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Bilingualism in a functional perspective : the language and content learning of immigrant entrepreneurs Wong, Alice S.P. 1993

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BILINGUALISM IN A FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE:THE LANGUAGE AND CONTENT LEARNING OF IMMIGRANT ENTREPRENEURSByALICE SIU-PING WONGDip. TEO, The University of Leeds, 1974B.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1982M.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1985A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHYinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Curriculum and Instruction)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAFebruary 24, 1993© Alice Siu-ping Wong, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of  C ENITRe. (.-0^n+ E. ,S rub) 6..s 0F.^cunt:et C Lt L.t.4 ItiThe University of British ColumbiaPriv^-rNsrRi4 Cri can,/Vancouver, Canada4 ,-,* ( , .)-1 . 1513DateDE-6 (2/88)iiABSTRACTThis is a case study of the academic and occupationaldiscourse of immigrant entrepreneurs in a bilingual (Cantonese andEnglish) business and language program which aims to relate thelinguistic and managerial knowledge acquired in class to thebusiness operations. This case study raises problematic questionsfor both LSP (Language for Specific Purposes) research andbilingual code-switching research. There were two purposes: (1) tostudy the functional variation of discourse in the educationalprogram and the operation of small business; and (2) to investigatethe importance of the functional variation of discourse in code-switching.Pursuing purpose one, part one of the study explores twomodels: an LSP approach based on "genre" and learning tasks(Swales, 1990); and the Language Socialization approach (Halliday,1975; Mohan, 1986; Ochs, 1988) viewing language learning andsociocultural learning as occurring simultaneously in "activities"(social practices or situations). Two issues are raised: (1) Dataindicate that the LSP approach does not illuminate the relationbetween academic discourse and occupational discourse; (2) It doesnot account for specific connections between tasks in classroomdiscourse and genres in business practices.The Language Socialisation approach, however, points toimportant dynamic theory/practice relations which appear incontrasts between business rules and examples, language rules andiiiexamples, seminar discourse and workshop discourse, and the Englishclass and service encounter discourse.Pursuing purpose two, part two of the study compares theLanguage Socialization model with two models of code-switching asit relates to functional variation of discourse: (1) Guthrie(1983), and (2) Faerch (1985). Model (1) misses a large proportionof second language examples while model (2) fails to account fordata labelled as "business rules" and "business examples" in thesample.The Language Socialization approach, however, recognises indiscourse both theory (e.g., language and business rules) andpractice (e.g., language and business examples). Rules are mostlyhandled in the first language while examples are mostly handled inthe second language. A log-linear analysis indicates that, in allcases, "rules/ examples" is the strongest predictor of languagechoice.ivTABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT^ iiTABLE OF CONTENTS^ ivLIST OF TABLES xiLIST OF FIGURES^ xiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiiiCHAPTER ONESTATEMENT AND DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM^ 1Introduction^ 1Background of the Problem^ 1Putting Theory into Practice:Meeting the Needs of Immigrant Entrepreneurs^1The Relationship Between Theory and Practiceand Discourse Variation^ 5The Relationship Between English for SpecificPurposes (ESP) and Bilingual Code-switching^7Purposes of the Study^ 12Significance of the Study 12The Structure of the Thesis^ 13CHAPTER TWOA SELECTIVE REVIEW OF LITERATURE^ 14Introduction^ 14Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Small Business^ 15Review of Studies^ 15Summary of this Section^ 18vBilingual Code-switching and Functional Variation of Language 19Bilingual Code-switching^ 19Bilingual Code-switching in the Language Classroom^20Bilingual Code-switching in Classroom Discourse inRelation to Functional Variation of Language^21Functions of L1 in instruction: Guthrie (1983)^21Verbal behaviour in the language teachingclassroom: Bowers (1980)^ 22Language and meta-language differences: Faerch(1985)^ 23Summary of this Section^ 25Business and Functional Variation of Discourse^ 26An Overview of the History of ESP^ 26EOP versus EAP: Is there a relation between the two?^28Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) Analysis (Swales1990): Genre and Task^ 30Genre Classification in the LSP Theory^ 30Task in the LSP Theory 40Summary of this Section^ 41Language Socialization 42Activity as Theory and Practice^ 44Summary of Findings in the Review of Literature^47CHAPTER THREETHE INVESTIGATION^ 48Purposes of the Study 48Methods of Investigation^ 49Case Studies, ESP and Bilingual Discourse^ 49Selection of Setting 50Selection of Informants 52Role of the Researcher^ 53Validity and Reliability 54viContext of the Study (The Setting)^ 56Research Procedure^ 59The Subjects 60Data Collection^ 60Observation of Ll Content Classes^ 61Observation of ESP Classes^ 61Observation on the Job 62Scheduling of the Observations and Sample Size^62Interviews in Ll^ 63Documents (On-site Visit Reports and SeminarOutlines)^ 63Transcription 64Analysis^ 64Presentation of Findings^ 65CHAPTER FOURRESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION: PART ONETHE FUNCTIONAL VARIATION OF DISCOURSE^ 66The Analysis^ 66The Rationale 67The Language Socialization and Activity Model of Analysis(Mohan, 1986; Ochs, 1988)^ 67Small Business as a Social Activity or Practice^69Tasks and Genre in LSP Analysis^ 71Conclusion to this Section 72Results of the Analysis of Discourse^ 73Service Encounter and the EOP Class 73Tasks in the Language Class (EOP)^ 75Enacting^(Role-playing)^service^encounter(Scaffolding examples of service encounter)^76Discussing the "rules" of service encounters^78Summary of the Section^ 80viiBusiness Management Analysis^ 81Management Classes and Business Practices^ 82Seminar text^ 83The relation between management topics andbusiness operations^ 85The Relationship between the Seminar and the Workshop^87The seminar text^ 87The workshop text 89Summary of the Findings of the Section^ 92Language Socialization: Business and Discourse 92Application of Management Theory to Service Encounters^94Impact of Goods and Services Tax (GST) onSmall Business Practices^ 94THEORY in seminar 94PRACTICE in bakery service encounter^94Additional Examples of the Rules Forming the BackgroundKnowledge (Theory) for the Service Encounter^96Summary of this Section^ 98Corroboration of Data: Flow of Data from Point of Sale^98Conclusion: (Part One of the Study)^ 107CHAPTER FIVERESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION: PART TWOTHE FUNCTIONAL ROLES OF Ll AND L2 IN THE EOP CLASS^109Introduction^ 109General Distribution of Ll (Cantonese) and L2 (English)in the Program 110Bilingual Code-switching in the Low Level EOP Class^111Models in Analyzing Functional Variation of Discourse andBilingual Code-switching^ 111Guthrie (1983) 111Findings^ 112viiiMeta-language and Language in Faerch (1985)^114The role of Ll and L2 in linguistic rules andexamples in Teacher Talk^ 117Students' use of Ll/L2 in language rules andlanguage examples in the Sample^ 118Summary of findings in Analysis of LinguisticRules and Examples in Week 2 120Language Socialization and Bilingual Code-switchingLanguage Socialization Analysis: Sample (1)^122Sociocultural knowledge and examples: Teacher Talk 122Business Rules and Business Examples: Student Talk 124Summary of Findings in the Analysis of Sample CS-1^128Linguistic Rules and Examples in the Sample Data (Weeks 3-9) 129An Overview of Teacher Talk (Weeks 1-9)^ 129An Overview of Student Talk (Weeks 1-9) 131Language Rules and Language Examples: Week 3^132Language Rules and Language Examples: Week 9 134Summary of Findings (First Part of Chapter)^ 136Data Analysis: Sociocultural Knowledge 138Business Rules and Business Examples in Teacher Talk:Weeks 1-9^ 138Business Rules and Examples in Student Talk: Weeks 1-9 139Business Rules and Business Examples in Week 3^141Note-worthy Findings in Week 3^ 145Business Rules and Business Examples in Week 9 146Note-worthy Features in the Week 9 Analysis^150Summary of Weekly Findings 151Chi-Square Analysis^ 151Log-Linear Analysis 155Tests of Partial Associations^ 157Conclusion^ 158ixCHAPTER SIXCONCLUSION/DISCUSSION^ 160The Purposes of the Study 160The Models of Analysis: The Language Socialization/ ActivityModel vs Language for Specific Purposes Model^ 160Review of Summary of Findings: Research Question (1)^162Language Socialisation Analysis: Discourse(Service Encounter and the EOP Class)^ 162Language Socialisation Analysis: ManagementThe management classes and business practicesThe relation between management topics andbusiness operationsThe relationship between the seminar and theworkshopLanguage Socialization: Business and DiscourseApplication of Management Theory to ServiceEncounterAdditional examples of the rules forming thebackground knowledge (theory) for the serviceencounter163163163164165165165Conclusions: Research Question (1)^ 166Review of Findings: Research Question (2) 167Bilingual Code-switching and the Language Socialization/Activity approach^ 168Conclusions: Research Question (2)^ 169Implications of the Investigation^ 170Research Implications^ 170Educational Implications 173Limitations of the Study 174REFERENCES^ 177x186186187189SBOD Program PamphletInitial Contact LettersSubject Consent FormsSummary of Background ofInformants (and cases)Sample Field NotesSample Service EncounterText (At the Bakery)Genre Analysis of Sample ChapterCase Studies(1) Operating a Bakeryas an Owner/manager(2) The Flower and Gift Shop Owners(3) The ImportersAPPENDICESAppendix I:Appendix II:Appendix III:Appendix IV:Appendix V:Appendix VI:Appendix VII:191192194196198199201204Appendix VIII: EOP Low Level Class^ 207Appendix VIV: Seminar/workshop Relation^ 210Appendix X:^Weekly Results (BilingualCode-switching Analysis) 212Appendix XI:^Sample Text CS-1^ 214Appendix XII: Sample Text CS-4 216Appendix XIII: EOP Advanced Level Class^ 217Appendix XIV: Weekly Sample Texts andAnalysis^ 220xiLIST OF TABLESTable 5.1.^Analysis of Week 2 data with Guthrie (1983)^112Table 5.2.^Analysis of sample data with Faerch (1985)^115Table 5.3.^Ll/L2 vs Meta-language/language^ 116Table 5.4.^Ll and L2 in Teacher Talk (linguistic): Week 2 117Table 5.5.^Ll and L2 in Student Talk (linguistic): Week 2 118Table 5.6.^Teacher business talk in Week 2^ 122Table 5.7.^Student business talk in Week 2 125Table 5.8.^Teacher Talk (linguistic): Weeks 1-9^130Table 5.9.^Student Talk (linguistic): Weeks 1-9 131Table 5.10.^Ll/L2 in Teacher Talk (linguistic): Week 3^132Table 5.11.^Ll/L2 in Student Talk (linguistic): Week 3^133Table 5.12.^L1/L2 in Teacher Talk (linguistic): Week 9^134Table 5.13.^L1/L2 in Student Talk (linguistic): Week 9^134Table 5.14:^Teacher business talk: Weeks 1-9^139Table 5.15:^Student business talk: Weeks 1-9 140Table 5.16.^Teacher business talk in Week 3^ 141Table 5.17^Student business talk in Week 3 142Table 5.18.^Teacher business talk in Week 9^ 146Table 5.19^Student business talk in Week 9 147Table 5.20.^Teacher: Sociocultural^ 152Table 5.21.^Teacher: Linguistic 152Table 5.22.^Student: Sociocultural^ 155Table 5.23.^Student: Linguistic 155Table 5.24.^Partial Associations (Teacher)^ 157Table 5.25.^Partial Associations (Students) 158xiiLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1.1.^The Small Business Program^ 3Figure 1.2.^Users & Uses of Language after Halliday(1968, 1975)^ 8Figure 1.3^Bilingual Code-Switching and ESP^ 9Figure 2.1.^Overall Organisation of the Research Paper^34Figure 2.2.^A Problem-solution Model of ArticleIntroductions^ 35Figure 2.3.^A CARS Model for Article Introductions^37Figure 2.4.^A Sample Move-Step Analysis^ 38Figure 2.5.^Ochs' Model of Language Socialization^43Figure 2.6.^The Language Socialization Model(Mohan, 1986; Ochs, 1988)^ 47Figure 3.1^The Small Business Program 57Figure 4.1.^Language Socialization^ 68Figure 4.2.^The Small Business Program 69Figure 4.3.^Genre and Task in Language forSpecific Purposes (LSP) Analysis^ 72Figure 4.4.^Language Socialisation Analysis:Discourse^ 74Figure 4.5.^Relation between EOP class andService Encounter^ 80Figure 4.6.^Language Socialisation Analysis:Management and Classes 82Figure 4.7.^Language Socialisation: Business &Discourse^ 93Figure 4.8.^Flow of Data from Point of Sale^ 100Figure 5.1.^Distribution of Ll and L2 in theProgram^ 110Figure 6.1.^The Language Socialization/Activity Model^161Figure 6.2.^Language Socialisation Analysis of the Program 162ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI wish to express my gratitude to the following people, whohave made the completion of this dissertation possible.First, to members of my thesis committee: Dr. Margaret Early,Dr. Donald Fisher and Dr. Bernard Mohan, for their advice andassistance. My special thanks to my supervisor, Dr. Mohan, for hispatience and guidance in the whole study.Second, to friends and colleagues who have supported me allthe way through. To Irina Chan for being my second coder, to TimChan for his computer expertise, and especially to theadvisor/coach, the EOP teachers, the seminar leaders and theentrepreneurs in the Small Business Owner Development Program(Cantonese) for allowing me to observe them in class. My sincerethanks to the business owners for permitting me to visit them attheir business sites.Last but not least, to my husband Enoch, for his constantencouragement and support, without which I could not have completedthe present task.1Chapter OneStatement and Definition of the ProblemIntroductionThis is a case study of the discourse of thirty-two immigrantentrepreneurs learning English language skills and businessmanagerial skills in Cantonese and English. These entrepreneursare enrolled in a bilingual program which aims to relate thelinguistic and managerial knowledge acquired in class to theentrepreneurs' daily business operations. In other words, it issignificant for the entrepreneurs to relate (a) the "theory" of thebusiness, which is learned in Cantonese and English, and its modesof discourse, to (b) the "practice" of the business, and itsattendant modes of discourse. This case study raises problematicquestions for both ESP (English for Specific Purposes) research andbilingual code-switching research.Background of the ProblemPutting Theory into Practice: Meeting the Needs of ImmigrantEntrepreneurs A review of the literature in this field revealed is a lack ofresearch in bilingual adult language and content learning invarious areas. The business management and language learning ofimmigrant entrepreneurs, for example, has not been thoroughlystudied (Toulouse and Brenner, 1990; Witter and Wong, 1990). With2this in mind, the present study was conducted to investigate thediscourse of a group of bilingual (Cantonese and English) immigrantentrepreneurs who were learning managerial skills and languageskills in their first language (L1, i.e., Cantonese) and secondlanguage (L2, i.e., English). The focus of the bilingual SmallBusiness Owner Development program was to relate the entrepreneurs'linguistic and managerial knowledge to their business practices(Witter and Wong, 1990; Wong, 1992). The present study was aninvestigation in the area of the relationship between theentrepreneurs' "knowledge" in their academic discourse and the"operation" on the job; in other words, this was an issue ofrelating "theory" with "practice", which is a general concern ofboth educators and researchers (Piper, 1987).Figure 1.1 illustrates the design of the program. There werethree components: the management class, the EOP class and the on-site sessions at the business site. The management class wasfurther divided into two areas: seminars and workshops which wereled by professionals in the field. Cantonese (L1) was used as themedium of delivery while the written texts and outlines were inEnglish (L2). The workshop leader was a business consultant who wasalso an advisor/coach. He visited the entrepreneurs at theirbusiness sites and reviewed with them the seminar/workshopmaterials as well as their business performances in the past month.There were two EOP classes: a high level group taught by an Englishspeaker, and a low level group taught by a bilingual instructor,who was also an experienced retail shop owner. Both Li and L2 wereEDUCATIONPROGRAM(ACADEMICTASKS)OPERATION OF SMALLBUSINESS^ TARGET(OCCUPATIONAL TASKS)TASKS3used as the media of instruction in the low level group. Discoursein the low level class was the specific data used for the bilingualcode-switching study.Figure 1.1. The Small Business ProgramMANAGEMENT^ BUSINESSCLASS EOP CLASSLEARNINGTASKSThis program was unusual in several ways:(1) it provided the learners with on-the-lob training in bothlanguage and business content;(2) the application of the academic knowledge in businessmanagement to the actual operation was immediate;(3) the learners were already practitioners who had fullcontrol over their own activities in their businesses,and were therefore able to modify their businesspractices in light of the course; hence, this model wasdifferent from many other general pre-vocational orvocational training situations; and4(4) both Ll and L2 were used in the management and low levelEOP (English for Occupational Purposes) classes.(1), (2) and (3) made this program a valuable source of data on therelation between academic knowledge and occupational practice.This type of program, which involves adult content andlanguage learning in a second or foreign language context, isgenerally investigated following the approach of English forSpecific Purposes (ESP) (e.g., Mackay and Mountford, 1978) orLanguage for Specific Purposes (LSP) (e.g., Richterich, 1983). ESPis further divided into EAP (English for Academic Purposes) and EOP(English for Occupational Purposes) (Mackay and Mountford, 1978).A leading theoretical concept for present work in LSP is "genre"(Swales, 1990).To deal with the bilingual and multi-lingual situations, weshould speak of LAP (Language for Academic Purposes) and LOP(Language for Occupational Purposes). In the present bilingualSmall Business Owner Development program, because English writtentext is used in the academic component of the business program, themanagement class will fall under the aegis of EAP or moregenerally, LAP. In the present context, English is also the5language used to operate a business, e.g., in service encounters;therefore, the language program naturally falls into the area ofEOP or, more generally, LOP. This case, then, raises severalproblematic questions in LSP research, as described in thefollowing section.The Relationship between Theory and Practice and DiscourseVariationData in the pilot study, of an entrepreneur's tasks, indicatedthat there should be a relationship between LAP (talking about atopic, scientific or technological) and LOP (doing the actionscovered by a topic). The theory/practice dynamic was one of theimportant focuses in this business and language training program.The objective of learning was to relate the academic components toactual business practices, such as the application of marketingstrategies to customer services. One of the purposes of the presentinvestigation is, therefore, to study the academic and occupationaltasks of a group of immigrant entrepreneurs with respect to the"theory" and "practice" of small business management. This requiresa global view of the program components and the business sites. Byanalyzing the academic discourse of the management class and the6language class, and the discourse of the operation of the business,the ecological relations between texts could be revealed.The literature indicates that one of the current approaches inLSP discourse analysis is the "genre theory". Within this approach,the discourse of a marketing lecture or a textbook in theeducational program would be analyzed as "academic text" or"expository text" (Swales, 1990). Other examples of academic textinclude scientific articles. This type of analysis is required byEAP or LAP. The discourse of business transactions at the businesssites would be analyzed as "service encounters" (Ventola, 1987), atype of analysis required by EOP (or LOP). What has not beenexplored is the relation between these two types of texts. Whilegenre theory in LSP is helpful for capturing the differencesbetween these genre types, it is not completely clear how one wouldcapture the theory/practice relation between the discourse of themanagement class and the discourse of the business operation.This raises an important issue in ESP. The ESP literature hasindicated a division between EAP and EOP. To the best of myknowledge, there has been no research on the connection between thetwo. The ESL (English as a Second Language) field tends to treatEAP and EOP separately rather than looking at them as two different7dimensions of a "situation" in Halliday's terms (Halliday, 1975,1978, 1985).The Relationship between English for Specific Purposes (ESP) andBilingual Code-switchingThe present study also addresses a gap in research related tobilingual code-switching. Conventionally, assumptions made in ESPhave been based on monolingual situations (e.g., Swales, 1985).Little is known regarding the role of the first language (L1) andthe second language (L2) in ESP and content learning; neither havestudies in bilingual code-switching been addressed as issues inESP. A brief review of literature reveals a lack of communicationbetween these two research worlds.In earlier works, the areas of ESP and bilingualism wereconnected but recent research has not related them to each other.In the early work of Halliday (1968), the varieties of languagedepended on both the users and the uses in a language community.With respect to users, multi-lingual contexts resulted inbilingualism and hence bilingual code-switching. The users in thiscontext would then be monolinguals or bilinguals. The "uses" of thelanguage resulted in the varieties of language which differed8according to different "situations" (see Figure 1.2). Halliday(1968) used the term "register" to describe these varieties.UsersFiciure 1.2.1975)& Uses of Language after Halliday (1968,LANGUAGE COMMUNITYVARIETIESUSERS USES[ BILINGUALS MONOLINGUALS REGISTER^jj( ^BILINGUALISM  ^ESP^1A review of the history of ESP reveals that the study of"register" (i.e., varieties of language) was an early basis for ESPresearch (Swales, 1985). Discourse varies according to the language"purpose" or "function". ESP has been developed to meet the specialneeds of speakers of English as a second (ESL) or foreign language(EFL) for academic or occupational purposes. These learners are infact "bilinguals", and yet there is a lack of research in ESP whichaddresses the roles of both Ll and L2 for academic and occupationalpurposes. (See Figure 1.2).9When it comes to bilingualism, research in bilingual code-switching has been focused on the study of "domains" (Fishman,1972; Heller, 1988). Each domain or situation differs according tothe roles of the participants, time, areas and purposes orfunctions of language (Fishman, 1972; Heller, 1988. See Figure1.3.). These language purposes can be social, academic oroccupational. As mentioned earlier, ESP or LSP is related to the"functions" of language in bilingual or multilingual situations.However, research in bilingual code-switching which attempts toaddress genre and theory/practice issues in LSP or ESP is lacking.Figure 1.3 Bilingual Code-Switching and ESPBILINGUAL CODE-SWITCHINGDOMAINSUSES - PURPOSES -FUNCTIONSI ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES1 TOPICSiFUNCTIONSEAPe.g. Swales,1990) EOP(e.g. Ventola,1987)The importance of stronger linkages between code-switchingresearch and LSP research is clearly indicated by developments inresearch and theory about language proficiency in bilingual1 0contexts (Cummins, 1991). With regard to the study of thefunctional roles of L1 and L2 in relation to bilingual code-switching, Cummins's (1991) theory incorporates both bilingualismin education and functional differences in discourse. As reflectedby Cummins himself (1991), his theoretical positions have been wellresearched (Cummins, 1978, 1979a, 1979b, 1984, 1991; Cummins andSwain, 1986; Wong-Fillmore, 1980), and intensely debated (Cumminsand Swain, 1983; Edelsky, Hudelson, Flores, Altweger and Jilbert,1983; Martin-Jones and Romaine, 1986). Cummins' work is notable fortheoretical constructs relating to (a) the relation between Ll andL2 proficiency, (b) the cognitive consequences of bilingualism, and(c) conversational and academic language proficiency. While (a) and(b) relate directly to bilingualism, (c) relates to functionalvariation in discourse. A natural question is the relation betweenbilingual code-switching and conversational and academic discoursevariation. To the best of my knowledge, this question has not beenexamined.Cummins (1984, 1991) discusses the functional differences oflanguage in terms of "conversational and academic languageproficiency" in bilingual contexts. The former is "context-embedded" while the latter is "context-reduced". According to himIn general, context-embedded communication is moretypical of the everyday world outside the classroom,whereas many of the linguistic demands of the classroom(e.g. manipulating text) reflect communicative activitieswhich are closer to the context-reduced end of thecontinuum. (1984, pp. 138-139)11In the data of the dissertation, the closest analogy to thecontrast between conversational language proficiency and academiclanguage proficiency is the contrast between the service encounterat the business sites on one hand and the classroom communicationon the other hand. Below, I will examine the link between code-switching and functional variation in the thesis data.In summary, the study of the "uses" of language has resultedin the development of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) researchwhile the study of the "users" of language has resulted in thedevelopment of bilingual code-switching research. Althoughbilingual code-switching has been researched extensively insociolinguistic studies, a number of issues raised by ESP researchhave not been addressed. Similarly, although ESP work hasextensively discussed questions of language use, it has little tosay about bilingual code-switching. The question is, "Is there arelationship between bilingual code-switching and the types offunctional variation studied in ESP?" Initial data in the pilotstudy indicated that there was a close relationship betweenbilingual code-switching and functional variation. A more in-depthstudy was therefore necessary to further establish thisrelationship.12Purposes of the StudyThere were two purposes to the present investigation:(1) To conduct a study of the functional variation ofdiscourse in the educational program and the operation ofsmall business, and(2) To investigate the importance of the above functionalvariation of discourse in code-switching.The research questions, more specifically, were:(1) What is the functional variation of discourse in theeducational program for immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e., inthe management classes, the language classes and theoperational tasks) ?(2) In light of the functional variation described inQuestion (1), what are the roles of the first language(i.e., Cantonese) and the second language (i.e.,English)?Significance of the StudyThis study will raise issues related to the following researchareas: (1) the relationship between theory and practice in the13discourse of an activity; and (2) the functional variation of L1and L2 in relation to "theory" and "practice".It was hoped that the findings would: (1) contribute to abetter understanding of and form a basis for further research inthe relationship between ESP and bilingual code-switching; and (2)from a pedagogical standpoint, provide a research base which wouldshed light on the design of bilingual adult language and contentprograms.The Structure of the ThesisThere are six chapters in the present thesis. The firstchapter is an introductory chapter which includes: (1) thebackground of the problem, (2) the purposes of the study, 3) theresearch questions and (4) the significance of the study. ChapterTwo is a review of related literature with explanations of keyconcepts and constructs. Chapter Three reports the investigationincluding the details of the research design. The results of thefirst half of the investigation, which address research questionnumber one, are presented in Chapter Four while the results of thesecond part of the study, which address research question numbertwo, are reported and discussed in Chapter Five. The implicationsand conclusions of the study are presented in Chapter Six, theconcluding chapter. These chapters are followed by the Referencesand Appendices.14Chapter TwoA Selective Review of LiteratureIntroduction This chapter presents a selective review of literature in thetwo major areas which the present study investigates: functionalvariation of language/discourse in relation to occupationalpurposes, and bilingual code-switching. The bilingual SmallBusiness Owner Development program, which is the focus of thestudy, lies in the intersection of these two areas. Particularly,it is the language classroom which seems to be the crucial site ofinteraction.The linkage between functional variation of discourse inrelation to occupations and bilingual code-switching appears in theearlier works of Halliday (1968). In his terms, the present studywould be one about the "uses" and the "users" of the language,which are closely related in a language community. In the presentcase study, the "uses" are the functions of the language. This areahas often been labelled as "Language for Specific Purposes (LSP)"and the users are the bilingual learners. Therefore, literaturerelated to specifically the following areas will be reviewed:(1) studies on immigrant entrepreneurs in small businesses; (2)bilingual code-switching; and (3) business and the functionalvariation of discourse.15Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Small BusinessReview of Studies Recent studies of immigrant^(or ethnic,^minority)entrepreneurs have been conducted by different researchers e.g.,social scientists (e.g., Waladinger et al., 1990), businesseducators (e.g., Witter and Wong, 1990; Witter, Wong, Tam, Dooley,Ho and Davies, 1992; Wong 1992) and government agents (e.g., Nash,1987; Samuel and Conveys, 1986; Toulouse and Brenner 1988, 1990)and for different purposes. For five years (1985 - 1989),Waladinger et al. (1990), for example, conducted a series ofstudies on immigrant small businesses in industrial societies inEurope and USA. They hoped to provokemuch-needed discussion about how similar and differentcultural, political, and economic characteristics ofimmigrants and of the industrial societies in which theysettle influence the development and transformation ofimmigrant small businesses. (p. 7)According to Waladinger et al. (1990), ethnic entrepreneurship isimportant because "it is one way immigrants and ethnic minoritiescan respond to the current restructuring of Western industrialeconomies" (p. 14). The more active role of immigrant entrepreneurshas also been investigated in a different geographic location. Nash(1987), as well as Samuel and Conveys (1986), for instance,undertook two studies designed to measure the value of the economiccontributions of immigrant entrepreneurs for the Department of16Cultural Communities of the Province of Quebec and for the Canadianfederal government. Toulouse and Brenner (1988) summarised thefindings in these Canadian official studies in their report"Immigrants Entrepreneurs: In Search of a Theoretical Model".Their other paper, "Business creation among the Chinese immigrantsin Montreal" (1989), further presented the positive and negativefindings from the largest immigrant entrepreneur group on similarissues they investigated.Regarding the definition of "entrepreneurs", Waladinger et al.(1990) noted thatMany definitions suggest a distinction betweenentrepreneur and manager on the basis of the former'sunique innovative functions. But neither economists(Baumol 1968: 66) nor social scientists (Kilby 1971: 27-29; Wilken 1979:60) seem able to implement thisdistinction to permit the unequivocal exclusion of anyowner/manager from the class of entrepreneurs. (p. 17)Waladinger et al., therefore, operationally defined "entrepreneurs"after Greenfield et al., as "owner/operators of businessenterprises" (p. 17). As for "immigrant entrepreneurs", Toulouseand Brenner (1990) defined them as "immigrants who have takenadvantage of the categories of visas reserved for people who havepromised to create a business in Canada" (p. 38). For the purposeof the present study, a broader meaning of "immigrantentrepreneurs" will be adapted to include "entrepreneurs and owner-managers who are immigrants", regardless of their visa status.Research on programs for small business establishment and17development was the focus of a two-year study led by Witter andWong (1990). "Project '92 - Immigrants and Entrepreneurship", asthe project was titled, was designed to co-ordinate a series ofresearch activities to develop, implement and/or evaluate a totalof nine innovative entrepreneurship curricula for the immigrant andbasic literacy communities. The findings of this project werereported in various papers and reports (Witter et al., 1992; Wong,1992). Among these works, the ethnic owner development programs,which had been developed in an ethnic small business centre in awestern province of Canada for several years, were evaluated. Theseprograms were designed to improve the business practices ofimmigrant entrepreneurs. Data seem to have revealed practicalimpacts on the performance of the business owner/operators indifferent areas, e.g., management skills, computer skills andimport/export techniques (Witter et al., 1992; Wong 1992). Some ofthe positive outcomes included the creation of new jobs, anincrease in profits and the ability to survive a recession period.Other studies of immigrant entrepreneurs included Feldman,Koberg and Dean's (1991) "Minority small business owners and theirpaths to ownership" and Chotigeat, Balsmeier and Stanley's (1991)study on Asian immigrants' sources of capital. Bechard andToulouse's (1991) study "Entrepreneurship and education: viewpointfrom education" looked at the pedagogical model in entrepreneurshipwithout specifically commenting on immigrant entrepreneurs.Regarding the needs of immigrant entrepreneurs, Waladinger etal. (1990) listed seven common business problems that confronted18most ethnic entrepreneurs. They were: (1) How do ethnic orimmigrant entrepreneurs acquire the information needed for theestablishment and survival of their firms? (2) How do they obtainthe capital needed to establish or to expand their business? (3)How do they acquire the training and skills needed to run a smallbusiness? (4) How do they acquire and manage efficient, honest, andcheap workers? (5) How do they manage relations with customers andsuppliers? (6) How do they survive strenuous business competition?and (7) How do they protect themselves from political attacks? Thislist seems to indicate that "problem solving" would have to be animportant component to include in an educational program forimmigrant entrepreneurs. To meet these needs, the solutions tothese problems would require both the "theory" of businessmanagement and the "practice" of operational and communicationskills in the actual business situations or activities.Waladinger et al. (1990) further explained thatOne of the essential problems facing entrepreneurs istheir relations with customers and suppliers... Retailersuse a variety of methods to gain customer loyalty, withtheir personalities often playing a role too. The successof an enterprise (particularly hotels, restaurants,cafes, and exotic boutiques) frequently depends on anentrepreneur's ability to negotiate different publicimages: (1) in the face of bureaucratic authorities, whodemand legal compliance; (2) in the face of coethniccustomers, who tend to take possession of the premises;and (3) in the face of nonethnic customers, who demandbetter services. These multiple roles are demanding andoccasionally create formidable problems. (p. 144)Summary of this SectionIn summary, this section of the review of the literature seems19to indicate that there are few studies investigating the learningof small business communication skills together with the learningof entrepreneurial skills. Regardless of the theoretical approach,much of the work on ethnic business and ethnic business ownersremains exploratory. Viewing small business activities as social Practices seems to be one of the possible adequate approaches.Issues related to theory/practice dynamics and activities need tobe reviewed and then addressed.Bilingual Code-switching and Functional Variation of LanguageBilingual Code-switchingCode-switching, the internal variation from one language toanother in the course of a single communicative episode, iscommonly examined in sociolinguistic theory and research because"it is often more noticeable than other kinds of sociolinguisticvariation" (Fishman, 1970, p. 40). Heller's studies (1988), forexample, investigated code-switching from anthropological andsocio-linguistic perspectives. The purpose of the papers in hervolume of work wasto illustrate ways in which the study of code-switchingaddresses fundamental anthropological and sociolinguisticissues concerning the relationship between linguistic andsocial processes in the interpretation of experience andthe construction of social reality. (p. 2)Other related works include Hymes' earlier study (1968) on thestructural analysis of "domains" (p. 104). With specific language20groups, examples of existing studies are: Gibbons' (1987) "Code-mixing and code-choice: A Hong Kong case study" (Cantonese andEnglish); Pandit's (1986) Hindi English code-switching; Lipski's(1985) Spanish-English language switching; and Dabene and Billiez'swork (1986) studying members of Spanish, Portuguese and Algeriancommunities in France. There are numerous other code-switchingstudies in various domains but it is beyond the scope of thepresent study to conduct an exhaustive review. This section of theliterature review will be limited to studies in bilingual code-switching occurring in language classrooms.Bilingual Code-switching in the Language ClassroomThe present investigation was a study of data collected fromthe business education program and the operation of the business.Within the data, there were very few examples of bilingual code-switching in the business practices since L2 was the language