UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Enhancing informal learning in an Aquarium McIntosh, Lisa M 1996

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1996-0406.pdf [ 6.45MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0054771.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054771-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054771-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054771-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054771-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054771-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054771-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0054771-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0054771.ris

Full Text

E N H A N C I N G I N F O R M A L L E A R N I N G IN A N A Q U A R I U M : A S T U D Y O F W H I T E B O A R D S A S A N I N N O V A T I V E S T R A T E G Y b y L i s a M . M c i n t o s h B . S c , T h e U n i v e r s i t y of Brit ish C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 6 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S ( D e p a r t m e n t of C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s ) W e a c c e p t th is t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 6 © L i s a M . M c i n t o s h , 1 9 9 6 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) Abstract E d u c a t o r s in z o o s a n d a q u a r i a t o d a y p r e s e n t g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n in a n a t tempt to e d u c a t e v i s i t o r s a b o u t a n i m a l s a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s . T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of b io log ica l i n fo rmat ion is i s o l a t e d f rom t h e a n y o b s e r v a b l e a n i m a l act ivi ty in t h e exhibit . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m h a s a d i f fe rent a p p r o a c h to v is i tor l e a r n i n g . T h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e s o n e of its i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s to v is i tor e d u c a t i o n d e s i g n e d to init iate v is i tor i n v o l v e m e n t with a n i m a l s in t h e e x h i b i t s . T h i s i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h u s e s c h a n g e a b l e , h a n d w r i t t e n w h i t e b o a r d s to h i g h l i g h t n e w a n i m a l e v e n t s in t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . Q u a l i t a t i v e a n d quant i ta t ive m e t h o d s w e r e u s e d to inves t iga te t h e e f fec t of t h e s e w h i t e b o a r d s o n t h e b e h a v i o u r of g r o u p s of v i s i t o r s at a n exhib i t t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d s h o r t g r o u p i n t e r v i e w s . S i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t of t h e v is i to rs o b s e r v e d in t h e s t u d y u s e d t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e a v e r a g e t ime w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t v i e w i n g t h e exhibi t ( 57 .06 s e c o n d s ) w a s s ign i f icant ly g r e a t e r (t = 3 6 . 6 5 , df = 129 , p < 0 .001) t h a n t h e t ime n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t v i e w i n g t h e exhibi t ( 2 5 . 9 4 s e c o n d s ) . W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a l s o exh ib i ted a s igni f icant ly h i g h e r leve l of interact ivi ty (the n u m b e r of b e h a v i o u r s , p o i n t i n g , p e e r i n g , c o n v e r s i n g a n d r e r e a d i n g t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n i n d i v i d u a l d e m o n s t r a t e s w h i l e at a n exhib i t ) t h a n t h e n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (X2 = 2 3 7 . 1 6 , p < 0.01) . Interview c o m m e n t s r e v e a l e d that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s u n d e r s t o o d the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s in ten t to c o n v e y r e a l , r e l e v a n t , c u r r e n t a n d c h a n g i n g in format ion a b o u t a n i m a l s within t h e exh ib i ts u s i n g w h i t e b o a r d s . ii Table of Contents A b s t r a c t ii T a b l e of C o n t e n t s iii List of F i g u r e s v List of T a b l e s vi A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s vii C h a p t e r O n e E d u c a t i o n Innovat ion at the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m 1 T h e V is i tor E x p e r i e n c e 2 C o n s e r v a t i o n E d u c a t i o n 6 T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s A p p r o a c h to E d c u a t i o n 9 W h i t e b o a r d s : A n Innovat ion in V is i tor E d u c a t i o n 21 R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m 2 2 C h a p t e r T w o L i tera ture R e v i e w 2 3 V is i tor S t u d i e s R e s e a r c h 2 4 V is i tor L e a r n i n g 3 0 Exhib i t L a b e l s a n d L e a r n i n g 3 4 C h a p t e r T h r e e R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s 4 2 C h a p t e r F o u r R e s u l t s 5 7 D a t a S e t O n e : G e o r g i a Strait Ra f f i sh 6 6 D a t a S e t T w o : S t a n l e y P a r k S h o r e s ' T u b e W o r m s 8 0 D a t a S e t T h r e e : H o w e S o u n d P u g e t S o u n d K i n g C r a b s 9 4 Interview D a t a 1 0 8 C h a p t e r F i v e D i s c u s s i o n , Ins ights a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 1 1 4 D i s c u s s i o n 1 1 4 Insights: W h i t e b o a r d s a s a T o o l for C o n s e r v a t i o n E d u c a t i o n 1 1 9 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 1 2 5 E p i l o g u e 1 2 8 iii Table of Contents B i b l i o g r a p h y 1 3 0 A p p e n d i x 1 G l o s s a r y 1 3 5 A p p e n d i x 2 O b s e r v a t i o n S h e e t a n d Q u e s t i o n a i r e 1 3 7 A p p e n d i x 3 Interview C o m m e n t s 1 4 0 iv List of Figures F i g u r e P a g e 1.1 T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m C o n s e r v a t i o n E d u c a t i o n M o d e l 17 1.2 A C o n c e p t u a l F r a m e w o r k F o r T e a c h i n g V i s i t o r s 18 2 A C h a n g e a b l e , H a n d w r i t t e n W h i t e b o a r d 2 0 3 M i d a s C i c h l i d Exhib i t W h i t e b o a r d 3 4 4 W h i t e b o a r d G u i d e l i n e s D e v e l o p e d B y N a t u r a l i s t s 4 5 5 A W h i t e b o a r d P r o t o t y p e 4 7 6 A W h i t e b o a r d P r o t o t y p e 4 8 7 T h e F i n a l W h i t e b o a r d F o r m a t 5 0 8 V i e w i n g T i m e s at Exhib i t O n e 5 8 9 V i e w i n g T i m e s at Exhib i t T w o 5 9 1 0 M e a n V i e w i n g T i m e s 61 11 M a p : D a t a S e t O n e 6 9 1 2 R a t f i s h W h i t e b o a r d 7 0 13 V i e w i n g T i m e s : R a t f i s h Exhibi t 7 2 14 V i e w i n g T i m e s : Exhib i t T w o 7 2 1 5 M e a n V i e w i n g T i m e s 73 16 F r e q u e n c y of Po in t ing : Ra t f i sh Exhib i t 7 5 1 7 F r e q u e n c y of C o n v e r s i n g : Ra t f i sh Exhibi t 7 5 18 F r e q u e n c y of P e e r i n g : Ra t f i sh Exhibi t 7 6 1 9 M a p : D a t a S e t T w o 83 2 0 T u b e W o r m W h i t e b o a r d 8 4 21 V i e w i n g T i m e s : T u b e W o r m Exhibi t 8 6 2 2 V i e w i n g T i m e s : Exhib i t T w o 8 6 2 3 M e a n V i e w i n g T i m e s 8 7 2 4 F r e q u e n c y of P o i n t i n g : T u b e W o r m Exhib i t 8 9 2 5 F r e q u e n c y of C o n v e r s i n g : T u b e W o r m Exhib i t 8 9 2 6 F r e q u e n c y of P e e r i n g : T u b e W o r m Exhib i t 9 0 2 7 M a p : D a t a S e t T h r e e 9 7 2 8 H o w e S o u n d Exhib i t W h i t e b o a r d 9 8 2 9 V i e w i n g T i m e s : H o w e S o u n d Exhib i t 9 9 3 0 V i e w i n g T i m e s : Exhib i t T w o 9 9 31 M e a n V i e w i n g T i m e s 101 3 2 F r e q u e n c y of P o i n t i n g : H o w e S o u n d Exhib i t 1 0 3 3 3 F r e q u e n c y of C o n v e r s i n g : H o w e S o u n d Exhib i t 1 0 3 3 4 F r e q u e n c y of P e e r i n g : H o w e S o u n d Exhib i t 1 0 4 3 5 T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m C o n s e r v a t i o n E d u c a t i o n M o d e l 1 2 0 v List of Tables T a b l e P a g e 1 C o m p o s i t i o n of G r o u p s 5 7 2 Exh ib i t V i e w i n g T i m e s 6 0 3 P e r c e n t a g e of V i s i t o r s W h o E x h i b i t e d B e h a v i o u r s : Exhib i t O n e 6 2 4 Interactivity of S u b j e c t s : Exhibi t O n e 6 3 5 P e r c e n t a g e of V i s i t o r s W h o E x h i b i t e d B e h a v i o u r s : Exh ib i t T w o 6 4 6 Interactivity of S u b j e c t s : Exhibi t T w o 6 4 7 C o m p o s i t i o n of G r o u p s : Ra f f i sh Exhib i t 6 8 8 Exhib i t V i e w i n g T i m e s : R a f f i s h Exhib i t 71 9 P e r c e n t a g e of V i s i t o r s W h o E x h i b i t e d B e h a v i o u r s : R a f f i s h Exhib i t 7 4 1 0 Interactivity of S u b j e c t s : R a f f i s h Exhib i t • 7 7 11 P e r c e n t a g e of V i s i t o r s W h o E x h i b i t e d B e h a v i o u r s : Exhib i t T w o 7 8 12 Interactivity of S u b j e c t s : Exhibi t T w o 7 8 13 C o m p o s i t i o n of G r o u p s : T u b e W o r m Exhib i t 8 2 14 Exhib i t V i e w i n g T i m e s : T u b e W o r m Exhib i t 8 5 1 5 P e r c e n t a g e of V i s i t o r s W h o E x h i b i t e d B e h a v i o u r s : T u b e W o r m Exhibi t 8 8 16 Interactivity of S u b j e c t s : T u b e W o r m Exhibi t 91 1 7 P e r c e n t a g e of V i s i t o r s W h o E x h i b i t e d B e h a v i o u r s : Exh ib i t T w o 9 2 18 Interactivity of S u b j e c t s : Exhibi t T w o 9 2 1 9 C o m p o s i t i o n of G r o u p s : H o w e S o u n d Exhib i t 96 2 0 Exhib i t V i e w i n g T i m e s : H o w e S o u n d Exhib i t 1 0 0 21 P e r c e n t a g e of V i s i t o r s W h o E x h i b i t e d B e h a v i o u r s : H o w e S o u n d Exhib i t 1 0 2 2 2 Interactivity of S u b j e c t s : H o w e S o u n d Exhib i t 1 0 5 2 3 P e r c e n t a g e of V i s i t o r s W h o E x h i b i t e d B e h a v i o u r s : Exhib i t T w o 1 0 6 2 4 Interactivity of S u b j e c t s : Exhibi t T w o 1 0 6 2 5 W h i t e b o a r d s P r e s e n t D u r i n g Interviews 1 0 9 2 6 N u m b e r of V i s i t o r s W h o R e c a l l e d W h i t e b o a r d s 1 1 0 2 7 S e l e c t e d C o m m e n t s f rom V i s i t o r s a b o u t W h i t e b o a r d s 111 vi Acknowledgements I h o p e that t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to work with a n insp i r ing t e a m of e d u c a t o r s h a p p e n s m o r e t h a n o n c e in a l i fet ime. It w a s a t e a m of d e d i c a t e d e d u c a t o r s w h o s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d m a t u r a t i o n of w h i t e b o a r d s , a s par t of t h e i n n o v a t i v e v is i tor e d u c a t i o n a p p r o a c h at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . T w o p e o p l e h a v e b e e n i n s t r u m e n t a l in a s s i s t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e f i n e m e n t of m y i d e a s . I w o u l d like to thank Dr. B o b C a r l i s l e for h is t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , a d v i c e a n d s u p p o r t a n d E l in K e l s e y for h e r bel ief in w h a t I c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h a n d h o u r s of s t imula t ing c o n v e r s a t i o n . I w o u l d a l s o l ike to t h a n k K o r y B e c k e t t a n d C a t h e r i n e P o for their insightful c o m m e n t s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s . I w o u l d l ike to t h a n k t h e p e o p l e w h o w e r e i n s t r u m e n t a l in d e v e l o p i n g a n d ref in ing t h e i d e a of w h i t e b o a r d s : K o r y B e c k e t t a n d E l in K e l s e y for the i r ins ight fu l a n d a n a l y t i c a l c o m m e n t s , a n d M i c h e l l e A l l e n , P a u l C l a r k e , A n t h o n y Cio l f i t to , D i g n a D a v i d , P e n n y E l w i c k , R o n M e m b e r y , J o a n n a W i e r u s z e w s k i a n d e v e r y o t h e r V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m Natura l i s ts for their d e d i c a t i o n to a n d bel ief in a n i n n o v a t i o n . I w o u l d a l s o l ike to t h a n k m y f a m i l y , f r i e n d s a n d c o l l e a g u e s fo r the i r i n s p i r a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n s , s u p p o r t , a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t . vii Chapter 1: Educational Innovation at the Vancouver Aquarium T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m , built in 1 9 5 6 , p r o v i d e s t h e l o c a l V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e in ternat iona l tourist c o m m u n i t i e s with a n o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p e r i e n c e a q u a t i c life. O v e r t h e p a s t 4 0 y e a r s t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m h a s g r o w n into a n inst i tut ion with m o r e t h a n 5 0 0 s p e c i e s a n d 2 0 , 0 0 0 ind iv idua l a n i m a l s ( V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m , 1994) w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s f o u r g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s of t h e w o r l d : t h e A m a z o n , t h e t rop ica l P a c i f i c , t h e Arc t i c a n d the Nor th P a c i f i c . Wi th in t h e s e g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s , rea l l o c a t i o n s , s u c h a s L a n c a s t e r S o u n d in C a n a d a ' s A r c t i c a n d R o b s o n B igh t , o n t h e Br i t ish C o l u m b i a ' s c o a s t a r e exhib i t f o c a l p o i n t s w h i c h h e l p s t r e n g t h e n t h e c o n n e c t i o n s to t h e na tura l w o r l d . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of a n i m a l s , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of e c o l o g i c a l r e g i o n s a n d t h e c o n n e c t i o n s to real p l a c e s p r o v i d e s a n u m b e r of e x c e l l e n t t e a c h i n g oppor tun i t i es . Innovat ion in v is i tor e d u c a t i o n b e g a n at t h e i n c e p t i o n of t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a n d c o m p l e m e n t e d c h a n g e s in a n i m a l c a r e a n d m a r i n e r e s e a r c h . E d u c a t i o n is t h e p r imary w a y in w h i c h t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a c h i e v e s its m i s s i o n to effect conservation of aquatic life through education, display and interpretation, research and direct action. Initially, v is i to r e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of c o n v e y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a n i m a l s t h r o u g h g r a p h i c s a d j a c e n t to t h e exh ib i ts . In m o r e r e c e n t y e a r s t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m h a s t r a i n e d e d u c a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s ( N a t u r a l i s t s ) to w o r k with v is i tors in t h e p u b l i c g a l l e r i e s , resu l t ing in i n n o v a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e s e i n n o v a t i o n s i n c l u d e d ; a n e w a p p r o a c h to in terpret ing killer w h a l e s ( K e l s e y , 1991) , t h e u s e of f a x e s f r o m r e s e a r c h e r s a n d wi ld l i fe w a t c h e r s to s t r e n g t h e n c o n n e c t i o n s 1 b e t w e e n a q u a r i u m a n i m a l s a n d t h e wi ld ( M c i n t o s h , 1 9 9 3 ) , a n d a n e t w o r k of c h a n g e a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n b o a r d s , c a l l e d w h i t e b o a r d s , h igh l igh t ing n e w a n i m a l e v e n t s within the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . T h e latter i n n o v a t i o n is t h e s u b j e c t of th is t h e s i s . T h e V is i tor E x p e r i e n c e It is a s difficult to por t ray a typ ica l visit at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a s it is to d e s c r i b e a t y p i c a l v i s i t o r b e c a u s e t h e v is i to r e x p e r i e n c e c h a n g e s with t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , t h e v is i tor , t h e N a t u r a l i s t w h o f a c i l i t a t e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e , a n d w h a t is h a p p e n i n g in front of t h e vis i tor a n d t h e Natura l is t at t h e m o m e n t of t h e in te rac t ion . U n l i k e m o s t i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s t h e v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m is not t h e resu l t of p r e d e t e r m i n e d , s c h e d u l e d e v e n t s but is t h e resul t of v is i to rs ' c h o i c e a n d c u r r e n t e v e n t s within t h e inst i tut ion. T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m v is i to rs ' e x p e r i e n c e e m p h a s i z e s t h e e x p l o r a t i o n a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s p o n t a n e o u s e v e n t s ; v is i tors act ive ly par t ic ipate by d i s c o v e r i n g s o m e t h i n g of p e r s o n a l interest a b o u t t h e a n i m a l t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n of l ive a n i m a l e v e n t s s u c h a s b r e e d i n g , terr i tor ial d i s p l a y s , o r n e s t bu i ld ing . E x h i b i t s in w h i c h t h e a n i m a l s l ive at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m r e c r e a t e s p e c i f i c habitat t y p e s a n d o f ten r e p r e s e n t rea l p l a c e s . In o r d e r to c r e a t e a na tura l is t ic e n v i r o n m e n t ( o n e that r e p r e s e n t s a n e c o s y s t e m ) w h i c h will h e l p t h e v i e w e r d e v e l o p a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n for a n a n i m a l ' s p l a c e in n a t u r e ( C o e , 1985) , a n i m a l c a r e staff r e p r o d u c e a s l i c e of a n e c o s y s t e m b y c o m b i n i n g artificial a n d rea l rock , l iving p l a n t s , a n d a n i m a l s . S u c h a n exhibi t is v i e w e d a s s u c c e s s f u l if a w i d e r a n g e of na tu ra l a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r 2 a n d in te rac t ions b e t w e e n t h e a n i m a l s a n d their e n v i r o n m e n t b e c o m e s t h e f o c u s of t h e v is i tors ' e x p e r i e n c e with t h e exhib i ts . T h e written a n d ora l e d u c a t i o n a l s u p p o r t that t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m p r o v i d e s for the v is i to rs is d i r e c t e d pr imar i ly t o w a r d s h e l p i n g t h e m d e v e l o p a n d i m p r o v e their a n i m a l w a t c h i n g sk i l l s , t h e r e b y o p e n i n g t h e d o o r to t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a r ich a r r a y of s p o n t a n e o u s a n i m a l e v e n t s . P e r m a n e n t wri t ten i n f o r m a t i o n , in t h e f o r m of g r a p h i c p a n e l s a d j a c e n t to t h e exhib i t , a d d r e s s m a j o r r e l e v a n t t h e m e s s u c h a s d e s c r i b i n g w h i c h e c o s y s t e m t h e exh ib i t r e p r e s e n t s . Ident i f icat ion l a b e l s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s p e c i f i c a n i m a l s in t h e e x h i b i t s t h r o u g h p h o t o g r a p h s a n d text w h i c h e n c o u r a g e t h e v i s i t o r s to look for s p e c i f i c , u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e a n i m a l s . Na tura l i s ts faci l i tate interpret ive e x p e r i e n c e s for v is i tors t h r o u g h o r a l interpretat ion a n d p r o v i d e v is i tors with da i ly u p d a t e s a b o u t e v e n t s in t h e institution. A visit to the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m is c o n s i d e r e d a s u c c e s s f r o m t h e e d u c a t o r ' s point of v i e w if t h e v i s i t o r s l e a v e with a n i n c r e a s e d a p p r e c i a t i o n that a n i m a l s a r e in te res t ing a n d that t h e y a r e part of a n e c o s y s t e m s u c h a s t h o s e r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e exhib i ts . T h e e x h i b i t s a r e t h e p r i m a r y w a y v i s i t o r s r e c e i v e t h e m e s s a g e that a n i m a l s s h o u l d b e a p p r e c i a t e d . " T h e y ( z o o s ) h a v e the oppor tun i ty , t h r o u g h c a r e f u l d e s i g n of t h e v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e a n d exhibi t a r e a , to p r e s e n t a n i m a l s in s u c h a w a y that their right to exist is intuitively s e l f - e v i d e n t to t h e v i e w e r . S u c h exh ib i ts a r e d e s i g n e d to c o m m u n i c a t e at both the c o n s c i o u s a n d u n c o n s c i o u s leve ls ." ( C o e , 1 9 8 5 , p. 198) 3 Staf f at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m think it is i m p o r t a n t fo r t h e v i s i t o r s to d e v e l o p a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e natura l wor ld a n d a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r . M a n y v is i to rs think a n i m a l s l ive in a " G a r d e n of E d e n " , a p e r c e p t i o n m o s t l ike ly d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h the i r e x p e r i e n c e s a s a r m c h a i r n a t u r a l i s t s , r e a d i n g t h e w o r k s of n a t u r a l h is to ry wr i te rs o r t h r o u g h w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n . W i th th is i d e a l i z e d " G a r d e n of E d e n " v i e w of n a t u r e t h e v is i tors d o not s e e t h e n e e d to protect or c o n s e r v e hab i ta ts b e c a u s e t h e y m a y not v iew the habitat a s t h r e a t e n e d . M a n y v i s i t o r s h o l d m i s c o n c e p t i o n s a b o u t a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r . T e l e v i s i o n h a s a n a b u n d a n c e of wi ldl i fe p r o g r a m s a n d t h e s e na tura l h is to ry d o c u m e n t a r i e s , l ike m o s t p r o g r a m s o n t e l e v i s i o n , d istort t h e a m o u n t of t i m e that h a s p a s s e d , m u c h like t i m e l a p s e p h o t o g r a p h y . T e l e v i s i o n p o r t r a y s n a t u r e a s a p l a c e full of c o n s t a n t l y a c t i v e a n i m a l s ( B u r g e s s , 1 9 9 2 ) . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a t t e m p t s to s h o w t h e v i s i t o r s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of a n i m a l life a n d c o n v e y s a m o r e a c c u r a t e v i e w of a n i m a l s in n a t u r e by k e e p i n g v is i to rs u p - t o - d a t e with e v e n t s within t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a n d in t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d . I n c o r p o r a t i n g c u r r e n t wi ld l i fe e v e n t s f r o m t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d h e l p s s t r e n g t h e n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a n i m a l s a n d n a t u r e a n d d i s p e l s t h e v i e w of " t ime l a p s e " a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m h o l d s that a s a resul t of a visit to t h e inst i tut ion, v is i tors will i n c r e a s e the i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of a n i m a l s a n d will t a k e m o r e p o s i t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i o n s . T h e s e c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i o n s c a n b e a s s i m p l e a s l e a r n i n g m o r e a b o u t a par t icu lar a n i m a l a n d e c o s y s t e m o r a s c o m p l e x a s d e v e l o p i n g a p e r s o n a l s t r a t e g y to 4 d e c r e a s e their i m p a c t o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e r a n g e of v is i tors r e s p o n s e re f lec ts the w i d e d ivers i ty of u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o m m i t m e n t t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n that e x i s t s in the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . It is t h o u g h t that mul t ip le v is i ts to t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m will a s s i s t v i s i t o r s to d e v e l o p i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x p o s i t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i o n s . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m p r o v i d e s t h e v i s i t o r s with a va r i e ty of t o o l s , o b s e r v a t i o n ski l ls , a n d e c o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s that t h e y c a n a p p l y to di f ferent s i t u a t i o n s to a s s i s t t h e m lea rn at the i r o w n p a c e a n d d e v e l o p p o s i t i v e a t t i tudes t o w a r d s a n i m a l s a n d e c o s y s t e m s t h r o u g h f i rs thand e x p e r i e n c e s . D e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a n e x p e r i e n c e wi th in a n inst i tut ion s u c h a s a n a q u a r i u m is s u c c e s s f u l f r o m t h e v is i tors ' po in t -o f -v iew c a n b e difficult b e c a u s e v is i to rs h a v e a w i d e r a n g e of e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t their visit. M a n y v is i tors , h o w e v e r , h a v e a c o m m o n g o a l for their visit; t h e y visit a z o o or a q u a r i u m to h a v e fun with f ami ly o r f r i e n d s (Mi lan a n d W o u r m s , 1992) a n d t h e y j u d g e t h e e x p e r i e n c e a s s u c c e s s f u l if t h e y h a d a n e n j o y a b l e s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m m e e t s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s of 9 7 % of its v is i to rs a c c o r d i n g to a r e c e n t exit s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d to d e t e r m i n e v is i tor s a t i s f a c t i o n ( V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m , 1 9 9 4 a ) . T h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t s s e l e c t e d f r o m o v e r 2 0 0 u n s o l i c i t e d r e m a r k s f r o m 8 4 6 v i s i t o r s w h o c o m p l e t e d t h e s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e ind ica te v is i tor s a t i s f a c t i o n : 5 • I e n j o y e d m y visit in a s o c i a l g r o u p . • "Exh ib i ts a r e set u p s o w e c a n learn a s m u c h a s w e want to. F a m i l y m e m b e r s a r e f r e e to b r o w s e . " • " B r o u g h t tour is ts f rom T o r o n t o - t h e y w e r e i m p r e s s e d . " • " T h e c h i l d r e n learn s o m e t h i n g e a c h t ime t h e y c o m e . " • "I c a m e b a c k a n d b r o u g h t m y s o n . " • " K i d s h a p p y , I f a s c i n a t e d . " • T h e e x p e r i e n c e w a s e n j o y a b l e a n d in format ive . • "It is a l w a y s fun to learn a b o u t f ish a n d m a m m a l s . " • " B e c a u s e I h a d fun a n d l e a r n e d stuff too." • " B e c a u s e the k ids e n j o y e d s o m e t h i n g a n d learnt s o m e t h i n g at the s a m e t ime." • T h e e x p e r i e n c e w a s re lax ing a n d in terest ing. • " B e c a u s e it w a s e n j o y a b l e a n d re lax ing ." • " F i n d it a g rea t s t r e s s rel iever." F o r v is i tors w h o write pos i t i ve c o m m e n t s , the e x p e r i e n c e at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m is s u c c e s s f u l a n d t h e y a c h i e v e t h e g o a l of the i r visit . It is t h o u g h t that t h e s e s a t i s f i e d v i s i t o r s a r e l ike ly to r e t u r n to t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a n d s o i n c r e a s e the i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c o n s e r v a t i o n t h r o u g h r e p e a t e d vis i ts . C o n s e r v a t i o n E d u c a t i o n Z o o s a n d a q u a r i a f o r m a n i n d u s t r y that s p a n s t h e g l o b e . T h r o u g h p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e A m e r i c a n Z o o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ( A Z A ) a n d its c o u n t e r p a r t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d ' s z o o s a n d a q u a r i a h a v e d e v e l o p e d a c o m m o n se t of o p e r a t i n g s t a n d a r d s a n d g o a l s . T h e s e ins t i tu t ions c a r r y out the i r c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h ; d i rec t a c t i o n s u c h a s S p e c i e s S u r v i v a l P l a n s d e v e l o p e d to s a v e t h r e a t e n e d 6 s p e c i e s of a n i m a l s , a n d t h r o u g h p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . M o s t i n s t i t u t i o n s a p p r o a c h c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n in a s i m p l e w a y ; t h e y p r e s e n t a s o l u t i o n f o r e a c h e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s u c h a s b o y c o t t i n g t u n a c a u g h t by f i sh ing p r a c t i c e s w h i c h m a y i m p a c t d o l p h i n s . T h e s i m p l e c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n m o d e l i g n o r e s t h e c o m p l e x i t y a s s o c i a t e d with c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s a n d t h e p r o c e s s of b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e that t h e l e a r n e r m u s t u n d e r g o t h r o u g h s u c c e s s f u l c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n ( K e l s e y , 1994) . T h e z o o a n d a q u a r i a i n d u s t r y h a s a h is tory of w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s for s c h o o l c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t e d by t r a i n e d v o l u n t e e r s . H o w e v e r , s i n c e z o o s a r e s u c h p o p u l a r r e c r e a t i o n a l v e n u e s in N o r t h A m e r i c a , with m o r e p e o p l e a t t e n d i n g z o o s t h a n p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l a n d b a s k e t b a l l g a m e s c o m b i n e d ( C o h e n , 1992) , the major i ty of v is i tors to z o o s a n d a q u a r i a a r e not c h i l d r e n in s c h o o l p r o g r a m s but a r e t h e g e n e r a l pub l ic . V is i tor e d u c a t i o n in m o s t z o o s a n d a q u a r i a t o d a y r e s u l t s f r o m t h e v is i tors ' e x p o s u r e to t h e a n i m a l s a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g r a p h i c s a d j a c e n t to t h e e x h i b i t s . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d in z o o s a n d a q u a r i a t e n d s to b e g e n e r a l b i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w h o s e c o n t e n t a n d f o r m a t a r e i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e o b s e r v a b l e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e a n i m a l s . V i s i t o r s a r e p r o v i d e d with f a c t s a b o u t a n i m a l s ; a "f ield g u i d e " a p p r o a c h to p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n ( K e l s e y , 1 9 9 4 ) w h i c h fa i l s to a d d r e s s t h e v i s i t o r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s a n d t h e q u e s t i o n s v is i tors a s k s u c h a s " W h y is that a n i m a l d o i n g that?". T h e "field g u i d e " a p p r o a c h to p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n in z o o s a n d a q u a r i a r e m a i n s a s t h e p r e v a l e n t a p p r o a c h in t h e s e in formal l e a r n i n g inst i tut ions t o d a y b e c a u s e t h e e d u c a t i o n 7 staff is de f i c ien t in t h r e e m a i n a r e a s : t h e y p o s s e s s l imited e x p e r i e n c e s with t e a c h i n g a n d with their l e a r n e r s , t h e y h a v e a low leve l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r , a n d their a t t i tudes a b o u t t e a c h i n g sk i l ls a n d k n o w l e d g e d o e s not i n c o r p o r a t e a r a n g e of a p p r o a c h e s . O n l y r e c e n t l y h a v e t h e z o o a n d a q u a r i a indus t ry r e a l i z e d that t h e r e is a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y to r e a c h the i r e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s t h r o u g h a d d r e s s i n g t h e t h r e e i s s u e s l isted a b o v e . S i x y e a r s a g o t h e E d i n b u r g h z o o r e a l l o c a t e d s o m e of its staff t ime f r o m s c h o o l p r o g r a m s to vis i tor e d u c a t i o n ( O l l a s o n , 1993) . A l t h o u g h o t h e r inst i tut ions h a v e b e g u n to h i re full t i m e e d u c a t i o n a l staff for t h e v is i tors , t h e s t a n d a r d within t h e indus t ry is to train s e a s o n a l e m p l o y e e s ( u s u a l l y h igh s c h o o l a g e ) a n d v o l u n t e e r s to p r e s e n t in format ion to t h e v is i tors , t h u s limiting t h e level of p r o g r a m m i n g t h e institution s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e s out . B e c a u s e of the i r l im i ted e x p e r i e n c e wi th t h e l e a r n e r s , s e a s o n a l e m p l o y e e s r e a c t to v i s i t o r s a s a un i f i ed g r o u p , i g n o r i n g the i r d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t s a n d b a c k g r o u n d s , w h i c h r e s u l t s in l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h m a y not b e re levant to t h e learner . It is v e r y diff icult fo r staff o r v o l u n t e e r s , with little b a c k g r o u n d o r e x p e r i e n c e with ind iv idua l a n i m a l s in a n inst i tut ion, to interpret a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r s for v is i to rs . S i n c e t h e y h a v e l imited e x p e r i e n c e with the a n i m a l s , visi tor " e d u c a t o r s " ra re ly prof i le cur ren t o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o u r s , a n d t h e y limit t h e b e h a v i o u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n v i s i t o r s r e c e i v e to g r a p h i c s o r s c r i p t e d n a r r a t i o n of t r a i n e d b e h a v i o u r s . T h e e d u c a t o r ' s l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r a l s o r e i n f o r c e s t h e inst i tu t ion 's a n d t h e v is i to rs ' bel ief that na tura l b e h a v i o u r is t o o r a n d o m a n d not exc i t ing e n o u g h to sa t is fy v is i to rs ( K e l s e y , 1994 ) . A s a resul t , t h e inst i tut ions p r o v i d e v is i to rs with a fami l i a r f o r m a t to 8 e x p e r i e n c e a n i m a l s . T h e s c h e d u l e d e v e n t , o f ten invo lv ing a n i m a l t ra in ing o r f e e d i n g , m i m i c s t h e "time l a p s e " v iew of na tu re p o r t r a y e d o n t e l e v i s i o n . I n e x p e r i e n c e d e d u c a t i o n staff h a s a l imi ted e x p o s u r e to a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h e s to t e a c h i n g a n d t h e r e f o r e d e p e n d s o n t h e s t y l e w i th w h i c h t h e y a r e f a m i l i a r , a t r a n s m i s s i o n a p p r o a c h . T h e d e s i r e d o u t c o m e of a t r a n s m i s s i o n m o d e l of l e a r n i n g is for t h e l e a r n e r to a c q u i r e f a c t s a n d ski l ls (Mi l ler a n d S e l l e r , 1990 ) w h i c h t h e e d u c a t i o n staf f a c h i e v e s t h r o u g h a p o l i s h e d m o n o l o g u e d e l i v e r e d to t h e v i s i t o r s . T h e t r a n s m i s s i o n m o d e l v i e w s in fo rmat ion a s a f i xed , c o m p l e t e b o d y of k n o w l e d g e a n d is r e p r e s e n t e d in z o o s a n d a q u a r i a b y n a r r a t e d s c r i p t s for p r e d e t e r m i n e d , s c h e d u l e d a n i m a l s h o w s . T h e t r a n s m i s s i o n a p p r o a c h to e d u c a t i o n u s e s t h e c o n t e n t , w h i c h m a y ra re ly c h a n g e , a s t h e c o r n e r s t o n e a r o u n d w h i c h to f o c u s t h e e x p e r i e n c e , with t h e v i s i t o r s ' i n t e r e s t s a n d a g e n d a s r e c e i v i n g little c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e t r a n s m i s s i o n a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t s c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n a s s i m p l e s o l u t i o n s for s i m p l e p r o b l e m s . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s A p p r o a c h to E d u c a t i o n T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s a p p r o a c h to l e a r n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g in t h e p u b l i c g a l l e r i e s e v o l v e d in a w o r k e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h s u p p o r t e d i n n o v a t i o n s l e a d b y staff with a n in te res t a n d b a c k g r o u n d in s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r , a n d t h e v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e . T h e f o u n d a t i o n s of t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h a r e s e t in t h e c u r r e n t e v e n t s wi th in t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a n d in r e l a t e d n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , the Na tura l i s ts a n d the c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f r o m w h i c h t h e y interpret t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , a n d t h e v i s i t o r s , t h e c o r n e r s t o n e of t h e f o u n d a t i o n . T h e s e 9 c o m p o n e n t s c o m b i n e to c r e a t e a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e u n i q u e wi th in t h e z o o a n d a q u a r i u m c o m m u n i t y , b a s e d o n t h e v is i to rs ' a g e n d a , i n t e r e s t s , a n d m o t i v a t i o n s for visi t ing the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . It s u c c e e d s in a c h i e v i n g t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n g o a l of p r o m o t i n g a t t i tud ina l c h a n g e in v i s i t o r s t o w a r d s a n i m a l s a n d e c o s y s t e m s . T o c r e a t e th is v i s i t o r - c e n t r e d a p p r o a c h t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m c o n d u c t e d s u r v e y s a n d c l o s e l y o b s e r v e d v is i to rs . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m c o n d u c t e d v is i tor s u r v e y s o v e r the p a s t 15 y e a r s a n d e s t a b l i s h e d a c o n s i s t e n t visi tor prof i le . T h e a v e r a g e visitor is b e t w e e n 2 5 - 4 4 y e a r s of a g e , w o r k s a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l , with h i g h s c h o o l a n d s o m e p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . M o r e t h a n half of t h e v i s i t o r s s u r v e y e d (57%) c a m e in a g r o u p of t h r e e p e o p l e or m o r e . M o r e t h a n half the g r o u p s h a d p e o p l e u n d e r 16 y e a r s of a g e i . O n e - t h i r d of the v is i tors s u r v e y e d in t h e s u m m e r ( w h e n t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e a n n u a l a t t e n d a n c e is r e c o r d e d ) h a d v is i ted t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m p r e v i o u s l y . T h e p e r c e n t a g e of first t i m e v is i to rs c h a n g e s s e a s o n a l l y a s t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m is a m a j o r t o u r i s m d e s t i n a t i o n . S e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of t h e s u m m e r v i s i t o r s s u r v e y e d c a m e f r o m o u t s i d e t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l Distr ict ( V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m , 1 9 9 4 a ) . V i s i t o r s r e g a r d t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a s a n e d u c a t i o n a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l v e n u e , 1 T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m m a r k e t s itself a s a fami ly d e s t i n a t i o n . T h e s u r v e y r e v e a l e d f e w e r v is i tors h a d y o u n g c h i l d r e n t h a n e x p e c t e d . T h i s m a y b e t h e result of s a m p l i n g v is i tors at t h e e n d of their visit. P e o p l e with y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n w e r e l e s s likely to fill out t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a n p e o p l e with o l d e r c h i l d r e n (16 y e a r s a n d o lder ) . 10 with r e c r e a t i o n a s a m a j o r m o t i v a t o r for a t t e n d a n c e . F o r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t of v is i to rs s u r v e y e d s a i d t h e y v is i ted for e n t e r t a i n m e n t a n d s o m e l e a r n i n g ( V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m , 1 9 9 4 a ) . T h e visit w a s r e g a r d e d a s a s o c i a l e v e n t to e n j o y with f ami ly o r f r i e n d s . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h c o m b i n e s t h e v is i tor a g e n d a with the profi le of t h e visi tor to c r e a t e a v is i to r -cen t red e x p e r i e n c e . In a n in fo rma l l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s u c h a s a n a q u a r i u m , l e a r n e r s a r e f r e e to c o m e a n d g o a s t h e y p l e a s e a n d t h e y a t tend d i s p l a y s a n d e v e n t s b a s e d o n their p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s . T o e n s u r e that t h e e n v i r o n m e n t is of in te res t to v i s i t o r s a n d m e e t s t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s t h e N a t u r a l i s t s s t r ive to m a k e t h e v i s i t o r s e x p e r i e n c e rea l , cur rent , c h a n g i n g , a n d re levant . In th is w a y t h e N a t u r a l i s t s r e c o g n i z e the v is i tors a s the c o r n e r s t o n e of e d u c a t i o n at the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . T o e n s u r e that a n act ivi ty is real t h e N a t u r a l i s t s interpret w h a t t h e y s e e h a p p e n i n g in front of t h e m . T h e in te rpre ta t ion of rea l life e v e n t s e s t a b l i s h e s a rea l is t ic v i e w of a n i m a l s a s o p p o s e d to t h e " G a r d e n of E d e n " a n d "t ime l a p s e " v i e w s m a n y v is i tors ho ld b a s e d o n t e l e v i s i o n natura l h is tory d o c u m e n t a r i e s . N a t u r a l i s t s w e a v e t h e r e a l e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g wi thin t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m with c u r r e n t e v e n t s s u c h a s g r e y w h a l e s m i g r a t i o n a l o n g t h e w e s t c o a s t of V a n c o u v e r Is land , t h e c o r a l s s p a w n i n g o n t h e G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f , o r s a l m o n m i g r a t i o n u p t h e F r a s e r R ive r . C o m b i n i n g cur ren t a n d real e v e n t s h e l p s t h e v is i tors f o r g e s t r o n g e r l inks b e t w e e n what t h e y s e e within t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a n d t h e na tura l wor ld . 11 C h a n g e is a n inheren t part of interpret ing real life a n i m a l e v e n t s . Na tu ra l i s ts re in fo rce a rea l is t ic v i e w of a n i m a l s b y e n s u r i n g e a c h v is i to r ' s e x p e r i e n c e with a n a n i m a l is d i f fe rent . B e f o r e staff at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m s w i t c h e d to i n t e r p r e t i n g a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r , a f r e q u e n t c o m m e n t o v e r h e a r d f r o m v i s i t o r s at a ki l ler w h a l e t ra in ing s e s s i o n w a s "I don ' t w a n t to w a t c h that, I've s e e n it b e f o r e " . T h i s c o m m e n t re f lec ts a p r e v a l e n t v i e w that a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r is p r e d i c t a b l e a n d l imited in its s c o p e . A l s o , by s h o w i n g v is i tors that a n i m a l s ' b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e s t h e y a r e m o r e l ikely to m a k e a return visi t b e c a u s e t h e r e will b e s o m e t h i n g n e w to s e e . R e t u r n v i s i t s p r o v i d e s t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m with add i t iona l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to r e a c h its e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l . T h e e x p e r i e n c e t h e N a t u r a l i s t s faci l i ta te for v i s i t o r s m u s t b e per t inen t o r r e l e v a n t to v is i to rs a n d to t h e act iv i ty in w h i c h bo th t h e N a t u r a l i s t s a n d v is i to rs t a k e part. If the e x p e r i e n c e is not re levan t to v is i tors t h e y will not b e e n g a g e d a n d m a y d i s e n g a g e f r o m a p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . T h e N a t u r a l i s t s u s e q u e s t i o n s a n d p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a s wel l a s t h e p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s of t h e v is i to rs to c r e a t e a d y n a m i c , re levan t e x p e r i e n c e . T o a c c o m p l i s h r e a l , c u r r e n t , c h a n g i n g a n d r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e s for e a c h v is i tor is a d a u n t i n g t a s k in the c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g a q u a r i u m e n v i r o n m e n t . H o w e v e r , Na tura l is ts a r e c o m m i t t e d to c r e a t i n g a n in teract ive r e l a t i o n s h i p with v is i to rs to e n h a n c e l e a r n i n g a n d i n c r e a s e t h e c h a n c e of s u b s e q u e n t pos i t i ve c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i o n s . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m t r a i n s N a t u r a l i s t s to b e c o m e e x p e r t s o n t h e p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g a b o u t a n i m a l s t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n . T h e y a r e not s e e n a s r e p o s i t o r i e s of f a c t s a b o u t t h e 5 0 0 12 s p e c i e s of a n i m a l s but a r e e x p e r t at c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h e d a i l y c h a n g e s t h e y s e e in ind iv idua l a n i m a l s . N a t u r a l i s t s c o m m u n i c a t e with v i s i t o r s p r imar i l y t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n of a d i a l o g u e f o c u s s e d o n t h e v i s i t o r s ' i n t e r e s t s , o f t en r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h v i s i t o r s ' q u e s t i o n , o r a n in terest ing a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r in a n exhibit . In t h e d i a l o g u e s t h e N a t u r a l i s t s i n c o r p o r a t e their wea l th of e x p e r i e n c e s a n d b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e . D i a l o g u e is a k e y c o m p o n e n t to s u c c e s s f u l l y a d d r e s s i n g t h e v i s i t o r s ' a g e n d a . T h r o u g h d i a l o g u e , N a t u r a l i s t s b e c o m e part of t h e v is i to rs ' s o c i a l g r o u p a n d a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e v is i tors ' i n t e r e s t s a n d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . N a t u r a l i s t s c o m b i n e t h e v is i to rs ' i n t e r e s t s with w h a t is h a p p e n i n g in t h e e x h i b i t s to c r e a t e a r e s p o n s i v e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t a n i m a l s a n d e c o s y s t e m s . N a t u r a l i s t s p a r t i c i p a t e in a t w o - w e e k t r a i n i n g p e r i o d in w h i c h t w o m e t a p h o r s a r e i n t r o d u c e d to h e l p t h e m u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h u s e d at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . T h e s e two v e r y di f ferent m e t a p h o r s , "p lay b y play" a n d "bui ld ing a p u z z l e " , a r e u s e f u l in t e a c h i n g N a t u r a l i s t s h o w to i n c o r p o r a t e c u r r e n t a n i m a l e v e n t s into interpret ive o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 1 3 T h e Natura l i s t t ra in ing u s e s Hockey Night in Canada a s a m o d e l of in te rpre ta t ion . D u r i n g t h e t e l e c a s t of a h o c k e y g a m e , t h e "p lay b y p lay" a n n o u n c e r c o m m u n i c a t e s th ree m a i n c o n c e p t s . • The play. T h e a n n o u n c e r fo l lows the a c t i o n by c o m m u n i c a t i n g w h i c h p l a y e r s a r e i n v o l v e d a n d w h e r e t h e p u c k is g o i n g . • The rules of the game. Wi th a b r e a k in p l a y t h e a n n o u n c e r g i v e s t h e b a c k g r o u n d to the g a m e (the context ) , the e x p l a n a t i o n for a p e n a l t y or t h e i s s u e s f a c e d b y a par t icu lar t e a m o r t h e l e a g u e . • Background of the players. T h e a n n o u n c e r p r o v i d e s s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t e a m s . Interpretat ion at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m f o l l o w s t h e s a m e pa t te rn . T h e N a t u r a l i s t s c o m m u n i c a t e t h e t h r e e c o n c e p t s a s in a h o c k e y "play by play" but u s e s t h e c o n t e x t of the a n i m a l act iv i t ies o c c u r r i n g in front of t h e m . • The play. T h e N a t u r a l i s t s interpret the act iv i t ies of t h e a n i m a l s a n d t h e a n i m a l c a r e staff to t h e vis i tors. • The rules of the game. T h e N a t u r a l i s t s c o m m u n i c a t e e c o l o g i c a l a n d b i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s a n d a n i m a l t ra in ing t h e o r y to h e l p v is i tors bui ld a bet ter u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a n i m a l s , e c o s y s t e m s a n d a n i m a l c a r e . • Background of the players. T h e p l a y e r s in a n interpretat ion i n c l u d e t h e a n i m a l s , a n i m a l c a r e staff a n d t h e e c o s y s t e m s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e exh ib i ts . B a c k g r o u n d a b o u t a n i m a l s i n c l u d e s a d e t a i l e d l o o k at a n i n d i v i d u a l o r t h e s p e c i e s . N a t u r a l i s t s i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e staff a n d h o w t h e y d e v e l o p e d their a n i m a l c a r e e x p e r t i s e . D e s c r i p t i o n s of s p e c i f i c hab i ta ts , s u c h a s R o b s o n Bight ( an a r e a in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r e q u e n t e d b y ki l ler w h a l e s ) s t r e n g t h e n t h e c o n n e c t i o n to r e a l p l a c e s in t h e w o r l d a n d h e l p v i s i t o r s d e v e l o p a be t te r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a n i m a l s in e c o s y s t e m s . T h e s u c c e s s of t h e h o c k e y "play by play" a n n o u n c e r a n d the N a t u r a l i s t s r e s t s o n their abil ity to fo l low t h e c h a n g i n g a c t i o n a n d p l a c e it into a l a rger c o n t e x t in a n in terest ing a n d re levant w a y to the ind iv idua l . 14 T h e s e c o n d m e t a p h o r u s e d to h e l p N a t u r a l i s t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m t e a c h i n g m e t h o d is that of b u i l d i n g a p i c t u r e p u z z l e . T o bu i ld a p i c t u r e p u z z l e t h e bu i lder u s e s t h e p ic ture o n the p u z z l e b o x a s a g u i d e to r e c r e a t e t h e p ic ture with t h e p i e c e s of the p u z z l e . T h e bu i lder s tar ts with a p i e c e a n d t h e n m u s t look for t h e p i e c e s w h i c h fit n e x t to it. T h i s is s i m i l a r to t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e N a t u r a l i s t s u s e the i r k n o w l e d g e of a n exhibi t to c r e a t e a n e x p e r i e n c e with v is i tors . N a t u r a l i s t s u n d e r s t a n d h o w a n i m a l s interact with o t h e r a n i m a l s a n d h o w t h e y c h a n g e s e a s o n a l l y . In th is w a y the Na tura l i s ts f o r m the p ic ture o n the p u z z l e b o x that h o l d s t h e p i e c e s . A n interpretat ion of the Nor th P a c i f i c exhibit is a g o o d e x a m p l e of a n exhibi t with m a n y p u z z l e p i e c e s . T h i s exhib i t is a l a rge , o u t d o o r k e l p fo res t exhib i t w h i c h d i s p l a y s f ish a n d i n v e r t e b r a t e s f o u n d in t h e c o a s t a l a r e a s of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a s u c h a s s c h o o l i n g s a l m o n , r o c k f i s h , p e r c h , g r e e n l i n g s , s e a s t a r s , u r c h i n s a n d a n e m o n e s . D i v e r s e n t e r t h e exhib i t t h r e e t i m e s a w e e k to f e e d t h e b o t t o m - d w e l l i n g a n i m a l s a n d c l e a n t h e w i n d o w s . A n i m a l c a r e staff f e e d the a n i m a l s f r o m t h e s u r f a c e o n a l te rna te d a y s . T h e N a t u r a l i s t s ' ro le is to h e l p t h e v i s i t o r s bui ld a p i c t u r e b y c o n n e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p u z z l e p i e c e s s u c h a s t h e a n i m a l s , t h e d i v e r s , t h e k e l p a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m . N a t u r a l i s t s i n t r o d u c e t h e p i e c e s of t h e p u z z l e to t h e v is i to rs t h r o u g h o b s e r v i n g a n d interpret ing t h e act iv i t ies of a n i m a l s a n d d i v e r s in t h e exhibit . B e c a u s e the a n i m a l a c t i v i t i e s d o not f o l l o w a p a t t e r n , e a c h e x p e r i e n c e at a n e x h i b i t r e s u l t s in t h e Natura l is ts c o n s t r u c t i n g a n infinite n u m b e r of p ic tu res . 15 N a t u r a l i s t s d e c i d e o n w h i c h m e t a p h o r to u s e b a s e d o n t h e o c c u r r i n g act ivi ty. T h e "play b y play" is m o s t u s e f u l w h e n interpret ing v e r y a c t i v e a n i m a l s in a w h a l e t ra in ing s e s s i o n . T h e s t r u c t u r e of th is m e t a p h o r is o p e n to i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e u n k n o w n a n d u n e x p e c t e d e v e n t s into t h e e x p e r i e n c e . T h e p u z z l e a p p r o a c h is u s e f u l w h e n in terpre t ing p i e c e s of a n e c o s y s t e m in a l e s s "act ive" exhib i t s u c h a s t h e c o r a l reef exhibit . 16 D u r i n g their t w o - w e e k t ra in ing p e r i o d , t h e N a t u r a l i s t s d e v e l o p a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k o n w h i c h t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h is b a s e d . N a t u r a l i s t s u s e t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n m o d e l ( F i g u r e 1.1) a n d the c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k ( F i g u r e 1.2) to g r o u n d their in terpre ta t ions . P r o t e c t i o n a n d V a l u e s < ~ K n o w l e d g e F i g u r e 1.1: T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n m o d e l . 17 Experience • F i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e with a n i m a l s a n d e c o s y s t e m s is a cr i t ical s t e p in c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n . • A V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m e x p e r i e n c e b u i l d s o n the v is i tor 's pr ior e x p e r i e n c e s . • V is i to rs will u s e future e x p e r i e n c e s to bui ld o n their V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m visit. Appreciation and knowledge of animals and ecosystems • T h e wor ld , s p e c i f i c a l l y m a r i n e e c o s y s t e m s , is full of a var ie ty of a n i m a l s . • V e r y little is k n o w n a b o u t t h e major i ty of m a r i n e a n i m a l s . • A n i m a l s a r e inherent ly in terest ing. • A n i m a l b e h a v i o u r c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g e s . • E c o s y s t e m s a r e c o m p l e x a n d d y n a m i c . • A n i m a l s rely o n the e c o s y s t e m s t h e y live in to fulfil their b a s i c n e e d s . • M o s t a n i m a l s h a v e a l imited ability to c h a n g e t h e e c o s y s t e m t h e y l ive in w h e n c o m p a r e d to h u m a n s . Values for wildlife • H u m a n s h a v e a var ie ty of va l id v a l u e s t o w a r d s wildlife. • S o m e v a l u e s a r e c o n t r a r y to a c o n s e r v a t i o n ethic. • Wi ldl i fe is intr insical ly v a l u a b l e . Responsible actions are based on conservation issues and trends • S c i e n c e is a s k i n g g o o d q u e s t i o n s a n d u s i n g o b s e r v a t i o n ski l ls to a n s w e r t h o s e q u e s t i o n s . • S c i e n c e is a p r o c e s s not a n e n d point w h i c h re f lec ts t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e of in format ion a n d fac ts . • S c i e n c e w o r k s t o w a r d s s o l u t i o n s for c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o b l e m s . • C o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s to protect e c o s y s t e m s . • C o n s e r v a t i o n is c o m p l e x . • P ro tec t ion of crit ical hab i ta ts a n d e c o s y s t e m s is e s s e n t i a l for c o n s e r v a t i o n . • K e y e c o s y s t e m s a r e impor tan t for t h e in t roduct ion to s p e c i f i c c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s . • S u s t a i n a b l e u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a r e e s s e n t i a l to m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e d g l o b a l e c o s y s t e m . Protection and rehabilitation of ecosystems • A w i d e r a n g e of act iv i t ies l e a d s to protect ion of e c o s y s t e m s . • U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s will p r o m o t e l i festyle c h a n g e , m i n i m i z i n g i m p a c t o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . F i g u r e 1.2: A c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k for t e a c h i n g v is i tors . 18 T h e e x t e n t to w h i c h e a c h of t h e f i v e c o m p o n e n t s of t h e f r a m e w o r k i s i n c o r p o r a t e d into e a c h in terpret ive e x p e r i e n c e d e p e n d s o n t h e v is i tors ' leve l of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e a n i m a l s a n d t h e act iv i t ies o c c u r r i n g within t h e exhibi t at that t i m e . T h e g o a l is to e x p o s e t h e v i s i t o r s to t h e en t i re f r a m e w o r k u p o n c o m p l e t i o n of their visit to t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . A visi t ing e d u c a t o r f r o m a b o t a n i c a l g a r d e n w a s i m p r e s s e d by t h e N a t u r a l i s t s ' w o r k a n d c o m m e n t e d o n t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e p u b l i c in terpreta t ion e x p e r i e n c e r e f l e c t e d t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k . "I w a s i m p r e s s e d b y t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e y ( the N a t u r a l i s t s ) in terpre ted t h e act iv i t ies of the a n i m a l s within t h e exh ib i ts a n d h o w t h e y r e l a t e d t h e s e ac t iv i t i es to c u r r e n t e v e n t s I h a d r e a d in t h e n e w s p a p e r . I k n o w y o u r m i s s i o n i n c l u d e d r e s e a r c h b e c a u s e I s a w rea l r e s e a r c h . . . w a t c h i n g t h e m a r i n e m a m m a l staff t a k i n g b l o o d a n d l is tening to t h e Na tura l i s ts interpret h o w t h e b l o o d w a s u s e d to m o n i t o r p r e g n a n c y . T h i s w a s re i tera ted by t h e w h i t e b o a r d s that I s a w d e s c r i b i n g killer w h a l e h o r m o n e l eve ls . I r e a d a b o u t t h e wi ld r e s e a r c h (on a w h i t e b o a r d ) y o u s p o n s o r e d b e c a u s e I s a w M a r k ' s fax in t h e Arc t i c G a l l e r y d e s c r i b i n g h is cur ren t r e s e a r c h act iv i t ies. I k n e w y o u w e r e i n t e r e s t e d in t e a c h i n g p e o p l e h o w to s e e a c t u a l a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r b e c a u s e I h e a r d f o u r d i f f e r e n t N a t u r a l i s t s s h a r i n g a n i m a l o b s e r v a t i o n t ips with v is i tors." (Ri fe , 1994) Na tura l i s ts c a n w e a v e the f ive c o m p o n e n t s of t h e f r a m e w o r k for v is i tor t e a c h i n g into a n e n c o u n t e r with v is i to rs . H o w e v e r , it b e c o m e s m o r e diff icult for t h e s e c o n c e p t s to b e d e l i v e r e d to v i s i t o r s w h e n N a t u r a l i s t s a r e u n a v a i l a b l e . A t t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m t h e major i ty of t h e v is i tors ' e x p e r i e n c e is unfac i l i t a ted b y N a t u r a l i s t s . G i v e n t h i s it w a s n e c e s s a r y to d e v e l o p a n o t h e r m e t h o d to c o m m u n i c a t e c u r r e n t , o b s e r v a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a n i m a l s to v i s i t o r s . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n to a t tempt to a c c o m p l i s h th is t h r o u g h handwr i t ten , c h a n g e a b l e w h i t e b o a r d s ( F i g u r e 2). 19 W h i t e b o a r d s : A n Innovat ion in V is i tor E d u c a t i o n C h a n g e a b l e , h a n d w r i t t e n w h i t e b o a r d s a r e f r e e s t a n d i n g , e r a s a b l e s i g n s u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m to highl ight c u r r e n t a n d o b s e r v a b l e a n i m a l activity a n d n e w a n i m a l s in t h e exhib i ts . W h i t e b o a r d s a r e a n o t h e r tool a v a i l a b l e to N a t u r a l i s t s to i n v o l v e t h e v is i to rs in t h e p r o c e s s of c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n . T h e w h i t e b o a r d n e t w o r k c o n s i s t s of e ight p o r t a b l e h a n d w r i t t e n b o a r d s p l a c e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s g a l l e r i e s d e s c r i b i n g a n i m a l a c t i v i t i e s h a p p e n i n g that d a y . N a t u r a l i s t s write m e s s a g e s o n a w h i t e b o a r d a b o u t a n i m a l activity t h e y o b s e r v e o r b a s e d o n so l ic i ted in format ion f r o m a n i m a l c a r e staff a n d v is i to rs . T h e s e w h i t e b o a r d s m a y d i rec t v i s i t o r s to w a t c h s p a w n i n g s a l m o n , n e w l y h a t c h e d f i s h , o r b i r d s bu i ld ing a n e w n e s t a n d m a y link t h e a n i m a l t h e y s e e in t h e exhibi t to a n e v e n t in t h e wild t h r o u g h f a x e s s e n t to t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m b y r e s e a r c h e r s a n d wildlife w a t c h e r s . T h e h a n d pr in ted n a t u r e of t h e w h i t e b o a r d s e n a b l e s t h e N a t u r a l i s t s to u p d a t e t h e b o a r d s e a s i l y a n d q u i c k l y . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s a r e u s e d to: • Highl ight a cur ren t , c h a n g i n g a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r , • d i rect v is i tors to w a t c h for a s p e c i f i c a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r , • m o d e l b e h a v i o u r s a n d p r o v i d e a n i m a l w a t c h i n g t ips w h i c h v is i tors c a n u s e a n y w h e r e . 21 R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m W h i t e b o a r d s , in v a r i o u s f o r m s a n d s t a g e s of d e v e l o p m e n t h a v e b e e n u s e d at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m for s ix y e a r s . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w h i t e b o a r d s . In par t i cu la r , t h e s t u d y e v a l u a t e s t h e e f fect of w h i t e b o a r d s o n t h e b e h a v i o u r of g r o u p s (two or m o r e vis i tors) of E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g v is i to rs at a n exhibi t with a w h i t e b o a r d a n d at the next exhibit t h e y a t tend . T h e s t u d y c o m p a r e s the t i m e s p e n t v i e w i n g exh ib i ts b y v is i tors w h o u s e w h i t e b o a r d s to t h e t i m e s p e n t by v is i tors w h o d o not u s e w h i t e b o a r d s . V i s i t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of w h i t e b o a r d s a n d of t h e exh ib i ts h i g h l i g h t e d b y t h e w h i t e b o a r d s w e r e g a t h e r e d to p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s into h o w w h i t e b o a r d s fit into t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e w h i t e b o a r d s r e s t s within a n e x t e n s i v e b o d y of r e s e a r c h o n l e a r n i n g t h e o r y , v is i tor s t u d i e s , a n d e v a l u a t i o n of l e a r n i n g m e d i a within i n f o r m a l l ea rn ing se t t ings . T h e z o o a n d a q u a r i u m indust ry h a s d e v e l o p e d a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h o w to d e v e l o p e f f e c t i v e wr i t t en i n f o r m a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y e x h i b i t l a b e l s c o m m u n i c a t i n g g e n e r a l in fo rmat ion a b o u t a n i m a l s . F e w r e s e a r c h e r s s t u d i e d h o w r e a d i n g a labe l i n f l u e n c e s t h e t ime v is i tors s p e n d v i e w i n g t h e exhibi t . H o w e v e r , t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s s y s t e m to c o m m u n i c a t e cur ren t , o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o u r in a written f o r m is u n i q u e . S t u d y i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i n n o v a t i v e w h i t e b o a r d s will a s s i s t o t h e r ins t i tu t ions , wi th in t h e z o o a n d a q u a r i u m c o m m u n i t y , f u r t h e r the i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h o w v is i to rs u s e a n d l e a r n in in fo rma l se t t ings , a n d will p r o v i d e a m o d e l for o t h e r inst i tut ions to c o m m u n i c a t e c u r r e n t a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r in a written fo rm. 22 Chapter 2 - Literature Review C o n s i d e r a t i o n of l a b e l d e s i g n , m o t i v a t i o n a n d l e a r n i n g p r o v i d e s a b a s i s fo r bet ter u n d e r s t a n d i n g of w h i t e b o a r d s at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a n d h o w t h e y p r o m o t e v is i tor l e a r n i n g . C u r r e n t s t u d i e s a r e i n t e r w o v e n into a re la t ive ly n e w r e s e a r c h a r e a c a l l e d v is i tor s t u d i e s w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e a s p e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y , a n d l e i s u r e s t u d i e s a s t h e y re la te s p e c i f i c a l l y to t h e v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e in i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g ins t i tu t ions s u c h a s m u s e u m s , a q u a r i a a n d p a r k s . E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y , a n d l e i s u r e s t u d i e s m a k e a v a i l a b l e a p l e t h o r a of theore t i ca l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l work for t h e e d u c a t o r in t h e in formal e n v i r o n m e n t to refer to w h e n p l a n n i n g for v is i tors . A s with a n y n e w f i e ld of s t u d y , t h o s e i n v o l v e d in v is i to r s t u d i e s w o r k t o w a r d s d e v e l o p i n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h is v a l i d a c r o s s d i f f e ren t t y p e s of ins t i tu t ions . B i t g o o d (1989) , L o o m i s (1888) a n d S h e t t e l (1988) h a v e a t t e m p t e d to d e f i n e t h e f ie ld , identify m a j o r i s s u e s a n d se t v is i tor s t u d i e s o n a c o u r s e t o w a r d s m a t u r a t i o n . B i t g o o d s u m m e d u p vis i tor s t u d i e s a s fo l lows: "Vis i tor a d v o c a c y : o u r ma jor m i s s i o n . Mu l t id isc ip l ined v iew: the f o c u s of o u r a p p r o a c h . F o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n : t h e w a y w e a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s . Sc ien t i f i c : o u r m e t h o d s a n d theor ies . " ( B i t g o o d , 1 9 8 8 p. 11) V i s i t o r s t u d i e s h a v e g r o w n o u t of t h e n e e d to i m p r o v e t h e e x p e r i e n c e for v i s i t o r s t h r o u g h e v a l u a t i o n of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a facil ity (Wi l l i ams a n d R u b e n s t e i n , 1994) . In 23 th is e r a of nonprof i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c h a s i n g a n e v e r d e c r e a s i n g g r a n t a n d tax do l l a r to s u p p o r t the i r ins t i tu t ions , t h e r e is a n e e d to c r e a t e p r o g r a m s w h i c h just i fy the i r o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s e x i s t e n c e . T h r o u g h of t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e d e v e l o p e d m o d e l s to d e s c r i b e m o s t a s p e c t s of v i s i t o r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s in i n f o r m a l l ea rn ing inst i tut ions. V is i tor S t u d i e s R e s e a r c h R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e t a k e n d i f fe rent a p p r o a c h e s to d e s c r i b e v is i tor b e h a v i o u r , v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e a n d d e m o g r a p h i c s within in formal l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s in a n a t tempt to g e n e r a t e m o d e l s w h i c h c a n b e u s e d a c r o s s d i f f e ren t t y p e s of i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s . P a t t e r s o n a n d B i t g o o d (1988 ) d i v i d e d t h e f a c t o r s that a f fec t v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e into t h r e e m a j o r a r e a s , e x h i b i t d e s i g n f a c t o r s , v i s i t o r f a c t o r s a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l f a c t o r s . Exh ib i t d e s i g n f a c t o r s s u c h a s exh ib i t s i z e , m o t i o n within t h e exh ib i t , a e s t h e t i c s , n o v e l t y , s e n s o r y , a n d i n t e r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s will a f fec t v i s i t o r s ' b e h a v i o u r at a n exhib i t ; a s will v is i tor f a c t o r s s u c h a s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o b j e c t sa t i a t ion , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s of v is i to rs , d e m o g r a p h i c s , c o m f o r t a n d p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e a n i m a l s . A r c h i t e c t u r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n c l u d e visibil ity, prox imi ty of t h e a n i m a l , a n d r e a l i s m a l s o affect the visitor e x p e r i e n c e . T h e m o d e l of t h e visi tor e x p e r i e n c e d e v e l o p e d by D i e r k i n g a n d F a l k (1994) in tegra tes t h r e e d o m a i n s . T h e s e d o m a i n s a r e t h e p e r s o n a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l , t h e p h y s i c a l ( the o b j e c t s a n d t h e bu i ld ing ) , a n d t h e s o c i a l w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e s t h e v is i tor g r o u p a n d o ther p e o p l e t h e y e n c o u n t e r o n their visit. M c M a n u s ' (1992) m o d e l of visi tor b e h a v i o u r 24 d e s c r i b e s fami ly b e h a v i o u r a s a " h u n t e r - g a t h e r t e a m " f o r a g i n g t h r o u g h t h e m u s e u m to s a t i a t e the i r c u r i o s i t y . H o o d (1983 ) c a t e g o r i z e s v i s i t o r s a s f r e q u e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s , o c c a s i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d n o n p a r t i c i p a n t s b a s e d o n their in te res ts , e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d le isure v a l u e s . R e s e a r c h e r s o f ten a p p l y a m o d e l o r d e s c r i p t o r of v is i tor b e h a v i o u r a n d e x p e r i e n c e d e v e l o p e d in o n e t y p e of institution s u c h a s a m u s e u m to a di f ferent t y p e of institution s u c h a s a z o o with little r e g a r d to d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e inst i tut ions. A s M c M a n u s s ta ted a b o u t s c i e n c e m u s e u m s , " E a c h s c i e n c e m u s e u m h a s its o w n dist inct ive , ind iv idua l c h a r a c t e r w h i c h a f fec ts t h e p r o v i s i o n o f fe red to its u s e r s a n d or ienta t ion of t h e a p p r o a c h e s m a d e to t h e pub l i c in its d i s p l a y s a n d r a n g e of faci l i t ies" ( M c M a n u s , 1 9 9 2 , p. 158) M i l a n a n d W o u r m s ( 1 9 9 2 ) f o u n d that H o o d ' s c a t e g o r i e s of v i s i t o r s d e v e l o p e d in m u s e u m s w e r e not a p p r o p r i a t e for a z o o set t ing. W h i l e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of f i n d i n g s f rom o n e t y p e of inst i tut ion to a n o t h e r m u s t b e d o n e with c a u t i o n , r e s e a r c h e r s c a n of ten s h a r e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s b e t w e e n t y p e s of insti tut ions. T h e t e c h n i q u e s r e s e a r c h e r s u s e to fur ther their u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e visi tor e x p e r i e n c e in i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s c e n t r e a r o u n d o b s e r v i n g t h e v i s i t o r ' s o v e r t b e h a v i o u r a n d sol ic i t ing i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e m . M o s t t e c h n i q u e s , s u c h a s S c r e v e n ' s g o a l r e f e r e n c e d a p p r o a c h , a t t e m p t to e v a l u a t e t h e t e a c h i n g p o t e n t i a l of s p e c i f i c e x h i b i t s . S c r e v e n ( 1 9 7 6 ) i n t r o d u c e d a " g o a l r e f e r e n c e d " a p p r o a c h to e x h i b i t e v a l u a t i o n b a s e d o n h a v i n g m e a s u r a b l e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s . H e d e l i n e a t e d a p r o c e s s 25 for f o r m a t i v e a n d s u m m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of a n exhib i t i n c l u d i n g m e t h o d s to m e a s u r e a s p e c t s of a v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e s u c h a s a t t rac t ion a n d h o l d i n g p o w e r to p r o v i d e a n ind i rec t m e a s u r e of a n exh ib i t ' s t e a c h i n g po ten t i a l . T h e a t t rac t ion of a n exhib i t is m e a s u r e d a s t h e p e r c e n t a g e of all v is i tors w h o s t o p at a n exhibit . H o l d i n g p o w e r is the ratio of a c t u a l v i e w i n g t ime to e i ther t h e o p t i m a l o r m i n i m a l v i e w i n g t i m e of a n exhibit , a n d is o f t e n u s e d a s a m e a s u r e of l e a r n i n g ( D o n a l d , 1 9 9 1 ) . H o l d i n g p o w e r a s a m e a s u r e m a y b e s u i t a b l e in a m u s e u m s e t t i n g w h e r e e x h i b i t s a r e s ta t ic a n d a n o p t i m u m v i e w i n g t i m e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d , but is not a n a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e of a l iving exhib i t in a z o o o r a q u a r i a b e c a u s e t h e exhib i t c h a n g e s a s t h e a n i m a l s ' b e h a v i o u r within t h e exhibi t c h a n g e . T h e exhib i t d e s i g n a n d e v a l u a t i o n l i terature p r o v i d e s s o m e i n s i g h t s into a n exh ib i t ' s " t e a c h i n g " potent ia l o r h o w it m a y i n f l u e n c e v is i tors ' at t i tude t o w a r d s t h e t o p i c mat te r a n d a r e s u p p o r t e d b y e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . B e f o r e a n exhib i t c a n h a v e a n i n f l u e n c e v is i tors ' a t t i tudes v is i to rs n e e d to b e a t t rac ted to t h e exhibi t . M a n y of t h e s t u d i e s a r e re levant to the s t u d y of the i m p a c t of w h i t e b o a r d s . P a r s o n s (1990 ) d e s i g n e d e x h i b i t s to c h a n g e b e h a v i o u r , a t t i t u d e s , k n o w l e d g e a n d creat iv i ty in v is i tors with r e s p e c t to h o w t h e y b e h a v e in t h e o u t s i d e wor ld after v i e w i n g t h e exhibit . P a r s o n s r e c o g n i z e d that v is i tors a t tend exh ib i ts for d i f ferent r e a s o n s a n d h a s d e v e l o p e d h i e r a r c h i c a l g o a l s to a c c o m m o d a t e a n d a t t rac t d i f f e ren t t y p e s of v i s i t o r s . K o r a n , K o r a n a n d F o s t e r ( 1 9 8 9 ) p r o p o s e d that t h e d e s i g n of m a t e r i a l s i n f l u e n c e s h o w a n d w h a t v is i tors p a y at tent ion to a n d w h a t t h e y l e a r n . T h e y p r o p o s e d 26 that t h e m a t e r i a l s (exhib i ts o r h a n d o u t s ) t e a c h t h e v is i to rs t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y to learn t h e i n t e n d e d g o a l of t h e exhibit . F a l k ( 1 9 9 3 ) s t u d i e d h o w d i f fe ren t a r r a n g e m e n t s of e x h i b i t s a t t rac t v i s i t o r s . H e e x p e r i m e n t e d with a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d d e s i g n p r o d u c e d b y c u r a t o r s a n d s c i e n t i s t s . T h i s d e s i g n a t t e m p t e d to p r o v i d e v is i to rs with i n f o r m a t i o n in t h e c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e a s v i e w e d by t h e c u r a t o r s . F a l k ' s s e c o n d d e s i g n w a s u n s t r u c t u r e d , with e a c h c o m p o n e n t c o n t a i n i n g a c o m p l e t e c o n c e p t . T h i s fo rmat uni f ied t h e ind iv idua l exh ib i ts w h i c h m a d e s e n s e r e g a r d l e s s of t h e pa th t a k e n . In t h e s e c o n d d e s i g n v is i to rs c o u l d f ree ly c h o o s e w h i c h c o m p o n e n t s to look at a n d in w h a t s e q u e n c e . T h e r e s u l t s of th is e x p e r i m e n t l o o k e d at t h e t i m e s p e n t in e a c h exhibi t a r e a ( a s in t h e labe l s t u d i e s ) a n d at t h e qual i ty of t h e v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e . F a l k f o u n d that t h e u n s t r u c t u r e d e x p e r i e n c e w a s m o r e e f fect ive . V i s i t o r s r e p o r t e d that t h e y w e r e m o r e m o t i v a t e d to r e a d t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g l a b e l s , h a d g r e a t e r c o m p r e h e n s i o n of t h e exhibi t a n d h a d a m o r e p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e . A t t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m , t h e e ight w h i t e b o a r d s a r e s imi la r to F a l k ' s u n s t r u c t u r e d exhibit in that t h e y a d d r e s s a c o m m o n t h e m e a n d h a v e c o n s i s t e n c y in f o r m a t a n d sty le . T h e s e w h i t e b o a r d s , l o c a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e b u i l d i n g , h igh l igh t w h a t is n e w in t h e exh ib i ts e a c h d a y . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s u s e a n u m b e r of e x a m p l e s to i l lustrate a s i n g l e c o n c e p t , a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r . It is h o p e d that t h e w h i t e b o a r d s ' r e c o g n i z a b l e s h a p e , similar i ty in fo rmat , a n d m e s s a g e unify t h e m into a n u n s t r u c t u r e d e x p e r i e n c e s imi lar to F a l k ' s "exhibit". V i s i t o r s m a y v i e w this "exhibit" in a n y s e q u e n c e t h e y w i s h a n d with t h e r e p e t i t i o n of t h e c o n c e p t that a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r in a q u a r i a c h a n g e s t h r o u g h t h e 27 w h i t e b o a r d s , v is i to rs will d e v e l o p a better u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r . B e l l a n d (1986) d e s c r i b e s c o n c e p t l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h i l lustration of t h e c o n c e p t with a n u m b e r of e x a m p l e s . T h e v i s i t o r s ' e x p e r i e n c e with a n u m b e r of e x h i b i t s i l lustrat ing t h e s a m e c o n c e p t ( a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e s ) resu l ts in v is i to rs e x p a n d i n g their u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c o n c e p t d e v e l o p i n g a r e p e r t o i r e of e x a m p l e s to i l lustrate t h e c o n c e p t . T h e s e mul t ip le e x a m p l e s e n c o u r a g e t h e v is i to rs to d e v e l o p their o w n c o n c l u s i o n s b y d i rect o b s e r v a t i o n . K o r a n , K o r a n a n d L o n g i n o (1986) l o o k e d s p e c i f i c a l l y at t h e n a t u r e of exh ib i ts a n d the o b j e c t s within t h e m with r e s p e c t to h o w at t ract ive t h e y w e r e to v is i to rs . T h e y f o u n d v i s i t o r s s p e n t m o r e t i m e at e x h i b i t s w h i c h h a d t h e p o t e n t i a l of b e i n g m a n i p u l a t e d . T h e s e e x h i b i t s s e e m e d to h e i g h t e n t h e c u r i o s i t y a n d m o t i v a t i o n of t h e v is i to rs , a n d e n c o u r a g e d t h e m to e x p l o r e t h e exhibit . K o r a n , K o r a n a n d L o n g i n o s u g g e s t e d that a s the n o v e l t y a n d c o m p l e x i t y of t h e s t i m u l u s (exhibit) i n c r e a s e s , t h e a t tent ion , l ength of t i m e at t h e exh ib i t , n u m b e r of q u e s t i o n s a n d in teres t in m a n i p u l a t i n g ( m e n t a l l y or phys ica l ly ) t h e exhibi t i n c r e a s e s . ( S e e a l s o K o r a n , K o r a n a n d F o s t e r , 1989) . W h i t e b o a r d s a r e a n o v e l s t i m u l u s a n d at t ract v i s i t o r s ' a t t e n t i o n . V i s i t o r s e n g a g e inte l lectual ly at a n exhibi t with a w h i t e b o a r d w h e n l o o k i n g at it, a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s a n d m a k i n g i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o u r s h i g h l i g h t e d o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e exhibi t is i n c r e a s e d b y m e s s a g e s o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d w h i c h f o c u s e s t h e v is i to rs ' a t ten t ion o n a s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r o r a n i m a l . O n c e t h e v i s i t o r s b e g i n a n i n t e r a c t i o n wi th t h e m e s s a g e o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d t h e e x h i b i t , t h e y b e g i n to 28 u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m p l e x i n t e r a c t i o n s h i g h l i g h t e d in t h e m e s s a g e . T h e n o v e l t y a n d c o m p l e x i t y resul t in the v is i tors b e c o m i n g ac t ive ly i n v o l v e d in w a t c h i n g t h e exhibit . In b e h a v i o u r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s v is i tors ' p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s s u c h a s t o u c h i n g o r m a n i p u l a t i n g o b j e c t s , po in t ing , r e a d i n g exhibi t g r a p h i c s or l a b e l s or c o n v e r s i n g a r e o f ten r e c o r d e d . T h e s e b e h a v i o u r s h e l p r e s e a r c h e r s ident i fy w h i c h p a r t s of a n e x h i b i t a r e m o s t attract ive to v is i tors a n d a r e p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t o r s of l e a r n i n g (B i rney , 1988) . L i s t e n i n g to visitor c o n v e r s a t i o n at a n exhibi t c a n a id interpretat ion of b e h a v i o u r (Tunnic l i f fe , 1994 ; C o o p e r , 1995) . R e s e a r c h e r s a l s o s o l i c i t t h e v i s i t o r s ' i m p r e s s i o n s , e i t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y a f te r t h e e x p e r i e n c e o r after t ime h a s e l a p s e d . A w e l l - c o n d u c t e d interv iew c a n p r o v i d e a wea l th of in format ion . M o s t in te rv iews a t tempt to d e t e r m i n e w h a t t h e v is i tors h a v e l e a r n e d a s a resu l t of u s i n g a n exh ib i t ( P e a r t , 1 9 8 4 ; F a l k , 1 9 9 3 ) . T h e i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d i m m e d i a t e l y af ter t h e v is i to rs u s e the exhibi t re ly o n t h e v is i to rs ' abi l i ty to reca l l wha t t h e y h a d s e e n o r r e a d a n d d o not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e l o n g t e r m l e a r n i n g . R e s e a r c h e r s a l s o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h v o l u n t a r y c o m m e n t s f r o m vis i tors. T h e s e c o m m e n t s m a y b e el ic i ted in a s p e c i f i c w a y s u c h a s the " q u e s t i o n of t h e d a y " u s e d b y F a l k (1993 ) to d e t e r m i n e w h a t v i s i t o r s r e m e m b e r e d a b o u t a n exhibit , o r in a n o p e n - e n d e d s u c h a s visi tor c o m m e n t c a r d s a n d letters. O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e a t t e m p t e d to a s s e s s t h e l o n g t e r m i m p a c t of t h e m u s e u m visit b y so l ic i t ing m e m o r i e s f r o m v i s i t o r s ( M c M a n u s , 1 9 9 3 ; S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 9 2 ; B i t g o o d a n d C l e g h o r n , 1994) . 29 T h e s e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s p r o v i d e a f r a m e w o r k for t h e s t u d y of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w h i t e b o a r d s at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . W h i l e e a c h of t h e s e m e t h o d s p r o v i d e s insight into t h e visi tor e x p e r i e n c e , it is the c o m b i n a t i o n of m e t h o d s s u c h a s F a l k (1993) u s e d a n d t h e in tegra t ion of t h e r e s u l t s f r o m v a r i o u s m e t h o d s that p r o v i d e s a r i cher u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e v i s i t o r e x p e r i e n c e . T h e d e s i g n of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y of w h i t e b o a r d s i s s i m i l a r to F a l k ' s s t u d y in that it i n t e g r a t e s a n u m b e r of m e t h o d s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s a n d a n e c d o t a l c o m m e n t s f r o m v i s i t o r s , in a n a t t e m p t to d e v e l o p a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of v is i tor b e h a v i o u r a n d m a k e i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t their l e a r n i n g . V is i tor L e a r n i n g Informal s e t t i n g s s u c h a s m u s e u m s a n d a q u a r i a a t tempt to e d u c a t e t h e g e n e r a l pub l ic pr imar i ly t h r o u g h a v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . A s D o o r d a n d e s c r i b e s , " N a v i g a t i n g t h r o u g h a n e n v i r o n m e n t of p r o m i s c u o u s v i s i o n s h o u l d p r o v o k e a n exh i la ra t ing e x p e r i e n c e of d i s c o v e r y , l e a r n i n g , a n d growth" . ( D o o r d a n , 1995 , p. 9) E x h i b i t d e v e l o p e r s a n d e d u c a t o r s h a v e i m p r o v e d e x h i b i t s a s l e a r n i n g t o o l s b y i n c r e a s i n g the i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of w h a t l e a r n i n g is , t h e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y fo r l e a r n i n g to o c c u r a n d h o w to b e s t i m p l e m e n t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s in t h e i n f o r m a l set t ing. M a n y r e s e a r c h e r s v i e w l e a r n i n g a s a n a c t i v e p r o c e s s in w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r s m a k e the t rans i t ion f r o m n o v i c e t o w a r d s e x p e r t by c o l l e c t i n g a n d t r a n s f o r m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n into in terna l k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s s o d e v e l o p i n g m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d v i e w s of c o n c e p t s 30 ( M a s s e y , 1 9 9 5 ; F a l k a n d D i e r k i n g , 1995) . T h i s or ien ta t ion to l e a r n i n g is a l s o re f lec ted in t h e w a y s in w h i c h s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g h a s c h a n g e d f r o m s c i e n c e a s a c o h e s i v e se t of f ac ts , a b s o r b e d intact b y t h e l ea rner , to a n inquiry b a s e d a p p r o a c h w h i c h a c c e p t s that l e a r n e r s u s e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e to c o n s t r u c t k n o w l e d g e ( W a t s o n a n d K o n i c e k , 1990) . In formal s c i e n c e s e t t i n g s s u c h a s m u s e u m s h a v e a l s o f o l l o w e d th is t r e n d in t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e a s d e s c r i b e d by M c M a n u s (1992) . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m b a s e s its a p p r o a c h to t e a c h i n g pr imar i ly within s u c h a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t v i e w . C o n s t r u c t i v i s t s v i e w l e a r n i n g a s a n a c t i v e p r o c e s s of c o n s t r u c t i n g a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k ( N e e d h a m , 1 9 8 7 ; W a t s o n a n d K o n i c e k , 1 9 9 0 ; C o b e r n , 1995) . P e o p l e l e a r n b y m a k i n g s e n s e of w h a t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e a n d the i r l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e s d i s c u s s i o n , d e b a t e a n d t h e r e -c r e a t i o n of p r e v i o u s l y h e l d i d e a s . T h e l ea rn ing is s o c i a l l y a n d cul tura l ly re levan t to the l e a r n e r a n d o c c u r s within a s o c i a l c o n t e x t s u c h a s a m u s e u m , a q u a r i u m , z o o or s c h o o l . T h e v is i tors ' a g e n d a , to h a v e a n e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e in the m u s e u m , is a p r e c u r s o r to v is i tor e n g a g e m e n t in t h e e x p e r i e n c e . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i ( 1990 ) e x p l o r e d t h e c o n c e p t of e n j o y m e n t a n d d e v e l o p e d e ight c r i te r ia h e c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l fo r a n e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e cr i ter ia a r e ; • a c h a l l e n g i n g act iv i ty fo r w h i c h t h e u s e r h a s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e sk i l ls • a n e n v i r o n m e n t f r e e of d i s t r a c t i o n s s o t h e u s e r c a n c o n c e n t r a t e • c l e a r g o a l s • i m m e d i a t e f e e d b a c k • the visitor is f r e e of anx ie ty • a s e n s e of con t ro l o v e r o n e ' s a c t i o n s • l o s s of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s • the s e n s e that t ime h a s b e e n a l te red 31 W h e n t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e m e t , t h e resu l t is a r e w a r d i n g , o p t i m a l e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h p r o m o t e s s u c h a d e e p s e n s e of e n j o y m e n t that p e o p l e a r e wil l ing to inves t e n e r g y to a c h i e v e it t h e institution a n d t h e v is i tors a r e m o r e l ikely to a c h i e v e their g o a l s . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i b a s e s h is t h e o r y of o p t i m u m e x p e r i e n c e o n t h e c o n c e p t of f low. F l o w is "the s ta te in w h i c h p e o p l e a r e s o i n v o l v e d in a n activity that n o t h i n g e l s e s e e m s to mat ter ; t h e e x p e r i e n c e itself is s o e n j o y a b l e that p e o p l e will d o it e v e n at g r e a t c o s t , for the s h e e r s a k e of d o i n g it." ( C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1 9 9 0 , p. 4) A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h resu l t in t h e s ta te of c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a l l e d f low, w h e t h e r m o u n t a i n c l i m b i n g or v is i t ing a m u s e u m , p r o v i d e a s e n s e of d i s c o v e r y . T h e m u s e u m d e s i g n e r a n d e d u c a t o r w o r k t o g e t h e r to c r e a t e a c o n t e x t w h i c h i n s u r e s a n e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e within t h e m u s e u m se t t ing . In th is set t ing v is i to rs h a v e o p t i m a l e x p e r i e n c e s a n d a r e m o t i v a t e d to c o n t i n u e t h e e x p e r i e n c e to g a i n b o t h inte l lectual a n d e m o t i o n a l r e w a r d s . L e a r n i n g , w h e n s e l f - d i r e c t e d , i s a n i n t r i n s i c a l l y m o t i v a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i a n d H e r m a n s o n ( 1 9 9 5 ) d e s c r i b e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h intr ins ic m o t i v a t i o n in m u s e u m s e t t i n g s in f o u r s t a g e s . T h e first s t a g e , t h e "hook", p i q u e s the v is i tors ' cur ios i ty with s o m e t h i n g in a n exhibi t s u c h a s a s o u n d or a bright c o l o u r . T h e cur ios i ty l e a d s to interest if t h e exhibi t a p p e a l s to t h e v is i tors ' prior p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e nex t s t a g e i n v o l v e s p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t with t h e exhibi t w h i c h m a y b e s e n s o r y , inte l lectual or e m o t i o n a l . T h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s for i n v o l v e m e n t m a y l e a d to in t r ins ic r e w a r d s if t h e c o n d i t i o n s of f low, ex is t . T h e in t r ins ic r e w a r d s 32 c o m e a b o u t w h e n t h e skill leve l of t h e v is i tors is b a l a n c e d with t h e c h a l l e n g e t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e exhibi t a n d a s t h e v is i tors ' o b s e r v a t i o n a l sk i l ls i n c r e a s e , s o t h e y a r e c h a l l e n g e d to s e e m o r e . W h e n t h e e x p e r i e n c e is ne i ther b o r i n g n o r f rustrat ing for the v i s i t o r s , it is l ike ly to b e in t r ins ica l l y r e w a r d i n g a n d r e s u l t s in t h e f ina l s t a g e of C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i a n d H e r m a n s o n ' s m o d e l w h i c h is l e a r n i n g . 33 Exhib i t L a b e l s a n d L e a r n i n g W h i t e b o a r d s f o l l o w C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i a n d H e r m a n s o n ' s f o u r s t a g e s of in t r ins ica l ly m o t i v a t e d l e a r n i n g a s r e p r e s e n t e d b y the w h i t e b o a r d in F i g u r e 3 d e s c r i b i n g e v e n t s in the M i d a s c ich l id exhibit . T h e p h y s i c a l s i z e a n d loca t ion of t h e w h i t e b o a r d act a s the Midas Cichlid Rabies! you'll have to look carefully to find the babies - they're tiny! The 7 month babies are this big • • • • The 2 week babies are this big Can you figure out who the parents are? What happens when another fish gets close to the babies? F i g u r e 3: M i d a s c ich l id exhibi t w h i t e b o a r d . 34 "hook" , a n d t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d a t t e m p t s to d e v e l o p a link, a c o m m o n point of in terest , s u c h a s " M i d a s C i c h l i d B a b i e s " . E a c h s e n t e n c e of t h e w h i t e b o a r d e n c o u r a g e s p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t b y d i r e c t i n g t h e v i s i t o r s to look for t h e b a b i e s , to f ind their p a r e n t s a n d to w a t c h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s of t h e p a r e n t s with t h e o t h e r f i s h . W h i t e b o a r d s s a t i s f y f o u r of t h e c o n d i t i o n s of f low. T h e M i d a s c i c h l i d w h i t e b o a r d c h a l l e n g e s t h e v i s i t o r s to f ind t h e b a b i e s a n d p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n to s u p p o r t t h e v is i tor 's ski l ls in o r d e r to m e e t t h e c h a l l e n g e . T h e r e is a n i n c r e a s i n g leve l of c h a l l e n g e a s t h e v is i to rs b e c o m e a bet ter a n i m a l w a t c h e r b e c a u s e t h e v is i tor c o n t i n u e s to f ind n e w b e h a v i o u r s to w a t c h . T h e g o a l of t h e activity is c l e a r l y s t a t e d ( "Can y o u f igure out w h o t h e p a r e n t s a re?" ) a n d t h e visi tor r e c e i v e s f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o n the w h i t e b o a r d . T h e e x p e r i e n c e is o n e of f r e e c h o i c e s o t h e v i s i t o r s h a v e c o n t r o l o v e r their a c t i o n s . B y w a t c h i n g t h e w h i t e b o a r d , the v is i tors ' a n i m a l w a t c h i n g ski l ls i m p r o v e t h r o u g h l e a r n i n g a b o u t M i d a s c ich l id p a r e n t i n g b e h a v i o u r . E l i c i t i n g v is i to r m o t i v a t i o n i s a n i m p o r t a n t s t e p in a c h i e v i n g l e a r n i n g in i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g s a s C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i s t a t e d , but t h e w a y in w h i c h in fo rmat ion is p r e s e n t e d is a k e y c o m p o n e n t to c r e a t i n g a n e x p e r i e n c e that t h e v is i tors will f ind e n j o y a b l e . " O n c e t h e y a r e m o t i v a t e d h o w to p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n b e c o m e s s e c o n d a r y b e c a u s e the l e a r n e r will g o out a n d f ind in fo rmat ion n o mat ter h o w difficult it is to get it. T h e q u e s t i o n is h o w to ge t t h e m to want to learn in t h e first p l a c e . " ( C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1 9 8 7 , p. 81) T h e w a y in w h i c h t h e in fo rmat ion is p r e s e n t e d m u s t attract t h e v is i tors ' a t tent ion a n d t h e v is i to rs m u s t w a n t to u s e it b e f o r e it will h a v e a n y ins t ruc t iona l v a l u e ( M o r r i s s e y a n d B e r g e , 1 9 9 0 , C a r l s o n , 1994 ) . T h e l i terature o n t h e d e s i g n of exh ib i t l a b e l s is 35 r e l e v a n t to t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e w a y in w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n is p r e s e n t e d o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d s . Exhibi t l a b e l s c o m e in all s h a p e s a n d s i z e s a n d m a y v a r y in t h e t y p e of m e s s a g e s t h e y c o n v e y . A l a b e l m a y b e a c o m p l e x e x p o s i t i o n o n t h e g e n e t i c s r e s p o n s i b l e for a par t icu lar c o l o u r pa t te rn in per iw ink le s n a i l s , a d e s c r i p t i o n of a n a n i m a l ' s b e h a v i o u r , o r s i m p l y t h e n a m e of a n a n i m a l in t h e exhibi t . R e g a r d l e s s of t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e labe l m e s s a g e cer ta in cr i ter ia will a d d to t h e l abe ls ' s u c c e s s . S e r r e l l (1983) p r o d u c e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e g u i d e o u t l i n i n g t h e s e c r i t e r i a to a i d m u s e u m a n d a q u a r i u m e d u c a t o r s in the i r l a b e l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . S h e s t a t e s that a n e f f e c t i v e l a b e l s h o u l d b e e a s y t o r e a d ( g o o d t y p o g r a p h y , in a n a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n a n d l a r g e e n o u g h s i z e ) , b e s h o r t , a n d h a v e i n t e r e s t i n g , a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n ( n e i t h e r t e c h n i c a l n o r bor ing ) . In a n a q u a r i u m m o s t l a b e l s a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y p r o d u c e d u s i n g s i l k - s c r e e n i n g o r back l i t p h o t o g r a p h y a n d a r e d i s p l a y e d fo r l o n g p e r i o d s of t i m e . B e c a u s e l a b e l s a r e e x p e n s i v e to p r o d u c e , t h e y c o n v e y m e s s a g e s that a r e not l ikely to c h a n g e , s u c h a s b io log ica l in format ion a b o u t the a n i m a l in t h e exhibi t . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s , fit S e r r e l l ' s c r i te r ia for l abe l d e s i g n . B e c a u s e t h e w h i t e b o a r d s a r e s i m p l e , e a s i l y c h a n g e d a n d h a v e a n i n e x p e n s i v e f o r m a t t h e N a t u r a l i s t s , e d u c a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s w h o w o r k with v is i to rs , h a v e a m e d i u m to c o n v e y c u r r e n t a n d c h a n g i n g in format ion s u c h a s n e w a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r s . 