , o r any p a r t i c u l a r need f o r mixed c u l t u r a l  grouping.  D i s c u s s i o n s of the r o o t s of s o c i a l t e n s i o n and o t h e r i n t e r g r o u p problems take p l a c e throughout l e a r n new  a r o l e - p l a y e x e r c i s e , as  response p a t t e r n s t o v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s  racism.  7  students  involving  Role-play's i n a progression  foundation  i n a n t i - r a c i s t methodology i s found  of t h e o r i e s from S o c i a l Psychology.  The  list  i n c l u d e s F e s t i n g e r ' s concept of C o g n i t i v e Dissonance, Bandura's S o c i a l Learning and  Theory, Rokeach's Values Discrepancy  Triandis' Cross-Cultural Sensitivity Training  1957;  Bandura, 1962,  T r i a n d i s , 1964,  1965,  1975).  r o l e - p l a y vary.  The  1969;  Rokeach, 1960,  intended  (Festinger,  1966,  outcomes of  strategy,  1971,  1973;  anti-racist  However, a l l programs attempt t o change r a c i a l  a t t i t u d e s i n some manner, toward g e n e r a l l y more t o l e r a n t p o s i t i o n s on v a r i o u s out the r o l e of the  aspects of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e .  In a c t i n g  "other" d u r i n g the staged r a c i a l l y - c h a r g e  i n c i d e n t s , students are b e l i e v e d t o be b u i l d i n g up a c o g n i t i v e dissonance, as i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s mount between e a r l i e r a t t i t u d e s and  emergent ones.  eventual  I f s u c c e s s f u l , such dissonance r e s u l t s i n an  a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l change i n a more t o l e r a n t ,  empathetic d i r e c t i o n ( F e s t i n g e r , 1957; 1971,  Bandura, 1969;  Rokeach,  1973).  S e v e r a l methods are used t o measure pre and a t t i t u d i n a l or b e h a v i o r a l change.  post-treatment  These range from assessments  of c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y , such as l e v e l s of out-group t o in-group affiliation,  t o measurement of changes i n g e n e r a l  racist attitudes. of a s u b j e c t ' s diversity.  l e v e l s of  Assessment f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e s an  a t t i t u d e s towards some aspect  of  evaluation  cultural  Instruments used f o r such measurement g e n e r a l l y  i n c l u d e semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l ,  s o c i a l proximity, 8  or  social  distance scales.  Recently,  a developing  body of t o o l s f o r  q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s i s a l s o being shaped, demonstrating a t t i t u d i n a l change through anecdotal d e s c r i p t i o n (Breckheimer & Nelson, 1976;  Sechrest,  Strauss & Corbin,  1990;  Schumacher & McMillan,  1979;  Webb e t a l , 1981;  Strauss,  Hopkins, S t a n l e y & Hopkins, 1993.  1988; .  1990;  These type of s t u d i e s i n v o l v e much  s m a l l e r samples than t h e i r q u a n t i t a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s , a f f o r d i n g more d e t a i l e d , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a n a l y s i s which i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , l e s s g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o other r e s e a r c h  situations.  As an a n t i - r a c i s t s t r a t e g y , r o l e - p l a y has s u c c e s s f u l examples.  numerous  I t has been found t o c r e a t e  significant  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change toward members of s p e c i f i c  minority  groups (Kehoe & Rogers, 1978); t o r e s u l t i n lowered l e v e l s of s o c i a l d i s t a n c e between m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y group members ( C u l b e r t s o n , 1957;  Verma fi Bagley, 1972,  t o i n c r e a s e both the frequency  and  1979,  1981);  and  s t r e n g t h of s o c i a l bonds  between m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y students 1976).  1973,  (Breckheimer & Nelson,  However, r o l e - p l a y approaches have a l s o produced q u i t e  the o p p o s i t e outcomes.  Research has strengthening,  found some programs r e s u l t e d i n a  r a t h e r than a r e d u c t i o n of p r e v i o u s l y - h e l d  s t e r e o t y p i c a l or r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s ( M i l l e r , 1969).  Other examples  suggest an enhancement of v i c a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h p e r p e t r a t o r s of racism,  (Kehoe & Rogers, 1978; 9  the  Kehoe, 1981);  others s t i l l ,  t h a t an i n s i g n i f i c a n t impact on e i t h e r a t t i t u d e s or  behaviour has r e s u l t e d McGregor, 1990;  (Balch & Paulsen, 1978;  McGregor,  Ungerleider &  1993).  The most r e c e n t meta-analysis of r e s e a r c h conducted i n t h i s area s y n t h e s i z e d s t u d i e s of r o l e - p l a y , comparing w i t h t h a t of o t h e r a n t i - r a c i s t s t r a t e g i e s average s h i f t of (+.419Sd) was  i t s efficacy  (McGregor, 1993).  found among e x p e r i m e n t a l  An  groups  undergoing a r o l e - p l a y treatment program, when compared t o c o n t r o l samples (McGregor, 1993).  E f f e c t i v e l y , t h i s means an  average student i n the 13 s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d i n the review e x h i b i t e d l e s s r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e than 64% of the students not undergoing treatment  (McGregor, 1993).  The f i g u r e s from the  McGregor m e t a - a n a l y s i s are s l i g h t l y more f a v o u r a b l e than those found i n an e a r l i e r study she c a r r i e d out w i t h C h a r l e s Ungerleider.  T h i s p r e v i o u s meta-analysis compared the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g r o l e - p l a y w i t h those from other a n t i - r a c i s t , c u l t u r a l presentation strategies.  and  Among the s u b j e c t groups were  i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s , and p o l i c e  officers.  S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s were found among 19 s t u d i e s i n the data i n v o l v i n g the use of r o l e - p l a y . improvement was  An average  (+.2 0Sd)  found i n treatment groups from the 19 s t u d i e s ,  whereby an average Experimental s u b j e c t was  i n the 57th  p e r c e n t i l e o f C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s when measured f o r r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e 10  ( U n g e r l e i d e r & McGregor, 1990).  McGregor and U n g e r l e i d e r  p o r t r a y e d a s e r i e s of i m p r e s s i v e examples of s u c c e s s f u l use of role-play i n reducing r a c i a l prejudice.  Overall,  Anti-racist  r o l e - p l a y has almost f o r t y years of examples where p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s have been produced: C u l b e r t s o n (1957), Gilmour & J a n i c e (19 65), Rosenberg (1975), Breckheimer  (1965), Hohn (1973), Gray and Ashmore  & Nelson (1976), Verma & Bagley  (1979),  U n g e r l e i d e r & McGregor (1990), McGregor & Douglas,(1993).  11  Consortium  Program  Responding t o Racism b u i l d s on many o f t h e recommendations l i s t e d i n t h e above meta-analyses (McGregor & U n g e r l e i d e r , 1990; McGregor, 1993).  I t a l s o r e f l e c t s numerous o t h e r  r a i s e d i n a v a r i e t y o f s t u d i e s (Verma & Bagley, Kehoe, 1981, 1984; Buchignani, 1992).  suggestions  1976,  1979;  1985; B u t t , 1986; U n g e r l e i d e r ,  U n g e r l e i d e r & Douglas' When C u l t u r e s Meet, a r o l e - p l a y  a n t i - r a c i s t package designed f o r primary l e v e l t e a c h e r s , uses many s i m i l a r techniques t o those i n Responding t o Racism.  The  f i r s t c o n t r a s t between t h e two packages i s n a t u r a l l y a d i f f e r e n c e of intended audiences. w i t h t h e secondary  Responding t o Racism has been  s c h o o l s e t t i n g i n mind.  produced  I t s r o l e - p l a y aims  f o r g r e a t e r student t o student c o n t a c t , more a p p r o p r i a t e studentaged language^ to students.  and t o be p a r t o f an o v e r a l l package more f a m i l i a r Responding t o Racism c o n t a i n s a s i m i l a r attempt t o  i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l groups,  y e t w i t h a more l i m i t e d  focus than found i n When C u l t u r e s Meet.  Other complex s o c i a l  i s s u e s , l i k e gender and power r e l a t i o n s , which a r e important on t h e i r own but may over-complicate an a l r e a d y d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t f o r a d o l e s c e n t s d u r i n g t h e r o l e - p l a y e x e r c i s e s , were d e l i b e r a t e l y not mixed i n t o t h e package.  Responding t o Racism d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h r a c i s m . r e s u l t , many concerns  As a  found i n When C u l t u r e s Meet a r e not as  prominent i n t h i s package, although they may c e r t a i n l y be r a i s e d d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s f o l l o w i n g each o f t h e r o l e - p l a y s i n Responding t o Racism.  These were c o n s i d e r e d t o be secondary t o  12  the p r i n c i p l e focus o f t h i s t r a i n i n g programs: a n a l y z i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g r a c i s m i n each s c e n a r i o .  Further  suggestions  from members o f t h e Consortium have  a f f o r d e d a very wide spectrum o f involvement i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f Responding t o Racism.  Although t h e package c e n t r e s on b e h a v i o r a l  t r a i n i n g f o r r e a c t i n g t o r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s , r a t h e r than educational  other  i s s u e s such as causes o f r a c i s m o r t h e s o c i e t a l  impact o f t h i s problem, t h i s does not mean i t s foundation i s l i k e w i s e as t i g h t l y focused.  A d i v e r s e chorus o f v o i c e s were  i n t e g r a l t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h i s package, from t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t o members of m u l t i c u l t u r a l s e c t i o n s o f Greater Vancouver s c h o o l boards, and t h e M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m branch o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f Education,  as w e l l as s e v e r a l c u l t u r a l groups i n t h e  Vancouver and V i c t o r i a  areas.  The dialogues  c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s o f r a c i s m turned  i n t o dramatic  f o r use i n t h e r o l e - p l a y have emerged from concerns and  experiences  o f those most d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n secondary  Some were p a i n f u l r e v e l a t i o n s , s t o r i e s o f p e r s o n a l The  schools.  tragedies.  d i s c u s s i o n s f o l l o w i n g each r o l e - p l a y a r e aimed a t forming  l i n k s between students these  and the a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e l a t e d  stories.  13  Emotions a r i s i n g as a r e s u l t of the r o l e - p l a y may  be worked  out w i t h t e a c h e r s and peers, however, the t r u e power of r o l e - p l a y emerges i n a much more p r i v a t e p l a c e , w i t h i n each student's understanding of c u l t u r e , r a c e , and i d e n t i t y .  Students  own  can  c e r t a i n l y g a i n a deeper understanding of the i s s u e s and impact of r a c i s m from adopting the p e r s p e c t i v e of the "other" w i t h i n the g u i s e s of a r o l e - p l a y s e t t i n g .  They may  accept a t e a c h e r ' s  encouragement and adopt techniques from the t r a i n i n g package i n d e a l i n g w i t h r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s they encounter  i n everyday  life.  Yet, a s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n an a n t i - r a c i s t program does not n e c e s s a r i l y have t o go t h i s f a r .  When a t r a i n e d student decides  not t o aggravate a r a c i s t s i t u a t i o n , or t o o f f e r some i n c r e a s e d l e v e l of comfort f o r a v i c t i m t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than they otherwise might have, Responding to Racism w i l l have been successful.  These may  be o n l y p a r t i a l successes i n a more g r a d u a l  p r o c e s s , but changes i n b e h a v i o r a l r e a c t i o n s t o r a c i s t  incidents  must be seen as e s s e n t i a l components of not o n l y ongoing i n a t t i t u d e s , but a l s o of e n s u r i n g r a c i s m i s both l i m i t e d c o u n t e r a c t e d when i t does a r i s e . change behaviour.  changes and  Responding to Racism seeks t o  The t o o l s i t o f f e r s f o r students t o use i n  r e a c t i n g t o r a c i s t s i t u a t i o n s are designed t o a l l o w f o r b e h a v i o r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l change, but are c e r t a i n l y grounded on the premise t h a t b e h a v i o r a l change i s an e s s e n t i a l  14  s t e p which  can be s e p a r a t e from, or d i r e c t l y t i e d t o a t t i t u d i n a l change.  A r e a l i s t i c assessment  of an a n t i - r a c i s t program needs more  than measurement through w r i t t e n instruments a l o n e .  Testing  e f f e c t s , whereby students produce what they b e l i e v e t o be d e s i r e d answers i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , overt t e s t s of racism.  For t h i s reason, the i n c l u s i o n Of a  c o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l measure was d e s i g n of t h i s study.  are too r e a l t o be e l i m i n a t e d from  regarded as an i m p e r a t i v e i n the  E v a l u a t i n g students on b e h a v i o r a l  r e a c t i o n s serves t o p r e d i c t i n a much more adequate way  how  " s i g n i f i c a n t " a program has been i n encouraging students t o work a g a i n s t r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s i n classrooms, lunchrooms, playgrounds.  Examples of the f i r s t two of t h i r t y  i n c i d e n t s from R e s p o n d i n g t o  Racism  15  halls  and  critical  can be found i n Appendix  D.  Hypotheses  Three aspects were c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l f o r a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of Responding t o Racism.  These  were formulated i n t o the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e hypotheses:  (1)  Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program would demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e knowledge of the how t o respond t o a r a c i s t i n c i d e n t , as l a i d out i n the t r a i n i n g  program,  compared w i t h students who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program, on the W r i t t e n R e a c t i o n t o R a c i s t  Incidents  measure. (2)  Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s r a c i s t then those i n the C o n t r o l group, as measured by the Evidence o f Racism S c a l e .  (3)  Students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program would respond s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e l y t o both a d e s c r i b e d  racist  i n c i d e n t , as measured by the W r i t t e n Response t o a R a c i s t I n c i d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and an a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n , as measured by the R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e .  16  Significance  II  of the  Problem  Transformation  School d i s t r i c t s i n Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia are undergoing an e t h n o - c u l t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n brought on by s h i f t i n g immigration t r e n d s .  Today,  "New  Canadians" a r e f a r more  l i k e l y t o have l e f t E a s t , South, or Southeast A s i a n n a t i o n s , r a t h e r than North, West, or East European ones 1992).  (Fleras & E l l i o t t ,  Demographers and v a r i o u s o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s  will  debate the impact of s h i f t i n g sources of Canadian immigration, away from what are s t i l l u n f o r t u n a t e l y termed sources."  "the t r a d i t i o n a l  Yet, i r r e s p e c t i v e of these concerns, Vancouver  will  c o n t i n u e t o be a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t made up of students w i t h e t h n i c backgrounds Sullivan,  from over 80 d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s  1989).  (Ashworth,  1989;  The G r e a t e r Vancouver area a l r e a d y leads the  c o u n t r y i n percentage of p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d t o be m i n o r i t y " group members.  "visible  In 1986, the v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y  p o p u l a t i o n i n G r e a t e r Vancouver was over 16-percent ( F l e r a s & Elliott,  1992), a l r e a d y 10-percent above the n a t i o n a l average.  Recent S t a t i s t i c s Canada numbers suggest t h i s percentage i s rapidly rising.  In 1988, Hong Kong, I n d i a , the P h i l i p p i n e s ,  Vietnam, Jamaica, and Iran were among the top t e n c o u n t r i e s o f o r i g i n f o r immigrants t o Canada ( F l e r a s & E l l i o t t ,  1992).  In  1990 a l o n e , E a s t and South A s i a n n a t i o n s accounted f o r approximately 26.4%  o f the t o t a l o f 212,166 immigrants t o t h i s 17  country  (Fleras & E l l i o t t ,  1992).  The p o i n t t o be made does not  i n v o l v e q u e s t i o n s of e t h n i c i t y , or "Countries of O r i g i n " , r a t h e r , a simple acknowledgement of an ongoing  process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  E t h n i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y , Vancouverites are a changing The r e g i o n stands as a d e s t i n a t i o n f o r a huge number of Canadians,  who  climate.  The G r e a t e r Vancouver area  serves as a major c e n t r e of an ongoing  those who  New  come t o u n i t e f a m i l i e s , f i n d j o b s , or simply  r e j o i c e i n the "wet-coast"  adjustment  group.  c u l t u r a l adjustment.  process i n v o l v i n g not o n l y the newcomer, but  An  also  came a l i t t l e e a r l i e r , as w e l l as the n a t i o n s s e t t l i n g  the r e g i o n thousands of years ago.  Secondary s c h o o l s i n Greater  Vancouver are a n a t u r a l l o c u s o f the necessary  cross-cultural  accommodation.  Language l e a r n i n g i s of paramount concern f o r r e c e n t newcomers from non-English speaking backgrounds, and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s throughout  the r e g i o n have implemented new  a d d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h as a Second Language programs.  or  But i t would  be s h o r t s i g h t e d t o l i m i t the a d a p t a t i o n process t o l i n g u i s t i c s . Both the i n d i v i d u a l and most of the r e c e i v i n g community share the need f o r accommodation and a d a p t a t i o n . is playing i t s e l f  Ethno-cultural difference  out as o f t e n on the s t r e e t s and i n the  b u s i n e s s e s of Greater Vancouver, as i t i s i n i t s classrooms cafeterias.  and  Such d i f f e r e n c e can r e s u l t i n c u l t u r a l c l a s h e s and  r a c i s m , which are l i k e l y t o a r i s e t o some e x t e n t , g i v e n the r e a l i t i e s of the c u r r e n t p e r i o d of e t h n i c change. 18  Meanwhile,  changes i n student p o p u l a t i o n s are d r i v i n g concomitant ones i n methodology adopted by t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , m u l t i c u l t u r a l workers and other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system. C u r r i c u l a must be reshaped a c c o r d i n g l y .  Exemplifying  this  process i s the r e c e n t r e c o g n i t i o n o f Japanese and Mandarin as H e r i t a g e s Languages by the M i n i s t r y of Education, through the s e t t i n g of Province-wide  exams.  The r e c o g n i t i o n came a f t e r  o f i n t e n s e l o b b y i n g , and can o n l y open new o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c h a l l e n g e s f o r Primary, secondary systems throughout  As the e t h n i c composition  years  educational Secondary, and  Post-  B.C.  of the Greater Vancouver  student  population i s redefined, a n t i - r a c i s t educational i n i t i a t i v e s  are  r e s u l t i n g from an awareness o f a need t o take p r o a c t i v e measures t o keep r a c i a l problems from becoming entrenched. Racism evolved from t h i s type of impetus.  Responding t o  The package stands i n  evidence  of the work of people  at v a r i o u s l e v e l s i n Lower  Mainland  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , who  are t u r n i n g t o a n t i - r a c i s t  e d u c a t i o n as a guide f o r i n s t i t u t i n g programs t o address  the  impact of changes i n t h e i r student p o p u l a t i o n , and w i t h i n t h e i r institutions.  19  Anti-racism  &  Reality  A n t i - r a c i s t programs are r a r e l y e v a l u a t e d based on what works i n an everyday e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n  (Buchignani,  1985).  