ofoperation. In the management classes, the spoken discourse was inL1 while the written discourse was in L2; there was very littlecode-switching. In the advanced English for Occupational Purposes(EOP) class, L2 was used almost exclusively. Most of the code-switching data occurred in the low level EOP class. In other words,the focus of observation for bilingual code-switching data was inthe classroom. Therefore, this section will examine studies in thebilingual classroom and will be limited to a review of studiesabout bilingual code-switching in language classrooms. It will berestricted to studies that analyze code-switching in relation to21the functional variation of language.Bilingual Code-switching in Classroom Discourse in Relation toFunctional Variation of LanguageThe literature seems to indicate that although there are manystudies of code-switching in bilingual classrooms, very littleresearch has been conducted on the functional role of the twolanguages in terms of theoretical perspectives. The following is areview of three studies which address issues relating the roles ofLl/L2 and the functional variation of discourse in the languageclassrooms. They are Guthrie (1983), Bowers (1980) and Faerch(1985).Functions of L1 in instruction: Guthrie (1983). The use of thechildren's first language was investigated by Guthrie (1983) andGuthrie-Phung (1985). This is an area that has been widely studiedand discussed (Duran, 1981; Gumperz, 1981). Guthrie's focus,however, was on code-switching in a bilingual (Chinese and English)language classroom as it related to functional variation ofdiscourse, specifically conversational acts in discourse. His casestudy investigated in detail the interaction and language use oftwo teachers with a group of Chinese-American first-graders. Hismethods included quantitative analysis of conversational-actfrequencies and qualitative analysis of these conversational acts.Data revealed that students sometimes answered in Chinese or gavehints or brief explanations to their classmates in that language.The teacher, who was bilingual, most frequently used Chinese (the22students' language) to clarify or to check for understanding. AsGuthrie states, "her use of the language revealed a sensitivity tothe variable meanings in Chinese and English that made it possiblefor her to pick out likely sources of confusion" (p. 45).The analysis of the bilingual teacher's use of Chinese furtherrevealed that she employed it for at least five distinct purposes:(1) for translation; (2) as a we-code for social solidarity; (3)for procedures and directions; (4) for clarification; and (5) tocheck for understanding (p. 45).Verbal behaviour in the language teaching classroom: Bowers 1980. Bowers' study (1980) of the roles of teacher and student inclassroom utterances was a comprehensive one. His study relatedwith some "degree of specificity to the language teaching contextand ... [dealt] with a number of major features of that context,e.g., code-switching and multiple-functioning" (p. 17). Hedistinguished between target language and mother tongue utterances(p. 39) and commented on the proportions of target language use andmother tongue use (pp. 172-173). In his analysis, he listed sevencategories of language functions that emerged from the data:sociate, organise, direct, present, elicit, respond and evaluate.As a conclusion to his findings, he proposed thatfunctional units and relationships can be identified, andtheir operation expressed adequately, economically and ina way compatible with a rational theory of language. (p.329)His study, however, did not comment on the "subject matter" (i.e.,23the content) in the language class (p. 90). His model would fail toaddress elements in an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) classwhich were beyond language and language learning and which were notlimited to speech-acts. In an EOP class for business communication,for example, Bowers' categories of language functions would not beable to account for business cases and business rules. In hismodel, Bowers admitted that there were differences betweenlinguistic and meta-linguistic topics. However, he did notspecifically use them as categories for his analysis (pp. 72, 90).His findings did reveal that meta-linguistic topics were generallyconducted in the mother tongue with target language citation (p.175).Language and meta-language differences: Faerch (1985).Faerch's studies of foreign language classrooms viewed discoursefrom a different perspective than Guthrie's (1983) and a partiallysimilar view to Bowers (1980). Faerch adopted a basic distinctionbetween transactions with a focus on the FL code (metatransactions) and transactions with a focus on socio-literacy orother non-linguistic content (content transactions). He argued thatmeta-talk constituted a largely neglected area of classroomresearch. He discovered thatmeta talk occupies varying portions of FL classroomdiscourse. It may take up as much as the entire lesson,e.g. if this is devoted to discussing ways of solving atranslation exercise; or it may be restricted to a singlemove, as when the teacher replying to a student'scontent-oriented contribution, corrects a grammaticalerror and then continues on the content level. (p. 185)24He challenged the view that FL learning could/should take placewithout learners acquiring any explicit knowledge about thelanguage. Instead, he strongly believed that "the question is notwhether learners need meta-language or not but how much, howprecise, and how this knowledge should be linguistically encoded"(p. 190). According to Faerch, there are two functions of meta-language: function in connection to explicit FL knowledge as amonitor in speech production, and eliciting information about theFL.Meta talk in the FL classroom includes aspects such ascorrections (Chaudron, 1977; Long, 1977; Kasper, 1982), vocabularyexplanation (Chaudron, 1981), and explicit discussions of thenature of FL rules. In his study, Faerch (1985) also mentioneda variety of types of meta talk exhibiting various degrees ofteacher control. For example,at one extreme, we have the use of scaffolded structuresin a situation where the teacher is in full control ofboth semantic and syntactic planning. At the otherextreme we have the (theoretically possible) student-centred negotiation of rule knowledge with the teacherfunctioning more as a consultant than as a director. (p.194)During this process, the feedback from teachers may be in the formof rule formation or "providing the students with the right FLexamples at the right moment" (p. 195). Meta talk, therefore, hasa positive potential as a teaching as well as learning tool.Another important issue Faerch has raised is the need for a25connection of texts, an issue of the "ecology" of discourse. Hebelieved thatWe also need to see how different varieties of meta talkinterrelate: otherwise it is difficult, for example, tosee that an implicit correction performed in one phase ofthe lesson may relate directly to an explicit discussionof the same rule in a different phrase of the lesson.This, I know, is an ideal goal which I have certainly notreached in my paper. (p. 197)Faerch finally summarised his position: the call for a betterunderstanding of the function of more explicit types of FL ruleknowledge in communication, and his belief that explicit ruleknowledge does not always, or necessarily, conflict with fluency.What Faerch has not acknowledged is the relation of the meta-language/language functions to bilingual code-switching though,very obviously, his data revealed that relation. These examplesincluded the discussion of rules in Danish (the mother tongue ofthe students) in a German lesson (pp. 192-194), and the use ofDanish for scaffolding English structures in an English translationclass (pp. 186-187).Summary of this SectionThis section has reviewed in detail three bilingual studies onfunctional variation in language classrooms: Guthrie's (1983)conversational acts, Bower's (1980) speech-acts, and Faerch's(1985) meta-language/language differences. These studies seem tohave indicated, either explicitly or inexplicitly, that there is animportant role for Ll in explaining concepts, in discussing26language rules and in dealing with meta-linguistic topics. Incontrast to this, L2 is used more with the working of examples.Guthrie's categories are not well adapted for the languageexamples. Bowers' speech-acts cannot account for the "content' partof language class interaction. Faerch's meta-language and languagedistinction seems to be more helpful in relating bilingual code-switching with the functional variation of discourse, though he hasnot explicitly acknowledged the roles of Ll and L2.Business and Functional Variation of DiscourseThe next issue is the question of business and functionalvariation of discourse. Two approaches will be reviewed: (a) theESP approach; and (b) the Language Socialization approach.An initial review of literature seems to indicate a problemregarding the issue raised by the present study. While functionalvariation in business would seem to be a central topic in ESP, infact it has not been well studied or well analyzed. To understandwhy, we need to review some of the earlier works. In the presentinvestigation, the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and Englishfor Occupational Purposes (EOP) components in the program studiedfall half into the occupational camp and half into the academiccamp. This section will, therefore, (1) review the ESP approach tothe study with a historical overview and (2) review an alternatestrategy to the ESP approach - the Language Socialization/Activityapproach.27An Overview of the History of ESP In the 1960s & early 1970s, most of the work in ESP was onEnglish for Science and Technology (EST). For a time, EST & EAP(English for Academic Purposes) were regarded as almost synonymous(Hutchinson & Waters, 1987; Swales, 1985). ESP work was initiallyinfluenced by Halliday's concept of special language, especiallyregister analysis (Halliday, McIntosh and Strevens, 1964) thoughSwales (1985) dated his ESP Episodes as early as 1962 when Barber'sstudy was already condensed with heavy statistics in frequencycounts. Later works of others looked at actual teaching materials(Herbert, 1965) or actual teaching situations in major growth areasin ESP (Higgins, 1967). This trend led on to the 1970s with Swales'(1971) cognitive approach in WSE (Writing Scientific English) andEwer & Hugh-Davies' (1971) study on reading in the final years ofuniversity. Lackstrom, Selinker & Trimble (1972) held the door opento discourse analysis and half closed the door on frequency counts.Widdowson & Allen (1974) soon followed with further considerationsof use as well as usage -- a rhetorically functional approachleading to scientific discourse. Munby's (1978) CommunicativeSyllabus Design marked the beginning of emphasis on needs analysis.Mackay & Mountford (1978) edited studies examining thesociological, linguistic, psychological and pedagogic designfactors that ESP has to reflect. Then, there was Robinson's (1980)survey of articles, documents and journals on ESP, which summarisedpast works before the eighties.The 1980s began as a stage of development moving from a28language-centred approach to a skills-centred approach (Hutchinson& Waters 1987), e.g., Moore (1980) studied reading and thinkingskills materials while Hutchinson and Waters (1987) stressed theimportance of underlying competence such as learning skills ratherthan the rehearsal of superficial aspects in that educationalsetting and stated that "a focus on specific subject registers isunnecessary in this approach, because the underlying processes arenot specific to any subject register" (p. 13) . Hence, the ESPfield has also expanded into the areas of needs analysis, skillsand strategies, the details of which are beyond the scope of thepresent review.In summary, much of the work in ESP in the past three decadeshas been dedicated to either a language-centred approach or askills-centred approach, supplemented by needs analysis anddiscourse analysis.An unfortunate result of this opposition between language-centred and learning-skills-centred is that it tends to excludeconsideration of the intersection of language and learning. Yetthis issue is central to our study: how the academic andoccupational components of our educational program are relatedthrough the discourse of learning and the learning of discourse.EOP versus EAP: Is there a relation between the two? As summarised by Swales (1985), acknowledged by Hutchinson andWaters (1987), and indicated by the review of literature in theprevious section, the area of English for Science and Technology29EST), mostly related to English for Academic Purposes (EAP), hasbeen particularly important in the development of ESP in general.Compared to the pre-eminent position of EST/EAP, there were fewerstudies in the area of English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) inthe sixties and seventies; however, in the American scene in theeighties, there has been growing interest in EOP because ofimmigration patterns. For example, the 1984 ESP Journal, (vol. 3n.2 ), had a special issue on "ESP: Vocational ESL". In the presentinvestigation, the communication skills for small businessowner/operators on the job would be classified as EOP and thebusiness management text would be considered as EAP. The objectiveof the program in the present study is to relate the managementtheory (embedded in the text) and the language learned in EOPclasses to the actual practice on the job. In other words, there isa need to relate EAP to EOP. What do current works in ESP reveal?Johns (1986), in a review of ESP work on the language ofbusiness English, clearly acknowledges that business languageincludes elements from both Language for Occupational Purposes(LOP) and Language for Academic Purposes (LAP) in her statement ofthe scope of her review (Johns, 1986, p. 4). But Johns does notdiscuss the need to relate LOP and LAP aspects of business. Toexamine this problem further, we can now turn to a discussion ofhow LOP and LAP are analyzed (and might be related) in current LSPanalysis.30Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) Analysis (Swales 1990): Genreand TaskIn LSP, according to Swales (1990), there are two majorelements. One is the notion of genre and the other is the notion oftask. An example of a genre in a small business context is a"service encounter" (Ventola, 1987). These encounters may includepurchasing in a bakery, customer and server interaction,conversation in over-the-counter buying, or negotiating a deal inimport/export etc. Basically, these encounters are identified insituations where the small business operators are providing smallservices in the service industry. Another example of a genre is"academic text" or "expository text". In the context of the presentstudy, the academic text or expository text genre would apply tothe management component of the program where there is a text usedfor the course and there is a seminar which follows a patternsimilar to the textbook discourse.Genre Classification in the LSP TheoryGenre is defined as "types of discourse which are used forsocial purposes" or "a class of communicative events ... [which]share some set of communicative purposes" (Swales, 1990, p. 58).With this definition, Swales' (1987, 1990) analysis of English ina particular type of scientific writing and Ventola's (1987)investigation of service encounters are in-depth studies of thegenres of one example of an "academic text" and a particularexample of "occupational" or "practical" text. The present study is31related to both the academic and the occupational purposes. Thebusiness classes use academic texts. Service encounters aresignificant in a small business, since all other related activitiesare generated either before or after the "point of sale". In otherwords, service encounters are also part of the owner-operators'occupational tasks. Hence, these two and other related studies willbe reviewed.Ventola's (1987) study of service encounters was a thorough,linguistic one. Her original plan was to carry out a comparativeanalysis of service encounters in Australia, England and Finlandbut managed to handle only texts collected in Australia. Thepurpose of her study was to construct "situational grammars", whichshe defined as "how native speakers use language for communicationwhen contextual factors and demands are also taken intoconsideration" (p. 234). She chose the genre of service encounteras the focus of her study, attempted to define the nature of itselements and organization and then tested her hypothetical genericorganisational structures with the data she had collected. AsWilliams commented, she did not include a definition of the term"service encounter" in her work, perhaps with an assumption thatthis was "common sense knowledge". Williams (1988), however, citedMerritt's (1976) definition of service encounter asan instance of face to face interaction between a serverwho is "officially posted" in some service area and acustomer who is present in that service area, thatinteraction being oriented to the satisfaction of thecustomer's presumed desire for some service and theserver's obligation to provide that service. (p. 321)32In his review of Ventola's work, Williams stated that "a morecompelling reason for the study of this interactional form ... isthe centrality of the 'service encounter' to the working of theinteraction order" (p. 125). He further reported that this claimhad been asserted by Goffman (1961), Davis (1959), Spradley andMann (1975) and others, "based on observations of the character ofmodern public life" (p. 125). To Williams, a sociologist, talk wasconsidered as "a type of social action". He agreed with Goffman(1972) that "service encounter" was one of the "most fundamentalorganizational devices of public order" (p. 125).In her study, Ventola (1987) argued that genre determined thelinguistic patterns in the verbal interaction. She arrived at nineelements that constituted the ideal-typical service genre (alongwith their functions). They were: Greeting (phatic); Attendanceallocation (organization of proximity); Service bid (offer ofservice); Service (needs and their provision); Resolution (decisionto buy, not to buy); Goods handover (exchange of goods); payment(exchange of money); Closing (appreciation of service); Goodbye(phatic) (pp. 51-85).Ventola's data collection and sampling methods are worthmentioning because some of the data in the present study are alsorelated to "service encounters". Ventola analyzed twelve finaltexts, which were collected from three types of locations: the postoffice, a small souvenir/jewellery gift shop, and a travel agency.Her focus was to deal with typical NS/NS (native speaker to nativespeaker) service encounter texts restricted to business33professional transactions rather than social talk. In the presentstudy, however, service encounters are seen not just in isolationbut in relation to the other parts of the operation of a smallbusiness.Moving to the discussion of academic texts, we will reviewsome of Swales' studies (1987, 1988, 1990) which dealt mainly withacademic texts. Central to his book in 1990, for example, were "theconcepts of discourse community, genre and language-learning tasks"(p. vii), which provided a framework to describe the nature ofacademic discourse. After a lengthy discussion on the concept of"genre", he finally arrived at a working definition of genre asa class of communicative events, the members of whichshare some set of communicative purposes. These purposesare recognised by the expert members of the parentdiscourse community, and thereby constitute the rationalefor the genre. This rationale shapes the schematicstructure of the discourse and influences and constrainschoice of content and style ... In addition to purpose,exemplars of a genre exhibit various patterns ofsimilarity in terms of structure, style, content andintended audience. (p. 58)With this understanding of the nature of genres, academic texts,for example, would share similar structures, styles and contentwhen the intended audience (in this case the academic discoursecommunity in Swales' term) is the same. The purpose is academic.The area would be EAP (English for Academic Purposes).In his 1990 book Genre Analysis: English in Academic Research Settings, Swales listed the work of "expert members" andandstudies various types of academic genres. His textual overview of34the research article (RA), for example, disclosed that the overallorganization of the research paper, according to Hill, Soppelsa andWest (1982), is that it consists of the Introduction (from generalto particular), Procedure and Discussion (from particular togeneral) (p. 134). The graphic representation of this genre isillustrated by Figure 2.1.Figure 2.1. Overall Organisation of the Research Paper(Hill et al., 1982). From Swales, 1990, p. 134.Figure 7 Overall organization of the research paper (Hill et al., 1982)One of the approaches Swales (1990) proposed is to view RAintroductions as "an encapsulated problem-solution texts" (p. 138).He first cited Zappen's (1983) model which includes the Goal,Current Capacity, Problem, Solution and Criteria of Evaluation.(See Figure 2.2.)35Figure 2.2. A Problem-solution Model of Article Introductions(Zappen, 1983). From Swales, 1990, p. 139.In the recent past, Neelakantaswamy et al. (1-4)developed a class of microwave radiators termed as'Gaussian-beam launchers' to produce a focusedexposure field in biological experiments forpartial-body irradiations. These compact and simplestructures with their ability to focus the microwaveGOAL^energy in a very small region indicate their practicalutility, in the areas of biological researches andmedical applications of microwaves, such as forselective heating of diseased/cancerous tissues.These launchers can also be used in noninvasivebeam-wave reflectometric and spectrometricinstrumentations for measuring complex permittivity ofbiological material at microwave frequencies, asindicated by Neelakantaswamy elsewhere (5-7).When compared to the microwave beam-launchingCURRENT^system described in (8), which consists of aCAPACITY^plane-wave irradiated dielectric sphere (lens), thelauncher formed by combining a scalar horn anddielectric sphere (1) is a more practical source ofmicrowave Gaussian beam. However, the use of aPROBLEM^dielectric sphere as the focusing lens results in asignificant amount of spherical aberrations in the focalfield, as indicated by Neelakantaswamy et al. in (9) ...SOLUTION^In the present work, a Gaussian-beam launcher isformed by placing a dielectric hemisphere (instead ofa full sphere) at the aperture end of corrugatedcircular waveguide (scalar horn). This enables areduction in the path length of the ray in thelens-medium, and hence the spherical aberrationCRITERIA OF effects are relatively minimized. Further, by using aEVALUATION hemisphere in the place of a full sphere, the launcherstructure becomes less massive and smaller.(from P. Neelakantaswamy and F. Hong. 1979. Dielectric Hemisphere-Loaded ScalarHorn as a Gaussian-Beam Launcher for Microwave Exposure Studies. IEEE Transac-tions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. MTT, 27:797)36He then proposed a revised "Create a Research Space (CARS)". Thisincludes three moves: Move 1: Establishing a territory; Move 2:Establishing a niche; and Move 3: Occupying the niche (pp. 141-142). (See Figure 2.3). Each move is made up of different steps.His sample "Move-step analysis" is illustrated by Figure 2.4. Whatfollows in his descriptions are the sections for Methods, Results,Discussions and Conclusions (pp. 167-176). The structure of eachsection is detailedly illustrated and carefully described. At theend of his book, he moves on to analyze other research-processgenres including abstracts, presentations, grant proposals, thesisand dissertations, and books and monographs (pp. 177-231).Figure 2.3. A CARS Model for Article Introductions(Swales, 1990, p. 141)Move 1 Establishing a territoryStep 1^Claiming centralityand/orStep 2^Making topic generalization(s)and/orStep 3^Reviewing items of previous research^VDecliningrhetorical -effortMove 2 Establishing a nicheStep 1A Counter-claimingorStep 16 Indicating a gaporStep 1C Question-raisingorStep 10 Continuing a traditionWeakeningknowledgeclaimsMove 3 Occupying the nicheStep 1A Outlining purposesorStep 1B Announcing present researchStep 2^Announcing principal findingsStep 3^Indicating RA structureIncreasingexplicitness37Figure 2.4. A Sample Move—Step Analysis(Swales, 1990, p. 143)38I Introduction(1) The increasing interest in high-angle-of-attackaerodynamics has heightened the need for computationaltools suitable to predict the flowfield and the aerodynamiccoefficients in this regime. (2) Of particular interest andcomplexity are the symmetric and the asymmetric separatedMOVE 1 vortex flows which develop about slender bodies as theSTEP 1angle of attack is increased./(3) The viscous influence onthe separation lines and the unknown three-dimensional^STEP 2(3D) shape of the vortex wake are some of the main flowfeatures that must be modeled in the construction of acomputational method to properly treat this problem. (4) Among the many potential flow methods developed inattempting to solve body vortex flows are early twodimensional (2D) multivortex methods, 2-4 2D time-steppingvortex models that include boundary-layer considerations, 5-8and a quasi-3D potential flow method s that uses source andvortex elements. (5) Linear, unseparated potential flowmodels as well as purely viscous models, are not mentionedhere. (6) A survey of the various methods may also be found STEP 3in Ref. 10. (7) The potential flow methods are of specialinterest because of their ability to treat 3D body shapes andtheir separated vortex flows using a simple and relativelyinexpensive model./(8) However, the previously mentionedmethods suffer from some limitations mainly concerning thetreatment of the vortex wake formation and its interactionwith the body. (9) The first group of methods 2-4 cannot treat3D flows and is limited to very slender bodies. (10) TheMOVE 2 second group of computational methods is timeconsuming and therefore expensive, and its separationprediction is not sufficiently accurate. (11) Both the methodsin this group and the method in Ref. 9 suffer from thedependency on too many semiempirical inputs andassumptions concerning the vortex wake and its separation. STEP 1B(12) The steady, 3D nonlinear vortex-lattice method,' 1-12upon which the present method is based, eliminates manyof these limitations by introducing a more consistent model, but it can treat only symmetrical flow cases./(13) Thepresent work extends the use of the last model toasymmetric, body-vortex flow cases, thus increasing therange of flow problems that can be investigated. (14) InMOVE 3 addition, an effort is made to improve the numericalprocedure to accelerate the convergence of the iterativesolution and to get a better rollup of the vortex linesrepresenting the wake.STEP 18(D. Almosino. 1985. High Angle-of-Attack Calculations of the SubsonicVortex Flow in Slender Bodies AIM Journal 23 (8)1150-6)39One of the significant elements emphasised in this businessand language training program is the theory/practice dynamic. It iscrucial to the learners that the educational components relate toactual practices on the job. This becomes the focus of the businessowner development process and the prime directive of the program(for details, see program objectives in Appendix I). The purpose ofthe present study is to reflect this relation. It is, therefore,essential to analyze the functional variation of discourse in theprogram to be able to capture the way in which different texts arerelated. For example, the academic discourse of the managementclass may be related to the operation of the service encounter. Thepurpose of the analysis, then, is to investigate whether certainparticulars that are discussed in the management class play a rolein the service encounter. An obvious relationship will beestablished if, for instance, a pricing strategy presented in themanagement seminar is practised over the counter where the businessowner sets prices and negotiates the amount his/her customers aregoing to pay. A difficulty with the genre theory presented bySwales (1990) is that it deals with the differences betweendiscourse types rather than the relation between differentindividual discourses, and hence does not necessarily illuminatethe type of relation the above example discloses. It tends to treatthe different texts as separate types. The genre theory, forexample, distinguishes between text or discourse defined as"academic text" (or "expository text") and text or discoursedefined as "service encounter". However, it is not obvious in40which way genre theory would illuminate how a particular expositorytext discussed in the management class has some connection withanother particular text dealing with a service encounter. Yet theeducational program assumes that learners will relate themanagement classes to the daily operation of their businesses. Thequestion is: "Is there "ecological support" relation betweenservice encounter and the management classes?" In other words, weneed to relate actual discourses rather than contrast genre types.Future development in genre theory may throw light on this relationin more detail.Task in the LSP TheoryTask is defined as "One of a set of ... goal directedactivities ... relatable to the acquisition of pre-genre and genreskills ... " (Swales 1990:76). This theory suggests that tasks inthe language class are related to the acquisition of the genre thelearners are pursuing. However, Swales' approach does not actuallysuggest in what ways tasks might be functionally related to genres.As he himself statesFurther, I have - evasively enough - proposed that theactivities be relatable to genre acquisition. It would,on the other hand, be premature to claim that theactivities and their associated procedures are conduciveto genre skills; relatable, on the other hand, allows thetask-designer some freedom to experiment with variouskinds of analysis and to explore unusual combinations oftexts and tasks (Swales 1990, p. 76).41What is missing, it seems, is the actual "natural classroomdiscourse" which would illustrate the relation between the learningtask and the target genre. Moreover, without going into the actual"practical" situation, it would be impossible to tell if learninghas occurred and the learners are actually performing the "targettasks" on the job. In his book, Swales does present a teachingsituation. He quotes his personal experience in assisting NNSgraduate students to acquire the written genres such as memos todissertation committee members, request letters to academicsworking elsewhere, and application letters for fellowships, etc.However, he does not display the teacher/student interactiondiscourse, which the present study proposes to explore.Summary of this SectionAs mentioned earlier in the present review, the ESP literaturehas indicated a division between EAP and EOP (i.e., background ofthe job and actual performance of the job). The field tends totreat EAP and EOP separately rather than looking at them asdifferent dimensions of a "situation" or an "activity" as inMohan's term (1986). A lack of that connection within ESP is thesign of a greater problem of the lack of theory that handles thisrelation. The genre theory presented by Swales (1990) does not seemto relate EAP discourse with EOP discourse; other models need to bereviewed.42Language Socialization Language Socialization (Ochs, 1988) is a view of learningwhich goes beyond language learning alone. Essentially, it regardslearning language and learning subject matter or culture as aprocess in which both elements occur simultaneously. This view hasemerged from research in first language acquisition. What istypical in mother-and-child interaction is that the child islearning about the world and learning language at the same time,rather than learning language alone. In her recent study, forexample, Ochs (1988) explored the complex interaction ofsocialization and language acquisition in a Samoan village. Shediscovered thatas children are learning to become competent members oftheir society, so also are they learning to becomecompetent speakers of their language. In other words,socialization and language acquisition take place at thesame time. (p. iii)She also believes thatacquisition of linguistic knowledge and acquisition ofsociocultural knowledge are interdependent. A basic taskof the language acquirer is to acquire tacit knowledge ofprinciples relating linguistic forms not only to eachother but also to referential and nonreferential meaningsand functions (see Slobin 1986). Given that meanings andfunctions are to a large extent socioculturallyorganised, linguistic knowledge is embedded insociocultural knowledge. On the other hand,understandings of the social organization of everydaylife, cultural ideologies, moral values, beliefs, andstructures of knowledge and interpretation are to a largeextent acquired through the medium of language.Schieffelin & Ochs (1986) call this process language socialization ..., i.e. socialization through languageand socialization to use language. (p. 14)43One element of the Language Socialization theory is the notionof activity. According to Ochs (1988),activity is both a behavioral unit, in the sense of asequence of actions associated with particularmotivations and goals (Leontyev 1981), and a process, inthe sense of praxis (Marx 1959 [cited in Feurer, 1983];Vygotsky 1962). (pp. 14-15)Other terms for activity in this sense are "social practice","social situation", or "situation". These will be usedinterchangeably below. In Och's (1988) model of LanguageSocialization, "activity mediates linguistic and socioculturalknowledge" and "knowledge and activity impact one another" in that"knowledge structures activity and activity structures knowledge"(p. 15). Figure 2.5 represents the model she proposed.Figure 2.5. Ochs' Model of Language SocializationLinguistic knowledge < > Activity <^> Sociocultural knowledgeTaking a similar position, Mohan (1986) suggests that thesituation (or activity) enacts the background knowledge of thesituation (or activity). Ochs (1988) believes "these structures ofknowledge are created in part through the children's participationin ... practices/ activities" (p. 17).If activity mediates language and sociocultural knowledge,then it is inadequate to analyze discourse without considering its44context of activity and sociocultural knowledge. Hence theappropriate analysis of verbal interaction "goes well beyondquestions of linguistic correctness" (Mohan, p. 56). Knowing theappropriate procedures in setting up an account, for example, ispart of a dialogue generated from that specific situation. Mohanfurther explains thatThis is contextualized dialogue. Dialogue is now seen aspart of effective (or ineffective) action in a situationwhich requires contextual knowledge ... Talk is seen asan integral part of an activity such as setting up anaccount. Analysis of the contextualized dialogue thenrequires the analysis of talk in relation to activity.(p. 56)In other words, it is necessary to understand how the activitygives rise to the verbal interaction within it.In summary, in Ochs' (1988) theory there are two major pointsthat demonstrate how the notion of a social practice or activity iscentral to an integrated theory of language acquisition. First,language activities are structured by linguistic and socioculturalprinciples which are acquired hand-in-hand. Second, "thesociocultural contexts that language activities engender or reflectbecome part of the pragmatic or social meaning of particularlinguistic structures carrying out these tasks" (p. 17).Activity as Theory and PracticeAn important point about activity is the idea that anactivity is theory and practice (Mohan, 1986; Ochs, 1988).45According to Mohan,all activities have a practical and theoretical aspect.Both aspects are important in teaching. Without thepractical, students cannot apply what they know; withoutthe theoretical, students cannot understand what they aredoing, nor transfer what they know. (p. 43)Engaging in an activity is not simply "doing something": it isbeing able to understand what one is doing within some framework ofinterpretation for the activity. This notion of activity assumesthat knowledge creates activity and activity creates knowledge. AsOchs (1988) stated,sociocultural and linguistic knowledge structures activity,and activity creates (in the case of the novice/acquirer) andrecreates (in the case of the member/competent language user)knowledge in both of these domains. (p. 16)This notion of activity involves dynamics between "theory" and"practice" in that as the participants in an activity know more,they understand their practices more, and as they increase theirknowledge, they are able to improve their practices. As forchildren, they "construct their own development through theiractions in the world they experience" (Ochs, 1988, p. 15).How is the theory/practice distinction reflected in thediscourse associated with an activity? Mohan (1987) attempted toconnect discourse analysis with the analysis of activity orsituation. Following the distinction between the theory of anactivity (the situation type) and the practice of an activity (the46situation instance), he distinguished between theory discourse andpractical discourse. Theory discourse "explicates a situation type"while practical discourse operates instances of a situation. Hethen analyzed several examples of theory discourse includingparliamentary procedure and statistical analysis.An example may illustrate the theory/practice differences ina business context. Here is a piece of data from the baker's casein the pilot study. The theory text refers to generic "customerservice" and the practice text refers to specific ways to handlecustomer complaints. The baker's choice of language (discourse) indealing with customers depended on his knowledge of customerservice theory which is generic for all customers. However, what hesaid to one particular customer was specific at a certain place ina specific time. In other words, the principles (in the theory) ofcustomer service explain service encounters and the language usedin handling customer complaints. The theory/practice relation maybe a possible theoretical framework for relating EOP and EAP. Amore in-depth analysis of additional discourse is needed before anyclaim can be made.Figure 2.6 summarises the language socialization theoriesdiscussed above. In the Language Socialization Activity approach,activity is theory and practice (Mohan, 1986). An activity blendslanguage knowledge and sociocultural knowledge (Ochs, 1988). Thesetwo elements form the background knowledge that applies to theactivity. The situation/activity enacts the background knowledge(Mohan, 1986).Figure 2.6.