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Applied science in the curriculum : The case of industrial science 12 in British Columbia Mackenzie, William Colin 1989

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APPLIED THE CASE  OF  SCIENCE  INDUSTRIAL  IN  THE CURRICULUM  SCIENCE  12  IN  :  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  By  WILLIAM COLIN  MACKENZIE  B . A . , Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1973 B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k , 1979  A THESIS  SUBMITTED  IN  PARTIAL  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S  FULFILLMENT  FOR T H E D E G R E E  MASTER  OF  OF A R T S  in THE F A C U L T Y EDUCATION  -  OF GRADUATE  C U R R I C U L U M AND  STUDIES INSTRUCTION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF B R I T I S H  January (c)  William  Colin  COLUMBIA  1989 MacKenzie,  1989  OF  In  presenting  degree at the freely  this  thesis  in partial  publication  or  requirements for an  by  his  or  her  purposes may  representatives.  of this thesis for financial  Library shall make it  be  granted  by  It is understood  gain shall not  be  the that  Education  - Curriculum  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  -6 (2/88)  December 28,  1988  and  head of  my  copying  or  allowed without my  permission.  Department of  advanced  study. I further agree that permission for extensive  of this thesis for scholarly  department  the  University of British Columbia, I agree that the  available for reference and  copying  fulfilment of  Instruction  written  ABSTRACT This study i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e d i s j u n c t i o n between macro-level p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s concerning the c u r r i c u l u m and t h e l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e s c h o o l s r e s u l t i n g from those d e c i s i o n s . The specific case of I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 a senior secondary applied science i n t r o d u c e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 - i s examined i n some d e t a i l a s an i n s t a n c e o f t h i s d i s j u n c t i o n . Data for this study were gathered through archival searches and personal interviews. The a r c h i v e s o f t h e f o r m e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Shop T e a c h e r s ' Association and the personal papers of Professor H a r r y Cannon were t h e main s o u r c e s of p r i n t e d d a t a . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h members o f t h e Course Development Committee, former Department of Education o f f i c i a l s , School Board S u p e r v i s o r s , Shop T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n e x c e c u t i v e members, and teachers of the c o u r s e . The B r i t i s h Columbia e d u c a t i o n a l m i l i e u of t h a t time is examined, including the effects of international curriculum development projects, the Royal Commission on Education (1960), and the Technical and Vocational Training Assistance Act (1961). The d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the Department of Education and, more particularly, the Course D e v e l o p m e n t Committee, a r e s c r u t i n i z e d . The r e a c t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Shop T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n to the course i s analyzed. The brief e x i s t e n c e of Industrial Science 12 in the schools of British Columbia is described. Finally, conclusions are advanced to explain the difficulties the course encountered, and implications for future curriculum development i n t h i s area are d i s c u s s e d .  ii  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  C h a p t e r One  - Introduction  1  C h a p t e r Two  - Review  9  of L i t e r a t u r e  Chapter Three - Methodology Chapter Four - S o c i e t a l  I n f l u e n c e s on  Industrial Chapter F i v e  S c i e n c e 12  - The Development S c i e n c e 12  Chapter Six - I n d u s t r i a l the C h a p t e r Seven  16  of  24  Industrial 42  S c i e n c e 12 i n  Schools  79  - Conclusion  118  B i b l iography  135  iii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The successful completion o f t h i s t h e s i s owes much t o t h e s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t r e c e i v e d from my advisor, D r . P. James G a s k e l 1 , whose e n t h u s i a s m and b e l i e f i n the p r o j e c t never f l a g g e d . Valuable advice and a s s i s t a n c e was a l s o g e n e r o u s l y g i v e n by c o m m i t t e e members D r . J a n e G a s k e l 1 , P r o f . Bob L e d u c , and P r o f . W i l l i a m Logan. Many p e o p l e gave f r e e l y o f t h e i r t i m e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y and t h e y a l s o have my gratitude fortheir essential contributions. Finally, my d e e p e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n must go t o my w i f e , D e b o r a h , who magnanimously p u t up w i t h b o t h t h i s t h e s i s and h e r husband t h r o u g h i t a l l .  iv  Chapter  1  Introduction  This  study  macro-level and  the  those  investigates  policy  lived  d e c i s i o n s concerning  experience  of  British  in  1975 - I n d u s t r i a l The  Columbia  complex  in  of  had  and  sweeping  t h e same  major  time,  player  providing Technical  in  funding and  (TVTA) o f 1960.  case  this  education  the 12  from  withdrawn  Senior  was  one  federal  Canadian  in  t h e Chant  the  new  Vocational  Training  Industrial  Science  the  program. courses  recommendations.  government  education  Columbia  concerning  Secondary of  make a Canadian  in British  at this  f o r vocational education  1  12  period  t h e Commission's the  the develop-  Science  recommendations  Science  through the  officially  unique  During  of  which r e s u l t e d At  a  examined  reorganization  from  w h i c h was i n t r o d u c e d  of Industrial  history.  Industrial  course  1965 and  course  Commission made  examined  forces operating during  that  curriculum  the curriculum  S c i e n c e 12.  ment and i n t r o d u c t i o n study  is  one p a r t i c u l a r  in  between  i n schools resulting  decisions. This issue  history  the d i s j u n c t i o n  became a t i m e by  through the  Assistance 12  Act  was a c c e p t e d  under the  terms of  Program  t r a i n i n g ) o f t h e TVTA funding. attempt  Industrial to  be an  and t h u s Science  Education.  early  1960s,  as  crucial  a  of  nature  f o r federal  course,  the u t i l i t a r i a n  In t h e  element  School  12 was a l s o u n i q u e i n i t s  social  scientific/technical  interdisciplinary considered  qualified  interdisciplinary  t h e methods o f s c i e n c e w i t h Industrial  1 ( V o c a t i o n a l High  aspects of  climate  education  national  aspect  of the was s e e n  survival.  of Industrial  t o be an i m p o r t a n t  combining  The  Science  of t h i s  12 was  technical  education.  Importance of Study  The  importance  provincial Tomkins  curriculum  (1979)  international  sum  authorities prevalent will  be  specific classroom  in  local  and  has  been e m p h a s i z e d by  (1978).  The n a t i o n a l and  of curriculum  innovation i n the  Shaw  context  total  researching  history  and  1960s, u n d e n i a b l e the  of  i n i m p o r t a n c e and i n f l u e n c e , i s a l s o of  decisions  made  by  provincial  positions to prescribe c u r r i c u l a .  contemporary adapted  the  local  subject curriculum  will  level.  to  wisdom  The  concerning context, be  cumulative  2  curricula just  adapted result  The  as a  a t the of  more  specific  curriculum  national  history  The  of  in  a  simplicity  early  recognition  problems.  A  history  a  of  result  particularities  of  a  school  national decisions.  the  of  The and  not  were  in a  a  this  do  complex  must no  possible,  own  social will  not  understanding  flow  The  inevitably  from  trends  studies,  research  and of  and  investigations  the  nature  past of  that  of  contents  societal  recognize less  its the  subject.  