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Applied science in the curriculum : The case of industrial science 12 in British Columbia 1989

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A P P L I E D S C I E N C E IN THE CURRICULUM : THE CASE OF INDUSTRIAL S C I E N C E 12 IN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA By WILLIAM COLIN MACKENZIE B . A . , Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1973 B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k , 1979 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S EDUCATION - CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J a n u a r y 1989 (c) W i l l i a m C o l i n M a c K e n z i e , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of E d u c a t i o n - C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date December 28, 1988 -6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s the d i s j u n c t i o n between macro-level p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s concerning the c u r r i c u l u m and the l i v e d experience i n the s c h o o l s r e s u l t i n g from those d e c i s i o n s . The s p e c i f i c case of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 - a s e n i o r secondary a p p l i e d s c i e n c e i n t r o d u c e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 - i s examined i n some d e t a i l as an i n s t a n c e of t h i s d i s j u n c t i o n . Data f o r t h i s study were gathered through a r c h i v a l searches and personal i n t e r v i e w s . The a r c h i v e s of the former B r i t i s h Columbia Shop Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n and the personal papers of P r o f e s s o r Harry Cannon were the main sources of p r i n t e d data. Personal i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with members of the Course Development Committee, former Department of Education o f f i c i a l s , School Board S u p e r v i s o r s , Shop Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n e x c e c u t i v e members, and teachers of the course. The B r i t i s h Columbia e d u c a t i o n a l m i l i e u of that time i s examined, i n c l u d i n g the e f f e c t s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t s , the Royal Commission on Education (1960), and the T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Act (1961). The d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the Department of Education and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , the Course Development Committee, are s c r u t i n i z e d . The r e a c t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Shop Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n to the course i s analyzed. The b r i e f e x i s t e n c e of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 i n the s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e s c r i b e d . F i n a l l y , c o n c l u s i o n s are advanced to e x p l a i n the d i f f i c u l t i e s the course encountered, and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e c u r r i c u l u m development i n t h i s area are d i s c u s s e d . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter One - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter Two - Review of L i t e r a t u r e 9 Chapter Three - Methodology 16 Chapter Four - S o c i e t a l I n f l u e n c e s on I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 24 Chapter F i v e - The Development of I n d u s t r i a l S cience 12 42 Chapter Six - I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 i n the Schools 79 Chapter Seven - C o n c l u s i o n 118 B i b l iography 135 i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The s u c c e s s f u l completion of t h i s t h e s i s owes much to the support and encouragement r e c e i v e d from my a d v i s o r , Dr. P. James Gask e l 1 , whose enthusiasm and b e l i e f i n the p r o j e c t never f l a g g e d . V a l u a b l e advice and a s s i s t a n c e was a l s o generously given by committee members Dr. Jane G a s k e l 1 , P r o f . Bob Leduc, and P r o f . W i l l i a m Logan. Many people gave f r e e l y of t h e i r time to be interv i e w e d f o r t h i s study and they a l s o have my g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . F i n a l l y , my deepest a p p r e c i a t i o n must go to my wife, Deborah, who magnanimously put up with both t h i s t h e s i s and her husband through i t a l l . i v Chapter 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s the d i s j u n c t i o n between macro-level p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s concerning the c u r r i c u l u m and the l i v e d e xperience i n s c h o o l s r e s u l t i n g from those d e c i s i o n s . T h i s i s s u e i s examined through the h i s t o r y of one p a r t i c u l a r course which was int r o d u c e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 and o f f i c i a l l y withdrawn i n 1975 - I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12. The complex f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g during the develop- ment and i n t r o d u c t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 make a study of t h a t course a unique case i n Canadian c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y . During t h i s p e r i o d the Chant Commission had examined education i n B r i t i s h Columbia and made sweeping recommendations concerning the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Senior Secondary program. I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was one of the new courses which r e s u l t e d from the Commission's recommendations. At the same time, the f e d e r a l government became a major p l a y e r i n Canadian education at t h i s time by p r o v i d i n g funding f o r v o c a t i o n a l education through the T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Act (TVTA) of 1960. I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 was accepted 1 under the terms of Program 1 ( V o c a t i o n a l High School t r a i n i n g ) of the TVTA and thus q u a l i f i e d f o r f e d e r a l f unding. I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 was a l s o unique i n i t s attempt to be an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y course, combining the methods of s c i e n c e with the u t i l i t a r i a n aspects of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n . In the s o c i a l c l i m a t e of the e a r l y 1960s, s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l education was seen as a c r u c i a l element of n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l . The i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y nature of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was cons i d e r e d to be an important aspect of t h i s t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Importance of Study The importance of r e s e a r c h i n g l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y has been emphasized by Tomkins (1979) and Shaw (1978). The n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l context of c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n i n the 1960s, undeniable i n importance and i n f l u e n c e , i s a l s o the sum t o t a l of d e c i s i o n s made by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n p o s i t i o n s to p r e s c r i b e c u r r i c u l a . The p r e v a l e n t contemporary wisdom concerning c u r r i c u l a w i l l be adapted to the l o c a l c ontext, j u s t as a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t c u r r i c u l u m w i l l be adapted a t the classroom l e v e l . The cumulative r e s u l t of more 2 s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r i e s w i l l be a more v a l u a b l e n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y o f c u r r i c u l u m . The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g d o e s n o t u n f o l d i n a vacuum has a v o i d e d t h e " i n - h o u s e " s i m p l i c i t y o f e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s . However, t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n has n o t been w i t h o u t i t s own p r o b l e m s . A c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f a g i v e n t i m e , were t h i s p o s s i b l e , w i l l n o t a x i o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t i n a c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s o f a s c h o o l s u b j e c t . The c o n t e n t s o f a s c h o o l s u b j e c t do n o t f l o w i n e v i t a b l y from n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t a l t r e n d s and d e c i s i o n s . The e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s , r e s e a r c h on i n n o v a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m / s c h o o l e c o l o g y o f t h e p a s t two d e c a d e s have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e complex n a t u r e o f s c h o o l i n g . A c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y must r e c o g n i z e t h a t p a s t e v e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n were no l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e s e c o m p l e x i t i e s . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s an a r e a i n w h i c h t h e r e has been r e m a r k a b l y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h - i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . Lux (1982) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t no t r a d i t i o n o f r e s e a r c h as a p a r t o f p r o f e s s o r s ' d u t i e s has d e v e l o p e d i n t h e f i e l d . The r e s e a r c h t h a t has been u n d e r t a k e n has c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o " t h e e v a l u a t i o n and g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e o r i e s " , and has made " l i t t l e 3 s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n " ( p . 8 6 1 ) . B e c a u s e t h e "pace o f c hange [ i s ] s o s l o w and t h e need f o r i t so g r e a t " , r e s e a r c h e r s "need t o become much more k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t change phenomena". A l t h o u g h a b e g i n n i n g has been made, " t h e f i e l d i s a m a z i n g l y s h o r t on t h i s k i n d o f r e s e a r c h " ( p . 8 6 1 ) . The h i s t o r i c a l c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h t h a t d o e s e x i s t c o n c e r n i n g t h i s f i e l d c an be s e t , a l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , i n one o f two camps, b o t h o f w h i c h t e n d toward a m a c r o - l e v e l a n a l y s i s . Much h i s t o r i c a l work c r i t i c a l o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s e m p h a s i z e s t h e v o c a t i o n a l a s p e c t . Many h i s t o r i a n s (Dunn, 1978; M o r r i s o n , 1974; L a z e r s o n & Grubb, 1974; W i r t h , 1972) have i n t e r p r e t e d t h e r o l e o f i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n i n s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t o be t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f c e r t a i n segments o f s o c i e t y t o i n d u s t r i a l work norms and t h e i r p l a c e i n s o c i e t y . T h e r e i s a l s o a body o f " h o r t a t o r y " h i s t o r i e s ( B a r e l l a & W r i g h t , 1981; B a r l o w , 1967; B e n n e t t , 1937), w r i t t e n by t h o s e w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h d e s c r i b e i t s d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e o b s t a c l e s i t had t o overcome t o g a i n a c c e p t a n c e . D e s p i t e t h i s a t t e n t i o n t o c o n t e x t f r o m t h e two d i s p u t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s , t h e c o n t e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s a s s c h o o l s u b j e c t s has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o r no a t t e n t i o n . The s h i f t i n g " c u r r i c u l u m 4 emphases" ( R o b e r t s , 1982) o f t h e s u b j e c t t e n d t o be i g n o r e d i n t h e m a c r o - l e v e l a n a l y s i s u t i l i z e d . A h o s t o f s o c i a l f a c t o r s a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s c h o o l l e v e l have a l s o p l a y e d a l a r g e r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m emphases o f i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s , and what can c o u n t as i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e s e a l s o must be c o n s i d e r e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l c o n t e x t . I f i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s a r e , a s i s o f t e n s u g g e s t e d , t h e "dumping g r o u n d s " f o r t h e " l o w e r c l a s s e s " and " l e s s a b l e " , t h a t p o l i c y i s c o n t i n u a l l y c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t c o n t e n t s and methods. A m a c r o - l e v e l a n a l y s i s o f an I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n programme w i l l n o t s u f f i c e f o r a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m dilemma e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e s c h o o l . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s D e s p i t e t h e i n f l u e n t i a l f o r c e s w h i c h e n g e n d e r e d I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12, t h e c o u r s e had a v e r y s h o r t , u n s u c c e s s f u l l i f e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l s ; a f r e q u e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e , g i v e n i n t e a c h e r s ' v e r n a c u l a r , i s t h a t i t was a " d i s a s t e r " . As an o f f i c i a l c o u r s e t i t l e , I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 l a s t e d o n l y t e n y e a r s ; as an e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t o f t h e 5 c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r e d i n a r e a s o n a b l e number o f s c h o o l s , i t s a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e was o n l y f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s . T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o a c h i e v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f a t e o f t h i s c u r r i c u l u m e n d e a v o u r t h r o u g h t h r e e o v e r a r c h i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h d i r e c t i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s : 1. What s o c i e t a l p r e s s u r e s e x i s t e d w h i c h l e a d o f f i c i a l s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 c o u r s e ? 2. D i d t h e c o u r s e d e v e l o p e r s p r o d u c e a w o r k a b l e c u r r i c u l u m i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s ? 3. What c o n s t r a i n t s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l l e a d t o t h e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e v e n t u a l w i t h d r a w a l o f I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 ? O v e r v i e w o f S t u d y C h a p t e r 2 p r e s e n t s a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e and e s t a b l i s h e s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r t h e s t u d y . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e x a m i n e s t h e u s e o f c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y and t h e v a l u e o f c a s e s t u d i e s o f c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h e x a m i n e s 6 how t h e c o n t e n t s o f a s u b j e c t become d e f i n e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s a l s o r e v i e w e d , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s on t h e work o f I v o r Goodson. The m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y - i n c l u d i n g a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h , document a n a l y s i s , and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s - i s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3. The s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l m i l i e u i n w h i c h I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 had i t s g e n e s i s i s examined i n C h a p t e r 4, i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . The g e n e r a l s o c i a l c l i m a t e o f t h e t i m e i s b r i e f l y s u r v e y e d . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t s a t c u r r i c u l a r r e f o r m a r e n o t e d . The e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o l l o w i n g t h e C h a n t Commission i s examined, as a r e t h e c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . The e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d f o r v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g A s s i s t a n c e A c t a r e a l s o r e v i e w e d . The o r i g i n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 c u r r i c u l u m a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5; t h i s a t t e m p t s t o answer t h e s e c o n d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . The m e e t i n g n o t e s o f t h e C o u r s e D e v e l o p m e n t Committee, and t h e o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e members, a r e a n a l y z e d . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e c o m m i t t e e members and Department o f E d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s a n a l y s i s . 7 Chapter 6 - corresponding to the t h i r d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n - examines the l i v e d experience of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 i n the s c h o o l s . The teaching of the course, the resources a v a i l a b l e , the p e r c e p t i o n s of teachers and students, the problems which developed, the e f f o r t s to improve the course, and other i s s u e s are d i s c u s s e d . Chapter 7 analyzes the f i n d i n g s of the previous three c h a p t e r s and summarizes the study. 8 C h a p t e r 2 Review o f L i t e r a t u r e C u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y i s a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . In t h e l a t e 1960s, c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s , n o t a b l y K l i e b a r d (1968) and B e l l a c k ( 1 9 6 9 ) , d e c r i e d t h e a h i s t o r i c a l n a t u r e o f much c u r r i c u l u m work. The c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s o f t h e 1960s had p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r i e n c e and, K l i e b a r d n o t e d , " e a c h g e n e r a t i o n i s l e f t t o d i s c o v e r anew t h e p e r s i s t e n t and p e r p l e x i n g p r o b l e m s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e f i e l d " (1968, p . 6 9 ) . Goodson has c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e r e f o r m e r s a s e m b r a c i n g a b e l i e f t h a t " h i s t o r y i n g e n e r a l and c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r c o u l d somehow be t r a n s c e n d e d " (1983a, p . 3 ) . The s t u d y o f c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y a s a d i s t i n c t f i e l d w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y was p e r c e i v e d a s a means o f o v e r c o m i n g t h i s p r o b l e m . The v a l u e o f h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n s t u d y i n g t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m has been a r g u e d by a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s ( C h a r l t o n , 1968; D a v i s , 1977; H a z l e t t , 1979; S t e n h o u s e , 1978; We b s t e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . Many c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s have promoted t h e c o n c e p t o f c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y a s a f i e l d s e p a r a t e f r o m e d u c a t i o n a l 9 h i s t o r y . T a n n e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , n o t e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y "has been r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o i n c l u d e t h e b r o a d r a n g e o f e d u c a t i v e a g e n c i e s i n t h e s o c i e t y - t h e home, c h u r c h , and w o r k p l a c e " (1982, p . 4 0 8 ) . As a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s b r o a d e n i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y , T a n n e r f e e l s t h a t c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y i s a n e c e s s i t y " t o keep t h e c u r r i c u l u m f r o m g e t t i n g l o s t " . F r a n k l i n (1977) a l s o a r g u e s s t r o n g l y f o r t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between e d u c a t i o n a l and c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y . R e i d ( 1 9 8 5 ) , Goodson ( 1 9 8 3 a ) , and K l i e b a r d and F r a n k l i n (1983) a l s o promote t h i s v i e w p o i n t . However, Marsden (1979) e x p r e s s e s d o u b t t h a t an o r g a n i z e d s u b - f i e l d would d e v e l o p . He s u g g e s t s t h e r e i s l i t t l e v a l u e i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between c u r r i c u l u m and e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . Marsden c o n c e d e s t h a t c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s have s p e c i a l i n s i g h t s t o b r i n g t o t h e s t u d y , b u t p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e methods o f h i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y must a l s o be m a s t e r e d by c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s . L o g i c a l l y , an h i s t o r i a n c o u l d e q u a l l y d e v e l o p h i s e x p e r t i s e i n c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s . D a v i s (1977) has a r g u e d t h a t c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y "must s t r e n g t h e n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i t s e l f and t h e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n " (1977, p . 1 6 5 ) . Whether i t i s f r u i t f u l o r n o t t o w o r r y a b o u t i t s s t a t u s a s a s e p a r a t e f i e l d w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , t h e r e i s common agreement on t h e v a l u e o f h i s t o r i c a l c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s . 10 T h i s v a l u e i s e x p r e s s e d i n a v a r i e t y o f t e r m s . T h e r e i s a s t r o n g c u r r e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t s e e s h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s as " u s a b l e knowledge" and e m p h a s i z e s t h e i r u t i l i t a r i a n n a t u r e . Goodson, f o r example, s t a t e s t h a t " t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n s h o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be w i t h h i s t o r y f o r t h e s a k e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y c u r r i c u l u m i s s u e s " (1983b, p . 1 0 ) . O t h e r s , w h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h e v a l u e o f h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s , a r e more c i r c u m s p e c t i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r u t i l i t y . H a z l e t t ( 1 9 7 9 ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , q u e s t i o n s t h e v a l u e o f s e e k i n g what he t e r m s "immediate p r a c t i c a l i t y " i n t h e f i e l d . H a z l e t t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d a s one o f " p r a c t i c a l , n o r m a t i v e a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d on w i t h u r g e n c y i n a c r i s i s a t m o s p h e r e " (1979, p . 1 3 1 ) . W h i l e t h i s m i g h t be o v e r s t a t i n g t h e c a s e , i t i s c e r t a i n l y a p r a c t i c a l e n d e a v o u r and i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e u t i l i t a r i a n b e n e f i t s a r e e m p h a s i z e d . However, some c a v e a t s have been r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r a c t i c a l use o f c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r i e s , o f " r a i d i n g t h e p a s t " . K l i e b a r d and F r a n k l i n (1983) c a u t i o n a g a i n s t t h e s e a r c h f o r "handy s o l u t i o n s " and " l e s s o n s " i n h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s ( p . 1 5 3 ) . S t e n h o u s e (1978) v i e w s c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y a s b e i n g o f u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e f o r c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , b u t has a s u b t l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f how t h i s v a l u e would be p u t t o u s e : The u t i l i s a t i o n o f h i s t o r y ... works t h r o u g h 11 t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f judgement, n o t t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f p r e d i c t i o n . W h i l e p r e d i c t i v e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s c l a i m t o s u p e r s e d e t h e need f o r i n d i v i d u a l judgement, r e t r o s p e c t i v e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s seek t o s t r e n g t h e n i n d i v i d u a l judgement where i t c a n n o t be s u p e r s e d e d . (1978, p.22) S t e n h o u s e a g r e e s t h a t h i s t o r y c an t e a c h us " l e s s o n s " ; t o i m i t a t e , o r t o a v o i d i m i t a t i n g , t h e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s . More i m p o r t a n t , however, i s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s t o r y c an g i v e u s o f " t h e c o n t e x t o f a c t i o n and t h e i n t e r p l a y o f a c t i o n w i t h c o n t e x t " . F o r S t e n h o u s e , " c o n t e x t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g " , t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l j u dgement, i s t h e p r i m e v a l u e o f h i s t o r i c a l c a s e s t u d i e s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l a a r e o f t e n termed " c a s e s t u d i e s " o r " h i s t o r i c a l c a s e s t u d i e s " . R e i d (1985) e m p h a s i z e s t h a t c a s e s t u d i e s e n a b l e r e s e a r c h e r s t o s e e beyond m a c r o - s o c i o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . Shaw (1978) p r o m o t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b u i l d i n g an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l c a s e s t u d i e s . T omkins (1979) s t r e s s e s t h e need f o r i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s t u d i e s a s groundwork b e f o r e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m i s p o s s i b l e . T a n n e r (1982) i n t r o d u c e s a c a v e a t , w o n d e r i n g whether " s c a t t e r e d h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s by r e s e a r c h e r s a r e an e f f e c t i v e means f o r d e a l i n g w i t h p r e c i p i t o u s a c t i o n s by p r a c t i t i o n e r s " ( p . 4 1 0 ) . However, t h e c u m u l a t i v e v a l u e 12 o f i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s t u d i e s i s g e n e r a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Among c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s , B r i t i s h s c h o l a r s s u c h as Goodson (1983a; 1983b; 1 9 8 3 c ) , Goodson & B a l l ( 1 9 8 4 ) , M c C u l l o c h e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) , and Waring (1979) have u s e d t h e h i s t o r i c a l c a s e - s t u d y a p p r o a c h t o examine i n n o v a t i o n s i n s c i e n c e , and s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n . Soodson has a p p l i e d a s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f c u r r i c u l u m and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o t h e s t u d y o f s p e c i f i c s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . Goodson v i e w s s c h o o l s u b j e c t s as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e "deep s t r u c t u r e o f c u r r i c u l u m d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a t work w i t h i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s c h o o l s " (Goodson, 1983a, p . 4 ) . T h r o u g h h i s t o r i c a l c a s e s t u d i e s , he has t r a c e d t h e p r o c e s s o f l e g i t i m a t i n g s c h o o l s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m , and t h e s e s t u d i e s have p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n t h e r i s e o f s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . Goodson's f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t s c h o o l s u b j e c t s " a r e n o t m o n o l i t h i c e n t i t i e s , b ut s h i f t i n g a m a l g a m a t i o n s o f s u b - g r o u p s and t r a d i t i o n s " . T h e s e s u b - g r o u p s , d e p e n d i n g on t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , s e r v e t o d e f i n e t h e " b o u n d a r i e s and p r i o r i t i e s " o f t h e s u b j e c t i n s c h o o l s ( p . 3 ) . H i s s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a s c h o o l s u b j e c t , s u b j e c t g r o u p s " t e n d t o move from p r o m o t i n g t h e p e d a g o g i c and u t i l i t a r i a n t r a d i t i o n toward t h e a c a d e m i c t r a d i t i o n " ( p . 