A v a i l a b i l i t y of c l a s s time f o r such programs/ as w i t h any  other  type of i n - s e r v i c e workshop, i s at a premium f o r secondary t e a c h e r s , who needs.  The  must c o n s t a n t l y balance competing i n t e r e s t s  and  immediacy of Responding t o Racism hopes t o c o u n t e r a c t  t h i s problem.  A teacher can be f a m i l i a r with i t s c o n t e n t s ,  and  more than capable of c a r r y i n g out i t s methods a f t e r o n l y a h a l f day workshop.  Teacher competence i n l e a d i n g an  anti-racist  program has been r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s e d as a key aspect i n s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n s (Verma & Bagley, U n g e r l e i d e r & McGregor, 1990;  1981;  McGregor, 1993).  Buchignani,  1985;  To ensure t h i s ,  Responding t o Racism u t i l i s e s r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d patterns.  I t embodies s t r a t e g i e s which are e a s i l y t r a n s f e r r e d  from t r a i n i n g workshops on campus t o r o l e - p l a y s i n the secondary classroom.  C u r r i c u l a r r e s t r i c t i o n s form a f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n f a c i n g most t e a c h e r s i n regards t o a n t i - r a c i s t programs. Racism i s designed  Responding t o  t o meet t h i s problem by b e i n g f l e x i b l e enough  t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o a wide v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . d e s i g n i s q u i t e adaptable  Its  t o any number of s u b j e c t - a r e a  c u r r i c u l a , from S o c i a l S t u d i e s t o E n g l i s h , Humanities t o Guidance and o t h e r C o u n s e l l i n g Programs, t o Theatre c l a s s . 20  Responding t o  Racism works t o c r e a t e an important m o d e l l i n g aspect f o r t e a c h e r t o student r e l a t i o n s which can be u s e f u l i n as assortment school s i t u a t i o n s .  of  I t s design allows f o r v a l u e - l a d e n t e a c h i n g  about r a c i s m , i n a more p e r s o n a l c l i m a t e which i s h o p e f u l l y more meaningful  to students.  T h i s type of c l i m a t e has o f t e n been  a t t r i b u t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s as an i n t e g r a l component of s u c c e s s f u l a n t i - r a c i s t education 1981;  Buchignani,  (Verma & Bagley,  1985).  outcomes being produced  1981;  S a r n o f f & Katz,  There are many examples of n e g a t i v e i n studies using a n t i - r a c i s t teaching  techniques which i n v o l v e d i s t a n t , i m p a r t i a l moderators 1969;  B a l c h & Paulsen,  1978;  Kehoe, 1981;).  V i r t u a l l y a l l a n t i - r a c i s t t e a c h i n g programs have examples where e n t i r e l y unexpected resulted.  (Miller,  produced  n e g a t i v e outcomes have  Three r e c e n t meta-analyses of a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n a l  techniques found such examples of n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s ,  in  t h e s e cases, experimental s u b j e c t s ended up measuring h i g h e r on s c a l e s of r a c i s m a f t e r being " t r e a t e d " (McGregor & U n g e r l e i d e r , 1990).  The  f i r s t of these meta-analyses i n v o l v e d a n t i - r a c i s t  programs f o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . i n 31% of the cases s t u d i e d .  Negative e f f e c t s i z e s were found L i k e w i s e , the second  meta-analysis,  w i t h s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s and i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s as the s u b j e c t groups,  found 28% of e f f e c t s i z e s were n e g a t i v e (McGregor &  U n g e r l e i d e r , 1990).  The t h i r d meta-analysis compared the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of r o l e - p l a y w i t h C u l t u r a l Information  strategies.  R o l e - p l a y programs l e d t o n e g a t i v e outcomes i n 12% of the s t u d i e s 21  showing s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s i z e s  (McGregor, 1993).  P a r t of the  d i f f e r e n c e between higher and lower n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s  was  a t t r i b u t e d t o the age of the p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t group under study.  O v e r a l l , elementary  and secondary  school-aged  students  were more l i k e l y t o change t h e i r b e l i e f s or behaviours, post-secondary  students, p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , or i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s ,  (McGregor, 1993). impacts,  any  over  With an abundance of s t u d i e s showing n e g a t i v e  l a r g e s c a l e attempt a t a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n  needs t o be assessed.  clearly  Adding t o r a c i a l s t e r e o t y p i n g and  i n t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e s are both very r e a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s as a r e s u l t of r o l e - p l a y , as w i t h any other type of a n t i - r a c i s t t e a c h i n g .  R o l e - p l a y uses language and m a t e r i a l s which c o n t a i n r a c i s t a s p e c t s , p r e s e n t i n g these i n order t o work through consequences, i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , and f a l l a c i e s .  their  As a r e s u l t , a  s e r i e s o f c h a l l e n g e s f o r a t e a c h e r implementing t h i s type o f program n a t u r a l l y a r i s e .  These i n c l u d e an i n a b i l i t y of some  students t o r e c o g n i z e s i t u a t i o n s where empathy i s needed, which may  produce q u i t e i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e a c t i o n s (Kehoe, 1981).  One  p o s s i b i l i t y i s the p r o d u c t i o n of what has been termed an "inoculation effect" 1976).  The  ( M i l l e r & D o l l a r d , 1941;  Verma & Bagley,  inoculation e f f e c t involves subjects casting aside a  d i l u t e d form of an argument due t o an apparent weakness i n i t s position.  With r e g a r d t o a n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y t h i s would  a r i s e through  likely  the use of s a n i t i z e d language and s i t u a t i o n s , which  deny the heed f o r a c t i o n a g a i n s t a form of r a c i s m made too 22  "classroom problem.  acceptable" t o a c t u a l l y  p o r t r a y the t r u e nature o f the  " I f t h i s i s racism," a student might conclude,  "then  i t ' s no b i g d e a l . . . ; " o r " I f t h i s i s racism, you're s a y i n g we're a l l racists!?"  The l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n from a s u b j e c t would be t o  r e j e c t t h e suggestions  o f the t r a i n i n g program.  T h i s has been  demonstrated as a major problem with s u b j e c t s who a l r e a d y r a c i s t opinions  (Verma & Bagley, 1976).  A second problem i s t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f some students participate situation  hold  to fully  i n the e x e r c i s e , due t o the s o c i a l p r e s s u r e o f the  (Kehoe, 1981).  tendency o f some students the p e r p e t r a t o r s o f r a c i s m  Moreover, t h e r e appears t o be a s e r i o u s t o form a v i c a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with (Kehoe, 1981, 1984a).  The process o f  r o l e - p l a y has a l s o been found t o l e a d t o a weakening o f i d e n t i t y and  self-image  f o r m i n o r i t y students.  A number o f r e s e a r c h e r s  have charged p o o r l y formulated  a n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y programs  w i t h l e a v i n g m i n o r i t y students  f e e l i n g the p o r t r a y a l s present  them as h e l p l e s s v i c t i m s ( I j a z , 1984; Kehoe, 1984b; Lynch, 1987; R a t t a n s i , 1992).  C r i t i c i s m o f these programs i n c l u d e s t h e i r  f a i l u r e t o p o r t r a y m i n o r i t y group members as f i g h t i n g back a g a i n s t p e r p e t r a t o r s o f racism, o r as p e r p e t r a t o r s o f r a c i s m themselves.  23  Measuring Anti-Racist  Training  A s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s must be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e any r a c i s m program can move i n t o g e n e r a l use.  anti-  Whether i t f o l l o w s  s o l i d t h e o r e t i c a l grounds or not, the p o s s i b i l i t y of n e g a t i v e outcomes being produced remains. must be addressed t o meet i t s g o a l s .  The q u e s t i o n s t h i s study  b e f o r e an a n t i - r a c i s t program can be  asks  considered  Students must remember the methods i t r e l a t e s  b e f o r e they can put them i n t o p r a c t i s e .  A s u c c e s s f u l program  must a l s o c r e a t e some modicum of an i n c r e a s e d l e v e l of empathy f o r the v i c t i m s of racism, i f i t i s t o c r e a t e a t t i t u d e toward more t o l e r a n t views toward c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e . t h i s may  shifts However,  be p r o b l e m a t i c t o measure, as i t i s l i k e l y t o be a  latent reaction to t r a i n i n g .  F i n a l l y , i t must be asked  i f the  "classroom l e s s o n s " of the program a c t u a l l y l e a d t o b e h a v i o r a l change beyond t h i s a r t i f i c i a l  setting.  E v a l u a t i n g the degree t o which Responding t o Racism answers these c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s can f u r t h e r the process of  anti-racist  e d u c a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a t e s t f o r a t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound d e s i g n . The package i s based upon a r e l i a b l e a n t i - r a c i s t s t r a t e g y .  It  i n c l u d e s recommendations drawn from the most c u r r e n t metaa n a l y s e s , as w e l l as c o n s i d e r a b l e involvement  of t e a c h e r s ,  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , m u l t i c u l t u r a l works, and many o t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system. s o l i d foundation.  Responding t o Racism appears t o have a  Yet, without  a s y s t e m a t i c assessment of i t s  24  impact on students,  i t can o n l y remain a newly-packaged  of somewhat untested e d u c a t i o n a l  assumptions.  25  version  Review of the  Ill  Literature  There are t h r e e separate areas of the l i t e r a t u r e t o be reviewed: the t h e o r e t i c a l background f o r r o l e - p l a y techniques i n a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n ; evidence f o r the success of t h i s  approach,  as i t p e r t a i n s t o the e v e n t u a l d e s i g n f o r Responding t o Racism: and f i n a l l y , r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h on the instruments used i n the study.  Role-Play:  Bandura's  Social  Learning  Theory  As a technique of a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n , r o l e - p l a y i n v o l v e s t h r e e separate p r o c e s s e s : o b s e r v a t i o n , a c t i o n , and reaction.  Each of these has i t s own  theoretical  cognitive  basis.  Bandura's S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory e x p l a i n s the o b s e r v a t i o n aspect of  role-play.  During a r o l e - p l a y , students i n i t i a l l y view the  a c t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , be they peers or i n s t r u c t o r s , and then come t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n m o d e l l i n g t h i s behaviour  (Bandura,  1968,  1969).  G r a d u a l l y , an e x p r e s s i o n of  w e l l - f o r m u l a t e d responses appears, and t h i s i s s t e a d i l y enhanced, as w e l l as s o c i a l l y r e g u l a t e d , through the a c t i o n s of the models; i n i t i a l attempts  by the p a r t i c i p a n t are e v e n t u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l l y  modeled (Bandura, 1963).  1962,  1965,  1968,  1969;  Bandura & Walters,  M o d e l l i n g has been found t o be i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o the  e l i m i n a t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l d e f i c i t s , t o the t r a n s m i s s i o n of s e l f r e g u l a t e d systems,  and s o c i a l f a c i l i t a t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l  p a t t e r n s , most n o t a b l y on a group-wide s c a l e  26  (Bandura,  1962,  1965,  1968,  1969).  As students i n a r o l e - p l a y  rehearse  responses, they are f o r m u l a t i n g these p a t t e r n s i n t o r e a c t i o n s e t s from w i t h i n a s o c i a l context c l o s e l y matching t h a t of the i n c i d e n t o u t s i d e of the r o l e - p l a y . r e i n f o r c e the m o d e l l i n g . behaviour  The context serves t o  S u b j e c t s come t o p a t t e r n t h e i r  i n c r e a s i n g l y on t h a t of the model, and then re-use  model i n a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n s 1968,  1969).  (Bandura,  this  1965,  Bandura worked o f t e n w i t h very d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t  groups than those of a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n i n secondary  schools.  However, h i s t h e o r i e s are powerful d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h i s use of r o l e - p l a y , i n what i s s t i l l learning.  an example of s o c i a l l y - b a s e d  The process of o b s e r v a t i o n , f o r m u l a t i o n of a c t i o n ,  and  then performance of a modeled i n t e r a c t i o n , a p p l i e s d i r e c t l y t o the process used i n both examples of r o l e - p l a y i n g .  To understand  the importance  of Bandura's i d e a s t o the  concept o f m o d e l l i n g , some d i s c u s s i o n o f work p r e v i o u s t o h i s i s necessary.  M o d e l l i n g was  e a r l i e r thought  t o take p l a c e as a  r e s u l t of the p o s i t i v e reinforcement of a s u b j e c t , should the " c o r r e c t " response be matched adequately. used a s e r i e s of t r i a l  Early tests generally  and e r r o r responses, which were  initially  random, and became p r o g r e s s i v e l y more and more p a t t e r n e d & D o l l a r d , 1941).  M o d e l l i n g was  (Miller  seen as a form of s t i m u l u s  matching, i n which a person would match the s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n b e i n g modelled w i t h t h e i r own  responses.  G r a d u a l l y , these  responses would become more and more a p p r o p r i a t e t o the purpose 1  of  the r o l e - p l a y .  A s e r i e s of p o s i t i v e cues from the model  27  helped t o f u r t h e r t h i s process  (Skinner, 1953;  Bandura, 1969).  Bandura accepted these e a r l i e r aspects o f r o l e - p l a y , but expanded both of these n o t i o n s by i n t r o d u c i n g an aspect of s e l e c t i v i t y t o t h i s type o f i m i t a t i v e response 1968a, 1969). was  r e p r o d u c t i o n (Bandura,  The r e p e t i t i o n of modelled  p a t t e r n s , t o Bandura,  d r i v e n by a u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e , r a t h e r than  reinforcement.  1962,  simple  I t c o u l d not be achieved u n l e s s a needs, or  b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s had been made by the s u b j e c t .  Bandura b e l i e v e d  a person would never l o s e the f e a r of dogs, f o r example, u n l e s s a b e n e f i t appeared t o r e s u l t from l o s i n g t h i s f e a r . persons  Exposing  t o d i s t i n c t i v e sequences of modeled s t i m u l i was  not  enough, he a s s e r t e d , u n l e s s an i n d i v i d u a l had imagined b e n e f i t t o be gained from m o d e l l i n g .  Bandura thought  a possible individuals  would n a t u r a l l y s e l e c t o n l y those aspects most r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r needs, a c c o r d i n g t o an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the m o d e l l i n g , and the s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i t c o n t a i n e d .  Only  the  aspects most p e r t i n e n t t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs would be retained for future imitation  (Bandura, 1968a; 1969).  C l o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n g c u r r e n t r o l e - p l a y s t r a t e g i e s , Bandura b e l i e v e d new  response  p a t t e r n s c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e l y  through m o d e l l i n g procedures  related  which i n v o l v e d more n a t u r a l  i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , where, " v e r b a l a p p r o v a l ,  affectional  e x p r e s s i o n s , p l a y a c t i v i t i e s and a sense o f accomplishment r e p l a c e primary rewards as major r e i n f o r c i n g events," 1965,  1969).  For example, Bandura found empathetic  (Bandura,  reactions  were more l i k e l y when c h i l d r e n were asked t o imagine how  28  they  w o u l d f e e l i f they were i n the s i t u a t i o n of the other person b e i n g observed, r a t h e r than how feel  ( S t o t l a n d , 1969;  t h e y b e l i e v e d the o t h e r would  Bandura, 1969).  In r o l e - p l a y , t h i s i s  accomplished through a c t i n g out the r o l e of the o t h e r , whereby s e n s a t i o n s f e l t by t h i s other person can be f e l t  f i r s t hand,  w h i l e p l a y i n g t h i s r o l e , r a t h e r than merely imagined from a distance.  Bandura found a need f o r s u b j e c t t o model s i m i l a r i t y  i n attempts a t c r e a t i n g empathetic responses.  I t appeared t o him  q u i t e n a t u r a l t h a t a person would be more capable of a p p l y i n g the r e s u l t s o f observed a c t i o n s as consequences when the model c l o s e l y r e f l e c t e d who 1968,  1968a, 1969).  they might  endure,  they a c t u a l l y were  (Bandura,  Bandura d i d not t i e emotional a r o u s a l  d i r e c t l y to a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n vicarious observational l e a r n i n g , but suggested t h i s s t r a t e g y had not y e t been employed on a s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s t o develop empathy, p l e a s u r a b l e r e a c t i o n s , and f a v o u r a b l e s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s  (Bandura,  1969), as c u r r e n t  r o l e - p l a y techniques seek t o do.  The  " a c t i o n " aspect of r o l e ^ p l a y can a l s o be r e l a t e d t o  Bandura, and S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory.  Modelling i s turned i n t o  a c t i o n through performing the r o l e of the o t h e r .  P a t t e r n s of  o b s e r v a t i o n a l response are l e a r n e d and r o l e s p r a c t i s e d d u r i n g t h i s performance,  which are l a t e r i m i t a t e d and r e i n f o r c e d when  used i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s  (Bandura,  1968a, 1969).  Three  d i s t i n c t r e a c t i o n s t o observant m o d e l l i n g can a r i s e d u r i n g such subsequent a c q u i r e new  behaviour a c c o r d i n g t o Bandura.  The o b s e r v e r  may  responses t h a t d i d not p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n h i s or her  29  behaviour r e p e r t o i r e .  A second outcome i n v o l v e s the weakening or  s t r e n g t h e n i n g of i n h i b i t o r y responses, as a r e s u l t of p a t t e r n s i n the m o d e l l i n g .  F i n a l l y , the behaviour of models may  elicit  p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d responses t h a t match p r e c i s e l y , or bear a c l o s e resemblance  t o those e x h i b i t e d by the model, and are merely  repeated by the s u b j e c t i n t h i s l a t e r episode (Bandura,  1968a,  1969).  To use the case of Responding new  t o Racism, the l e a r n i n g of a  response technique would apply t o l e a r n i n g how  t o comfort a  v i c t i m of racism, and e q u a l l y as w e l l t o a d d r e s s i n g the u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the p e r p e t r a t o r ' s a c t i o n s d i r e c t l y . second r e a c t i o n , i n v o l v i n g the g e n e r a t i o n of an  inhibitory  response, can a l s o be seen i n a n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y . example, a witness t o a r a c i s t i n c i d e n t may  The  For  choose t o stand up  a g a i n s t an aggressor, as a r e s u l t of a weakening of the i n h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t doing so.  T h i s would be an example o f a  weakened i n h i b i t o r y response.  An example of a strengthened  i n h i b i t o r y response can be found i n a g r e a t e r r e l u c t a n c e of a person t o engage i n r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the f u t u r e .  This  would r e s u l t from an i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t i n g a d d i t i o n a l or more s t r i n g e n t n e g a t i v e consequences on r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s .  