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The role of mentorship in enhancing academic proficiency : Motivational dispostion and learning satisfaction… Simpson, Brenda Gladys Huldis 1995

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( THE ROLE OF MENTORSHIP IN ENHANCING ACADEMIC PROFICIENCY, MOTIVATIONAL DISPOSITION AND LEARNING SATISFACTION IN ACADEMICALLY GIFTED CHILDREN, by BRENDA GLADYS HULDIS SIMPSON B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1971 M.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH 1995 (c) Brenda Simpson, 1995 (14/25/95 15:31 ©604 822 3302 U B C E . P . S . E . 11002 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment (pf the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, II agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes jnay be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives.] It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shajl not be allowed without my written permission. j Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ii 25&} Iff? DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT According to research, the academically g i f t e d c h i l d may not have his/her educational needs met i n a classroom with his/her age mates. This study was an investigation of the impact of mentorship on academically g i f t e d students i n an attempt to adjust curriculum to r e f l e c t what the i d e n t i f i e d g i f t e d c h i l d i s ready to learn. There i s l i t t l e theoretically-based research on the impact of mentorship on children with advanced academic c a p a b i l i t i e s . I t was hypothesized that academically g i f t e d students who received i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n from a mentor would show p o s i t i v e changes i n motivation and that t h i s teaching approach would further enhance t h e i r academic proficiency. Learning s a t i s f a c t i o n would also be a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a mentorship program. A multi-case study methodology was employed, including four i d e n t i f i e d g i f t e d students. Replication of res u l t s across cases i l l u s t r a t e s an o v e r a l l improvement i n academic competency and motivation. The children involved learned a great deal, evolved as motivated students and had a noticeable sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program. Conclusions j u s t i f y the need f o r curriculum modification for academically advanced ch i l d r e n . i i ^ TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i L i s t of Tables v i i Appendix v i i i . Acknowledgement i x Chapter One: Introduction To The Study Statement of the Problem . 1 Background to the Problem 3 The Purpose of the Study 4 Rationale for the study 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms , 8 Overview of the Study 9 Summary of Chapter One 9 Chapter Two: Literature Review Introduction. 10 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Academically g i f t e d learner 11 Program D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n for the Underserved Academically Gifted Learner 14 Motivation (impetus towards learning) as Demonstrated by Gifted Learners 17 Mentorship as a means for Program D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 22 Selections of Mentors based on Preferred Characteristics 26 Research questions 30 i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Chapter Three: Methodology and Procedures Introduction. 31 Hypotheses 32 Case Study Methodology 32 Descriptions of Selected Subjects and Mentors 34 Case Studies 38 Case Study # 1 (Christopher) 40 Christopher's Mentorships 44 Case Study #2, Richard 44 Richard's Mentorships 47 Case Study #3, Peter 50 Peter's Mentorship 54 Case Study #4, Ashleigh 55 Ashleigh's Mentorship 59 Individual Educational Programs (IEPs) 61 Measures Cognitive A b i l i t y 63 Academic Achievement 66 Motivational Orientation 68 Mentorship Evaluation 71 Case Studies' Summative Evaluation Interviews 72 Summary of Chapter Three 73 i v TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Chapter Four: Results Introduction 74 Motivational P r o f i l e Results 75 Student Perceptions of Learning S a t i s f a c t i o n 80 Assessment Results 83 Achievement Levels Pri o r to Mentorship and at the Conclusion 84 Gains i n Achievement as a Result of Mentorship 92 Evaluation of Student Learning by Mentors. 93 Instructional Compatibility 97 Summary of Chapter Four 101 Chapter Five: Discussion and Recommendations Introduction 102 Limitations of the Study 103 Assessment Results Cognitive Assessment 104 Achievement Assessment. 104 Evaluation of Student Learning by Mentors 106 Student Perceptions of Learning S a t i s f a c t i o n 108 Motivation P r o f i l e s 109 Summary of Motivational P r o f i l e s 113 Implications of the Motivational P r o f i l e s 113 Implications for Further Research 114 v TABLE QF CONTENTS (continued) Chapter Five: Discussion and Recommendations continued Mentorships and Acceleration and Enrichment for Gifte d Learners 117 Educational Implications and Considerations from the Study.. 120 Summary and Recommendations 123 References 127 v i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 I n t r i n s i c Versus E x t r i n s i c Orientation Pupil P r o f i l e ; Christopher 74 2 I n t r i n s i c Versus E x t r i n s i c Orientation Pupil P r o f i l e ; Richard ...75 3 I n t r i n s i c Versus E x t r i n s i c Orientation Pupil P r o f i l e ; Peter 76 4 I n t r i n s i c Versus E x t r i n s i c Orientation Pupil P r o f i l e ; Ashleigh 77 5 Student Perceptions of Learning S a t i s f a c t i o n Christopher and Richard 79 6 Student Perceptions of Learning S a t i s f a c t i o n Peter and Ashleigh 80 7 Achievement Results Christopher 82 8 Achievement Results Richard ...84 9 Achievement Results Peter 86 10 Achievement Results Ashleigh 88 v i i APPENDIX Appendix A: I.E.P. for Richard 132 Appendix B: I.E.P. for Peter ...135 Appendix C: I.E.P. for Ashleigh 137 Mentor's Evaluation Questionnaire Appendix D: Christopher's Mentors' Evaluation Questionnaires D (1) : Dr. Ward 139 D(2): Mr. Fourtier 144 Appendix E: Richard's Mentor's Evaluation Questionnaires E (1): Mr. Campbell 148 E (2): Mrs. Macdonald 154 Appendix F: Peter's Mentor's Evaluation Questionnaire 159 (Mrs. Dickson) Appendix G: Ashleigh's Mentor's Evaluation Questionnaire. .164 (Mr. Halverson) Appendix H: Text of Questions asked of Case Studies at the conclusion of program .168 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank a l l children, parents, mentors and administrators who made t h i s study possible. In addition, I would l i k e to thank Dr. Stanley S. Blank and Dr. William McKee from the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education for t h e i r assistance and advice as committee members. I am e s p e c i a l l y grat e f u l to my advisor, Dr. Marion Porath, for her guidance and encouragement throughout the research and the writing of t h i s t h e s i s . I also extend appreciation to my mother and small daughter, Joy for t h e i r continued support. i x Chapter One Introduction Statement of the Problem Currently, for the very bright c h i l d whose acquired knowledge surpasses educational grade placement and whose i n t e l l e c t u a l and academic development surpasses chronological age peers, i t seems that age/grade placements may not meet his/her eduational needs. These needs are desire for academic knowledge and educational challenge. Challenge i s an inte r n a l appeal to acquire greater understanding and knowledge. The drive for challenge i s c l o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d with motivation. The g i f t e d learner i s strongly motivated toward developing his/her potential (Clark, 1992). These motivational attributes d i r e c t l y e f f e c t learning s a t i s f a c t i o n . "Programs that relate c l e a r l y to the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s population can most e f f e c t i v e l y meet the educational needs and nurture the high-level a b i l i t i e s of g i f t e d p upils" (Clark, 1992, p. 240). According to the B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education (1994), g i f t e d students are defined as follows: These students give evidence of exceptionally high performance c a p a b i l i t y with respect to i n t e l l e c t , c r e a t i v i t y , or the s k i l l s associated with s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s . These a b i l i t i e s are demonstrated on a prolonged basis with extraordinary task commitment. A g i f t e d learner often demonstrates outstanding a b i l i t i e s i n more than one area. They may, however, also have accompanying d i s a b i l i t i e s and should not be expected to have strengths i n a l l areas of i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning, (p. D28) Once school personnel i d e n t i f y a c h i l d as " g i f t e d " they propose special educational programming. Often, they base t h i s educational planning on a general enrichment c l a s s . Such enrichment classes appear to aim at the general knowledge base of the student "without moving to increased lev e l s of complexity and challenge" (Robinson & Robinson, 1982, p. 80). What goes on i n general enrichment classes seems to involve creative problem solving strategies, and unstructured time i s allowed for the g i f t e d c h i l d to pursue his/her own i n t e r e s t s . Rarely do the organizers plan t h i s enrichment considering the student's present operative l e v e l i n a s p e c i f i c knowledge domain. This phenomenon has been referred to as being " i n t e l l e c t u a l l y underserved" (Keating, 1980, p.59). The relevance to education of i d e n t i f y i n g giftedness i s whether or not the educational program a student i s receiving matches his/her a b i l i t y i n those subject areas where the student excels (Matthews, 1993). Ideally, educators are obliged to recognize the student's a b i l i t i e s and to attempt to adjust curriculum so that i t w i l l r e f l e c t the learner's knowledge and current s k i l l c a p a b i l i t y . Proper curriculum adjustment would eliminate the incongruity between what academically underserved students are taught and what they are ready to learn. Mentorship as a curriculum adjustment, operating i n tandem with the student's school, may help academically g i f t e d students to discover t h e i r potential and gain more insight into t h e i r goals (Zorman, 1993). Mentors are experts i n p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e s . 2 Mentors are enthusiastic about sharing t h e i r knowledge and experiences (Timpson & Jones, 1989). A mentor can enhance an academically g i f t e d student's i n c l i n a t i o n for challenge and heighten a student's academic motivation. However, no systematic research on the e f f e c t s of mentorship on students' academic competency, on learning motivation and on learning s a t i s f a c t i o n has been done. This study investigated the influence that mentorship would have on the academically g i f t e d student i n these three areas. Background to the Problem Schooling i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s i n the process of undergoing dramatic change. In the "Year 2,000: A Framework for Learning" document (B.C. Ministry of Education,1989) the authors advocate that education be c h i l d centred and learner focused and involve a l l stakeholders i n the process. The goals of schooling include the student's i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , and career development. The p o s i t i o n statements of the document include active and continuous learning, integration of a l l learners, c u r r i c u l a r integration and educating a l l children to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . Appropriate programming for g i f t e d students therefore appears legitimized. However, despite the i n i t i a t i v e s set out i n the Year 2,000; A Framework for Learning (1989), i t i s clear that the needs of academically g i f t e d students are not always being met. P r e v a i l i n g investigations suggest that the developmental model which advocates an appropriate match between l e v e l of a b i l i t y and i n s t r u c t i o n appears more firmly rooted i n theory than i n practise (Keating, 3 1991). Often, the c r i t e r i o n for giftedness examines only the student's general mental a b i l i t y and not the precise l e v e l of the student's s p e c i f i c academic competencies. Hence, the c h i l d who i s c o g n i t i v e l y superior i s placed i n an enrichment class which i s often not s p e c i f i c a l l y f i t t e d to the student's d i s t i n c t i v e strengths. In The Graduate Program Working Paper; Partnerships for Learners (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1992), students can personalize t h e i r educational program i n a variety of ways. To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s process, a "Personalized Learning Plan" outlines the learning that the student wishes to engage i n . Such a plan may also meet the needs of c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d underserved g i f t e d learners of a l l ages. The Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y students who demonstrate exceptional achievement or e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y high pote n t i a l and design an appropriate educational program to meet t h e i r needs. This study proposes an alternate program for the academically g i f t e d student: a mentorship program. Mentorship attempts to address the c h i l d ' s present understanding i n a s p e c i f i c knowledge domain and challenge the student at his/her s k i l l l e v e l . A "mentor/mentee relationship i s s p e c i a l : The mentor i s a committed and nonjudgmental adult who l i s t e n s c a r e f u l l y and carin g l y . . . the c h i l d i s not a passive partner i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p " (Lengel, 1989, p. 28). The student may become more a c t i v e l y engaged i n learning. Consequently, i n changing the environment, 4 both teachers and learners are genuinely motivated. "The s o c i a l environment has an important e f f e c t on which type of motivation people w i l l use... I n t r i n s i c motivation i s fostered by environments that support autonomy" (Clark, 1992, p. 329) . Mentorship i s compatible with Keating's (1991) developmental model, which matches the c h i l d ' s education to the ch i l d ' s known knowledge and understanding i n a s p e c i f i c subject. A mentorship program emphasizes a f l e x i b l e use of school and community resources to accelerate the c h i l d i n a s p e c i f i c subject. Acceleration i n t h i s sense does not mean to speed up the curriculum and hurry the c h i l d through the various lev e l s of courses, but rather to match the ch i l d ' s present functional l e v e l i n a subject with material and in s t r u c t i o n that promote further progress i n that p a r t i c u l a r subject. For example, the grade three c h i l d who already has an understanding i n Algebra w i l l be presented math knowledge which matches his/her present understanding. This student would not be presented the times-tables where his/her age/grade mates' mastery l e v e l might be. Once a student's subject strengths have been i d e n t i f i e d , the aim i s to match the program to the student's a b i l i t y rather than her/his age, thus encouraging i n d i v i d u a l development and acknowledging the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the g i f t e d learner. This l e v e l of in s t r u c t i o n would be commensurate with the g i f t e d learner's academic l e v e l s , so that "they are properly challenged to learn the new material" (Feldhusen, 1989, p.8) . 5 Rationale f o r the Study Students who deviate s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the average or who have uncommon potential to produce something of great value may be constrained by most educational placements. Apart from the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y and achievement l e v e l s , the second most s i g n i f i c a n t influence i n development of g i f t e d learners i s the educational placement. The match of educational opportunities to the student's current s k i l l l evels provides opportunities where we can then begin to address the needs of the g i f t e d learner (Benbow & Arjmand, 1990). Declaring that a c h i l d i s displaying high general a b i l i t y does not a s s i s t with program planning and implementation. Results from cognitive assessments focused on IQ scores do not a s s i s t i n program planning. Educators do not teach to IQ r e s u l t s but to students whose a b i l i t y l e v e l s are i n keeping with designated grade l e v e l s . An appropriate program matches the c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l competencies and interests and arranges the learning environment for the student to learn at the appropriate l e v e l . A mentorship program would o f f e r "subject-specific acceleration" (Matthews, 1994, p. 1). Acceleration i n t h i s context i s defined as "providing i n s t r u c t i o n at a l e v e l and pace appropriate to the c h i l d ' s l e v e l of achievement or readiness" (Feldhusen, 1989, p.7). I t does not suggest high-level, fast paced i n s t r u c t i o n with the intent of hastening a c h i l d through discreet levels of curriculum. Those students whose a b i l i t i e s are most markedly domain-s p e c i f i c — for example, extremely well-developed reading a b i l i t i e s 6 (reading before kindergarten) and average mathematical a b i l i t i e s , are frequently not well attended to i n an age- appropriate classroom. Most often, i f they are i n enrichment programs, t h e i r exceptional language arts a b i l i t i e s and/or mathematical or other academic areas are not being challenged (Matthews, 1994) as enrichment programs have begun with assumptions about the nature of "giftedness." This i s usually based on general i n t e l l i g e n c e or some other cognitive t r a i t such as c r e a t i v i t y (Keating, 1991). These assumptions of giftedness center around the c h i l d ' s general i n t e l l i g e n c e and/or his/her superior creative a b i l i t i e s . Encompassing t h i s assumption i s the idea, that acrosss the board, these children are superior to the average c h i l d and therefore they need time and special compensation to develop and express t h i s superior i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y . Such assumptions do not consider the c h i l d ' s academic knowledge and strengths nor do these assumptions consider an appropriate c u r r i c u l a r match. The intent of t h i s study i s to match a student's s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s and strengths with an adult who holds s i m i l a r strengths and a b i l i t i e s . The mentor w i l l provide i n s t r u c t i o n at the c h i l d ' s l e v e l . Thus, the designated competencies of the student w i l l be addressed and i t i s hypothesized that students' motivational attr i b u t e s w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y influenced by the s a t i s f a c t i o n gained from learning. 7 Definition of terms The following terms w i l l be used throughout the thesis and are defined as follows: 1. Academically underserved. For the academically g i f t e d learner, present academic in s t r u c t i o n can be beneath his/her capacity for learning; knowledge presentation i s "less than" or subordinate to what i s required. The rate or estimate of knowledge and information i n s t r u c t i o n i s too low; teaching does not match the chi l d ' s current a b i l i t i e s (Keating, 1991). 2. Aptitude. A b i l i t i e s and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , whether native or acquired, are ind i c a t i v e of an individual's a b i l i t y to learn i n some p a r t i c u l a r area. "Motivation, anxiety, and many other conative and a f f e c t i v e attributes can serve as aptitudes for learning" (McVey & Snow, 1988, p.100.) 3 . Autonomy. This term implies se l f - r e g u l a t i o n and independence. In g i f t e d education, the student's need for self-expression and desire to d i r e c t t h e i r education, based on t h e i r own prerogatives to design curriculum, i s desired. It presupposes s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and a continuous interaction with the learning milieu (Clark, 1992). 4. I.E.P (Individual Educational Program). This i s a s p e c i a l , well-defined i n s t r u c t i o n a l plan. It i s usually designed around a c h i l d ' s unique learning needs. In the case of a g i f t e d learner, i t takes the ch i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l strengths i n t o consideration. Usually i t i s composed with input from teachers, parents and a Learning Assistant teacher. Often the c h i l d i s encouraged to have input into the plan. 5. Motivation. Motivation applies to the f e e l i n g or desire that makes a person do what he/she does. It i s the act or process of furnishing an incentive or inducement to action. Intrinsic motivation. This motivation i s determined by the inborn, i n s t i n c t i v e drive that allows a student to work for the joy and s a t i s f a c t i o n of accomplishment without apparent reward. It produces i n s t i n c t i v e pleasure (Harter, 1981) . Extrinsic motivation. E x t r i n s i c motivation re f e r s to the student who st r i v e s to meet the teacher's expectations. It i s the external or outward drive/ motivation that i s usually followed by grades, prizes or special p r i v i l e g e s . 8 Overview of the study This paper i s divided into f i v e chapters. Chapter One describes the purpose and the rationale of the study and presents d e f i n i t i o n s of terms. Chapter Two surveys the l i t e r a t u r e which i s relevant to the following: 1) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the academically g i f t e d learner; 2) program d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n for the underserved academically g i f t e d learner; 3) a discussion of motivation (impetus towards learning) as exemplified by many g i f t e d learners; and 4) mentorship as a means of program d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Chapter Three outlines the design of the study and the procedures used i n the data c o l l e c t i o n and data analysis. Chapter Four reports the findings of the study. Chapter Five presents a discussion of the res u l t s and conclusions and recommendations emerging from the findings. Summary of Chapter One Chapter One presented the perspective of the study. The outline for the research proposal was introduced and the background of the problem and the scope of the intended research disclosed. Literature relevant to the study w i l l be reviewed i n the following chapter. 9 CHAPTER TWO Literature Review The intent of t h i s chapter i s to review the l i t e r a t u r e pertaining to the following categories and present the research questions. I I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the academically g i f t e d learner. II Program d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n for the underserved academically g i f t e d learner. I l l Motivation (impetus towards learning) as exemplified by many g i f t e d learners. IV Mentorship as a means for program d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . 10 Identification of the academically gifted learner The term g i f t e d suggests a natural a b i l i t y or a special t a l e n t (Dictionary of Canadian English, 1973). Understanding the term "g i f t e d " i s indeed important, yet complicated. "We knew giftedness when we saw i t - i n the music composed, the formulas presented, the inventions patented. But without the presence of large-scale standardized te s t i n g , giftedness, and i t s d e f i n i t i o n , was very much determined by a s p e c i f i c society's interpretation of what behaviours and t r a i t s were exceptional" ( D e l i s l e , 1992, p 18). In terms of education, the d e f i n i t i o n of " g i f t e d " that a school d i s t r i c t chooses to use w i l l determine which students are selected for special programming. The d e f i n i t i o n i s usually t i e d into programming practices. No one d e f i n i t i o n of g i f t e d i s uni v e r s a l l y accepted nor w i l l one description f i t a l l programs and circumstances. A l l learners can be seen as f a l l i n g along a continuum of competence, rather than as being divided into a set of discreet categories (Bachor, 1989). Matching a program to a c h i l d ' s perceived strengths attempts to secure an appropriate education plan for the g i f t e d learner. Accepting the l e v e l of demonstrated aptitude of a student i n a subject and introducing further learning i n that subject allows further development of that student's expertise (Keating, 1991). Students then "would be encouraged to study at t h e i r own pace, going through the curriculum as quickly... as necessary" (Matthews, 1993, p. 6). Information acquired from current standardized achievement 11 tests t e l l s what achievement lev e l s the c h i l d has reached. The tests do not indicate potential achievement. An i n d i c a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y may give t h i s information. "A d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between a c h i l d ' s actual developmental l e v e l , i . e . his completed development as might be measured on a standardized t e s t , and his l e v e l of potential development" (Swanson & Watson, 1989, p. 93). A student's pote n t i a l may be measured by i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . "Intelligence tests were designed to f i l l the pragmatic need of predicting school success. Intelligence t e s t s are composed of items representative of the kinds of problems manifested i n the mastering of school c u r r i c u l a " (Swanson & Watson, 1989, p. 92). Intelligence tests continue to play a prominent r o l e i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the g i f t e d learner. They continue to be a v i r t u a l l y indispensable t o o l i n the t h e o r e t i c a l examination of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s and in d i v i d u a l differences (Robinson & Janos, 1987). Despite current deliberation about general i n t e l l i g e n c e as a concept and with a l l the " e f f o r t s to d i s t o r t the use of normative assumptions, mental a b i l i t y i s s t i l l seen to be a useful concept" (Stanley, 1976, p. 5). The i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t predicts long-range, l a s t i n g differences i n ultimate a b i l i t y (Stanley, 1976). However, saying a c h i l d i s exhi b i t i n g high general a b i l i t y does not help with program planning and implementation. Proper use of IQ tests with g i f t e d or p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n demands that they be used i n conjunction with other t e s t s 12 and c r i t e r i a (Kaufman, 1992). A high score on an i n t e l l i g e n c e assessment indicates a need to look further at the match between the student's a b i l i t y and the education being provided. Standardized achievement tests are possibly the most r e l i a b l e d i r e c t measure of how well a student i s learning, and at what grade l e v e l he/she has achieved subject mastery. In ascertaining giftedness i n academic areas i t i s important that the achievement t e s t have a s u f f i c i e n t l y high c e i l i n g , so the appropriate match of the curriculum to the c h i l d can be r e a l i z e d . I n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , t h e o r e t i c a l l y constructed as domain generality, i s viewed as "cognitive a c t i v i t i e s deployed by an in d i v i d u a l when engaged i n any type of information processing...working memory, and access to long term knowledge..."