36 M u c h of t h e e x h i b i t l a b e l r e s e a r c h f o c u s e s o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of c r i t e r i a for " s u c c e s s f u l " l a b e l s . A s u c c e s s f u l l abe l is o n e w h i c h v i s i t o r s will s t o p to r e a d . In B i t g o o d ' s (1990) rev iew of t h e labe l l i terature h e s t a t e s that, " L a b e l s c a n b e d e s i g n e d s o that t h e y h a v e a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y of b e i n g r e a d , m e e t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s of a n exhib i t , a n d c r e a t e v is i tor sa t is fac t ion ." ( B i t g o o d , 1990) T h e a t t e m p t to p l a c e l a b e l d e s i g n into a v i s i t o r - c e n t r e d c o n t e x t is a cr i t ica l s t e p in t rans fe r r ing t h e i m p o r t a n c e of a labe l c r e a t e d b e c a u s e e x h i b i t s t radi t ional ly h a v e h a d l a b e l s , to a l abe l that a c t s a s a n in te r face b e t w e e n v is i to rs a n d t h e exhibi t . A l t h o u g h B i t g o o d e m b e d s labe l d e v e l o p m e n t in a visitor, con tex t , h e p l a c e s m o r e e m p h a s i s o n t h e l a b e l a s t h e m e d i u m t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e v i s i t o r s l e a r n r a t h e r t h a n t h e exh ib i t . R e l a t i v e l y f e w v i s i t o r s r e a d l a b e l s a n d s o t h e y s h o u l d b e a c o m p o n e n t of t h e exhibi t a n d not t h e " e d u c a t i o n a l a i m of the exhibit". B i t g o o d g r o u p s t h e labe l d e s i g n p r inc ip les s u c h a s let ter s i z e , p l a c e m e n t of l a b e l s , a n d l a b e l l e n g t h into t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ref lect ing a v is i to r -cen t red p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a r e ; 1) k n o w y o u r a u d i e n c e 2) c a p t u r e their at tent ion 3) h o l d their at tent ion. T h e w h i t e b o a r d s a r e a l s o d e v e l o p e d within a v i s i t o r - c e n t r e d p e r s p e c t i v e . Na tura l i s ts , e d u c a t o r s w h o t e a c h v is i to rs , wr i te t h e w h i t e b o a r d s , o f t e n with d i r e c t v is i tor input . W h i t e b o a r d s c a t c h t h e v is i tors ' a t tent ion a n d di rect t h e v is i tors to s o m e t h i n g of interest. T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m o s t l a b e l s a n d w h i t e b o a r d s is that t h e w h i t e b o a r d s n e e d t h e c o n t e x t of t h e exhib i t in o r d e r for t h e v is i to rs to u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e s s a g e wh i le m o s t l a b e l s a r e c o m p r e h e n s i b l e a w a y f r o m t h e contex t of the exhibit . 37 B i t g o o d ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e l a b e l l i terature d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s u s e d to d e v e l o p l a b e l s d e s i g n e d to b e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c o m p o n e n t of t h e exhibi t . T h e w o r k of B o r u n a n d A d a m s ( 1 9 9 1 ) d e s c r i b e s a p r o c e s s u s e d to d e v e l o p l a b e l s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e v is i tors to look at exh ib i ts m u c h like the a p p r o a c h u s e d b y t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d s . B o r u n a n d A d a m s d e v e l o p e d a l a b e l in c o n j u n c t i o n with a n i n t e r a c t i v e d e v i c e d e s i g n e d to c o u n t e r p e o p l e ' s m i s c o n c e p t i o n that t h e e a r t h ' s s p i n n i n g d o e s not g e n e r a t e its g rav i ta t iona l pul l . (Gr av i t a t ion a n d rotat ion h a v e s e p a r a t e a n d u n r e l a t e d e f fects . ) T h e first l abe l B o r u n a n d A d a m s u s e d w a s a s t a n d a r d s c i e n c e c e n t r e t y p e l a b e l that p r o v i d e d t h e v i s i t o r s with i n f o r m a t i o n o n h o w to o p e r a t e t h e d e v i c e a n d o b s e r v e t h e ' e x p e r i m e n t ' . T h e l a b e l a t t e m p t e d to t e a c h t h e v i s i t o r s t h e a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t that t h e d e v i c e i l lustrated but a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of t h e v is i to rs (33%) w a l k e d a w a y f r o m t h e exhib i t with t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n that g r av i t y r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e e a r t h ' s rotat ion. B o r u n a n d A d a m s e x p e r i m e n t e d with t h e l abe l f o r m a t until t h e y f o u n d that o n l y 2 5 % of t h e v is i tors , after u s i n g t h e exhibi t , h a d t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n a b o u t grav i ty a n d rotat ion. T h e labe l t h e y e v e n t u a l l y r e a d , " S e p a r a t e a n d U n e q u a l F o r c e s . If the E a r t h s t o p p e d s p i n n i n g , G r a v i t y w o u l d still ho ld u s d o w n . C a n y o u p r o v e it? ( u s e t h e on/off switch)" T h i s labe l l inked the d e v i c e (or t h e exhibit) with t h e re levan t c o n c e p t s i n t r o d u c e d in the labe l . Ins tead of b e i n g t h e " e d u c a t i o n a l ob jec t ive" of t h e exhibi t a s B i t g o o d d e s c r i b e d , t h e l abe l b e c o m e s a n in tegra l c o m p o n e n t of t h e exhibi t . N e i t h e r t h e exhibi t n o r t h e 38 l abe l c o u l d a c h i e v e its g o a l wi thout t h e o ther . B o r u n a n d A d a m s f o u n d that with th is l a b e l d e s i g n , m o s t v is i to rs l o o k e d b a c k a n d forth b e t w e e n t h e labe l a n d t h e d e v i c e a n d u s e d t h e in fo rmat ion o n t h e labe l to interpret their e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s labe l l ing a p p r o a c h m e e t s t h e exh ib i t d e s i g n e r ' s a g e n d a ( c o r r e c t i n g m i s c o n c e p t i o n s ) a n d t h e v i s i t o r s ' a g e n d a (a re levan t e x p e r i e n c e ) . T h e w a y in w h i c h w h i t e b o a r d m e s s a g e s a r e wri t ten i s s i m i l a r to t h e f o r m a t u s e d b y B o r u n a n d A d a m s . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s d i r e c t v i s i t o r s ' a t t e n t i o n t o w a r d s s o m e t h i n g o b s e r v a b l e in t h e exh ib i t s u c h a s a f ish g u a r d i n g n e w l y la id e g g s . T h e m e s s a g e d i r e c t s t h e v i s i t o r s to w a t c h for s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s f r o m t h e f i s h (the interaction between label and exhibit) w h i c h i l lustrate a s t r a t e g y t h e a n i m a l u s e s to g u a r d t h e e g g s (the concept). T h e q u e s t i o n o r c h a l l e n g e e n c o u r a g e s t h e v is i to rs not to r e a d t h e exhib i t l a b e l but to f ind t h e a n s w e r b y l o o k i n g at t h e exhib i t . T h e v i s i t o r s u s e t h e w h i t e b o a r d to h e l p i n t e r p r e t t h e a n i m a l ' s b e h a v i o u r s . T h e t w o c o m p o n e n t s ( w h i t e b o a r d a n d exhibi t ) b e c o m e t ied t o g e t h e r a s with B o r u n a n d A d a m s ' labe l a n d in teract ive d e v i c e . W h i l e l a b e l d e v e l o p e r s h a v e a t t e m p t e d to d e s i g n t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e l a b e l p o s s i b l e , a n y o n e s p e n d i n g t i m e in a n a q u a r i u m o r m u s e u m s o o n r e a l i z e s that t h e major i ty of v is i tors r e a d v e r y little d u r i n g their visit. E d u c a t o r s n e e d to look for t e c h n i q u e s that will attract a t tent ion to exh ib i ts a n d l a b e l s wi thout d is t rac t ing f r o m t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f o c u s , t h e e x h i b i t i tsel f . T w o s t u d i e s h a v e e x a m i n e d exh ib i t m o d i f i c a t i o n s , s i m i l a r to w h i t e b o a r d s , d e s i g n e d to e n c o u r a g e m o r e labe l r e a d i n g . H i r s c h i a n d S c r e v e n (1988) 39 p l a c e d t y p e d q u e s t i o n s , or " label c l u e s " , re levant to the exhibit l abe l o n a n exhibit . T h e a n s w e r s to t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c o u l d b e f o u n d in the b o d y of t h e l a b e l . T h e y f o u n d that the add i t iona l q u e s t i o n s d id i n c r e a s e t h e t ime v is i tors s p e n t r e a d i n g t h e l abe l , a l t h o u g h v is i tors o n l y r e a d until t h e y f o u n d t h e a n s w e r to t h e q u e s t i o n . W h e r e q u e s t i o n s w e r e p l a c e d o n t h e exhib i ts , the t i m e s p e n t at the exhibit (not c o u n t i n g t h e add i t iona l r e a d i n g t ime) a l s o i n c r e a s e d . B i t g o o d , P a t t e r s o n a n d B e n e f i e l d (1992 ) c o n d u c t e d a s imi la r s t u d y u s i n g q u e s t i o n s o n h a n d o u t s i n s t e a d of q u e s t i o n s a t t a c h e d to t h e exhibit . T h e y a l s o f o u n d that v i s i t o r s with t h e h a n d o u t s r e a d m o r e of t h e l abe l a n d v i s i t o r s s p e n t l o n g e r at t h e exhib i t e x c l u d i n g t h e a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g t i m e . N e i t h e r of t h e s e s t u d i e s , h o w e v e r , d e s c r i b e d h o w t h e v is i tors u s e d the ex t ra t i m e at t h e exhibit . B o t h s t u d i e s a r e g o o d e x a m p l e s of h o w m o d i f i c a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g e x h i b i t s i n c r e a s e vis i tor l abe l r e a d i n g . S u p p o r t for t h e ef fect of l abe l r e a d i n g o n vis i tor b e h a v i o u r a l s o c o m e s f r o m K o r a n , K o r a n a n d F o s t e r (1989) . In th is r e s p e c t , t h e w h i t e b o a r d s p l a y a s imi la r ro le . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s , a s wel l a s t h e q u e s t i o n s a n d h a n d o u t s , ac t a s a n o v e l s t i m u l u s to v is i tors a n d c u e t h e m to look at the exhibi t o r r e a d t h e l abe l . T h e q u e s t i o n s o r " label c u e s " fall into B i t g o o d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of a l a b e l d e s i g n e d a s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e of t h e exhib i t o r to b e r e a d . T h e y d o not a c t i v e l y p r o m o t e t h e in terac t ion b e t w e e n v is i tors a n d exhibi t a s in t h e a p p r o a c h u s e d by B o r u n a n d A d a m s to label l ing a n in teract ive d e v i c e . 40 M o s t s t u d i e s o n l a b e l d e s i g n u s e a quant i ta t i ve , o b s e r v a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h , m e a s u r i n g v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s a l a b e l ' s h o l d i n g p o w e r . T h e r e is little r e s e a r c h w h i c h a d d r e s s e s the i m p a c t of l a b e l s o n visi tor b e h a v i o u r (other t h a n t h e o b s e r v a b l e ) a n d att itudinal c h a n g e a s a result of t h e e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r ich a n d g r o w i n g b o d y of r e s e a r c h r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e l i terature p r o v i d e s ins ight into visitor b e h a v i o u r , r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s a n d l ea rn ing theory . T h e ins igh ts g a i n e d f rom t h e l i t e r a t u r e , c o m b i n e d wi th t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e wi th t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m , p r o v i d e d a f o u n d a t i o n u p o n w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a n d m e t h o d s w e r e d e v e l o p e d . 41 CHAPTER 3 - RESEARCH METHODS T h e cur ren t s t u d y is the c u l m i n a t i o n of s ix y e a r s of pilot s t u d i e s w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e d the s u c c e s s e s a n d f a i l u r e s of t h e w h i t e b o a r d p r o t o t y p e s , b a s e d o n c o m m e n t s f r o m v is i tors a n d V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m staff. Staff i m p r o v e d t h e t y p e a n d f o r m a t of t h e m e s s a g e s a n d t h e p h y s i c a l s t ruc tu re of t h e w h i t e b o a r d p r o t o t y p e s resu l t ing in t h e f o r m a t u s e d in the cur ren t s tudy . T h e p u r p o s e of t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of t h e w h i t e b o a r d s w a s v e r y d i f fe rent f r o m t h e w h i t e b o a r d i n v e s t i g a t e d in t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . T h e o r ig ina l w h i t e b o a r d w a s part of a project , Animal of the Week, d e s i g n e d to h e l p N a t u r a l i s t s , v is i tor e d u c a t o r s , d e v e l o p n e w i n f o r m a t i o n a n d ac t i v i t i es a b o u t s o m e of t h e l e s s f a m i l i a r a n i m a l s o n d i s p l a y . N a t u r a l i s t s r e s e a r c h e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a n a n i m a l a n d p r o v i d e d o u t l i n e s of the i r r e s e a r c h for o t h e r staff to r e a d . N a t u r a l i s t s u s e d w h i t e b o a r d s to c o n v e y t h e n e w in fo rmat ion a b o u t a n i m a l s to v is i tors . T h e N a t u r a l i s t s o b s e r v e d that v is i to rs r e a d the i n f o r m a t i o n d e s p i t e t h e a w k w a r d p o s i t i o n of t h e w h i t e b o a r d r e s t i n g o n t h e f loor . V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m staff r e a l i z e d that t h e w h i t e b o a r d w a s a g o o d m e d i u m to c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n a n d fu r ther e x p l o r e d t h e potent ia l of w h i t e b o a r d s to c o m m u n i c a t e with visi tors. V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m staff c h a n g e d t h e u s e of w h i t e b o a r d s f r o m a m e a n s to c o n v e y Animal of the Week i n f o r m a t i o n to m o r e c l o s e l y re f lec t t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h b y e n c o u r a g i n g v is i tors to m a k e their o w n a n i m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . 42 Animal Observation p r o j e c t s r e p l a c e d t h e Animal of the Week e x e r c i s e a n d p r o v i d e d t h e N a t u r a l i s t s with a m e a n i n g f u l o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n m o r e a b o u t t h e a n i m a l s at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . Na tura l i s ts c o n d u c t e d a n i m a l o b s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d to a c c o m p l i s h t h r e e m a i n g o a l s ; 1) d i s c o v e r m o r e a b o u t a n i m a l s a n d h o w v i s i t o r s p e r c e i v e a n i m a l s t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n , 2) m o d e l a " d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g a p p r o a c h " to v is i to rs , a n d 3) h e l p v i s i t o r s d e v e l o p a bet ter u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s c i e n c e a n d h o w it w o r k s by m o d e l l i n g a n i m a l o b s e r v a t i o n r e s e a r c h a s a p r o c e s s of s c i e n c e . A s i n g l e g u i d e l i n e d i r e c t e d t h e project : v is i tors c a n a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s b a s e d o n o b s e r v a t i o n s of a n i m a l s . W h i t e b o a r d s b e c a m e a too l to i n v o l v e v i s i t o r s in t h e a n i m a l o b s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s . N a t u r a l i s t s u s e d w h i t e b o a r d s to i n d i c a t e to v is i to rs w h a t a n i m a l s t h e y w e r e w a t c h i n g , w h i c h b e h a v i o u r s t h e y w e r e l o o k i n g fo r a n d w h a t d a t a t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t i n g . Na tura l i s ts p l a c e d the a n i m a l o b s e r v a t i o n w h i t e b o a r d s b e s i d e t h e a n i m a l s ' exh ib i ts for v is i to rs to r e a d d u r i n g t h e d a y . T h i s w a s t h e first a t t e m p t to c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n to v is i to rs a b o u t c u r r e n t a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r a n d e v e n t s in a writ ten f o r m t h r o u g h out t h e d a y . A un ivers i ty s t u d e n t c o n d u c t e d a pilot s t u d y o n the first w h i t e b o a r d p r o t o t y p e o n a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r . H e s t u d i e d h o w v is i tors r e a c t e d to w h i t e b o a r d s in di f ferent l o c a t i o n s in the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s A m a z o n ga l l e ry ( W a d g e , 1993) . W a d g e ' s s t u d y c o n f i r m e d that v is i tors r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d s a n d that o n e of t h e s t r e n g t h s of t h e w h i t e b o a r d s w a s the i n t e r a c t i o n s t h e y s t i m u l a t e d b e t w e e n v i s i t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y p a r e n t s with c h i l d r e n , b y 43 p r o v i d i n g t h e p a r e n t s wi th i n f o r m a t i o n to s h a r e with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . H e m a d e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a b o u t the p h y s i c a l s e t u p of w h i t e b o a r d s , their l o c a t i o n with r e s p e c t to t h e a n i m a l s t h e y highl ight , a n d t h e u s e of text a n d v i s u a l s to p r o v i d e bo th a v e r b a l a n d n o n v e r b a l m e s s a g e . B e c a u s e v is i tors r e a d w h i t e b o a r d s t h e Na tura l i s ts w e r e t e m p t e d to u s e w h i t e b o a r d s to c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n that t h e y felt w a s i m p o r t a n t a n d i n t e r e s t i n g but not n e c e s s a r i l y cur ren t or n e w . A g o o d e x a m p l e of this o c c u r r e d at t h e s t r e a m exhibi t w h i c h c o n t a i n e d di f ferent s p e c i e s of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a ' s trout. T o the a v e r a g e v is i tor ( a n d m a n y of the staff) it w a s difficult to tell t h e s p e c i e s apar t e v e n with the a id of t h e ident i f icat ion l a b e l s . A k e e n f i s h e r m a n , w h o a l s o h a p p e n e d to b e a Natura l is t , w a n t e d v is i to rs to r e c o g n i z e d i f ferent s p e c i e s a n d d e v e l o p e d a w h i t e b o a r d to h e l p t h e v i s i t o r s ident i fy e a c h trout s p e c i e s . T h i s t rout iden t i f i ca t ion w h i t e b o a r d w a s s u c c e s s f u l in that it h e l p e d t h e v is i tors to identi fy t h e d i f ferent s p e c i e s a n d m o r e v is i to rs s t o p p e d to look at t h e trout. H o w e v e r , g i v e n t h e l im i ted n u m b e r of w h i t e b o a r d s a n d a n u n l i m i t e d n u m b e r of e x c i t i n g a n i m a l e v e n t s in t h e e x h i b i t s , t h e u s e of w h i t e b o a r d s to c o n v e y s ta t ic in format ion s u c h a s s p e c i e s ident i f icat ion w a s q u e s t i o n e d . Staff d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t t h e trout w h i t e b o a r d r e s u l t e d in t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e f inal s t a g e of w h i t e b o a r d m e s s a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e N a t u r a l i s t s d e v e l o p e d g u i d e l i n e s for t h e w h i t e b o a r d s ( F i g u r e 4) to h e l p m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y in t h e t y p e of m e s s a g e c o n v e y e d a n d in the w a y t h e m e s s a g e w a s written. T h e w h i t e b o a r d b e c a m e a v e h i c l e to c o n v e y new, c u r r e n t a n d c h a n g i n g in format ion a b o u t a n i m a l s in t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . 44 Whiteboard Criteria: Aesthetics! - Take your time - make sure it is neat - use UPPER and lower case letters (appropriately)(nOt Like This) - use a straight edge if necessary to write in straight lines - drawings should be carefully done and easy to understand - Pat Walker is available to help with pictures Whiteboard Objective: 1) Highlighting an activity/animal/research project that is currently happening examples: Midas cichlid babies Beluga whales wearing identification bracelets Anaconda shedding Developing salmon eggs Grunt Sculpin eggs being reared in the lab (highlighting research and animal husbandry) Watching a new amazon bird fit into the jungle Watching territorial behaviour between newly introduced rockfish Sea otters having pups - eliciting public observations Since these boards are featuring something that is currently happening they have a limited lifespan. If the whiteboard can be left up forever it is not serving its purpose and should instead be a label or permanent graphic. 2) Theme: highlighting special events All or some of the whiteboards focus, interactively, on an aspect of theme of the special event. example: Halloween: Skeleton and Ghost Shrimps 3) Graphic Development Through consultation with Elin and Catherine Po whiteboards can be used to try ideas for graphics. Whiteboards with this purpose must only be left up for a week and during the time they are in the galleries Naturalists must survey visitors. If successful, keep track of these graphic ideas for future incorporation.. Record Keeping: As part of doing whiteboards, bring out a recipe card and jot down what you wrote. Whiteboard ideas will be kept in metal recipe box for future reference. Share good ideas at morning meetings. Ask Yourself: i) What is my concept? Is this idea expressed by the whiteboard? ii) Does the whiteboard encourage the visitor/reader to be active? (Can you find? Look for... How many can you find? ) iii) Can the visitor find answers to questions/challenges? iv) Is it current? v) What's the point? Why do you want the visitors to know this? vi) Does this whiteboard act like a label? (Can it be left indefinitely?) F i g u r e 4: W h i t e b o a r d g u i d e l i n e s d e v e l o p e d b y Na tura l i s ts . N a t u r a l i s t s s o u g h t n e w a n i m a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a n i m a l c a r e staff a n d l o o k e d for i n t e r e s t i n g a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r s to r e p r e s e n t o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d s . T h i s c u r r e n t in format ion d i f fered great ly f r o m o t h e r t y p e s of written in format ion in t h e ga l le r ies . Staff i m p r o v e d the fo rmat a n d v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e w h i t e b o a r d with t h e h e l p of t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r . T h e y e x p e r i m e n t e d with d i f ferent s i z e s of w h i t e b o a r d s a n d with t h e legibil ity of the w o r d s a n d g r a p h i c s to d e v e l o p a w h i t e b o a r d with a h i g h a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d but p r a c t i c a l for t h e N a t u r a l i s t s to u s e a n d m a i n t a i n . T h e first w h i t e b o a r d w a s a 6 0 c m x 9 0 c m b o a r d r e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e wal l b y a n exhibit ( F i g u r e 5). V i s i t o r s f o u n d it difficult to s e e b e c a u s e it w a s too low a n d it w o u l d of ten fall d o w n . T h e w h i t e b o a r d w a s t h e n put o n a n e a s e l ( F i g u r e 6) , w h i c h m a d e it m o r e v is ib le but t h e e a s e l b e c a m e a h a z a r d in t h e b u s y g a l l e r i e s . N a t u r a l i s t s e x p e r i m e n t e d with o t h e r w h i t e b o a r d s i z e s but d e t e r m i n e d that the 6 0 c m x 9 0 c m w h i t e b o a r d w a s the b e s t s i z e to attract at tent ion a n d p r o v i d e d t h e Na tura l i s ts with e n o u g h s p a c e to write a m e s s a g e , of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 w o r d s v is i tors c o u l d r e a d e a s i l y . M a n y Na tura l i s ts h a d diff iculty in wri t ing leg ib ly o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d but e v e n t u a l l y th is i m p r o v e d with s o m e c o a c h i n g . T h e a d d i t i o n of a c l e a r p l a s t i c c o v e r p r e v e n t e d t h e f i n g e r s of c u r i o u s c h i l d r e n f r o m e r a s i n g le t ters o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d s . T h i s c o v e r ' s m a j o r d r a w b a c k w a s that the c o v e r qu ick ly b e c a m e s c r a t c h e d a n d d i s c o l o u r e d . 46 F i g u r e 6: A w h i t e b o a r d pro to type T h e c u r r e n t f o r m of t h e w h i t e b o a r d ( F i g u r e 7) a d d r e s s e d all t h e p r o b l e m s of legibility, durabi l i ty a n d a e s t h e t i c s . It is a f r e e s t a n d i n g a l u m i n u m f r a m e with a 6 0 c m x 9 0 c m w h i t e b o a r d o n both s i d e s of the f r a m e . T h e f r a m e o p e n s to a l low t h e inser t ion of a thin p lex i c o v e r to p r e v e n t v i s i t o r s f r o m e r a s i n g t h e w o r d s . T h e N a t u r a l i s t s u s e e ight p o r t a b l e , a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g a n d e a s y - t o - u s e w h i t e b o a r d s t h r o u g h o u t t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m to highl ight cur ren t a n i m a l e v e n t s . Staff l e a r n e d m u c h f r o m o b s e r v i n g v is i tors ' u s e of t h e w h i t e b o a r d p r o t o t y p e s . V is i tors ' c o m m e n t s p r o v i d e d ins ight into t h e t y p e of e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y h a d at e x h i b i t s u s i n g w h i t e b o a r d s a n d i n d i c a t e d s o m e of t h e s u c c e s s e s of the w h i t e b o a r d s . T h r e e v is i tors wrote of their e x p e r i e n c e s u s i n g w h i t e b o a r d s . "I th ink t h e w h i t e b o a r d s y o u h a v e d i s p l a y e d a r o u n d t h e a q u a r i u m a r e a f a n t a s t i c e d u c a t i o n a l too l . T h e y g i v e p e o p l e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y w o u l d not h a v e o t h e r w i s e k n o w n (i .e. - t h e s h a r k is g o i n g to h a v e b a b i e s a n d t h e o c t o p u s h a s laid e g g s ) . L o o k i n g at t h e d i f fe rent t a n k s is m u c h m o r e i n t e r e s t i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n a l . W e a l s o w a n t to m a k e a r e t u r n v is i t to t h e a q u a r i u m a g a i n s o o n to s e e t h e c h a n g e s that will h a v e t a k e n p l a c e . " (F . M c B a i n , 1994) 49 " S t o p , L o o k , L i s t e n . I r e a l i z e that t h e s e t ime ly s i g n s a r e not n e w to t h e a q u a r i u m . H o w e v e r , I n o t i c e d m o r e o f t h e m t o d a y t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , a n d o u r f a m i l y l o v e d t h e little c h a l l e n g e s : " C a n w e s p o t t h e n e w b a n a n a s g r o w i n g o v e r h e a d ? " " W h a t m i g h t t h e w h a l e b e l o o k i n g at w h e n h i s h e a d g o e s u p l ike tha t?" . T h e s e s i g n s e n c o u r a g e m o r e i n v o l v e m e n t o n t h e part of the v is i tors . T h e y a l s o r e i n f o r c e the fact that t h e exh ib i ts a r e e v e r - c h a n g i n g . " (L. M a c k a y , 1993) " M y t h r e e y e a r o l d s o n , w h o t a k e s after h is D a d , h a s v e r y little p a t i e n c e a n d fulfi ls t h e r e q u i r e m e n t of s p e n d i n g n o m o r e t h a n 3 .5 s e c o n d s at a n y exhibi t (with the e x c e p t i o n of turt les, s h a r k s a n d s n a k e s ) . I n e v e r m i n d e d th is a s I a l w a y s e n j o y a p e a c e f u l w a l k t h r o u g h t h e a q u a r i u m . H o w e v e r n o w that I h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to d o m y o w n " in terpre ta t ion" e v e n I a m p a y i n g m o r e a t ten t ion . I s t o p p e d a n d r e a d t h e s i g n w h i c h i n d i c a t e d that n e w b a b y c i c h l i d s h a d h a t c h e d . A f te r I r e a d t h e s i g n I s t o p p e d a n d l o o k e d at t h e tank a n d m e n t i o n e d it to m y s o n . H e w a s e c s t a t i c ! H e w a s truly f a s c i n a t e d by the s m a l l a n i m a l s a n d t h e fact that t h e y w e r e b a b i e s . T h e r e is n o d o u b t that w e w o u l d h a v e m i s s e d th is exhibi t ent i re ly h a d t h e r e not b e e n t h e s i g n s ind icat ing what to look for. A f te r t h e e x p e r i e n c e of o b s e r v i n g t h e b a b y f ish I n o w k e e p a n e y e o u t fo r t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e s i g n s . T h i s h a s i n c r e a s e d m y v i e w i n g p l e a s u r e a n d k n o w l e d g e c o n s i d e r a b l y . L e s t y o u think I a m a l o n e in m y v i e w I w a s f a s c i n a t e d to o b s e r v e that a n u m b e r of p e o p l e felt t h e y w o u l d h a v e m i s s e d t h e exh ib i t wi thout t h e interpret ive s i g n . " (R. K o b e l l , 1992) T h e pilot s t u d i e s o n t h e p r o t o t y p e w h i t e b o a r d s a n d t h e a n e c d o t a l c o m m e n t s f r o m v i s i t o r s p r o v i d e d d a t a f r o m w h i c h h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t h o w w h i t e b o a r d s e f fec t v is i tor b e h a v i o u r w e r e d e v e l o p e d . T h e fo l lowing se t of h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t v is i tor b e h a v i o u r g u i d e d the p r e s e n t s t u d y . 1a . W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s will s p e n d m o r e t ime v i e w i n g a n exhibi t t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . b. W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s will s p e n d m o r e t i m e at the next, n o n - w h i t e b o a r d exhibi t t h e y visit ( the s e c o n d exhibit) t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . 2 a . W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s will exhibi t a h i g h e r leve l of interactivity t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . Interactivity - the n u m b e r of b e h a v i o u r s (point ing, c o n v e r s a t i o n , p e e r i n g , r e r e a d i n g t h e w h i t e b o a r d ) a n ind iv idua l d e m o n s t r a t e s whi le at a n exhibi t . P o i n t s - t h e s u b j e c t p h y s i c a l l y po in ts at t h e exhibit o r at a n a n i m a l in t h e exhibi t . P e e r s - t h e s u b j e c t p h y s i c a l l y m o v e s c l o s e r to t h e exhibi t g l a s s to look at s o m e t h i n g . C o n v e r s e s - the s u b j e c t s p e a k s with s o m e o n e e l s e . R e r e a d w h i t e b o a r d - the s u b j e c t l o o k s at t h e w h i t e b o a r d m o r e t h a n o n c e . b. W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s will exhibit a h i g h e r level of interactivity at t h e next , n o n -w h i t e b o a r d exhibi t t h e y visit (the s e c o n d exhibit) t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . 3. W h i t e b o a r d u s e r b e h a v i o u r (point ing, c o n v e r s a t i o n , p e e r i n g , r e r e a d i n g t h e w h i t e b o a r d ) will i nd ica te w h e t h e r t h e u s e r o b s e r v e d t h e a n i m a l o r activity h i g h l i g h t e d b y t h e w h i t e b o a r d . 4. T h e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s ' c o n v e r s a t i o n will c o n t a i n in format ion f r o m t h e w h i t e b o a r d . 5. W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s will reca l l in format ion a b o u t a n i m a l s a n d a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r a n d re la te a n e c d o t a l in format ion a b o u t t h e u s e of w h i t e b o a r d s . 52 R e s e a r c h e r s u s e a n u m b e r of m e t h o d s to o b s e r v e v is i to r b e h a v i o u r w i th in a n institution. T h e s e m e t h o d s m a y look at the overa l l v isi tor e x p e r i e n c e o r a n e x p e r i e n c e at a s p e c i f i c exhibi t . T r a c k i n g or fo l lowing t h e v is i to rs a n d no t ing t h e t i m e s p e n t a n d their b e h a v i o u r s at e a c h exhibi t (Fa lk , 1993) p r o v i d e s in fo rmat ion o n w h a t the v is i tors d o t h r o u g h t h e ent i re visit. D i a l o g u e t r a c k i n g r e c o r d s c o n v e r s a t i o n a s v is i to rs m o v e t h r o u g h t h e insti tut ion ( C o o p e r , 1995 ) a n d p r o v i d e s m o r e ins ight into t h e v is i tors ' total e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t r a c k i n g . B e h a v i o u r a l m a p p i n g , a t e c h n i q u e s i m i l a r to t r a c k i n g , e x a m i n e s vis i tor b e h a v i o u r at a s i n g l e exhibi t b y r e c o r d i n g b e h a v i o u r of exhibi t u s e r s o v e r t ime . T h i s t e c h n i q u e p r o v i d e s in fo rmat ion a b o u t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e u s e r s a n d h o w t h e y ut i l ize t h e exh ib i t ( H a y w a r d , 1 9 8 8 ) . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e u s e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a in e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s to m e a s u r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n two exh ib i t a p p r o a c h e s ( K o r a n , K o r a n , a n d F o s t e r , 1 9 8 8 ; F a l k , 1 9 9 3 ; P e a r t , 1 9 8 6 ) . D i f f e r e n c e s in t h e v is i tor b e h a v i o u r in t h e t w o e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s h e l p exhib i t d e s i g n e r s d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s i t u a t i o n is m o r e s u c c e s s f u l a n d s o m a x i m i z e s t h e l ea rn ing potent ia l of a n exhibit . T h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s u s e d b y F a l k (1993) , H a y w a r d (1988 ) a n d K o r a n , K o r a n a n d F o s t e r (1988) a s s i s t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of the r e s e a r c h p r o t o c o l for t h e p r e s e n t s tudy . T h e s t u d y f o c u s e d o n i n d i v i d u a l s within g r o u p s a s d e f i n e d a s two o r m o r e p e o p l e , with at l eas t o n e m e m b e r of t h e g r o u p o v e r t h e a g e of 12 y e a r s , a s j u d g e d b y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . A l l s u b j e c t s w e r e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g , d e t e r m i n e d b y o v e r h e a r d c o n v e r s a t i o n . 53 T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s a m p l e d 131 g r o u p s f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n of w e e k e n d V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m v is i tors for t h e o b s e r v a t i o n por t ion of t h e s tudy . Or ig ina l l y two un ivers i ty c o -o p s t u d e n t s , u s i n g t h e f inal w h i t e b o a r d p r o t o t y p e , d e v e l o p e d a m e t h o d o l o g y to t rack a n d t i m e v is i to r u s e of w h i t e b o a r d s ( S t e i n r a t h s , 1 9 9 4 ; W a t k i n s , 1 9 9 4 ) a n d t h i s m e t h o d o l o g y w a s re f ined for u s e . T h e inves t iga tor o b s e r v e d v is i to rs in o n e h o u r t ime b l o c k s , b e t w e e n 11 :00 a m a n d 3 :00 p m , at t h r e e di f ferent exh ib i ts with a w h i t e b o a r d , g e n e r a t i n g t h r e e d a t a s e t s . T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s e l e c t e d e v e r y th i rd v is i tor g r o u p to a p p r o a c h t h e exh ib i t with a w h i t e b o a r d a n d c h o s e o n e p e r s o n o v e r t h e a g e of 12 y e a r s a s t h e f o c a l s u b j e c t within t h e g r o u p . O b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e m a d e at t h e exhibi t with the w h i t e b o a r d a n d t h e next exhibit , re fe r red to a s t h e s e c o n d exhibit , t h e sub jec t v i e w e d . T h e fo l lowing o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t the f o c a l s u b j e c t w e r e m a d e . 1. T h e t i m e t h e f o c a l s u b j e c t v i e w e d t h e exhibi t (v iewing t ime) , m e a s u r e d with a s t o p w a t c h , b e g i n n i n g w h e n t h e f o c a l s u b j e c t w a s in front of t h e exhib i t g l a s s a n d e n d i n g w h e n t h e f o c a l s u b j e c t w a l k e d a w a y . T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a l s o n o t e d if t h e visi tor r e a d the w h i t e b o a r d . 2. T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r r e c o r d e d a nar ra t ive of t h e f o c a l s u b j e c t ' s b e h a v i o u r o n a n a u d i o t a p e a n d n o t e d t h e n u m b e r of t i m e s t h e s u b j e c t p o i n t e d , c o n v e r s e d , p e e r e d into t h e exh ib i t , r e a d t h e l a b e l s , a n d r e r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d b y k e e p i n g a tally. 3. T h e inves t iga tor r e p e a t e d a n y o v e r h e a r d c o n v e r s a t i o n into t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r a n d n o t e d t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e s u b j e c t ' s c o m m e n t s r e l e v a n t to t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n d u c t e d s h o r t i n t e r v i e w s to elicit t h e i m p r e s s i o n s of w h i t e b o a r d s f r o m 2 0 r a n d o m l y s a m p l e d s u b j e c t s . T h e i n t e r v i e w p r o t o c o l w a s d e s i g n e d to a c c o m p l i s h t h e f o l l o w i n g ; 1) d e v e l o p a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of v is i to rs ' fami l iar i ty with the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m , 2) sol ic i t v i s i t o r s ' r e c o l l e c t i o n s a b o u t the i r e x p e r i e n c e at a n 54 e x h i b i t wi th a w h i t e b o a r d u s i n g p h o t o s to a i d e r e c a l l , a n d 3) s o l i c i t v i s i t o r s ' i m p r e s s i o n s of w h i t e b o a r d s . In terv iews w e r e a u d i o - r e c o r d e d with t h e p e r m i s s i o n of t h e s u b j e c t a n d n o t e s w e r e m a d e o n t h e in te rv iew s h e e t . T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s h o w e d t h e s u b j e c t s a p h o t o of a w h i t e b o a r d at a n exhib i t a n d e l ic i ted their r e s p o n s e to q u e s t i o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d the fo l lowing: 1. D i d y o u s e e a w h i t e b o a r d o n y o u r visit t o d a y ? 2. W h a t d o y o u r e m e m b e r a b o u t t h e exhibit a n d a n i m a l s w h i c h h a d a w h i t e b o a r d o n d i s p l a y ? 3 a . W h a t d o y o u like a b o u t the w h i t e b o a r d s ? b. W h a t w o u l d y o u c h a n g e a b o u t the w h i t e b o a r d s ? 4. H o w l o n g h a v e y o u b e e n in t h e a q u a r i u m t o d a y ? T h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l a n d interv iew d a t a g e n e r a t e d a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the visi tor e x p e r i e n c e with w h i t e b o a r d s . A g r o u p prof i le w a s c r e a t e d to d e t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n adu l t a n d a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s . A d u l t o n l y g r o u p s w e r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m g r o u p s with c h i l d r e n o n t h e b a s i s of a g e . A g r o u p with a n ind iv idua l j u d g e d to b e 16 y e a r s o r l e s s w a s c a l l e d a n a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p . A d u l t a n d a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s u s e of w h i t e b o a r d s a n d t h e i r b e h a v i o u r w e r e c o m p a r e d u s i n g a c h i - s q u a r e d tes t . A n i n d e p e n d e n t t-test w a s u s e d to c o m p a r e t h e m e a n v i e w i n g t i m e s of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s to n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s for both exhib i ts . 55 T h e g a l l e r i e s at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a r e a v e r y d y n a m i c l a b o r a t o r y for v is i tor s t u d i e s s o it is n e c e s s a r y to m a k e a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t v is i to r b e h a v i o u r a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r p i n a n d limit t h e r e s e a r c h . Assumptions about subjects • W h i t e b o a r d s ef fect visi tor b e h a v i o u r . • Fami l iar i ty with the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m m a y af fect b e h a v i o u r . • O v e r t b e h a v i o u r s r e p r e s e n t thought . • G r o u p s i z e m a y affect b e h a v i o u r . • T h e " focal sub jec t" within the g r o u p m a y affect t ime a n d b e h a v i o u r at a n exhibit . • V is i tors ' prior e x p e r i e n c e s with w h i t e b o a r d s m a y affect b e h a v i o u r . Assumptions about the environment • T h e n u m b e r of o t h e r v is i tors a r o u n d a n exhibit m a y affect t h e s u b j e c t ' s b e h a v i o u r . • A c r o w d a r o u n d a n exhibi t m a y i n c r e a s e interest . • T o o l a r g e a c r o w d m a y resul t in s u b j e c t s l e a v i n g o r a v o i d i n g t h e exhibi t . • T h e s i z e of a n exhibit m a y affect interest. • O t h e r exh ib i ts a r o u n d m a y affect f o c a l sub jec t . • U n p l a n n e d act iv i t ies, s u c h a s a n i m a l f e e d i n g s , m a y af fect visi tor b e h a v i o u r . • A n i m a l s h a v e dif ferent attract ion p o w e r s , (i.e. A n o c t o p u s m a y b e m o r e interest ing t h a n a snai l . ) • E x h i b i t s h a v e di f ferent at t ract ion a n d h o l d i n g p o w e r s . It is t h o u g h t that t h e l a r g e s a m p l e s i z e u s e d in t h e s t u d y l imi ted t h e i m p a c t of t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s o n t h e resu l ts of the s tudy . B e c a u s e of t h e n o t e d l imitat ions ex t rapo la t ion of t h e f i n d i n g s to o t h e r in formal l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s m u s t b e d o n e with c a r e . T h e f i n d i n g s m a y b e m o r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of s i m i l a r i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y l iving a n i m a l s , s u c h a s z o o s a n d a q u a r i a . 56 Chapter 4 - Results In this c h a p t e r the resu l ts of t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d y i n c l u d i n g a s u m m a r y of t h e d a t a , a d e s c r i p t i o n of e a c h of t h e t h r e e d a t a s e t s g e n e r a t e d at t h r e e d i f ferent exh ib i ts in t h e S a n d w e l l ga l le ry , a n d t h e interview d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d . V i g n e t t e s i n t r o d u c e e a c h d a t a set to e n h a n c e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of visi tor b e h a v i o u r at e a c h exhibit . T h e r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d d a t a f r o m 131 g r o u p s , f o c u s i n g o n o n e v is i tor , t h e f o c a l sub jec t , in e a c h g r o u p . E a c h g r o u p w a s a l s o o b s e r v e d at t h e next exhibi t ( ca l l ed the s e c o n d exhibit ) t h e y v i s i t e d . O f t h e 131 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d g r o u p s , 4 3 % w e r e adul t -ch i ld g r o u p s , g r o u p s with o n e ind iv idua l j u d g e d to b e 16 y e a r s o l d or u n d e r , a n d 5 7 % w e r e al l a d u l t g r o u p s . T h e g r o u p c o m p o s i t i o n of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n -w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s is not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f ferent , X2=1.96, p=0 .2 , ( T a b l e 1). F i f ty - two p e r c e n t of t h e f o c a l s u b j e c t s w e r e f e m a l e s a n d 4 8 % w e r e m a l e s . Table 1: Composition of groups. n w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (%) n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s ( % ) Exhibit 1 adul t o n l y g r o u p s 7 5 5 5 . 5 * 5 0 * a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s 5 6 4 4 . 5 * 4 0 * Exhibit 2 adul t o n l y g r o u p s 4 3 6 2 . 0 * 6 2 * a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s 2 7 3 8 . 0 * 3 8 j *p=0.2 M o s t f o c a l s u b j e c t s s p e n t u n d e r 6 0 s e c o n d s at e a c h . o f t h e t w o e x h i b i t s o b s e r v e d ( F i g u r e s 8 a n d 9). O v e r half (56.8%) of the w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s at t h e first exhibi t s p e n t 57 58 59 l o n g e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e e n c o u n t e r of u n d e r 4 0 s e c o n d s ( B e e r , 1987) , wh i le o n l y 2 0 % of t h e n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s p e n t l o n g e r t h a n 4 0 s e c o n d s at t h e first exhibi t . At t h e s e c o n d exhibi t , 1 3 % of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d 4 % n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t l o n g e r t h a n 4 0 s e c o n d s . T a b l e 2 s h o w s that t h e m e a n v i e w i n g t i m e s for w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s at t h e first exh ib i t , t = 3 6 . 6 5 , df = 129 , p < 0 . 0 0 1 , a n d at the s e c o n d exhibit , t = 9 .93 , df = 68 , p < 0.001 ( F i g u r e 10). Table 2: Exhibit viewing times for all groups. n V i e w i n g t i m e ( s e c ) min . m a x . m e a n Exhibit 1 W h i t e b o a r d u s e r 81 0 2 3 6 5 7 . 0 6 * N o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r 5 0 2 1 0 8 2 5 . 9 4 * Exhibit 2 W h i t e b o a r d u s e r 4 7 1 170 2 0 . 7 4 * * N o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r 2 3 1 4 8 13 .96 * * * p < 0 . 0 0 1 **p < 0.001 60 61 T h e t y p e s a n d f r e q u e n c i e s of v is i tor b e h a v i o u r s w e r e o b s e r v e d at b o t h exh ib i ts . A s T a b l e 3 s h o w s , f e w e r t h a n half t h e v is i to rs e x h i b i t e d e a c h of t h e b e h a v i o u r s , with t h e e x c e p t i o n of po in t ing . T h e p e r c e n t of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s w h o point , c o n v e r s e a n d p e e r is s igni f icant ly g r e a t e r t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (X2 = 4 1 . 1 9 , p < 0 . 0 1 ) . Table 3: Percentages of visitors who exhibited behaviours at exhibit 1. V i s i t o r s w h o exhibi t b e h a v i o u r s n % Whiteboard user 81 P o i n t i n g 5 3 * C o n v e r s i n g 4 4 * P e e r i n g 7 0 * R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 4 2 Non-whiteboard user 5 0 P o i n t i n g 4 8 * C o n v e r s i n g 4 8 * P e e r i n g 6 2 * R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 * p < 0 . 0 1 62 W h e n t h e f r e q u e n c i e s of b e h a v i o u r s of t h e v is i tors w h o e x h i b i t e d t h e m a r e c o a l e s c e d , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s b e c o m e a p p a r e n t . T a b l e 4 s h o w s that the level of interactivity of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (the n u m b e r of b e h a v i o u r s , po in t ing , p e e r i n g , c o n v e r s i n g a n d r e r e a d i n g t h e w h i t e b o a r d , in g r o u p e d s c o r e s , a n ind iv idua l d e m o n s t r a t e s whi le at a n exhibit ) , is s ign i f icant ly g r e a t e r t h a n t h e leve l of interact ivi ty of n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (X2 = 2 3 7 . 1 6 , p < 0 .01) . T h e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s e x h i b i t e d a g r e a t e r n u m b e r of e a c h t y p e of b e h a v i o u r t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . Table 4: Interactivity of whiteboard users versus non-whiteboard users at exhibit 1. B e h a v i o u r s n I n c i d e n c e of b e h a v i o u r s (%) 3 or m o r e t i m e s 1 to 2 t i m e s Whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 4 3 4 6 * 5 4 C o n v e r s i n g 3 6 3 6 * 6 4 P e e r i n g 5 7 2 8 * 7 2 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 3 4 2 3 7 7 Non-whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 2 4 21 * 7 9 C o n v e r s i n g 2 4 13 * 8 7 P e e r i n g 31 3 * 9 7 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 * p < 0 . 0 1 63 T h e n u m b e r of v i s i t o r s w h o a t t e n d e d t h e s e c o n d e x h i b i t w a s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . H o w e v e r , it s h o w s that m o r e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s e x h i b i t e d b e h a v i o u r s t h a n n o n -w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s ( T a b l e 5). B e c a u s e of t h e s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e it is difficult to d r a w a va l id stat ist ical c o m p a r i s o n . H o w e v e r , t h e d a t a f r o m t h e s e c o n d exhibi t d o e s ind ica te s i m i l a r t r e n d s to t h e d a t a f r o m t h e first exhibi t . T a b l e s 5 a n d 6 p r o v i d e a prof i le of visi tor b e h a v i o u r s at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t a n d ind ica te , a s in t h e d a t a f r o m exhibi t o n e , that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s h a d a h i g h e r leve l of interact iv i ty t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s , a l t h o u g h it is d e c r e a s e d f rom exhibi t o n e . Table 5: Percentages of visitors who exhibited behaviours at exhibit 2. V i s i t o r s w h o exhibi t b e h a v i o u r s n % Whiteboard user 2 6 P o i n t i n g 7 3 C o n v e r s i n g 31 P e e r i n g 5 4 Non-whiteboard user 1 7 P o i n t i n g 2 9 C o n v e r s i n g 1 8 P e e r i n g 1 2 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 Table 6: Interactivity of whiteboard users versus non-whiteboard users at exhibit 2. B e h a v i o u r s n I n c i d e n c e of b e h a v i o u r s (%) 3 or m o r e t i m e s 1 to 2 t i m e s Whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 1 9 16 8 4 C o n v e r s i n g 8 0 1 0 0 P e e r i n g 14 21 7 9 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 Non-whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 5 0 1 0 0 C o n v e r s i n g 3 0 1 0 0 P e e r i n g 2 0 1 0 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 64 T h e d a t a f r o m all t h r e e s e t s i n d i c a t e that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n d s ign i f i can t ly m o r e t ime a n d e x h i b i t e d g r e a t e r interact ivi ty at t h e first exhib i t t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . E a c h of t h e t h r e e d a t a s e t s h a v e u n i q u e a s p e c t s a n d will b e p r e s e n t e d ind iv idua l ly to look at h o w t h e s i tuat ion i n f l u e n c e s visi tor b e h a v i o u r . 65 D a t a S e t O n e - G e o r g i a Strait Ra t f i sh H a l f w a y d o w n t h e S a n d w e l l ga l le ry , s u r r o u n d e d pr imar i ly b y l a r g e exh ib i ts , t h e l a r g e ratf ish exhibi t r e p r e s e n t s t h e o p e n w a t e r of G e o r g i a Strait . R a t f i s h a n d s m a l l d o g f i s h m o v e s l o w l y t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r a n d t h e o c c a s i o n a l c r a b , s e a p e n a n d p l u m o s e a n e m o n e b r e a k u p t h e exh ib i t 's s a n d y b o t t o m . T h e s o u n d s of a c h i l d r e n ' s enter ta iner at the e n d of t h e ga l le ry drift d o w n to t h e ratf ish exhibit . A w h i t e b o a r d s t a n d s in front of t h e exhib i t a n n o u n c i n g t h e n e w o r a n g e p e e l n u d i b r a n c h s a n d t h e n e w P u g e t S o u n d k ing c r a b s in t h e H o w e S o u n d exhibi t a c r o s s t h e ga l le ry . T y p i c a l v is i tor b e h a v i o u r in th is a r e a is i l lustrated b y t h e fo l lowing v i g n e t t e s d e p i c t i n g two w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d two n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . A w o m e n a n d a 1 2 y e a r o l d b o y , r e a d t h e b a c k of t h e w h i t e b o a r d at t h e rat f ish exh ib i t , m o v e a c r o s s t h e g a l l e r y a n d look in t h e H o w e S o u n d exhib i t w h i c h w a s h i g h l i g h t e d b y t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e b o y l e a v e s to l o o k at a n o t h e r exhibi t , t h e w o m a n r e r e a d s t h e w h i t e b o a r d , l o o k s b a c k into t h e H o w e S o u n d exhibi t a n d p o i n t s at s o m e t h i n g . S h e j o i n s t h e b o y br ief ly , t h e n t a k e s h i m b a c k to t h e H o w e S o u n d exhib i t to s h o w h i m t h e a n i m a l s h e w a s l o o k i n g at ear l ie r . T h e y point a n d look v e r y c l o s e l y into t h e exhib i t , a s if it is h a r d to s e e t h e a n i m a l . T h e two s p e n d t i m e t o g e t h e r , p o i n t i n g t h i n g s out to e a c h o t h e r a n d t a l k i n g . T h e b o y m o v e s to a n o t h e r part of t h e exhibit , f o l l o w e d b y t h e w o m a n , a n d s h o w s h e r s o m e t h i n g . T h e y s p e n d m o r e t i m e po in t ing at a n i m a l s a n d c o n v e r s i n g . T h e y l e a v e a f ter a b o u t t w o m i n u t e s at t h e exhibit . A w o m a n a n d a m a n a p p r o a c h t h e ra t f i sh e x h i b i t . T h e w o m a n r e a d s b o t h s i d e s of t h e w h i t e b o a r d w h i l e t h e m a n l o o k s into t h e exhibi t , s h e g l a n c e s at t h e exhib i t a n d w a l k s off with the m a n after 2 7 s e c o n d s at t h e ratf ish exhibit . 66 A n adu l t c o u p l e a p p r o a c h t h e rat f ish exhib i t . T h e w o m e n po in ts at the s e a p e n s , s a y s "look at that" a n d t h e y bo th look. T h e c o u p l e w a l k s a w a y 1 9 s e c o n d s at t h e exhib i t a n d d i d not look at the w h i t e b o a r d . A g r o u p (adu l t m a l e a n d f e m a l e with t w o y o u n g b o y s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y e igh t a n d 12 y e a r s o ld ) a p p r o a c h t h e ra t f ish exhib i t . T h e b o y s point into t h e exhibi t a n d c o n v e r s e with t h e m a n , w h o r e a d s t h e l a b e l s a n d s a y s s o m e t h i n g to t h e b o y s . T h e m a n m o v e s a w a y . T h e b o y s c o n v e r s e with t h e w o m e n , po in t ing into t h e exhibi t . T h e w o m a n a n d t h e b o y s wa lk a w a y . T h e w o m a n a n d t h e b o y s s p e n t 1 0 8 s e c o n d s at the exhibit . N o o n e in t h e g r o u p l o o k e d at t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e p r e c e d i n g v i g n e t t e s d e p i c t v is i tor e n c o u n t e r s at t h e ra t f ish exh ib i t o n a b u s y w e e k e n d d u r i n g C h r i s t m a s h o l i d a y s . T h e w h i t e b o a r d d i s p l a y e d at t h e ratf ish exhibi t d i r e c t e d v i s i t o r s to two p o s s i b l e exh ib i t s : t h e front of t h e w h i t e b o a r d h i g h l i g h t e d t h e ratf ish exhibi t a n d t h e b a c k of the w h i t e b o a r d h igh l igh ted t h e H o w e S o u n d exhibit . O f t h e 5 3 g r o u p s s a m p l e d , 51 g r o u p s u s e d t h e ratf ish exhib i t a n d t w o g r o u p s u s e d t h e H o w e S o u n d exhib i t a s the i r first exhib i t . A d u l t o n l y g r o u p s c o m p r i s e d 6 2 % of t h e g r o u p s o b s e r v e d a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g 3 8 % c o n s i s t e d of a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s . T h e r e is n o s ign i f i can t d i f f e r e n c e in t h e g r o u p c o m p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n -w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s , X2 = 0 .133 , p = 0 .01 , ( T a b l e 7). 67 Table 7: Composition of groups at the first exhibit. n w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (%) n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (%) Exhibit 1 adul t o n l y g r o u p s 3 3 61 * 6 4 * a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s 2 0 3 9 * 3 5 * Exhibit 2 adul t o n l y g r o u p s 1 8 7 2 6 3 a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s 8 2 8 3 7 *p = 0.01 F o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t of t h e f o c a l s u b j e c t s w e r e f e m a l e a n d 5 3 % w e r e m a l e . T w e n t y -f ive (47%) of t h e g r o u p s o b s e r v e d at t h e first exhibi t a t t e n d e d a s e c o n d exhibi t . T h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e s a m p l e e i ther left the g a l l e r y o r w a n d e r e d a b o u t wi thout s t o p p i n g at a n exhibit . O f the 2 5 g r o u p s , 14 u s e d w h i t e b o a r d s at the first exhibi t a n d 11 w e r e n o n -w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . T h e 2 5 g r o u p s c h o s e o n e of s e v e n d i f f e ren t e x h i b i t s a s the i r s e c o n d exhibi t ( F i g u r e 11). 68 69 T h e w h i t e b o a r d ( F i g u r e 12) in front of t h e ratf ish exhibi t w a s typ ica l of a w h i t e b o a r d at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . T h e title u s e d a n i n c o n g r u o u s q u e s t i o n " O r a n g e s in the O c e a n ? " to h o o k t h e v is i tors into r e a d i n g m o r e a n d t h e n d i r e c t e d t h e m to look into the exh ib i t a n d w a t c h for t h e o r a n g e p e e l n u d i b r a n c h m u n c h i n g o n a s e a p e n . T h e w h i t e b o a r d p r e s e n t e d a t a s k for v i s i t o r s to c o m p l e t e b e f o r e t h e y left t h e g a l l e r y by d i r e c t i n g t h e m to l o o k f o r n u d i b r a n c h s in a n o t h e r e x h i b i t . T h e w h i t e b o a r d w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75 w o r d s l o n g a n d a l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e n o p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g t h e a n i m a l s m e n t i o n e d , t h e n u d i b r a n c h a n d s e a p e n w e r e h igh l igh ted in t h e exhib i t 's labe l rack . T h e b a c k of the w h i t e b o a r d f o l l o w e d t h e s a m e pa t te rn , a l t h o u g h it d id not u s e a s m a n y w o r d s . F r o n t of w h i t e b o a r d Oranges Growing in the Ocean? ...Not realty! Outlook closely in the exhibit to your right to see the orange peel nudibrachs (pronounced new-d-brank). These unusual looking animals were recently added to'this exhibit. Can you gues what these animals eat? Watch them closely and you may see one of them munching on a sea pen! IQefore you leave this gallery see if you can find the rainbow nudibrach in the deep sea fishes exhibit. F i g u r e 12: T h e W h i t e b o a r d L o c a t e d at t h e ratf ish exhibit . B a c k of w h i t e b o a r d Royalty comes to Howe Sound Cook at your right to see the newest addition to the Howe Sound Exhibit (#68). The King Crab (2 adults and 1 juvenile) look very much like rocks when they are not moving and blend in with the background, so look very carefully! Can you find all three of these cryptic critters? 70 T h e v iewing t imes for whi teboard use rs and non-whi teboard u s e r s at both exhib i ts ranged from two s e c o n d s to 236 s e c o n d s (F igures 13 and 14). A greater percentage of whi teboard use rs (83%) spent longer than 4 0 s e c o n d s v iewing the first exhibit than non-whi teboard use rs (28%). At the second exhibit only 1 3 % of whi teboard users and 9 % of non-whi teboard users spent over 40 s e c o n d s . T a b l e 8 s h o w s that whi teboard . use rs spent signif icantly longer v iewing than the non-whi teboard users at both the first (t = 26.07, df = 51 , p < 0.001) and second (t = 7.35, df = 24, p < 0.001) exhibits (Figure 15). Table 8: Exhibit viewing times in seconds. Viewing t ime (sec.) n min. max. m e a n Exhibit 1 Whiteboard user 28 27 236 64.18* Non-whi teboard user 2 5 2 108 20.68* Exhibit 2 Whiteboard user 15 5 170 32 .33** Non-whi teboard user 11 2 4 8 14.09** * p < 0 . 0 0 1 **p < 0.001 71 WW y 0 f ^ M ^ T H ^ q ^ q H ^ ^ ^ l n l ^ ^ ^ ^ - r - r - r r ' t - r 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 subject F i g u r e 13: V i e w i n g t i m e s at exhibit o n e . r~l whiteboard user (n=28) E l non-whiteboard user (n=25) bJbl, 41 45 49 53 180-160-140-120-100-80-60-40-II 20-0-n whiteboard user (n=15) B non-whiteboard user (n=11) 13 subject 17 21 25 F i g u r e 14: V i e w i n g t i m e s at exhibit two. 72 o CO s 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 whiteboard user H exh ib i t 1 (n=28) A exh ib i t 2 (n=25) 1 non- whiteboard user F i g u r e 15: M e a n v i e w i n g t i m e s at the ratf ish exhibit . 73 T h e t y p e s a n d f r e q u e n c i e s of b e h a v i o u r s exh ib i ted b y t h e v is i to rs w a s o b s e r v e d at t h e first exhibi t ( F i g u r e s 16 -18) . In m o s t i n s t a n c e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y half t h e v is i tors p o i n t e d , c o n v e r s e d , a n d p e e r e d ( T a b l e 9). S i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s e x h i b i t e d f a v o u r a b l e b e h a v i o u r s (point , p e e r a n d r e r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d ) at exh ib i t o n e t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s with t h e e x c e p t i o n of c o n v e r s i n g (X2 = 3 7 . 7 9 , p < 0.01). Table 9: Percent of visitors who exhibit behaviours at exhibit 1. V i s i t o r s w h o exhibi t b e h a v i o u r s n % Whiteboard user 2 8 P o i n t i n g 5 4 * C o n v e r s i n g 4 6 * P e e r i n g 8 9 * R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 3 9 Non-whiteboard user 2 5 P o i n t i n g 4 4 * C o n v e r s i n g 6 0 * P e e r i n g 6 4 * R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 * p < 0 . 0 1 74 10-. 9-8-O 7-? <n 6-0> -Q 5-^ 4-3-£ nu 2-1 -0- ^ I ™ I PJ whiteboard user (n=28) H non-whiteboard user (n=25) | ffl, J ffl, 19 21 23 25 27 F i g u r e 16: F r e q u e n c y of po int ing at ratf ish exhibi t . 0 |IE7pKrj Hf • whiteboard user (n=28) g non-whiteboard user (n=25) 11 13 15 17 subject 19 21 23 25 27 F i g u r e 17: F r e q u e n c y of c o n v e r s i n g at ratf ish exhibi t . 75 • whiteboard user subject F i g u r e 18: F r e q u e n c y of p e e r i n g at exhibi t o n e . 76 T h e n u m b e r of b e h a v i o u r s v is i to rs e x h i b i t e d w e r e c o a l e s c e d to c o m p a r e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s to n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . T a b l e 10 s h o w s that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s e x h i b i t e d a s igni f icant ly h i g h e r leve l of interactivity t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s , X2 = 3 7 . 7 9 , p<0 .01 . W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s w h o r e r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d d id s o o n l y a c o u p l e of t i m e s . Re la t ive ly few v is i tors (ten of the 25) at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t d e m o n s t r a t e d b e h a v i o u r s t h e r e f o r e it is diff icult to d r a w a s ta t is t ica l c o m p a r i s o n a b o u t b e h a v i o u r s e x h i b i t e d b y w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . Table 10: Interactivity of whiteboard users versus non-whiteboard users at exhibit 1. B e h a v i o u r s n I n c i d e n c e of b e h a v i o u r s (%) 3 o r m o r e t i m e s 1 to 2 t i m e s Whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 1 5 4 7 * 5 3 C o n v e r s i n g 13 4 6 * 5 4 P e e r i n g 2 5 4 7 * 5 3 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 11 18 8 2 Non-whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 11 2 7 * 7 3 C o n v e r s i n g 1 5 14 * 8 6 P e e r i n g 16 0 * 1 0 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 * p < 0 . 0 1 77 T a b l e s 11 a n d 12 p r o v i d e a prof i le of t h e b e h a v i o u r s v is i to rs e x h i b i t e d at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t a n d i n d i c a t e , a s in exhib i t o n e , that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s h a v e a h i g h e r leve l of interactivity t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . Table 11: Percent of visitors who exhibit behaviours at exhibit 2. V i s i t o r s w h o exhibi t b e h a v i o u r s n % Whiteboard user 2 6 P o i n t i n g 1 9 C o n v e r s i n g 1 9 P e e r i n g 1 9 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 Non-whiteboard user 1 7 P o i n t i n g 1 8 C o n v e r s i n g 6 P e e r i n g 1 8 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 Table 12: Interactivity of whiteboard users versus non-whiteboard users at exhibit 2. B e h a v i o u r s n I n c i d e n c e of b e h a v i o u r s (%) 3 or m o r e t i m e s 1 to 2 t i m e s Whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 4 4 7 5 3 C o n v e r s i n g 4 4 6 5 4 P e e r i n g 4 4 7 5 3 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 Non-whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 5 2 7 7 3 C o n v e r s i n g 3 14 8 6 P e e r i n g 2 0 1 0 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 78 It w a s di f f icul t to d e t e r m i n e , b y w a t c h i n g , if v i s i t o r s i d e n t i f i e d t h e o b j e c t of t h e w h i t e b o a r d . H o w e v e r , b e h a v i o u r s p a i r e d with o v e r h e a r d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l o w e d th is d e t e r m i n a t i o n to b e m a d e . It w a s e a s y to o b s e r v e s u b j e c t s c o n v e r s i n g but it w a s v e r y difficult to o v e r h e a r their c o m m e n t s b e c a u s e of t h e n o i s y g a l l e r i e s a n d t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e v is i to rs . O f t h e 3 2 i n d i v i d u a l s w h o c o n v e r s e d , s e v e n o v e r h e a r d c o m m e n t s re la ted to t h e w h i t e b o a r d o r t h e exhibi t it r e f e r r e d to. O n l y o n e of t h e s e w h i t e b o a r d re la ted c o m m e n t s w a s m a d e b y a n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r ("look at that", po in t ing at the s e a p e n s ) . O f t h e o t h e r s ix c o m m e n t s , four w e r e a b o u t t h e n u d i b r a n c h , o n e w a s a b o u t the w h i t e b o a r d a n d o n e w a s q u e s t i o n i n g the loca t ion of the H o w e S o u n d exhibit . O n e s u b j e c t m a d e t w o c o m m e n t s , o n e a b o u t t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d t h e o t h e r a b o u t t h e n u d i b r a n c h . 