3 ) . By " p e d a g o g i c " t r a d i t i o n , Goodson r e f e r s t o " p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l and commonplace knowledge" w h i c h p l a c e s " ' t he way t h e c h i l d l e a r n s ' a s t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n i n d e v i s i n g s u b j e c t c o n t e n t " ( p . 2 7 ) . " U t i l i t a r i a n " r e f e r s t o p r a c t i c a l knowledge, o f t e n r e l a t e d t o non - p r o f e s s i o n a l v o c a t i o n s , f o r w h i c h w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The " a c a d e m i c " t r a d i t i o n i s " c o n t e n t - f o c u s e d and t y p i c a l l y s t r e s s e s a b s t r a c t and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge f o r e x a m i n a t i o n s " ( p . 2 7 ) . In c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e p e d a g o g i c and u t i l i t a r i a n t r a d i t i o n s , t h e a c a d e m i c t r a d i t i o n i s s e e n as c o n v e y i n g h i g h s t a t u s . Goodson's t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t "much c u r r i c u l u m d e b a t e can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f c o n f l i c t between s u b j e c t s o v e r s t a t u s , r e s o u r c e s and t e r r i t o r y " . S c h o o l s u b j e c t s a r e s e e n i n a h i e r a r c h y o f s t a t u s a t t a i n m e n t , w i t h t h o s e s u b j e c t s t a u g h t t o t h e "most a b l e " s t u d e n t s b e i n g t h e h i g h e s t i n s t a t u s and a c h i e v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t r e w a r d s i n t e r m s o f r e s o u r c e s and t e r r i t o r y . The a c c r u a l o f s t a t u s and i t s c o n s e q u e n t r e w a r d s i s n o t o n l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e r e l a t i v e e s teem between s u b j e c t g r o u p s , b ut a l s o a p p l i e s t o d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f knowledge w i t h i n s u b j e c t s : 14 The d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t u s of academic, u t i l i t a r i a n and pedagogic t r a d i t i o n s pervades both the type of s u b j e c t and the i n t e r n a l form of each s u b j e c t , (p. 202) (emphasis added) The d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t u s among p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s i n school may seem obvious to obse r v e r s , but Goodson's c o n t e n t i o n that the i n t e r n a l form of a s u b j e c t i s a l s o r e s p o n s i v e to the d e s i r e f o r s t a t u s i s more p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study of p o s s i b l e s h i f t s i n the s u b j e c t matter of an i n d u s t r i a l education course. Goodson's hypotheses provide a p e r t i n e n t b a s i s f o r t h i s study; I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 could be viewed as an i n s t a n c e of the move of a u t i l i t a r i a n s u b j e c t toward a more academic r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s e l f . A d e s i r e f o r i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s on the part of a t r a d i t i o n a l l y low-status s u b j e c t area might have been one of the reasons f o r t h i s . The success or f a i l u r e of the endeavour might have r e s u l t e d from the i n f l u e n c e of the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t e d sub-groups. The a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Goodson's hypotheses f o r e x p l a i n i n g the p o l i c y d e c i s i o n behind I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, and i t s f a t e i n s c h o o l s , w i l l be examined i n t h i s study. 15 Chapter 3 Methodology H i s t o r i e s of s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s are o f t e n termed case s t u d i e s . The concept of a "case" has been c r i t i c i z e d as being "so general and vague as to be of no methodological v a l u e " (Atkinson & Delamont, 19S5, p.29). Stenhouse, i n h i s work with the Centre f o r A p p l i e d Research i n Education a t the U n i v e r s i t y of East A n g l i a , has much experience i n the use of case s t u d i e s and attempts to apply some methodological r i g o u r to the q u e s t i o n . He s t a t e s t h a t : the b a s i s of v e r i f i c a t i o n and cumulation i n the study of cases i s the r e c o g n i t i o n that a case i s an i n s t a n c e , though not, l i k e a sample, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , of a c l a s s and t h a t case study i s a b a s i s f o r g e n e r a l i s a t i o n and hence cumulation of data embedded i n time. It i s the c l a s s i c instrument of a n a l y t i c as opposed to n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r y . (1978, p.21) Stenhouse views the study of cases as proceeding through two s t a g e s : f i r s t , the "case data" and "case r e c o r d " . The case data i n c l u d e a l l m a t e r i a l s assembled by the r e s e a r c h e r . The case record would be a condensation of the data, e d i t e d "without e x p l i c i t comment" (p.37). The second step would be the p r e s e n t a t i o n stage: the "case study" and " a n a l y t i c survey". In t h i s model, the case study i s "an 16 i n t e r p r e t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c a s e , r e s t i n g upon, q u o t i n g and c i t i n g t h e c a s e r e c o r d f o r i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n " ( p . 3 7 ) . The v e r i f i c a t i o n o f a c a s e s t u d y depends upon t h e same c r i t e r i a w h i c h a p p l y t o h i s t o r y ; t h a t i s , "a communal, c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h i s a c c e s s i b l e on t h e same terms t o a l l s c h o l a r s . . . [ a n d ] t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a c r i t i c a l i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y " ( p . 2 2 ) . In S t e n h o u s e ' s t e r m s , t h e c a s e d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y were g a t h e r e d from two t y p e s o f s o u r c e s : document a n a l y s i s and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . The two b a s i c f orms o f document d a t a may be c a t e g o r i z e d as p u b l i c a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s and p e r s o n a l r e c o r d s . The most i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c a r c h i v e f o r t h i s t o p i c i s t h a t o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , f o r m e r l y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Shop T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n (BCSTA). T h i s a r c h i v e c o n t a i n s t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s ( n e w s l e t t e r s and j o u r n a l s ) , m e e t i n g m i n u t e s , c o m m i t t e e r e p o r t s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , workshop agenda, and m i s c e l l a n e o u s p a p e r s o f t h a t P r o f e s s i o n a l S u b j e c t A s s o c i a t i o n (PSA) o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n ( B C T F ) . As I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 became a l m o s t s o l e l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s , t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h i s PSA o v e r t h e l i f e o f t h e c o u r s e a r e c r i t i c a l . T h i s a r c h i v e i n c l u d e s t h e o f f i c i a l 17 p o s i t i o n s o f t h e BCSTA and, t h r o u g h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m i n u t e s , and s u r v e y s , a l s o documents t h e v i e w s o f i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . The R e p o r t o f t h e 1960 R o y a l Commission on E d u c a t i o n (RCE), commonly known as t h e C h a n t Commission a f t e r i t s C h a i r m a n , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l b r i e f s p r e s e n t e d t o t h a t c o m m i s s i o n were e x a m i n e d . T h i s c o m m i s s i o n i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12. O f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , s i n c e renamed The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , were a l s o e x a m i n e d . T h e s e i n c l u d e d t h e v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s and programmes o f s t u d y f o r S c i e n c e and I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n s , C u r r i c u l u m C i r c u l a r s , e q u i p m e n t l i s t s , and s o f o r t h , d e s i g n e d f o r u s e by s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s g r o u p were t h e D e p a r t m e n t Of E d u c a t i o n ' s A n n u a l R e p o r t s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d , w h i c h d e s c r i b e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e r e o r g a n i z e d S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y Programme, t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u r s e W r i t i n g w o r k s h o p s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g A s s i s t a n c e A c t , s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f s t u d e n t programmes, and o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i f i c c o u r s e s s u c h as I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12. I S Where a p p r o p r i a t e and a v a i l a b l e , the records of the BCTF, other PSAs ( e s p e c i a l l y the B r i t i s h Columbia Science Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n ) , and the Vancouver School Board were a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . The personal r e c o r d s of many of the key p l a y e r s i n v o l v e d with the development and implementation of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 were a l s o s t u d i e d . School board c o o r d i n a t o r s , p r o v i n c i a l i n s p e c t o r s and a d v i s o r s , t e a c h e r — t r a i n i n g personnel, and i n d i v i d u a l teachers of I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 a l l shared t h e i r personal papers r e l a t i n g to the course. Among the personal r e c o r d s , the papers of the Chairman of the I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 Course Development Committee were of c r u c i a l importance. These i n c l u d e d the minutes of a l l but one meeting, as well as the v a r i o u s d r a f t m a t e r i a l s submitted to the committee as i t d e l i b e r a t e d the concept of a s c i e n c e course f o r i n d u s t r i a l education s t u d e n t s . Other committee members a l s o had r e t a i n e d p r i v a t e r e c o r d s of t h e i r involvement with the course development and w i l l i n g l y allowed them to be s t u d i e d . The second major focus of the case data was achieved through i n t e r v i e w s . The d e c i s i o n as to whom to i n t e r v i e w was based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data i n the BCSTA a r c h i v e s . Those who had played s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n the h i s t o r y of the course were 19 noted as the a r c h i v a l data were s t u d i e d . No predetermination was made as to what could be con s i d e r e d a " s i g n i f i c a n t " r o l e ; the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s unfolded as the data were s t u d i e d . As the i n t e r v i e w s were conducted more than twenty years a f t e r the development of I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12, not a l l key p l a y e r s c o u l d be found. Those who were interv i e w e d o f t e n suggested a d d i t i o n a l c o n t a c t s f o r f u r t h e r i n t e r v i e w s . Among those i n t e r v i e w e d were the P r e s i d e n t of the BCSTA during the implementation p e r i o d of I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12 and the BCSTA member who undertook a study of the course f o r the BCSTA; the Department of Education's C o o r d i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education and the two T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s employed by the Department; the D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m during the 1960s; a r e t i r e d , and the c u r r e n t S u p e r v i s o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education with the Vancouver School Board; a member of the i n d u s t r i a l education t e a c h e r — t r a i n i n g f a c u l t y of UBC; and, members of the V o c a t i o n a l Course W r i t i n g teams who undertook the r e v i s i o n of the I n d u s t r i a l Programme i n the e a r l y 1960s. Six teachers f a m i l i a r with the course were in t e r v i e w e d ; only one s c i e n c e teacher who had taught the course could be l o c a t e d f o r these i n t e r v i e w s , the r e s t being i n d u s t r i a l education t e a c h e r s . 20 Three i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with members of the c r u c i a l Course Development Committee. The Chairman of the six-member committee was dead and two other members could not be l o c a t e d . Because I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 became predominantly w i t h i n the sphere of I n d u s t r i a l E ducation, s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h i n t h i s area comprised the m a j o r i t y of i n t e r v i e w s . The w r i t e r ' s experience as an I n d u s t r i a l Education teacher proved u s e f u l i n comprehending the "language", i n an ethnographic sense, of respondents. However, the problems which t h i s e n c u l t u r a t i o n can present were recognized and respondents were encouraged to e l a b o r a t e on p o i n t s r a t h e r than to r e l y on the t a c i t knowledge of the i n t e r v i e w e r . The format of the i n t e r v i e w s may be c a t e g o r i z e d as the s e m i s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w type (Borg & G a l l , 1983). I t was assumed that no one schedule of q u e s t i o n s would be s u f f i c i e n t to e l u c i d a t e the views of those such as Department o f f i c i a l s and classroom teachers who would hold d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s on a programme. C e r t a i n types of i n f o r m a t i o n were d e s i r e d from a l l respondents, but the s e m i s t r u c t u r e d approach allowed a r e p h r a s i n g of q u e s t i o n s and t h e i r order of p r e s e n t a t i o n d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w . I t a l s o allowed q u e s t i o n s and avenues of i n v e s t i g a t i o n to be 21 reformulated based on the experience of p r e v i o u s data. As f a c t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were rechecked with s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v i e w s , data r e l i a b i l i t y was i n c r e a s e d . The s e m i s t r u c t u r e d approach i s a l s o s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n v e r s a t i o n a l that respondents c o u l d e l a b o r a t e on matters of i n d i v i d u a l concern. Interviews with those who were connected with the beginnings of the course emphasized the impetus f o r the course; the Chant Commission, the TVTA Act, the Department of Education's a c t i v i t i e s , the r e v i s i o n of the I n d u s t r i a l Programme, the a c t u a l w r i t i n g of the c u r r i c u l u m , e t c e t e r a . The data from these i n t e r v i e w s are most s t r o n g l y seen i n Chapters 4 and 5 of the present study. A second approach, which emphasized I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 i n the s c h o o l s - how i t was taught, who taught i t , teachers and students' r e a c t i o n s to i t , i t s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses as a course - was used with those teachers, T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s , and C o o r d i n a t o r s who d e a l t with I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 on a d a i l y b a s i s . These data are most ev i d e n t i n Chapter 6. These "case data" were then e d i t e d to form what Stenhouse termed the "case r e c o r d " . A c h r o n o l o g i c a l account of the h i s t o r y of the course was developed. As w e l l , a l l data p e r t a i n i n g to c e r t a i n c r u c i a l themes were compiled around these themes - f o r example, the 22 push f o r r e v i s i o n s i n the I n d u s t r i a l Programme, the disagreements among the Course Development Committee members, the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by teachers, e t c e t e r a . The p r e s e n t a t i o n stage, or case study, of these data f o l l o w s i n Chapters 4, 5, and 6, while Chapter 7 analyzes the f i n d i n g s . 23 Chapter 4 S o c i e t a l I n f l u e n c e s on I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 I n d u s t r i a l S c ience 12 was a response to two overwhelming i n f l u e n c e s upon B r i t i s h Columbia education i n the l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s : The B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on Education, appointed i n 1958 and which rep o r t e d i n 1960, and the T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Act, passed i n l a t e 1960. Both of these f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d from the i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c emphasis on the economic and p o l i t i c a l importance of ed u c a t i o n , and the p e r c e p t i o n that the present e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m was inadequate. In Canada, a s e r i o u s r e c e s s i o n and high unemployment l e v e l s during the l a t e 1950s lead to c a l l s f o r a s h i f t i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s . As i n the United S t a t e s , the p e r c e i v e d extremes of " p r o g r e s s i v i s m " were being c h a l l e n g e d and the Cold War seemed to r e q u i r e a new r i g o u r i n Western e d u c a t i o n . The 1957 launching of Sputnik i s o f t e n taken as a s i g n p o s t of t h i s d i r e c t i o n a l change. The r o l e of education became a s u b j e c t of n a t i o n a l debate, e s p e c i a l l y i n the United S t a t e s , where Sputnik, as Admiral Rickover s a i d , d i d i t s g r e a t e s t damage "to our 24 t r u s t i n the American e d u c a t i o n a l system" (Rickover, 1959, p. 157). T h i s t u r m o i l r e s u l t e d i n unprecedented study of, and f e d e r a l involvment with, education i n both c o u n t r i e s . The N a t i o n a l Defense Education Act (NDEA) passed by the United S t a t e s Congress i n 1958 presaged the d u a l , and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g , approach which would be attempted to overcome the a l l e g e d d e f i c i e n c i e s . The NDEA provided funding f o r programmes i n "academic" s c i e n c e and math, but a l s o i n f u s e d f e d e r a l funds i n t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . New c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s which s t r o v e to i n t r o d u c e i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g o u r i n t o the s c h o o l s , such as those a s s o c i a t e d with Bruner's t h e o r i e s , a l s o r e c e i v e d unprecedented support and study. C o n c u r r e n t l y , v o c a t i o n a l education was being championed by Conant (1959), and o t h e r s , to g r e a t e f f e c t . In Canada, s i m i l a r concerns were expressed about the e d u c a t i o n a l systems of the p r o v i n c e s , although i n a " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y c a u t i o u s and t y p i c a l l y d e r i v a t i v e " manner (Tomkins, 1981, p. 164). A l l f o u r Western p r o v i n c e s e s t a b l i s h e d r o y a l commissions to study education d u r i n g the l a t e 1950s. In the Canadian debate, much g r e a t e r emphasis appears to have been placed on the economic, r a t h e r than g e o p o l i t i c a l , arguments f o r a revamping of school programmes. For 25 example, the A l b e r t a Royal Commission on Education (ARCE) had, as one of i t s major terms of r e f e r e n c e , the mandate to c o n s i d e r " [ t ] h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the e d u c a t i o n a l system to the requirements of i n d u s t r y and the modern community" (ARCE, 1959, p. 5). Among i t s recommendations were the f o l l o w i n g with r e s p e c t to v o c a t i o n a l education : That the requirements of general education be reviewed with a view to d e v i s i n g c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between general education courses and v o c a t i o n a l courses. (Recommendation 101) That present e l e c t i v e s of n e a r — v o c a t i o n a l nature and i n t e n t be reviewed, i f necessary, so that they may become a c c e p t a b l e to business and the t r a d e s . (Recommendation 102) S i m i l a r concerns of an economic nature were being expressed about B r i t i s h Columbia's e d u c a t i o n a l system, c u l m i n a t i n g i n the appointment of a Royal Commission to i n v e s t i g a t e the p e r c e i v e d problems. B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on Education The B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on Education was commonly r e f e r r e d to as the "Chant Commission" a f t e r i t s Chairman, S.N.F. Chant. The M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , L.R. Peterson, announced the appointment i n January of 1958. (1) The Commission's mandate was to examine " i n the l i g h t of world 26 c o n d i t i o n s the adequacy of the b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy of the B r i t i s h Columbia e d u c a t i o n a l system" (BCDE, RCE, 1960, p. 1). The Royal Commission on Education r e p o r t noted d i p l o m a t i c a l l y t hat i t s appointment " d i d not a r i s e from any widespread or e x c e p t i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t " but because "the time seemed opportune f o r an independent review and assessment ' i n the l i g h t of world c o n d i t i o n s ' " (p. 2 ) . The Commission's r e p o r t i n s i s t e n t l y emphasized two themes - the n a t i o n a l importance of education and the r a p i d r a t e change i n the modern world . S e c t i o n One of the r e p o r t - Scope and Methods of the Commission - presented the case f o r t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . For i n s t a n c e : Any s h o r t - s i g h t e d view of education i s not s u i t e d to the modern world...the c o n d i t i o n s under which we l i v e change at an e v e r — i n c r e a s i n g r a t e . . . . I t i s no simple matter to envisage the world i n which the chi1dren...wi11 l i v e a l l t h e i r l i v e s . In view of the complex and r a p i d l y changing world of the present and the u n c e r t a i n t i e s of the f u t u r e . . . . ( p . 3 ) With a s i d e l o n g glance at Sputnik, the Royal Commission on Education noted: A few years ago the p o s s i b i l i t y of launching e a r t h s a t e l l i t e s was a f a n t a s t i c dream, but due to the v i g o r o u s approach of modern s c i e n c e they are commonplace today. 'In the l i g h t of world 27 c o n d i t i o n s ' modern education must adopt a s i m i l a r l y v i g o r o u s approach, (p.3) The dominant theme i n the Royal Commission Report was unquestionably the n a t i o n a l economic importance of e d u c a t i o n . As the Commissioners noted, i n r e f e r r i n g to the then-current debate concerning e d u c a t i o n : T h i s awakening to the n a t i o n a l importance of education does not stem wholly, or perhaps even mainly, from an i n c r e a s i n g regard f o r the c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l v a l u e s of e d u c a t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , a l a r g e part of the present day concern f o r education i s based upon a hard-headed regard f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e which an up-to-date e d u c a t i o n a l system has f o r the economic f u t u r e and s e c u r i t y of a n a t i o n , (p. 411) The r e p o r t then continued to make the case f o r education's economic importance : In the modern world a sound e d u c a t i o n a l system has become e s s e n t i a l f o r economic development and continued p r o s p e r i t y . Outstanding l e a d e r s i n p r a c t i c a l l y every major country of the world have p u b l i c l y recognized that the s t r u g g l e f o r economic supremacy w i l l depend as much upon e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l systems as upon any other f a c t o r of n a t i o n a l l i f e , (p.411) If Canada i s to be s t r o n g , Canadian education must be s t r o n g , and i f Canadian education i s to be second to none i n the world of today and tomorrow, f a r - r e a c h i n g proposals must not be r e j ec ted....(p.3 ) Any country today that does not devote i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e sums to education w i l l i n e v i t a b l y l o s e whatever plac e i t has i n world a f f a i r s , whether commercial or otherwise. 28 ( p . 