(Keating & Crane, 1990, p. 412). The range given on an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t helps to distinguish the bright learner from the g i f t e d learner. Domain-specificity, on the other hand, i s revealed through a student's accomplishments and completed tasks showing his/her knowledge i n a p a r t i c u l a r academic area. The student's s k i l l l e v e l i n the domains of reading, language, mathematics, science and s o c i a l studies need to be known. Keating (1975) purports that t h i s expertise can be ascertained by administering achievement tests that have a s u f f i c i e n t c e i l i n g for adequate evaluation. The c e i l i n g of an achievement t e s t i s the upper l i m i t of an a b i l i t y measured by a t e s t . High c e i l i n g on an academic achievement test may be the best single piece of information about an individual's need for special educational 13 programming. Standardized achievement tests are the most r e l i a b l e d i r e c t measures of how well a student i s learning, and at what grade l e v e l he/she has achieved subject-specific mastery of content areas (Matthews, 1993). In a perfect world, high - c e i l i n g subject-specific achievement tests would be given routinely to a l l children, and grade-placement decisions would be based on the r e s u l t s . Then students who could handle and benefit from grade 6 work i n French or math would be given that, regardless i f t h e i r age put them into kindergarten or grade 10. (Matthews, 1993, p. 6). This idea i s what current educators consider "continuous progress," that i s , moving the c h i l d forward from where his/her learning attainment i s to promote further learning. Program d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n for tbe underserved academically g i f t e d learner This review suggests that students who have progressed at a remarkably rapid pace w i l l not benefit from i n s t r u c t i o n and curriculum aimed at t h e i r age mates. In the regular classroom the student would possibly be covering material that he/she has already mastered. Educational acceleration i s not only viable but also a l l u r i n g and motivating for those students who are eager to move ahead. Academic acceleration can be defined as educational f l e x i b i l i t y based on i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s without regard for age. Prominent methods of acceleration include early entrance to school, grade-skipping, and fast paced classes (Swiatek, 1992). Swiatek (1992) declares that several studies of acceleration, which are unique due 14 to the longitudinal design employed, were done through the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth at Johns Hopkins University. These findings suggest that "acceleration does not harm g i f t e d students academically, but that i t often helps them esta b l i s h i n t e r e s t s and b u i l d a strong foundation for future learning" (Swiatek, 1992, p. 122). Accelerated students viewed acceleration p o s i t i v e l y (Swiatek & Benbow, 1992). Despite the propositions that learning i s a sequential, developmental process; that e f f e c t i v e teaching i s to teach above the information that the c h i l d has already assimilated; and that there i s a substantial difference i n learning among ind i v i d u a l s of any given age, educational planning for the academically g i f t e d learner appears to ignore the competence and mastery of t h i s population, and u t i l i z e s age to rank students for the purpose of t h e i r education (Robinson, 1983). Arguments against acceleration usually centre around the student's s o c i a l competencies, potential gaps i n knowledge i n the curriculum and the elimination of nonacademic experiences. The concern that children w i l l be robbed of t h e i r carefree childhood and that childhood stress i s preventable are also included i n these arguments. Confirmatory evidence i s d i f f i c u l t to reveal (Robinson, 1983). However, there i s research that substantiates the opposite of t h i s assumption. Leta Hollingworth, as early as 1938, found that forcing students to conform to a age-grade system may have harmful consequences. Tasks that are too easy produce boredom and when 15 everything comes e a s i l y , good study habits or t r a i t s of perseverance are not encouraged (Hollingworth, 1942). Students who already know most of the material being introduced i n cl a s s are very often impartial to the point of boredom. Without curriculum d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , a student's e f f o r t towards school work, or to even to pass courses, i s notably dissipated as she/he gets older (Matthews, 1993). Acceleration i s a competency-based system (Robinson & Robinson, 1982). Acceleration establishes an optimal match between the student and the learning s i t u a t i o n . Acceleration, " e s p e c i a l l y subject-matter acceleration... provides educational challenge commensurate with a b i l i t i e s " (Richardson & Benbow, 1990, p. 468) of the academically g i f t e d student. To evaluate a d i s t i n c t i v e curriculum for academically g i f t e d students, Maker (1982, c i t e d i n E l l i s , 1985) has suggested that "a g i f t e d program should focus on the development of (the students') strengths" (p. 71), as the goal. Acceleration attempts to meet the student's present s k i l l l e v e l . Furthermore, conclusions from well constructed research "are unanimous i n t h e i r support of the benefits of accelerative a l t e r n a t i v e s , both academically and social-emotionally" (Keating, 1980). Swiatek's (1992) attempts to " i d e n t i f y n o n i n t e l l e c t u a l factors related to s a t i s f a c t i o n with acceleration encountered d i f f i c u l t i e s because the vast majority of accelerated students were s a t i s f i e d " (p.123). I t i s p l a i n that children who choose to be accelerated are motivated to do so. "Willingness i s an important factor i n deciding who to accelerate" (Swiatek, 1992, p.123). Motivation (impetus towards learning) as demonstrated by gifted learners One of the most c r u c i a l areas of concern i n i n t e l l e c t u a l development i s motivation (Clark, 1992.) Interest i n a subject r e s u l t s i n motivation to know more and pursue these i n t e r e s t s . Motivation, i n education, i s that emotion that compels students to learn. Motivation involves goal-directed a c t i v i t y . While t h i s i s the least well-defined area of human endeavour, i t i s probably the area that impacts the most on the accomplishments of g i f t e d learners (Clark, 1992). Included i n the construct of motivation i s the l e v e l or drive for why the c h i l d chooses to engage i n learning. A subtle d i s t i n c t i o n i s apparent between mastery motivation and achievement motivation. Mastery motivation i s implied by the c h i l d ' s desire to learn, "because I need to know t h i s . " It i s the seeking to acquire knowledge and to master or understand something new. Achievement motivation i s "I need to know t h i s , so that I can get my 'A'." This l e v e l of motivation i s to obtain favourable judgments of one's competence and to avoid unfavourable judgments of one's incompetence (Dweck & E l l i o t t , 1983, c i t e d i n Richardson & Benbow, 1990). Both types of motivation have s i g n i f i c a n t and f o r c e f u l e f f e c t s on both the g i f t e d learners' academic attainment and t h e i r self-concept (Harter & Connell, 1984). Gifted learners show attributes d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r peers i n several areas of performance. The l i t e r a t u r e examining these d i s t i n c t i o n s i s extensive (Clark, 1992; Colangelo & Davis, 1991; 17 Cox & Daniel, 1985; Davis & Rimm, 1989; D e l i s l e , 1992; Feldhusen, Hoover & Sayler, 1990). A l l g i f t e d individuals have t h e i r own unique patterns of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and yet no g i f t e d learner exhibits every c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n every area. Clark (1992) suggests that motivation of g i f t e d learners can be considered i n t h e i r "affect-based information" (p. 40) which i s observed i n the g i f t e d c h i l d ' s t r a i t s . Some common t r a i t s are: 1) the need to know extraordinary quantities of information; unusual retentiveness, 2) unusual i n t e n s i t y ; persistent, goal-directed behaviour, 3) unusual emotional depth to f i n d purpose and d i r e c t i o n from a personal value system and to translate commitment into action, and 4) early involvement with and concern for i n t u i t i v e knowing (Clark, 1992). Motivation i s derived from one's perceived competence i n a p a r t i c u l a r domain, as i n the case of the c h i l d with exceptional Math a b i l i t y . The more competent a student f e e l s i n his mathematical s k i l l the more i n t r i n s i c his orientation and the more he chooses to develop his s k i l l (Harter, 1981). Lack of challenge i n a regular classroom may re s u l t i n lack of motivation, because the c h i l d has already obtained proficiency at the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l being presented. "I already know t h i s . " Therefore, t h e i r i n t r i n s i c reinforcement i s "diminished by t h e i r dependence on e x t r i n s i c reinforcement" (Rimm, 1991, p.328). "Motivational factors exert a profound influence on children's i n t e l l e c t u a l performance and achievement" (Dweck & E l l i o t t , 1983, c i t e d i n Richardson & Benbow, 1990). 18 Dweck and E l l i o t t (1983, c i t e d i n Richardson & Benbow, 1990) have suggested that matching i n s t r u c t i o n to the g i f t e d student's competence leve l s should enhance g i f t e d students' achievement motivation. Ostensibly, "growth i n achievement motivation arises out of the challenge and s a t i s f a c t i o n gained while mastering tasks that 'match' c a p a b i l i t i e s " (p.464). One attribute of g i f t e d learners i s t h e i r early development of an "int e r n a l core of control" (Davis & Rimm, 1989, p.24). They show a strong need to have choice, which r e s u l t s i n t h e i r motivational determinants. The concept of i n t e r n a l core of control t i e s to Harter's (1981) theory of motivational o r i e n t a t i o n . Her construct refers to the child' s orientation toward classroom learning. Does the c h i l d engage i n learning to obtain external approval or does the c h i l d engage i n learning because i t i s challenging and arouses his/her c u r i o s i t y ? Gifted learners need to investigate knowledge for the pure pleasure of i t . They get very enthusiastic about learning new information and they glean much g r a t i f i c a t i o n from uncovering the resolution to a quandary. The term "locus of control" i s used to express the idea that perceived control can be located either within the c h i l d ( i n t r i n s i c a l l y ) or externally as when a reward i s given for making the choice ( e x t r i n s i c a l l y ) . Gifted children show themselves to be uniquely d i f f e r e n t from average learners (Clark, 1992). G i f t e d c h i l d r e n are found to have more inner locus of control at a younger age than average learners. It i s one of the conspicuous differences that needs consideration when planning educational 19 experiences for the g i f t e d . Success i n l a t e r l i f e i s i n d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n to how much inner locus of control the i n d i v i d u a l has developed. "This perception of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for and control over one's l i f e i s the single most important condition for success, achievement and a sense of well-being" (Clark, 1992, p. 329). The relevance of motivation to a c h i l d ' s learning has widespread appeal among educators (Harter & Connell, 1984). Teachers want to engage the students under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n to attend to the in s t r u c t i o n being offered. Students w i l l be motivated to focus i f the in s t r u c t i o n i s congruous to t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . Impetus towards learning i s observed as "one's motivational and/or informational orientation" ...which i s "si t u a t i o n s p e c i f i c , ... rather than as a t r a i t l i k e construct" (Harter, 1981, p. 310). Reinforcing t h i s understanding i s that i f the learning environment i s manipulated, the motivation of the c h i l d w i l l be changed (Harter, 1981). The global nature of the motivation factor "has precluded any precise operational d e f i n i t i o n " (Harter & Connell, 1984, p. 220). For the purposes of t h i s study, Harter's d e f i n i t i o n of motivation w i l l be used. "Motivational orientation refers to the reason why children prefer to engage i n a mastery behaviour. This w i l l r e f l e c t either i n t r i n s i c i nterest or e x t r i n s i c approval" (Harter, 1981, p. 311). McVey and Snow (1988) believe that motivation i s re l a t e d to aptitude. Highly able students are motivated i n t r i n s i c a l l y . In t h i s aptitude construct, i t i s the "interface between the inner 20 environment of the ind i v i d u a l on the one hand and the outer environment of the learning s i t u a t i o n on the other" (McVey & Snow, 1988, p. 100) that program planning needs to address. An e f f e c t i v e way to increase motivation of students i s to make students aware of t h e i r own power and to allow them to exercise i t (Clark, 1992). Therefore, the aim of aptitude theory i n teaching i s " f i r s t to describe the character of t h i s interface between inner and outer environment and then to redesign one or both adaptively to promote higher achievement" (McVey & Snow, 1988, p. 100). While l i s t s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of g i f t e d children allude to i n t r i n s i c motivation, no systematic research has been done on t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , nor i s there evidence which shows that g i f t e d learners are more i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated. There i s no present research that shows how i n t r i n s i c motivation can be addressed through providing appropriate academic challenges. We know that Harter and Si l o n (1985) used the Scale of I n t r i n s i c versus E x t r i n s i c Orientation i n the Classroom (Harter, 1981) to tap the self-system with retarded pupils. Results indicate, although not conclusively, that mentally challenged youngsters score high on the e x t r i n s i c pole (Harter & Silon, 1985), Harter's r e s u l t s r a i s e the question of whether g i f t e d youngsters would score high on the i n t r i n s i c pole. Instruction i n an environment that i s less c o n t r o l l i n g and less teacher directed, less evaluative and less censured i s believed to foster greater i n t r i n s i c motivation i n students with the r e s u l t that students establish more autonomy-oriented learning 21 (Clark, 1992). In i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , i n a one-on-one rela t i o n s h i p , the instructor i s free from the interruption of "classroom order and d i s c i p l i n e " (Lengel, 1989, p. 27) and can focus s p e c i f i c a l l y on the student's strengths and i n t e r e s t s . I t i s hypothesized that mentorship for academically capable childr e n w i l l heighten the student's i n t r i n s i c motivation. Mentorship as a means for program d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Mentoring i s t r u l y one of the unexplained areas of present day education (Boston, 1976). By d e f i n i t i o n , a mentor implies a wise and trusted advisor. Throughout a r t i c l e s on the association of mentor and "mentee" such terms as teacher, guide, i n s t r u c t o r , master, and coach are used synonymously with the term of "mentor" (Frey & Noller, 1983). However, there i s not one precise d e f i n i t i o n for the term (Beck, 1989). What the word "mentorship" suggests i s not new. The very f i r s t documented evidence of t h i s type of i n s t r u c t i o n existed with the Greek philosophers. Socrates and his pupils Plato and A r i s t o t l e are the predecessors of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of knowledge exchange (Zorman, 1993). Throughout the l i t e r a t u r e ( Beck, 1989; Boston, 1976; Frey & Noller, 1983; Gray, 1984; Mattson, 1979; Shaughnessy, 1990; Shore, Cor n e l l , Robinson & Ward, 1991; Timpson & Jones, 1989; Zorman, 1993), i t i s suggested that the mentor's advocacy improves the student's knowledge, personal impetus for learning and attentiveness to i n s t r u c t i o n . Shaughnessy (1990) suggests and 22 promotes mentorship for fostering c r e a t i v i t y i n prodigies who possess exceptional creative ta l e n t s . It i s in f e r r e d that mentorship does develop academic competency but how t h i s develops and transpires i s vague. Most references to mentorship are as program descriptions, not p r a c t i c a l information about the b e n e f i c i a l changes i n students' academic growth. These references include useful information and there i s some d i r e c t research summarized. However, these mentorship descriptions are primarily i n the area of career and interest advancement. Indication of increases i n knowledge and s k i l l s , and the development of general a b i l i t i e s i s also mentioned (Shore et a l . , 1991), but information available i s not conclusive. Indeed mentorships have long proved valuable i n nurturing and challenging young learners. "But while much has been written on mentoring i n school and i n business, the l i t e r a t u r e does not include a detailed description of the design, structure, operations and curriculum of school-based mentoring programs" ( R e i l l y , 1992, p. x i i i ) and t h e i r outcomes. With an expanded awareness of the educational needs of g i f t e d learners, teachers are tending to conclude that these needs can never be completely met i n the "mainstream" of education. Recent research indicates that g i f t e d students "received a l i m i t e d amount of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n reading, language arts, mathematics, science, and s o c i a l studies in s t r u c t i o n " (Westberg, Archambault, Dobyns, & Salvin, 1993, p.3) i n regular classrooms. Support i n the progression and evaluation of ideas must transcend the regular 23 classroom and r e s u l t from the congregation of individ u a l s with l i k e minds and interests (Mattson, 1979). Mentorship i s a means of independent study, r i c h i n potential for assistance i n idea production and exchange, knowledge ac q u i s i t i o n and s k i l l development of recognized g i f t e d learners. Mentorships continue to be an unexplored area of conventional education, e s p e c i a l l y i n the elementary school (Lengel, 1989). Most mentorships transpire when the student i n question has reached maturity or adulthood and the re s u l t i n g relationships are s i m i l a r to what exists within any apprenticeship (Timpson & Jones, 1989). Mattson (1979) suggests that o f f e r i n g a mentorship program as a strategy for g i f t e d children should not be limi t e d to students at high school or college. He suggests that "young childre n with sp e c i a l interests and a b i l i t i e s may be s u f f i c i e n t l y mature and motivated to p r o f i t greatly from contacts with a mentor" (p. 35). The compatibility of mentor and mentee i s also s i g n i f i c a n t when considering o f f e r i n g guidance to academically g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Appropriate mentorship match proposes an implied counsel to g i f t e d c h i l d r e n to recognize and u t i l i z e t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and to make s a t i s f y i n g personal adjustments. The b e l i e f that mentorship benefits students i n that i t provides students with opportunities for c u l t i v a t i n g academic competency, knowledge acquisition and s k i l l development needs to be confirmed. Generally, educators who choose to a l t e r curriculum are frequently asked to j u s t i f y the program modification. Endorsement of mentorship as a means of program d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n f o r the 24 academically g i f t e d student would necessitate evaluation. Evaluation provides evidence for reasoned support for educational a l t e r n a t i v e s . Reasoned support for educational alternatives for the academically g i f t e d c h i l d can be found i n Daniel Keating's presentation of the "Four Faces of C r e a t i v i t y : The Continuing P l i g h t of the I n t e l l e c t u a l l y Underserved" (1980). In his r a t i o n a l e for curriculum d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , he asserts that c r e a t i v i t y can also be found i n cognition. Keating presents t h i s construct as cognitive c r e a t i v i t y . C r e a t i v i t y suggests imagination, ingenuity, inventiveness and o r i g i n a l i t y . Teachers frequently consider the term c r e a t i v i t y i n the realm of the "Arts." C r e a t i v i t y may be manifested i n a painting or a poem or a play. Keating's premise i s that c r e a t i v i t y also encompasses cognition. The c r e a t i v i t y of the "mind-make." The "unanalyzed component ... of the a c t i v i t y of the mind when there i s no set solution, and perhaps not even a w e l l -defined problem" (Keating, 1980, p. 56) . In terms of education and s p e c i f i c a l l y program modification, implications of t h i s theory are usef u l . Inclusive i n Keating's (1980) study his four faces of c r e a t i v i t y are: 1) Content knowledge. This component suggests that the student i s able to work rapidly through the content of a s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e . I t i s v e r i f i e d by the student's deep f a m i l i a r i t y of the subject; 2) Divergent thinking. This component implies the student's a b i l i t y to make connections to other ideas from what i s known and understood; 3) C r i t i c a l analysis. This 25 component v e r i f i e s the student's a b i l i t y to "weed out" what i s given i n a problem and be selective i n determining what i s needed to f i n d a solution; and 4) Communication s k i l l s . This component confirms the student's a b i l i t y to be accurately understood. Whether the student's idea i s spoken, written, presented i n any form of production, the student's intent must be c l e a r l y communicated. Keating's (1980) four faces of c r e a t i v i t y appear to be examinable as an evaluation t o o l , when framing the mentorship program. Educational and curriculum implications on what the mentors are able to observe and comment on using Keating's components of creative cognition seem feasi b l e and possibly examinable. For evaluation purposes, at the conclusion of the mentorship program, possibly the mentors w i l l show insight i n t o the c h i l d ' s creative cognition and what i s known about g i f t e d learners attr i b u t e s (Clark, 1992). It seems l i k e l y that the mentors who have the most intimate contact with the c h i l d ' s learning would be able to comment on the c h i l d ' s development i n these areas. Selections of mentors based on preferred c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Zorman (1993) reviewed several mentoring programs and summarized attributes necessary for success. "These features include: support by top management, integration into a larger t r a i n i n g program, voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n , orientation of mentors and proteges, ensuring best f i t and c l e a r understanding of roles, encouraging f l e x i b i l i t y i n using i n d i v i d u a l 26 styles of i n t e r a c t i o n , and consistent monitoring" (p. 737). The purpose of t h i s assertion i s to consider the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s necessary to the mentor. Publications addressing mentorship (Boston, 1976; Frey & Noller, 1983; Gray, 1984; Shaughnessy, 1990) refer to two main components consistently. These are the mentor's dedication of time and commitment to his/her mentee. Inherent i n these suppositions i s f l e x i b i l i t y . F l e x i b i l i t y i s the c a p a b i l i t y to adapt to the time element and to the c h i l d ' s temperament. Another fundamental factor i s the mentor's expertise and competence (Boston, 1976; Gray, 1984; Timpson & Jones, 1989). The match of the mentor's expertise and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n must f i t with the student's a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s . This match allows for pursuance of a topic with in t e n s i t y and depth (Shaughnessy, 1990). "People are motivated most to do the things they love and can do best" (Shaughnessy, 1990, p. 13). The mentor's a b i l i t y to i n s t r u c t and inform the mentee i s also c r u c i a l . "Most mentors may be accomplished professionals but may not be equally accomplished educators" (Zorman, 1993, p. 732). Gray (1984) talks about the mentor's a b i l i t y to understand the d i s t i n c t i o n between "direct and i n d i r e c t mentoring" (p.125). The mentor must be sensitive to the student's knowledge or lack of i t . The mentor does not assume that a student knows how to do something, or already understands concepts. The expert mentor provides appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n a l input and d i r e c t i o n . The a b i l i t y to prepare i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials and "mini-lesson 27 demonstrations" (p.126) are a l l v i t a l t r a i t s of the mentor (Gray, 1984). In appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n the mentor i s able to ask relevant questions of the mentee and give constructive feed-back. Apart from knowledge and teaching "know how," the readings show other personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that mentors possess. "The q u a l i f i e d mentor i s described as possessing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n three areas - personal, position and process" (Frey & Noller, 1983 p. 61). Being able to o f f e r encouragement i s considered a s k i l l (Shaughnessy, 1990). The successful mentor needs also to teach the s k i l l of interdependence and i s able to give f r e e l y of the " i n f i n i t y of t h e i r greatest strengths" (Shaughnessy, 1990, p. 14). Leadership i s another dimension of the notable mentor-taking charge when the mentee needs d i r e c t i o n or cannot seem to "get o f f the ground" with an agreed-to project (Gray, 1984). "A mentor's ultimate goal i s to help each student reach the Independent Student Level at which point the student becomes responsible for and capable of independently i n i t i a t i n g and carrying out a c t i v i t i e s " (Gray, 1984, p. 127). A mentor with agreeable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as enthusiasm, empathy, competent judgment, openness, and a b i l i t y to model are also preferred (Boston, 1976). A committed person who i s nonjudgemental and l i s t e n s c a r e f u l l y and caringly demonstrates the desired a f f e c t i v e t r a i t s (Lengel, 1989). Mentorship provides a trusted connection with the student. This connection i s exemplified by a sense of security as well as a character model for personality (Zorman, 1993). Mentors have the 28 faculty of establishing "an harmonious working re l a t i o n s h i p " (Gray, 1984, p. 125). Mentors do t h i s by discussing and l i n k i n g with the student, not imposing. The mentor i s able to help the student r e a l i z e his/her own significance (Gray, 1984). One emerging consideration regarding the selection of mentors and which the writer considers s i g n i f i c a n t i s the aspect of safety and t r u s t of the c h i l d . This has not been covered i n the l i t e r a t u r e on mentorship. Considering the young age of the case-studies and the amount of time that the c h i l d would have with the mentor, unchaperoned, i t seems c r u c i a l that the selected mentors be i m p l i c i t l y trustworthy. Safety i s paramount, and yet appears to be assumed i n the mentorship l i t e r a t u r e . Potential mentors were scr u t i n i z e d by the writer. Interviews were conducted with several po t e n t i a l mentors. Questions regarding experience and past work with children were asked. Informal chats with present and past collegues occurred. Mentors registered with a professional body such as B.C. College of Teachers or other professional a f f i l i a t i o n s were favoured. In addition, the writer chose adults either currently teaching i n some capacity or r e t i r e d teachers as pot e n t i a l mentors. Presumably, these adults would have t r a i t s of i n t e g r i t y and ethics i n accordance with formal and professional rules. "When mentoring programs are established, too often they are perceived as simply asking someone i n the work place to mentor a student while o f f e r i n g minimal orientation" ( R e i l l y , 1992, p. x i i i ) , t r a i n i n g or consideration around the "sp e c i a l " r e l a t i o n s h i p . The intent of the proposed mentorship was determined by cautious selection, matching the case studies' domain-specific a b i l i t i e s and in t e r e s t s with similar expertise and interests of the mentor. Interviews with potential mentors judged them to have appropriate a f f e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . "A c r i t i c a l part of a l l the advice i s attention to the careful selection of mentors (e.g., screening interviews to avoid persons motivated by various p r o s e l y t i z i n g objectives) and matching with children on the basis of a shared i n t e r e s t and objective" (Shore et a l . , 1991, pp. 147-148). As a r e s u l t of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed, three research questions were formulated. Two of the questions concern the e f f e c t of mentorship on the student's motivation to learn and learning s a t i s f a c t i o n . The t h i r d question concerns the e f f e c t of mentorship on academic proficiency. Research questions 1. W i l l there be growth i n i n t r i n s i c motivation as a r e s u l t of the mentorship? 2. W i l l learning s a t i s f a c t i o n be evident as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a mentorship program? 3. W i l l a mentorship program enhance students' academic proficiency? Methodology used to address these questions i s discussed i n Chapter Three. 30 CHAPTER 3 Methodology and Procedures This study was designed to ascertain whether a mentorship program for academically g i f t e d children would r e s u l t i n increases i n students' motivation and academic profi c i e n c y . A student's learning s a t i s f a c t i o n would also need to be indicated. The research methodology for the study i s contained i n the following f i v e part discussion. The reseach hypotheses are presented i n the f i r s t part of the discussion. The second part refers to the methodology used throughout t h i s study. In the t h i r d part a description of selected subjects and mentors are included. The fourth part explains the need for Individual Educational Programs. Las t l y , i n part f i v e , information on the measures used and the analysis of the data are presented. The chapter w i l l include: I. Hypotheses I I . Case Study methodology. III Descriptions of Selected Subjects and Mentors. IV Individual Educational Programs (IEPs). V Measures, including: 1) Cognitive measures, 2) Achievement measures, 3) Motivational p r o f i l e s 4) Mentor's evaluation and 5) Case Studies Summative evaluation interviews. 