not  not  "in-house"  of  complete  school  does  without  understanding  ecology  the  were  valuable  h i s t o r i a n s . However,  been  implementation,  history  education  educational  evaluation  demonstrated  curriculum  the  international  classroom/school  have  avoided  subject  and  innovation  has  time,  the  more  schooling  complete  axiomatically  a  public  has  given  be  that  vacuum  of  will  curriculum.  recognition  unfold  this  histories  two  events  susceptible  of  decades  schooling. past  on  to  A in  these  complexities. This been  study  remarkably  education. research in has  examines  the  as  Lux a  field.  The  contributed  generation  little  (1982) part  of  an  of  area  in  which  research  pointed  out  professors'  research little  to  theories",  3  that  that  no  duties has  "the and  -  there  industrial tradition has  been  of  developed undertaken  evaluation has  has  made  and  "little  substantive of  change  contribution" [ i s ] so  researchers  "need  about  change  made,  "the  research"  field  toward  work  critical  courses  Grubb,  industrial  by  those  secondary  "pace  great",  knowledgeable  on  a  can  of  camps,  two  has  this  been  kind  had  overcome  1978;  Morrison,  in  have  body  of  Barlow,  of  "hortatory" 1967;  i t s  development  this  perspectives,  education  courses  as  almost  of  which  historical education Many  Lazerson the  role  schools of  place  & of  to  be  society  to  in  society.  histories  (Barella  1937),  industrial and  the  written  education,  obstacles  i t  acceptance.  attention  disputing  1974;  Bennett,  of  does  aspect.  their  field  gain  Much  segments  and  set, both  secondary  the  to  be  interpreted  senior  certain  that  industrial  vocational  norms  within  no  field  the  1972)  of  work  1981;  or  i t so  research  school  describe  little  the  beginning  short  of  education  Despite  a  analysis.  which to  i n one  Wirth,  i s also  Wright,  for more  macro-level  socialization  There  much  Although  this  (Dunn,  industrial  need  curriculum  emphasizes  1974;  Because  861).  a  historians  the  amazingly  exception,  tend  &  is  concerning  without  861).  become  historical  exist  the  to  and  phenomena".  (p.  The  slow  (p.  to  the school  attention.  The  4  context content  from of  subjects shifting  the  two  industrial has  received  "curriculum  emphases" ignored of  (Roberts,  in  social  have  the  and  what  must  emphases  can  be  count  If  classes"  and  through  industrial methods.  industrial along  the  curriculum  level  is  the  subjects, These  for  also  social  are,  as  the  "lower  subject contents an  suffice dilemma  is  continually  participants  of  be  host  school  courses  of  analysis not  to A  larger  policy  in specific  of  the  grounds"  that  will  and  education.  education  macro-level  utilized.  education  education  able",  tend  in determining  with  "dumping  programme  in and  Industrial for  a  full  experienced  in  school.  Research  Questions  Despite Industrial  frequent  ten  influential  life  12,  the  in  British  description  vernacular, official  the  Science  unsuccessful  only  industrial  concurrence  understanding the  role  the  A  Education  individual  of  the  subject  analysis  large  as  "less  the  a  industrial  suggested,  created  the  considered,  context. often  at  played  curriculum  of  macro-level  factors  also  1982)  is  course  of  that title,  years;  as  the i t  f o r c e s which  course  a  Industrial an  given  very  short,  schools; in  Science part  a  teachers'  "disaster".  established  5  a  Columbia  course, was  had  engendered  12  As  an  lasted of  the  curriculum  offered  its  existence  actual  study of  attempts  this  curriculum which  1.  societal  What  Did  12  3.  What  Overview  of  This  This  of the fate  three  overarching  existed  which  the  lead  Industrial  developers in  produce  response  to  a  these  ?  within  the school  i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and  of Industrial  2 presents  establishes  study.  years.  Science  eventual  12  ?  Study  Chapter and  schools,  ?  course  the  withdrawal  or five  through  establish  curriculum  to  of  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  constraints operating  lead  number  i t s investigations :  course  influences  four  pressures  to  the  workable  only  endeavour  direct  officials Science  was  to achieve  questions  2.  i n a reasonable  the  literature  curriculum  history  curriculum  innovation.  a review  theoretical review  and t h e The  of  examines  value  literature  framework  of  literature  6  the  case  the  f o r the use of  studies of  which  examines  how  the  contents  curriculum on  i s also  t h e work  a subject  reviewed,  of Ivor  The archival  of  methodology  Industrial  social Science  and 12  4,  question.  The g e n e r a l  briefly  surveyed.  curricular British  examined,  education  The  meeting the  to notes  original  analyzed. Department this  i n which  i s examined i n first of  educational  at  context  Commission i s  changes  held  in  for  Science  vocational  Vocational  Training  reviewed.  and d e v e l o p m e n t are discussed  the  second  of the  research  the  Committee,  and  committee  officials  analysis.  7  also  this The  the committee  with  5;  question.  proposals  of  Industrial  i n Chapter  Development  Education  time i s  efforts  the Chant  and  research  the  of the Course  Interviews of  The  curriculum  Technical  answer  milieu  international noted.  including personal  the  climate  following  12 c u r r i c u l u m  attempts  to  expectations  origin  and  i t s genesis  The  Act are also  The  emphasis  3.  educational  social  the  and t h e  Assistance  study  i n Chapter  had  are  as a r e  the  analysis,  response  Columbia  Education.  Science  in  reform  particular  document  Chapter  in  of  - i s described  The  with  i n the  Goodson.  research,  interviews  become d e f i n e d  members, a r e members contribute  and to  Chapter  6  -  corresponding  to  research question  - examines  Industrial  12 i n t h e s c h o o l s . The  Science  the c o u r s e , of  the r e s o u r c e s  teachers  developed, other  and the  available,  students,  efforts  the l i v e d  to  the  the  third  experience  of  teaching  of  the  perceptions  problems  improve  which  the course,  and  issues are discussed. Chapter  previous  7  analyzes  three chapters  and  8  the  findings  summarizes  the  of  study.  the  Chapter  Review  Curriculum within  curriculum Bel l a c k  (1969),  had p a i d  experience left  to discover  problems p.69).  that  a  curriculum  relatively In  the ahistorical curriculum  attention  Kliebard anew  has  the  history  in  innovations  of the  "each  transcended"  (1983a,  history  as  a  history  was  distinct  perceived  the in  perplexing (1968, as  general  could of  within  a means  i s  reformers  study  field  as  generation  field"  "history  p . 3 ) . The  curriculum  and  the  particular  and  o f much  persistent  that  1960s,  nature  characterized  belief  field  (1968)  to previous  noted,  the  new  late  Kliebard  characterize  Goodson  embracing  The  little  and,  a  notably  decried  work.  i s  research.  theorists,  curriculum 1960s  of Literature  history  educational  2  and  somehow  be  curriculum educational  of overcoming  this  problem. The the  value  school  curriculum  researchers 1979;  of historical  (Charlton,  Stenhouse,  specialists history  as  has  have a  investigation i n studying been  1968;  argued Davis,  1978; Webster,  1976).  promoted  concept  the  field  separate  9  by a n u m b e r o f 1977; H a z l e t t , Many  curriculum  of  curriculum  from  educational  history. history range  Tanner, "has  been  and  consequence Tanner keep  (1977)  agencies  also  argues  between  educational  (1985),  Goodson  (1983)  also  (1979) would  promote  expresses develop.  