a r i s i n g from espousing or a c t i n g  The behaviour modelled i n the t e x t  r o l e - p l a y of the a n t i - r a c i s t package seeks t o e l i c i t  this  and double-  edged response, weakening i n h i b i t i o n s i n some a t t i t u d i n a l or b e h a v i o r a l a s p e c t s , w h i l e at the same time s t r e n g t h e n i n g those i n others.  S o c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d a c t i o n s are shown t o be  30  unacceptable, both i d e o l o g i c a l l y and through the v i s i b l e consequences e v i d e n t i n the r o l e - p l a y .  S o c i a l l y appropriate  a c t i o n s , on the c o n t r a r y , are rewarded and r e p e a t e d l y remodelled through examining  the t e x t and a c t i n g out the s c e n a r i o s .  Bandura's t h i r d p o s s i b l e outcome, the  "response-facilitation  e f f e c t " d i r e c t l y epitomizes the goals of a n t i - r a c i s t  role-play.  Here, modelled behaviour, be i t a response p a t t e r n t o comfort a v i c t i m o r , as w i t h the case i n much of Bandura's work, t o reduce the f e a r i n a young c h i l d of snakes or dogs, i s repeated by the o b s e r v e r - p a r t i c i p a n t i n continued p r a c t i s e .  Finally, this i s  s u c c e s s f u l l y i m i t a t e d as a l e a r n e d p a t t e r n of s o c i a l which m i r r o r s t h a t p o r t r a y e d by the o r i g i n a l model 1968,  1968a, 1969).  response (Bandura,  In a n t i - r a c i s m , r o l e - p l a y would be aimed a t  g r a d u a l l y weakening an i n h i b i t o r y response, such as r e d u c i n g the f e a r of c o n f r o n t i n g a p e r p e t r a t o r of racism, through r e i n f o r c e m e n t of modelled a c t i o n s (Bandura,  positive  1968a; 1969).  This  p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t g e n e r a l l y takes the form of exposing s u b j e c t s t o modelled behaviour iri i n c r e a s i n g l y t h r e a t e n i n g s c e n a r i o s , but s t i l l e n s u r i n g t h a t the model does not meet w i t h n e g a t i v e consequences.  A c l a s s i c a l Bandura example would be t o  show c h i l d r e n s h o r t movies of o t h e r c h i l d r e n s l o w l y approaching snakes or o t h e r f e a r e d animals.  G r a d u a l l y , the model c h i l d r e n i n  the f i l m s become more and more a t ease w i t h these animals, y e t still  do not meet w i t h the assumed d i r e consequences u n d e r l y i n g  the i n h i b i t o r y responses from the s u b j e c t s .  As models p r e s e n t a  weakening of t h e i r i n h i b i t o r y responses i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ,  31  the  s u b j e c t s come t o f o l l o w t h i s new  behaviour  f o l l o w i n g the slow s t e p toward reduced t h a t demonstrated by the models.  in their  modelling,  i n h i b i t i o n i n tandem w i t h  Bandura i l l u s t r a t e d these t h r e e  p o s s i b l e outcomes c l e a r l y i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the t r a n s m i s s i o n of n o v e l a g g r e s s i v e responses,  social  (Bandura, Ross &  Ross, 1961), and upheld them w i t h l a t e r e f f o r t s t o assess importance of observer-modeller Ross, 1963;  Bandura, 1968a).  p a t t e r n s emerged.  (Bandura, Ross &  In each study, these t h r e e r e a c t i o n  Greater success i n r e d u c i n g p r e v i o u s l y - h e l d  i n h i b i t i o n s , both through presented,  similarities  the  increased r e t e n t i o n of patterns  and by a f f o r d i n g more p r e v a l e n t a d a p t a t i o n of  p r e v i o u s l y known p a t t e r n s , were shown t o occur i n s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g models c l o s e l y r e f l e c t i n g the p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s (Bandura, Ross & Ross, 1961,  1963;  Bandura, 1968a, 1969).  Triandis  T r i a n d i s ' work on c u l t u r e - s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g f u r t h e r r e l a t e s these b e h a v i o r a l aspects of r o l e - p l a y .  T r i a n d i s holds  t h a t b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n , d e f i n e d as what one would do toward any  " d e s i r e d o b j e c t " c a r r y i n g an a t t i t u d e attachment w i t h i t , i s  v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l l y - d r i v e n norms of behaviour. appears t o be expected  What  by others i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n comes t o  be modelled  by the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , as a r e s u l t of c l o s e  examination  of the apparent  s o c i a l context  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the "other" i n the  ( T r i a n d i s , 1964,  1971).  32  C o r r e l a t i o n s i n the order  of (.60) have been observed i n s t u d i e s o f behaviour norms and behaviour i n t e n t i o n s ( B a s t i d e s and Van den Berghe, 1957; T r i a n d i s , V a s s i l i o u and Nassiakon, 1968).  T r i a n d i s l a t e r went on  t o expand i n t o s t u d i e s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g , a p p l y i n g these concepts t o such l e a r n i n g i n a new, o r otherwise changed c u l t u r a l environment.  Many o f T r i a n d i s ' c u r r e n t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s employ r o l e - p l a y t e c h n i q u e s .  In a r o l e - p l a y episode s o c i a l l y - d r i v e n e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e both p r e s e n t e d and r e i n f o r c e d , through the c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t and t h e r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n s being taught.  used  These e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e  m i r r o r e d through t h e a c t i o n s o f f e l l o w students and t e a c h e r s leading the episodes.  Case-study r o l e - p l a y such as t h a t i n  Responding to Racism evokes each o f these components f o r messages of s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n .  Teachers and students a r e both m o d e l l i n g  responses from the package d e s i g n .  Triandis' modification of  t h i s concept i n t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e goals of r o l e - p l a y i n a n t i - r a c i s t education.  Here, t h e  b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s are d e r i v e d from v a r y i n g norms generated i n a d i s p a r a t e c u l t u r e , and t h e r o l e - p l a y i n g serves t o g i v e students new  response p a t t e r n s s u i t a b l e t o t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e  environment  ( T r i a n d i s , 1975, 1977, 1992).  social  New b e h a v i o r a l norm  p a t t e r n s a r e b e i n g s o c i a l l y taught, viewed,  and then p r a c t i s e d  through performing t h e r o l e o f t h e "other" i n a c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , i n t h e same manner as t h a t used t o generate empathetic  responses  from p e r f o r m i n g t h i s r o l e i n r a c i s t i n c i d e n t r e p l i c a t i o n anti-racist role-playing.  through  Inappropriate actions are i d e n t i f i e d  33  and n e g a t i v e l y s a n c t i o n e d i n a s o c i a l l y - r e l e v a n t c o n t e x t , w i t h i n which they can be r e p l a c e d w i t h more a p p r o p r i a t e p a t t e r n e d responses,  " p u t t i n g your l e f t hand on t h a t E g y p t i a n Arab man's  shoulder h e l d a completely d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n than the one  you  offered..."  Triandis' "Cultural Assimilator",  ( T r i a n d i s , 1992), m i r r o r s  the s t r a t e g i e s of c u r r e n t a n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y , s e e k i n g as i t does t o model behaviour on e x p e c t a t i o n s of such environments.  cultural  A n t i - r a c i s t education seeks t o c r e a t e s c e n a r i o s  where r a c i s t a c t i o n s are presented as s o c i a l l y unacceptable, w e l l as t o p r o v i d e p a t t e r n e d responses in l i f e - l i k e  situations.  as  t o e f f e c t i v e l y teach t h i s  T r i a n d i s suggests a need f o r  t r a n s m i t t i n g d i f f e r i n g r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s moving i n t o d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , i n a manner d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o the v a l u e - l a d e n e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s used i n a n t i - r a c i s t  role-play.  Here t o o , c o r r e c t and i n c o r r e c t behaviours are c o n s t a n t l y r e i n f o r c e d through the content i n the cases being s t u d i e d , the s o c i a l l y based m o d e l l i n g of the performances, itself,  and the t e x t  upon which the e n t i r e e x e r c i s e i s based.  Even when a p a r t i c u l a r student views, p a r t i c i p a t e s , models what are deemed t o be s o c i a l l y c o r r e c t behaviour r o l e - p l a y s i t u a t i o n , the e x e r c i s e does not f u l l y f u r t h e r c o g n i t i v e g o a l i s achieved. process of dissonance. Dissonance  and in a  succeed u n l e s s a  T h i s i s r e a l i z e d through  the  F e s t i n g e r ' s Theory o f C o g n i t i v e  holds t h a t i f a person experiences enough d i s c o r d a n t  34  i n f o r m a t i o n , the i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y cause a change i n a t t i t u d e or behaviour ( F e s t i n g e r , 1957). p l a y , students  As i t p e r t a i n s t o r o l e -  i n the u n f a m i l i a r r o l e as the  e v e n t u a l l y l e d i n t o dissonance,  "other"  as the imagined s i t u a t i o n of t h i s  other person i s g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d w i t h d i r e c t emerging from p l a y i n g the r o l e .  are  sensations  Teachers must work t o l i m i t  the  p o s s i b i l i t y of v i c a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the p e r p e t r a t o r s i n the r a c i s t s c e n a r i o s , by c r e a t i n g a c l i m a t e i n the r o l e - p l a y where these a c t i o n s are a c t i v e l y p o r t r a y e d as  unacceptable.  Adequate s t r e s s must be p l a c e d on the dangers a r i s i n g from t h i s aspect of the r o l e - p l a y i n the t r a i n i n g given t o undertaking  the package.  The  teachers  c r e a t i o n of p e r p e t r a t o r  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n must be minimized, and t h i s i s l i k e l y achieved  only  through a very c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f the p o s s i b l e  responses i n a r o l e - p l a y s i t u a t i o n .  Rokeach et  al.  Rokeach (1960, 1966,  1971,  1973), J a n i c e & Gilmour,  (1965),  and Rosenberg, (1965), Gray & Ashmore, (1975), and o t h e r s have adapted F e s t i n g e r ' s d i s s o n a n c e - c r e a t i n g education  strategy to  anti-racist  by u s i n g d i s c u s s i o n s of e q u a l i t y and v a l u e s .  In  one  example, students were asked t o compare t h e i r group's s t a t e d responses t o a ranked l i s t of "most important of other s t u d e n t s . show E q u a l i t y a t #11  S t a t i s t i c s from U.S. of 18 items l i s t e d .  35  things", with  those  c o l l e g e s were used t o T h i s was  then compared  t o s t a t e d e x u l t a t i o n s o f e q u a l i t y under t h e American ideal  (Gray & Ashmore, 1975).  democratic  When students were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h  the d i s p a r i t y between t h e v a l u e p l a c e on p e r s o n a l freedom  versus  w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s , o r e q u a l i t y , r e s e a r c h e r s have been a b l e t o c r e a t e dissonance, and a r e s u l t i n g change toward more e q u i t a b l e v a l u e s (Rokeach, 1965;  1971, 1973; J a n i c e & Gilmour,  Gray & Ashmore, 1975).  1965; Rosenberg,  In each o f t h e above s t u d i e s ,  students were found t o reduce t h i s type o f c o g n i t i v e i n c o n s i s t e n c y by e l e v a t i n g t h e v a l u e they p l a c e d on e q u a l i t y i n subsequent  rankings.  Rokeach found r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s , which he  r e l a t e s t o i s s u e s o f e q u a l i t y , were a l s o observed t o move i n an e g a l i t a r i a n d i r e c t i o n as a consequence o f t h i s i n s i g h t 1969,  1971, 1973, & Cochrane,  1972).  (Rokeach,  Gray & Ashmore (1975)  upheld Rokeach i n a l a t e r study i n t h i s f i n d i n g .  Although Values  Discrepancy may o r may not i n v o l v e r o l e - p l a y i n g t e c h n i q u e s , i t r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o c r e a t i n g dissonance, which i s i n t e g r a l t o the q u e s t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n both  Role-Play:  Evidence  of  strategies.  Success  R o l e - p l a y i n g as an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r a l t e r i n g  racial  a t t i t u d e s can be seen as e a r l y as 1957. C u l b e r t s o n found  role-  p l a y t o be e f f e c t i v e i n s h i f t i n g a t t i t u d e s toward more i n t e g r a t i o n i s t approaches  i n students from a middle-England  s c h o o l , who were f a c i n g a growing immigrants  i n t e g r a t i o n of recent Black  i n housing and s c h o o l i n g .  36  C u l b e r t s o n suggested i t may  prove t o be a u s e f u l technique f o r a l t e r i n g even racist attitudes  (Culbertson,  1957).  strongly-held  Gilmour & J a n i c e  Rosenberg (1965), Hohn, Weisner & Wright (1973), and  (1965),  Gray &  Ashmore (1975) a l l found s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s from u s i n g t o modify r a c i a l b e l i e f s .  role-play  Gray & Ashmore i n p a r t i c u l a r b u i l t  d i r e c t l y on C u l b e r t s o n , but w i t h a l a r g e r e f f e c t s i z e , comparing role-play, informational, They found the and  strategy  and  values discrepancy techniques.  t o be e f f e c t i v e i n c r e a t i n g dissonance,  t o r e s u l t i n more e q u i t a b l e  difference  a t t i t u d e s toward c u l t u r a l  (Gray & Ashmore, 1975).  Breckheimer & Nelson (1976) found r a c i a l d i s c u s s i o n racial-based contact  r o l e - p l a y i n g strategies led to greater  i n an i n f o r m a l  of b e h a v i o r a l  interaction scales.  They compared  i n a d i s c u s s i o n e x e r c i s e and  to evaluate greater Nelson, 1976).  cross-race  s e l e c t i o n of p a r t n e r s  o t h e r such measures i n o r d e r  r a c i a l tolerance  in attitudes  In c o n c l u d i n g , they recommended a  approach i n v o l v i n g r o l e - p l a y , games, and because no  single strategy  behavioral  d i f f e r e n t i a l and  racial  (Breckheimer & hybrid  discussion,  seemed t o a f f e c t change i n each of sociometric  (Breckheimer & Nelson, 1976). have been s u c c e s s f u l  cross-race  meeting s i t u a t i o n , as measured by a s e r i e s  c o n t a c t s i n a group s e t t i n g , i n c l u d i n g the f o r use  and  c h o i c e s c a l e s they used  Verma & Bagley (1971, 1973,  i n a s e r i e s of q u a s i  of r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e  modelling  1981).  1973,  study, they d i r e c t l y measured the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  37  1979)  role-playing  s i t u a t i o n s , i n v o l v i n g both d i s c u s s i o n s (Verma & Bagley, 1971,  the  In t h e i r  and  1979  of r o l e - p l a y i n  comparison t o t h r e e other designs,  f i n d i n g s h i f t s toward t o l e r a n t  views on a number of measures as a r e s u l t of r o l e - p l a y from pret o - p o s t t e s t s (Verma & Bagley, 1979).  The support  t h r e e r e c e n t meta-analyses mentioned p r e v i o u s l y o f f e r f o r the use of r o l e - p l a y i n a n t i - r a c i s t  McGregor & U n g e r l e i d e r analyzed  research using  education. student-teachers,  i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s , and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s as s u b j e c t groups. These s t u d i e s were a l l aimed at p r e p a r i n g each group f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r c u l t u r a l and Ungerleider,  1990).  i n t e r - r a c i a l contact  The  (McGregor &  programs they analyzed were concerned  w i t h both a t t i t u d e s and behaviours,  and  i n v o l v e d two  distinct  t e a c h i n g approaches: c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and r a c i s m awareness. T h e i r f i n a l data s e t i n c l u d e d 19 s t u d i e s , conducted between and  1985,  1990).  one  of which was  1967  Canadian (McGregor & U n g e r l e i d e r ,  A wide v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t measurement d e v i c e s were  used, but f i n d i n g s were l i m i t e d t o those garnered d i s t a n c e , semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , and b e h a v i o r a l scales.  The  average study  from s o c i a l observation  showed a (+.20) Standard D e v i a t i o n  improvement i n experimental  group, r e p r e s e n t i n g an average person  undergoing treatment demonstrating l e s s r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e than of c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s who Ungerleider,  1990).  d i d not undergo treatment  Racism awareness s t u d i e s had  (McGregor & a mean e f f e c t  s i z e of (+.27Sd), w h i l e c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n approaches one (+.09Sd).  In a subsequently  57%  published meta-analysis,  of  McGregor  d i r e c t l y compared r o l e - p l a y t o a n t i - r a c i s t i n f o r m a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v i n g elementary, secondary, and post-secondary  38  students.  McGregor found 13 s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g r o l e - p l a y which c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y used i n her m e t a - a n a l y s i s . average  T h i s group r e p r e s e n t e d an  standard d e v i a t i o n of (+.419Sd), i n s h i f t i n g  attitudes  toward more t o l e r a n t p o s i t i o n s ; 64% of students i n c o n t r o l groups showed more p r e j u d i c e than the average r o l e - p l a y treatment.  of students undergoing  a  McGregor's f i n d i n g s were a l s o more  f a v o u r a b l e than those i n the 1990  meta-analysis w i t h U n g e r l e i d e r  i n the important area of n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s .  Whereas 28%  s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g t e a c h e r s , and 31% of those w i t h p o l i c e showed n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s i n the 1990  meta-analysis,  of  officers (McGregor  & U n g e r l e i d e r , 1990), McGregor found o n l y 12% of the r o l e - p l a y e f f e c t s i z e s were n e g a t i v e (McGregor, 1993).  A negative e f f e c t  s i z e e s s e n t i a l l y means s u b j e c t s measured h i g h e r on  racial  p r e j u d i c e from p r e - t e s t t o p o s t - t e s t , o r s c o r e d h i g h e r than c o n t r o l groups on p o s t - t e s t o n l y d e s i g n s . found a h i g h e r percentage  Moreover, McGregor  of s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s i z e s i n  1993,  53% as compared t o 47% percent  ( p o l i c e ) and 30%  (teachers)  (McGregor & U n g e r l e i d e r , 1990;  McGregor 1993).  McGregor  the more f a v o u r a b l e e f f e c t s may  suggests  r e p r e s e n t an i n c r e a s e d  m a l l e a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n , over teachers and p o l i c e , which c o u l d a l l o w f o r a g r e a t e r impact of a n t i - r a c i s t t e a c h i n g s 1993).  (McGregor,  McGregor a l s o found higher e f f e c t s i z e s i n s t u d i e s  i n v o l v i n g younger students, elementary compared t o those i n post-secondary  39  and secondary, when  settings  (McGregor, 1993).  Behind  the Consortium  Design  The Consortium's r o l e - p l a y package f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n out i n the program  laid  f o r t e a c h e r s of elementary students by C h a r l e s  U n g e r l e i d e r and C h e r y l Douglas: When C u l t u r e s Meet ( U n g e r l e i d e r & Douglas, 1989).  U n g e r l e i d e r and Douglas used a v a r i e t y of  sources t o c r e a t e t h e i r package,  from g e n e r a l , n o n - s e x i s t and/or  n o n - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n guidebooks, t o s u b j e c t - s p e c i f i c t e x t s f o r p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f one o r more o f the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s of r a c i s m i n c l u d e d i n the program.  John Kehoe's, A Handbook f o r  Enhancing the M u l t i c u l t u r a l C l i m a t e of the S c h o o l , (Kehoe, serves as a major source f o r both U n g e r l e i d e r & Douglas, Responding t o Racism.  1984),  and  Kehoe suggests t e a c h e r s must have a  p o s i t i v e , not n e u t r a l a t t i t u d e when d e a l i n g w i t h r a c i a l i s s u e s i n the c l a s s r o o m .  