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A survey of primary classroom teachers’ perceptions of music instruction and their own music skills Murray, Sandra Akiko 1994

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A SURVEY OF PRIMARY CLASSROOM TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONSOF MUSIC INSTRUCTION AND THEIR OWN MUSIC SKILLSBySandra Akiko MurrayB.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1978A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THEREQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Curriculum Studies)THE FACULTY OF EDUCATIONWe accept this paper as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAAugust, 1994© Sandra Akiko Murray, 1994In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Ubrary shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of_________________The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDateDE.6 (2188)Abs tractThe purpose of the study was to examine primary classroom teachers’perceptions of music education and their own music skills in the provision ofmusic instruction for primary aged children. The objectives of the study wereto determine the specific topics in music education that primary classroomteachers feel they can and cannot teach comfortably, the kind of musiceducation resources (techniques and materials) that primary classroom teachersfind useful or helpful, how primary classroom teachers perceive the importanceof music in the curriculum, and how primary classroom teachers’ perceptions ofmusic instruction are shaped by their past music experiences.The questionnaire, A Survey of Primary Classroom Teachers’ Attitudes andMusic Backgrounds in Music Education, was mailed to 257 primary classroomteachers in School District #34, Abbotsford. Responses to the questionnairewere tallied, and distribution frequencies for most of the questionnaire itemswere displayed as graphs. Anecdotal comments were compiled and analysed forcategorization.Sixty-four percent of the teachers responded to the questionnaire.The majority of the study’s participants indicated that they believe music isimportant for children, and that they also value music as a subject withinitself. The teachers in the study said that personal past experiences in theprimary grades, recordings, concert attendance, and colleagues wereinfluential in helping to shape their perceptions of music instruction.Most of the respondents indicated that they teach music to theirstudents, but are comfortable teaching only certain aspects of musicUinstruction. The majority of teachers claimed that they rely on theirpersonal music experiences as a resource for teaching music. Other highlyfavoured resources were in-service workshops, observation of a musicspecialist teaching, and music series textbooks.Teachers who had taken an undergraduate university course in musiceducation rated the study of appropriate songs for children of different ages,the development of movement activities (singing games, dances, etc.), and theuse of rhyme or chant to teach rhythm or movement activities as the morehelpful course topics.The findings of the present study hold important implications in theconsideration of resources, personnel, training, and curriculum development inmusic education.111TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract iiTable of Contents ivList of FiguresAcknowledgementsChapterviixI. Introduction, Purpose, and Research Questions 1II. Review of the LiteratureIII. MethodologySampleProceduresQuestionnaire DesignCollection and Organization of Data144747474850IV. Results 51The Questionnaire 51Section I: Background InformationSection II: University Training, In-Service, andResources 60Section III: Attitudes and Skills 82Generalizations from and Interpretations of Results 132Introduction 14Search Procedures 14Summary of the Abstracts 15Related Research 18The Austin Study 19The Kritzmire Study 24The Mills Study 32The Saunders & Baker Study 39Summary 4451ivReferencesAppendix AAppendix BAppendix CAppendix DAppendix EAppendix FList of Questionnaire Items Selected FromOther StudiesQuestionnaire of the Present StudyLetter to SuperintendentQuestionnaire Covering LettersQuestionnaire Follow-Up FX and LettersData Table• .155• .156.156• .159• .163165168172182184187191V. Summary and ConclusionsPurpose and Research QuestionsDesign and AnalysisResultsConclusions and RecommendationsConsiderations for Further Research .155VLIST OF FIGURESFigure Page1. Item 1: Which grade(s) do you teach 522. Item 2: For how many years have you been teaching2 523. Item 3a: As well as being a classroom teacher, have you ever been amusic specialist) 534. Item 4: Does a music specialist teach music to your class2 545. Item 6a: If you answered “no” to question 4: a) Do you teach musicto your class2 556. Item 6b: If you teach music to your class, approximately how muchtime per week do you use to provide musical experiences for yourstudents2 567. Item 7: In which of the following are you, or have you been involvedpersonally2 578. Item 8: To what degree do you think you are musical2 589. Item 10: How many music education courses did you take during yourundergraduate teacher training7 5910. Item 11: Have you taken any music education courses since youcompleted your teacher training2 6011. Item 12: Music theory 6012. Item 14: Appropriate songs for children of different ages 6113. Item 15: Techniques of leading and teaching songs 6214. Item 17: Developing movement activities 6315. Item 18: Characteristics of children’s voices 6316. Item 19: Integrating music with other subject areas 6417. Item 20: Music reading and/or writing activities 6518. Item 25: Using rhyme and chant to teach rhythm or movementactivities 66viFigure Page19. Item 26: Music method books 7020. Item 27: Music textbooks 7021. Item 28: In-service workshops 7122. Item 29: Discussions with music specialist 7223. Item 30: Recollections from personal experiences 7324. Item 31: Observation of music specialist 7325. Item 32: District leadership in music 7426. Item 34: Music is an important part of my life 8227. Item 35: Music is an important part of our children’s education 8328. Item 37: Music is a superfluous subject. Other subject areas aremore important 8429. Item 40: Music should be valued as a subject in itself 8530. Item 41: Think of your own attitudes toward music. Are there anyexperiences in your life which may have shaped those attitudestowards music 8631. Item 42: Think of your own attitudes toward teaching music. Arethere any experiences in your life which may have shaped thoseattitudes toward teaching music) 9732. Item 43: I feel comfortable teaching a new song to the class 10433. Item 44: I feel comfortable teaching a new singing game to theclass 10534. Item 45: I can select songs which are suitable for the age anddevelopmental level of the students 10635. Item 46: I feel comfortable teaching the class a new chant (rhyme)using speech 10636. Item 47: I can select from a wide variety of song material 10737. Item 48: I can confidently teach a lesson on healthy vocal/singingproduction 10838. Item 49: I can confidently develop a lesson to teach musicconcepts 10839. Item 50: I feel comfortable teaching songs in a variety oftonalities 109viiFigure Page40. Item 51: I feel comfortable teaching songs in a variety ofmeters 11041. Item 52: I feel comfortable teaching children how to play rhythminstruments 11042. Item 53: I feel comfortable teaching children how to play melodyinstruments ill43. Item 54: I am comfortable developing rhythm instrument accompanimentsfor my students to play 11244. Item 55: I am comfortable planning and teaching lessons thatintegrate music with other subject areas 11245. Item 56: I am comfortable teaching music composition 11346. Item 57: I am comfortable teaching children how to improvise 11447. Item 58: I can develop a sequence of lessons for specific musictopics 11448. Item 59: I can develop and teach a music listening lesson 11549. Item 60: I can develop and teach a lesson using movementactivities 11650. Item 61: I am familiar with the music curriculum as specified inthe Primary Program document 11651. Teachers (respondents) who did not take an undergraduate musicmethods course 137VII’ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe writer is indebted to her advisor, Dr. Peter Gouzouasis for hisguidance, encouragement, and unending support throughout the course of thestudy.Special thanks are extended to Professor Sandra Davies and Dr. CharlesCurtis for their constructive criticism and valuable advice.The writer gratefully acknowledges the primary classroom teachers ofSchool District #34, Abbotsford, who kindly responded to the study’squestionnaire.A special thanks is due to the writer’s husband, Lee Murray, for hisencouragement and great patience during the period of study.ixCHAPTER ONEIntroduction, Purpose, and Research QuestionsMusic has sustained a tenuous existence throughout its history in publicschool education, and the struggle to advance the status of music as a viablecurricular subject continues today. Proponents of music education carry ontheir search for more and better ways to promote music as a basic andessential component of a child’s education. Professional journals, such asthe Music Educators National Conference’s (MENC) Music Educators Journal(MEJ), have made advocacy for music education a recurring theme. MEJ’sJanuary 1992 issue, for instance, focused entirely on selling school musicprograms to the public. In addition, MENC has produced a kit, Action Kit forMusic Education, to help teachers educate parents, administrators, schoolboard members, and community groups about the importance of music in thecurriculum. Furthermore, MENC is currently campaigning at a national level toensure that music education is included in the America 2000 education plan(Glenn, 1992)Similarly, a newly organized Canadian advocacy group, the Coalition forMusic Education in Canada, has launched its campaign for music education. Thecoalition, formed in 1992, is at present, establishing provincial coalitionsand local advocacy groups. Membership from a wide variety of musicorganizations is encouraged. Teachers, administrators, parents, performingorganizations, musical support agencies, and representatives from the musicindustry have joined together to protect and strengthen music in Canadianschools. Also available is a comprehensive guide, Coalition For MusicEducation In Canada, Music Advocacy Kit, that shows teachers, coordinators,consultants, and parents how to become advocates for music education(Coalition for Music Education in Canada, 1994).In our own province, advocacy for music education has also become amajor issue for the British Columbia Music Educators’ Association (BCMEA)(Roy, 1991; 1992; 1993) . Of the BCMEA’s goal statements, the first four goalsconcern advocacy for music education, support for a comprehensive qualityeducation as stated by the British Columbia Teachers’ Federation, thepromotion of the arts as necessary to a basic education, and excellence inmusic instruction (Roy, 1993) . In BCMEA’s professional journal, titles suchas “Music Education Under Attack” (Trowsdale, 1980), “Music Education In OurSchools” (Clingman, 1988), “Suggestions For School-Based Arts Initiatives”(Vancouver School Board, 1988), and “Giving the Arts Their Due” (Berarducci,1991) reflect the uncertain state of music education in British Columbia, aswell as underline the need for arts advocacy campaigns.Both Clingman (1988) and Trowsdale (1980) noted that the superficialtreatment of music in our province, along with the other visual and performingarts, had begun with the Chant Commission Report (1960). Clingman, as well asother music teachers, had expected the commission members to share his ideasof music’s value and place in society, but was very disappointed that thevisual and performing arts were given little attention. From Clingman’sperspective the fine arts have been struggling to gain a place in thecurriculum alongside language arts, mathematics, and social studies ever sincethat report was released. He suggested that the focus on written and verballiteracy in subjects like social studies makes those subjects appear moreimportant than music or art. However, Clingman reminded us that literacyencompasses more than the reading or writing of words; music and art transcend2written and spoken language and express what cannot be conveyed with words.The importance of music for children is yet to be understood, acknowledged,and recognized by many educators on both sociological and developmentallevels, and the crusade to elevate music’s place in the curriculum persists.Faith in the survival of music education in the province of BritishColumbia has been somewhat renewed by the implementation of British Columbia’sYear 2000 initiatives. A Royal Commission on Education, led by BarrySullivan, Q.C., in 1987, sought both public and professional input on thestate of education in the province (British Columbia Ministry of Education,1990). Sullivan’s findings, compiled in The Report on the Royal Commission:A Legacy For Learners, along with current research, helped to form afoundation for the first stage of the Year 2000, the Primary Program (B.C.Ministry of Education, 1990) . The Commission considered the fine arts to beimportant to the fulfillment of every child, and thus, essential to thecurriculum. Jn arts education, as stated by the Commission, allows childrento perform, create, understand, and appreciate music, art, dance, and theatre(Sullivan, 1988) . Therefore, the Primary Program has included the fine artsas one of its five curricular goal areas. Fine arts educators are encouragedto see that the goal area of aesthetic and artistic development is equal instatus to the other four goals areas: development of social responsibility,emotional and social development, intellectual development, and physicaldevelopment. Each of the goal areas plays an integral and foundational rolein a child’s development as a learner. Music education, which falls under thecategory of aesthetic and artistic development, has become a major curricularfocus in the Primary Program and is valued, at least on paper, as much as theother subjects in the curriculum.3Unfortunately, the inclusion of the fine arts in the Primary Programdocument will not automatically end music education’s struggle for recognitionand acceptance. Policy does not necessarily ensure practice. The PrimaryProgram is certainly a large and important step in music education’s growth inBritish Columbia, but many other conditions may be necessary in order that theaesthetic and artistic goals of the Primary Program be realized. One memberof British Columbia’s current Music Curriculum Committee, Berarducci (1991),claimed that many children do not receive music instruction because theirteachers are unqualified to teach music. Tupman (1993), past-president of theCanadian Music Educators’ Association and active fine arts advocate, concurredthat music is a difficult subject for most teachers to teach and requires a“qualified musicianly teacher.” Elementary classroom teachers, Trowsdale(1982) generalized, cannot teach music at a level comparable to subjects likereading and math unless they are interested in music, have some beginningmusic skills, and receive skilled district leadership.In order that children can benefit from the expertise of teachers whoare musically qualified, as Tupman (1993) advised, school boards must make adeliberate effort to ensure such teachers are on every school staff.Moreover, school boards must also be willing to maintain support for musicprograms even through times of budgetary restraint. Despite the seeminglyelevated status of music in British Columbia’s curriculum, fine arts programsand personnel are often the first to be eliminated by many school districts.The Jbbotsford School District, for example, chose to make severe cuts in itsfine arts programs. In the fall of 1989, music specialists were hired toteach music in the elementary schools, but their positions were dropped onlythree years later. The elementary band program which began in 1977 was alsoeliminated. Finally, in 1993 the School Board decided that leadership in the4fine arts was no longer necessary and the position of Director of Instructionfor the Fine Arts, which had been in place for 19 years, was terminated.The Report on Arts Education in B.C. Schools, 1992 (British ColumbiaArts Administrators Association [BCAAAJ, 1992), stated that a prime effect ofbudget restraint is the elimination of district arts staff. Of the 48 schooldistricts which responded to the BCAAA survey most indicated that artsleadership was no longer available to their teachers. Shand and Bartel (1993)found in their 1990 survey of school boards across Canada that none of the 15British Columbia school districts surveyed had music supervisors and only23.1%, or 3.5 of the 15 school districts surveyed had supervisors whoadministered music in conjunction with all or some of the fine arts. The finearts cuts made by many school boards throughout British Columbia arereflective of the blatant discrepancy between the philosophical position ofthe Primary Program and the realities of curriculum scheduling and budgeting.A supportive school board and the availability of qualified musicteachers are only two conditions which may affect the extent to which music istaught in British Columbia. Researchers have investigated other factors whichmay be important to the presence of music instruction in a school orclassroom. For example, Goodman (1985), Mills (1989), and Austin (1992) wereconcerned that a classroom teacher required to teach music may feel that sheor he is not competent enough to do so. They believed that undergraduatemusic courses for classroom teachers play a role in helping student teachersdevelop confidence in teaching music. Kritzmire (1991) stressed that aclassroom teacher’s attitude toward music can make a difference to a child’smusic education. She assessed the attitudes of classroom teachers towardtheir personal childhood music experiences in elementary school and observedthat memories of success or failure were stronger than memories of actual5music activities, performances, or teachers. Her advice to music teachers wasto pay attention to not only the content of their programs, but also to thefeelings and attitudes evoked by certain musical activities. Kritzmirecontended that classroom teachers with positive attitudes toward music canhelp strengthen and build a school’s music program. Pendleton (1975) foundthat classroom teachers’ subject loads and daily schedules affected the amountof music taught. Amen (1982) determined that the grade level taught by ateacher can be a strong predictor of the amount of time spent teaching music.Other researchers (Bryson, 1983; Pendleton, 1976; Price & Burnsed, 1989;Saunders & Baker, 1991) also found that as grade level increased musicinstruction time decreased.Because the existence of music programs in British Columbia’s schoolsare subject to any combination of the aforementioned conditions, the amount ofmusic instruction a child receives is not consistent across school districts,across schools within the same school district, nor across classrooms withinthe same school. School district policies vary. Some school districts expectclassroom teachers to be responsible for their music programs. Otherdistricts hire music specialists who teach only music in each school. And inother districts, each school decides whether it would like to have a musicspecialist. However, when classroom teachers are left to design and teachtheir own music program it is possible that music will not always get taught.Moreover, Austin (1992) cited several researchers in the United States whofound that few general classroom teachers teach music (Goodman, 1986;Krehbiel, 1990; Kritzmire, 1991; Price & Burnsed, 1989; Saunders & Baker,199l;Smith, 1985; Stroud, 1981)The role of the elementary classroom teacher in music education is anissue that has received much attention from music educators and professional6organizations such as MENC and BCMEA. BCMEA has recommended in its “BCMEAStatement of Beliefs” (1993) that music be taught by teachers who have abackground in music pedagogy. It has been their position that the classroomteacher’s role is to reinforce the lessons taught by the music specialist.MENC has stated in its document, “The Child’s Bill of Rights in Music,” thatall children have a right to “. . . a balanced, comprehensive, and sequentialprogram of music instruction in school taught by teachers qualified in music”(MENC Council of Past National Presidents, 1991) . Both organizations haveemphasized the importance of either music specialists or teachers with musicalexpertise for a child’s music education. Music educators and researchersgenerally agree that such qualified teachers are necessary in order that musiceducation exist in a school. They also recognize that the classroom teachercan make valuable contributions to a music program.Several writers have voiced a variety of opinions on the degree to whicha classroom teacher can teach or support a music program, and help provideimportant information about the state of elementary music education. King(1989), in his article “Who Should Teach Music: The Classroom Teacher or theSpecialist?” acknowledged the strengths and weaknesses of both specialist andclassroom teachers. As a former music teacher in the public school system andas a current music education professor at the University of Victoria, Kingwrote that music education has become too specialized and has isolated itselffrom the rest of the curriculum. In order for music education in BritishColumbia to grow, he suggested we make music instruction available to allstudents rather than to the select few. The music specialist and theclassroom teacher both have the expertise necessary for building an effectivemusic program for the children, but neither can do the job alone. Theclassroom teacher knows the general curriculum and can integrate music with7other subject areas, but already has too many other subject areas to prepare.The music specialist has a comprehensive background in music and musicpedagogy, but finds that getting to know all the students is difficult. Kingcontended that children would best benefit from the combined knowledge andexperience of both the classroom teacher and music specialist.Other writers concurred with the opinions expressed by King (1989) andthey identified the classroom teacher as a key figure in the music educationof the child. Maim (1988) believed that students’ attitudes strongly affecttheir learning and singled out the classroom teacher as an influential forceon student attitude. When a music specialist is available, a classroomteacher with a negative attitude toward music can quickly defeat thespecialist’s attempts at building a school’s music program. Conversely, aclassroom teacher’s enthusiasm for music will likely transfer to the students.In this light, Maim considered the support of the classroom teacher to becrucial to the success of a music program.Austin (1991) also envisioned a place for the classroom teacher in themusic program. He was very troubled by the results of studies done onchildren’s attitudes toward music. Wigfield, Harold, Eccles, Aberbach,Freedman-Doan, and Yoon (1990), cited by Austin, found that as studentsapproached fourth grade, their self-concepts declined significantly in allschool subject areas except for sports. However, the rate of decline formusic was the most significant. Austin believed that it is the classroomteacher who has the power to influence the students’ attitudes toward music.He proposed that classroom teachers assist during music lessons, lead somemusic activities, and integrate music with other classroom subjects. Inaddition, he hoped that classroom teachers would become advocates for musiceducation.8The positive attitudes of classroom teachers toward music may be aresult of a variety of experiences. They may have had numerous, rich, qualitymusic experiences as a child at home, in private music lessons, or in school.Gamble (1988) hoped that all classroom teachers enter the teaching professionwith positive feelings about music, and believed that it is the responsibilityof the universities and colleges to build such attitudes. One of the majorgoals of university and college music education instructors, she contended,should be to persuade those who plan teacher education programs to acceptmusic as a basic subject, and therefore, as a requirement for certification.Once music education becomes a course requirement novice teachers will alsoneed to be convinced that music is not only of personal importance in theirown education, but to the education of children as well. Gamble, along withMaim (1988) and Austin (1991) , emphasized that music specialists need thehelp of classroom teachers to stimulate and inspire school-wide enthusiasm formusic.If classroom teachers are to work with music specialists the question ofwhat classroom teachers are able to teach in the music program needs to beclarified. Gamble (1988) and Bryson (1982) stated that the classroom teachercannot be expected to meet all of the music curricular needs of the child.Bennett (1992) reminded those who prepare classroom teachers to teach music toconsider a novice teacher’s music background. Most classroom teachers are notmusic majors with extensive music experiences. Both Gamble and Bennett havetaught music courses to nonmusic majors and have found that many areintimidated by music courses.Bennett (1992) suggested that such fears can be alleviated by settingexpectations for musicianship at a level that is realistic and within thecapabilities of a musically inexperienced teacher. Likewise, the kind of9music teaching a classroom teacher is able to manage needs carefulconsideration. She made a helpful distinction between teaching music andteaching music activities. For example, teaching music requires knowledge ofvarious music notation and structures, instruments, and curricular scopes andsequences for teaching music. In addition, a teacher of music would need tohave knowledge of how children learn music and have an understanding of skilldevelopment. However, in order for a teacher to teach music activities, adifferent set of requirements is necessary. According to Bennett, a teacherwould need to know which activities are appropriate for the students,anticipate student response to the activities, recognize the potential musicand extramusic advantages (i.e., other educational advantages) inherent in theactivities, and be able to perform the listening and singing skills requiredof the music activity. The teacher would also need to feel confident tobegin, lead, and develop music activities and be responsive to quality musicmaking. A greater emphasis is placed on joyful music-making and sharingrather than proficiency with reading and writing notation. Bennett contendedthat learning to teach music in one or two courses would be difficult for astudent with no music background, but learning to teach music activities wouldbe a more realistic endeavour. By setting expectations for the classroomteacher that are different, yet meaningful, from those set for the musicteacher, the children can receive a positive experience in music from theirclassroom teacher.Gantly (1990), an associate professor of music education at theUniversity of Victoria, saw an important role for the classroom teacher inBritish Columbia. He was encouraged by the implementation of the Year 2000goals and anticipated that music will receive more attention than it has inthe past. Because the integrated curriculum necessitates greater interaction10between the music specialist and the classroom teacher, the music specialist“will no longer be the visiting stranger who appears and disappears from thescene at regular intervals, who replaces the classroom teacher while he or shetakes a spare period” (p. 12) . Although specific examples were not given ofhow music can be integrated with other curriculum areas, Gantly anticipatedthat music teachers and generalists will work together as a team. The rolesof the music teacher and generalist, however, remain defined. Gantly believedthat only teachers and specialists who are fully qualified (with degrees orconservatory training in music) should teach music. He claimed that musicexperiences with unqualified teachers can be superficial, and cited examplesof lessons that essentially serve as either rehearsals for school events or asbreaks in the daily teaching routines. As for the classroom teacher, Gantlysuggested that he or she can prepare the children for formal music instructionby focusing on music appreciation. For instance, studies of composers andprogrammatic music such as the Carnival of the Animals can stimulatechildren’s curiosity about music. In addition, Gantly stated that classroomteachers can also help children develop an awareness of their expressiveabilities. He encouraged the expressive use of the voice in poems andstorytelling to draw attention to the musical qualities in spoken language.Many music educators consider the role of the classroom teacher to bevaluable and necessary to the health of music education. Of those writersmentioned, even Gantly (1990), who seemed to have the least confidence in theabilities of the classroom teacher to teach any music, assigned an importantpurpose to the generalist. All of the aforementioned writers envisioned apartnership between the music specialist and the classroom teacher in orderthat the students profit from the talents of both teachers. Whether classroomteachers rely on a music specialist for the total music program, team with a11specialist, or are solely responsible for the music program, their role iscritical to the survival and growth of music education. Yet relatively littlehas been done in support of the classroom teacher in the area of musiceducation.For the student teacher, music methods courses are available but actualcourse requirements vary among the three major universities in the province.At both the University of British Columbia and at the University of Victoria,the generalist is required to take only one methods course in music. A musicmethods course is available to Simon Fraser University students, but is onlyoffered as an elective. Teachers who presently practise in the field maychoose to pursue further professional development by attending workshops andconferences. However, a generalist is responsible for teaching all subjectareas. In addition to further professional development in music many teachersalso attend in-service in subject areas such as reading, writing, spelling,drama, mathematics, science, social studies, art, and physical education.Recent evolutions in education have also added more general topics such ascooperative learning, teaching for thinking, creative problem solving,integration in a variety of forms, multi-age classrooms, assessment andevaluation, computers in the classroom, and teachers as researchers. Withinthat multi-faceted context the curricular demands placed on classroom teacherscan be overwhelming. Music is only one of many areas which needs a teacher’sattention, and professional development is only one small way that theclassroom teacher’s role is supported in music education.Music support for classroom teachers can also take place at anadministrative level. However, as was previously mentioned, the amount ofsupport given to the classroom teacher in British Columbia varies fromdistrict to district as well as from school to school. Moreover,12administrative leadership, that is, a coordinator or director for the arts, isnot a reality in most school districts in this province.Little has been mentioned with regard to the state of music education inthis province from the perspective of the classroom teacher. The researcherwas not able to find any research that assessed British Columbia classroomteachers’ perceptions of music instruction. Likewise, the music skills ofclassroom teachers have not been studied in this province. Therefore, thepurpose of the study is to examine primary classroom teachers’ perceptions ofmusic education and their own music skills in the provision of musicinstruction for primary aged children.Research QuestionsThe questions that are central to the design of the study are as follow.1. Which specific topics in music education do primary classroomteachers feel they can teach comfortably?2. Which specific topics in music education do primary classroomteachers not feel they can teach comfortably?3. What kind of music education resources (techniques andmaterials) do primary classroom teachers find useful orhelpful?4. How do primary classroom teachers perceive the importance of musicin the curriculum?5. How are primary classroom teachers’ perceptions of musicinstruction shaped by their past music experiences?13CHAPTER TWOLiterature ReviewIntroductionAs more and more music educators begin to realize that the presence ofmusic in schools is very much dependent on strong advocacy campaigns, greaterattention is given to the classroom teacher’s role in music instruction.Although only a few researchers have conducted studies related to classroomteachers and music education, recent growth in research interest in this areaof music education is evident. Some studies have addressed self-perceptionsof ability, teacher perceptions of music instruction, and confidence levels ofclassroom teachers in the context of music instruction; other studies, moretangible in nature, have investigated the specific music skills, activities,and concepts that a classroom teacher can or cannot teach. An examination ofresearch related to the classroom teacher’s role in music education helpedprovide a rationale for the present investigation.Search ProceduresA computer search that used ERIC data base descriptors: “music,” “musiceducation,” “teachers,” “classroom teachers,” “music education and classroomteacher,” and “attitudes,” did not locate any studies relevant to thisliterature review.A computer search through “Dissertation Abstracts International” yieldedseven items dated from 1975 to 1985. A more recent dissertation abstract(Krehbiel, 1990) was found through a reference list.14Four directly related studies were chosen for extensive review in thischapter (Austin, 1992; Kritzmire, 1991; Mills, 1989; Saunders & Baker, 1991)They were located through personal searches in research journals and referencelists. In addition, six of the seven dissertation abstracts were selected toprovide a general overview of related dissertation research.Surmnary of the AbstractsBryson (1982) and Stroud (1980) both sought to determine the musicactivities elementary classroom teachers were most likely to use in theirmusic instruction. Bryson surveyed 322 elementary classroom teachers in sixnortheastern Mississippi school districts. She found that over half of theteachers used the following music activities “regularly” or “sometimes”:singing unaccompanied, singing with records, listening to records, musicalaudio-visual materials, motor movements, and correlation of music with othersubjects. Bryson recommended that music methods courses for undergraduateclassroom teachers provide materials and methods for the integration of music.In addition, she believed that music educators should not expect classroomteachers to provide the same musical experiences as music specialists.In Stroud’s (1980) study, 45 principals and 241 classroom teachers, inseven school districts in the Tidewater Basin of Virginia, responded to aquestionnaire. The percentage of classroom teachers who taught music was notgiven, but, as in Bryson’s (1982) study, the most used music activity wasunison singing. Listening to music, and singing games and action songsfollowed in frequency of activity. Also, over 50% of the teachers used theautoharp or melody bells in music instruction. Music specialists providedmusic lessons once a week for the classroom teachers, yet the total amount of15recommended music instruction time (100 minutes per week) was not met in mostclassrooms.Pendleton (1975) was interested in the factors that help determine therole of the classroom teacher in the music program. Elementary classroomteachers, music specialists, and principals were surveyed. Although it is notclear from the dissertation abstract how the factors affected what theteachers did in the classroom for music, three factors were identified: a)the teacher’s placement within the classroom music program, b) the teacher’sbackground in music, and c) the teacher’s evaluation of his or her abilitiesto teach music. Among Pendleton’s many conclusions, he found that classroomteachers were expected by administrative personnel to have some music teachingskills and were responsible for the music program. The respondents believedthat the musical growth of the students benefited most from music instructionfrom both the classroom teacher and the music specialist. Primary teacherswere more likely to teach more music than intermediate teachers. A teacher’sdaily subject load and timetable also had an effect on music instruction.Amen (1982) also studied factors that affect an elementary classroomteacher’s music program. She identified three major types of factors,teacher, school, and school system, and examined their impact on the amount oftime spent teaching music. Forty-six principals and 688 elementary classroomteachers responded to a questionnaire. Grade level, a teacher factor, wasfound to be the strongest predictor of the amount of time spent on musicinstruction. As found by Bryson (1982) and Pendleton (1975), more music wastaught in the primary grades. Amen also found, as did Stroud (1980), thatmost classroom teachers were not meeting the minimum music instructionrecommendations.16Goodman (1985) focused on the elementary classroom