4 i i ) The Commissioners concluded t h e i r case with : It f o l l o w s that the people of B r i t i s h Columbia must g i v e t h e i r f u l l e s t support t o , and maintain a c o n t i n u i n g v i t a l i n t e r e s t i n , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l system or f a l l behind i n both economic and c u l t u r a l s t a t u s . Moreover, any f a i l u r e on the part of the p r o v i n c e s regarding education w i l l i m p e r i l the f u t u r e of the whole n a t i o n . (p.412) T h i s theme of n a t i o n a l economic s u r v i v a l c o l o u r e d many of the Royal Commission's recommendations and i t s o p i n i o n concerning the primary aim of education followed d i r e c t l y from t h i s premise. The Chant Commission maintained t h a t the primary aim of education must be the " i n t e l l e c t u a l development of p u p i l s " . The commissioners r e j e c t e d a s p e c t s of " p r o g r e s s i v i s m " they found i n the s c h o o l s , and deplored the number of o p t i o n a l courses i n the c u r r i c u l u m , c a l l i n g i n s t e a d f o r a more s t r u c t u r e d program i n the secondary s c h o o l s , a lengthened school day of s i x hours (p. 64), a lengthened school year of 200 days (p.66), and a f u l l Grade 13 programme (p.128). In almost every aspect of the c u r r i c u l u m , the commissioners d e c r i e d the p r e v a i l i n g lack of standards. In the s e n i o r grades, the Chant Commission recommended the establishment of three separate 29 programmes : a Sen i o r V o c a t i o n a l Course, an academic program f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance, and a t e c h n i c a l program f o r entrance to a t e c h n i c a l or commercial i n s t i t u t e . The Senior V o c a t i o n a l Course would be o f f e r e d i n a composite or v o c a t i o n a l / t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , while the other two programs would share a " c o l l e g i a t e academy". The proposed C o l l e g i a t e Academy would be given t h a t a p p e l l a t i o n "to i n d i c a t e t h a t [ i t s ] e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s would be s u p e r i o r to that of any present s e n i o r high s c h o o l " . The students "would form a h i g h l y s e l e c t e d group", and "the standards of work r e q u i r e d of them co u l d be r a i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y above the U n i v e r s i t y Programme i n the present s e n i o r high s c h o o l s " (p. 274). Of the two programs proposed f o r the C o l l e g i a t e Academy, the academic would i n c l u d e Grades XI, XII, and X I I I , while the t e c h n i c a l would i n c l u d e only XI and XII. In the academic program i n c r e a s e d time would be a l l o t t e d to E n g l i s h , Math, S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Languages, and Sc i e n c e ; a l l e l e c t i v e s would be r e l a t e d to u n i v e r s i t y courses r a t h e r than, f o r example, Music or I n d u s t r i a l A r t s . The t e c h n i c a l program would place an emphasis on Science and Math, and advanced courses i n E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s would be compulsory; the e l e c t i v e s i n t h i s programme could i n c l u d e such courses 30 as A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e , Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , D i e t e t i c s , Merchandising, P r a c t i c a l S c i e n c e , Draughting, Dress Designing, Economics, or S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e . The Commissioners took pains to p o i n t out t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h i s t e c h n i c a l programme, as opposed to the Seni o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme: There has been a somewhat p r e v a l e n t o p i n i o n that t e c h n i c a l or business courses are intended to c a t e r to the i n t e r e s t s of those who lack a b i l i t y i n academic f i e l d s , but who can continue i n high school by t a k i n g t e c h n i c a l e l e c t i v e s and some aca d e m i c a l l y easy c o u r s e s . T h i s o p i n i o n g r e a t l y underestimates the standard of the t e c h n i c a l or business courses proposed i n t h i s plan f o r Grades XI and XII. The p u p i l s who continue at school merely to get some t e c h n i c a l e l e c t i v e s would not be i n t e r e s t e d i n the high s c h o l a s t i c l e v e l of t h i s course. Such students belong i n the s e n i o r v o c a t i o n a l course, not i n the c o l l e g i a t e academy t e c h n i c a l programme. (BCDE, RCE, p. 275) The r e p o r t contained a number of recommendations with r e s p e c t to v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , sometimes couched i n a d i s c o n c e r t i n g f a s h i o n . I t advocated a J u n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Course f o r re p e a t i n g and lower—achieving p u p i l s i n Grades VII and VIII - "A l a r g e p a r t of the course should be devoted to p r a c t i c a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s " (p. 265). The s c i e n c e courses i n the J u n i o r V o c a t i o n a l programme would s t r e s s " a p p l i e d a s p e c t s , nature study, household a p p l i c a t i o n s , e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s , 31 mechanics, and the l i k e " (p. 265). The commissioners expressed the hope that t h i s course would i n c r e a s e the students' chances f o r employment, but a l s o noted p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y t h a t " t h e i r presence i n the r e g u l a r high school c l a s s e s has a depressing e f f e c t upon the standard of work that can be s e t f o r the r e g u l a r p u p i l s " (p. 265). The aim proposed f o r the S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Course e s s e n t i a l l y concurred with that a l r e a d y s t a t e d i n the Department of Education A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n : The o b j e c t i v e of the V o c a t i o n a l Programme i s to t r a i n s e l e c t e d p u p i l s i n the s k i l l s , t e c h n i c a l knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , and h a b i t s necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l employment and advancement i n s k i l l e d o c cupations .... A V o c a t i o n a l Programme... i s based upon the assumption t h a t the p u p i l i s going to take a s p e c i f i c l i n e of work and that s p e c i f i c p r e p a r a t i o n r e l a t e d to t h i s and taken along with h i s general education i s e s s e n t i a l f o r e n t r y i n t o g a i n f u l employment. (Quoted i n BCDE, RCE. p.272) T h i s Senior V o c a t i o n a l Course, according to the Commission, would provide " s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n some s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n " (p. 272) and be r e l a t e d to e x i s t i n g a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs. Yet, the Report a s s e r t e d that the c u r r i c u l u m "would provide f o r a high l e v e l of both general and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g " (p. 272). Many employers, i n b r i e f s submitted to the Commission, had s t a t e d that a good academic background was needed, as well as v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The Commissioners agreed with t h i s sentiment: 32 T h i s i n no way minimizes the importance of v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s i n the school programme, but supports the view that the courses should not be e x c e s s i v e l y s l a n t e d toward trade t r a i n i n g . (p. 273) T h i s c r u c i a l dilemma - how to provide " s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n some s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n " , while not being " e x c e s s i v e l y s l a n t e d " toward i t - i s , not s u r p r i s i n g l y , unresolved i n the Report's recommendations. The Royal Commission Report engendered heated debate throughout the p r o v i n c e . I t s proposals were charged with being e l i t i s t by some, while o t h e r s viewed them as being eminently r e a l i s t i c . Some major recommendations, such as the establishment of " c o l l e g i a t e academies", were not adopted, yet other s u g g e s t i o n s d i d r e c e i v e a sympathetic hearing w i t h i n the Department of Education. As was the case i n A l b e r t a , i t was the General Programme, not the Academic, which was p e r c e i v e d as being most i n need of improvement. The Deputy M i n i s t e r , Dr. J.F.K. E n g l i s h , conceded i n a 1962 address to B r i t i s h Columbia P r i n c i p a l s t h a t the High School General Program d i d not have w e l l - d e f i n e d g o a l s : T h i s c e r t a i n l y was the o p i n i o n of the Royal Commission. Consequently, the most important 33 part of our work i n the next few years w i l l be to improve and strengthen t h a t area from Grade X to Grade XII, which we r e c o g n i z e as the General Program, but which now we propose to c a l l the V o c a t i o n a l Program. ( E n g l i s h , 1962, p. 80) The Department's d e c i s i o n to implement a r e v i s e d v o c a t i o n a l programme, not a " g e n e r a l " one, d i d not conclude the debate i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The General S e c r e t a r y of the BCTF, C D . Ovans, expressed the view t h a t "branching o f f i n t o programs as the answer to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s an admission of f a i l u r e " (BCTF, 1965, p. 22). Another BCTF o f f i c i a l , J.A. Spragge, s t a t e d a t a CTF conference that : One of the t r a g i c consequences of u n c r i t i c a l acceptance of the investment concept of education i s causing grave concern i n my province at the present time. I t i s a s t r o n g emphasis on courses of obvious v o c a t i o n a l i n t e n t . . . . Education i s being j o s t l e d o f f the sidewalk by the new f e t i s h of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . (Spragge, 1965, p. 3) The T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Act The Royal Commission on Education was not alone i n p r o v i d i n g an impetus to c u r r i c u l u m change i n B r i t i s h Columbia at t h i s time. The F e d e r a l Government had d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d i t s presence i n the f i e l d of education with the passing of The T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Act (TVTA) of 1960. The 34 p o s s i b i l i t y of using f e d e r a l monies to fund programs i n the high s c h o o l s proved i r r e s i s t i b l e and almost a l l p r o v i n c e s a l t e r e d , to some degree, t h e i r secondary l e v e l programs to take advantage of t h i s funding. (2) Although Canadian p r o v i n c e s were u s u a l l y p r o t e c t i v e of t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n i n education, the f e d e r a l government had a long h i s t o r y of funding v a r i o u s " t e c h n i c a l " or " v o c a t i o n a l " programmes, with p r o v i n c i a l acquiescence. The f i r s t f e d e r a l involvement r e s u l t e d i n the T e c h n i c a l Education Act of 1919, which had i t s genesis i n the Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Education (RCITTE). T h i s Commission, c h a i r e d by James Robertson, who had helped to i n t r o d u c e Manual T r a i n i n g to Canada through the MacDonald s c h o o l s , was e s t a b l i s h e d by the L a u r i e r government i n 1910 and reported i n 1913.(3) L a u r i e r was very c a r e f u l to r e c e i v e unanimous approval of the p r o v i n c i a l premiers before e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s Commission (Stamp, 1971). The p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t of the Commission goes so f a r as to reproduce, i n i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n , the responses r e c e i v e d from the premiers, and i t s t r e s s e d that education must remain under p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l . The Act's funding of $10,000,000 f o r a ten-year p e r i o d was l e s s than the Commission's recommendation of $3,000,000 a n n u a l l y , y e t the funding was not f u l l y used by the p r o v i n c e s . 35 Only O n t a r i o , i n a p a t t e r n which was to be repeated, used i t s f u l l share of the funds based on the plan f o r v o c a t i o n a l education developed by John Seath i n 1910 (Seath, 1911). Manitoba, which had e s t a b l i s h e d i t s own Royal Commission on T e c h n i c a l Education, was the only other p r o v i n c e to study v o c a t i o n a l education needs. F l u x g o l d notes that the e f f e c t of the TEA of 1919 was to encourage the p r o v i n c e s "to e s t a b l i s h a program q u i c k l y . . . . C I ] n e f f e c t , to encourage the establishment of poor programs" ( F l u x g o l d , p. 113). T h i s f i r s t f e d e r a l involvement foreshadowed the r e s u l t s of l a t e r " t r a i n i n g " programs. Fe d e r a l involvement i n v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , as was the case with the RCITTE, continued to be j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s t h a t the F e d e r a l Government was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the economy. V o c a t i o n a l education was viewed as a necessary element of an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d economy, p r o p e r l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the f e d e r a l government; i t s r o l e as education per se. a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , was downplayed. The lack of enthusiasm on the part of most p r o v i n c e s , based on the d i f f i c u l t y of r a i s i n g the matching c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i t h i n a s t r i c t time frame (Dupre e t a l . , p.14), a l s o i n s u r e d t h a t the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e d i d not become an important one. T h i s u n e n t h u s i a s t i c response continued throughout the 36 v a r i o u s renewals and permutations i n the four decades f o l l o w i n g the o r i g i n a l a c t of 1919. (4) The T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Act of 1960 encompassed a l l f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . Two agreements came i n t o being with the TVTA: one covered a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s , but the more important was the T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Agreement, which i n c l u d e d ten separate programmes. For the purposes of t h i s study, Program One - V o c a t i o n a l High School T r a i n i n g - i s the c e n t r a l programme. Program One provided funding f o r courses of study i n which one-half of the students' time was given to developing o c c u p a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . (5) U n l i k e the matching ( 507.) g r a n t s of the e a r l i e r A c t s , the V o c a t i o n a l High School T r a i n i n g agreement provided f o r a f e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of 75% of c a p i t a l expenditures f o r p r o j e c t s approved by March 31, 1963. (Future e x t e n s i o n s changed the d e a d l i n e to March 31, 1967, or even l a t e r by agreement.) The o r i g i n a l 1963 d e a d l i n e f o r c e d p r o v i n c e s who wanted to a v a i l of the f e d e r a l g r a n t s to a c t q u i c k l y . Operating g r a n t s were at the 50"/. r a t e f o r the l i f e of the agreement. For a number of reasons, the p r o v i n c e s reacted much more f a v o u r a b l y to the TVTA than they had p r e v i o u s agreements. The economic downturn of the 37 l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s lead to post-war highs i n unemployment; even those with l i t t l e f a i t h i n such programmes would have found i t p o l i t i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t to d e c l i n e to p a r t i c i p a t e . Cold War wo r r i e s occasioned by Sputnik had brought to prominence the importance of t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . As Dupre has i n d i c a t e d , the c o s t s of educating the burgeoning post-war student p o p u l a t i o n was another f a c t o r i n e n t i c i n g p r o v i n c e s to accept f e d e r a l g r a n t s (Dupre, p. 18). The e f f e c t s of the T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Act - "the l a r g e s t f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Canadian s c h o o l i n g ever undertaken" (Tomkins, 1986, p.298) - were dramatic and, i n many cases, unintended. In O n t a r i o , the pro v i n c e which made the g r e a t e s t use of the TVTA, student enrolment i n v o c a t i o n a l courses doubled during the years 1960- 1967, to 46.4 per cent of the student p o p u l a t i o n , which was " c l e a r l y not envisaged when the f e d e r a l government made the o r i g i n a l o f f e r " (Cameron, 1972, p. 163) . The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n of the V o c a t i o n a l High School Agreement had been the c r e a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l trade s c h o o l s and i n s t i t u t e s of technology. Based on p r o v i n c i a l data, the estimated c o s t of c a p i t a l expansion f o r the s i x - y e a r l i f e of the agreement was $ 90 m i l l i o n , with * 15 m i l l i o n earmarked f o r O n t a r i o . 38 In March, 1961, the f e d e r a l government agreed (perhaps at the i n s t i g a t i o n of O n t a r i o Premier, John Robarts) to fund v o c a t i o n a l high s c h o o l s and v o c a t i o n a l s e c t i o n s of composite high s c h o o l s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s d e c i s i o n , p r o v i n c i a l use of the programme expanded d r a m a t i c a l l y . The year 1961-62 alone saw the approval of almost $333 m i l l i o n i n c a p i t a l expenditures, with O n t a r i o r e c e i v i n g * 230 m i l l i o n , more than 15 times the estimated c o s t f o r the e n t i r e l i f e of the agreement. That some pr o v i n c e s h u r r i e d to a l t e r programmes of study to take advantage of the f e d e r a l g r a nts appears undeniable. Dupre (p.18) r e f e r s to the TVTA beckoning " l i k e a s h i n i n g beacon" to the p r o v i n c e s , some of which were "almost unseemly i n t h e i r a l a c r i t y " to take advantage of i t . Cameron (p. 176) r e f e r s to the O n t a r i o "Robarts P l a n " as being "developed under c o n d i t i o n s of utmost haste", although F l u x g o l d (p.114) c h a r i t a b l y viewed O n t a r i o as merely seeming "to a n t i c i p a t e the TVTA Act". A t e l l i n g comment came form a p r o v i n c i a l deputy m i n i s t e r who s t a t e d that the i n f l u e n c e of the TVTA was so g r e a t that " f o r three y e a r s , John Diefenbaker was the d i r e c t o r of c u r r i c u l u m f o r Canada" (Orlikow, 1969, p. 133, i n Anderson, 1980, p. 106). 39 A l b e r t a and O n t a r i o were the most d i l i g e n t p r o v i n c e s i n o b t a i n i n g f e d e r a l g r a n t s ; by August 31, 1967, A l b e r t a had claimed 86.8 per cent of i t s p o s s i b l e a l l o c a t i o n , while O n t a r i o had claimed 80.3 per cent. In c o n t r a s t , B r i t i s h Columbia had only r e c e i v e d 48.8 per cent. T h i s was a matter of concern to some i n d i v i d u a l s who f e l t t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia had been "slow o f f the mark". The p r o p i t i o u s confluence of TVTA funds and the debate sparked by the Chant Commission provided the opportune s e t t i n g f o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia S e n i o r Secondary Programme. The Department of Education began an i n t e n s i v e review of programmes and courses, i n c l u d i n g the V o c a t i o n a l Programme and high school s c i e n c e . I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, which n e a t l y addressed many of the p u b l i c concerns, was to prove a key element i n t h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 40 1. A l b e r t a ' s Royal Commission on Education had been e s t a b l i s h e d on December 31, 1958. 2. Newfoundland was the only province to co n c e n t r a t e s o l e l y on post-secondary t r a i n i n g . 3. World War I caused the enactment of The T e c h n i c a l Education Act to be delayed u n t i l 1919. 4. These permutations took many forms. The Unemployment and A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n c e Act (1937) was designed to provide t r a i n i n g f o r unemployed workers between 18 and 30, and f e d e r a l funds were to be matched by p r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . The Youth T r a i n i n g Act (1939) continued s i m i l a r programmes but the p r o v i n c e s were not r e q u i r e d to match the f e d e r a l funds. A War Emergency T r a i n i n g Programme ( under the War Measures Act) a l s o provided f u l l f e d e r a l funding f o r t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n Act (1942) was an attempt to c o n s o l i d a t e and c o o r d i n a t e the many programmes i n e x i s t e n c e at that time (Glendenning, 1965, p. 20). Many separate agreements were e s t a b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t of t h i s Act, i n c l u d i n g the V o c a t i o n a l Schools A s s i s t a n c e Agreement which provided secondary-school l e v e l v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Although the pr o v i n c e s c o l l e c t e d much f e d e r a l funding f o r o p e r a t i n g purposes, Dupre (p. 15) notes that few programmes used the c o n d i t i o n a l matching grants a v a i l a b l e f o r c a p i t a l expenditure, l e s s than h a l f the f e d e r a l a l l o t m e n t being used. P r o v i n c e s were l e s s e a s i l y persuaded i f they were r e q u i r e d to match any g r a n t s . 5. The grants were s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded from being used f o r I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , or "general shop"-type, f a c i l i t i e s and programmes (Cameron, p. 167). 41 Chapter 5 The Development of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 Planning f o r " a p p r o p r i a t e v o c a t i o n a l courses and programmes f o r p u p i l s i n S e n i o r Secondary s c h o o l s " began i n the summer of 1962 (BCDE, Annual Report [ARJ, 1962/63, p. W43). Although the e n t i r e s e n i o r secondary programme was to be r e o r g a n i z e d , the most dramatic changes were to take p l a c e i n what had been the General Programme, which had remained i n t a c t s i n c e the e a r l y 1950s. The D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l Curriculum r e c a l l e d that they "wanted to t r y to g i v e a l i t t l e s t a t u s " to t h i s programme, which was a "meaningless hodge-podge" and seen as only f o r those who "couldn't cut the u n i v e r s i t y programme" (Henderson, 1984). The s c i e n c e course i n B r i t i s h Columbia had r e c e i v e d much c r i t i c i s m i n the Royal Commission on Education b r i e f s and hearings (RCE, p. 313), and a r e v i s i o n of the General Science had been recommended. Many s c h o o l s had been o f f e r i n g M o d i f i e d Science 10 courses, which were a " j u d i c i o u s s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e content from both Science 10 and 20" and which might be " a d v i s a b l e f o r s l o w e r — l e a r n i n g p u p i l s and f o r those whose i n t e r e s t s l i e i n s p e c i a l f i e l d s " (BCDE, The Sciences-1959). These modified courses were 42 to be " t e r m i n a l " s c i e n c e courses and would not allow the student to c o n t i n u e on to S c i e n c e 20. By l a t e 1961, the Department of Education had a p p a r e n t l y decided that a " v o c a t i o n a l s c i e n c e " course was necessary (BC S c i e n c e Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n , Newsletter (3), 2 ) . E a r l y i n 1962, a committee of I n d u s t r i a l Education department heads from Vancouver s c h o o l s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the B r i t i s h Columbia Shop Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n , had responded to q u e s t i o n s asked by F.P. L e v i r s , the Chairman of The P r o f e s s i o n a l Curriculum Committees : Q. Is there a need f o r a more p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e course - a p r e - v o c a t i o n a l s c i e n c e course - to enable students i n the p r e - v o c a t i o n a l program to cope with new i n d u s t r i a l processes that so o f t e n i n v o l v e s c i e n c e at any l e v e l of employment ? A. There i s a need f o r a more p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e course but the work should be c o r r e l a t e d with the p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s - NOT overlapped. (BCSTA, Misc. Papers) In J u l y , 1963, a group of Department of Education o f f i c i a l s and secondary school t e a c h e r s , meeting at Burnaby V o c a t i o n a l School, served on three c o u r s e - w r i t i n g teams to prepare d r a f t o u t l i n e s f o r the v o c a t i o n a l c ourses. These o u t l i n e s were to be " r e v i s e d and developed i n t o f u l l courses" f o r implementation i n September, 1965 (BCDE Curriculum Newsletter, Oct. 1963). The D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l Curriculum at that time remembers the aim was "to develop courses, and to 43 do i t q u i c k l y , h u r r i e d l y , but get them out so that i n 1963/64 they c o u l d come i n f o r c r i t i c i s m , review, and so on". (Henderson) The Department had t e n t a t i v e l y s e t t l e d on three separate d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the o v e r a l l S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme : V o c a t i o n a l Commerce, V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l , and V o c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e . Within each program, f u r t h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was to be p o s s i b l e . For example, the V o c a t i o n a l Commerce Programme would allow s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c a l l e d S e c r e t a r i a l , Accounting, or Business; the V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Programme would allow s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n C o n s t r u c t i o n , Mechanics, or " S p e c i f i c Trades". The three c o u r s e - w r i t i n g teams e s t a b l i s h e d by the Department corresponded to these three d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme. I t was w i t h i n the V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Programme that three new course names - I n d u s t r i a l Math 11, I n d u s t r i a l Power 11 & 12, and I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 - appeared i n the Department's p r o p o s a l . The three w r i t i n g teams concentrated on the o u t l i n e s f o r the v a r i o u s s u b d i v i s i o n s of the S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme. T h e i r recommendations were pub l i s h e d by the Department, soon a f t e r the J u l y , 1963 meetings, i n what came to be c a l l e d the "Grey Book". T h i s Grey Book was then c i r c u l a t e d throughout 44 B r i t i s h Columbia during the school year 1963/64 to e l i c i t responses from i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . The B r i t i s h Columbia Shop Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n (BCSTA) Curriculum Committee responded to the Grey Book f o l l o w i n g an E x e c u t i v e meeting i n October, 1963. I t s r e p o r t was d i r e c t e d to the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n (BCTF) members of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Committee on S e n i o r Secondary Cu r r i c u l u m . The BCSTA Curriculum Committee (BCSTACC) approved most of the proposal f o r the r e v i s e d S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme, but recommended more s p e c i a l t y areas w i t h i n the V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Programme. In a d d i t i o n to the C o n s t r u c t i o n , Mechanics, and ' S p e c i f i c Trades' areas proposed by the Department of Education to f a l l w i t h i n that programme, the BCSTA recommended s p e c i a l t i e s i n E l e c t r o n i c s , Graphic A r t s , and Power Mechanics. In promoting the idea of s p e c i a l t i e s i n E l e c t r o n i c s and Power Mechanics, the BCSTA committee noted t h a t : Unless i t i s intended that I n d u s t r i a l Power 11 become a s t r i c t l y theory course, there i s f a r too much m a t e r i a l to be covered i n one year by even the best of s t u d e n t s . S u r e l y i t i s not intended that the V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Program be a theory program. [BCSTACC, Report, Oct. 29, 1963, p. 1] 45 T h i s comment from the Curriculum Committee of the Shop Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n was the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of the dilemma faced by those charged with developing a p p l i e d s c i e n c e courses f o r the V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Programme. The r e s i s t a n c e of the BCSTA to a "theory program", as appeared p o s s i b l e with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the three new courses ( e s p e c i a l l y I n d u s t r i a l Power and I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e ) , was s t a t e d only three months a f t e r the f i r s t V o c a t i o n a l Programme meetings of J u l y of 1963. In a December, 1963, meeting between the BCSTA E x e c u t i v e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the w r i t i n g teams, a r e l a t e d caveat was noted concerning "the l e v e l of achievement a n t i c i p a t e d by [ s i c ] the st u d e n t s " (BCSTA Minutes, Dec. 13, 1963). The BCSTA Curriculum Committee response to the "Grey Book" a l s o foreshadowed the other aspect of the development of these new courses which was to prove c r u c i a l - the p e r c e i v e d n e c e s s i t y of o b t a i n i n g F e d e r a l f u n d i n g . The BCSTA Curriculum Committee recommended th a t the proposed s e c t i o n of the I n d u s t r i a l Power course d e a l i n g with I n d u s t r i a l E l e c t r i c i t y be placed i n the S p e c i f i c Trades area "where i t i s p o s s i b l e to get Federal grants f o r the very c o s t l y equipment". [BCSTACC, n.d.] The Curriculum Committee of the BCSTA concurred with the Grey Book proposal that each s p e c i a l t y w i t h i n 46 the V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Programme would have a course c a l l e d I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. The committee took pains, however, to emphasize that the course should be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the s p e c i a l t y area and not be a g e n e r i c course; that i s , f i v e d i s t i n c t I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence courses were envisaged by the BCSTA. The committee a l s o s t a t e d a concern s i m i l a r to the one expressed with r e s p e c t to I n d u s t r i a l Power - t h a t the I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 course "should be taught by i n d u s t r i a l education teachers who have a p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l background". [BCSTACC ,n.d.] The BCSTA v i c e - p r e s i d e n t reported i n March of 1964 that i t had "been suggested" - presumably by the Department of Education - "that we work together with the Science Teachers' PSA on the I n d u s t r i a l Science course" (BCSTA Minutes, March 30, 1964). (A meeting of two r e s p e c t i v e e x e c u t i v e members was arranged but no record of what t r a n s p i r e d , or c o n f i r m a t i o n that the meeting was h e l d , could be l o c a t e d during the present research.) The p r e c i s e s t a t u s of I n d u s t r i a l Science - whether i t was to be considered a s c i e n c e course or an i n d u s t r i a l education course - was a p p a r e n t l y s t i l l i n doubt. The BCSTA Newsletter f o r March, 1964, notes t h a t " C i ] t should be kept i n mind that i n d u s t r i a l e d ucation teachers w i l l i n many i n s t a n c e s be teaching these new courses." Although the Curriculum Committee 47 of the BCSTA had recommended that i n d u s t r i a l education teachers be the ones to teach the course, at t h i s j u n c t u r e i t was s t i l l u n c l e a r whether I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence would come s o l e l y w i t h i n i t s province; the BCSTA noted only that " i n many i n s t a n c e s " i n d u s t r i a l e ducation teachers would be r e s p o n s i b l e . The V o c a t i o n a l Course w r i t i n g teams met again d u r i n g E a s t e r and the summer of 1964, having noted the comments made throughout 1963/64 on the Grey Book p r o p o s a l s . The Department's Annual Report d e s c r i b e d t h i s " e x t e n s i v e " p r o j e c t which " i n v o l v e d 28 persons f o r 10 f u l l days i n w r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m guides" (BCDE, AR, 1964/65, p. D50). Despite the concerns expressed by the BCSTA Curriculum Committee r e s p e c t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l S c ience with the other i n d u s t r i a l courses, the Department had decided that the w r i t i n g of the s c i e n c e and math courses of the V o c a t i o n a l Programme would r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t treatment. In a l e t t e r to one of the members of the V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l w r i t i n g teams, the p r o v i n c i a l D i r e c t o r of Curriculum, J.R.Meredith, noted t h a t a l l courses i n s c i e n c e and math f o r the V o c a t i o n a l Programmes, i n c l u d i n g I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , would be prepared i n f i n a l form by committees e s t a b l i s h e d s o l e l y f o r t h a t purpose. T h i s was because there e x i s t e d "some l i k e l i h o o d of having 48 d u p l i c a t i o n s and c o n f l i c t s i n m a t e r i a l s " with the math and s c i e n c e courses i n the other V o c a t i o n a l Programmes. Although the f i n a l c u r r i c u l u m of the s c i e n c e course was not to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the v o c a t i o n a l w r i t i n g teams, Meredith assured the v o c a t i o n a l group t h a t t h e i r conception of the course was understood by the Department : [ i ] t w i l l s t i l l be necessary f o r the v o c a t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l team to s e t f o r t h as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e at l e a s t some of the content m a t e r i a l needed or v a l u a b l e from the p o i n t of view of the p u p i l t a k i n g an i n d u s t r i a l programme. The mathematics and s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l can be presented simply as raw m a t e r i a l f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n f i n a l form by the committees concerned. Those who f e e l t h a t such courses might become "unduly academic" and l o s e t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n should know that we are aware of t h i s and w i l l take i t i n t o account i n the r e v i s i o n of these programmes. ( L e t t e r to B.H. Campbell, May 14, 1964)) The course r e v i s i o n and development work at the 1963 and 1964 workshops was performed by small groups of two or three teachers f o r each course. However, the i n i t i a l development work f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science was assigned by the Department to an i n d i v i d u a l teacher. F. W. Hancock, d e s c r i b e d by a Department o f f i c i a l as one of the " o l d B r i t i s h 'mechanics'", was the s o l e course w r i t e r f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science d u r i n g the 1964 workshop. A teacher who taught with Hancock at Vancouver Tech remembered that he "came from more of 49 t h a t math-science background, l e s s i n the shop area...