31 I. Hypotheses Hypothe s i s #1. I n t r i n s i c motivation p r o f i l e s of g i f t e d students w i l l be higher than the normed population. The case studies' motivation w i l l be further enhanced after a mentorship program. Post tests r e s u l t s w i l l show elevated scores. Hypothesis #2. The Mentorship program w i l l r e s u l t i n academic gains. Post t e s t r e s u l t s i n achievement leve l s w i l l show elevated scores. An i n d i c a t i o n of learning s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be evident a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a mentorship program. This part of the study was exploratory; no formal hypothesis i s stated. Learning s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be measured by summative evaluation interviews. Case Study methodology Case study methodology attempts to understand the "development across time of an i n d i v i d u a l , an organization, a program component, or a concept" (Moon, 1990, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991 p. 161). It i s an especially useful research design when studying highly g i f t e d children. Theory developed by examining concrete instances and "looking for general p r i n c i p l e s that hold true across those instances" (Moon, 1990, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991 p. 158) on special populations such as g i f t e d learners allows the researcher to ground the theory from empirical observations. Case study methods have been a cornerstone of research on giftedness 32 "because we don't currently understand how to help these students r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l " (Lundsteen, 1992, p. 114). This methodology attempts to use field-based learning to ground the findings. Its aim i s to validate theory and enhance educational practise for t h i s population of students who exhib i t exceptional a b i l i t y and extraordinary achievement. "The 'grounded' character of the findings derives from the d i r e c t observation of single subjects, acting i n t h e i r natural context; allowing the researcher to develop an empathic understanding of the unique perspective the subject has on the world and his or her a c t i v i t y i n that setting" (Foster, 1986, p. 34). Yin (1989, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991) describes the case study as "an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within i t s r e a l - l i f e context; when the boundaries between phenomena and context are not c l e a r l y evident; and i n which multiple sources of evidence are used" (p. 23). Case studies are similar to the ethnographic perspective as both involve ongoing interaction between data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis (Lundsteen, 1991, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991) The researcher engages with a l l participants. This includes pa r t i c i p a n t observation, interviewing, recording student products (Lundsteen, 1991, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991) and administering questionnaires. Research on special populations needs a powerful methodology which incorporates r i c h descriptions of the students (Yin, 1989, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991), t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , t h e i r 33 motivational t r a i t s , t h e i r adaptability to change i n school settings and a r t i c u l a t e d programming e f f o r t s . Case study s t y l e i s " e c l e c t i c i n nature" (Yin, 1989, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991 p. 168), as data i s c o l l e c t e d over time and i s miscellaneous and indiscriminate as the case study unfolds. Using the case study methodology allows for t h i s all-encompassing information to be recorded (Yin, 1989, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991). " I t allows researchers to examine phenomena i n context and across time" (Yin, 1989, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991, p. 175). A multi-case study design was selected. Using four case studies follows a " r e p l i c a t i o n l o g i c " (Yin, 1989, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991, p. 164). It i s similar to four experiments where each experiment, or each case study i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i s expected to produce comparable outcomes and s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . Evidence gathered from multiple case studies " i s more robust" (Moon, 1991, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991, p. 175) and vigorous i n advancing knowledge i n the f i e l d of g i f t e d education. Descriptions of selected subjects and mentors. P r i o r to commencing t h i s study permission was granted from the Executive O f f i c e r s of a medium-sized school d i s t r i c t i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Upon ca r e f u l d e l i b e r a t i o n of po t e n t i a l case studies, parents of the children were contacted and permission was granted to commence the assessment procedures. Signed consent forms were obtained from the parents of the ch i l d r e n . Psychometric assessments were administered to four 34 students. P r i o r to a mentorship, review and approval was received by the Ethics Committee of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Several potential adults were interviewed as possible candidates for mentors. Six adult mentors were chosen to work with four case studies; two students had two mentors each. The mentor search began shortly a f t e r the case studies were selected. Several interviews with prospective mentors took place over three months p r i o r to commencement, to determine the match with the case studies. Selection of mentors was determined by the mentors' knowledge and expertise, a v a i l a b i l i t y of time, f l e x i b i l i t y i n teaching s t y l e and preferred personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The mentorship program was procedurally co-ordinated each fortnight. The intent of t h i s arrangement was to explore the association of the mentor with the mentee and survey compatibility i n the a l l i a n c e . The strategies employed were either i n person, through interviews with the case-studies and /or teachers, or by phone c a l l s to the mentors or the case studies' parents. Formal review of I.E.P.s were analyzed once during the six months of duration. Necessary corrections or modifications were appraised at that time, with mentors, parents, teachers and often students. P r i n c i p a l s often attended these meetings as w e l l . Organization around the structure of each separate mentorship with b u i l t i n review times was necessary. Administrative d e t a i l s were co-ordinated by the writer. Clear communication between school personnel, parents, mentors and case studies was undertaken throughout the duration of the mentorships. 35 Case Studies. This study used a purposeful selection of four case studies. The children chosen were thought to have exceptional a b i l i t i e s i n some academic areas. Two of the children (case study #1 and case study #2) had been given a test of i n t e l l i g e n c e early i n t h e i r school career. The remaining case studies had not been tested, nor were they i d e n t i f i e d as g i f t e d . These children were reported to the writer by adults i n the community who noticed these childr e n as being very bright. Their musical talents and t h e i r expressive language s k i l l s were acclaimed. The children's ages are as follows: Case study #1 (Christopher) age 11; Case study #2 (Richard) age 13; Case study #3 (Peter) age 6; and Case study #4 (Ashleigh) age 9. Case studies of varying ages were i n t e n t i o n a l l y chosen. Children's perceptions of themselves change as they get older. Their perceptions of teacher expectations and school system expectations also change. Case studies of varying ages would possibly garner d i f f e r e n t perspectives of the student's perceptions of t h e i r competencies and educational requirements. A l l c hildren involved i n the project were of elementary school age. A l l attended public schools. Three out of the four students attended elementary schools. Case study #1 was accelerated to grade 8, having skipped grade 7. Children's cognitive functioning was determined by administering two scales of the Wechsler Test series; the WPPSI-R and the WISC I I I . A l l case studies scored within two standard 36 deviations above the mean. The Woodcock Johnson- Revised, Tests of Achievement was administered upon completion of the Wechsler Scales to determine the c h i l d ' s academic achievement. Two parts of the t e s t were u t i l i z e d . The Reading Cluster consists of the Letter-Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Word Attack, and Passage Comprehension subtests. The Calculation and Applied Problems subtests make up the Mathematics Cluster. A l l case studies' performance l e v e l s on these subtests indicated that t h e i r s k i l l l e v e l was above t h e i r age/grade rank. Case study methodology includes both quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e data on the subjects being studied (Foster, 1986). Information sought from the student's family members and past teachers offered a reasonably thorough portrayal of each of the case studies. These f a m i l i a l and educational experiences as shared by s i g n i f i c a n t people i n the children's l i v e s attempt to present an accurate portrayal of the children being studied. To ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the case studies, pseudonyms are used i n the presentation of information on the subjects. A l l students and t h e i r prospective mentors have been designated pseudonyms. The age indicated i s the student's age at the commencement of t h i s study. 37 Case Study #1 (Christopher). Male. Age: 11 WISC III r e s u l t s : 93-09-24 10/INDEX %ILE 95 % CONFIDENCE INTERVAL Verbal Scale Performance Scale F u l l Scale 132 129 133 98 97 99 124-137 118-134 126-137 Family Placement. Christopher i s the youngest of three male Christopher's academic p r o f i c i e n c i e s around his second birthday. Early r e c o l l e c t i o n s of advancement. For his second birthday, his parents bought him a computer game. The game involved matching Christopher had mastered the game. By the age of si x , Christopher had written his f i r s t computer program. Christopher was able to figure out the times-tables around his fourth birthday. As early as age four, Christopher was playing cribbage with his father. At age six he was playing bridge with adults. A l l through early childhood, Christopher was tenacious i n working out puzzles. His interest and fascination included a l l kinds of puzzles, including word searches and anagrams. Adult j i g saw puzzles captivated him for hours. For the f i r s t three years of his l i f e , i t was very d i f f i c u l t for the family to engage Christopher to get outside and play. This family i s an "outdoor" family and various sports occupy a great deal of t h e i r l e i s u r e time. With coaxing, they were able to get Christopher involved i n skiing and swimming at the age of three. Mother relates that a l o t of s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning was happening children i n the family. Parents were f i r s t cognizant of shapes and showing quantities. Before the week was over 38 at t h i s time and her c h i l d would become so engrossed i n his projects or just reading that he could not e a s i l y become detached. Play and l e i s u r e i n t e r e s t s . By the age of f i v e , Christopher was involved i n organized sports such as soccer and hockey. He l i k e d to follow professional hockey with his big brothers at a very early age. He started golfing at age s i x . S o f t b a l l became a passion at age eight. Christopher continues to play organized hockey and soft b a l l . He also began piano lessons at the age of nine, and e a s i l y accelerated into grade six, "Royal Conservatory of Music" before his twelfth birthday. In the present, Christopher has several stocks i n mutual funds and follows these and the stock exchange c a r e f u l l y . He i s very learned about the f i n a n c i a l world and adults often ask him for advice. School history. Christopher was accelerated into grade eight i n September, 1993, skipping grade seven. Throughout his elementary school years he won numerous school d i s t r i c t Math competitions and placed f i r s t i n several of the school d i s t r i c t ' s "Science F a i r s . " Christopher hoped he would be able to be challenged i n the computer domain at the high school. Christopher took a regular grade eight program, with the exception of Mathematics 10, and Graphics 9/10 i n place of English 8. The l a t t e r course was an e l e c t i v e course which focused on presenting the high school newspaper and yearbook. Academic strength. Christopher's greatest strength i s i n mathematics. Related to t h i s i s his exceptional understanding of computer science. By age ten he had gone as f a r as he could i n 39 obtaining i n s t r u c t i o n i n computer programming with the help of a grade 11 student who tutored Christopher at home i n the evenings. Christopher excelled i n t h i s knowledge. Since that time, the family has not been able to f i n d someone knowledgeable enough about computer programming and who would choose to work with an eleven year old. Exhibited personality t r a i t s . Christopher appears to be a contemplative person. He seems to be a compliant student. When he i s questioned about his school courses and how he i s f a r i n g at high school he gives the impression of submissiveness; "They're going f i n e . " Yet parents w i l l share that Christopher i s often bored, and shows very l i t t l e enthusiasm for many of his classes. Christopher appears to show a great deal of idealism. He i s a committed youngster and follows through with his obligations. He looks for people who share the same drive and energy. His friends exhibit s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Christopher's Mentorship (Christopher had two mentors.) Mentor #1. As t h i s eleven year old male student's main i n t e r e s t and strength was i n mathematics, selection focussed on meeting t h i s need. Two mentorships were established. Both mentors were college professors. The writer was given t h i s contact at the university-college by a senior high school p r i n c i p a l . The f i r s t p otential mentor was reputed to have a wonderful a b i l i t y to reach students of a l l ages 40 and he shared his mathematical experience with enthusiasm and zeal. Mr. Fourtier presents as a quiet, sincere, caring man. He i s dedicated to his commitments and always has the best i n t e r e s t s of his students i n mind. As Christopher exhibits the same a t t r i b u t e s , i t appeared t h i s may be a l i k e l y match. The i n i t i a l contact with Mr. Fourtier was done i n January. This gentleman's teaching experience was broad. He taught senior mathematics at the high school l e v e l p r i o r to his appointment at the university-college. Mr. Fourtier had taught junior high school math early i n his career and was f a m i l i a r with Christopher's age group. At the commencement of mentorship, Mr. Fourtier was teaching f i r s t , second and t h i r d year math classes. After Christopher's p o r t f o l i o was shared, Mr. Fourtier agreed to have the student attend his Thursday afternoon s t a t i s t i c s c l a s s . Each Thursday afternoon Christopher was driven to the university/college by his mother, where he audited Mr. Fourtier's S t a t i s t i c s c l a s s . Apart from auditing the S t a t i s t i c s c l a s s , Christopher also played chess at lunch hours with other mathematics professors. This was a highlight for Christopher. Up u n t i l t h i s time, he could not f i n d someone to play with that could be his match. Christopher was also introduced to other Math professors and spent lunch hours playing chess with these i n s t r u c t o r s and working out the "Math Problem of the Week." The professor who formulated the "Math Problem of the Week" connected with Christopher on his weekly v i s i t a t i o n . 41 At the end of A p r i l , 1994, when the s t a t i s t i c s c l a s s was completed, Mr. Fourtier finished his teaching assignment. At t h i s time Mr. Fourtier concluded mentoring Christopher. Mentor #2. Dr. Ward had many exchanges with Christopher while he attended the university/college each Thursday afternoon. Incidental exchanges were made around the "Math Problem of the Week," which Dr. Ward provided for students and s t a f f a l i k e . From these exchanges, an association was fostered. When Mr. Fourtier was not able to continue to mentor Christopher, Dr. Ward volunteered to mentor Christopher u n t i l the end of June. Dr. Ward i s head of the Mathematics Department. He also organizes the university/college Math competitions for high school students. This teacher's enthusiasm for his subject i s contagious. He has given many public addresses to potential u n i v e r s i t y / c o l l e g e students on mathematics. Dr. Ward i s described by his colleagues as a b r i l l i a n t mathematician with a quick mathematical mind. He i s a "driver" and pushes his students towards excellence. Students report that they enjoy his classes but that Dr. Ward i s a task master. He "keeps them on t h e i r toes." Dr. Ward demands that assignments be handed i n on time. Dr. Ward's f r i e n d l y , out going nature shows a caring attitude towards his students. Throughout his association with Christopher, Dr. Ward assigned a weekly mechanical math problem. As the mentorship progressed, Dr. Ward became more demanding of 42 Christopher. The mentor's intent was to keep the student on task. This professor appears to be as persistent as Christopher, when looking for solutions to complex math problems. Each Thursday afternoon from A p r i l u n t i l the end of June, Christopher met with Dr. Ward. They spent part of t h e i r time going over the solution that Christopher worked out over the week. At f i r s t , Christopher was just asked to communicate, using his own words, how he came to the solution to the problem. A new mechanical math puzzle was then introduced. As the weeks went by, Dr. Ward related that mathematicians need to be able to express themselves well with written language. "How else does a math s c i e n t i s t communicate his ideas?" Dr. Ward asked Christopher. Dr. Ward believed that Christopher needed to begin to explain his methodology i n finding the solution i n writing. Dr. Ward encouraged Christopher to go beyond what was natural and spontaneous. The mentor's intent was to make Christopher c r i t i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l regarding his problem solving methodology. He requested more task commitment from his mentee. P r i o r to t h i s mentor r e l a t i o n , Christopher used t r i a l and error procedures to discover the answer. Towards the conclusion of the mentorship, Dr. Ward was requesting that Christopher follow up his answer with rigorous proof that followed i n a l o g i c a l sequence. A colleague of Dr. Ward's says that, "This expertise usually does not come before maturity and experience." Christopher rose to the challenge and r e l i s h e d the struggle. 43 Case study #2 (Richard). Male . Age: 13 WISC III r e s u l t s : 93-10-14 IO/INDEX %ILE 95 % CONFIDENCE INTERVAL Verbal Scale Performance Scale F u l l Scale 134 136 138 99 99 99 126-139 125-141 131-142 Family placement. Richard has a younger s i s t e r who i s nine years o ld. Richard was born with mild Cerebral Palsy. As a very young c h i l d he wore special shoes and had extensive physiotherapy. His parents, p a r t i c u l a r y his father, were d i l i g e n t i n enforcing therapeutic exercises at home to augment the physiotherapy. Early r e c o l l e c t i o n s of advancement. Richard did not attend kindergarten but was reading before his fourth birthday. His parents r e l a t e how e a s i l y he remembered things. His tenacity regarding his various interests surfaced early i n his development. Play and l e i s u r e i n t e r e s t s . Richard's fascination with prehistory began early i n his childhood. Like most c h i l d r e n he enjoyed studying dinosaurs, but his inter e s t surfaced when he was two years old. By the age of three he could engage anyone i n a conversation about these ancient animals. He recognized and showed inc r e d i b l e understanding about prehistory and the changes that occurred on the earth's surface before man. Later his knowledge encompassed ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n . These interests were s e l f -directed. When he v i s i t e d the l i b r a r y he would spend his time with books which enhanced his knowledge of ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n . Richard continues to be interested i n ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s . Richard started music lessons at the age of f i v e . He started 44 with piano and l a t e r switched to a wind instrument. His musical tal e n t allows him to be the p r i n c i p a l French Horn player f o r an Intermediate Orchestra. He i s also the second French Horn player for a community band. He plays harmony keyboard, and has just successfully completed the grade three harmony exam. Richard has taught himself the trumpet. He continues to take theory, and has been involved i n "Music Summer School" for the l a s t three years. In the spring of 1994, Richard discovered c u r l i n g . He was asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a junior bonspiel to make up a team. His team came i n f i r s t i n the d i v i s i o n and Richard was t h r i l l e d . This school year he was also asked to be on the basketball team, because of his height. He played well. As t h i s c h i l d i s not medically allowed to be i n contact sports he has not had many opportunities to become involved i n sports. Belonging to these two teams was a hi g h l i g h t . Richard relates that c u r l i n g w i l l be his sport i n the future. Richard r e l i s h e s board games and e a s i l y defeats his family members. He follows "Jeopardy," the t e l e v i s i o n competition s e r i e s , and usually knows most of the answers. School History. Richard was i n grade seven at the commencement of the 1993-1994 school year. Richard at the age of six perceived school as s i g n i f i c a n t only i n the realm of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Richard relates that af t e r his f i r s t week of grade one, he knew that he didn't f i t . He understood everything and read i n s a t i a b l y before school. Up u n t i l t h i s past school year, his s o c i a l relationships were key to attending school. 45 I t would appear that Richard "marches to a d i f f e r e n t drummer." School did not always "showcase" his a b i l i t i e s . He didn't get e x t r i n s i c rewards or any form of g r a t i f i c a t i o n for his progress. Richard relates that when topics i n class p a r t i c u l a r l y interested him, he asked permission to . do an i n d i v i d u a l project. His perception was that teachers f e l t somewhat challenged by his a b i l i t i e s , and thus they i n s i s t e d that he do the work assigned to every other c h i l d i n the c l a s s . If he completed the assigned work, he could then investigate his chosen f i e l d , so, to him, he f e l t that he was just asked to do extra work, rather than d i f f e r e n t work. Richard gave up asking. Academic strength. Richard has a wealth of h i s t o r i c a l knowledge from prehistory up to World War I. He reads voraciously and, without formal i n s t r u c t i o n , has a sense of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the music he studies to the period of history i n which i t was composed. In most school subjects he knows he i s advanced, although he has d i f f i c u l t y complying with the need to f i n i s h the product i n the c l a s s . For example, i n math class he knows how to f i n d the answer but choses not to write out a l l the steps to get the answer as his teacher has requested. Exhibited personality t r a i t s . Richard gives the impression that he doesn't always express what he i s thinking; a f f e c t appears hidden. However, when his comfort l e v e l increases, Richard's c l e a r sense of humour i s exposed. When he talks about school a discouraging attitude surfaces. This i s noted not so much i n the content of his conversation but more i n his body language. Richard 46 appears competitive with himself; music i s his ou t l e t . He plays exceptionally well and i s well received by his adult colleagues i n the symphony. Richard l i k e s to challenge adult r o l e models, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n content areas where he i s confident that he i s knowledgeable; t h i s i s not an endearing t r a i t to many teachers. Richard can appear arrogant. He wants to learn how to approach teachers and authority figures i n a more agreeable manner. Richard has several friends of varying ages. Many of his friends are his age, having been together since grade one. They w i l l a l l be going to on to high school i n the f a l l of 1994. Richard's mentorships. (Richard had two mentors) Mentor #1. Mr. Campbell i s a distinguished teacher who has been teaching most of his adult l i f e . His experiences i n teaching include a l l grade l e v e l s from elementary through to grade twelve. In t h i s school d i s t r i c t there i s a resource centre for environmental studies, situated at a l o c a l lake, where elementary childr e n have f i e l d t r i p s to study wild l i f e and ecology. Mr. Campbell was instrumental i n the resource centre's development and was the teacher attached to the centre for a number of years. His subject s p e c i a l i t y i s i n history and geography. Mr. Campbell understands the need for c u r r i c u l a r modification for g i f t e d learners. In recent years, he taught classes designated for the g i f t e d learner. He has been at the forefront i n developing 47 advanced placement courses i n the high school where he currently teaches. Colleagues describe Mr. Campbell as a master teacher. They l i k e to v i s i t his classroom just to read the ideas he has presented on the blackboard. Mr. Campbell presents ideas to his students from many vantage points. One colleague commented, "He can get the creative juices going i n students and s t a f f a l i k e . " In s t a f f meetings and at inservice days his ideas are marvellous. His enthusiasm i s i n f e c t i o u s . Mr. Campbell i s a c t i v e l y involved on many d i s t r i c t committees and people want and look forward to his creative thoughts. His sense of humour i s a welcome addition to any committee. Colleagues who work with him appreciate him and are cognizant about his lack of organization s k i l l s , so they sustain doing the mundane to have his imaginative input. Mr. Campbell was chosen as Richard's mentor for his celebrated reputation as a teacher, his high knowledge and i n t e r e s t i n hi s t o r y and the arts and the fact that he was teaching Advanced Studies 12 and Western C i v i l i z a t i o n 12 at the high school that was across the playing f i e l d from Richard's elementary school. I t was decided that Richard would walk over to the high school and j o i n the Western C i v i l i z a t i o n 12 course when i t occurred i n the high school time-table, approximately three times a week. This course traces the history of western c i v i l i z a t i o n from the f a l l of the Roman Empire to the 20th century and attempts to relate h i s t o r i c a l events by examining the development of new ideas, a r t , architecture, 48 l i t e r a t u r e and music throughout t h i s extended time period. Mentor #2. Mrs. Macdonald i s the Learning Assistance teacher at Richard's elementary school. She i s highly trained i n special education and i s recognized throughout the d i s t r i c t as a knowledgeable, accomplished teacher and innovator of educational change. Through her knowledge and insight, Richard became part of the study. She recognized that Richard was an academically underserved c h i l d . There was no established modification to t h i s student's educational program even though, over his elementary years, i t appeared that Richard's teachers were aware of his exceptional a b i l i t i e s . As Richard was far advanced i n his mathematical competence, the plan was to have his math program i n d i v i d u a l i z e d so that a more appropriate course selection could be made the following year, when Richard attended high school. Mrs. Macdonald began tutoring Richard i n A p r i l , so that he could challenge the Math 9 f i n a l i n June i n the high school. Thus, when st a r t i n g grade eight, Richard could possibly be accelerated to Math 10. 49 Case Study #3 (Peter). Male. Age; 6 WPPSI-R r e s u l t s : 93-11-05 10/INDEX %ILE 95 % CONFIDENCE INTERVAL Verbal Scale Performance Scale * F u l l Scale 135 99 105 63 (not reported) 126-139 100-115 * F u l l scale score on the WPPSI-R w i l l not be reported as Peter's p r o f i l e shows a s i g n i f i c a n t discrepancy between his Verbal scaled score and his Performance scaled score. Caution i s advised i n in t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s , as young children may show a large discrepancy between the Verbal Scale Score and Performance Scale Score, due to timed tasks on the subtests of the Performance Scale. Young children sometimes score less well on timed tasks because of developmental immaturity and/ or motor coordination d i f f i c u l t i e s . This penalty of time to tasks i s often based on the developmental and motor co-ordination maturation of children. (Doppelt, 1989) Family placement. Peter i s the youngest c h i l d i n the sample. Peter i s the oldest of three children i n his family. He has a s i s t e r twenty-two months younger than he and a brother who i s four and a half years younger. Early r e c o l l e c t i o n s of advancement. As a very young c h i l d , Peter would often sing with his mother and could remember a l l the l y r i c s of songs. His parents noticed his a b i l i t y to hold a tune at a very early age. Peter began reading around the age of three. At eighteen months, his favourite book was a story c a l l e d "The L i t t l e Train" by Graham Greene. It i s a f a i r l y sophisticated book for a c h i l d . Each evening he wanted his mother or father to read i t to him over and over again. Before long he had the story memorized and would r e c i t e i t for other children. He eventually memorized a l l his books. One book t i t l e d "Have you seen Birds?" showed which b i r d could be located according to the season. Eventually, on family outings as a toddler, he would look f o r each 50 b i r d described i n the book and would notice several depending on the time of year. His retention of information was recognized before his f i r s t birthday, when he learned to speak. At three years old he memorized long poems and could e a s i l y r e c i t e them for amusement. Mother i s b i l i n g u a l ; she speaks French f l u e n t l y . Peter showed a spe c i a l i n t e r e s t i n learning words i n French when he was learning to speak. Play and l e i s u r e i n t e r e s t s . Peter has enjoyed music from a very early age. Before his f i f t h birthday he began taking piano lessons. He enjoys performing and w i l l often ask for an audience. His s e n s i t i v i t y to the quality of sound i s noted. He i s conscious of the mood of a piece of music. Peter enjoys imaginative play around "Thunder Birds" and "Power Rangers" (two cartoon characters). He also enjoys a l l sports. Peter i s a voracious reader and es p e c i a l l y l i k e s books about dinosaurs. Two of his a l l time favourites are "Secret Garden" and "Phantom T o l l Booth." The l a t t e r i s around the grade four to grade f i v e reading l e v e l . At present, he i s reading fantasy novels set i n ancient times. The number of pages i n these books i s approximately two hundred. Peter reads a book of t h i s size i n one day. As a very young c h i l d , Peter was sociable and showed a strong desire to be with children. Summer times are "boring times." He wants to see his friends and his parents arrange t h i s . School history. In September, 1993 Peter was i n grade one. It was a s p l i t kindergarten/grade one class with 24 p u p i l s . His teacher was highly knowledgeable of his g i f t s since she had taught him the year before. As there were not s u f f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n to make a homogeneous grouping of grade ones i n t h i s school, the p r i n c i p a l thought i t best that the teacher continue teaching Peter because she recognized his talents. However, Peter's parents d i d not f e e l supported i n t h i s placement. Some of the informal comments that the teacher and p r i n c i p a l made to Peter's parents were perceived as less less than supportive. Apparently, Peter's at t r i b u t e s and s p e c i f i c a l l y his vocabulary and his conversations with his age mates appeared exceptional. It seemed to the parents that the school's climate did not foster t h i s t a l e n t . Conforming to the regular and "normal" appeared to be the recommendation. At the s t a r t of the year the teacher t r i e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the curriculum for Peter, because of his reading a b i l i t y . This program d i s t i n c t i o n was perceived as a punishment by the c h i l d . He was excluded from c i r c l e time when d i r e c t teaching of sound-symbol correspndence was occurring. From Peter's perspective, he was given separate things to do, whereas the other children seemed to be having more fun colouring the l e t t e r s and p r a c t i s i n g the sounds the l e t t e r s made. This separation was not helpful for the c h i l d . Just before Christmas 1993, the parents moved to another l o c a t i o n . The decision to move to another school was not hard to make. Understanding his strength i n reading the parents chose to place Peter i n French Immersion afte r Christmas. The new p r i n c i p a l 52 was very reassuring to Peter's parents and f e l t that with the c h i l d ' s exceptional language a b i l i t i e s , Peter might r i s e to the challenge i n French and s t i l l be able to pursue his reading and writing interests i n English with the potential mentor. Peter's parents f e l t the school personnel appreciated t h e i r c h i l d and his heightened language s k i l l s . The p r i n c i p a l recommended that Peter's exceptional a b i l i t i e s i n English be encouraged with a mentor. Academic strengths. Peter's reading i s his greatest strength. His a b i l i t y to communicate i n the printed word i s also advanced for a grade one c h i l d . His a b i l i t y to r e t a i n information or remember events early i n his l i f e astonishes his parents. They say, "He has a mind l i k e a s t e e l trap." Exhibited personality t r a i t s . Peter has a f o r c e f u l personality i n his family unit. His mother relates that at a very early age he "had an a i r of determination." His c u r i o s i t y could not be repressed. He can become emotional. Although Peter i s described as sensitive, he keeps t h i s aspect of his personality i n reserve. Peter can be v o l a t i l e when angry. He channels his anger at his s i s t e r . There are times that his anger s p i l l s over i n t o violence. This displaced anger appears to be based on f r u s t r a t i o n . As the oldest c h i l d , he w i l l often attempt to organize his s i b l i n g s and e s p e c i a l l y his younger s i s t e r . He w i l l become e a s i l y engrossed i n home projects and cannot be dissuaded when asked to change his focus when the family needs him to accommodate to a change i n circumstance. Peter i s methodical i n his execution of tasks. He l i k e s things organized and i s incensed when "things get messed up." 53 However, he adapts well to major change. The family's r e l o c a t i o n to another house, and his relocation to another school, f i v e months into the school year, did not appear to daunt him or cause him any discomfort. His parents r e l a t e that he was always extremely mature and that they never r e a l l y f e l t that he was " l i t t l e . " Peter was always asking questions and could r a t i o n a l i z e at a very early age and seemed to understand why certain things happened the way they d i d . He was an easy toddler to please and he could disappear for t h i r t y minutes at a time absorbed i n a book. Peter's Mentorship Mentor #3 volunteered her services i n June, 1993. Mrs. Dickson r e t i r e d that year from elementary teaching. Her career as a teacher was extraordinary. Mrs. Dickson i s well respected i n the d i s t r i c t with both young and mature teachers. She taught every l e v e l from kindergarten up to and including grade 12. Mrs. Dickson i s enthusiastic, eager and s p i r i t e d as a person. She maintains a high energy l e v e l and her di s p o s i t i o n i s sen s i t i v e and easy-going. Her j o v i a l i t y and sense of fun make her very endearing to young children. Mrs. Dickson varied her creative techniques as a teacher with the educational changes that occurred over the course of her career. Mrs. Dickson was not ready to r e t i r e . She i s a l i f e - l o n g learner and continues to pursue her knowledge; over the l a s t year she learned how to speak Spanish and was involved i n many recreational pursuits. 