teacher’s feelings ofcompetence with music instruction, the effectiveness of undergraduate trainingin the development of competence, and the relationships between “selectedfixed variables” and classroom teacher perceptions. Classroom teachersreported that they felt their competencies in music instruction, as well astheir undergraduate training to be “somewhat effective.” Goodman (1985) alsofound that private music lessons had the greatest impact on teacherperceptions. One recommendation was that classroom teachers leave theirundergraduate music courses with the competencies necessary for musicinstruction.Krehbiel’s (1990) study was concerned with the attitude of the classroomteacher toward music instruction. Unlike the subjects of the studiesmentioned previously, this study’s sample was composed of only Grades 4 and 5teachers. Krehbiel found that most teachers did not place much value on thefine arts and ranked the fine arts goals at a “mediocre level of importance.”However, music was ranked more important than visual art, drama, and dance.Teachers did not feel competent to teach music, and greater competence wasindicated for teaching art and drama. Moreover, teachers indicated that theygave the 10 Illinois Board of Education music outcome statements little or noemphasis. The respondents’ concerns about time restraints concurred with oneof Pendleton’s (1975) findings; scheduling affects music instruction. Inaddition, Krehbiel found that the teachers in her study believed that musicspecialists were necessary to implement the Illinois fine arts goals. Scantattention given to music instruction by the Grades 4 and 5 teachers in thisstudy confirmed the conclusions drawn by Amen (1982), Bryson (1982), andPendleton (1975) that more music is likely to be taught in the primary gradesthan in the intermediate grades.17In summary, the findings of those dissertation studies offer a diverseview of music instruction from the perspective of the classroom teacher.Researchers were interested in a variety of aspects of music instruction, andas already mentioned in some cases, drew similar conclusions.Related ResearchThe following four studies reviewed herein, investigated the classroomteacher in the context of music education. Austin (1992) examined the impactthat music fundamentals classes have on future classroom teachers’ perceptionsof their music making and music teaching abilities. Teacher response tofailure in music was also studied. Kritzmire (1991) surveyed the memories andattitudes of preservice (future) teachers and inservice teachers. Sheinvestigated the characteristics and qualities of elementary music instructionthat make music experiences memorable in either a positive or negative way.Mills (1989) studied the development of confidence levels of non-specialistprimary B.Ed. students in their undergraduate music course. She alsoconsidered possible reasons for low levels of confidence in teaching music.Saunders and Baker (1991) researched the music skills and understandings thatelementary classroom teachers believe to be useful. The results of the studywere to be considered in the planning of an undergraduate music fundamentalsand methods course for future elementary classroom teachers.To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, the four studies chosen aremost representative of the research available on classroom teachers and musiceducation, and are presented in alphabetical order.18The Austin StudyAustin (1992) believed that the classroom teacher is a key figure in themusic education of children, and in cooperation with the music specialist, cancontribute to the success of a music program. This collaboration, as Austincited Ballard (1990), could have a great impact on the inclusion of the artsinto the daily curriculum. In addition, Austin believed that the classroomteacher has a stronger influence on the students than the music specialist,and therefore, has the power to promote positive or even negative attitudestoward music. However, he explained, several researchers have discovered thata majority of classroom teachers do not teach any music and perceivethemselves to be lacking in music making and/or teaching ability (Goodman,1986; Krehbiel, 1990; Kritzmire, 1991; Price & Burnsed, 1989; Saunders &Baker, 1991; Smith, 1985; Stroud, 1981; in Austin, 1992)Austin acknowledged Anderson (1981) and Ballard (1990) who, in separatestudies, found that music inservice for classroom teachers does notconsistently change their negative self-perceptions and attitudes towardmusic. Workshops usually focus on teaching methods and materials rather thanaddress attitudes and self-perceptions of incompetence. However, Austincontended that undergraduate music fundamentals courses can be improved inorder that future classroom teachers are ready and enthused to become involvedin the music program. He turned to research in educational psychology tostudy the impact that failure and ability self-perceptions may have on futureclassroom teachers. Austin cited Clifford (1994), who suggested that studentslearn how to accept a constructive view of failure. Rather than attributefailure to either low effort or low ability, a more constructive approach istaken. Events that seem difficult become opportunities for problem-solving.For example, if a student sets a suitable goal for a task, is given specific19feedback, and attributes any failures to a poor choice of strategy rather thanto a lack of ability or effort, Clifford (1984) proposed that the student ismore likely to succeed at the given task.Austin considered educational psychology research on failure and abilityself-perceptions, as well as studies conducted in music education that focusedon the classroom teacher, to formulate his purpose statement. In his study,the impact of music fundamentals classes on future classroom teachers’ self-perceptions of their music abilities was investigated. Austin was alsointerested in how attributional responses to failure in music, that is, howteachers explain their failures, were affected by music fundamentals class.Four-hundred nine undergraduate elementary education students at anAmerican midwestern university responded to Austin’s 54-item questionnaire.Respondents had either just enrolled in a music fundamentals course or hadalready completed a fundamentals course and were attending a follow-up coursein music methods. Subjects were asked to recall a music experience whichended in failure and then place that experience in one of four categories:singing, playing an instrument, reading music, or taking a test. Theinstructional level at which that experience took place, elementary school,junior high/middle school, high school, or college, was also identified.Subjects then considered eight attributions for their failure (ability,effort, strategy, interest, task difficulty, luck, family influence, andteacher influence) and rated each attribute on a six-point Likert scale. Inaddition, subjects were asked to rate themselves on six classroom musicactivities: playing an instrument, singing, reading music, listening to musicfor specific characteristics, creating music, and moving to music. Musicbackground and demographic information were also gathered.20Austin made three major observations and recommendations with regard tofuture classroom teachers’ attitudes toward their own music abilities. First,music fundamentals class experience did not affect the subjects’ self-perceptions of their own musical abilities. Although moving to music wasrated as the activity subjects felt they could do best, they did not assignthemselves “very good, excellent, or outstanding” (p. 14) ratings for theirabilities in any of the activities. Generally, the subjects’ perceptions werenot positive. They ranked creating music as the activity in which they hadthe least amount of ability. Austin recommended that music fundamentalsinstructors either try to convince their students that their negative self-perceptions were untrue, or use more activities that would allow the studentsto experience success. Second, subjects did not attribute past failures toconstructive strategies, but to reasons which reflected feelings ofinadequacy. Of the eight attributions for failure, two of the non-constructive responses to failure, task difficulty and ability, weresubscribed to the most frequently. No significant difference in failureattribution was found between the fundamentals and non-fundamentals group. Itwas suggested that course instructors help students understand that they dohave some music ability, that their music abilities can improve, and that moreconstructive factors other than lack of ability or task difficulty can beblamed for failure. Third, the playing of a musical instrument and/or singingwere recalled most frequently as failure events of the past. Also, those infundamentals classes recalled more college failure events than the nonfundamentals students. Austin reasoned that college failures may have made astrong impact on the students. He reiterated, instructors need to helpstudents deal with failure more constructively or set goals that students canachieve.21Several suggestions for future studies were made. Austin believed thatfurther research on self-perceptions, attitudes, and motivation was needed.In addition, studies in other universities in various locations would improvegeneralizability. He also suggested that longitudinal studies could allowfuture researchers to investigate the development of students’ abilityperceptions, failure experiences, and attributional responses over time.Austin’s study begins to fill an important gap in music educationresearch conducted thus far with regard to the classroom teacher. Histhorough literature review not only established that many classroom teachersview their skills in making music or teaching music negatively, but alsorevealed that little research exists to address constructive strategies forchanging negative attitudes toward music. Of note is Austin’s reference tostudies which have examined students’ attributions for success and failure(Asmus, 1986; Austin & Vispoel, 1991; Vispoel & Austin, in press, in Austin,1992) . Those researchers observed that particularly in the case of music,students attributed their failure to a lack of ability. Through his study(1992), Austin has called attention to the way in which failure is dealt within music class, and has introduced the possibility of taking a more strategicand constructive approach to failure experiences.Austin interpreted his results cautiously. His conclusions were basedon appropriate statistical treatments, but were also prefaced by anacknowledgement of limitations. Austin recognized that generalizability islimited with his static-group comparison design.Generalizability was further hindered, however, by the basic design ofAustin’s study. One of the research questions was concerned with the effectof music fundamentals courses on future teachers’ failure attributionresponses. Austin found that the fundamentals course had no effect on the way22subjects viewed failure. However, it seems that the validity of this findingis questionable due to problems with methodology. In his reference toClifford’s (1984) work on constructive failure, Austin stated that studentscan “learn how to respond constructively to failure and interpret failureevents as problem-solving opportunities” (pp. 9-10) . The statement impliesthat students need to be taught how to make constructive responses to failure.Unfortunately, the music fundamentals group did not receive any specializedinstruction in dealing with failure. The only difference between the non-fundamentals group and the fundamentals group was that the fundamentals groupreceived music instruction. In light of Clifford’s contention thatconstructive responses are learned, it is not surprising that no differencewas found between the two groups in their responses to failure in music.Austin’s interpretation of Clifford’s theory seemed to invalidate hisfinding that students did not learn how to respond constructively to failurein a music fundamentals class. A more appropriate design for Austin’s purposewould require two groups of subjects, randomly selected, and both groupsenrolled in music fundamentals classes. One group would receive training instrategic responses to failure in addition to music instruction, while thecontrol group would receive only music instruction. In that way, the findingscould draw important information about the way attributional responses tofailure operate in a music setting.Austin’s study calls attention to the strong prevalence of failure inmusic education and presents the possibility of teaching students how to usefailure to their advantage. In the opinion of the researcher, however,Austin’s study does not reflect an accurate interpretation of constructiveresponses to failure. Nonetheless, his effort to apply his knowledge offailure attribution theory to music education is a worthwhile endeavour.23Progress in music education will come as research embraces knowledge from notonly music, but from other fields in education and psychology.The Kritzmire StudyKrjtzmire (1991) contended that the classroom teacher has a crucial roleto play in the survival of music education, and is an important source ofsupport for music programs. A classroom teacher can potentially affectstudents’ attitudes toward music in either a positive or negative way (Maim,1988, in Kritzmire, 1991) . Kritzmire emphasized the valuable role of theelementary classroom teacher by citing studies by Asmus (1986), Price andSwanson (1990), and Topp (1987) who discovered that student attitudes towardtheir own music abilities are formed during the elementary school years. Thecovert purpose of Kritzmire’s study was to investigate both preservice andinservice elementary classroom teachers’ memories of, and attitudes towardtheir personal elementary school music experiences.Forty-seven inservice elementary classroom teachers from two schools ina midsized midwestern U.S. city and 19 preservice students from a musicmethods course in a midwestern university responded to a questionnaire. A 90%response rate was achieved for the inservice teachers, while a 100% responserate was attained by the preservice teachers. The first section of thequestionnaire dealt with demographic information, and the second section wasconcerned with memories of participation in music, attitude, and specificactivities by grade level. In the third section the inservice teachersconsidered their current involvement with music as well as their attitudestoward music. In the fourth section, all respondents were asked to relate inan anecdotal fashion, a memory of a “critical incident” or “vivid musicalmemory” (p. 12) from their elementary music experiences.24Kritzmire discovered that as children, 65 of the inservice teachersreceived music instruction from their classroom teacher, whereas 73 of thepreservice teachers were taught by a music specialist. Both groups seemed tohave similar memories of their primary years. They either enjoyed music orhad no memories of music instruction at all. However, as grade levelincreased, Kritzmire claimed that a pattern of indifference or dislike ofmusic developed.Inservice and preservice teachers remembered similar classroom musicactivities. Memories of group singing, reading notation, and performing ineither plays or music programs were common to both groups. Neither group hadstrong memories of composition or improvisation activities. In addition,Kritzmire observed that preservice teachers who experienced music instructionthrough specific approaches, such as Orff and Kodaly, remembered activitiessuch as playing recorders and mallet instruments, and writing notation. Morepreservice teachers also recalled that they had opportunities to listen to andsing popular music.While 57 of the inservice teachers indicated that they teach musicinfrequently, 34 reported that they used music as either recreation or as ateaching tool. Sixty-four percent of the inservice teachers felt that if theyhad more time to teach music they would. Forty-four percent reported thatthey did not feel competent enough to teach music. A large percentage (81%)disagreed with the statement that they frequently observe the musicspecialist.All of the preservice, and 81% of the inservice teachers, responded tothe anecdotal section of the questionnaire. The data was examined todetermine categories for analysis. As a result, two large categories,25“source” and “affect,” were created. The “source” category included thesubcategories of 1) Programs or performances, 2) Class activities, and3) Teacher. Subcategories of “affect” were 1) Feelings of recognition and/ormusical competence, 2) Feelings of incompetence, and 3) Feelings of isolationor exclusion from the group.When the responses of both preservice and inservice teachers werecombined, more critical incidents were reported for Grades 4, 5, and 6, andbelonged to two of the three “source” categories, Class Activity andProgram/Performance. Kritzmire asserted that the increase in negativeattitudes toward music in the intermediate grades agreed with the findings ofother studies. She suggested that the upper elementary years are importantones to a child’s music learning because negative attitudes are more prevalentin Grades 4 through 6.Kritzmire has made a meaningful start in the research of classroomteacher attitudes in music education. She was able to apply her interest incognitive psychology to stress the importance of a student’s affective stateon his or her learning. Although her discussion of the theories of Bloom(1982), and Walters and Gardner (1984) was brief, of importance is her claimthat the findings of her study substantiated the theories of thoseresearchers. Bloom (1982), in Kritzmire, believed that “peak learningexperiences” (p. 16) fuel a student’s desire to learn. Peaks in learning wereexplored further with Walters’s and Gardner’s (1984) theory that linksITcrystallizing experiences” (p. 16) with performance. Further learning ismotivated by such experiences. In Kritzmire’s study, the power of affect inlearning was evident in her finding that subjects almost always associatedpositive or negative feelings with a critical music activity. Activities suchas auditions, solos, and performances were negative experiences for some26subjects, but positive for others. Some subjects recalled feelings of pridewhen their talents were recognized, while others remembered feelings ofembarrassment and failure when singled out for their lack of ability.Kritzmire advised that music teaching practices would benefit from aninvestigation of peak musical experiences or critical incidents.The influence of the learner’s affective state on learning was furtheremphasized with Kritzmire’s statement, “What the subjects ‘learned’ aboutmusic seemed less important to them than what they discovered about their ownmusical ability, perceived or real” (p. 15) . Kritzmire was quick to assumethat because many of the anecdotes highlighted feelings over lesson content,content was not so important to the subjects. However, the prevalence ofstatements that described feelings may not be simply a matter of importance.Subjects were not asked to determine what was important to them, but what wasmemorable. Nonetheless, the researcher believes that most educators wouldagree that most activities or experiences in music class would be self-defeating if the students had either failed or believed they had failed. Inany case, Kritzmire successfully demonstrated that strong feelings, bothpositive and negative, were associated with memories of music experiences.Unfortunately, some weaknesses with internal and external validity placeother conclusions in question. For instance, Kritzmire’s claim thatindifference or dislike of music was more prevalent in the intermediate gradescan be misleading when the small sample size of the preservice teachers isconsidered. Of the 19 preservice teachers surveyed, the number of subjectswho indicated indifference to music totalled three in Grade 4, four each inGrades 6 and 8, and five each in Grades 5 and 7. However, in Grade 1, foursubjects also indicated indifference, two subjects reported indifference inGrade 2, and three subjects in Grade 3. As for the number of subjects who27disliked music, only one subject in each of Grades 4, 7, and 8 was found todislike music. Two subjects indicated dislike in Grade 5, and three dislikedmusic in Grade 6. No reports of dislike for music were found in the primarygrades. Thus, the general pattern of indifference or dislike to music waspresent in Grades 4 through 8, but was not an especially strong one. Negativememories in the intermediate grades exceeded those in the primary grades byone, two, and three subjects. Moreover, it is debatable whether memories ofindifference should be combined with memories of aversion toward music. Thatcombination infers that indifference is a negative feeling, whereasindifference may be neither negative nor positive. Further, because sevenpreservice teachers could not remember their Grades 1 and 2 music classes andfour teachers had no recollections of their Grade 3 music classes, it is notknown whether those teachers had feelings of indifference or aversion to musicin their primary years. It may be that Kritzmire neglected to consider theaforementioned possibilities and as a result, the generalizability of thestudy is jeopardized.Another instance of weakened internal validity concerns Kritzmire’ssampling procedures. None of the groups (preservice and inservice) weresampled randomly. Moreover, all of the preservice teachers were enrolled inthe same class. Limited generalizability was not acknowledged by Kritzmire.In addition, a rationale for the use of two sample groups (preservice andinservice teachers) in the study is not provided. Except for a comparison ofinservice and preservice teachers’ memories of classroom music activities,relationships between the two groups were not examined.Kritzmire also failed to recognize a problem within the sample ofinservice teachers. Ten inservice teachers, or 21 of the sample, indicatedthat they were not classroom teachers, but were “Special Areas” teachers28(p. 5) . Their inclusion in the “Current Involvement with Music” section ofthe study could easily have skewed and invalidated the results. The SpecialAreas teachers could have been school psychologists, speech pathologists, orphysical education teachers and would not have been expected to teach music.It is likely that they disagreed with the questionnaire item that stated thatmusic is used or taught frequently. Kritzmire’s contention that “ . .. themajority (57%) of classroom teachers responding teach music infrequently, ifat all . “ (p. 11) loses strength when the “Special Areas” teachers, thatis, 21% of the inservice group who were probably not expected to teach music,were included with those teachers who were expected to provide musicinstruction. An acknowledgement of the aforementioned limitations would havehelped clear up such ambiguities in the study.The design of the third section of the questionnaire, “CurrentInvolvement with Music” (p. 11) also affected the internal and externalvalidity of the study. Inservice teachers were limited in their choice ofeither “agree’T or “disagree” in response to items about their current musicbeliefs and teaching practices. A rating scale, however, such as a Likerttype scale, would have allowed the subjects to respond to each item withgreater accuracy. In Kritzmire’s questionnaire item, “Frequently observe themusic specialist” (p. 11), the response, “disagree” included teachers whonever observe the music specialist, as well as those who sometimes observe thespecialist. Her use of a dichotomous measure did not accurately represent howteachers are involved in music and as a result, the construct validity of thisthird section of the questionnaire is weak.Also problematic with the third section of the questionnaire was itsunexplained relation to the purpose of the study. One worthwhile possibility,but not considered by Kritzmire, would be to compare individual teacher’s29current attitudes toward music with their past music experiences. Such acomparison would allow Kritzmire to address the question included in the titleof her study, “Elementary General Music: What Difference Does It Make?” Inaddition, current involvement in music could have been related to the gradelevel taught to substantiate or dispute other researchers who have found thatprimary teachers are more likely to teach music than intermediate teachers.The qualitative or anecdotal section of the study was informativereading, but discrepancies with item coding limited its reliability. Samplesof positive and negative anecdotes were included in the study and helpeddemonstrate the coding or categorization process used by Kritzmire.Generally, the categories assigned to each of the anecdotal items were clearand accurate, however, some of the anecdotes lent themselves to severalinterpretations. For example, the following statement was coded as a positivememory and assigned the “source” category of Program/Class Activity: “For a6th grade program, we learned ‘The Rainbow Connection.’ We made a set, madeup actions, watched the Muppet Movie segment that included that song. Thiswas the first time (we) got to do real harmonizing, and it sounded good”(p. 13) . In the opinion of the researcher, one may interpret that the subjectwas pleased with the use of harmony and thus, the “affect” category ofCompetence could also describe this anecdote. It seems that the internalreliability of the coding would have been improved if Kritzmire usedadditional observers to code the anecdotes.In Kritzmire’s recommendations, the focus on the overall generalpatterns observed in the study helped to downplay the aforementioned issuesconcerned with internal and external validity. Her advice warrants theattention of music educators who are concerned with the survival of music inthe schools. First, Kritzmire warned music teachers to be aware that a30student’s perception of his or her own talent can easily be damaged inactivities related to performance. The memory of competence or incompetenceovershadows the memory of a teacher, classroom activity, or musicalperformance. Second, she advised that in the planning of elementary generalmusic curricula and practice, music educators need to be sensitive to thefactors revealed in her study that contribute to positive musical memories.Moreover, music educators should be aware of their ability to build positiveattitudes in their music students, as well as influence their classroomteacher colleagues to support music programs. Last, it was suggested thatstrategies for classroom and music teacher collaboration may evolve fromfuture research of classroom teacher attitudes, musical needs, andinstructional potential.As more music educators turn to the classroom teacher for support andhelp in the promotion of music programs, research interest in the role of theclassroom teacher grows. However, Kritzmire found in her literature searchthat no studies had yet been conducted to investigate elementary classroomteachers’ perceptions of music. Only one study pertaining to teacherattitudes (Krehbiel, 1990) was located by the researcher, but it is likelythat it was not in publication at the time Kritzmire (1991) conducted herstudy. Nevertheless, through her study, Kritzmire has brought attention tothe important role that attitude plays in the promotion of music education.Teachers’ recollections of music experiences help to shed some light on thepositive and negative perceptions of music held by classroom teachers. Theoutcome is a very broad view of classroom teacher perceptions of their pastmusic experiences.31The Mills StudyMills (1989) contended that with proper training, as well as supportfrom a music consultant, the generalist primary teacher can offer a highstandard of music instruction. Four reasons for training classroom teachersto teach music were given. First, Mills believed that children would morelikely consider music as part of their school curriculum if their classroomteacher, not the music specialist, taught the music lessons. She argued thatit is the classroom teacher, and not the specialist, who represents the entirecurriculum to the children. Mills stated, “If music is not for all teacherswhy should children assume it is for all children?” (p. 126)Mills’s second argument in support of the classroom teacher concernedcurricular integration. The generalist can conveniently take advantage ofopportune times during the entire day to teach music. For example, a childcan write a poem in a language arts lesson, then immediately compose somemusic for it in the same classroom session. Third, Mills asserted that thegeneralist teacher knows the students well, and is much better prepared thanthe music specialist to respond to each child’s successes and failures. Last,Mills contended that the generalist is in a better position to create anenjoyable music lesson. She specified a survey of primary education inEngland (HMI, 1978, in Mills) that found that students enjoyed music lessonswith their own classroom teacher.However, in the same survey, it was found that many primary teachers donot teach any music and rely on the music specialist to do so. Mills blamedthe generalist’s reluctance to teach music on a lack of confidence. In herstudy, Mills examined the development of confidence levels of non-specialistB.Ed. students during their “professional music course” (p. 127) . She alsointended to investigate possible causes and effects of low confidence.32Mills’s subjects were the students enrolled in her professional musiccourse. She divided her forty students into three different teaching groups.Group placements were made alphabetically, and therefore, according to Mills,the sample was random. Mills administered questionnaires during threedifferent times of the academic year. Each time, subjects rated eight generalcurricular areas according to the degree of confidence with which they couldteach each area. In the first and third questionnaires only, subjects had toplan a half hour music lesson, and also list music activities that they wereconfident and not confident to teach. Also assessed in the firstquestionnaire, was each subject’s music literacy. The frequency with whichthe student teachers taught music during their practica was surveyed in thethird questionnaire. Return rates varied among the questionnaires. All 40subjects completed the first questionnaire, 36 responded to the secondquestionnaire, and 30 subjects returned the last questionnaire.The results of the first questionnaire confirmed Mills’s belief thatclassroom teachers have little confidence in teaching music. Teachers wereasked to rate eight curricular subjects according to the degree of confidencethey felt in teaching them. A rank of “1” for a curricular subject indicatedgreatest confidence, while a rank of “8” registered least confidence.Fourteen out of 40 student teachers ranked music as the subject they wereleast confident to teach. Moreover, music received the highest median scoreof six out of eight, of all the curricular subjects. This indicated to Millsthat music, more than other subjects, was chosen more frequently as thesubject in which students had least or little confidence. Mills was moreencouraged by the responses to the lesson planning exercise. With oneexception, all of the students seemed motivated to teach music, and could plansome type of music activity for children. However, the subjects’ uncertainty33was again evident when asked to list music activities that worried them. Manyactivities listed by the students were those that Mills thought were notnecessary for music instruction. For instance, subjects believed that theyshould be able to sight-sing, teach children to read music, play the piano toaccompany songs, and teach children to read the bass clef.In the music literacy section of the first questionnaire, Mills believedthe results indicated a high degree of literacy. Subjects responded with across or tick to six statements such as, “I can work out the names of anynotes in the treble clef,” and “If I am given the music for a song, I canalways work out what the melody sounds like” (p. 134) . The ticks weretallied, with a possible total of six points for the most literate subjects.Those scores were then correlated with the relative confidence scores attainedin the previous section of the same questionnaire. A Spearman rank ordercorrelation was used to analyse the data, and a correlation coefficient ofr = -0.7 was obtained. Mills interpreted that students with higher musicliteracy scores tended to be confident to teach music.In the second questionnaire, subjects were only asked to rate theirrelative confidence. This time, seven students rated music as the subjectthey felt least confident to teach. Mills attributed the decrease of 14subjects to 7, to the students’ discovery that teaching music to primarychildren is possible even with a minimal level of music ability.Similar results for relative confidence were found in the thirdquestionnaire. The improvement in confidence levels in the second and thirdquestionnaires led Mills to suggest that introductory lessons in music coursesshould focus on attitude formation.Lesson plans that students were asked to write in the thirdquestionnaire showed that they were all able to plan a sequence of music34activities that included some creative progressions. However, some studentsstill had fears of teaching music reading. Mills explained that thosestudents could not seem to be reassured that the music specialist is alwaysavailable to offer help with reading skills.Also in the third questionnaire, confidence levels of students whotaught music during their six week school practicum were compared with theconfidence levels of students who were not allowed (by their practicum school)to teach music. Of the eight students who were not permitted to teach music,four were least confident in teaching music. Of the 22 students who werepermitted to teach music, three had indicated they were least confident inteaching music. Mills admitted that drawing statistical conclusions from thisdata is not possible, but stated that for her study’s sample, more of thestudents who were least confident in music were placed in schools that did notallow them to teach a music lesson.Mills attempted to shed some light on confidence development in primaryclassroom student teachers. Through her study, she was able to identify theareas of music education that her subjects initially felt unsure about, andwas also able to document the progress many of her students made with theirskills in planning a music lesson. However, some threats to internal andexternal validity limit the generalizability of her findings. Jn example of athreat to the internal validity of her study concerns the degree of honestywith which subjects completed each questionnaire. Mills tried to avoidexperimenter effects with the assurance to subjects that questionnaireresponses would not influence college records. However, Mills’s dual positionas instructor and researcher may have intimidated some subjects. Somestudents may have found it difficult to confess any inadequacies to their35course instructor and may have felt it was in their best interest to appearconfident and thus, competent.Also questionable is Mills’s sampling procedure. She believed thatrandom sampling was ensured through the alphabetical placement of subjectsinto three groups. However, the use of three “randomly sampled” groups wasnot of consequence since no baseline comparison was made among the groups. Inaddition, Mills neglected to recognize that the use of an intact group ofsubjects, that is, the class of students enrolled in her music course, limitedgeneralizability.A decrease in the questionnaire return rate further weakened internalvalidity. All 40 students responded to the first questionnaire, but only 36,then 30 subjects respectively, completed the second and third questionnaires.When Mills reported the number of students who were not confident to teachmusic in each questionnaire, she was impressed that only seven subjects werenot confident to teach music by the second questionnaire. This was animprovement from 14 unconfident subjects in the first questionnaire. However,four subjects did not return the second questionnaire and 10 subjects did notreturn the third questionnaire. No acknowledgement was made of the relativelylarge number of students who failed to respond. It is possible that those whodid not respond also did not feel confident to teach music. Had all subjectsresponded to the second and third questionnaires, a larger number of subjectsmay have indicated they were not confident to teach music. If Mills was to beimpressed by an increase of seven confident subjects from the first to thesecond questionnaire, then she should be equally impressed by a decrease of 10responses to the third questionnaire.Although Mills was able to correlate confidence levels with musicliteracy scores, her investigation of this relationship could have been much36more rigorous in design. At the beginning of the music course, the subjectswho felt confident to teach music also scored well on music literacy.However, music literacy was not reassessed in the last questionnaire. It isnot known whether the increase in the number of subjects who gained confidencesince the beginning of the course is related to any improvement with musicliteracy skills. A comparison of music literacy and confidence level towardthe end of the music course could have provided valuable information about therelationship of confidence levels to music literacy skills.Mills was even less successful in her endeavours to compare confidencelevels with the amount of music taught by the student teachers during