Other s t u d i e s have found such an a t t i t u d e t o be  an important f a c t o r i n success of r o l e - p l a y B u c h i g n a n i , 1985).  (Rubin,  1967;  Kehoe suggests any a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n  s t r a t e g y must p o r t r a y v i c t i m s who  are about the same age as the  s u b j e c t groups, appear t o be f i g h t i n g back a g a i n s t the p e r p e t r a t o r s , and are g e n e r a l l y people seen t o be agreeable i n the s u b j e c t s ' eyes (Kehoe,  1984).  Responding t o Racism aims a t  p r e s e n t i n g j u s t such a message, w i t h peer-group v i c t i m s b e i n g used throughout the r o l e - p l a y t e c h n i q u e .  P a r t of t h i s study's purpose was  t o measure post-treatment  empathetic l e v e l s , i n hopes of e v a l u a t i n g e x a c t l y what Kehoe's suggestions are seeking t o l i m i t : v i c a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h  40  the p e r p e t r a t o r s of r a c i s m .  Kehoe f u r t h e r suggests  such  role-  p l a y s should s t r e s s a sense of p u b l i c agreement, w i t h o p i n i o n s being demonstrated i n order t o add t o s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t o conform t o expected  behaviour  (Kehoe, 1981,  1984).  s o c i a l s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t r a c i a l behaviour o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r dissonance, g o a l of the r o l e - p l a y .  The b u i l d i n g of serves t o magnify  and f u r t h e r the v a l u e d - o r i e n t e d  While the s t r u c t u r e of the package  c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s When C u l t u r e ' s Meet, some important  recent  recommendations are a l s o p a r t of Responding t o Racism.  A g r e a t e r attempt has been made t o ensure a l i m i t i n g of an e f f e c t of c r e a t i n g v i c a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the p e r p e t r a t o r s of r a c i s m .  Teachers  are being encouraged t o take o v e r t l y s t r o n g  moral stands a g a i n s t racism, t o d i r e c t l y p r e s e n t v a l u e s i n a s i t u a t i o n where i n d i v i d u a l behaviours wrong.  T h i s can a l s o a i d i n p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of r a c e , t o make the  r o l e - p l a y more meaningful Buchignani,  1985).  a s e r i o u s unintended 1979,  are d e p i c t e d as r i g h t or  1984).  f o r students  (Katz & S a r n o f f ,  1981;  As mentioned, v i c a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n can  be  outcome of any a n t i - r a c i s t s t r a t e g y (Kehoe,  In one example of unintended  n e g a t i v e outcomes from  a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of racism, students were a p p a r e n t l y w i t h the impression r a c i s m was s o c i e t y , and t h a t reduced  a frequent occurrence  immigration was  left  i n Canadian  the o n l y answer t o curb  the problem (Kehoe, 1981).  Numerous recommendations from the meta-analyses l i s t e d above have a l s o been i n c l u d e d .  McGregor recommends programs need t o be  41  l o n g e r than a s i n g l e - s h o t d u r a t i o n (McGregor, 1993), but warns of a s e r i o u s d r o p - o f f when they are too l o n g (McGregor & U n g e r l e i d e r , 1990;  McGregor, 1993).  Responding  t o Racism  i n v o l v e s t h r e e one-hour s e s s i o n s w i t h students over a r e g u l a r week of c l a s s e s , and i s intended t o f a l l w i t h i n these  limits.  Teacher competence has been found t o be a major f a c t o r i n r o l e - p l a y (Verma & Bagley, 1981; Buchignani, 1985; U n g e r l e i d e r , 1990;McGregor, 1993).  McGregor &  In t h i s case, h a l f - d a y  t r a i n i n g seminars were given t o t e a c h e r s implementing program.  McGregor (1993) found t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g was  out p r i o r t o most programs she analyzed.  the not c a r r i e d  The c r i t i c a l  used, and the makeup of the Consortium i t s e l f  incidents  both promoted  s u b s t a n t i a l t e a c h e r involvement i n the c r e a t i o n of Responding  to  Racism, r e f l e c t i n g another McGregor recommendation f o r s u c c e s s f u l r o l e - p l a y a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n (McGregor, 1993).  N e i t h e r pre-  t e s t i n g e f f e c t , not e t h n i c composition of treatment groups were found t o be f a c t o r s i n e i t h e r meta-analyses.  McGregor and  U n g e r l e i d e r (1990) found g r e a t e r success w i t h i n c r e a s e d e t h n i c mixture w i t h groups of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , which i s somewhat r e f l e c t i v e of the g e n e r a l e t h n i c composition of most classrooms undergoing treatment i n t h i s study.  McGregor (1993) a l s o  recommends an i n t e g r a t i o n of a n t i - r a c i s t e d u c a t i o n i n t o r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m , which was  intended t o be accomplished by b r i n g i n g the  t r a i n i n g program i n t o r e g u l a r s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s , r a t h e r than having s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s c a r r y out the program w i t h these c l a s s e s .  42  Measurement  Devices  Instrument One  - W i l l i n g n e s s t o Accept C u l t u r a l  Diversity  A l l s u b j e c t s were p r e t e s t e d w i t h a measure of W i l l i n g n e s s t o Accept C u l t u r a l D i v e r s i t y  (Culhane  & Kehoe, 1994), f o r the  purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t r o l t o Experimental equivalency.  T h i s measure was  adapted from one c r e a t e d f o r a  number of p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (Kehoe, 1984). s c a l e , t h i s instrument was  group  A L i k e r t - t y p e 5-point  administered on a t r i a l run among  143  s u b j e c t s i n both grades 9 and  11 i n Richmond, as w e l l as among a  s i n g l e group of approximately  30 grade 9's  class.  i n a North Vancouver  T r i a l - r u n v a l i d i t y Means and Anova r e s u l t s suggested  items, which d i d not c o r r e l a t e as s t r o n g l y as the o t h e r  two  15-items,  should be removed from the f i n a l v e r s i o n of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  V a l i d i t y r e s u l t s are presented below.  T - t e s t and Anova  comparisons demonstrated group e q u i v a l e n c y from C o n t r o l t o Experimental  groups i n a l l t h r e e t e a c h e r samples.  data f o l l o w the R e l i a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s .  Equivalency  Dates of B i r t h , w r i t t e n by  the students on the top of the answer sheets, p r o v i d e d a l i n k i n g mechanism from pre t o p o s t t e s t .  A n a l y s i s of the data was  on a  c l a s s - t o - c l a s s , e x p e r i m e n t a l - t o - c o n t r o l b a s i s , r a t h e r than on individual basis.  43  an  Reliability i  Analysis  - R e l i a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e s Premeasure (premOl t o preml5) R E L I A B I L I T Y  A N A L Y S IS  -  S C A L E  (A L L)  ITEM-TOTAL STATISTICS CORRECTED ITEMTOTAL CORRELATION  SCALE MEAN IF ITEM DELETED  SCALE VARIANCE IF ITEM DELETED  PREM01  31.3460  49.6654  .4672  .7072  PREM02  31.2417  54.9937  .2096  .7345  PREM03  31.8957  52.1796  .3578  .7200  PREM04  32.2322  54.5030  .2649  .7290  PREM05  31.8057  51.8906  .3927  .7165  PREM06  32.1090  56.4976  .0906  .7475  PREM07  31.9336  51.2241  .3635  .7195  PREM08  31.7915  53.7373  .2244  .7353  PREM09  32.5687  55.4560  .2739  .7284  PREM10  31.5545  55.0673  .1658  .7406  PREM11  31.6540  50.4559  .5318  .7031  PREM12  32.0948  52.0481  .4609  .7114  PREM13  31.8720  52.3978  .4293  .7142  PREM14  31.4597  49.6972  .4746  .7064  PREM15  31.6351  50.5090  .4140  .7135  RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS  ALPHA =  N OF ITEMS = 15  211.0  N OF CASES .7359  44  ALPHA IF ITEM DELETED  T a b l e 1 Group E q u i v a l e n c y Variable By  PREHEASURE GROUP  Variable  SCORES SELECTION Analysis  Between Within  Source  D.F.  Groups  1  Groups  Total  11534.1220  210  11564.1232  Count  Mean  Standard Deviation  F Ratio  F Prob.  .5436  30.0012  30.0012  209  Variance  Mean Squares  Sum of Squares  .4618  55.1872  O N E Group  of  W A Y  - -  Standard Error  95 Pet  Int f o r Mean  Conf  Experimental Control  137 74  31.2774 32.0676  7.2728 7.7111  .6214 .8964  30.0486 30.2810  To To  32.5061 33.8541  Total  211  31.5545  7.4207  .5109  30.5474  To  32.5616  7.4288  .5114 .  30.5463  To  32.5627  .5114  25.0563  To  38.0527  Fixed  Effects  Model  Random  Effects  Model  Random  Effects  Model  - Estimate  Minimum  Maximum  14.0000 18.0000  50.0000 53.0000  Total  14.0000  53.0000  Tests  f o r Homogeneity  Group Grp Grp  1 2  of  of Between  Component  Variance  -.2621  Variances  C = Max. Variance/Sum(Variances) Cochrans (Approx.) B a r t l e t t - Box F = Maximum Variance / Minimum Variance  45  .5292, .327 1 .124  P  .550  , P =  .567  Instrument  Two - Evidence o f Racism S c a l e  The Evidence o f Racism S c a l e (Kehoe, 1994) was a d m i n i s t e r e d post-treatment t o Experimental groups, and t o C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s f o l l o w i n g a week o f r e g u l a r s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s . t e s t s performed  Validity  on t r i a l runs o f t h i s instrument a l s o l e d t o a  r e d u c t i o n i n number o f items.  In t h i s case, t h r e e items which  d i d not c o r r e l a t e as s t r o n g l y w i t h o v e r a l l r e s u l t s were removed. V a l i d i t y r e s u l t s a r e below.  Matched Dates o f B i r t h s were again  used t o l i n k p a r t i c u l a r students from p r e t o p o s t t e s t . ii  - Evidence o f Racism S c a l e - (postaOl t o  R E L I A B I L I T Y  A N A L Y S I S  -  postal4) S C A L E  (A L L)  ITEM-TOTAL STATISTICS SCALE MEAN IF ITEM DELETED  SCALE VARIANCE CORRECTED ITEM TOTAL IF ITEM CORRELATION DELETED  ALPHA IF ITEM DELETED  POSTA01  28.8710  37.2481  .3918  .6723  POSTA02  29.1344  37.7926  .3934  .6737  POSTA03  27.9570  37.7711  .2757  .6862  POSTA04  29.1022  35.7571  .5535  .6538  POSTA05  28.4355  37.7823  .2510  .6900  POSTA06  28.6828  37.9367  .2401  .6915  POSTA07  28.8280  37.1702  .4554  .6670  POSTA08  28.9570  36.9927  .2970  .6838  POSTA09  28.2151  35.9751  .3331  .6790  POSTA10  28.5591  39.9343  .1078  .7078  P0STA11  28.3871  39.4926  .1022  .7128  P0STA12  28.3495  38.1961  .2668  .6870  P0STA13  29.0108  36.9837  .4155  .6695  P0STA14  28.9032  36.4554  .4919  .6614  COEFFICIENTS: N OF CASES = 186.0 46  N OF ITEMS  = 1 4 ALPHA = .6974  instrument Three - W r i t t e n Response t o a R a c i s t I n c i d e n t  T h i s instrument was c r e a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s study t o measure knowledge o f how t o respond incident.  Experimental  to a racist  and C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s were g i v e n f o u r  examples o f r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s i n a n e c d o t a l form.  They were then  asked t o w r i t e b r i e f o u t l i n e s o f how they would respond situations. responding  t o these  The s t r a t e g y o u t l i n e d i n t h e t r a i n i n g package, f o r t o a r a c i s t i n c i d e n t , served as a model f o r  a p p r o p r i a t e responses,  and t h e b l u e p r i n t f o r s c o r i n g .  The  q u e s t i o n s used c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d t h e s c e n a r i o s g i v e n i n t h e t r a i n i n g program.  Upon t r i a l runs o f t h i s instrument  i n North  Vancouver, a s i n g l e item was c o n s i d e r e d f o r removal, as i t s mean s c o r e d i d not c o r r e l a t e w e l l w i t h o v e r a l l scores o f i n d i v i d u a l students.  I t was b e l i e v e d t h i s was due t o a d i f f e r e n c e i n l o c u s  of t h e r a c i s t i n c i d e n t .  While t h e other t h r e e items i n v o l v e d t h e  student r e a d i n g about a s i t u a t i o n which i n c l u d e d them as a p a r t i c i p a n t , i n the scenario i n v o l v i n g a r a c i s t i n c i d e n t , item d i d not.  this  However, i n t h e f i n a l d e s i g n , t h i s item was  i n c l u d e d as i t was b e l i e v e d t o r e f l e c t some o f t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n t h e t r a i n i n g package, and would t h e r e f o r e a f f o r d more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e program than i f i t were t o have been removed.  47  Instrument  Four - R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e .  Breckheimer & Nelson  (1976) used a s i m i l a r staged  social  setting to record behavioral interactions following a role-play t r a i n i n g program, along w i t h t h r e e o t h e r a n t i - r a c i s t t e a c h i n g strategies.  In t h e i r example, students were asked t o come t o an  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting i n a conference room, where they were t o w a i t a s h o r t time b e f o r e the proceedings was  got underway.  equipped w i t h a one-way m i r r o r , behind which was  r e c o r d i n g equipment.  The room  video  During the 10 minute p e r i o d , student t o  student i n t e r a c t i o n s were recorded on tape f o r l a t e r  analysis.  Students had been warned t h a t they were being v i d e o t a p e d as p a r t of  the program.  Two  undergraduate  students, unaware of the  d e t a i l s of the study, were t r a i n e d t o a 90% r e l i a b i l i t y p r i o r t o j u d g i n g the t a p e s .  Breckheimer & Nelson used  level the  s e s s i o n as a measure of s o c i o m e t r i c c h o i c e , w i t h students being asked t o s e l e c t p a r t n e r s f o r an upcoming e x e r c i s e .  Meanwhile,  b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s were recorded, r a n g i n g from c h o i c e of seating positions to verbal interactions.  The methodology of the c u r r e n t study borrows  from  Breckheimer & Nelson, but a l s o uses a somewhat d i f f e r e n t s e t of measurement d e v i c e s .  A r e s h a p i n g of the e s s e n t i a l s of  Breckheimer & Nelson's p a t t e r n f o r a n a l y z i n g student t o student i n t e r a c t i o n has been c a r r i e d out t o measure student r e a c t i o n s i n a manner more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t i n g Responding t o Racism.  48  Students are scored based upon the l e v e l t o which they p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r a c i s t s i t u a t i o n , and whether  that  p a r t i c i p a t i o n serves t o oppose o r support the r a c i s t ideas presented.  The g r a d i n g system uses a n e c d o t a l comments from two  student a c t o r s i n v o l v e d and the r e s e a r c h e r , i n coded scores from each a c t o r between one and f i v e .  A more thorough e x p l a n a t i o n o f  the workings o f the instrument are t o be found i n the upcoming Methodology  section.  49  IV  Design and Methodology  Design — 2 High S c h o o l s : —  1 Vancouver, 1 Richmond  Vancouver: 2 Grade 9 / 2 Grade 11 * Taught by Teacher A  —  Richmond:  3 Grade 11  * Taught by Teacher B 3 Grade 11 * Taught by Teacher C T o t a l o f 10 classrooms,  6 - Experimental  4 - C o n t r o l , T=262.  A l l s u b j e c t s were p r e t e s t e d with measure o f W i l l i n g n e s s t o Accept C u l t u r a l D i v e r s i t y / Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I . Mean and Anova comparison data e s t a b l i s h e d group  equivalency.  Treatment:  Experimental  A n t i - R a c i s t T r a i n i n g Package.  Control:  Regular S o c i a l s S t u d i e s Classroom Work.  A l l subjects post-tested with: a)  W r i t t e n Response t o R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s / Q u e s t i o n n a i r e III.  b)  I n d i c a t i o n of l e v e l s of racism / Questionnaire I I L i k e r t Scale.  A s m a l l e r samples p o s t - t e s t w i t h : c)  Unobtrusive Reaction t o a R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e / Number o f s u b j e c t s = 68 (40 Experimental;28 Control.)  50  Methodology  (a) S e l e c t i o n Teachers i n v o l v e d i n the study were aware o f the program as a r e s u l t of t h e i r school d i s t r i c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Consortium.  Each were c o n t a c t e d by members o f the Consortium  from t h e i r d i s t r i c t . Responding  They v o l u n t e e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t e s t i n g  t o Racism i n t h e i r classrooms.  Students i n c l u d e d a r e  members o f t h r e e c l a s s e s per teacher i n v o l v e d .  School  district  a p p r o v a l f o r the study was r e c e i v e d a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n s were made to  the r e s p e c t i v e e t h i c a l review committees o f Vancouver and  Richmond School D i s t r i c t s ,  (see Appendix C ) .  I n d i v i d u a l schools  i n v o l v e d gave t h e i r a p p r o v a l through d i s t r i c t e t h i c a l consultation.  review  Student and p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n were o b t a i n e d  through r e q u e s t forms,  (see Appendix C ) .  Students not completing s u c c e s s i v e measures were dropped from l a t e r a n a l y s i s and subsequent Behaviour measure was t h r e e f o l d .  measures. First,  S e l e c t i o n f o r the  t e a c h e r s removed names  from c l a s s l i s t s o f students who had not completed  the p r e v i o u s  t h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Second, random samples o f t e n t o twelve students were s e l e c t e d , e n s u r i n g s u f f i c i e n t numbers f o r study i n the event o f student absence.  Students were then matched i n t o  p a i r s immediately p r i o r t o t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e b e h a v i o r a l t e s t by the t e a c h e r and not the r e s e a r c h e r .  No attempt was made t o  ensure p a i r s were o f any p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c , gender, of  composition.  51  o r o t h e r type  The a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the study were s e l e c t e d a f t e r c o n t a c t w i t h the Vancouver Youth Theatre. program, i t was  t o the nature of the  necessary t h a t one student a c t o r was  v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y group, g r e a t c a r e was  Due  and the second was  not.  from a  For t h i s  taken i n s e l e c t i n g the f i n a l two  reason,  actors involved.  Both a c t o r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n i h r e g a r d s t o what the work e n t a i l e d , as w e l l as an a f t e r n o o n t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n a t UBC.  During t h i s time p o s s i b l e areas t o be used i n g e n e r a t i n g a  l i f e - l i k e r a c i s t exchange were worked out.  While the students  were made aware of the e s s e n t i a l s of the t r a i n i n g package, and the purpose  f o r the b e h a v i o r a l measure, they were not aware of  group membership of p a r t i c u l a r p a i r s of students b e i n g measured a t any  time.  (b) S c o r i n g  Premeasure and Postmeasure I s c o r i n g f o l l o w e d the L i k e r t rating scale.  Choices ranged from:  " S t r o n g l y Agree":  1 ;  "Moderately Agree": 2 ; "Can't Decide": 3 ; "Moderately : 4 ; " S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e " : 5. coded  Disagree"  N e g a t i v e l y skewed q u e s t i o n s were  l i k e w i s e , but recoded upon c a l c u l a t i o n .  This involved  approximately 40% o f the items on both Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  Students  were matched from measurement t o measurement through Dates of B i r t h , requested on each answer sheet.  Students were  from the sample i f t h i s c o u l d hot be e s t a b l i s h e d subsequent  measures.  i n the study was  dropped  through  A u n i v e r s i t y student not otherwise i n v o l v e d  brought  i n t o e n t e r the data, and a l s o t o s c o r e  52  the second Postmeasure.  S c o r i n g f o r Postmeasure I I - W r i t t e n R e a c t i o n  to  Racist  I n c i d e n t s f o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n l a i d out i n Responding t o T h i s f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e measures two support/opposition  aspects of p o s s i b l e  Racism. responses:  f o r p e r p e t r a t o r and/or v i c t i m i n the  p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t , and the s t r e n g t h of t h i s support s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a was  or  opposition.  The  e x p l a i n e d t o the data  student, who  scored t h i s measure a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g  entry  model: F u l l P o s i t i v e Intervention = 5 P a r t i a l Intervention  = 4  N e u t r a l Response  = 3  P a r t i a l Negative Response  = 2  F u l l Negative Response  = 1  A F u l l P o s i t i v e I n t e r v e n t i o n would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  an  a c t i v e attempt t o stop the p e r p e t r a t o r , or t o show d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o the r a c i s t comments, and t o support  or comfort  the v i c t i m .  