54 Mrs. Dickson talked to the writer often during the three years p r i o r to her retirement about the dilemma of primary childr e n who were reading before entering kindergarten and how she needed to adjust her curriculum to accommodate them. Before Christmas, Mrs. Dickson spent time i n Peter's classroom observing and helping the teacher with a l l the children. P r i o r to Peter moving to another school aft e r Christmas, Mrs. Dickson began tutoring Peter i n the l i b r a r y on an in d i v i d u a l project on lobsters. However, the mentorship program did not o f f i c i a l l y s t a r t u n t i l a f t e r Christmas. At that time, Mrs. Dickson met with Peter each Tuesday and Thursday morning, for about an hour. Mrs. Dickson met with Peter i n the l i b r a r y . Their lessons followed the I.E.P. that was established p r i o r to mentorship commencement. Mrs. Dickson kept a journal of the mini lessons given on her bi-weekly v i s i t s to the school while mentoring Peter. Before commencing the mentorship program, Mrs. Dickson read everything she could about academically underserved g i f t e d children. Mrs. Dickson was aware of Peter's preferred learning s t y l e and adjusted her teaching accordingly. Case study #4. (Ashleigh). Female. Age; 9 WISC III r e s u l t s : 93-10-07 IO/INDEX %ILE 95 % CONFIDENCE INTERVAL Verbal Scale Performance Scale F u l l Scale 132 115 126 98 84 96 124-137 106-122 119-131 Family placement. Ashleigh i s the only g i r l i n the case study sample. She i s i n grade 4 French Immersion, and i s the oldest of 55 four children. Ashleigh has two younger s i s t e r s . One i s seven, and the other other i s only a year. Her brother i s three years old . Early r e c o l l e c t i o n s of advancement. Ashleigh walked and spoke i n t e l l i g i b l y before her f i r s t birthday. She was interested i n vocabulary at a very early age. Before her second birthday she asked her father what the word " i n f i n i t y " meant. S i g n i f i c a n t events i n her l i f e were re c a l l e d with tremendous d e t a i l . Around her fourth birthday, her maternal grandmother, a r e t i r e d teacher, came for a v i s i t and introduced Ashleigh to reading. By the end of the week Ashleigh was reading on her own. Her grandmother commented on Ashleigh's a b i l i t y to ret a i n information about the "reading rules." Grandmother only had to impart the rul e once. Ashleigh retained t h i s information rapidly and conclusively. Since that very early age, she has rarely been without a book. In yearly summer time v i s i t s , Ashleigh's grandmother continued introducing Ashleigh to more language arts s k i l l s . Ashleigh began composing her own stories the following summer, when she turned f i v e . Ashleigh did not receive formalized language arts a c t i v i t i e s i n school. She entered French immersion and language arts i n English are not introduced u n t i l grade three. Ashleigh's writing and reading i n English was s e l f - d i r e c t e d . Ashleigh's fascination with puzzles surfaced very early i n her l i f e . She mastered these quickly and wanted higher and higher l e v e l s . 56 Play and l e i s u r e i n t e r e s t s . Sports and movement occupied her time early. As a toddler she had no fear of t r y i n g any apparatus i n the playground. She loved s l i d e s and would t r y them spontaneously, often making her parents a f r a i d for her. Ashleigh's a c t i v i t y l e v e l was very high at t h i s very early age. She has continued to devleop a commitment to and i n t e r e s t i n sports and recreational a c t i v i t i e s . Shortly af t e r her f i f t h birthday she started playing organized soccer. Soon afterwards she took gymnastics and swimming lessons. When she started school she became interested i n Track and F i e l d . At the p r o v i n c i a l track and f i e l d tournament, at the end of June, 1994, Ashleigh broke three records. She placed second o v e r a l l i n a l l events. At the age of four Ashleigh began piano lessons. She i s currently placed i n the grade eight l e v e l of "Royal Conservatory of Music." By her sixth birthday she had passed a l l the l e v e l s at swimming. She i s now e l i g i b l e to take her Bronze medallion and then her life-guarding l e v e l . However, her age does not permit t h i s . Ashleigh recently completed a special course i n jazz theory and finds pleasure i n p r a c t i s i n g tunes using t h i s d i f f e r e n t method. At present, when Ashleigh i s not p r a c t i s i n g the piano, or at a soccer practise, she might be swimming or attending gymnastics c l a s s . Her "down time" i s occupied with reading. She i s an i n s a t i a b l e reader and her selection i s quite varied. She l i k e s mythology and has read Greek and Indian mythology. She l i k e s mysteries and action books, and books presenting a moral. Ashleigh wants to write a novel. 57 School history. Ashleigh entered French Immersion at the age of f i v e . Parents report that nothing profound can be chronicled up u n t i l t h i s l a s t school year (1993-1994), when the writer commenced the assessment procedure. Her teachers reported that she was doing " f i n e . " Academic strength. Ashleigh's greatest aptitude appears to be i n the language domain. Ashleigh's passion with books and reading at such an early age indicated that her greatest strength may be i n the vocabulary and communication areas - both speaking and wri t i n g . Her French teachers share that she took to the French language commendably but they were not aware how elevated her English language s k i l l s were. This information was noted by her parents who were impressed by the c l a r i t y of her writing s k i l l s and her elevated vocabulary s k i l l s . Exhibited personality t r a i t s . Ashleigh seems a shy c h i l d . However, her parents report that t h e i r daughter i s quite loquacious at home. She i s able to appease her younger s i b l i n g s e a s i l y . She i s r e l i a b l e and responsible. In her relations with her peer group she stands out due to her mature attitudes. She has many friends of d i f f e r e n t ages. Ashleigh appears to be a sensitive, unassuming c h i l d . She scored the winning goal for her soccer team which consequently won the league tournament, but when in q u i r i e s are made about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l , she just says that she practises hard and l i k e s the game. In any dialogue with t h i s c h i l d , she does not appear self-assured. Her teacher reports, however, that she does share 58 l i t t l e successes with her. Ashleigh i s very conscious of how she i s perceived. She places high demands on herself and i s very competitive, more with herself than with others. She exhibits a balance between being competitive and being a team player. Ashleigh can handle being i n the spotlight, but doesn't choose to be there. When performing the piano or kicking the b a l l to get the f i n a l goal, Ashleigh r i s e s to the occasion. However, rather than give herself c r e d i t she says that, "It was just luck," and "I am OK at the piano, because I practise a l o t . " Mentor #4 Mr. Halverson r e t i r e d four years ago from an extensive teaching career. This gentleman was an excellent English teacher; students used to l i n e up outside the counselling o f f i c e at the s t a r t of every year to secure placements i n his classes. He commenced his teaching career teaching elementary school. He l a t e r moved to the senior high school and taught senior English. Subsequently he taught junior high school English. For the l a s t three years of his teaching career, he returned to the intermediate grades at the Elementary l e v e l . This decision to return to elementary for the f i n a l years of his teaching career was purposeful. Mr. Halverson commented that senior students appeared to have a struggle understanding the sty l e and technique of expository writing. In senior English courses t h i s s t y l e of writing i s c r i t i c a l . Mr. Halverson wondered whether students would have more of an understanding of expository writing i f teachers began formally teaching t h i s technique early i n the student's 59 schooling. Interestingly, he comments that his assumption was correct. Two years ago, aft e r only being r e t i r e d for a year, he had a car crash and i s now confined to a wheel chair. He i s a quadriplegic. His wife shares that his mind had not changed; he was as bright as ever but often suffered from depression and a "lack of purpose." Before commencement of the mentorship program, Mr. Halverson spoke about the things that he used to do with his c l a s s ; "Creative Problem Solving" and his work with "Odyssey of the Mind" were a few of the approaches he employed while teaching g i f t e d learners. Mr. Halverson's experience i n teaching l i t e r a t u r e and teaching writing techniques seemed an appropriate f i t with Ashleigh's g i f t s . Assessment procedures began i n the beginning of November. Mentorship began i n January. Mr. Halverson, accompanied by his wife, arrived at Ashleigh's school each Wednesday afternoon. Their learning plan was established by an I.E.P. developed at the beginning of January. Ashleigh's parents were pleased with the prospect of Mr. Halverson working with t h e i r daughter. They applauded Mr. Halverson's involvement and acknowledged his expertise. Mr. Halverson started to d i r e c t Ashleigh's l e i s u r e reading and assisted her with her writing. The plan was to expose Ashleigh formally to poetry. 60 Individual Educational Programs (IEPs). In each analysis of the assessment r e s u l t s , i t i s shown that the student's cognitive a b i l i t y i s elevated from the norm, the norm being 100, with a standard deviation of 15. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y the r e s u l t s of the achievement test used show j u s t i f i c a t i o n for a d i s t i n c t i v e curriculum. A l l case studies demonstrate a remarkable proficiency i n t h e i r broad reading and broad math a b i l i t i e s . In the following chapter a detailed analysis of the assessment r e s u l t s w i l l be presented. The assessment results indicate the need for a modification to curriculum content. Each case study assessment indicated a b i l i t i e s above the current grade l e v e l . It was recommended that each case study have an I.E.P. that would be commensurate with a b i l i t i e s . The I.E.P. i s an "Individualized Educational Program." I t i s the blueprint or design of the educational component of the mentorship t program. I t encompasses the style and manner i n which the program w i l l be delivered and evaluated. The intent of formalizing an I.E.P. i s to i d e n t i f y or create a project that the student would f i n d motivating, i n that i t i s related to i n t e r e s t ; challenging, as i t i s r e f l e c t i v e of potential and known a b i l i t i e s and manageable, as i t would be as complex as or as simple as the c h i l d could handle ( E l l i s , 1985). "The formalizing of the requirements for the i n d i v i d u a l mentorship through the development of an i n d i v i d u a l study contract subscribed to by the student and endorsed by the mentor and program personnel should be established" (Mattson, 1979, p. 34). A l l 61 people involved and people who are d i r e c t l y supportive of the plan have input into i t s creation. Purposeful planning for the mentorship program commenced with a formalized I.E.P. Documentation of the learning experience provides a guideline for the mentor, parents, teachers and students. Parents play an active part i n the planning stage. They know t h e i r children well, and t h e i r input and information i s instrumental to success. As advocates for t h e i r children, they want "th e i r c h i l d ' s talents challenged by appropriate educational options" ( D e l i s l e , 1992, p. 200). As mentorship programs evolve, beginning with a plan helps to state the goals, schedule the length of the mentorship program and state the methods of evaluation (Mattson, 1979). The development of the I.E.P establishes the plan, circumvents possible dilemmas and delineates the conceivable outcomes with a l l stakeholders sharing t h e i r considerations. It should not be l e f t to chance. "Planned mentoring r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ... need to be assigned, fostered and evaluated" (Frey & Noller, 1983, p. 62). An I.E.P. i n place would would also captalize on the value of presenting a curriculum d i s t i n c t i o n for academically g i f t e d students. A formal IEP was established for Richard, Peter and Ashleigh. Christopher's I.E.P was ca r r i e d out informally. Although documentation was not formal, there was a f l e x i b l e plan. The mentorship program for Christopher was designed around mentors "with s p e c i f i c interests and passion with people who share t h e i r 62 avocation and domains of strength" (Zorman, 1993, p. 728 ) . For deta i l e d description of the I.E.P.s for the case studies please see Appendix A for Richard; Appendix B for Peter; and Appendix C f o r Ashleigh. Measures. Cognitive a b i l i t y . D e finitions of giftedness t y p i c a l l y mention the po t e n t i a l for unusually high performance i n several areas, and routinely i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y i s included among these (Robinson & Janos, 1987) . The Wechsler Intelligence Scales are suitable for i d e n t i f y i n g children of high i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , for IQ norms range upward to more than three standard deviations above the mean for a c h i l d ' s age-peers (Mattarazzo & P r i f i t e r a , (Ed.) Weschsler, D.(1991) WISC-III manual). The Wechsler Intelligence Scales are divided into a verbal scale and a performance scale. The verbal scale and the performance scale each contain f i v e subtests. The verbal scale has one alternate sub tes t and the performance scale has two alternate sub t e s t s . Both the WPPSI-R and WISC III used i n t h i s study are r e l i a b l e as they have excellent test design and normative properties (Kaufman, 1992). The psychometric properties of a scale determine, i n part, the confidence the examiner can have i n the r e s u l t s obtained from a scale. The s t a t i s t i c a l properties of the WPPSI-R and WISC III commonly used to express a test's r e l i a b i l i t y are 63 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , standard error of measurement and the v a l i d i t y of the test constructs. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of the WISC III are as follows: F u l l Scale Verbal .95; F u l l Scale Performance .91; F u l l Scale average .96 (Matarazzo & P r i f i t e r a , 1991). The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s for the WPPSI-R are as follows: F u l l Scale Verbal .95; F u l l Scale Performance .92; F u l l Scale average .96 (Doppelt, 1989). The v a l i d i t y of a test demonstrates that the tes t measures the constructs intended by i t s design. Intercorrelation studies and confirmatory factor analyses provided strong evidence for the in t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the WISC I I I . Results determined by v a l i d i t y studies suggest the s t a b i l i t y of factor scores. "The median correlations among the targeted factor scores were .99 for Verbal Comprehension, .98 for Processing Organization, .98 for Freedom for D i s t r a c t i b i l i t y and .93 for Processing speed" (Matarazzo & P r i f i t e r a , 1991, p. 191). The WPPSI-R was compared to the previous scale, WPPSI. The norming sample included 144 subjects. However, several other norming populations i n each age group were completed to determine the v a l i d i t y of factors of the WPPSI-R. The re s u l t s of both the o v e r a l l and by age groups normings lend support to the inte r p r e t a t i o n of separate performance and verbal a b i l i t i e s . Studies comparing the WPPSI-R to other scales indicate that the WPPSI-R i s a v a l i d measure of i n t e l l i g e n c e . "The cor r e l a t i o n s between the WPPSI-R and WPPSI Performance and F u l l Scale IQs computed separately for each sequence and then averaged, are .82, 64 .85 and . 87 " (Doppelt, p. 149, 1989). A l l case studies were over two standard deviations from the mean i n the Verbal Scaled Scores. Christopher and Richard were two standard deviations above the mean i n t h e i r performance Scaled Score. Peter, the youngest student studied (age six at the time of assessment) was s l i g h t l y above the mean on the Performance Scaled Score. Ashleigh was one standard deviation above the mean on the Performance Scaled Score. Implications of these results indicate that a l l c h i l d r e n involved were cognitively superior on the Weschler scales employed. The r e s u l t s indicate that i n a l l case studies the Performance scaled Scores varied from the Verbal Scaled Scores. Performance r e s u l t s for three out of the four case studies was lower. The WISC III and WPPSI-R have unusually high premiums on speed of responding. Some scaled scores on the Performance subtests of the case studies seem unusually low, given the res u l t s of the entir e assessment instrument. "It i s well known that g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , as a group, do not excel quite as much i n sheer speed. Coding, la r g e l y a measure of psychomotor speed, commonly emerges as a va l l e y i n the subtest p r o f i l e s of g i f t e d children" (Kaufman, 1992, p. 157) . There i s great v a r i a b i l i t y i n the a b i l i t y l e v e l s of indi v i d u a l s who solve problems at d i f f e r e n t rates of speed, and that v a r i a b i l i t y i s undoubtedly due largely to no n - i n t e l l e c t u a l factors such as poor motor coordination or a r e f l e c t i v e cognitive s t y l e . The speed factor w i l l penalize g i f t e d children who are as r e f l e c t i v e as they are bright, or who tend to go slowly for other 65 non-cognitive reasons such as mild coordination problems. A suggestion for interpretation of such re s u l t s i s that young children sometimes respond slowly for a variety of reasons that have more to do with maturation or personality than i n t e l l e c t (Kaufman, 1992). Academic achievement. The Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery- Revised (1989); Tests of Achievement-Standard Battery (WJ-R) was chosen to obtain the case studies' c e i l i n g l e v e l s i n the realms of Mathematics, Reading and Writing Fluency. This assessment i s a wide-range, comprehensive set of i n d i v i d u a l l y administered t e s t s which allow for "in-depth analysis of three c u r r i c u l a r areas: reading, mathematics, and written language" (Woodcock & Mather, 1989, p. 11). The WJ-R has a wide range of subtests and generally a s u f f i c i e n t c e i l i n g which allows the investigator a wide range of information about the learner's current operating l e v e l (Matthews, 1993). 66 The chosen test descriptors are as follows: Test 22: Letter Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n measures the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y i s o l a t e d l e t t e r s and words appearing i n large type on the subject's side of the test book. Test 23: Passage Comprehension measures the a b i l i t y to study a short passage and i d e n t i f y a missing key word. I t requires the subject to select a word that would be appropriate i n the context of the passage. It i s a cloze procedure. Passage comprehension draws on a variety of comprehension and vocabulary s k i l l s . Test 24: Calculation measures the subject's a b i l i t y to perform mathematical calculations, including addition, subtraction, m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , d i v i s i o n , and combinations of these operations, as well as some geometric, trigonometric, logarithmic and calculus operations. Calculations involve decimals, fractions, and whole numbers. No decisions about what operations to use or what data to include i n the calculations are required. Test 25: Applied Math Problems measures the a b i l i t y to solve p r a c t i c a l problems i n mathematics. In order to solve the problems, the subject must recognize the procedure to be followed, i d e n t i f y the relevant data, and then perform the r e l a t i v e l y simple c a l c u l a t i o n required. Since many of the problems present more information than needed for t h e i r solution, the subject must decide not only the appropriate mathematical operations to use, but also which data should be included i n the c a l c u l a t i o n . Test 26: Dictation requires the subject to respond i n w r i t i n g to a v a r i e t y of questions requiring knowledge of l e t t e r forms, s p e l l i n g , punctuation, c a p i t a l i z a t i o n and word usage. Although the test measures a broader scope of basic writing s k i l l s than just s p e l l i n g , the entire t e s t i s administered l i k e a t r a d i t i o n a l d i c t a t i o n s p e l l i n g t e s t . Test 27: Writing Samples requires the subject to write sentences i n response to a variety of demands. The t e s t measures the a b i l i t y to phrase and present written sentences which are evaluated with respect to quality of expression. The subject i s not penalized for errors i n basic w r i t i n g s k i l l s such as s p e l l i n g or punctuation (Woodcock & Mather, 1989) . The normative data for the WJ-R were gathered from 6,359 subjects. Test r e l i a b i l i t i e s on the chosen tests are as follows: Test #22 .91; Test #23 .90; Test #24 .93; Test #25 .91; Test #26 67 .91 and Test #27 .93 (Woodcock & Mather, 1989, p.100). Content v a l i d i t y of the WJ-R provides a sampling of s k i l l s from simple to complex that relate to scholastic s k i l l s and knowledge. The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the WJ-R meet basic technical requirements. The correlations of the t e s t c l u s t e r s to other tests of achievement are " t y p i c a l l y i n the .60s and .70s at the age 9 through to age 17 l e v e l s " (Woodcock & Mather, 1989, p.103). In administering any i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t or i n d i v i d u a l achievement test the assessor has the opportunity to c l o s e l y observe a c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i v e and learning s t y l e i n a somewhat unique s i t u a t i o n . The assessor can get a sense of the c h i l d ' s approach to receiving, processing, planning and conveying of information (Matthews, 1993). The WJ-R tests of achievement, tests 22 through to 27, was administered as a pre and post test i n t h i s study. I t was conducted p r i o r to the mentorship and at the conclusion of the mentorship. Motivational orientation. The instrument designed to tap t h i s construct i s the Scale of I n t r i n s i c versus E x t r i n s i c Orientation i n the Classroom (Harter, 1981). This scale i s a 30-item instrument designed to tap f i v e d i f f e r e n t dimensions of a c h i l d ' s motivational orientation i n the classroom. Test items are presented i n the "structured a l t e r n a t i v e " format. Using t h i s format, the c h i l d i s f i r s t asked to decide which sort of c h i l d he/she i s and then the c h i l d i s 68 i n v i t e d to decide whether the statement i s sort of true or r e a l l y true for him or her. For example, "Some kids know when they've made a mistake without checking with the teacher" ...BUT... "Other kids need to check with the teacher to know i f they've made a mistake." The c h i l d i s asked to choose which statement i s more suited to him/her and to answer with the response i s t h i s . . . "Really True for Me," or "Sort of True for Me" (Harter, 1981). Each of the following components constitutes a separate subscale. Definitions of these subscales are as follows: 1. PC: Preference for challenge versus preference f o r easy work assigned. Is the c h i l d i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated to perform hard, challenging work or does the c h i l d prefer to do the easier work assigned by the teacher? 2. CI: Incentive to work to s a t i s f y one's own i n t e r e s t and c u r i o s i t y versus working to please the teacher and obtain good grades. This subscale measures the r e l a t i v e strength of the chil d ' s i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t and c u r i o s i t y compared to a more e x t r i n s i c orientation to obtain teacher approval and grades. 3. IM: Independent mastery attempts versus dependence on the teacher. This subscale taps the degree to which a c h i l d prefers to figure out problems on his or her own i n contrast to a dependence on the teacher for help and guidance, p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t comes to f i g u r i n g out problems and assignments. 4. I J : Independent judgment versus reliance on teacher's iudgment. This subscale assesses whether the c h i l d f e e l s that he or she i s capable of making c e r t a i n judgments about what to do i n the classroom i n contrast to a dependence on the teacher's opinion or judgement about what to do. 5. IC: Internal c r i t e r i a for success/failure versus external c r i t e r i a for success/failure. Does the c h i l d have some in t e r n a l sense of whether he/she has succeeded or done poorly on a test or on a school assignment or i s the c h i l d dependent on external sources of evaluation such as teacher feedback, grades, and marks? (Harter & Connell, 1984) 69 Researchers conducted the test on a norming population of over 3,000 pupils. This population had been placed i n regular grades three to nine classes (Harter, 1981). Results from t h i s norming data showed that there are two r e l a t i v e l y independent c l u s t e r s of subscales that emerge, the f i r s t factor having a d e f i n i t e "motivation flavour" (Harter, 1981, p. 309) and the second factor tapping a "cognitive-informational structure" (Harter, 1981, p. 309). The f i r s t three subscales composed of preference for challenge versus preference for easy work, c u r i o s i t y / i n t e r e s t versus teacher approval, and independent mastery versus dependence on the teacher comprised the motivational q u a l i t y . The l a t t e r two subscales, independent judgement versus reliance on teacher's judgment and i n t e r n a l versus external c r i t e r i a for success/failure comprised the second factor — "cognitive-informational structure" (Harter, 1981, p. 309) . Internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s range from .78 to .84, .68 to .82, .70 to .78, .72 to .81, and .75 to .83, for Challenge, Independent Mastery, Curiousity, Judgment, and C r i t e r i a subscales respectively (Harter, 1981). The Scale of I n t r i n s i c versus E x t r i n s i c Orientation i n the Classroom (Harter, 1981) was used as a pre and post measure. I t was administered p r i o r to the beginning of the mentorship program, as well as at the conclusion of the mentorship program. The purpose of these two administrations was to determine whether there were changes i n the c h i l d ' s self-report of the c h i l d ' s motivational factors. "The scale may be f r u i t f u l l y employed i n those program 70 evaluation e f f o r t s i n which classroom interventions are designed to influence a c h i l d ' s motivation" (Harter, 1981, p. 311) . Mentorship Evaluation. The intent of requesting the selected mentors to complete an evaluation on each of the case studies was to tap t h e i r perceptions of the mentees' learning. The evaluation attempts to answer the questions: What ef f e c t has mentorship had i n the areas of academic achievement, on learning s a t i s f a c t i o n and on motivation to learn? The questionnaire also e l i c i t e d comments regarding the c h i l d ' s apparent comfort l e v e l with the mentor and the process of the mentorship program. Without evidence that the mentorship program addressed the c h i l d ' s competencies and fostered further learning, endorsement for program d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s ungrounded. The mentor had the opportunity to work with the c h i l d , face to face, free from d i s t r a c t i o n s and day to day classroom organization. The mentors' evaluation provides a r i c h source of information. The questions (please see Appendix D) were compiled on an evaluation form t i t l e d "Mentor's Account of Student's Demonstration of Cognitive, Creative and A f f e c t i v e S k i l l s and Characteristics." The purpose of the questionnaire was to e l i c i t comments regarding: 1) the c h i l d ' s demonstrated knowledge 2) the c h i l d ' s recognizable transference of knowledge 3) the c h i l d ' s c r i t i c a l analysis of what he\she understands and how that can be transferred to new knowledge and information and 4) the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to communicate what he/she had learned. 