^The Language47Socialization model (Mohan,^1986; Ochs,^1988)Sociocult. LanguageKnowledge KnowledgeTheoryPracticeSummary of Findings in the Review of LiteratureThe review of related literature in this chapter seems toreveal issues in several areas. First there is the problem of theseparation of EOP from EAP, reflecting a more general issue oflinks between the language of theory and the language of practice.Then, there is the "genre" theory presented by Swales (1990), itsconcept and method of analysis and the issue of its ability toaddress the issue of "ecology" of texts. Thirdly, bilingual code-switching studies reveal differences in the roles of the twolanguages (L1 and L2) in the functional variation of the classroomdiscourse. Finally, there is the language socialization model(Mohan, 1986; Ochs, 1988) which has been developed around the ideathat an activity or situational social practice has atheory/practice dimension to it and finally, there are differencesin discourses that match up with theory discourse and practicaldiscourse.48Chapter ThreeThe InvestigationPurposes of the StudyThere are two purposes in the present investigation:(1) To conduct a study of the functional variation of discourse inthe educational program and the operation of small business,and(2) To investigate the importance of the functional variation ofdiscourse in code-switching.The research questions are:(1) What is the functional variation of discourse in theeducational program for immigrant entrepreneurs, (i.e. themanagement classes, the language classes and the businessoperational tasks?(2) In light of the functional variation described in Question(1), what are the roles of the first language (i.e.,Cantonese) and the second language (i.e., English) as seen inthe language class?This is a study using qualitative research methods such asobservations, interviews, and document analysis as well asquantitative such as log linear analysis. The qualitative approachwas used for the exploratory study of the functional variation of49discourse in the educational program. This method was used becauseit was an exploratory study of an area which had not beeninvestigated before in any detail; therefore, it was particularlyimportant to cast a wide net. The quantitative pattern of the studywas used for code-switching material and it was used when it becameclear that the quantitative language variation approach wasappropriate for analyzing the data. In other words, data revealedregular code-switching patterns. Since the variables were binary,they then fitted into the chi-square and log-linear models.Methods of InvestigationCase Studies, ESP and Bilingual Discourse As the review of ESP literature in Chapter Two has indicated,issues raised in ESP have been generally based either on student-centred or skill-centred approaches (Swales, 1985; Hutchinson andWaters, 1987). Both approaches assume that the learners themselvesare the best informants for their learning experiences, problemsand language needs. This belief has been well documented byextensive research in the form of surveys and case studies(Schmidt, 1981; Ostler, 1980; Kroll, 1979; Cohen, Glasman,Rosenbaum-Cohen, Ferrara and Fine, 1979). Richterich (1983), forexample, has reported eleven case studies in identifying LSP(Language for Specific Purposes) learner needs for the Council ofEurope. In critiquing the publishing and reporting of case studiesof curriculum development, Connelly (1978) explained that "a case50study describes a particular event with its own specialcircumstances" (p. 78). In ESP, the development and the study ofprograms are mostly related with a "particular" occupational oracademic situation to meet "specific" needs (Mackay & Mountford,1978). A case study approach seems to be an appropriate method ofinvestigation for the issues raised on bilingual code-switching andESP discourse, which are "special" and "specific" in many ways.Bilingual code-switching is a sociolinguistic phenomenonarising from different "domains" (Fishman, 1972; Heller, 1988) or"situations", or "social practices" (e.g., social interactions suchas a service encounter in Heller (1982). Similarly, ESP discoursevaries according to the context of situation relating speaker andaudience, and that is, according to the field (or topic ofdiscourse), the tenor (or role of the participants), the mode (orfunction of the language), and style (Halliday & Hasan, 1985). Itseems natural that issues relating these two specific areas (i.e.,bilingual code-switching and ESP) could be initially investigated,as an exploration, in case studies in a specific situation.Selection of SettingRegarding the selection of setting, Hammersley and Atkinson(1983) have pointed out thatThe research problem and the setting are closely boundtogether. Often, it is advisable to 'case' possibleresearch sites with a view to assessing theirsuitability, the feasibility of carrying out researchthere, and how access might be accomplished should theybe selected ... The role of pragmatic considerations mustnot be under-estimated in the choice of a setting. (p.40)51The selection of the Small Business Owner Development Programfor immigrant entrepreneurs as the setting for the present studyhas followed the principles recommended by Hammersley and Atkinson(1983). It was considered a suitable setting for the present studybecause it provided valuable data on the relation between "academicknowledge" and "occupational" practice in various ways. First,there were the business content and language components in theprogram. Second, this program was "in-service training" and theapplication of the "academic" knowledge in business management tothe "actual operation" was immediate. Third, the learners werepractising independent business owners/managers who had fullauthority to operate their businesses in light of the program. Andfinally, both Ll and L2 were used in the management and low levelEOP classes; hence, they became useful sources of data forbilingual code-switching.With regard to pragmatic considerations, access to theeducation program was made possible because of the openness of theinstitution to insights upon the innovative nature of the program.Access to the business sites was made easier since on-site visitswere already a significant part of the education program. Most ofthe players were "sponsors" in Spradley's (1980) terms. Theresearcher's involvement in the initial studies leading to thedevelopment of the program was an "asset" regarding access to thefield (Wong, 1985b).52Selection of Informants Three couples were selected from the volunteers for moreintensive study. This selection was based on three major dimensionsalong with sampling within cases: time, people, and context(Hammersley & Atkinson, 1983). As it was not feasible to follow thelanguage and business development of the informants over time priorto the program, a different criterion was adopted. The firstcouple, Cl and C2, were new to the country, had limited Englishproficiency, and had business experience in Asia but wereunfamiliar with the local business world. They had a lot to learn.The second couple, N1 and N2, had business experiences in bothNorth and South America, were fluent but inaccurate in their oralskills, and were desperate for "breakthroughs" in their businesspractices. They were outspoken and were eager to communicate. Thethird couple, T1 and T2, had been in the country for over eighteenyears. They were professionals who had just started to venture intoentrepreneurship with little business experience but advancedEnglish skills. The nature of the business provided three differentcontexts for observation. Cl and C2 were bakers; N1 and N2 owned aflower and gift shop; T1 and T2 operated an import/export businesswith an office and show-room set-up. The first two businessesrequired few written skills but demanded many customer services.The third business was far more sophisticated in both language useand business transactions. Most of the possible variations of time,people and context were included in the selection of the threecouples.53Role of the ResearcherAs the key researcher, I was the observer and attended allsessions where data were collected. One research assistant assistedme with video-taping while I observed and took field notes. Iinterviewed the students and the teachers, collected documents fromthe field, visited business sites, transcribed the video and audiotapes and finally analyzed them. A second research assistantassisted me with the transcription of Cantonese texts. All three ofus were fully bilingual in English and Cantonese. I was not astranger to the program and its set-ups since I had conducted apilot study before the present full scale ten-month investigationbegan. The camera crew was there, in the classrooms and seminarrooms, from day one. We became part of the natural scene. Data fromthe business operations were collected by observation andinterviews only. With as little disturbance to the natural scene aspossible, I sat or stood quietly at the business sites (i.e, thebakery, the flower and gift shop and the import/export company) andbecame one of the customers in the informal observations. However,I had to reveal my identity when I had to get permission from the"other" customers to tape their speech in service encounters. Whereaudio recording was not possible, I slipped back to a customer'srole. The owners, of course, were fully aware of my existence andmy purpose in the shop.Time was taken to establish rapport between the businessowners and myself. Since confidentiality was assured regarding allinformation about their businesses, the business owners felt54comfortable being observed and interviewed by me. It took a whilefor the instructors to get used to being observed and video-tapedby me as a colleague. However, they said that they felt less uneasywhen they found me non-threatening in my role as a researcher. Forme, the field experience was exciting, pleasant and enjoyable formost of the time. At times, I was overwhelmed by the richness ofthe data revealed in the field.Validity and ReliabilityA significant issue in the present investigation was thecontrol of validity and reliability of the findings. The internalvalidity in the study was strong because of the fact that the datacollected spoke truthfully as it reported the discourse 'here andnow'. For instance, the video tapes, supplemented with field notes,provided accuracy and rich details of the data. What we discoveredwas "genuine" and "first-hand". For external validity, thirty twoentrepreneurs from eighteen businesses were observed in general andthree couples were studied in particular so that a pattern could begeneralised to a certain extent.For reliability, the measures were repeated. Ten percent ofthe sample data were coded by a second coder and the inter-coderagreement was 94%. The differences between the two coders, theresearcher and a trained assistant, were discussed and a finalagreement was reached. Transcriptions, both English and Cantonese,were checked twice for accuracy. The bilingual data for the secondpart of the study was compared and cross-checked for any55discrepancies. The differences were minimal.Following the recommendations of Dean and Whyte (1958),Hammersley and Atkinson (1983) and Spradley (1980), interviews wereconducted with the informants to validate (or disprove)observations made in the classes or at the business sites. Theinformants' reports were also checked regarding their"implausibility", the reliability of the informant, and his or hermental state, and were cross-checked against other information fromthe field. In other words, what was observed was confirmed ordisproved by the interview while at the same time data collectedfrom observation was used to counter-check what had been said. Byso doing, the reliability of the interview data as well as theobservation were secured.Like any other research tradition, observation methodologyshould and can meet requirements for scientific standards such as"objectivity" as long as the researcher "remains open andunprejudiced in apprehending and reporting about their (thesubjects') way of life" (Bruyn, 1963, p. 231). This was theposition the present study has assumed.What has been discussed above are the principles and therationale behind the investigation. What follows are the details ofthe investigation.56Context of the Study (The Setting) This study was conducted in a western province in Canada,where recent immigration policy has resulted in a growing number ofimmigrant entrepreneurs. The educational needs of these immigrantentrepreneurs are different from other adult English as a SecondLanguage (ESL) learners. On the one hand, they require informationabout doing business in Canada. On the other hand, they need theEnglish for operating their businesses (Wong, 1985b). For many ofthem, their language proficiency does not match with the subjectrequirement in a regular business management training program,which usually requires a grade twelve level of English or itsequivalent. The subject matter may be beyond immigrantentrepreneurs' level of understanding in English, and the knowledgeof business management required for their jobs might be extremelyadvanced. In response to these special educational demands, analternative to the regular business and ESL programs was suggestedby a group of small business educators and an innovative pilotproject was initiated in one of the community colleges. It was abilingual small business program with an EOP (English forOccupational Purposes) component. The objective of this program was"to provide training, developmental and informational services, onan on-going basis, to owners and managers of the small businesscommunity" (program pamphlet, 1988). A small business is defined as"a business hiring fewer than one hundred employees and operatingwith a capital of under two million dollars" by government agents.EDUCATIONPROGRAM(ACADEMICTASKS) OPERATION OF SMALLBUSINESS^ TARGET(OCCUPATIONAL TASKS)TASKS57Figure 3.1 illustrates the program. There are threecomponents: the management class, the language class and the on-site sessions at the business site. The management class is furtherdivided into two areas: (1) a series of seminars led by bilingualprofessionals in the field (e.g., accountants, bankers andlawyers); and (2) a series of workshops led by a bilingual smallbusiness consultant who also acts as an advisor/coach. During theon-site sessions, the advisor/coach actually goes into individualbusiness sites, sits down with the owners, and reviews with themthe seminar/workshop materials and their performance in the pastmonth. The language class is divided into two groups: a high levelgroup taught by an English speaker; and a low level group taught bya bilingual instructor who is also a retail shop owner.Figure 3.1 The Small Business ProgramMANAGEMENT^ BUSINESSCLASS ESP CLASSLEARNINGTASKSThis bilingual small business program consisted of L1 smallbusiness seminars and workshops (fifteen 4-hour sessions, meeting58weekly or bi-weekly), bilingual ESP classes (forty hours in ten tothirteen sessions, meeting weekly with breaks in between) and on-site visits conducted by bilingual advisors (ten 2-hour sessions,meeting monthly). The training program was structured so that therewas a seminar followed by a workshop. Then there were ESP classesclustered towards the end of the program. The first language ofthese entrepreneurs was Cantonese and the second language wasEnglish. There were thirty-two participants from eighteen differentbusinesses, most of which were service-oriented in nature. Thesetting selected for the present study included the business-sitesand the classrooms, where learning situations (tasks) and businesssituations (tasks) were available for observation. For the scope ofthe present investigation, three businesses were used as cases fordetailed study. Permission to have access to the classes and firmswas granted by the educational institute, the instructors and thebusiness owners (the participants). A letter, in Chinese, was sentto the group, explaining the purposes of the study and askingvolunteers for participation. A consent form was then sent to thosewho agreed to participate (see Appendix II). The participants wereassured of confidentiality. (All data collected will be destroyedas soon as the investigation is completed). For reporting purposes,name codes are used instead of the participants' or theircompanies' actual names.59Research ProcedureTo test the feasibility of the research methods, a pilot studywas first conducted on a much smaller scale. One case was studiedfor a shorter period of time. The subject was observed in hisclasses and on his business sites. He was also interviewed. Dataseemed to indicate that there was a pattern in the functions of thediscourse and there was a relationship between bilingual code-switching and the functional variation in discourse. However, somedifficulties were encountered, such as getting the consent of theinstructors to be observed and helping the participants adapt tothe presence of a camera in the classroom or seminar room forvideo-taping. These two problems were later solved in the presentstudy. To solve the first problem, the instructors were againassured of the confidentiality of the data collected and thepotential contribution of the findings to future research. Thesecond problem was solved by incorporating the camera into theresearch environment as a "component" of the natural scene from dayone of the program. After permission was formally granted by theeducational institute, the instructors, and the participants in theprogram, data collection commenced. The research crew was made upof the researcher and a research assistant.60The SubjectsVolunteers in the bilingual business and language programswere observed as a group performing their general classroom tasks.Despite the fact that there were eighteen different types ofbusinesses represented in the class, the group was homogenous inthat they were mostly retailers or their businesses were of aservice-oriented nature. However, it was impossible to observe allthirty-two participants at their business sites; therefore, threecouples from the volunteers were studied more intensively. Theparticipants for this program were usually enrolled in couples asboth spouses were involved in the operation of the business. It wasanticipated that the study of couples would reflect individualdifferences under the same work and study environments. Among thevolunteers, two couples were selected from the Limited EnglishProficiency (LEP) group, one of which had been in the country fora long period of time and one of which had newly arrived in Canada.A third couple was selected from the advanced language group, acouple with limited experience in business operations. The focus ofthis study was on the LEP couples. The third case was studied as acontrast to or comparison with the others to explain diversities inthe findings. A summary of their backgrounds is given in AppendixIII.Data CollectionThe bulk of the data was used for the first part of the study61(i.e., the description of the functional variation of discourse).The second part of the study (the code-switching analysis) wasconducted mainly in the bilingual ESP classes, where most of thebilingual code-switching utterances occurred. Data from theadvanced ESP class were not used to address research question twosince there was very little (close to nil) bilingual code-switchinggoing on.Observation of Ll Content Classes The Ll content classes included business seminars andworkshops, conducted by the advisor/coach and other experts indifferent areas of management, e.g. lawyers, bankers andaccountants, who were guest speakers. With prior consent from thestudents and the instructors or speakers, these sessions werevideo-taped. The focus of observation was on the student activitiesand the information presented. Field notes were made by theobserver as references.Observation of ESP Classes Both the bilingual and the advanced ESP classes were video-taped and observed. The focus of the observation was on theparticipants as a group and on the case-study informants asindividuals. Field notes were made in both Chinese and English.Where sessions were simultaneously held, the advanced level groupwas observed and video-taped by a trained research assistant andthe low level group was observed and video-taped by the researcher.62Observation on the JobObservation at the business sites was arranged directly withthe six informants. An informal observation was conducted first inorder to collect general information about the business setting. Asecond and more formal visit at a later date then focused onactivities of interest to the researcher. Only brief field noteswere made on the spot so as to avoid unnecessary disturbance to thescene. The details were completed off the site but immediatelyfollowing the observation. The focus of the observation was on theuse of English during service encounters and other managerialtasks. With approval from the informants and their customers, somesamples of the service encounter were audio-taped. There was apossibility that the naturalness of the interactions might bedistorted because of the presence of the tape-recorder. However,the data collected did not seem to show any evidence of suchdistortion. (For sample field notes, see Appendix IV).Scheduling of the Observations and Sample Size The program was seven months long. The informal observationswere scheduled in the first month of the program. The formalobservations were scheduled regularly during the subsequent sixmonths. There were two formal observations scheduled for each ofthe classes at the beginning, the middle and the end of theprogram, totalling eight sessions of seminars (67 %) and 5 sessionsof workshops (50 %). Eight of the ten EOP classes (80%) wereobserved. There were three visits (including three interviews) for63each of the three cases at the business sites.Interviews in Ll Data collected at the observations were checked duringinterviews with the informants. A half-hour interview was conductedafter each observation at the business site privately at a timeconvenient to the informants (e.g., after the stores were closedfor the day). With permission from the informants, these interviewswere audio-taped. At the beginning of the interviews,confidentiality of the informants' identity and the data collectedwas again assured. The interview was conducted in Cantonese so thata more in-depth discussion could be conducted. In the presentstudy, for analysis and presentation purposes, the audio-tapes werefirst transcribed in Chinese and then translated into English.Documents (On-site Visit Reports and Seminar Outlines) As part of the program, on-site one-on-one visits wereconducted by the informants' advisor/coach, who was also bilingual(Cantonese and English). These visits were usually used to reviewinformation presented in the seminars and workshops and to discusstheir application to the participants' businesses. The details ofthese meetings were recorded by the advisor on "on-site visitreports", which became a data source, as not all on-site sessionswere available for observation. Other documents included theseminar and workshop outlines which were used to supplement thesessions video-taped or audio-taped. Class notes or hand-outs64collected from the EOP classes were available for reference aswell.TranscriptionFirstly, a map was made of all the data collected, includinginterviews, classroom discourse, and observations. The tapes weresurveyed by listening to them. For the EOP class materials, atwenty-minute segment of each class was transcribed. Illustrativesamples were collected from materials from seminars, workshops,interviews and the business sites. These samples of audio-tapes,video-tapes or interviews were transcribed in both Chinese andEnglish. Utterances in Cantonese were transcribed with Wong's(1938) system "A Chinese Syllabary According to the Dialect ofCanton" and presented with the Yale Romanization System. Themeanings of the utterances are included in < > parenthesis. Beforethe English translation was made, the Cantonese transcription waschecked by a native speaker of Cantonese with extensive researchexperience in Cantonese phonological studies. After the Englishtranslation, a second check was conducted to ensure accuracy in theinterpretation of the Cantonese data.Analysis The analyses were based on the data collected fromobservations, interviews and documents i.e. in the audio-tapes,video-tapes, field notes, field diary, interview notes anddocuments. The appropriateness of categories for coding emerged as65patterns of regularities were detected. The data were then codedaccordingly. Ten percent of the coded data was checked by aseparate trained researcher. The inter-coder agreement was 94%. Thedata was then analyzed qualitatively for the first part of thestudy and quantitatively for the second part of the study. The"quantitative variation in language" approach (Rousseau andSankoff, 1978) was used in the second part of the study. Two by Two(2x2) contingency tables were constructed and chi-square tests foreach of the combinations of factors were computed (i.e., a globaltwo-way analysis was completed). To investigate whether there wasa three-way interaction, the log-linear model was then used.Presentation of Findings Since there are two parts to this study, the findings willalso be presented in two separate chapters: the FunctionalVariation of Discourse; and the Roles of the First and the SecondLanguage. The former part will address research question numberone: What is the functional variation of discourse in theeducational program for immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e., themanagement classes, the language classes and their attendantoperational tasks)? The latter part will address research questionnumber two: In light of the functional variations described inQuestion One, what are the roles of the first language (i.e.,Cantonese) and the second language (i.e., English) as seen in thelow level EOP classes?66Chapter FourResults of the Investigation: Part OneThe Functional Variation of DiscourseThe AnalysisThis chapter presents the findings of the first part of thestudy (i.e., the functional variation of discourse of thirty-twoimmigrant entrepreneurs learning linguistic and managerial skillsin English and Cantonese). It is an investigation of the relationsbetween activity, task, and discourse in the educational programand the operation of small businesses. An important focus of thisbilingual program was for students to relate management andlinguistic knowledge to their business operations (i.e., to relatemanagement and language "theory" to business "practice"). This caseraises problematic questions for both LSP (Language for SpecificPurposes) research and bilingual code-switching research. Thesequestions will be addressed separately in two parts of the study.Part One of the study analyzes the program and business operationfrom both the Language for Specific Purposes perspective and theLanguage Socialization perspective. Part Two of the study, whichexplores the relation of this analysis to Bilingual Code-switching,will be presented in the next chapter.Specifically, the purpose of the analysis is to compare theLanguage for Specific Purposes (LSP) approach with the Language67Socialization approach by describing(i) the functional variation of discourse in theprogram,(ii) the relation between the program and the businesspractice and(iii)^the relation between the learning of language andthe learning of content.The aim of this chapter is to present a holistic view of theprogram as a complex activity. The term "activity" is used in atechnical sense. The microcosm of all the elements that make upthe full education program will be presented and then analyzed indetail. In other words, the analysis will show an ecology of tasksand discourses.From a theoretical standpoint, this part of the study willpresent a case for viewing the program as an activity, followed bya development of the inter-relations between different discourses.This view will then be contrasted with the Language for SpecificPurposes (LSP) view.The RationaleThe Language Socialization and Activity Model of Analysis (Mohan,1986; Ochs, 1988)A general overview of the program reveals that the LanguageSocialization perspective is a possible perspective to apply to thesmall business program. Language Socialization (Ochs, 1988) is a68view of learning which regards learning language and learningsubject matter or culture as a process occurring simultaneously.(For a detailed description of the theory, see Chapter Two: ASelective Review of Literature.)Figure 4.1. Language SocializationSociocult.Knowledge LanguageKnowledgeTheoryPracticeFigure 4.1 summarises the language socialization theorydiscussed above. In the Language Socialization Activity approach,activity is theory and practice (Mohan, 1986). An activity blendslanguage knowledge and sociocultural knowledge (Ochs, 1988). Thesetwo elements form the background knowledge that applies to theactivity. The situation/activity enacts the background knowledge(Mohan, 1986).A closer look at the conceptual picture of the activity theoryand the small business program in the present study (as shown inFigure 4.2 next page) reveals resemblances between the two invarious areas: (i) the theory/practice box matches up with theoperation of the small business; (ii) the sociocultural knowledgeside parallels the management class; and (iii) the languageknowledge side parallels the language class.Figure 4.2. The Small Business ProgramMANAGEMENT^ BUSINESSCLASS ESP CLASS69EDUCATIONPROGRAM(ACADEMICTASKS)OPERATION OF SMALLBUSINESS^ TARGET(OCCUPATIONAL TASKS)^ TASKSSmall Business as a Social Activity or Practice In her exploration of the complex interaction of socializationand language acquisition in a Samoan village, Ochs (1988)discovered that these two processes took place at the same time.The language and content learning situation of the immigrantentrepreneurs in the present study seems to resemble that of thenative children of the Samoan village in several ways. As theethnic business owners are learning to become competent members ofthe Canadian business community, so also are they learning tobecome competent speakers of the language for business. In otherwords, learning the Canadian business culture and learning thelanguage for conducting business in Canada take place at the sametime.Using Language Socialization as a theoretical point of view,in the investigation of discourse in interaction, it will,therefore, seem natural to study learning language and learningabout the world at the same time. How one forms the natural contextLEARNINGTASKS70of the other becomes a significant focus of observation.^InHalliday's terms (1975), this is a study of "learning language" and"learning through language" concurrently.Language Socialization illuminates the mutual learning oflanguage and subject (i.e., the content) in the present study. Morespecifically, the learners in the program are not only learninglanguage, they are learning business management and learning aboutCanadian small businesses simultaneously. In language learning,they are not simply learning sentences or grammar but are learninghow to participate in social practices or activities. In thisexample, the learners in the program are learning how toparticipate fully and skilfully in businesses, in a context whichis obviously different from the business culture of Hong Kong, fromwhere they originally migrated. Therefore, the program isinitiating them further into Canadian business practices, socialpractices with specific culture-bound values.A significant aspect in the Language Socialization Model isthe notion of an "activity". An example of an activity would berunning a business, whereas particular kinds of businesses such asimport/ export firms or bakeries would be particular types ofactivities. The learners in a business management program arelearning to participate in an "activity", to become part of acommunity of enquirers or a community of practitioners. They arenot only learning business theories; they are simultaneouslyoperating their own businesses. They are hoping to improve their"practices" in light of these "theories". This is experiential71learning. The entrepreneurs are learning by operating their ownbusinesses in a real workplace environment. This notion of"learning" and "learning through doing" is a contrast to the pointof view of education which tends to view content learning andlanguage learning separately, the former being considered only aslearning separate skills or individual facts and the latter as"linguistic correctness". It is, therefore, more holistic to studyeducational events and investigate what social practices areactually being learned. Managing and learning about smallbusinesses as a social practice then becomes an appropriate settingfor this type of research to begin.Tasks and Genre in LSP Analysis The program can also be viewed from the LSP perspective. Withreference to Long's definition of "learning tasks and target tasks"(Long 1985), the learning tasks of immigrant entrepreneurs arelinguistic and managerial skills for small businesses. Their targettasks are tasks required for business practices. The focus of theprogram is to relate their learning tasks to their target tasks.Therefore, the language class, which can be seen as an Englishfor Occupational Purposes class, highlights certain learning taskswhich are relatable to the target tasks of the small business suchas service encounters. As mentioned earlier, that is the intent ofLSP Theory as outlined by Swales (1985, 1990). However, Swales'approach does not actually suggest in what ways learning tasksmight be functionally related to genres. One approach may be toLSP Analysis EOP Lan•ua e ClassTASKSServiceEncounter GENRE72observe, in a program, some of the ways in which that relation isbeing worked on. Figure 4.3 illustrates how an LSP Analysis mightappear in relation to the program the present study isinvestigating.Figure 4.3. Genre and Task in Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) AnalysisTo summarise the issue on LSP analysis: the language classincludes learning tasks; the business includes the genre of serviceencounter; but Swales (1990) gives no clear indications of how thetasks might relate to the service encounter.Conclusion to this SectionTo conclude, the Language Socialization/Activity Theory, asdemonstrated above and illustrated by Figure 4.2, provides apossible basis for an overview or a holistic view of (i) thevarious elements of the education program and the small businessoperations; and (ii) their relation to one another. Therefore, theuse of this model as a basis for the analysis of functionalvariation of discourse will be explored.73Results of the Analysis of DiscourseService Encounter and the EOP Class The last section suggested that the LSP approach has so fardone little to illuminate the relation between genre and task. Theservice encounter and the task in the language class have been usedas examples in the discussion. These discourses are two distinctgenres unrelated in the LSP theory. The next step is to propose analternative approach using the Language Socialization/ Activityview as the theoretical basis of analysis.The purpose of the investigation in the present section thenis two-fold. Firstly, based on the Language Socialization/ActivityApproach, it presents an analysis of actual data in serviceencounters collected from the business site and samples of tasksrecorded from the EOP language class. Secondly, it evaluates theappropriateness of the model in defining the functional variationof discourse in the program under study. Figure 4.4 showsconceptually where service encounters in the business practice andtasks in the language class are initiated in the research context.The analysis starts with the service encounter itself which isan example of discourse practice as in Figure 4.4.Figure 4.4: Language74socialisation analysis: DiscourseManagement LanguageClass ClassDiscussRulesScaffoldExamplesDiscourse Theorye.g. SE rulesDiscourse Practicee.g.