79 D a t a S e t T w o - T h e S t a n l e y P a r k S h o r e s ' T u b e W o r m s T h e S t a n l e y P a r k S h o r e s a r e a f o r m s a n a l c o v e b e t w e e n t h e S a n d w e l l g a l l e r y a n d R u f e G i b b s ga l le ry . It is a bright a r e a in c o n t r a s t to the rest of t h e ga l l e ry with 12 sma l l exh ib i ts a n d t w o m e d i u m s i z e d exh ib i ts with o p e n p o o l s in front of t h e m . A Natura l is t p r o v i d e s i n v e r t e b r a t e s for v is i tors to t o u c h at o n e of t h e m e d i u m s i z e d exh ib i ts . T h i s act iv i ty w a s v e r y p o p u l a r , e s p e c i a l l y with c h i l d r e n . T h e o t h e r m e d i u m s i z e exhib i t s i m u l a t e s a f i s h ' s e y e v i e w of the s e a wall a r o u n d S t a n l e y P a r k . L a r g e c l u m p s of dark r e d t u b e w o r m s sit in b e t w e e n two p i l ings s i t u a t e d in front of a s t o n e wal l with s m a l l f ish a n d o t h e r i n v e r t e b r a t e s dar t ing a r o u n d t h e exhibi t . T h e o p e n p o o l in front of t h e t u b e w o r m exhibi t h a s a s a n d y b o t t o m with a p i e c e of drift w o o d w h i c h s m a l l f ish a n d i n v e r t e b r a t e s p e r c h o n o r h i d e u n d e r . A w h i t e b o a r d a n n o u n c i n g s p a w n i n g t u b e w o r m s s t a n d s in f ront of t h e exhibi t . T y p i c a l v is i tor b e h a v i o u r is i l lust ra ted by t h e fo l lowing v i g n e t t e s d e p i c t i n g two w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d two n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . T h e t u b e w o r m exhibi t is s u r r o u n d e d b y p e o p l e . A w o m a n r e a d s t h e w h i t e b o a r d f r o m a d i s t a n c e a n d a t t e m p t s to look a r o u n d t h e p e o p l e w h o a r e s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n h e r a n d t h e exhibi t . S h e w a l k s a w a y , g l a n c i n g b a c k at t h e exhibi t , a n d j o i n s a m a n with a b a b y w h o a r e l o o k i n g into o n e of t h e s m a l l e x h i b i t s . T h e w o m a n t a l k s to t h e m a n a n d p o i n t s b a c k at t h e exhibit . T h e m a n r e a d s t h e w h i t e b o a r d f r o m a d i s t a n c e a n d g l a n c e s at t h e exh ib i t . T h e c o u p l e o n l y l o o k e d at t h e exhibi t for a few s e c o n d s . 80 A f a m i l y ( w o m a n , m a n , e ight y e a r o l d b o y a n d t e n y e a r o l d girl) a p p r o a c h e s t h e t u b e w o r m exhibi t . T h e g r o u p l o o k s into t h e exhib i t , p o i n t s a n d ta lks to e a c h o ther . T h e a d u l t s c o n t i n u e ta lk ing w h i l e t h e k i d s m o v e a w a y . T h e w o m a n p o i n t s to t h e l abe l a b o v e , w h i c h t h e y b o t h r e a d . T h e m a n j o i n s t h e k i d s at t h e s m a l l exh ib i t to t h e r ight of t h e t u b e w o r m exhib i t w h i l e t h e w o m a n r e a d s t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d t h e n l o o k s into t h e exhibit . T h e w o m a n j o i n s t h e m a n , te l ls h im a b o u t the w h i t e b o a r d , w h i c h t h e y bo th look at a n d t h e n bo th look into the exhibit . T h e c o u p l e p e e r into t h e b a c k of t h e exhib i t ( w h e r e t h e t u b e w o r m s are ) a n d s p e n d a l o n g t i m e po in t ing a n d ta lk ing . T h e y l e a v e to join t h e k i d s af ter o n e m i n u t e a n d for ty - three s e c o n d s . L o t s of v is i tors a r e c r o w d e d a r o u n d t h e t u b e w o r m exhibi t a s a n adu l t c o u p l e ( m a l e a n d f e m a l e ) a p p r o a c h t h e exh ib i t . T h e c o u p l e l o o k s into t h e b a c k of t h e exhib i t a n d u p at t h e l a b e l s . It is diff icult for t h e m to ge t c l o s e b e c a u s e of t h e c r o w d . T h e c o u p l e l e a v e without look ing at t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e c o u p l e s p e n t a b o u t 2 0 s e c o n d s in front of t h e exhibit . A fami ly ( w o m a n , m a n , y o u n g b o y a n d girl) s t o p s at t h e t u b e w o r m exhibit , l o o k s into it, po in ts a n d c o n v e r s e s . T h e g r o u p l e a v e s t h e exhib i t w i thout l o o k i n g at t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e d a d a n d k i d s g o to t h e t o u c h p o o l s w h e r e a Na tura l i s t h a s a n i m a l s out to t o u c h a n d t h e w o m a n m o v e s o v e r to o n e of t h e s m a l l exhib i ts . T h e w o m a n at t racts h e r f a m i l y ' s a t tent ion to c o m e o v e r a n d w a t c h t h e f e e d i n g of t h e a n i m a l s in t h e s m a l l exh ib i ts . All c o m e o v e r to w a t c h briefly. T h e d a d a n d the k i d s w a n d e r off, but the m o m s t a y s to w a t c h t h e f e e d i n g . T h e k i d s per iod ica l l y c h e c k in with t h e m o t h e r a n d talk a b o u t t h e f e e d i n g . T h e g r o u p s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 0 s e c o n d s at t h e t u b e w o r m exhibit . T h e p r e c e d i n g v i g n e t t e s d e s c r i b e v is i tor e n c o u n t e r s a r o u n d t h e t u b e w o r m exhib i t d u r i n g a b u s y w e e k e n d . A d u l t o n l y g r o u p s c o m p r i s e d 5 3 % of t h e g r o u p s o b s e r v e d a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g 4 7 % c o n s i s t e d of a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s . T h e r e is n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in t h e g r o u p c o m p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n - w h i t e b o a r d 81 u s e r s , X 2 = 1, p = 0.01 ( T a b l e 13). T w e n t y - f i v e (58%) of t h e g r o u p s v is i ted a s e c o n d exhibit . T h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e s a m p l e e i ther left t h e ga l l e ry o r w a n d e r e d a b o u t without s t o p p i n g at a n exhibi t . O f t h e s e 2 5 g r o u p s , 18 (72%) w e r e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s f r o m t h e first exhibi t a n d s e v e n (28%) w e r e n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . F i v e d i f ferent exh ib i ts w e r e c h o s e n a s t h e v is i tors ' s e c o n d exhibi t ( F i g u r e 19). Table 13: Composition of groups n w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (%) n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (%) Tube worm exhibit adul t o n l y g r o u p s 2 3 5 5 * 5 0 * a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s 2 0 4 5 * 5 0 * Exhibit 2 adul t o n l y g r o u p s 1 5 5 5 6 4 a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s 11 4 4 3 7 * p > 0 . 0 1 82 A m e s s a g e wr i t ten o n l y o n o n e s i d e of t h e w h i t e b o a r d ( F i g u r e 20 ) f o l l o w e d t h e p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d pat tern , of a "hook" to e n c o u r a g e v is i tors to r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d a s p e c i f i c act iv i ty for t h e m to c o m p l e t e . A l t h o u g h s o m e of t h e w o r d s , s u c h a s s p a w n i n g a n d g a m e t e s u s e d o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d m a y b e u n f a m i l i a r to v is i to rs , t h e c o n t e x t in w h i c h t h e y w e r e u s e d s h o u l d h e l p t h e v i s i t o r s u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e r m s . T h e w h i t e b o a r d c o n t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 0 w o r d s a n d u s e d p i c t u r e s to i l l us t ra te s p a w n i n g . T h e t u b e w o r m s p a w n i n g w a s a n intermittent e v e n t s o e v e r y vis i tor look ing into t h e exhibi t w o u l d not n e c e s s a r i l y s e e t h e activity. These are Animals?!? and they're Reproducing?!? That's right! The tubeworms in the upper exhibit to your left are spawning: both sexes will spew their gametes, enveloped in a white mucous, into the water. As the mucous breaks up, eggs and spern meet to eventually produce baby tubeworms. (picture of spawning tube worms) F i g u r e 2 0 : T h e w h i t e b o a r d at t h e t u b e w o r m exhibit . 84 T h e v i e w i n g t i m e s at t h e t u b e w o r m exhibi t r a n g e d u p to 1 3 6 s e c o n d s ( F i g u r e 21 a n d 22) . O n e s u b j e c t r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d but d i d not l o o k at t h e exh ib i t . A g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (41%) s p e n t l o n g e r t h a n 4 0 s e c o n d s v i e w i n g t h e first exhibi t t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (21%). O n l y o n e visi tor , a w h i t e b o a r d u s e r , s p e n t l o n g e r t h a n 4 0 s e c o n d s at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t . T a b l e 14 s h o w s that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s igni f icant ly s p e n t l o n g e r v i e w i n g t h e t u b e w o r m exhibi t t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s , t = 8 .88 , df = 3 1 , p < 0.001 ( F i g u r e 23) . T h e m e a n t ime of the w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t is not s igni f icant ly dif ferent f r o m the n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s , t = 0 .43 , df = 23 , p > 0 . 0 1 . Table 14 : Exhibit viewing times in seconds. n V i e w i n g t i m e (sec . ) m i n . m a x . m e a n Tube worm exhibit W h i t e b o a r d u s e r 2 9 0 1 3 6 4 2 . 0 7 * N o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r 1 4 2 5 8 2 6 . 7 1 * Exhibit 2 W h i t e b o a r d u s e r 18 1 4 4 1 5 . 5 5 * * N o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r 7 1 3 0 15 .14* * * p < 0 . 0 0 1 * * p > 0 . 0 1 85 140-120-100-1 80" M 60-40 20H 0 l~l whiteboard user (n=29) B non-whiteboard user (n=7) 1 3 5 7 J3L 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 subject F i g u r e 21: V i e w i n g t i m e s at t u b e w o r m exhibit . 40-35-30-<L> — 20H £ — 15-10-54 0-whiteboard user (n=18) B non whiteboard user (n=14) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 subject F i g u r e 22: V i e w i n g t i m e s at the s e c o n d exhibit . 45 j 40 --35 --30 --25 --20 --15 --10 --5 --0 - - 1 whiteboard user • tube worm exhibt A exhibit 2 + non-whiteboard user F i g u r e 2 3 : M e a n v i e w i n g t i m e s . 87 F i g u r e s 2 4 - 2 6 r e p r e s e n t t h e t y p e s a n d f r e q u e n c i e s of b e h a v i o u r s e x h i b i t e d b y v is i tors at t h e t u b e w o r m exhibit . In m o s t b e h a v i o u r c a t e g o r i e s u n d e r half t h e v is i tors p o i n t e d , c o n v e r s e d , a n d p e e r e d ( T a b l e 15) . A t t h e t u b e w o r m e x h i b i t , f e w e r w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s e x h i b i t e d b e h a v i o u r s t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s with t h e e x c e p t i o n of p e e r i n g . Table 15: Percent of visitors who exhibit behaviours at tube worm exhibit V i s i t o r s w h o exhibi t b e h a v i o u r s n % Whiteboard user 2 9 P o i n t i n g 21 * C o n v e r s i n g 21 * P e e r i n g 5 2 * R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 1 0 Non-whiteboard user 14 P o i n t i n g 21 * C o n v e r s i n g 3 6 * P e e r i n g 3 6 * R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 *p < 0.01 88 £ 3-E ^ 1 [~1 whiteboard user (n=29) 5 non-whiteboard user (n=14) I t I V T " V 1 V T " T " i 1 ' i ' i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 subjects F i g u r e 24 : F r e q u e n c y of point ing at t u b e w o r m exhibit . 6T 5-22 1 4 -o 5 7 l~l whiteboard user (n=29) 3 non-whiteboard user (n=14) 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 subjects F i g u r e 2 5 : F r e q u e n c y of c o n v e r s i n g at t u b e w o r m exhibi t 89 1 " l " l' |~1 whiteboard user (n=29) g non-whiteboard user (n=14) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 subjects F i g u r e 2 6 : F r e q u e n c y of p e e r i n g at t u b e w o r m exhibit . 90 T h e n u m b e r of t h e b e h a v i o u r s , for t h e v is i tors w h o e x h i b i t e d t h e m , w e r e c o a l e s c e d to c o m p a r e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s to n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . T a b l e 16 s h o w s that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s e x h i b i t e d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f in te rac t iv i ty t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . N o n -w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s d id not exhibi t a n y b e h a v i o u r s t h r e e o r m o r e t i m e s . Not m a n y of the s u b j e c t s r e r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d . Table 16: Interactivity of whiteboard users versus non-whiteboard users at exhibit 1 B e h a v i o u r s h" I n c i d e n c e of b e h a v i o u r s (%) 3 or m o r e t i m e s 1 to 2 t i m e s Whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 6 3 3 6 7 C o n v e r s i n g 6 3 3 6 7 P e e r i n g 1 5 2 0 8 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 3 0 1 0 0 Non-whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 3 0 1 0 0 C o n v e r s i n g 5 0 1 0 0 P e e r i n g 5 0 1 0 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 91 T h e r e is not e n o u g h d a t a to d r a w a s ta t i s t i ca l c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n b e h a v i o u r s exh ib i ted by w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t d u e to t h e s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e . O n l y s e v e n of t h e 2 4 w h o u s e d t h e s e c o n d exhibi t e x h i b i t e d b e h a v i o u r s . T a b l e s 17 a n d 18 p r o v i d e a prof i le of the b e h a v i o u r s v is i to rs exh ib i ted at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t a n d i n d i c a t e a s imi la r t r e n d to exhib i t o n e , with w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s exhib i t ing a h i g h e r level of interactivity t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . Table 17: Percent of visitors who exhibit behaviours at exhibit two. V i s i t o r s w h o exhibi t b e h a v i o u r s n % Whiteboard user 6 P o i n t i n g 2 9 C o n v e r s i n g 18 P e e r i n g 2 3 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 Non-whiteboard user 1 P o i n t i n g 1 4 C o n v e r s i n g 1 4 P e e r i n g 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 Table 18: Frequency of behaviours of whiteboard users versus non-whiteboard users exhibit 2. B e h a v i o u r s n I n c i d e n c e of b e h a v i o u r s (%) 3 or m o r e t i m e s 1 to 2 t i m e s Whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 5 2 0 8 0 C o n v e r s i n g 3 0 1 0 0 P e e r i n g 4 2 5 7 5 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 Non-whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 1 0 1 0 0 C o n v e r s i n g 1 0 1 0 0 P e e r i n g 0 0 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 92 It w a s diff icult to d e t e r m i n e , b y w a t c h i n g , if v is i to rs h a v e ident i f ied t h e o b j e c t of the w h i t e b o a r d . H o w e v e r , b e h a v i o u r p a i r e d with o v e r h e a r d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l o w e d th is d e t e r m i n a t i o n to b e m a d e . E l e v e n c o n v e r s a t i o n s w e r e o b s e r v e d a n d o n l y two r e m a r k s w e r e o v e r h e a r d , o n e of w h i c h w a s d i rec t ly re la ted to t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e s u b j e c t s w e r e l o o k i n g for t h e s p a w n i n g t u b e w o r m s a n d o n e m e m b e r of t h e g r o u p s a i d " t h e y ' r e shy" . 93 D a t a S e t T h r e e - H o w e S o u n d P u q e t S o u n d K i n g C r a b s T h e H o w e S o u n d d i s p l a y is a l a r g e exhib i t f l a n k e d b y a se t of s m a l l e r e x h i b i t s a n d r e s t s within a n a l c o v e f o r m e d b y a b a n k of t h r e e s i lent v i d e o s o n o n e s i d e a n d t h e J u a n d e F u c a exhib i t , w h i c h juts out into t h e ga l l e ry , o n t h e o t h e r s i d e . T h e H o w e S o u n d exhibi t c o n t a i n s s m a l l r o c k f i sh , a n d b o t t o m d w e l l i n g f i s h , s u c h a s g r e e n l i n g s , w h i c h dar t a b o u t t h e exhibit . A var ie ty of i n v e r t e b r a t e s i n c l u d i n g s e a s t a r s , a n e m o n e s , s e a c u c u m b e r s a n d t h r e e P u g e t S o u n d k i n g c r a b s d w e l l in t h e exhib i t . T h e P u g e t S o u n d k ing c r a b s o c c a s i o n a l l y l u m b e r a b o u t t h e exhib i t l ike s m a l l t a n k s , p e r i o d i c a l l y s t o p p i n g to g r a b at s e a s t a r s . T h e w h i t e b o a r d at t h e H o w e S o u n d exhib i t d i r e c t s the v is i to rs to look for t h r e e n e w P u g e t S o u n d k ing c r a b s in t h e exhibi t . T y p i c a l v is i tor b e h a v i o u r is i l lustrated b y t h e fo l lowing v i g n e t t e s d e p i c t i n g two w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d two n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . A n adul t c o u p l e a p p r o a c h the H o w e S o u n d exhibit , t h e m a n po in ts at o n e of t h e rock f ish a n d t h e c o u p l e c o n v e r s e s . T h e m a n r e a d s t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d s h o w s it to t h e w o m a n . T h e y bo th m o v e c l o s e r to t h e exhibi t a n d p e e r into it. T h e m a n f i n d s o n e of t h e P u g e t S o u n d k i n g c r a b s a n d s a y s "look, h e r e it is". T h e c o u p l e w a t c h e s t h e c r a b m o v e . T h e y m o v e d o w n to t h e o t h e r e n d of t h e exhib i t , r e r e a d i n g t h e w h i t e b o a r d o n t h e w a y . T h e y p e e r b a c k into t h e exhib i t , p o i n t i n g at a n o t h e r c r a b a n d c o n v e r s e . T h e c o u p l e h a d s p e n t two m i n u t e s at t h e exhibi t b e f o r e t h e y m o v e off to t h e J u a n d e F u c a exhibi t w h e r e t h e y s p e n d a b o u t o n e m i n u t e w a t c h i n g f i s h , po in t ing a n d c o n v e r s i n g . T h e c o u p l e s p e n t two m i n u t e s l o o k i n g at the H o w e S o u n d exhibi t . 94 A w o m a n j o i n s two little b o y s (eight a n d ten y e a r s old) w h o a r e look ing c l o s e l y at s o m e t h i n g in the exhibit . T h e w o m a n l o o k s at w h a t t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d in, m o v e s d o w n t h e exhibi t , r e a d s t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d t h e n l o o k s b a c k into t h e exhibi t . T h e w o m a n p o i n t s at t h e c r a b a n d c a l l s t h e b o y s o v e r . " T h i s is a c r a b . C a n y o u f ind o t h e r s ? " T h e t h r e e of t h e m look into t h e exhibi t . T h e b o y s point at a n o t h e r c r a b a n d t h e n t h e g r o u p m o v e s out of t h e a r e a . T h e g r o u p s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y two m i n u t e s at t h e H o w e S o u n d exhibit . A g r o u p of two a d u l t s , two g i r ls a n d a b o y a p p r o a c h t h e exhibit . T h e m a n p o i n t s at a f ish a n d tel ls t h e k ids to look at it. T h e girl l o o k s at t h e f i sh a n d t h e n l o o k s a w a y at t h e m o v i n g P u g e t S o u n d k ing c r a b . S h e s h o w s t h e m a n ("look at this") a n d t h e m a n s h o w s t h e c r a b to the rest of t h e g r o u p (point ing, " look at this"). T h e m a n t h e n po in ts at a g r e e n l i n g c h a s i n g a n o t h e r g r e e n l i n g ("look at th is f ish") . T h e g r o u p w a t c h e s t h e g r e e n l i n g s a n d t h e n l e a v e s t h e a r e a af ter 3 5 s e c o n d s . T w o y o u n g m e n a p p r o a c h t h e exhibi t a n d look in. O n e of t h e m p o i n t s at s o m e t h i n g in t h e exhibi t a n d t h e y b o t h look c l o s e l y at it. T h e y w a n d e r to t h e o t h e r e n d of t h e exhib i t , l o o k b r i e f l y a n d , a f t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n s e c o n d s , w a n d e r a c r o s s t h e g a l l e r y to l o o k br ie f ly into t h e l i n g c o d exhibi t . T h e p r e c e d i n g v i g n e t t e s d e s c r i b e vis i tor e n c o u n t e r s at t h e H o w e S o u n d exhibi t d u r i n g a b u s y w e e k e n d . A d u l t o n l y g r o u p s c o m p r i s e d 5 4 % of t h e 3 5 g r o u p s o b s e r v e d a n d the r e m a i n i n g 4 6 % c o n s i s t e d of adu l t -ch i ld g r o u p s . T h e r e is n o s ign i f icant d i f f e r e n c e 95 in t h e g r o u p c o m p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s ( T a b l e 19). T h e ind iv idua ls s e l e c t e d a s t h e f o c a l s u b j e c t within the g r o u p s w e r e 5 4 % f e m a l e Table 19: Composition of groups n w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (%) n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (%) Howe Sound exhibit adul t o n l y g r o u p s 1 9 5 4 5 4 a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s 16 4 6 4 6 Exhibit 2 adul t o n l y g r o u p s 11 5 7 6 0 a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p s 8 4 3 4 0 p < 0 . 0 1 a n d 4 6 % m a l e . N i n e t e e n (54%) of t h e 3 5 g r o u p s v i s i t e d a s e c o n d exhib i t . T h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e s a m p l e e i ther left the g a l l e r y or w a n d e r e d a b o u t wi thout s t o p p i n g at a n exhibi t . O f t h e s e 19 g r o u p s , 14 (74%) w e r e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s at t h e H o w e S o u n d exh ib i t a n d f i v e (26%) w e r e n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . F o u r d i f f e ren t e x h i b i t s w e r e c h o s e n a s t h e v is i tor 's s e c o n d exhibi t ( F i g u r e 27) . 96 A m e s s a g e , wr i t ten o n l y o n o n e s i d e of t h e w h i t e b o a r d ( F i g u r e 28 ) , f o l l o w e d t h e p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d pat tern , of a "hook" to e n c o u r a g e v is i to rs to r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d ac t iv i t i es s u c h a s l o o k i n g fo r all t h r e e of t h e c r a b s . T h e w h i t e b o a r d c o n t a i n e d u n d e r fifty w o r d s a n d d id not h a v e i l lustrat ions. Royalty Comes to Howe Sound Cook closely. Can you find the three new PugetSound king crabs? The king crabs look like rocks when they're not moving. Cook carefully for the two adults and one juvenile. Watch these three crabs explore their new home. F i g u r e 2 8 : W h i t e b o a r d at the H o w e S o u n d exhibit . T h e v i e w i n g t i m e s at t h e H o w e S o u n d exh ib i t r a n g e d f r o m t h r e e s e c o n d s to 181 s e c o n d s ( F i g u r e 2 9 a n d 30) . S ix ty - two p e r c e n t of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t l o n g e r t h a n 4 0 s e c o n d s v i e w i n g t h e H o w e S o u n d exhibi t wh i le n o n e of t h e n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t l o n g e r t h a n 4 0 s e c o n d s v i e w i n g t h e exhibit . 98 200-, 180-160-140-120-100-80-60-40-20-0- m I i 1 3 5 l i i i i i -7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 • whiteboard user (n=24) @ non-whiteboard user (n=11) subjects F i g u r e 2 9 : V i e w i n g t i m e s at H o w e S o u n d exhibi t . 45-40-35-30-¥ 25-I 20-15-10-o Y t~m up- i-hf IQU • whiteboard user (n=14) @ non-whiteboard user (n=5) 7 L>~p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 subjects F i g u r e 3 0 : V i e w i n g t i m e s at exhibit two. 99 T h r e e (16%) w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t o v e r 4 0 s e c o n d s v i e w i n g t h e s e c o n d exhibi t . N o n e of t h e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t l o n g e r t h a n 4 0 s e c o n d s at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t . T a b l e 2 0 s h o w s that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n g e r v i e w i n g t h e first exh ib i t t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s ( F i g u r e 3 1 ) . T h e m e a n v i e w i n g t i m e of t h e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s is not s ign i f i can t ly d i f ferent f r o m t h e n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s at t h e s e c o n d exhibit . Table 20 : Exhibit viewing times in seconds. V i e w i n g t i m e (sec ) n m m . m a x . m e a n Exhibit 1 W h i t e b o a r d u s e r 2 4 5 181 6 8 . 7 5 * N o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r 11 3 3 5 1 4 . 1 8 * Exhibit 2 W h i t e b o a r d u s e r 1 4 3 4 5 15 .00 * * N o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r 5 3 21 12 .00* * * p < 0 . 0 1 * * p > 0 . 0 5 100 70 j 60 -- " 1 s t exhibit (n=35) 50 -- A 2nd exhibit (n=19) 40 --30 --20 --A > 10 -- A 0 -I 1 1 1 1 whiteboard non-whiteboard user user F i g u r e 3 1 : M e a n v i e w i n g t i m e s . 101 F i g u r e s 3 2 - 3 4 r e p r e s e n t t h e t y p e s a n d f r e q u e n c i e s of v is i tor b e h a v i o u r s at t h e H o w e S o u n d exhibi t . In all b e h a v i o u r c a t e g o r i e s e x c e p t c o n v e r s i n g , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 5 % of t h e v i s i t o r s p o i n t e d , c o n v e r s e d , a n d p e e r e d ( T a b l e 21) a n d m o r e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s exh ib i ted b e h a v i o u r s t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . Table 21: Percent of visitors who exhibit behaviours at Howe Sound exhibit V i s i t o r s w h o exhibi t b e h a v i o u r s n % Whiteboard user 2 4 P o i n t i n g 9 2 C o n v e r s i n g 71 P e e r i n g 71 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 8 3 Non-whiteboard user 11 P o i n t i n g 8 2 C o n v e r s i n g 2 7 P e e r i n g 7 3 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 102 F i g u r e 3 2 : F r e q u e n c y of po int ing at H o w e S o u n d exhibit . V i — r 1 > T T T "T—r 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 subjects |~| whiteboard user (n=24) H non-whiteboard user (n=11) F i g u r e 3 3 : F r e q u e n c y of c o n v e r s i n g at H o w e S o u n d exhibit . 103 F i g u r e 3 4 : F r e q u e n c y of p e e r n g at H o w e S o u n d exhibi t . 104 T h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e b e h a v i o u r s , for t h e v is i tors w h o e x h i b i t e d t h e m , w e r e c o a l e s c e d to c o m p a r e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s to n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . T a b l e 2 2 s h o w s that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s w h o exhib i t b e h a v i o u r h a d a h i g h e r leve l of interact iv i ty t h a n n o n -w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s , with t h e e x c e p t i o n of c o n v e r s i n g . Table 22: Interactivity of whiteboard users versus non-whiteboard users at the Howe Sound exhibit B e h a v i o u r s n I n c i d e n c e of b e h a v i o u r s (%) 3 o r m o r e t i m e s 1 to 2 t i m e s Whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 2 2 5 0 * 5 0 C o n v e r s i n g 1 7 2 9 * 71 P e e r i n g 1 7 2 9 * 71 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 2 0 3 0 7 0 Non-whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 9 2 2 * 7 8 C o n v e r s i n g 3 3 3 * 6 7 P e e r i n g 8 14 * 8 6 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 * p < 0 . 0 1 105 T h e r e is not su f f i c i en t d a t a to d r a w a c o m p a r i s o n a b o u t b e h a v i o u r s e x h i b i t e d by w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s at t h e s e c o n d exh ib i t b e c a u s e of t h e s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e . O n l y 11 s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d b e h a v i o u r s at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t a n d t a b l e s 2 3 a n d 2 4 p r o v i d e a profi le of t h e s e v is i tors a n d i n d i c a t e d a s imi la r t rend to the first exhibit . Table 23: Percent of visitors who exhibit behaviours at exhibit 2 V i s i t o r s w h o exhibi t b e h a v i o u r s n % Whiteboard user 14 P o i n t i n g 6 4 C o n v e r s i n g 7 P e e r i n g 4 3 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 Non-whiteboard user 5 P o i n t i n g 1 0 0 C o n v e r s i n g 0 P e e r i n g 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 Table 24: Interactivity of whiteboard users versus non-whiteboard users for exhibit 2. B e h a v i o u r s n I n c i d e n c e s of b e h a v i o u r s (%) 3 or m o r e t i m e s 1 to 2 t i m e s Whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 9 11 8 9 C o n v e r s i n g 1 0 1 0 0 P e e r i n g 6 0 1 0 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d 0 0 0 Non-whiteboard user P o i n t i n g 2 0 1 0 0 C o n v e r s i n g 0 0 0 P e e r i n g 0 0 0 R e r e a d i n g w h i t e b o a r d • 0 0 0 106 It w a s difficult to d e t e r m i n e b y w a t c h i n g v is i tors if t h e y h a v e ident i f ied t h e ob jec t of the w h i t e b o a r d . H o w e v e r , b e h a v i o u r p a i r e d with o v e r h e a r d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l o w e d th is d e t e r m i n a t i o n to b e m a d e . It w a s difficult to o v e r h e a r visitor c o n v e r s a t i o n s at the H o w e S o u n d exhibit . O f t h e 3 2 o b s e r v e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s , 11 c o m m e n t s w e r e o v e r h e a r d a n d six w e r e re la ted to t h e w h i t e b o a r d . 107 Interview D a t a T w e n t y r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d v i s i t o r s p a r t i c i p a t e d in s h o r t i n t e r v i e w s . O f t h e t w e n t y v i s i t o r s s a m p l e d , 4 0 % w e r e in adu l t o n l y g r o u p s a n d 6 0 % w e r e in a n a d u l t - c h i l d g r o u p . F o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d h a d n e v e r v i s i t e d t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m b e f o r e a n d of t h e 11 p e o p l e w h o h a d p r e v i o u s l y v i s i t e d t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m s e v e n w e r e m e m b e r s . T h e v is i tors w e r e a s k e d t h e fo l lowing q u e s t i o n s : 1. D i d y o u s e e a w h i t e b o a r d o n y o u r visit t o d a y ? 2. W h a t d o y o u r e m e m b e r a b o u t t h e exhibi t a n d a n i m a l s w h i c h h a d a w h i t e b o a r d o n d i s p l a y ? 3 a . W h a t d o y o u like a b o u t t h e w h i t e b o a r d s ? b. W h a t w o u l d y o u c h a n g e a b o u t t h e w h i t e b o a r d s ? 4. H o w l o n g h a v e y o u b e e n in t h e a q u a r i u m t o d a y ? 108 E i g h t w h i t e b o a r d s w e r e p r e s e n t in t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m o n e a c h of t h e two d a y s t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d . T a b l e 2 5 s h o w s t h e l o c a t i o n a n d t h e m e s of w h i t e b o a r d s p r e s e n t in the g a l l e r i e s . Table 25: Whiteboards present for the interviews. L o c a t i o n T h e m e Day 1 F o y e r d a i l y h igh l igh ts B e l u g a cal f n e w tee th , g e n e r a l cal f u p d a t e B e l u g a cal f v isi tor e t iquet te for calf n u r s e r y (quiet p l e a s e ) G r e a t b l u e h e r o n s h e r o n s re turn ing to m a t e Rat f ish exhibi t n e w a n i m a l s - o r a n g e p e e l n u d i b r a n c h s a n d P u g e t S o u n d k ing c r a b s S t a n l e y P a r k S h o r e s t u b e w o r m s s p a w n i n g S a l m o n n u r s e r y s a l m o n h a t c h i n g Day 2 F o y e r d a i l y h i g h l i g h t s B e l u g a cal f 7 m o n t h b i r thday, e s t i m a t e d w e i g h t / g r o w t h rate Rat f ish exhibi t o r a n g e p e e l n u d i b r a n c h s laid e g g s G r e a t b l u e h e r o n s h e r o n s re turn ing to m a t e S e a ot ters m a t i n g s e a o t ters R u f e G i b b s hall n e w exhibi t u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t S h a r k exhibi t s h a r k m a t i n g s i g h t e d O n l y two of t h e 2 0 v is i tors w h e n a s k e d "D id y o u s e e a w h i t e b o a r d o n y o u r visit t o d a y ? r e p o r t e d that t h e y h a d not s e e n a w h i t e b o a r d o n their visit. E i g h t e e n v is i tors w e r e a b l e to d e s c r i b e a w h i t e b o a r d or a n exhibi t h igh l igh ted by a w h i t e b o a r d . O n e visi tor s a i d h e h a d not r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d a n o t h e r v is i tor , a V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m m e m b e r , c o u l d not r e m e m b e r a n y t h i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y a b o u t t h e w h i t e b o a r d s in t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m that d a y but r e c a l l e d a w h i t e b o a r d f r o m a p r e v i o u s visi t . O f t h e e igh t w h i t e b o a r d s p r e s e n t in t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m , the m a x i m u m n u m b e r of 109 w h i t e b o a r d s a n y visi tor c o u l d recal l w a s f ive ( T a b l e 26) . Table 26: The number of visitors who could recall whiteboards. No. of whiteboards recalled 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 No. of visitors who reported seeing whiteboards 2 6 3 2 2 3 0 0 0 T h e interv iew c o m m e n t s r e v e a l e d t r e n d s in the t y p e s of w h i t e b o a r d s v is i to rs r e c a l l e d . T h e w h i t e b o a r d a b o u t t h e b e l u g a calf w a s r e c a l l e d b y m a n y of t h e i n t e r v i e w e d vis i tors. E l e v e n of t h e 18 v is i to rs re lay ing in fo rmat ion a b o u t t h e cal f in r e m a r k s typi f ied by t h e fo l low ing ; • " T h e b a b y b e l u g a is g r o w i n g fast." (1 visitor) • " T h e b a b y b e l u g a h a s teeth." (3 visi tors) • " T h e w h i t e b o a r d h a d s e v e n c a n d l e s for t h e b e l u g a c a l f ' s s e v e n m o n t h bir thday." (6 visi tors) • "I r e a d the w h i t e b o a r d by the b e l u g a s but I can ' t r e m e m b e r what it s a y s . " (1 visitor) O n e visitor, a V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m m e m b e r , r e p o r t e d ; "we c o m e to t h e a q u a r i u m a lot a n d w e r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d for u p d a t e s o n t h e b a b y b e l u g a ' s p r o g r e s s " . V i s i t o r s r e c a l l e d w h i t e b o a r d s w h i c h d e s c r i b e d a n i m a l r e p r o d u c t i o n ; • " W e r e a d t h e in format ion a b o u t the t u b e w o r m s s p a w n i n g , but w e h a d a h a r d t ime s e e i n g it." • " T h e h e r o n s a r e n e s t i n g in t h e t r e e s just like at h o m e in Po in t R o b e r t s . " • " W e s a w the s a l m o n b a b i e s " . W h e n t h e b e l u g a cal f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i t e b o a r d is i n c l u d e d a s a r e p r o d u c t i o n t h e m e d w h i t e b o a r d , all but two of t h e v is i to rs w h o c l a i m e d v i e w i n g w h i t e b o a r d , c o u l d re lay a w h i t e b o a r d m e s s a g e h igh l ight ing a r e p r o d u c t i v e e v e n t . F i v e of t h e e i g h t e e n v is i to rs r e p o r t e d u s i n g t h e w h i t e b o a r d in t h e f o y e r of t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m b e c a u s e , a s o n e visitor c o m m e n t e d , it "tells y o u w h e r e to look for th ings" . 