theirpractica. It was not clear why the comparison between unconfident subjectswho were allowed to teach music (three of 22 students), and uriconfidentsubjects who were not permitted to teach music (four of 8 students) was made.Those students who were told by their practicum school not to teach music hadno choice in the matter, and thus it seems that the student teacher’sconfidence level would not have been of any consequence. Frustration for thereader culminated with a confusing interpretation of the comparison. Millsstated that “. . . the reasons for why some student teachers were notteaching any music are not so cut and dried after all” (p. 136).In addition to the examination of the development of confidence in hersubjects, Mills also intended, in her purpose statement, to study the possiblecauses and effects of low confidence. The descriptive and partlycorrelational design of her study, however, do not allow her to infer anycausal relationships. Moreover, reasons why subjects with low confidencecontinued to feel insecure about music instruction throughout the duration ofthe course were not investigated. Further, a description of how Mills37addressed confidence in her own music course could have helped to contributeto the overall picture of low confidence, but was not included.In her introduction, Mills presented sound arguments in support of musicprograms taught by primary classroom teachers. However, her arguments weredifficult to accept without a practical guideline of the music activities andskills that primary classroom teachers may be expected to teach. Althoughactivities that student teachers felt confident with and did not feelconfident with were surveyed at both the beginning and the end of the musiccourse, Mills made that data available from only the questionnaire given atthe beginning of the study. In the last questionnaire, music-reading is theonly activity with which students expressed discomfort, and a list of musicactivities the students felt confident to teach by the end of their musiccourse was not included in the results. For Mills’s subject sample, specificmusic activities and skills that primary classroom teachers felt confident toteach remain unknown.Mills’s discussion and conclusion seemed to be based largely on herpersonal beliefs rather than the findings of the study, but are worthy ofconsideration. Of note was Mills’s contention that music’s low status, incomparison with the other subjects in both the school curriculum and teachertraining institutions, encourages teachers to believe music is an option. Shestated, “The problem is that student teachers with low confidence in music canavoid teaching it to an extent which would be impossible in mathematics, forinstance” (p. 137) . Mills recommended that training institutions take stepsto ensure that student teachers be required to teach music during theirpractica. She added that music courses should help students developconfidence in their abilities to teach music. Most music educators wouldprobably agree with her recommendation, but would need to also know specific38methods and activities that would encourage confidence in student classroomteachers.The Saunders and Baker StudySaunders and Baker (1991) contended that the design of undergraduatemusic methods courses for classroom teachers must take into consideration theneeds and wants of practising classroom teachers. Student teachers need tosee that the skills and understandings gained from their music methods courseswill be of practical value to their future teaching careers.A review of several music methods textbooks, interviews with classroomteachers and music education professors about undergraduate methods courses,and Saunders’s and Baker’s personal experiences as methods course instructorshelped to contribute to the development of their questionnaire. Based onpreliminary findings, eighteen music skills and understandings were itemized.Respondents chose one of five options for each item: (a) the topic or itemhad been studied in an undergraduate course and is used in the teacher’scurrent situation; (b) the topic or item had been studied in an undergraduatecourse, but is not used in the teacher’s current situation; (c) the item wasnot covered in an undergraduate course, but the teacher thinks it could beuseful in the classroom; (d) the item was not covered in an undergraduatecourse and the teacher would not use it; or Ce) the item was taken from asource other than an undergraduate course and is being used in the teacher’sclassroom. Three-hundred questionnaires were mailed to randomly selectedteachers of Kindergarten through Grade 5 in Maryland. Most of the teacherssurveyed worked in schools that had a music specialist program.Fifty-three percent of the questionnaires were returned. In addition toresponses to the 18 questionnaire items, general information about each39teacher’s music education background and experience was collected. Although44% taught music voluntarily, 47% did not teach music because their school hadits own music specialist. Of those teachers who gave music instructionvoluntarily, most taught in the primary grades. The 100 recommended minutes(Music Educators’ National Conference) of music time were rarely offered.Forty-eight percent of the teachers provided less than 30 minutes of music aweek and 25% provided 31 to 60 minutes a week. Most of the teachers perceivedthemselves to be of average music ability. The instruction the teachersreceived in undergraduate courses varied, but the most common topics studiedwere music theory and reading notation, music history, choosing appropriatesongs, rhythm instruments, and guitar.With regard to the 18 questionnaire items, Saunders and Baker firstlooked at which course topics teachers found to be helpful in theirclassrooms. Eighty-three percent of the respondents said they used strategiesfor the integration of music into other areas of the curriculum the mostfrequently. Other helpful topics included creative activities, movement,recordings, selection of appropriate songs, listening lessons, how to lead andteach a song, children’s voices, and rhythm instruments. Second, the topicsteachers thought their course should have included but did not include werealso determined. Many of the topics teachers wanted were the same as thosethat teachers found most useful in their classrooms. For instance, 86% of theteachers thought they should have been given some strategies for integratingmusic into other areas of the curriculum. Again, creative activities,selection of appropriate songs, movement, listening activities, recordings,and leading and teaching songs were popular choices.Although most of the topics teachers thought would be useful wereidentical to those that teachers identified as actually being useful, there40were two exceptions. Teachers believed that information about the child’svoice had practical applications in the classroom, yet teachers who had notstudied the child’s voice did not perceive the topic to be of any benefit.Also, teachers did not find their undergraduate piano training helpful, yetthose who had not taken piano thought this could be useful.The last category of responses dealt with helpful sources other than anundergraduate course. Fewer than 20% of the teachers pursued furtherinformation on any of the 18 skills and understandings itemized in thequestionnaire. Nineteen percent found information on providing creativeactivities, 16% studied music in conjunction with other curricular areas, and16% looked at choosing recordings.When responses from all three categories were combined, strategies formusic integration was the most popular choice (88%) . This finding wasconcurrent with results from similar studies by Bryson (1983) and Stroud(1981)The authors believed a survey of classroom teachers in a school districtwithout music specialists would yield different results from their presentstudy. In addition, they acknowledged that the nature of the questionnaireformat was open to various individual interpretations. For example, teachersmay have indicated that they used creative activities but likely varied infrequency of use as well as types of activities.Saunders and Baker conclude that student teachers not only need to studymusic skills and understandings but must also be given help in the integrationof music into other areas of the curriculum. They recommended that furtherresearch survey teachers in other parts of the country, as well as look atsituations in which classroom teachers teach music without music specialists.Future studies should also investigate what teachers do with the skills and41understandings gained from undergraduate courses and find out if the number ofundergraduate courses affects what teachers do in their music lessons.Teachers of music methods courses often design course curriculumaccording to what they believe is best for classroom teachers. Saunders andBaker found that some of those beliefs have not been useful to practisingclassroom teachers. Skills and understandings that methods teachers thoughtwould be practical were found to be of little importance to many of theclassroom teachers surveyed. The findings of their study warrant seriousconsideration in the planning of music methods courses for classroom teachers.Saunders and Baker constructed a questionnaire based on a variety ofsources from the Maryland area. As a result their questionnaire gave acomprehensive description of teachers’ perceptions of music skills andunderstandings gleaned from music methods courses. The design of futurequestionnaires could be further strengthened with the addition of interviewswith district music coordinators and other staff involved with professionaldevelopment activities.In a survey such as this which explores perceptions of a specific topic,that is, teaching music, it is possible for the respondents to be biased andnot entirely representative of the nonrespondents. Unfortunately, Saundersand Baker did not address this possibility. Their questionnaire return rateof 53% warranted further investigation of the nonrespondents. A pre-test mayhave been able to determine whether only the teachers interested in musicwould be willing to take the time to fill out a questionnaire. A follow-upmailing could have also brought the return rate up to at least sixty percentand thus reduce the chance of a biased sample of respondents.Another question left unexplored concerned the respondents themselves.The responses of teachers who taught their own music lessons were not42distinguished from the responses of teachers who rely on a specialist. Abouthalf of the respondents said they teach music, but most were Kindergarten andGrade 1 teachers. As the grade level of the teachers increased fewer teacherstaught music and became more dependent on the specialist. It is not clear ifteachers did not teach music because an expert was available or because theythought their music training was inadequate. Those who teach methods coursesneed to be aware of the explicit reasons why some teachers do not apply any ofthe course content to their classroom situations.Teacher attitudes toward music or their own perceptions of music werenot examined in this study, but may be a key factor in determining whether aclass receives any music instruction at all. Teachers who consider themselvesunmusical but believe that music is a valuable subject for children are morelikely to teach music or find some way of making sure the students receivemusic instruction. An investigation of the potential impact a music methodscourse has on shaping a teacher’s attitude toward music would also help guidemethods instructors in their course planning.One finding that concurred with other studies (Bryson, 1983; Stroud,1981) was that teachers wanted to know how to integrate music into othersubject areas. Saunders and Baker recommended that methods courses begin toaddress integration as well as continue teaching music skills andunderstandings. However, studies such as theirs must take care not toadvocate the implementation of an idea only because teachers request it anddismiss another idea because teachers do not find it useful. A questionnaireformat can only give a general idea of what the population of teachers aredoing, but not necessarily what they are thinking. Also, it is important toconsider all possible reasons for particular responses. For example, almost9O of the teachers who studied music theory said they did not find it useful.43Before dismissing theory as useless, an investigation of why teachers did notuse their theoretical training may be necessary. Perhaps music theory was notpresented in a way that seemed meaningful to the teachers. Rather than dropmusic theory from the course curriculum perhaps more work is needed in thedevelopment of a music theory program that is effective and relevant toclassroom teachers.In the case of integration, many reasons exist for its popularity.Perhaps classroom teachers see integration as a way for a teacher who lacksmusic ability to provide music experiences for children. If so, music methodsinstructors may need to re-evaluate their courses and ask how they can betterprepare teachers to both teach music and integrate music with other subjectareas. Moreover, the different types of integration and the relevance ofother subjects to music education must be thoroughly analyzed beforeintegration can be adopted into the course curriculum.The evaluation of music methods courses is very much needed. This studyprovides a good foundation from which to build future research and improvemusic methods courses.SuimuaryIn all of the studies reviewed, classroom teachers were not dismissed asincapable of providing music instruction; rather, they were respected fortheir potentially supportive role in music education. The researchers ofthose studies identified many factors that contribute to the amount andquality of music instruction offered by classroom teachers. It seems thatfactors related to attitude toward music instruction, that is, perceptions ofmusic instruction, (e.g., confidence, self-perception of competence, ways ofdealing with failure, and past music experiences) are equally, if not more,44important as factors related to undergraduate training and professionalsupport. In light of their findings, the researchers directed theirrecommendations toward the improvement of undergraduate music courses.Recommendations addressed perceptions of music instruction, and confidencedevelopment, as well as music skills and relevant music activities.The design of the present study took into consideration both thestrengths and weaknesses of the four studies that were reviewed. First, toachieve an accurate and comprehensive picture of the classroom teacher role inmusic education, the present study included the investigation of a variety offactors that were addressed by the reviewed studies. However, unlike thereviewed studies which only examined individual factors, the present studyincluded factors related to teacher perceptions of music instruction, as wellas music skills and activities.Second, to achieve generalizability, the selection of the sample groupwas of primary importance. Difficulties with external validity in some of thereviewed studies have alerted the researcher to potential problems. Forinstance, Kritzmire (1991) included teachers who were not responsible for ageneral classroom curriculum in her sample, and did not acknowledge thislimitation. A survey of classroom teachers should include classroom teachersonly, and exclude specialists such as physical education teachers, learningassistants, librarians, and school counsellors.Third, cautionary measures were taken in the present study to ensurethat the sample of respondents was not biased. Generalizability can only beachieved if the results of the study include teachers who are interested inmusic, as well as those who are not. In survey research an initial mailedquestionnaire response rate of 40% to 60% can be expected (McMillan &Schumacher, 1989) . A follow up mailing can increase the response rate to a45recommended total return rate of 70% (McMillan & Schumacher, 1989) . The lowreturn rate in Saunders’s and Baker’s (1991) study, and the falling responserate in Mills’s (1989) study, indicated the need for a follow-up mailing.Fourth, with regard to the investigation of specific topics in musiceducation that teachers feel comfortable teaching and not comfortableteaching, topics were based on recommendations found in the B.C. Fine ArtsCurriculum Guide (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1991), and the Primary ProgramFoundation Document (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1990). In her study, Mills(1989) neglected to describe the music curricular requirements expected of thethe teachers in her sample. It was not known whether her interpretation ofwhat the subjects were able to teach and not able to teach were congruent withcurricular expectations.With those issues and the positive aspects of those studies inconsideration, it was the researcher’s expectation that the design of thepresent study would possess more precision and higher external validity.46CHAPTER THREEMethodologySampleOne-hundred sixty-five primary classroom teachers in School District#34, Pbbotsford, participated in this study. The sample of primary teachersincluded full-time and part-time teachers who instruct Kindergarten, Grades 1,2, and/or 3 students.The music specialist program is no longer available in School District#34, and most primary classroom teachers are fully responsible for the musiccurriculum. Because the availability of music specialists varies from schooldistrict to school district in British Columbia, it may not be possible togeneralize the results of this questionnaire to the entire population ofprimary classroom teachers in British Columbia. However, it was anticipatedthat a questionnaire response rate of 70%, as suggested by McMillan andSchumacher (1989), would help strengthen external validity with schooldistricts of similar staffing.ProceduresAs a pilot project, the questionnaire, A Survey of School District #34Primary Classroom Teachers’ Attitudes and Music Backgrounds in MusicEducation, was given to eight of the researcher’s colleagues for generalfeedback. They provided helpful commentary with regard to the length of thesurvey, the relevance of specific questionnaire items, and the use of musical47terms in some of the questionnaire items. A revision to the questionnaire wasmade before it was distributed.The revised questionnaire, along with a covering letter, was mailed toevery primary classroom teacher (N = 257) in School District #34, Abbotsford.To encourage teachers to respond to the survey, a tea bag was enclosed witheach questionnaire. With the permission of the Abbotsford School Board, theschool district’s inter-school mailing system was used for all correspondence.Questionnaires were mailed to each teacher on the same day.After a period of two weeks, 142 questionnaires (55%) were received. Afollow-up FAX was then sent to all schools to remind teachers about thequestionnaire (see Appendix B), and seven (3%) more questionnaires werereturned. Because the projected return rate of 70% had not yet been achievedby the fifth week, a second mailing was made with a new covering letter (seeAppendix E) . Only teachers at schools with low response rates were sentanother copy of the questionnaire. Identification numbers on eachquestionnaire helped determine who required a second mailing. Sixteen (6%)additional teachers responded to the questionnaire.Questionnaire DesignThe questionnaire, A Needs Assessment of Classroom Teacher’s MusicalSkills and Conceptual Understandings, obtained from Saunders and Baker (1991),was used as a guide in the design of the present survey. In addition tooriginal material, several items from the Saunders and Baker (1991)questionnaire were duplicated or revised and included in the presentquestionnaire (see Appendix A)The present questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) BackgroundInformation; 2) University Training, In-service, and Resources; and483) Attitudes And Skills.Background information gathered from the respondents established thegrade levels of each teacher, the amount of music instruction each teacheroffered to his or her students, and each teacher’s music experience. Items 1to 5 from the Saunders and Baker (1991) questionnaire were included in theBackground Information section (see Appendix A). Background variablesascertained in the first section of the questionnaire, as well as pastexperiences reported in the Attitudes and Skills section were analysed toaddress research question 5, “How are primary classroom teachers’ perceptionsof music instruction shaped by their past music experiences?”The second section of the questionnaire, University Training, In-service, and Resources, addressed the third research question, “What kind ofmusic education resources (techniques and materials) do primary classroomteachers find useful or helpful?” Eight of the 19 sub-items listed under Item6 of the Saunders and Baker (1991) questionnaire were included inPart A of the second section of the present questionnaire. Seven of the ninesub-items listed under Item 7 of the Saunders and Baker (1991) questionnairewere included in Part B of the second section of the present questionnaire.Attitudes and Skills, the third section of the questionnaire, addressedresearch questions 1 and 2: “Which specific topics in music education doprimary classroom teachers feel they can teach comfortably? Which specifictopics in music education do primary classroom teachers not feel they canteach comfortably?” Those topics included music activities, skills, andtechniques that would be common to a typical music program in BritishColumbia. Eleven of 15 sub-items for Item 8 in the Saunders and Bakerquestionnaire were used in this section of the questionnaire. However, therating scale used by Saunders and Baker (1991), “very uncomfortable” to “very49comfortable” was changed in the present questionnaire to “strongly disagree”to “strongly agree.” The changed scale allowed for consistency within theAttitudes and Skills section.The Attitudes and Skills section also was concerned with researchquestion 4, “How do classroom teachers perceive the importance of music in thecurriculum?” Two items from the Kritzmire (1991) study were included in thissection (see Appendix A).Collection and Organization of the DataRespondents returned their completed questionnaires through the inter-school mail system. A return envelope, pre-addressed to the researcher’sschool, was provided. As questionnaires were received, the researchertallied responses into the computer spreadsheet program, Microsoft Excel(1992) . Histograms, as well as a few pie charts, display the distribution ofresponse frequencies for each questionnaire item. Anecdotal comments werecompiled, analysed, and categorized in the reporting of results.50CHAPTER FOURResultsAfter one FAX reminder and a second mailing (see Appendix E) toschools that had low response rates, a response rate of 64% was achieved.That is, of the 257 questionnaires distributed, 165 questionnaires werereturned. The final response rate of 64% did not meet the 70% return raterecommended by McMillan and Schumacher (1989).For the following figures, percentages refer to the percentage ofresponses. Raw scores and percentages of responses to questionnaire items arepresented in spreadsheet format in the Data Table in Appendix F.The QuestionnaireSection I: Background Information1) which grade(s) do you teach?Figure 1 (see page 52) portrays an even distribution of lower, middle,and upper primary grade teachers among the respondents. Fifteen percent ofthe teachers teach Kindergarten, 16% teach either Grade 1, Grade 2/3, or Grade3. Grade 1/2 is taught by 13% of the teachers, while Grade 2 is taught by 10%of the teachers. A very small percentage of teachers teach Grade K/l, Grade3/4, or Grade 1/2/3.51Item 1: Which grade(s) do you teach?One/Two/ThreeThree/FourThreeTwo/ThreeTwoOne/TwoOneKindergarten/OneKindergarten0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20%Figure 12) For how many years have you been teaching?As may be seen in Figure 2, a fairly large proportion of teachers (36%)have been teaching for 11 to 20 years, and another 18% have had 21 or moreyears of teaching experience. Twenty-two percent have been teaching for 6 to10 years, while 19% have been teaching for two to five years. Only 4% of therespondents are in their first year of teaching.Item 2: For how many years have you been teaching?21 or more11-20 yrs.6-10 yrs.2-5 yrs.0-1 yrs.—0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%Figure 2523a) As well as being a classroom teacher, have you ever been a musicspecialist?Figure 3 shows that only 10% of the respondents have been musicspecialists.0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Figure 3b) If you answered “no”, do you intend to be a music specialist?Only one teacher (.6%) intends to become a music specialist; anotherteacher answered “maybe” to this question.4) Does a music specialist teach music to your class?As illustrated in Figure 4 (see page 54), music is taught by aspecialist in only 19 classrooms (12%) . Although the music specialist programwas terminated two years ago in School District #34, the findings indicatethat some students are receiving specialized instruction in music.Item 3a: As well as being a classroom teacher, have you everbeen a music specialist?53Item 4: Does a music specialist teach music to your class?0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Figure 45) If you answered “yes” to question 4:a) Approximately how much music time per week do your studentsreceive from the music specialist?Twelve of the 19 teachers (66%) reported that the music specialistprovides 25 to 35 minutes of music time per week, while 55 to 65 minutes ofmusic time is provided by a specialist in two teachers’ classrooms. Oneteacher’s class receives 40 to 50 minutes of music per week from thespecialist.b) Does your music specialist provide your preparation time?Preparation time is provided for eight (42%) of the teachers. Teacherswho do not receive preparation time through the music specialist listed avariety of activities that they do during the music lesson:-trade classes--I take hers for gym-sing, clap beat, body mov’t to rhythm-working with half my class and some of the music teacher’s class-join in, or work with individuals-half split with library-supervise students-teach computer-Every 2nd week/on alternate weeks I go in with the children to54assist with supervision (music teacher doubles up--2 classes = 45students) so the 2 classroom teachers alternate supervision andprep time every second week.c) Do you also teach music to your class in addition to the music taughtby your music specialist?Thirteen teachers (68%) teach music in addition to the music theirspecialist provides.6) If you answered “no” to question 4:a) Do you teach music to your class?As shown in Figure 5, a large majority of teachers (86%) indicated thatthey teach music to their classes.Item 6a: If you answered no to question 4:Omit Do you teach music to your class?No-- -YesI I I I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Figure 5b) If you teach music to your class, approximately how much time perweek do you use to provide musical experiences for your students?Figure 6 (see page 56) illustrates that most respondents (32%) use 25 to35 minutes per week to provide musical experiences for their students, while26% offer more music time (40 to 50 minutes per week), and 18% provide lesstime (20 minutes or less) . A small percentage of teachers (15%) provide 55 to5565 minutes of music per week, and even fewer teachers offer 70 to 80 minutes(4%) or 85 to 95 minutes (4%) of music time per week.Item 6b: If you teach music to your class, approximately how much time per weekdo you use to provide musical experiences for your students?other85-95 mm.70-80mm.55-65 mm.40-50 mm.25-35 mm.20 mm. or lessI I I I I I0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%Figure 67) In which of the following are you, or have you been, involved personally?(Check as many as apply.)Teachers were asked to distinguish their past music involvements fromtheir present music involvements. As is portrayed in Figure 7 (see page 57),respondents were far more musically active in their past than they are atpresent. The five most popular music activities in the respondentsT past weresinging in a choir (59%), attending concerts (56%), listening to recordings(54%), taking private music lessons (53%), and playing the piano (40%)Thirty-seven percent of the respondents played the recorder, 23% playedguitar, and 19% played an instrument in a band or orchestra. In their presentlives, 57% of the teachers continue to attend concerts, and an increasednumber of teachers (73%) listen to recordings. All other activities dropdrastically. Only 9% of the teachers now sing in a choir, 21% continue toplay the piano, and only 7% of the respondents take private music lessons. Avery small number of teachers participate in the remaining music activities,56guitar (7%), recorder (6%), and band (4%) . Several other music activitieswere listed by the respondents:-ukulele (5)-violin (1)-handbells (1)-trumpet grade 8/clarinet grade 9, really enjoyed this year (1)-played organ (1)-conducted children’s choirs/ladies groups (1)-lead choirs (church and schools) (1)-conducted handbell choir (1)-teach piano and music theory (1)-have written short songs for concert (by ear--had someone elsewrite out the music and put it on tape) (1)-participate in music courses/workshops (1)-courses for teachers (1)-ETM class through UBC (1)-ETM workshops (4)-Orff training (2)-drama (1)Item 7: In which of the following are you, or have you beenother involved personally?listen to recordingsconcertschoirIIIJD past (%)band/orches.recorder• present (%)guitarpianopriv. mus. less.I I I I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%Figure 78) To what degree do you think you are musical?Figure 8 on page 58 shows that more teachers consider themselves to beeither moderately musical (42%), or a little musical (27%), than very57musical (12%) . Eighteen percent of the respondents rated themselves to be“unmusical.” One respondent is a professional musician.Omit Item 8: To what degree do you think you are musical?profess. musicianvery musicalmod. musicala little musicalunmusicalI I I I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%Figure 89) From which university did you receive your teacher education?Most teachers attended UBC (38%) or SFU (27%) in the Lower Mainland.However, 27% attended other Canadian universities (see Data Table,Appendix F).10) How many music education courses did you take during your undergraduateteacher training?As may be seen in Figure 9 (see page 59), a moderate proportion of therespondents (27%) did not take any music education courses during theirundergraduate teacher training. Forty-six percent of the teachers took onecourse, while 14% had two courses, and 7% took three courses. Only 5% of therespondents majored or minored in music education.58Omit Item 10: How many music education coursesdid you take during your undergraduateteacher training?mued major, or conc.threetwoonenone0% 10% 20% S0% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%Figure 911) Have you taken any music education courses since you completed yourteacher training?Figure 10 (see page 60) shows that the majority of teachers (69%-) havenot taken any music education courses since they graduated from university.Twelve percent of the respondents have taken one course, while 7%- have had twocourses, and 8%- have taken three courses. Some respondents specified thenames of courses and workshops in which they had participated:-guitar (1)-classical guitar 2 years (1)-can’t remember--summer course at tJvic for primary teachers--itwas good though (1)-Music Educ. as Thinking in Sound (1)-300 course (UBC) (1)-SFU EDtJC 478 and ? Music Appreciation (1)-Orff (5)-MUED 400 (Em!, Kodaly) (1)-ED 490 Special Studies Em! (1)-Em! course (14)-Em! workshop (8)-only workshops (3)-only workshops on pro-d days (2)59Omitthree________L..oneItem 11: Have you taken any music education coursessince you completed your teacher training?0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%Section II: University Training, In-Service, and Resources(Please skip this section and go to Section B on page 5 if you have not hadany music education methods courses.)A) Rate the degree to which the following music methods course topics havebeen helpful to you in your teaching of music.12) Music theory (note naming, chord naming, time signatures, key signatures,sharps, flats, etc.).As may be seen in Figure 11, music theory is considered to be somewhathelpful by a moderate percentage of teachers (26%), but not helpful by another24. Thirty percent of the respondents indicated that music theory is eitherhelpful or extremely helpful.omitextremely helpfulhelpfulItem 12: Music theory (note naming, chordnaming, time signatures, key signatures.sharps, flats, etc.)somewhat helpfulnot helpfulnot studiedFigure 100% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%Figure 116013) Playing an accompaniment instrument (ukulele, autoharp, guitar).Accompaniment instruments were not studied by 30% of the respondents,and another 17% of the teachers reported that accompaniment instruments werenot helpful to their teaching of music. Of those who did study accompanimentinstruments, 29% found them to be either helpful or extremely helpful, while15% thought accompaniment instruments were somewhat helpful.14) Appropriate songs for children of different ages.As is illustrated in Figure 12, a majority of respondents (63%) foundthat knowledge of appropriate songs for children of different ages was eitherhelpful or extremely helpful. Twenty-five percent thought that this coursetopic was somewhat helpful, while only a very small percentage (2%) reportedthat the topic was not helpful. Only 7% of the respondents did not studyappropriate songs for children of different ages.Item 14: Appropriate songs for children of different agesextremely helpfulhelpfulsomewhat helpfulnot helpfulnot studiedI I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Figure 1215) Techniques of leading and teaching songs.Figure 13 on page 62 supports the notion that instruction in techniquesof leading and teaching songs were found to be extremely helpful (17%), or61helpful (29%) by many teachers. A moderate percentage (29%) rated this coursetopic to be only somewhat helpful. A small percentage (8%) indicated thatthis course topic was not helpful to their music teaching, while 10% did notstudy the topic at all.Item 15: Techniques of leacing and teaching songsexbemely helpfulhelpful________________________________________somewhat helpfulnot helpfulnot studiedomitI I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Figure 1316) Techniques of teaching classroom instruments (triangles, hand drums,xylophones, recorders, etc.).While 26% of the teachers indicated that techniques for teachingclassroom instruments were somewhat helpful, almost the same percentage (25%)rated this course topic as either helpful or extremely helpful. A similarpercentage of teachers (27%) did not study classroom instruments, and asmaller proportion (13%) reported that the topic was not helpful.17) Developing movement activities (singing games, dances, etc.).As is presented in Figure 14 (see page 63) , the majority of teachersfound that developing movement activities was either helpful (28%) orextremely helpful (28%) , while thirty-three percent of the respondentsindicated that developing movement activities was somewhat helpful. Only a62few teachers (4%i thought that this course topic was not helpful. Most of therespondents (95%) studied movement activities in their music courses.Item 17: Developing movement activities(singing games, dances, etc.)extremely helpfulhelpfulsomewhat helpfulnot helpfulnot studiedomit0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Figure 1418) Characteristics of children’s voices (comfortable range, vocal health,proper use of voice, etc.).As is portrayed in Figure 15, a relatively large percentage of teachers(46%) did not study characteristics of children’s voices in their musiccourses. A small percentage of the respondents found that the study ofchildren’s voices was either extremely helpful (9%) or helpful (7%). Sixteenpercent of the teachers rated this course topic to be only somewhat helpful,while 14% indicated that this study was not helpful.Item 18: CharacterIstics of childrens voicesomit (comfortable range, vocal health, properuse of voice, etc.)extremely helpfulhelpfulsomewhat helpfulnot helpfulnot studiedI I I I I I I I0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%Figure 156319) Integrating music with other subject areas.Figure 16 illustrates that integration was either a helpful, or anextremely helpful course topic for a good proportion of teachers (41%) -Another 25% rated integration as somewhat helpful. Only 11% of the teachersindicated that integration was not a helpful course topic, while 17% of therespondents did not study integration at all in their music courses.Item 19: Integrating music with otheromit subject areasextremely helpfulhelpfulsomewhat helpfulnot helpfulnot studied0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Figure 1620) Music reading and/or writing activities (reading and writingmusic notes).As may be observed in Figure 17 (see page 65), 26%- of the respondentsindicated that music reading and writing activities were somewhat helpful totheir teaching, while 20% found that this topic was riot helpful at all. Asimilar proportion of teachers (26%) did not study music reading and/orwriting in their course. Only a very