^S.E.Service Encounter Text. Text (1) was collected at the bakery (C2'sshop). C2 was the owner. "A" was the customer, a Chinese Canadianwho did not speak Chinese.Text 1. C2: Hi!A: Do you have any chäsiu b&au (barbecue pork bun)?C2: How many do you want?A: Four.C2: Four for GST. Six you don't pay GST.A: Give me six then.C2: Six the same, OK?A: Same?C2: They are same price.A: And ... What other bdau (bun) do you have? Gal6i bdau (Curry bun) ?C2: Yes.A: Yes, can I take that?C2: Six each?A: Six chäsiu (barbecue pork), and ....C2: Ch&slu (barbecue pork), right? (put buns in a paperbox.)A: Four you pay GST. Six you don't pay GST?C2: Yes.Text (1) is the initial part of a service encounter. (For thecomplete text, see Appendix V). Service encounters have been the75focus of various studies (e.g., Churchill & Grey, 1974; Hallidayand Hasan, 1980; Hasan, 1979; Merritt, 1976; Ventola, 1987).Ventola's analysis (1987), for example, discussed the "sequence"and "elements" from the perspective of a linguist viewing theservice encounter as a "genre". According to Ventola's definition,Text (1) has the elements of a service encounter. There is asequence of functional elements: the Greeting (Hi), the SaleRequest (Do you have any ch&slu bdau <barbecue bun>?), the handingover of the goods (e.g., put buns in a paper box) etc. The purposeof the present study is not to debate over "obligatory" and"optional" elements and their sequencing, as Ventola has attemptedin much greater detail, or to assess the different terms used bydifferent linguists. However, the present question is: What is thefunctional relation between this discourse of service encounter andthe tasks in the language class?Tasks in the Language Class (EOP) Data were collected by observing tasks being performed in theEOP language class. There are several notions emerging from theobservation: the notion of examples of service encounter;simulation of service encounters (i.e., learners enacting or role-playing service encounter, and examples being scaffolded). Theinstructor is helping the learners to work through cases of serviceencounters, helping them to see the relation between customerservice theory and service encounter practice and work on thoseconnections in the form of role-playing and discussions.76Enacting (Role-playing) service encounter (Scaffoldingexamples of service encounter). In the following text, the studentsare discussing a customer complaint: the sofa she bought was notdelivered to her although she has already phoned three times. Shewants her money back. PT is the instructor. The rest are students.They have had some aural and oral practice in the speechlaboratory. They are now discussing the situation as well as thelanguage.Text 2 JL: I will find out why the sofa was not delivered.Maybe, she's not home or maybe our men left a cardand somebody took it ... We have to dig deep intothe problem.PT: So, would you show her all the sofas again or ... ?JL: She knows the sofa is a good buy.LC: (acting as the customer) Of course, I know the sofais good. Otherwise I won't buy it.PT: (to JL) What's your argument?JL: (to LC) That's why I say, `You have the best buy'.You know our product because our product is thebest. You've come to the right place. You've sosmart. We deserve a second chance.LC: But I've already phoned three times.JL: I'm terribly sorry but I will personally guaranteethis time.Ti: This time, as the manager, I will personallydeliver it myself.LC: Right now?JL: Within half an hour and I'll throw something elsein as a compensation.LC: O.K. (The class laughed)JL: (to the instructor) Right now, we have turned itaround. At least she accepted certain things: halfan hour.It is worthwhile pointing out that a fair amount of researchwork has looked at scaffolding in teacher-student interactions but77a lot of the earlier work on scaffolding involved the teacherputting the learners through fixed steps (e.g., Faerch, 1985). Whatseems to be happening here is much more of an open discussion thatincludes: an opening up of what goes into the service encounter;what some of the strategies are; what some of the decision pointsare; and what some of the deliberations that operate behind it are.The listening task in the speech laboratory opens up an issuefor discussion. JL, the business owner, views the customercomplaint as a sign of management problems in the company but stillwants to win the customer back. The instructor, PT, then challengeshim with his next logical move by saying, "So, would you show herall the sofas again or ...?" JL replies by simply stating that thecustomer knows the sofa is a good buy. It is at this point that LC,acting as the customer filing the complaint, goes back into thesimulation of the service encounter by saying, "Of course, I knowthe sofa is good. Otherwise I won't buy it." Before JL relies, theinstructor gets into the discussion about the situation again byasking JL, " What is your argument?" Instead of continuing with thediscussion, JL moves right back into the role-playing by beginningto address LC, the customer directly, "You know our productbecause..." From this point onward until LC finally agrees to JL'ssuggestion for a solution, the participants are simulating thehandling of the customer complaint, which is an "after-sale"service, a type of service encounter which is more complex than theregular "over-the-counter" talk. LC's remark "O.K." ends theenactment. Within the simulation, Ti, assuming the role of the78manager, joins in the conversation and personally guarantees theimprovement of the delivery service. JL then steps out of the roleas the president of the company with pride and convinces theinstructor of the merits of his performance in his role byconcluding: "Right now, we have turned it around. At least sheaccepts certain things: half an hour". In other words, he hasshifted from a "participant's role" back to an "observer's role" inSpradley's terms (1980). In this advanced class, PT's role as aninstructor is to assist the learners in scaffolding the language bysimply giving them hints at appropriate decision-making points.The discourse in Text (2) therefore varies functionally. Thediscussion of the service encounter seems to serve the function ofproviding a theoretical interpretation of the "theory" part whilethe simulation seems to provide a "practice" run-through of theservice encounter.Discussing the "rules " of service encounters. There isevidence in the data collected from the EOP language class thatpart of the discourse corresponds to the "theory" of the serviceencounter while part of the discourse corresponds to the "practice"of the service encounter in the business operation. (See Figure4.4. Language socialization analysis: Discourse).The following text was collected from the Low Level EOP class.CM is the language instructor. She also owns a retail shop. Ni andN2 are students. They are owners of a gift and flower shop. CM isreviewing with the class the six steps of a business deal (service79encounter).Text 3 CM.: We have six steps but we have discussed five,right? O.K. six steps. What are the six steps?First one. (M. wrote on the board.) What is thefirst one? Introduce the offer, right?N1: Introduce the offer, yeh.CM: "Introduce the offer" (wrote on the board). Numbertwo nè ? <What about number two?›N2: Number two ...CM: "Gather information" (wrote on the board). Numberone "Introduce the offer" jikhaih ... <that is ...>"Hello, what do you want? Can I help you? We haveflowers for sale." Haih mhaih a ? <Isn't that so? >N1: Some specials.CM: "Any specials today?" Gather information. What isthis? Gong di matyeh ? <What do you say ?> Tâihahgo haak maids mätyêh ma. <See what the customerwants to buy.> Dim gong a ? <What do you say?›"What would you like?" "Do you want that?""Smaller?"... O.K. Jihauh n -e? (What next?) Go haak viu di mdty&h? <What does the customer want?› Giveincentives, suggestions. (M. wrote on the board.)Lau keuih mAai la, haih mhhai a  ? <Lure him to buy,isn't that so?› "How about red flowers? How aboutroses? We have specials."Here, the class is reviewing service encounter rules by stating thefirst three of the six basic steps: (1) Introducing the offer; (2)Gathering information, (3) Giving incentives, suggestions etc.Language examples are being scaffolded during the discussion of therules, i.e., introducing the offer: "Can I help you? We haveflowers for sale"; gathering information: "What would you like?";and giving incentives or suggestion: "How about red flowers? Howabout roses? We have specials". Hence, it is not surprising thatone can easily discover some of the similarities between the stepsintroduced in the language class and the actual service encounter80text, (i.e., Text 1), that was collected at the baker's shop afterthe EOP class. In place of the linguist's terms, there is theintroduction of the offer or general introduction (line 1): "Hi";gathering of information (Line 5): "How many do you want?";Confirmation of the deal (line 15): "Cha-siu (barbecue pork, right;and giving of incentives (line 16): "Four you pay GST. Six youdon't pay GST" etc.After analyzing Texts (1) to (3), the functional relationbetween "class talk about the service encounter" and the actual"Service Encounter" is now clearer. The learners are bothpractising service encounters and discussing the "rules" of serviceencounters. With the perspective of the Language Socialization/Activity approach, role-playing in the class relates to thepractice of the service encounter (S.E. in Figure 4.5) and thediscussing of rules relates to the theory of service encounter asillustrated by Figure 4.5.Figure 4.5. Relation between EOP class and Service EncounterDISCUSS RULES OF SERVICE ENCOUNTER THEORY OF S.E.sROLEPLAY SERVICE ENCOUNTER DOING AN S.E.Summary of the Section To conclude this section, Figure 4.4 illustrates the mainfindings resulting from an analysis of discourse in the languageclass and in the business practice. In the service encounter, forexample, there are instances of customer-server interactions as81well as a background understanding of service encounter rules. Inthe EOP language class, there seem to be parallel elements to thetheory/practice relation. Specifically, there is a discussion ofrules and a scaffolding of examples. It would be an over-generalized conclusion to claim that this is a simple rule for all.What this portion of the study has explored is the link betweenlearning task and genre, and the relationship between the languageclass and the actual operation of the business. The examples andthe rules illustrate a possible range of patterns in which thelanguage class relates to the service encounter. While the LSPanalysis gives no suggestion as to the genre/learning taskrelation, the evidence in this study suggests that the relationshipbetween genre and learning tasks is illustrated by the LanguageSocialization perspective.Business Management AnalysisThe purpose of this section is to analyze the discourse in themanagement class of the program and the actual operation of thebusiness. While the LSP approach is silent regarding the relationbetween the management class and the business operation, theLanguage Socialization perspective suggests that this may behelpfully seen as theory/practice relation. Data in this part ofthe study seems to indicate that the variation in patterning whichhas been exhibited between the language class and the serviceencounter may also arise between the management class and the82operation of the business. The first phenomenon worth mentioning isthe general broad relation between the management class where thetheory is being studied and the business operation where practiceof management principles takes place. Essentially, evidenceindicates that there is dynamic interplay between the topics in themanagement class and the business operations - a relation betweentheory and practice in Mohan's terms (1986) or a relationshipbetween sociocultural knowledge and activity as stated by Ochs(1988). This relationship is illustrated by Figure 4.6.Figure 4.6. Language socialisation analysis: Management and ClassesManagementClassSeminarWorkshopLanguageClassDiscussRulesScaffoldExamplesBusinessTheoryBusinessPracticeManagement Classes and Business Practices In this sub-section, a topic will be identified in themanagement classes. This topic will then be located in an observedbusiness practice. In the present example, the topic identifiedwill be marketing. The "practice" will be advertising as part ofthe sales transaction. Data collected from both management classesand business sites will be analyzed. This analysis of the discourse83in a seminar and at the actual business site aims at revealing therelation between the theory in the academic discourse and thepractice in the business transaction.The following is an extract from a three-hour seminar on thetopic "Selling and Sales Staff Training". YF, a marketingconsultant, is the seminar leader. After reviewing the stages ofbuying, he proceeds to the identification of markets and theanalysis of customer profiles. The original text is in Cantonese.This is the English version with the original words in Englishunderlined.Seminar TextYF: Now let's come to the selling side. The mostimportant thing in advertising, like what CY hasjust reviewed, is to have a target. In Marketing,there are two targets... The most important is theprimary target, your central target. For instance,for MX Restaurant (addressed to LC, the owner), youalso run a bakery. What kind of people are yourtarget ? Chinese or Canadians? Does MX Restaurantaim at Chinese customers?LC: Yes.YF: Alright, Chinese. Middle-aged people or youngpeople? What age are most of your customers?LC: Middle age.YF: Middle age. And that means those who are marriedwith children. Single people only buy one or twopieces. They won't give you big volume ofbusiness. Central target. As for K's Market(addressed to KW and NL), you are on G. Island.Among fruit buyers, have you found them mostlyChinese or other Canadians?KW: Other Canadians.YF: Other Canadians. ... Most Canadians need to84purchase fruit. (To KW) On G. Island, are theyyoung people or old people?KW: Young people.YF: Mostly young people. They are single. Even if theyare married, they do not have kids. This group isyour central target...YF goes on discussing the market trend in health awareness andquotes a personal case. He has been advised by his doctor to watchout for his diet and "health". Y. writes this term on the flip-chart. The diet trend is in "low cal" and "low choles.". Y. addsthese terms to the flip-chart. There is also a trend in theawareness of environmental concerns (e.g., the ozone area). Thistrend has led on to marketing strategies in superstores (e.g.,green products). The meaning of "green" is that these products are"environment friendly". Such products include those which are"biodegradable", with less plastic and with little or no phosphate.Y. explains these terms in Cantonese and explains the policies ofGVRD (Greater Vancouver Regional Districts) in "recycling" and theuse of "blue boxes". He then concludes that to follow the markettrend is to be aware of health concerns in food and environmentalconcerns in other consumable products.There are two clear important messages in the extract of theseminar: firstly, the need to identify the market; and secondly,the significance of "being aware of health concerns" in marketingand sales.85The relation between management topics and businessoperations. In this sub-section, the theme of "marketing" isexamined as it appears in the reflections of the previous topic inbusiness practices in an actual business case, particularly abaker and his wife who are operating and managing a bakery. Inother words, the evidence is based on the baker and his wife whoare owner-operators. Data collected from interviews andobservations will be used. These two informants had lived inCanada for only six months at the time of the data collection.The couple's designing and putting up of signs was one exampleof further arrangements of tasks in relation to the marketingstrategies and was a result of practising what they had learnedfrom the marketing and selling seminar. They had told theircustomers that their products were "wholesome" foods. The idea of"health awareness" worked well in his business. After the sign "Allbread and pastries contain no preservatives" had been put up, salesincreased. The customers were also assured that the products werelard free. When their customers still showed some doubts, theowners showed them the ingredients they were using and said, "Ourproducts are lard-free. Please look at these boxes. The label says`vegetable oil'."In addition to the above examples, the baker and his wifeperformed a series of other tasks in relation to the seminarmaterial. This part of the data was revealed by the on-site reportswhich outlined their business management practices. Data indicatedthat they analyzed the regional competition, discussed the essence86of small business marketing with the advisor and establishedpositive images. Consequently, they designed and put up promotionalsigns. After further analyzing the customer profile, they startedto develop methods of introducing new products.Examples of tasks covering the Management Topic "PersonnelManagement" include the following: finalizing the decision to runonly one business without expanding due to the lack of trust worthyhelp; reviewing potential problems because of a lack of staff inboth the baking and selling areas; employing one part-time baker assuggested by the advisor; and finally solving the problemtemporarily by having Cl help with the selling at times. An exampleof a task related to the management topic "Strategic Planning" isthe reviewing of company performance, especially the reviewing ofcompany sales volume, which showed a forty percent increase afterthe baker and his wife joined the course.The above analysis reveals that there is a dynamic interplaybetween the business operations and business management topics suchas "Sales and Marketing", "Personnel Management" and "StrategicPlanning". There is a dynamic interplay between "theory" in themanagement classes and "practice" at the business sites.This relationship resembles that of the Language EOP class andthe service encounter in the business practice, in that the rulesare discussed in the classes and the examples are identified in thebusiness operations. The particular actions the business ownerstake as part of their business practices give specific casesdrawing on general principles, which have been discussed either in87the seminars or in the language classes.The Relationship between the Seminar and the WorkshopThe previous section discussed the relation between managementclasses in general and business practices. This section will nowexamine some relationships between the seminars and the workshops.Figure 4.5 further illustrates that there are two types ofmanagement classes in the program. There is a series of seminarsand there is a series of workshops. The present question is aboutthe relationship between the two. There are general indicationsfrom the data that the seminars are related to the theory ofbusiness and the workshops are related to the practice of business.The seminar text. The following is a summary of the seminar onthe management topic "How to Make Your Advertising Make Money". JPis the seminar leader. He is also an advertisement designer andmarketer. The original script is in Cantonese. This is the Englishversion. However, all his hand-outs and outlines are in English.The original words in English are underlined in the text.JP: You may be surprised now if I say to you that infact, small businesses don't need to advertise. Butby the end of this seminar, I hope you will beginto understand what I really mean. (He thenintroduces the topic by defining [promotion].)Promotion consists of five areas. They are: advertising,personal sales, sales promotion, personal sales, salespromotion, public relations and publicity. Personal salesinclude telephone manners and after-sales service orproduct. ... Promotion is only one part of marketing,which includes the three P's: Product, Place, and Price.He lists four basic decisions when the owner/operator decides to88advertise, namely the target market, the media, the budget andschedule and the creation of the advertisement itself: format,copy, offer. After going over the elements of media planning, hespends a considerable time on "rules to make your ads believable".This is what he suggests:JP: (Reads from his hand-outs) "Use a testimonial inyour headline." If you have a customer who has usedyour product before, include in your headline asentence from what his comment about your product.People will believe more in what he says than whatyou say.Regarding the proper length of an ad, he offers the followingsuggestion:JP: How long should an ad be? My answer is, "Longenough to hold the self-interest of the readers."The length is not important. As long as it isappealing to the readers' self-interest, it's O.K.... (goes on reading from his hand-outs) "The otherimportant thing to remember is that everyadvertisement should be a complete sales talk."Don't forget you're selling a fridge at Hudson Bay.You don't just stop talking to your customer aftersaying five sentences. You don't expect him to comeback the next week and let you finish the otherhalf of your presentation, right ? As asalesperson, you won't do this, neither should youin your advertising. Chances are: he may not readpart two of your ad in another day. ...Here are his final remarks:JP: Let me go back to my statement in the beginning ofto-night's session. I have said that smallbusinesses need not advertise. What seems to bemore important is to be able to assess your presentsituation before you decide if you really need toadvertise. It is only then that the "how to" wouldmake any sense to you.The material presented in the seminar is further discussed by the89group and their advisor in a separate form of a business class: thefollow-up workshop.Will any relationship be established between the seminar andthe workshop? Before this issue can be addressed, an analysis ofthe workshop discourse is necessary.The workshop text. In the management program, a workshop isusually scheduled between every two seminars, more for staffingreasons than on purely educational grounds. The following text wascollected by video-taping one of these workshop sessions. PH is theadvisor/coach, a consultant who acts as the facilitator of theworkshop and a tutor at the business site. The original script isin Cantonese. For the convenience of the readers, the Englishversion is presented here.Text 4: The Workshop textPH: The purpose of our workshop is to review theseminar on "Advertising". Why did JP (the seminarleader) say that small businesses didn't need toadvertise? What do you think ? How do you doadvertising in your business? ... RY, you're new.You're just starting a new business. How would youlike to do your ad.?RY: I'm in the garment business. Here, it's unusualbecause it's seasonal. People only buy when goodsare on sale. It's quiet in the malls in other days.They shop on Boxing Day when there's a big sale.So, for my industry, I think advertising is notvery important.PH: ... How about you, JL?JL: I have two lines, fluffy dolls and mink coats. If Ineed to advertise, I'll probably market the fluffydolls in shows.90PH: Do you think advertising will help your business ?JL: I think so. At least, when they see you, they knowyou are around. Otherwise, they (the customers)won't come.PH: How about you KL? You are opening a branch prettysoon.KL: Promotion for the opening period only. In my case,I will follow the joint marketing direct mailcampaign organised by the mall especially when itis low season.PH: What about others?EC: Depends on what business. Maybe wholesalers don'tneed advertising.KL: No, I don't agree. Wholesalers do marketing too,for example, big ads for Japanese mandarin orangesand new laser discs.PH: What do you think, wholesalers?(Participants go on discussing why wholesalers need to marketfor their new products too.)What seems to be occurring in the workshop session is that thebusiness owners are discussing the general principles (or theories)presented in the seminar on "Advertising" and they are applying theprinciples to their actual business experiences. Each businessseems to be different from the others with regard to its need foradvertising. This can be shown by two cases. The garment factoryowner, RY, does not view advertising as important while JLfavourably considers marketing his fluffy dolls through businessshows as a means of exposure. New businesses like KL's branch willneed to advertise. There is also a difference between theadvertising needs of retailers and wholesalers.91In the second part of the workshop, the group moves on todiscuss designing an advertising campaign for KL's new branch. Thepurpose of the campaign is to create awareness. The participants inthe group come up with different suggestions (e.g., presenting tocustomers free gifts like baskets to be used as shopping bags,developing public relations with the media to obtain free mediacoverage, and placing advertisements in community papers). Theyfurther refer to the seminar content with regard to using pressrelease as marketing in a non-advertising manner. PH the advisorcontinues to act as the moderator, summarises the discussion andraises questions. This case study has now become the centre of thetasks. A similar pattern of participant interactions is found inother workshop sessions.The relationship between the seminar and the workshop is nowclearer: the former deals with background knowledge (socioculturalknowledge or theory) while the latter deals with the practice inthe small businesses themselves.From the LSP standpoint, the genre of the management classesis similar to that of the EOP classes and that is generally acombination of "report" and "procedural". An analysis of a chapterin the assigned reading text also seems to indicate that the genreof the text resembles that of a management seminar, which is acomponent of the management classes, and is again a combination of"report" and "procedural". In both types of texts, there isusually the Title, the Introduction, the General Classification,the Description and the Conclusion. (For a detailed genre analysis92of the sample chapter, see Appendix VI). But while the LSP approachhelpfully raises the question of the genre of the management class,it does not raise the question of the discourse relation betweenthe management classes, workshops and business practices; it doesnot raise the question of how much of the theory in the academicdiscourse is related to other parts of the program, including theworkshops and actual business practices.Summary of the Findings of the SectionFigure 4.4 and Figure 4.6 mirror each other in the functionalvariation of discourse. On the language side, in the EOP class,there is discussion of the rules of service encounters, which canbe considered as theory discourse, and there is scaffolding ofexamples, which can be considered as closely related to practicediscourse. On the management class side, there is the seminar whichstudies the theory of business management, and the workshop whichworks on the discussion and simulation of business practices in theform of case studies. The management seminar/workshop relationshipand the language rules/examples appear to be reflections of thetheory/practice relationship.Language Socialization: Business and DiscourseAn examination of the total program (Figure 4.7) reveals theparallel relationship between (i) the language classes to thelanguage side of the business, and (ii) the management classes to93the business side of the business. A global view of the wholeprogram leads to the need for a further step -- an examination ofthe link between the business side of the business and the languageside of the business. This link is not generally considered in theLSP approach. LSP analysis tends to take into account only thelanguage side of tasks. For example, it looks only at the languagetasks in the class and particularly at that part of the discoursein the business which can be seen as the "genre" of events -- as agenre type. It tends not to look at the content side of thebusiness - the sociocultural side. In addition, it tends to treatthe genre, such as the "service encounter" genre, as a matter ofdiscourse only, which may be inadequate. The purpose of thissection of the study, therefore, is to concentrate on looking atthe link between the business and the language sides in thediscourse. In order to do that, the focus of the observation willbe particularly on ways that management and business theoriesdiscussed on the business side apply to service encounters and areapparent in actual service encounters.Figure 4.7. Language socialisation: business & discourse.^Management^ LanguageClass ClassSeminar DiscussRulesWorkshop^ ScaffoldExamplesBusiness & DiscourseTheoryBusiness & DiscoursePractice94Application of Management Theory to Service EncountersData collected from the on-the-job observations and documentsdescribing the tasks of the business owners on a monthly basis,provide detailed information about the business practices of theentrepreneurs. This evidence indicates that the business ownersapply business principles from the management seminars (e.g, taxlaws including Goods and Services Tax, pricing, and healthawareness in marketing) to their service encounters, and that theseprinciples affect the discourse of service encounters in ways thatneed to be accounted for by discourse analysis.The following sub-section is an examination of a topic withinthe management class and an investigation of its relationship topart of the service encounter. The topic identified is a new taxlaw introduced to business transactions during the time the datawas collected.Impact of Goods and Services Tax (GST) on Small Business PracticesTHEORY in seminar. The management theory introduced in theseminar was on Tax and Tax Planning. C2, the owner of a bakery aswell as the server applied her knowledge of the Goods and ServicesTax (GST) in two different aspects of her business. Firstly, sherelated this to her service encounter, as illustrated by Text (5).PRACTICE in bakery service encounter. The following text is anextract from Text (1). Here, the customer is informed that if hebuys six buns, he will not have to pay GST. C2 is the owner and Ais the customer, a young man.95Text 5:1. C2: Hi!2. A: Do you have any chäsiu bdau (barbecue porkbun)?3. C2: How many do you want?4. A: Four.5. C2: Four for GST. Six you don't pay GST.6. A: Give me six then.Line 5 of the text "Four for GST. Six you don't pay GST" serves twopurposes. Firstly, C2 refers to a tax law when she explains itsapplication to the situation to the customer. Secondly, she triesto "up-sell" by providing an incentive: if the customers buy more,they will save more. Thus, the basic pattern of the serviceencounter has naturally expanded to a brief explanation of thetaxation issue.The Prussian writer Clausewitz once suggested thatfighting is to war what cash payment is to trade, forhowever rarely it may be necessary for it actually tooccur, everything is directed towards it, and eventuallyit must take place all the same and must be decisive.(quoted in Keegan, 1978, p. 28).Payment is a central element in a service encounter. Payment in aservice encounter is directly related to pricing. The pricing (ofbread and pastries, for example) reflects the owner's marketingstrategy. The baker and his wife (C1 and C2) once explained to theresearcher that there was a slight "quantity discount" if customersbought six or more pieces. Moreover, GST would not apply.Consequently, the sales volume was increased. Cl and C2 were ableto benefit from the practice of the new tax law by turning adisadvantage into an advantage.96What has been illustrated then is how the basic pattern of theservice encounter discourse expands to incorporate discourserelating to the business operation and the server's selling skills.Viewing service encounters as a restricted rather than an open-ended pattern of discourse would fail to account for what actuallyhappens in the discourse. Management information about business(i.e., business theories) does surface at various points in theservice encounter. This fact ultimately has to be dealt with in abroad theory of service encounters. A LSP approach tends tooverlook the resources of knowledge which support and sometimessurface in the service encounter. Therefore the relation betweenbusiness theory discourse and business practice discourse needs tobe addressed when giving a description of the program as anactivity.Additional Examples of the Rules Forming the Background Knowledge(Theory) for the Service EncounterData collected from the language class, the management class,and the business site reveal that business rules (related to theseminar/workshop material) are being applied in service encounters.In other words, the service encounters draw on business knowledgeas well as language knowledge. Hence a pure LSP approach isinadequate for analyzing the service encounter discourse.One of the business rules which may affect a service encounteris the store policy regarding the cashing of cheques. This specificrule is discussed in the EOP class when CM, the instructor, brings97out the issue of acceptance of cheques and cheque cashing as thecustomer's payment. This is illustrated by Text (6), collected fromthe bilingual EOP class. Ni and N2 own a flower and gift shop.Text 6CM: O.K. Have you ever had a customer coming to you,give you a cheque, or government cheque. Yduh mOuha ? Sigwo meih a ? <Have you? Have you had it ? >Ni: Meih. <No>CM: Chyilhnbouh dOuhaih government cheque? <Are they allgovernment cheques?›N2: Yauhdi government cheque, family allowance cheque,vauhdi vauh. <Some government cheques, some familyallowance cheques.>CM: Neih jdau mhjdau chin bei keuihdeih ? <Do you givethem change ?>N1: Jdau <change>, daahn yiu I.D. < but require I.D.>N2: Check kêuih ge <his> signature.CM: Actually, it's cheque cashing. He is not paying youwith a personal cheque but another cheque.N2: Right. I have an idea. Just a cheque. If somebodygave you a company cheque, you don't accept it. Ifthe company cheque, you go to deposit, the bankwon't allow it. You must be careful.It is obvious from the text, that the participants are discussingcheque acceptance and cashing policies. This issue is brought upwhen they are going over the different steps in a service encounter(a business deal as it is commonly called in the business field).After closing the deal and handing over of the goods and packing,the next step is payment.Payment by cheque is common in businesses. However, for smallfirms, the owners are extremely cautious for fear of suffering fromlosses due to stolen or "bounced" (NSF, non-sufficient funds)cheques. Some stores' company policy is to simply refuse to accept98cheques. According to Canadian business practice, these policiesare usually clearly stated, typically in the form of signs postedin the shop. Some sample signs are: "There is a $10.00 charge foreach NSF cheque."; "Cash Only"; "No refund on Sales Items"; "Allsales final"; "Free delivery with minimum purchase of $25.00"; "Weaccept credit cards with limitations," etc.These signs become "information" for potential customers. Theyare an important element in communication. These rules or"policies" govern the "payment" in a business deal, and aregenerally revealed in the final step of the service encounterbefore the courtesy of bidding "farewell".Summary of this SectionTo summarise: the payment step of the service encounter servesto illustrate how business knowledge about taxation, pricing, andcheque cashing can enter into the business transactions. Thisknowledge may be discussed in the encounter, may be reflected inmandatory signs, and may enter into the decision making of both thecustomers and the owner-operators.Corroboration of Data: Flow of Data from Point of SaleThe above analysis has concentrated on the service encounterand its background of theory, because service encounters have beena focus of the previous research literature. But it needs to besaid that service encounters are only one part of the operation of99a small business, that there are a number of other small businesstransactions which often involve the use of discourse, that thedata collected for this thesis includes evidence of thesetransactions and their background of theory, and that thesetransactions, like the service encounter, are involved intheory/practice relations.Service encounters are essential to retail businesses sinceall business transactions are centred around completing the sale.Hence, the point of sale (P.O.S.) generates a series of language-related tasks and business related tasks in the business practices.Figure 4.8 illustrates how data flow from the point of sale andrelate to all the supporting acts surrounding the sale. It is agraphic representation from a computerized accounting point ofview. It is included to show the major business operations whichcan flow from the point of sale and are likely to be relevant insome form or other to many service encounters. It is not intendedas a precise description of all the small businesses in the presentstudy, since few had a point-of-sale computer operation. Forexample, most of these businesses did not give credit to customersand therefore did not have "accounts receivable" and the new onesdid not have "accounts payable" if they did not receive credit fromsuppliers. Where a computer system was not in use, inventory wouldbe updated manually and periodically.100Figure 4.8.^Flow of Data from Point of Sale101Computerising for Small Business is one of the seminar topicsin the SBOD (Small Business Owner Development) program. (SeeAppendix I: Program Pamphlet). However, where a computer system isnot in use in the store, all the other related tasks will bemanually operated. The data flow process in Figure 4.8 starts withthe spoken discourse of service encounters in the shop and finisheswith the written discourse of the general ledger in the book.The following is a description of sample data collected fromthe present study, which is related to the theories and practicesin operating a small business, using the point of sale as a pointof reference.After the service encounters, data are keyed in either throughthe keyboard, the scanner, or the bar-code reader at the counter.The POS software (s/w) activates a receipt printer or a regular dotmatrix invoice printer. A receipt or an invoice is then produced.Language-wise, this generally involves writing tasks which becomepart of the curriculum in an EOP class. If orders are handled overthe phone, the server needs special listening skills. The followingare sample recorded messages from the advanced EOP class.Text 7:Message 2.1^Time: 12:00^Date: March 20Barb Gardino of the Better Ware Hardware Store. My telephonenumber is 771-1211, Extension 422. I will call again. I wantto know when I'll be getting my new adding machine.Message 2.2^Time: 12:15^Date: March 26Berth Carter of the Big "V" Supermarket. My telephone102number is 882-8444, Extension 515. It's urgent. I need 12boxes of 1/2 gallon milk cartons, 4 cases of butter, and4 cases of sour cream.The first message is a reminder for the delivery of goods, a formof customer complaint. The second message is a phone-in order. Dataregarding the handling of customer complaint have already beenpresented and discussed in the previous sections. This is morerelated to "after-sale" services. Phone-in orders take the place ofservice encounters and should be handled with equal care.After the point of sale, data go to both the sales side andthe purchase side of the business. At this point, the operationinvolves both Revenue Canada (Tax and Excise) and the provincialtax department. GST (Goods and Services Tax) and PST (ProvincialSales Tax) are collected from the customers and then paid to therelative tax departments. Tax laws affecting small businessoperations are the owners' concerns. These were dealt with in theseminar "Tax and Tax Planning". This concern was revealed in theon-site sessions. C1 and C2 (the bakery owners), for example, spenta considerable amount of time going over tax implications with theadvisor/coach (cf. Appendix VII: Operating a bakery as anowner/manager). This topic was also discussed in one of the EOP(Low Level) classes (cf. ESP-9B in Appendix VIII). The impact ofthe GST on service encounters has been discussed in detail in adifferent section "Impact of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in SmallBusiness Practices" under the topic "Language socializationanalysis: Business Management."103After the sale, two different tasks need to be carried out:the stock should be checked, and the inventory should be updated.If credit is involved, it becomes "accounts receivable". Creditcollection is another concern of the business owners. This becomesa "store policy". Ni and N2, for instance, would not accept creditpayment in their gift shop. This topic was discussed in one oftheir EOP classes (cf. Appendix VIII: ESP-6B). Text (8) wascollected from that class.Text 8 CM: vduhmOuh mätyeh <Do you have any> policies a <ornot›?N2: ngOhdeih yduh "mhsdi check ld„ visa or master (cards);ngOhdeih gOdi sinfd no exchange, return ld". <We have,"No checks, visa or master cards; no exchange or returnfor fresh flowers.">Refunds and returns are also handled at the POS counter. On thesales' side, returns affect the inventory, which needs to beupdated. They also affect the accounts receivable, which needs tobe debited. Refund, return and payment policies need to be writtenup and displayed in the store. For a detailed discussion of thesestore policies, see the section "Additional examples of the rulesforming the background knowledge for the service encounter".On the purchase side, if an item is returned because ofmanufacturing defects, the owner will have to deal with thesuppliers and the accounts payable will be updated. The salesvolumes of certain items are good indicators of their acceptability104in the market. Certain items are more popular than others. Theselection of items for purchase of stock needs to be market-driven.This decision has to be constantly revised at different points ofthe business cycle, before sale and after sale. The studying of"the market" and "market trends" is undoubtedly an important topicto cover in any business program. In the present study, these weredealt with in seminars and workshops. In the seminar titled"Marketing in the 90's", the seminar leader described the consumersof the 90's as follows:1. Their disposable income is up.2. They require better services.3. They demand good quality.4. Their knowledge as consumers is rich.5. They are sophisticated.6. They demand warranty of goods and services.7. Their education standard is up.This is what he called "consumerism". Other aspects in the theoryand practice of marketing have been presented in the section"Management classes and business practices".All data flowing from the POS are recorded to differententries in the general ledger. The ledger is the basis for thepreparation of accounting reports such as "financial statements","balance sheet" and "Profit/Loss statement". These reports createdifficulties even for native speakers of English. This topic wastherefore discussed and explained in one of the low level EOPclasses (cf. Appendix VIII). The objective of the class was not toarrive at an accountants's level of proficiency. It was hoped thatthe owners would at least understand what these terms meant whenthe reports were presented to them by their own accountants. Text105(9) is a sample of the discussion in the class (ESP-9B). CM was theinstructor. BB was one of the more experienced business owners.Text 9 CM: sdausin Ong n6ih di sdanclyi, 'Dalin sou giujouhmdtyeh? <First, we will talk about yourbusiness. What is the accounting part of itcalled?