110 V i s i t o r s r e c a l l e d w h i t e b o a r d s that h a d s o m e p e r s o n a l r e l e v a n c e to t h e m . O n e visitor w h o l i ved n e a r a h e r o n c o l o n y in P o i n t R o b e r t s r e m a r k e d "the h e r o n s a r e n e s t i n g in t h e t r e e s just l ike at h o m e in Po in t R o b e r t s " . T w o o t h e r v is i tors , w h o kept salt wa te r a q u a r i a at h o m e , d e s c r i b e d t h e w h i t e b o a r d a d j a c e n t to t h e c o r a l r e e f exh ib i t in t h e t ropical ga l l e ry - "I w i s h I h a d a s u r g e like the c o r a l reef tank here" . W h e n a s k e d " W h a t d o y o u l ike a b o u t t h e w h i t e b o a r d s ? " 1 7 v i s i t o r s r e s p o n d e d pos i t i ve ly but o n e v is i tor s a i d h e d idn' t l ike t h e m . S i x t e e n v is i to rs m a d e a total of 3 9 pos i t i ve c o m m e n t s . T h e y c o m m e n t e d o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d , the t y p e of in fo rmat ion , a n d the activity c o m p o n e n t ( T a b l e 27). Table 27: Selected comments from visitors about whiteboards. C a t e g o r y S a m p l e c o m m e n t s F o r m a t • " T h e w h i t e b o a r d is e y e c a t c h i n g . I l ike t h e c o l o u r s a n d that it is di f ferent f r o m the exhibit text." • " T h e w h i t e b o a r d s a r e out in t h e o p e n a n d h a r d to m i s s . " • " T h e y ' r e e a s y to r e a d . " Informat ion • " T h e y h a v e cur ren t in format ion a b o u t t h i n g s I w o u l d m i s s if t h e y w e r e n ' t h igh l igh ted . " • " T h e y tell y o u w h a t ' s n e w - da i ly u p d a t e s . " • " T h e w h i t e b o a r d s h a v e in format ion a b o u t t h i n g s that a r e g o i n g o n right n o w , s e a s o n a l t h i n g s like t h e h e r o n s n e s t i n g . " • " T h e y h a v e m o r e in format ion for m e to r e a d . " Interactive • " T h e y tell y o u what to look for." • "I u s e the w h i t e b o a r d s to e x p l a i n t h i n g s to m y s ix y e a r o ld . " • "I r e a d t h e m a n d tell m y s o n . " • " T h e y s t imula te m y thinking." H u m o u r • "I l ike t h e m w h e n t h e y a r e f u n n y - l ike t h e o r a n g e s g r o w i n g in t h e o c e a n . " 111 Vis i to rs m a d e 11 c o m m e n t s o n the f o r m a t of the w h i t e b o a r d : t h e y m a d e four c o m m e n t s a b o u t t h e w h i t e b o a r d b e i n g e a s y to r e a d , a n d s e v e n c o m m e n t s a b o u t the c o l o u r s , text length , pr int ing, a n d l o c a t i o n . S i x p e o p l e s a i d that t h e y l iked t h e w h i t e b o a r d s b e c a u s e t h e y s u p p l i e d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d 16 p e o p l e c o m m e n t e d that t h e y l i ked t h e in format ion o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d b e c a u s e it w a s cur rent , n e w or it h igh l igh ted e v e n t s t h e y w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e m i s s e d . F i v e p e o p l e s t a t e d that t h e y l i ked t h e w h i t e b o a r d s b e c a u s e of t h e q u e s t i o n s . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s m a d e t h e m think o r t h e y w e r e a start ing po in t to s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n with the i r c h i l d r e n . O n e v is i to r l i k e d t h e w h i t e b o a r d s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e h u m o r o u s . V i s i t o r s h a d diff iculty r e s p o n d i n g to t h e q u e s t i o n "What , if a n y t h i n g , w o u l d y o u c h a n g e a b o u t t h e w h i t e b o a r d ? " O n l y s ix of t h e 18 v i s i t o r s c o m m e n t e d o n h o w t h e y w o u l d i m p r o v e t h e w h i t e b o a r d s . F o r m a t c h a n g e s w e r e t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r e d s u g g e s t i o n (six out of s e v e n ) . V i s i t o r s s u g g e s t e d that a c o l o u r o t h e r t h a n whi te b e u s e d for t h e b a c k g r o u n d b e c a u s e of t h e g l a r e p r o d u c e d b y t h e w h i t e b a c k g r o u n d . A n o t h e r v is i to r s u g g e s t e d that s o m e t h i n g b e d o n e to m a k e it e a s i e r to r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d s in t h e d a r k ga l l e r i es . O n e v is i tors s u g g e s t e d u s i n g m o r e point f o r m n o t e s to limit the a m o u n t of r e a d i n g a n d o n e s u g g e s t e d u s i n g m o r e d r a w i n g s . O n e vis i tor s u g g e s t e d m o r e in fo rmat ion b e p r o v i d e d a b o u t t h e a n i m a l s o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d s . O n e visitor s u g g e s t e d that t h e w h i t e b o a r d text b e m a d e m o r e like t h e exhibi t l a b e l s . 112 O t h e r c o m m e n t s f r o m v i s i t o r s r e v e a l e d t h e d e p t h of the i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h of t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . T h e v is i tor c o m m e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y u n d e r s t o o d that a n i m a l s c h a n g e their b e h a v i o u r s ; • "Staff c h a n g e the w h i t e b o a r d s to a d d n e w in format ion , but I'm not h e r e e n o u g h to get a s e n s e of t h e c h a n g e . " • " T h e w h i t e b o a r d s ind ica te t h i n g s that a r e t h e n e w e s t . T h e y m a y b e m o r e use fu l for repea t v is i tors. T h e y a r e v e r y e f fect ive for n e w in format ion ." O n e v i s i t o r , in h i s s u g g e s t i o n s to i m p r o v e t h e w h i t e b o a r d s , i n d i c a t e d tha t h e u n d e r s t o o d that w h i t e b o a r d s h ighl ight o n l y c u r r e n t a n i m a l e v e n t s a n d s u g g e s t e d " u s e P o l a r o i d p i c t u r e s to h e l p v is i tors f ind t h e a n i m a l s or b e h a v i o u r " . T h e o b s e r v a t i o n a n d interv iew d a t a p r o v i d e d a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of w h a t v is i tors d id a n d w h a t t h e y t h o u g h t a b o u t w h i t e b o a r d s . T h e s e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s will b e u s e d in c h a p t e r f ive in t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h g u i d e d th is s t u d y . 113 Chapter 5 - Discussion, Insights and Recommendations T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e ef fect of w h i t e b o a r d s o n visi tor b e h a v i o u r at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d i n t e r v i e w s . D a t a c o l l e c t e d in t h i s s t u d y c o m p l i m e n t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d o v e r t h e p a s t s ix y e a r s in s u r v e y s , pilot s t u d i e s a n d u n s o l i c i t e d c o m m e n t s f r o m v i s i t o r s a n d p r o v i d e d d a t a to a d d r e s s t h e s t a t e d h y p o t h e s e s . In th is d i s c u s s i o n c h a p t e r , e a c h r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s will b e e x a m i n e d u s i n g the d a t a p r e s e n t e d in c h a p t e r four to p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s into t h e p r o c e s s of visitor l e a r n i n g u s i n g w h i t e b o a r d s . T h e c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s with r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a s imi la r w h i t e b o a r d s y s t e m in o t h e r in formal l e a r n i n g se t t ings . D i s c u s s i o n A d i s c u s s i o n of t h e f i ve h y p o t h e s e s u s e d to g u i d e t h e s t u d y p r o v i d e s a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i m p a c t of w h i t e b o a r d s o n the v is i tors w h o u s e t h e m . 1. Whiteboard users will spend more time viewing an exhibit than non-whiteboard users. W h i l e l e a r n i n g m a y not b e di rect ly re la ted to t h e t ime o n t a s k o r t i m e s p e n t v i e w i n g a n exhibit , it is n e c e s s a r y for v is i tors to invest t ime if t h e y a r e to learn a b o u t a n i m a l s . B e e r ( 1987 ) e s t a b l i s h e d a n a v e r a g e exh ib i t v i e w i n g t i m e of u n d e r 4 0 s e c o n d s . T h e a v e r a g e v i e w i n g t i m e (20.21 s e c o n d s ) for v is i tors w h o d id not u s e a w h i t e b o a r d ( n o n -w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t v i e w e d ) fits into B e e r ' s a v e r a g e exhibi t v i e w i n g t i m e a n d e s t a b l i s h e s a typ ica l exhibi t v i e w i n g t i m e for v is i tors at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . W h e n t h e a v e r a g e v i e w i n g t i m e of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s 1 1 4 ( 5 7 . 0 6 s e c o n d s ) is c o m p a r e d to t h e t y p i c a l exh ib i t v i e w i n g t i m e of 20 .21 s e c o n d s , w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t s ign i f icant ly m o r e t i m e v i e w i n g t h e first exh ib i t (t = 3 6 . 6 5 , df = 129 , p < 0 .001) , with a l a r g e p ropor t ion (57%) of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s v i e w i n g the exhibi t for l o n g e r t h a n 4 0 s e c o n d s . T h e r e is m o r e var iabi l i ty in t h e v i e w i n g t i m e d a t a at t h e s e c o n d exhib i t t h a n t h e first exhibi t in that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s d o not a l w a y s s p e n d s ign i f i can t ly m o r e t i m e v i e w i n g t h e s e c o n d exhib i t t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . T h e r e w a s n o s ign i f i can t d i f f e r e n c e in t h e t ime s p e n t v i e w i n g t h e s e c o n d exhibi t b e t w e e n t h e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d the n o n -w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s f r o m t h e t u b e w o r m (t = 0 .43 , df = 23 , p > 0.01) a n d H o w e S o u n d (t = 0 .72 , df = 2 3 , p > 0.05) exhib i ts . T h i s m a y b e t h e result of n u m e r o u s f a c t o r s : v is i tors m a y n e e d m o r e g u i d a n c e to learn h o w to w a t c h a n i m a l s ; di f ferent exh ib i ts m a y requ i re dif ferent l e n g t h s of t i m e to v iew t h e m ; or v is i tors a r e u n a b l e to s u s t a i n t h e h igh level of e n e r g y i n v e s t e d in t h e first exhibit a s d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e d e c r e a s e d t ime s p e n t at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t . F o r t h e v is i to rs w h o u s e d t h e ratf ish exhib i t , a n exh ib i t with b o t t o m d w e l l i n g a n i m a l s b u r i e d into t h e s a n d a n d re la t ive ly s m a l l , s o l i t a r y f i s h , t h e r e is a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e v i e w i n g t i m e s of t h e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n -w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s at the s e c o n d exhibi t (t = 7 .35 , df = 24 , p < 0 .001) . T h i s m a y b e the result of t h e visi tor r e c e i v i n g a r e w a r d for the e x t r a t ime s p e n t v i e w i n g t h e ratfish exhibit w h i c h l o o k s fair ly b o r i n g but c o n t a i n s h i d d e n t r e a s u r e s in t h e f o r m of in te res t ing a n d u n u s u a l a n i m a l s . 115 2. Whiteboard users will exhibit a higher level of interactivity than non-whiteboard users. S t a n d i n g in f ront o f a n exhib i t d o e s not n e c e s s a r i l y m e a n a v is i tor i s e n g a g e d . T h e leve l of interact iv i ty ( the n u m b e r of b e h a v i o u r s , p o i n t i n g , c o n v e r s a t i o n , p e e r i n g , a n d r e r e a d i n g t h e w h i t e b o a r d , a n i n d i v i d u a l d e m o n s t r a t e s w h i l e at a n exhibi t ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e v i s i t o r is a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d , m e e t i n g o n e of C s i k s z e n t h m i h a l y i a n d H e r m a n s o n ' s (1995 ) cr i ter ia n e c e s s a r y for l e a r n i n g to o c c u r . O v e r half of t h e v is i tors d id not exhibi t a n y of t h e b e h a v i o u r s , po in t ing , c o n v e r s i n g , p e e r i n g a n d r e r e a d i n g the w h i t e b o a r d , ident i f ied fo r t h e s t u d y . H o w e v e r , t h e p e r c e n t a g e of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s e x h i b i t e d b e h a v i o u r s w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s with t h e e x c e p t i o n of c o n v e r s i n g (X2 = 4 1 . 1 9 , p < 0 .01) . A re lat ively s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e (42%) of v is i tors r e r e a d t h e w h i t e b o a r d w h i c h m a y ind ica te that t h e s i m p l e , brief p r e s e n t a t i o n of in fo rmat ion o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d is eff ic ient for v is i to rs to u s e . W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s h a d a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e of interact iv i ty t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s (X2 = 2 3 7 . 1 6 , p < 0 .01) . T h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s b e c a m e m o r e i n v o l v e d with t h e exhibi t a n d m o r e f o c u s e d o n t h e a n i m a l s . T h e h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e ( 2 8 % of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s look ing t h r e e o r m o r e t i m e s v e r s u s 3 % of n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s ) of p e e r i n g i n d i c a t e s that the w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n d m o r e t ime look ing c l o s e l y for or at a n i m a l s , o n e of the g o a l s of t h e w h i t e b o a r d s . F e w e r w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s c o n v e r s e d t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s , a l t h o u g h t h e w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s h a d m o r e c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . T h i s t r e n d m a y i n d i c a t e that w h i t e b o a r d s inhibit c o n v e r s a t i o n , o n e impor tan t p a t h w a y for s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . 116 A s with t h e t i m e s p e n t v i e w i n g t h e s e c o n d exhib i t , t h e l e v e l of in teract iv i ty at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t d e c r e a s e d . T h i s d e c r e a s e in interactivity m a y s ign i fy t h e v is i tor 's n e e d for m o r e g u i d a n c e to h e l p t h e m w a t c h a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r s , t i m e r e q u i r e d to v i e w d i f fe ren t e x h i b i t s , o r t h e v i s i t o r ' s inabi l i ty to s u s t a i n a h i g h l e v e l of act iv i ty o v e r c o n s e c u t i v e exh ib i ts . V i s i t o r s d o not a p p e a r to t r a n s f e r sk i l ls l e a r n e d f r o m a n exhibi t with a w h i t e b o a r d to o t h e r exhib i ts . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e v i e w i n g t i m e s a n d leve l of interact iv i ty at t h e s e c o n d exhibi t for the t h r e e d a t a s e t s m a y ref lect t h e i n f l u e n c e of c o n t e x t o n vis i tor e x p e r i e n c e . M a n y of t h e s e c o n t e x t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e e v i d e n t in t h e v i g n e t t e s of e a c h g r o u p ' s e x p e r i e n c e s . F a c t o r s s u c h a s s i z e a n d c o l o u r of a n i m a l s , t h e a m o u n t of m o v e m e n t in t h e exhibi t , t h e v is i tor c r o w d i n g a r o u n d t h e exhibi t a n d t h e act iv i t ies in t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s i n f l u e n c e t h e t i m e s p e n t v i e w i n g e a c h exhibit . 3. Whiteboard user behaviour will indicate whether the user observed the animal or activity highlighted by the whiteboard. Vis i tor act iv i ty m a y not re la te o n l y to t h e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d , but to o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h a s a s o c i a l d y n a m i c wi thin t h e g r o u p . B e h a v i o u r s s u c h a s p o i n t i n g , p e e r i n g , a n d c o n v e r s i n g i n d i c a t e t h e v i s i t o r ' s f o c u s . It w a s di f f icul t h o w e v e r to d e t e r m i n e with a n y c e r t a i n t y w h e t h e r t h e v is i tor b e h a v i o u r i n d i c a t e d that t h e u s e r f o u n d t h e a n i m a l or e v e n t h i g h l i g h t e d o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d . It c a n b e c o n f i r m e d o n l y w h e n a n o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o u r s u c h a s point ing or p e e r i n g c o i n c i d e s with a n o v e r h e a r d c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h e f e w i n c i d e n c e s w h e r e c o n v e r s a t i o n c o i n c i d e d with b e h a v i o u r s 117 i n d i c a t e d that v i s i t o r s d i d f ind t h e s u b j e c t of t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d in m a n y i n s t a n c e s s h a r e d what t h e y f o u n d with their s o c i a l g r o u p . P e r h a p s t h e s ign i f icant o u t c o m e of the visitor in teract ion with t h e w h i t e b o a r d is that t h e y s p e n t m o r e t ime ac t ive ly look ing 2 into t h e exhib i t s o i n c r e a s i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to w a t c h a n i m a l b e h a v i o u r a n d d i s c o v e r s o m e t h i n g n e w . 4. The whiteboard users' conversation will contain information from the whiteboard. T h e c o n t e n t of c o n v e r s a t i o n s c o n f i r m s t h e f o c u s of v is i tor act iv i ty a n d i n d i c a t e s w h a t t h e v is i to r is l e a r n i n g f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e s a m p l e of o v e r h e a r d c o n v e r s a t i o n w a s s m a l l , a t r e n d is a p p a r e n t in d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s of w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s a n d n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . O v e r h e a r d c o m m e n t s f r o m w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s r e f e r r e d to t h e s u b j e c t of t h e w h i t e b o a r d . O n l y o n e n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r c o m m e n t e d o n o n e of t h e h igh l igh ted a n i m a l s , a l a r g e o r a n g e s e a p e n , t h e f o o d of t h e o r a n g e p e e l n u d i b r a n c h , a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e w h i t e b o a r d . 5. Whiteboard users will recall information about animals and animal behaviour and relate anecdotal information about the use of whiteboards. O n e m e a s u r e of l e a r n i n g c a n b e g a u g e d by v is i to rs reca l l f r o m a n e x p e r i e n c e . T h e in te rv iew d a t a r e v e a l e d that v i s i t o r s r e c a l l e d m o r e t h a n just i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e w h i t e b o a r d . It r e v e a l e d that t h e v i s i t o r s u n d e r s t o o d o n e of t h e g o a l s of t h e interpretat ive s t ra tegy , to interpret c h a n g e . O v e r half (55%) of t h e v is i tors in te rv iewed 2 W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s h a d a s igni f icant ly l o n g e r v i e w i n g t i m e t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s , t = 3 6 . 6 5 , df = 129 , p < 0 . 0 0 1 , a n d h a d a s igni f icant ly h i g h e r leve l of interactivity, X2 = 2 3 7 . 1 6 , p < 0 . 0 1 . 118 c o m m e n t e d that w h i t e b o a r d s h i g h l i g h t e d a c u r r e n t o r c h a n g i n g e v e n t . T h e t y p e of i n f o r m a t i o n t h e v i s i t o r s r e c a l l e d f r o m t h e w h i t e b o a r d s i n d i c a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n in v i s i t o r s c h o o s i n g to r e a d a w h i t e b o a r d a n d t h e v is i to rs ' ab i l i t ies to reca l l t h e m e s s a g e . In t h e in terv iew, v i s i t o r s i n d i c a t e d that t h e y u s e d t h e w h i t e b o a r d s to s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n within the i r g r o u p , pa r t i cu la r l y with their c h i l d r e n . F o r v is i to rs with c h i l d r e n w h i t e b o a r d s d i d not inhibit c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h e interv iew d a t a r e v e a l that v is i tors u n d e r s t a n d the c u r r e n t a n d c h a n g i n g a s p e c t s of t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s a p p r o a c h a n d h o w w h i t e b o a r d s r e p r e s e n t b o t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h a n d t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t e a c h i n g v i s i t o r s at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m o u t l i n e d in c h a p t e r o n e . T h e v i s i t o r s ' a g e n d a , i n t e r e s t s a n d m o t i v a t i o n s for v is i t ing t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a r e c e n t r a l to t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e w h i t e b o a r d s a n d t h e N a t u r a l i s t f a c i l i t a t e d e x p e r i e n c e . A w h i t e b o a r d e x p e r i e n c e p r o m o t e s s o c i a l l y d r i v e n l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h e t o p i c , s t r u c t u r e a n d c o n t e x t of t h e w h i t e b o a r d . Insights: W h i t e b o a r d s a s a tool for c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n T h e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l a n d interv iew p o r t i o n s of th is s t u d y ref lect t h e role w h i t e b o a r d s p l a y in c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e w h i t e b o a r d s , a s a l e a r n i n g too l , ref lect t h e c u r r e n t a n d c h a n g i n g t h e m e s of t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . C o m m e n t s f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w e d v i s i t o r s i n d i c a t e that t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h e ro le of t h e w h i t e b o a r d in c o n v e y i n g n e w a n d c u r r e n t a n i m a l e v e n t s , a n d that w h i t e b o a r d s a r e kept c u r r e n t with t h e c h a n g i n g e v e n t s within t h e V a n c o u v e r 119 A q u a r i u m . T h e c h a n g e a b l e n a t u r e a n d t o p i c s o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d a r e a n e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d to c o n v e y t h e i d e a that a n i m a l s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t s c h a n g e . A w a r e n e s s of t h e c h a n g i n g b e h a v i o u r of a n i m a l s is k e y to t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s a s it h e l p s v i s i t o r s c h a n g e the i r p e r c e p t i o n f r o m n a t u r e a s " G a r d e n of E d e n " to a m o r e real ist ic o n e . W h i t e b o a r d s a l s o e n g a g e v is i tors in t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s b y p r o v i d i n g a d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e wi th a n i m a l s w h i c h l e a d s to a n i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s a n d k n o w l e d g e of t h o s e a n i m a l s . C o m m e n t s f r o m t h e interv iew d a t a a n d f r o m t h e v is i tors ' i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of interact iv i ty s u p p o r t th is . W h i t e b o a r d s p r o v i d e a n o p p o r t u n i t y fo r v is i tors to start o n t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s a s m o d e l e d in F i g u r e 3 5 . P r o t e c t i o n a n d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n R e s p o n s i b l e A c t i o n i E x p e r i e n c e V a l u e s <• A w a r e n e s s a n d K n o w l e d g e F i g u r e 3 5 : T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n m o d e l . 120 T h e w h i t e b o a r d s h e l p v i s i t o r s m o v e f r o m e x p e r i e n c e t o w a r d s v a l u e s b y p r o v i d i n g a v e h i c l e to a c q u i r e k n o w l e d g e a n d a w a r e n e s s a b o u t a n a n i m a l b y h igh l igh t ing n e w a n i m a l s , o f t en d i r e c t i n g v is i to rs ' a t ten t ion a w a y f r o m t h e be t te r k n o w n c h a r i s m a t i c m e g a f a u n a , s u c h a s the killer w h a l e s o r s e a ot ters , to unfami l ia r a n i m a l s s u c h a s t u b e w o r m s a n d n u d i b r a n c h s . T h e v is i tors ' f o c u s o n un fami l i a r a n i m a l s is r e v e a l e d by the in format ion t h e y r e c a l l e d f r o m the w h i t e b o a r d s h igh l ight ing un fami l i a r a n i m a l s . W h i t e b o a r d s e x t e n d the r e a c h of Natura l is ts , t h e e d u c a t i o n staff w h o work with v is i tors, u s i n g t h e s a m e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k a s t h e o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . W h i t e b o a r d s c o n s i s t e n t l y re f lec t t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s of t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k for t e a c h i n g v is i tors ( s e e F i g u r e 1.2 for t h e c o m p l e t e f r a m e w o r k ) . Appreciation and knowledge of animals and ecosystems • T h e wor ld , s p e c i f i c a l l y m a r i n e e c o s y s t e m s , is full of a var ie ty of a n i m a l s . • V e r y little is k n o w n a b o u t the major i ty of m a r i n e a n i m a l s . • A n i m a l s a r e inherent ly in terest ing . • A n i m a l b e h a v i o u r c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g e s . Responsible action is based on conservation issues and trends • S c i e n c e is a s k i n g g o o d q u e s t i o n s a n d u s i n g o b s e r v a t i o n sk i l ls to a n s w e r t h o s e q u e s t i o n s . W h i t e b o a r d s w h i c h h igh l ight t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h efforts ref lect the fo l lowing a s p e c t s of the f r a m e w o r k . Responsible action is based on conservation issues and trends • S c i e n c e is a p r o c e s s not a n e n d point w h i c h re f lec ts t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e of in format ion a n d fac ts . • C o n s e r v a t i o n is c o m p l e x . T h e intent of t h e w h i t e b o a r d s , a s for t h e Na tura l i s ts , is to e n c o u r a g e v is i to rs to l ea rn a b o u t a n i m a l s b y w a t c h i n g t h e m . T h e h i g h e r l e v e l s of interact iv i ty of t h e w h i t e b o a r d 121 u s e r s s u p p o r t th is . W h i t e b o a r d s i l lustrate the " p l a y - b y - p l a y " m e t a p h o r a s in the cur rent a n d b a c k g r o u n d in fo rmat ion o n the M i d a s c ich l id w h i t e b o a r d ( F i g u r e 3) . W h i t e b o a r d s a l s o u s e t h e p u z z l e m e t a p h o r a s in t h e w h i t e b o a r d h i g h l i g h t i n g t u b e s n o u t s l a y i n g e g g s in o n e of t h e exh ib i ts a n d h o w r e s e a r c h e r s u s e t h e e v e n t to h e l p t h e m s o l v e the p u z z l e of t u b e s n o u t life history. W h i t e b o a r d s a r e e f fec t ive l e a r n i n g t o o l s for t h e v is i tors w h o u s e t h e m , in part, d u e to t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d . T h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e s , a s d i s c u s s e d by B i t g o o d (1990) , w h i c h m a k e l a b e l s e f f e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t e to t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w h i t e b o a r d s . M o s t v is i to rs i n t e r v i e w e d a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e qual i ty of p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e w h i t e b o a r d s in that t h e y h a d v e r y f e w s u g g e s t i o n s to i m p r o v e t h e w h i t e b o a r d o r t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h t h e m e s s a g e s w e r e written. F r o m in fo rmat ion v is i tors r e c a l l e d in t h e in te rv iews a n d in their l e v e l s of interactivity, it is a p p a r e n t tha t v i s i t o r s l e a r n f r o m t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e wi th a w h i t e b o a r d . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s i l lustrate t h e four s t a g e s of in t r ins ica l ly m o t i v a t e d l e a r n i n g d e s c r i b e d by C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i a n d H e r m a n s o n (1995) . V i s i t o r s u s e d w h i t e b o a r d s in t h e first t h r e e s t a g e s . F o r s o m e v i s i t o r s , t h e w h i t e b o a r d w a s t h e " h o o k " w h i c h a t t r a c t e d the i r at tent ion. O t h e r v is i tors u s e d t h e w h i t e b o a r d to s t r e n g t h e n their in terest in a par t icular a n i m a l o r u s e d t h e a c t i v i t i e s o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d , s u c h a s l o o k i n g fo r a s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r , a s a w a y to b e c o m e p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d in t h e e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e t h r e e s t a g e s , t h e "hook" , interest , a n d p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , l e a d to t h e f inal s t a g e w h i c h is l e a r n i n g . 122 W h i t e b o a r d s a r e a l s o e f fec t ive b e c a u s e t h e y h e l p v is i tors a c h i e v e the i r s o c i a l a g e n d a d u r i n g a visit to t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . T h e c o m m e n t s f r o m t h e in te rv iews a s wel l a s t h e o b s e r v e d i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n g r o u p m e m b e r s i n d i c a t e that w h i t e b o a r d s b e c o m e a tool u s e d by v is i to rs to m e d i a t e t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t of their visit a n d of their l e a r n i n g . T h e l a n g u a g e a n d t o p i c s o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d s a p p e a l to v is i to rs b y f o c u s i n g o n s o m e t h i n g of i n t e r e s t a n d r e l e v a n c e to t h e m . E v e r y e v e n t o r a n i m a l t h e w h i t e b o a r d s h ighl ight is o b s e r v a b l e a n d rea l to t h e visi tor . R e l e v a n c y w a s s t r o n g for s o m e v is i to rs s u c h a s t h o s e w h o , w h e n in te rv iewed , s p o k e of their h o m e a q u a r i u m o r t h e v is i tor w h o w a s a w a r e of a h e r o n c o l o n y n e a r h e r h o m e . R e l e v a n c y is e a s y to a c h i e v e with life e v e n t s , s u c h a s a n a n i m a l birth, but m o r e difficult with l e s s fami l iar e v e n t s o r a n i m a l s . A g o o d e x a m p l e of l inking a n un fami l i a r a n i m a l with t h e visi tor is the w a y t h e title of a w h i t e b o a r d , "Oranges Growing in the Ocean?", h igh l igh ted a v e r y unfami l ia r a n i m a l , t h e o r a n g e p e e l n u d i b r a n c h , a n d m a d e a c o n n e c t i o n for t h e visitor. I n c o n g r u o u s or h u m o r o u s s t a t e m e n t s o r q u e s t i o n s link v i s i t o r s to u n f a m i l i a r a n i m a l s a n d e v e n t s . T h e w h i t e b o a r d p r o v i d e s t h e v is i tor with s o m e d i r e c t i o n s o n h o w to u s e their t ime at the exhibi t b y s u g g e s t i n g what to look for a n d what s imi la r t h i n g s t h e y c a n s e e in o t h e r exh ib i ts . It is h o p e d that w h i t e b o a r d s h e l p v is i to rs w a t c h a n i m a l s in a s o c i a l c o n t e x t t h r o u g h a c h i e v i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s of f low. W h e n v is i to rs e x p e r i e n c e f low by w a t c h i n g a n i m a l s t h e y s p e n d l o n g e r t h a n t h e y w o u l d n o r m a l l y at t h e exhibit . 