small percentage of teachers indicatedthat music reading and/or writing was helpful (9%) or extremely helpful (8%) -64Item 20: Music reading and/or writing activitiesomitextremely helpful_________helpful_____somewhat helpful________________________not helpful__________not studied0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Figure 1721) Singing while reading music (sight-singing).Sight-singing was not studied by many teachers (39%) and was rated nothelpful by 14% of the teachers who studied this course topic. While 18%indicated that sight-singing was only somewhat helpful, a small percentage(17%) found sight-singing to be either helpful or extremely helpful.22) Using hand signals while singing (“doh-ray-me” etc.).Many of the respondents (25%) did not learn to use hand signals in theirmusic courses, and almost the same proportion of teachers (23%) reported thathand signals were not helpful. For those teachers who did study hand signals,20% thought that this was a somewhat helpful course topic, while 25% ratedhand signals as either helpful or extremely helpful.23) Mapping a song while singing.Several teachers (30%) did not study mapping in their music courses. Ofthose who did study mapping, 34%- found mapping to be either helpful orextremely helpful, while 18% said that mapping was somewhat helpful. Only 9%indicated that this was not a helpful course topic.6524) Using rhythm syllables (ta’s, ti-ti’s, or du’s and du-de’s).Rhythm syllables were not studied by many teachers (38%), but weresomewhat helpful to 26% of those who studied this course topic. Another 28%rated rhythm syllables to be either helpful or extremely helpful, while 17%did not think rhythm syllables were helpful.25) Using rhyme and chant to teach rhythm or movement activities.As is illustrated in Figure 18, many teachers (30%) found that rhyme andchant were helpful course topics, and an additional 23% thought that rhyme andchant were extremely helpful. Another 26% indicated that rhyme and chant weresomewhat helpful. A very small percentage (7%) did not find rhyme and chanthelpful to their teaching. Notably, almost all respondents (96%) studiedrhyme and chant in their music courses.Item 25: Using rhyme and chant to teachomit rhythm or movement activitiesextremely helpfulhelpfulsomewhat helpful__________________________________not helpfulnotstudiedI I I I I I I I0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%Figure 18Please comment on any of the above topics or on any other music educationmethods course topics that have not been included.Not all teachers chose to respond to the anecdotal sections of thequestionnaire. For this particular item, comments were received from 13teachers (8%)66Two teachers made general comments on course topics they found helpful:Great way for first time readers to enjoy language--integrate & repetition through (sic)I think the ETM method is very encompassing--what I know of it.A music education course was a negative experience for one respondent:My Music Ed class was not very helpful at all. Myprof. made most of us feel very self consciouscompared to more musically inclined students.Some teachers explained that their undergraduate music methods coursedid not help with their teaching of music:One of my courses focussed on developing a listeningprogram--this was personally enriching but not veryhelpful.It has been a very long time since I took Music atU.B.C. The course was a requirement with very littleactual Music training.My UBC was a 1.5 credit, music methods course andtouched only lightly on all the above.Too many topics introduced for length of course sothat you are introduced to many but competent at few.Remember--playing autoharp, recorder, piano, got afew songs to use with children; I can’t remember manydetails except it did not help me in the classroom atall. All Education students (primary andintermediate) were in one class. Those who had takenlessons for many years to those like me with flbackground. That was many years ago. Hopefullythings are better now.Without any prior music education background beforetaking 1 music ed. course, very little of what waslearned was retained. We simply “went through themotions” to get through the course. Watching otherclassroom teachers has been the most valuable.U.B.C. methods courses did not provide a backgroundin music theory--obtained theory on own.671.5 credit, studied all topics but too briefly--combined primary and intermediate; all musicbackgrounds together.Other comments made:I do not know what mapping a song is.In the Methods course I took, #18 (Characteristics ofchildren’s voices) was not covered. Neither was howto approach a song.Do you have any suggestions for desirable content for a classroom teacher’smusic methods course?Again, only a small number of teachers (17 teachers, or1O%i made comments.Seven teachers suggested that music methods courses focus onintegration:Integration--given the direction we seem to be headedin.Music integration with other curriculum areas/themes.When there is no consistent music instruction throughthe grades K-5 then it is best to use music as anenjoyment integrated with other subjects as well as aseparate subject. But because it will not benecessarily followed through, then note reading as ina Kodaly program shouldn’t be the main emphasis.Useful, practical experiences that can be easilyintegrated.Open ended, movement related, arranged by theme--fornon-music experts.Help to teach all music curriculum, being able tointegrate as much as possible.ETM is a solid grounding with a great deal ofopportunity for integration. It’s easy for us ‘non’musicians to use.68Two teachers suggested that courses be practical:Quick, easy to follow and implement type ideas toimprove specific skills.They should be really practical.Some comments were very specific:To include a thorough study of each of the above.Movement, dance, chant activities & resources.Transition courses--Sec to Elem (As music teachersshift career focus--because of cuts or burn outspecific courses to aid in the shift would be good.)Item 18 (Characteristics of children’s voices) wouldhave been most helpful.ETM- -well covered/instructed.Singing--not nearly enough.Ukulele--was well done about 7 years ago (locally)Orf f--not enough.One teacher would like to learn about the different music approaches:I could use a general overview of a variety ofteaching music approaches.Other comments:I’m not qualified to make a suggestion.Some of the above are not as familiar to me now partlybecause when we had specialists I didn’t do as much;would be more highly rated if I felt more confident.(Section II cont’d..B) Rate the degree to which the following music resources have been helpful toyou in your music teaching.26) Music method books (e.g., Orff, Kodaly, ETM, Birkenshaw, etc.).As is illustrated in Figure 19 (see page 70), music method books areeither helpful or extremely helpful for 30% of the respondents. Twenty-two69percent of the respondents find music method books to be only somewhathelpful. However, a fairly large number of teachers (40%) do not use musicmethod books at all.Item 26: Music method books (e.g., Orifomit Kodaly, ETM, Birkenshaw, etc.)extremely helpful_________________helpfulsomewhat helpfulnot helpfulhave not done/usedI I I I I I I I I0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%Figure 1927) Music textbooks (e.g., Musicanada series, Silver Burdett, etc.).Figure 20 indicates that 26% of the teachers do not use music textbooks,and a small percentage (10%) do not find textbooks to be helpful. A largernumber of teachers (35%) find music textbooks to be somewhat helpful, while24% rated textbooks as either helpful or extremely helpful.Item 27: Music textbooks (e.g., Musicanadaomit series, Silver Burdett, etc.)extremely helpfulhelpful__ ___ __ __________somewhat helpfulnot helpfulhave not done/usedI I I I I I I0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%Figure 207028) In-service workshops.As can be seen in Figure 21, the majority of respondents (73%) reportedthat workshops were either extremely helpful (25%), helpful (25%), or somewhathelpful (23%) . However, 21% indicated that they did not use workshops as aresource.Item 28: In-service workshopsextremely helpfulhelpful_________________________________somewhat helpful__ __ __not helpfulhave not done/usedomitI I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Figure 2129) Discussions with music specialist.Figure 22 (see page 72) shows that many teachers (32%) have not haddiscussions with a music specialist. Of those respondents who have met withtheir specialist, the majority (56%) found their discussions to be at leastsomewhat helpful (22%), helpful (20%), or extremely helpful (14%) . Note thatseveral teachers (8%) chose to omit this question.71Item 29: Discussions with music specialistomitextremely helpfulhelpfulsomewhat helpful__________________________not helpfulhave not done/used0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Figure 2230) Recollections from personal experiences (concerts, recordings, video,etc.).As may be observed in Figure 23 (see page 73), a total of 82% of therespondents believe that personal experiences are to some extent relevant totheir music teaching. A large proportion (35%-) stated that personalexperiences are somewhat helpful, another 32% rated their experiences to behelpful, and a smaller number (15%) reported that personal experiences areextremely helpful. Only 10% do not rely on their personal experiences, whilea very small percentage (4%) do not find such experiences helpful.72Item 30: Recollections from personal experiencesomit (concerts, recordings, video, etc.)extremely helpful__________________helpful_____ _________________________somewhat helpfulnot helpfulhave not done/used0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Figure 2331) Observation of music specialist.As is indicated in Figure 24, many teachers (41%) found it eitherhelpful or extremely helpful to observe a music specialist teach, and another21% rated such observations somewhat helpful. A very small percentage (5%)did not find this experience to be helpful, and a fairly large proportion ofteachers (28%) have not observed a music specialist teach.Item 31: Observation of music specialistomitextremely helpful___ _helpfulsomewhat helpfulnot helpfulhave not done/usedI I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Figure 247332) District leadership in music (e.g., Director of Instruction for the FineArts).As is portrayed in Figure 25, a large percentage of teachers (46%)indicated that district leadership in music was not a resource of which theyhave made use. However, district leadership was found to be somewhat helpfulto extremely helpful by 37% of the respondents. Note that several teachers(8%) chose to omit this question.Item 32: District leadership in music (e.g., Director of Instruction for the Fine Arts)omitextremely helpfulhelpful_______________somewhat helpful___not helpfulhave not done/usedI I_-- --_I I0% 10% 20% 20% 40% 50%Figure 2533) Other, please specify.Fifteen teachers (7%) listed other resources that are helpful to theirmusic teaching.One teacher uses a music textbook not mentioned in Item 27:-Canada Is MusicFive teachers value the help they receive from their colleagues:-observing other teachers (extremely helpful)-feedback from other colleagues who are not musicspecialists but good teachers (helpful)-colleagues-other non-music teachers--sharing ideas-help from other teachers (helpful)74Five respondents listed children’s recordings and programs:-children’s tapes eg., Sharon, Lois, & Bram-recordings, song copies available through IRC-taped programs to sing along-radio music program-use tapes of popular children’s artists: CharlotteDiamond; Sharon, Lois, & Bram; Fred Penner; Songs fromBarney and Friends; etc.A workshop was mentioned by one respondent:-Music workshop (Bureau of Educ. & Research) (helpful)Three teachers find that either taking or giving music lessons ishelpful to their teaching:-taking private lessons (helpful)-taking music lessons (helpful)-studio teaching experienceOne teacher considered personal enjoyment to be extremelyhelpful:-enjoyment of singing, actionsPlease comment on any of the above resources. (E.g., Why was a particularresource helpful, or not helpful, to you?)A large proportion of teachers (48%) commented on the usefulness of avariety of resources.Several comments (21) were made in support of the music specialist:A music specialist is extremely helpful [because] asa classroom teacher it is very difficult to be anexpert in everything. Music is a specialized fieldthat should be taught by a specialist, and leadershipto these specialists given by a Director ofInstruction. Music is essential for a child’s wellbeing as music and rhythm [are seen to be a] naturalpart of childhood.Item 31 was the most helpful. You could see themethods in action--then I could ask questions and seeher resources.75Can’t read music--so .When we had music, I spent 1 period working with andobserving her. I enjoyed it, as well as learning alot.Observing a music specialist in action in myclassroom was most helpful.When music specialist was on staff, I attended with[the] class & learned a lot!!Having access to a music specialist’s knowledge hasbeen invaluable.Music Specialist/Fine Arts Director--organizedprofessional development and made self available tohelp with implementation, encourage, etc.When we had music specialists, I found participatingwith the children the best way for me to learn theskills being taught. I was then able to reinforcethe skills at other times.In another district it was a requirement to observethe music specialist and then to continue the samesongs & skills for the rest of the week. That wasexcellent training!It is always more helpful to observe others and thenpractise. It builds confidence and skills.I really appreciate having a specialist not onlydemonstrate a skill--but show how it works withchildren and would like to see more of this. Anadmin. leader in Fine Arts provides direction andalso lends the essential credibility to Fine Artsthat is sorely lacking.Observation of a music specialist--methods/techniquesI learn by seeing it happen.I find it easier to model my teaching of music aftera demo lesson rather than reading a music manual.The music specialist gives me enthusiasm andinspiration for teaching music to my class.Because education seems to have gone back to the R’sand music specialists are not seen as a valuedpartner in Educ. today (But not by me personally).76Observing our music specialist teaching was helpfulas I could easily see her objectives for thechildren.Our former Music Specialist became a personal friend,and I was always welcome to observe her teach.ETM workshops and observing the music specialist (ie.Sister Fleurette & Sandi) were so enjoyable,inspiring, & educational.Music specialist “taught” skills - I don’t haveexpertise to do this.1) Those Res. people who worked with my class r gavepractical workshops r a specialist who providedtapes of songs introduced music teachers whoshared ideas used with my class in the school havebeen most helpful.2) District leadership by Fine Arts Coordinator isvital to a district.3) Music specialists in all schools are essential tomusic instruction beginning in K.District leadership/forcoordination/resources/inspiration/promotion ofmusic, etc.Music (teaching of) is “high energy” level work witha fast burnout rate.Specialists: some areas of music need specifictraining, generalist simply can’t provide.One teacher did not find it helpful to discuss music with specialists:I find music specialists assume you know more aboutmusic than you do when they talk or teach you.In addition to the comments mentioned above about the need for districtleadership in music, eight more teachers offered the following opinions onleadership.District leadership (helpful) --providing materials,structuring performance forums.It is a areat loss to this district--cancelled musicprog. in elem. and elimination of Fine Arts Director.Kerry Turner did some ETM demonstration lessons forme many years ago. I have always found a musicalteacher in my school that was willing to trade a77class (ie., Science or P.E.) and take my class formusic instruction.Years ago, when Kerry Turner had time to visitclasses, he was a wonderful help.Kerry Turner used to be great help!District leadership in music (E.g., Director ofInstruction for the Fine Arts)--very helpful whenasked.Kerry Turner and Sandy Murray were both helpfulproviding music and other help to me as a classroomteacher.Kerry Turner’s workshops and help in the classroomwere invaluable!Many teachers (22) commented on the effectiveness of workshops:In-service workshops/music specialists give siecificideas that you can take back and try out in the classright away.When a workshop is specifically for your Gr. level(e.g., for K/l as opposed to K-7) you get more fromit.More inservice very often.In-service workshops are helpful because they jogyour memory and get you focussing on music again.Ongoing to improve your skills & maintain your skills--if participate in in-service workshops.A workshop which I found really helpful was put on byBER and the presenter was Tom Hunter from Seattle.It was a good boost to my music teaching.In-service workshops are the most helpful--I like tolearn new songs or new ways to present songs to mystudents--things I can use next day in my class.E.T.M. workshops, Orff workshops, ukulele workshopsvery helpful.I attended a Charlotte Diamond workshop last yearwhich I found to be enjoyable, and helpful too.78I had theory I & II Toronto Cons, before I got toUBC. I learned much more in workshops once I becamea teacher. Workshops BCMEA, Chorister’s Guild--Betty-Ann Ramseth, Helen Kemp, Bruce Pullan, Erikifrom Finland, etc. I find integrating music withother subject areas very easy and do it quitereadily.Variety--see James Taylor handout--Pacific LutheranUniv.-Contact Rose Lowewen Prince George School Dist.“ Sandra Meister “ “ “I need frequent inservice to inspire me to trydifferent activities.Personal belief in the value of Music Ed., Dalcrozereadings. Dance & movement use.Item 28) (In-service workshops)--direct hands-onexperience.Item 26) (Music method books)--breakdown of tasksinvolved in things (skills) that I take for granted;approaches to teaching in an appropriate way for youngchildren.In-service workshops provided learning and teachingexperiences directly transferrable to the classroom(ETM)I’ve enjoyed the ETM workshops . .. but since I’mnot able to read music, I forget how the song goesand then I don’t bother looking at it for a while(out of frustration!) and then it just sits on theshelf.E.T.M.--primary singing games are a wonderfulstimulant to a child’s education.ETM has been the most helpful resource for me.ETM teaches the whole child and is a great tool tohelp even the most immature child focus & experiencesuccess. Also possible for us less musicallytalented souls to feel accomplished too!E.T.M.Birkenshaw and have been most useful--simple,tuneful, game-related songs & poems.ETM--great for teaching strategies to do with a song- mapping, antiphoning.79The ETM workshops you gave, Sandy, really proveduseful, working through the songs/games were moreeffective than any other music training course I’vetaken.ETM and Mary Richards charts (I think that was name)good. I think a music series with tapes, etc., wouldbe good but I haven’t actually worked with a series.Fleurette’s passion for her subject.Inspiration of excellence--Ballet/Opera--take toclassroom.In-service--excellent in 1bbotsford (Best I’ve seenin many school districts).Ten teachers made suggestions for resources:Scope & sequence/management/use of materials.Songs and related activities that have been proven tobe effective in the classroom.Item 31) Haven’t had them long enough to learn fromthem.Item 28) Need more e.g., Orff instruments--practicalways to use them.Other: We have a school-wide music listening programthat runs each day after recess. It features avariety of music from classical to rock & has anexplanation along with it.A listing of songs/games that were appropriate forteaching a specific skill.“Here’s How to Use Your High School Skills in YourNew Mr. Roger’s role in a Primary Classroom” MUEIJ3005.More Orff resources/ideas, more action songs withmore difficult/complex vocabulary/melody lines.Lots of stuff K-l not Gr. 3 levels or 3/4 split.Hands on a must.Sharing sessions amongst classroom teachers who havemusic backgrounds.I wish there was inservice available for “beginners”or those not confident with music.For non-music specialists, resources that are easy tofollow and have the concepts well organized andstructured are very important.80Resources = music is constantly progressing, needmaterials (instruments) & ideas to keep going.A few teachers (4) reflected on their background experiences:If it wasn’t for my background, I don’t know what Iwould have done.Item 30--Stuff I learned as a Girl Guide (Brownie)leader.Item 30--Not totally helpful because I can’t use aninstrument to demonstrate or accompany.We have a fine arts program at our school. I taughtrecorder from a small exercise book and based thelessons on what I had remembered from my elem. schoolexperience.Two teachers find tapes and other recordings helpful:Tapes and accom. words/activities--very useful esp.those who “play by ear”!I use well loved children’s songs like CharlotteDiamond, Raffi, etc., to sing along. We also use SingOut, No.2.One teacher mentioned the use of an instrument as aresource:Drama; blocking, etc., singing & chanting. Mobileinstrument- -ukulele- -take anywhere for accompaniment- -field trips, etc.One teacher felt limited in ability to use the resources:Depends on whether I could use it afterward. Practicewas often not sufficient for me as mostteachers/students learn music much faster than I do.Two teachers do not use the resources listed in the questionnaire:I have done so little of this, it’s not worthmentioning.I’ve heard of many of the resources but haven’t got aclue about them--especially those referred to in 326.81Section III: Attitudes and SkillsTo what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements?34) Music is an important part of my life.As is illustrated in Figure 26, the majority of respondents (87%i eitherstrongly agreed or agreed that music is important to their lives, Only 3 ofthe teachers disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement and l0neither agreed nor disagreed.Item 34: Music is an important part of my lifestrongly agreeagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitI I I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 2635) Music is an important part of our children’s education.As can be seen in Figure 27 (see page 83), most teachers (93%) eitherstrongly agreed or agreed that music is an important part of our children’seducation. Only 5% neither agreed nor disagreed, and 1% disagreed with thisstatement.82Item 35: Music is an important disagreepart of our childrens educationomit1% neither agree nor1%strongly agree49%Figure 2736) Music instruction is not necessary in the students’ day because privatelessons can accommodate those who wish to pursue music.A large majority of teachers (85%) either strongly disagreed (44%) ordisagreed (41%) that private lessons can replace music instruction at school.Only 7% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed with this contention,while another 7% neither agreed nor disagreed. Two respondents addedcomments:I don’t think we can offer enough for those studentsseriously interested in music, but we should providesome experiences, esp. with singing & gaining arepertoire of songs/music.This may become the way it is because of our economy &budget cuts.37) Music is a superfluous subject. Other subject areas are more important.As may be observed in Figure 28 (see page 84), a large proportion of therespondents (81%) strongly disagreed or disagreed that music is a superfluoussubject. However, 10% of the teachers neither agreed nor disagreed, and asmall percentage (8%) agreed or strongly agreed with the statement.83Item 37: Music is a superfluous subject.strongly Other subject areas are more important.agree1% Ofliltneither agreenor disagree 10% strongly disagree42/0Figure 2838) Music in the school day should only be used as a teaching tool (e.g.,using a song to reinforce counting skills, spelling, etc.).Most teachers (91%) either strongly disagreed or disagreed with thisassertion. Only 2% agreed that music should be used only as a teaching tool,and 7% neither agreed nor disagreed with this statement.39) Music in the school day should only be used for recreational purposes(e.g., as a break).The greater percentage of teachers (90%) either disagreed or stronglydisagreed that music should be used only for breaks in the day. Only 3%agreed with this statement, while 7% neither disagreed nor agreed.40) Music should be valued as a subject in itself.As is portrayed in Figure 29 (see page 85), most teachers (91%) eitheragreed or strongly agreed on the value of music as a subject in itself. Only2% disagreed or strongly disagreed with this assertion and 8% neither agreednor disagreed. Two respondents commented:39%84The way I am capable of teaching it, it is asuperfluous subject. A specialist would give themusic program justice it deserves. I cannot.The arts provide a healthy outlet for the expressionof our feelings and creativity. We would live in aconsiderably less violent society if everyone had suchan outlet. Many teenage gang members talk abouthanging out in malls because they are bored. Otherpeople turn to crime or drugs because they have nohealthy outlet for strong emotions like anger,depression, etc... .All of these demons can beexorcised through art as can more positive feelings.Item 40: Music should bevalued as a subject in itself disagree1% neither aee nordisagree8%strongly agree44%agree47%Figure 2941) Think of your own attitudes toward music. Are there any experiences inyour life which may have shaped those attitudes toward music?As is illustrated in Figure 30 (see page 86), many of the respondentsperceived that several experiences have influenced their feelings towardmusic. A large percentage of teachers indicated that recordings (audio andvideo) (68%) , concert attendance (69%), and family (62%) were influentialexperiences. Many teachers also perceived that their personal experiences inthe primary grades (52%), and with private music lessons (50%), wereinfluential. Experiences in the intermediate grades (43%) and secondaryschool (41%) were also considered influential by a number of teachers.strongly disagree —85omit Item 41: Think of your own attitudes toward music.Are there any experiences in your life which mayother have shaped those attitudes toward music?university experience____________________sec. sch. experience --mt. gr. sch. experience____________prim. gr. sch. experiencerecordings 7concert attendance______________________colleague__peer pressurefriend_ ____private mus. lessons_ _____ __ _______ ___family nember I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%Figure 30Use the space below to explain your experience(s) and how it (they) influencedyour present attitude toward music.Sixty-two percent of the teachers made anecdotal comments in response tothis question.School experiences were cited by 28 of the respondents:We attended the symphonies when in elem. school. Wehad music specialists.My teacher in grade 7 played piano & taught us somegreat songs. She also encouraged me to take my guitarto school & I played some simple chords along withher. I felt q important. My Mom let me take guitarlessons which I loved & I also bought a clarinetthrough the band program. I loved touring to theBanff musical festival! I love listening to music. Afriend of mine while I was in high school got me tolisten to and love all kinds of music.I enjoy singing and listening to music. Even though Idon’t read music, I was able to carry a tune andenjoyed participating in school choirs.I came from a household that was not musical. I wasforced to take piano lessons. I was rejected from theAll Star in grade 4.86I played in the band (flute) from grades 6-12 plusrecorder (gr. 3-7) and guitar (gr. 6 &7). Iparticipated because I enjoyed it not because I wantedto take it further. It’s a wonderful feeling to bepart of a band when you’ve worked hard on a piece.School choirs, festivals of music; even now I rememberthe songs, the music, they are still favourites. Theteachers were dynamic and inspiring. I loved “music”then and still do now.High school choir--experiences with 3 part singing,solo work culminating in several performances and tripto Europe: love to sing/relaxing/creativeRecordings, etc. --diff styles/presentation/ways toincrease memory.Jr. High--High School Band teachers--inspiring.My interest in creativity--teach to kids(music/dance/art etc.) (a way of thinking)I always looked forward to music time. We had noinstrument, but we always sang. It was so much fun!I played clarinet in a Secondary School band for 5years--wonderful experience Gr. 7-12.I was very involved with the band program in theintermediate and high school grades. I was so sorrythe band program here has been cut.In Grade 5 I went to the Vancouver Symphony with myclass. The music was so moving, I knew I belongedwith those musicians.It was fun to learn at U.B.C.I had strong music instruction in my grades 3-8 publicschool. This is where I learned the most. I hatedpiano lessons as a child but can now at least play themelody of a song on piano and am grateful.High school choir most influential. I don’t readmusic but learned quickly by hearing. Enjoyed the 4-part harmony. Travelled to Wales for Music Festival.Travelled with the U of A choir. High school choirdirector most influential person in my life.Best formal music education was in Gr. 7 and 8 at alarge Jr. Sec. school. Before that I had attendedsmall elementary schools (one/two rooms) . I canremember getting most of the music (songs) learnedthrough CBC radio programs for schools. I know a lot87of the ETM songs so I must have learned them inprimary!I have clear recollections of enjoying music inschool, but theory and accurate singing mystified me.I have always enjoyed listening to music, althoughneither of my parents played or sang.Participation in school musicals at all levels was abig deal for me. I loved it.Vocal Jazz and Guitar were my favourite classes inGrades 8-10. I remember the friends and close tiesmade through our musical experiences.I had an excellent singing teacher when I was 9-11yrs. old. We sang Schubert (The Trout) and BrahmsLullaby, etc. She was an amateur opera singer and weloved her and tried to mimic her. I was hooked onclassics!Music did not come easily--piano lessons were not fun,teacher did not display fun attitude toward it. Myexperience in grade 6 (radio choir) and grades 7, 8, &9 were positive because I feel I came away with someknowledge of the instruments I used in music class.Music can lift me out of a depression or prevent mebecoming too depressed. I enjoyed the comradeship ofbeing in high school choir.Played in the school band gr. 5-12 and found a lot ofenjoyment and satisfaction, still remember music ingr. 3, dont remember anything else in that grade.Church choir/Community Band--provided real focus--socially, intellectually.With no formal music background I was forced to learnto play a primary song on the piano to pass my musiccourse in my professional year. I always sang in theelementary school and a church choir, but never hadlessons.Although I took piano lessons & played in high schoolband I never felt “successful” or good enough.Music was to me was something enjoyable andpleasurable. The difficult part for me was pianolessons--in particularly reading and playing pieces.Being part of school and church choirs and gettingmuch enjoyment from musical presentations.88Many teachers (26) wrote about their family music experiences:My mother played piano and sang, my father sang. Mymother directed a church choir for concerts, and Ilearned how to sing in harmony at an early age. As ayoung adult I had musician friends and realized somepeople made music their life and a living from music.Music was very much encouraged in our home by myparents. We all took music lessons. I grew up in avery “musical community” where the music festivalyearly in the schools was a must; musicals werepresented; the high school band Jr. & Sr. orchestrasplus choir. I am grateful for this heritage.Music tied the family together. Musicians became goodfriends and understood the language of music. Throughmusic I could express my inner feelings. I am able toexperience spiritual growth as I connect with themusic and lyrics in many instances.Music was in my life from very early on. My familyenvironment was full of it. Ballet lessons were myown expression for love of music and response torhythm. Band programs at school and attendance atconcerts were available to me. The consideration ofmusic as a way of life was allowed for as I progressedthrough high school. Attendance at a Fine Arts highschool summer camp for band expanded my view andattitude towards vocation.Parents were very supportive--encouraged my privatepiano lessons, took me to concerts, attended JJ. myschool band concerts.Our family was always musical.Musicals during my gr. 6-12 years were particularlyinfluential. Also public performances with my familyfrom the time I was about 7 yrs. old helped indeveloping an appreciation for “vocals”.Church concerts, playing instruments, self-taught,with family members. Own children took piano lessons.I was always sung to as a child, I sing to my children& to the class. I love music & value it as a person,parent and teacher.From an early age, music was enjoyed and was anintegral part of family celebrations. Participationin school/church choirs have always been positiveexperiences.89There has always been music in my life--mostly “homemade” at first--mom singing as she worked, singing inchurch (no radio or TV) . Private lessons broadened mymusical experiences and drew me more deeply into agreater variety of music. Concerts enriched myexperience only as an adult. For me, life withoutmusic would be unbearable. However, I find it moredifficult to share with my class than to appreciate itmyself.My husband is very musically talented, and I’velearned from him. I’ve also had my own children inprivate lessons for years. Helping them practise hasincreased my knowledge.My father always liked to sing going places in thecar. We had a lot of sing-a-long type records &because I liked singing so much I was in choirs atschool & church.My father sang & mother played the piano. I had anexcellent choral teacher in high school.Changed elementary schools every 1-2 yrs. so onlyremember being in the choir in Gr. 4/5 & 7. My maininfluence is my husband, who is musically aware andcan play the guitar.My father appreciated, played, & enjoyed records ofclassical music. I grew up with a background sound ofBach, Beethoven, Vivaldi, Mozart, etc. But had noformal training in school or out.Ballet lessons instilled love of classical music.Regularly attended operettas, opera, big name singers,& musicians with my parents from a young age.Always had music at home--father loved Italian opera,etc., brother in a Rock Band!1) Dad’s interest in music--played in high school band(clarinet) demonstrated a lifelong interest in musicalinstruments (clarinet, flute, trumpet, some stringinstruments), taught interested family members how toplay, organized family ensembles including singing &instruments.2) Introduction to recordings of classical music-intermediate teacher.My father played both the piano and violin. I tookprivate piano lessons up to grade 3. My best schoolfriend was an unusually gifted piano player andsinger. I stopped piano lessons because I thought my90peers would make fun of my practising. I’ve attendedmany concerts. I remember singing a lot in primaryand intermediate. In secondary I joined the schoolchoir.My family is a “musical” one in that we have allstudied and enjoyed music. We have all learned manyskills--not the least of which listening and criticalskills that have improved our lives.Although j do not play a musical instrument, others inmy family musicians, and I have a deepappreciation and love for all types of music.Music has always been a form of leisure and enjoymentfor my family as a child and until this day. Myparents and grandparents always took me to concerts.Also, in the U.S. I had music teachers in school inevery grade.My family was quite musical but I never felt that Ihad a good sense of rhythm myself.I have a very positive attitude towards music--therefore I assume my negative childhood experienceswith music (ie: private lessons in piano) have beenoutweighed by other more positive experiences (i.e.:family singing, Scottish & Irish folk songs, concertattendance, etc...)In addition to comments already made about church experiences, thefollowing teachers wrote:I really loved singing as a child and enjoyed singinghymns in church as well as folk songs at school.Formal instruction I found tedious and piano lessonsnearly put me off music for life. Let children enjoythe experiences with music!Actually, something that really is central to thewhole meaning of music for me is church and the veryrich traditional hymns, choruses, and choirs--some ofthe best, most moving musical experiences have beenChristmas and Easter concerts performed in churches.Forced to take piano lessons--didn’t want to do it.finally quit & only occasionally plunk around--FORpleasure.Really enjoy singing because of singing at church andas a child.91Singing used as a uniting activity--church worship,girl guide groups, etc.Camping was a part of one respondent’s music experiences.Member of Girl Guides--singing was stressed--attendeda