history. have  special  points also an  history  between  itself  p.165).  Whether  status  research, historical  equally  as  there  "must  and  specialists  the study, inquiry  specialists.  strengthen  value i n  educational  curriculum  (1977)  Marsden  sub-field  little  to  separate  i s common  curriculum  field  10  must  his  expertise in  has  argued  that  the relationship  not to within  agreement  studies.  but  Logically,  the history of education" or  Reid  and F r a n k l i n  and  develop  i ti s fruitful a  history.  of historical  Davis  distinction  However,  i s  bring  by c u r r i c u l u m  studies.  curriculum  that  t h e methods  could  Franklin  an o r g a n i z e d  there  to  history,  lost".  Kliebard  curriculum  concedes  insights  be m a s t e r e d  curriculum  its  between  out that  historian  that  a  necessity  the  viewpoint.  doubt  Marsden  for  and  this  As  i s a  curriculum  He s u g g e s t s  distinguishing  getting  strongly  (1983a),  - t h e home,  p.408).  history  from  and  t h e broad  of educational  curriculum  the curriculum  educational  to include  (1982,  broadening  that  that  i n the society  workplace"  of this  feels  notes  reinterpreted  of educative  church,  "to  f o r instance,  on  worry  (1977, about  educational the value  of  This terms. that  value  There  sees  is a  their  example,  states  ultimately  be  contemporary  more c i r c u m s p e c t (1979),  for  what  terms  one  of  urgency this  a  might  be  practical  caveats of  search  historical  current  The  (1983b,  of  Goodson,  for  case,  utilisation  of  of  11  are  Hazlett seeking  field on  p.131).  as with  While  certainly  s u r p r i s i n g that However,  the  a  the some  practical the  use  past".  caution  against  the  and  "lessons"  in  (1978)  utilitarian but  would  history  Others,  field.  carried  Stenhouse  practice, value  the  "raiding  (p.153). being  of  i t is  concerning  (1983)  this  in  emphasized.  of  of  studies,  (1979,  solutions"  educational  p.10).  value  activity  should sake  curriculum  i t i s not  histories,  how  the  the  are  Franklin  of  and  utility.  practicality"  raised  "handy  the  atmosphere"  benefits been  literature  the  their  of  knowledge"  historical  questions  and  h i s t o r y as  explanation  issues"  normative  studies  curriculum  for  overstating  and for  history  value  crisis  curriculum  Kliebard  "the  "immediate  have  the  preoccupation  endeavour  utilitarian  variety  that  characterizes  in  in  "usable  in describing  "practical,  a  nature.  instance,  Hazlett  as  in  utilitarian  curriculum the  current  studies  with  admitting  he  expressed  strong  historical  emphasizes  while  is  ...  value  has  be  put  works  views  a to  for  subtle use  through  :  the refinement of judgement, refinement of prediction.  not the  While p r e d i c t i v e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s claim to s u p e r s e d e t h e need f o r i n d i v i d u a l judgement, r e t r o s p e c t i v e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s seek t o strengthen i n d i v i d u a l judgement where i t c a n n o t be s u p e r s e d e d . (1978, p.22)  Stenhouse  agrees  "lessons";  to  actions  others.  of  understanding action  history  or  More  to  important,  can give  "contextual  studies.  Investigations  of  specific  (1985)  or  emphasizes  that  to  see  explanations.  Shaw  (1978)  an  (1979)  studies  as groundwork  national  stresses  introduces  a  historical  studies  means  dealing  for  practitioners"  of the  i s  caveat,  case  For  need  the prime  case  studies".  studies  enable  the importance case  for individual  possible.  Tanner  whether  of  studies.  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  case  of the (1982)  "scattered  a r e an e f f e c t i v e  precipitous  However, 12  the  macro-sociological  researchers  with  (p.410).  of  context".  i s  historical  wondering  by  i s the  c u r r i c u l a are often  promotes  before  curriculum  with  beyond  accumulation  Tomkins  however,  "historical  researchers  building  imitating,the  judgement,  case  studies"  us  understanding",  of i n d i v i d u a l  "case  teach  us of "the context  of h i s t o r i c a l  termed  can  avoid  and t h e i n t e r p l a y o f a c t i o n  strengthening  Reid  imitate,  history  Stenhouse,  value  that  actions  the cumulative  by value  of  individual  in  the  as  curriculum  Goodson  (1984), used  studies  et  innovations  in  education.  Soodson  Goodson  to  the  views  study  Through  historical  process  of  of  and  hypotheses  school  subjects  sub-groups, the  schools His  have  to  and  technology,  and,  school  as  representing  (Goodson, he  subjects  the work p.4).  traced  the  within  the  provided  to  at  1983a,  has  have  attempt  in  subjects.  differentiation  school  examine  socio-historical  specific  studies  first  "are  amalgamations  in  (1979)  curriculum  studies,  which  Ball  explain  support the  rise  subjects.  Goodson's  define  of  schools"  these  &  approach  subjects  legitimating  curriculum, three  of  case  Waring  a  scholars  Goodson  science  curriculum  contemporary  and  applied  study  school  s t r u c t u r e of  and  has  the  within  for  acknowledged  British  1983c),  case-study  science,  to  particular,  1983b;  al.(1985),  historical  approach  specialists,  (1983a;  McCulloch  the  "deep  i s generally  literature.  Among such  case  not of  hypothesis monolithic  sub-groups  depending  on  "boundaries  and  (p.  second  establishing  a  is  that  entities,  but  and  traditions".  their  influence,  p r i o r i t i e s " of  the  school shifting These serve  to  subject  3). hypothesis school  is  subject,  that  in  subject  the  process  groups  "tend  of to  move  from  tradition  promoting toward  "pedagogic" social way  the  refers  tradition,  child  professional  as  (p.  abstract  and  27).  utilitarian as  high  Goodson's curriculum conflict  the and  status  achieving  The  and  subject  "Utilitarian"  related  t o non-  examinations "academic"  typically  stresses  f o r examinations"  the  pedagogic  tradition  and  i s seen  interpreted over  subjects with  states  status, a r e seen  those being  greatest  that in  terms of  resources in a  subjects the highest  rewards  "much  in  and  hierarchy taught  to  i n status terms  of  territory. of status  dependent  groups,  knowledge  be  students the  accrual  not only  hypothesis  subjects  School  able"  " 'the  concern i n  The  the academic  can  attainment,  "most  resources  is  third  between  with  By  "personal,  places  written  and  3).  status.  debate  territory". of  contrast  traditions,  conveying  often  t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge In  (p.  central  inappropriate.  i s "content-focused  utilitarian  to  27).  f o r which  tradition  (p.  which  the  knowledge,  vocations,  considered  refers  knowledge"  content"  practical  and  tradition"  Goodson  learns'  subject  to  pedagogic  the academic  and commonplace  devising  are  the  within  on  but a l s o  and i t s c o n s e q u e n t  the  relative  applies  subjects  14  :  esteem  to different  rewards between kinds  of  The d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t u s o f a c a d e m i c , u t i l i t a r i a n and p e d a g o g i c t r a d i t i o n s p e r v a d e s b o t h t h e t y p e o f s u b j e c t and t h e i n t e r n a l form of e a c h s u b j e c t , ( p . 202) ( e m p h a s i s added)  The  differentiated  subjects  in  Goodson's subject  school  as  an  for  study;  increased  reasons  of  various  provide  t h e move  form  this.  area  12  course.  could  might  have  success  one  failure  of the of the  influence of  i n t e r e s t e d s u b - g r o u p s . The  applicability  hypotheses  decision  behind  schools,  will  for  from  A desire  traditionally  been or  subject  the  Goodson's  have r e s u l t e d  itself.  