71 The content of the questionnaire was based on Keating's (1980) theory of cognitive c r e a t i v i t y which includes four components of c r e a t i v i t y and what i s known about the significance of mentorship on a g i f t e d c h i l d ' s learning and social-emotional development (Beck, 1989; Boston, 1976; Frey & Noller, 1983, Gray, 1984, Mattson, 1979; Shore et a l . , 1991; Shaughnessy, 1990; Timpson & Jones, 1989; Zorman, 1993). "Our ultimate concern must extend beyond knowledge generation to the educational and psychosocial well-being of the individuals with whom we work" (Foster, 1986, p.33) . C r i t e r i a for evaluation were based on the understanding of g i f t e d children; t h e i r knowledge; t h e i r s t y l e of learning; t h e i r personality t r a i t s , and t h e i r motivation (See Appendix D). Case studies' summative evaluation interviews. A l l case studies were interviewed to formulate reference points of learning s a t i s f a c t i o n from the mentorship program. For complete text of questions asked of the mentees please see Appendix E. The intent of the interview was to gather student's perceptions of general learning s a t i s f a c t i o n . A matrix of data on the students' general learning s a t i s f a c t i o n i s provided i n Chapter Four. 72 Summary of Chapter Three Chapter Three was concerned with presenting the methodology and procedures used to test the three research questions. The case study sample and chosen mentors were described and procedures concerned with the administration of assessments were outlined. Results of the data analysis are presented i n the next chapter. 73 CHAPTER IV Results Introduction This chapter i s divided into three sections, corresponding to the general research questions. The f i r s t section addresses the res u l t s of the pre and post tests of Harter's (1980) scale, I n t r i n s i c Versus E x t r i n s i c Orientation In the Classroom. These p r o f i l e s w i l l show changes i n the i n t r i n s i c motivation of each student at the completion of the mentoship program. The second section addresses the evidence of learning s a t i s f a c t i o n . The student's perceptions of the mentorship program and t h e i r educational preference w i l l be appraised. The t h i r d section examines the assessment information from the WJ-R achievement r e s u l t s . In t h i s chapter data from these measures w i l l be summarized and analyzed. This chapter w i l l attempt to d i r e c t evidence to the following research questions as presented at the end of Chapter Two: 1. W i l l there be growth i n i n t r i n s i c motivation as a r e s u l t of the mentorship? 2. W i l l learning s a t i s f a c t i o n be evident as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a mentorship program? 3. W i l l a mentorship program enhance student' academic proficiency? 74 Motivational p r o f i l e s The following tables show pre and post t e s t i n g r e s u l t s of the Scale of I n t r i n s i c versus E x t r i n s i c Orientation i n the Classroom (Harter, 1981). On each graph, l i n e s are included to show comparisons to the the norming population for the student's p a r t i c u l a r grade l e v e l s . Please also note, at the very bottom of the page the student's pre-mentorship score i s subtracted from the post-mentorship score thus delineating a difference i n score. Heightened re s u l t s are indicated with a (+); a lower r e s u l t i s indicated by a (-). 75 Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom INDIVIDUAL PUPIL PROFILE N a m e : C a s e S t u d v #1 C h r i s t o p h e r G e n d e r : M a l e A g e : 12. G r a d e : 8_ First T e s t i n g Da te : J a n . '94 P u p i l s rat ing A v e r a g e for G r a d e 8 Intr insic o 3 o Ui JD s W _Q 3 ~> LO Ext r ins i c M O T I V A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T S 3.0 3.8 3 .3 P r e f e r e n c e Cur i os i t y Independent for C h a l l e n g e Interest M a s t e r y P r e f e r e n c e E a s y W o r k S e c o n d T e s t i n g D a t e : J u n e '94 P l e a s e T e a c h e r G e t G r a d e s D e p e n d e n c y O n T e a c h e r M O T I V A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T S 2.8 3.0 P r e f e r e n c e Cu r i os i t y for C h a l l e n g e Interest 3 .3 Independent M a s t e r y I N F O R M A T I O N A L 3.0 3.8 Independent Internal J u d g m e n t Cr i te r ia T e a c h e r ' s J u d g e m e n t Ex terna l Cr i te r ia I N F O R M A T I O N A L 3 .3 3.5 Independen t Internal J u d g m e n t Cr i te r ia • N o r m i n g popu la t ion m e a n s for e a c h s u b s c a l e by C a s e S t u d y G r a d e 8 3 Ext r ins ic P r e f e r e n c e P l e a s e T e a c h e r D e p e n d e n c y T e a c h e r ' s Ex te rna l E a s y W o r k G e t G r a d e s O n T e a c h e r J u d g m e n t Cr i te r ia P r e - M e n t o r s h i p 3.0 3.8 3 .3 3.0 3.8 P o s t - M e n t o r s h i p 2 .8 3.0 3 .3 3.3 3.5 R e s u l t s : (-.2) (-.8) S a m e (+.3) (-.3) Scores obtained from A Scale of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom. Susan Harter, Ph. D., University of Denver, 1980 76 INDIVIDUAL PUPIL PROFILE N a m e : C a s e S t u d y #2 R i c h a r d First Tes t i ng D a t e : O c t . ' 9 3 M O T I V A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T S 3.0 3.8 P r e f e r e n c e Cu r i os i t y for C h a l l e n g e Interest G e n d e r : M a l e • P u p i l s rat ing 3 .3 Independent M a s t e r y A g e : 13 G r a d e : A v e r a g e for G r a d e 7 I N F O R M A T I O N A L 3.0 3.8 Independent Internal J u d g e m e n t Cr i t e r i a Intr insic 2> o o co a> 8 r> CO Ext r ins ic P r e f e r e n c e E a s y W o r k P l e a s e T e a c h e r G e t G r a d e s D e p e n d e n c y O n T e a c h e r S e c o n d T e s t i n g D a t e : J u n e ' 94 M O T I V A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T S 2.8 3.0 P r e f e r e n c e Cu r i os i t y for C h a l l e n g e Interest 3 .3 Independent M a s t e r y T e a c h e r ' s J u d g e m e n t Ex te rna l C r i t e r i a I N F O R M A T I O N A L 3.3 3.5 Independent Internal J u d g m e n t C r i t e r i a • N o r m i n g popu la t ion m e a n s for e a c h s u b s c a l e by C a s e S tudy G r a d e 7 P r e f e r e n c e E a s y W o r k P r e - M e n t o r s h i p P o s t - M e n t o r s h i p R e s u l t s : P l e a s e T e a c h e r G e t G r a d e s 3 .3 2 .5 3.8 3.0 (+.5) (+.5) D e p e n d e n c y O n T e a c h e r 2 .6 2 .6 S a m e 3 .3 3 .5 (+.2) Teache r ' s J u d g m e n t 2 .5 2.8 (+.3) Ex te rna l C r i t e r i a 77 Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom INDIVIDUAL PUPIL PROFILE N a m e : C a s e S t u d y # 3 Pe te r G e n d e r : M a l e - • P u p i l s rat ing A g e : G r a d e : 1 A v e r a g e for G r a d e 3 First T e s t i n g Da te : J a n . '94 M O T I V A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T S 2 0 3.0 1.5 P re fe rence Cur ios i t y Independent for C h a l l e n g e Interest M a s t e r y I N F O R M A T I O N A L 1.3 1.3 Independent Internal J u d g e m e n t Cr i t e r i a Intr insic P re fe rence E a s y W o r k P l e a s e T e a c h e r Get G r a d e s S e c o n d T e s t i n g Da te : J u n e ' 94 M O T I V A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T S 3.5 4 .0 P re fe rence Cur ios i t y for C h a l l e n g e Interest D e p e n d e n c y O n T e a c h e r 3 .3 Independent M a s t e r y T e a c h e r ' s J u d g e m e n t Ex te rna l C r i t e r i a I N F O R M A T I O N A L 1.5 3.0 Independent Internal J u d g e m e n t Cr i t e r i a • N o r m i n g popu la t i on d id not i nc lude G r a d e 1 P l a c e d n o r m i n g s c a l e is for G r a d e 3 Intr insic a> o o CO a> 8 _ Q CO Ex t r i ns i c P re fe rence E a s y W o r k P l e a s e T e a c h e r Ge t G r a d e s D e p e n d e n c y O n T e a c h e r T e a c h e r ' s J u d g m e n t Ex te rna l Cr i te r ia P r e - M e n t o r s h i p P o s t - M e n t o r s h i p R e s u l t s : 2 .0 3.5 (+1.2) 3.0 4 .0 (+1.0) 1.5 3 . 3 (+1.8) 1.3 1.5 (+.2) 1.3 3.0 (+1.7) Scores obtained from A Scale of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom. Susan Harter, Ph. D., University of Denver, 1980 78 Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom INDIVIDUAL PUPIL PROFILE N a m e : C a s e S t u d y #4 A s h l e i g h G e n d e r : F e m a l e A g e : 9_ • • Pup i l s rat ing • First T e s t i n g D a t e : J a n . '94 G r a d e : • A v e r a g e for G r a d e 4 M O T I V A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T S 3.8 3.0 4.0 P r e f e r e n c e Cur ios i t y Independent for C h a l l e n g e Interest M a s t e r y Intr insic 8 co s (0 -O CO Ext r ins ic P r e f e r e n c e E a s y W o r k S e c o n d T e s t i n g D a t e : J u n e '94 P l e a s e T e a c h e r Ge t G r a d e s M O T I V A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T S 4.0 3.5 P r e f e r e n c e Cur ios i t y for C h a l l e n g e Interest D e p e n d e n c y O n T e a c h e r 4.0 Independent Mas te r y I N F O R M A T I O N A L 3.0 3.0 Independent Internal J u d g m e n t Cr i te r ia T e a c h e r ' s J u d g m e n t Ex te rna l Cr i te r ia I N F O R M A T I O N A L 3 .3 3.0 Independen t Internal J u d g m e n t Cr i te r ia • N o r m i n g popu la t i on m e a n s for e a c h s u b s c a l e by C a s e S t u d y G r a d e 4 Intr insic 8 CO V s co J O ZD CO Ext r ins i c P r e f e r e n c e E a s y W o r k P r e - M e n t o r s h i p P o s t - M e n t o r s h i p R e s u l t s : P l e a s e T e a c h e r Ge t G r a d e s 3.8 4.0 (+.2) 3.0 3.5 (+.5) D e p e n d e n c y O n T e a c h e r 4.0 4.0 C e i l i n g S a m e 3.0 3 .3 (+.3) 3.0 3.0 S a m e T e a c h e r ' s J u d g m e n t Ex te rna l Cr i te r ia Scores obtained from A Scale of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom. Susan Harter, Ph. D., University of Denver, 1980 79 Student perceptions of learning s a t i s f a c t i o n . After c a r e f u l examination of the tran s c r i p t s of interviews p a r t i c u l a r configurations of information were apparent. These patterns of information formed clusters of students' perceptions. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of responses are as follows: 1) Achievement s a t i s f a c t i o n , 2) Mentor s a t i s f a c t i o n , 3) Product s a t i s f a c t i o n 4) Setting/milieu s a t i s f a c t i o n , 4) Choice s a t i s f a c t i o n and f i n a l l y 5) Student recommendation. The following matrix represents the comments that were made by each case study during a formalized interview. As each case study's mentorship i s unique, comments the children made w i l l show d i v e r s i t y of answers. 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"1 also liked to see how fast 1 could read, like how many words a minute 1 could do, every few minutes." (If you had one hour a day to study anything you liked, what would you choose?) "1 would choose Birds of Prey, Crocodiles, other reptiles or, and Dinosaurs, and 1 did do research on Condors." Setting / Milieu Satisfaction "Writing and sometimes the best thing about it was having a break and getting to read the books in the library, I'd always go down to that Dinosaur place and look at the Dinosaur books and see if there's something new." "Sometimes we went outside and we studied things that we saw, like, we gave like twenty... adjectives for a fence, see what it was like...and bikes and other times we'd just stay inside and we worked on a school writing project that 1 had to do." Product Satisfaction "The really good part was the leamingl" "1 learned how to do that. too...a presentation." "The poem? Well, that turned out really well, and it was fun making it, it took a long time on the computer to write it, 'cause it was a really long poem." "...then my teacher sent it to the Young Authors, and then they accepted it." Mentor Satisfaction "Mrs. Dickson and 1 went to my favorite place - the library. She helped me do my presentation." "Well, 1 learned that, 1 learned that sometimes appearances aren't always what they seem." "...because most people wouldn't think that, someone who was like paralyzed would be able to do very well..." "...but (Mr. Halverson) did really well... he know more than what he looked like he knew." Achievement Satisfaction "...because you get to learn things." "... you get to learn stuff. Well, I've learned a couple of things on Birds of Prey." "...he would tell me to write a sentence on the board, a few sentences, and they'd both have a ,a word missing, and the word, 1 I'd have to think of a word that would mean the same, that would mean, that would make, complete the sentence, like, the same word. My vocabulary increased." (ft c o c a. a> a> £ co (/> 0. >» •a 3 (0 O Q. < "D 3 CO o S o o sz 5> 82 Assessment r e s u l t s . Achievement leve l s p r i o r to mentorship and at the conclusion. The Woodcock Johnson - Revised, Tests of Achievement; subtests 22 to 27 were administered as a pre and post tests p r i o r to and upon completion of the mentorship program. Please see the following tables which i l l u s t r a t e the changes i n achievement a f t e r mentorship. 83 COMPARISON OF PRE & POST-MENTORSHIP TEST RESULTS STUDENT: CASE STUDY #1 (Christopher) Age: 11 years TESTED BY: Mrs. Brenda Simpson WOODCOCK-JOHNSON PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL BATTERY - Revised - (Tests of Achievement) PRE-STUDY TEST RESULTS POST-STUDY TEST RESULTS TEST DATE: Sept. 24, 1993 TEST DATE: June 16, 1994 TEST DESCRIPTORS STANDARD SCORES %ILE RANK STANDARD SCORES %ILE RANK TEST 22: LETTER WORD IDENTIFICATION 120 90 144 99.8 TEST 23: PASSAGE COMPREHENSION 138 99 139 99.6 TEST 24: CALCULATION 153 99.9 160 99.9 TEST 25: APPLIED PROBLEMS 159 99.9 169 99.9 TEST 26: DICTATION 107 67 113 80 TEST 27: WRITING SAMPLES 126 96 160 99.9 84 p z LU CM § *-«"* zz* UJ UJ 3 CO =5 H UJ 0- z UJ 3 (0 => i o CD 9> o uJ 0- z UJ 3 CO =o co o Pa UJ 3 CO =3 co co H UJ Q- Z UJ 3 CO =3 CN 5 K UJ CL Z UJ 3 CO =j c/> o © as u3 as < z © 85 C O M P A R I S O N O F P R E & P O S T - M E N T O R S H I P T E S T R E S U L T S STUDENT: Age: TESTED BY: CASE STUDY #2 (Richard) 13 years Mrs. Brenda Simpson WOODCOCK-JOHNSON PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL BATTERY - Revised - (Tests of Achievement) PRE-STUDY TEST RESULTS POST-STUDY TEST RESULTS TEST DATE: October 27, 1993 TEST DATE: June 14,1994 TEST DESCRIPTORS STANDARD SCORES %ILE l ^ i l l i l i l l i i i i i ^ i : STANDARD SCORES %ILE RANKS TEST 22: LETTER WORD IDENTIFICATION 149 99.9 184 99.9 TEST 23: PASSAGE COMPREHENSION 144 99.8 154 99.9 TEST 24: CALCULATION 131 98 151 99.9 TEST 25: APPLIED PROBLEMS 154 99.9 159 99.9 TEST 26: DICTATION 119 89 139 99.5 TEST 27: WRITING SAMPLES 131 98 127 97 86 m 2! CO o < "S o • M M a: Q LU < LU Q 8l o ^  ^ Lf) ^ in Q U J j - ^ \a Q, e r: LU o co CN co 7~\ U J (J si P 2 o ^  . . LU n 3 1 0 C4 X — eg uj jo 2[ oo"§, to C N C M t— o: CO uj 8 ^ Q LU O 5 O =5 o o o o o o oo v> -^ t- o o o ro CN" — o o CO UI K o u to o < a i -oo >-o CO o CL CO 111 cc o u CO a a 2 CO >-a I-» III K CL 111 O ON to H < K fi < a wuosifti e£ < as CD 87 COMPARISON OF PRE & POST-MENTORSHIP TEST RESULTS STUDENT: Age: TESTED BY: CASE STUDY #3 (Peter) 6 years Mrs. Brenda Simpson WOODCOCK-JOHNSON PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL BATTERY - Revised - (Tests of Achievement) PRE-STUDY TEST RESULTS POST-STUDY TEST RESULTS TEST DATE: November 5, 1993 TEST DATE: June 24, 1994 TEST DESCRIPTORS STANDARD SCORES %ILE lilllliiillllll^lll STANDARD SCORES %ILE RANKS TEST 22: LETTER WORD IDENTIFICATION 197 99.9 >200 99.9 TEST 23: PASSAGE COMPREHENSION 153 99.9 152 99.9 TEST 24: CALCULATION 139 99.6 144 99.8 TEST 25: APPLIED PROBLEMS 145 99.9 161 99.9 TEST 26: DICTATION 149 99.9 167 99.9 TEST 27: WRITING SAMPLES 135 99 135 99 88 89 C O M P A R I S O N O F P R E & P O S T - M E N T O R S H I P T E S T R E S U L T S STUDENT: CASE STUDY #4 (Ashleigh) Age: 9 years TESTED BY: Mrs. Brenda Simpson WOODCOCK-JOHNSON PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL BATTERY - Revised - (Tests of Achievement) PRE-STUDY TEST RESULTS POST-STUDY TEST RESULTS TEST DATE: Oct. 15, 1993 TEST DATE: June 24, 1994 DESCRIPTORS !!l|i!!!iLlb1|ii!|i llilllliGiililillili EQUIVALENTS l i l f p D l i l l l %ILE RANK S SCALED GRADE EQUIVALENTS STD. SCORE liillll^illll %ILE RANKS TEST 22: LETTER WORD IDENTIFICATION 11.9 149 99.9 16.8 161 99.9 TEST 23: PASSAGE COMPREHENSION 10.0 134 99 11.0 138 99 TEST 24: CALCULATION 5.4 130 98 7.0 161 99.9 TEST 25: APPLIED PROBLEMS 8.0 135 99 8.7 140 99.6 TEST 26: DICTATION 5.6 115 85 6.4 123 94 TEST 27: WRITING SAMPLES 16.9 (65) 193 99.9 16.9 155 99.9 90 t- < Z Q < Q (/) O © QC? £d Ctf < 53 CD UJ Gains i n achievement as a r e s u l t of mentorship. As indicated by the r e s u l t s , a l l case studies' achievement le v e l s were above t h e i r age/grade rank at the commencement of study. Each case study continued t h e i r educational placement i n t h e i r home schools while the mentorship program occurred. With the exception of case study #3, Peter, a l l were exposed to i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l areas of the curriculum. Peter changed to French Immersion at the commencement of the mentorship program. Therefore, Peter did not receive any formalized English Language Arts curriculum, as children i n French Immersion do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n English Language Arts u n t i l grade three. Peter's gains i n his standard scores are s i g n i f i c a n t when comparing pre and post tests of the WJ-R. When commenting on the results of the WJ-R as a post t e s t measure s i g n i f i c a n t gains are shown i n a l l cases. Results of the post tests cannot c l e a r l y be j u s t i f i e d as a r e s u l t of the mentorship program, as research does not give evidence to how much a g i f t e d learner t r u l y develops his/her academic competency i n a regular program with his/her age mates. However, s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n the standard scores show s i g n i f i c a n t growth i n almost a l l subtests. Please note that with some case studies, t h e i r pretest re s u l t s had already h i t the c e i l i n g of the WJ-R, so s i g n i f i c a n t increases can only be shown comparing standard scores and percen t i l e s . Please refer to the tables submitted on pages 84-91. 92 Evaluation of student learning by mentors The mentors evaluation demonstrates the close personal r e l a t i o n s h i p that was established between the mentor and the mentee. The mentor and c h i l d functioned more as mutual friends or companions who were able to cooperate and work together rather than as a teacher d i r e c t i n g a group of students. The basis f o r the mentorship was not t r y i n g to give the other a set of information but instead being able to f e e l out where they are and i n what d i r e c t i o n they were headed. The mentor acted as a guide and a f a c i l i t a t o r of the chil d ' s learning. Therefore, allowing independence and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . The following information was gathered from an evaluation form that each mentor f i l l e d out. Please r e f e r to the Appendix D through to G for complete text of the mentors' evaluations. The intention of c o l l e c t i n g the mentor's perceptions of student learning was an attempt to distinguish change and development as a r e s u l t of the mentorship program. The mentors' judgment was that the children did indeed gain i n knowledge and acquired s k i l l s . After careful scrutiny of a l l responses from the mentors two c l u s t e r s of information from the mentors' evaluation emerged. One c l u s t e r suggests that at the beginning of the mentorship the mentors were able to appreciate the knowledge that the c h i l d brought to the mentorship. This implied evidence demonstrated scholarship and knowledge that the mentee had acquired p r i o r to the program. The other c l u s t e r of information suggests the knowledge and acquired s k i l l that the c h i l d learned and 93 assimilated during the program. Examples w i l l be presented subsequently i n the context of d i f f e r e n t categories of learning. These responses invoke judgment c a l l s from the mentor. I t i s a d i f f i c u l t task to determine what knowledge the c h i l d possessed and what knowledge the c h i l d acquired. The mentorship gave the c h i l d the opportunity to demonstrate his/her knowledge. Other s i g n i f i c a n t adults, parents or teachers, apart from the mentor, may not be e n t i r e l y sure what knowledge the c h i l d possessed p r i o r to the mentorship program either. It i s safe to suggest that a l l four case studies were s e l f - d i r e c t e d i n t h e i r learning p r i o r to the mentorship and what knowledge they accumulated from t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l pursuits of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s may not be e n t i r e l y evident, as opportunities to exhibit t h i s knowledge may not have transpired. Content Knowledge. Comments from mentors suggest that a l l case studies showed a thorough working knowledge of the d i s c i p l i n e the mentor was addressing during i n s t r u c t i o n . Such comments as "He already has a broad knowledge base i n mathematics and i s able to assimilate and apply new concepts with ease" show that perhaps the student advanced from his/her p r i o r knowledge. Other comments include, "His high f a c i l i t y with music was a d e f i n i t e asset, but he quickly developed an understanding of art and architecture as they related to the various h i s t o r i c eras we studied throughout the year," and "Has a great quantity of knowledge about his favourite topic of dinosaurs and was able to apply t h i s knowledge 94 to the comparison of the Condor's head to the s k u l l of the duck-b i l l and other dinosaurs." These comments suggest that the students moved from t h e i r content knowledge and developed further understanding i n other knowledge pursuits. Other comments express that the student demonstrated his p r i o r knowledge such as "He has a great deal of general knowledge - rather l i k e a walking encyclopedia". Hypotheses information and hypotheses t e s t i n g . These questions attempt to tap the mentor's opinion of how t h e i r mentee was able to observe and possibly see further implications and considerations stemming from the known knowledge base. Evidence that i n most cases the mentors were able to see t h i s a b i l i t y includes the following comments: 1) "Every solution he has given me to a problem has been well reasoned and can be further elaborated on several days l a t e r . " 2) "He was able to demonstrate connections between them (three d i f f e r e n t composers) through presentation of his research and samples of t h e i r music." 3) "She has an acute a b i l i t y to recognize patterns i n reasoning exercises." Transfer of Learning. This section attempted to draw upon the mentor's awareness of how the student was able to transfer his/her learning to new s i t u a t i o n s . In a l l cases the mentors reported that i n each case study they had recognized t h i s a t t r i b u t e . For example, 1) "Chess and math contest problems demand l a t e r a l decision thinking. He 95 excels i n t h i s . " 2) "He was one of the few students who make the connection between the nature and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an h i s t o r i c a l period and the art and c u l t u r a l t r a i t s which emerged during that time;" 3) "In the same report, there were many questions about the "helmet" on the Condor's head and he compared the structured feature to the s k u l l of the d u c k - b i l l and some other dinosaurs;" 4) "... on any pencil and paper te s t where she needed to see cause and eff e c t relationships, she was very s k i l f u l i n getting the correct answer." Imagination. The responses from the mentors suggest that the students showed tolerance for ambiguity and were able to see things i n a varie t y of ways. Response include: 1) "Lacking formal background needed for some problems, he often r e l i e s on unorthodox, yet successful strategies," 2) "I see his imagination almost a l l of the time," 3) "Ashleigh has a v i v i d imagination when i t comes to sketching a symbolic representation of the meanings of some words. When we took a simple object such as a cup, she was able to imagine many d i f f e r e n t and unusual uses for t h i s cup. She enjoyed having to stretch her imagination." A f f e c t i v e Domain. T r a i t s i n giftedness often include r i s k taking, high tolerance to change ( a b i l i t y to adjust to new situations) and a s e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l values. Comments include: 1) " I see t h i s a b i l i t y to adjust to new situ a t i o n and taking r i s k s almost a l l of the time;" 2) "I d e f i n i t e l y see t h i s t r a i t almost a l l the time." 96 3) "He i s very d e f i n i t e l y a r i s k taker11 It was no mean feat for a young grade 7 student to enter a grade 12 c l a s s , already a term under way, to j o i n them i n t h e i r studies and get up i n front of them to d e l i v e r his project presentation;" 4) "Sensitive to ecol o g i c a l issues as indicated i n his study of Condors and sensi t i v e to classmates' and school mates' problems of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n " . Communication S k i l l s . The explanations from the mentors imply that the students had c l e a r communication s k i l l s . Whether through discussion, written reports or presentations, mentors indicated that the mentees showed cle a r communication. The student's a b i l i t y to communicate understanding and knowledge to others i s expressed i n the following comments: 1) "Strong v i s u a l i z a t i o n processes, however expository s k i l l s lag," 2) "The c l a r i t y of solutions i s not uniform. Sometimes i t i s clear and sometimes i t requires probing on my part for the concept," 3) "I see his a r t i c u l a t i o n s k i l l s as excellent," 4) "General a b i l i t y to express himself i s outstanding, i . e . use and comprehension of words." Through these comments i t i s determined that i n some cases the mentor encouraged and promoted more e f f e c t i v e communication. These forms of communication were detected i n o r a l presentations or i n written procedures. Part II Instructional compatibility Mentorship match. The mentorship match was not d i r e c t l y related to the 97 research questions but during the summative evaluation of the mentorship program i t became apparent that success of the procedure also depended on the personality match of the adult and the c h i l d . Student and mentor comments encompassed messages containing the " f i t " or personality a f f i l i a t i o n that they had for each other. Comments regarding the match of mentor to mentee were sought. Anecdotal comments included the match of the mentor's expertise to the mentee's area of s k i l l and i n t e r e s t , teaching s t y l e to learning s t y l e , and personality match. Statements include the following: 1) "Excellent match. I am fascinated with games, puzzles, paradoxes, and problem solving. He shares t h i s enthusiasm;" 2) "My style was relaxed and informal. Christopher was always relaxed during our encounters. Neither of us viewed the problems he worked on as "tests," but rather as puzzles from which some learning might occur. Our shared i n t e r e s t i n puzzles brought us much closer together;" 3) "Richard was not prepared to accept d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n . His attitude was "I know." When I "backed o f f " then he came to me when he met a d i f f i c u l t y and we worked together i n solving the problems and the atmosphere was affable"; 4) "I f e l t that teaching these basics of research so that Peter i s independent i n his pursuits, was quite easy"; 5) "My teaching s t y l e demands intense involvement f i r s t through experimentation of words and sentence s t y l e s . Ashleigh, being so young, did not have the necessary maturity or experience to 98 benefit from such a s t y l e . " Development of independence i n learning. Questions regarding the change i n mentees towards t h e i r learning during the span of the mentorship were obtained. This item on the evaluation form attempted to tap the observed change i n the mentees' dependency on the mentor to a more s e l f - d i r e c t e d practise which would involve the c h i l d taking more r i s k s and challenge i n t h e i r learning. Comments include: 1) "Problem solving i n mathematics develops r a t i o n a l thinking ( c r i t i c a l analysis, measurements, evaluation, inductive/deductive reasoning, and synthesis). A valuable attribute i n today's world. Christopher shows t h i s , " 2) "One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t changes I observed was his willingness to write up a solution to a problem. I n i t i a l l y , there was reluctance, but eventually he started and now we only consider the problem solved once the solution has been written out i n f u l l and we have discussed my feedback. As a r e s u l t he has increased the value he places on English," 3) "He began to acquire the s k i l l s of an independent learner," 4)"He already was, to an extent, a s e l f - d i r e c t e d learner," 5) "There was l o t s of transference of e x p e r i e n t i a l learning: alphabetical order, ... use of measuring t o o l s . . . d e t a i l s of setting up a l e t t e r and writing a l e t t e r of i n v i t a t i o n or for information. Once he knew these s k i l l s he transferred these s k i l l s to other areas of his learning," 6)"Our time together was too short to see any evolving of r e a l l i f e s k i l l s and competencies, but our exercises i n learning how to "see" I 99 would hope would help to make her future writing more int e r e s t i n g . " Mentors' teaching s a t i s f a c t i o n . Questions include changes i n the association and the mentor's s a t i s f a c t i o n and/or f r u s t r a t i o n i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . Comments gleaned are as follows: 1) "My rel a t i o n s h i p with him was comfortable from the s t a r t and remained so throughout the term," 2) "Christopher and I h i t i t off from the beginning and any nervousness that may have been present on our f i r s t meeting was gone by the second," 3) "... (next year) I w i l l encourage him to go beyond the regular content ... and help him develop his organizational s k i l l s . . . (to) ...help him become a f u l l y s e l f -directed learner," 4) "The relationship has been p o s i t i v e and we both enjoyed our meetings. He i s always interested i n conversing and i n t e l l i n g me about his experiences," 5) "There was no noticeable change i n our relationship, except maybe being a l i t t l e more relaxed with me as we worked together. Ashleigh would answer the questions I asked, but rarely volunteered any personal information," 6) "To have a student who i s eager to hear everything you have to say and shares your enthusiasm f o r your subject i s every teacher's dream," 7) "No f r u s t r a t i o n . I f e e l , however, my worth as a teacher i s more enhanced by getting through to weaker students. He i s a pleasure to be with, but my teaching s k i l l s are not applicable. He learns too quickly1" 8) "I have been rewarded by my association with him during t h i s past year. His scholasticism stood out i n an otherwise disappointing 100 crop of pupils; ... I was (sometimes) frustrated i n my e f f o r t s . . . to help him to organize himself i n an e f