A P a r t i a l P o s i t i v e I n t e r v e n t i o n would be demonstrated by apparent uneasiness  d i s p l a y e d toward the r a c i a l s l u r  an  given,  a p a r t i a l attempt t o have the p e r p e t r a t o r h a l t the a c t i o n , and/or a p a r t i a l attempt t o comfort the v i c t i m .  53  A N e u t r a l Response would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by no attempt t o stop t h e p e r p e t r a t o r o r comfort the v i c t i m , but may i n c l u d e some e f f o r t t o d i s s i p a t e o r otherwise  calm the s i t u a t i o n .  A P a r t i a l Negative Response would be evidenced or a u d i b l e support  by a v i s i b l e  f o r the p e r p e t r a t o r , be i t i n l a u g h t e r o r  some other s u p p o r t i v e gesture,  no attempt t o comfort t h e  v i c t i m , but no o v e r t attempt t o f u r t h e r add t o the namec a l l i n g , and/or t o e s c a l a t e the s i t u a t i o n .  A F u l l Negative Response would i n v o l v e an a c t i o n r e f l e c t i v e of t h e p e r p e t r a t o r , f u r t h e r i n g the r a c i a l s l u r , support  adding  f o r the p e r p e t r a t o r , and f u r t h e r i n g the d i s c o m f o r t  of t h e v i c t i m i n some way.  S c o r i n g o f the R a c i s t i n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e was done by the a c t o r s , f o l l o w i n g the above model from t h e W r i t t e n Response to a Racist Incident.  O r i g i n a l l y , hidden v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s were  t o be used, but i t was found almost immediately t h a t the o t h e r s c o r i n g techniques  were more r e l i a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o  minor f a c i a l o r v e r b a l r e a c t i o n s , which were a l l but i m p o s s i b l e t o p i c k up w i t h v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s .  Moreover, the student  found many other s u b t l e t i e s t h a t would be e s s e n t i a l l y  actors  invisible  t o a v i d e o r e c o r d i n g , such as quick i n c i d e n t s o f eye c o n t a c t , s m a l l r e a c t i o n s evidenced sighs.  by body language, and minor laughs o r  While t h e a c t o r s had some b r i e f i n g on the goals o f the  program, and were aware o f the i n g r e d i e n t s o f the s c o r i n g 54  criteria,  they were purposely not made aware o f which s u b j e c t s  were from C o n t r o l o r Experimental  groups.  The s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a  was thoroughly d i s c u s s e d w i t h the a c t o r s p r i o r t o commencement of the b e h a v i o r a l measurement. a n e c d o t a l comments  The a c t o r s were encouraged t o w r i t e  immediately  f o l l o w i n g each measurement  s e s s i o n , which added t o the r e s e a r c h e r ' s data on each p a i r i n g .  Each o f t h e two i n d i v i d u a l s under study were c a t e g o r i z e d s e p a r a t e l y , although i t was understood  the a c t i o n s of one may  have had a b e a r i n g on t h a t of the o t h e r .  Responding t o Racism  draws h e a v i l y on s o c i a l aspects o f r a c i a l l y - m o t i v a t e d behaviour, and i t was the i n t e n t of t h i s measure t o e v a l u a t e the extent t o which r e a c t i o n s of the students would f o l l o w t h i s behaviour.  Examples of anecdotal comments  a s s i g n e d by the a c t o r s f o l l o w .  55  social  and subsequent scores  Behavioral  scoring  - anecdotal  comment examples.  *Names have been changed t o p r o t e c t anonymity. *Pat and Karen are the student a c t o r s . *Pat i s o f Japanese descent; Karen, o f E n g l i s h descent, (a) F u l l - P o s i t i v e A d d r e s s a l = Score  5.  Y. was more a g g r e s s i v e i n responding t o the r a c i s t words than W. She looked d i r e c t l y a t Karen and showed d i s p l e a s u r e with a noticeable glare. Support was g i v e n t o Pat i n a nodding motion, a p p a r e n t l y suggesting Pat should i g n o r e what was going on. Y. a l s o t o l d Karen t h a t what she was s a y i n g was "garbage", " o f f e n s i v e " , and " r a c i s t . " A. c h a l l e n g e d Karen immediately. She looked a t Pat, who was the r e c i p i e n t of the r a c i s t comments from Karen, and shook her head i n d i s b e l i e f . She then gave a p e r p l e x e d look a t Karen, as i f t o say t h a t she c o u l d not understand how some people were l i k e t h i s . . . l i k e Karen was a c t i n g . She asked Karen t o stop, t o l d Pat not t o l i s t e n , and mentioned the i n c i d e n t when the r e s e a r c h e r r e t u r n e d t o the i n t e r v i e w room.  (b) P a r t i a l - P o s i t i v e A d d r e s s a l = Score  4.  D. was c l e a r l y uneasy about the r a c i s t words being s a i d by Pat. While she appeared t o agree w i t h L., she was l e s s d i r e c t i n c o n f r o n t i n g Pat, choosing t o show her d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h q u i c k glances and, a t one p o i n t , a l o n g d i s a p p r o v i n g s t a r e accompanied by a p u f f of breath i n astonishment.  S. r e a c t e d q u i c k l y when Pat made her r a c i s t remarks about Karen, although he chose t o focus d i r e c t l y on Pat, and not on h e l p i n g Karen, f o r the most p a r t . He gave her, i n Pat's words, "a c o l d hard s t a r e " which was v i s i b l e o u t s i d e the room as a c o n f r o n t a t i o n . A l e s s t a n g i b l e s i g n of support f o r Karen was a l s o n o t i c e d by both a c t o r s and the researcher. 56  (c) N e u t r a l Response = Score  3.  R. was even more d i s t a n t than the other student i n the i n c i d e n t , C. She r e a l l y d i d n ' t i n v o l v e h e r s e l f i n the s i t u a t i o n , t a k i n g c a r e not t o laugh, s m i l e , or frown i n disagreement or sympathy w i t h e i t h e r a c t o r . N e i t h e r A. nor T. were v e r y comfortable w i t h any aspect of the survey or even l e a v i n g c l a s s t o take p a r t . What appeared t o be c o n f u s i o n may very w e l l be due t o weaker l e v e l s of E n g l i s h , and a misunderstanding of what was going on. During the r a c i s t i n c i d e n t , n e i t h e r made comments of support or o p p o s i t i o n , i n f a c t , they appeared t o be q u i t e c a u t i o u s w i t h the s i t u a t i o n , and seemed t o c a r e f u l l y a v o i d coming down w i t h any type of o p i n i o n t h a t might get them involved.  (d) P a r t i a l - N e g a t i v e Response = Score  2.  N. stayed away from s u p p o r t i n g or c o n f r o n t i n g e i t h e r a c t o r immediately a f t e r Pat made comments about "White people wearing t h e i r f i n g walkmans", but soon chose t o support the r a c i s m . He laughed, smiled and made a s i m i l a r comment under h i s breath, which was hot p i c k e d up c l e a r l y by e i t h e r a c t o r . His a c t i o n s f e l l s h o r t of f u r t h e r i n g the r a c i s m , but c e r t a i n l y helped t o continue i t . A. began t o support Pat's comments immediately a f t e r h e a r i n g them. He chuckled, smiled a t N., and made a few s i m i l a r comments t o P a t ' s . I t appeared t o the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t h i s a c t i o n s were working t o f u r t h e r the r a c i s m , both student a c t o r s agreed t h i s was the case, but d i d not b e l i e v e i t warranted a f u l l - n e g a t i v e response.  (e) F u l l - N e g a t i v e Response = Score  1.  D. took o f f when Karen made a comment about s t u p i d "ch-nks" i n Richmond and Vancouver, w i t h " t h e i r fancy c a r s " . She showed immediate and s t r o n g support f o r the comments i n a way which c l e a r l y served t o add t o the r a c i s m o f the situation. Both a c t o r s were shocked a t her f u l l - f l e d g e d acceptance of the r a c i s m expressed, which even c o n t i n u e d when the r e s e a r c h e r r e t u r n e d t o the room, when she s a i d t h e r e should be d i f f e r e n t r u l e s f o r the " r e s t of us" than "them." 57  (c)  Procedure  A l l s u b j e c t s were p r e t e s t e d w i t h a measure o f W i l l i n g n e s s t o Accept C u l t u r a l D i v e r s i t y  (Culhane & Kehoe, 1994).  A Likert-type  5-point s c a l e , t h i s instrument was a d m i n i s t e r e d on a t r i a l run among 143 s u b j e c t s i n both grades  9 and 11 i n Richmond, as w e l l  as among a s i n g l e group o f approximately Vancouver c l a s s . suggested  30 grade 9's i n a North  T r i a l - r u n v a l i d i t y Means and Anova r e s u l t s  two items, which d i d not c o r r e l a t e as s t r o n g l y as t h e  o t h e r 15-items,  should be removed from the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f the  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( V a l i d i t y r e s u l t s can be found e a r l i e r , i n the Measures s e c t i o n o f the L i t e r a t u r e Review).  One week p r i o r t o  commencement o f the t r a i n i n g program, both C o n t r o l and Experimental groups completed Data was immediately  t h e Premeasure, Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I .  analyzed t o ensure C o n t r o l t o Experimental  group e q u i v a l e n c y , which was e s t a b l i s h e d , (see Measures i n L i t e r a t u r e Review).  In t h e f o l l o w i n g week, experimental students i n s i x c l a s s e s underwent t h r e e one-hour s e s s i o n s u s i n g the r o l e - p l a y and s c e n a r i o s from Responding t o Racism.  strategies  Meantime, f o u r c o n t r o l  c l a s s e s continued with regular s o c i a l studies m a t e r i a l .  Postmeasurement began one week l a t e r .  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s I I and  I I I were w r i t t e n i n the same s e s s i o n , t a k i n g up about t h i r t y minutes i n t o t a l .  The Evidence o f Racism S c a l e (Kehoe, 1994) was  a l s o t e s t e d f o r v a l i d i t y p r i o r t o use, (see Measures).  58  Matched  Dates of B i r t h s were used t o l i n k p a r t i c u l a r students from pre t o p o s t t e s t , e n s u r i n g students had w r i t t e n both measures. Comparison data was  o b t a i n e d f o r C o n t r o l t o Experimental  Gender and Grade d i f f e r e n c e .  samples,  The W r i t t e n R e a c t i o n t o R a c i s t  I n c i d e n t s measure / Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I I I i n v o l v e d g i v i n g s u b j e c t s f o u r w r i t t e n examples of r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s i n a n e c d o t a l They were then asked t o w r i t e b r i e f o u t l i n e s of how respond t o these s i t u a t i o n s .  form.  they would  The s t r a t e g y o u t l i n e d i n the  t r a i n i n g package, f o r responding t o a r a c i s t i n c i d e n t , served as a model f o r a p p r o p r i a t e responses, and the b l u e p r i n t f o r s c o r i n g . The q u e s t i o n s used c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d the s c e n a r i o s g i v e n i n the t r a i n i n g program.  Mean, T - t e s t , and Anova data was  t a b u l a t e d f o r C o n t r o l t o Experimental group  then  comparison.  Ten t o twelve days a f t e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t r a i n i n g program, random samples of students from Experimental and C o n t r o l groups (N=68) were p l a c e d i n a staged s i t u a t i o n where s t r a t e g i e s r o l e - p l a y e d i n the program c o u l d be u t i l i z e d . analysis i n pairs,  Students underwent  (n=32 Vancouver/n=36 Richmond; T o t a l Samples:  C o n t r o l n=28; Experimental n=40).  In these p a i r s , w i t h  Experimental and C o n t r o l p a i r s kept i s o l a t e d , students were asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a survey of youth a t t i t u d e s on v a r i o u s t o p i c s i n v o l v i n g autonomy i n the classroom. students from a nearby sample was  They were t o l d o t h e r  s c h o o l would a l s o be t a k i n g p a r t .  The  chosen a t random by each of the t h r e e t e a c h e r s  i n v o l v e d , who  made c e r t a i n o n l y students having w r i t t e n the t h r e e  59  p r e v i o u s measures c o u l d be s e l e c t e d . p a i r s on a c l a s s l i s t , w i t h no attempt gender o r e t h n i c grouping.  Students were grouped i n t o made t o ensure  particular  When students a r r i v e d a t a s p e c i a l  room f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e r e s e a r c h e r handed them a simple survey sheet c o n t a i n i n g f o u r q u e s t i o n s , i n s t r u c t i n g t h e two students t o be measured t o complete t h e survey along w i t h two o t h e r s t u d e n t s , e x p l a i n e d t o be from a nearby s c h o o l .  In f a c t ,  these two o t h e r students were p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s , t r a i n e d f o r the r o l e .  The r e s e a r c h e r l e f t t h e room w h i l e t h e students worked through t h e survey sheet, s a y i n g he had t o arrange t h e f o l l o w i n g groups,  and t h a t he would r e t u r n a f t e r about f i v e minutes.  Once  he had l e f t t h e room, t h e two a c t o r s chose an aspect o f t h e survey t o d i s a g r e e on.  T h e i r disagreement  turned i n t o a r a c i s t  i n c i d e n t , w i t h one o f t h e a c t o r s making r a c i s t comments toward the o t h e r , and t h e o t h e r e s s e n t i a l l y a c t i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e victim.  The a c t o r s were o f d i f f e r i n g e t h n i c i t i e s , one o f  Japanese descent, and t h e other o f E n g l i s h descent.  While t h e  s c e n a r i o progressed, t h e two a c t o r s p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e two students being measured.  Immediately  f o l l o w i n g t h e r e t u r n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , and t h e d i s m i s s a l o f t h e two  s t u d e n t s , a n e c d o t a l comments and s c o r i n g o f t h e two students  was  c a r r i e d out.  of  Care was taken t o ensure t h e p r o c e e d i n g  pairs  students t o be measured were not aware o f t h e t r u e i d e n t i t y o f  the two a c t o r s , and t h a t students r e t u r n i n g from t h e t e s t i n g d i d  60  not meet up w i t h upcoming groups immediately  upon t h e i r  arrival  back t o c l a s s .  S c o r i n g was a c t o r s , who  on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e , e n t i r e l y done by the  were c l o s e s t t o the students b e i n g measured, and a l s o  more i m p a r t i a l t o the goals of the program than the Anecdotal  two  comments recorded by the r e s e a r c h e r , who  researcher. was  able t o  view the ongoing s c e n a r i o s through a s m a l l window opening, were used t o v a l i d a t e the s c o r i n g by the a c t o r s . s c o r i n g was  However, f i n a l  t a l l i e d o n l y from the a c t o r s ' numbers.  The  cover  s t o r y of a student a t t i t u d e s survey on t o p i c s , such as "Use Walkmans i n c l a s s " , and  " E a t i n g food i n c l a s s " , seemed e f f e c t i v e .  Only a s i n g l e p a i r had t o be removed from the sample due " c a t c h i n g on" t o the s c e n a r i o , and t h i s was students p e r s o n a l l y knew one of the two t h i s p a i r was  of  because one  actors.  to of the  Fortunately,  i n the f i n a l c l a s s t o be analyzed.  Teachers  i n v o l v e d worked t o a s s i s t the c o v e r t aspect of t h i s measure, h e l p i n g t o separate the r e s e a r c h e r from the a n t i - r a c i s t program. of  training  The r e s e a r c h e r had not p r e v i o u s l y appeared t o any  students  i n v o l v e d i n the study.  Students  group  were brought i n t o  w a i t i n g areas i n p a i r s , t o ensure no c o n t a c t between past  and  upcoming groups, and teachers were c a r e f u l no students r e t u r n i n g to  c l a s s d i s c u s s e d the i n t e r v i e w s c e n a r i o they had  through d u r i n g c l a s s .  j u s t been  Anova, Means, and T - t e s t c a l c u l a t i o n s of  d i f f e r e n c e were c a r r i e d out a f t e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Racist Incident Behavioral Scale.  61  A post-hoc e v a l u a t i o n the v i c t i m s of r a c i s m was  of student empathetic l e v e l s toward accomplished through a n a l y s i s of  empathetic items from the f i r s t p o s t t e s t . i n t o a new  v a r i a b l e and  Experimental groups.  These were recoded  then compared from C o n t r o l  Both w r i t t e n and  five  behavioral  to responses t o  r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s i n h e r e n t l y measured empathetic aspects of student r e a c t i o n s , due support or o p p o s i t i o n scenarios  was  t o t h e i r s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a of whether to perpetrators  offered.  or v i c t i m s i n the  racist  However, the combination of these  two  measures w i t h the f i r s t p o s t - t e s t i n t o a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s empathy r e q u i r e d  further r e l i a b i l i t y testing, possible  through subsequence a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s r e s u l t , while a modified  of each instrument.  m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was  combination of the f i n a l two  of  only As  a  made through a  instruments, Anova, T - t e s t , and Mean  r e s u l t s from these c a l c u l a t i o n s are only being presented as i n i t i a l step toward f u r t h e r v a l i d a t i o n of these i n s t r u m e n t s .  62  an  V  Results  R e s u l t s w i l l be presented i n t h r e e s t a g e s .  Each of the  t h r e e Hypotheses c o n s i d e r e d i n the study w i l l be addressed i n turn.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , Gender and Grade a n a l y s i s w i l l  evaluated i n r e l a t i o n to a l l three  (1) - Positive  Knowledge of How  (1) Students significant incident,  participating positive  hypotheses.  to Respond to  in the program will  knowledge of how  compared with  students  be  Racism  demonstrate  to respond to a  racist  who did not participate  in the  program.  The second p o s t t e s t , W r i t t e n Reactions t o R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s , ( Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I I I ) served as the measurement d e v i c e w i t h r e g a r d t o knowledge of how  t o respond t o a r a c i s t i n c i d e n t .  Contained  i n Appendix A, i t codes w r i t t e n responses of students t o d e s c r i b e d s c e n a r i o s , c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n g those g i v e n i n the t r a i n i n g program. responded  As expected, students undergoing  training  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e l y than C o n t r o l students i n  demonstrating  a knowledge of the p a t t e r n s presented i n the  t r a i n i n g package f o r how  to react to a r a c i s t  S i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s i z e s were demonstrated  between Experimental  and C o n t r o l group means, (t=3.33) p. <.001). s u b j e c t s showed a moderate s h i f t i n Sd  incident.  Experimental  (+.47) over C o n t r o l  s u b j e c t s , whereby an average Experimental s u b j e c t ranked i n the  63  66th p e r c e n t i l e of C o n t r o l groups.  Table 2 and 3 c o n t a i n Means  and T - t e s t r e s u l t s from P o s t t e s t I I . T a b l e 2 Means - W r i t t e n R e a c t i o n t o R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s  Group 1:  EXPERIMENTAL  Number of Cases Group Group  1 2  Standard Error  Standard Deviation  Mean  .160 .292  1.760 2.315  16.9504 15.8413  121 63  CONTROL  Group 2:  T a b l e 3 T-Tests - W r i t t e n R e a c t i o n t o R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s Variance  Pooled F Value  2-Tail Prob.  I |  t Value  1.73  .011  |  3.63  Degrees Freedom  Estimate  |  of  2-Tail Prob.  I  .000  |  182  |  Separate  Variance  t Value  Degrees Freedom  3.33  100.  Estimate of  2-Tail Prob.  22  .001  These r e s u l t s agree w i t h those from the McGregor metaa n a l y s i s , which found an average improvement of (+.41Sd) i n Experimental  groups over C o n t r o l among programs u s i n g r o l e - p l a y  (McGregor, 1993). Experimental  The  s l i g h t l y higher  (+.47Sd) v a r i a n c e between  and C o n t r o l groups here may  more d i r e c t measurement p r o c e s s ,  be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a  i n r e v i e w i n g the  p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s t u d i e s from McGregor, i t was most of these used w r i t t e n measures on semantic o t h e r s c a l e s , t o e v a l u a t e post-treatment  significant found t h a t  differential,  l e v e l s of r a c i s m .  