of a  basis  be v i e w e d  of a u t i l i t a r i a n  the part  The  of a  i n the  a pertinent  rationale for  s t a t u s on  endeavour might the  of  subject  for  education  I n d u s t r i a l Science  a more a c a d e m i c  low-status  internal  but  to the d e s i r e f o r status i s  hypotheses  instance  toward  the  m a t t e r o f an i n d u s t r i a l  this  particular  to t h i s study of p o s s i b l e s h i f t s  Goodson's for  that  i s also responsive  subject  among  may seem o b v i o u s t o o b s e r v e r s ,  contention  more p e r t i n e n t  status  explaining  I n d u s t r i a l Science  be examined  15  in this  the p o l i c y  12, and i t s f a t e i n study.  Chapter  3  Methodology  Histories often  termed  has  been  to  be  of  of  studies.  no  for  The  case  Research  studies  methodological  rigour  of  a  "case"  "so g e n e r a l and vague a s value"  Stenhouse,  East Anglia,  projects are  concept  methodological  Applied  of  curriculum  as being  19S5, p . 2 9 ) .  University use  case  specific  criticized  Delamont, Centre  of  (Atkinson  i n h i s work w i t h t h e  in  Education  at  has much e x p e r i e n c e  and  &  attempts  to  the  i n the  apply  some  t o t h e q u e s t i o n . He s t a t e s  that:  t h e b a s i s o f v e r i f i c a t i o n and c u m u l a t i o n i n t h e study of cases i s the r e c o g n i t i o n that a case i s an i n s t a n c e , t h o u g h n o t , l i k e a s a m p l e , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , o f a c l a s s and t h a t c a s e s t u d y is a basis for generalisation and hence cumulation of data embedded i n t i m e . I t i s t h e classic instrument of a n a l y t i c as opposed t o narrative history. (1978, p.21)  Stenhouse views through  the study  two s t a g e s : f i r s t ,  record".  The c a s e d a t a  by  r e s e a r c h e r . The  the  condensation comment"  the  ( p . 3 7 ) . The  presentation survey".  of  In  stage: this  of cases as proceeding  the "case  d a t a " and  include a l l materials case  data,  record edited  second the  model,  16  "case the  step  would  study" case  assembled  would  "without  and  study  "case  be  a  explicit be  the  "analytic is  "an  interpretive resting its  presentation  upon,  quoting  justification"  study  depends  and  and  citing  (p.37).  upon  the  The  that  i s , "a  evidence  which  i s accessible  In study  document The  two  categorized records. topic  The  is  Education Shop  contains journals),  papers of As  the  of  Industrial  responsibility reactions critical.  personal  of  a  to a l l critical  the  PSA  over  Subject  archive  17  became  :  life  may  personal for  archive  miscellaneous  Federation almost  includes  and  reports,  Association  of  this  Columbia  (newsletters  and  be  Industrial  This  education the  and  committee  Teachers'  industrial  data  British  (BCSTA).  agenda,  12  this  sources  archive  publications  Columbia  for  of  Columbia  minutes,  Science  data  records  public  formerly  Professional  This  of  document  British  workshop  this  same  interviews.  of  Association  of  terms  archival  the  meeting  British  the  types  various  that  of  two  important  of  correspondence,  discussion  from  Association,  the  case  critical  case  forms  most  Teachers'  a  to  the  public  that  of  for  apply  terms,  and  basic as  on  case,  record  which  achievement  gathered  analysis  case  the  (p.22).  Stenhouse's were  of  verification  communal,  the  intersubjectivity"  the  same c r i t e r i a  history;  scholars...[and]  discussion  (PSA)  (BCTF).  solely  the  teachers,  the  the the  course  are  official  positions minutes,  of and  individual The  to  commission  Department Education,  Education,  were  also  curriculum and  Curriculum  so  designed  forth,  included  in  Education's which  this  describe  Senior  the  Secondary  Writing  group  were  statistical occasional Industrial  and  analyses references  the  of to  12.  IS  the  school  the  Ministry  of  of the  study  for  Administrative lists,  personnel.  the  of  Columbia  included  equipment  provincial  Vocational  Science  These  establishment  of  in  The  and Also  Department  throughout  Programme,  examined.  British  programmes  Circulars,  Reports  individual  were  renamed  Education,  the  the  Chant  12.  the  by  workshops,  Technical  of  f o r use  Annual  the  resulted  Science  and  of  on  reorganization  examined.  Industrial  Bulletins,  the  since  guides  as  and  which  Industrial  views  Commission  commission  publications  of  Royal known  influenced  of  the  teachers.  1960  that  correspondence,  documents  Chairman,  schooling  Official  Science  the  i t s  presented  various  also  commonly  after  establishment  through  education  of  (RCE),  secondary  and,  surveys,  Report  Commission  This  BCSTA  industrial  Education  briefs  the  this the  Of  period,  reorganized  Vocational  Course  response  to  Training  Assistance  student  programmes,  specific  courses  the Act,  such  and as  Where a p p r o p r i a t e the  BCTF,  Science School  other  PSAs  Teachers' Board  The involved  (especially  with  development  the  Science  coordinators,  the  Development  implementation  12  School and  and i n d i v i d u a l  a l l  shared  personal  the  records,  Industrial  Committee  the various  were  of  draft  for  teachers of personal  the papers of the  Science  12  crucial  importance.  industrial  the concept  education  Course  meeting, as  m a t e r i a l s submitted  committee as i t d e l i b e r a t e d course  board  advisors,  their  T h e s e i n c l u d e d t h e m i n u t e s o f a l l b u t one as  of  to the course.  the of  and  inspectors  personnel,  Science  papers r e l a t i n g  well  Vancouver  many o f t h e key p l a y e r s  12 were a l s o s t u d i e d .  provincial  teacher—training  Among  and  Columbia  were a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . records of  Industrial  the records of  the B r i t i s h  Association),  personal  Industrial  Chairman  and a v a i l a b l e ,  to the  of a science  students.  Other  c o m m i t t e e members a l s o had r e t a i n e d p r i v a t e r e c o r d s o f their  involvement  willingly The achieved  allowed second through  with  the  significant  BCSTA roles  course  d e v e l o p m e n t and  them t o be s t u d i e d . major  focus  interviews.  t o i n t e r v i e w was based in  the  of  the  case  i n the 19  was  The d e c i s i o n a s t o whom  on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  archives.  data  Those  history  of  who  of the data had  played  the course  were  noted  as  the  archival  predetermination  was  data  made  were  as  to  considered  a  significance  of i n d i v i d u a l s unfolded  studied.  As  the  twenty  years  Science  12,  who  were  contacts  "significant"  the  the  relative were  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d  more  than  the  development  often  of  Industrial  be f o u n d .  suggested  12  interviewed  the implementation  additional  period of  and t h e BCSTA member who  course  for  the  Coordinator  Director a  of  BCSTA; of  Education  and  the  with  Industrial  undertook  the  Education  and  by t h e D e p a r t m e n t ;  Curriculum current  during  Supervisor  the Vancouver School  industrial  faculty  and, members o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l  UBC;  teams  Industrial Six  who  Programme teachers  being  could  undertook  the  i n the e a r l y familiar  revision  education  20  of  Board;  Course of  the  1960s.  with  the  teacher  be l o c a t e d f o r t h e s e  industrial  the  education teacher—training  i n t e r v i e w e d ; o n l y one s c i e n c e the course  study of  a member o f t h e of  a  Department  Industrial  Vocational  retired,  Industrial  rest  Those  were t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e  two T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s employed  Writing  be  for further interviews.  the  1960s;  could  data  interviewed  Education's the  role;  n o t a l l key p l a y e r s c o u l d  BCSTA d u r i n g  of  what  No  as the  after  Among t h o s e  Science  studied.  