[and] I don't think that was a good c h o i c e because that only added to the e s o t e r i c / t h e o r e t i c a 1 aspect." Hancock, who had been teaching i n d u s t r i a l courses a t Vancouver Tech, " d i d n ' t work out i n a shop course" and "they had him teaching math." The C o o r d i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education d u r i n g that p e r i o d thought Hancock's m a t e r i a l from the summer s e s s i o n was "unusable" f o r the course: I remember him w e l l . He had a l o t of m a t e r i a l there but he d i d n ' t seem to r e g i s t e r too much with the r e s t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . He had good ideas and had good thoughts but i t d i d n ' t come together as a course. (Jupp, Interview, 1984) The S u p e r v i s o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education f o r Vancouver r e c a l l e d d i s c u s s i n g the p e r c e i v e d t h e o r e t i c a l s l a n t of the m a t e r i a l with I n d u s t r i a l Education teachers , "but we c o u l d n ' t get t h i s other man [Hancock] to change h i s mind at a l l " (Cuthbertson, 1984). The r e s e r v a t i o n s expressed by i n d u s t r i a l education teachers about the course r e l y i n g o v e r l y on theory were borne out by t h i s f i r s t m a t e r i a l presented f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science.(1) E a r l y i n the F a l l of 1964, the Department r e a l i z e d t h a t the I n d u s t r i a l Science course could not be ready f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new programmes i n September, 1965. (As a grade 12 course, i t s 50 implementation was not e s s e n t i a l i n the f i r s t year of the programme.) The C o o r d i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , Joseph Jupp, pointed t h i s out to the e x e c u t i v e of the BCSTA i n an October, 1964 meeting. (BCSTA, Newsletter, Oct. 1964). In November, 1964, the Department of Education decided to e s t a b l i s h a separate course development committee to prepare the I n d u s t r i a l Science course. P r o f e s s o r G.H. Cannon of the F a c u l t y of Education, UBC, was requested by J.R. Meredith, the D i r e c t o r of Curriculum, to c h a i r t h i s I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 Course Development Committee. In h i s l e t t e r to P r o f . Cannon of November 9, 1964, Meredith s t a t e d that what was needed was "an o u t l i n e based on suggested m a t e r i a l developed l a s t summer" [ i . e . , t h a t developed by Hancock] : Since there has a l r e a d y been some work done on the problem, I do not a n t i c i p a t e a long and i n t e n s i v e study by the committee. Indeed, I hope that we may be able to i s s u e , at l e a s t i n temporary form, an o u t l i n e f o r the course i n the s p r i n g of next year. The aim of the I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 course, as Meredith e x p l a i n e d i t to P r o f . Cannon, was : to provide f o r one year of study of the p r i n c i p l e s , products, and processes of s c i e n c e i n i n d u s t r y as c l o s e l y r e l a t e d as p o s s i b l e to the I n d u s t r i a l Education courses and the occupations f o r which they are preparing pupi1s. 51 As i n h i s l e t t e r to B.H. Campbell, noted above, Meredith emphasized the need to s t i k e a balance i n developing a s c i e n c e program f o r I n d u s t r i a l Programme stu d e n t s : The problem i s to avoid on the one hand a s o r t of mass d e s c r i p t i v e , i n f o r m a t i o n a l type of course i n a p p l i c a t i o n s of s c i e n c e and on the other hand, a very t h e o r e t i c a l type of course, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of which would be d i f f i c u l t f o r these p u p i l s to grasp. (Meredith, L e t t e r to G.H. Cannon, Nov. 3, 1964) P r o f . Cannon had been a high school s c i e n c e teacher who had a l s o taught e l e c t r i c i t y at Vancouver Tech, p r i o r to j o i n i n g the F a c u l t y of UBC. Cannon was i n t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d with the p h y s i c s course r e v i s i o n s at t h i s time, but h i s experience i n a trades area as well a p p a r e n t l y made him an obvious c h o i c e to c h a i r the committee. The remaining committee members were D.V. Winteringham, who had worked with "modified" s c i e n c e courses at Vancouver Tech, and R.E. P h i l l i p s , a l s o a s c i e n c e teacher; H. K i r c h n e r , an I n d u s t r i a l Education teacher, and W.R.F. Seal of the I n d u s t r i a l Teacher T r a i n i n g U n i t . (2) J.R. Meredith attended the f i r s t two meetings of the committee as the Department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Commencing with the t h i r d meeting, the Department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was R.I. MacLoughlin. The f i r s t meeting of the Course Development Committee was held on December 2, 1964, with a l l 52 members present. T h i s meeting introduced the procedure to be followed by course development committees of the Department of Education, but was " p r i m a r i l y devoted" to a d i s c u s s i o n of the problem of developing a p p r o p r i a t e s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l f o r I n d u s t r i a l Programme stu d e n t s . Despite Mr. Meredith's a s s e r t i o n i n h i s l e t t e r to P r o f . Cannon, the p r e l i m i n a r y work done at the V o c a t i o n a l Course W r i t i n g Workshops was not viewed as u s e f u l . The meeting r e p o r t noted : A v a r i e t y of suggestions had been made at the two V o c a t i o n a l Course W r i t i n g Workshops i n the summer of 1963 and the summer of 1964. I t was recognized both by the Department and by those i n v o l v e d i n the w r i t i n g up of these suggestions that a g r e a t deal more work was needed i n c l a r i f y i n g the nature and content of t h i s course. The Committee i s f r e e to make whatever recommendations i t t h i n k s best. I t may use i n whole or i n p a r t , or r e j e c t any of the m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t l y proposed. ( I n d u s t r i a l Science Course Development Committee [ISCDC], Minutes, Dec. 2, 1964) The d i f f i c u l t i e s with the work a l r e a d y completed were recognized by the committee and a l s o by Meredith, d e s p i t e h i s assurance to Cannon i n the l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g t h a t he c h a i r the committee. The ISCDC minutes, w r i t t e n by Meredith, note that with the summer workshop m a t e r i a l , "[a] major problem was encountered i n the s e l e c t i o n of content and the o r g a n i z i n g and p r e s e n t i n g of t h i s content i n such a way t h a t both the content i t s e l f and the teaching of 53 9 i t would accomplish the o b j e c t i v e s envisaged" (ISCDC, Minutes, Dec. 2, 1965). The Committee was ap p a r e n t l y well aware of the d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l e c t i n g " a p p r o p r i a t e " m a t e r i a l and choosing a v i a b l e manner f o r i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n . The Committee would u l t i m a t e l y d ecide to make no use of the work a l r e a d y attempted and, as a committee member r e c a l l e d , " s t a r t e d from s c r a t c h " . At t h i s f i r s t meeting, the members d i s c u s s e d the "s c i e n c e - a s - c o n t e n t " versus " s c i e n c e - a s - p r o c e s s " i s s u e with r e s p e c t to I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , but co u l d not a r r i v e at a consensus. Some members argued that developing an understanding of the process of s c i e n c e could be accomplished without s p e c i f y i n g p r e c i s e t o p i c s f o r study; i f understanding the process was the important t h i n g , then teachers could s e l e c t " b l o c k s " of t o p i c s to form the course. Other members b e l i e v e d i t necessary that c e r t a i n b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s must be i n c l u d e d which would c o n s t i t u t e the core of the course. The i s s u e was not r e s o l v e d at t h i s i n i t i a l meeting, and presaged f u t u r e debates to take plac e w i t h i n the Committee. The meeting concluded with f o u r " t e n t a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s " on which "there appeared to be agreement". These f o u r g u i d e l i n e s are s t a t e d i n the minutes as f o l l o w s : 54 1. The course should be an a c t i v i t y or e x p e r i e n c e - c e n t r e d course r a t h e r than a reading course or a course l a r g e l y with demonstrations, notes and text-book study. 2. The course should be based upon good s c i e n c e . There i s some danger that s t u d i e s of t h i s kind i n v o l v e t h i n g s other than s c i e n c e . The approach should be through p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s but these need not c o n t r a d i c t or be u n r e l a t e d to the s u b j e c t f i e l d i t s e l f . 3. The course must be f l e x i b l e because i t w i l l be taught to p u p i l s with d i f f e r e n t backgrounds, with d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s , t a k i n g d i f f e r e n t s p e c i a l t i e s , and a t t e n d i n g school i n d i f f e r e n t communities. 4. Care should be taken to see that the teaching does not become too s o p h i s t i c a t e d or r i g o r o u s or a r t i f i c i a l or u n r e l a t e d to the t o t a l programme of the student. F i e l d t r i p s , demonstrations, use of apparatus of a simple kind, the use of f i l m s and f i l m s t r i p s , and the conducting of experiments - a l l of these w i l l have a major part to play i n the teaching of the course. (ISCDC, Minutes, Dec. 2, 1964) In an attempt to c l a r i f y t h e i r understanding of an i n d u s t r i a l s c i e n c e course, the members agreed to prepare i n d i v i d u a l "statements of purpose" and b r i e f o u t l i n e s of t o p i c s f o r the second meeting. Despite apparent agreement on the four g u i d e l i n e s noted above, f u t u r e meetings showed that they were not understood by a l l members i n the same f a s h i o n . They agreed that I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence had to be " a c t i v i t y or e x p e r i e n c e - c e n t e r e d " , but the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s concept was to become s u b j e c t to much i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . They a l s o agreed that the course would be based on "good s c i e n c e " and t h a t 55 " p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s " need not c o n t r a d i c t t h i s . Beyond t h i s general g o a l , however, there was l i t t l e c o nception of how t h i s balance would be achieved i n p r a c t i c e . They agreed that the course must remain " f l e x i b l e " and r e i t e r a t e d the p o i n t t h a t i t must not become "too s o p h i s t i c a t e d or r i g o r o u s " or "u n r e l a t e d to the t o t a l programme of the student". Yet, i t was to become c l e a r t h a t estimates of I n d u s t r i a l Programme students' a b i l i t y v a r i e d g r e a t l y among Committee members. Despite t h i s apparent consensus on the fo u r g u i d e l i n e s , the s u p e r f i c i a l understanding and agreement of t h i s f i r s t meeting was to d i s s o l v e as the s p e c i f i c s of the course came to be debated. The committee's second meeting, on January 2, 1965, concentrated on the i n d i v i d u a l statements concerning the philosophy of the course. I t was agreed that Mr. Meredith would attempt to combine the i n d i v i d u a l statements i n t o one, f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . The committee a l s o decided that the course should be such that i t co u l d be taught by an I n d u s t r i a l Education or a Science teacher, and whichever teacher taught I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, there should be c o n s u l t a t i o n with the other. I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , the committee decided, was to be "both good s c i e n c e and good shop p r a c t i c e " (ISCDC, Minutes, Jan. 12, 1965). 56 One of the s c i e n c e teachers on the committee remembered the qu e s t i o n of who should teach the course as an i s s u e that was never decided, although he p e r s o n a l l y f e l t t h a t s c i e n c e teachers should teach i t . The ISCDC minutes r e p e a t e d l y emphasized that i t co u l d be taught by a teacher of e i t h e r s p e c i a l i t y , and s t r o n g l y promoted the idea of team-teaching with both a s c i e n c e and an i n d u s t r i a l education teacher. However, few s c i e n c e teachers were to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , and the i d e a l of team-teaching was seldom, i f ever, r e a l i z e d d e s p i t e the Committee's recommendations. The a n t i c i p a t e d a b i l i t y - l e v e l of I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce students - perhaps the most c r u c i a l aspect of the course's development - was a l s o debated at t h i s second meeting but was not r e s o l v e d to everyone's s a t i s f a c t i o n . The minutes reported the d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s f a s h i o n : We must be concerned with the i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s of the p u p i l s . There i s some danger that we w i l l o ver-estimate t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s . ( T h i s p o i n t caused c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n . ) From the classroom p o i n t of view, the impression i s that we could be over—emphasizing the theory and concepts. On the other hand, we s h a l l a l s o have, presumably, p u p i l s capable of some f a i r l y advanced s c i e n c e work, provided i t i s p r a c t i c a l and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to i n d u s t r y . Indeed, some p u p i l s , at l e a s t , w i l l need t h i s kind of content. (ISCDC, Minutes, Jan. 12, 1965) 57 The phrase, "some f a i r l y advanced s c i e n c e work, provided i t i s p r a c t i c a l " , p o i n t s to the dilemma faced by the committee on t h i s i s s u e . I t a l s o sums up t h e i r ambiguous response to i t . From "the classroom p o i n t of view", there was concern with the expected l e v e l of achievement of the students and the lack of " p r a c t i c a l " content. Other members i n s i s t e d t h a t at l e a s t some students would "need t h i s kind of con t e n t " . The a b i l i t y - l e v e l which could be expected of I n d u s t r i a l Programme students was never agreed upon by the committee members. Each member, i n developing the course u n i t s f o r which he was r e s p o n s i b l e , acted as he thought best based on h i s estimate of what was a p p r o p r i a t e . The " c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n " on t h i s p o i n t , noted i n the minutes above, i s c l e a r l y remembered by the committee members. A s c i e n c e teacher on the committee r e c a l l e d : Dr. Cannon had taught at t h i s s c h o o l , and he s a i d that he knew what these k i d s were capable o f , t h a t he had seen them get honours i n P h y s i c s 91. I wouldn't argue, but they weren't here, because i t cou l d n ' t happen. They c o u l d n ' t read ! Poor Dr. S e a l , we were pole s a p a r t . And Dr. Cannon too. The other two were te a c h e r s , and they both went along p r e t t y well with me. Not completely, but p r e t t y w e l l . (Winteringham Interview, Feb. 2, 1984) Another committee member a l s o remembered the debate : 58 S u b j e c t : I I I can remember one member of the committee who was very much i n favour of having e v e r y t h i n g kept at a very, very simple l e v e l . " Int. l i You d i d n ' t agree with t h a t . l i Subj . I I No, no, I d i d n ' t agree with that at a l l . I know that with good teaching i t ' s a s t o n i s h i n g what you can get out of s t u d e n t s . I t r e a l l y i s a s t o n i s h i n g . And I r e a l l y , a f t e r a l l my l i f e , I s t i l l don't know how to i n j e c t t h i s i n t o people...." (Seal Interview, J u l y 22, 1984) An I n d u s t r i a l Education teacher on the Course Development Committee, who followed P r o f . Cannon i n teaching E l e c t r i c i t y at Vancouver Tech, expressed the o p i n i o n t hat Cannon's experience with E l e c t r i c i t y s tudents may have misled him, because " e l e c t r i c a l s tudents are g e n e r a l l y h i g h l y motivated" and cannot be considered t y p i c a l of I n d u s t r i a l Education s t u d e n t s . He might have, may I suggest, been coming again with c e r t a i n pre-conceived i d e a s of how much of t h i s s c i e n c e these students would be i n t e r e s t e d i n and a b l e to cope with. ( K i r c h n e r Interview, Aug. 23, 1984) These d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r I n d u s t r i a l Programme students were never to be f u l l y r e s o l v e d by the Committee. That the committee f e l t they were developing a course i n which many of the students would be of lower academic a b i l i t y i s shown i n a f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n from the minutes of t h i s second meeting; a notebook was considered important because i t c o u l d enable "the p u p i l of more l i m i t e d a b i l i t y to 59 l e a r n to f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n and to record c o n c l u s i o n s i n systematic form and to o b t a i n a f e e l i n g of c o n f i d e n c e and a sense of success". Yet the extent to which the students' a b i l i t y was l i m i t e d was open to wide i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s ambiguity was to c o l o u r a l l f u t u r e d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the Committee, as well as the o p e r a t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l Science i n the s c h o o l s . Only two of the "statements of purpose" from the second meeting have s u r v i v e d i n P r o f . Cannon's papers. Mr. K i r c h n e r presented a case, with examples, f o r a v o i d i n g what was termed the " a b s t r a c t " approach; the p r o p e r t i e s of materia 1s would be s t u d i e d , not the p r o p e r t i e s of matter: ...the experiences that the a p p l i e d approach should be couched i n need to be of a very c o n c r e t e nature, s e t up i n the n a t u r a l environment of the p u p i l . . . . The experiences need to be designed so that the p u p i l can see a v a l u a b l e a p p l i c a t i o n i n the immediate f u t u r e . [ T h i s approach] would a l s o develop the higher mental processes of a n a l y s i s , s y n t h e s i s and e v a l u a t i o n , not i n the a b s t r a c t s i t u a t i o n but using the v e h i c l e of the c o n c r e t e experience that i s understandable, f a m i l i a r , and not awesome or f e a r f u l as f a r as the student i s concerned. T h i s student i s capable of developing the accomplishments but the region i n which the developments takes p l a c e must be one i n which the student f e e l s secure. (ISCDC, Misc. Papers) Mr. S e a l ' s proposals concurred with Mr. K i r c h n e r ' 5 i n attempting to be c o g n i z a n t of the type of student who would be studying I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 60 ("the students f o r whom the course i s designed are l i k e l y to be c o n c r e t e t h i n k e r s r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t t h i n k e r s " ) , y e t presented a d i f f e r e n t philosophy of the course. The f i r s t d r a f t of S e a l ' s proposal s t a t e d t h a t I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12: should not be a s p o r a d i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g a random c h o i c e of i n d u s t r i a l processes. (ISCDC, Misc. Papers) The f i n a l d r a f t of S e a l ' s proposals s o f t e n s somewhat, i n d e l e t i n g the sentence above, and s t a t i n g t h a t the course should provide s t u d e n t s : with an understanding of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s which are u t i l i z e d i n a p r a c t i c a l way i n the machines and processes of i n d u s t r y . In the t i t l e , I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , the word "Science" i s the key to the content and the word " I n d u s t r i a l " i s the key to the method of t e a c h i n g . (ISCDC, Misc. Papers) Despite h i s comments concerning "concrete t h i n k e r s " , Seal a l s o foresaw p u p i l s of a l l a b i l i t y l e v e l s s t u d y i n g I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 : P u p i l s of l e s s than average c a p a b i l i t y w i l l have achieved the o b j e c t i v e of the course i f they understand the p r i n c i p l e s without n e c e s s a r i l y being a b l e to apply them i n q u a n t i t a t i v e f a s h i o n . P u p i l s of average or g r e a t e r than average c a p a b i l i t y should be able to s o l v e q u a n t i t a t i v e problems based on the general p r i n c i p l e s . The a b i l i t y to apply p r i n c i p l e s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y w i l l g i v e such p u p i l s i n c r e a s e d i n s i g h t and g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . (ISCDC, Misc. Papers) 61 T h i s second meeting of the Course Development Committee concluded with no common understanding on t h i s p o i n t , but with members agreeing to prepare proposals f o r the content to be covered i n the course. Perhaps because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n a c h i e v i n g consensus on the o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n of the course, "Ca]t t h i s stage, i t was suggested that we should merely i d e n t i f y s u b j e c t matter content", r a t h e r than the d e t a i l s of i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n : In other words, we were attempting to answer the q u e s t i o n : What s h a l l we teach i n a course i n I n d u s t r i a l Science ? Pr e v i o u s o u t l i n e s have had two weaknesses: the weakness of being too broad, e.g., atomic s t r u c t u r e , matter and energy, e t c . , or the weakness of being too s p e c i f i c , e.g., speed of a motor as being d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the counter EMF and v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y as the f i e l d . (ISCDC Minutes, Jan.12, 1965) These o u t l i n e s were to be d i s t r i b u t e d i n advance to committee members p r i o r to the next meeting on February 10. In t h i s t h i r d meeting, the committee members held i n abeyance t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n on p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and concentrated i n s t e a d on the suggested content o u t l i n e of the course. The time pressures f o r completion of the course may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n , or perhaps i t was hoped that through d i s c u s s i o n of course content a common ground would emerge. If the l a t t e r was the case i t was not to be, 62 as t h e p h i l o s p h i c a l i s s u e would a r i s e a g a i n when t h e d r a f t u n i t s were r e v i e w e d . The c o m m i t t e e t e n t a t i v e l y d e s i g n a t e d t e n u n i t s o f s t u d y , some o f w h i c h were t o be c o n s i d e r e d o p t i o n a l . The u n i t s and t h e i r a u t h o r s were d e t e r m i n e d a s f o l l o w s : 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y - P r o f . C a n n o n 2. C o n c e p t o f M a t t e r and M a t e r i a l s - Mr. S e a l 3. Measurement - P r o f . Cannon 4. M e c h a n i c s - Mr. P h i l l i p s 5. M e c h a n i c s o f F l u i d s - Mr. W i n t e r i n g h a m 6. H e a t , L i g h t and Sound - P r o f . Cannon 7. C h e m i s t r y - Mr. W i n t e r i n g h a m 8. E l e c t r i c i t y - Mr. K i r c h n e r 9 . M e t a l s and A l l o y s - Mr. S e a l 10. I n d u s t r i a l S a f e t y and F i r s t A i d - Mr. K i r c h n e r B r i e f d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d i r e c t i o n e a c h U n i t s h o u l d t a k e s o t h a t t h e member r e s p o n s i b l e would u n d e r s t a n d t h e Commitee's g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h a t t o p i c . In t h e C h e m i s t r y U n i t , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e Committee d e c i d e d , f o l l o w i n g " c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n " , t h a t word, as oppo s e d t o s y m b o l i c , e q u a t i o n s would be a c c e p t a b l e where 6Z p o s s i b l e . The members agreed to forward c o p i e s of t h e i r u n i t m a t e r i a l to the Department f o r ty p i n g by February 24 ( j u s t two weeks away) or e l s e prepare i t themselves f o r the March 3, 1965 meeting. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , not a l l u n i t s were ready f o r t h i s f o u r t h meeting, but the committee reviewed the d r a f t u n i t s presented thus f a r . I t was decided to make the u n i t on Mechanics U n i t 2, and to make Matter and M a t e r i a l s U n i t 3 i n the f i n a l d r a f t . The members, i n reviewing t h i s u n i t on Matter and M a t e r i a l s , determined that "the course would have to be somewhat open-ended, and c e r t a i n u n i t s would be open-ended as w e l l " . Apparently t h i s was a response to what some members saw as a heavy r e l i a n c e on theory i n the u n i t , as the minutes go on to say, "[m]embers were of the o p i n i o n that the course would not succeed i f a more t h e o r e t i c a l approach was c o n s i d e r e d " . Mr. Seal agreed to prepare a second d r a f t of t h i s u n i t . U n i t 4, now t i t l e d Mechanics and S o l i d s , was examined next, with the members recommending a few changes f o r the next d r a f t . The present P h y s i c s 91 course was suggested as a p o s s i b l e source f o r " o p t i o n a l " or "enrichment" m a t e r i a l . E l e c t r i c i t y ( U n i t 8) was reviewed and t h i s too, i t was decided, was best l e f t "open-ended" to allow the teacher "to determine the depth and breadth of study which w i l l 64 best meet the needs of h i s s t u d e n t s " . The U n i t t i t l e was a l s o changed, to E l e c t r i c a l E f f e c t s . I t was decided that S a f e t y would not be a separate u n i t , but would be w r i t t e n as a block and r e f e r r e d to i n c r o s s r e f e r e n c e s throughout the course. The u n i t on Metals and A l l o y s was determined not to be necessary because much of the m a t e r i a l was covered i n other u n i t s . The agenda adopted f o r the next meeting, planned f o r March 24, i n c l u d e d f i n a l approval f o r the u n i t s Matter and M a t e r i a l s , Mechanics. E l e c t r i c a l E f f e c t s . and the S a f e t y m a t e r i a l . The f i f t h meeting a c t u a l l y convened on A p r i l S, 1965, and continued with the review of d r a f t u n i t s . The committee decided that a core of c e r t a i n u n i t s , as yet undetermined, would be a l l o t e d approximately t w o - t h i r d s of the course time, with o n e - t h i r d l e f t f o r o p t i o n a l u n i t s . The course was to r e q u i r e one year of 130-135 hours based on one-hour c l a s s p e r i o d s . At t h i s meeting, members a l s o requested c o p i e s of the t e x t which would u l t i m a t e l y be s e l e c t e d f o r the I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12 course - Fundamentals of A p p l i e d P h y s i c s ( O l i v o & Wayne, 1963). Throughout the minutes of t h i s f i f t h meeting are repeated r e f e r e n c e s to the need f o r more " a c t i v i t i e s " i n the d r a f t u n i t s . While a l i s t of concepts or t o p i c s was e a s i l y assembled, f i n d i n g " p r a c t i c a l " 65 a c t i v i t i e s to i l l u s t r a t e them was more troublesome. Of f i v e u n i t s reviewed during t h i s meeting, four were viewed as d e f i c i e n t i n student a c t i v i t i e s . In the u n i t on Mechanics of S o l i d s . "members questioned c e r t a i n areas [and] Mr. P h i l l i p s w i l l add a c t i v i t i e s and notes f o r t e a c h e r s " . For the u n i t on E l e c t r i c a l E f f e c t s ; It was suggested that one or two simple a c t i v i t i e s c ould be suggested f o r the u n i t and i t w i l l be complete and ready f o r p r i n t i n g . The s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n would a s s i s t teachers i n determining the way the m a t e r i a l c o u l d be hand 1ed. The m a t e r i a l on S a f e t y and F i r s t A i d : w i l l perhaps r e q u i r e a m p l i f i c a t i o n i n the form of an appendix suggesting ways the m a t e r i a l might be t r e a t e d . On Un i t 5, Mechanics of S o l i d s : I t was suggested that more student centred a c t i v i t i e s be i n c l u d e d . The u n i t on Matter and M a t e r i a l s was one of the few u n i t s f e l t to be s u f f i c i e n t i n terms of student a c t i v i t i e s and d i r e c t i o n f o r teachers : Members spent c o n s i d e r a b l e time st u d y i n g the a c t i v i t i e s suggested f o r t h i s u n i t . Mr. Seal was commended f o r h i s e x c e l l e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s m a t e r i a l . (ISCDC, Minutes, Apr. 8, 1965) U n i t s which s t i l l had not been developed were l i s t e d i n the minutes. These i n c l u d e d , with author, U n i t I - I n t r o d u c t i o n - P r o f . Cannon 66 U n i t II - Measurement - P r o f . Cannon Uni t VI - Heat, L i g h t and Sound - P r o f . Cannon Uni t VII - Chemistry - Mr. Winteringham U n i t IX - Metals and A l l o y s - Mr. Seal The agenda f o r the s i x t h meeting on A p r i l 25 i n c l u d e d the e d i t i n g of these u n i t s which, " i f p o s s i b l e " , were to be sent to members p r i o r to the meeting. I t was concluded that the Curriculum Guide f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 would be ready f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to the D i r e c t o r of Curriculum a f t e r three f u r t h e r meetings. At the A p r i l 25 meeting, P r o f . Cannon submitted an o r a l r e p o r t as h i s proposal f o r the I n t r o d u c t i o n to I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence u n i t ; he agreed to prepare w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l f o r the next meeting. A w r i t t e n d r a f t of h i s u n i t on Measurement was presented f o r members' p e r u s a l . The committee held some concerns about t h i s u n i t and: [ c o n s i d e r a b l e time was devoted to t h i s m a t e r i a l by Committee members. I t was agreed that t h i s u n i t be expanded and submitted f o r committee review at the next meeting. A r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of p o r t i o n s of t h i s u n i t was a l s o agreed upon, and w i l l be considered i n the rewri t e . (ISCDC, Minutes, A p r i l 25, 1965) The committee reviewed the other u n i t s and summarized t h e i r progress to date, as shown below : 67 U n i t 1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n - D r a f t copy to be ready f o r May 10 Uni t 2 - Measurement - F i n a l copy to be ready f o r May 10 Uni t 3 - Mechanics of S o l i d s - U n i t completed, has no appendix Un i t 4 - Matter and M a t e r i a l s - U n i t and appendix completed U n i t 5 - Mechanics of F l u i d s - Un i t and appendix completed U n i t 6 - Heat. L i g h t and Sound - D r a f t copy f o r May 10 Uni t 7 - Chemistry - D r a f t copy f o r May 10 Uni t 8 - E l e c t r i c a l E f f e c t s - Un i t Completed - Appendix to come on May 10 Un i t 9 - S a f e t y and F i r s t Aid - U n i t completed Appendix to come on May 10 (ISCDC, Minutes, Apr. 25, 1965) The seventh meeting - the l a s t f o r which we have minutes - was held May 10, 1965. P r o f . Cannon gave a r e p o r t on a conference he had r e c e n t l y attended a t M.I.T. (a "meeting of S c i e n t i s t s i n Boston", the minutes noted), which had advocated a comprehensive plan f o r t e c h n i c a l , v o c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l 68 education i n the United S t a t e s . T h i s conference, a c c o r d i n g to the summary provided the committee by P r o f . Cannon, viewed the "immediate problem" as p r o v i d i n g " f o r the non-employable group i n s o c i e t y " (ISCDC, Minutes, May 10, 1965). M a t e r i a l s were to be made a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the summer of 1965 which "may prove of a s s i s t a n c e to teachers of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12" . The d r a f t u n i t s on E l e c t r i c a l E f f e c t s and Chemistry. the only u n f i n a l i z e d u n i t s ready f o r t h i s meeting, were reviewed and minor changes recommended, with f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n s made to the " a c t i v i t i e s " a r e a. The suggested time a l l o t m e n t f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d at t h i s meeting. Based on a year of 135 hours, the course would have the f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e d u n i t s : Uni t 1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n - 10 hours Un i t 2 - Measurement - 10 hours U n i t 3 - Mechanics of S o l i d s - 30 hours Un i t 4 - Matter and M a t e r i a l s - 20 hours Un i t 5 - Mechanics of F l u i d s - 30 hours The remaining u n i t s would be o p t i o n a l , " f o r the teacher to j u d i c i o u s l y s e l e c t a c c o r d i n g to i n t e r e s t s , needs and a b i l i t i e s of the c l a s s " . These u n i t s , f o r a t o t a l of 35 hours, would i n c l u d e : 69 U n i t 6 - Heat, L i g h t and Sound U n i t 7 - Chemistry U n i t 8 - E l e c t r i c a l E f f e c t s I t was confirmed that S a f e t y and F i r s t A i d , although i t continued to be spoken of as a u n i t , would be taught throughout the year. Having e s t a b l i s h e d the content of the course, the Course Development Committee then d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of I n d u s t r i a l Science becoming a two-year programme "because of the breadth and depth of the m a t e r i a l prepared, s t u d i e d , and reviewed...." The committee suggestion was that A p p l i e d Mathematics 11 and General Business 12 - both compulsory courses, or Programme Constants, i n the I n d u s t r i a l Programme and both "mathematical i n nature" - could be combined, thus f r e e i n g the time f o r an I n d u s t r i a l Science course i n Grade XI. Some mathematics " i n the context of s c i e n c e " would then be added to the I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 11 course. Mr. Seal remembers the recommendation f o r a two-year course, because " i t was o b v i o u s l y i m p o s s i b l e to get through a l l t h i s i n one year.... Quite i m p o s s i b l e " . T h i s recommendation was not acted upon by the Department of E d u c a t i o n . 70 The meeting concluded with another l i s t i n g of progress to date, the l a s t f o r which we have a r e c o r d : U n i t s Completed: U n i t 3 - Mechanics of S o l i d s U n i t 4 - Matter and M a t e r i a l s U n i t 5 - Mechanics of F l u i d s U n i t 7 - Chemistry U n i t 8 - E l e c t r i c a l E f f e c t s U n i t 9 - S a f e t y and F i r s t Aid U n i t s P a r t i a l l y Completed: U n i t 2 - Measurement ( F i n a l approval to be given at meeting of May 25,1965) U n i t s to be Prepared: U n i t 1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n U n i t 6 - Heat. L i g h t and Sound ( D r a f t c o p i e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r study on May 25, 1965) The l a s t meeting of the Course Development Committee, May 25, 1965, was to f i n a l i z e the m a t e r i a l f o r the Curriculum Guide. As shown i n the progress r e p o r t above, one u n i t was s t i l l to be given f i n a l approval and two u n i t s had not yet been w r i t t e n ; these 71 u n i t s were the three to be prepared by P r o f . Cannon. In i n t e r v i e w s with the committee members, twenty years a f t e r i t s o p e r a t i o n , they expressed f r u s t r a t i o n at the Chairman's performance. P r o f . Cannon was very busy and " i n many cases he would be i n and out q u i c k l y " . Another member r e c a l l e d t h a t the Chairman was "very, very busy at the time and we had many meetings at which he d i d not appear" (Seal I n t e r v i e w ) . One committee member r e c a l l e d t h a t "the s e r i o u s n e s s d i d n ' t appear to be t h e r e " : We were d i s a p p o i n t e d i n the manner i n which i t was c h a i r e d . We were d i s a p p o i n t e d i n the follow-up and m a t e r i a l s . Harry Cannon was the l a s t to put i n h i s m a t e r i a l s . In f a c t , I don't think that we ever d i d see some of h i s m a t e r i a l . And that was annoying to members, most annoying.... I t wasn't a w e l l - r u n r e v i s i o n committee. (K i r c h n e r Interview, 1984) The p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 was i s s u e d i n 1965, although the course i t s e l f was not o f f e r e d u n t i l September, 1966. The guide o u t l i n e d the I n d u s t r i a l Programme of the S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme and i t s three s p e c i a l t y areas of C o n s t r u c t i o n , Mechanics, and E l e c t r i c i t y . I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 was a r e q u i r e d course i n the C o n s t r u c t i o n and Mechanics s p e c i a l t i e s , but, i n the E l e c t r i c i t y s p e c i a l t y , the D r a f t i n g 12 course could be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, probably on the assumption 72 that e l e c t r i c i t y students would l i k e l y have a s u f f i c i e n t background i n s c i e n c e . The s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e of the I n d u s t r i a l Programme was : to provide the i n i t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s u c c e s s f u l employment i n a range of i n d u s t r i a l o ccupations and to develop those q u a l i t i e s of c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y t h at make f o r good c i t i z e n s h i p . (BCDE, I n d u s t r i a l Power, I n d u s t r i a l Science 1965, p. 4) It i s not recorded who had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i n a l i z i n g the c u r r i c u l u m guide, although we may assume that P r o f . Cannon, as Chairman, presented i t to the D i v i s i o n of Curriculum f o r a p p r o v a l . The i n t r o d u c t i o n to the course o u t l i n e echoed many of the statements found i n the minutes of the Course Development Committee. In s t a t i n g t h a t i t i s "not intended that theory and concepts be over emphasized", the preamble to the guide went on to say : [o]n the other hand, there are some p u p i l s capable of some advanced s c i e n c e work, p r o v i d i n g i t i s p r a c t i c a l and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to i n d u s t r y , (p. 19) The c u r r i c u l u m guide noted t h a t the course "may be taught by e i t h e r an i n d u s t r i a l education or a s c i e n c e teacher" and repeated that the course should i n c o r p o r a t e "good s c i e n c e and good shop p r a c t i c e " (p. 19) . 73 The four s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 present an i n t e r e s t i n g f a c e t to t h i s study of the development of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12. These four o b j e c t i v e s were i d e n t i c a l to four of the f i v e o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d f o r the S c i e n c e , Technology and Trades Science programme i n O n t a r i o ( O n t a r i o , Department of Education, S c i e n c e , 1964, p. 15). (3) These s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s were not the only items d u p l i c a t e d from the O n t a r i o document. Except f o r the bracketed [] s e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d , the f o l l o w i n g paragraph on lab i n s t r u c t i o n was i d e n t i c a l i n each: [To r e a l i z e these o b j e c t i v e s l a b o r a t o r y ] i n s t r u c t i o n should be organized to permit p u p i l s to work i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n small groups. The number of p u p i l s working together w i l l depend, to some extent, on the s i z e of the c l a s s , [ ( i d e a l l y , twenty-four p u p i l s , with not more than t h i r t y p u p i l s ) , ] on the equipment a v a i l a b l e , and on the t o p i c s s t u d i e d . For c e r t a i n t o p i c s , where the order i n which the experiments undertaken i s not f i x e d , the experiments may be c a r r i e d on s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . (BCDE, p. 19; ODE, p. 15) At l e a s t two other paragraphs i n the B r i t i s h Columbia I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 c u r r i c u l u m guide were d u p l i c a t e d from the O n t a r i o guide. (4) Despite the B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m guide's suggestion that the course could be taught by e i t h e r a s c i e n c e teacher or an i n d u s t r i a l education teacher, i t 74 went on to imply that the I n d u s t r i a l S c ience 12 i n s t r u c t o r might have t r o u b l e i n e v a l u a t i n g the lab ("log") book. I t suggested t h a t "the head of the s c i e n c e department, the p r i n c i p a l , or some other e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y a s s i s t i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the log book" (p. 21). Des p i t e the guide's a s s e r t i o n with r e s p e c t to who would teach the course, the assumption appears to have been made that I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was an I n d u s t r i a l Education course to be taught by I n d u s t r i a l Education t e a c h e r s . The U n i t O u t l i n e s i n the guide corresponded to those of the Course Development Committee, noted above. U n i t 4 on Matter and M a t e r i a l s - f o r which P r o f . Seal had been complimented by the Committee- provided d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r 18 experiments on such t o p i c s as the shear s t r e n g t h of wood, n a i l i n g p a t t e r n s f o r optimum r e s i s t a n c e to l a t e r a l load, comparison of l u b r i c a n t s , et c e t e r a . The other U n i t s were presented i n v a r i o u s columnar, or modified columnar, formats, u s u a l l y with the headings of Contents, A c t i v i t i e s , and Notes. For the most p a r t , these other U n i t s gave only s k e l e t a l o u t l i n e s of the lab a c t i v i t i e s to be performed, d e s p i t e the Committee's e f f o r t s to emphasize a c t i v i t i e s . The Course Development Committee met i t s d e a d l i n e to produce a c u r r i c u l u m guide, but i t s 75 i n t e r n a l debate presaged much of the r e a c t i o n I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was to r e c e i v e i n the s c h o o l s . The e x p e c t a t i o n s held f o r i n d u s t r i a l education s t u d e n t s , the balance between the " t h e o r e t i c a l " and the " p r a c t i c a l " , the balance between "good shop and good s c i e n c e " , were s t i l l to be c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s f o r te a c h e r s . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 7, Committee members themselves were not pleased with the compromises made under the pres s u r e s of a d e a d l i n e , and d i d not hold high e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the success of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. 76 1. In 1971, Mr. Hancock responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c i r c u l a t e d by the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s (see note #10, Chapter 6) with a d i s c u s s i o n of the important i s s u e s r e s p e c t i n g I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 and h i s personal course o u t l i n e . Two-thirds of Mr. Hancock's course d e a l t with Machines & C o n t r o l s , comprised of f i v e u n i t s : A p p l i e d Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Elec t r o m e c h a n i c s , E l e c t r i c a l Power, and I n d u s t r i a l E l e c t r o n i c s . The 32 concepts to be covered i n the Ap p l i e d Mechanics u n i t i n c l u d e d : Bow's n o t a t i o n f o r g r a p h i c a l s o l u t i o n s , c e n t r e of g r a v i t y of a system of p a r t i c l e s , g r a p h i c a l s o l u t i o n of a concurrent c o p l a n a r f o r c e system i n e q u i l i b r i u m , r e s u l t a n t of a noncurrent coplanar f o r c e system, r a d i u s of g y r a t i o n , moment of i n e r t i a of composite areas, and r e c t i l i n e a r motion of a p a r t i c l e . As Mr. Hancock e x p l a i n e d , " [ t ] h e problem f a c i n g the student i s the l o g i c a l approach to p r i n c i p l e s , versus h i s a b i l i t y to understand through e m p i r i c i s m . " 2. Fred Hancock a p p l i e d f o r membership on t h i s committee, i n response to a BCTF request f o r nominees to submit to the department, but was not s e l e c t e d . I t i s not c l e a r whether t h i s was a d e c i s i o n of the Department or the BCTF, which would f i r s t screen nominees. The S u p e r v i s o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education with The Vancouver School Board a t that time, when inte r v i e w e d about t h i s matter, r e p l i e d : You know why [he was not s e l e c t e d ] ? He was so se t i n h i s ways. He would never have a d j u s t e d . He cou l d n ' t a d j u s t . (Cutherbertson Interview, J u l y 4, 1984) Harold K i r c h n e r , who served on the Course Development Committee, remembered that he had not a p p l i e d to j o i n the committee but i n s t e a d was contacted by the Department. 3. J.R. Meredith had forwarded t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n to P r o f . Cannon i n a November 25, 1964 l e t t e r , soon a f t e r Cannon's appointment as Chairman. The only missing o b j e c t i v e was "to arouse c u r i o s i t y r e g a r d i n g n a t u r a l o b j e c t s and phenomena, i n order to develop an understanding of the elementary f a c t s of nature". 77 4. One paragraph s t a t e d : Teachers may f i n d i t necessary to s e t up c e r t a i n p i e c e s of apparatus as permanent equipment to be i n r e a d i n e s s f o r frequent use. Whenever p o s s i b l e , other equipment used should be assembled by the p u p i l s . The O n t a r i o c u r r i c u l u m guide s t a t e d that " [ s ] u i t a b l e text-books, as well as books of r e f e r e n c e , should be provided i n l a b o r a t o r i e s and i n classrooms where s c i e n c e i s s t u d i e d " . The B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m guide s t a t e d that "[a] s u i t a b l e text-book, as w e l l as books of r e f e r e n c e , may prove v a l u a b l e " [emphasis added]. They both continued : I l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l , such as pamphlets, c h a r t s , process diagrams, and sample products should a l s o be procured and f i l e d f o r ready r e f e r e n c e . P u p i l s should be encouraged to use these books and m a t e r i a l s [;] to secure a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the t o p i c s s t u d i e d , [;] to understand the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s [;] and to r e a l i z e t h e i r va1ue. 78 Chapter 6 I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 i n the Schools I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 was i n t r o d u c e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia secondary s c h o o l s i n 1966 and d i f f i c u l t i e s with the course were ev i d e n t immediately. I n d u s t r i a l education teachers, tradesmen f o r the most p a r t , had l i t t l e e x p e r t i s e i n , or sympathy with, the new course. Students viewed the course as a t h i n l y - v e i l e d s c i e n c e course and not the expected i n d u s t r i a l education o f f e r i n g . Problems i n a c q u i r i n g f a c i l i t i e s and equipment exacerbated the teaching s i t u a t i o n . For the next f i v e years, the v a r i o u s p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n I n d u s t r i a l Education - the BCSTA, Department of Education, T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s - s t r u g g l e d to provide the support necessary to make the course v i a b l e . The only attempt at pre-implementation i n s e r v i c e f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 teachers was to have taken p l a c e during a l a r g e r i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n concerning a l l the new S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme courses. The T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l D i v i s i o n of the Department of Education attempted to provide some i n s e r v i c e workshops on the new courses, i n c l u d i n g I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12, d u r i n g the summer of 1966, " a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n " with the BCTF and BCSTA. (1) 79 These Senior V o c a t i o n a l workshops, i n c l u d i n g I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, were held a t Vancouver T e c h n i c a l Senior Secondary School, J u l y 11 - 22, 1966. N o t i f i c a t i o n of the workshop was c i r c u l a t e d to s c h o o l s i n a May 24 f l y e r from the BCTF, which noted that no f e e s would be charged f o r the course (which a p p a r e n t l y was u s u a l l y the case f o r BCTF-sponsored workshops) and t h a t D i s t r i c t Superintendents had been asked by the Department of Education "to encourage school boards to a s s i s t with out-of-pocket expenses i n c u r r e d by t e a c h e r s . " As the workshops d e a l t with the I n d u s t r i a l Programme, school p r i n c i p a l s were asked only to b r i n g the c i r c u l a r to the a t t e n t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l Programme teachers; no mention was made of the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s c i e n c e teachers might be teaching the course. Scheduling of the workshop i n mid-July, even without a fee being charged, would have i n s u r e d that only the most p r o f e s s i o n a l l y - m o t i v a t e d of teachers would a t t e n d . I t i s u n l i k e l y that s c i e n c e teachers would even have been aware of the I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 s e s s i o n s . A one-page r e p o r t of the I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 workshop found i n the BCSTA A r c h i v e s summarized the s e s s i o n . The r e p o r t expressed the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' view that "a course of t h i s nature was necessary" and that i t c o uld be a " s t r o n g " course i n the I n d u s t r i a l 80 Programme. I t warned about p e r m i t t i n g the course to become a "watered-down" s c i e n c e course, and suggested t h a t to "keep the course at a high l e v e l t here must be c o o p e r a t i o n [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] between the s c i e n c e and i n d u s t r i a l education departments." Team-teaching was suggested as a v a l u a b l e approach f o r a course of t h i s nature. T h i s echoed the a s p i r a t i o n s f o r the course e n t e r t a i n e d by the Course Development Committee but, as noted above, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n on the workshop ever reached s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . The r e p o r t d i d express concern about the amount of m a t e r i a l to cover i n I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 and, d e s p i t e suggestions f o r a d d i t i o n s , i t was determined t h a t no more should be added " u n t i l the teachers become more f a m i l i a r with the present m a t e r i a l . " Equipment l i s t s were d i s c u s s e d and "many phone c a l l s were made i n an attempt" to l o c a t e s u p p l i e s and m a t e r i a l s . I t was the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o p i n i o n that a d d i t i o n a l workshops would be necessary "when equipment becomes a v a i l a b l e so that teachers can o b t a i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e with equipment." (2) The r e p o r t concluded by recommending that some means be e s t a b l i s h e d whereby teachers of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 would be a b l e to help each other during the school year. The hope was expressed t h a t the I n d u s t r i a l 81 Education Inspectors could handle t h i s " c l e a r i n g house" f u n c t i o n . Despite the workshops (we have no i n f o r m a t i o n on the number a t t e n d i n g ) , teachers a p p a r e n t l y experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s with the course during 1966/67, i t s i n t r o d u c t o r y year. By February, the BCSTA E x e c u t i v e had decided to o f f e r a workshop i n I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 on March 31, f o l l o w i n g the BCSTA Convention. T h i s d e c i s i o n was a p p a r e n t l y " [ i ] n response to requests from members" (BCSTA Newsletter, February, 1967). The E x e c u t i v e hoped that the s e s s i o n would overcome some of the shortcomings of the previous summer's workshop by p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c a l use of the lab t e s t equipment. A sense of teachers' d i f f i c u l t i e s i s f e l t i n the E x e c u t i v e ' s d e c i s i o n that an attempt was a l s o to be made "to get together some of the men who l a i d out the course and have them g i v e us some ideas of how they expected the course to be taught" (BCSTA, Minutes, February 3, 1967). Along with t h i s lack of understanding, the shortage of equipment continued to be a problem and meetings were held during the s p r i n g between Department of Education and BCTF/BCSTA o f f i c i a l s to d i s c u s s t h i s i s s u e . The C o o r d i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , Joseph Jupp, who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g the use of TVTA funds, and B i l l A l l e s t e r 82 of the BCTF, attended a BCSTA E x e c u t i v e meeting i n an attempt "to r e s o l v e problems of equipment f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12." In May, Mr. Jupp agreed to t r y to have an overhead p r o j e c t o r added to the I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12 equipment l i s t , but noted that i n using the TVTA funds i t was necessary to work to s p e c i f i c l i s t s of equipment. While w a i t i n g f o r a p r o v i n c i a l response to teachers' problems with the course, r e g i o n a l groups began to t a c k l e the i s s u e . I n d u s t r i a l education teachers of the Cowichan d i s t r i c t on Vancouver Isla n d held a workshop at Duncan i n A p r i l of 1967 at which they suggested that a committee be st r u c k to develop a "concrete c u r r i c u l u m " f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. In a l e t t e r to the p r e s i d e n t of the BCSTA ex p r e s s i n g teachers' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the Department of Education's c u r r i c u l u m guide, a teacher from the Duncan workshop wrote : A f t e r having the o p p o r t u n i t y to t a k e C s i c ] with the men concerned about I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 s e v e r a l f a c t s emerged. The men i n t h i s p r ovince are well t r a i n e d to teach the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s . Now that the change to technology has taken