C o n t r a s t i n g t h i s , Postmeasure I I i n t h i s study i n v o l v e d a much 64  or  more d i r e c t measurement of response t o a d e s c r i b e d incident.  racist  One would expect a more s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on such  a measure, due t o the p r o x i m i t y Of the items t o the a c t u a l t r a i n i n g program.  Breckheimer  & Nelson (1976) d i d use a s i m i l a r  measure i n t h e i r study, which was  among the McGregor sample,  and  a l s o found a l a r g e r impact on Experimental s u b j e c t s than the average f o r the m e t a - a n a l y s i s .  (2) Lower Levels  of Racism, Increased  (2) Students  participating  than those in the control empathetic  Levels  of  Empathy  in the program will  be less  racist  group, as measured by attitude  and  scales.  Racism  The f i r s t p o s t t e s t , the Evidence o f Racism S c a l e was  used t o  determine post-treatment l e v e l s o f r a c i s m among C o n t r o l and Experimental groups.  Students undergoing t r a i n i n g were s l i g h t l y  l e s s r a c i s t on t h i s measure, than C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s ,  (+.16Sd).  Experimental group Means ranked i n the 56th p e r c e n t i l e o f C o n t r o l students.  O v e r a l l scores f o r C o n t r o l and Experimental groups  were q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t , w h i l e c l a s s t o c l a s s v a r i a t i o n was as evidenced i n Tables 4 and  5.  65  wide,  Table 4  Means - Evidence o f Racism Measure Value  Variable For TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH  Entire  EXP  EXP EXP  EXP EXP EXP  Total Missing  Dev  Population  30.8763  6.5224  1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11  28.0870 30.9333 31.9000 32.0909 29.8333 32.5714 29.8889 31.0000 31.2917 30.3158  6.2734 11.0871 6.8202 4.6075 6.4362 4.0935 5.7975 6.5498 6.3553 6.5917  220 34  Cases Cases  Std  Mean  Label  OR  15.5  Cases 186 23 15 20 22 12 21 9 21 24 19  PCT.  T a b l e 5 O v e r a l l Means - T - t e s t - Evidence o f Racism Number of Cases  Mean  Standard Deviation  Standard Error  121 65  30.4793 31.6154  6. 159 7. 141  .560 .886  EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL Pooled F Value 1.34  Variance  2-Tail Prob.  t Value  Degrees Freedom  .165  -1.13  184  Estimate of  Separate  Variance  Estimate  2-Tail Prob.  t Value  of Degrees Freedom  2-Tail Prob.  .258  -1.08  115.54  .281  The r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t measurement p e r i o d o f t h e study, over weeks and not months, may be p a r t l y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s l i g h t nature o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between C o n t r o l subjects. susceptible  and Experimental  Moreover, t h i s instrument i s l i k e l y t o be the one most t o what i s termed the Hawthorne Effect. 66  Under the  Hawthorne Effect,  s u b j e c t s a c t d i f f e r e n t l y because they r e a l i z e  they are i n v o l v e d i n a r e s e a r c h study (Schumacher & M c M i l l a n , 1993).  Students may  fake responses t o appear i n a more p o s i t i v e  l i g h t , or as a r e s u l t of fore-knowledge p a r t i c u l a r program.  of i n t e n d e d outcomes of a  While Experimental and C o n t r o l group  students a r e both s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h i s type o f r e a c t i o n , the use of t h r e e s e p a r a t e postmeasures  i n t h i s study serves t o l i m i t  impact of t h i s f a c t o r on the l a r g e r Experimental sample. Hawthorne Effect  As the  i s much s i m p l e r t o s i t e than t o measure, the use  of a b e h a v i o r a l measure was t h i s study.  the  seen as being p a r t i c u l a r e s s e n t i a l t o  Overt e v a l u a t i o n i s much more s u s c e p t i b l e t o any  t e s t i n g e f f e c t , i n c l u d i n g Hawthorne, on s u b j e c t responses, than c o v e r t measurement, where students are not aware they a r e b e i n g evaluated.  Breckheimer  & Nelson, 1976,  suggest the use of a h y b r i d  t r a i n i n g program t o accomplish wider ranges of a n t i - r a c i s t objectives.  They recommend a h y b r i d approach  involving  p l a y , games, and r a c i a l d i s c u s s i o n , because no s i n g l e  role-  strategy  seemed t o a f f e c t change i n each o f the b e h a v i o r a l d i f f e r e n t i a l and s o c i o m e t r i c c h o i c e s c a l e s they used. p l a y technique u t i l i z e d i n Responding  I t i s l i k e l y the r o l e -  t o Racism produces  positive  r e s u l t s i n the area of r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s , but over a l o n g e r time frame than was  allowed f o r .  Verma & Bagley  (1971,  1973,  1979)  found success i n q u a s i r o l e - p l a y s t r a t e g i e s , i n v o l v i n g both  67  discussions  of r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e  1971,  1981).  the  1973,  effectiveness  and  In t h e i r 1979 of r o l e - p l a y  m o d e l l i n g (Verma & Bagley,  study, they d i r e c t l y measured  i n comparison t o t h r e e o t h e r  d e s i g n s , f i n d i n g s h i f t s toward t o l e r a n t views on measures as a r e s u l t of r o l e - p l a y Bagley, 1979). strategy, and  The  However, they a l s o suggest a m u l t i p l e  which f e a t u r e s some components of C u l t u r a l  objectives,  (Verma & Bagley, 1979,  modest l e v e l of the  addressed i n the r e s u l t s , rather  (Verma &  approach information  of s t u d i e s  attitude  1981).  s h i f t must, however,  be  l i g h t of the p o s s i b i l i t y of producing n e g a t i v e than even s l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e ones.  m e t a - a n a l y s i s found 12%  among s t u d i e s 28%  from p r e - t o - p o s t t e s t s  Contact streams t o produce r e s u l t s over a wide range of  possible  1990  a number of  using role-play involving  McGregor's  of the e f f e c t s i z e s t o be (McGregor, 1993).  t e a c h e r s , and  31%  In the  A much h i g h e r  of those w i t h  o f f i c e r s showed n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s i n the (McGregor & U n g e r l e i d e r , 1990).  negative,  1990  studies  police  meta-analysis  w i t h these  n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s , attempts t o s e n s i t i z e groups t o i s s u e r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e had  managed t o convince a m a j o r i t y of  t o be more i n t o l e r a n t than they had While i t would be  subjects  been p r i o r t o t r a i n i n g .  f a l l a c i o u s t o argue any  l a t e n t e f f e c t would  s h i f t these n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s i z e s i n t o the p o s i t i v e realm, l a t e n t aspect should not modest p o s i t i v e s h i f t has i n the r e s u l t s of the  be so r e j e c t e d  the  i n s i t u a t i o n s where a  a l r e a d y been shown.  T h i s was  f i r s t post-measure q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 68  of  the  case  Empathy  A n a l y s i s of empathetic r e a c t i o n s towards the v i c t i m s of r a c i s m was  accomplished through a s e l e c t i o n of f i v e items from  the f i r s t p o s t t e s t , a l l of which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o empathy. Results  suggest o n l y a minor s h i f t toward more empathetic  p o s i t i o n s by Experimental  Table 6  students.  Means Post-Empathy C o n t r o l t o Experimental  Variable For E n t i r e  Population  Experimental Control  1 2  T o t a l Cases M i s s i n g Cases  As mentioned, one  Std  12.7419  3.4856  186  12.6612 12.8923  3.2623 3.8896  121 65  211 25 OR  Dev  Cases  Mean  11.8 PCT.  of the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of t h i s study  a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t b a s e l i n e f o r data c o l l e c t i o n . student  Evaluation  r e t e n t i o n of the given models f o r d e a l i n g w i t h  i n c i d e n t s , both on the w r i t t e n and b e h a v i o r a l t e s t s was e f f e c t e d by t h i s problem. of empathy were. racism, aims.  was of  racist not  However, r e s u l t s from the measurement  C r e a t i o n of empathy, and r e d u c t i o n of l e v e l s of  are the most a f f e c t i v e components of the t r a i n i n g program Taxonomies of a f f e c t i v e l y focused  educational  objectives  have p l a c e d these types of r e a c t i o n s f a r beyond e i t h e r awareness or a w i l l i n g n e s s t o respond t o a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n (Krathwohl,  69  1965;  Hopkins,1990).  Such a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e s g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e  l a t e n t r e s u l t s , which cannot be measured i n the time-frame t h i s study.  of  A n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y seeks the t r a n s m i s s i o n of  p a t t e r n s of expected behaviour.  The other two postmeasures focus  on these types o f responses, and have a c c o r d i n g l y shown more t a n g i b l e , as w e l l as p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s .  As v a l u e adjustment  g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a longer-term e f f e c t of any program, the r e s e a r c h e r may  is  training  r e - t e s t Experimental students a f t e r a  g r e a t e r p e r i o d , t o t e s t f o r a l a t e n t response on empathetic  and  a t t i t u d i n a l components, t o c o n f i r m these e x p e c t a t i o n s .  Although empathetic the marking c r i t e r i a  responses were an i n t e g r a l component of  f o r the measures of w r i t t e n and b e h a v i o r a l ,  responses t o r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s , a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s these two new  involving  instruments c o u l d riot be immediately v a l i d a t e d .  An  attempt w i l l be made then, as a r e s u l t of these f a c t o r s , t o p r e s e n t m u l t i v a r i a t e data which must s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as o n l y a suggestive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  The a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d by a  combination of the f i n a l two postmeasures found  significant  d i f f e r e n c e between C o n t r o l and Experimental samples, <.001).  Lower scores were taken as evidence of a more  response toward  the v i c t i m s of r a c i s m .  Experimental group students, on average, of  (t=3.61) p.  Control subjects.  empathetic  P e r c e n t i l e r a n k i n g s have i n the 79th  percentile  Again, these data can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d  s p e c u l a t i v e , without a more thorough  70  statistical  v a l i d a t i o n of  each o f these instruments, r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s and validity tests.  However, t h e empathetic  components o f t h e f i n a l  two measures a r e v a l i d , so t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these  findings  might a l s o suggest the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f w r i t t e n and b e h a v i o r a l e v a l u a t i o n o r i g i n a t i n g from a much more proximitous grounds, than e i t h e r a t t i t u d e o r semantic  theoretical  differential  scales.  Table 7 p r e s e n t s the means achieved from t h i s combination o f Instruments  t h r e e and f o u r .  T a b l e s 7 & 8 Means & T-Test W r i t t e n and B e h a v i o r a l Measures Number of Cases  Mean  Standard Deviation  ,  For Entire Population  68  13.1324  3.8861  Experimental Control  40 28  11.0500 16.1071  2.754 3.304  T o t a l Cases M i s s i n g Cases Pooled  Variance  211 143 OR  = Estimate  F Value  2-Tail Prob.  t Value  of Degrees Freedom  2-Tail Prob.  1.44  .294  -6.86  66  ,000  | 1  Separate  | j  t Value  Standard Error  .436 .624  67.8 PCT. Variance  Estimate  1 |  -6.64  Degrees of Freedom  51.27  2-Tail Prob.  .000  When a d j u s t e d t o a p o s s i b l e s c a l e o f 30, s i x items w i t h maximum scores o f f i v e , Experimental s u b j e c t mean s c o r e s t r a n s l a t e a p a r t i a l a d d r e s s a l response  into  (2.21), a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c a l e  l i s t e d above f o r s c o r i n g these instruments.  Whereas C o n t r o l  s u b j e c t s , measuring (3.22), rank one f u l l category h i g h e r , i n t h e non a d d r e s s a l response  area.  T r a i n e d students chose t o respond 71  i n a s l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e manner, on average, w h i l e C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s chose, on average, t o do n o t h i n g .  (3)  - Positive  Response  to a Racially-based  (3) Students significantly racist  participating more  incident,  positively  incident  in the program will to  a described,  than those not undergoing  respond and  an  actual  treatment.  R e s u l t s from a n a l y s i s o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l measure p r o v i d e d t h e c l e a r e s t evidence o f t h e success o f both t h e program and t h e t r a i n i n g package.  S i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s i z e s were  demonstrated  between c o n t r o l and experimental groups i n both Richmond and Vancouver (t=(5.44) p.< .001).  Experimental students measured i n  the 92nd p e r c e n t i l e o f C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s , c o r r e l a t i n g t o a remarkable  (+1.23Sd) s h i f t .  Tables 9 and 10 o u t l i n e the Means  and Frequencies o f r e a c t i o n s among both groups ( c l a s s by c l a s s a n a l y s i s i s i n Appendix E ) .  72  Table 9  Means - T-Test R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e Number of Cases  EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL  40 28 Pooled  F Value 1.55  2-Tail Prob. .207  Variance of Degrees Freedom  t Value 5.65  66  Mean  Standard Deviation  Standard Error  7.4750 5.1071  1.536 1.912  .243 .361  Estimate 2-TaiI Prob. .001  |  Separate  j t j Value  |  Variance Degrees Freedom  5.44  The magnitude o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e appears should be moderated by a frequency a n a l y s i s .  Estimate of  49.86  2-Tail Prob.  .001  s t a r t l i n g , but i t In g e n e r a l ,  students from C o n t r o l groups tended t o e i t h e r not r e a c t t o the staged r a c i s t i n c i d e n t , o r t o r e a c t i n a p a r t i a l l y r a c i s t manner. Whereas, students who had completed  the t r a i n i n g program tended  t o e i t h e r g i v e a n e u t r a l r e a c t i o n / o r r e a c t i n a moderately p o s i t i v e manner.  These tendencies are m a g n i f i e d i n t h e T - t e s t  r e s u l t s , but can be demonstrated c l e a r l y i n Table 10, a frequency distribution  histogram.  73  Table 10 Count 4 0 0 0 8 0 2 0 30 0 1 0 14 0 2 0 8  Frequencies  - Racist Incident Behavioral Control  Experimental  Midpoint 2.24 I 2.71 I 3.18 I 3.65 I 4.12 f 4.59 I 5.06 f 5.53 I 6.00 6.47 I 6.94 7.41 I 7.88 8.35 I 8.82 9.29 9.76 .+  4  .1  I.  12  8  Scale  +.  16  20  N o t i c e t h e two r e l a t i v e c l u s t e r s a t 6.00, r e p r e s e n t i n g N e u t r a l Scores o f "3" from both A c t o r / S c o r e r s . c l u s t e r from scores o f "4" t o "6",  i n evidence  Control  students  of P a r t i a l l y  Negative responses t o t h e r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s . C o n t r a r i l y , Experimental  s u b j e c t s , tend t o be d i s t r i b u t e d from "6" t o "8",  r e f l e c t i n g P a r t i a l l y P o s i t i v e assessments on t h e R a c i s t I n c i d e n t Behavioral Scale.  These d i f f e r e n c e s a r e exaggerated i n t h e T-  t e s t r e s u l t s somewhat, but a r e n e v e r - t h e - l e s s  74  significant.  P r e c i s e f r e q u e n c i e s on the b e h a v i o r a l measure are as f o l l o w s :  Table  11  Group Frequencies  - B e h a v i o r a l Measure  Control Value 2.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00  Experimental  Frequency  Valid Percent  4 8 1 12 2 1  5.2 10.4 1.3 15.6 2.6 1.3  Total 28  Cum Percent  Percent  Value  14.3 28.6 3.6 42.9 7.1 3.6  14.3 42.9 46.4 89.3 96.4 100.0  6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00  Frequency 18 1 12 2 7 Total 40  100.0  Valid Percent  Cum Percent  12.7 .7 8.5 1.4 4.9  45.0 2.5 30.0 5.0 17.5  Percent 45.0 47.5 77.5 82.5 100.0 100.00  R e s u l t s from the W r i t t e n Response t o R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s p a r a l l e l these, as presented Racist  Incident"  under the " P o s i t i v e Response  s e c t i o n above.  to a  Students undergoing the  Responding t o Racism r o l e - p l a y t r a i n i n g showed a (+.47Sd) s h i f t , measuring i n the 66th p e r c e n t i l e of C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s , demonstrating a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (t=(3.33) p. <.001).  75  C l a s s by c l a s s Means on t h e B e h a v i o r a l Measure were n a t u r a l l y more d i s p a r a t e , although they a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h e same frequency p a t t e r n , as presented  Table  12  i n Table 12.  Group Means - B e h a v i o r a l  Measure  (a) C l a s s by C l a s s Label  Variable For  Entire  TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH  Population 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10  EXP  EXP EXP  EXP EXP  Std  Mean  Dev  Cases  6.5000  2.0552  68  8.3750 4.8750 5.2500 8.3750 8.1667 4.7500 6.0000 6.5000 6.4000  1.6850 1.8077 1.0351 1.3025 1.6021 2.1213 3.2660 .9258 .8433  8 8 8 8 6 8 4 8 10  (b) C o n t r o l t o Experimental Label  Variable For  Entire  Population  Experimental Control  (4)  Grade Level  1 2  Mean  Std  Dev  Cases  6.5000  2.0552  68  7.4750 5.1071  1.5357 1.9117  40 28  Analysis  McGregor suggests more f a v o u r a b l e  e f f e c t s i n some o f t h e  s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d i n her meta-analysis may have been due t o an " i n c r e a s e d m a l l e a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n , " over o l d e r s u b j e c t groups such as teachers  or p o l i c e o f f i c e r s 76  (McGregor, 1993).  Table  13  Grade V a r i a n c e - Evidence o f Racism S c a l e Mean  Variable For  Entire  Population 09 11  GRADE GRADE  Dev  Cases  30.8763  6.5224  186  29.8605 31.1818  6.7351 6.4498  43 143  211 25 OR  Total Cases Missing Cases  Std  11.8  PCT.  S i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have been r a i s e d i n many o t h e r s t u d i e s . However, the present data, d i s p l a y e d i n Table 13 above, d i d not f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Grade 9 and Grade 11 students on the measurement d e v i c e s used.  Data from the f i r s t  post-  measure found some v a r i a t i o n between Grade 9 and 11 students, however when a n a l y s i s was drawn i n t o a three-way Anova c a l c u l a t i o n , t h e l e v e l o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  Grade l e v e l a n a l y s i s o f the second post-measure, W r i t t e n Response to  R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s , a l s o d i d notsuggest any  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between grades. Table  14  Grade V a r i a n c e - W r i t t e n Response to R a c i s t Incidents  Variable For GRADE GRADE  Entire  Population 09 11 Total Cases Missing Cases  Std  7.4317  2.0339  183  7.1429 7.5177  2.1135 2.0093  42 141  =  211 28 OR  77  Dev  Cases  Mean  13.3 PCT.  Anova t e s t s were a l s o performed t o a s c e r t a i n a l i n k between v a r i a b l e s , grade l e v e l and Experimental o r C o n t r o l group  status  i n regards t o l e v e l s o f empathy toward t h e v i c t i m s o f r a c i s m . Again, a n a l y s i s d i d not f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between grades.  T a b l e 15  Post-Empathy by Grade - Experimental t o C o n t r o l Signif of F  Sum o f Squares  DF  Mean Square  Main E f f e c t s TEACH GRADE  5.371 2.974 3.112  2 1 i  2.686 2.974 3.112  .218 .242 .253  .804 .624 .616  2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s TEACH GRADE  2.482 2.482  l l  2.482 2.482  .202 .202  .654 .654  3 182 185  2.618  .213 12 .306 12 .149  .887  Source o f V a r i a t i o n  Explained Residual Total  7.853 2239.760 2247.613  78  F  Grade by grade a n a l y s i s o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l measure found the l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between grade samples. due  T h i s may, however, be  t o a much l a r g e r s e l e c t i o n o f Grade 11 s t u d e n t s , due t o t h e  nature o f t h e f i n a l b e h a v i o r a l t e s t i n g p r o c e s s .  Refer t o the  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f F category o f Table 17.  Table 16  Means - B e h a v i o r a l Measure by Grade. Cases  S t d Dev  Variable  Mean  For E n t i r e P o p u l a t i o n  5.5000  2.0552  68  5.1875 5.5962  2.1046 2.0509  16 52  09 11  GRADE GRADE  T o t a l Cases M i s s i n g Cases  Table 17  211 143 OR  = =  67.8 PCT.  