f e c t i v e manner," 9) "There was s a t i s f a c t i o n i n that he was a happier c h i l d and he revealed a pleasant and sweet personality who t r u l y loved mind exercises. It was f r u s t r a t i n g i n that I couldn't get him to commit a l o t to paper," 10) "The age difference between me and Ashleigh was too great. She wanted to do fun things such as r i d d l e s and games, whereas I wanted serious i n depth emotional responses to complicated situations." Summary of Chapter Four Chapter four presented the data c o l l e c t e d i n the study. The chapter analyzed and reviewed pre and post motivational p r o f i l e s , student perceptions of learning s a t i s f a c t i o n , and pre and post assessment r e s u l t s . Discussion of the results w i l l be presented i n Chapter Five. 101 CHAPTER V Discussion Introduction This chapter presents a summary of the findings of the study and draws some conclusions based on these findings and the relevant l i t e r a t u r e . The emphasis for t h i s chapter i s on interpretation, discussion, generalization, and drawing inferences and conclusions from the data presented i n Chapter Four. Discussion w i l l be i n relationship to the presented theory of g i f t e d education, namely a developmental model which suggests an appropriate match between the child' s l e v e l of a b i l i t y and in s t r u c t i o n (Keating, 1991; Matthews, 1993; Stanley, 1976). Limitations of t h i s study, including potential l i m i t a t i o n s i n the formulation of hypothesis/questions, methods or design, subjects, extraneous factors, and other aspects w i l l also be noted. In addition, the chapter contains recommendations for changes i n practice that may help to address the needs of the academically g i f t e d student. Speculations about how the res u l t s may have d i f f e r e d i f d i f f e r e n t procedures were used w i l l also be included. Conclusions based on the study and suggestions for further research w i l l be suggested. Data c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s study w i l l be discussed. The four c l u s t e r s of data are as follows: 1) assessment r e s u l t s of both cognitive and achievement a b i l i t i e s , 2) evaluation of student learning by mentors, 3) student perceptions of learning 102 s a t i s f a c t i o n and 4) results of motivation p r o f i l e s . Limitations of the study Because the sample i s small (4) i t i s conceivable that findings might not be representative of a l l academically g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Gifted individuals d i f f e r from each other i n more ways than they resemble each other. However, t r a i t s of g i f t e d children surface to a s s i s t educators to develop appropriate educational experiences (Clark, 1992; Sanborn, 1979). Despite t h i s small sample, the study did c o l l e c t a considerable amount of data to suggest that the case studies may represent academically advanced students. A l l students demonstrated acquired knowledge and academic development surpassing t h e i r age/grade peers. This was indicated by t h e i r WJ-R results at both pre and post assessments. The results of the motivational p r o f i l e s suggest that a i l case studies are i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated. Throughout the l i t e r a t u r e (Clark, 1992; Davis & Rimm, 1989; D e l i s l e , 1992) i t i s suggested that g i f t e d children are inherently i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated. A basic l i m i t a t i o n that applies to t h i s study i s that the information gained on learning s a t i s f a c t i o n was self-reported. A l l c h i l d r e n reported s a t i s f a c t i o n . In two case studies (#1 and #4), the children appear to be r e l a t i v e l y compliant. They seem to want to please. Whether they related t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n because they wanted to please the co-ordinator or because they t r u l y were s a t i s f i e d remains to be seen. This manner of s e l f -report may be a possible l i m i t a t i o n . Not a l l the children i n t h i s study had a l l t h e i r i n t e r e s t s matched with an expert. Christopher's keen desire to further his computer knowledge and proficiency was not able to be matched with an adult of similar a b i l i t i e s . It surfaced early i n the mentorship program that a connection could not be made with a professor at the university/college who had a background i n computer technology and who had the time to make the commitment. The mentorship program addressed i n t h i s study was time c e r t a i n . I t began at a p a r t i c u l a r time and ended at a p a r t i c u l a r time. Questions regarding the continuation of program modifications for the case studies are not yet determined. The fact that these children are i d e n t i f i e d suggests that there i s a moral obligation to continue some program modification. Assessment results Cognitive assessment. Interpretation of the results suggest that young ch i l d r e n sometimes respond slowly to timed tests for a number of reasons that may have more to do with maturation or personality than i n t e l l e c t . Considerations that g i f t e d children show advanced i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s but may be average or even slow i n the development of motor s k i l l s cannot be overlooked (Silverman, 1991). Achievement r e s u l t s . When examining the WJ-R results of a l l four child r e n noted insights are obtained. On r e f l e c t i o n , Christopher's scores i n the Mathematics knowledge domain cannot be determined because of 104 the c e i l i n g set i n the WJ-R. If the writer had access to a SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test), achievement leve l s i n Christopher's p r o f i l e could have been deduced. It might be suggested that Christopher's elevated scores i n reading (greater than 4.5 years) may be a r e s u l t of having to write up his Mathematical problem solutions for his mentor, Dr. Ward. Christopher did not receive any formalized English curriculum during t h i s school year. English 8 was substituted for an e l e c t i v e . Richard's achievement results show noted gains were i n Calculation, (greater than 3.6 years) and Dictation (greater than 6.3 years). Richard had two mentors. He was mentored i n mathematics by Mrs. Macdonald. This suggests that the mentorship program was quite e f f e c t i v e i n the Mathematics domain. Richard's second mentor, Mr. Campbell addressed his int e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s i n the history area. On d e l i b e r a t i o n , t h i s c h i l d should have been given a pre and post t e s t evaluation i n the Social Studies and Science domains of the WJ-R, p a r t i c u l a r l y the former subtest, where the knowledge increase could have been shown. Peter's r e s u l t s show noted gains were i n a l l subtests except for Passage Comprehension. Standard scores i n Letter-word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n increased from 197 to > 200; Calculation was elevated from 139 to 144; Applied Problems rosed from 145 to 161; notable advancement i n Dictation from 149 to 167; and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y Writing Samples measuring Peter's fluency with the 105 written word also showed growth. Peter's change to a vastly d i f f e r e n t educational placement f i v e months into the school year, at the time when the mentorship program o f f i c i a l l y commenced, i s an indica t i o n of success of the mentorship program. Peter was not taught English (Language Arts) formally. Everything presented to Peter i n t h i s grade one placement was presented i n French. Mrs. Dickson mentored Peter twice a week i n the area of Language Arts i n English, including reading, writing and o r a l communication p a r t i c u l a r l y around his presentations. Perhaps her mentoring can account for his increases i n the Language Arts domains. Ashleigh's results demonstrate noted gains i n a l l subject domains, except Writing Samples where Ashleigh had already reached the c e i l i n g on the WJ-R on the pre t e s t i n d i c a t i n g her fluency with the written word p r i o r to mentorship. Again, the WJ-R r e s u l t s did not o f f e r enough of a c e i l i n g to show any r e s u l t s that could be determined from the mentoring program. Also c r e a t i v i t y with written expression, e s p e c i a l l y poetry writing, cannot be tapped by t h i s measure. In conclusion, o v e r a l l improvement i n student achievement suggests support for the e f f i c a c y of mentorship. Evaluation of student learning by mentors Comments from mentors on t h e i r mentees give evidence of the learning that occurred i n the mentorship program. Anecdotal d e t a i l s also give information about the c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i v e t r a i t s . Inferences drawn from the mentors' comments include: 1) A l l 106 c h i l d r e n showed t h e i r l e v e l s of knowledge i n the d i s c i p l i n e the mentor instructed i n . What knowledge the c h i l d had p r i o r to the mentorship, and what knowledge was developed or acquired during the mentorship appears to be somewhat ambiguous. However, what can be drawn from the comments of the mentors i s that these children demonstrated t h e i r knowledge and t h i s manifestation was shown throughout the program. 2) A l l children were challenged at t h e i r appropriate l e v e l . 3) A l l children took r i s k s with t h e i r knowledge l e v e l and showed transference to new learning presented to them. 4) A l l mentors reported that they observed the c h i l d ' s comfort l e v e l increase as the mentorship program progressed; 5) Mentors also related that they noticed t h e i r mentee's s a t i s f a c t i o n i n learning throughout the program duration. Often t h i s was expressed behaviourially by the c h i l d ' s enthusiasm about the subject being studied. The l i t e r a t u r e suggests that a mentor's role i s one of a f a c i l i t a t o r and a source of i n s p i r a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r comments regarding the i n t e l l e c t u a l "kinship" that occurred appeared to show that most of the mentors delighted i n the c h i l d ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge and the mentors were able to provide opportunities for the student to enhance t h e i r knowledge and develop i n i t i a t i v e and imagination. Christopher could t a l k about how he solved the mechanical math problem with someone who would encourage him to expand his methodology and increase his a b i l i t y to express his thought processes. Christopher's mentorship demonstrated a kind of congregating of individuals with l i k e 107 minds and in t e r e s t s . I t seemed that Christopher had not had t h i s opportunity before. Peter could spend time reading research on his favourite topics at his reading l e v e l without fear of c r i t i c i s m and looking " d i f f e r e n t " from his age mates. Encouragement was offered to him to go ahead and complete his large projects. Confidence was apparent as he presented his findings to much older c h i l d r e n . They were interested and he was validated for his knowledge. With Mr. Halverson's encouragement and i n s t r u c t i o n Ashleigh had her poem selected for "The Young Author's Conference". Each case study progressed at t h e i r l e v e l and the mentors fostered t h i s p o t e n t i a l . Student perceptions of learning s a t i s f a c t i o n . This information contributes personal perspectives from the students, i n discussions that were candid. The tr a n s c r i p t s of these interviews provide a portrayal of the unique circumstances that the case studies experienced. A l l case studies were interviewed i n t h e i r schools i n t h e i r usual contexts of a c t i v i t y . From these discussions an understanding of the interpersonal intimacy with the mentor i s acquired. This information contributes personal perspectives from the students. Information gleaned from these interviews i s based on the phenomenological understanding of the ch i l d ' s r e a l i t y while p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the mentorship program. Throughout the course of the mentorship program the writer spoke to the children frequently. Often, the c h i l d ' s eagerness 108 and i n t e n s i t y i n these conversations were noted. As the mentors also noted, the c h i l d ' s demeanour and behaviour suggested the case studies' sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n with having a mentor and being part of the program. Richard's fondness for the text book for Western C i v i l i z a t i o n 12 was an early indicator of his s a t i s f a c t i o n . He related to the writer that he read the ent i r e text book of a week-end, immediately aft e r he had received i t from Mr. Campbell. Ashleigh's account to her mother each Wednesday afternoon following the sessions with Mr. Halverson contributed to her sense of contentment with the process. When Peter described the wing span of the Condors he was studying his delight i n knowing t h i s information was apparent. As well as these behaviourial indicators, the transcripts of concluding interviews provide a portrayal of the unique circumstances that the case studies experienced. The knowledge that the c h i l d gained i n the subjects being studied was also evident. The Matrix presented i n chapter four shows the categories that surfaced from these interviews. The sense of s e l f enjoyment of the program, the process, the achievement gained and the student's product characterise the students' s a t i s f a c t i o n . Motivation p r o f i l e s An inquisitiveness i n learning and a motivation to explore are c r u c i a l to successful education (Hendricks & Scott, 1987). I n t r i n s i c motivation i s fostered by environments that support autonomy (Clark, 1992). U t i l i z i n g the p r o f i l e s of Harter (1980) as a pre and post t e s t , a l l case studies involved i n the study 109 show elevated scores o v e r a l l when compared to the normed population. One exception appeared. Peter i s the youngest c h i l d i n the sample and i s i n grade one. Peter's pre test showed more e x t r i n s i c orientation or a strong dependency on outside judgment or teacher approval. This i s a developmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , often shown by young c h i l d r e n . This i s not surprising as his age/grade leve l s were not part of Harter's (1980) norming population. The youngest population normed on Harter's (1980) scale were children i n grade three. His i n i t i a l scores were compared to t h i s population. Peter was i n grade one. However, on Peter's post test p r o f i l e , his scores are elevated even higher than the grade three norming population. This information suggests that g i f t e d learners o v e r a l l are more i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated and the exploratory question that g i f t e d learners' p r o f i l e s w i l l be higher than those of the average student i s confirmed. An examination of i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s w i l l follow. Although Christopher's (case study #1) p r o f i l e s continued to show a more i n t r i n s i c motivation on the post t e s t , there were drops on his p r o f i l e s i n three areas. Major developmental changes occurred i n Christopher during t h i s school year, while he attended grade eight i n a high school. Harter and Connell (1984) account for changes i n the motivational p r o f i l e s as c h i l d r e n get older. This change r e f l e c t s the tendency for children to adapt to the demands of a school culture which reinforces a r e l a t i v e l y e x t r i n s i c orientation. With increasing grade l e v e l , "... 110 children's i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t i n learning wanes or i s s t i f l e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to preference for challenge, c u r i o s i t y and desire to independently master material" (Harter & Connell, 1984, p.229). Christopher's s h i f t i n his preference for challenge (-.5); his c u r i o s i t y / i n t e r e s t (-.8) and his decrease i n i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i a (-.3) from his pre t e s t , may r e f l e c t his tendency to adapt to the demands of high school which reinforce a generally e x t r i n s i c i n c l i n a t i o n . Christopher's increase i n independent judgment (+.3) may be a r e s u l t of Dr. Ward's and Mr. Fourtier's encouragement of Christopher's s e l f understanding and self-judgment. They applauded and advocated his sense of correctness and opinion. In reviewing Richard's motivational p r o f i l e from pre to post t e s t s , his scores were elevated across a l l subscales. Overall, t h i s implies that Richard was challenged by the mentorship opportunity. His achievement motivation may ari s e out of the challenge and s a t i s f a c t i o n gained while mastering the course content of Western C i v i l i z a t i o n 12. It appears that t h i s course matched Richard's c a p a b i l i t i e s . Richard was subject-matter accelerated and t h i s educational challenge was commensurate with his a b i l i t i e s . Any discussion of Peter's motivational p r o f i l e , both pre and post must be prefaced with the knowledge that the Harter scale (1980) was normed on a population of children i n grade three and other advanced grades. Peter's grade (grade one) was not part of 111 the norming population. Therefore, Peter's scale i s speculative. However, his motivation towards his learning i s i n t e r e s t i n g as there i s such a noted difference at the close of his mentorship program. At t h i s early age, age six, i t i s u n l i k e l y that Peter has a true sense of his competency. Young children tend to be more e x t r i n s i c a l l y motivated, and highly dependent on teacher judgment and teacher approval (Harter & Connell, 1984). Peter's pre and post motivational p r o f i l e s , when compared to the other case studies, o f f e r the most dramatic change over the mentorship duration. A l l his scales are elevated and t h i s suggests that motivation was heightened with Mrs. Dickson's involvement. Harter and Connell (1984) suggest that an i n t r i n s i c motivation orientation i s coupled with the c h i l d ' s p o s i t i v e feelings of competence and "perceptions of personal control over outcomes" (p.221). These elevated scores suggest that Peter's a b i l i t y to achieve i s i n t e r n a l l y recognized. Indeed, his public presentations of his projects to older children showed his assurance and competence. The behaviour Peter showed while giving these presentations displayed self-confidence and maturity usually seen i n older children. Ashleigh's p r o f i l e s are similar to the preceding three case studies. A l l her scores are elevated, with the exception of independent mastery, which remained the same. Interestingly, her score on independent mastery i s the same as the norming 112 population of other nine year olds. Noted gains i n Ashleigh's p r o f i l e show preference for challenge i s up (+.5); c u r i o s i t y i s up (+.5); independent judgment i s raised (+.2); and i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i a i s up (+.3). Ashleigh, having the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a mentorship program, appeared stimulated and challenged. This was exhibited i n her creative talents i n her writing. With encouragement from Mr. Halverson, Ashleigh rose to the challenge and her motivational p r o f i l e was heightened. Summary of Motivational P r o f i l e s The r e s u l t s pertaining to motivational orientation are as expected. The case study sample indicates that g i f t e d c h i l d r e n vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the norm. They are generally i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated, especially i n t h e i r preference for independent mastery, that i s , doing t h e i r own work and f i g u r i n g out t h e i r own learning problems, rather than being dependent on the teacher. They also are more i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated to seek challenging work. Implications of the Motivational P r o f i l e s I t emerges that, given the opportunity to seek challenging work, g i f t e d learners w i l l increase t h e i r i n t r i n s i c motivation. It appears that i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r c u r i o s i t y and meeting t h e i r needs for knowledge acqui s i t i o n w i l l encourage t h e i r motivation to learn. Research has shown that g i f t e d children who r e a l i z e t h e i r potential must maintain t h e i r i n t e r e s t and motivation (Hendricks & Scott, 1987). Presumably, presenting challenging 113 material to g i f t e d learners w i l l foster i n t r i n s i c motivation. As a program modification, a mentorship program may work for g i f t e d students as the case studies' mentorships provided opportunities for independent study and for students to make choices as to t h e i r learning. The mentors provided options for t h e i r mentees and supported the students' projects under guidance. A mentorship program may work for g i f t e d students. Implications for further research Motivation and high school culture The change i n Christopher's motivational p r o f i l e s suggests further investigation. Could t h i s r e s u l t r e f l e c t the tendency for children to adapt to the demands of a high school culture which may reinforce a r e l a t i v e l y e x t r i n s i c orientation? With increasing grade l e v e l , "... children's i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t i n learning wanes or i s s t i f l e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to preference for challenge, c u r i o s i t y and desire to independently master material" (Harter & Connell, 1984, p.229). This supposition warrants further examination. Mentorship Match What emerged from t h i s study regarding the f i t between the mentor and mentee i s worthy of discussion. Although the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the student and his/her mentor was not a focus of the study, i t appears essential to success of a mentorship program. The c l i c h e that students often learn i n proportion to " t h e i r l i k e for t h e i r teachers" shouldn't be overlooked. Compatibility 114 of teacher and student ensures the best match. When considering the optimal match between a student's demonstrated need and an academic response, mentorship as a program option may prove vi a b l e , providing that both mentor and mentee have s i m i l a r d ispositions and in t e r e s t s . Careful selection for t h i s f i t cannot be neglected. In t h i s study, a l l mentors selected revealed t h e i r enthusiasm to inst r u c t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The fact that the mentors chosen volunteered t h e i r time and expertise substantiated t h e i r i n t e r e s t . The matching of students to mentors was c a r r i e d out by the writer. This matching implies not only the bringing together of two people but considerations around teaching s t y l e and learning s t y l e also appear to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Care was taken i n interviewing both the mentors and selected students to insure compatibility. At some l e v e l , both potential mentor and student select each other i n the context of the commitment which at the beginning i s just being shaped. This match i s a d i f f i c u l t matter to assess, yet as the mentorship unfolded, signs and symbols of the mentorship f i t were revealed. Both students and mentors showed t h e i r enthusiasm when they talked about the progress of the mentorship program. The intent of the mentoring program was open-ended, suggesting that both the mentor and the mentee be free to allow what happened between them to run i t s course without regard to interference or d i r e c t i o n from the co-ordinator. The I.E.Ps established at the beginning changed and evolved corresponding to 115 the needs of the student. The mentors adjusted accordingly, depending on the process of the program. Some attention by the co-ordinator was maintained to draw out a sense of the " f i t " or compatibility of student and mentor but only at the c l o s i n g of the program was evidence of success able to be t r u l y appraised. The opportunity to get "inside" t h i s relationship to address possible impasses as the mentorship program progressed was not always available. Three out of the four case studies reported s a t i s f a c t i o n and pleasure o v e r a l l , i n a l l facets of the mentorship program. A l l male participants were unanimous with t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n and t h e i r accomplishments, as were t h e i r mentors. Case study #4, Ashleigh, the only female participant, was somewhat hesitant and wavering i n her personal description of success. Although she reported that she enjoyed her time with her mentor and would encourage her friends to take the opportunity of mentorship i f they were i n v i t e d , she also stated, "I kind of would have l i k e d to have some friends come with me, ... there are two kids i n my c l a s s , they're r e a l l y smart...." To Ashleigh, i t appeared that her comfort l e v e l with her mentor would have been increased i f she had classmates p a r t i c i p a t i n g with her. Mr. Halverson's comments are also noteworthy; "The age difference between me and Ashleigh was too great. She wanted to do fun things such as r i d d l e s and games whereas I wanted serious indepth emotional responses to complicated situations." Further information contributed by Ashleigh's mother at the 116 conclusion of the study i s also s i g n i f i c a n t . Ashleigh's mother expressed the differences between her daughter and Mr. Halverson Her intent was to explore the physical contrasts of the two. Ashleigh i s constantly i n motion; her a t h l e t i c prowess consumes her l i f e . Mr. Halverson, whose physical i n f i r m i t i e s have confined him to a wheel chair, makes i n t e l l e c t u a l pursuits his l i b e r a t i o n . Perhaps these differences were too d i s t i n c t . Mentors need to see themselves as f a c i l i t a t o r s of learning not just knowledge experts. Ashleigh's match with her mentor may have been more conducive i f the mentor chosen was a woman. Research suggests that female mentors have more p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on g i f t e d female students (Beck, 1989, Howard-Hamilton, & Robinson, 1991, & Zorman, 1993). This i s a factor that goes beyond the scope of t h i s study but i s worthy of consideration. Further research i s needed to investigate p o t e n t i a l l y relevant nonintellectual facets of personality match i n ascertaining the effectiveness of mentorship. Mentorships and acceleration and enrichment for gifted learners. Mentorship as a program option for the selected case studie has been shown to be e f f e c t i v e . The intent of t h i s study's mentorship program was to provide an optimal match for the students. It was hoped that the students would be appropriately challenged, that i s to be presented with material which was neither so easy for them as to be repetitious, nor so d i f f i c u l t as to be staggering. The purpose of the program, therefore, was a type of acceleration. 