who  course had  were taught  i n t e r v i e w s , the  teachers.  Three i n t e r v i e w s the of  crucial the  six-member c o m m i t t e e not  Because  majority  within  of  of  The  were  Chairman two  other  Industrial  comprised  proved in  present  on  became  of  area  the  the  were to  as  an in  ethnographic problems which recognized  elaborate  tacit  the  useful  an  However,  encouraged  to r e l y  12  w r i t e r ' s experience  "language",  e n c u l t u r a t i o n can  than  this  teacher  respondents.  respondents  and  sphere  within  Education the  dead  Science the  interviews.  comprehending  rather  members o f  located.  specialists  Industrial  sense,  be  was  Industrial  predominantly Education,  with  C o u r s e D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e . The  members c o u l d  this  were c o n d u c t e d  on  and  points  knowledge  of  the  interviewer. The as  the  format  the  semistructured  1983).  It  questions  would  of  of  those  teachers  was  such who  programme.  i n t e r v i e w s may interview  assumed  be as  would  hold  Certain  types  allowed  of  rephrasing  questions  during and  one  an  of the  21  Gall,  views  perspectives  and It  of  classroom on  a  were d e s i r e d  semistructured  interview. of  the  and  information  questions  avenues  &  schedule  to e l u c i d a t e  differing  but  presentation  no  categorized  (Borg  Department o f f i c i a l s  from a l l r e s p o n d e n t s , a  type  that  sufficient  be  their also  investigation  approach order  of  allowed to  be  reformulated As  facts  and  successive The  based  on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p r e v i o u s d a t a .  interpretations  i n t e r v i e w s , data  semistructured  conversational matters  Interviews with  t h o s e who  t h e Chant  Industrial  curriculum, are  most  present  et cetera.  study.  Industrial taught,  to  course  was  Advisors,  and  used  in  the  i t ,  TVTA A c t , t h e  writing  of the  these i n t e r v i e w s 4 and 5 o f t h e  which  emphasized  s c h o o l s - how  teachers  with  those  and  i t was  students'  teachers, Technical  a  These  daily  "case  S t e n h o u s e termed  basis.  the  a l l data  with data  Industrial a r e most  6. d a t a " were  the  were c o m p i l e d  approach,  impetus f o r  the r e v i s i o n of  Chapters  dealt  i n Chapter  As w e l l ,  from  C o o r d i n a t o r s who  evident  of  the  with the  i t , i t s s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s a s a  12 on  account  12  the  the a c t u a l  in  second  Science  These  e l a b o r a t e on  were c o n n e c t e d  The d a t a  taught  reactions  could  activities,  seen  Science  who  -  A  sufficiently  Commission,  Programme,  strongly  was i n c r e a s e d .  also  emphasized  Department of E d u c a t i o n ' s the  with  concern.  beginnings of the course the c o u r s e ;  is  respondents  of i n d i v i d u a l  rechecked  reliability  approach  that  were  "case  history  these  22  edited  record".  t o form  what  A chronological  o f t h e c o u r s e was  pertaining  around  then  to certain  developed.  crucial  themes  themes - f o r example, t h e  push f o r r e v i s i o n s disagreements members,  in  among  the  Industrial  Programme, t h e  t h e Course Development  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  experienced  Committee  by t e a c h e r s , e t  cetera. The data  presentation  stage,  follows i n Chapters  analyzes  or  case  4, 5, and 6,  the f i n d i n g s .  23  study,  of these  while Chapter  7  Chapter  Societal  Influences  Industrial  on  Science influences  education  the  British appointed  in  1950s  Royal  1958  and  Vocational  passed  late  1960.  the  increased  political that  British and  two  Columbia  on  :  The  Education,  i n 1960,  and  the  Assistance  these  of e d u c a t i o n ,  to  e a r l y 1960s  Act,  factors resulted  p u b l i c e m p h a s i s on  present  12  response  Training  Both of  importance  the  a  which r e p o r t e d  and  from  Science  Commission  Technical in  was upon  late  Columbia  Industrial  12  overwhelming in  4  the  and  educational  economic  the  and  perception  curriculum  was  inadequate. In  Canada,  unemployment calls  levels  for a shift  United  The  signpost  new  launching of  this  became  especially  i n the  Rickover  late  priorities.  challenged  rigour  of  and  change.  a  of  said, did 24  the  taken  national  i t s greatest  War  education.  The  where  of  the Cold  i s often  States,  in  to  extremes  directional  United  high  lead As  i n Western  Sputnik  subject  and  1950s  perceived  were b e i n g  education  Admiral  the  recession  the  in educational  to r e q u i r e a  1957  serious  during  States,  "progressivism" seemed  a  as  role  a of  debate,  Sputnik,  damage " t o  as our  trust  in  the  1959,  p.  157).  study  o f , and  both  the  dual, be  This  educational  turmoil  federal  system"  (Rickover,  r e s u l t e d i n unprecedented  involvment  with,  education  in  countries. The  by  American  National  United and  States  t o overcome t h e  provided  science  and  technical strove  funding  in  schools,  such  theories,  as  also  Concurrently,  championed  by  programmes i n  intellectual  received  Conant  presaged  the  a p p r o a c h w h i c h would  rigour  the  Bruner's  support  education  and  which  into  with  unprecedented  (1959),  "academic"  projects  associated  vocational  The  f e d e r a l funds i n  curriculum  those  (NDEA) p a s s e d  1958  also infused New  introduce  Act  alleged deficiencies.  for  math, but training.  to  study.  Congress  sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g ,  attempted  NDEA  Defense Education  others,  was to  and being great  effect. In Canada, s i m i l a r the  educational  a  c o n c e r n s were e x p r e s s e d  systems of  the  "characteristically  derivative" Western study  provinces  education  debate, placed  manner  much on  arguments  for  cautious  (Tomkins,  greater  the  late  revamping 25  although  and p.  164).  royal  rather  A l l four  of s c h o o l  to  Canadian  a p p e a r s t o have than  in  typically  commissions  1950s. In t h e  emphasis  economic, a  1981,  established  during  the  provinces,  about  been  geopolitical,  programmes.  For  example,  the  (ARCE) had,  Alberta a s one  t h e mandate t o  Royal of  system  t h e modern  community"  recommendations vocational  its  consider  educational  Commission major  "[t]he  were  education  the  Education  terms of r e f e r e n c e , relationship  to the requirements (ARCE,  on  1959,  of  p.  following  of  the  i n d u s t r y and 5 ) . Among i t s  with  respect  to  :  T h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n be reviewed w i t h a view to d e v i s i n g c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s and v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s . (Recommendation 101) That p r e s e n t e l e c t i v e s of n e a r — v o c a t i o n a l n a t u r e and i n t e n t be r e v i e w e d , i f n e c e s s a r y , s o t h a t t h e y may become a c c e p t a b l e t o b u s i n e s s and the t r a d e s . (Recommendation 102) Similar expressed  Royal  British  Education  was  Minister  Education,  appointment mandate  was  in  January to  on  L.R.  examine 26  Commission  Commission  to  Chairman,  of  system,  Education  Royal  referred  its  Royal  being  problems.  Commission  commonly  after  of  of a  Columbia  Commission"  were  Columbia's e d u c a t i o n a l  the p e r c e i v e d  Columbia  The  economic n a t u r e  i n the appointment  investigate  British  o f an  about B r i t i s h  culminating to  concerns  as  S.N.F.  Peterson,  1958. "in  the  (1) The  the  on  "Chant  Chant.  The  announced  the  Commission's  light  of  world  conditions  the  adequacy  of  philosophy of the B r i t i s h (BCDE,  RCE,  Education  1960,  "did  exceptional  Columbia  p. 1 ) . The  report  appointment  the  noted not  educational  educational  Royal  from  but b e c a u s e  any  that  widespread  f o r an  the  of world c o n d i t i o n s ' "  (p. 2 ) .  