Anova - B e h a v i o r a l R e s u l t s Signif of F  Source o f V a r i a t i o n  Sum o f Squares  DF  Mean Square  Main E f f e c t s TEACH GRADE  445.814 437.447 24.583  2 1 1  222.907 437.447 24.583  25.801 50.634 2.846  . 000 .000 .096  2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s TEACH GRADE  13.077 13.077  1 1  13.077 13.077  1.514 1.514  .223 .223  Explained  458.890  3  152.963  17.705  .000  Residual Total  79  F  552 .919  64  8. 639  1011 .809  67  15.102  While the e f f e c t s of the Teach v a r i a b l e , o s t e n s i b l y  Experimental  or C o n t r o l group membership, are s i g n i f i c a n t t o the p.  <.001  l e v e l , Grade membership shows a low p r o b a b i l i t y e s t i m a t i o n as well.  T h i s means the impact of grade membership can o n l y  narrowly be r e j e c t e d as having no e f f e c t , speaking.  The combination of a two way  mathematically  i n t e r a c t i o n between these  v a r i a b l e s , i n Table 17, r a i s e s the mathematical t h i s v a r i a n c e i s due t o chance,  likelihood  that  r a t h e r than t a n g i b l e d i f f e r e n c e  between the f o u r student groups: Experimental and C o n t r o l f o r each of two  grades.  (5) Gender Difference  Analysis  While not a major focus of t h i s study, Gender d i f f e r e n c e on post-treatment scores warrants c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Taken c o l l e c t i v e l y , Female Mean scores>  r e g a r d l e s s of group s e l e c t i o n ,  are s t r o n g l y more p o s i t i v e than Male s c o r e s .  Gender a n a l y s i s  found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between students undergoing  training  and those i n the C o n t r o l group, n o t a b l y w i t h the knowledge of t o respond t o r a c i s m measure.  80  how  Table 18  Gender Means - Postmeasure I I (Both Genders)  POPULATION  Mean 16.57  (183)  T o t a l Sample Means: Male  15.89  Female  (75)  Female  Table 19  15.08  16.19  (108)  Experimental Group:  C o n t r o l Group: Male  17 .04  Male  (26)  (36)  Female  16 .33  17 .46  (49)  (72)  Means by Gender - Post-Empathy MEANS 12.74  TOTAL POPULATION Male EXPERIMENTAL  13.74 (50)  CONTROL  14.07 (27)  GENDER  (186)  Female 11.90 (71) 12.05 (38)  •  When Experimental t o C o n t r o l comparison i s made w i t h i n each gender, however, impact o f t h e treatment remains c o n s i s t e n t w i t h non-gender-based a n a l y s i s . are  V a r i a n c e from Female t o Male r a t i n g s  v i r t u a l l y e q u i v a l e n t from pre t o post measures.  analysis also furnished s i g n i f i c a n t  81  gender v a r i a n c e .  Post-empathy  T a b l e 20  Gender Anova - Post-Empathy * * *  GENDER  BY  Source  of V a r i a t i o n  A N A L Y S T  S  OF  V A R I A N  C E  *  * *  GROUP Sum of Squares  DF  165.593 2.180 163.334  Main Effects TEACH SEX  2 1 1  .343 .343  2-way Interactions TEACH SEX  i  3  165.936  Explained  1  Mean Square  Signif of F  F 7.239 .191 14.280  .001 .663 .000  .030 .030  .863 .863  55.312  4.836  .003  82.797 2.180 163.334 .343 .343  Residual  2081.676  182  11.438  Total  2247.613  185  12.149  While a n a l y s i s of female s u b j e c t s alone demonstrates what appears t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , once again, t h i s i s more f u l l y e x p l a i n e d through  the Anova r e s u l t s .  When Gender  d i f f e r e n c e i s compared t o the much g r e a t e r e f f e c t of being i n or out o f t h e treatment to  group, the r e s u l t i n g 2-way I n t e r a c t i o n f a i l s  produce a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Gender groups, see  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f F i n Table 20.  T h e r e f o r e , although  respondents d i d measure mathematically  female  lower on the post-empathy  items, t h e i r o v e r a l l scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t i n comparison t o those generated  between C o n t r o l and Experimental  groups.  A n a l y s i s o f the R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e f o l l o w e d t h i s p a t t e r n , as presented  on Tables 21 and 22.  82  Table 2 1  Means by Gender- R a c i s t i n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l Scale  5. 50 (68)  TOTAL POPULATION Male  GENDER  Female  EXPERIMENTAL  4.82 (17)  4.30 (23)  4. 53 (40)  CONTROL  6.80 (15)  7.00 (13)  6. 89 (28)  * * *  Source  A N A L Y S I S  of  Variation  Main Effects TEACH SEX 2-way Interactions TEACH SEX Explained  0  F  V  A  R  I A N  C  E  *  *  *  Sum of Squares  DF  Mean Square  F  Signif of F  93.156 89.379 .810  2 1 1  46.578 89.379 .810  15.878 30.469 .276  .000 .000 .601  2.103 2.103  1 1  2.103 2.103  .717 .717  .400 .400  95.260  3  31.753  10.825  Residual  187.740  64  2.933  Total  283.000  67  4.224  Table 22  .000  Anova - Gender D i f f e r e n c e R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l Scale  As e x p l a i n e d above f o r the previous measure, t h e 2-way I n t e r a c t i o n o f t h i s Anova c a l c u l a t i o n found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between females and males w i t h i n the same groups, C o n t r o l o r Experimental. 83  treatment  VI  Summary and  Conclusion  T h i s t h e s i s r e p o r t e d on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an training  program implemented at secondary schools  and Richmond i n February and March of 1995.  The  Responding t o Racism; a guide f o r High School  anti-racist  i n Vancouver program, u s i n g  Students,  demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change between Experimental C o n t r o l samples i n two (+.16Sd) i n a t h i r d .  of t h r e e postmeasures, and  and  s l i g h t change  F o l l o w i n g o n l y t h r e e hours of  anti-racist  r o l e - p l a y e x e r c i s e s from Responding t o Racism, students  trained  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o respond i n a s t a g e d - r a c i s t i n c i d e n t with e i t h e r a p a r t i a l l y p o s i t i v e or f u l l y p o s i t i v e a d d r e s s a l , when compared t o t h e i r C o n t r o l group  The  Racist Incident Behavioral Scale  counterparts.  (Culhane, 1995), found  s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t among t h i s sample of 68 students Exp.  / 28-Cntl.),  (t=(3.33) p.<.001).  These students  92nd p e r c e n t i l e (+1.23Sd) of C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s . the 40 Experimental students  who  were i n the  Moreover, none of  underwent the c o v e r t  behavioral  measure, acted i n a manner t h a t aggravated the r a c i a l aspect the s c e n a r i o f u r t h e r .  T h i s markedly d i f f e r e d w i t h the  sample, among whom 16 of 28 students comments and  a c t i o n s i n the staged  q u e s t i o n n a i r e on W r i t t e n Reaction  f u r t h e r e d the  scenario.  (40-  of  Control  racist  A posttest  t o R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s a l s o found  s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e between Experimental groups t o  84  Control,  (t=(3.83) p.<.001), w i t h students undergoing  measuring  i n the 68th p e r c e n t i l e o f C o n t r o l students  Students undergoing t r a i n i n g demonstrated  treatment (+.47Sd).  s l i g h t change  toward more empathetic  f e e l i n g s toward  the v i c t i m s of r a c i s m .  L i k e r t - t y p e empathetic  r a t i n g items alone d i d not d i s t i n g u i s h  t h i s as a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups,  and a  m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g w r i t t e n and b e h a v i o r a l r e a c t i o n s t o g i v e n r a c i s t s i t u a t i o n s was example.  presented o n l y as an  F u r t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the f i n a l two  used i n t h i s study must be accomplished  illustrative instruments  prior to multivariate  use.  Responding t o  Racism p r o v i d e d students w i t h methods f o r  responding t o r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s which were c l e a r l y i n evidence on w r i t t e n and b e h a v i o r a l measures.  P r o v i s i o n of support f o r the  v i c t i m s i n the r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s , o p p o s i t i o n t o the p e r p e t r a t o r s , and p o s i t i v e attempts  t o l i m i t the r a c i s t elements  of each  i n c i d e n t were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y more apparent i n responses of Experimental students over those from the C o n t r o l group. r e s u l t s r e a f f i r m the u t i l i t y of r o l e - p l a y a n t i - r a c i s t and v a l i d a t e the use of Responding t o package f o r use i n secondary  Racism as an  The  training,  effective  s c h o o l s e t t i n g s capable of  s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on student behaviour i n r a c i a l l y motivated  situations.  85  Results  from the R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l  Scale  demonstrated the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the Responding t o Racism t r a i n i n g package i n a manner which c o u l d not be  accomplished  without the use of a c o v e r t measurement of student  behaviour.  While a number of important concerns should be r a i s e d over use of any  the  type of c o v e r t e v a l u a t i o n i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g ,  the r e s u l t s of t h i s study c o n f i r m the u t i l i t y of measurement of a n t i - r a c i s t t r a i n i n g programs.  covert  Without the use  the R a c i s t I n c i d e n t B e h a v i o r a l S c a l e , t h i s study would o n l y  of  be  a b l e t o p o i n t t o the s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e demonstrated on the second w r i t t e n p o s t - t e s t , the W r i t t e n Reaction  to Racist  I n c i d e n t s , f o r an o v e r a l l impact of the i n t e r v e n t i o n on student  actions.  likely  With i t s i n c l u s i o n , a powerful a n a l y s i s of  program's e f f e c t was  able t o be c a r r i e d out.  As a r e s u l t ,  Responding t o Racism can be c l e a r l y demonstrated as extremely e f f e c t i v e i n changing student motivated s i t u a t i o n s .  86  the  being  behaviour i n r a c i a l l y -  VII  Directions  for Further  Research  A wide range of p o s s i b l e areas f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h have been opened up as a r e s u l t of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study. first  The  f o r these i n v o l v e s f u r t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and refinement  the new  instruments  c r e a t e d f o r use i n the study.  Incident Behavioral Scale affords a r e l a t i v e l y  of  The R a c i s t  simple,  u n o b t r u s i v e , and y e t e t h i c a l l y f e a s i b l e method f o r measuring a c c u r a t e b e h a v i o r a l r e a c t i o n s of students i n r a c i s t Researchers  concerned  w i t h the impact  i n t e r v e n t i o n s c o u l d accomplish  t o R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s instrument  of a n t i - r a c i s t  a great d e a l by b u i l d i n g on  e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of t h i s instrument i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s and s e t t i n g s .  situations.  the  through r e - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s  L i k e w i s e , the W r i t t e n  Reaction  c o u l d serve r e s e a r c h e r s i n a  s i m i l a r manner, without the use of c o v e r t d e c e p t i o n .  R e s u l t s of t h i s study r e a f f i r m Bandura's S o c i a l  Learning  Theory, most n o t a b l y i n i t s underpinning of the f o u n d a t i o n f o r role-play training.  The  s t r a t e g i e s l a i d out by Bandura were  f o l l o w e d i n the methodology of the design f o r Responding t o Racism.  Student  r e a c t i o n s on both w r i t t e n and b e h a v i o r a l  measures p a r a l l e l e d those presented by Bandura i n h i s e a r l i e r work, as w e l l as those of numerous other r e s e a r c h e r s who these s t r a t e g i e s f o r use i n a n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y . a d a p t a t i o n and refinement  adapted  Further  of S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory emerges as a  second area f o r suggestion, i n l i g h t of the 87  significantly  positive  e f f e c t s i z e s produced on two  components used i n t h i s  The  of the  three  result  study.  e f f e c t of a n t i - r a c i s t r o l e - p l a y  t r a i n i n g programs l i k e  Responding t o Racism on d i f f e r i n g groups, such as those v a r i o u s e t h n i c i t i e s , age,  and  a p o s s i b l e area f o r f u r t h e r involving  such r o l e - p l a y  gender compositions a l s o emerges as  research.  Cross-cultural  t r a i n i n g appear t o be  suggestions of t h i s study c o u l d be e s p e c i a l l y no  special  attempt t o c a r r y out  particular  e t h n i c i t i e s was  variations  i n reaction  c o l l e c t i v i s t cultures,  area where  relevant.  t r a i n i n g w i t h students  made i n t h i s study, r e s e a r c h  suggested by the  results  should a l s o be  Training  Cultural  components o f  assumptions anti-racist  a growing f i e i d f o r f u t u r e study, g i v e n  s i t u a t i o n of an  increasingly  such as Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. further  into  a l r e a d y works  i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y of many m a j o r i t y - g r o u p focused  programs t o the  of  s t r a t e g y t h a t i s s i m i l a r t o Responding t o  than those made by Bandura.  the  Although  presented here.  Racism, a l b e i t w i t h somewhat d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l  training  the  as w e l l as between more s p e c i f i c b i -  Cross-Cultural Assimilation  within a theoretical  an  studies  among s u b j e c t s from i n d i v i d u a l i s t versus  c u l t u r a l comparisons are Triandis'  involving  suggest comparison and  The  reanalysis  training  multicultural results  of t h i s  of r o l e - p l a y  anti-  r a c i s t t r a i n i n g w i t h these concerns more d i r e c t l y i n mind.  88  region study  F i n a l l y , g i v e n the recommendations  o f Responding t o Racism  f o r student r e a c t i o n s t o r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s , q u e s t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e a l s o a r i s e as an area f o r f u t u r e study. few o f these would be whether i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h d i f f e r i n g  A  self-  concepts r e a c t i n manners which serve t o m a i n t a i n these c o n c e p t i o n s ; whether c e r t a i n groups o f students a r e more u n l i k e l y t o respond, due t o the c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l nature o f the suggestions i n Responding t o Racism; and whether students who measure h i g h on v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s which suggest a more a s s e r t i v e o r c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y are more l i k e l y t o respond f a v o u r a b l y t o t h i s type o f t r a i n i n g  program.  89  VIII  References  Ashworth, M., Cummins, J . , & Handscombe, J . 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(1981) Nonreactive Measures i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( 2 n d E d i t i o n ) Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co.  95  IX  Appendixes  Appendix A - Measures L i s t o f Appendixes Questionnaire I Questionnaire II Questionnaire I I I Answer sheets  96 97 98 99-100 101-102  Appendix B - Equivalency Group E q u i v a l e n c y Anova T-Tests  103 104  Appendix C - Forms UBC E t h i c a l Review Acceptance Richmond Acceptance L e t t e r Vancouver Acceptance L e t t e r Parental Permission L e t t e r s Information Sheets - Student - Teacher  106 107 108 109 110 112  Apppendix D - Training Package Excerpts C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s One and Two  114  Appendix E - Scores Scores - Group Means Premeasure Postmeasure I Postmeasure I I Postmeasure I I I  118 118 119 120  96  Opinion  Questionnaire  Directions:  I  For each statement, put a check mark on t h e answer sheet b e s t d e s c r i b i n g your o p i n i o n .  1 . When t h e r e are a l o t o f people around who a r e d i f f e r e n t me, I'm not v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e .  from  2.  F o r e i g n languages o f t e n sound p l e a s i n g t o the e a r .  3.  People w i t h d i f f e r e n t backgrounds don't u s u a l l y have a g r e a t d e a l i n common.  4.  The o p p o r t u n i t y t o know people who a r e d i f f e r e n t from you i s a r e a l advantage o f l i v i n g i n a c i t y l i k e t h i s one.  5.  People whose way o f l i f e i s d i f f e r e n t from my f a m i l y ' s make me f e e l out o f p l a c e .  6. Going t o a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e every year i s t h e b e s t way t o take vacations. • 7. D i f f e r e n c e s among people do riot stand i n the way o f f r i e n d s h i p and understanding. 8. Because d i f f e r e n c e s among people mainly d i v i d e them, people should t r y t o be more a l i k e . 9.  You can l e a r n a l o t from people whose backgrounds a r e d i f f e r e n t from y o u r s .  10.  I t ' s u s u a l l y best t o shop i n the same s t o r e s so t h a t you can known what t o expect.  11.  I enjoy b e i n g around people who are d i f f e r e n t from me.  12.  A country where people have a wide v a r i e t y o f backgrounds i s l i k e l y t o be an i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e t o l i v e .  13.  People whose way o f l i f e i s d i f f e r e n t from my f a m i l y ' s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g t o me.  .14.  15.  I t ' s hard t o know how t o get along w e l l w i t h people d i f f e r e n t backgrounds. A c o u n t r y where everyone has the same background b e t t e r o f f than a very mixed one. 97  from  is a lot  Opinion  Questionnaire  Directions;  II  For each of the f o l l o w i n g statements, place a check mark on the answer sheet i n the spot which best d e s c r i b e s your o p i n i o n .  1. I would t r y . t o stop someone who because of t h e i r r a c e . 2. I f e e l s o r r y f o r people who  made fun of someone e l s e  are c a l l e d r a c i a l  3. I would j o i n a support group t o h e l p people who racial slurs.  slurs. are c a l l e d  4. I f e e l angry when I see someone being p i c k e d on because of their culture. 5. People who are r e c e n t immigrants wouldn't get i n t o t r o u b l e i f they d i d n ' t behave d i f f e r e n t l y . 6. Most r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s are not the f a u l t of the v i c t i m s . 7. I would do as much as p o s s i b l e t o stop d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t someone on the b a s i s of h i s or her s k i n c o l o u r . 8. I don't c a r e what experts say, people w i t h d i f f e r e n t s k i n c o l o u r don't share the b a s i c Canadian v a l u e s t h a t I h o l d . 9. Although I can't h e l p f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r them, I must admit t h a t some people of c o l o u r simply b r i n g the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on themselves. 10. With a l l of the government's programs, people can't about d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Canada anymore.  complain  11. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t non-whites i s a problem i n Canada. 12. People who meet w i t h m i s f o r t u n e have o f t e n brought themselves.  i t on  13. I f e e l badly when I see someone being "put down". 14. I o f t e n have concerned  f e e l i n g s f o r people who  98  are v i c t i m s .  Questionnaire I I I  Block Date o f B i r t h : day_  Male Female month year  D i r e c t i o n s t A f t e r r e a d i n g each o f the f o l l o w i n g s h o r t passages, answer the q u e s t i o n i n the space p r o v i d e d i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e . (1)  In a Grade 10 c l a s s B i l l Chan i s being p i c k e d on by Joe W i l t o n f o r having a Cantonese accent when speaking E n g l i s h . Bill t e l l s Joe t o mind h i s own b u s i n e s s , but Joe doesn't s t o p . B i l l gets more and more mad a t Joe, and e v e n t u a l l y they s t a r t pushing and shoving each o t h e r around. Joe makes B i l l r e a l l y mad when he s t a r t s t o pretend t o speak Chinese.  Q u e s t i o n : I f you were s i t t i n g a c r o s s the t a b l e from Joe and what would you do i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ?  (2)  Bill,  E l v i r and Ademir are r e c e n t newcomers t o Canada. They are working on some E n g l i s h homework i n the c a f e t e r i a a t t h e i r school. Two t a b l e s over, Geoff and Paulo a r e e a t i n g t h e i r lunch w h i l e E l v i r translates some d i f f i c u l t words into C r o a t i a n f o r Ademir. Paulo gets angry when he hears them u s i n g C r o a t i a n . He shouts out a r a c i s t name a t them, and t e l l s them to shut up, l e a r n E n g l i s h , or go back t o where they came from.  Q u e s t i o n : Imagine you are Geoff, s i t t i n g b e s i d e Paulo. What would you do i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? Give d e t a i l s .  99  (3) The Chou f a m i l y i s having a g e t - t o g e t h e r over S p r i n g Break i n Penticton. L o u i s e and Shin Yee a r e c o u s i n s . They a r e t a l k i n g about t h e i r plans f o r the week i n t h e Okanagan, when Shin Yee shocks L o u i s e by t e l l i n g her she hopes no white people come on the trip. Shin Yee's f a m i l y i s q u i t e new t o Canada, having come from Hong Kong o n l y two years ago. L o u i s e doesn't want t o make a scene, but s t i l l t h i n k s Shin Yee i s being r a c i s t . S h i n Yee says her mother doesn't want her t o have any "white boys," as b o y f r i e n d s , because then she w i l l l o s e her Chinese r o o t s . Question;  Imagine you a r e L o u i s e . What would s i t u a t i o n ? Please g i v e d e t a i l s .  you do i n t h i s  (4) In order t o get School S e r v i c e P o i n t s , you r e g u l a r l y h e l p out i n an ESL c l a s s d u r i n g lunchtime. One day, two students i n the c l a s s get i n t o an argument over how t o pronounce the word "encyclopedia." Although the two students i n v o l v e d , Gerome and Inder a r e younger than you, you s t i l l don't r e a l l y want t o get i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r l i t t l e argument. They s t a r t t o g e t i n t o a pushing match. You a r e i n charge, so you have t o do something t o keep t h i n g s under c o n t r o l . Gerome s t a r t s t o y e l l a t Inder i n French and Inder y e l l s back i n P u n j a b i . Your French i s good enough to understand t h e type o f swear words and r a c i s t terms Gerome i s c a l l i n g Inder, and you guess i n d e r ' s words probably mean the same thing. Q u e s t i o n : How would you respond t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? a l l o f the a c t i o n s you would t a k e .  100  Please explain  QUEST  Scrcngly  Mccaracal7  Car.' c Decide  Hocieracal7  4  5  6 7 3  10 \ T  12 13 U. i*  Grade/Block Birthdate Day Month  Male Year  Female  (Circle)  Scrraglj  QUESTIONNAIRE I I AHSUER  S n c T i  Car.'c  Strongly  Mcderaceiy  Decide  Moderately  12.  3. 4.  5. 6.  7. 3. 9. 10. 11. 12.  13. 14.  Grade/Block Birthdate Day Month  Male Year  Female ( C i r c l e )  Strongly  Appendix B Group 7 a r i a n c a Comparison Analysis of Varianca Grouo 01-03  Ratio  Sourcs  3erween  Groups  Prob.  Sun o f Squares  Mean Squares  80.1239  40.0645  61  3419.6211  56.0594  63  3499.7S00  O.F.  Sum o f Squares  Mean Squares  2  30.3564  15.1732  61  4170.S311  63.3702  63  4200.9375  0-.f.  2 .7147 Within .4934  Groups Total  Grouo  02-04 F  Ratio 3etueen .2220 Within .3016  Prob.  Sourcs Groups Groups Total  Grouo F Ratio Setueen .0431 Within .3277  06-07  Prob.  Sourca Grates Groups  Total Group F Ratio Between .0633 Within .9340  Sum o f Squares  Mean Squares  1  3.0300  3.0300  35  2205.7267  63.0208  36  2203.7563  F O.F.  06-08 Sura of Squares  Mean Squares  2  3.1576  4.0788  46  2745.3934  59.6325  43  2753.5510  F Prob.  Sourcs Groups Groups  Total  O.F.  / O S  \ Grouo  Ratio 3etween .3316 Within .7189  09- 11  Sourca Grouos Groups  Total Group  2  31.4367  15.7433  70  3322.9517  47.4707  72  335A. 4334  10-11  F Ratio  F Sourca  3 a tV e e n  Cronos  .4402 Within .5103  Mean Squares  Sua of Squares  D.F.  Prob.  Mean  D.r.  of Squares  1  19.6980  47  2103.1183  43  2122.3163  SUB  Prob.  Grouos Total  Group E q u i v a l e n c y  Squares 19.5930 44.7472  T-test3  (a) Vancouver Groups Number of Cases 25 20  01 03  a.-ouo Grouo  Pooled  Value  2-Tail Prob.  1.54  .315  Variance  Mean  23.5000 321.2000  Value  -1.23  1.18  19 25  02 04 Pooled  2-Tail Prob. .696  t  2-Tail Proo. .207  43  Group Group  Value  Separate  Value  Variance t  Mean  Degrees Freedom  estimate  or  2-Tail Prob. .220  36.14  3.970 3.264  of  2.053 1.653  Separate  Estimate Degrees  Standard Error  Standard Deviation  30.3634 32.0400  Freedom  2-Tail Prob.  Value  -.64  Variance  -1.25  Number of Cases  F  of  1.217 1.538  6.333 7.551  Estimate Degrees Freedom  t  Standard Error  Standard Deviation  t Value  42  /of  .525  -.63  Variance Degrees Freedom  37.12  Estimate of  2-Tail Prob.  .530  ( i ) Richmond Groups Number of Cases Grouo Grouo  14 23  06 07 Pooled  F Value  2-Tail Prob.  1.62  .208  Mean  t Value  estimate Degrees Freedom 35  -.22 Numoer of Cases  Group Group  Pooled F Value  2-Tail Prob.  1.49  .389  Pooled F Value  2-Tail Prob.  1.02  .955  Variance t Value -.66  Degrees Freedom  09 11 Pooled  F Value  2-Tail Prob.  1.20  .662  24 25 Variance t Value -.74  of  47  Number of Cases Group Group  2-Tail Prob.  t Value  6.727 6.653 Separate t Value  47  /oS~  .462  Van'ance Degrees Freedom  Estimate of  2-Tail Prob. .727  23.76  1.373 1.331 Variance Degrees Freedom  Estimate of  2-Tail Prob. .510  46.37  1.437 1.331  Separate 2-Tail Prob.  .333  22.71  Standard Error  7.283 6.653  Estimate of  -.66  Standard Deviation  31.0833 32.5600  2-Tail Prob.  Standard Error  Standard Deviation  .510  Mean  Degrees Freedom  -.35  2-Tail Prob.  of  2.435 2.022  Separate  Estimate  Degrees Freedom  Estimate  Standard Error  9.110 7.004  31.2917 32.5600  25  Variance  -.21  .732  Mean  24  10 11  of  24  Numoer of Cases Group Group  t Value  Standard Deviation  Estimate Oegrees Freedom  -.35  2-Tail Prob.  32.7143 33.3333  Van'ance t Value  Separate  .323  Mean  14 12  06 08  of  2.435 1.492  9.110 7.157  32.7143 33.2043  Varianca  Standard Error  Standard Oeviation  t Value -.74  Varianca Degrees Freedom 46.20  Estimate of  2-Tail Prob. .463  THE  I N IVERSITY  OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  Faculty o f Education Department of Curriculum Studies 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, B . C . Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (.604) 322-5422  Fax:(604) 822-4714  Thank you very much for participating in an Anti-Racism Program for Secondary Schools. This letter will explain your part in our program. Should you not wish to be involved in these Questionnaires, please inform your teacher. The program involves the writing of three brief Questionnaires which are included in this package. (1) Before the Anti-Racism program which will take place in your class. Questionnaire One will take about fifteen or twenty minutes to complete. (2) & (3) One week after the program, two further Questionnaires are to be filled out. Questionnaires Two and Three take about thirry-Sve minutes in total to complete.  Answers on these Questionnaires are to be kept entirely confidential. However, we must make certain that the same students are involved in writing each Questionnaire. For this reason, you will find a number at the top of each page in your package. Please remember this number, and make certain you use the same Questionnaire package for each of the three writings. Again, thank you for completing these Questionnaires, your assistance is greatly appreciated.  Regards,  Stephen Culhane & John Kehoe //O  T O  T H E  These q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are assess student attitude d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i r own.  S T U D E N T S  being developed i n toward people of  order to cultures  T e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d w h i c h may b e used to h e l p s t u d e n t s . b e t t e r understand t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward other people. By c o m p l e t i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s y o u a r e h e l p i n g w i t h a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t to develop the teaching m a t e r i a l s .  ///  THE UNIVERSITY  OF B R I T I S H C O L U MB I A  Faculty of Education  Department of Curriculum Studies 2125 Main Mall Vancouver. B . C . Canada V6T 1 Z 4 Tel: (60-t) 322-5^22  Fax: (6041 322-4714  victim of the racial slurs?; 3) do they appear to support the victim or the perpetrator?; and finally, 4) what is their reaction once the researcher returns?  Results from the Questionnaires and Observational measures are to be compared, essentially between students in, and out of the training program. It is hoped the findings of this study will support previous research in demonstrating the effectiveness of this type of anti-racism program. Moreover, the use of a behavioral test will extend understanding of how such programs impact on student actions in situations beyond the classroom.  Data from individuals, particular classes, and each individual schools involved are to be kept entirely confidential. A numbering system will be necessary, however, to ensure results reported reflect changes of the same group of students from the beginning to the end of the test. Once this has been accomplished, all traces of names and Questionnaire answers or. Observational records are to be destroyed. A final report on the study's findings will be made available for interested teachers and their classes. Again, thank you for participating in this study, your assistance is greatly appreciated, and integral to its success.  Regards,  Stephen Culhane  //3  Appendix D T r a i n i n g Package  Excerpts  From: Responding t o R a c i s t I n c i d e n t s (Kehoe, Culhane, & Lee, 1995). Preface The purpose o f t h i s t r a i n i n g package i s t o t e a c h h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s how t o respond t o r a c i s t i n c i d e n t s . I t i s our e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a r a c i s t i n c i d e n t and d e s c r i b e an a p p r o p r i a t e response. I t i s a l s o our e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e students w i l l respond a p p r o p r i a t e l y when f a c e d w i t h an a c t u a l r a c i s t i n c i d e n t . F i n a l l y , i t i s our e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e program w i l l become less racist. The m a t e r i a l s should be used i n classrooms where t h e r e can be a p u r p o s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n c i d e n t s and a p p r o p r i a t e responses. I t i s most important t h a t students be g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e r e s p o n d i n g t o an i n c i d e n t . I t i s imperative that the p r a c t i c e be taken s e r i o u s l y . I t needs t o be emphasized t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r and language o f the p e r p e t r a t o r s i s used t o i l l u s t r a t e the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t . N e i t h e r t h e behaviour nor t h e language i s a c c e p t a b l e under any o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . U n g e r l e i d e r and Douglas (1989) have suggested f o u r p o s s i b l e t y p e s o f r e s p o n s e s t h a t students might use when c o n f r o n t i n g a r a c i s t i n c i d e n t . They are: no response, n e u t r a l response, p a r t i a l a d d r e s s a l and f u l l a d d r e s s a l . A person who g i v e s no response t y p i c a l l y i g n o r e s a s i t u a t i o n and pretends they d i d not see o r hear anything. A n e u t r a l response does n o t c o n f r o n t t h e i s s u e , b u t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t something has happened by t e l l i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o s t o p o r t o g e t back t o work. A p a r t i a l a d d r e s s a l takes p l a c e when t h e p e r p e t r a t o r i s t o l d t h e comments a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e b u t t h e v i c t i m i s n o t r e a s s u r e d and no punishment i s g i v e n . Another k i n d o f p a r t i a l a d d r e s s a l i s when t h e p e r p e t r a t o r i s i g n o r e d b u t t h e v i c t i m i s g i v e n assurance, support and comfort. A third partial a d d r e s s a l i s when t h e p e r p e t r a t o r i s c o n f r o n t e d and t h e v i c t i m i s r e a s s u r e d b u t no punishment i s g i v e n t o the p e r p e t r a t o r . Most h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i l l not be i n a p o s i t i o n t o a d m i n i s t e r punishment. A f u l l a d d r e s s a l i s when t h e i n c i d e n t i s d i s c u s s e d , t h e p e r p e t r a t o r i s punished, and t h e v i c t i m i s r e a s s u r e d p u b l i c l y and p r i v a t e l y .  C r i t i c a l Incident Situation:  if™h«*y  Qua  Three Grade Ten boys a r e w a l k i n g i n t o an E n g l i s h c l a s s immediately a f t e r a heated f l o o r hockey game i n P.E. c l a s s .  P a r t i c i p a n t s : Masaki i s o f Japanese descent; Joey, o f U k r a i n i a n d e s c e n t , and P a u l o f Greek d e s c e n t . S c e n a r i o : Masaki pushes Joey. Joey t r i p s over a garbage can at t h e e n t r a n c e t o Mr. Stewart's E n g l i s h c l a s s , and f a l l s over. Paul i s f r i e n d s w i t h both boys. JOEY: ( S t a n d i n g up, a n g r i l y ) Masaki?!  Hey!  What's your problem  MASAKI: What do you mean...?  Eh... l o o k i t was  an a c c i d e n t .  (Mr. Stewart i s g a t h e r i n g books from a s u p p l y room a t t h e back o f the c l a s s . He can hear what i s g o i n g on, but cannot see.) JOEY: ( S e e i n g o t h e r s t u d e n t s a r e watching; becoming angry and embarrassed) Ya, r i g h t . . . l i k e t h e way you p l a y hockey man... you NIPS j u s t c a n ' t p l a y ! MASAKI: ( F l u s t e r e d and angry) that... JOEY: Hey,  I've t o l d you not t o c a l l  i t ' s no b i g d e a l . . .  (Masaki moves d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f Joey, t o c o n f r o n t MASAKI: Don't do i t !  him.)  (pushes on JOEY'S s h o u l d e r s ) .  (A t h i r d s t u d e n t , P a u l , s t e p s between t h e PAUL: Come on you guys, j u s t r e l a x ,  two.) eh...  me  Discussion 1.  Here a r e f o u r p o s s i b l e responses by P a u l . A f t e r r e a d i n g them, d e c i d e which one you f e e l t o be most a p p r o p r i a t e t o this situation. Choice A Separate t h e two boys and d e c i d e t o t r e a t them e q u a l l y , w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e o f showing t h e y a r e both wrong. Choice B Separate t h e two boys, and then go and s i t down. Choice C A f t e r s e p a r a t i n g t h e boys, e x p l a i n t o Joey t h a t h i s comment was u n a c c e p t a b l e , and s i m p l y w i l l n o t be t o l e r a t e d . Make a p o i n t o f s p e a k i n g t o Joey and Masaki i n an e q u a l way f o r t h e physical altercation. T e l l Joey he s h o u l d n o t use t h e term even i n f u n . P r o v i d e comfort t o Masaki, by t e l l i n g him t h a t Joey s h o u l d n o t have s a i d what he s a i d . Choice D Once t h e two boys have been p u l l e d a p a r t , take t h e time t o t e l l Joey t h a t h i s comment was i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Explain to him t h a t t h i s type o f r a c i a l s l u r i s not a c c e p t a b l e .  2.  Each o f t h e c h o i c e s on t h e p r e v i o u s page r e f l e c t one o f f o u r b a s i c responses t h a t c o u l d be g i v e n i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n : NoResponse, N e u t r a l Response, P a r t i a l A d d r e s s a l , and F u l l Addressal.  The l e a s t e f f e c t i v e response i s Choice B. T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be No-Response. I t i g n o r e s both t h e r a c i a l and t h e a l t e r c a t i o n i t s e l f .  slur  C h o i c e A i s a N e u t r a l Response. While t h e p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s are addressed, n o t h i n g i s done t o address t h e r a c i a l s l u r , which might o f f e r r e a s s u r a n c e t o t h e v i c t i m . A more e f f e c t i v e response would be Choice D. As a P a r t i a l Response, P a u l has d e a l t w i t h t h e u n a c c e p t a b l e n a t u r e o f Joey's comment. However, l i t t l e has been done t o r e a s s u r e t h e v i c t i m . C h o i c e C i s t h e most e f f e c t i v e response. This i s a F u l l Addressal. P a u l d i r e c t l y addresses t h e r a c i a l s l u r , and d e a l s w i t h t h e e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from i t . T h i s response a l l o w s f o r a much f u l l e r r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e v i c t i m ' s s e l f worth. 3.  Role play the s i t u a t i o n u s i n g the four d i f f e r e n t  //6  responses.  Critical  I n c i d e n t 1ftruber Tvo  Situation:  Assume you a r e a f r i e n d o f MasaJci. to you a f t e r t h e i n c i d e n t .  P a r t i c i p a n t s : The same as i n I n c i d e n t Number  He  comes  One.  Scenario: YOU:  What's wrong? You seem upset about something. (Masaki says n o t h i n g . ) Hey, Masaki, a r e you feeling a l l right?  MASAKI:  I'm  YOU:  You guess?  MASAKI:  Do you ever have any t r o u b l e w i t h p e o p l e p u t t i n g you down?  YOU:  Oh... . . I see.  (Masaki r e l a t e s t h e  OK.  I guess. What does t h a t mean?  What happened?  incident.)  Choices; a)  1. 2. 3. 4.  You t e l l Masaki t o f o r g e t i t . You t a l k t o Joey and t o P a u l . You t e l l Joey he s h o u l d n ' t use the word because i t r e a l l y h u r t M a s a k i . You t e l l Paul he s h o u l d t a l k t o Masaki. You do e v e r y t h i n g d e s c r i b e d i n C h o i c e 2 but, i n a d d i t i o n , you t e l l Masaki t h a t you s u p p o r t him and Joey i s not t y p i c a l o f p e o p l e i n the s c h o o l . As soon as you r e a l i z e t h e problem, you a r e u n c o m f o r t a b l e and change the s u b j e c t .  b.  D i s c u s s t h e c h o i c e s and s t u d y which are the two most appropriate.  c.  Which k i n d o f response, n e u t r a l , e t c . , does each represent?  d.  R o l e p l a y each  response.  //7  response  Appendix B - S c o r e s Group Means - Preneasure Value  Variable For  Entire  Label  Population 01 02 03 04 06 07 08 09 10 11  GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP Total Hissing  Cases Case  = =  9  220 or  Mean  Std  Dev  31.5545  7.4201  28.6000 30.3684 31.2000 32.0400 32.7143 33.3043 33.8333 31.0833 31.2917 32.5600  6.0828 8.9704 7.5505 8.2638 9.1098 7.1569 7.0043 7.2826 6.7275 6.6526  Cases 211 25 19 20 25 14 23 12 24 24 25  4.1 PCT.  Group Means - Post-measure I Value  Variable For  Entire  Population 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11  GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP Total Hissing  Mean  Label  Cases Cases  = =  220 34  OR  15.5 PCT.  Std  Dev  30.8763  6.5224  28.0870 30.9333 31.9000 32.0909 29.8333 32.5714 29.8889 31.0000 31.2917 30.3158  6.2734 11.0871 6.8202 4.6075 6.4362 4.0935 5.7975 6.5498 6.3553 6.5917  Cases 186 23 15 20 22 12 21 9 21 24 19  Group Means - Post-measure I I Written  Reaction  Variable For  Value  Entire  TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH Total Missing  to Racist  Incidents  Label  Hean  Population 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11  EXP  EXP EXP  EXP EXP EXP Cases Cases  = =  220 37  OR  16.8  PCT.  Std  Dev  16.5683  2.0339  17.0417 15.2857 16.6111 17.4545 16.8333 15.2857 15.6667 16.6667 17.0417 16.8333  2.0319 3.2208 2.2528 2.0172 1.5859 1.8478 1.3229 1.5599 1.3345 1.8231  Cases 183 24 14 18 22 12 21 9 21 24 18  Group Means - B e h a v i o r a l Measure  For  Entire EXP  TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH TEACH  Mean  Label  Variable  EXP EXP  EXP EXP  Population 1 2 3 4 6 7 S 9 10  Std  Dev  Cases  6.5000  2.0552  68  8.3750 4.8750 5.2500 8.3750 8.1667 4.7500 6.0000 6.5000 6.4000  1.6850 1.3077 1.0351 1.3025 1.6021 2.1213 3.2660 .9258 .8433  8 8 8 8 6 8 4 8 10  (b) C o n t r o l t o E x p e r i m e n t a l Means Variable For GROUP GROUP  Entire  Value  Mean  Label  Population EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL  n o  Std  Dev  Cases  6.5000  2.0552  68  7.4750 5.1071  1.5357 1.9117  40 28  Post-measure I I I - B e h a v i o u r a l (a) C o n t r o l  Classes Count C o l Pet Tot Pet  POSTB  Measure R e s u l t s  2  2.00  1 12 .5 3.6  4.00  3 37.5 10.7  5. 00  1 12 .5 3. 6  6 . 00  2 25. 0 7.1  8 . 00  1 12.5 3. 6  3  3 37.5 10.7  7  8  2 25. 0 7.1  1 25. 0 3.6  1 3.6 5 62.5 17.9  3 37.5 10.7  2 50.0 7.1  1 12.5 3. 6  8 28. 6  8 28.6  12 42.9 2 7.1  1 25.0 3. 6 8 28.6  4 14.3 8 28.6  2 25. 0 7.1  10.00  Column Total  Row Total  4 14.3  1 3. 6  28 100. 0  (b) E x p e r i m e n t a l C l a s s e s Count C o l Pet T o t Pet 6. 00  1  4  6  9  10  2 25. 0 5.0  1 12.5 2.5  1 16.7 2.5  6 75.0 15. 0  8 80. 0 20.0  7. 00  1 16.7 2.5  8.00  2 25.0 5.0  4 50. 0 10. 0  9 . 00  1 12.5 2.5  1 12.5 2.5  10. 00  3 37.5 7.5  2 25. 0 5.0  2 33.3 5.0  Column Total  8 20.0  8 20.0  6 15.0  2 33.3 5.0  Row Total 18 45. 0 1 2.5  2 25. 0 5.0  2 20.0 5.0  12 30.0 2 5.0 7 17.5  8 20.0  10 25.0  40 100.0  

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