music camp--learned part songs.As already mentioned above by a few teachers, private lessons wereeither positive or negative experiences:My mother always told me that I could not sing verywell, so I use tapes to teach children songs. I wasinvolved in ballet, tap & jazz dance when I wasyounger so I’m confident with dancing.Some of my early experiences (piano/violin lessons)were negative. I determined to pass on a positiveexperience/environment to my students & chose to findways to integrate music during the school day.Some teachers recalled negative music experiences:My teacher asked me not to sing!Most [of] my experiences were unpleasant, always (inJbbotsford District) told I couldn’t sing and had nomusical talent. Would never be musical; most I couldhope for was technical. But I didn’t care what theythought!We all had to audition for chorus in Gr 3; I sang oneline and the teacher yelled, “Oh, no!”I was not allowed to join our Elementary Choir so havenot felt like a singer every since (That’s why we singwith taped songs.)Made to feel untalented in music because I sang offkey, etc. (school experience in primary grades)Learned to “just move my mouth.”1) My dad always played records & watched/listened toT.V. shows with music. He sang along even though hecouldn’t carry a tune. 2) During music class a fellowstudent told me to mouth the words--my singing wasspoiling song. 3) My music ed. course was one of theworst I ever took--made me feel even less capable ofteaching music.92Concert attendance was important to some respondents:Grew up in the 60’s. The radio was my life--dancing/concerts all the time, clubs in Toronto as ayoung adult.I grew up listening to music and going to concerts andmusical productions. I have enjoyed folk dancing,choir, and musical presentations as a child.Admire musical performances and those who feelconfident presenting and leading.I was influenced by observing the talents of othersand appreciating all forms of music.I enjoy musicals and live theater concerts. However,other than dance, I rarely participate directly inmusical activities. Non-musical family background.We have a large collection of recorded music--we enjoyconcerts of many kinds of music--its part of “life”!I love to play piano and organ--influenced my ownchildren to take lessons. Saw and heard new kinds ofmusic at concerts and music appreciation class atuniversity. Listened to some music in teens,different from Royal Conservatory lessons--broadenedmind. Choral singing in classroom. I still know thesongs.Several teachers wrote about the enjoyment found in listening to music:I have always enjoyed listening to music & peopleplaying guitar & singing. I still enjoy listening tomusic.As long as I remember, listening to and playing “good”music has been a part of my life. Playing in variousbands also contributed to interest.I have found that when I am exposed to differentstyles of music for a period of time, I begin toappreciate them.A great deal of pleasure comes from listening to music(different kinds)I think the exposure I’ve had to music in my personallife, in terms of entertainment, has made meappreciate how music can contribute to a positive,cheerful attitude.93I enjoy listening to music--but I’m nonmusical in thatI don’t play an instrument or sing.I like listening to many kinds of music in variousformats/venues.Some teachers have been influenced by their friends and colleagues:Having friends who are committed to music has raisedmy own awareness of and appreciation for music.Through them I have been exposed to a broader range ofmusic styles and have come to appreciate them.Modelling by adult teachers of enjoying music orteaching throuch music had biggest influence.I am encouraged by the opportunity I have to sharemusic with another teacher so we do music on a regularbasis.Being around primary teachers who are musicallytalented has enhanced my interest in music.In addition to the many references already made to participation inschool or church choirs, two more teachers wrote:Belonged to children’s & adult choirs.Singing in choirs, leading choirs.Music was described as a social event by two teachers:I learned that music could be a vehicle for expressingemotions and feelings. It could be a social event.Music was “fun”--enjoyed it with people.Two respondents have not participated in music at all:I like peace & quiet--was never really into music-even in my “youth.”Wasn’t involved in music.94A few teachers had only a little music experience:If I had more “school music” experience, I might havebeen able to learn to sing on tune or something. It’sa wonderful skill to acquire as one can really “grow”to be musical. But, because I feel that I’m terriblyinadequate in this area, I think we need to addressthis need in school. Who knows--there may be morepeople out there who “missed” out because of “lack oftraining” n because of “lack of interest”! I’m surethere are people (adults and children alike) who lovemusic--but it’s not readily available. Too bad!Had very little success in my meagre music experiencesas a child. At present I depend on professionaltapes, discs, etc., for my music teaching & personalenj oyment.I am not qualified nor can I carry a tune--I enjoymusic but must use cassettes.In school, music was a bit of a mystery to me, howeverI had a strong desire to write little songs and topass on the ‘enjoyment’ of music, that I feel I missedout on as a student in elem. school.My friends used to take piano lessons. My parents hadstrict views against music lessons. To this day, oneof my personal goals, is to learn to play the piano.Some respondents reflected on their feelings about music and madecomments that were more general in nature:Music has been an important part of my life sinceearly childhood.The early years build an appreciation that is kept allyour life.I was born loving music. No family member, friend, ortraining has ever provided me with anything that hasenhanced or changed what I’ve always felt.Always surrounded by music--auditory & participating &uplifts the soul if you are alone.le to recognize importance and benefits of music forchildren.A lot of positive exposure to music as a child so thatmusic “became” very important/therapeutic to me.95Can’t think of any sincTle experience that influencedmy attitude.Learned to appreciate music.I was fortunate enough to be exposed to a wide varietyof music styles and learned that music can beused/experienced with a specific objective in mind, orjust for the pure enjoyment of it.Music is a fundamental part of our lives. It is alanguage which communicates regardless of differentlanguages of the world. Without music, our liveswould not be as rich and enjoyable. We need music!!42) Think of your own attitudes toward teaching music. Are there anyexperiences in your life which may have shaped those attitudes towardteaching music?Fewer teachers responded to Item 42. While only 4 teachersomitted Item 41, 19 teachers did not complete Item 42.As is illustrated in Figure 31 (see page 97), more teachers (39%)were influenced by their primary grade experiences than by any of theother music experiences listed in Item 42. Recordings were almost asinfluential, with a response rate of 34%, followed by concert attendance(32%), and colleagues (32%) . Twenty-eight percent indicated that familymembers were influential, and similar proportions of teachers choseuniversity experiences (27%), private music lessons (25%) , friends(25%), intermediate school experiences (25%), and secondary schoolexperiences (22%)96Item 42: Think of your own attitudes toward teaching music.omi_________Are there any expenences in your fe which may haveother shaped those attitudes toward teaching music?university experiencesec. school experience__________in gr. sch. experience____ __ ____prim. gr. sch. experience -recordings -concert attendancecolleague____ ______peer pressurefriendprivate mus. lessonsfamily memberI I I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%Figure 31Use the space below to explain your experience(s) and how it (they) influencedyour present attitude toward teaching music.Several comments (11) were made about school experiences.(As above.) I really loved singing as a child andenjoyed singing hymns in church as well as folk songsat school. Formal instruction I found tedious andpiano lessons nearly put me off music for life. Letchildren enjoy the experiences with music!(As above.) Music has always been a form of leisureand enjoyment for my family as a child and until thisday. My parents and grandparents always took me toconcerts. Also, in the U.S. I had music teachers inschool in every grade.Junior high band teacher made music fun--shared hislove of music with his students, I wanted to do thesame thing. (Maybe I will be able to in the future--in Abbotsford?!?)(As above.) (Jr. High/High School Band teachers etc.)I love making music therefore I will teach others todiscover that joy for themselves.Thoroughly enjoyed band--8-9-lO-ll-l2. Music was agreat group activity--promoted togetherness towards 1goal--performance.97Mom is a teacher. She uses a number of songs to gowith each theme in the classroom. A colleague madesuggestions how to use music as a writing lesson withyoung children. I value my elementary school musicbackground and wish students could now also have thattraining.I love the singing we do in groups at school. I feelmore comfortable accompanying rather than leading agroup.I was happiest at school when I was singing andreading. My Gr. 6 teacher, in particular, spentalmost all morning singing with us everyday. I was inheaven. (The school admin. didn’t appreciate ittho’ .) I also got to sing solos at Xmas concerts inprimary school (small country schools) which I LOVED.I remember my favourite teacher whom I had for grade3. She made singing fun for us all.I like music and singing (School experiences--elem.and sec.).(As above.) With no formal music background I wasforced to learn to play a primary song on the piano topass my music course in my professional year. Ialways sang in the elementary school and a churchchoir but never had lessons.Personal enjoyment of singing influenced these teachers:(Answered as one) I’m afraid my experience in musichas been primarily in singing. I’ve always loved todo that because the ticked areas above were mostenjoyable to me. I know many songs and feel thatmusic is like reading--if you exhibit enthusiasm forit. This will “rub off” on your students.I enjoyed singing & feel all children do!Because I was mainly involved in singing activities,that is what I mostly do with the kids.Teachers appreciated the work of their colleagues:Working with colleagues who teach music effectivelymakes me appreciate the value of music to children.Colleagues--excellent presentations at workshops,enthusiasm is catching.98When I observed other women conducting choirs whichproduced marvelous performances, I was encouraged tobe involved in similar situations.Seeing success in other primary classrooms of musicenjoyment or learning to read or learn a 2nd languagethrough music (colleague).I watch a bit of what someone else is doing and breakeach section down into “comfortable pieces.” Thenit’s easier to say “I think I could do that.”In addition to comments made about in-service and workshops in theResource section of the questionnaire, the following remarks were made:I took a music course for my ECE training and usedthat a lot and still basically draw on that.ETM- -music workshops.Once introduced to ETM I knew I could try to do areasonable job of teaching music since one can’t sing& play recorder which is my only instrument.Exposure to the methods of Em! and Orff through after-school workshops has largely determined what I do inthe classroom re: Music instruction.A few teachers found concerts and performances to be helpful:I enjoy music and really love teaching using the ETMsongs. The children’s concerts I’ve attended--with myown children--have acquainted me with children’sartists, and we listen to and sing along with theseartists in class. My background gave me confidence tosing!I became so excited about music/performance that Iknew I’d want to pass that excitement/love of music,etc., on to others.Two comments were made about listening:I enjoy listening to music--my son is taking guitarlessons.I enjoy listening to music, appreciate othersperforming it, feel children need the exposure andexperience with music.99Only one teacher mentioned private lessons:(As above.) My mother always told me that I could notsing very well, so I use tapes to teach childrensongs. I was involved in ballet, tap & jazz dancewhen I was younger so I’m confident with dancing.One respondent acknowledged a friend:Music introduced to me by friend.In addition to comments already made in Item 41 with regard to negativeexperiences in school or university, five more teachers wrote:I would never be like my music teachers and I wouldhelp children enjoy discovering music in a way that Iwish I could of [aidI try to make music fun, because it was not fun forme, it was forced by parents/teachers. Performanceemphasized too much.Because of my experiences at UBC I really feelinadequate teaching even the basics.I felt intimidated in University & didn’t enjoy any ofthe music classes. I didn’t feel I could do anythingmore than play a tape & sing along with my class--that’s what I do for music.(As above.) Told that I was tone deaf, asked to leavechoir. Negative feelings towards singing (sec.school, univ.).Had very little success in my meagre music experiencesas a child. At present I depend on professionaltapes, discs, etc. for my music teaching & personalenj oyment.Several respondents (13) wrote about their feelings of inadequacy inmusic:I do not have a musical background. I did not havethe opportunity to have music lessons as a child. Ihave very little formal teacher training in music. Ienjoy music and I think that it is an important partof the curriculum. I feel rather unmusical myself andI try to incorporate it into my teaching the best to100my ability, but it is one subject area when I wouldrather not have adult observers in the room.Hate teaching music--feel very inadequate & no desireto become adequate.My musical inability has been made clear to me byfriends and family.I have not had training and feel inadequate.I was not allowed to join our Elementary Choir so havenot felt like a singer ever since. (That’s why wesing with taped songs.)Lack of instruction--time needed to learn new songswhen you can’t read music.I don’t teach music because I can’t sing. When youcan’t carry a tune, it’s pretty difficult to teach orto inspire music in the classroom. However, Istrongly feel that music plays a large portion inone’s life and is a culture every child should beexposed to whether or not the family can affordprivate lessons!!My first grade teacher was an excellent piano player,and I recall music as being lots of fun back then.wish I was good at teaching music, but don’t know howto do it.I just don’t know hz to teach it even though I loveit.As someone who enjoys music but is fl very musical, Ineed a structured program that is user friendly andfun to teach.I wish I had some hands-on experience with teachingmusic.I have always enjoyed music and feel it is essentialto maintaining a “well rounded” personality. I ampersonally just not prepared enough or comfortableenough to teach it to my class.Music is important, although I don’t feel comfortablesinging aloud. Tapes are a great help.101Some teachers reflected on how their observations of children haveinfluenced their attitudes toward teaching music:I guess that as I realized how little some people knowabout music, yet how readily children respond to it,that helped me become more determined to at least dosomething about it.My daughter’s enjoyment of music and that she has amusic teacher (gr K-4) reminds me of its importance tochildren. Also provides me with some songs to try.Watching children as they react to music is a greatpleasure to me and encourages me to do more to teachmusic in my class.From doing some L.A. I have learned that it is also avaluable teaching tool.Children enjoy singing, and it’s an excellent way toteach them concepts.The more I’ve taught music to children the more I’velearnt how important and enjoyable . .. a necessarypart of every child’s life it is.Music is a powerful force that unifies. It is abeautiful calming bridge when used as transitions;“attention-getter,” etc., in the classroom. Childrenrespond positively when they are taught that singingcarefully and thoughtfully is as important as printingand drawing carefully on the lines or in spaces, tocreate a beautiful piece.Primary and mt. music experience was not fun!Through university courses and peer discussion, I cameto the realization that it can and should be enjoyableand something to feel good about. Experience has alsoshown how much children respond to and love music.The following comments are general statements about music and children.Music has always been a part of my life, just asreading and art have. It is just natural for me toincorporate it into my teaching.Music and the soul go together. You cannot live in avacuum. Music fills that vacuum beautifully; itnourishes the child and gives purpose.I know what a positive influence music has had in mylife and I willingly pass it on to others so they inturn can become happier individuals.102I feel that I could do a good job in my classroom withsome help through workshops etc. I love to teachmusic lessons and personal experiences give me theconfidence to teach music.Increased my confidence in teaching music.I enjoy singing, being dramatic with students--release for students--way of expression--good use oflanguage in enjoyable way.Always loved a wide variety of music. I want mystudents to feel free and uninhibited to sing. I wantthem exposed to all types of music (listening) todevelop appreciation and find the type of music theylike. We listen to music at least once or twice aday. I use music to relax and calm a class or to perkthem up.Music can be fun, it can be integrated within othersubject areas. Words set to a melody make readingeasier and enjoyable.Again, no single experience just a desire to exposechildren to music with the hope that some may come toshare my love of it.Don’t put young children on the spot.Value eagerness and participation, not “talent.”I would like all the children I teach to appreciatelistening to all forms of music as I do--and alsoenjoy creating it and performing it as I thoroughlydid.I’m not able to play any instrument, but enjoy singingwith the children.Probably because I enjoy music, I would like my kidsto have a good exposure to it and to enjoy it. But Idon’t have enough background to do much more thansinging, games, echo clapping.Self inflicted pressure to put on a good classperformance during concerts.My own enjoyment of music--a wish that I could singbetter & play instrument.Own personal belief that I had something important toimpart to others. A desire to use all my skills &talents. A dissatisfaction with making a living as aplayer, and a desire to use other skills & talents hasmade me feel that I am an important and valuablecontributor to children’s education. With district103arts, I am experiencing a loss, both professionally &personally. However, I am seeing how music can beused & experienced holistically.I learned to enjoy music as a young child--I think itis important to introduce children to the joy of musicas early as you can.(Section III, Attitudes and Skills continued):The following items describe various music activities. If you do not feelcomfortable teaching any form of music at all, you need not answer the rest ofthe questions. Thank you for your participation in this study.Ten teachers (6%) omitted Items 43 to 61 as per instructions. They havebeen given the category, “Not comfortable teaching any form of music.”43) I feel comfortable teaching a new song to the class.Figure 32 illustrates that a large proportion of teachers (77%) feelcomfortable with teaching their classes a new song. A small percentage ofrespondents (11%) disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement, while5% neither agreed nor disagreed.43) I feel comfortable teaching a new song to the class.strongly agree________________________________agree__________neither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfortable teachingmusic0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 3210444) I feel comfortable teaching a new singing game to the class.As can be seen in Figure 33, the majority of teachers (77%) feelcomfortable with teaching a new singing game to their classes. A smallpercentage (8%-) neither agreed nor disagreed that they feel comfortable withsinging games, and 9% are uncomfortable with this aspect of music instruction.44)1 feel comfortable teaching a new singing game to the dass.strongly agree__________---agree-neither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 3345) 1 can select songs which are suitable for the age and developmental levelof the students.On the following page, Figure 34 shows that over half of the respondents(58%) agreed, and 24% strongly agreed that they feel comfortable withselecting suitable songs for their students. A small number of teachers (7%)do not feel comfortable with song selection.105Figure 3446) 1 feel comfortable teaching the class a new chant (rhyme) using speech.As may be observed in Figure 35, only a very small percentage ofteachers (2%) feel uncomfortable teaching their students a chant using speech.The majority (85%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they are comfortablewith chants.Item 46: I feel comfortable teaching the class a new chant (rhyme)strongly agree using speechagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeItem 45: I can select songs which are suitable for the age anddevelopmental level of the studentsstrongly agreeagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI—— I I I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%omitNot comfort tching.music0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 3510647) 1 can select from a wide variety of song material (e.g., children’s folksongs, game songs, seasonal songs, songs of other cultures, etc.).As is illustrated by Figure 36, over half of the teachers (58%) canselect a wide variety of song material, while only 22% either disagreed orstrongly disagreed that they are able to do so. Thirteen percent of therespondents neither agreed nor disagreed that they are able to choose songmaterial.Item 47: I can select from a wide variety of song materialstrongly agree________________agreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort tching.musicI I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 3648) I can confidently teach a lesson on healthy vocal/singing production.As is portrayed in Figure 37 (see page 108), over half of therespondents (55%) disagreed or strongly disagreed that they can teachvocal/singing production, and 16% neither agreed nor disagreed that they areable to teach such a lesson. A smaller proportion of teachers (21%) agreed orstrongly agreed with this statement.107Item 48: I can confidently teach a lesson on healthystrongly agree vocal/singing productiona”ree--neither agree nor -disagreedisagree_____-strongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.music0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 3749) 1 can confidently develop a lesson to teach music concepts (e.g., aconcept related to rhythm, melody, form, dynamics, timbre, harmony, tempo,steady beat, etc.).As may be seen in Figure 38, a minority of teachers (25%) either agreedor strongly agreed that they can develop a concept-based music lesson withconfidence. Almost half of the teachers (49%) either disagreed or stronglydisagreed that they are able to plan lessons to teach music conceptsconfidently, while another 17% neither agreed nor disagreed.Item 49: I can confidently develop a lesson to teachstrongly agree__music conceptsagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 3810850) 1 feel comfortable teaching songs in a variety of tonalities (pentatonic,major, minor, dorian, mixolydian, etc.).As may be observed in Figure 39, the majority of teachers eitherstrongly disagreed (40%), or disagreed (29%) that they feel comfortable withteachings songs in various tonalities. Only 7% of the respondents agreed orstrongly agreed that they are comfortable with this teaching skill, while 15%neither agreed nor disagreed.Item 50: (feel comfortable teaching songs in a variety of tonalitiesstrongly agreeagreeneither agree nordisagree_____________disagree-4.strongly sagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 3951) I feel comfortable teaching songs in a variety of meters (2/4, 4/4, 3/4,6/8, 7/8, etc.).As is portrayed by Figure 40 (see page 110), a little more than half therespondents (53%) either disagreed or strongly disagreed that they arecomfortable teaching songs in a variety of meters. However, a moderateproportion of teachers (35%) agreed or strongly agreed that they arecomfortable teaching songs in different meters.109Item 51: I feel comfortable teaching songsstrongly agree — in a variety of metersagree.neither agree nordisagreedisagree_____________________strongly disagree --omitNot comfort. tching.music0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4052) I feel comfortable teaching children how to play rhythm instruments.Figure 41 illustrates that 34% of the respondents do not feelcomfortable teaching children to play rhythm instruments, and that a moderateproportion (20%) neither agreed nor disagreed with this statement. However, aslightly larger proportion (37%) agreed or strongly agreed that they feelcomfortable with teaching rhythm instruments.Item 52: I feel comfortable teaching children how to playstrongly agree rhythm instrumentsagree___ ______________neither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4111053) I feel comfortable teaching children how to play melody instruments(xylophone, metallophone, etc.).As may be observed in Figure 42, over half of the teachers (58%) do notfeel comfortable with teaching melody instruments to children, while 16%neither agreed nor disagreed that they feel comfortable with this skill. Asmall proportion of the respondents (16%) agreed or strongly agreed that theyare comfortable with teaching melody instruments.Item 53: I feel comfortable teaching children how to play_____melody instrumentsstrongly agreeagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagree-;strongly disagree____________________omitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4254) 1 aii comfortable developing rhythm instrument accompaniments for mystudents to play.As is illustrated in Figure 43, on the following page, about half of theteachers (51%) disagreed or strongly disagreed that they are comfortable withthis skill, and 17% neither agreed nor disagreed. However, a moderatepercentage of respondents (23%) feel comfortable developing rhythm instrumentaccompaniments.111_______Item 54: I am comfortable developing rhythm instrumentstrongly agree accompaniments for my students to playagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4355) I am comfortable planning and teaching lessons that integrate music withother subject areas.As is shown in Figure 44, a good proportion of teachers (56%) feelcomfortable with their abilities to integrate music with other subject areas.A moderate percentage (21%) disagreed or strongly disagreed with thisstatement, while 14% neither agreed nor disagreed.Item 55: I am comfortable planning and teaching lessons thatintegrate music with other subject areas.strongly agreeagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4411256) I am comfortable with teaching music composition.In Figure 45 it can be observed that the majority of teachers (73%)either disagreed or strongly disagreed that they are comfortable with teachingmusic composition, and 9% neither agreed nor disagreed. Only 8% of therespondents are comfortable with teaching music composition.Item 56: I am comfortable teaching music compositionstrongly agreeagreeneither agree nor—disagreedisagree---strongly disagree- :—-1omitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4557) I am comfortable teaching children how to improvise.Figure 46 (see page 114) illustrates that a good proportion of teachers(57%) do not feel comfortable with teaching improvisation, and 14% neitheragreed nor disagreed with this statement. However, a moderate percentage ofrespondents (20%) agreed or strongly agreed that they are comfortable withteaching children to improvise.113Item 57: I am comfortable teaching children how to improvisestrongly agreeagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4658) 1 can develop a sequence of lessons for specific music topics.As can be seen in Figure 47, a substantial proportion of teachers (54%-)are not able to plan a sequence of music lessons, and 15% neither agreed nordisagreed that they are able to do so. Twenty-one percent, a moderateproportion of teachers, either agreed or strongly agreed that they are able todevelop lessons for specific music topics.Item 58: I can develop a sequence of lessons for specificmusic topicsstrongly agreeagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4711459) I can develop and teach a music listening lesson.In Figure 48, it may be observed that half of the teachers (50%) eitheragreed or strongly agreed that they can develop and teach a music listeninglesson. A small percentage (14%) neither agreed nor disagreed that they areable to plan and teach a music listening lesson, while a moderate percentage(28%) either disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement.Item 59: I can develop and teach a music listening lessonstrongly agreeagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4860) I can develop and teach a lesson using movement activities.As is illustrated in Figure 49 (see page 116), a large proportion ofteachers (61%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they are able to plan andteach a movement lesson. A smaller proportion (15%) either disagreed orstrongly disagreed with this assertion, while 16% neither agreed nordisagreed.115Item 60: I can develop and teach a lesson using movement activitiesstrongly agreeagreeneither agree nordisagreedisagree________strongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 4961) I am familiar with the music curriculum as specified in the PrimaryProgram document.As may be seen in Figure 50, the music curriculum as specified in thePrimary Program document is familiar to a moderate percentage of teachers; 38either agreed or strongly agreed that they are familiar with the musiccurriculum. Another 23, however, neither agreed nor disagreed, while 30%either disagreed or strongly disagreed that they are familiar with the musiccurriculum.Item 61: I am familiar with the music curriculum asstrongly agree specified in the Primary Program documentagreeneither agree nor disagreedisagreestrongly disagreeomitNot comfort. tching.musicI I I I I I0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Figure 50116In summary, which music activity(ies) do you feel the most confident andcomfortable teaching? Please explain why.One-hundred sixteen teachers (70%) responded to this anecdotal sectionof the questionnaire. Their comments were sorted into 12 categories and arelisted in order of frequency: Songs, games, chants, and movement; Comfortablewith music instruction in several areas; Integration; Singing with someextension activities; ETh; Singing with tapes; Choral; Rhythm instruments;Instruments; Music appreciation; Reading/writing; and Other. Some commentsqualified for more than one category; however, those comments were onlycategorized once.Songs, gaines, chants, and movementAlmost half of the comments (55) were about singing, moving, gameplaying, and chanting:Familiar tunes--I don’t read music or carry tuneswell.Movement.Those related to learning new songs/chants, probablybecause these are easier--require less prep. (time isof essence)Singing/games/chants: I can do these myself (e.g., Ican sing somewhat, play games, chant, but I can’t readmusic, play an instrument, compose, always stay in theright key, etc.)I only teach French songs to my students since I’m anImmersion teacher.Singing for enjoyment--with a record or singing a songI am very familiar with.Singing in unison; Rounds, chants.Singing and listening to music--some movement.Singing songs/movement ed. - -most workshops/resources.Chants.117Singing songs and movement--they are natural for thechildren.Teaching a song, teaching a singing game.Short simple primary songs/singing games/action songsbecause I find these the easiest to learn myself/theyseem to be most natural for K-l children.Songs, singing games (some)Teaching songs which I already know, and especiallythose which will amuse the children--chants, claps toaccompany them.Singing--as instruments are hard to come by & haveonly taught recorder.Singing; because it is what I am most comfortabledoing in front of audience.Teaching fairly simple songs--I love to sing with mystudents.Teaching a familiar childrenTs song or song game.Singing songs.Singing--I’ve got little to no background experienceor knowledge.I feel most confident teaching new songs or singinggames. I think it’s because I don’t think about mysinging. I just do it any old time and try to involvethe children.I am comfortable singing songs & teaching singinggames.Chants, familiar songs such as Mr. Sun, Wheels on theBus; movement activities.Singing, singing games. I have experience personallyand in the classroom.I feel comfortable teaching songs, because I like tosing and can carry a fairly good tune.Singing, chanting, and rhythm activities because theseare the most familiar to me.Singing games and songs--I learned in workshops.Singing, chanting, movement.118Fingerplay songs, games: they integrate varioussubject areas.Singing songs, chanting, rhythm activities (withinstruments) or clapping.Singing; probably my strong point.I teach songs for the Christmas concert because I haveto since the specialists are gone.Singing songs, games, music and movement, integratedlessons.Singing action games, sing-alongs.I feel comfortable teaching songs to my class becausesinging is something I enjoy and feel I can do withoutneeding a music background.Singing games, movement activities.Songs, dances.Singing, movement, listening, chanting.Singing is the area I feel most experienced, as wellas confident. It is easier to teach something youlove!Songs, singing games, folk dances because offamiliarity.Singing, movement to music.Songs, singing games, chants. I feel I have apleasant singing voice & enjoy teaching the above.Just plain singing with piano accompaniment.Items 43-47--have some experience--workshops etc.Primary songs, singing games.Folk song, seasonal songs, game songs.Singing simple childhood songs.Teach a new song or clapping rhyme.Singing/teaching songs--I haven’t had much opportunityto use rhythm instruments & teach theory, etc.New songs, rhythms, probably because of the gradelevel I teach.119New songs that have a familiar tune, e.g., T-Rex sungto Three Blind Mice.Little songs because I can use the piano to help me.I feel comfortable teaching new songs (when I knowthem well) and movement songs.Comfortable with music instruction in several areasTen teachers are comfortable teaching a variety of music activitiesand/or lessons:Singing, voice production, rhythm ensembles, theory.Singing songs, chants, and movement to music,especially for enjoyment and to enhance on theme.Instruments (Orff), Kodaly, rhythm--handheld perc.,singing games, movement games--because I am morefluent in them.I feel confident in all areas, have done musicals,with primary children, have a great love for music andthe children’s need for it.Singing, musical games, chanting, movement,appreciation (listening), spontaneous response (dance,movement)Teaching songs; using rhythm instruments; music beat,tempo, meters; music & movement activities; these Ifeel comfortable with because of working with themover & over again, workshops attended as refreshers.Singing, chanting, games (Em) “my turn-your turn,”mapping, appreciation.Singing, chanting, games, echoes, high low, clappingbeats, mapping, enjoyment.Folk dances, integrating songs into themes, rhythmicactivities, listening activities, Big Book songs.Singing games, dance, music theory and appreciation,music history, background in P.E., and music theory.I feel most comfortable singing, playing games, andinformally teaching rhythm, melody, form, dynamics,timbre, etc.120IntegrationEight teachers wrote that they are comfortable with integrating musicwith other subject areas:Movement activities, integrating music to enhancelessons in other areas.If I like a song and it relates to a theme--I amcomfortable teaching it.I feel most comfortable teaching songs--I am alwayslooking for new songs to go along with various themes& have found that singing together is not only veryenjoyable but also a good teaching tool.I love to sing with my class. I start with fun songsto get them singing. I try to use music in as manysubject areas as possible. I am involved in producinga listening music program for the entire school. Ilike to do a simple musical with my class. I usebought accompaniment tapes.Singing--because I love singing as do my students andit is so easy to integrate singing with other subjectareas.Items 44, 43, 46, 55--teaching new songs, singinggames and chants, integrating music.Integrating music with other subject areas.Music for enjoyment, for French language learning, &for reading.Singing, with some extension activitiesIn addition to singing and playing games, some teachers (6) arecomfortable with developing extensions for those songs and games:Singing games. They provide a song and basic game forme that I