Commission's  insistently  The two  themes  the r a p i d One  of  Commission For  - the n a t i o n a l r a t e change the  report  r e v i e w and  report  importance  i n the -  Scope  - presented the case f o r  instance  assessment  its or  'in  emphasized  o f e d u c a t i o n and  modern w o r l d and  on  " t h e t i m e seemed  opportune light  independent  system"  Commission  diplomatically  arise  discontent"  basic  Methods this  . Section of  the  perspective.  :  Any s h o r t - s i g h t e d view o f e d u c a t i o n i s n o t s u i t e d t o t h e modern w o r l d . . . t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h we l i v e c h a n g e a t an ever—increasing rate.... I t i s no s i m p l e m a t t e r t o e n v i s a g e t h e world i n which the chi1dren...wi11 l i v e a l l their lives. In v i e w o f t h e complex and r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g w o r l d o f t h e p r e s e n t and t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s of the f u t u r e . . . . ( p . 3 ) With Commission  a sidelong  g l a n c e a t S p u t n i k , the Royal  on E d u c a t i o n n o t e d :  A few y e a r s ago t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a u n c h i n g e a r t h s a t e l l i t e s was a f a n t a s t i c dream, but due t o t h e v i g o r o u s a p p r o a c h o f modern s c i e n c e t h e y a r e commonplace t o d a y . 'In t h e l i g h t o f w o r l d 27  c o n d i t i o n s ' modern e d u c a t i o n must a d o p t s i m i l a r l y vigorous approach, (p.3) The Report  dominant  was  referring  in  unquestionably  importance of in  theme  education. to  the  As  the the  Royal national  a  Commission economic  the Commissioners  then-current  debate  noted,  concerning  education: T h i s awakening t o t h e n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n d o e s n o t stem w h o l l y , o r p e r h a p s even m a i n l y , f r o m an i n c r e a s i n g r e g a r d f o r t h e c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l v a l u e s o f e d u c a t i o n . On t h e c o n t r a r y , a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e p r e s e n t day c o n c e r n f o r e d u c a t i o n i s based upon a hard-headed r e g a r d f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e which an u p - t o - d a t e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m has f o r t h e e c o n o m i c f u t u r e and s e c u r i t y o f a n a t i o n , (p. 411)  The  report  education's  then  continued  economic  to  importance  make  the  case  for  :  In t h e modern w o r l d a sound e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m has become e s s e n t i a l f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n t i n u e d p r o s p e r i t y . O u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r s i n p r a c t i c a l l y every major c o u n t r y of the world have p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s t r u g g l e f o r e c o n o m i c supremacy w i l l depend as much upon e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s a s upon any o t h e r f a c t o r of n a t i o n a l l i f e , (p.411) If Canada i s t o be s t r o n g , C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n must be s t r o n g , and i f C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n i s t o be s e c o n d t o none i n t h e w o r l d o f t o d a y and tomorrow, f a r - r e a c h i n g p r o p o s a l s must n o t be r e j ec t e d . . . . ( p . 3 ) Any c o u n t r y t o d a y t h a t d o e s n o t d e v o t e i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e sums t o e d u c a t i o n w i l l i n e v i t a b l y l o s e w h a t e v e r p l a c e i t has i n w o r l d a f f a i r s , whether commercial or o t h e r w i s e . 28  (p.4ii) The  Commissioners concluded  their  case  with :  It f o l l o w s t h a t the people of B r i t i s h Columbia must g i v e t h e i r f u l l e s t s u p p o r t t o , and maintain a continuing v i t a l i n t e r e s t i n , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l system o r f a l l behind i n both e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l s t a t u s . M o r e o v e r , any f a i l u r e on t h e p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e s r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n w i l l i m p e r i l t h e f u t u r e o f t h e whole nation. (p.412) This  theme o f n a t i o n a l  many o f t h e R o y a l  concerning  followed  directly  aim  Chant  of  the  from  primary  this  Commission  education  development  of  deplored  curriculum, program day 200  in  the  be  The  (p.128).  number  calling  In a l m o s t  commissioners  and every  education  that the primary  the  "intellectual  commissioners found  in  for  a  rejected  the schools,  s c h o o l s , a lengthened  a  full  i n the  more s t r u c t u r e d  (p. 64), a lengthened  (p.66),  of  of o p t i o n a l c o u r s e s  instead  the secondary  aim  maintained  must  pupils".  of s i x hours days  coloured  premise.  a s p e c t s of " p r o g r e s s i v i s m " they and  survival  C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and i t s  opinion  The  economic  Grade  school  school year of 13  programme  aspect of the c u r r i c u l u m , the  decried  the  prevailing  lack  of  standards. In  the  recommended  senior the  grades,  the  establishment 29  of  Chant three  Commission separate  programmes program program  : a  for for  institute. offered while  Senior  Vocational  university entrance  The  C o u r s e , an  entrance,  to  Senior  a  and  a  technical  Vocational  academic technical  or commercial  Course  would  i n a composite or v o c a t i o n a l / t e c h n i c a l  the other  two  programs would  be  school,  share a " c o l l e g i a t e  academy". The that  proposed C o l l e g i a t e  appellation  s t a t u s would high  selected of  The  g r o u p " , and  them  could  University schools" Of  "to indicate  be s u p e r i o r  school".  be  students "the  the  two  programs  XIII,  and  X I I . In t h e a c a d e m i c  while  allotted  Languages,  the  senior  a  work  present  highly required  above senior  the high  proposed f o r the C o l l e g i a t e  to  program  English,  on S c i e n c e  in this  Math,  than,  XI, X I I ,  include only  increased  technical  Social  Studies, be r e l a t e d  f o r example, program  would  programme c o u l d  30  XI  t i m e would  would  and Math, and a d v a n c e d  E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s  electives  Grades  a l l e l e c t i v e s would  courses rather  I n d u s t r i a l A r t s . The  an e m p h a s i s  include  t e c h n i c a l would  and S c i e n c e ;  to u n i v e r s i t y  in  form  considerably  the  given  (p. 274).  and  or  present  standards of  in  be  [ i t s ] educational  "would  raised  Programme  that  would  t o t h a t o f any  Academy, t h e a c a d e m i c would  be  Academy  Music place  courses  be c o m p u l s o r y ; t h e  include  such courses  as  Agricultural  Dietetics,  Science,  Business  Merchandising,  Draughting,  Dress Designing,  Administration,  Practical  Science,  Economics, o r S e c r e t a r i a l  Practice. The  Commissioners  expectations to  for this  the Senior  took  pains  technical  Vocational  to point out t h e i r  programme, a s o p p o s e d  Programme:  T h e r e has been a somewhat p r e v a l e n t o p i n i o n that t e c h n i c a l or business courses are intended t o c a t e r t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h o s e who l a c k a b i l i t y i n a c a d e m i c f i e l d s , b u t who c a n c o n t i n u e i n h i g h s c h o o l by t a k i n g t e c h n i c a l e l e c t i v e s and some a c a d e m i c a l l y e a s y c o u r s e s . T h i s o p i n i o n g r e a t l y underestimates the standard of the t e c h n i c a l or business courses p r o p o s e d i n t h i s p l a n f o r G r a d e s XI and X I I . The p u p i l s who c o n t i n u e a t s c h o o l m e r e l y t o g e t some t e c h n i c a l e l e c t i v e s would n o t be i n t e r e s t e d i n the high s c h o l a s t i c l e v e l of t h i s course. Such s t u d e n t s b e l o n g i n t h e s e n i o r v o c a t i o n a l course, not i n the c o l l e g i a t e academy t e c h n i c a l programme. (BCDE, RCE, p. 275) The with  report  respect  contained to  a  vocational  couched  in  Junior  Vocational  disconcerting  pupils  large  the  practical  of and  science  courses  would  stress  household  in  course  occupational in  education, fashion.  