›.BB: Financial Statement.CM: (writes on board) Financial Statement. likhaih"chOihjing bougou sva", b5aukwut di mätyeh?<It means the report of finance. What does itinclude?›BB: jichdan fuhjaai biu <balance sheet>. Balance Sheet.(They then went on discussing other terms on the balance sheet.Except for the terms, most of the interaction was in Cantonese.)I have presented, with the POS graphic, a description of thelanguage-related as well as business-related tasks in the businesscycle generated by the service encounters. They are invaluable datacollected in the present study. What has not been presented thoughis the "personnel" aspect, which is equally important. In theprogram under study, the seminar "Selling and Sales Staff Training"emphasised staff training while the seminar "Personnel Management"stressed the significance of human resources. Effective personnelmanagement involved personal respect, recognition, team work,responsibility, accountability, performance standards, evaluation,appraisal, positive reinforcement, feedback and profit sharing. Inthe workshop session, CH, a manager of a window frame store,brought up the management problem of conflicts among employees fromdifferent ethnic backgrounds (cf. Appendix VIV: Seminar/Workshop106Relation). This led on to discussion on values, expectations, andcultural differences between the "Chinese" way and the Canadian wayof management styles.Some language tasks in the EOP classes were also related topersonnel management. For example, after the students had finishedrole-playing a service encounter, in which the server's attitudewas the cause of customer complaint, the class moved on to discussthe "problem" and to recommend solutions. Text (10) illustrateswhat happened after the role-playing. PT was the instructor.Text 10 PT: What do you think of this employee? What doyou think about her?EW: She's not polite.Tl: She needs training. (Class laughs again.)PT: She needs training. How do you help her?Tl: Maybe her pay is just below minimum pay.(The class then started discussing staff management theories,wages, incentives etc. They referred to the workshop and seminarmaterials on Sales and Staff Training.)PT: (refers to text) This is step one in customerservice: Send a positive attitude to others.Did the employee send a positive attitude? ...If your employee is not happy, then she showsit in her work.Other related tasks before the service encounter (the POS) includeAdvertising and Marketing and the hiring of staff. In the low levelEOP class (cf. ESP-10B in Appendix VIII), a lot of language wasgenerated when they were involved in the discussion and then in thewriting up of job descriptions. The business owners then prepared107an advertisement for the hiring of new staff.After the sale, there is usually an evaluation of businessperformance. This is where strategic planning comes in. In thepresent program, the advisor/coach first presented the theories inthe seminar, discussed them with the owners in the workshop andthen worked with individual cases at the business sites. (For adescription of these tasks, refer to the three cases in AppendixVII.)Summary of this SectionWith the flow of data from the point of sale, before the sale,and after the sale, I have demonstrated the complexity of thetasks involved in both learning about the job and operating the jobof an owner/operator in the small business sector. I have alsoillustrated the richness of the data in the present study and theneed for a global perspective for discourse analysis.Conclusion: (Part One of the Study) (1) This chapter provides a case study of an integrated contentand language learning program for small businessentrepreneurs, showing relations of the parts to the whole,relations which appear to be important for the learningprocesses of the students in the program. It is not clear howan LSP approach would accommodate business knowledge but aLanguage Socialization approach will naturally accommodate it.108(2) This case study has illustrated a more general languagesocialisation model which situates language learning in thecontext of content learning and "real-world" action. TheLanguage Socialization model given in Figure 4.2 has guidedthe analysis of the data which is summarised in Figure 4.6.The data indicates that the theory/practice dimension of thebusiness as an activity is reflected in the discourse of boththe language classes and the business classes.(3) Compared to the LSP model of genre and language learningtasks, the language socialisation model illuminated the linkbetween the learning of language and content clearly observedin the service encounter. Activity theory pointed to importantdynamic theory/practice relations in business operations, inthe language program, and in the management program. Thetheory/practice dynamic appears in contrasts between businessrules and business practices, seminar discourse and workshopdiscourse, EOP class and service encounter discourse,metalanguage and language.(4) In this language socialization model, activity is a major unitof analysis. Occupational tasks and discourse genres likeservice encounters are linked to the "action" of the activity.Academic tasks and discourse genres, like seminars, are linkedto the "knowledge" of the activity. Activity forms the largercontext within which discourse genres and tasks play asystematic role, creating a complex "ecology" which needs tobe addressed by future research.109Chapter FiveResults of the Investigation: Part TwoThe Functional Roles of Ll and L2 in the EOP classIntroductionThis chapter presents the findings of the second part of thestudy. This part of the study investigates the relationship betweenfunctional variation of discourse and bilingual code-switching.Specifically, it is an attempt to answer research question two: Inthe light of the functional discourse variation described inQuestion (1), what are the roles of the first language (i.e.,Cantonese) and the second language (i.e., English) ? To address thesecond research question, this part of the study will1. report an analysis of a sample lesson with two modelsrelating to "functional variation of discourse": (1)Guthrie (1983) - which looks at speech act functionalvariation; and (2) Faerch (1985), which focuses on meta-language/language functional variation of discourse;2. assess both models in relation to the functionalvariation of discourse and bilingual code-switching; andthen3.^apply the Language Socialization model used in theprevious chapter.110General Distribution of Ll (Cantonese) and L2 (English) in the ProgramA general examination of the data in the various components ofthe Small Business Owner Development Program reveals broad patternsin bilingual code-switching. What follows is a description ofthese tendencies.Figure 5.1.^Distribution of Ll and L2 in the ProgramContent EOPLl L2 I L1/L2BusinessL2As illustrated by Figure 5.1, the content classes (i.e., themanagement seminars and workshops) are mostly conducted in Ll(Cantonese). However, the written discourse (i.e., the texts andoutlines) is all in L2 (English). In the language classes, L2 isused in the advanced level class and both Ll and L2 are used in thelow level class. At the business sites, L2 (English) is mostlyused.111Bilingual Code-switching in the Low Level EOP ClassObservation of the different classes reveals that bilingualcode-switching is most obvious and frequent in the low level EOPclass. Some questions are: is there a pattern in the code-switching? Is the code-switching related to the functionalvariation discussed in the previous chapter? In other words, is itrelated to the activity and the tasks? If so, how? Is the patternstatic? These questions will be answered by an analysis of the datacollected over time from the low level EOP class.Models in Analyzing Functional Variation of Discourseand Bilingual Code-switchingCode-switching research makes a distinction between "inter-sentential" and "intra-sentential" code switching, which are ratherdifferent phenomena. The present study concentrates on inter-sentential code-switching. Only "inter-sentential" code-switchingis counted and the units of counting are utterances. The followingis an analysis of a sample lesson with two models relating tofunctional variation of discourse.Guthrie (1983) A sample (Sample CS-1 in Appendix L) from week two of the 10-week EOP Low Level class was analyzed, using Guthrie's (1983) sixbroad functional types. Guthrie studied the classroom discourse of78 2423 10 043 822 1021 0187^43112a group of Cantonese-speaking children in their bilingual Englishclasses and analyzed the data using six broad functional types,which were further categorised into different conversational acts.He defined these types as follows: (1) Assertives, which reportedfacts, stated rules, conveyed attitudes, etc. ; (2) Organizational Devices, which controlled personal contact and conversational flow;(3) Performatives, which accomplished acts (and established facts)by being said; (4) Requestives, which solicited information oractions; (5) Responsives, which supplied solicited information oracknowledged remarks; and (6) Special Speech Acts, which wereprescribed utterances expressed in a special way (e.g.,Translation, which coded conscious, direct translations).Findings The total sample size was three hundred and twenty-six (326)utterances collected from week 2 of the low level EOP course wheremost of the bilingual code-switching occurred. Table 5.1 summarisesthe number of utterances in each type.Table 5.1.^Analysis of Week 2 data with Guthrie's (1983) Functional TypesLl^L2ASSERT IVESORGANIZATIONAL D.PERFORMATIVESREQUESTIVESRESPONSIVESTRANSLATIONTOTAL113In the present data, bilingual code-switching does not seem tobe related to the function types in a specific pattern. The numberof utterances in Ll surpasses that of the L2 in a ratio of 4 to 1(187 vs 43). The number of assertives is the highest, making upslightly more than forty-five percent (45.2%) of the total codedutterances (104 out of 230). Ll is used in seventy-seven percent(77%) of the assertives (78 out of 102). Requestives are the secondhighest in the sample, making up around eighteen and a half percent(18.5%) of the total coded utterances in the sample (43 out of230). Close to eighty-five percent (85%) of the requestives (i.e.,43 out of 51) are in Ll. Responsives make up close to fourteenpercent (14%) of the total coded utterances (32 out of 230). Closeto sixty-nine percent (69%) of them (22 out of 32) are in Ll. Thereare twenty-four organizational devices, making up close to ten anda half percent (10.4%) of the total coded sample (24 out of 230).Close to ninety-six percent (96%) of the organizational devices arein Ll. There are no performatives in the sample. Translation onlyoccurs in Ll (Cantonese) since L2 is the target language. They madeup slightly more than nine percent (9.1%) of the total codedutterances (21 out of 230).Two hundred and twenty (220) of the three hundred and twenty-six utterances can be categorised into the above-mentioned sixbroad functional types. However, there are some doubtful cases.Ninety-six (96) of the L2 (English) utterances cannot be classifiedunder any of Guthrie's categories because they are notconversational acts. These are unsolicited examples quoted from the114text or suggested by the instructor or the students. In otherwords, Guthrie's model of analysis has left out a great portion of"target language" samples (Bowers, 1980), language which is citedand is an important element of discourse in a language class. Thisissue will be addressed in the next section.Meta-language and Language in Faerch (1985) Faerch (1985) analyzed seven foreign language classes andproposed a different model of analysis from Guthrie's. Hisdiscourse analysis differentiated between two categories:META-LANGUAGE and LANGUAGE. He defined "meta-language" or "meta-talk" as "portions of FL lessons in which teacher and studentsfocus on the linguistic code rather than on content" (p. 185). Hefurther described the proportion and the nature of "meta-talk" asfollows:Meta talk occupies varying portions of FL classroomdiscourse. It may take up as much as the entire lesson,e.g., if this is devoted to discussing ways of solving atranslation exercise; or it may be restricted to a singlemove, as when the teacher replying to a student'scontent-oriented contribution, corrects a grammaticalerror and then continues on the content level. Often,however, Danish FL lessons are structured intotransactions (using the terminology of Sinclair andCoulthard, 1975) which are characterized by either havinga focus on the FL code (meta transactions), or on thecontent, e.g. a literary text or aspects of the FLsociety (content transactions). Meta talk thus occurseither within meta transactions, in which there is a(primary) focus on the FL code, or within contenttransactions whenever there is a shift of focus fromcontent to meta level. (p. 185)115In the present study, utterances relating to meta-linguisticmaterials are categorised as "language rules". According toBowers' (1980) definition, this term includes "all talk about thetarget language, or about the mother tongue in so far as it relatesto the target language or to the task of learning it" (p. 90). Oneexample of meta-language or language rules is a discussion ofsyntactic features such as tense, concords, etc. If meta-languagediscusses language rules, then the target language is illustratedwith "language examples". Faerch's (1985) definition of meta-language and language follows the standard definition of meta-linguistic and linguistic differences (p. 105). Details of thelinguistic rules and examples will be analyzed in the presentsection.To test if Faerch's model best describes what is happening inthe low level EOP class, the same sample data (Sample CS-1) wasanalyzed and the findings are summarised in Table 5.2.Table 5.2.^Analysis of sample data with Faerch (1985)LANGUAGE RULESLANGUAGE EXAMPLES 79 META-LANGUAGE47 LANGUAGEThere are seventy-nine (79) utterances which can becategorised as meta-language and forty-seven (47) utterances whichcan be categorised as "language". In Faerch's original study theroles of Ll and L2 were are not specifically discussed althoughbilingual code-switching was clearly present in Faerch's data. Inhis examples, the meta-talk was in Danish (L1) in a Danish/English116translation lesson and similarly the meta-talk was in Danish (L1)in a German lesson. The target language in the former example wasEnglish and the language in the latter was German. In other words,Faerch looked at language and meta-language but did not comment onbilingual code-switching, although the data he used definitelyillustrated a switch.In the present study, to illustrate the functional variationin relation to bilingual code-switching, a slightly differentapproach was attempted with Faerch's method of analysis in addingits relation to bilingual code-switching. The result is summarisedin Table 5.3.Table 5.3. L1/L2 vs Meta-language/language (Language rules/language examples)Ll^L2Language rulesLanguage examples76 30^47Table 5.3 reveals a strong pattern. Ninety-six percent (i.e.,76 out of 79) of the language rules are in Ll. All the languageexamples are in L2. It is clear that Ll is mostly used for languagerules and L2 is mostly used for language examples. L2 is also usedfor language rules but only a small number (3 utterances out of79). Li is not used for language examples in this sample.What is note-worthy here is the treatment of the remaining twohundred utterances which cannot be categorised strictly as"language rules" or "language examples". This issue will be52^30 32117addressed in detail separately in a later section. The same samplecan also be classified into "teacher talk" and "student talk".Code-switching is likely to be affected by the second languagecompetence of the speaker, so we should be careful to distinguishbetween code-switching by the teacher and code-switching by thestudent. The results will be used to account for the languagevariation of speakers -- the teacher versus the student.The role of Ll and L2 in linguistic rules and examples inTeacher Talk. The instructor's use of Ll and L2 in the discussionof linguistic rules and the generation of examples in Sample 1 issummarised in Table 5.4.Table 5.4.^Ll and L2 in Teacher Talk (linguistic): Week 2Ll L2RulesExamplesIn the teacher talk, there are fifty-two utterances of rulesin Ll (Cantonese) and three in L2 (English). All thirty-twoutterances of examples are in L2. The data seem to indicate thatthe instructor uses mostly Ll in discussing language rules and usesL2 in giving language examples, as illustrated by the followingexample extracted from the same sample (Sample CS-1). CM is theinstructor. She is explaining to the students the rules used toform a yes/no question.24^00 15118Text S1 CM: yilhgwe) neih haih owner neih wilih wah <If you arethe owner, you would say> "You like red roses" haihma? <right?> "Like" nidi jih gd go "do" iih lohkheui sin. <Add "do" in front of the word"like"› (writes on board), "You do like redroses". vihnhauh jaung go "do" lih bun lAih chihnmihn, <Then move the word "do" to the front"›transfer, transpose, bun gwoheui, <Move to thefront> "Do you like red roses?" (writes on board).Here CM is explaining to the students how to change "You like redroses" into a question. The rules are: "Like" nidi jih gd qo "do"lih lohkheui sin. <Add "do" in front of the word "like"› andyinhauh cheuncigo "do" chih bunnai chihnmihn, <Then move the word"do" to the front"> They are explained in L1 (Cantonese). Thelanguage examples are: "You like red roses"; "You do like redroses" and "Do you like red roses?". The target language isEnglish and the examples are in English.Students' use of Ll/L2 in language rules and language examplesin the sample. The students' use of Ll and L2 in discussinglanguage rules and language examples is summarised in Table 5.5.Table 5.5. Ll and L2 in Student Talk (linguistic): Week 2Ll L2RulesExamplesThere are a total of thirty-nine utterances in the studenttalk category. The data clearly indicate that in student talk, Ll119is used for language rules (24 out of 24) and L2 is used forlanguage examples (15 out of 15).Text S2 is an extract from Sample CS-1. The instructor, CM, isnow asking her students to change a statement into a question.Text S2 CM: go haak wah <The customer says>, "I would like somemore coffee." neih go mahntaih dimy6ung mahn a? <How do you ask the question?›N2: go haak gam mahn? <Does the customer ask this?›CM: go haak gamyeung gong, <The customer says this.>neih seung go haak gam Ong, <You want the customerto say this.> daih yatgo bouhjaauh haih maty -dh a? <What's the first step?› -Wing noihmihn go sanfanjeung keuih diuhiyun sin <First change the personsin (the sentence).> (writes on board), "You .."N2: "You like any more coffee?" (with a rising tone).CM: (goes on writing on board) "would like some morecoffee" gänjyuh nè? <What is next?› j&ung go"would" put heui chihnmihn <Put "would" in thefront.> O.K.? (writes on the board) "Would you likesome more coffee?"N2: (reads along) "Would you like some more coffee?"CM: tauhsin N2 wah ge <Just now N2 said>, "You need anymore coffee?" (with a rising tone)N2: ddk mhddk a? <Is it alright?›CM: neih wah na ? <What do you think?›N2: ngc5h mhji nè <I don't know.> ngeih meih iouhgwokeihted, ngeih mhsik nidi. <I have not been awaitress before, I don't know this.>CM: vanwaih neih ge vUhhei haih <Because yourintonation is>, "You need any more coffee?" (with arising tone). dong neih ge yUhhei haih <When yourintonation is >, "any more co - ffee " (with arising tone). gdm yahndeih dOu jidou neih haih mahnmahntaih <People will also know you are asking a120question.>^daahn^yilhgwO n6ih^seung^gOnqlingjingsiksik blujdun ge yin•yah, dim gong a? <Butif you would like to speak formal standard English,what would you say?›The student, N2, is clarifying the rules with the instructor byasking, "go haak gam mahn?" <Does the customer ask this?>" and "dakmhdak a? <Is it alright?>" She also explains why she is notfamiliar with the rule by stating, "ngtih mhji né <I don't know.>ng011 meih louhgwo keihte5i, ngft mhsik nidi. <I have not been awaitress before, I don't know this.>" Her language examples are,"You like any more coffee?" (with a rising tone) and "Would youlike some more coffee?". She is not familiar with the properquestion form. Nevertheless, she uses a rising tone to indicatethat it is a question. The instructor discovers N2's error andtherefore restates the rules and steps in forming questions.Similar to the instructor, N2 is using Ll to discuss the rulesand L2 to give the examples.Summary of Findings in Analysis of Linguistic Rules and Examples inWeek 2 1. Faerch's (1985) model of analysis accounts for a portion ofthe utterances in the sample. They are related to languagerules and language examples.2. Ll is used for language rules in the sample.3. L2 is used for language examples in the sample.4. The only exception is that the instructor uses L2 for some ofthe language rules.121Language Socialization and Bilingual Code-switchingAs mentioned in the discussion on the analysis of the firstsample data (Sample CS-1) in the beginning of this chapter, aproblem arises with Faerch's (1985) approach. If there is only"meta-language" versus "language" in a language class discourse,then only one hundred and twenty-six (126) of the utterances can becategorised. One hundred and forty-one (141) non-language rules andfifty-nine (59) non-language examples cannot be accounted for.Faerch's approach accounts only for the functional variation of aportion of the discourse. A further analysis reveals that theserules and examples are related to business theories and businessoperations. In other words, Faerch's model would then miss the"meta-business" discourse and "business examples". Although Faerchmentioned "content transaction" in his 1985 study, he did notfurther propose other categories in analyzing that specific portionof discourse. A different approach is needed to account for all thefunctional variation in the sample data.In light of the findings in the previous chapter, the LanguageSocialization/ Activity model (Mohan, 1986; Ochs, 1988) istherefore proposed to address the issue mentioned above. Operatinga small business is a social practice. The Language Socialization/Activity model, which views language learning as learning bothlinguistic and sociocultural knowledge, might be able to accountfor the functional variation of discourse in the EOP class whichaims at learning business language tasks. The purpose of this part122of the study, then, is to apply the Language Socialization/Activity model to the same sample data. The findings are presentedin the following sections.Language Socialization Analysis: Sample (1) Based on the Language Socialization model, Sample CS-1, witha total size of three hundred and twenty-six (326) utterances, wasanalyzed.Sociocultural knowledge and examples: Teacher Talk. What wasmissed in the analysis of the same sample with Faerch's model(Faerch 1985) was the large number of utterances regarding businessrules and business examples. In the Language Socializationapproach, these rules and examples are described as "socioculturalknowledge". The instructor's use of Li and L2 is summarised inTable 5.6.Table 5.6.^Teacher business talk in Week 2Ll^L2RulesExamples80^300 10In the present sample, data seem to indicate that theinstructor tends to use more Ll than L2 when discussing businessrules. Seventy-three percent (73%) of the business rules discussed(80 out of 110) are in Cantonese. There are only ten business123examples, making up close to 8.3 % of the teacher talk dealing withsociocultural knowledge. The business examples are all in L2. Theteacher spent over ninety-percent of her talk in explainingbusiness rules, as revealed in the following example (Text S3),which is a transcription of natural data collected by video-taping.The following class was the second session on the topic"Communication fluency in a 6-step Business Dealing". Theinstructor first distributed five pages of hand-outs to thestudents. Nine participants were present in the class, includingbakery owners C1 and C2, flower and gift shop owners N1 and N2,home appliance retailer CK, garment retailer and wholesaler RY, drycleaner CB, meat store manager TT and corner-store owner EP.Text S3:CM: In business dealing, we come up with six steps.(Students refer to page one of hand-outs.) Right,six steps. The first step is "introduce the offer".What's the purpose? Purpose likhai yilhnyan <meansreason>, muhkdik <aim>. First step: "introduce theoffer". (CM. writes on the board). viu wah bei di haak t6ng <have to tell the customers>. To tell thecustomers that we have some service or we have somegoods for sale. "Introduce the offer". yiu gaaisiuhtiangseuhng yauh gel jfing fang-faat.<There areseveral ways to introduce.> ngc5h gaaniyuh gOdi.<Those I have underlined.> (Participants referredto page 1 of hand-outs.) ... Tell them strictforward what you're selling: "special on redroses". gOngcheiih gó geui <In the previoussentences> "How are you today? It's a nice day."yauh mhhaih maaihyêh <You're not selling anything>You're not selling. yauh mhhai service. <You don'thave any service either.> but it's to start aconversation. haih hOichi yatqo  conversation. <It'sto start a conversation.> But whether it's aquestion to start or a statement, mOuhleuhn haih<whether it's> question waahkje <or> statement,it's a general sense (wrote on board), right?124Relating to your goods or service. For example:"Can I help you?" This you say it's 'general'. Youcan also say "specific". If it's "general", you arenot telling them what kind of service or a productyou're selling. neih m6uh wah bei keuih téng neihmaaih fa waahkie maaih sdam <You don't tell himwhether you sell flowers or clothes.> But somethingyou can help them. Or it can be "specific" (wroteon board). g6nqdou chingching ch6ch6 minqminqbaahkbaahk ge <State very clearly>. "We specializein one day delivery service."There is a mixed use of Li and L2 in the instructor's discourse.Some business rules are in Ll, e.g., yiu qaaisiuh tfingseuhng yáuhgel lung f6ng-faat <There are several ways to introduce>. and"neih m6uh wah bêi keuih teng neih maaih fa waahkj6 maaih sdam <Youdon't tell him whether you sell flowers or clothes>". The serviceencounter examples, however, are all in L2, e.g., "Can I help you?"and "We specialize in one day delivery service". Some of thebusiness rules are reviewed in L2, e.g., step one of the businessdeal "introduce the offer"; and "to tell the customers that we havesome service or we have some goods for sale".In summary, the instructor discussed the steps in a serviceencounter mostly in Ll, reviewed them in L2, and illustrated themwith service encounter examples in L2, the actual language used inthe students' daily business practices.Business Rules and Business Examples: Student Talk. Thestudents' use of Ll and L2 in relation to sociocultural knowledgeand examples (in this case business rules and business examples) issummarised by Table 5.7.125Table 5.7.^Student business talk in Week 2Ll^L2Rules 31 0Examples 0 49Data in the sample clearly indicate that in student talk, L1is used for business rules and L2 is used for business examples.There are more business examples than business rules (49 vs 31).The students do not use L2 to work on the rules and do not use Lito give examples in the present sample.Text S4 is an extract from Sample CS-1, which was collected inthe second week of the EOP course.After the instructor finished reviewing past materials, shestarted teaching step 4: confirm the deal/no deal, step 5: provideafter sales service and step 6: maintain customer relations. Therewas more student participation in this teaching part.Text S4 CM: gAmyaht ngeihdeih gaijuhk^yilhgwO keuih seungmdaih, go haak wdih dimyeung? <Today we continuewith: if the customer wishes to buy (something),what would s/he do?›N2: go haak seung mdaih, tiingseuhng M.-11h ydt yahpl&ihlauh waih mahn yiu mdtyeh. < (If) the customerwishes to buy (something), (I) would ask what s/hewants as soon as s/he comes in.>CM: ylahqwc5 ydt yahpl&ih yihgg gOncijii? <What if (s/he)has told (you this) as soon as s/he comes in? >N2: ning lAih beichin. < (S/he) would take his/hermoney and pay.>CM: ning lAih bêichin < (S/he) would take his/her money126and pay > (wrote on board), ylahgwa maaih common diyell <if s/he buys something common.>N2: baai haidouh yauh, jauh ping laih beichin 16. ninqlaih beichin, haih ma ? < If the item is on displayand is accessible, (s/he) then takes it over andpays. S/he takes it over and pays, right? >CM: go customer wilih pay. <The customer will pay.>(wrote on board). neih dim tilling keuih gang a ? <What would you say to her/him? >N2: m6uh mat, jauh bau hau keuih. jauh dahai ngangwaihmahn keuih 16chin 16. < Nothing. I then wrap itup, open the cash register and ask her/him to pay.>The rules in this text are all new service encounter rules and theyare all discussed in Ll. At first, the business owner N2 does notsee the need for further verbal communication after the initialcontact with the customer. She believes if the item is on displayand is accessible, the customer will simply take it over to thecounter and pay. Therefore, her response to the instructor'squestion "neih dim tilhng keuih gang a" (meaning "What would you sayto him/her?") was, "m6uh mat, jauh bau hew keuih. jauh dahai nganctwaih mahn keuih lachin 16." <Nothing. I then wrap it up, openthe cash register and ask her/him to pay.> However, the instructorwas able to elicit some language used for service encounters byreferring to additional business rules.(The following business rules and examples in Text S5 weresolicited towards the end of the same section.)Text S5 M:^gam neih sêung keuih maaih dSdi Oh, jauhyiu gongdi yeti. <But if you want him to buy some more127items, you will have to say something.>N2: lauh mahn "You need any card today?", waahkje "Youneed a balloon today?". <Then I'll ask "You needany card today, or "You need a balloon today?">CM: (writes on the board) "Is that all for today?",haih mhhaih a? <isn't that so?› haih mhaih gAmyautiihnhaih mdaih gamd5 Oh ja? <Is that all that youwant to buy today?›N1: haih 15. <That's right.>N2: "Is that all?"CM: (writes on the board) "Do you need anything else?"Vilhgwei go haak wilih wah <If the customer would sayI "No, that's all. I don't need anything else",neih yauh hOylh wah <then you could also say> "Doyou need a card? Do you need a balloon?"N1: "Do you need a bowl?"In this text, CM is leading N2 to realize the significance ofverbal communications in a business deal. These business rules aresimple. If N2 wants to increase her sales, she will have toinitiate a conversation with the customer by saying, "You need anycard today?" or "Is that all for today?". These examples becomebusiness examples rather than simply language examples. Theteacher's elicitation and explanation of these examples are in Lland the business communication examples, which form part of aservice encounter, are all in L2 (English).Text S4 and S5 clearly suggest a general pattern of variationthat Ll is used for discussing theories and L2 is used for actualbusiness language examples. These examples in fact form the"practising part" of service encounters where the rules of service128encounters are being applied.Summary of Findings in the Analysis of Sample CS-1 1. The Language Socialization approach accounts for all theutterances in the sample.2. The linguistic rules are introduced or discussed mostly in Ll.In the present case, these rules have emerged from a shift inthe discussion about the business content to a discussion ofspecific grammatical features arising from the business tasks.3. L2 is used for both language examples and business examples.4. Only the instructor uses L2 for some of the business rules.These rules in L2 are mostly found in the review. New businessrules are mostly introduced in Ll.5.^The students tend to use Ll for rules and L2 for examples,both in linguistic and business knowledge cases.However, it should not be assumed the pattern identified (frompoint 1 to point 5 above) is a static pattern. To answer thequestion whether there are developmental changes in the bilingualvariation in the data, more data analysis is necessary. Thefollowing sections will present analysis of data collected atlater dates (from week 3 to week 9).129Linguistic Rules and Examples in the Sample Data (Weeks 1-9) Data Sample Size In order to investigate whether the pattern of bilingual code-switching changes over time, samples were collected from weeks 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 from the ten-week EOP course. Data from week6 was not available for collection because of disruptions. Datafrom week 2 has already been presented and discussed in detail inthe previous sections. There were a total of forty (40) hours inthe bilingual EOP classes. Eighty percent of the sessions (i.e.,eight weekly sessions) were observed and video-taped. A total ofone thousand six hundred and fifty-five (1,655) utterances werecoded and analyzed. To investigate a possible change of pattern, anoverview of the data and sample texts from Week 3 in the beginningof the EOP program, and sample data from Week 9 towards the end ofthe EOP program, will be discussed in detail in the followingsections. Sample texts with detailed analysis for the weeks otherthan weeks 2, 3 and 9 are displayed in Appendix XIII for furtherreference.An Overview of Teacher Talk (Weeks 1-9) Table 5.8 summarises the teacher's use of Ll and L2 forlinguistic rules and examples. The number under each week is thetotal sample size of the corpus collected from that week.130Table 5.8. Teacher Talk (linguistic): Weeks 1-9RulesExamplesLl^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Li^L219 7 52 3 10 7 32 91 14 0 32 0 13 0 35week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4(264) (326) (231) (227)X2=14.24 X2=71.32 X2=8.98 X2=44.04p=.0002 p=.0000 p=.0027 p=.0000p<.001 p<.0001 p<.01 p<.0001RulesExamplesLl^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L226 1 1 11 1 0 0 31 30 9 0 11 0 0 0 1 0week 5 week 7 week 8 week 9(137)^(62)^(90)^(317)X2=11.83^X2=15.83 X2=26.64p=.0006 p=.0001^p=.0000p<.001 p<.001 p<.0001Data seem to indicate a pattern that the instructor used mostly L1for language rules and mainly L2 for language examples. The use ofL2 for rules did not seem to follow a fixed pattern. A chi-squareanalysis indicated that p < .05 in all weeks except for week 8where there were no language rules and no language examples in thediscourse. This might point to a relation between bilingual code-switching and functional variation of discourse. However, thepattern was not static. L2 was sometimes used for rules. Insummary, for teacher talk (linguistic) there were insufficient datato conclude that this was a transitional phenomenon from a neartotal use of Ll to a near total use of L2.131An Overview of Student Talk (Weeks 1-9) Table 5.9 summarises the students' use of Ll and L2 inlanguage rules and language examples.Table 5.9. Student Talk (linguistic): Weeks 1-9Ll^L2^Ll^L2^Ll^L2^Ll^L2Rules 0 0 24 0 2 0 10 0Examples 0 12 0 15 0 3 0 2week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4(264) (326) (231) (227)<cannot be X2=34.89 *X2=5.00 X2=12.00computed with p=.0000 p=.0253 p=.0005only one non- p<.001 n.s. p<.05zero row>RulesExamplesLl^L2 Li^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L216 8 6 0 0 0 12 30 5 0 4 0 0 0 5week 5 week 7 week 8 week 9(137)^(62)^(90)^(317)X2=4.98^X2=10.00 X2=10.00p=.0256 p=.0016^ p=.0016p<.05 p<.05 p<.01The use of L1 and L2 for language rules and language examplesin student talk seemed to follow a similar general pattern inteacher talk: mostly Ll for rules and L2 for examples. The studentsstarted using some L2 for rules in week 5. However, there wereinsufficient data to indicate that this was a transitionalphenomenon. The chi-square analysis indicated thatp < .05 in all weeks except for week 8 when there were no languagerules or language examples.132To illustrate the use of Li and L2 in relation to languagerules and language examples, samples from week 3 and week 9 arepresented below.Language Rules and Language Examples: Week 3 There were a total of 231 utterances in this sample from week3. The instructor's and the students' use of L1/L2 in languagerules and language examples in sample from Week 3 is summarised inTable 5.10 and Table 5.11 respectively.Table 5.10. Ll/L2 in Teacher Talk (linguistic): Week 3Ll^L21 0 70^13Table 5.11. L1/L2 in Student Talk (linguistic): Week 3Ll^L22 00^3The pattern of code-switching is clear, though the data sample issmall. Ll was mostly used for rules and L2 was mostly used forexamples in both teacher talk and student talk. However, theinstructor tended to use L2 for linguistic rules in a higherproportion (7 out of 17) than in the previous week (i.e., 3 out of55 in week 2). There was very little student participation inworking over language rules and language examples. Therefore, theRulesExamplesRulesExamples133language rules and language examples in this sample were not easilyidentifiable. The instructor did not specifically deal withlanguage tasks. However, there were still some examples of languagerules. In the following example (Text S6), the instructor wasreviewing the different steps in a service encounter and elicitingexamples.Text S6 CM: jihauh dim a? <Then what next?