p l a c e i t i s causing r e a l problems. There i s no precedent i n t h i s t eaching area and no attempt has been made to provide core m a t e r i a l s to permit the f i r s t year to be taught without endless hours of r e s e a r c h . In common with many others I have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to my f a m i l y as well as my p r o f e s s i o n . The s o l u t i o n as I see i t i s to have w r i t i n g teams organized f o r t h i s summer, h i r e d by the Department of Education NOW. The course i s 83 a l r e a d y broken up i n t o r e l a t e d s e c t i o n s . Mr. Jupp has a l r e a d y concluded a survey of t a l e n t . I am sure Inspectors' r e p o r t s w i l l p o i n t out those who are having success i n t h i s f i e l d . These w r i t i n g teams should be paid 1 weeks[sic] s a l a r y f o r t h e i r p reparatory work. A few d a y s C s i c ] group d i s c u s s i o n would c l a r i f y the aims and then s m a l l e r groups could c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r prepatory u n i t s i n t o a manual f o r each s e c t i o n . The l a s t few days are necessary to c o - r e l a t e C s i c ] m a t e r i a l . In a l l 10 men or 12 could w r i t e the i n i t i a l u n i t s . Development must not stop here f o r these u n i t s are only i n t r o d u c t o r y and the need i s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t of a p a r t i c u l a r study f i e l d . I n i t i a l l y 2 weeks together with s a l a r y f o r 3 weeks to cover w r i t i n g the u n i t s should produce s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . The above i s a b r i e f o u t l i n e of how to s t a r t the b a l l r o l l i n g i n a purposeful manner. (BCSTA Newsletter. May 1967, #2) The w r i t e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n s , w r i t t e n e i g h t months a f t e r the implementation of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, amount almost to a plea to r e w r i t e the course. Noting t h a t there was no precedent f o r such a course, he s t a t e s t h a t "endless hours of r e a s e a r c h " are necessary because of d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide. The aims of the course were viewed as needing c l a r i f i c a t i o n and even with new u n i t s developed, that work would only be " i n t r o d u c t o r y " . The idea of employing w r i t e r s to f u r t h e r develop the I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 course was d i s c u s s e d by the BCSTA E x e c u t i v e a t a s p e c i a l meeting with Mr. Jupp, a t which the BCTF General S e c r e t a r y , Mr. C h a r l i e Ovans, was a l s o present. Mr. Jupp informed the E x e c u t i v e t h a t the Department of Education had agreed to 84 sponsor a workshop during the summer, which would be attended by John Meredith, the D i r e c t o r of C u r r i c u l u m . At that time, t h i s suggestion to employ f u r t h e r w r i t i n g teams f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 would " r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n " (BCSTA Newsletter, May 1, 1967, #1). The P r e s i d e n t of the BCSTA, Ross Regan, ap p a r e n t l y u n w i l l i n g to wait f o r the summer 1967 workshop, f e l t that an independent r e s e a r c h study i n t o the I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence and I n d u s t r i a l Power courses was necessary. A proposal advocating t h i s , dated May 4, 1967, was forwarded to the Laboratory f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Advancement, Research and Needs (LEARN)- an e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h group funded by Vancouver Island School Boards, teacher a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , and centred at that u n i v e r s i t y . Mr. Regan's proposal i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n that i t i m p l i e s strong support f o r the concept of I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , while at the same time i t d e l i n e a t e d many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s being experienced i n the f i e l d : 85 Proposal f o r Research Study Programme i n Area of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence and I n d u s t r i a l Power Courses. Submitted by Ross Regan, P r e s i d e n t , B.C. Shop Teachers' Assn. May 4, 1967 O b j e c t i v e s : 1. To c o o r d i n a t e aspects of these courses with i n d u s t r i a l needs and modern tre n d s . 2. To prove the a p p l i c a t i o n s of a p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e course. 3. To f u r t h e r develop the i n t e g r a t i o n of a p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t with the s u b j e c t s of E n g l i s h , Mathematics, P h y s i c s and other i n d u s t r i a l education courses. 4. To prove the need f o r a resource course r e l a t e d to a wide area of i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s which w i l l b e n e f i t most p u p i l s . 5. To i l l u s t r a t e the importance of study r e p o r t s and f a c t u a l o u t l i n e s of experiments and procedures. Reasons f o r Suggesting These Courses: 1. Equipment c o s t s have been l a r g e l y met v i a F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l g r a nts to v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . 2. The new courses have not yet been proven i n a p p l i c a t i o n ; there i s a wide d i s c r e p a n c y i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m guides. 3. There i s a major need f o r a s u c c e s s f u l approach to the i n t e g r a t i o n of resources i n i n d u s t r y and the s c h o o l s and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e s p e c t i v e concepts i n t h i s f i e l d of study. 4. There should be convenient c o o r d i n a t i o n of 86 i n d u s t r i a l personnel and use of equipment r e q u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g . 5. There i s need f o r s u i t a b l e resource m a t e r i a l as t e x t s and work books which may e v e n t u a l l y be used i n a l l s c h o o l s . I n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d lack the time and experience r e q u i r e d to develop the course. 6. There i s ample o p p o r t u n i t y to c o o r d i n a t e resources of teachers from other s u b j e c t areas and develop a team approach to teaching the s u b j e c t s . 7. There i s o p p o r t u n i t y to f u r t h e r study how p u p i l s l e a r n i n an area which combines theory and p r a c t i c e . 8. The need e x i s t s f o r more adequate p r e p a r a t i o n of p u p i l background i n p r a c t i c a l areas f o r those e n t e r i n g i n d u s t r y upon gr a d u a t i o n . 9. I t i s e s s e n t i a l to develop s t a t u s of t h i s d i s c i p l i n e i n the eyes of parents and i n d u s t r y f o r acceptance as a s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to u n i v e r s i t y entrance on the academic s p e c i a l t i e s . T h i s would provide an o p p o r t u n i t y to adopt a c r i t i c a l approach to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a programme which could meet the needs of a l a r g e group who have thus f a r been ignored i n adapting courses to t h e i r s p e c i a l needs. Funds used f o r : 1. Research i n t o the best means of teaching the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of these courses. 2. The expenses i n c u r r e d i n the use of resource persons. 3. I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of teachers i n v o l v e d i n these courses. 4. Experimental m a t e r i a l s necessary to prove the best i n s t r u c t i o n a l process, e.g. f i l m s , s l i d e s , p r o j e c t u a l s . 87 5. W r i t i n g of adequate resource m a t e r i a l , workbook and c u r r i c u l u m guide. 6. Development of a job experience plan f o r p u p i l s i n t h i s f i e l d . 7. Rental of s p e c i f i c equipment as r e q u i r e d . 8. F l e x i b l e accommodation planning - p o s s i b l e student c o n s t r u c t i o n . 9. H i r i n g of a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f to ensure reasonable c l a s s s i z e s (Dr. H. Cannon, Chairman of course w r i t i n g team suggested c l a s s s i z e of 16.) 10. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Industry to supply : 1. Equipment u s e f u l as i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d s . 2. A d v i s o r s and resource persons. 3. Guides f o r f i e l d t r i p s . 4. V i s u a l communication a i d s as s l i d e s , f i l m s , p i c t u r e s , p r o j e c t u a l s . 5. Sample m a t e r i a l s and new products. 6. Current i n f o r m a t i o n and s t a t i s t i c s on use of m a t e r i a l s and equipment which i s being used and t e s t e d i n these courses. (BCSTA, Misc. Papers) Mr. Regan's support f o r the concept of I n d u s t r i a l Science and I n d u s t r i a l Power i s apparent i n t h i s document, notably i n numbers 2 and 4 ("to prove...") of the o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s p r o p o s a l , w r i t t e n nine months a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, a l s o 88 h i g h l i g h t s some of the problem areas which were to a f f l i c t the course through the next few years : the lack of p r i n t e d r e s o u r c e s , the v a r i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the c u r r i c u l u m guide, the absence of c o o r d i n a t i o n and team-teaching with other d i s c i p l i n e s , the c o n f u s i o n as to "the best means of t e a c h i n g " , the unfami 1 i a r i t y / u n a v a i l a b i 1 i t y of equipment, and the l a r g e c l a s s s i z e s . Interviewed f o r t h i s study, Mr. Regan noted t h a t the proposal "was my own submission; i t was not something that came through the BCSTA." As P r e s i d e n t of the BCSTA, he had r e c e i v e d so many complaints from members that he f e l t t h i s might have been a p o s s i b l e approach to improving the course. The r e s e a r c h c e n t r e , LEARN, "paid no a t t e n t i o n whatsoever" to the p r o p o s a l , and Mr. Regan could not r e c a l l " i f they even responded." In an e f f o r t to respond to the problems of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12, the Department of Education had planned the summer workshops which Mr. Jupp had mentioned to the BCSTA E x e c u t i v e i n A p r i l . However, as with the previous year, these workshops were to deal with many of the courses i n the I n d u s t r i a l Programme, not only I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12. The workshops were to be held at Kelowna i n two d i f f e r e n t s e s s i o n s . As with the previous years' workshops, the 89 Department of Education emphasized that no f e e s would be charged. I n d u s t r i a l Science, I n d u s t r i a l Power, and the J u n i o r Programme s e s s i o n s were to be held J u l y 10 - 21 i n c l u s i v e , and the c i r c u l a r announcing the workshops i n d i c a t e d that s c i e n c e teachers were encouraged to a t t e n d . However, I n d u s t r i a l Science and the J u n i o r Programme were h a l f - d a y courses, to be taken c o n c u r r e n t l y with the I n d u s t r i a l Power s e s s i o n s , an arrangement not l i k e l y to appeal to s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . The o b j e c t i v e s of the workshop seemed more s u i t e d to p r e l i m i n a r y work r a t h e r than to courses which had a l r e a d y been implemented f o r at l e a s t one year: 1. To develop the p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to teach the courses using the new equipment. 2. To examine and e s t a b l i s h c u r r e n t methods i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s to the s t u d e n t s . 3. To develop an approach to the new programmes w i t h i n the terms of a resource course. 4. To i n t e r p r e t the o b j e c t i v e s of the I n d u s t r i a l Programme. (BCSTA, Newsletter. May 1, 1967) Despite the apparent need f o r such workshops, the Kelowna s e s s i o n s had to be c a n c e l l e d due to a lack of a p p l i c a n t s ; the p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n r e c e i v e d by the Department of Education f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c ience numbered only e i g h t teachers (AR, 1966/67, p. F86). Again, the mid-July s c h e d u l i n g might be assumed to be 90 a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the low response. The Department of Education's Annual Report s t a t e d t h a t i n l i e u of workshops, teaching "suggestions" would be complied and d i s t r i b u t e d . (3) I t was l e f t ambiguous whether t h i s c o m p i l a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n would be undertaken by the Department of Education, as the June 1967 Annual Report of the BCSTA i n d i c a t e d t h at the E x e c u t i v e had approved a plan "to f u r t h e r develop and provide l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r I n d u s t r i a l Power and I n d u s t r i a l Science courses up to $200." The BCSTA began an i n t e n s i v e year of work on I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 i n 1967/68, i t s second year i n the s c h o o l s . (4) The main concern of the BCSTA was the absence of resource m a t e r i a l which could provide d i r e c t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s . The October News1etter announced plans to do a survey with r e s p e c t to I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 and to determine the "needs and p o s s i b l e c o s t s to develop resource m a t e r i a l and manual." T h i s n e w s l e t t e r i n c l u d e d a l i s t of 58 I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence teachers and asked those whose names were not on the l i s t to n o t i f y the Chairman of the I n d u s t r i a l Science Committee, Mr. Angus F r a s e r . Although t h i s n e w s l e t t e r was c i r c u l a t e d o n l y to BCSTA members, the l i s t of 58 teachers d i d i n c l u d e a few s c i e n c e teachers who were teaching I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. 91 Mr. F r a s e r reported to the BCSTA E x e c u t i v e at i t s October 20 meeting, at which time they a u t h o r i z e d funding of up to $100. to s e t up an " I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e resource group". The minutes noted that : [Mr. F r a s e r ] has d e f i n e d h i s o b j e c t i v e s and i s c i r c u l a r i z i n g a l l I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence teachers asking what help they can o f f e r other teachers i n the way of i n n o v a t i o n s and resource m a t e r i a l s . A f t e r these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are returned he intends c a l l i n g together a small group of i n t e r e s t e d teachers to s o r t , assemble and d i s t r i b u t e t h a t which the group c o n s i d e r s p e r t i n e n t . (BCSTA Minutes, October 20, 1967) The November Newsletter n o t i f i e d BCSTA members of the establishment of t h i s committee and, i n encouraging responses, noted t h a t "[e]verybody i s having t r o u b l e with part of the I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence course." I t a l s o announced that the Curriculum D i r e c t o r s of the BCTF had pledged f i n a n c i a l support f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of m a t e r i a l r e c e i v e d by the committee. The I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence Committee d i r e c t e d a l e t t e r and survey instrument to teachers who had taught the course during i t s f i r s t year, 1966/67. The r e c i p i e n t s who were no longer teaching I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce were asked to pass the survey on to the present teacher, "be he Science or I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n " . The primary purpose of the survey was to gather c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s which could be made 92 a v a i l a b l e to a l l teach e r s . Mr. F r a s e r ' s l e t t e r expressed the BCSTA's pragmatic view of the I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce s i t u a t i o n : The i n t e n t i o n of t h i s survey i s to accept the I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence course i n i t s present form and working w i t h i n t h i s framework to provide the a s s i s t a n c e necessary to the teacher to o f f e r an i n t e r e s t i n g and comprehensive program. Regardless of whether changes i n the course are needed or not I n d u s t r i a l Science w i l l c o ntinue i n i t s present form f o r a t l e a s t two or three more years. With t h i s i n mind any request f o r c r i t i c i s m s have been omitted.... For t h i s program to work, everyone's c o o p e r a t i o n i s needed. No matter how small your c o n t r i b u t i o n i s , i t w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d . We can only get help i f we help o u r s e l v e s . ( L e t t e r , November 3, 1967) I m p l i c i t i n Mr. F r a s e r ' s comments i s that many teache r s f e l t a major change was r e q u i r e d i n I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 - "... to accept ... i n i t s present form"; "...whether changes are needed or not [ i t ] w i l l c o ntinue f o r at l e a s t two or three more ye a r s " . He e x p l i c i t l y p o i n t s out that c r i t i c i s m i s not requested. T h i s n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n by teachers to I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 became an i s s u e at the BCSTA F a l l Annual General Meeting. A f t e r r e p o r t i n g on the work of the I n d u s t r i a l Science Committee, the minutes commented : Some teachers f e e l t h a t the course cannot succeed and are ta k i n g a completely negative view to " t r y i n g to prolong i t s l i f e " . Gus [Mr. F r a s e r ] , f o r t u n a t e l y has taken the p o s i t i v e view. The course i s being o f f e r e d , most teachers are having problems of one kind or 93 another, so l e t s [ s i c ] make the course work through i n t e r n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . (BCSTA Minutes, November 24, 1967, p. 2) The response to the BCSTA I n d u s t r i a l Science Committee's survey was very poor. Mr. F r a s e r sent a follow-up l e t t e r on January 5, 1968, which reported t h a t only 15 responses had been r e c e i v e d of 80 mailed, and that the committee would meet on January 27 to compile the m a t e r i a l r e c e i v e d . There i s no in f o r m a t i o n on how many responses were f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d by the committee, but twenty teachers (four from Vancouver I s l a n d , three from the I n t e r i o r , and the r e s t from the Lower Mainland) attended the January 27 meeting at the BCTF b u i l d i n g . The r e s u l t s of t h i s s e s s i o n were reported i n the February Newsletter• (5) The n e w s l e t t e r r e p o r t of the meeting noted that "almost a l l of the teachers present f e l t s t r o n g l y that the course was good and could be made i n t e r e s t i n g and meaningful". The group a l s o returned to the important q u e s t i o n of who should teach the course, and concluded t h a t a team approach of s c i e n c e and i n d u s t r i a l education teachers "would be the best way to handle" I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e . The problems concerning equipment were d i s c u s s e d and a motion, d i r e c t e d to s c h o o l s and d i s t r i c t s , was passed which s t a t e d that I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e should not be o f f e r e d u n l e s s "minimum equipment and f a c i l i t i e s " were pro v i d e d . 94 The c h o i c e of a textbook was a l s o d i s c u s s e d , and the teachers present gave a lukewarm endorsement to the Department of Education's suggestion ( O l i v o & Wayne, 1962) as an i n t e r i m measure, but attached the c o n d i t i o n "that the book be removed from the textbook l i s t a f t e r a s u i t a b l e replacement has been prepared by a committee of i n d u s t r i a l s c i e n c e teachers and i n d u s t r i a l c o n s u l t a n t s . " (6) The BCSTA E x e c u t i v e held a s p e c i a l meeting on January 26 - the day p r i o r to the I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence Committee meeting - with the C o o r d i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , Mr. Jupp, and the two T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s , Mr. Smith and Mr. Tidmarsh. (7) Mr. Jupp informed the E x e c u t i v e that the Department of Education had commissioned the w r i t i n g of a correspondence course f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12, which would a l s o be "an e x c e l l e n t guide to a s s i s t new teachers to the course." He noted that the two-man team which would w r i t e the course was comprised of "a Science man and an I n d u s t r i a l Education man" and again emphasized the importance of a team-teaching approach. At t h i s meeting, Mr. Jupp a l s o s t a t e d one of the h i t h e r t o unspoken assumptions of the I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 course: The poss boy on the i n d u s t r i a l Programme who i b l y can not handle an academic s c i e n ce 95 course i s able to get c r e d i t f o r a s c i e n c e on h i s t r a n s c r i p t . (BCSTA, Minutes, January 26, 1968, p . l ) However laudable t h i s i n t e n t i o n may have been, i t was doomed to f a i l u r e when no post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n i n the provinc e , i n c l u d i n g the BC I n s t i t u t e of Technology, would agree to accept I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 as a s c i e n c e c r e d i t . As a r e s u l t of t h e i r January 27 meeting, the I n d u s t r i a l Science Committee (now c a l l e d the I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce Resource Committee) developed a second survey; t h i s one to determine the adequacy of equipment and resources i n the s c h o o l s f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e . (8) The r e s u l t s , made a v a i l a b l e i n a March 22, 1968 r e p o r t , showed a marked d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the present f a c i l i t i e s and equipment. The r e t u r n r a t e f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was 64 7. (54 of 84 responded), and 76 7. of those responses i n d i c a t e d f a c i l i t i e s which were p a r t i a l l y , or t o t a l l y , unequipped. In response to the q u e s t i o n , "Do you f e e l you have s u f f i c i e n t s u p p l i e s and equipment and adequate f a c i l i t i e s to teach a meaningfull [ s i c ] course ?", only 22 of the 54 responses answered i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . Comments ranged from complete s a t i s f a c t i o n : [w]e have been a f f o r d e d complete freedom to get the f a c i l i t i e s f o r the course. No complaints at a l l . New lab provided. 96 to the d e s p a i r i n g : these c l a s s e s are being taught i n a Home Ec. Sewing room and a Senior Wood shop - equipment borrowed from Science on a p e r i o d b a s i s . (BCSTA, Misc. Papers) The committee's r e p o r t concluded only that more concern must be shown by both l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g proper labs f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12; no q u e s t i o n s were r a i s e d about the use of TVTA funds f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , as opposed to t r a d i t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n , f a c i l i t i e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s e q u i p m e n t / f a c i 1 i t i e s survey were brought to the members at the Spring General Meeting of the BCSTA on March 22. The meeting recommended wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of the r e s u l t s and that n o t i f i c a t i o n be sent to the Department of Education. The minutes a l s o noted " s e r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n " about dropping the course where f a c i l i t i e s were not a v a i l a b l e , and i t was reported t h a t one ( u n i d e n t i f i e d ) school was not going to o f f e r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 i n the upcoming year. (9) A f t e r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the f o l l o w i n g motion was c a r r i e d by the assembly : that no I n d u s t r i a l Education teacher accept a p o s i t i o n to teach I n d u s t r i a l Science where adequate f a c i l i t i e s and equipment do not e x i s t . (BCSTA, Minutes, March 22, 1968, p . l ) The problems of lack of equipment and resource m a t e r i a l continued, and the BCSTA E x e c u t i v e continued to meet with the C o o r d i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education 97 and the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s i n an e f f o r t to r e s o l v e the problems. The T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s ' r o l e changed, and they began t h e i r attempt to provide a s s i s t a n c e to I n d u s t r i a l Science t e a c h e r s . The major complaint of i n d u s t r i a l education teachers who taught the cou r s e - the lack of d i r e c t i o n f o r them with r e s p e c t to the lab a c t i v i t i e s which were to have been the heart of the course - prompted the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s to p u b l i s h a lab manual i n 1969. T h i s manual had been developed by a teacher, Gary t i o t t , who was a str o n g advocate of the course and operated what was considered to be one of the best I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 courses i n the pr o v i n c e . Mott's manual o f f e r e d d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s , with photographs, of v a r i o u s lab experiments which provided much-needed d i r e c t i o n f o r many of the I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 te a c h e r s . I t s d i s t r i b u t i o n by the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s marked the beginning of an extended e f f o r t on t h e i r part to improve the course. That major d i f f i c u l t i e s were being experienced with I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 was made obvious i n the Department of Education's Annual Reports f o r 1969/70 and 1970/71. Both r e p o r t s took the extremely unusual step of mentioning t h i s course s p e c i f i c a l l y and d i s c u s s i n g i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s . Those comments corresponded with the beginning of the c u r r i c u l u m 98 e f f o r t s by the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s . In the 1969/70 AR, i t was noted that " c o n s i d e r a b l e study" had been undertaken with a view to holding zone workshops throughout the p r o v i n c e . (The previous attempts at workshops had been p r o v i n c i a l i n scope.) The next year's AFR (1970/71), however, expressed some ex a s p e r a t i o n with the d i f f i c u l t i e s the course was i n and i n d i r e c t l y questioned the e f f o r t being made by s c h o o l s and teachers to improve I n d u s t r i a l Science 12: It has become obvious the I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 course introduced i n the S e n i o r Secondary program i n 1965 was r e c e i v i n g l i t t l e or no a t t e n t i o n i n some s c h o o l s where as [ s i c ] i n a very few s c h o o l s a determined e f f o r t was being made to o f f e r an e f f e c t i v e course. (AR, 1970/71, p. C68) The major e f f o r t s of the BCSTA to f u r t h e r the implementation of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 subsided a f t e r the f i r s t three y e a r s . The BCSTA a r c h i v e s show that i t ceased to be a major t o p i c of concern f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n and the course seldom was mentioned at i t s meetings. Apparently, some s c h o o l s and i n d i v i d u a l t eachers had reached an accomodation with the course : e i t h e r through one teacher's experience with the course over the previous three y e a r s , or the s c h o o l ' s w i l l i n g n e s s to p r e v a r i c a t e when r e p o r t i n g marks to the Department (see note 9 ) . The A s s o c i a t i o n may a l s o have f e l t t h a t i t had accomplished a l l i t could with 99 r e s p e c t to I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 and saw the need to turn i t s a t t e n t i o n to the many other aspects of the I n d u s t r i a l Programme. The BCSTA's gradual withdrawal from a c t i v e involvment with I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning t h a t the course was problem-free. The Department of Education, through i t s T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s , took over the l e a d i n g r o l e i n I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 t r o u b l e - s h o o t i n g . The two T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s devoted much of 1971 to I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. T h e i r Departmental n e w s l e t t e r , ie_ [ s i c ] , announced that they and the C o o r d i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education intended "to g i v e p r i o r a t t e n t i o n [ s i c ] during the p e r i o d of January to June, 1971, to the I n d u s t r i a l Science problems." T h e i r s t a t e d aims i n doing t h i s r e f l e c t many of the same o b j e c t i v e s which the Course Development Committee, v a r i o u s workshops, and the BCSTA had expressed over the p r e v i o u s few years : 1. to determine and s p e c i f y a v a l i d core f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e . 