Course  lower—achieving part  a number o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  the  Grades  applications,  I t advocated repeating  be  subjects"  electrical  - "A  devoted  to  ( p . 2 6 5 ) . The  Vocational  aspects,  a  and  V I I and V I I I  should  Junior  "applied  31  for  sometimes  programme  nature  study,  appliances,  mechanics, expressed  and the  students'  the  hope t h a t  chances  parenthetically high  school  standard pupils"  "their  that  would  also  in  a depressing be  increase  but  presence  can  commissioners  set  the  effect for  the  noted regular  upon  the  the  regular  265).  aim  essentially  The  employment,  c l a s s e s has  (p.  (p. 265).  t h i s course  for  that  o f work  The  like"  proposed  f o r the  concurred  with  Department of E d u c a t i o n  Senior  Vocational  that already  Administrative  stated Bulletin  Course in  the  :  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l Programme i s t o t r a i n s e l e c t e d p u p i l s i n the s k i l l s , t e c h n i c a l knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , and h a b i t s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l employment and advancement i n s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s .... A V o c a t i o n a l Programme... i s b a s e d upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the p u p i l i s going to take a s p e c i f i c l i n e of work and t h a t s p e c i f i c p r e p a r a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h i s and t a k e n a l o n g w i t h h i s g e n e r a l education i s e s s e n t i a l f o r e n t r y i n t o g a i n f u l employment. (Quoted i n BCDE, RCE. p.272)  This Senior Commission, some  asserted level  provide  that  the  both  (p. 272)  needed,  had  curriculum general  stated as  and  "would and  be  as  provide  with 32  this  sentiment:  in  Report  for a  high  training"  submitted  vocational  the  r e l a t e d to the  vocational  in briefs  to  training  t h a t a good a c a d e m i c  well  Commissioners agreed  according  programs. Yet,  Many e m p l o y e r s ,  Commission,  Course,  "specialized  occupation"  apprenticeship  of  (p. 272).  was  would  skilled  existing  Vocational  to  the  background  training.  The  T h i s i n no way m i n i m i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s i n t h e s c h o o l programme, but s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w t h a t t h e c o u r s e s s h o u l d n o t be e x c e s s i v e l y s l a n t e d toward t r a d e training. (p. 273) This crucial  dilemma  training  some s k i l l e d  in  "excessively  -  how  provide  "specialized  o c c u p a t i o n " , while not  slanted"  surprisingly,  to  toward  i t  unresolved  in  -  being  is,  the  not  Report's  recommendations. The debate  Royal  Commission  throughout  charged viewed  with them  the  being as  province.  elitist  being  recommendations,  such  as  academies",  suggestions  did receive a  Department  Alberta  ,  it  of was  A c a d e m i c , w h i c h was  engendered  some,  while  realistic. the  were  others  Some m a j o r  adopted,  sympathetic  yet  As  the  Programme, being  of  other  hearing within  Education.  p e r c e i v e d as  were  establishment  not  General  heated  Its proposals  by  eminently  "collegiate  the  Report  was  the case not  in the  most i n need  of  improvement. The in  a  Deputy M i n i s t e r ,  1962  the High defined  address  School goals  Dr.  to B r i t i s h  General  J.F.K. E n g l i s h ,  conceded  Columbia P r i n c i p a l s  Program  did  not  have  that well-  :  This certainly was the Commission. Consequently, 33  o p i n i o n of the Royal the most i m p o r t a n t  p a r t of o u r work i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s w i l l be to improve and s t r e n g t h e n t h a t a r e a from G r a d e X to Grade XII, which we r e c o g n i z e as the G e n e r a l P r o g r a m , but w h i c h now we propose to c a l l the V o c a t i o n a l Program. ( E n g l i s h , 1962, p. 80)  The  Department's  vocational conclude  that  programme, n o t  the  Secretary  debate  of  (BCTF,  off  p.  stated  t o implement  "general"  British  is  22).  d i d not  The  expressed  revised  General the  view  programs a s t h e answer an  admission  Another  a t a CTF  a  one,  Columbia.  Ovans,  into  differences  1965,  Spragge,  in  a  t h e BCTF, C D .  "branching  individual  decision  BCTF  conference  of  failure"  official,  that  to  J.A.  :  One o f t h e t r a g i c c o n s e q u e n c e s o f u n c r i t i c a l acceptance of the investment concept of e d u c a t i o n i s c a u s i n g g r a v e c o n c e r n i n my p r o v i n c e at the present time. I t i s a s t r o n g e m p h a s i s on c o u r s e s o f o b v i o u s v o c a t i o n a l i n t e n t . . . . E d u c a t i o n i s being j o s t l e d o f f the s i d e w a l k by t h e new f e t i s h o f v o c a t i o n a l training. ( S p r a g g e , 1965, p. 3)  The  T e c h n i c a l and  The alone  in  British  Vocational Training  Royal  Commission  providing Columbia  impetus  at t h i s  had  dramatically  of  education with  Vocational  an  on  increased i t s  Training  Education  The  not  F e d e r a l Government  presence o f The  A s s i s t a n c e Act  34  was  t o c u r r i c u l u m change i n  time.  the passing  A s s i s t a n c e Act  i n the  field  T e c h n i c a l and  (TVTA) o f  1960.  The  possibility in  the  of u s i n g  high s c h o o l s proved  provinces altered, level  federal  to  p r o t e c t i v e of federal  government  various  "technical"  provincial  degree,  advantage of  Canadian their  or  The  first  i n the T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n  had  genesis  Training  and  i n the Royal  helped  through  of  introduce  t h e MacDonald  Laurier Laurier  to  government was  the  very c a r e f u l  provincial  Commission  goes  introduction, premiers, under  provincial  Commission's the  Industrial  Training  established reported  far  a ten-year  35  approval  reproduce, received  The  Act's  p e r i o d was of  fully  the  i n 1913.(3)  to  control.  not  by  as  that education  who  t o Canada  before e s t a b l i s h i n g  responses  was  on  which  p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t of  recommendation  funding  1919,  The  i t stressed  $10,000,000 f o r  yet  so the  and  and  premiers  with  involvement  t o r e c e i v e unanimous  (Stamp, 1 9 7 1 ) .  Commission  Act of  Manual  1910  funding  James R o b e r t s o n ,  s c h o o l s , was in  of  the  (RCITTE).  T h i s C o m m i s s i o n , c h a i r e d by had  usually  programmes,  Commission  Technical Education  (2)  education,  federal  resulted its  funding.  history  "vocational"  secondary  were  in  long  programs  almost a l l  their  provinces  a  acquiescence.  and  this  jurisdiction had  fund  irresistible  some  programs t o t a k e Although  monies t o  the  in  its  from  the  must  remain  funding less  this  than  of the  $3,000,000 a n n u a l l y , used  by  the  provinces.  Only O n t a r i o , used for  its  in a pattern  full  share  vocational  1910 own  the  only  1911).  Royal  other  was  program  province  results  of  the  basis the  in  the  economy.  