› "How about redroses?" "O.K." [Then], what do you say?N1: How much do you want?CM. How many? Confirm a ma <To confirm>. Confirmation.(CM. writes on the board.) yiu <Have to> confirmthe deal. O.K. yiu Oidc5 a? <How many do you want?›How many do you want? O.K. Is that all you want?After CM had mentioned the "red roses", she led on to the nextlogical interaction by asking, "(Then) what do you say?". N1responded by saying, "How much do you want?", which would becorrect if he was referring to an "uncountable" item like "milk".However, in relation to what they had been discussing in thecontext, the question should refer to the "red roses", which were"countable" in grammatical terms. Instead of explaining the rulesexplicitly, CM simply replied by saying, "How many?". This was alinguistic rule. What is note-worthy is what CM then said, "vittqéid8 a? <How many do you want?>" followed by the same expressionin English, "How many do you want?" The first example was in Ll andthe second example was in L2. The question "yiu geida a?" could be134both a confirmation and a language example. The English equivalentstill referred to the "red roses" and therefore the question phrase"How many" was still used. In Cantonese, "yiu geid5 a?" can referto both the "uncountable", meaning "How much do you want?", or the"countable", meaning "How many do you want?"Language Rules and Language Examples: Week 9 The total sample size from week 9 was 317 utterances. Theinstructor's use of Ll and L2 in discussing linguistic rules andexamples is summarised in Table 5.12.Table 5.12. L1/L2 in Teacher Talk (linguistic): Week 9Ll^L231 30^10The code-switching pattern of teacher talk seemed to haveremained the same through all the weeks. The instructor used mostlyLl for rules and L2 for examples. The students followed a similarpattern. The students' use of Ll/L2 in language rules and languageexamples is summarised in Table 5.13.Table 5.13.^L1/L2 in Student Talk (linguistic): Week 9Ll^L212 30^5RulesExamplesRulesExamplesIn the student talk, the use of Ll and L2 followed the samepattern developed since week 3. 12 out of 15 of the language rules135were in Li and 3 out of 15 were in L2. All five language exampleswere in L2. This seems to have followed the instructor's pattern ofuse of the two languages in the same sample. With 317 utterances inthe present sample, the proportion of language use for languagerules and examples, including both teacher talk and student talk,was comparatively small (around twenty percent, or 64 out of 317utterances). The following is an example of the language use.Text S7 was collected from a language learning task. CM andher students were going over a reading passage. The passage wasabout "Hiring of a manager's assistant".Text S7 CM: (Starts reading from the text) "Hiring a manager'sassistant", cháng vdtqo manager qe johsau manager'sge lohsau <hiring a manger's assistant, a manager'sassistant>. "Mr. and Mrs. Lou own" .. "own" iikhaihmatyêh? <What do you mean by "own"?>Ni: jihg6i ge <possess it yourself>N2: keuih yancryduh ge <He owns it himself.>CM: keuih yanqyauh <he owns> "a ladies' clothingstore". vAuhmemh tdidou "1 - a - d - i - e - s'"<Have you seen 1-a-d-i-e-s'?"> pit ydt pit <with anapostrophe>, dimgdai waih haih cram ge? <Why is itso?›NI: iikhaih hOudii. <It means there are many (ladies).>CM: jikhaih hOudo ladies ge clothing fuhkjOng storedim. <That means many ladies' clothing store.> "InVancouver, business has been quite good". ...In the example, CM went over the lexical items "own", "store" and"clothing" in Cantonese. She shifted from reading the text to136highlighting and explaining the use of the punctuation mark "theapostrophe" after the word "ladies" as soon as she identified thislanguage feature in the text. She asked the class in Ll, "dimciaai wilih haih gam Te? <Why is it so?>". N1 then responded, also in Ll,"likhaih hOudo. <It means there are many (ladies)>." It was clearthat the teacher and the students were then involved in thediscussion of the rules in the use of the apostrophe in Ll.In conclusion, data collected from week 3 to week 9 seem tohave indicated a general tendency in bilingual code-switching inthat L1 was mostly used for language rules and L2 was mostly usedfor language examples. (Additional data are presented in AppendixXIII.)Summary of Findings (First Part of Chapter) The first part of this chapter has presented quantitativelyand qualitatively an overview of the analysis of eight weeks ofsample data from the Low Level EOP class in the small businessprogram. The focus of this part of the analysis is on data relatedto linguistic rules and linguistic examples. Data seem to indicatea general tendency in the patterning of functional variation inrelation to L1 (Cantonese) and L2 (English). The result of theanalysis has suggested that L1 was mostly used for linguistic rulesand L2 was mostly used for linguistic examples in the data.Faerch's study (1985) presented data in both Ll and the targetlanguage but did not comment on the bilingual code-switching.Neither did Faerch present his data quantitatively. This part of137the present study has investigated this specific area with bothstatistical analysis and qualitative descriptions.Another issue was raised in the initial analysis. Faerch'smodel did not account for a significant portion of data which wasrelated to the sociocultural aspect of the language (i.e., thebusiness management knowledge). Data also suggested that theLanguage Socialization/Activity Model seems to have accounted forthe portion of the sample which dealt with business rules andbusiness examples.The next issue is: "Is there a developmental pattern in theuse of the first language (Cantonese) and the second language(English) relating to sociocultural rules and examples (in thepresent study, business rules and business examples)"?138Data Analysis: Sociocultural KnowledgeTo investigate if there were any developmental changes inpatterning in the use of L1 and L2 for business rules and businessexamples, data collected from Weeks 1 to 5 and 7 to 9 wereanalyzed. Data from Week 2 has already been presented and discussedin an earlier section. For discussion purposes, only an overview ofthe data and text examples from Week 3 and Week 9 will be presentedin the following sections. Additional sample texts with detailedanalysis are displayed in Appendix XIV for further reference.Business Rules and Business Examples in Teacher Talk: Weeks 1-9 Table 5.14 summarises the instructor's use of L1 and L2 forbusiness rules and business examples. Except in week 1, theinstructor seemed to be following a similar pattern in all otherweeks. He used mostly L1 for rules and mostly L2 for businessexamples. There were occasionally business examples in Ll but thisdid not seem to follow any specific pattern. The use of L2 forrules seemed to have increased over time but there wereinsufficient data to indicate that this was a transitionalphenomenon from near total use of Li (Cantonese) to near total useof L2 (English). The chi-square analysis indicated that therelation between bilingual code-switching (Cantonese and English)and the functional variation of discourse (business rules andbusiness examples) was significant (p < .05). Week 1 was unusual139because there were forty-one (41) Ll (Cantonese) utterances forbusiness rules and only fourteen (14) L2 (English) utterances forbusiness examples. All one hundred and forty-six (146) businessrules in this week were in Ll.Table 5.14: Teacher business talk: Weeks 1-9L2Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L2 L iRules 146 0 80 30 51 47 54 24Examples 41 14 0 1 0 2 35 3 7week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4(264) (326) (231) (227)X2=36.11 X2=18.67 X2=22.58 X 2=4.38p=.0000 p=.0000 p=.0000 p=.0363p<.0001 p<.001 p<.001 p<.01Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Li^L2Rules 26 6 17 11 25 5 85 66Examples 0 5 0 0 2 20 0 18week 5 week 7 week 8 week 9(137)^(62)^(90)X2=11.21^(cannot be^X2=26.85p=.0008 computed p=.0000p<.01^with only^p<.001one non-zero row)(317)X2=18.20p=.0000p<.001Business Rules and Examples in Student Talk: Weeks 1-9 Table 5.15 summarises the students' use of L1 and L2 forbusiness rules and business examples.Table 5.15: Student business talk: Weeks 1-9140Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L2 L i L2Rules 7 0 31 0 29 11 37 2Examples 0 3 0 49 10 11 3 9week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4(264)^(326)^(231)^(227)(Fisher's Exact^X2=75.84^X 2=2.70^X2=22.51Test: 0.0083) p=.0000 p=.1006 p=.0000p<.001 p<.001Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L2 L i^L2Rules 12 3 0 1 29 0 60 18Examples 0 12 0 0 4 6 6week 5 week 7 week 8 week 9(137)^(90)^(62)^(317)X2=14.19^(cannot be^X2=16.21^X 2=12.60p=.0002 computed with p=.0001 p=.0004p<.001^only one non- p<.001 p<.001zero row)In student talk,^the use of Li and L2^for business rules andbusiness^examples^seemed^to^follow^a^similar^pattern^to^theteacher: mostly Ll for rules and mostly L2 for examples. Some L2was used for business rules in weeks 3, 4, 5 and 9. However therewere insufficient data to conclude that this might be atransitional phenomenon from near total use of Ll to near total useof L2. The weekly chi-square analysis indicated that there might bea relation between bilingual code-switching (Cantonese and English)and the functional variation of discourse (business rules andbusiness examples). (P < .05.)To illustrate the use of the two languages in the businessrules and business examples, sample texts from week 3 and week 9are presented below.141Business Rules and Business Examples in Week 3 The total sample size from week 3 was 231 utterances. Theinstructor's use of Ll and L2 in discussing business rules andexamples is summarised in Table 5.16.Table 5.16. Teacher business talk in Week 3Li^L2RulesExamples51 472^35The pattern of code-switching was not as clear as withlanguage rules and language examples. However, data still indicatedthat slightly over fifty percent of the business rules (51 out of98) were given in Li while the rest (47 out of 98) were given inL2. Compared with week 3, the proportion of L2 use for rules hasincreased over time in teacher talk. The business examples, as inother weeks, were still mostly in L2 (35 out of 37). These examplesincluded business practices such as the actual handling of customercomplaints, the hiring of staff, the serving of customers, and themarketing and advertising of the business, etc. The theories behindall these practices were business "rules" which governed thesetasks.The Students' use of Ll/L2 for business rules and examplesfollowed that of the instructor and is summarised in Table 5.17.142Table 5.17 Student business talk in Week 3L i^L2Rules 29 11Examples 1 0 1 1Data indicated that L1 was mostly used for business rules instudent talk (29 out of 40 utterances of rules). However, theexamples were distributed almost evenly between Ll and L2 (10 in Lland 11 in L2). This did not follow the pattern started in week 2when only L1 was used for business rules. In the present sample,the students also used L2 in the discussion of business rules. TextS8 illustrates such a change of phenomenon.In this class, the instructor started the class with a reviewof the service encounter rules again, mostly in L2 and partly inLi. The class then proceeded to the discussion of related services.They started talking about policies in accepting cheques.Text S8 CM: ... O.K. Have you ever had a customer coming toyou, give you a cheque, or government cheque. yauhmOuh a ? sigwo meih a ? <Have you? Have you had it? >N2: meih. <No>CM: chylIhnbouh dOuhaih government cheque? <Are they allgovernment cheques?›N1: yduhdi government cheque, family allowance cheque,vauhdi yauh. <Some government cheques, some familyallowance cheques.>CM: neih jaau mhjdau chin bei keuihdeih ? <Do you givethem change?›N1: iaau <change>, daahn yiu I.D. < but require I.D.>143N2: Check keuih qe <his/her> signature.CM: Actually, it's cheque cashing. S/He is not payingyou with a personal cheque but another cheque.N1: Right. I have an idea. Just a cheque. If somebodygave you a company cheque, you don't accept it. Ifthe company cheque, you go to deposit, the bankwon't allow it. You must be careful.N2 yihgd mhyahp dal( nctAhnhOhng mhyahp ddk nqAhnhOhngga.<Now [you] can't put [it] into the bank.N1: mhvahp dal( nciAhnhOhng ga! <[You] can't put [it]into the bank ! >CM: If that's a company cheque.N1: If company cheque. If personal cheque is O.K. Ifcompany cheque, the bank will not accept.What is note-worthy in this text is that N1, the flower and giftshop owner, talked about his policy in accepting cheques in both L1and L2. The policy was that he would need to check identificationand would accept only personal cheques. Despite the fact that hislanguage structures were not all correct, his message was clear,"If personal cheque is O.K. If company cheque, the bank will notaccept." He was able to state his position clearly. For him, tryingto discuss theories in English was a gigantic leap. Compared withN2 (his wife), he was able to communicate more actively in L2 thanshe was in the present sample.CM used both Ll and L2 to discuss cash checking rules, e.g.,"neih jdau mhjaau chin bêi kêuihdeih ? <Do you give them change?›and "Actually, it's cheque cashing. S/He is not paying you with apersonal cheque but another cheque."144What follows is an extract from the same sample as Text S8.This illustrates the use of Ll for business examples. In thisexample, the participants were discussing reasons for the return ofgoods.Text S9 CM: "Cannot use" (writes on the board). mhhahp yuhngla. <Not suitable to be used.>N1: waahkje mhhaih gei h6u vuhng la. <Maybe it is notvery good to be used.>CM: waahkje mhhaih gel h6u yuhng all ? (Maybe it is notvery good for use ? >N2: mhhaih gel h6uyuhng la. h6uchih seuhng yatchi ng6hgo nêui maaih16 go seuiyuhkgei,mhhaih gei h6uyuhng, iauh teuinan 'Ai kih 15 ! < Not very good for use.For instance: last time my daughter bought ablender. It's not very good to use. Then [she]returned it.>CM: "Cannot use, not good" (writes on the board).Anything else?N2: waahkje ng6h maaih16 yatga, yahndeih vauh sungj6yatga, maih teuinan vatgo 15. <Or I've bought oneand someone has given me one too; then I returnone.>The two business examples in this discussion were quoted from N2'sown personal experiences. One example was that her daughterreturned a blender. Her exact words were, "h6uchih seuhng vatchi ng6h go neui mdaihi6 go seuiyuhkgei, mhhaih gei h6uvuhng, jauhteuifaan Mi. kih 15 ! <For instance: last time my daughter boughta blender. It's not very good to use. Then [she] returned it.> Theother instance was taken from another situation when she herself145had to return the merchandise: "waahkj6 ng(511 mdaihi6 vdtga, vahndeih yauh sungiO vatga, maih teuifAan yátgo 16.  <Or I've boughtone and someone has given me one too; then I return one.>"Note-worthy Findings in Week 3 1. The students started to use L2 in discussing business rules(11 in the whole sample as compared to 0 in week 2). Theincrease is obvious.2. Student participation also increased when discussing businessrules in Ll and L2 (41 out of a total corpus of 231, or 17.7%,as compared to 32/326, or 9.8%, in week 2). However, theexamples in L2 dropped considerably from 49/326 (or 15%) to11/231 (or 4.7%). Both the students and the instructor used L1for some examples (2 for the instructor and 10 for thestudents).3. The instructor's use of Ll vs L2 for rules changed from aratio of 80:29 (or 2.76:1 ) to almost even in proportion(50:47 or 1.06:1). This was possibly because the instructortended to use more L2 in reviewing rules and the samplehappened to capture some review sessions.To compare and contrast data from the beginning and towards the endof the 10-week EOP class, sample text from Week 9 will be presentedand discussed in the following sections.146Business Rules and Business Examples in Week 9 The total sample size collected from week 9 was 317utterances. The lesson in week 9 was the second last session of thelow level EOP class.The instructor's use of L1/L2 in business rules and businessexamples is summarised by Table 5.18.Table 5.18.^Teacher business talk in Week 9Ll^L2RulesExamples85 660^18The final sample indicated a clear pattern of code-switching.There were as many as 85 utterances (out of a total of 317) aboutbusiness rules in Ll. The number of these in L2 was comparativelysmaller but was still the highest in number and in proportion (66out of 317) in all weeks except week 1. The examples were all in L2in the present sample (18 out of 317). This was a small number inproportion. The ratio of Ll vs L2 use for the rules (1.3:1 or 85 vs66) is also worth noting. There was an obvious increase of rulesdiscussed in L2.The students' use of Ll and L2 in business rules and businessexamples is summarised in Table 5.19.147Table 5.19^Student business talk in Week 9Ll^L2Rules 60 18Examples 0 6In the student business talk, the pattern in the functionalvariation remained constant: Ll was used mainly for rules, and L2for examples. By proportion, the use of L2 vs Ll for rules hasincreased from a ratio of 3:12 (1:4) in week 5 to a ratio of 18:60(1:3.3) in the present sample. The number of L2 utterances forexamples was relatively smaller in the sample (6 out of 317; only1.9%) as compared to week 8 (6 out of 90; 6.6 %). Nevertheless, thebroad tendency for the bilingual code-switching pattern remainedthe same.The data collected from Week 9 was heavily laden with languagereferring to business rules and business practices. The topicsdiscussed in the class were related to financial terms and businessmanagement tasks such as the hiring of personnel, which includedthe working on job titles and job descriptions. Text S10 wascollected from the initial part of the lesson.The instructor began the class with a review of the businessterms the students had learned from the previous class. They wereworking on Income - expenses statements.Text S10 CM: Income, expenses, Income - expenses, Income Neih gesduyahp minus nei ge <your> cost (wrote on board),iouh retail, wholesalers, jouh sale vätdihng yauh148sihngbiln, maaih fdanlaih geido chin, haih ma ? <For retailers and wholesalers, there must be a costfor sale: how much you pay when you buy, right?.>That will be your cost. vihnhauh neih ge grossprofit minus neih qe expenses n& <then your grossprofit minus your expenses,> (wrote on board), thatwill be your profit. ... What does a budgetinclude?KO: Rental.CM: UtilitiesKO: UtilitiesRR: gasCM: gas (writes on the board)Compared with the data collected in week 2 and week 5, thestudents and the instructor used an increased amount of L2 for re-stating business rules and business examples in Week 9. The budgetplan included many items. The instructor went over them one by one;included were such items as rental, utilities, and gas, etc.In the second part of the class (Text S11), the group began todiscuss job titles and job specifications. They then performedsimulated tasks related to personnel management skills.Text SllCM: vânwaih haih <Because we are> small business,normally we don't have a lot of employees. yiumhviu hOudO a? <Do we need many?› ieui hOnahnq singge <most likely> most likely employee, vatgo <one>.What does this person do? keuih jouh mätyêh <Whatdoes s/he do?›N1: salesCM: sales (wrote on board) juhng yduh n& ? <what else>149neihdeih qt.) di ne <What about you?› wuih mhwaihcheng yAhn a <Would you hire people?>RY: workersIn this text, the instructor was asking the class who should be themost likely person to be hired in a small business. The answer fromN1, the flower and gift shop owner, was "sales". However, RY, whoowned a clothing factory said that what he needed would be"workers". In the discussion on the hiring of personnel, thestudents began by going over some job descriptions and job titles.Finally, C1, the baker, mentioned his preference for women workersin his retail shop. This immediately generated eager responses fromthe rest of the group regarding "human rights" in the labour force.These examples are illustrated in Text S12.Text S12 CM: (writes^on^the^board)^dis-crim-i-na-tion.discrimination. neih mhhOyih yeuh jiinuoduhk keisih <You cannot have racial discrimination.> race, sex,age discrimination.C1: oh, se cheutlaih yduh jangiuhk keihsih ge lah ? <IfI list this out,^then there is racialdiscrimination ? >N1: neih mhnAhncigau wah mhcheng naahmjdi ga, faanlaihga <You can't say you don't hire men. It's againstthe law.>N2: cram jouh faanlaih ga. jikhaih neih wah "Ngóhiihnghaih cher-1g JUngcrwoky&hn, mhcheng loufaan", nidi iauh jiingjuhk keisih 15.<This will be breakingthe law. If you say, "I only hire Chinese and notwesterners," then this is racial discrimination.>150For this part of the discussion, the students used Ll for boththe human rights laws and human rights cases. Compared to the restof the group, N1 and N2 were more familiar with the labour lawsbecause of their extensive Canadian business experiences. Cl, whowas new to the country, was ignorant of these rules. The studentswere presenting two cases as examples: the hiring of "women only"and "Chinese only". This was an important sociocultural issue inthe labour force. The business owners were anxious to learn aboutthe regulations concerning the hiring of staff in a proper andacceptable way, as required by Canadian labour laws.Note-worthy Features in the Week 9 Analysis 1. The students started to use L2 for discussing business rules:18 in the total sample of 317 in Week 9 (5.6 %) as compared to3 out of 136 in Week 5 (2.2%). The increase is obvious.2. Student participation also increased when discussing businessrules in Li (63 out of a total corpus of 317, or 19.8%) ascompared to Week 5 (10 out of a total sample size of 136, or7.3%) in the middle of the course.3. The instructor's use of L2 when discussing business rulesincreased even more in proportion: 65 out of 317 in Week 9(20.5%) compared to 6 out of 136 in Week 5 (4.4%).4. The use of Ll for discussing business rules (145) was stillgreater than the use of L2 for discussing business rules (83).151Summary of Weekly FindingsIf we step back from the bilingual EOP class and view theeducational program as a whole, we see that in the businessmanagement classes, Li was used for discussing both rules andexamples, whereas in the advanced EOP classes, L2 was used fordiscussing both rules and examples. These two classes, managementand advanced EOP, seem to be at the two ends of a continuum: on oneside a nearly total use of Li to a nearly total use of L2 on theother side. The bilingual EOP class seems to be in the middle ofthe continuum and may be transitional. In the bilingual EOP class,the code-switching pattern was not a static one. However, there isinsufficient data to indicate a transitional phenomenon. The ten-week period was insufficient to detect transitional changes overtime. (See Appendix X for a presentation of the weekly data in atemporal sequence.) For the students, eighty-six percent of thelinguistic rules were discussed in Ll while all the linguisticexamples were given in L2. It is natural that the teacher would belikely to use more L2 in discussing rules because of differences inL2 proficiency between that of the teacher and the students.Chi-Square AnalysisSince we have analyzed the data week by week, we now turn tothe analysis of the data as a whole, of all the weeks takentogether. To examine the statistical significance of relationbetween the two variables (rule/example and L1/L2), 2 x 2152contingency tables were constructed and chi-square tests for eachof the combination of factors were computed, i.e., a global two-wayanalysis was completed. The results are summarised in the overalltwo-way tables (Tables 5.20 - 5.23).Table 5.20.^Teacher: SocioculturalLl L2 TotalRule 484 187 671% 72.1 27.9 81.0% 91.0 63.2Example 48 109 157% 30.6 69.4 19.0% 9.0 36.8Total 532 296 828% 64.3 35.7 100.0Chi-square = 93.86P-value < .0001Table 5.21. Teacher: LinguisticLl L2 TotalRule 181 41 222% 81.5 18.5 64.0% 99.5 24.8Example 1 124 125% 0.8 99.2 36.0% 0.5 75.2Total 182 165 347% 52.4 47.6 100.0Chi-square = 205.76P-value <^.0001153Table 5.20 is read in the following way: the first percentageline gives the percentage of rules in Ll (72.1%) compared to rulesin L2 (27.9%). The second percentage line gives the percentage ofrules in Li (91.0%) compared to examples in L1 (9%). About seventy-two percent (72.1%) of the teacher's sociocultural (business) ruleswere discussed in Li and about sixty-nine percent (69.4%) of thesociocultural examples were given in L2. The chi-square resultswere significant (chi-square = 93.86; P-value < .0001).Table 5.21 is read in the following way: the first percentageline gives the percentage of linguistic rules in Li (81.5%)compared to linguistic rules in L2 (18.5%). The second percentageline gives the percentage of linguistic rules (99.5%) compared tolanguage examples in Ll (0.5%). Eighty-one percent (81.5%) of theteacher's linguistic rules were given in Li while close to onehundred percent (99.2%) of the language examples were given in L2.The chi-square results were significant (chi-square = 205.76; P-value < .0001).In the Teacher Sociocultural data, the ratio of rules in L1 torules in L2 is 484:187 (i.e, Ll rules are about 2 1/2 times asfrequent as L2 rules). L1 Teacher Linguistic rules are about 4times as frequent as L2 rules (181:41). For the example data, L2frequencies are about 2 times as many as Li (109:48) in the TeacherSociocultural area. The difference is even greater with Linguisticdata where Ll:L2 examples are of a ratio of 1:124.The conclusion is that the data seem to indicate that therelation between rule/example and language choice (i.e., Ll vs L2)154varies between Sociocultural and Linguistic cases. This needs tobe examined.Table 5.22.^Student: SocioculturalLl L2 TotalRule 205 35 240% 85.4 14.6 68.0% 92.3 26.7Example 17 96 113% 15.0 85.0 32.0% 7.7 73.3Total 222 131 353% 62.9 37.1 100.0Chi-square = 160.02P-value < .0001Table 5.23.^Student: LinguisticLl L2 TotalRule 70 11 81% 86.4 13.6 63.8% 100.0 19.3Example 0 46 46% 0.0 100.0 36.2% 0.0 80.7Total 70 57 127% 55.1 44.9 100.0Chi-square = 85.11P-value < .0001Likewise, in the Student data, the same findings are true butnot as strong (see Tables 5.22 and 5.23). For Ll Socioculturalrules, there is a ratio of about 6:1 in Ll vs L2 (205:35). Close to155eighty-six percent (85.4%) of the student sociocultural rules weregiven in Ll and eighty-five percent (85%) of the socioculturalexamples were given in L2. For Student Linguistic rules, the factoris about 7:1 (Ll:L2 = 70:11). The Student Linguistic examples arealmost the same (Ll:L2 = 17:96). Under Student Linguistic examples,the difference between the ratio of Ll:L2 is stronger (0:46). Forthe students, over eighty-six percent (86.4%) of the linguisticrules were discussed in Ll while all the linguistic examples weregiven in L2. It is natural that the teacher is likely to use moreL2 in discussing rules because of differences between the teacher'sL2 proficiency and the students' L2 proficiency. It still appearsthat for the students, as with the Teacher, there seems to be athree-way interaction between Rules vs Examples, Ll vs L2 andSociocultural vs Linguistic, although the interaction is not asgreat as with the Teacher.Loci-Linear AnalysisTo investigate whether there is a three-way interaction, adifferent analysis technique was needed, an extension of the chi-square analysis and contingency tables to cover more dimensions.The log-linear model was therefore used. It was appropriate toapply this method to the present situation where all the variablesare categoric and binary, i.e., Rules vs Examples, Ll vs L2 andSociocultural vs Linguistic dimensions.Log-linear analysis has been used in VARBRUL analysis156(variable rule analysis), a well known technique used insociolinguistics for the analysis of variable linguistic phenomena(Horvath, 1987; Rousseau and Sankoff, 1978). The log-linearanalysis will enable us to see the relation between Rule/Example xL1/12 x Sociocultural/Linguistic. In other words, this will enableus to ask,"Is the Rule/Example contrast the sole significantvariable or is the Sociocultural/Linguistic dimension important incode-switching?"For both the Teacher data and the Student data, saturated log-linear models were fitted to three binary variables: Rule/Example,Ll/L2, and Sociocultural/Linguistic dimensions. The result wasthat, in each case, the three-way interaction term was required inthe model. That is, the (reduced) model without the three-wayinteraction gave a statistically significant poorer fit to the datathan the saturated model. In other words, the Sociocultural/Linguistic dimension should not be eliminated from the account.In the Teacher Talk, the Rule row percentages are 72.1 vs 27.9for the Sociocultural dimension compared with 81.5 vs 18.5 for theLinguistic dimension. Similarly, the Example row percentages are30.6 vs 69.4 for the Sociocultural dimension compared with 0.8 vs99.2 for the Linguistics dimension. There is a clear "reversal" inthe row percentages from Rule to Example: this is Rule/Example xL1/L2 interaction. Additionally, the magnitude of the "reversal" ismuch greater for Linguistic than for Sociocultural dimensions; thisreflects the three-way interaction of Rule/Example x Ll/L2 xSociocultural/Linguistic. In other words, the size of the two-way157interaction of Rule/Example x Ll/L2 depends on whetherSociocultural or Linguistic topics are at issue.The results obtained for Students also show a significantthree-way interaction but the magnitude of this interaction is lessthan for the Teacher. That is, the size of the two-way interactionof Rule/Example x Ll/L2 does not change dramatically fromSociocultural to Linguistic topics.Tests of Partial Associations Is the Rule/Example contrast the most important variable inthis data? This question can be determined by tests of partialassociations. It is, of course, a different question than whetherthe Rule/Example contrast is the sole significant variable.The test results are listed in Table 5.24 and 5.25.Table 5.24.^Partial Associations (Teacher)Effect Name DF Partial Chi Square Prob IterRULEEXAMPLE*L1L2 1 285.374 .0000 2RULEEXAMPLE*SOCLING 1 23.686 .0000 2L1L2*SOCLING 1 0.605 .4365 2RULEEXAMPLE 1 333.858 .0000 2L1L2 1 54.905 .0000 2SOCLING 1 202.808 .0000 2158Table 5.25.^Partial Associations (Students)Effect Name DF^Partial Chi Square Prob IterRULEEXAMPLE*L1L2 1 270.157 .0000 2RULEEXAMPLE*SOCLING 1 .123 .7262 2L1L2*SOCLING 1 1.728 .1886 2RULEEXAMPLE 1 55.764 .0000 2L1L2 1 22.714 .0000 2SOCLING 1 110.737 .0000 2The partial association of Rule/Example x Ll/L2 compares amodel having all two-way interactions with a model having only theother two two-way interactions. Using this approach one sees thatthe Rule/Example x Ll/L2 interaction is stronger than theRule/Example x Sociocultural/Linguistic interaction or the L1/L2 xSociocultural/Linguistic interaction in both Teacher and Studentdata. Thus the Rule/Example distinction is important in code-switching between Cantonese and English, even though theSociocultural/Linguistic interaction is significant.ConclusionThe data seem to indicate that when the teacher or thestudents are talking about rules, the probability is that they aremore likely to use the first language than the second language.When they are talking about examples, the probability is that theyare more likely to use the second language than the first language.These probabilities are stronger if they are dealing withlinguistic rules and examples than with sociocultural rules and159examples.In the partial association (two-way), the most significantinteraction is the Rule/Example x Ll/L2 interaction. In otherwords, the issue of "rules vs examples" is the strongest"predictor" or "differentiator" of language choice (L1/L2) whetherwe look at Sociocultural data separately from Linguistic data orlook at both together. To my knowledge, this issue has never beeninvestigated in other code-switching studies before.160Chapter SixConclusion/DiscussionThe Purposes of the StudyThe business education program in the present study involvesboth language learning and content learning and raises questionsabout functional variation of discourse and bilingual code-switching. The present study was devised to answer the followingquestions:(1) What is the functional variation of discourse in theeducational program for immigrant entrepreneurs, i.e., themanagement classes, the language classes and the operationaltasks? and(2) In light of the functional variation described in QuestionOne, what are the roles of the first language and the secondlanguage?The Models of Analysis: The Language Socialization/Activity Model versus Language for Specific Purposes Model I have explored the functional variation of discourse in thesample data using an LSP model of analysis and a LanguageSocialization/activity Model. Two issues were raised in regard tothe LSP theory. Firstly, the data seemed to indicate that the161"genre analysis" as used by Swales (1990) in the LSP approach didnot illuminate the relation between the academic discourse and theoccupational discourse. Secondly, it did not account for theconnection between tasks in the language classroom discourse andgenres in the business practices. If the education program wasviewed as the "theory" component of small business management, thenthe business operation could be considered the "practice" side ofthe "activity". In other words, the LSP approach failed to accountfor the theory/practice dynamics of a business activity. TheLanguage Socialization/Activity model (Mohan, 1986; Ochs, 1988),however, views an "activity" as an "ecology" of discourses andtasks and tasks as subparts of an activity. Language Socialization(Ochs 1988) is a view of learning which goes beyond languagelearning alone; language learning is viewed as acquiring linguisticand sociocultural knowledge at the same time. Figure 6.1 acts as areminder of the concepts in the Language Socialization/ActivityModel.Figure 6.1.^The Language Socialization/Activity ModelSocioculturalKnowledge LanguageKnowledgeTheoryPractice162Review of Summary of Findings: Research Question (1) Part one of the study addressed research question number one,which was "What is the functional variation of discourse in theeducational program for immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e., themanagement classes, the language classes and the operationaltasks)?" Figure 6.2 summarises the findings.Figure 6.2.^Language Socialisation Analysis of the ProgramManagement Class^ Language ClassDiscussRulesScaffoldExamplesSeminarWorkshopBusiness andLanguage KnowledgeBusiness andDiscourse PracticeLanguage Socialisation Analysis: Discourse (Service Encounter andthe EOP Class)Analysis of texts collected from the EOP class and thebusiness site reveal a clear functional relation between "classtalk about the service encounter" and the actual "serviceencounter". The business owners are both practising serviceencounters and discussing the "rules" of service encounters. Thisrelation is missing in the LSP theory because the LSP approach does163not specifically discuss the relation between the service encountergenre and the tasks in the language class. Using the perspective ofthe Language Socialization/ Activity approach, role-playing in theclass relates to the practice of service encounters and thediscussion of rules relates to the theory of service encounters.Language Socialisation Analysis: Management The management classes and business practices. The analysisshows how the service encounter discourse incorporates bothlanguage knowledge and background business knowledge. Viewingservice encounters as "language only" would fail to account for thefact that management information in business (i.e., businesstheories) does surface at various points in the service encounterand ultimately has to be dealt with in a broad theory of serviceencounters rather than by way of the LSP approach. Therefore therelation between business theory discourse and business practicediscourse needs to be addressed in describing the program as anactivity.The relation between management topics and business operations. This part of the analysis reveals that there is adynamic interplay between business operation and businessmanagement topics such as "Sales and Marketing", "PersonnelManagement" and "Strategic Planning". There is a dynamic interplaybetween "theory" in the management classes and "practice" at thebusiness site.164This relationship resembles that of the Language EOP class andthe service encounter in the business practice in that the rulesare discussed in the classes and the examples were identified inthe business operations. The particular actions the business ownerstake as part of their business offer specific cases to draw ongeneral principles which have been discussed either in the seminarsor in the language classes.The relationship between the seminar and the workshop.  