123 It is h o p e d that v i s i t o r s u s i n g w h i t e b o a r d in t h e g a l l e r i e s b e c o m e i n v o l v e d in a n o p t i m u m e x p e r i e n c e o r f low d e f i n e d a s "the s ta te in w h i c h p e o p l e a r e s o i n v o l v e d in a n act ivi ty that n o t h i n g e l s e s e e m s to mat ter ; t h e e x p e r i e n c e itself is s o e n j o y a b l e that p e o p l e will d o it e v e n at g rea t c o s t for the s h e e r s a k e of d o i n g it." ( C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1 9 9 0 , p. 4) W h i t e b o a r d s s u p p o r t the f low e x p e r i e n c e by p r o m o t i n g intr insical ly mot iva t ing l ea rn ing a s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d a n d b y m e e t i n g t h e cr i te r ia of e n j o y m e n t ( C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1990 ) . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s within t h e g a l l e r y se t t ing p r o v i d e v is i to rs with a c h a l l e n g i n g act ivi ty b y e n c o u r a g i n g v is i to rs to look for n e w a n i m a l s o r b e h a v i o u r s . W h i t e b o a r d s h a v e a c l e a r g o a l a c h i e v e d by v is i tors t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n a l act ivi ty. V i s i t o r s r e c e i v e i m m e d i a t e f e e d b a c k w h e n t h e y f ind t h e o b j e c t of t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e v is i tor h a s c o n t r o l o v e r their par t i c ipa t ion in t h e act iv i ty a n d is t h e r e f o r e f r e e of anx ie ty . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s resu l t in t h e v is i tor l o s i n g s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e s e n s e of t ime b e i n g a l t e red a n d b e i n g i n v o l v e d in a n o p t i m u m o r f low e x p e r i e n c e . 124 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s W h i t e b o a r d s s y s t e m c a n b e c o m e a n integra l part of t h e v is i to rs ' l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d a n i m p o r t a n t p a t h w a y f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n . T h e f o l l o w i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s in add i t ion to t h e g u i d e l i n e s for w h i t e b o a r d d e v e l o p m e n t p r e s e n t e d in F i g u r e 4 will a i d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of w h i t e b o a r d s in f a c i l i t i e s s i m i l a r to t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . 1. Educational innovations such as the whiteboards will be more successful when developed from a strong understanding of the institutions goals. T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m h a s a c l e a r m i s s i o n of c o n s e r v a t i o n e m b r a c e d b y its staff. T h e In te rpre ta t ion g r o u p , c o n s i s t i n g of t h e N a t u r a l i s t s a n d o t h e r v i s i t o r - f o c u s s e d e d u c a t o r s , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d their o w n c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k a n d i n t e r w o v e it into t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s m i s s i o n . Sta f f w e r e g i v e n t h e la t i tude to e x p e r i m e n t with di f ferent a p p r o a c h e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s . W h i t e b o a r d s w e r e a n i n n o v a t i o n d e v e l o p e d to h e l p a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e t h e staff h a d a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e g o a l s a n d w e r e c o m m i t t e d to t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . 125 2. The staff responsible for writing whiteboards must be visitor experts. F o r w h i t e b o a r d s to b e a n e f fec t ive tool to c o n v e y c u r r e n t a n i m a l e v e n t s , t h e staff w h o wri te t h e w h i t e b o a r d s m u s t b e t h e c e n t r e of a c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k l ink ing all a s p e c t s of t h e ins t i tu t ion to t h e v i s i t o r s . T h e staff r e s p o n s i b l e fo r wr i t ing t h e w h i t e b o a r d s m u s t h a v e a w i d e r a n g e of e x p e r i e n c e s within t h e inst i tut ion a n d with v is i tors a n d m u s t h a v e t i m e to k e e p t h e w h i t e b o a r d s y s t e m u p to d a t e . Staff w h o write the w h i t e b o a r d s m u s t a l s o h a v e a g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e v is i tor 's a g e n d a , b e a b l e to e f f e c t i v e l y c o m m u n i c a t e wi th t h e m , a n d h a v e a d e q u a t e t i m e to wr i te t h e w h i t e b o a r d s . 3. Whiteboard structure and design must be user-friendly. T h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e m e s s a g e is cr i t ical to t h e s u c c e s s of a w h i t e b o a r d s y s t e m . T h e m e s s a g e c o n v e y e d o n t h e w h i t e b o a r d n e e d s to b e shor t s o v is i tors c a n r e a d it qu ick ly . A m e s s a g e s h o u l d c o n v e y a s i n g l e c o n c e p t with s i m p l e v o c a b u l a r y a n d u s e p i c t u r e s to h e l p e x p l a i n a c o n c e p t o r to m a k e it e a s i e r for the visi tor to f ind t h e h igh l igh ted a n i m a l . T h e w h i t e b o a r d s h o u l d b e l o c a t e d a s c l o s e a s p o s s i b l e to t h e a n i m a l o r e v e n t it h igh l ights s o v is i tors c a n e a s i l y l o c a t e t h e a n i m a l o r e v e n t . T h e w h i t e b o a r d m u s t h a v e a p r o f e s s i o n a l a p p e a r a n c e a n d p o s i t i v e l y re f lect t h e inst i tu t ion. T h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l a p p e a r a n c e i n c l u d e s the s t ruc ture of the w h i t e b o a r d s u c h a s t h e f inal v e r s i o n u s e d at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a n d t h e leg ib i l i ty of t h e h a n d - p r i n t e d m e s s a g e . T h e m e s s a g e c o u l d b e t y p e d , a l t h o u g h th is d o e s not c o n v e y a s s t r o n g l y t h e i d e a of a cur ren t a n d c h a n g i n g e v e n t a n d will i n c r e a s e t h e t ime a n d c o s t in writ ing a w h i t e b o a r d . 126 T h i s s t u d y f o r m s a f o u n d a t i o n u p o n w h i c h to bui ld a n i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the v is i tor e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s . O n e of t h e m o s t in t r igu ing a n d still e l u s i v e a s p e c t s of w h i t e b o a r d s is h o w v is i to rs u s e their t i m e at t h e exhibi t . A s t u d y b a s e d o n d i a l o g u e t r a c k i n g ( C o o p e r , 1995 ) w o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l ins ight into t h e v i s i t o r s ' e x p e r i e n c e , t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n s at t h e e x h i b i t s a n d w o u l d v a l i d a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o u r s a n d v i s i t o r s l o c a t i n g t h e a n i m a l h igh l igh ted b y t h e w h i t e b o a r d . T h e exhib i t 's c o n t e x t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , s u c h a s a m o u n t of m o v e m e n t in t h e exhibit , t h e s i z e of t h e a n i m a l s a n d t h e exhibi t a n d t h e act iv i t ies in t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a , a t t e n d e d b y t h e v is i to rs in th is s t u d y i n f l u e n c e d v is i tor b e h a v i o u r . A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h into h o w t h e c o n t e x t e f f e c t s t h e v i s i t o r a n d h o w c o n t e x t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i m p a c t t h e v is i tor 's abil ity to u s e t h e a n i m a l o b s e r v a t i o n sk i l ls h o n e d at the w h i t e b o a r d w o u l d e n h a n c e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of v is i tor b e h a v i o u r . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s h o w e d that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n d m o r e t i m e at a n exhib i t but it d o e s not r e v e a l wha t f e a t u r e s of t h e w h i t e b o a r d a r e crit ical to their s u c c e s s . F u r t h e r s t u d y w o u l d h e l p to bet ter u n d e r s t a n d h o w vis i tor b e h a v i o u r is e f f e c t e d b y w h i t e b o a r d s a n d to p r o v i d e insight into w a y s t h e w h i t e b o a r d s c a n b e i m p r o v e d . 127 E p i l o g u e T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u p p o r t s s i x y e a r s of a n e c d o t a l e v i d e n c e p o i n t i n g to t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e w h i t e b o a r d s . W h i t e b o a r d u s e r s s p e n t s ign i f i cant ly l o n g e r v i e w i n g t h e exhibi t (t = 3 6 . 6 5 , df = 129 , p < 0 .001) a n d e x h i b i t e d a s ign i f i cant ly h i g h e r level of interact iv i ty (X2 = 2 3 7 . 1 6 , p < 0 .01 ) t h a n n o n - w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s . T h e i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d that w h i t e b o a r d u s e r s u n d e r s t o o d t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s g o a l to c o n v e y rea l , re levant , c u r r e n t a n d c h a n g i n g in format ion a b o u t a n i m a l s within t h e exhib i ts . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m i n t r o d u c e s the rea l , re levant , c u r r e n t a n d c h a n g i n g na ture of a n i m a l s a n d e c o s y s t e m s t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n s with N a t u r a l i s t s a n d t h r o u g h wri t ten m e d i a s u c h a s exh ib i t g u i d e s a n d w h i t e b o a r d s . T h r o u g h o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d w h i t e b o a r d s , t h e v is i to rs u s e ski l ls , s u c h a s o b s e r v a t i o n , q u e s t i o n i n g , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s to s u p p o r t s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g a n d e x p a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l of t h e e x p e r i e n c e . T h e v is i to rs ' l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e in t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m ' s g a l l e r i e s is o n e in w h i c h t h e y a r e ac t ive ly i n v o l v e d t h r o u g h t h e c o l l e c t i o n a n d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of in format ion into internal k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s , d e v e l o p i n g m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d v i e w s of c o n c e p t s . T h e v i s i t o r s e x p e r i e n c e r e s u l t s in a n o p t i m a l , i n t r i n s i c a l l y m o t i v a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e ( C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1990) in w h i c h t h e y l ea rn b y m a k i n g s e n s e of what t h e y e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n , d e b a t e , a n d t h e r e a s s e s s m e n t of p r e v i o u s l y h e l d i d e a s . T h e l e a r n i n g is s o c i a l l y a n d cul tural ly re levant to t h e visi tor a s it o c c u r s within a 128 s o c i a l c o n t e x t a n d t h e v is i tors ' a g e n d a , to h a v e a n e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e , is met . A s E i s n e r a n d D o b b s sta te , " E x p e r i e n c e is not s i m p l e h a d , it is t a k e n ; e x p e r i e n c e is a p r o d u c t of t h e t r a n s a c t i o n b e t w e e n a v i e w e r a n d a work. . . . I f a w o r k h a s n o q u a l i t i e s w o r t h e x p e r i e n c e , it r e q u i r e s t h e sk i l ls for p e r c e i v i n g a n d u n d e r g o i n g w h a t t h o s e q u a l i t i e s m a k e p o s s i b l e . It is in t h e t r a n s a c t i o n b e t w e e n v i e w e r a n d t h e v i e w e d that e x p e r i e n c e is born . " ( E i s n e r a n d D o b b s , 1 9 8 8 , p. 8) V i s i t o r s at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m a r e ac t ive ly i n v o l v e d a n d u s e p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e to c o n s t r u c t n e w u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a n d h a v e a n e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h i s a n i n t r i n s i c a l l y r e w a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e ( C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m v is i to rs attain a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of n e w , c o m p l e x c o n c e p t s a b o u t a n i m a l s a n d e c o s y s t e m s w h i c h is a n in tegra l s t e p in t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h r o u g h t h e i n n o v a t i v e s t ra tegy , w h i t e b o a r d s , t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m p r o v i d e s the z o o a n d a q u a r i u m i n d u s t r y with a n a l t e rna te a p p r o a c h to v is i tor e d u c a t i o n w h i c h will s t i m u l a t e o t h e r s t u d i e s of i n n o v a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s a n d s u p p o r t i n n o v a t i o n s in c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n . 129 Bibliography B e e r , V . ( 1987 ) . G r e a t e x p e c t a t i o n s : D o m u s e u m s k n o w w h a t v i s i t o r s a r e d o i n g ? C u r a t o r , 30(3) , 2 0 6 - 2 1 5 . B e l l a n d , J . (1986) . C o n c e p t l ea rn ing in m u s e u m s . C u r a t o r , 29(2) , 8 5 - 9 1 . B i r n e y , B . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . C r i t e r i a fo r s u c c e s s f u l m u s e u m a n d z o o v i s i t s : c h i l d r e n of fer g u i d a n c e . C u r a t o r 31 /4 , 2 9 2 - 3 1 6 . B i t g o o d , S . ( 1988 ) . P r o f e s s i o n a l i s s u e s in v is i tor s t u d i e s . V i s i t o r S t u d i e s : T h e o r y , R e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e . V o l . 1.. 5 - 1 1 . B i t g o o d , S . ( 1989 ) . P r o f e s s i o n a l i s s u e s in v is i tor s t u d i e s . V i s i t o r S t u d i e s : T h e o r y , R e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e . V o l . 2, 8 - 21 . B i t g o o d , S . (1990) . T h e A B C s of l abe l d e s i g n . V is i to r S t u d i e s : T h e o r y , r e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e , V o l . 3, 1 1 5 - 1 2 9 . B i t g o o d , S . , P a t t e r s o n , D. , & B e n e f i e l d , A . (1992) . U s i n g h a n d o u t s to i n c r e a s e labe l r e a d i n g . V is i tor B e h a v i o r , 7(1), 15 -17 . B i t g o o d , S . & C l e g h o r n , A . (1994) . M e m o r y of O b j e c t s , L a b e l s a n d O t h e r S e n s o r y I m p r e s s e r i o n f rom a M u s e u m Visit . V is i tor B e h a v i o r , 9(2), 11 - 1 2 . B o r u n , M . & A d a m s , K. ( 1992 ) . F r o m h a n d s o n to m i n d s o n : L a b e l l i n g in te rac t i ve exhibi ts . V is i tor s t u d i e s : T h e o r y . R e s e a r c h a n d p r a c t i c e , V o l . 4, p p . 1 1 5 - 1 2 0 . B u r g e s s , J . (1992 , O c t o b e r ) . T h e N a t u r e of the B o x . B B C Wi ld l i fe . 5 1 - 4 2 C a r l s o n , S . (1994) . C o g n i t i v e m o d e l for l e a r n i n g in e d u c a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l faci l i t ies. V is i tor S t u d i e s : T h e o r y , R e s e a r c h , a n d P r a c t i c e , vo l . 6. C o b e r n , W . ( 1 9 9 5 ) . C o n s t r u c t i v i s m f o r s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n Internat ional , vo l . 6, no . 2, 8 - 1 2 . C o e , J . C . ( 1985 ) . D e s i g n a n d p e r c e p t i o n : M a k i n g t h e z o o e x p e r i e n c e r e a l . Z o o B i o l o g y , 4, 1 9 7 - 2 0 8 . C o h e n , J . P . (1992) . D e c i s i o n s at t h e z o o : E t h i c s , po l i t ics , profit a n d a n i m a l - r i g h t s c o n c e r n s a f fec t t h e p r o c e s s of b a l a n c i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l s a n d t h e p u b l i c in terests . B i o s c i e n c e , 4 2 (9), 6 5 4 - 6 5 9 . 130 C o o p e r , J . ( 1995 ) . D i a l o g u e t r a c k i n g : A d d i n g a n e w d i m e n s i o n to v is i tor t r a c k i n g . V is i tor S t u d i e s C o n f e r e n c e , J u l y 1995 . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , M . ( 1987 ) . H u m a n b e h a v i o u r a n d t h e s c i e n c e c e n t e r . S c i e n c e L e a r n i n g in t h e Informal S e t t i n g , 7 9 - 88 . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , M . (1990) . F l o w . T h e P s y c h o l o g y of O p t i m a l E x p e r i e n c e . H a r p e r P e r e n i a l . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , M . & H e r m a n s o n , K. ( 1 9 9 5 ) . Intr insic m o t i v a t i o n in m u s e u m s : W h y d o e s o n e w a n t to l e a r n ? in P u b l i c Inst i tut ions fo r P e r s o n a l L e a r n i n g : E s t a b l i s h i n g a R e s e a r c h A g e n d a . 6 7 - 78 . D i e r k i n g , L. & F a l k , J . (1994) . R e d e f i n i n g t h e m u s e u m e x p e r i e n c e : T h e interact ive e x p e r i e n c e m o d e l . V is i tor S t u d i e s : T h e o r y , R e s e a r c h , a n d P r a c t i c e , v o l . 7, 1 7 3 - 176 . D o n a l d , J . (1991) . T h e M e a s u r e m e n t of l e a r n i n g in t h e m u s e m . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , 16:3, 371 - 3 8 2 . D o o r d a n , D. (1995) . S i m u l a t e d s e a s : E x h i b i t i o n d e s i g n in c o n t e m p o r a r y a q u a r i u m s . D e s i g n I s s u e s . 11(2), 3 - 1 0 . E i s n e r , E . & D o b b s , S . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . S i l e n t p e d a g o g y : H o w m u s e u m s h e l p v i s i t o r s e x p e r i e n c e exh ib i t ions . Art E d u c a t i o n . J u l y , 6 - 1 5 . Fa lk , J . (1993) . A s s e s s i n g the i m p a c t of exhibi t a r r a n g e m e n t o n visi tor b e h a v i o u r a n d l e a r n i n g . C u r a t o r , 36 /2 , 133 - 1 4 6 . F a l k , J . & D i e r k i n g , L. (1995) . A c a s e for c o n d u c t i n g l o n g - t e r m l e a r n i n g r e s e a r c h in m u s e u m s , in P u b l i c Institutions for P e r s o n a l L e a r n i n g : E s t a b l i s h i n g a R e s e a r c h A g e n d a . 9 - 1 4 . Ri fe , B. (1994) . P e r s o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n . H a y w a r d , J . ( 1988 ) . C o u n t i n g v is i to rs h e l p s to e v a l u a t e e x h i b i t s : A c a s e s t u d y of b e h a v i o u r a l m a p p i n g . I L V S R e v i e w , 1(1) 7 6 - 8 5 . H i r s c h i , K . D . & S c r e v e n , C . G . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . E f f e c t s of q u e s t i o n s o n v i s i t o r r e a d i n g b e h a v i o u r . I L V S R e v i e w , 1(1), 5 0 - 6 1 . H o o d , M . (1983) . S t a y i n g a w a y : W h y p e o p l e c h o o s e n o t to visit m u s e u m s . M u s e u m N e w s 61 /4 , 5 0 - 5 7 . 131 K e l s e y , E . ( 1991 ) . C o n c e p t u a l c h a n g e a n d kil ler w h a l e s : c o n s t r u c t i n g e c o l o g i c a l v a l u e s for a n i m a l s at the V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . Internat ional J o u r n a l of S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 13(5), 5 5 1 - 5 5 9 . K e l s e y , E . (1994) . A n a l te rnat ive p a r a d i q n for c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n : Innova t ions in t h e p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of k i l l e r w h a l e s at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , Brit ish C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a . K o b e l l , R. (1992) . P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . K o r a n , J . , K o r a n , M . , & F o s t e r , J . (1989) . T h e (potent ia l ) c o n t r i b u t i o n s of c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y to visitor s t u d i e s . Vis i tor s t u d i e s : T h e o r y , r e s e a r c h a n d prac t ice , V o l . 2, 7 2 - 7 9 . K o r a n , J . , K o r a n , M . , & L o n g i n o , S . (1986) . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of a g e , s e x , a t tent ion a n d h o l d i n g p o w e r with two t y p e s of s c i e n c e exhib i ts . C u r a t o r , 29(3) , 2 2 7 - 2 3 5 . L o o m i s , R, (1988) . T h e c o n t e n a n c e of v is i tor s t u d i e s in t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s . V is i to r S t u d i e s : T h e o r y , R e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e . V o l . 1 , 1 2 - 2 4 . M a s s e y , C . (1995) . H o w c o g n i t i v e s c i e n t i s t s v i e w s c i e n c e l e a r n i n g , in W h a t R e s e a r c h S a y s a b o u t L e a r n i n g in Informal S e t t i n g s , V o l 2, 7 - 1 1 . M a c k a y , L. (1993) . P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . M c i n t o s h , L. ( 1993 ) . A s it h a p p e n s ! : C o n n e c t i n g v i s i t o r s to t h e d y n a m i c s of t h e a q u a r i u m a n d t h e w i l d . J o u r n a l of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Z o o E d u c a t o r s , 29 , 1 3 8 - 1 4 2 M c B a i n , F . (1994) . P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . M c M a n u s , P. (1992) . T o p i c s in m u s e u m s a n d s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . S t u d i e s in S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 20 , 1 5 7 - 1 8 2 . M c M a n u s , P. (1993) . M e m o r i e s a s i n d i c a t o r s of the i m p a c t of m u s e u m visi ts. M u s e u m M a n a g e m e n t a n d C u r a t o r s h i p . 12, 3 6 7 - 380 . M i l a n , L. & W o u r m s , M . (1992) . A z o o l o g i c a l p a r k is not just a n o t h e r m u s e u m . C u r a t o r , 35(2) , 1 2 0 - 1 3 6 . Mil ler, J . & S e l l e r , W . (1990) . C u r r i c u l u m . P e r s p e c t i v e s a n d P r a c t i c e s . C o p p C l a r k P i t m a n L td . T o r o n t o . 132 M o r r i s s e y , K. & B e r g e , Z . (1990 ) . E x p l o r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m e d i a a n d l e a r n i n g : L e s s o n s f r o m t h e f ie ld of e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y . V i s i t o r S t u d i e s : T h e o r y . R e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e . V o l . 1 7 8 - 184. N e e d h a m , R. (1987 ) . T e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s for d e v e l o p i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g in s c i e n c e . C h i l d r e n ' s L e a r n i n g in S c i e n c e Pro ject . O l l a s o n , R. ( 1 9 9 3 ) . G e t t i n g t h e m e s s a g e a c r o s s . J o u r n a l of t h e In te rna t iona l A s s o c i a t i o n of Z o o E d u c a t o r s . 2 9 , 1 8 6 - 1 9 0 . P a r s o n s , C . (1990) . A n exhib i t 's g o a l is to c h a n g e b e h a v i o u r . T r u e o r f a l s e ? V is i tor s t u d i e s : T h e o r y . R e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e . V o l . 2, 17 -20 . P a t t e r s o n , D. & B i t g o o d , S . (1988) . S o m e e v o l v i n g p r i n c i p l e s in v is i tor b e h a v i o r . V is i tor S t u d i e s : T h e o r y . R e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e . V o l 1, 4 0 - 50 . Pear t , B . (1986) . Impact of exhibi t t y p e o n k n o w l e d g e g a i n , a t t i tudes , a n d b e h a v i o u r . C u r a t o r , 19(4), 271 - 2 9 0 . T u n n i c l i f f e , S . (1994) . W h a t d o c h i l d r e n talk a b o u t w h e n l o o k i n g at a n i m a l s in a z o o d u r i n g a f ie ldtr ip? V is i tor S t u d i e s C o n f e r e n c e . J u l y 1994 . S c r e v e n , C . G . (1976) . Exhb i t e v a l u a t i o n : A g o a l - r e f e r e d p p r o a c h . C u r a t o r 19(4), 271 - 2 9 0 . S e r r e l l , B . ( 1983 ) . M a k i n g E x h i b i t L a b e l s : A S t e p b y S t e p G u i d e . N a s h v i l l e , T N : A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n for S t a t e a n d L o c a l H is tory . S n i v e l y , G . (1978) . E x p l o r i n g t h e S e a s h o r e . G o r d o n S o u l e s P u b l i s h e r s . V a n c o u v e r . S h e t t e l , H . (1988) . D o w e rea l ly n e e d to d o visi tor s t u d i e s . V is i to r S t u d i e s : T h e o r y . R e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e . V o l . 1 , 2 5 - 3 1 . S t e i n r a t h s , M . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n t h e s t u d y of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w h i t e b o a r d s at a l t e r ing v is i tor b e h a v i o r . U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n R e p o r t . S t e v e n s o n , J . (1992) . T h e longte rm i m p a c t of interact ive exhib i ts . Internat ional J o u r n a l of S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . 13(5), 5 2 1 - 3 1 . V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1994 . V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m Vis i tor S a t i s f a c t i o n S u r v e y , A u g u s t 1 9 9 4 a 133 W a d g e , P . ( 1993 ) . T h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w h i t e b o a r d s at t h e V a n c o u v e r A q u a r i u m . S F U C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n R e p o r t . W a t k i n s , A . (1994) . M e t h o d o l o g y : H o w to c o n d u c t a v is i tor o b s e r v a t i o n s t u d y o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w h i t e b o a r d s . S F U C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n R e p o r t . W a t s o n , B . & K o n i c e k , R. ( 1990 ) . T e a c h i n g for c o n c e p t u a l c h a n g e : C o n f r o n t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e . P h i D e l t a K a p p a n , M a y , 6 8 0 - 6 8 5 . W i l l i a m s , R. & R u b e n s t e i n , R. (1994) . V is i tor s t u d i e s : C o m m i t t e d to c h a n g e . M u s e , vo l . 12, n o . 1, 4 1 - 4 4 . 134 Appendix 1 - Glossary G a m e t e s A m a t u r e s e x ce l l , e i ther s p e r m or e g g s . Inver tebra tes A n i m a l s wi thout b a c k b o n e s . Li fe h is tory A d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e life c y c l e of a n a n i m a l f r o m e g g to r e p r o d u c t i v e adult . M i d a s c i c h l i d A t rop ica l f r e s h w a t e r f i sh , w h i c h a s a d u l t s is br ight o r a n g e . M a l e s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y a l a r g e b u m p o n its " f o r e h e a d " . T h e p a r e n t s , a s with o t h e r t y p e s of c i c h l i d s , h a v e c o m p l e x p a r e n t i n g s t ra teg ies . N u d i b r a n c h A soft b o d i e d s l u g - l i k e s n a i l with b r a n c h e d gi l ls , wi thout a she l l , o r at l e a s t w i t h o u t o n e l a r g e e n o u g h into w h i c h t h e a n i m a l c a n wi thdraw. ( S n i v e l y , 1978) P l u m o s e a n e m o n e A la rge , u s u a l l y whi te a n e m o n e with v e r y s m a l l t e n t a c l e s , g iv ing the a n e m o n e a p l u m e - l i k e top . Rat f ish A m a r i n e c a r t i l a g i n o u s f i s h with a l o n g ra t - l i ke tail a n d b u l b o u s h e a d s with la rge e y e s . T h e y s w i m like s l o w f ly ing b i rds . S e a c u c u m b e r A n e l o n g a t e d a n i m a l with g e n e r a l l y f i ve r o w s of t u b e feet r u n n i n g t h e length of t h e b o d y a n d a r ing of m o p - l i k e t e n t a c l e s a r o u n d t h e m o u t h . (Sn ive ly , 1978) S e a p e n A p l u m e - s h a p e d , c a r n i v o r o u s a n i m a l h a v i n g little t e n t a c l e s l o c a t e d o n t h e p l u m e - l i k e b r a n c h e s ; re la ted to s e a a n e m o n e s a n d je l lyf ish. ( S n i v e l y , 1978 ) 135 S p a w n i n g R e l e a s i n g e g g s or s p e r m ( g a m e t e s ) . In t h e c a s e of t u b e w o r m s the g a m e t e s a r e r e l e a s e d into the water , w h e r e fert i l izat ion t a k e s p l a c e . T u b e s n o u t A s m a l l c o a s t a l m a r i n e f ish with a s l e n d e r , rigid b o d y w h i c h h o v e r s in s c h o o l s a m o n g s t s e a w e e d , d o c k s a n d p i l ings . T u b e W o r m A s e g m e n t e d w o r m that l i v e s wi th in a l e a t h e r y , p a r c h m e n t - l i k e mate r i a l . P l u m e s , r e s e m b l i n g a f e a t h e r d u s t e r p r o t r u d e s f r o m t h e l ea thery t u b e . (Sn ive ly , 1978) 136 Appendix 2 - Observation and Questionaire Sheets Observations Record 1. subject #: exhibit: 2. profile: gender Age category (check one - estimate) 11- 15 40 - 49 16- 19 50 - 63 20- 29 63 + 30 - 39 group composition (check one) alone with adult with child (ren) Exhibit with white board 3. time spent viewing exhibit w/white board: 4. behaviours used at exhibit w/white board: (check relevant categories - multiple checks for repeat behaviours) pointing re-reading white board conversing peering into exhibit others (describe) Exhibit viewed after exhibit with white board 3. time spent viewing second exhibit : 4. behaviours used at second exhibit (check relevant categories - multiple checks for repeat behaviours) pointing » re-reading white board conversing peering into exhibit others (describe) 137 Interview Questions: Subject #: Interview sheet #: Tape #: Have you ever been to the Vancouver Aquarium before? Y N When was the last time you visited? You are here with (check one) family friends alone Describe who you are visiting with (number -people in group, age of children, if any) Age category (check one) 11 -15 20-29 40 - 49 _ 63 + _ 16-19 __ 30 - 3 9 _ 50 - 6 3 _ Gender (check one) M F Subject is shown a photo line up of white boards, which are in the galleries that day. 1. Did you see one of these white boards on your visit today? yes (if yes go to 2) no (if no go to 3) 2: What do you remember about the exhibit and animals this white board (white board which visitor recognized) was in front of? (List anecdotal information about visitor experience at the exhibit.) 1 3 8 3. Did you see any white boards on your visit today? yes dfyes 8° t° 4) no (if no go to 5) 4. Do you recall what the white board was about? (List anecdotal information about visitor experience with white board.) 5. How long have you been in the Aquarium today? 6. Are you an Aquarium member? yes (if yes go to 8) no (if no go to END) 7. As a member, what do you like about white boards? (List anecdotal information about experiences) What do you dislike? END - Thank you for time. 139 Appendix 3 - Interview Comments What Visitors Liked About Whiteboards F o r m a t Whiteboard is easy to understand • in format ion is c o n c i s e a n d e a s y to u n d e r s t a n d • e x p l a i n t h i n g s • in terest ing info, e a s y to r e a d • e a s y to r e a d Location and format of whiteboard (1 more comment) • w h i t e b o a r d s out in o p e n - h a r d to m i s s • like c o l o u r s • n i c e print ing • e y e c a t c h i n g • dif ferent f r o m exhibit text • c o l o u r s Informat ion Whiteboard provides additional information • l ikes to r e a d info • p r o v i d e s m o r e info • in terest ing to r e a d • b e c a u s e of info - 7 m o n t h s o l d , we ight • in format ion • t y p e of info New and current information • w o u l d m i s s t h i n g s like t h e b a b i e s if not h igh l igh ted • cur ren t info - t h i n g s y o u m a y m i s s if t h e y weren ' t h igh l igh ted • n e w info • stuff w e w o u l d m i s s • k e e p u p to d a t e • theore t ica l ly c h a n g i n g / n e w info but not h e r e e n o u g h to s e n s e c h a n g e • tell w h a t ' s n e w - da i ly u p d a t e s • e x p l a i n s t h i n g s that y o u w o u l d m i s s o t h e r w i s e • ind ica te t h i n g s that a r e n e w e s t • c h a n g e a b l e - u p d a t e s o f ten • v e r y e f fect ive for n e w in format ion • c h a n g e a b l e • s e a s o n a l t h i n g s like t h e h e r o n s • t h i n g s that a r e g o i n g o n right n o w • n e w info, • might m i s s t h i n g s o t h e r w i s e 140 Interact ion Gives visitors something to think about • s t imula te to start th ink ing • tel ls y o u what to look for Share information with children • u s e w h i t e b o a r d s to h e l p their 6 yr o ld • look fr w b o n e a c h visit a n d s h a r e info with k ids • r e a d s a n d te l ls s o n Other • s e n s e of h u m o u r How Visitors Would Improve Whiteboards • m o r e in format ion o n f e e d i n g habi ts , . . . • i m p r o v e print ing • h a r d to s e e in d a r k g a l l e r i e s • di f ferent d e s i g n - l ike l a b e l s • m o r e d r a w i n g s , p i c t u r e s w o u l d b e g o o d • p o l a r o i d for p i c t u r e s • m o r e point f o r m - l e s s r e a d i n g General Comments About Whiteboards • b l u e h e r o n s re turn ing to n e s t - a w a r e of h e r o n c o l o n y at h o m e (Po in t R o b e r t s ) • t u b e w o r m s - h a d t roub le s e e i n g what w h i t e b o a r d h igh l igh ted ( s p a w n i n g ) 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0054771/manifest

Comment

Related Items