117 A l l four case studies had elevated achievement competencies and elevated scores i n t h e i r i n t r i n s i c motivational p r o f i l e s and declarations of learning s a t i s f a c t i o n were made. These findings support mentorship programs for g i f t e d children. In each case study mentorship, the c h i l d and mentor became co-learning partners. The c h i l d was recognized as an equal partner i n the i n i t i a t i o n , planning and implementation of the learning experience. The mentorships freed the c h i l d to pursue other learning options. Two students (case study #1 and case study #2) had the occasion to leave t h e i r regular learning environment and meet with t h e i r mentors i n d i f f e r e n t settings. These opportunities showed the children that learning occurs across settings that reach beyond school or the classroom. As the mentorship progressed mentor-mentee interactions changed. The student was able to take on more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and give more input. An example i s represented i n Richard engaging i n a discussion with two v i s i t i n g teachers to his classroom. Mr. Campbell's comments v e r i f y Richard's input; "Two of the teachers had considerable Western C i v i l i z a t i o n 12 backgrounds and Richard engaged them i n a very interesting dialogue. I was a mere bystander as he discussed with them aspects of an a r t i s t and his work, who he had recently made a presentation about, and the comparative music research he was currently working on." It i s a mistaken b e l i e f that g i f t e d students i n elementary school are capable of carrying out and completing high-quality projects e n t i r e l y on t h e i r own. They appear to need a guided 118 approach to keep them motivated to complete and present a project, and to get recognition for these endeavours. Mentorship programs can provide such guidance. Applications of the mentoring concept range from programs l i n k i n g learners with spe c i a l instructors to suggestions for student-to-student t i e s . In a l l case studies, the learning opportunities, the attention, the information sharing and the support the children received extended beyond the classroom. A d i s t i n c t i o n between acceleration and enrichment for the g i f t e d learner i s needed. Enrichment, for the most part, i s keeping children with t h e i r own age mates by extending t h e i r horizons through special projects. This study attempted to match the c h i l d ' s competencies to a course of studies that promoted t h e i r competencies. Acceleration i n t h i s case i s concerned with more c u r r i c u l a r f l e x i b i l i t y and f l e x i b l e pacing (Benbow, Argo, & Glass, 1992). The mentorship design was to expose the c h i l d to educational programs intended for older children, as i n the case of Peter. Peter could read adult books without fear of c r i t i c i s m or "looking d i f f e r e n t " from his age mates. He was free to write reports of imposing length and complete large projects that are t y p i c a l l y not suggested for six year old children. In t h i s way the mentorship program offered was one of acceleration or pacing the program to Peter's reading and writing a b i l i t i e s . Enrichment, on the other hand, often emphasizes the creative process, including divergent thinking, problem finding, problem solving and brain storming, but i t does not necessarily consider 119 the c h i l d ' s present operative s k i l l l e v e l . Such enrichment programs u t i l i z e exercises such as: "Pretend you are the f i r s t person to f l y . T e l l a newspaper reporter about your journey and how you f e l t . Tape an interview which you have written using a fri e n d as a reporter" (Zorn, 1983, p. 314). These strategies o f f e r pleasure and can provide a contest for sharp minds. Results of the mentorship program support subject acceleration. Nonetheless, any program modification i s encouraged, whether enrichment or acceleration. In eithe r experience, the curriculum i s adjusted for g i f t e d learners. Educational implications and considerations from the study E f f e c t i v e co-ordination and consistent monitoring i s needed to make a mentorship program possible. A mentorship program also requires competent communication between a l l people involved. The co-ordinator must be able to inspi r e g i f t e d students and t h e i r mentors to work well together and have sim i l a r goals for the mentorship program. The co-ordinator should also be able to handle unforeseen problems and make necessary changes i n consultation with a l l stakeholders. Administration on the part of the co-ordinator to promote c l e a r l y defined structure and intent of the program ensures success. Communication with parents i s also important, p a r t i c u l a r l y as the mentorship program develops. E f f i c i e n t co-ordination includes personal interviews with mentors, students and t h e i r parents, p r i n c i p a l s and teachers and an understanding of learning styles as determined from the 120 students. Administrative duties would include the se t t i n g up of I.E.P.s and arranging out of school learning opportunities. These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would be delegated i n conjunction with the topics of i n t e r e s t of the student. In a curriculum responsive to student choice, perceptions of those students are an important factor i n design of the program. Duties of the co-ordinator include completion of release forms and waiver vouchers by parents and school personnel when children go on unusual f i e l d t r i p s or they leave t h e i r home school to meet with t h e i r mentors i n other settings. Transportation also needs to be secured. The best possible match for mentor and student i s c r u c i a l not only to f i t the chil d ' s interest to the professional expertise but to consider the safety for the c h i l d . Mentorships may be di s t r i b u t e d over a wider time span rather than t h i s study's duration of f i v e to six months. Perhaps more f l e x i b i l i t y i n moving i n and out of a mentorship program would help highly precocious children actualize t h e i r potentials over an extended period of time. Therefore, mentorship would be conceptualized as a process and, used appropriately, would be adjusted to the developmental phases that the young g i f t e d student exhibits. In the case of Peter, the six year old mentee, t h i s screening procedure would assess Peter's readiness for p a r t i c i p a t i o n . There may be times i n his development that he w i l l not choose to be separated from his class and his age peers. Not a l l school personnel involved i n the case studies' 121 scholastic l i v e s acknowledged that these children needed spe c i a l attention when i t came to in s t r u c t i o n . Breaking out of the mould that teaching i s most eff i c a c i o u s through group i n s t r u c t i o n given by regularly employed teachers with appropriate c e r t i f i c a t e s appears necessary. Using community resources to enhance educational opportunity i s s t i l l frowned upon by some educators. Genuine concern regarding mentorship programs are often expressed and, therefore, t h i s educational alternative i s not u t i l i z e d to the extent which appears warranted for young children. Even when a g i f t e d c h i l d has the necessary academic aptitude to be accelerated, concerns are often expressed by current educators that the ch i l d ' s psychosocial c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s render any type of acceleration impractical. These opinions need to be confronted i f a community based mentorship program i s to be established. Literature supports acceleration for academic progress and more e f f e c t i v e l y f a c i l i t a t i n g personal and s o c i a l development, but general consensus among educators and the general public appear to s t i l l strongly favour the enrichment model - even for highly exceptional children. In the building of a constructive, b e n e f i c i a l mentorship program to involve many students, community resources play a key r o l e . This role i s especially meaningful i n l i g h t of contemporary emphasis on community involvement and use of community resources as outlined i n the document Year 2,000; A Framework For Learning (1989). Mentors' expertise and experience need to be shared with our g i f t e d youth. 122 Summary and recommendations. The methodology used i n t h i s study was a multiple-case study approach. Having four children involved i n t h i s design study i s comparable to a series of experiments or examinations. The l o g i c of the multiple-case study i s r e p l i c a t i o n reasoning (Moon, 1991, c i t e d i n Buchanan & Feldhusen, 1991). Replication of the treatment, i n t h i s case involving the children i n a mentorship program, implies the question, "Will the r e s u l t be duplicated i n a l l case studies?" Results from such designs create more substantial evidence to ground assumptions about the academically g i f t e d learner. From t h i s study, i t was determined that a l l case studies varied s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the norm i n t h e i r desire for independent mastery; they were not teacher dependent. They also preferred challenging work. Overall, t h e i r achievement l e v e l s rose s i g n i f i c a n t l y , given a d i f f e r e n t i a l curriculum supplied by t h e i r mentor. In a l l cases, the children reported a heightened learning s a t i s f a c t i o n . Mentorships could be an i n t e g r a l part of g i f t e d programs. Boston (1976) argued that mentorships provided students with an opportunity to learn and experiment, develop t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s k i l l s and gain competencies. From t h i s study i t was learned that the mentorship programs e f f e c t i v e l y helped the students take r i s k s , develop t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , learn more advanced subject matter, work independently and u t i l i z e research s k i l l s . In the case of Christopher, he also was able to examine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 123 of professionals i n the mathematics world. He observed how mathematicians interact with each other and t h i s network fostered future long term friendships. Possible career options were also presented to Christopher. A l i f e - l o n g learning network was established for Christopher. As one mentor suggested, Christopher was considered a colleague and t h e i r time together was co-learning, not teacher directed. The premise that schools should teach students to learn to learn and be more concerned with the process than with disbursement of knowledge recognizes the g i f t e d c h i l d ' s capacity for thought and idea exchange. Unless the special a b i l i t i e s of g i f t e d children are developed during t h e i r school years, t h e i r special potentials may be l o s t . Many g i f t e d youngsters are not always afforded the opportunity to f u l f i l t h e i r exceptional c a p a b i l i t i e s due to inappropriate educational services or lack of special services. Having a designated mentor for these children provides opportunities for the student to enhance, develop and use his/her i n i t i a t i v e and s e l f - motivation and advance t h e i r o r i g i n a l i t y . Volunteer mentorships provide a variety of inexpensive enrichment and subject advancement opportunities for academically g i f t e d children. This i s important es p e c i a l l y i n t h i s period of budgetary cutbacks of special programs. To increase the l i k e l i h o o d that g i f t e d learners might reach t h e i r p o t e n t i a l , attention to t h e i r interests and motivation seems c r i t i c a l . Children must learn very early that c u r i o s i t y and i n t e r e s t are not only acceptable but desirable q u a l i t i e s . "By fourth grade 124 many g i f t e d youngsters, especially boys, have opted to give up t h e i r c u r i o s i t y ... i n order to f i t i n and be accepted. By eleventh grade, one t h i r d of a l l students have dropped out and of these, six percent are g i f t e d students who have found that school of f e r s them l i t t l e " (Hendrick & Scott, 1987, p.120) . This study was formulated i n an attempt to address the learning needs of academically g i f t e d children. I t was speculated that changing the learning environment might e f f e c t and increase motivation, learning s a t i s f a c t i o n and academic competency. Mentorship programs for children can work. The case studies have learned much, developed as motivated students and have had a l o t of s a t i s f a c t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program. Subsequent research, perhaps i n the form of a lo n g i t u d i n a l study of these four children might add further insight i n t o t h e i r development and t h e i r potential, now that they have been i d e n t i f i e d . The writer also suggests that further research on relevant noni n t e l l e c t u a l facets i s needed i n regard to mentorships with g i f t e d children. The mentorship f i t appeared c r u c i a l . Case study #4, the only female participant, may have yielded higher gains i n her motivational p r o f i l e i f her mentor were also female and had more common interests that were not curriculum driven. Also, does the high-school culture, as experienced by Christopher, have a negative impact on a c h i l d ' s i n t r i n s i c motivation? 125 It became apparent that appropriate achievement tests need to be employed. As Christopher's mentorship was i n the mathematical domain, the SAT may have t r u l y credited Christopher's mathematical prowess. Richard's talent and expertise i n the history and science realms was not genuinely tapped, as the appropriate subtests of the WJ-R were not administered. The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study suggest possible d i r e c t i o n s for further investigation. 126 REFERENCES Archambault, F.X. J r . , Westberg, K.L., Brown, S.L., Hallmark, B.W., Emmons, C.L., & Zhang, W. (1993). 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Education, V. 103, n.4, 310-315. 131 Appendix A: I.E.P. for Richard INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM/PLAN DATE: November 29,1993 STUDENT.CASE STUDY #2 BIRTHDATE.80.10.27 HOME SCHOOL: Elementary PRESENT GRADE: 7 Present: Mr. & Mrs. ; parents Mrs. Mrs. ; teacher ; LAT Case Study #2 Mr. ; Western Civilization 12 teacher Current Academic Assessment Level: WISC-III: Performance: 99th percentile Verbal: 99th percentile Full Scale: 138 WJ-R: Broad Reading: 16.9 grade equivalency Broad Math: 15.8 grade equivalency SECTION I (To be completed by student) Things I can do well: 1. I can spell everyday words well. 2. I can do musical theory well. 3. I can beat players in "Jeopardy." 4. I can understand new Math concepts really well. I can do Math problems well. 5. I can read very quickly. 132 Things I would like to do: There are so many things I would like to study. I love learning about ancient history. Three goals for me: 1. I will do my best. 2. I will get my work in on time. 3. I will have a finished product. Section II Parents' priorities/goals for this student: 1. For his education to be broadened. And, we mean this horizontally, not vertically. More, to develop an understanding of what he does know. Perhaps to have more of an experiential background. 2. For him to have more of an extension of the product. To go beyond the basics. Perhaps to show his knowledge more in different realms of products. 3. To show a variety of ways of his knowledge. 4. To grow in areas of Math. His knowledge of Math already surpasses his age mates. 5. To somehow learn more empathy skills. Learn to affirm with people and to negotiate respectfully with others. Section III Teacher's priorities/goals for student: I am hopeful that he will deliver work of a top grade seven student. Deadlines are an issue for him; he procrastinates. Checklists of work to be accomplished must be met. Mentor's priorities/goals for the student: To develop and deliver an age appropriate program for student at his conception level, recognizing his interests in ancient history. WESTERN CIVILIZATION 12 will be the medium. This course traces the history of Western Civilization from the fall of the Roman Empire to the 20th century and attempts to relate historical events by examining the development of new ideas, art, architecture, literature and music throughout this extended time period. Much of the course is based on the BBC television series. 133 Section IV Class Activities or Learning Strategies (possibilities): (Mentor to help facilitate) 1. Presentations in class have a lot of flexibility for student. There will be a minimum of four presentations on topics that the student chooses to study. These presentations are designed to encourage the student to develop resourceful outlets for his imagination and creativity. For example: Considering his music prowess, perhaps he may choose to build a presentation of how music and art were related in certain periods of history. 2. As well, the student will have chapter readings and small quizzes on each topic. Section V Evaluation Procedures and Criteria: Date Set?During each term there will be an evaluation. Quizzes of readings and essays based on student's presentation will be evaluated. 134 Appendix B: I.E.P. for Peter INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM/PLAN I.E.P. Review Date: May 18, 19940riginal I.E.P. date: January 26, 1994 STUDENT:CASE STUDY #3 BIRTHDATE:87-03-21; 6 years 7 months PRESENT GRADE: One HOME SCHOOL: Lloyd George Elementary, 257 West St. Paul Street Present: Mrs. , teacher January 26 & May 18 Mr. & Mrs. , parents January 26 Mrs. ; mentorJanuary 26 & May 18 Mrs. Brenda Simpson; District School/Family Consultant January 26 & May 18 Mr. , PrincipalJanuary 26 Mr. , Vice Principal May 18 Mrs. (Substitute teacher for duration of school year) May 18 Current Academic Assessment Level: WPPSI-R: Overall: Overall 94th percentile Performance: 105 Verbal: 135 WJ-R: Broad Reading: 99th percentile Broad Math: 95th percentile SECTION I (To be completed by student) Things I can do well: I can write well and I can read well. I can also skate well and draw well. I can run very fast and make things well. Things I would like to do: I would like to play and do Math tote trays. I would like to learn French. Three goals for me: (I would like to be able to dig up a dinosaur) May 18/94 - Plans to visit Drumheller, A/fa. Summer 1994. I would like to write and read French. I would like to know more about planets. 135 Section II Parents' priorities/goals for this student: 1. To be academically fulfilled. 2. For CASE STUDY #3 to have a sense of belonging with his age appropriate group, but be challenged scholastically. Section III Teacher's priorities/goals for student: January 26, 1994: 1. To develop and deliver an age appropriate program for student at "his thinking level." 2. To be a valued person in an inclusive classroom. To recognize student's age (six and a half,) and allow for appropriate social exchange. 3. To learn and speak French. May 18, 1994: 1. To develop in CASE STUDY #3 a critical comprehension of the French Language. 2. To extend his learning in the French Language. Section IV Class Activities or Learning Strategies (possibilities): (Mentor to help facilitate) 1. Reactionary Journal: Child writes his reflections on various events he has observed (Young People's Concerts, etc.) or his feelings towards a book he has read. 2. Presentations: To expand child's awareness of how to present and share his knowledge with others. ("Show what you know0) Student to develop resourceful outlets for his imagination and creativity. For example: build a model of the rocket ship or write a play script from the most recent novel you have read. 3. To encourage student's vocabulary in the form of creative writing. For example: A computer assisted program for publishing a story. Section V Evaluation Procedures and Criteria: Date Set:On-going weekly May 18, 1994: Projects and presentations will be shared incidently with his classmates. . Class presentation is planned for in late May or early June. Recent research project on "Condors: bird of prey" is close to completion. Presentation due date: June 14. 136 Appendix C: I.E.P for Ashleigh INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM/PLAN I.E.P. Review Date: May 10, 1994 Original I.E.P. Date: January 20, 1994 STUDENT: CASE STUDY #4 BIRTHDATE: 1984-05-28 HOME SCHOOL: Elementary PRESENT GRADE: Grade 4; French Immersion Present: (parents) Ms. , teacher Mr. , Vice Principal Mr. , mentor Mrs. Brenda Simpson, District School/Family Consultant Current Academic Assessment Level: WISC-III-R: Overall: 98th percentile (132) Performance: 115 Verbal: 126 WJ-R: Broad Reading: 99th percentile Broad Math: 99th percentile SECTION I (To be completed by student) Things I can do well: Things I would like to do: Read faster! Three goals for me: Section II Parents' priorities/goals for this student: 1. More exposure for CASE STUDY #4. "To open doors for her." To expose her to different ways of thinking. 2. To offer direction to work through creative problem solving. 137 Section HI Teacher's priorities/goals for student: 1. To develop and deliver an age appropriate program for student at "her thinking level." 2. For CASE STUDY #4 to write a story coherently; using transitional sentences. 3. Perhaps to do a research paper; to show her inductive reasoning capabilities. 4. To cope with her abilities and handle interpersonal relations. Section IV Class Activities or Learning Strategies (possibilities): (Mentor to help facilitate) 1. Keeping a journal of what she is learning and her comments regarding the process. 2. To discuss language and its power. Perhaps an analysis of simple, compound and complex sentences. To be able to write a simple sentence and expand on it. Section V Evaluation Procedures and Criteria: Ongoing throughout the assigned time. Product: CASE STUDY #4 will demonstrate her learning by the products she completes. For example, poem completed for the "Young Author's Conference." Writing samples and class presentations will show her knowledge and expose her achievements. 138 Appendix D: Christopher's Mentors' Evaluation Questionnaire D(1): Dr. Ward PART A MENTOR'S ACCOUNT OF STUDENT'S DEMONSTRATION OF COGNITIVE. CREATIVE AND AFFECTIVE SKILLS AND CHARACTERISTICS Student Name: CASE STUDY #1 Birthdate: 81.11.01 Gender: Male Mentor's Name: Dr. Ward Date: June 24.1994 Explanation: Case study research is interested in developing a portrayal of the unique contextual circumstances of individual experience within a setting. The following questions are guidelines to your evaluation. Your personal account, including your observations and surmises to the questions are helpful in determining the student's strengths. Although a scale is provided for you, please add your personal account. Please comment on the following: Please indicate by using the rating scale, the degree to which your student exhibits each of the skills and characteristics listed below: 1. if you have rarely or never observed this skills, 2. if you have observed this skill occasionally, 3. if you have observed this skill almost all of the time. A. Student Performance: I COGNITIVE: 1. Content knowledge - The student shows the ability to "own-knowledge. This encompasses the student's ability to probe deeply, once the knowledge base is known and understood. A thorough working knowledge of a discipline enables the student to advance from the status quo. Scale 1 -3 • 139 2 2. Hypotheses Information - Has your student demonstrated keen Scale powers of observation and an interest in complex matters? Do you see an indication of him/her thinking abstractly? This 1 - 3 aspect allows the student to deviate into further symbolic implications, or further directions that the knowledge base once held. JY| He ate U P material on Graph Theory that I LL1 used to explain a complex solution of a tough puzzle. Hypotheses Testing - If your student has mastered the content knowledge base and is reasonably fluid in considering other Scale possible avenues, have you seen his/her critical judgement? Does the student make judgements and decisions, and reasons 1 - 3 things out? Every solut ion he h/as given me to a prnhlpm p r i has been well reasoned and can be furthpr I—J elaborated on several days la ter . 4. Decision Making - Have you seen your student recognize relationships, cause and effect? Has there been indication of transferring learning to new situations? Scale T have not, o h s e r v e r i t h i s a s o f t e n , h o r a n c o the problems I have given h i m are usually 1 " 3 quite unrelated. ± = = = = = = m II CREATIVITY 1. IMAGINATION - Does your student show a vivid imagination and perhaps a tolerance for ambiguity? Does he/she see things in a variety of ways? Does he/she perhaps offer unique or unusual ideas? S c a l € The ideas are only unioue for someone of his age and formal math t ra in ing . 1 * J 140 3 III AFFECTIVE 1. Does your student adjust to new situations? Have you noticed a sensitivity to social values? Is he/she a risk taker? I have n e v e r l o o k e d f o r ^ r i sk t a k i n g " and • • s e n s i t i v i t y t J s o c i a l v a . l l j e s » . T h p m j m h p r i <; * rnmmpnt. m n r p nn my o h s p r v a t i nn Scale 1 -3 • IV COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. Have you noticed whether your student's intention is accurately understood? Whatever the creative production, the Scale communication of the idea, or concept must be clearly understood. 1-3 The c l a r i t y o f s o l u t i o n s i s not, u n i f o r m somet imes i t i s v e r y c l e a r and somet imes i t r e q u i r e s p r o b i n g on my p a r t f o r the c o n c e p t . • 141 4 PART B MENTOR'S TEACHING STYLE AND THE STUDENTS LEARNING STYLE (Anecdotal Comments) 1. The unique relationship between the mentor and the student is kindled on the basis of shared mutual interests. In the area of gifted education, teachers lament that these students have special needs that are not always met in school programs. While most teachers support the notion of encouraging gifted students to engage in self-directed projects in their areas of interest, all too often teachers of the gifted do not know enough about these specific areas and have difficulty in approaching these areas meaningfully. Please comment on the match that was made with your student. How was your teaching style conducive to learning for your student? My s t y l e was r e l a x e d and i n f o r m a l . T h i s was enhanced by l o o k i n g f i r s t a t p h y s i c a l ( o r m e c h a n i c a l ) p u z z l e s b e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g word problems. C h r i s t o p h e r was always r e l a x e d d u r i n g our e n c o u o n t e r s . N e i t h e r o f us viewed the problems he worked on as " t e s t s " , but r a t h e r as p u z z l e s from which some l e a r n i n g might o c c u r . Our s h a r e d i n t e r e s t i n p u z z l e s brought us much c l o s e r t o g e t h e r . 2 . As educators, the ultimate aim of education is to help students become producers of knowledge. In order to do so, they have to acquire the skills of independent learners. Please comment on the experiential learning that took place in the mentorship. What real life skills and competencies do you see as evolving from your relationship to your student? One o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t changes I observed was C h r i s t o p h e r ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o w r i t e up a s o l u t i o n t o a problem. I n i t i a l l y t h e r e was r e l u c t a n c e , but e v e n t u a l l y he s t a r t e d and now we o n l y c o n s i d e r the problem s o l v e d once the s o l u t i o n has been w r i t t e n out i n f u l l and we have d i s c u s s e d my feedback. As a r e s u l t he has i n c r e a s e d the v a l u e he p l a c e s on E n g l i s h . 3. Your involvement with your student was "term certain." It commenced at a specific time and ended at a specific time. Please comment on how the relationship evolved. Did you see any noticeable changes in your association with your student? Was he/she more risk taking in their idea seeking? I n t e r e s t i n g l y I don't r e c a l l any s i g n i f i c a n t changes o t h e r than t h o s e noted above. C h r i s t o p h e r and I h i t i t o f f from the b e g i n n i n g and any nervousness t h a t may have been p r e s e n t on our f i r s t m e e t i n g was gone by the second. 142 5 4. Research indicates that mentors experience emotional growth and encounter enhanced satisfaction in their own worth as teachers. Please comment on your satisfaction and/or frustrations in your relationship with your student. I have r e a l l y e n j o y e d spending time w i t h C h r i s t o p h e r and have a l r e a d y a r r a n g e d t o recommence i n the F a l l . To have a s t u d e n t who i s eager t o hear e v e r y t h i n g you have t o say and s h a r e s your enthusiasm f o r your s u D ] e c t I s e v e r y t e a c h e r ' s dream! Please expand on any of the responses you have provided using additional paper, if needed. Thank you. Brenda Simpson 143 Appendix D: Christopher's Mentors' Evaluation Questionnaire D(2): Mr. Fourtier PART A MENTOR'S ACCOUNT OF STUDENTS DEMONSTRATION OF COGNITIVE. CREATIVE AND AFFECTIVE SKILLS AND CHARACTERISTICS Student Name: CASE STUDY #1 Gender: Male Birthdate: 81.11.01 Mentor's Name: Mr. Fourtier Date: June 29,1994 Explanation: Case study research is interested in developing a portrayal of the unique contextual circumstances of individual experience within a setting. The following questions are guidelines to your evaluation. Your personal account, including your observations and surmises to the questions are helpful in determining the student's strengths. Although a scale is provided for you, please add your personal account. Please comment on the following: Please indicate by using the rating scale, the degree to which your student exhibits each of the skills and characteristics listed below: 1. if you have rarely or never observed this skills, 2. if you have observed this skill occasionally, 3. if you have observed this skill almost all of the time. A. STUDENT PERFORMANCE: I COGNITIVE: 1. Content knowledge - The student shows the ability to "own" Scale knowledge. This encompasses the student's ability to probe deeply, once the knowledge base is known and understood. A 1-3 thorough working knowledge of a discipline enables the student to advance from the status quo. He already has a broad knowledge base in mathematics and is able to assimilate and apply new concepts with ease. In statistics problems, he quickly mastered counting techniques (combinations and permutations) and used them correctly. 144 Hypotheses Information - Has your student demonstrated keen powers of observation and an interest in complex matters? Do you see an indication of him/her thinking abstractly? This aspect allows the student to deviate into further symbolic implications, or further directions that the knowledge base once held. Enjoys (and solves) tough mechanical puzzles. Chess problems. Hypotheses Testing - If your student has mastered the content knowledge base and is reasonably fluid in considering other possible avenues, have you seen his/her critical judgement? Does the student make judgements and decisions, and reasons things out? Strong reasoning powers exhibited (eg. chess 'battle' plans) Decision Making - Have you seen your student recognize relationships, cause and effect? Has there been indication of transferring learning to new situations? As above, chess and math contest problems demand lateral thinking. He excels in this. CREATIVITY IMAGINATION - Does your student show a vivid imagination and perhaps a tolerance for ambiguity? Does he/she see things in a variety of ways? Does he/she perhaps offer unique or unusual ideas? Lacking formal background needed for some problems. He often relies on unorthodox, yet successful strategies. AFFECTIVE Does your student adjust to new situations? Have you noticed a sensitivity to social values? Is he/she a risk taker? He is socially adept and personable. Very much at ease with the faculty and students at U.C.C. 145 IV COMMUNICATION SKILLS Scale 1. Have you noticed whether your student's intention is accurately understood? Whatever the creative production, the 1 - 3 communication of the idea, or concept must be clearly understood. f o l Strong visualization processes, however expository skills lag. 146 P A R T B M E N T O R ' S TEACHING S T Y L E A N D THE S T U D E N T S LEARNING STYLE (Anecdotal Comments) 1. The unique relationship between the mentor and the student is kindled on the basis of shared mutual interests. In the area of gifted education, teachers lament that these students have special needs that are not always met in school programs. While most teachers support the notion of encouraging gifted students to engage in self-directed projects in their areas of interest, all too often teachers of the gifted do not know enough about these specific areas and have difficulty in approaching these areas meaningfully. Please comment on the match that was made with your student. How was your teaching style conducive to learning for your student? Excellent match. I am fascinated with games, puzzles, paradoxes, & problem solving. He shares this enthusiasm. 2. As educators, the ultimate aim of education is to help students become producers of knowledge. In order to do so, they have to acquire the skills of independent learners. Please comment on the experiential learning that took place in the mentorship. What real life skills and competencies do you see as evolving from your relationship to your student? Problem solving in mathematics develops rational thinking (critical analysis, measurements, evaluation, inductive/deductive reasoning, synthesis). A valuable attribute in today's world. 