2. to produce an e s s e n t i a l l i s t of equipment to match that c o r e . 3. to compile and d i s t r i b u t e a book of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence resource m a t e r i a l . 4. to demonstrate u s e f u l I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence u n i t s at D i s t r i c t Workshops. 5. to c o n s i d e r ways and means of s c h e d u l i n g I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence i n small s c h o o l s or with small e n r o l l m e n t s . ( i e , 71. (1) n.p. ) 100 T h i s f i r s t i s s u e of ie_ announced a survey which was to i n v e s t i g a t e the problem areas of the course. T h i s survey would provide teachers with the o p p o r t u n i t y to decide on the c u r r i c u l u m areas which were f e l t to be important and "to pan the u n i t s t h a t seem i n a p p r o p r i a t e " so that the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s could recommend "a more v a l i d content f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e " . They noted that s i n c e the 1965 r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , " [ e ] a s i l y the g r e a t e s t concern" i n I n d u s t r i a l Education had been " i n the areas of I n d u s t r i a l Science and I n d u s t r i a l Power courses." The i n s t r u c t o r s of these courses " i n v a r i a b l y r e q u i r e [ d ] more p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n . " They a l s o r e q u i r e d "at l e a s t a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s and some adequate equipment." In a t e l l i n g phrase, used to d e s c r i b e i t s place w i t h i n the I n d u s t r i a l Education programme, the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s r e f e r r e d to I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 as " t r u l y the orphan s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n " ( i e , 71 {1}, n . p . ) . The T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s noted three main areas of d i f f i c u l t y f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 i n s t r u c t o r s . The "newness" of the course and lack of a precedent, provided the " i n i t i a l roadblock". Teachers, without experience i n the f i e l d themselves, could not f i n d d i r e c t i o n i n other j u r i s d i c t i o n s because of the unique nature of the courses. A second major d i f f i c u l t y 101 noted by the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s was that I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce was r a r e l y the major area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the teacher, who would have a major s u b j e c t area and accompanying shop i n a trades area. I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , consequently, could not r e c e i v e "a j u s t i f i a b l e degree of planning and p r e p a r a t i o n . " (The n o t i o n of s c i e n c e teachers, or a team of t e a c h e r s , i n s t r u c t i n g the course was not mentioned.) F i n a l l y , I n d u s t r i a l Science would u s u a l l y be given the l a s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t i m e - t a b l i n g and use of f a c i l i t i e s / e q u i p m e n t , o f t e n being "crowded i n t o a f a c i l i t y s e t up and used f o r some other major s u b j e c t . " The A d v i s o r s a l s o p r a i s e d those who had e s t a b l i s h e d e f f e c t i v e course " [ a ] g a i n s t a l l the odds." As a r e s u l t of the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s ' e f f o r t s , workshops i n I n d u s t r i a l Science were f i n a l l y held throughout the p r o v i n c e i n the Spring of 1971, with 154 teachers t a k i n g part (AR_, 1970/71, p. Ch8) . The 1971/72 AR_ reported t h a t , among the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d , was "the f u t u r e of i n d u s t r i a l s c i e n c e " (p. D30)- a p p a r e n t l y s t i l l a matter f o r debate. At these workshops, the r e s u l t s of the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s ' survey were a v a i l a b l e . (10) As a r e s u l t of these workshops, a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n of resource m a t e r i a l developed by teachers i n the f i e l d (which the BCSTA I n d u s t r i a l Science Resource Committee had attempted i n 102 1968) was assembled and made a v a i l a b l e to teachers through the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s ' o f f i c e . Although the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s were making e f f o r t s to improve the I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 course at t h i s time, the Department of Education had a l r e a d y decided that the pro v i n c e ' s e n t i r e I n d u s t r i a l Education programme, reorganized j u s t f i v e years before, was i n need of review. In September of 1970, the Department of Education sought nominees to serve on an I n d u s t r i a l Education A d v i s o r y Committee. The Department's D i r e c t o r of Curriculum at that time, W.B. Naylor, informed the BCTF that the committee's purpose would be to "evaluate, not r e v i s e " the I n d u s t r i a l Education programme, but that "the recommendations made by the committee might indeed r e s u l t i n the establishment of other committees to undertake s p e c i f i c course r e v i s i o n s " (BCTF, Pro.D., b u l l e t i n , n.d.). The 1971/72 AR announced that the I n d u s t r i a l Education Advisory Committee would review a l l I n d u s t r i a l Education courses and recommend "necessary improvement to meet the c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s " (p. D29). I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 continued i n the s c h o o l s throughout the period of the I n d u s t r i a l Education A d v i s o r y Committee's d e l i b e r a t i o n s , but the Committee soon determined that changes to the course were 103 necessary. In the Autumn of 1972, the Coord i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education wrote to the BCSTA concerning workshops at which the "format of proposed new courses to r e p l a c e I n d u s t r i a l Power and I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , i . e . , Technology 11 and 12" was to be d i s c u s s e d (BCSTA, Newsletter, Dec. 7, 1972). (The "Technology" a p p e l l a t i o n had f i r s t been suggested f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce and I n d u s t r i a l Power by a BCSTA member, G.O. B a l l a r d , e a r l y i n 1969.) T h i s d e c i s i o n to r e p l a c e I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was made j u s t s i x years a f t e r i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n September, 1966. Th i s complete r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the I n d u s t r i a l programme was not completed u n t i l 1976. The Department of Education's d e s c r i p t i o n of the new Technology 11 and 12 courses s t a t e d that they were to "i n t r o d u c e a new approach to the pre v i o u s I n d u s t r i a l Power and I n d u s t r i a l Science courses" ( I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , 1977, p. 167). In l i n e with the Department of Education's new philosophy of l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of courses, there was only a b r i e f , four—page d i s c u s s i o n of Technology i n the I n d u s t r i a l Education Curriculum Guide (1977). T h i s d i s c u s s i o n pointed out that the courses could be "as d i v e r s i f i e d as the teachers' e x p e r i e n c e s " (p.169); teachers were "expected to develop t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r courses" (p.167). In c o n t r a s t with the approach of ten years 104 e a r l i e r , " [ t ] h e development of each course [ i n grades 11 and 12] becomes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the school o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n d i s t r i c t p o l i c i e s . " (p.12) The I n d u s t r i a l Education Guide noted t h a t the Technology course d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y have to be new and that s u c c e s s f u l I n d u s t r i a l Science courses could continue under the new d e s i g n a t i o n , "Technology". T h i s was i n keeping with the advice given by the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s i n a 1976 e d i t i o n of ie_ : If your popular I n d u s t r i a l Power program co n t i n u e s , c a l l i t Technology 11. If your e x c e p t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 program con t i n u e s , c a l l i t Technology 12. [emphasis added] ( i e , 1976, n.d.,n.p.) Among the g r e a t e s t impediments to the success of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was the confused, o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y , conception of what the course was meant to be. As the d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the Course Development Committee show, some of the developers openly viewed the course as s c i e n c e f o r the lower—achieving student who t y p i c a l l y was found i n the I n d u s t r i a l Programme. The emphasis on the " p r a c t i c a l " and "concrete" was not viewed as simply an a l t e r n a t e mode of i n s t r u c t i o n , but as a necessary means of i n s t r u c t i n g the s e m i - l i t e r a t e , p o o r l y motivated I n d u s t r i a l Programme stu d e n t s . Yet 105 o t h e r s who worked on the Course Development Committee d i d not share t h i s viewpoint. Instead, they conceived I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 as a more r i g o r o u s a p p l i e d s c i e n c e course, perhaps a pr e c u r s o r to en g i n e e r i n g s t u d i e s , the p r a c t i c a l nature of which would d i f f e r from academic courses i n kind, but not degree. T h i s ambiguity was never r e s o l v e d by the Course Development Committee. While committee minutes noted areas of "much d i s c u s s i o n " , committee members r e c a l l e d two almost opposing camps separated by an unbridgable g u l f . If one "camp" can be s a i d to have p r e v a i l e d , the teachers of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 would have s a i d t h a t i t was those who d i d not understand the academic l i m i t a t i o n s of the t y p i c a l i n d u s t r i a l education student. The nature of the lab a c t i v i t i e s and the reading l e v e l of the t e x t were seen as i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an I n d u s t r i a l Education course. The ambiguous aims of the Course Development Committee and the Department followed I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12 i n t o the s c h o o l s . One of the r e c u r r i n g q u e s t i o n s of the shop teachers i n t h e i r surveys and meetings was that of understanding the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of the course. The s c h o o l , and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l , expected i n d u s t r i a l education to maintain i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of imparting v o c a t i o n a l and semi- v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g to i t s t y p i c a l c l i e n t e l e . How was 106 t h i s to be r e c o n c i l e d with the a p p a r e n t l y ambiguous o b j e c t i v e s of the new course? Those who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing the course c o n t i n u a l l y c a l l e d f o r more d i r e c t i o n as to how I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 f i t i n t o the o v e r a l l g o a l s of the I n d u s t r i a l Programme. The haste i n which the course was w r i t t e n exacerbated the e q u i v o c a l nature of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12. Amid the wholesale changes to the i n d u s t r i a l education courses, and the e n t i r e high school programme, l i t t l e time could be spared f o r the one course. The rush to implement the new I n d u s t r i a l Programme, and thereby to r e c e i v e the f e d e r a l funding, was predominant. T h i s i s i r o n i c i n that the e x i s t e n c e of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 pushed the I n d u s t r i a l Programme to the magic 50 7. l e v e l r e q u i r e d to comply with TVTA g u i d e l i n e s . A teacher at that time remembered t h i s push f o r implementation : They knew i t had to be implemented because of the f e d e r a l funds....In f a c t , one of the Department of Education people f i n a l l y t o l d them [BCSTA] at one time - when i n d u s t r i a l education teachers were t r y i n g to delay the implementation and saying they needed more time to develop t h i s - he s a i d , " Well, take out your t i m e t a b l e and your t i d e s t a b l e , and you could look up on September 2 what time the t i d e i s coming i n , and I'm going to t e l l you that the t i d e i s coming i n on September 2 and the course i s going to go !" (Regan Interview, J u l y 13, 1984) 107 The students of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 d i d not respond p o s i t i v e l y to the course e i t h e r . T h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l education courses r e v o l v e d around "making" t h i n g s , working i n the shop, and d i d not i n c l u d e l a b o r a t o r y work i n s c i e n c e . Science was one of the t h i n g s they assumed they had l e f t behind i n the academic programme. Almost a l l teachers inte r v i e w e d expressed the o p i n i o n that students d i d not enjoy the course. The I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 teachers who had developed e f f e c t i v e , a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d courses over a number of years encouraged student i n t e r e s t , but these were the e x c e p t i o n . In most s c h o o l s , students viewed the course much as t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s d i d , as simply an adjunct to the I n d u s t r i a l Programme. An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r i n students' unfavorable p e r c e p t i o n of the course was i t s nonacceptance as a s c i e n c e c r e d i t by post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . Not even the p r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e of Technology or the v o c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e s , which were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most of the t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, recognized completion of I n d u s t r i a l S cience 12 as an a c c e p t a b l e s c i e n c e c r e d i t . Lacking even t h i s i n c e n t i v e , student m o t i v a t i o n d i s s i p a t e d . The dearth of resource m a t e r i a l f o r teachers with l i t t l e background i n the s u b j e c t , which the BCSTA 108 t r i e d to a l l e v i a t e , was an important aspect of the course's f a i l u r e . When the Department of Education d i d t r y to provide summer i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s a f t e r the d i f f i c u l t i e s with the course became apparent, l i t t l e i n t e r e s t was shown by the i n d u s t r i a l education t e a c h e r s , perhaps because of t h e i r r e a c t i o n to the course noted p r e v i o u s l y . There was a l s o c o n f u s i o n as to r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n the Department of Education f o r support f o r teachers e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y with I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12. The two T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s had been Inspectors of T e c h n i c a l C l a s s e s whose r o l e was j u s t t h a t - i n s p e c t i o n . The p o s i t i o n of C o o r d i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education had been e s t a b l i s h e d to a c t as l i a i s o n among the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government f o r the TVTA funding and not c u r r i c u l u m . The D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l Curriculum worked mainly with the Department of Labour on a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programmes. Presented with the new course, teachers had few avenues through which to seek guidance. By the time the Department began to view I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 as a p r i o r i t y area, i n 1970/71, i t s h i s t o r y over the previous four years had a l r e a d y determined i t s f a t e . Other problems a l s o m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t the s u c c e s s f u l implementation of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. The shortage, or i n some s c h o o l s the complete l a c k , of 109 equipment f o r an a p p l i e d s c i e n c e course was o f t e n noted by te a c h e r s . T h i s shortage was d e s p i t e the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f e d e r a l funds under Program One of the TVTA, which the e x i s t e n c e of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 had made p o s s i b l e . The disbursement of the funds was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l school d i s t r i c t s . The p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s and equipment f o r t h i s novel and enigmatic course o f t e n was subjugated to the more t r a d i t i o n a l and understandable requirements of the vocationa1-type courses. The i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y nature of I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12 as both a " s c i e n c e " and an " i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n " course was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the percei v e d c o n f u s i o n with r e s p e c t to the course. The Department of Education i n i t i a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 as both s c i e n c e and i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . The developers and Department o f f i c i a l s e x t o l l e d the v i r t u e s of s c i e n c e and i n d u s t r i a l education teachers team-teaching the course, yet t h i s occurrence was remarkably r a r e . Despite the me r i t s of such a pr o p o s a l , the ambiguous d e s i g n a t i o n d i d not rec o g n i z e many of the r e a l i t i e s of secondary school departmental o r g a n i z a t i o n . The upshot was that n e i t h e r the s c i e n c e nor i n d u s t r i a l education departments f e l t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the course. By 1967, the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 as a 110 s c i e n c e course had been q u i e t l y dropped by the Department and i t was l i s t e d s o l e l y as an i n d u s t r i a l education course. I n d u s t r i a l education teachers i n t e r v i e w e d held c u r i o u s l y c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s to the absence of s c i e n c e teachers i n s t r u c t i n g the course. Many spoke d i s p a r a g i n g l y of s c i e n c e teachers' u n w i l l i n g n e s s to teach any but the b r i g h t e s t students and t h e i r lack of understanding of i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . (11) Others spoke somewhat e n v i o u s l y of the a b i l i t y l e v e l of students with whom s c i e n c e teachers worked. There was a d e f i n i t e o p i n i o n that s c i e n c e teachers d i s d a i n e d teaching the slower students and u s u a l l y were excused from the task. On the other hand, i n d u s t r i a l education teachers expressed s u s p i c i o n as to whether the "too t h e o r e t i c a l " s c i e n c e teachers c o u l d p r o p e r l y teach such a course without d e s t r o y i n g i t s s p e c i a l nature. One i n d u s t r i a l education teacher commented : People don't change very much i n a s h o r t p e r i o d of time and those who had been teaching s c i e n c e f o r y ears, they went ahead with what they knew. I t ' s almost i m p o s s i b l e f o r them to have any depth of i n s i g h t i n t o what shops do. They j u s t don't understand. (Seal Interview, J u l y 23, 1984) Another observed: I don't think i t has to be taught by a shop teacher, but i t would be best taught by a shop teacher. A l o t of the s c i e n c e teachers have 111 never worked - I mean other than teaching - and they were s u c c e s s f u l through s c h o o l . They take f i v e years of u n i v e r s i t y and they're r i g h t back i n school again. And they r e a l l y don't have any p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the s t u f f they teach. (Wrinch Interview, J u l y 12, 1984) A c e r t a i n p r i d e was e v i d e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l education teachers' f e l t a b i l i t y to i n s t r u c t s tudents whom other teachers found d i f f i c u l t , and to keep the course p r a c t i c a l and, hence, worthwhile. On the whole, i n d u s t r i a l education teachers f e l t that I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 students were b e t t e r served w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l education department. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , the d e s i r e to keep I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12 w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l education department d i d not o f t e n t r a n s l a t e i n t o i n d i v i d u a l teachers' d e s i r i n g to teach the course. Many teachers noted the " f o i s t i n g " of the course on to the j u n i o r teachers' assignments - "the f e l l o w who could l e a s t handle i t " . I t was not a popular course among i n d u s t r i a l education t e a c h e r s : It was c o n s i d e r e d a dog of a course so i t was given to the j u n i o r guy as much as p o s s i b l e i n a l o t of cases, and so i t kept changing from teacher to teacher to teacher. (Wrinch Interview, J u l y 12, 1984) At the time, most i n d u s t r i a l education teachers were tradesmen who had undertaken an " a c c e l e r a t e d " programme to q u a l i f y as t e a c h e r s . T h e i r programme 112 would c o n c e n t r a t e on courses i n pedagogy and t e c h n i c a l areas. Many, not having s t u d i e d s c i e n c e themselves s i n c e high s c h o o l , d i d not f e e l c o n f i d e n t i n i n s t r u c t i n g a s c i e n c e course. As tradesmen, they p r e f e r r e d to teach t h e i r own s p e c i a l t y area or a r e l a t e d area which they had s t u d i e d during teacher t r a i n i n g . Indeed, the s t r u c t u r e of the i n d u s t r i a l programme and school departments was based on t h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . That was the problem. You see, most of us would take a double I.E. major - when I went through i t was always Wood and Metal, and you got minimal e l e c t r o n i c s and a l i t t l e b i t of d r a f t i n g . And so when you were appointed to the high school you had a Woodwork load, l e t ' s say, and i f there wasn't q u i t e enough and they needed some I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , they'd say, "Hey, Smith, you're teaching I n d u s t r i a l Science next year." Well, Smith wasn't prepared f o r i t . (Wrinch Interview, J u l y 12, 1984) (12) I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was never one's main area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - that would be one of the trade areas - and consequently r e c e i v e d l e s s a t t e n t i o n by the teacher. In an e f f o r t to share the perc e i v e d burden, the course was o f t e n assigned to d i f f e r e n t t eachers each year. While s u p e r f i c i a l l y a d e s i r a b l e p r a c t i c e , t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a lack of c o n t i n u i t y and resource development f o r the course. Each year, a teacher would have to begin anew. The teachers' r e a c t i o n to I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 u l t i m a t e l y s e a l e d i t s f a t e . While much e f f o r t was 113 expended on the course by the BCSTA and, l a t e r , the Department of Education, much of i t was " a f t e r the f a c t " ; the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the course had a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d . Lacking the wherewithal to provide the course as w r i t t e n by the Course Development Committee, and given the weak channels of communication to provide improvement, teachers' i n t e r e s t and b e l i e f i n the course a t r o p h i e d . I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, d e s p i t e the hope that i t would become an i n t e g r a l part of the V o c a t i o n a l Programme, became merely an imposed, i s o l a t e d adjunct - the "orphan of the c u r r i c l u m " . 114 1. The January 1966 BCSTA Newsletter had posed the qu e s t i o n of whether teachers wanted a workshop i n I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 because " [ i ] n d u s t r i a l education teachers may f i n d themselves teaching the course next f a l 1 2. As well as "standard" s c i e n c e lab equipment, t h i s would i n c l u d e such items as m a t e r i a l and hardness t e s t e r s . 3. The 1966/67 AR l a t e r s t a t e d that "[a] s e r i e s of workshop were h e l d . . . t o prepare [ t e a c h e r s ] to b e t t e r handle the new m a t e r i a l i n I n d u s t r i a l Science [and other c o u r s e s ] " (p. F87), however, no mention of, i n i n f o r m a t i o n concerning, these workshops has been unearthed. The BCSTA A r c h i v e s , which are very complete i n terms of meeting minutes and n e w s l e t t e r , c o n t a i n nothing concerning Summer 1967 workshops other than the c a n c e l l e d Kelowna s e s s i o n s . I t may be that the statement i n the AR was a r e s u l t of c o n f u s i o n on the p a r t of two d i f f e r e n t authors of two d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of the r e p o r t . 4. Perhaps the tone of the year's work was i n d i c a t e d by a motion which was presented to a meeting of the I n d u s t r i a l Education S u b - A s s o c i a t i o n of the Greater V i c t o r i a Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n i n October. I t was moved, r a t h e r ambiguously, that : our o r g a n i z a t i o n support I n d u s t r i a l Science f o r four (4) years on a t r i a l b a s i s [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] before we decide to disband the course. (BCSTA, Minutes, Oct. 3, 1967) Ross Regan, who attended t h i s meeting, r e c a l l e d t h a t the i n t e n t of the motion was to support the course f o r a p e r i o d of time, and not to assume the course's u l t i m a t e demise. 5. The cover of the February Newsletter, which Mr.Regan remembered drawing, showed a hand holding a "HELP" s i g n reaching up through ocean waves, with l i f e p r e s e r v e r s l a b e l l e d " I n d u s t r i a l Science M a t e r i a l s " , among o t h e r s , being tossed to the u n f o r t u n a t e person. 6. F o l l o w i n g t h i s meeting, on February 26, 1968, the BCSTA S e c r e t a r y wrote to the P r e s i d e n t of the B r i t i s h Columbia Science Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n r e q u e s t i n g an o p i n i o n conerning the O l i v o & Wayne t e x t , Fundamentals of A p p l i e d P h y s i c s , and s o l i c i t i n g other s u g g e s t i o n s . The s e l e c t i o n of O l i v o & Wayne was announced i n the 115 Department's Curriculum C i r c u l a r 25-3-68 ( i . e . , of March 3, 1968). Most teachers f e l t t h a t t h i s t e x t was i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r students both i n content and reading l e v e l . One teacher d e s c r i b e d i t as " f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y r e a d i n g " . The Coord i n a t o r of I n d u s t r i a l Education remembered i t as a " d i f f i c u l t " t e x t "and f o r a compulsory course, that i s dynamite". The I n d u s t r i a l Education Textbook S e l e c t i o n Committee of the BCSTA, formed i n 1965 to work i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the Department i n choosing t e x t s , e s t a b l i s h e d the s e l e c t i o n of a new t e x t f o r I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 as i t s top p r i o r i t y at an A p r i l , 1968 meeting, one month a f t e r the adoption of Fundamentals of A p p l i e d P h y s i c s . 7. The A d v i s o r s had formerly been c a l l e d I n s p e c t o r s of I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s e s . 