can add onto [sic] (i.e., rhythm, actions,ostinato, etc.)Singing games and associated rhythm & mapping, etc.It’s really appropriate at K-l level and easy for meto use due to my comfort level.Challenging the children to find their own abilities &find out new elements in music. Chanting poems,creating new songs from familiar tunes.121Singing--singing games--exploring the song: have hadmost thorough coursework in that area.Folk song games/primary choir--experience and courseshave given me background, also teaching note values,ant iphoning.I enjoy singing games & discovering musical elementswithin the song--this matches my teaching style.Singing songs, teaching beat, rhythm, listening tohigh and low note, etc.ETMSeven teachers feel comfortable with teaching activities they havelearned in ETM (Education Through Music) courses or workshops:ETM--Early Primary--Enjoy the age group’s enthusiasmwith content of method.Teaching new songs and E.T.M.I am most comfortable teaching ETM singing gamesbecause I have had the most experience with them.ETh--my MUED course with Fleurette was inspirational--confidence in a totally new area of teaching--Mytransition from Sec. Music--Primary Music.E.T.M.Music games (ETM) which the children have somefamiliarity with.Singing/singing games; E.T.M. activities--haveattended numerous workshops.Singing With TapesSeven teachers make use of tapes.I can sing with my children and a tape. I can replaya song I have heard another teacher do.Singing from Music Canada books using tapes.Singing songs with tape to accompany.Singing from a tape, Christmas carols, songs I know.122Simple songs, generally familiar from my childhood.Also, following songs from on cassette tapes and beingpart of a larger group of four classes & teachers.I like to have the support of having a tape or theSing Out Program to use.Taped, planned activities.ChoralFive respondents commented on their comfort within a choral setting:Choir--choral singing.Organizing primary choir. Experience is a greatteacher.I feel comfortable & most confident in teaching choralmusic and any aspects of music in which I’ve had anadequate amount of good training.Choir & recorders.Singing, choir, singing games.Rhythm instrumentsFive respondents mentioned rhythm instruments:Movement to music and improvisation with rhythminstruments, it is easy to just enjoy it.Singing for fun--using a tape recording, playingsinging games (no space in classroom), using rhythminstruments simply.Rhythm instruments, chants, some songs--they are mostfamiliar to me.Teaching new songs, rhythm instruments, movementeducation because I have done so and been successful.Singing and rhythm instruments because I’ve had moreexperience with them.InstrumentsMelody and/or accompaniment instruments were referred to by fourteachers:123New songs--children listen well to new material.Improvisation--kids enjoy being on the instruments.Ukulele & singing.Flute, xylophone both with songs I already know.Jn instrument, such as the recorder, because it mayinvolve all things except singing for which I do playan accompaniment instrument.Music AppreciationMusic appreciation was mentioned by three teachers:Music appreciation, music as a listening activity.Listening, appreciation.Singing, playing an instrument,listening/appreciation.Reading/writingWhile one teacher is comfortable with reading and writing activities,another teacher explained that teaching reading and writing is not possiblewithout a music background:Having music in my background would enable me to teachtheory and notes which would allow me to teach melodyinstruments.Reading/writing rhythms, reading/writing solfa- - lotsof courses & workshops.OtherNone, I have little music background.Any that do not involve using my voice as a lead orexamples.Those specific lessons I watched the specialist teachmy class.Rhythm because of my dance background.124In which areas of music teaching do you feel you need help with?Almost the same number of teachers (112) responded to this question asto the previous item. Eleven categories were determined: Music concepts; Allareas of music instruction; Instruments; Instruments plus other; Lessondevelopment and planning; Variety of needs; Singing; Choral; Integration;Specialized approaches to music education; and Other. Categories with thehighest response rates are listed first.Music conceptsTwenty-two teachers responded that they need help with teaching musicconcepts:Anything more specialized, instruments, have no“musical language.”Music concepts, theory, more teaching strategies.I need help with teaching the “mechanics” of music(note reading, timing, etc.)Music writing activities, singing songs from music(notes)Music theory, concepts.Theory.Notes, (ti ti)--instruments.The theoretical aspects--I know basic music theory,but how do you teach it so students are motivated tolearn? (i.e., to make it interesting!)How to teach time measures. I learn by hearing so findit hard to sight read and teach new rhythms.Notation/timing.Music theory.Technique.At K. Level I feel fairly confident with most areas;generally I do not feel very confident teaching musictheory.125Theory, teaching composition (actually Items #48-#51).I don’t teach any composition, improvisation, harmony.Reading music--tempo, steady beat, etc.Music theory, making it integrate into our day.Any other areas of music that young primary childrencould handle: rhythm instruments, listening, readingmusic notation.Reading music.Music theory.Teaching expression of timbre, dynamics, harmony. Itwould be helpful to know more singing games.Theory, and deeper understanding of the variousaspects of making music.The components and technical terms.All areas of music instructionAnother 22 respondents expressed that they need help in all or mostareas of music instruction:All. I would like to know how to teach music to myclass. I was intermediate when taking my music class.Now I’m a primary teacher.Everything except song selection, eg.,--how to readnotes, play an instrument.all except choir & recorders.Everything. I am dealing with a blank deck.I could really use help in all areas, I just try mybest.Most areas of music curriculum.All areas!All others!All of them.All others!Everything.126All other areas.All of the above!!Everything!Almost all.All areas.Most.Practically all areas.All of them!All.Everything.All areas.Ins trurnen tsInstrument instruction is another area that teachers would like somehelp with. Fourteen respondents commented:Teaching children to play melody instruments, rhythminstruments.Instruments--I simply don’t use them and I think Ishould.Would like to try a little bit of instrumental work--would be fun, but not sure where to start.I don’t do much work with rhythm instruments & wouldappreciate pointers for integrating them into mylessons.Melody instruments, rhythm instruments.Instruments.Rhythm instruments.Melody instruments.Teaching children to use instruments, rhythm, etc.Instruments.Rhythm instruments, Orff instruments.127Using Orff melody instruments properly (i.e.,xylophone) and developing a sequence of skills toteach in this area.Instruments, rhythm & xylophone.1) Use of melody instruments (Item #53 above)2) Visual aids re: instruments etc. (Where did allthe Silver Burdett materials go?)3) use of rhythm instruments.Instruments and other1n additional 14 teachers would like help with instruments as well ashelp in other areas such as movement and music concepts:Movement; use of rhythm instruments.Movement activities, rhythm instruments.Teaching instruments & vocal skills.Rhythm band instrument application; learning melodyand words for new songs.Instruments & resources for new song/games.Instruments, music concepts.Use of instruments; reading music.Instruments, notation, choir.Music concepts and some rhythm instruments.Tonality, rhythm, melody instruments.Rhythm instruments, melody instruments. While I coulddo Items 53-61, I could certainly use some experthelp. I could use more hours in my day to plan theselessons.I do not feel confident teaching theory orinstruments.Improvisation. Melody instruction of instruments.I need help using rhythm instruments, teachingchildren how to improvise, using ostinato.128Lesson development/planningSome teachers (11) were concerned with lesson and curriculumorganization:Mapping out a curriculum of skills (i.e. clappingrhythm, singing various pitches like high-med.-low,mapping, moving to song, etc.) for the classroomteacher to follow all year.Rhythm playing; new songs! adding accomp.; devel.lesson sequences.Voice development, curriculum.Curriculum planning and confidence building.Developing sequence of lessons; developing lesson toteach music concept.How to cover all aspects of curriculum properly;terminology.Working music instruction into an overfull teachingday--week in terms of curricular requirements. Toomuch to do therefore what do you do?Organizing & developing concepts such as rhythm, form,etc.Teaching theory to six yr. olds. Structuringsequential lessons that actually teach musical skillsand maintain interest.Organization, having songs recorded for easy use, timeto teach the songs--so much pressure to cover othercurriculum--e.g., L.A., Math, Science, Learning forLiving.Variety of needsSeven teachers listed a variety of areas with which they would likehelp:I need help with teaching children melody instruments,composition, and directing a group for performing(especially for parents--concerts etc.)Need a good selection of music for grades 1 & 2. Needhelp expanding into music areas: listening129lessons/movement to improve voice & encourageenthusiastic singing!Rhythm instruments, music composition, melodyinstruments, meters.Singing/vocal production, music concepts, rhythminstruments.Music concepts, improvisation.Singing, tones, improvisations, the curriculum more orless a variety of songs and instruments.Healthy, vocal/singing production, tonalities; musiccomposition, better ways of integrating music intoother core areas.Rhythm; listening; movement; improvisation.SingingFour teachers stated that singing is an area with which they need help:Singing (I can’t sing.)Singing.Singing on key!Singing, reading music.In tegra ti onIntegration is the main concern of two teachers:Integrating music into my program.I don’t intend to learn to read music, which is theobvious area I need help in, so I would like a“library” of children’s tapes to draw from, to go withthemes to integrate into my program.Specialized approaches to music educationOnly two teachers mentioned further study in music education:Would love a refresher course in E.T.M.!130QWorking with older students gr. 4-7 in choral groups--part singing; also like to have more expertise withrespect to Orff.OtherOther areas of music instruction were mentioned by some teachers. Inaddition, a few teachers made general comments:Choral singing technique for young children. Voiceproduction; choosing appropriate choral selections foryoung children.I would like more easy to learn songs on tape.More French music resources, very, very, primary.Computer. *Older (Gr. 7) students who have badattitudes towards teachers.Improvisation, dance--not enough preparation in theseareas.I do not teach as much music as I am capable ofbecause I am simply out of the habit of teaching musicfrom years of having another specialist teach it;therefore, it gets squeezed out.I guess the other areas haven’t seemed so important soI haven’t felt the need for extra help so it’sdifficult to answer this. Hope this helps!No formal music training--just a love for it.I am not an accomplished musician and do not feelcomfortable with developing music at a performancelevel.I think I’m doing O.K. with what I’m doing. They’llget exposure to other areas in other classrooms. Atleast they sing here which is not what happens oncethey go on.SpecialistsSome teachers (5) feel that they could benefit from the help of a musicspecialist:131In my opinion, each school should have a musicspecialist.I wish we could have music specialists. I can do alittle singing but I’m not confident nor comfortable.I do use music tapes, books, and records provided bythe District in the past.I am happy teaching E.T.M. but feel my students wouldbenefit from more intensive music instruction from amusic professional.I need more than help. I need a specialist to do mymusic program past the listening and appreciationstage.I am severely lacking in any kind of music theory anddo not know if I want especially to improve myknowledge (or lack of). I am happy in my ignorance.I wish we still had music specialists!Generalizations From and Interpretations of ResultsBackground of Questionnaire RespondentsAlthough the anticipated response rate of 70% was not attained, theresearcher believes that, in consideration of unforeseen circumstances, theachieved response rate of 64 (165 out of 257 teachers) is satisfactory.McMillan and Schumacher (1989) recommended that a response rate of 7O orbetter helps to strengthen generalizability, but also advise that a returnrate of 6O or greater is acceptable. Moreover, McMillan and Schumacher statethat the return rate for most studies is within a range of 5O to 60%. Duringthe same week that the present questionnaire had been distributed, theresearcher was not aware that Abbotsford teachers would also receive two othersurveys. With the receipt of three surveys in one week, teachers would nothave felt compelled to complete each one. However, many respondents informedthe researcher either with a written note on their questionnaire, or verbally,132that they appreciated the tea bag that was enclosed with the covering letter.The tea bag may have been successful as a small incentive to participate inthe study. Furthermore, music education is a timely issue in Abbotsford.With the recent loss of the position of Director of Instruction for the FineArts, as well as the elementary music specialist and elementary band programs,teachers may have had some concerns with regard to music education.Even with a response rate of 64% it may be difficult to determinewhether the sample is representative of all primary classroom teachers inAbbotsford. McMillan and Schumacher (1989) advised that nonrespondents wouldprobably not affect the results in surveys with a return rate of 60% orbetter. However, in the present study, it may be the case that teachers whoare supportive of music education in their own classrooms would be moremotivated to participate in a study about music, rather than teachers who donot teach music to their students, or believe they are not musical. Toencourage broad participation, the researcher tried to emphasize in bothquestionnaire covering letters for the first and second mailings, as well asin the FAX reminder, that the questionnaire was intended for classroomteachers of all backgrounds (see Appendices ID and E)One group of classroom teachers, former music specialists, had thepotential to skew the results with their obvious partialities toward music.However, the proportion of respondents who were former music specialists isonly 10%, a number too small to have a strong effect on the overall results.In addition to a sample that is not heavily biased with former musicspecialists, the results include the responses of a wide variety of lower,middle, and upper primary grade level teachers. Also representative of mostprimary classroom teachers in the Abbotsford school district is the findingthat most of the respondents are responsible for their students’ music133programs. Only 19 teachers (12%) indicated that they currently have a musicspecialist teach music to their students.Currently, elementary music specialists in the Abbotsford schooldistrict are also classroom teachers. In the past, in addition to a wellestablished elementary band program, the Abbotsford school district used tosupport an elementary music specialist program (1989 to 1992) . At that time,all Abbotsford elementary schools were staffed with music specialists, andalmost all elementary students received music instruction from a musicspecialist. Since both the band and specialist programs were cut in 1992, thedecision to use a music specialist is left to individual schools, orindividual teachers. Inmost cases, the music specialist (classroom teacher),trades subject areas with another classroom teacher. For instance, onerespondent explained that he or she teaches physical education to the musicspecialist’s class in exchange for music instruction. Unfortunately, it isnot always possible, nor feasible in the primary grades, for a musicallyqualified classroom teacher to share his or her music expertise with more thanone or two other classroom teachers. Thus, only the students involved in theexchange can benefit from the music specialist/classroom teacher’s expertise,while students in other classes are left out.As well as the large majority of teachers (78%) who reported that theyteach music to their classes, 13 of the 19 teachers who work with a musicspecialist/classroom teacher also provide additional music time to their ownclasses. A total of 86% offer music instruction to their students. However,a good proportion (50%) only provide 25 to 35 minutes or less of music timeper week, while 26% offer 40 to 50 minutes per week. Although BritishColumbia’s current curriculum does not mandate time allotments for any subjectarea, teachers, in the past, were required to devote 180 minutes per week to134the fine arts. At that time, music, art, and drama were the three fine artsareas of emphasis. If each area were to receive equal time, music would beapportioned 60 minutes per week. If historical time allotments can be used asa guideline, the findings of the present study concur with Saunders and Baker(1991), Amen (1982), and Stroud (1980)--most classroom teachers are notmeeting the recommended amount of music instruction time. Only 23% of theteachers in the present study are teaching music for 60 minutes or more perweek.Many of the teachers who responded to the study come from fairly activemusic backgrounds, but most no longer participate in the many music activitiesof their youth. Listening to recordings and attending concerts are the onlytwo activities that have continued to be a part of many of the teachers’ lives(73% and 57% respectively) . The percentage of teachers who participated inthe most popular music activity of the past, singing in a choir, dropped from59% to a mere 7%. While 40% used to play the piano, only 21% have continuedto play. Just over half (53%) of the teachers used to take private musiclessons, but now only 7% do so. In light of the respondents’ past and presentmusic involvements, it is not surprising that, with the exception of oneprofessional musician, 12% consider themselves to be very musical, and afairly large proportion (42%) rate themselves as moderately musical.Moreover, a similar percentage, 45% in total, consider themselves to be eithera little musical or unmusical.The majority of teachers were prepared in their university training toteach some music. Seventy-two percent took at least one undergraduate musiceducation course during their teacher training. However, a substantialpercentage of teachers (27%) did not take any. In consideration of the numberof teachers who rated themselves to be only a little musical or unmusical, the135proportion of teachers who did not have any help nor guidance in the teachingof music to children is of concern. Investigation of individual questionnaireresponses revealed that teachers did not necessarily take music educationcourses once they had graduated. Moreover, the vast majority (95%) ofteachers who did not take any undergraduate music courses also did not pursuepostgraduate courses in music education.Data presented in Figure 51 (see page 137) was generated from theinvestigation of individual questionnaire responses. The graph illustratesthe proportion of teachers at each university who did not take anyundergraduate music methods courses. Universities vary in their graduationrequirements for elementary education students; thus, the number of teacherswho take undergraduate music methods courses differs among the universities.At the University of British Columbia (UBC), where all education students arerequired to take one music education course, only 4 of the 63 teachers (6%)who attended UBC did not take a music education course. Likewise, all 18teachers who studied at the University of Victoria (UVic), another universityat which at least one music course is mandatory for all elementary educationstudents, indicated that they took a music methods course. In contrast, atSimon Fraser University (SFU), where elementary music education courses are anoption, 23 of the 45 graduates (51%) did not take any music methods courses.It is important to note that when education students are given the option ofwhether or not to take a music methods course, a considerable number of themmay choose not to.136University C)Ci)CCT1 CC)C)0Diiii.M!Ld3--cD0O(Do0.(D(D-0 0CDHC)C)Ct0010C)C)C)q>4000CD0Mi0000S0CDHP)5CDCDd‘1k<0Ctht0CtIIIIHU)H-I-iCC)U)IICDCDH-CDCDCDCDI-H-CD0CDQCtU)QU)1<C)0U)5CtCD-H-dCDU)C)H-I..C)IIC)0CtD)CD00)0CDIl’CDCDH-P3).p3CDMiU)CtCtU)0CtIICtQQ00CDCl)0)0C-tCDC)CD9H-0CtQCDP3H-0U)1jQ1HC)C)CtCDPU)CDH-P3CtCt0HI-j1)3I-i.CD0I-CtCD5P3U)F-b0CDP30P3U)CDC)I-iC-tIICDHHC)HhQU)b30(-t(0CDP3CtCD(C)CtCD\0CD01CDCtQC)CtI%0CDhI-5aihICDC)CDP35.-\U)CtCD‘-I‘ShI0H—(i)U)IICDCDbHHC)HCDCtP3C) 0tiCDp0U)C)H-Ct0CtC)CtP30rt0CDh<CDH-U)U)F-’-H0CDIIh-’CDP3CD0‘<U)03H-U)CD0hICt5P3C)P3--FNI-’CDMiCDCtH-P3U)CD0C)t\)CtC)H-3,ihIU)CtU)CDCt015Ct0Ci)CDP3H-ø\0CDCDP3QQP3(0Ct05P3<HMiU)CDC)000H0CD0CDU)P3bC)H-CDCtQ.MihIH-MiqCthIhH‘<MiP3CDCtH-0hIP3CtF-a-H-CDU)5CD0QCtCD0CDP3QZCtCDCD-5CDCDD01P3hI0HCtCtCt03QtpC)P3<Zk<CI)00I-’-0P3Ct1jP3CDCtCDCDttQZHCD0HC)p3P3CDhI(I)H0P3CD0>4(0Ct0,P3CtP3C)UIO\0CD02CDhIH-kU)hIHCDP30Fld’0,CD0U)<CDC)003CI)P3P3MihI03Ct‘-<1CDU)0CDP3P3C)hICD>4CtH-(I)‘-<0,CtH-I-a-P3CDCtP3CtCDCD•CDhIHU)0’CDhCD‘C)CD1HCDhICDCDCt5—CDHCDCtai>4H-0H0CtP3P3Cl)00CDU)P3-HU)P3CtHhIHEi)H-P3C)0P3(0P3C)3Ct0’<CD0’hIQCt(I)Ct0’HP30CDHP3CDQ50CD0CDCDH H-CthICDCt0H-CDFlCt0,0U)H-C)CtCt0’(0<00’P3H-0’CDF-’-CD0HCDI0Ct00C)CDSCtI-FH-03U)CD0,MiCDU)CDhI<CDCthIMiCDU)H-CtI-FCDC)0’U)05CtHH-P3C)0’P3II0C)Hp.)0HP3CDHH00U)0CD3H-HC)HHMiCtCtH-CtC),C),•NH00’C)0’‘1P35CtCtCDCtCDU)00’0CD0’00CD0H-P3CDM—CtH(1)t\)—.3HH-CtC)Ct0 0 F’)0II IJ.-0CD01 0 C) 0—1 0* p w :IC)Z----1<D00.0•(D00--0_eD(D.o.P-oeo1!0s:F10 C)0(D00.years of experience, and 17% of the teachers with more than 21 years ofexperience omitted this section. If memory is to be the reason why teachersomitted Section A, the nonresponse rate should have increased along with thenumber of years of teaching experience.Nonetheless, teachers indicated that they found some course topics morehelpful to their teaching of music than others. Appropriate songs forchildren of different ages, was the topic rated by the highest proportion ofteachers (63%) to be either helpful or extremely helpful. When thepercentages for the two categories, helpful and extremely helpful, were alsocombined for the remaining course topics, the next favoured topic by 56% ofthe teachers was the development of movement activities (singing games,dances, etc.) . The use of rhyme and chant to teach rhythm or movementactivities followed in popularity with 53%. Other highly rated course topicswere techniques of leading and teaching songs (46%) and integrating music withother subject areas (41%) . Interestingly, more anecdotal comments were madewith regard to integration of music with other subject content than any othercourse topic. Seven of 13 teachers chose to write comments in support ofintegration and suggested that integration would be a helpful focus in a musicmethods course. In the Saunders and Baker study (1991), integration was themost frequently selected area of study by the classroom teachers. Teachers intheir study reported that the integration of music into other areas of thecurriculum is the one strategy they use most frequently, and like the teacherswho commented on integration in the present study, the Saunders and Bakersubjects also recommended that strategies for integration be included in musicmethods courses. In addition, the teachers in the present study concurredwith those in the Saunders and Baker (1991) study, and also rated movementactivities, the selection of appropriate songs for children of different ages,138and techniques for leading and teaching songs as some of the more usefulcourse topics.Of all the course topics listed in the questionnaire, the three topicsthat were rated not helpful by the highest number of teachers were musictheory (24%-), hand signals while singing (23%-), and music reading and/orwriting activities (20%) . However, the teachers in the present study did notdismiss music theory and music reading and/or writing as readily as theteachers in the Saunders and Baker (1991) study. While only 15% of therespondents in the Sanders and Baker study perceived music theory and readingnotation to be useful, 30% of the teachers in the present study rated musictheory to be either helpful or extremely helpful, and another 26% consideredmusic theory to be somewhat helpful. As for the use of hand signals whilesinging, 20% rated them somewhat helpful, while a greater number (25%) thoughthand signals were either helpful or extremely helpful. Although music readingand/or writing activities (a separate item in the present study) were eitherhelpful or extremely helpful to only 17%, such activities were considered atleast somewhat helpful by 26%. In fact, none of the course topics listed inthe present questionnaire were completely unhelpful to the teachers.Several of the course topics that were listed in the questionnaire werenot studied by moderate to fairly large proportions of teachers. However,those same topics were helpful, to some degree, for those teachers who hadstudied them. For instance, 30% did not study accompaniment instruments,another 30% did not learn to map a song while singing, and 27% did not learnhow to use classroom instruments. Lack of time to work with instruments maybe one reason why those topics are not always included in an undergraduatemusic methods course. In the case of mapping, this is a study technique thatis usually included in Education Through Music (ETM) courses and it would only139be present in an undergraduate course if the instructor was familiar withEducation Through Music. Of those teachers who studied accompanimentinstruments, mapping, and classroom instruments, 15%, 18%, and 26%respectively, considered those topics to be at least somewhat helpful.Another 29% rated accompaniment instruments as either helpful or extremelyhelpful, while 25% rated techniques of teaching classroom instruments thesame. An even greater number of teachers (34%) rated mapping as eitherhelpful or extremely helpful.Another topic not studied by many teachers (39%) was singing whilereading music (sight-singing). However, 18% considered this topic to besomewhat helpful, while another 17% found it either helpful or extremelyhelpful.A very large proportion (46%) did not study characteristics ofchildren’s voices, but this course topic was at least somewhat helpful to 16%,and either helpful or extremely helpful to another 16%. In consideration ofthe prevalence of singing activities inherent in most primary classroom musicprograms, the high percentage of teachers who did not study the development ofchildren’s singing voices is of concern.Of the five aforementioned course topics that many teachers did notstudy, and the three previous topics that were rated not helpful by a moderateproportion of teachers, mapping was the one course topic that more teachers(34%) found either helpful or extremely helpful. In consideration that almosthalf of the respondents (45%) rated themselves either “a little musicalTT or“unmusical,” it is understandable that mapping was found to be more helpfulthan topics such as music theory, hand signals, and instruments. While thosetopics require at least a minimum background in music, and time to absorb and140practise, mapping is immediately applicable and practical to any level ofmusicianship.In addition to the 19% who completely omitted the section onundergraduate university courses, some teachers chose to omit a few or moreitems in this section of the questionnaire. More omissions were made in thispart of the questionnaire than in any other section. Certain items wereomitted by as many as eight (9%) to eleven (12%) teachers. For instance,music reading and/or writing activities and singing while reading music (sightsinging), both had the most omissions (12% each). Perhaps teachers omittedcertain items because of lack of memory for details of courses taken long ago.Another reason for an omission may be that none of the categories applied to ateacher’s situation. For example, a teacher may have studied music readingand/or writing, thought the topic was helpful, but does not use it in theclassroom. The category, “helpful, but not used” would be an accuratedescription, but unfortunately, was not included in the present questionnaire.Fewer anecdotal comments were made about music education methods coursetopics than were made for other sections of the survey. When asked to commenton course topics, only 13 teachers (8%) responded. Of the 13 respondents, 9expressed dissatisfaction with their music method courses. A limited amountof time to cover many course topics, and classes that had to accommodate awide range of music backgrounds, were the prevailing criticisms.Again, only a few teachers responded when asked to suggest desirablecontent for classroom teachers’ music methods courses. Perhaps the commentmade by one teacher, “I’m not qualified to make a suggestion,” speaks forthose who did not believe they were knowledgeable enough to respond. Asalready mentioned, of the 17 respondents, seven commented on a more familiartopic, integration. The other comments varied from very specific to general141suggestions. For instance, one teacher concurred with the findings of thepresent study, and suggested movement, dance, chant activities, and resources,while another teacher believed that characteristics of children’s voices wouldhave been a helpful course topic. Another suggestion was made to keep courses“really practical” and yet one teacher wished to see “. . . a thorough studyof each of the above.”In addition to what some teachers have learned in their undergraduatemusic courses, the teachers who participated in the study indicated that theymake use of a variety of resources. Music method books, that is, books thatare based on widely known methods (e.g., Orff, Kodaly, or Education ThroughMusic), or books that offer a method (e.g., Lois Birkenshaw, 1982) were ratedas somewhat helpful to extremely helpful for many teachers (52%) . Music textsor series books such as Musicanada (1982) and Silver Burdett (1982) wereconsidered useful to even more teachers; 59% indicated that they found musicseries books to be somewhat helpful, helpful, or extremely helpful. An evengreater percentage (73%) found in-service workshops to be somewhat helpful,helpful, or extremely helpful. Moreover, this large percentage is supportedby a relatively high number of anecdotal comments (22 out of 79) on theeffectiveness and practicality of workshops. Teachers wrote that they attendworkshops for practical ideas and to improve skills. Education Through Musichas been an ongoing area of emphasis for classroom teachers in the Abbotsfordschool district for the past 15 years, and thus several teachers (10)commented on the helpfulness of Education Through Music workshops. The manycomments made about Education Through Music by the respondents in not only theResources section of the questionnaire, but also interspersed throughout othersections of the survey, demonstrates Education Through Music’s success withthe classroom teachers in Abbotsford.142The resource that the highest percentage of teachers found helpful waspersonal experience. Eighty-two percent of the respondents made use of theirexperiences with recordings, videos, and concerts. In Item 33, a few teachersspecified popular children’s recording artists such as Sharon, Lois, and Bram;Charlotte Diamond; Fred Penner; and Barney and Friends. In the anecdotalsection that followed the questions about teaching resources, one teacherrecalled what she had learned as a Girl Guide (Brownie) leader, and anothermodelled his or her recorder program on personal elementary schoolexperiences.Although resources such as music method books, music series books, andin-service workshops were helpful to those teachers who use them, a number ofteachers do not use those resources. For instance, 40% do not use musicmethod books, 26% do not use music series books, and 21% do not attend in-service workshops. Both music textbooks and in-service workshops are easilyaccessible to Anbotsford teachers. The textbook series, Musicanada, isavailable in almost all of the elementary schools in the district. Perhaps acomment made by one teacher explains why some resources are not used by manyteachers, “Depends on whether I could use it [music method and series bookslafterward. Practice was often not sufficient for me, as mostteachers/students learn music much faster than I do.” Another teacher simplywrote, TTCan?t read music--so . . . •“ In the case of music methods and musicseries books, as with any method book in any subject area, background in thearea of study can help make the method book more accessible and meaningful tothe user. A certain level of music notation reading ability, as well asknowledge of basic music concepts, would likely be necessary prerequisites forsuch resources. In consideration of the large proportion of teachers (45%)who are either a little musical or unmusical, it is understandable that many143do not use, or perhaps are not able to use, music method books or music seriesbooks.Music series books, such as Musicanada, are often accompanied bycassette tapes, but it may be that many teachers are not aware of the audiocomponent of the series. Since some teachers (7) listed in either Item 33(Other, please specify) or anecdotally, that they found recordings to be ahelpful resource, and 73% in the Background Information section favouredlistening to recordings, it is important that as many of the audio resourcesas possible are made available to classroom teachers.As for the 21% who do not attend in-service workshops, it may be that asimilar percentage do not attend workshops at all for any subject areas. Onthe other hand, music workshops can be intimidating to teachers with little orno music background and may not be a likely resource for those teachers. Theproblem arises of how to make music in-service accessible to classroomteachers who are uncomfortable with their lack of music skills and/orbackground.Questionnaire items that pertained to music specialists and districtleadership in music may have been interpreted by the respondents in differentways. The position of Director of Instruction for the Fine Arts waseliminated last year, and the three year old elementary music specialistprogram no longer exists in the Abbotsford school district. Therefore, someteachers may have recalled the time when such music resource people wereavailable, while others may have taken only their present teaching situationinto consideration. Thus, the results of Items 29, 31, and 32, (i.e., itemsthat refer to music specialists and district leadership in music), may not betotally accurate nor representative of how teachers viewed those tworesources. Nonetheless, at least 56% indicated that discussions with a music144specialist were either somewhat helpful, helpful, or extremely helpful. Also,a larger percentage (62%) have observed a music specialist teach and found itto be either somewhat helpful, helpful, or extremely helpful. Notably, 32%have not talked to a music specialist about teaching music, and almost as manyteachers (28%) have not observed a specialist teach. An even higherpercentage (46%) have not made use of district leadership in music. Severalteachers (8%) omitted this item and explained with comments such as, “Doesn’texist,” and “Never experienced having one.”The anecdotal responses to the questionnaire section on resources helpclarify how classroom teachers feel about music specialists and musicleadership at the district level. Of the 79 comments made in this section,comments made about music specialists and district leadership made up thelargest category. Except for one comment, 21 teachers (27%) wrote in supportof music specialists. Many appreciated the opportunity to observe aspecialist teach. A teacher wrote, “Observing a music specialist in action inmy classroom was most helpful.” Another observed, “I find it easier to modelmy teaching of music after a demo [demonstration] lesson rather than reading amusic manual. The music specialist gives me enthusiasm and inspiration forteaching music to my class.” Although only 37% rated district leadership aseither somewhat helpful, helpful, or extremely helpful, several supportivecomments were made. One teacher remarked, “It is a cireat loss to thisdistrict--cancelled music prog. [program] in elem, and elimination of FineArts Director,” and another noted, “. . . District leadership by [a] Fine ArtsCoordinator is vital to a district.”145Teacher Perceptions of Music and Music InstructionThe results of the section that asked teachers to reflect on theirattitudes toward music instruction (i.e., perceptions of music instruction)are most encouraging to those who believe in the important place of music forchildren. An overwhelming percentage of the teachers surveyed were stronglyin favour of music education for children. Not only did 87% either agree orstrongly agree that music is an important part of their own lives, but an evengreater percentage (93%) either agreed or strongly agreed that music is animportant part of our children’s education. Only a very small percentage ofteachers (7% to 8%) agreed or strongly agreed with statements such as, “Musicis a superfluous subject. Other subject areas are more important,” and “Musicinstruction is not necessary in the student’s day because private lessons canaccommodate those who wish to pursue music.” The extremely high percentage(91%) of teachers who agreed or strongly agreed that music should be valued asa subject in itself is also noteworthy. Based on anecdotal comments and datagathered from relevant questions, teachers rated integration as one of themore helpful topics in their undergraduate music course, but at the same time,valued music as a self-contained subject.Teachers indicated in both the checklist and anecdotal section ofItem 41 that their perceptions of music were shaped by a variety ofexperiences. Whereas recordings (audio and video) and concert attendance werefound in Item 7 (Background Information) to be popular activities of choicefor many teachers, they were also reported in Item 41 to be influential inshaping a large proportion of the teachers’ perceptions of music. Sixty-eightpercent perceived that recordings were influential, and 69% thought thatconcert attendance was influential. Family was also perceived to be veryinfluential for 62% and was a favourite topic on which many respondents146commented. Twenty-six of the 102 respondents (25%) who made comments wrotefondly of memories of music-making with their families.Teachers also perceived that their music experiences in their primary,intermediate, and/or secondary school years helped to shape their beliefsabout music. In Item 41 more teachers (52%) selected “school experiences inthe primary grades” than “school experiences in the intermediate grades” (43%)or “secondary school experiences” (41%). However, further investigation ofindividual responses to Item 41 reveals that more teachers whose perceptionsof music were influenced by school experiences were influenced by acombination of experiences at all three levels, primary, intermediate, andsecondary (25%) . Fifteen percent selected only “school experiences in theprimary grades,” while 10% chose both primary and intermediate levels, andanother 10% chose a combination of primary and secondary levels.As Kritzmire (1991) discussed in her study, feelings, whether they arepositive or negative, are almost always associated with memories of musicexperiences. In the present study, memories of enjoyment and pleasuredominated many of the comments about influential music experiences. Alsoexpressed by several teachers were feelings of inspiration and love for music.Unfortunately, for a small number of teachers (6), negative music experienceswere recalled. However, with the exception of those teachers who had negativemusic experiences, and two other teachers who wrote that they were neverinvolved in music, the large majority of teachers enjoyed and valued theirpast music experiences.Both music teachers and classroom teachers alike can have an influentialrole to play in the development of children’s feelings about music. Thefindings in the Attitudes section of the questionnaire imply that recordings,concerts, and school music experiences (e.g., music classes, choir, band,147festivals, etc.) made a substantial impact on many respondents’ perceptions ofmusic. It is important that such music experiences continue to be encouragedand supported. Even classroom teachers who are unable to provide any musicinstruction can, if motivated, arrange concert attendance for their students.As for family experiences, teachers may not have an immediate effect on afamily’s music activities, but they are certainly influential in an indirectway. As demonstrated by many of the teachers in the present study, thefeelings associated with memories of music experiences are everlasting. Musichas the potential to expand beyond the school experience and become anintegral part of a student’s present and future life. Many students, in theiradulthood, will have families of their own and will likely want to ensure thattheir children develop a similar respect for and interest in music.Item 42 was similar to Item 41, except that teachers were asked to thinkabout how their experiences have shaped their perceptions of teaching music.Unfortunately, the two items were almost identical in appearance, and perhapsfor that reason, 19 teachers, or l2, omitted Item 42. Nonetheless, theresults of Item 42 differed from Item 41. Recordings (34%), concertattendance (32%) , and family (28%) continued to be influential, butexperiences in the primary grades (39%) were slightly more influential.Colleagues were also rated to be influential by a greater percentage ofteachers in Item 42 than in Item 41. Only 13% of the teachers said thatcolleagues influenced their attitudes toward music, whereas, 32% indicatedthat colleagues helped shape their attitudes toward teaching music. Theinfluence of university experiences on perceptions of music only increasedfrom 24% to 27% when teachers considered the impact of university experienceson their perceptions of teaching music. Perhaps the amount of time, if any,148devoted to studying music education is too brief to have any lasting impact onteachers’ perceptions of music instruction.Anecdotal comments were fewer for Item 42; only 69 (42%-) teachers wroteof their experiences. A few responded with, As above,” to indicate thattheir written response to Item 41 also applied to Item 42. School experiencewas one of the more common topics about which teachers wrote. However, schoolcomments were made about all grade levels, and reasons why more teachers hadindicated that the primary grades were influential were unfortunately, notmade clear here. Nonetheless, this finding illustrates the potential lifelong influence of the primary years on the shaping of one’s perceptions ofteaching music.In addition to those teachers who recalled negative experiences thathave influenced their perceptions of music, a few more teachers (5) explainedthat negative experiences have shaped their perceptions of teaching music.For one teacher, the negative experience compelled her or him to make surethat children enjoy music. However, for others, their past negative musicexperiences as undergraduate students discouraged them from teaching music.Another group of respondents (13) commented on their feelings of inadequacywith music. Fortunately for most of those respondents, their feelings ofinadequacy have not swayed their supportive views of music.Some teachers (7) discussed how their experiences as teachers haveinfluenced their teaching of music. Their own observations of children’sresponses to music have helped them understand music’s importance to children.A substantial proportion of comments (15 out of 69) for Item 42 wereabout general views of music and children. It is obvious from the teachers’writing for this particular item, as well as for the previous one, that manyhave a strong, heartfelt commitment to music education for children. One149teacher wrote, “Music and the soul go together. You cannot live in a vacuum.Music fills that vacuum beautifully; it nourishes the child and givespurpose.”Comfort Levels With Various Music ActivitiesTeachers were instructed to omit the last section of the survey (ComfortLevels With Various Music Activities, Items 43 to 61) if they did not feelcomfortable or at ease with teaching any form of music at all. The number ofteachers who chose that option (6%) is not quite consistent with the number ofteachers who, in the first section of the questionnaire, answered that they donot teach music to their students (9%) . Some of the teachers who reportedthat they do not teach music completed Items 43 to 61 anyway and indicatedthat they felt comfortable teaching a few of the specified music activities.As for the majority of respondents who had indicated that they teach music(86%), most reported that they are comfortable with only certain aspects ofmusic instruction.In terms of preferred instructional content, teachers were mostcomfortable with teaching a new chant (rhyme) using speech. Eighty-fivepercent agreed or strongly agreed that they were comfortable with chants,while only a very small percentage (2%) disagreed. Almost the same percentage(82%) were very comfortable with the selection of songs that are suitable forthe age and developmental level of the students; however, in this case, a fewmore teachers disagreed (9%) . Many teachers were also comfortable withteaching a new song (77%), or a new singing game (77%) . A fairly largepercentage (61%) reported that they were able to develop and teach a lessonusing movement activities, and 58% were able to select from a wide variety ofsong material. Over half of the respondents (56%) agreed or strongly agreed150that they could plan and teach lessons that integrate music with other subjectareas. Generally, the music activities that most of the teachers werecomfortable with were related to repertoire, but not associated with teachingmusic concepts, nor teaching strategies. One-hundred sixteen teachers (70%)also made anecdotal comments with regard to music activities that they feltthe most confident and comfortable teaching. The large number of comments(55) made about singing, singing games, chants, and movement support thosefindings that classroom teachers feel comfortable with repertoire relatedactivities.Although listening to recordings and attending concerts were found to bethe most popular music activities of teachers, as well as the most influentialexperiences in shaping teachers’ perceptions of music, only half of therespondents (50%) felt that they could develop and teach a music listeninglesson. It may be that personal participation in listening activities doesnot necessarily imply that teachers are able to apply their experiences totheir teaching.Of the remaining music activities listed, one of the topics teacherswere least comfortable with was teaching music composition. While a largeproportion (73%) either disagreed or strongly disagreed that they werecomfortable with teaching music composition, only a very small percentage (8%)indicated that they were comfortable with this activity. It is important tonote that musical composition is one of the three main areas of focus in themusic section of British Columbia’s Primary Program Foundation Document(1990) . Perhaps teachers were intimidated by the term, “composition,” and didnot realize that composition for a young child can be as simple as thecreation of new verses for an already known song, or the use of classroom151instruments to create a sound piece. Moreover, notation can be creative andsymbolic, rather than take the form of traditional Western notation.Almost the same percentage of teachers (69%) were uncomfortable withteaching songs in a variety of tonalities (pentatonic, major, minor, dorian,mixolydian, etc.), and again, only very few (7%) felt comfortable with thistopic. In consideration of the number of teachers (58%) who indicated thatthey were able to select songs from a wide variety of song materials, it isinteresting that only 13 teachers were comfortable with teaching songs ofvarious tonalities. It is likely that many teachers do include songs ofvarious tonalities, but are unaware or unfamiliar with the terminology. A fewrespondents scribbled notes such as, “Don’t even know what you’re talkingabout,” beside this item.Substantial proportions of teachers were also uncomfortable withteaching melody instruments (58%), improvisation (57%), and healthyvocal/singing production (55%) . However, modest numbers of teachers, 16%,20%, and 21% respectively, were comfortable with those activities. Teachingmelody instruments, improvisation, and healthy vocal/singing production, didnot seem to intimidate as many teachers as did music composition and teachingsongs in a variety of tonalities.Although a moderate proportion (25%) either agreed or strongly agreedthat they could confidently develop a lesson to teach music concepts, a largeproportion (49%) either disagreed or strongly disagreed that they wereconfident to do so. Similarly, 21% indicated that they could develop asequence of lessons for specific music topics, while most teachers (54%)disagreed or strongly disagreed that they were able to develop a sequence oflessons. Comments made in the anecdotal section supported those findings. Inaddition to the moderate proportion of teachers (22 out of 112, or 20%) who152stated that they need help with, “All of the above,” or “Everything,” the samenumber of teachers wrote that they need help with music concepts and theory.An additional 11 teachers were concerned with lesson and curriculumorganization.Music activities related to rhythm did not seem to make quite as manyteachers uncomfortable. For instance, almost half the respondents (49%) wereuncomfortable with teaching songs in a variety of meters, yet 35% werecomfortable with this activity. Thirty-four percent were uncomfortable withteaching children how to play rhythm instruments, but 37% agreed or stronglyagreed that they were comfortable with the same activity. However, moreteachers (51%) were uncomfortable with developing rhythm instrumentaccompaniments for their students, and only 23% felt comfortable with thisapplication of rhythm instruments.Not all teachers indicated that they were familiar with the musiccurriculum as specified in the Primary Program Foundation Document. Not evenhalf (38%) agreed nor strongly agreed that they were familiar with the musiccurriculum, and a considerable proportion (23%) neither agreed nor disagreed.Another 30% disagreed or strongly disagreed that they were familiar with themusic curriculum. For numerous reasons that may relate to unfamiliarity withmusic concepts, music terminology, and music notation, perhaps teachers do notfeel compelled to become acquainted with the music curriculum. In the lastsection of the questionnaire, teachers indicated that they felt comfortablewith teaching music activities that were mostly related to repertoire, butwere not able to develop their repertoire into lessons to teach music conceptsand music techniques. For example, speech or chants, the most comfortableactivity for the respondents, is commonly extended to teach rhythm concepts.However, many indicated that they were not able to, or were uncomfortable153with, music concept lesson planning. Thus, the extension of speech or chantwork would be a difficult task. Moreover, many teachers indicated that theywere also uncomfortable with rhythm instruments and rhythm instrumentaccompaniments, also common extensions in the study of speech and chant. Aswas already discussed in the case of music series books and music methodbooks, resources and guides are more easily accessed by teachers who have someunderstanding and background knowledge of music. The same argument may beapplied to the music curriculum in the Primary Program Foundation Document.Teachers who are comfortable teaching repertoire related activities, but areuncomfortable with music concepts and other lesson extensions may assume thatthe music curriculum would cover lessons, activities, and techniques wellbeyond their level of comfort, and would be less inclined to make use of thedocument.In addition to the many comments already made about music specialists inthe Resources section of the questionnaire, five additional teachers wrote atthe end of the questionnaire that they could benefit from the help of aspecialist. Like many others, one teacher recognized personal limitations inmusic and wrote, “I need more than help. I need a specialist to do my musicprogram past the listening and appreciation stage.” The desire for musicspecialists seems to substantiate the notion that many classroom teachersbelieve that music education is important for children.154CHAPTER FIVESwnrnary and ConclusionsPurpose arid Research QuestionsThe role of the classroom teacher is of utmost importance in theconsideration of music curriculum. Researchers such as Saunders and Baker(1991) , Kritzmire (1991) , Mills (1989) , and Austin (1992) believe that theclassroom teacher plays a strong role in a child’s music education. They havestudied a variety of attitude-related and skill-related factors thatcontribute to the amount and quality of music instruction a classroom teacherprovides. Although such studies have been published in the United States, theresearcher was unable to locate similar studies in Canada, and specifically,British Columbia. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine primaryclassroom teachers’ perceptions of music education and their own music skillsin the provision of music instruction for primary aged children.The questions that were central to the design of the study were asfollow.1. Which specific topics in music education do primary classroomteachers feel they can teach comfortably?2. Which specific topics in music education do primary classroomteachers not feel they can teach comfortably?3. What kind of music education resources (techniques and materials) doprimary classroom teachers find useful or helpful?4. How do classroom teachers perceive the importance of music in thecurriculum?1555. How are primary classroom teachers’ perceptions of musicinstruction shaped by their past music experiences?Design and AnalysisThe questionnaire, A Survey of School District #34 Primary ClassroomTeachers’ Attitudes and Music Backgrounds in Music Education, was mailed to257 full and part-time primary classroom teachers in the Abbotsford SchoolDistrict. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) BackgroundInformation; 2) University Training, In-service, and Resources; and3) Attitudes and Skills. The researcher constructed the overall design of thequestionnaire; many items were duplicated or revised from a study by Saundersand Baker (1991)Respondents returned their completed questionnaires through the inter-school mail system. As questionnaires were received the researcher talliedeach response into the computer spreadsheet program, Microsoft Excel(Microsoft, 1992) . Distribution frequencies for questionnaire items weregraphically displayed (histograms and pie charts) . Anecdotal comments werecompiled and analysed for categorization.ResultsAll of the data obtained from the questionnaire is provided inspreadsheet format in Appendix F. A response rate of 64% was achieved--165teachers of the 257 teachers surveyed participated in the study. Lower,middle, and upper primary grade teachers were evenly distributed among therespondents. Only 10% of the respondents had previous experience as musicspecialists.156‘A large majority of teachers (86%) indicated that they teach music totheir own classes. Only a small number of teachers (12%) have a musicspecialist teach music to their classes.The most popular music activities in which teachers personallyparticipate are attending concerts (57%) and listening to recordings (73%) . Afairly large proportion (42%) considered themselves to be moderately musical,while a similar proportion (45%) considered themselves to be either a littlemusical or unmusical.Most teachers (72%) took at least one undergraduate music educationcourse, while a moderate proportion (27%) did not take any music educationcourses at all.For those who had an undergraduate music methods course, the followingtopics were rated either helpful or extremely helpful: appropriate songs forchildren of different ages (63%), development of movement activities (singinggames, dances, etc.) (56%), and the use of rhyme or chant to teach rhythm ormovement activities (53%) . Other topics also favoured by many teachers weretechniques of leading and teaching songs (46%) and integrating music withother subject areas (41%) . Three course topics were not helpful to smallerproportions of teachers: music theory (24%), hand signals while singing(23%), and music reading and/or writing activities (20%) . However, greaterproportions of teachers considered the same topics to be more helpful than nothelpful. A very large percentage of teachers (46%) did not studycharacteristics of children’s voices.The resource that the highest percentage of teachers found helpful ispersonal experience. Eighty—two percent of the respondents make use of theirexperiences with recordings, videos, concerts, and other personal musicactivities in their music teaching. When percentages for the ratings,157somewhat helpful, helpful, and extremely helpful were totalled, in-serviceworkshops (73%), observing a music specialist teach (62%), and music textbooks(59%) were also highly favoured.Teachers in the sample were overwhelmingly in support of music forchildren. Ninety-three percent either agreed or strongly agreed that music isan important part of our children’s education. Moreover, 91% either agreed orstrongly agreed that music should be valued as a subject in itself.Recordings (68%), concert attendance (69%) , family (62%), personalexperiences in the primary grades (52%), and private music lessons (50%)helped shape many teachers’ positive perceptions of music. Perceptions ofteaching music were shaped by experiences in the primary grades (39%),recordings (34%) , concert attendance (32%) , and colleagues (32%)Teachers indicated that they were more comfortable teaching some aspectsof music instruction than others. The music instruction topics with whichteachers felt more comfortable are hierarchically ordered as follow:1) teaching a new chant using speech (85%) , 2) selection of songs that aresuitable for the age and developmental level of the students (82%),3) teaching a new song (77%), 4) teaching a new singing game (77%),5) developing and teaching a lesson using movement activities (61%),6) selecting from a wide variety of song material (58%), 7) planning andteaching lessons that integrate music with other subject areas (56%), and8) developing and teaching a music listening lesson (50%)Music instruction topics that teachers were less comfortable with are asfollows (percentages indicate the proportion of teachers who either disagreedor strongly disagreed that they were comfortable teaching the specifiedtopic): 1) music composition (73%), 2) teaching songs in a variety oftonalities (69%) , 3) improvisation (57%), 4) healthy vocal/singing production158(55%), 5) lesson development for specific music topics (54%), 6) rhythminstrument accompaniments (51%), 7) teaching songs in a variety of meters(49%) , and 8) development of lessons to teach music concepts (49%) . Similarproportions of teachers either agreed (or strongly agreed) that they werecomfortable teaching rhythm instruments (37%), or disagreed (or stronglydisagreed) that they were comfortable teaching rhythm instruments (34%)A moderate percentage of teachers (38%) either agreed or strongly agreedthat they were familiar with the music curriculum as specified in the PrimaryProgram Foundation Document, while 30% either disagreed or strongly disagreedthat they were familiar with the curriculum.Conclusions and RecommendationsBecause the achieved response rate was 64%, the findings of this studyshould be generalized with caution to primary classroom teachers in schooldistricts that have similar staffing to the Abbotsford School District.The results of this study suggest that teachers’s perceptions of musicinstruction are shaped by past music experiences. Many of the teachers hadfond recollections of past music experiences, and also had fairly active musicbackgrounds; but, no longer participate in the numerous music activities oftheir past. However, the music they have experienced at various times intheir lives has made a strong impact on shaping their perceptions of musicinstruction.Moreover, an overwhelming majority of teachers indicated that they notonly value music’s importance for children, but also value music as a subjectwithin itself. Therefore, it seems that the importance of music for childrenis not a belief exclusive to a special interest group, that is, musicspecialists, but a belief also shared by classroom teachers.159The large percentage of teachers (86%) who indicated that they teachmusic to their students helps to further substantiate the conclusion thatteachers believe in music’s importance in the curriculum. However, it isclear that most are comfortable with only certain aspects of musicinstruction. Topics related to simple repertoire or content, such as rhymes,chants, and singing games are within many general classroom teachers’ rangesof comfort, while topics related to music concepts and techniques, such aslesson planning for specific music concepts, vocal or singing production, anddeveloping a sequence of lessons for specific music topics are difficult forthe majority of generalists to implement. The distinction that Bennett (1992)made between teaching music activities and teaching music substantiates thisconclusion. The type of music instruction a general primary classroom teachercould realistically provide would be activity-based (e.g., singing games).However, the teaching of specific music concepts and techniques would requirea more extensive music background than what most generalist classroom teacherspossess.That most primary classroom teachers are comfortable with teachingmusic-related activities, rather than teaching music, holds importantimplications with regard to resources and training. Except for the very smallnumber of teachers who have made arrangements for another teacher to teachmusic, primary classroom teachers in the Ithbotsford School District are solelyresponsible for the music education of their students. Based on that fact, itseems that their endeavours need to be supported by resources that are useful,are accessible, and are considerate of their music backgrounds.Next to personal experience, teachers find workshops to be helpful.Therefore, to optimize the effectiveness of workshops, the various levels ofcomfort that classroom teachers have with music must be recognized; workshop160activities should be designed to accommodate various levels of expertise. Forinstance, teachers who are uncomfortable with singing, might find that aseries of workshops that focus on the voice may help develop their confidencelevel with teaching new songs and other melodic aspects of music. Others haveindicated that they would appreciate workshops on teaching children how toplay rhythm and/or melody instruments, while some teachers want to learn howto develop a sequence of lessons to teach a music concept. In essence,teachers needs are varied and they require in-service training for a numberof music topics.Many teachers indicated that they are unable to read music and, thus,they rely on tapes to help them remember, or teach a song. Based on thoseexperiential levels, workshops, as well as any other type of classroom teacherresource, should include recordings, tapes, or videos to help teachers retainwhat they have learned. In addition, workshops could also focus on recordingsas a resource, and offer teachers techniques for maximizing their use ofrecordings in a variety of music activities. For example, listening conceptsand strategies would be a worthwhile workshop topic; listening to recordingswas one of the more popular personal music activities of many teachers, yet acomfortable lesson to teach for half of the respondents.It is not possible to predict when or if music specialists will be hiredagain in the Abbotsford School District, but Abbotsford does have a smallnumber of classroom teachers who may be considered music specialists.Although they are no longer available as music resource personnel, their musicexpertise could easily and effectively be utilized in peer coachingsituations. Their continued use as music resource personnel should beencouraged, especially once the Ministry of Education distributes its newmusic curriculum. Based on the researcher’s participation in the British161Columbia Ministry of Education’s Fine Arts Forum III in February, 1994, itseems that the new curriculum will be geared primarily toward teachers whopossess specialist-like skills. Since a relatively large proportion of therespondents had indicated that they are not familiar with the Primary ProgramFoundation Document’s description of the music curriculum, it follows thatmany teachers will not familiarize themselves with the new music curriculum.If the upcoming music curriculum is to be useful to general classroomteachers, in-service and peer coaching must be implemented.More ideally, however, music education curriculum design in BritishColumbia must consider two groups of teachers: the music specialists and thegeneral classroom teachers. Each group of teachers has different needs andrequires curricula that addresses their specific backgrounds and levels ofexpertise. Teachers indicated that they are teaching music to their students,but that they are only comfortable with certain music topics and concepts. Itis important to recognize and respect the efforts and abilities of theclassroom teacher. A curriculum based on the understandings and skills ofclassroom teachers will more likely encourage those teachers to incorporateits use as a resource.The organization and coordination of resources was once theresponsibility of the bbotsford School District’s Director of Instruction forthe Fine Arts. The majority of teachers who participated in the study haveindicated that they need help with several, if not all, areas of musicinstruction. It is evident that leadership is necessary at the district levelif teachers are to receive the help they require with music instruction.Preparation for future teachers is of concern. In school districts suchas Abbotsford, future teachers must be prepared to teach some music;otherwise, many children may be deprived of a well-balanced curriculum. It is162important that all universities require their elementary education students totake at least one music methods course. Teachers who had taken at least onemusic methods course found many of the course topics helpful, and did notdismiss any of the course topics to be completely unhelpful. Universitiesthat make music methods a mandatory elementary education course (e.g., theUniversity of British Columbia and the University of Victoria), shouldcontinue to maintain and strengthen their music methods courses, whileuniversities that do not require their teachers in training to take a musicmethods course (e.g., Simon Fraser University) should reconsider music methodsas a program requirement.Any criticism of undergraduate music education courses was aimed at thevolume of course material, rather than course content. Course instructors mayneed to narrow their focus somewhat, and not attempt to accommodate all levelsof music ability in one class. Perhaps teachers with little music backgroundshould be placed in a separate section from those with more music background.Teachers in training would then be able to focus on and develop the musicteaching skills that are suitable to their range of comfort and expertise withmusic. In this way, even the seemingly less helpful course topics likesinging with hand signals, and music reading and writing, may be lessintimidating and more meaningful to teachers with little music background, andcan be designed with the needs and confidence levels of those teachers intraining in mind.Considerations for Further ResearchFurther research should be designed to compare the attitudes andbackgrounds of primary classroom teachers who are responsible for the163implementation of music in their own programs with the attitudes andbackgrounds of teachers in districts with music specialist programs.The anecdotal comments made by some of the teachers in the present studysuggest further research is necessary in the area of music staffing. Althoughteachers were not asked to determine the necessity of music specialists, theissue was mentioned by several respondents. Teachers recalled how helpful itwas to their own music teaching to observe a specialist teach, and also feltthat a specialist was necessary to teach those areas of music with which theywere not comfortable. Those who commented recognize that the music activitiesthey provide for their students are not sufficient and that they need aspecialist to teach their music. Further research would help clarify the roleof the music specialist from the point of view of the general classroomteacher.Similar studies also need to be conducted to survey the attitudes andbackgrounds of intermediate teachers. Other researchers, Amen (1982), Bryson(1982) , Krehbiel (1990), and Pendleton (1975) found differences in the amountof music instruction time offered to students of primary classroom teachersand the amount of time offered by intermediate teachers. A survey ofattitudes and backgrounds may help discover possible reasons for thisdiscrepancy.Also of interest would be a survey of the attitudes and backgrounds ofadministrative officers, school board administration, and school boardmembers. Information gleaned from a survey of administration and school boardmembers may help reveal reasons why the presence of music programs is soinconsistent among schools, as well as across school districts.164ReferencesAmen, B. (1982) . The effect of selected factors on the time spent teachingmusic by elementary classroom teachers (Doctoral dissertation, IndianaUniversity, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 2586A.Austin, J. R. (1992, April). Future classroom teachers’ ability self-perceptions and attributional responses to failure in music: Do musicfundamentals classes make a difference? 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The elementary classroom teacher: An ally for musiceducation. Music Educators Journal, 76(1), 25-28.Gantly, N. (1990) . What do students really learn in music education classes?The B.C. Music Educator, 32(2), 5-13.Goodman, J. L. (1985) . Perceived music and music-teaching competencies ofclassroom teachers in the state of Ohio (Doctoral dissertation, The OhioState University, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 3642A.King, G. (1989). Who should teach music: The classroom teacher or thespecialist? The B.C. Music Educator, 32(2), 23-27.Krehbiel, H. J. (1990) . Illinois fine arts: Elementary classroom teachers’perceptions of music instruction (Doctoral dissertation, University ofIllinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International,51, 778A.Kritzmire, J. (1991, April). Elementary general music: What difference doesit make? Paper presented at the National Biennial in-Service Conference ofthe Music Educators National Conference. New Orleans, Louisiana.Maim, S. A. (1988) . Classroom teachers: Elementary to music education.Music Educators Journal, 75(3), 30-33.Microsoft Excel Version 4 for Windows [Computer program]. (1992). Redmond,Washington: Microsoft Corporation.Mills, J. (1989) . The generalist primary teacher of music: A problem ofconfidence. British Journal of Music Education, 6(2), 125-138.Pendleton, C. (1976) . An investigation into the role of the classroomteacher in the elementary school program (Doctoral dissertation, Universityof Oregon, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 858A.Price, H. E., & Burnsed, V. (1989) . Classroom teachers’ assessments ofelementary education music methods. Update, 8(1), 23-31.Richards, M. H. (1984). Aesthetic foundations for thinking, rethought, PartI. Portola Valley, CA: Richards Institute.Richards, M. H. & Langness, A. (1982) . The music language, Section 1. PortolaValley, CA: Richards Institute.166Richards, M. H. & Langness, A. (1984). The music language, Section 2.Portola Valley, CA: Richards Institute.Roy, L. (1991). President’s message. British Columbia Music Educators’Association Newsletter, XI(l), 2-3.Roy, L. (1992) . President’s message. British Columbia Music Educators’Association Newsletter, XI(4), 2-3.Roy, L. (1993). President’s message. British Columbia Music Educators’Association Newsletter, XIII(2), 2-3.Saunders, T. C., & Baker, D. S. (1991). In-service classroom teachers’perceptions of useful music skills and understandings. Journal of Researchin Music Education, 39(3) , 248-261.Shand, P., & Bartel, L. (1993). The administration of music programs inCanadian schools. Canadian Music Educator, 34(5), 35-42.Smith, C. F., Jr. (1985). An investigation of factors relevant to the extentto which elementary classroom teachers are involved in teaching music onthe Eastern Shore of Maryland (Doctoral dissertation, University ofMaryland, College Park, MD). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46,3645A.Stroud, B. S. (1981) . A study of the general classroom music programs in thepublic elementary school of the Tidewater region of Virginia (Doctoraldissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1980)Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4640A.Sullivan, B. (Commissioner). (1988). A legacy for learners: The report ofthe Royal Commission on Education 1988. Victoria: The Queen’s Printer forthe Province of British Columbia.Trowsdale, C. (1980) . Music education under attack. The B.C. MusicEducator, 23(2), 10-11.Trowsdale, C. (1982) . Problems old and new: The elementary generalist asmusic teacher and decentralization at the district level. The B.C. MusicEducator, 25(3), 2-3.Tupman, D. (1993) . Music specialists in Canadian elementary education--Apoint of view. Canadian Music Educator, 34(5), 9-10.Vancouver School Board. (1988) . Suggestions for school-based artsinitiatives. The B.C. Music Educator, 31(1), 8-9.167Appendix AList of Questionnaire Items Selected From Other StudiesThe following items were selected from the Saunders and Baker (1991) study andwere included or revised for use in the present study’s questionnaire.1) What grade level do you teach?