3. Your involvement with your student was "term certain." It commenced at a specific time and ended at a specific time. Please comment on how the relationship evolved. Did you see any noticeable changes in your association with your student? Was he/she more risk taking in their idea seeking? My relationship with him was comfortable from the start and remained so throughout the term. 4. Research indicates that mentors experience emotional growth and encounter enhanced satisfaction in their own worth as teachers. Please comment on your satisfaction and/or frustrations in your relationship with your student. No frustrations. I feel, however, my worth as a teacher is more enhanced by getting through to weaker students. He is a pleasure to be with, but my teaching skills are not applicable. He learns too quickly! Please expand on any of the responses you have provided using additional paper, if needed. Thank you. Brenda Simpson 147 Appendix E (1) Richard's Mentor's Evaluation Questionnaire Mr. Campbell PART A MENTOR'S ACCOUNT OF STUDENTS DEMONSTRATION OF COGNITIVE. CREATIVE AND AFFECTIVE SKILLS AND CHARACTERISTICS Student Name: Birthdate: Gender: Mentor's Name: Date: Explanation: CASE STUDY #2 80.09.10 Male Mr. Campbell June 30, 1994 Case study research is interested in developing a portrayal of the unique contextual circumstances of individual experience within a setting. The following questions are guidelines to your evaluation. Your personal account, including your observations and surmises to the questions are helpful in determining the student's strengths. Although a scale is provided for you, please add your personal account. Please comment on the following: Please indicate by using the rating scale, the degree to which your student exhibits each of the skills and characteristics listed below: 1. if you have rarely or never observed this skills, 2. if you have observed this skill occasionally, 3. if you have observed this skill almost all of the time. A. STUDENT PERFORMANCE: I COGNITIVE: Scale 1. Content knowledge - The student shows the ability to "own" knowledge. This encompasses the student's ability to probe 1 - 3 deeply, once the knowledge base is known and understood. A thorough working knowledge of a discipline enables the student r5" to advance from the status quo. L2_ 148 Introductory Comments: Case Study #2. a grade 7 student at the adjacent elementary school, undertook the regular Western Civilization 12 course • very quickly establishing himself at the top of this class of 16 students. WC12 was taught simultaneously with AP European History (the 2 courses were not exactly historically parallel) so both groups of students - there were 6 in the AP course - spent a lost of time in self-directed learning. In the case of WC12, after a brief overview of the period to be studied, the students were given a reading study guide for the chapter, and the spent the next couple of weeks or so reading and processing the information. At the same time, they were exploring and researching a topic of their choosing from within that historical period, which they would develop and present to their colleagues. Near the end of the time allotted to study that era, the students wrote and self-marked a practice test to help them prepare for a final reading quiz. The subsequent 2 classes saw them deliver their project presentations to their colleagues. Their contact with me was not extensive, though they could, and did, use me as a resource and a sounding board for their projects and their presentations. He entered the course just after the start of Term 2, but very quickly adapted to the course content and materials. His facility with music (at a high level) was a definite asset, but he quickly developed an understanding of art & architecture as they related to the various historic eras we studied through the year. 2. Hypotheses Information - Has your student demonstrated keen Scale powers of observation and an interest in complex matters? Do you see an indication of him/her thinking abstractly? This 1 - 3 aspect allows the student to deviate into further symbolic implications, or further directions that the knowledge base once held. See #3 and #4 below. 3. Hypotheses Testing - If your student has mastered the content Scale knowledge base and is reasonably fluid in considering other possible avenues, have you seen his/her critical judgement? 1 • 3 Does the student make judgements and decisions, and reasons things out? Vn\ A specific instance comes to mind - one of his later projects was a comparative music one, in which he compared 3 different composers as representatives of 3 different music eras. He was able to demonstrate connections between them through presentation of his research and samples of their music. 149 Decision Making - Have you seen your student recognize Scale relationships, cause and effect? Has there been indication of transferring learning to new situations? 1 - 3 Very definitely. The text CThe Creative Impulse') addressed era nr firstly in 'Context and Concepts' before moving on to examine art, L i architecture, literature, music, dance, etc. He was one of the few students who made the connection between the nature and characteristics of an historical period and the art and cultural traits which emerged during that time. II CREATIVITY 1. IMAGINATION - Does your student show a vivid imagination and perhaps a tolerance for ambiguity? Does he/she see things in a variety of ways? Does he/she perhaps offer unique or unusual ideas? See #3 above. Also, he was present in my room, writing a test, when several visiting North Vancouver teachers were meeting with me. Two of them had considerable W.C. backgrounds and he engaged them in a very Interesting dialogue. I was a mere bystander as he discussed with them aspects of an artist, and his work, who he had recently made a presentation about, and the comparative music research he was currently working on. Ill AFFECTIVE 1. Does your student adjust to new situations? Have you noticed a sensitivity to social values? Is he/she a risk taker? He is very definitely a risk taker!! ft was no mean feat for a young Grade 7 student to enter a Grade 12 class, already a term under way, to join with them in their studies, and get up in front of them to deliver his project presentation. Scale 1 -3 150 IV COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. Have you noticed whether your student's intention is accurately Scale understood? Whatever the creative production, the communication of the idea, or concept must be clearty 1 - 3 understood. He communicated his ideas verbally very effectively and clearly. The mechanics of his delivery (eg. pacing, volume, etc.) were something that naturally needed addressing and, with the help of his support network, he worked on these aspects throughout the year, showing considerable improvement. His written communication still requires some work (see #3 on following page). 151 PART B MENTOR'S TEACHING STYLE AND THE STUDENTS LEARNING STYLE (Anecdotal Comments) 1. The unique relationship between the mentor and the student is kindled on the basis of shared mutual interests. In the area of gifted education, teachers lament that these students have special needs that are not always met in school programs. While most teachers support the notion of encouraging gifted students to engage in serf-directed projects in their areas of interest, all too often teachers of the gifted do not know enough about these specific areas and have difficulty in approaching these areas meaningfully. Please comment on the match that was made with your student. How was vour teaching style conducive to learning for your student? As noted in the introductory comments, this was a very setf-directed course. He needed little specific support from me. Free to pursue topics of his choosing, he did just that • and effectively developed his ideas into excellent projects. 2. As educators, the ultimate aim of education is to help students become producers of knowledge. In order to do so, they have to acquire the skills of independent learners. Please comment on the experiential learning that took place in the mentorship. What real life skills and competencies do you see as evolving from your relationship to your student? He began to acquire the skills of an independent learner. As already noted, he has an avid interest in the topics offered in this course and he pursued these with considerable perseverance and energy. He already was, to an extent, a setf-directed learner. He is also a young teen, with a great diversity of interests and activities and his efforts were not always focused. Attention to details (finishing off mundane tasks, coming to class with necessary materials, etc.) were sometimes problems for him. 3. Your involvement with your student was **term certain." It commenced at a specific time and ended at a specific time. Please comment on how the relationship evolved. Did you see any noticeable changes in your association with your student? Was he/she more risk taking in their idea seeking? Not quite! As he will be enroling in my Humanities 8 class next year, where he will have further opportunity to pursue a curriculum similar to this year's one. His I.E.P. for next year will include the skills introduced to all Hum. 8 students, but I will encourage him to go beyond the regular content and have him present his findings to his colleagues. I intend to help him develop his organizational skills to help him become a fully self-directed learner, and will work with him to further develop his writing skills -specifically the preparation of a 5 paragraph essay. With all of this he will also complete, during the coming year, the requirements for full WC12 credit. 152 Research indicates that mentors experience emotional growth and encounter enhanced satisfaction in their own worth as teachers. Please comment on your satisfaction and/or frustrations in your relationship with your student. / have been rewarded by my association with him during this past year. His scholasticism stood out in an otherwise disappointing crop of pupils (only 2 or 3 others approached their studies in a consistent manner.) I was frustrated in my efforts (along with others in his support team) to help him to organize himself in an effective manner, but I look forward to further working with him to help develop these skills so he's a truly independent learner (or well on the way to being one!) by the end of the next school year. Please expand on any of the responses you have provided using additional paper, rf needed. Thank you. Brenda Simpson 153 Appendix E (2) Richard's Mentor's Evaluation Questionnaire Mrs. Macdonald PART A MENTOR'S ACCOUNT OF STUDENTS DEMONSTRATION OF COGNITIVE. CREATIVE AND AFFECTIVE SKILLS AND CHARACTERISTICS Student Name: CASE STUDY #2 Birthdate: 80.09.10 Gender: Male Mentor's Name: Mrs. Macdonald Date: June 27,1994 Explanation: Case study research is interested in developing a portrayal of the unique contextual circumstances of individual experience within a setting. The following questions are guidelines to your evaluation. Your personal account, including your observations and surmises to the questions are helpful in determining the student's strengths. Although a scale is provided for you, please add your personal account. Please comment on the following: Please indicate by using the rating scale, the degree to which your student exhibits each of the skills and characteristics listed below: 1. if you have rarely or never observed this skills, 2. rf you have observed this skill occasionally, 3. if you have observed this skill almost all of the time. A. STUDENT PERFORMANCE: I COGNITIVE: 1. Content knowledge - The student shows the ability to "own" Scale knowledge. This encompasses the student's ability to probe deeply, once the knowledge base is known and understood. A 1-3 thorough working knowledge of a discipline enables the student to advance from the status quo. He has a great deal of general knowledge - rather like a walking encyclopedia. In Math, he does have excellent reasoning skills and he abstracts at a high level. 154 2 2. Hypotheses Information - Has your student demonstrated keen , Scale powers of observation and an interest in complex matters? Do you see an indication of him/her thinking abstractly? This 1 - 3 aspect allows the student to deviate into further symbolic implications, or further directions that the knowledge base once ["5" held. L=L He does abstract at a high level. He can reason even though he doesn't have formal teaching in an area. 3. Hypotheses Testing - If your student has mastered the content knowledge base and is reasonably fluid in considering other Scale possible avenues, have you seen his/her critical judgement? Does the student make judgements and decisions, and reasons things out? He reasons and shows evidence of divergent thinking and he constantly challenges. Yet because much cuniculum has not challenged him, he gets the main idea, but does not have the idea of mastery learning. 1 -3 4. Decision Making - Have you seen your student recognize relationships, cause and effect? Has there been indication of transferring learning to new situations? He has no difficulty seeing relationships. The difficulty is when he has to do anything involving written work. Could the cerebral palsy have caused him to have developed an avoidance/aversion pattern early on in his schooling? Perhaps we are looking at a disability masked by high intelligence. Scale 1 -3 CREATIVITY IMAGINATION - Does your student show a vivid imagination and perhaps a tolerance for ambiguity? Does he/she see things c a e in a variety of ways? Does he/she perhaps offer unique or unusual ideas? He shows unique ideas in math. He doesn't, however, generate a lot of ideas in literacy endeavours. Perhaps it is tied to the writing component? 1 - 3 155 3 III AFFECTIVE 1. Does your student adjust to new situations? Have you noticed a sensitivity to social values? Is he/she a risk taker? He has friends although his claims to superiority in areas of knowledge is off putting to some children. When paired with a younger child to do statistics, he cultivated a nice relationship with the child. IV COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. Have you noticed whether your student's intention is accurately understood? Whatever the creative production, the communication of the idea, or concept must be clearly understood. He is articulate and very capable of making himself understood. Sometimes he can be argumentative and make himself unpopular with adults. 156 4 PART B MENTOR'S TEACHING STYLE AND THE STUDENTS LEARNING STYLE (Anecdotal Comments) 1. The unique relationship between the mentor and the student is kindled on the basis of shared mutual interests. In the area of gifted education, teachers lament that these students have special needs that' are not always met in school programs. While most teachers support the notion of encouraging gifted students to engage in self-directed projects in their areas of interest, all too often teachers of the gifted do not know enough about these specific areas and have difficulty in approaching these areas meaningfully. Please comment on the match that was made with your student. How was your teaching style conducive to learning for your student? CASE STUDY #2 was not prepared to accept direct instruction. His attitude was "I know". We began with Math exams that had multiple choices. When I 'backed off", then he came to me when he met a difficulty and we worked together in solving the problems and the atmosphere was affable. 2. As educators, the ultimate aim of education is to help students become producers of knowledge. In order to do so, they have to acquire the skills of independent learners. Please comment on the experiential learning that took place in the mentorship. What real life skills and competencies do you see as evolving from your relationship to your student? He was quite good at clarifying times that he was to be certain places and when he was to meet with the younger student and to confirm times for classes. 3. Your involvement with your student was "term certain." It commenced at a specific time and ended at a specific time. Please comment on how the relationship evolved. Did you see any noticeable changes in your association with your student? Was he/she more risk taking in their idea seeking? He loved the ideas surrounding math and enjoyed the reasoning. The problem came when asked to work through equations in written forms. He kept saying "/ know, I understand.' I tried to explain the need for overlearning before entering a test situation. I also emphasized that he would have to generate complete answers. 157 5 4. Research indicates that mentors experience emotional growth and encounter enhanced satisfaction in their own worth as teachers. Please comment on your satisfaction and/or frustrations in your relationship with your student. There was satisfaction in that he was a happier child and he revealed a pleasant and sweet personality who truly loved mind exercises. It was frustrating in that I couldn't get him to commit a lot to paper. Please expand on any of the responses you have provided using additional paper, if needed. Thank you. Brenda Simpson / hold out two hypotheses for CASE STUDY #2's inability to complete written tasks. Had I met him earlier on in his development, I might have realized that he is a child with an invisible disability. Because writing is difficult often bright children become highly skilled at evasion and there are emotional overtones that accompany this. The lack of motivation may be another symptom of a disability which is masked by high intelligence. Conversely, it may just be that learning has come so easily, he has never had to strive for in depth mastery. 158 Appendix F: Peter's Mentor's Evaluation Questionnaire PART A MENTOR'S ACCOUNT OF STUDENTS DEMONSTRATION OF COGNITIVE. CREATIVE AND AFFECTIVE SKILLS AND CHARACTERISTICS Student Name: CASE STUDY #3 Gender: Male Birthdate: 87.03.21 Mentor's Name: Mrs. Dickson Date: June 22.1994 Explanation: Case study research is interested in developing a portrayal of the unique contextual circumstances of individual experience within a setting. The following questions are guidelines to your evaluation. Your personal account, including your observations and surmises to the questions are helpful in determining the student's strengths. Although a scale is provided for you, please add your personal account. Please comment on the following: Please indicate by using the rating scale, the degree to which your student exhibits each of the skills and characteristics listed below: 1. if you have rarely or never observed this skills, 2. if you have observed this skill occasionally, 3. if you have observed this skill almost all of the time. A. STUDENT PERFORMANCE: I COGNITIVE: 1. Content knowledge - The student shows the ability to 'own" Scale knowledge. This encompasses the student's ability to probe deeply, once the knowledge base is known and understood. A 1-3 thorough working knowledge of a discipline enables the student to advance from the status quo. has an excellent memory recall is quick and relevant great quantity of knowledge (facts) about his favourite topic i.e. dinosaurs 159 2 Hypotheses Information - Has your student demonstrated keen powers of observation and an interest in complex matters? Do you see an indication of him/her thinking abstractly? This aspect allows the student to deviate into further symbolic implications, or further directions that the knowledge base once held. Scale 1 -3 CASE STUDY #3's powers of observation are exceptional • details are very precise, complete and numerous. Hypotheses Testing - If your student has mastered the content knowledge base and is reasonably fluid in considering other possible avenues, have you seen his/her critical judgement? Does the student make judgements and decisions, and reasons things out? No answer No answer Scale 1 -3 No answer Decision Making - Have you seen your student recognize relationships, cause and effect? Has there been indication of transferring learning to new situations? In his report he explained why there were no feathers on the Condor's (Andean) head: the birds are carrion eaters and if they got into carrion with a head covered with feathers, the blood and fluids could present a 'sticky messy' problem. It is nature's adaptation for Condors. In the same report, there were many questions about the bony "helmef on the Condor's head and he compared the structured feature to the skull of the duck-bill and some other dinosaurs. Scale 1 -3 II CREATIVITY 1. IMAGINATION - Does your student show a vivid imagination and perhaps a tolerance for ambiguity? Does he/she see things in a variety of ways? Does he/she perhaps offer unique or unusual ideas? He likes to be exact and "correct and requires definite answers. The "literalness' of children his age is evident. Scale 1 -3 160 3 III AFFECTIVE 1. Does your student adjust to new situations? Have you noticed a Scale sensitivity to social values? Is he/she a risk taker? 1 - 3 Adjusts very readily New home in December j~o" New school and language focus in December In-sensitive to ecological issues as indicated in his study of Condors Sensitive to classmates' and schoolmates' problems of social interaction IV COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. Have you noticed whether your student's intention is accurately Scale understood? Whatever the creative production, the communication of the idea, or concept must be clearly understood. In pictures and map work, especially maps of the playground and schools drawings to show a favourite animal or thing he liked at the Wildlife Park explanations are excellent; time and space concepts, too have done some teaching of visualization to make sizes more real to him general ability to express himself is outstanding, i.e. use and comprehension of words 1 - 3 161 4 PART B MENTOR'S TEACHING STYLE AND THE STUDENTS LEARNING STYLE (Anecdotal Comments) 1. The unique relationship between the mentor and the student is kindled on the basis of shared mutual interests. In the area of gifted education, teachers lament that these students have special needs that are not always met in school programs. While most teachers support the notion of encouraging gifted students to engage in self-directed projects in their areas of interest, all too often teachers of the gifted do not know enough about these specific areas and have difficulty in approaching these areas meaningfully. Please comment on the match that was made with your student. How was your teaching style conducive to learning for your student? / felt that teaching these basics of research so that Case Study #3 is independent in his pursuits, was quite easy. 2. As educators, the ultimate aim of education is to help students become producers of knowledge. In order to do so, they have to acquire the skills of independent learners. Please comment on the experiential learning that took place in the mentorship. What real life skills and competencies do you see as evolving from your relationship to your student? use of alphabetical order, index and table of contents use of the measuring tools use and study of globe and maps use of postal code and mail boxes details of setting up a letter and writing a letter of invitation or for information recording queries for himself to answer from his research 3. Your involvement with your student was term certain." It commenced at a specific time and ended at a specific time. Please comment on how the relationship evolved. Did you see any noticeable changes in your association wfth your student? Was he/she more risk taking in their idea seeking? The relationship has been positive and we both enjoyed our meetings. He is always interested in conversing and in telling me about his experiences. He really enjoyed the letter writing (his classroom teacher says so, too) and may be a way of capitalizing on his writing skills. He did say he doesn't really like to write in his journal. He did quite a lot of recording of details from the research and I tried to always extend his thinking skills in the questioning, and use high order skills. 162 5 4. Research indicates that mentors experience emotional growth and encounter enhanced satisfaction in their own worth as teachers. Please comment on your satisfaction and/or frustrations in your relationship with your student. My one frustration was that it was difficult to keep Case Study #3 moving out and into depth with the topics; he wanted to always look at the dinosaur books at the same level. Also, every time we met, we would plan ahead and suggest further research or activities. Case Study #3 did NOT follow through on any of these suggested activities, except reading his novel. We need to be constantly aware of his age! Please expand on any of the responses you have provided using additional paper, if needed. Thank you. Brenda Simpson 163 Appendix G: Ashleigh's Mentor's Evaluation Questionnaire PART A MENTOR'S ACCOUNT OF STUDENTS DEMONSTRATION OF COGNITIVE. CREATIVE AND AFFECTIVE SKILLS AND CHARACTERISTICS Explanation: Case study research is interested in developing a portrayal of the unique contextual circumstances of individual experience within a setting. The following questions are guidelines to your evaluation. Your personal account, including your observations and surmises to the questions are helpful in determining the student's strengths. Although a scale is provided for you, please add your personal account. Please comment on the following: Please indicate by using the rating scale, the degree to which your student exhibits each of the skills and characteristics listed below: 1. rf you have rarely or never observed this skills, 2. if you have observed this skill occasionally, 3. if you have observed this skill almost all of the time. Student Name: CASE STUDY #4 Birthdate: 84.05.28 Mentor's Name: Mr. Halverson Date: June 29,1994 A. STUDENT PERFORMANCE: COGNITIVE: 1. Content knowledge - The student shows the ability to "own" knowledge. This encompasses the student's ability to probe deeply, once the knowledge base is known and understood. A thorough working knowledge of a discipline enables the student to advance from the status quo. The scale is not helpful. Scale 1 - 3 We tried working through three types of sentences, which Case Study #4 found difficult to master. Consequently, I did not see the complexities of sentence structures that I was looking for. 164 2 2. Hypotheses Information - Has your student demonstrated keen Scale powers of observation and an interest in complex matters? Do you see an indication of him/her thinking abstractly? This 1-3 aspect allows the student to deviate into further symbolic implications, or further directions that the knowledge base once ITT held. UL Case Study #4 has an acute ability to recognize patterns in reasoning exercises. 3. Hypotheses Testing - If your student has mastered the content knowledge base and is reasonably fluid in considering other Scale possible avenues, have you seen his/her critical judgement? Does the student make judgements and decisions, and reasons 1*3 things out? WA When we read stories which required a critical moral judgement to a moral dilemma, Case Study #4 immediately offered a standard value judgement. When she was questioned further about the complexities, she could see that her quick answer had some problems which she hadn't noticed before. 4. Decision Making - Have you seen your student recognize relationships, cause and effect? Has there been indication of transferring learning to new situations? Scale Your question on decision making is hard to answer because 1 " ^ Case Study #4 was not given to open sharing, but on any pencil and paper test where she needed to see cause and effect N/^ relationships, she was very skilful in getting the correct answer. '—' II CREATIVITY 1. IMAGINATION - Does your student show a vivid imagination and perhaps a tolerance for ambiguity? Does he/she see things in a variety of ways? Does he/she perhaps offer unique or unusual ideas? Scale 1 -3 Case Study #4 has a vivid imagination when it comes to sketching a symbolic representation of the meanings of some words. When we took a simple object such as a cup, she was able to imagine many different and unusual uses for this cup. %^ She enjoyed having to stretch her imagination. 165 3 III AFFECTIVE Scale 1. Does your student adjust to new situations? Have you noticed a sensitivity to social values? Is he/she a risk taker? 1 - 3 In my attempt to get her to explore different ways of writing, I was njT met with some resistance which suggests that Case Study #4 is Lil reluctant to take risks with her writing. IV COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. Have you noticed whether your student's intention is accurately understood? Whatever the creative production, the Scale communication of the idea, or concept must be clearly understood. 1 - 3 Case Study #4 had a very clear idea of what I wanted to do, and WT she had a very clear idea of what she wanted to do. '— PART B MENTOR'S TEACHING STYLE AND THE STUDENT'S LEARNING STYLE (Anecdotal Comments) 1. The unique relationship between the mentor and the student is kindled on the basis of shared mutual interests. In the area of gifted education, teachers lament that these students have special needs that are not always met in school programs. While most teachers support the notion of encouraging gifted students to engage in self-directed projects in their areas of interest, all too often teachers of the gifted do not know enough about these specific areas and have difficulty in approaching these areas meaningfully. Please comment on the match that was made with your student. How was your teaching style conducive to learning for your student? My teaching style demands intense involvement first through experimentation of words and sentence styles. Case Study #4, being so young, did not have the necessary maturity or experience to benefit from such a style. 2. As educators, the ultimate aim of education is to help students become producers of knowledge. In order to do so, they have to acquire the skills of independent learners. Please comment on the experiential learning that took place in the mentorship. What real life skills and competencies do you see as evolving from your relationship to your student? 166 4 Our time together was too short to see any evolving of real life skills and competencies, but our exercises in learning how to 'see' I would hope would help to make her future writing more interesting. 3. Your involvement with your student was term certain." It commenced at a specific time and ended at a specific time. Please comment on how the relationship evolved. Did you see any noticeable changes in your association with your student? Was he/she more risk taking in their idea seeking? There was no noticeable change in our relationship, except maybe being a little more relaxed with me as we worked together. Case Study #4 would answer the questions I asked, but rarely volunteered any personal information. 4. Research indicates that mentors experience emotional growth and encounter enhanced satisfaction in their own worth as teachers. Please comment on your satisfaction and/or frustrations in your relationship with your student. The age different between me and Case Study #4 was too great. She wanted to do fun things such as riddles and games, whereas I wanted serious in depth emotional responses to complicated situations. Please expand on any of the responses you have provided using additional paper, if needed. Thank you. Brenda Simpson 167 Appendix H: Text of Questions asked of case studies at the conclusion of program Date: Student: Questions to be asked of the Gifted Learner at conclusion of Mentorship Definitions: 1. Tell me what you think grfted means. 2. Given your definition, do you feel that you are gifted? 3. How did you find out that you are gifted? 4. How are you the same as, and different from, other children your age? Interests and Motivation: 1. What are the things you enjoy doing when you have time to spend just as you please? - At home? - At school? - With your friends? - With your family? 2. If you could have an hour a day to study anything you wanted, what would you choose? 3. What are your most important strengths? 4. Is there anything you would like to improve? 5. When you grow up, what would you like to be? 168 6. Describe 1) a typical and 2) a perfect school day. 7. What could teachers do to make school earning worthwhile? Program: 1. Has this year been different for you? Please explain how different it was. 2. Some schools have special programs and teachers for gifted students. Is this a good idea? Mentorship: 1. Tell about the time you spent together with . Please include how you arranged to spend this time with . What setting did you work in together? What recollections do you have over the year that were particularly exciting, innovating, or worthwhile? 2. Tell about the subjects you studied with your mentor. What subjects would you choose to investigate further? 3 . What advice would you give a friend who is considering also being mentored? 4. Looking back, tell me the pitfalls, if any, that you experienced, being placed outside of the regular classroom to work with your mentor. 169 

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