8. T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , dated February 9 1968 i n v e s t i g a t e d general f a c i l i t i e s such as f l o o r area, storage area, gas and water p r o v i s i o n , et c e t e r a . I t a l s o queried teachers concerning the s p e c i a l i z e d equipment r e q u i r e d f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , such as the h e a t - t r e a t i n g furnace, Rockwell hardness t e s t e r , moisture meter, o p t i c a l comparator, et c e t e r a . 9. There was no i n d i c a t i o n i n the minutes as to how t h i s c ould be accomplished. The s t a t u s of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 as a r e q u i r e d course i n both the C o n s t r u c t i o n and Mechanics s p e c i a l t i e s had not been changed by the Department. However, during i n t e r v i e w s with teachers of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, i t became c l e a r t h a t many s c h o o l s o f f e r e d a l t e r n a t e courses i n a number of s u b j e c t areas (math, p l a s t i c s , a d d i t i o n a l woodworking, a e r o n a u t i c s , et c e t e r a ) , yet reported these as I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 marks f o r the p r o v i n c i a l "dogwood". 10. Although a copy of the survey instrument i t s e l f e x i s t s , no record has been found of the survey r e s u l t s . Mr. R o z e l l Smith, who developed the instrument, r e c a l l e d i n an i n t e r v i e w the g e n e r a l l y unfavourable tone of responses but no longer had the compi1ation. 11. An i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s was given at the 1962 Annual General Meeting of the Science PSA, when the f o l l o w i n g motion was c a r r i e d : ...that the incoming BC Science TA E x e c u t i v e be i n s t r u c t e d to c o n t a c t the I n d u s t r i a l A r t s PSA 116 [ s i c ] with a view to d i s c u s s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of a g r e a t e r l i a i s o n between s c i e n c e teachers and I.A. t e a c h e r s . In t h i s connection i t would be f r u i t f u l to c o n s i d e r how the o b j e c t i v e s of I.A. could be a t t a i n e d through the making of apparatus f o r s c i e n c e . (BC Science Teachers' Assoc., Minutes, Apr. 25, 1962) 12. In 1967, a course t i t l e d " M a t e r i a l s and Technology" was added to the teacher t r a i n i n g programme i n response to the c r e a t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. 117 Chapter 7 Con c l u s i o n That a s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m or course should a r i s e as a r e s u l t of s o c i e t a l p ressures i s not a unique s i t u a t i o n . Although we may o f t e n think i n terms of e n t i r e programs, i n d i v i d u a l courses and t h e i r r e v i s i o n s - i n f i e l d s such as computer s t u d i e s , v a l u e s e d u c a t i o n , sex education, p h y s i c s , et c e t e r a - can o f t e n be seen as having had t h e i r genesis o u t s i d e the immediate e d u c a t i o n a l m i l i e u . In the case of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12, the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the secondary school programme and the i n d u s t r i a l programme w i t h i n i t are c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r s i n viewing i t as an i s o l a t e d course. Yet, i n many ways, I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was a keystone course of the i n d u s t r i a l programme and i t s r e l a t i v e l y unique and o r i g i n a l conception makes c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t , as a d i s t i n c t e n t i t y which r e s u l t e d from s o c i e t a l p r e s s u r e s , worthwhile. While no course can be con s i d e r e d t o t a l l y i n i s o l a t i o n from i t s p a r t i c u l a r programme and the o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s , there appears to be compelling evidence that I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 can be seen as a very s p e c i f i c response to a number of thorny 118 e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s . As such, i t i s j u s t i f i a b l e to d i s c u s s t h i s s p e c i f i c course as a c a l c u l a t e d answer to s o c i e t a l concerns being expressed at that time. On the drawing board, such a manifold s o l u t i o n as I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12 must have seemed a godsend to those charged with responding to the myriad p u b l i c and f i n a n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l concerns of t h i s p e r i o d . I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 can be c o n s i d e r e d a keystone course f o r a number of reasons. I t s e x i s t e n c e brought the v a r i o u s programmes of study w i t h i n the Senior V o c a t i o n a l Programme up to the "50 "/." time requirement f o r the TVTA Act Programme One (High School) funding. T h i s was a c r u c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the V o c a t i o n a l Programme but, of course, t h i s time requirement could have been met i n any number of a l t e r n a t i v e ways. The appeal of I n d u s t r i a l Science as a concept lay i n i t s hoped-for a b i l i t y to address other p e r c e i v e d problem areas at the same time. The apparent perceptual c o n f u s i o n of the p u b l i c with r e s p e c t to s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l e ducation on the one hand, and v o c a t i o n a l education on the o t h e r , would be t i d i l y d e a l t with. Thus, the course could be pointed to as a c u r r i c u l u m response to both economic and g e o p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s . As a " v o c a t i o n a l " course, i t would be wel1-received by those groups which t r a d i t i o n a l l y supported v o c a t i o n a l - l y education (very o f t e n , both business and l a b o u r ) . As a more a c a d e m i c a l l y - r e s p e c t a b l e v a r i a n t of t r a d i t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l courses - perhaps a p o r t e n t of f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s - I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 would a l s o have been more a c c e p t a b l e to opponents of v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . The course a l s o addressed the vexing q u e s t i o n of "general" s c i e n c e , at l e a s t f o r v o c a t i o n a l programme st u d e n t s . As such, i t was a response to one of the major concerns r a i s e d by the Chant Commission, to which the Department of Education had to repond. If the e x i s t e n c e of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was to n e a t l y serve a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s , t h i s might have served as a strong h i n t that the development of the course would be fraught with d i f f i c u l t i e s . The minutes of the Course Development Committee meetings and the r e c o l l e c t i o n s of members bear t h i s out. The pressures f o r the course's completion were so s t r o n g , however, th a t adequate d e l i b e r a t i o n could not be given i n the development of the c u r r i c u l u m . As a workable, usable c u r r i c u l u m - given the r e a l i t i e s of school/department o r g a n i z a t i o n , teacher preparedness, student r e c e p t i v e n e s s , e t c e t e r a - I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was s e r i o u s l y flawed. The time c o n s t r a i n t s under which I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 was developed were s t r o n g l y f e l t by a l l 120 i n v o l v e d . As a response to the Chant Commission, as a r e q u i s i t e f o r f e d e r a l d o l l a r s , as a compulsory course f o r t w o-thirds of the S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme intr o d u c e d i n 1965, I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 had to be i n the s c h o o l s by September, 1966. Although the Department of Education had made at l e a s t a t e n t a t i v e attempt to provide some d i r e c t i o n through the summer workshops of 1963 and 1964, once th a t m a t e r i a l proved unusable i t had to a c t q u i c k l y to meet i t s d e a d l i n e . I t had been hoped t h a t the course would be ready f o r implementation with the e n t i r e S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme i n 1965. However, the Course Development Committee d i d not hold i t s f i r s t meeting u n t i l December, 1964; by then, the Department r e a l i z e d that the course could not be i n the s c h o o l s by September 1965. Having reached t h i s understanding with r e s p e c t to i t s implementation date, the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s why more time was not spent i n d e l i b e r a t i o n of the course. Committee members interv i e w e d f o r t h i s study made constant r e f e r e n c e to how busy they and the Chairman were at t h i s time. With the e n t i r e s e n i o r secondary programme being r e w r i t t e n , the Department of Education was extremely preoccupied. Meredith attended the f i r s t two committee meetings, but then passed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a seconded c o n s u l t a n t . P r o f . Cannon had other 121 c u r r i c u l u m development d u t i e s f o r the Science o f f e r i n g s . For i n d u s t r i a l education s p e c i a l i s t s , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of an e n t i r e Senior V o c a t i o n a l Programme complicated the s c r u t i n i z i n g of t h i s one, r a t h e r unusual, course. With the Department's announced a n t i c i p a t i o n of the course's completion by the Spring of 1965 - although implementation was to be delayed u n t i l September 1966 - committee members appa r e n t l y saw no o p t i o n but to produce a c u r r i c u l u m . The haste with which I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was w r i t t e n m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t a c l e a r understanding of the v a r i o u s a m b i g u i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n such a novel c u r r i c u l u m endeavour. The d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s held by the course development team were n e c e s s a r i l y put on hold because of the o v e r r i d i n g concern to produce something. (1) Although the p r e s c r i b e d d e a d l i n e of Sp r i n g , 1965, was r e a l i z e d by the I n d u s t r i a l Science Course Development Committee, i t s members do not remember the experience as a p o s i t i v e one, nor were they pleased with the r e s u l t i n g course. Of the f i v e non-Department committee members, one had died and one could not be lo c a t e d when the present r e s e a r c h was undertaken; the remaining three a l l expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the completed I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence c u r r i c u l u m . Mr. Seal d e s c r i b e d the course as being: 122 h a s t i l y assembled out of a n c i e n t textbooks by people who were r e a l l y s h o r t of time. Mr. Winteringham s t a t e d : L e t ' s face i t - the course o b v i o u s l y wasn't made p r o p e r l y . . . . We d i d n ' t do the proper j o b . Mr. K i r c h n e r commented that he thought: i t was r e a l l y q u i t e a gamble to implement t h i s type of program and a l o t was assumed by members of the committee. I would have to say there was not, even at the completion of t h i s , high e x p e c t a t i o n s of i t s s u c c e s s . The c r u c i a l , i f d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e , i s s u e faced by the development committee was the degree to which I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 would be " t h e o r e t i c a l " or " p r a c t i c a l " . Concommitant to t h i s debate was the a n t i c i p a t e d a b i l i t y l e v e l of i n d u s t r i a l education s t u d e n t s . As d e t a i l e d i n Chapter 4, the committee was roughly s p l i t on t h i s i s s u e , with one group pushing f o r a more r i g o r o u s , academically-demanding approach and the other group s t r e s s i n g that such a conception c o u l d not succeed with i n d u s t r i a l education s t u d e n t s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s s p l i t d i d not evolve along s u b j e c t - s p e c i a l t y l i n e s of committee members. I t was not a case of s c i e n c e teachers demanding academic r i g o u r and i n d u s t r i a l education teachers r e s i s t i n g ; a t l e a s t one of the s c i e n c e teachers thought that the c u r r i c u l u m overestimated the a b i l i t i e s of the intended 123 s t u d e n t s , and one of the i n d u s t r i a l education s p e c i a l i s t s thought the committee was attempting to keep the c u r r i c u l u m at f a r too simple a l e v e l . The committee attempted, but f a i l e d , to reach a consensus on t h i s i s s u e . T h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l disagreement was not a r e s u l t of miscommunication or misunderstanding; i t was open and acknowledged by members, but the o b l i g a t i o n to produce a c u r r i c u l u m was o v e r r i d i n g . The r e s u l t i n g course was viewed as an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y compromise which, as the i n t e r v i e w e x c e r p t s above i n d i c a t e , pleased n e i t h e r group. Teachers of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 d i d not view i t as a compromise, however; they almost u n i v e r s a l l y saw i t as being o v e r l y "academic" and " t h e o r e t i c a l " . The Course Development Committee, with t h e i r assumptions about team-teaching and "good shop and good s c i e n c e " , underestimated the d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n t e g r a t i n g two p r e v i o u s l y d i s c r e t e s u b j e c t areas i n a s c h o o l . Despite the o p t i m i s t i c words by the committee on t h i s i s s u e , a t a c i t understanding t h a t t h i s was to be an i n d u s t r i a l education course taught by i n d u s t r i a l education teachers seems to have coloured much of t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s : f o r i n s t a n c e , i n the r a t h e r p a t r o n i z i n g suggestion i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide that the Science Department Head, the P r i n c i p a l , or "some other e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y " could a s s i s t 124 with e v a l u a t i n g the lab book. (2) Notwithstanding t h i s t a c i t premise, the Course Development Committee f a i l e d to a p p r e c i a t e the impediments to such a course and f a i l e d to provide the d e t a i l and d i r e c t i o n needed by those who were to teach I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 represented a huge leap of f a i t h t h a t teachers would make the course work. As the implementation s t u d i e s of the l a s t decade have made c l e a r , the g r e a t e r the d e s i r e d change, the g r e a t e r i s the need f o r a sound implementation program. When I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was in t r o d u c e d , t h i s was not the truism i t i s today; the J u l y 1966 workshop was the Department of Education's lone attempt to provide pre-implementation i n f o r m a t i o n . The unpreparedness of i n d u s t r i a l e ducation teachers and t h e i r unfami 1 i a r i t y with such a programme were obvious from the o u t s e t . The BCSTA and, a few years l a t e r , the Department of Education attempted to compensate f o r t h i s , but the a i d was l a t e i n coming and a ne g a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e on the course had by then been e s t a b l i s h e d . Perhaps more important than mere unfami 1 i a r i t y with t h i s type of course was a lack of b e l i e f i n , or sense of "ownership" o f , I n d u s t r i a l Science, which would have worked to overcome the other hindrances. Although many i n d u s t r i a l education teachers professed 125 s u p p o r t f o r t h e c o n c e p t u n d e r p i n n i n g I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n i s open t o q u e s t i o n . P r i o r t o i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s , o r t o t h e i r a c t u a l l y t e a c h i n g t h e c o u r s e , t h e i d e a o f an i n d u s t r i a l s c i e n c e c o u r s e f o r i n d u s t r i a l programme s t u d e n t s was s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d by i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . As one t e a c h e r put i t : I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e r e was anyone who d i d n ' t t h i n k t h e r e was a r e a l need f o r i t and t h a t t h e c o u r s e was good. What a l w a y s w o r r i e d them was t h a t t h e y would have t o t e a c h i t ( L a u g h s ) . ( W r i n c h I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 1984) U l t i m a t e l y , t h e p r o f e s s e d s u p p o r t f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 was n o t s t r o n g enough t o w i t h s t a n d t h e v a r i o u s c l a s s r o o m e x i g e n c i e s o r t o s u p e r s e d e what S a r a s o n termed t h e " e x i s t i n g r e g u l a r i t i e s " . As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 6, t h e s h o r t a g e o f b o t h m a t e r i a l and c u r r i c u l u m r e s o u r c e s , t h e d e n i a l o f p o s t - s e c o n d a r y c r e d i t , t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f v o c a t i o n a l programmes, a l l a c t e d a g a i n s t t h e s u c c e s s o f I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e n o b l e a t t e m p t t o i n t e g r a t e two s u b j e c t a r e a s may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s r e s u l t . N e i t h e r o f t h e two s u b j e c t g r o u p s c a r r i e d a s t r o n g s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e a s i t was b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d . The D epartment o f E d u c a t i o n ' s r a p i d d e - l i s t i n g o f t h e c o u r s e as S c i e n c e 126 l e f t i t by d e f a u l t an o b l i g a t i o n of the I n d u s t r i a l Educaiton department. Whether by design or not, the Science department had unburdened i t s e l f of the problem of teaching " g e n e r a l " s c i e n c e to students i n the S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme. In those s c h o o l s which came to o f f e r a l t e r n a t e courses - under the name of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 f o r the p r o v i n c i a l "dogwood" - the i r o n i c r e s u l t was that S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Students s t u d i e d no s c i e n c e a t a l l during t h e i r programme. T h i s study of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 provided some support f o r Goodson's three hypotheses, d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2, although important d i f f e r e n c e s were noted. Goodson's second h y p o t h e s i s - t h a t s u b j e c t groups "tend to move from promoting the pedagogic and u t i l i t a r i a n t r a d i t i o n toward the academic" - was p a r t i a l l y , or t e m p o r a r i l y , borne out by the example of I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e . The development of an i n t e r n a l , a p p l i e d s c i e n c e course f o r i n d u s t r i a l students (as opposed to a g e n e r a l , "watered-down" s c i e n c e , or no s c i e n c e at a l l ) must be seen i n t h i s l i g h t . And, as noted, teachers professed agreement with concept. The " s h i f t i n g amalgamations of sub-groups and t r a d i t i o n s " were v i s i b l e i n the debates concerning the 127 course and the permutations i t might f o l l o w . Goodson hypothesized that the boundaries and p r i o r i t i e s would be determined by the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the sub- groups w i t h i n that s u b j e c t f i e l d . If we choose to c o n s i d e r Science as that s u b j e c t f i e l d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t those who supported an i n d u s t r i a l s c i e n c e course as an a p p r o p r i a t e one f o r the f i e l d , and who f e l t i t should be accorded some p r i o r i t y , d i d not achieve t h e i r end; I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 became unmistakably an i n d u s t r i a l education course. If i n s t e a d we c o n s i d e r I n d u s t r i a l Education as the s u b j e c t f i e l d , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of two sub-groups - those who supported the course and those who d i d not - becomes p o s s i b l e . Department and school board o f f i c i a l s , f a c u l t y at the t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g u n i t , a s e l e c t few teachers with s t r o n g s c i e n c e backgrounds and, i n i t i a l l y , the BCSTA, were advocates of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. Many of these advocates were i n p o s i t i o n s of i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l education f i e l d , and the conception of what could be c o n s i d r e d an i n d u s t r i a l education course was s u i t a b l y a l t e r e d to allow f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e . If a sub-group i s to be i d e n t i f i e d as opposing t h i s c o n c e p t i o n , i t would be comprised almost s o l e l y of the shop t e a c h e r s . As d i s c u s s e d above, t h i s may have been based more on p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s r a t h e r than 128 p h i l o s o p h i c a l ones. The shortage of teachers among the s t r o n g advocates of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 e f f e c t i v e l y s c u t t l e d i t s a c t u a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the f i e l d of i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n , d e s p i t e the apparent success of i t s proponents. U l t i m a t e l y , i t i s the teachers who have the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e i n determining the p r i o r i t i e s of a s u b j e c t and among i n d u s t r i a l education teachers there was remarkable unanimity. Once I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 was s e t t l e d w i t h i n the I n d u s t r i a l Education department of a s c h o o l , there was l i t t l e i n t e r n a l debate concerning the course, and few " s h i f t i n g amalgamations". Thus, the conceptual change which allowed I n d u s t r i a l Science to be considered an i n d u s t r i a l education course was t e n t a t i v e and temporary. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to view I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 i n the l i g h t of Goodson's hypothesis which s t a t e s that "much c u r r i c u l u m debate can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of c o n f l i c t between s u b j e c t s over s t a t u s , resources and t e r r i t o r y " - s u b j e c t s taught to the "most a b l e " being the highest i n s t a t u s and consequently b e n e f i t i n g most i n terms of resources and t e r r i t o r y . There i s l i t t l e doubt that high s t a t u s would not accrue to s c i e n c e s p e c i a l i s t s teaching a s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d u s t r i a l course. As a course w i t h i n the S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme, i t was understood that the "most 129 a b l e " students i n the school would not be taking the course. Consequently, l i t t l e c o n f l i c t was evidenced between Science and I n d u s t r i a l Education s p e c i a l i s t s over I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12 as a s u b j e c t area. I t may well be t h a t , with the understanding that I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12 would be perceived as an i n d u s t r i a l education course, the s t a t u s a s p i r a t i o n s of s c i e n c e teachers were b e t t e r served by keeping the course a t a r e l a t i v e l y elementary l e v e l . Within a programme, such as the Senior V o c a t i o n a l , we may hypothesize t h a t a "more academic" course would r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s f o r that s p e c i a l t y . Those i n p o s i t i o n s of i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the s u b j e c t community - such as Course Development Committee members - may well have f e l t t h i s , as Goodson's hypothesis suggests. Given the small number of committee members, however, i t i s u n r e l i a b l e to a s c r i b e motives to an e n t i r e s u b j e c t s p e c i a l t y area based s o l e l y on the Course Development Committee's work. A more p e r t i n e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n might be made of the r e a c t i o n s of those who taught I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. Those who taught the I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 were almost u n i v e r s a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d with the course. As noted e a r l i e r , few Science s p e c i a l i s t s taught the I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence course; as a course w i t h i n the S e n i o r V o c a t i o n a l Programme, i t was i n s t a n t l y 130 perceived as an i n d u s t r i a l education course and was assigned to teachers on that b a s i s . The promise of inc r e a s e d s t a t u s was not s u f f i c i e n t to persuade i n d u s t r i a l education teachers of the value of the course. Two p o s s i b i l i t i e s can be suggested f o r t h i s r e a c t i o n : 1) the l i k l i h o o d of one course i n c r e a s i n g s t a t u s was viewed as remote; or, 2) other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s outweighed the d e s i r e f o r s t a t u s . Within the s c h o o l , i n d u s t r i a l education as a s u b j e c t area enjoys very l i t t l e s t a t u s , yet i n resource a l l o c a t i o n of money and teacher deployment, i t ranks near the top; t h i s was t r u e even p r i o r to the advent of the TVTA. I n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n , perhaps because of the s p e c i a l c l i e n t e l e and f u n c t i o n i t i s seen to serve w i t h i n the s c h o o l , i s not dependent on s t a t u s - i n Goodson's terms of i n s t r u c t i n g the most abl e students - f o r f i n a n c i a l support. T h e r e f o r e , the push f o r s t a t u s which Goodson noted i n h i s s t u d i e s would not be necessary i n the case of i n d u s t r i a l education courses. The lack of m a t e r i a l resources f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e nce 12 i n comparison with other i n d u s t r i a l education courses, which many teachers mentioned, d i d r e f l e c t a lower s t a t u s f o r the course but o b v i o u s l y not i n Goodson's sense of being taught to l e s s able students; the course was e s s e n t i a l l y compulsory f o r 131 those i n the Senior V o c a t i o n a l Programme. If there was a group of students which could be considered more a c a d e m i c a l l y - a b l e w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l stream, i t would be those i n the E l e c t r i c i t y s p e c i a l t y who, as e x p l a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y , were permitted to s e l e c t D r a f t i n g 12 i n s t e a d of I n d u s t r i a l S c i ence 12. During i n t e r v i e w s with i n d u s t r i a l education teachers, t h i s view of e l e c t r i c i t y students as the most ab l e w i t h i n the programme was repeated. Thus, even w i t h i n the I n d u s t r i a l Education Department, no s t a t u s a c c o r d i n g to Goodson's terms accrued to those teaching I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e . Although Goodson's conception of s t a t u s may have explanatory power when c o n s i d e r i n g the e n t i r e range of programmes of a s c h o o l , w i t h i n a programme i t appears to be l a c k i n g ; many other f a c t o r s impinge upon the attainment of s t a t u s w i t h i n a departmen t . The demise of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12, i n r e t r o s p e c t , may be seen as i n e v i t a b l e . However laudable the e d u c a t i o n a l concept of the course may have been, i t was the more pragmatic concerns which i n i t i a t e d the course. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the same degree of pragmatism was not e v i d e n t i n the development and implementation of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12. I t i s tempting to suggest that the mere e x i s t e n c e of the 132 course was to be s u f f i c i e n t and t h a t i t s success, or lack t h e r e o f , i n the s c h o o l s was secondary. I b e l i e v e t h i s would be an e xaggeration. There appeared to be a s i n c e r e b e l i e f i n the value of I n d u s t r i a l Science on the part of those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s c r e a t i o n and development; there was simply a lack of a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d . I t i s to be hoped that f u t u r e e f f o r t s i n developing a p p l i e d s c i e n c e courses w i l l evidence a g r e a t e r awareness of the c u r r i c u l a r problems and a deeper committment to t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . 133 1. 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