____kindergarten1 2 3 4 53) If you answered “yes” to question 2, approximately how much time perweek do you use to provide musical experiences for your students?0 - 30 minutes 31- 60 minutes61- 90 minutes 91- 120 minutes121 or more minutes varies greatly4) In which of the following are you, or have you been, involvedpersonally? (Check as many as apply)play(ed) pianoplay(ed) guitarplay(ed) instrument in band or orchestraperform(ed) in a chorus or choirattend(ed) concertslisten(ed) to music other than “Top 40”other, please specify______________________________________________6) For each of the topics below, please circle the number that correspondsto the statement that applies to your degree of experience, involvement,or interest. Please respond in reference to the five statements listedbelow.I. Studied in undergraduate teacher training course but do use inthe classroom.II. Studied in undergraduate teacher training course and use in theclassroom.III. Learned from other sources, ie. books, private study, and Q usein the classroom.IV. I am interested and would use if I knew how.V. Have no interest and would use.168I II III IV VStudied Studied Other Would Notnot used and used sources use inter-and used estedMusic theory I II III IV V(scale building,etc.)Playing recorder I II III IV VPlaying guitar I II III IV VPlaying autoharp I II III IV VCharacteristics of I II III IV Vchildren’s voices(comfortable range, etc.)Appropriate songs I II III IV Vfor children ofdifferent agesMusic reading I II III IV Vactivities forchildrenUsing music to I II III IV Vsupplement othercurricular areas(social studies,language arts, etc.)7) Besides your undergraduate teacher training music class(es), what are,or have been, your sources for ideas and activities pertaining toappropriate music activities for your students? (Check as many asapply.)Graduate courses in musicMusic method books, i.e., Music for Young ChildrenMusic text books provided by your school system, i.e., SilverBurdett MusicIn-service workshopsDiscussions with music specialistRecollections from your personal experiencesOther, please specify________________________________________________1698) To what degree are you comfortable in the following music involvements?Selecting songs very veryappropriate for uncomfortable comfortableyour students 1 2 3 4 5Teaching a new very verysong to students uncomfortable comfortable1 2 3 4 5Leading the very verychildren in song uncomfortable comfortable1 2 3 4 5Teaching the child- very veryren to perform with uncomfortable comfortableinstrument accom- 1 2 3 4 5panimentsDeveloping rhythm very veryinstrument accom- uncomfortable comfortablepaniments 1 2 3 4 5Developing very verylistening lessons uncomfortable comfortable1 2 3 4 5Developing very verymovement lessons uncomfortable comfortable1 2 3 4 5Developing a Se- very veryquence of lessons for uncomfortable comfortablespecific music topics 1 2 3 4 5Teaching rhythm very veryuncomfortable comfortable1 2 3 4 5Teaching pitch very veryuncomfortable comfortable1 2 3 4 5Teaching dynamics very veryuncomfortable comfortable1 2 3 4 5Teaching musical very veryform uncomfortable comfortable1 2 3 4 5170The following questionnaire items from Kritzmire’s study (1991) were adaptedand included in the present study.Frequently use music: recreation/teaching toolWould like to teach; other subjects demand timeWould not teach; talented can study outside of schoolWould not teach; other basic skills more importantPrimary value of music; break from academics171Appendix BQuestionnaire of the Present Study172A Survey of Primary Classroom Teachers’ Attitudesand Music Backgrounds in Music EducationBackground Information1) Which grade(s) do you teach?o Kindergarten 0 One 0 Two 0 Three2) For how many years have you been teaching?Oo-i 06-10 0 21 or more02-5 011-203) a) As well as being a classroom teacher, have you ever been a musicspecialist?0 Yes 0 Nob) If you answered “no, do you intend to be a music specialist?0 Yes 0 No4) Does a music specialist teach music to your class?0 Yes 0 No (skip question 5 and go to question 6* on thenext page)5) If you answered “yes’ to question 4:a) Approximately how much music time per week do your studentsreceive from the music specialist?0 20 minutes or less 0 55-65 minutes0 25-35 minutes 0 70-80 minutes0 40-50 minutes 0 85-95 minutesb) Does your music specialist provide your preparation time?0 Yes 0 No (If “No”, please describe what you doduring the music lesson:)173c) Do you also teach music to your class in addition to the musictaught by your music specialist?o Yes 0 No(Now skip question 6 and 90 to question 7.)6*) If you answered “no” to question 4:a) Do you teach music to your class?O Yes 0 Nob) If you teach music to your class, approximately how much time perweek do you use to provide musical experiences for your students?o 20 minutes or less 0 55-65 minuteso 25-35 minutes 0 70-80 minuteso 40-50 minutes 0 85-95 minutes0 other (please specify) — minutes7) In which of the following are you, or have you been, involvedpersonally? (Check as many as apply.)past presento 0 private music lessonso o play(ed) pianoo 0 play(ed) guitaro 0 play(ed) recordero 0 play(ed) instrument in band or orchestrao o sing(sang) in a chorus or choiro 0 attend(ed) concertso 0 listen(ed) to music recordingso o other, please specify______________________________8) To what degree do you think you are musical?o unmusicalO a little musicalo moderately musical0 very musical0 professional musician1749) From which university did you receive your teacher education?o SFU 0 Canadian university:______o UBC 0 U.s. university:__________o UVic10) How many music education courses did you take during yourundergraduate teacher training?o none 0 two 0 music education major, oro one 0 three concentration11) Have you taken any music education courses since you completed yourteacher training?o none 0 one 0 two 0 threeCourse name(s)_____________________________________ ___ ______University Training, In-service, and ResourcesP1ease skip this section and go to Section B on page 5 if youhave not had any music education methods courses.A) Rate the degree to which the following music methods course topics havebeen helpful to you in your teaching of music.not not somewhat extremelystudied helpful helpful helpful helpful12) Music theory (note naming, chord 0 0 0 0 0naming, time signatures, keysignatures, sharps, flats, etc.)13) Playing an accompaniment instrument 0 0 0 0 0(ukulele, autoharp, guitar)14) Appropriate songs for children of 0 0 0 0 0different ages15) Techniques of leading and teaching 0 0 0 0 0songs175not not somewhat extremelystudied helpful helpful helpful helpful16) Techniques of teaching classroom 0 0 0 0 0instruments (triangles, hand drums,xylophones, recorders, etc.)17) Developing movement activities 0 0 0 0 0(singing games, dances, etc.)18) Characteristics of children’s voices 0 0 0 0 0(comfortable range, vocal health,proper use of voice, etc.)19) Integrating music with other subject 0 0 0 0 0areas20) Music reading and/or writing 0 0 0 0 0activities (reading and writingmusic notes)21) Singing while reading music 0 0 0 0 0(sight - singing)22) Using hand signals while singing 0 0 0 0 0(“doh-ray-me” etc.)23) Mapping a song while singing 0 0 0 0 024) Using rhythm syllables (ta’s, 0 0 0 0 0ti-ti’s, or du’s and du-de’s)25) Using rhyme and chant to teach 0 0 0 0 0rhythm or movement activitiesPlease comment on any of the above topics or on any other music educationmethods course topics that have not been included.Do you have any suggestions for desirable content for a classroom teacher’smusic methods course?176B) Rate the degree to which the following music resources have beenhelpful to you in your music teaching.have not not somewhat helpful extremelydone! helpful helpful helpfulused26) Music method books (e.g., Orff, 0 0 0 0 0Kodaly, ETM, Birkenshaw, etc.)27) Music textbooks (e.g., Musicanada 0 0 0 0 0series, Silver Burdett, etc.)28) In-service workshops 0 0 0 0 029) Discussions with music specialist 0 0 0 0 030) Recollections from personal 0 0 0 0 0experiences (concerts, recordings,video, etc.)31) Observation of music specialist 0 0 0 0 032) District leadership in music 0 0 0 0 0(E.g., Director of Instruction forthe Fine Arts)33) Other, please specify 0 0 0 0 0Please comment on any of the above resources. (E.g., Why was a particularresource helpful, or not helpful, to you?)please continue. .177Attitudes and SkillsII To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements?strongly disagree neither agree stronglydisagree agree agreenor cbs-agree34) Music is an important part of my 0 0 0 0 0life.35) Music is an important part of our 0 0 0 0 0children’s education.36) Music instruction is not necessary 0 0 0 0 0in the students’ day because privatelessons can accommodate those whowish to pursue music.37) Music is a superfluous subject. 0 0 0 0 0Other subject areas are moreimportant.38) Music in the school day should only 0 0 0 0 0be used as a teaching tool (e.g.,using a song to reinforce countingskills, spelling, etc.)39) Music in the school day should only 0 0 0 0 0be used for recreational purposes(e.g., as a break).40) Music should be valued as a subject 0 0 0 0 0in itself.please continue . .17841) Think of your ocz attitudes toward music. Are there any experiencesin your life which may have shaped those attitudes toward music?o family member 0 school experience ino private music lessons primary gradeso friend 0 school experience ino peer pressure intermediate gradeso colleague 0 secondary schoolo concert attendance experienceo recordings (audio and video) 0 university experienceo other:_________________Use the space below to explain your experience(s) and how it (they) influencedyour present attitude toward music.42) Think of your o attitudes toward teaching music. Are there anyexperiences in your life which may have shaped those attitudestoward teaching music?o family member 0 school experience ino private music lessons primary gradeso friend 0 school experience ino peer pressure intermediate gradeso concert attendance 0 secondary schoolo recordings (audio and video) experienceo colleague 0 university experience0 other:__________________Use the space below to explain your experience(s) and how it (they) influencedyour present attitude toward teaching music.179The following items describe various music activities. If you do not feelcomfortable teaching any fonn of music at all, you need not answer the rest ofthe questions. Thank you for your participation in this study.strongly disagree neither agree stronglydisagree agree agreenor disagree43) I feel comfortable teaching a new 0 0 0 0 0song to the class.44) I feel comfortable teaching a new 0 0 0 0 0singing game to the class.45) I can select songs which are suitable 0 0 0 0 0for the age and developmental level ofthe students.46) I feel comfortable teaching the class 0 0 0 0 0a new chant (rhyme) using speech.47) I can select from a wide variety of 0 0 0 0 0song material (e.g., children’s folk-songs, game songs, seasonal songs, songsof other cultures, etc.)48) I can confidently teach a lesson on 0 0 0 0 0healthy vocal/singing production.49) I can confidently develop a lesson to 0 0 0 0 0teach music concepts (e.g., a conceptrelated to rhythm, melody, form,dynamics, timbre, harmony, tempo,steady beat, etc.).50) I feel comfortable teaching songs in a 0 0 0 0 0variety of tonalities (pentatonic,major, minor, dorian, mixolydian, etc.)51) I feel comfortable teaching songs in a 0 0 0 0 0variety of meters (2/4, 4/4, 3/4, 6/8,7/8, etc.).52) I feel comfortable teaching children 0 0 0 0 0how to play rhythm instruments.please continue. .180strongly disagree neither agree stronglydisagree agree agreenor disagree53) I feel comfortable teaching children 0 0 0 0 0how to play melody instruments(xylophone, metallophone, etc.)54) I am comfortable developing rhythm 0 0 0 0 0instrument accompaniments for mystudents to play.55) I am comfortable planning and teaching 0 0 0 0 0lessons that integrate music withother subject areas.56) I am comfortable with teaching music 0 0 0 0 0composition.57) I am comfortable teaching children 0 0 0 0 0how to improvise.58) I can develop a sequence of lessons 0 0 0 0 0for specific music topics.59) I can develop and teach a music 0 0 0 0 0listening lesson.60) I can develop and teach a lesson 0 0 0 0 0using movement activities.61) I am familiar with the music 0 0 0 0 0curriculum as specified in the PrimaryProgram document.In summary, which music activity(ies) do you feel the most confident andcomfortable teaching? Please explain why.In which areas of music teaching do you feel you need help with?Thank you very much for your participation in this study.181Appendix CLetter to SuperintendentSandra A. MurrayDormick Park Elementary32161 Dormick AvenueClearbrook, B.C. V2T 1J6November 1, 1993Mr. Jim DyckSuperintendent of SchoolsSchool District #34, bbotsford2790 Tims StreetClearbrook, B.C. V2T 4M7Dear Mr. Dyck:In addition to my current teaching position at Dormick Park Elementary Iam also pursuing an M.A. degree in Education at the University of BritishColumbia. I am writing to you to request your support in the collection ofdata for my thesis.The purpose of my study is to examine primary classroom teachers’attitudes toward music education and their own music skills in the provisionof music instruction for primary aged children. I hope to collect datathrough the use of a questionnaire. Teachers will be asked to offerinformation that concerns their general music backgrounds, their universitytraining, in-service experiences, and music teaching resources. In addition,the teachers’ attitudes and skills in music education will be surveyed.Confidentiality will be assured. Teachers will be informed that thequestionnaire is not an evaluation of their music instruction. However, thequestionnaire responses will help bring attention to music education from theperspective of the classroom teacher.I would like to request permission to survey all of the primaryclassroom teachers in School District #34. (It is not the intention of thepresent study to survey teachers from school districts other than Abbotsford.)Following your approval, final consent will be sought from The University ofBritish Columbia Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee.I would also like to request permission to use the school district’sinter-school mailing system for the distribution and collection of thequestionnaires. The use of the district’s mailing system would help ease mycosts, as well as simplify the return process for the participants.Please find enclosed a copy of the questionnaire, “A Survey of PrimaryClassroom Teachers’ Attitudes and Music Skills in Music Education” and theaccompanying cover letter. A small number of classroom teachers will pilotthe questionnaire. Revisions will be made accordingly.182Once the data has been collected and analysed, a summary of the resultsof the questionnaire will be available to the participants and the schoolboard. If desired, the original data forms and a detailed data analysis canbe made available to the school board.Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to your response.Yours sincerely,Sandra A. MurrayPrimary Classroom TeacherEnclosurecc: Vicki Robinson, ADTA President183Appendix BQuestionnaire Covering Letters:Letter to Administrative OfficersJanuary 4, 1994Dear Administrative Officer:Please find enclosed a sample copy of the questionnaire, A Survey of PrimaryClassroom Teachers’ Attitudes and Music Backgrounds in Music Education, thatevery full and part-time primary classroom teacher in S.D. #34 has receivedthrough the school mail. As stated in the covering letter that accompaniesthe questionnaire, I am doing a graduate thesis study at the University ofBritish Columbia that is concerned with primary classroom teachers’ attitudestoward music education. I am hoping that the data gathered will help shedsome light on the state of music education from the perspective of theclassroom teacher.Participation is voluntary, yet I would like as many teachers as possible torespond to the questionnaire. It would be most helpful if an announcement ofthe survey were made at your next staff meeting. Could you please ask whethereach primary teacher received a copy and if not, let me know? I can bereached at Dormick Park School (859-3712)I am also concerned that some teachers may feel they are not able toparticipate in the study because of a lack of music training. However, theresponses of primary classroom teachers of all backgrounds are pertinent to myresearch. It would be most appreciated if you could reiterate, at yourupcoming staff meeting, that the response of the classroom teacher to thequestionnaire is of prime importance to the study. Moreover, results of thestudy will be shared with the school district.I thank you for your anticipated support in this endeavour. Should you haveany questions please do not hesitate to contact me, or my faculty advisor, Dr.Peter Gouzouasis (822-4460)Sincerely yours,Sandy MurrayPrimary Classroom TeacherDormick Park Elementary184Questionnaire Covering Letters:Letter to the President of the Abbotsiord Primary Teachers’ AssociationJanuary 3, 1994Dear Heather,Please find enclosed a sample copy of the questionnaire, A Survey of PrimaryClassroom Teachers’ Attitudes and Music Backgrounds in Music Education, thatevery full and part-time primary classroom teacher in S.D. #34 will receivethrough the school mail. As stated in the covering letter that accompaniesthe questionnaire, I am doing a graduate thesis study at the University ofBritish Columbia that is concerned with primary classroom teachers’ attitudestoward music education. I am hoping that the data gathered will help shedsome light on the state of music education from the perspective of theclassroom teacher. Mr. Jim Dyck, Superintendent of Schools, has given hisconsent to survey our primary classroom teachers and would like the results ofthe study shared with the school district.Participation is voluntary, yet it is important to the study that as manyteachers as possible respond to the questionnaire. I am writing to requestthe support of the Abbotsford Primary Teachers’ Association in this endeavour.Would it be possible for me to make a very brief (5 minutes maximum)presentation of the questionnaire at your upcoming APTA executive meeting?am hoping that the Area Reps could phone their respective schools and ask eachschool’s primary teacher representative to remind their primary teachers ofthe questionnaire. In addition, it may be very helpful to have each school’sprimary teacher representative, if feasible, collect completed questionnairesand return them to me at Dormick Park School through the school mail.I thank you for your anticipated support. Please let me know if it would bepossible for me to attend and speak at your January executive meeting.Sincerely yours,Sandy MurrayPrimary Classroom TeacherDormick Park ElementaryPhone: 859-3712Enclosurecc: Jim Dyck185Questionnaire Covering Letters:Letter to Primary Classroom TeachersDear Colleague:Respect for the values, views, arid opinions of the classroom teacher areof utmost importance in the consideration of curriculum development.I am a primary teacher at Dormick Park School. I am doing a graduatethesis study at the University of British Columbia, Department of Visual andPerforming Arts in Education, that is concerned with primary classroomteachersT attitudes toward music education. The music backgrounds of primaryclassroom teachers in the provision of music instruction will also be studied.Questionnaires have been sent to all Abbotsford primary teachers.The questionnaire is not an evaluation of what you do in your musicprogram. However, the data provided by your response will help shed somelight on the state of music education from the perspective of the classroomteacher.The questionnaire contains three parts. The first part concernsbackground information. The second part asks you to consider any musiceducation courses, workshops, and music teaching resources you have foundhelpful. The third part concerns your attitudes toward music and the degreeof comfort you feel in teaching specific music activities.Your response will remain completely anonymous and confidential. (Thenumeral on the questionnaire form will not be used to identify you in any way.It is simply organizational in purpose.) Your participation is voluntary.You have the right to refuse participation without prejudice.It will be assumed that if you complete and forward the questionnairethat you have given your consent to participate in this study. I hope youwill be able to find 10 minutes to relax with a cup of tea and fill out thequestionnaire. Should you have any questions please do not hesitate tocontact me at the telephone number below, or my faculty advisor, Dr. PeterGouzouasis (822-4460) . Please answer all of the questions and drop off thecompleted questionnaire in the enclosed envelope in the school mail.A summary of the results will be forwarded to you for your interest.Thank you for your participation.Sincerely yours,Sandy MurraySchool Ph. 859-3712186Appendix EQuestionnaire Follow-up FAX and Letters:Questionnaire Follow-up FAX to Primary Representatives for Individual Schools-.DORCK PARK ELEMENTARy3Z161 Dormick Ave.Clearbroolg 8.C. V2T 1J6Phone: 859-3712 Fax: 850-7693Principal: Ilarry EdwardsFACSIMILE TRANSMITTALFAX TO: of f eIni+ry Obk DATE: 7-b ‘7 i c14’lATTENTION: Pr vr1ory lep. NO. OF PAGES:FROM: 6(2ndi t4iiri (including cover)VI>1Th/2nd /p.,-xrz 4w %v 4ck a1 * i C,4’/a A A,t,,tL% *‘v iw1 a’ /c /“‘q’&t/L1187Questioni3aire Follow-Up FAX to Primary Classroom Teachers,Pkase poIThank!riIte no+ oo 1!A oupI of Weeks ao q o,iAe.sfionntire iHed,“A 3t-ve of Primary, Ciaroorn 1ahr’ 4/-i/hids and Muii&czCk91OUf7dS iii Nusic, ic4Ica1i’?” jos rna,ted o eadi priolO(yteachex (MI arS part fitii) ii or .schooi d.rict. AIihoIi aded lines fr i.spore’ vas el or Feb. I, Id 1k * exk ‘ilio± date±D 1P you hae&t filled ov’1et /eascwa merFioned in fie, coueri, Ieffir, the da±aprovided by your respor1e’ sill help 5hed on 4at ofrru,sic1 educo+ion from fhe pr6pectIe of 1he’ ssrocn +ac(ier. Jt isvery impotan to -the- 1ud, +htrf fhe re’spon6e of- clcroom +eaciiet-s0P all backrourds (i.e., flOflmL43CAl ad n1sc( backr-ounds)are’ nelded. A reporl o *h rsu Its o -k audy viihe de ±o our ethool boaai.ir ycr afiapt•1m4 ‘271a41Er,41&k- Ps_’7- 3717-P8. M&ny 7’ianL 4 7L4,jho ha’ a,Iridy reided. Yciparfitlpal7t%7 Vej nuS apprtcóZd.”188Questionnaire Follow-up Letter to Primary Representatives for IndividualSchoolsMarch 3, 1994DearCould you please help me with the distribution of the enclosedquestionnaires?Each school in our district, except those with a lOOt return rate, willbe receiving a second mailing of my questionnaire, A Survey of PrimaryClassroom Teachers’ Attitudes and Music Backgrounds in Music Education. Iwould very much appreciate it if you could distribute questionnaires just tothose primary teachers who had not yet responded to the first mailing of thequestionnaire.Some teachers may be concerned that they have very little musicbackground or experience. Please reassure your colleagues that the study isintended for classroom teachers of both non-musical and musical backgrounds.A new covering letter, as well as the original covering letteraccompanies the questionnaire. If you or your colleagues have any concerns orquestions please call me at Dormick Park Elementary (859-3712). Thank youvery much for your help!Sincerely yours,Sandy Murray189Questionnaire Follow-up Letter to Primary Classroom TeachersMarch 2, 1994Dear Colleague,Six weeks ago, each teacher in our school district was sent aquestionnaire titled, A Survey of Primary Classroom Teachers’ Attitudes andMusic Backgrounds in Music Education. I am writing in hope that you willreconsider filling it out.Your response is of utmost importance to the study. Very little isknown about the state of music education in this province from the perspectiveof the classroom teacher. The data provided from your response will help insuch areas as curriculum development and teacher education. In addition, areport of the results of the study will be made to the Abbotsford SchoolBoard.Again, I hope that you will reconsider and participate in the study.Please find enclosed another copy of my questionnaire and covering letter.Thank you for your anticipated participation!Sincerely yours,Sandy MurrayDormick Park Elementary(859- 3712)190Appendix F: Data Table2) For how many yearshave you been teaching?Percentage3a) As well as being aclassroom teacher, haveyou ever been a musicspecialist?Percentage0-1yrs.74%2-5yrs.3219%6-10yrs.3622%1 1 -20yrs.6036%21 ormore3018%Total165100%A Survey of Primary Classroom Teachers Attitudes and_Music_Backgrounds in Music EducationOne!1) Which grade(s) do One! Two! Three! Two!you teach? K K’ One One Two Two Three Three Four Three Totals25 10 26 22 17 27 26 8 4 165Percentage 15% 6% 16% 13% 10% 16% 16% 5% 2% 100%4) Does a musicspecialist teach music toyour class? Yes No Total19 146 165 2 mus. spec. ans. yes”, they tch. own class musicPercentage 12% 88% 100%3b) If you answered “no’,do you intend to be amusic specialist?PercentageYesYes1610%11%No14990%No14799%Total165100%Subtotal148100%1 answered “may be, md. with no191Data Table5) If you answered “yes toquestion 4:a) Approximately howmuch music time per weekdo your students receive 20 mm. 25-35 40-50 55-65 70-80 85-95from the music specialist? or less mm. mi mm. mm. mm. omit Total0 12.5 1.5 2 0 1 2 19Percentage 0% 66% 11% 11% 0% 5% 11% 103%5b) Does your musicspecialist provide yourpreparation time? Yes No Omit Total8 10 1 19Percentage 42% 53% 5% 100%lfNO”, please describe what you do during the music lesson:trade classes - I take hers for gym (1)sing, clap beat, body mov’t to rhythm (1)working with half my class and some of the music teachers class (1)join in, or work with individuals (1)ha’f split with library (1)supervise students (1)teach computer (1)Every 2nd week/on alternate weeks I go n with the children toassist with supervision (music teacher doubles up - 2 classes = 45students) so the 2 classroom teachers alternate supervisionand preo time every second week. (1)5c) Do you also teachmusic to your class inaddition to the music taughtby your music specialist? Yes No Omit13 4 2 19Percentage 68’o 21% 11% 100%6) If you answered no” toquestion 4: a) Do you teachmusic to your class? Yes No Omit Total128 14 6 148 (2 ans. yes” to #4 and also did #6)Percentage 86% 9% 5% 101%192Data Table6b) If you teach music toyour class, approximatelyhow much time per week doyou use to provide musicalexperiences for your 20 mm. 25-35 40-50 55-65 70-80 85-95students? or less mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. other Total24 43 36 21 6 6 0 136Percentage 18% 32% 26% 15% 4% 4% 0% 100%7) In which of the foflowingare you, or have you beeninvolved personally? present(Check as many as apply.) past past (%) present (%)private music lessons 88 53% 12 7%play(ed) piano 66 40% 35 21%play(ed) guitar 38 23% 11 7%play(ed) recorder 61 37% 10 6%play(ed) instrument in bandor orchestra 32 19% 6 4%choir 98 59% 15 9%attend(ed) concerts 93 56% 94 57%recordings 89 54% 120 73%other 14 8% 21 13%please specify other taught piano, rhythm, voice, theory to young children in “Music For Young_______Children”_program_(1)ukulele (5)Conducted children’s choirs/ladies groups (1)participate in music courses/workshop (1)ETM class through UBC (1)courses for teachers (1)lead choirs (church and schools) (1)violin (1)Orff training (2)drama (1)conducted handbell choir (1)ETM workshops (4)have written short songs for concert (by ear-had someoneelse write out the music and_put_it on_tape)_(1)handbells (1)trumpet grade 8/clarinet grade 9, really enjoyed this year (1)played organ(1)teach piano and music theory (1)193Data Table9) From which university didyou receive your teachereducation?PercentageSFU4527%UBC6338%UVic1811%Cndn.university2616%U.S.UniversitV95%Other42%165100%8) To what degree do you un- a little mod. very profess.think you are musical? musical musical musical musical musician Omit Total29 45 70 19 1 1 165Percentage 18% 27% 42% 12% 1% 1% 100%Canadian universitiesspecified Vancouver Normal School (1)Trinity Western U (2)U. of Alberta (4)U of Calgary (4)U of Sask. (3)U of Saskatoon (3)U of Manitoba (3)U of Winnipeg (1)U of West. Ont. (1)U of Toronto (1)Queen’s U at Kingston, Ont. (1)McGill (1)Laval (1)UQUAM (1)Wilfred Laurier (1)U.S. universities specified Western Washington (3)Moorhead State, Minnesota (1)Rider College (1)Other universities specified Melbourne Teachers’ College (1)U.K. (College of Education) (1)194Data Table195Data Table13) Playing anaccompaniment instrument(ukulele, autoharp, guitar)Percentage2830%1617%1415%1617%1112%78%92100%University Training, In-Service, and Resources(Please skip this section and go to Section B on page 5 if you have not had any music educationmethods courses.)A) Rate the degree to which the following music methods_course_topics_have_beenhelpful to you in your teaching of music.some-not not what extremelystudied helpful helpful helpful helpful omit Total12) Music theory (notenaming, chord naming, timesignatures, key signatures,sharps, flats, etc.) 12 22 24 18 9 7 92Percentage 13% 24% 26% 20% 10% 8% 100%17) Developing movementactivities (singing games,dances, etc.) 5 4 30 26 26 1 92Percentages 5% 4% 33% 28% 28% 1% 100%14) Appropriate songs forchildren of different agesPercentage15) Techniques of leadingand teaching songsPercentage16) Techniques of teachingclassroom instruments(triangles, hand drums,xylophones, recorders, etc.)Percentage67%910%2527%22%78%1213%2325%2729%2426%3033%2729%1617%2830%1617%78%33%67%89%92100%92100%92100%196Data Table21) Singing while readingmusic (sight-singing)Percentage3639%1314%1718%78%89%1112%?100%some-not not what extremelystudied helpful helpful helpful helpful omit Total18) Characteristics ofchildren’s voices(comfortable range, vocalhealth, proper use of voice,etc.) 42 13 15 6 8 8 92Percentage 46% 14% 16% 7% 9% 9% 100%19) Integrating music withother subject areas 16 10 23 19 18 6 92Percentage 17% 11% 25% 21% 20% 7% 100%20) Music reading and/orwriting activities ( readingand writing music notes) 24 18 24 8 7 11 92Percentage 26% 20% 26% 9% 8% 12% 100%22) Using hand signalswhile singing (“doh-ray-me”etc.) 23 21 18 17 6 7 92Percentage 25% 23% 20% 18% 7% 8% 100%23) Mapping a song whilesinging 28 8 17 18 13 8 92Percentage 30% 9% 18% 20% 14% 9% 100%24) Using rhythm syllables(tas, ti-ti’s, or du’s and dude’s) 19 16 24 17 9 7 92Percentage 21% 17% 26% 18% 10% 8% 100%25) Using rhyme and chantto teach rhythm ormovement activities 4 6 24 28 21 9 92Percentage 4% 7% 26% 30% 23% 10% 100%Please comment on any of the above topics or on any other music education methods course topics thathave not been included.No. of comments 13 8%Do you have any suggestions f or desirable content for a classroom teacher’s music methods course?No. of comments 2j 10%I I I I197Data TableB) Rate the degree to which the following music resources have been helpful to ‘iou in your music teaching.have not some-done! not what extreme-used helpful helpful helpful iy helpful omit Total26) Music method books(e.g., Orff, Kodaly, ETM,Birkenshaw, etc.) 66 5 36 24 25 9 165Percentage 40% 3% 22% 15% 15% 5% 100%27) Music textbooks (e.g.,Musicanada series, SilverBurdett, etc.) 43 17 57 33 7 8 165Percentage 26% 10% 35% 20% 4% 5% 74%33) Other, please specify 1 0 0 6 4 1 11% 0% 0% 4% 2% 7%Please comment on any of tne above resources.No. of comments 79 48%28) In-service workshopsPercentaqe29) Discussions with musicspecialistPercentage30) Recollections frompersonal experiences(concerts, recordings,video, etc.)Percentage31) Observation of musicspecialistPercentage32) District leadership inmusic (e.g., Director ofInstruction for the Fine Arts)Percentage3521%5332%1710%4728%7646%00%53%64%85%1610%3823%3722%5735%3421%1811%4225%3320%5332%3421%1912%4225%2314%2515%3320%2314%85%148%74%95%138%165100%165100%165100%165100%165100%198Data TableAttitudes_and_SkillsTo what extent do you agree or_disagree_with_the following statements?neitherstrongly agree nor stronglydisagree disagree disagree agree agree omit Total34) Music is an importantpart of my life. 2 3 16 76 67 1 165Percentage 1% 2% 10% 46% 41% 1% 99%35) Music is an importantpart of our children’seducation. 0 2 8 73 81 1 165Percentage 0% 1% 5% 44% 49% 1% 100%36) Music instruction is notnecessary in the students’day because privatelessons can accommodatethose who wish to pursuemusic. 72 68 12 8 3 2 165Percentage 44% 41% 7% 5% 2% 1% 100%38) Music in the school dayshould only be used as ateaching tool (e.g., using asong to reinforce countingskills, spelling, etc.) 82 68 12 3 0 0 165Percentage 50% 41% 7% 2% 0% 0% 100%37) Music is a superfluoussubject. Other subjectareas are more important.Percentage6942%6439%1710%127%11%21%165100%199Data Table40) Music should be valuedas a subject in itself.Percentage11%11%138%7747%7344%00%165100%neitherstrongly agree nor stronglydisagree disagree disagree agree agree omit Total39) Music in the school dayshould only be used forrecreational purposes (e.g.,asabreak). 73 76 11 5 0 0 165Percentage 44% 46% 7% 3% 0% 0% 100%41) Think of your own attitudes toward music. Are there any experiences in your life whichmay have shaped those attitudes toward music?family member 103 62%private music lessons 83 50%friend 56 34%peer pressure 8 5%colleague 22 13%concert attendance 114 69%recordings (audio andvideo) 112 68%school experience inprimary grades 85 52%school experience inintermediate grades 71 43%secondary schoolexperience 68 41%university experience 40 24%other 19 12%omit 4 2% (omitted checklist but commented: 2)Use the space below to explain your experience(s) and how it (they) influenced your presentattitude toward music.No. of comments: 102 62%200Data Table42) Think of your own attitudes toward teaching music. Are there any experiences in your lifewhich may have shaped those attitudes toward teaching music?family member 47 28%private music lessons 41 25%friend 41 25%peer pressure 6 4%colleague 53 32%concert attendance 52 32%recordings (audio andvideo) 56 34%school experience inprimary grades 65 39%school experience inintermediate grades 42 25%secondary schoolexperience 36 22%university experience 45 27%other 21 13%omit 19 12% (omitted checklist but commented: 5)Use the space below to explain your experience(s) and how it (they) influenced your present attitudetoward teaching music.No. of comments: 69 42%201Data TableThe following items describe various music activities. If you do not feel comfortable teachingany form of music at all, you need not answer the rest of the questions. Thank you for yourparticipation in this study.Notcomfortableteaching neitherany form strongly agree nor stronglyof music omit disagree disagree disagree agree agree Total43) I feel comfortableteaching a new song tothe class. 10 1 4 15 8 72 55 165Percentage 6% 1% 2% 9% 5% 44° 33% 100%44) I feel comfortableteaching a new singinggame to the class. 10 1 3 11 13 71 56 165Percentage 6% 1% 2% 7% 8% 43% 34% 100%45) I can select songswhich are suitable forthe age anddevelopmental level ofthe students. 10 1 3 9 6 96 40 165Percentage 6% 1% 2% 5% 4% 58% 24% 100%46) feel comfortableteaching the class anew chant (rhyme)using speech. 10 2 0 4 7 80 62 165Percentage 6% 1% 0% 2% 4% 48% 38% 100%47) I can select from awide variety of songmaterial (e.g.,children’s folksongs,game songs, seasonalsongs, songs of othercultures, etc.). 10 2 7 29 21 68 28 165Percentage 6% 1% 4% 18% 13% 41% 17% 100%48) I can confidentlyteach a lesson onhealthy vocal/singingproduction. 10 2 32 59 27 21 14 165Percentage 6% 1% 19% 36% 16% 13% 8% 100%202Data Table50) I feel comfortableteaching songs in avariety of tonalities(pentatonic, major,minor, dorian,mixolydian, etc.).PercentageNotcomfortableteaching neitherany form strongly agree nor stronglyof music omit disagree disagree disagree agree agree Total49) 1 can confidentlydevelop a lesson toteach music concepts(e.g., a concept relatedto rhythm, melody,form, dynamics, timbre,harmony, tempo,steady beat, etc.). 10 4 40 41 28 32 10 165Percentage 6% 2% 24% 25% 17% 19% 6% 100%51) I feel comfortableteaching songs in avariety of meters (2/4,4/4, 3/4, 6/8, 7/8, etc.). 10 4 49 32 11 42 17 165Percentage 6% 2% 30% 19% 7% 25% 10% 100%52) I feel comfortableteaching children howto play rhythminstruments. 10 5 23 33 33 44 17 165Percentage 6% 3% 14% 20% 20% 27% 10% 100%53) I feel comfortableteaching children howto play melodyinstruments(xylophone,metallophone, etc.). 10 5 37 59 27 17 10 165Percentage 6% 3% 22% 36% 16% 10% 6% 100%106%53%6640%4829%2314%95%42%165100%203Data Table138%6539%4728%4225%2213%55) I am comfortableplanning and teachinglessons that integratemusic with othersubiect areas.Percentage10 46% 2%56) I am comfortableteaching musiccomposition.2213%23Percentage6514%281039%61656%17%Notcomfortableteaching neitherany form strongly agree nor stronglyof music omit disagree disagree disagree agree agree Total54) I am comfortabledeveloping rhythminstrumentaccompaniments formy students to play. 10 6 32 52 28 26 1 1 165Percentage 6% 4% 19% 32% 17% 16% 7% 100%60) I can develop andteach a lesson usingmovement activities. 10 4 12 13 26 74 26 165Percentage 6% 2% 7% 8% 16% 45% 16% 100%100%4%57) I am comfortableteaching children howto improvise.5634%15Percentage89%1055%66%1653% 100%3%4858) I can develop asequence of lessonsfor specific musictopics.2329% 14%24Percentage715%101655% 100%76% 4%59) I can develop andteach a music listening48lesson.2429%Percentage2415% 15%101056%1656% 100%2%24 2315%6514% 40%16 16510% 100%204Data TableNotcomfortableteaching neitherany form strongly agree nor stronglyof music omit disagree disagree disagree agree agree Total61) I am familiar withthe music curriculumas specified in thePrimary Programdocument. 10 5 12 38 38 51 11 165Percentage 6% 3% 7% 23% 23% 31% 7% 100%In summary, which music activity(ies) do you feel the most confident and comfortable teaching?No. of comments: 116 70%In which areas of music teaching do you feel you need help with?No. of comments: 1 12 68%205

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