Therelation between the seminar and the workshop is that the formerdeals with background knowledge (sociocultural knowledge or theory)while the latter deals with practice in small businesses.From the LSP approach, the genre of the management classes issimilar to that of the EOP classes, which is generally acombination of "report" and "procedural". The LSP approach, whichfocuses on format rather than on content, would not reveal how thetheory in the academic discourse is related to other parts of theprogram including the workshops and actual business practice.As illustrated in Figure 6.2, the "Language socialization:Discourse", and "Language socialization: Management" seem to mirroreach other in the functional variation of the discourse. On thelanguage side in the EOP class, there is discussion of the rules ofservice encounters, which can be considered as theory discourse.There is also scaffolding of examples, which can be considered asclosely related to practical discourse. On the management classside, there is the seminar which worked on the theory of business165management, and the workshop which worked on the discussion andsimulation of business practices in the form of case studies. Themanagement seminar/workshop/ relationship and the languagerules/examples appear to be reflections of theory/practicerelations in small business activities.Language Socialization: Business and Discourse Application of management theory to service encounter. Datacollected from on-the-job observations and documents describing thetasks of the business owners on a monthly basis provide detailedinformation about the practices of the entrepreneurs. Evidenceseems to indicate that the business owners have applied businesstheories from the management seminars to the service encounters intheir businesses (e.g., tax laws, pricing, and health awareness inmarketing.Additional examples of the rules forming the backgroundknowledge (theory) for the service encounter. Data collected fromthe language class, the management class and the business sitereveal that business rules (related to the seminar/workshopmaterial) were applied to service encounters. In other words, theservice encounters draw on business knowledge as well as languageknowledge. Hence a pure LSP approach is inadequate for analyzingthe discourses.For instance, the payment step of the service encounter servesto illustrate how business knowledge about taxation, pricing, and166cheque cashing can enter into the encounters. This knowledge maybe discussed in the encounter, may be reflected in mandatory signs,and may enter into the decision making of the participants.Conclusions: Research Ouestion (1) Firstly, this case study has illustrated a more generallanguage socialisation model which situates language learning inthe context of content learning and "real-world" action. The dataindicate that the theory/practice dimension of the business as anactivity is reflected in the discourse of both the language classesand the business classes.Secondly, compared to the LSP model of genre and languagelearning tasks, the Language Socialisation Model illuminates thelink between the learning of language and content clearly seen inthe service encounter. Activity theory pointed to important dynamictheory/practice relations in business operations, in the languageprogram, and in the management program. The theory/practicedynamic (not handled by the LSP model of genre) appears incontrasts between business rules and business practices, seminardiscourse and workshop discourse, EOP class and service encounterdiscourse, meta-language and language.Thirdly, the Language Socialization Model uses activity as amajor unit of analysis rather than discourse or isolated tasks.Occupational tasks and discourse genres, such as serviceencounters, are linked to the "action" of the activity. Academictasks and discourse genres, such as seminars, are linked to the167"knowledge" of the activity. Activity forms the larger contextwithin which discourse genres and tasks play a systematic role,creating a complex "ecology" which needs to be addressed by futureresearch.Review of Findings: Research Question (2) To address research question two, which was to investigate theroles of L1 and L2 in the functional variation of discourse in thelow level EOP class, where bilingual code-switching mostlyoccurred, the Language Socialization Model was compared with twomodels in code-switching. These were Guthrie's (1983) languagefunctions and Faerch's (1985) meta-language/language differences(which can also be termed language rules/examples). Both modelswere compared by applying them to a sample of data.The analysis using Guthrie's model indicates that the modelmisses a large proportion of L2 "language examples". When Faerch'smodel was applied to the same data, it was found that the languagerules/examples distinction accounted for a portion of the discourseincluding the language examples. However, it failed to account fordata which could be labelled as business rules and businessexamples in the sample.The Language Socialization approach, however, describes moreadequately the functional variation of discourse in the samplesanalyzed. It illuminates four variation types in the EOP class:language rules and language examples, business rules and business168examples. The rule/example difference is a theory/practicedifference. The data seem to indicate a systematic use of Li and L2in relation to rules and examples. The Language/Socializationmodel, therefore, was able to illuminate the relation betweentheory, practice and bilingual code-switching.Bilingual Code-switching and the Language Socialization/Activityapproach As mentioned earlier, the Language Socialization/Activityapproach views language learning in the context of learning both"language" and "sociocultural knowledge". In the present casestudy, the language is English for business, and the socioculturalrules of interest are small business management rules. It was foundthat the pattern of the relationship between functional variationof discourse and bilingual code-switching was illuminated by theLanguage Socialization model. Ll was mostly used for rules and L2was mostly used for language or business examples. In other words,the "theory discourse" was mostly in Ll and the "practicediscourse" was mostly in L2 in the EOP class. The log-linearanalysis indicated that this tendency was stronger when the teacheror the students were dealing with linguistic rules and linguisticexamples than when they were dealing with sociocultural rules andexamples.169Conclusions: Research Question (2) Firstly, the Language Socialization approach illuminates fourfunctional categories of discourse in the EOP class: language rulesand language examples, business rules and business examples. Itthus illuminates the relation between theory and practicediscourse: theory in the form of rules and practice in the form ofexamples. Analysis using the Language Socialization Model seems tohave accounted more adequately for functional variation ofdiscourse in the samples analyzed.Secondly, the Language Socialization Model seems to be able todescribe the relation between bilingual code-switching and thefunctional variation of discourse in the samples. It is mostobvious in the low level language class. Ll was used for discussingrules which include both business rules (sociocultural knowledgeaccording to Ochs, 1988) and language rules (linguistic knowledgeaccording to Ochs, 1988). L2 was used mostly for both businessexamples and language examples. In other words, there is asystematic connection between the major dimensions of thefunctional variation of theory and practice (or rules and examples)and code-switching between the first language and the secondlanguage.Thirdly, the log-linear analysis indicates a three-wayinteraction. Data seem to indicate that the relation betweenrule/example and language choice (i.e., Li vs L2) varies betweensociocultural and linguistic cases. This needs to be examinedfurther.170Fourthly, the issue of "rules/examples" is the strongest"predictor" or "differentiator" of language choice (L1/L2) whetherwe look at sociocultural data separately from linguistic data orwhether we look at both together. This issue has never before beeninvestigated in other code-switching studies.However, what has been described is a general tendency only.It is not an absolute pattern because there are areas in which L2is also used for theory learning. This occurs in the review sectionrather than when the rules are introduced to the class for thefirst time. Ll is occasionally used for examples as well. There isalso insufficient data to indicate the nature of a transitionalphenomenon from total use of Ll to total use of L2 in the fourfunctional categories of discourse identified in the present casestudy.Implications of the InvestigationResearch Implications The findings of the present investigation have variousresearch implications. First, the concept of "Activity Theory" inlanguage socialisation is a productive model for revealing thedynamic between the theory and the practice of an activity.Second, applying the "Activity" model to the data providedsupport for a Language Socialization approach through analyzing atotal program in operation, which brings together the languagelearning components and the content (subject matter) components. It171addresses the mutual learning of language and content holisticallyrather than concentrating on language alone.Third, discourse evidence suggests that the activity theoryperspective and the genre perspective may be complementary, in thatdifferent genres (e.g., the management class genre or the serviceencounter genre) played roles in the operation of the totalactivity of the education program and small business.Fourth, the "ecological" relations between discourses withinan activity appear to contribute to the social construction of theactivity; discourse operates business, builds business knowledge,and comments on the relation between the two.Fifth, the relation between functional variation and bilingualcode-switching needs to be further investigated. Historically, thetwo are related as the uses and users of languages in a languagecommunity. Recent studies seem to have diverged from one another.There is still a lack of research relating ESP (functions oflanguage) and bilingual code-switching (the users of language).This is despite the fact that the work of researchers such asCummins (1991) in bilingual education indicates the vitalimportance of relating these areas.Sixth, in the code-switching discourse, there is evidencesuggesting that the theory/practice or rule/example dimension maybe an important one in code-switching as far as educational contextis concerned. This is an issue which needs to be furtherresearched.Seventh, the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods172is productive in investigating the "functional variation" ofdiscourse with relation to code-switching. Findings using onemethod supplement findings using the other.Finally, there are interesting issues that can be raisedregarding academic language proficiency versus conversationallanguage proficiency (Cummins 1991). In the present study, theclosest analogy to the contrast between these two types of languageproficiency is the contrast between the service encounter at thebusiness sites on the one hand, and the classroom communication inthe business and language classes on the other hand. Interpretingthe data through Cummins' (1990) theoretical constructs, is itpossible that under certain circumstances, academic language usetends to be associated with the Ll and conversational use tends tobe associated with L2? This question needs to be explored, withdue regard to the learner's stage of development in the L2, thelearner's conceptual knowledge of the topic at hand and many otherconditioning factors.With an ESP perspective, the discourse of theory is usuallydealt with in EAP while the discourse of practice may be handled inEOP. In the genre theory, it has been generally assumed that theformer is more associated with written discourse (e.g., Swales1990) while the latter is more related with spoken discourse (e.g.,Ventola, 1987). The findings in the present study, however, seemto have diverged from these assumptions. The management seminars,for example, deal with business theories in oral presentationsgiven by seminar leaders. The aspects of "practice" in small173business also require written texts, e.g., the refund policiesdisplayed in the store, the receipts and the invoices. Cumminsfurther points out thatan intense intellectual discussion with one or two peoplecan be just as cognitively demanding as writing anacademic paper, despite the fact that the former iscontextualized while the latter is relativelydecontextualized. (1991, p. 79)More research is needed to address the complexity of the relationsbetween theory and practice on the one hand, and written discourseand spoken discourse on the other hand, and their relationship withEAP and EOP.The findings in the present study also imply that theacquiring of business communication skills seems to be more complexthan regular inter-personal communication skills. Arguing withcustomers about refund policies, for example, requires advancedcommunication skills. There is also the decision between strictlyfollowing the rules, or compromising in order to maintain goodcustomer relations. These are difficult tasks which even nativespeakers may be struggling to perform well. The complexity iscompounded when the learner has to face cultural differences andhas to handle tasks in an acceptable Canadian way. The learnerswould need more time to reach the required proficiency. Moreresearch is necessary to address issues relating to the acquisitionof these skills.174Educational Implications The educational implications of the findings can be summarisedas follows:The students' and the teacher's use of the first languageseems to have contributed to the learning of theory in bothlanguage and content learning areas. The bilingual approach forimmigrant entrepreneurs in the present case study seems to have hada positive impact on both learning and teaching small businessmanagement. This impression has been reinforced by a separate studywhich evaluated results of this program (Witter et al., 1992; Wong,1992).The present study calls for a greater awareness of the rolesof the two languages (L1 and L2) acting together in the classroom.It raises the question of how best to capitalize on these roles ina complementary fashion through educational policies so that onecan pursue goals which were previously thought to be contradictory,such as the use of the first language along with the acquisition ofthe second language. It is worthwhile investigating further how farthis will operate in other educational situations.The combination of theory and practice in a business programis an important dimension of training. Managing a small business ishelpfully viewed as a sociocultural activity. This may have animpact on curriculum and instruction for Small Business.An "ecological" view of discourse contributes to a betterunderstanding of the language and content learning process oflearners. This may shed light on future curriculum planning.175Limitations of the StudySince the present investigation is one of the firstexploratory studies relating ESP to bilingual code-switching andviewing the domain of small business management training as an"activity", it calls for further research in many differentdimensions. Limitations of the study are that the present case-study serves only as an exploratory study. Many questions remainedunanswered. To take one case, the use of Ll and L2 for discussingsociocultural rules, for example, could be further investigated.For instance, the factors of "review" versus "new rules" may havecontributed to the use of the two languages. More research isneeded to explore this area. There is insufficient data to indicatea transitional phenomenon. The ten-week period is insufficient todetect transitional changes over time.This is only a business case. Other subject areas could beinvestigated to explore the findings suggested about the relationbetween theory/practice, and bilingual code-switching. In a numberof other courses, one finds a theory/practice dimension, e.g.,fire-fighters' class and the actual practice; science lectures andscience labs (Hodson, 1988). There may be relations between"learning science, learning about science and doing science" on theone hand, and "learning small business, learning about smallbusiness, and doing small business" on the other hand. The scope ofthe present case study does not cover areas for comparison betweenthese two.176Language groups other than Cantonese speakers have not beeninvestigated. 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Mason (Eds.),Entrepreneurship and Community Development: Proceedings of theVIIth Conference of the International Council for SmallBusiness - Canada, pp. 323-330. Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.Witter, G., Wong, A.S.P., Tam, R., Dooley, N., Ho, P., & Davies, J.(1991). Protect '92: Interim findings. Paper presented at theVIIIth Conference of the International Council for SmallBusiness - Canada (ICSB), Trois-Riviers, Quebec, Canada.Wong, A.S.P. (1985a). Teaching Business English to undergraduates: material development. Unpublished M. Ed. major essay,University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Wong, A.S.P. (1985b). An Initial Assessment of Potential Demand forSmall Business Instruction and Services at the EnglishLanguage Training Division. Unpublished report. VancouverCommunity College, British Columbia.185Wong, A.S.P. (1992). Ethnic owner development programs: anexploring study. 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Farmingdale, NY: Baywood.)1k- -4- 41it_ ict^Ii•N!^ZUgikkft'A :-,Xi&41u oic+.12 VI fl * 40* 200 , o ostuq-At* 2031 , n1 %I S'14411* 4 0 ,1' r14.^*if;API^, Mtn' r To 1 .14.4.1 g_ AI*;#1 rx)**.• 40.0* Aft J10 PPM* Vric-tt (^ 1 )* kftift1* fi it114-1.* Agri AS 111* -17;1.0-1A1110T* OA -WM* YMA-Agi- ** *it4+ Ig* *AA di* )3'1.44if4tft fI 3 VW Alk n-k fiT^At* tit^rT3^'Jo* I–no* 71- 43 144}17sAt -glqij tic )^-4NYB471At 50 %— 75 ("6^if t74'4tifk,4 ,11ciff7 14- A .13 As 4 51)34 .11- 14-+ it 4 14 #.4110.SMALL BUSINESSOWNER DEVELOPMENTPROGRAMOBJECTIVEThe program aims at providing small busi-ness owners and managers the latest manage-rial expertise and information essential fortoday's business survival and expansion. Theprogram will take a hands-on approach inworking along with owner-managers to solvetheir real life problems thereby improving thecompany's corporate performance.PROGRAM STRUCTURE• 40 hours of seminars20 hours of tutorials• 20 hours of on-site consultation40 hours of business communicationskillsThe above sessions will be spread over aperiod of one year. Upon completion of theprogram, participants are expected to havegained in-depth knowledge in the followingdesigned core-topics:Advertising• Business Law (Leasing and PurchasingCommercial Properties)• English Business Communication SkillsFinancing and Government FundingComputcring in Small Business• Contracts and International Trade• Inventory Control and ManagementMarketingMarketing Yourself Inside Out• Networking for Small BusinessPersonnel and Operational Management• Selling and Sales Staff TrainingTax and Tax PlanningPROMINENT FEATURES•Seminars conducted by leading Chineseprofessionals (such as bankers and account-ants) who provide practical solutions foreveryday problems.•Flexible on-site sessions coached by theprogram instructor who will help partici-pants apply the principles and techniquespresented at seminars, diagnose theirunique problems and monitor their com-pany's performance.•Participants are eligible for 75% fee rebateunder governmental subsidy. Balance offees is tax-deductible.-Basic fee paid entitles two persons fromeach business to participate in the training.Past operation of the program in variousCanadian small business communities ledto a significant 40% to 80% increase insales in participating businesses, the return-on-investment of which was nearlyTRIPLED in two years' time while stillshowing continuing growth.For FURTHER INFORMATION, pleasecontact:Information and application for C.E.I.C.(Manpower) fee rebate can be obtained andprocessed at:rjJxH••cnO tv• HCiIIo UltS1^H-11(I)5^(11(f/roA)^0P'H• (I)O5IDft187Appendix II: Initial Contact Letters and Subject Consent FormsINITIAL CONTACT LETTER(TRANSLATED FROM THE CHINESE ORIGINAL)TO:^Participants in the Small Business Owner Development(SBOD) Cantonese ProgramFROM:^Alice S. P. WongDATE:Dear Participants:The College has kindly given me consent to conduct researchwork on the roles of Cantonese and English in your businessclasses, language classes and business situations. I am writing toinvite volunteers who will be willing to take part in this project.I will conduct observations in your regular classes and at yourwork-place at regular business hours without affecting your studiesor business. The focus will be on your use of Cantonese and Englishin these situations. A total of two (2) hours will be needed forvolunteers who agree to be interviewed with the same focus.Your identity will be strictly confidential. The informationcollected will be only used by me for my research project at theUniversity of British Columbia. You have the right to refuse andalso withdraw at any time. If you do so, there will not be penaltyof any kind. I will be happy to answer questions about theprocedure and any related matters at any time. Please contact me at123-4567 should you decide to participate. A separate consent formwith more detail will be sent to you individually for your finalapproval and signature.Thank you very much for your co-operation.Yours very truly,Alice Siu-ping WongINITIAL CONTACT LETTER IN CHINESEMitt*AEIWZ- IELitt,oMf13 -MtifillEzAR_EZ1,141t, fnitiz*MIRSO4thili- EqZW-11-, abutRarTIS*AgEN_U-22.iti-j-Aff, figwrk_hrici-K3cZLN)13, Ri=1.11f3 .§.z.i. fAM/.1\4Z{MNIJM1711, ErtA-11_Ett-mmzrag.AM.1%014igffi, TV51.4151t0-J.FLEPArit, ii194*AIIM (latit • 123-4567 ) 0 ITISSW: El^,^111F,tEtt/.1\ 12MOMagIfit#117M-RIMN4giz_hHIV189SUBJECT CONSENT FORM(TRANSLATED FROM THE CHINESE COPY)PROJECT:^The Role of Chinese and English in the Tasks ofImmigrant EntrepreneursINVESTIGATOR: Mrs. Alice S. P. Wong (Tel: 123-4567)PURPOSE:^The aim is to investigate the use of the firstlanguage (i.e. Cantonese) and the second language(i.e. English) in the learning situation andworking situation of a business owner/manager.PROCEDURES:^We will record how people use Chinese and Englishin business and language classes, and in their jobsas business owner/managers.IDENTITY:^The identity of volunteers will be confidential.Your name will not be used. A number will be usedinstead.TIME:^This research will take approximately two (2) hoursof your time in interviews. The observation will bedone during your regular class time and regularbusiness hours without interfering your study orbusiness.REFUSALS:^You have the right to refuse to participate. Youcan withdraw at any time. If you do so, there willbe no penalty of any kind.QUESTIONS:^Mrs. Alice S.P. Wong will be happy to answer anyquestions about procedures or any other matters atany time.CONSENT:^I consent to take part in this project and Iacknowledge that I have received a copy of theconsent form.Signature:Date:SUBJECT CONSENT FORM IN CHINESEWAAMH:q1 94*/11VI442W0TifAt : kr1W/A4 ( a : 123-4567 )Rn:wfiArpx±/IvvaifF_Ensfo:04Mg4,31ERIIIMOVII,YIMM,R/IALEnsfflogfit. 2.ft42R — ORWOEVITg,TeMUIMWel:WW-MTg±illatgAMP4,/PMAIWRMYJMdqmil4m,TiI►4irTM5J- .RE:R/M.t(±g -Vt&MgH.44VERME.MI:*Anfiabaftgi-MAkEiff4EqM—M2B.,191Appendix III: Summary of Background of InformantsCode Sex Age Education Business Position Own Work History RemarksJU m 25 College Infant's Manager 25% Family Business in new businessRY m 29 High sch. Clothing President 25% HK EOP LL, no govt sub.JL m 38 High sch. Newspaper Marketer n/a Development co. /HK interested in otherFY m 40 High sch. Manager Exp. in Singapore businesses, EOP Adv.EC f 41 U. Grad. Dentist (wife) Office/man. 100 9 yr. Excel. comm. skillsCC f 32 Grade 12 Dental Ass. Assistant teacher, + 1 yr. DA EOP Adv.JL m 37 College Fur wholesale V.P. 50% Sales for Xerox EOP Adv.SL f 37 College Sales Man. Tel. Co. staff wife of JL, EOP adv.GC m 34 U. Grad. Meat Store President 70% owned two stores Adv. comm. skillsCT m 28 High sch. Manager 2.5 yrs in the co. EOP LL.KL m 55 High sch. Window Manager n/a 8 weeks in the co. EOP LL.CH f 31 High sch. frames Book +adm 3 yr. in the co. EOP adv.SM m 29 College Window blinds Owner/man 60% 3 years in the co. EOP adv.JM f 27 College Partner 40% same time EOP adv.KW m 29 Grade 12 Produce Owner/man 100 2.5 years in business EOP adv., bus.NL f 25 Grade 12 Manager n/a expandinggood. comm. skillsEP f 47 U./China Grocery store Owner/man 60% 4 years in the co. EOP LLTP m 52 U./China Partner 40% EOP LLLC f 39 High sch. Bakery & Director 60% 2 years in the co. EOP adv.JS m 34 High sch. Restaurant Director 40% 11 years in the co. Adv. Comm. skillsFT m 33 B. Com . SeafoodwholesaleOwner/manmanager70% 4 years in the co. adv. comm. skillsJY m 35 U. grad. Drugstore Manager n/a 3.5 years in the co. adv. comm. skillsCB m 46 High sch. Dry-cleaning Owner/man 50% 1 yr. garment retail, LL EOPCG f 42 High sch. Secretary 50% 8 yr. in co. wife, not activeEW f 37 High sch. Ch. Restaurant Owner/man 100 4 yr. in the co. EOP adv.CK f 37 High sch. Home appli. Owner/man 50% 6 months in co. EOP LL.C1 m 52 High sch. Bakery Owner/bak 50% 8 mths, 12 yrs/ HK EOP LL., literacyC2 f 42 High sch. Owner/sale 50% 3 yr. restaurant EOP LL., activeN1 m 48 High sch. Flowers & Owner/man 50% 2 yr. + exper. in EOP LL. literacy,N2 f 46 High sch. Gifts Owner/sale 50% grocery, bakery Exp. in TrinidadT1 m 44 High sch. Import: gifts, Owner/man 60% 15 yr, 1^yr. in co. Lab. Techn. EOP advT2 f 40 High sch. silk flowers,toys, etc.clerk Family business P/T restaurant, EOPadv.KEY:^man = managercomm = communicationappli = appliancessch = schoolLL = Low Leveltechn = technicianexp = experiencesale = sales personadv = advancedch = chinesebak = bakerp/t = part-time192Appendix IV: Sample Field NotesProtocol Number: OS-C-PT2^Time: 12.35 p.m. - 2.00 p.m.1. This observation was arranged directly with2. the informants. It was a hot Wednesday3. afternoon. The time was suggested by the4. informants because that was a busy time of the5. day. The business site was the same bakery6. store which I visited last month. Only Cl and7. C2 were in the store. Their second child, an8. eight-year-old, came back for lunch and then9. returned to school again. Cl and C2, the10. informants, greeted me warmly in Cantonese. I11. was their customer too. We had developed12. excellent relationship. I told them that my13. focus of observation was on what they did in14. the shop and assured them again that15. everything I noted would be strictly16. confidential. They were volunteers from the17. owner development program, who had consented18. to be observed and interviewed. I first went19. into the rear part of the shop. This was the20. bakery. Cl was working busily on a long table.21. He was making some bread. It was messy in22. certain parts but on the whole things seemed23. to be in good control. I told Cl that he would24. need to put a sign up in the washroom to25. remind food-handlers to wash their hands after26. going to the toilet. It was required by health27. regulations of the city. After chatting with28. him and looking around in the bakery for ten29. minutes, I moved to the front part of the30. store which was the retail section. C2 was the31. only person working. The bakery was located at32. a busy street. There were banks, offices and33. other retail stores near-by. It was originally34. a low-income area but with the increase of new35. residential buildings in this part of the36. city, the consuming power had been improved.37. The make-up of the clientele varied from bank38. and office workers at lunch time and39. housewives and other customers from the same40. neighbourhood. Their prices were very41. reasonable and had attracted a growing number42. of customers from other areas as well. The43. lay-out of the store was simple. There were44. showcases on three walls, a fridge dividing45. the store front from the bakery and shelves46. for day-old's on one side of the wall near the47. entrance. There was a coffee-table near the48. fridge. They also sold coffee and pops in49. cans. I sat mostly on the table. Many of the193Page Number: TwoProtocol Number: OS-C-PT21. customers greeted me with a smile, assuming I2. was one of the staff or one of the family3. members. I blended naturally with the rest in4. the scene and was not causing any alarm. I5. watched every customer who came in and tried6. to write down what he or she said to C2. I was7. unable to note all. I did not use a tape-8. recorder to tape the conversations this time9. because it would disrupt the naturalness10. of the scene and it would not be ethical to do11. so without prior permission from the12. customers. Customer 1 came in, purchased some13. pastries and asked if she could come back14. later for them.15. Customer 1: I must leave that. I'm going to16. the bank. Can I come back later?17. C2: Yes. It's 3.69 altogether.18. It was 12.40 p.m. Another woman came in,19. looked around and then left. An East-Indian20. man came in and purchased some pastries. While21. C2 was busy counting the money he gave her, a22. woman who was neatly dressed came in. She23. looked like a bank worker.24. The lady: Is this curried beef? (pointing to25. the showcase)26. C2: Yes, curried beef and barbecue pork.27. The lady: Are they flour or buns?28. C2: Buns.29. The lady: I'll have one of each.30. C2 talked to Cl in Cantonese and asked there31. were any curried beef buns left. Cl replied,32. "Mo-la! (No more!)" C2 came back to the lady.33. C2: Sorry. Curried beef all gone. Sausage buns?34. The lady: 0. K. Can I pick them up later?35. C2: Yes. One-seventy, please.36. The lady left. An elderly woman came in andlooked at the day-old's. (End of sample notes)194Appendix V: Sample Service Encounter Text (At the Bakery)Dialogue SE1: At the Bakery (C2's shop). C2 is the owner. A is thecustomer. He is a Chinese Canadian who does not speak Chinese.1. C2: Hi!2. A: Do you have any cha-siu-bou (barbecue pork bun)?3. C2: How many do you want?4. A: Four.5. C2: Four for GST. Six you don't pay GST.6. A: Give me six then.7. C2: Six the same, OK?8. A: Same?9. C2: They are same price.10. A: And ... What other bou (bun) do you gave? Gar-lei-bou(Curry bun) ?11. C2: Yes.12. A: Yes, can I take that?13. C2: Six each?14. A: Six cha-siu (barbecue pork), and ....15. C2: Cha-siu (barbecue pork), right? (put buns in a paperbox.)16. A: Four you pay GST. Six you don't pay GST?17. C2: Ye.18. A: That's strange. Can I have one apple muffin?19. C2: O.K. Lai-yau-bou (cream bun) ?20. A: I like them but I can't eat them all!21. C2: One apple, one blend apple?22. A: Right.23. C2: (put buns in the paper box.) Anything else?24 A: No. How much?25. C2: Eight sixty. Do you have sixty cents?26. A: I've got a couple of quarters. That's all.27. C2: (took money and gave change). Thank you. Bye!28. A: Bye!(End of SE1)195196Appendix VI: Genre Analysis of Sample ChapterSample , from Szonyi, A. J. & Steinhoff, D. (1988) Chapter 13:Advertising and promotion. In Small Business ManagementFundamentals (Canadian ed.), pp. 171-191. Toronto: MaGraw-HillRyerson Ltd.CHAPTER13Advertising and Promotion"Running a business without advertising is like winking at a pretty girl inthe dark—you know what you're doing, but she doesn't." The president ofone of the largest advertising companies in New York concluded a formaladdress on the billions of dollars spent on advertising each year in theUnited States by saying, "We know that half of these billions were wasted.The only trouble is we don't know which half."These two statements point out the importance of advertising and thesize of the advertising bill in this country every year, and should caution allbusiness people to make their advertising effective. This warning is evenmore true for small firms that normally cannot absorb wasteful expendi-tures as well as larger firms.THE NATURE OF DEMANDThe total demand for the goods or services offered by any small firm can bedivided into (I) established demand and (2) promoted, or newly created,demand.Established demand k that vniatme of Wes that comes without consciousoutside promotion by the firm. It assumes that the firm is established withsome degree of attractiveness and relies basically on that fact to bring cus-tomers to the firm to buy products or services. Reliance is also placed on thefact that people see the store and think of it, perhaps, when products or ser-vices are considered. It is recognized that pedestrian traffic is already in thearea and that some of the people will stop en route to other places. Distancefrom competitors will usually assist in bringing in established demand formost types of merchandise.Promoted demand, by contrast, is the volume of sales which results fromthe firm's engaging in all types of activities to draw people to the Win. Vro-moted - demand customers, if pleased, can become established customers.It is not true that small firms cannot operate profitably when they relysolely on established demand. However, those firms which supplement thisestablished demand with promoted demand show much better sales volumeand profits. Too many small firms restrict their operations by ignoring thepossibilities of creating more sales. Case studies often show that the reasonsare a lack of working capital to pay expenses of promotion, a belief thattheir market is inelastic, or a lack of knowledge of how to design a salespromotion program.All the activities that go into the development of sales can be groupedunder the title sales promotion. Sales promotion can use either direct orindirect methods. There are no guarantees that any one method will show aprecise dollar return in sales, but the effectiveness of each can usually bemeasured with some degree of accuracy. Every small firm owner shouldthink about using some of the following types of sales promotion:TITLEINTRODUCTIONGENERAL CLASSIFICATIONEstablished DemandPromoted Demand197Direct promotion metho^Indirect promotion methodsI Pub. 1 Advertising^ tc re a2 Publicity 2 Customer relations3 Displays 3 Customer services4 Special event sales^4 Product styling and5 Manufacturers' aids packaging6 Personal selling„"...."."/VAIVA)DIRECT SALES PROMOTIONAdvertisingIt must be recognized that adver^ tial to almost every business.Large-scale advertising has made possible the bene^.^...^.roductionby creating a demand for the increased flow of products and servicesmass production has made possible. Unit costs have been reduced in mostTypes of Advertising MediaAmong the media generally used in advertising are:1^Television2 Radio3 Newspapers4 MagazinesMEASURING ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESSWhenever^possible, ^every^advertising^program^undertaken^should^bechecked for its effectiveness. Some of the ways the small firm can do thisare:I^Advertise one item in one ad only. Have no references to the itemon the sales floor. Then count the calls and requests which result.2 Place identifying marks in an ad which appears in two separatepublications. The reader is asked to bring the ad to the firm toobtain a special price or prize. See how many ads come in from.......—_„.,---e-'•■.r"--","—e"'"'"-le%'-e*—"Nr"--o1/4%,".vN,"wo3..-Are your judgments based on what you knowor what you hear?The Mau Who Sold Hot DogsThere was a man who lived by the side of the road and sold hot dogs.He was hard of hearing so he had no radio.He had trouble with his eyes so he read no newspapers.But he sold good hot dogs.QUESTIONS FOR CLASS DISCUSSION1 How would you describe established demand as contrasted witpromoted demand?2 How would you define advertising?3 Is advertising as important to small firms as to large ones?4 How is the problem of choosing the advertising media different forProjects for Home Assignment and/or Class DiscussionI Do you know of a product you or your family prefer because of itspackaging and styling? Explain such a case and why you prefer it.2 List what you think would be the best advertising media for yourown hardware store in a suburban area. Prepare a specific ad forthe store.Direct Promotional MethodsIndirect PromotionalMethodsDESCRIPTIONParts:AdvertisingTypes of AdvertisingMediaMeasuring AdvertisingEffectivenessA story (case) toillustratethe principles{ENDINGQuestions forClass DiscussionFollow-up Projects(Case Studies)Appendix VII: Case StudiesCASE 1: OPERATING A BAKERY AS AN OWNER/MANAGER (Cl & C2)198PUTTING THEORY INTO PRACTICE(PRA CT/CE ON SITE)- Analyzed the regional competition.Discussed the essence of s/bmarketing. Suggested imageestablishment.- Designed sign for promotion.Promotion sign set up.- Analyzed customer profile.- Suggested methods of introducingnew products.(THEORY IN SEMINARS)Marketing & Advertising (S2, S3)- Suggested running a sole businesswith one site due to the lack of trust-worthy hands.Reviewed potential problems of thelack of hands in both the baking andthe selling area.Suggested the participation of "jobentry" program.- Reviewed own company'sperformance.Reviewed sales of company whichshows an increase of 40% as perbefore joining the course.One part-time baker is employed assuggested. The problem with theshort of hands is temporarily solvedwith Mr. Cl helping with the sellingat times.Personnel & Operational Management(S4,S5)Discussed the possibility of^Strategic Planning (S6)expanding in the bakery andrestaurant business. Discussed theadvantages & disadvantages of: a)Running a restaurant and a bakery;b) running merely a restaurant.Designed pricing strategies.Explained the application of thediscussed goal/ objective setting.Practical implication of the 3C's inconnection to the company.Discussed the viability of buying abusiness from a neighbouring owner.Suggested the points ofconsideration and given own opinionin terms of the risk involved.Inspected the actual location.Further discussion on the purchaseof the neighbouring business.Derived conclusion that it is not aviable business to buy. Overhead toohigh for restructuring the site andthat customer potential is not toopromising.Discussed the possibility of businessstarting in one particular location.199200-^Raised the necessity to consider thefinancial viability in expanding.-^Discussed tax problems related tothe existing Hong Kong business.-^Discussed the tax concerns withbuying equipments from abroad.-^Discussed the calculation ofinventory in conjunction to taxplanning.-^Introduced the concept ofdepreciation, the formation of a trustfund, and various tax deductionoptions.-^Business plan for loan application tostart one more business.-^Calculation of cost/profit analysis.Determination of cost structure forvarious products.Financing and Tax Planning (S7,- Cost accountingS12)-^Analyzed product line.-^Reviewed the production capacity asper sales ambition.-^Discussed the opportunity inexploring the cookie market.-^Introduction of new products - morekinds of bread/cookies.-^Discussed the benefits and liabilitiesof registering the company as a soleunlimited and limited company.-^Discussed the effect of Constitutionon the Canadian economy.Others:ProductionBusiness Laws (S8, S9)201PUTTING THEORY INTO PRACTICE: CASE 2 (THE FLOWER AND GIFT SHOP OWNERS)COUPLE 2 (N1 & N2)Type of Business: Flowers and GiftsEnglish Proficiency: Limited (Beginners' Level)Tasks performed in "on-site sessions":Code: OSN1.Reviewed overall operation of the company. Understood thecompany's structure. Discussed past history of the co.Analyzed customer profile. Analyzed market niche therebydesigning an image for the company.Topics discussed and goals set:a) Displaying / Shelvingb) Product line selectionc) Pricing strategy - to maximize profitd) Public relation - selling / researchCode: OSN2.Reviewed the necessity of advertising in parallel to seminar'steaching in-depth discussion on small business's positiontowards: a) Vulture niching for survivalb) Various types of niche marketingc) Developing of USP / ImageSuggested various of price setting and testing methods.Discussed window decoration. Discussed interior decoration anddisplay to eliminate the negligence of existing stocks carriedat the back of the store.Discussed the necessity of putting up a new sign for customerattraction.Code: OSN3.Possibilities of starting other businesses in Canadadiscussed. Pointed out the options' pro's and con's.Contrasted the advantages & disadvantages of starting own202business and buying an existing one from others.Discussed various investment options and their risk/returnratios.Preliminary introduction to tax and tax planning.Code: OSN4.Comments: ESL lecturers very helpful.Discussed the various evaluation criteria bankers and otherfinancial managers employed in issuing business loans.Discussed the various financial sources and their pro's andcon's.Discussed the viability of introducing the "balloon-wrapping"machine.Discussed equity/debt financing and their pro's and con's.Discussed the inter-relation between interest rate, inflationand other economic activities.Code: OSN5.Bought the "Balloon-wrapping" machine.Further discussion on the advantages & disadvantages of buyingan existing business as compared to starting a new one.Discussed the opportunity in importing various porcelain vasesand kitchen utensils from China. Discussed the viability ofthe related warehouse purchase or rental options. Discussedthe scope of insurance coverage as required.Further discussion on tax and tax planning.Discussed difference in operation under the introduction ofthe GST tax.Discussed the operational structure of the GST tax itself.Code: OSN6.Reviewed porcelain products import.Comments: Strategic planning irrelevant to this specificcompany.Further discussion on the relevance of strategic planning toall businesses and its practical application.203Further explanation on GST mechanism.Examined on the sourcing structure - reviewing on allwholesalers.OSN7 .Comments: ESL very helpfulDiagnosed the viability and concern of accepting a deal withthe "Wall International Business Consultants Limited" in termsof a local floral delivery service. Pointed out the necessityto consider:a) Terms of joiningb) Way outc)^Contract details to protect own company.Suggested viable if there is no hidden terms to be fulfilledbefore joining.Code: OSN8.Reviewed contract with the Consultant Limited. Contractestablished.Further discussion on GST's application and registration.Discussed local floral market and the advantages &disadvantages of moving location.Discussed the option of selling presently owned premises inthe perspective of investment return. Discussed possibledevelopment in Metro Vancouver.Discussed customer handling: Compared department store'spractice and that of other chinese shop owners.Discussed rental law and legal action against breakage.204PUTTING THEORY INTO PRACTICE: CASE 3 (THE IMPORTERS)COUPLE 3 (T1 & T2)Type of Business:^Importing, wholesaler of many lines; a tradingcompanyEnglish Proficiency: advancedTasks performed in "On-site sessions":Code: OST1.Reviewed overall operation of the company. Understood thepractice of the industry.Goal setting: a) Distributive network establishmentb) BC market familiarizationc) Local Canadian characteristicsd) Time ManagementCode: OST2 .Reviewed inventory condition, diagnosed product line viabilityand carried out sensitivity analysis.Discussed small business's approach to market research.Discussed the method of obtaining finance and their pro's andcon's.Suggested various ways of establishing local distributivenetwork.Illustrated trade show displaying and pricing structure.Discussed the danger of the company's product supplier meetingwith the distributing agent of the same.Code: OST3.a) Meeting between company's supplier and distributing agentcancelled.b) Further inventories ordered to improve on stock-outcondition.c)^Arranged two trade shows for promotion.Discussed direct marketing and its required assertiveapproach.205Discussed the pro's and con's of employing own sales force anddrafted ad. for recruitment.Reviewed on the practical application of the market mixmatrix.Discussed market strategies for introducing an exclusiveproduct of the company and suggested various appropriateoutlets and tactics.Code: OST4.Approach various banks, currency exchangers, supermarkets,department stores and BC Tel in connection to distributing thecompany's exclusively carried product.Two trade shows scheduled to be held in BC Place andPharmasave buying show respectively.Discussed Canadian business practice.Discussed methods of researching the details of a company.Discussed practical steps and cautions in approaching bigcompanies, using BC Tel a s a vivid example.Drafted business letter to initiate contact with the abovementioned and suggested personal approach.Further discussion on trade show display and tailored a fewideas for the specific product.Code: OST5.Promising replies from various banks and BC Tel. Those withcurrency exchangers show negative.Response from trade shows are slow.Established contacts within BC Tel and undergoing departmentalselling.Carried out local customer profile analysis and raised thepossibility of exporting rather than merely importing.Considered side-line trading of exporting carpets andwallpaper back to HKG.In-depth analysis of power structuring within company toapproach the problem of split decision on company's direction.206Under-capitalization surfaced.Opened remedial options for considering, which include:a) Selling out of neighbouring warehouse (P&C's)b) Expansion & c) Let out present warehouse (P&C's)Discussed the viability of a deal from a financial viewpointin relation to the adaptability of the company's liquidity.Code: OST6.Direction of company still under consideration by variouspartners.Response to ad call for the structuring of interviews.Techniques of interviewing discussed.Further discussion on the defensive actions that should betaken to solve the present financial situation.Discussed the nine circles of the strategic planning asdiscussed during the workshop hours.Code: OST7.Reviewed particulars of interviewees for the position posted.Further up-keep with the condition of the warehouse sale/rentcondition.Reviewed the necessity of further sales force.^Gavesuggestion on employee selection.Reviewed on the present stock condition. Corrected for itsstock-out problem.Suggested GST registration and underwent brief explanation onits structure.New product line introduced : a) Canned bouton mushroom; b)Silk flowers and plants207Appendix VIII: EOP Low Level ClassTHE LANGUAGE LEARNING TASKS IN THE EOP LOW LEVEL CLASSESCLASS CODE THEORY PRACTICEESP-2B Informal observationESP-3B Part 1: Six steps in a business dealLanguage examples in L2Explanation in L1 & L2Part 2: Language only - Making of questionsgroup work in developingdialogues for serviceencounterStudents went over thewritten dialogues andunderlined the questionwordsESP-5B Reviewed some of the steps in a businessdeal.^Reviewed questions.Students discussed theories in business dealsin L1.Language rules: use of comparativesDifference between 'in fact' and 'I think'Business Rules: Confidence of the server.Student's Remark: If you don't haveconfidence yourself, the customers won'thave confidence either.Classified statements,objections, questionsUse of dialogues (content)Remarks by C2: I'll usethem tomorrow. (cf.observation Os-C1)ESP-6B Dealing with customers' objection: a follow-up of customer serviceBusiness rules: Refund policies, returnpolicies etc. (half in L1, half in L2).Writing/Reading 'signs' toput up in the store, statingstore policiesReal cases:Instructor quoted her ownbusiness experience inrefunding customers. Ni &N2 quoted their ownexamples and their refundpolicies.Worked on hand-outs 522.1(Worked on vocabularyitems in groups).208ESP-7B Instructor explained when business owners Writing tasks given;had to 'give presentations' about 'location,type of business, size of business, style ofbusiness, clientele, source of supply, salesDifficult for the group butthey still tried.volume, profit/loss profile' etc. C2 read her work out andthe instructor corrected itThe instructor's questions were asked in L1in scaffolding.and wrote it on the board.C2 commented on theCustomer's use of credit cards (acceptance) 'ingredients' she used andin business practices explained why her bakerywas special.The meat store manager(clerk) did his writing.Language task: N2 read outher work with help frominstructor. N2's questionswere in L1.Student reported work ofthe appliance store owner.Reading yellow-page ads forflorists, bakeries, meatstores and applianceservicing.Task assigned : writing upof ads.ESP-8B Handling language for emergency: Break-in,Robbery and shop-lifting.Instructor told class a truestory about herGroup discussed about tax and banking. competitor, and her ownexperience (customer shop-lifting in her store).Real cases: N2 told theclass how a car ran into herflower shop. C1 & C2 alsotold their stories.Writing task: answeringcomprehension questions. Adifficult task for Ni & N2.209ESP-9B Objectives of the class: Cl's goal: to start a new1) To learn Taxation terms branch and therefore needed2) To develop a business plan to apply for a bank loan.Students learned concepts about the C1's remark about N1 &following terms: Financial Statement, Balance N2's goals: Yours isSheet, Profit/Loss Statement, Income & Canadian style. Mine isExpenses Statement,Income - cost - bad debt = gross profitHong Kong style.G/P - expenses = net profit N1 & N2 said that theydidn't know how to write aAssets and Liabilities "business proposal".Instructor explained terms in Chinese and C2 read her assignment outasked students their goals. aloud.Difference between long term and short termgoals.Language rules: difference between "within","by", to "run" a company or "manage" acompany.ESP-10B Class discussed about 'job descriptions'; a lot simulated tasks: drafting ofof L2 used for the descriptions; explanationmainly in ad. for hiring new staffDiscussed about medium size or more than 1staff member in business; started to get intopersonnel management skills.ESP-1 1 B Class discussed impact of GST Worked on hand-outs 626:1 -3Class talked about franchising.N1 & N2 commented onInstructor commented on different kinds ofhardship in running a small business.their experience in Trinidad.C1 & C2 commented ontheir experience in HongKong.N1 & N2 talked about howthey auctioned flowers.Appendix VIV: Seminar/workshop Relation(EXAMPLES)Workshop Case StudiesS2Related Seminar Topics(PRACTICE)-^Application of market competition:Flanking-^Worked on marketing strategies forKW's produce shop (new branch)-^Follow-up action: the group puttogether a joint ad. to announce thegrand opening of KW's new branchas a joint marketing effort.(THEORY)Marketing in the 90s-^Designed an Advertisement for KW'snew branch. KW liked the idea of"progressive" sentence in thenewspaper ad.-^EC reported on the usefulness of the11 ways to write effective headlines(positive)S3 Advertising-^Importance of phone manner, front-line people-^Media used for KW's new branch:Chinese newspaper. The marketingmanager of that paper was one ofthe participants. Good example ofnetworking.S4 Selling and Sales StaffTraining-^CH's management problem: conflictsamong different ethnic employees-^More problems in personnelmanagement-^The use of "awards" to encouragestaff, pro's and con's and itstechnicality-^Discussion on values andexpectation, cultural differencesbetween Chinese and western ways-^Style of management: Chineseowners do not like to sell out theirbusinessesS5 Personnel and OperationalManagement210- Collected information about thecompany for evaluation purposes- How do you deal with yourcompetitors?- Strategic planning for investment:shares and stocksStudy on "Catering"- SM's question about expansion andincrease of expenses- Analyze factors affecting co.performance- Worked on Decision-making toolsusing Ni & N2's flower shop as areal case. Should theydevelop/expand their flower line orgift line of their business? Use of adecision tree (flow-chart). Part ofstrategic planning.- Strategic planning for pricing- Stages of business developmentS6^Strategic Planning 211212Appendix X: Weekly Results (Bilingual Code-switching Analysis)RulesExamplesTable Al: Teacher talk (linguistic) weeks 1-9L2Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Ll19 7 52 3 1 0 7 32 91 14 0 32 0 13 0 35week 1Ll^L2week 2Ll^L2week 3Ll^L2week 4Ll^L2Rules 26 11 11 1 0 0 31 3Examples 0 9 0 11 0 0 0 10week 5^week 7^week 8^week 9RulesExamplesTable A2: Student talk (linguistic) Weeks 1-9L2Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L2 Ll0 0 24 0 2 0 1 0 00 12 0 15 0 3 0 2week 1Ll^L2week 2Ll^L2week 3Ll^L2week 4Ll^L2Rules 16 8 6 0 0 0 12 3Examples 0 5 0 4 0 0 0 5week 5 week 7 week 8 week 9RulesExamplesLlTable A3: Teacher business talk Weeks 1-9Ll^L2L2 Ll^L2 Ll^L2146 0 80 30 51 47 54 2441 14 0 10 2 35 3 7week 1Ll^L2week 2Ll^L2week 3Ll^L2week 4Ll^L2Rules 26 6 17 11 25 5 85 66Examples 0 5 0 0 2 20 0 18week 5 week 7 week 8 week 9X2=85.11X2=205.76p< .0001 p<. 0001181 411 12470^110^46X2=93.87 X2=160.02p< .0001 p< .0001484 18748 109wk 1-9205 3517 96wk 1-9213Table A4: Student business talk Weeks 1-9 L i^L2^Ll^L2^Ll^L2^Ll^L2Rules 7 0 31 0 29 11 37 2Examples 0 3 0 49 10 1 1 3 9week 1^week 2^week 3^week 4Ll^L2^Ll^L2^Ll^L2^Ll^L2Rules 12 3 0 1 29 0 60 18Examples 0 12 0 0 4 6 6week 5 week 7 week 8 week 9The following tables present a summary of the data analysis of all eight weeksof sample in linguistic knowledge and sociocultural knowledge.A5: Linguistic -: Teacher Talk^A6: Linguistic -: Student TalkWeeks 1-9 ^ Weeks 1-9 Ll^L2^ Li^L2^wk 1-9^ wk 1-9A7: Sociocultural: Teacher Talk^A8: Sociocultural: Student TalkWeeks 1-9^ Weeks 1-9Ll^L2 Ll^L2214Appendix XI: Sample Text CS-1CM:^In business dealing, we come up with six steps. (Students referred to pageone of hand-outs.) Right, six steps. The first step is "introduce theoffer". What's the purpose? Purpose ilkhai viihnvan <means reason>, muhkdik<aim>. First step: "introduce the offer". (M. wrote on board). Yui wah bei di haak tang <have to tell the customers>. To tell the customers that wehave some service or we have some goods for sale. "Introduce the offer".Yiu gaaisiuh tangsêuhngvauh gai 'ang feing-faat.<There are several ways tointroduce.> Ngc5h gaanivuh geidi. <Those I have underlined.> (Participantsreferred to page 1 of hand-outs.) The offer can be introduced by aquestion. (M. wrote on board). ... For example: "Is there anything I cando for you today?" Give me others.N1: How are you today?CM:^Some more.N2: It's a nice day today.CM:^Question! Question!N2:^You need any help today?CM:^"Can I help you today? What can I do for you?" Or you can give a statement(wrote on board). Question iauhhaih mahntaih <means question>. Statementiauhhaih vatgo iihkiip ge geui <is a direct sentence>. For example: "Weare ahving a special on red roses today". Tell them strict forward whatyou're selling: "special on red roses". GeingchOih go geui <In the previoussentences> "How are you today? It's a nice day." Yauh mhhaih maaihvah<You're not selling anything> You're not selling. Yauh mhhaineih vauh service. <You don't have any service either.> but it's to start aconversation. Haih hOichi vatgo  conversation. <It's to start aconversation.> But whether it's a question to start or a statement,mOuhleuhn haih <whether it's> question waahkié or> statement, it's ageneral sense (wrote on board), right? Relating to your goods or service.For example: "Can I help you?" This you say it's 'general'. You can alsosay "specific". If it's "general", you are not telling them what kind ofservice or a product you're selling. Neih mOuh wah bai kauih tang neihmaaih fa waahkiê maaih scam <You don't tell him whether you sell flowersor clothes.> But something you can help them. Or it can be "specific"(wrote on board). Geingdou chingching chelcht5 mingming baahkbaahk ge <Statevery clearly>. "We specialize in one day delivery service." For example,ngeihdeih vat yaht gaaufo sungfo ge <we deliver in one day>. Nidouh hOuchingching chdichro mingming baahkbaahk <Here's very clear>. Very clear,very specific kind of service. ...CM:^Gamvaht ngaideih gaiiuhk gong: Yilhgwei keuih sating maaih, go haak dimveung? <Today we continue with: if the customer wishes to buy(something), what would s/he do?›N2:^GO haak sating maaih, tangseuhng wilih vat vahplaih lauh wuih mahn viumatvah. < (If) the customer wishes to buy (something), (I) would ask whats/he wants as soon as s/he comes in.>CM:^Yilligwi5 vat vahplaih vihgg gtingici? <What if (s/he) has told (you this) assoon as s/he comes in? >215N2: Nina laih beichin. < (S/he) would take his/her money and pay.>CM:^Ning laih beichin < (S/he) would take his/her money and pay > (wrote onboard), vtihqw6 maaih common di yell <if s/he buys something common.>N2:^Baai haidouh vauh, iauh ninq laih beichin 16. Ming laih beichin, haih ma? < If the item is on display and is accessible, (s/he) then takes it overand pays. S/he takes it over and pays, right? >CM:^Go customer wgih pay. <The customer will pay.> (wrote on board). Neih dimtaking keuih citing a ? < What would you say to her/him? >N2:^M6uh mat, iauh bau hem keuih. Jauh dahOi nqngwaih mahn keuih 16chin 16. <Nothing. I then wrap it up, open the cash register and ask her/him topay.>CM:^Yiu wah K6uih tang how much. < (You) have to tell him/her how much.>N2:^Gachihn vauhsaai haidouh. Mhsai acing. <The prices are all there. There isno need to tell (him/her the prices).>CM:^Yiu mhyiu mahn keuih haih mhaaih gamd6 a ? Juhnq yiu mhviu di daihdi veha ? < Do you need to ask him "Is that everything? Do you need anythingelse?" ? >N2: Mug qe la. <No>M:^Gam neih sating keuih maaih d6di \rah, jauh yiu gong di veil. <But if youwant him to buy some more items, you will have to say something.>N2:^Jauh mahn "You need any card today?", waahkie "You need a balloon today?".<Then I'll ask "You need any card today, or "You need a balloon today?">CM:^(wrote on board) "Is that all for today?", haih mhhaih a? <isn't that so?>Haih mhaih gamvaut iihnhaih maaih gamd6 vah la? <Is that all that you wantto buy today?›N1: Haih lo. <That's right.>N2: "Is that all?"CM:^(wrote on board) "Do you need anything alse?" Yilhqw6 go haak wuih wah <Ifthe customer would say> "No, that's all. I don't need anything else", neihyauh h6vih wah <then you could also say> "Do you need a card? Do you needa balloon?"N1:^"Do you need a bowl?"CM:^"Do you need a bowl?"N1:^"Do you need it wrap? Wrap it?"CM:^"Do you need a wrap?"N1:^"Do you need a wrap?"CM:^"Do you need a bag? Do you need ...." H6u do veh. <Many things> Yihnhauhna? <What next?›The instructor went on eliciting from the class language examples for serviceencounters.216Appendix XII: Sample Text CS-4CM: We have six steps but we have discussed five, right? O.K. sixsteps. What are the six steps? First one. (M. wrote on theboard.) What is the first one? Introduce the offer, right?N1: Introduce the offer, yeah.CM: Introduce the offer (wrote on the board). Number two ne ?<What about number two?›N2: Number two ...CM: Gather information (wrote on the board). Number one "Introducethe offer" ilkhaih ... <that is ...> "Hello, what do you want?Can I help you? We have flowers for sale." Haih mhaih a ?<Isn't that so? >N1: Some specials.CM: "Any specials today." Gather information. What is this? Gemgdimdtveh? <What do you say?› Taihei go haak maidi mätyeh ma.<See what the customer wants to buy.> Dim Ong_ a ? <What doyou say?› "What would you like?" "Do you want that?""Smaller?"... O.K. Jihauh ne? (What next?) Go haak yiu dimdtyeh? <What does the customer want?› Give incentives,suggestions. (M. wrote on the board.) Lau keuih m&ai lä, haihmhhai a ? <Lure him to buy, isn't that so?› "How about redflowers? How about roses? We have specials." Vegetarians.Yilgwo keuihhaih vegetarian <If he is a vegetarian>. "How aboutsalad?" Neih suggest Joel keuihdeih 16. <You suggest to them.>GA"vilh keuih wah h6u la. <If he says alright.> "O.K. I likethat." Jihauh dim a? <Then what next?› "How about red roses?""O.K." [Then], what do you say?N1: How much do you want?CM: How many? Confirm a ma <To confirm>. Confirmation. (M. wroteon the board.) Yiu  <Have to> confirm the deal. O.K. Yiu geid6a ? <How many do you want?› "How many do you want? O.K. Isthat all you want?" Dimgdai yiu gamg6nq a ? <Why do you haveto say that?›217Appendix XIII: EOP Advanced Level ClassTHE LANGUAGE LEARNING TASKS IN THE EOP CLASSES (ADVANCED)CLASS CODE PRACTICE THEORYESP - 1A Working on business terms Background knowledge(Meta-linguistic)Working on business writing1) What should you considerwhen writing a letter forbusiness?2) How should your letter belaid out on a page?3) What did you need toinclude?Practice telephone skills and techniques 4) What can you do to makePractice in the audio lab. your letter easier to read?Discussion on telephonetechniques (Ref. hand-outs)ESP - 2A - 1 Office Oriented Material What to look for in arecorded telephoneworked on recorded messages as PRACTICE message:Students in groups of 3 compared notes andthen wrote messages on boardWho, Phone #, maybe date,who it is for, the message.2A - 2 Role-playing: Dialogues for service encounterHow to ask for informationmissed (i.e. how to ask theother party to repeatinformation) Theories onhand-outs218ESP - 3A 1 1 Listening tasks - taking messages Discussion about the2) Spelling of Names situation in the service3) Listening comprehension encounter: handling of the4) Role-playing: How do you handle angrycustomers. Three roles: The customer, thecustomer complaintssales manager and the manager PT: Did you talk about the5) Viewing of the role-playing recorded in the refund policy?previous section JL: I would find out why wehave made this mistake.(Teacher made use of the researching There is something terriblyprocedure for teaching purposes, excellent wrong with my staff. (Theidea, check other references for more instructor's view wasdetailed discussion if necessary) different from that of thebusiness owner. Thestudents asked her how shewould handle this situation.She replied,"I don't knowbecause I'm not inbusiness.")ESP - 4A Worked on pronunciation of problematic Pronunciation rulessounds e.g. Problems sound contrasted/v/ and^/f/ Tongue positions, e.g.T: For /sh/, how do you feelPair work on vocabulary items in the tongue. Where doesthe air go? Does yourPair work on problematic sounds tongue curl?In pairs, students used L'I todiscuss the theory about theabove questions.Meanings of business terms.219ESP - 5A^Pair work on vocabulary items (business^SS. had to utilize theory interms)^marketing and advertisingbackground knowledge toerror correction^ answer the followingquestions:Evaluation of ads. in newspapers and^1) What is advertising?magazines, find examples of good ads. and^2) How do you advertise?bad ads.^ (Related to Seminar 3)Presentation and Explanation for theclassification The ads.:1) What do you like? dislike?Instructor showed overhead for students to^2) What is it in the ad.feed in their opinion.^ which is appealing?disagreeable?3) Why is the ad. presentedin this media?4) Who's the targetaudience?5) Is it clear what's beingadvertised?Psychology of customers:Human needs that the ads.are appealing to:e.g. Common needs &desires: Health; WordAppeals: Break fever ofcolds and flu in 30 minutes;Products: Aspirin (seeinstructor's notes)220Appendix XIV: Weekly Sample Texts and Analysis(EOP Low Level Class)Language Rules and Language Examples Sample Data from Week 5 Text Al was collected from week 5 of the class. CM is assisting B1 and B2to prepare a text for a presentation in a business exhibition. CM has identifieda linguistic rule which she needs to explain. In the text before the present one,B1 has just asked CM how to say "start a business" in English. B2's question isin Ll (Cantonese). CM then responds.Text Al CM:^HOi vihp dim gong? <How do I say "to start a business"?> "It'sstarted .."B2:^One and a half .. h&j_ hausêuhn bin, mhii dim qtinq <It's at thetip of my tongue. I don't know how to say it. >CM:^"one and a half years ago" (writes on the board). chtinqmahnnqodeih wah hoi vihp vat nihn bun, daahn vinqmAhn nciodeih wahvat nihn bun iichihn hOichi. <In Chinese we say," It startedfor one and a half years"; in English we say, "It's startedone and a half years ago".>B2:^Ago?CM:^iikhaih iichihn, lwoheuii6 qe <That is "before", what's past.>B2:^oh, qwoheuiiO qe. <oh, what's past.>CM:^"one and a half years ago". "ago" iikhaih nqaamnqaam qwoheuii6 qe vat nihn bun hOichi. <"Ago" means just started in the pastone and a half years.>CM is explaining the use of the expression "one and a half years ago" in Ll. Sheis trying to illustrate the difference between Ll and L2 in expressing this timephrase by saying, "chUnqmahn nqodeih wah hoi vihp vat nihn bun, daahn vinqmahnnqodeih wah vat nihn bun iichihn hOichi. <In Chinese we say," It started for oneand a half years"; in English we say, "It's started one and a half years ago".>"Ago" also indicates a "past" element in time. As B2 shows doubt again byrepeating the word, "Ago?", CM further explains, "iikhaih iichihn, iwoheuiie5 qe<That is "before", what's past.>" In Cantonese, the words "ago" and "before" havealmost the same meaning.Sample Data from Week 7 CM is discussing the term "sick customers" with the class. B1 wishes tofind out the differences between "poisoned food" and "poison in the food".Text A2 Bl:^sihkmaht vauh duhk haih mhhaih "poison food" <If there ispoison in the food, is it poison food.>CM:^Poisoned food (writes on the board), poison in the food(writes on the board).Bl:^"Poison in the food", mOuh vAhn qaaisikqwo nq(511 t -dnq <Nobodyhas ever explained that to me.>CM:^niqo haih <This is> "poison in the food", sihkmaht leuihmihnvauh duhk. <There is poison contained in the food.>221N1: (repeats right after CM) "poison in the food", sihkmaht lOuihmihn vduh duhk. <There is poison contained in the food.>CM: "Poisoned food" iikhaih hahmv&uh duhk qe sihkmaht, <means foodcontaining poison>. "Poisoned" iikhaih bini6 haih vdtqo <theword "poisoned" becomes an adjective.> bini6 haih vihnqyahnqbiniUnq sihkmaht a <it is describing "what kind of food".>"vduh duhk qe sihkmaht <"poisoned food">. niqo né mhhaih, haiuh v&tqeui syutwah laih qe <This one (meaning the phrase"poison in the food") is not, it is an expression."Bl:^^iikhaih bilaii6 qwosih q6di sihkmaht. <That means food which isoverdue.>Here, CM is trying to clarify two terms, "poisoned food" and "poison in thefood". There is not much difference in their lexical meanings. However,structurally, the word "poisoned" is an adjective while the phrase "poison in thefood" is not. The students are now working on a confusing linguistic rule insyntax. It is note-worthy that all the discussion, i.e., the meta talk, is in Llfor both the teacher and the students. B1 then asks if it is food which isoverdue, "iikhaih bdaii6 qwosih q6di sihkmaht <That means food which isoverdue.>" This leads to a third term, "food poisoning". CM and the class thenspend time working on the difference between "poisoned food" and "foodpoisoning", which is not presented in the above text. B1 is eager to find outthese differences because she owns and runs a bakery. Food safety is her majorconcern.Business Rules and Business Examples Sample Data from Week 4The objective of this week's class focused on policies and signs. Thesample data covers several tasks including discussions about shop returnpolicies, the acceptance of checks, the reading of signs and the matching ofsigns with the correct businesses.Text A3 illustrates one of the tasks. CM is eliciting shop policies fromthe group.Text A3 CM:^vduhm6uh mdtveh policies a <Do you have any policies?›N2: nq6hdeih vduh "mhsai cheque la, visa or master la. nq6hdeihq6di sinf& no exchange, return la". <We have (policies like)"no cheques, visa or master card." "No exchange or return forour fresh flowers." >CM:^no cheque (writes on the board)N2:^No cheque, yeah.CM:^"No payment by cheque" (writes on the board).N2:^nq6hdeih di sinfä m6uh return, m6u exchange la. <No return orexchange for our fresh flowers.>CM:^(writes on the board), "No return."N2:^q6di iAauluhk né, iauh viu danqmin s6uqwo sin. <Regardingchange, (customers) should count in front of us.> Check thechange before you go, la, right? mhhaih fdanlaih vauh wah bêi mhnqdam. <Otherwise, they might return and say that the changeis wrong.>222In this context, CM is listing the policies on the board in the form of "signs"to be posted in the shop. N2 is giving examples of her policies partly in Ll andpartly in Ll. "ncOhdeih vauh "mhsai cheque la, visa or master la. ncidihdeih creidisInfa no exchange, return la". <We have (policies like) "no cheques, visa ormaster card". "No exchange or return for our fresh flowers." > Regarding thehandling of change, her policy written on the sign is, "Check the change beforeyou go", which she mentions first in Ll,  iaauiuhk ne, iauh viu dOnciminsOucrwo sin. <Regarding change, (customers) should count in front of us.>" Thesepolicies govern the service encounters; the signs displayed inform the customersof such policies, which become a kind of mutual agreement between the customerand the owner of the business. These are usually recognised as social rules ina shopping situation.One of the instructor's business examples in Ll is illustrated by Text A4Text A4 CM:^... If it's a statement, you have to check it, "acknowledge"(writes on the board) wah bei kauih tang "ncptih tangdeiu la".vahqw6 naih tanqd6u iihauh, naih tahng keuih gong "mhhaiha", yauh tiding kauih bok a, <tell him "I have heard that." ...if after hearing it, you say to him, "No, it isn't", you arguewith him. > argue, what is it going to become?The citation represents what the owner or server may say, "natih tengdOu la.<Ihave heard that.>; "mhhaih a" <No, it isn't.> This in return will bring about"argument" between the owner (or the server) and the customer. "Acknowledging"a customer's statement is a rule. The former example is a positive one and thelatter is a negative one which may end in dispute.The student's next task in the class was to work from a hand-out listinga number of other signs, signs they usually found in different businesses. Theparticipants' task was to find out which signs would likely to be found in whichbusiness or businesses. The signs were all in English.Text A5 The instruction for the task is printed on the hand-out. It reads:ReadingMany times when service employees handle complaints, they mustexplain store rules or company rules. Store and company rules arealso called "policies". Sometimes, policies are listed on signs sothat customers are aware of them.Read the following signs as fast as you can and decide where youmight find such a policy. More than one answer is possible. Work asfast as you can.The reading text here serves two purposes. On one hand, it provides the studentswith material to read in a language task. On the other hand, the text alsoexplains the business theory behind the need for posted signs to exhibit the shoppolicies. The examples are all in L2 while the discussion is mostly in Ll. Thesociocultural rules are embedded in the language. As the business owners arelearning about the signs, they are also learning both the language and thesociocultural rules for the business world.Sample Data from Week 5 The objective of the lesson in Week 5 was to prepare business owners to do223presentations to the Canadian general public so that the contribution of AsianCanadians towards the Canadian economy could be recognised. The instructor usedan exhibition organised by a bilateral business association for Asians andCanadians as the "situation" for the presentations.In Text A6, the group is discussing the contribution of Asian Canadians:Text A6N2: haih mhhaih san vihmahn contribute ? <Do new immigrantscontribute?›CM: mhhaih wah san vihmahn contribute, iauhhaih vanwaih di qauhvihmahn contribute, sOvih di san vihmahn kihdeihyatveuhnq dtiucontribute. (Not only new immigrants contribute, because oldimmigrants contribute, new immigrants also contribute.N1: iouh qwildUnq a ma, daai chin vahp-laih tuhnq nêih ma fanqamvêuhnq. <They become directors. That means they bring inmoney and share partnership with you in business, that is.>CM: neuhnq dou vauh, niqo linlaahm wail iauh mhhaih di sanvihmahn, vihhaih wah saht ioih A-Jau vihmahn laih Ganandaaihna, sahtioih kauihdeih na deui Ganandaaih van yauh hOudO qunqhin, sahp nihn chinh, nqh nihn chihn, waahkié vat nn chihndrou vauh yahn laih. < Yes, this is included too. However,this exhibition is not about new immigrants but about Asianimmigrants, who have moved to Canada and have had immensecontribution to Canadians. People came ten years ago, fiveyears ago, two years ago or one year ago.>N2: Open more business, open more factories, make more jobs forthe people.CM: Haih lEih! sOvih viu vauh iinlaanhmwai, neih hih daaih di iiliuheui. <Right! So there has to be an exhibition. You can takesome information to it. >In this sample text, the group is discussing a social issue: thecontribution of immigrants towards Canada, Canadians, and the Canadian economy.Here, a social issue is brought into the classroom. How the immigrants viewthemselves is revealed in the discussion. N1 and N2 are not "new immigrants".They have been in Canada for seventeen years. However, they are still not awareof the fact that other Asian business owners have been attempting to communicatewith the "mainstream". "New immigrants contribute and so do old immigrants," isthe message the instructor wishes to convey. Both groups create businesses andjobs. This aspect of sociocultural knowledge is mostly introduced in Ll. N2 isable to discuss the issue in L2, "open more business, open more factories, makemore jobs for the people." As for the simulation of the presentation itself, itis in L2. It will be useful for trade meetings, business association meetingsetc. This task (simulation) aims at "easing" the business owners into theEnglish-speaking business world.The presentation includes the following information: the name of thebusiness owner, the age of the business, the type of business, the size ofbusiness, the style of business, the clientele, sources of supply, sales volume,profit/loss profile comment etc.Sample Data from Week 7This is a small sample containing two different tasks. The objective ofthis class was to learn the "language for emergencies" as well as the handling224of emergency situations. Before the formal teaching started, N1 and N2 told theclass their own stories. They were almost robbed by a customer who was wearinga costume with a mask on Halloween night. When he was caught, he defended himselfby saying that it was simply a "joke" meant for a "trick". They let him go freesince no money was taken. They all had stories to tell before formal classsession began.In the following example, CM is eliciting "emergency situations" from theclass.Text A7 CM:^How about "fire"? "Broken windows"? (writes on board), vauhsam waahk mauh sam <intentional or unintentional>, How about"threats"?N1:^"Threats" iikhaih hiinghaak <means threaten>.CM:^Yeah. How about quarrels (writes on board), quarrelling.N1: Quarrelling iikhaih dimgaai <What does quarrelling mean?›CM:^ngaaigaau <disputes>N1:^nigo ngah vauh mhsik wo. <This one, I don't know.>CM:^uhnavauh mat heinahng sing <What are the other possibilities?>How about "undesirable customers? ieuiiau <drunks>, "drunks","kids".  iuhnqvauh di matvah <What else are there?›"Suspicious people (writes on board).The instructor seems to be lecturing most of the time. She is not able to elicitsufficient responses from the group. Emergency is again a social phenomenon. Aknowledge of the law and the use of common sense are both important in handlingemergency situations. These circumstances are also related to other aspects ofa business such as insurance policies and security measures. There are manypossibilities which may create emergencies: fire, broken windows, threats,quarrels, drunks, kids, suspicious people .. the list goes on. The businessowners have many stories to tell as they have seen events happening in theirshops or in the neighbourhood they serve.Sample Data from Week 8The objectives of the class in the following sample are three-fold. Theinstructor wishes to (1) introduce accounting terms; (2) explain taxation terms;and then (3) develop a business plan for the business owners (the students). Thisis one of the most technical lessons in the EOP class. The instructor has hadproper training in filing business tax returns and ample experience in workingwith financial statements. In this class, she spends the first part of her classtime going over the financial terms. The terms (examples) are in L2 and theexplanation is in Ll. In Text A8, CB is a dry-cleaner and B1 is a baker.Text A8CM:^sausin gang naih di saangvi, pahn sou qiuiouh matveh <First wetalk about your business, what do we call your accounts?›BB:^"Financial Statement"CM:^(writes on the board), "Financial Statement", 'ikhaih"chaihiing bow:mu svir <That means a financial report.>baaukwut di matva ? <What do es it include?›BB:^iichaan fuhiaai biu <Balance Sheets>, Balance Sheet.They then proceed to other terms like "Profit/Loss Statement", "capital lossallowance", "net profit" etc. Next, they work on the terminology on the tax form"Statement of Income and Expenses". Most of the rules are explained in Ll225(Cantonese). Afterwards, they start working on business planning. Their firsttask is to set their business goals.Text A9 CM:^So today, we are going to do some planning, a budget. Beforewe do a budget, meih iouh budget lichihn <Before we do ourbudget>, nc6hdeih yiu yauh di yell giuiouh <we have to havesomething called> "goal" (writes on the board). Before we doa budget, we have a goal. So let us see.CM starts to elicit information from CB, who is the most advanced student in thatclass. He is later asked to come up with a long term goal and a short term goal.The scaffolding is in Ll. The examples are sometimes in Ll and sometimes in L2.Text A10 is an example of this interaction.Text A10CM:^Is that all?CB:^c6id6 nihn hauh yauh h6i do a&an <Open another one after someyears>. (Class laugh.)CM:^(writes on the board), "Another goal is to open.." c6id6 c&ana ? <how many?›Bi:^(To CB) ceid6 nihn h6yih d6 h6i y&tc&an  <How many years do youneed to open another one?›CB:^saam nihn <three years>, h6i d6 yätc&an <open one more>.Bl:^h6i d6 yatc&an qau la <Opening one more is enough.>CB:^"another branch or store"CM:^0. K. (writes on the board), "another store in .."CB:^five years.There are many interesting features in the text. The goal-setting task is abusiness task. The final "product" is expected to be in L2 (English), which isto be included in a business plan and used as a guideline for budgeting. However,the students first discuss their goals in Ll and then the instructor assists themin translating these goals into L2. CB's goal is "ceid6 nihn hauh yauh h6i doq&an <open another one after some years>. This business example translated intoL2 (English) finally becomes, "Another goal is to open another store in fiveyears." The scaffolding is partly in Ll and partly in L2. When the studentsshare their business ideas, they usually use Ll. CB is a more experiencedbusiness owner than Bi. "cêid6 nihn h6yih do h6i yätc&an <How many years do youneed to open another one?>, Bl asks. CB replies, "saam nihn <three years>" Bl isconsidering opening a new branch of his own. This is only his first year inCanada but he is eager to set a long term business goal.


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