necessary properly its  the  Federal  the  role  responsibility, on  the  part  of  raising  time frame  of  an  responsibility as  of the  encourage  of  the per  d o w n p l a y e d . The  most p r o v i n c e s , matching  as  This unenthusiastic  the  responsible  for  viewed  36  a  economy,  a  the  provincial enthusiasm difficulty  insured  response continued  as  government;  lack of  become an  case the  contributions within  i s s u e d i d not  the  on  federal  (Dupre e t a l . , p . 1 4 ) , a l s o  constitutional  was  was  based on  the  113).  justified  se.  a  Federal  industrialized  education was  p.  foreshadowed  education,  education  of  "to e s t a b l i s h  Government was  Vocational  was  TEA  programs.  be  in  education  the  (Fluxgold,  to  plan  established  of  to  "training"  the  Education,  provinces  continued  element  on  John S e a t h  effect  effect,  vocational  RCITTE,  that  the  repeated,  vocational  f e d e r a l involvement  later  involvement  by  Technical  poor p r o g r a m s "  first  be  f u n d s based  to study  quickly....CI]n  This  with  on  notes that  of  to  M a n i t o b a , w h i c h had  to encourage  establishment  was  developed  Commission  needs. F l u x g o l d 1919  the  education  (Seath,  its  of  which  a  strict  that  important throughout  the one. the  various  r e n e w a l s and  following The Act  permutations  the o r i g i n a l Technical  of  1960  activities  in  and  the  apprenticeships,  included this  and  Training  in  Vocational a federal  later  by  provinces  grants  to  much  previous  life  a number o f  more  favourably  agreements.  for courses time  by  of  which  School  The  The 37  provided  for  expenditures 1963.  original  1963 of  grants  (Future 1967,  or  deadline  the  federal  were a t  the  agreement.  reasons, to  Unlike the  31,  to a v a i l  to  Acts,  t o March  Operating the  31,  study  given  (5)  capital  March  wanted  of  the  of  was  T r a i n i n g agreement  act quickly.  50"/. r a t e f o r t h e  High  the e a r l i e r  the d e a d l i n e  who  was  purposes of  qualifications.  agreement.)  forced  For  funding  g r a n t s of  approved  changed  the  Vocational  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f 75%  extensions even  -  covered  Agreement,  For  the s t u d e n t s '  High School  projects  important  Two  programme.  provided  ( 507.)  more  TVTA: one  Training  One  occupational  the matching  federal-provincial  the  programmes.  - i s the c e n t r a l  developing  for  the  Program  of  (4)  all  with  Vocational  which o n e - h a l f  decades  of v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n .  being  but  Program One  four  Vocational Training Assistance  field  ten s e p a r a t e  study,  1919.  encompassed  a g r e e m e n t s came i n t o  Technical  a c t of  i n the  the  the TVTA  economic  provinces than  reacted  they  downturn  of  had the  late  1950s  and e a r l y  unemployment; even programmes would to  decline  training.  educating  population  The  (Tomkins,  1986,  factor  -  student  provinces to  "the  and  Vocational  largest  s c h o o l i n g ever  p.298) -  the c o s t s  p. 1 8 ) .  Act  were d r a m a t i c  federal  undertaken" a n d , i n many  In O n t a r i o , t h e p r o v i n c e w h i c h made  doubled  was  in enticing  Technical  vocational  which  difficult  post-war  the  the  courses  t o 46.4  i n such  t o prominence the importance o f  the g r e a t e s t use o f  1967,  faith  C o l d War w o r r i e s o c c a s i o n e d  Canadian  unintended.  highs i n  i tpolitically  (Dupre,  of  in  little  burgeoning  grants  Assistance  intervention  cases,  the  effects  t o post-war  As Dupre has i n d i c a t e d ,  was a n o t h e r  federal  Training  with  have f o u n d  had b r o u g h t  technical  accept  those  to participate.  by S p u t n i k  of  1960s l e a d  per  "clearly  TVTA,  cent  of  not  student  during the  the  y e a r s 1960-  student population,  envisaged  g o v e r n m e n t made t h e o r i g i n a l  enrolment i n  offer"  when t h e f e d e r a l (Cameron, 1972, p.  163) . The School  original  intention  Agreement had been  trade schools provincial expansion  $ 90 m i l l i o n ,  the  the V o c a t i o n a l High  the c r e a t i o n  and i n s t i t u t e s  data, for  of  o f t e c h n o l o g y . Based  estimated  the six-year  life  w i t h * 15 m i l l i o n  38  of p r o v i n c i a l  cost  of  on  capital  o f t h e a g r e e m e n t was  earmarked  f o rOntario.  In March, 1961, at to  the  instigation  fund  decision,  the  of  high  almost  use  year  estimated  of  the  cost  million,  for  and  the  Robarts)  vocational  Following  this  programme expanded  in capital  * 230  (perhaps  John  schools.  1961-62 a l o n e  $333 m i l l i o n  receiving  schools  high  provincial The  government agreed  Ontario Premier,  composite  dramatically.  Ontario  federal  vocational  s e c t i o n s of  of  the  saw  the  approval  expenditures, more  than  entire  life  15  with times  of  the  agreement. That of  some  study  provinces  to  take  hurried  to a l t e r  advantage of  appears undeniable.  Dupre  beckoning  s h i n i n g beacon"  "like  a  take  advantage of  the O n t a r i o  "Robarts  charitably anticipate a  years,  p.  the  provincial  influence  for  viewed  of  i t . Cameron as  haste",  deputy the  minister  TVTA  (Orlikow,  was was  1969,  106).  39  ( p . 176)  refers  "developed Fluxgold  under (p.114)  seeming  who  stated  so g r e a t  that  133,  to  "to  comment came f o r m  the d i r e c t o r p.  provinces, alacrity"  merely  TVTA A c t " . A t e l l i n g  TVTA  in their  being  as  grants  to the  to the  although  Ontario  John D i e f e n b a k e r  Canada"  unseemly  Plan"  c o n d i t i o n s of utmost  federal  (p.18) r e f e r s  some o f w h i c h were " a l m o s t to  the  programmes  of  that  the  "for three curriculum  i n Anderson,  1980,  Alberta provinces 1967,  in  had  In  48.8  contrast,  grants; per  Ontario  British  per cent.  most  diligent  by A u g u s t 31, cent  of i t s  had c l a i m e d  Columbia  had o n l y  T h i s was a m a t t e r o f felt  that B r i t i s h  80.3  concern  C o l u m b i a had  "slow o f f t h e mark". The  propitious  debate sparked opportune British  Columbia  programmes Programme which  concerns,  and and  Chant  for  Education  began  to  school  reorganization.  40  and t h e  provided the of  Programme.  the  The  many key  of  of  Vocational  science. Industrial  a  the  an i n t e n s i v e r e v i e w  including  addressed prove  TVTA f u n d s  reorganization  Secondary  courses, high  of  Commission  the  Senior  neatly was  confluence  by t h e  setting  Department of  12,  the  86.8  while  t o some i n d i v i d u a l s who been  were  claimed  allocation,  cent.  received  Ontario  obtaining federal  Alberta  possible per  and  Science  the  element  public  in  this  1. A l b e r t a ' s R o y a l Commission on e s t a b l i s h e d on December 31, 1958.  Education  2. N e w f o u n d l a n d was the only province s o l e l y on p o s t - s e c o n d a r y training.  had been  to concentrate  3. World War I c a u s e d t h e enactment o f The T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n A c t t o be d e l a y e d u n t i l 1919. 4. T h e s e permutations took many forms. The Unemployment and A g r i c u l t u r a l Assistance A c t (1937) was designed to provide training f o r unemployed w o r k e r s between 18 and 30, and f e d e r a l f u n d s were t o be matched by p r o v i n c i a l expenditures. The Youth T r a i n i n g A c t (1939) c o n t i n u e d s i m i l a r programmes b u t the p r o v i n c e s were n o t r e q u i r e d t o match t h e f e d e r a l funds. A War Emergency T r a i n i n g Programme ( u n d e r t h e War M e a s u r e s Act) also provided f u l l federal funding for technical education. The V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n A c t (1942) was an a t t e m p t t o c o n s o l i d a t e and c o o r d i n a t e t h e many programmes i n existence at t h a t time ( G l e n d e n n i n g , 1965, p. 2 0 ) . Many s e p a r a t e a g r e e m e n t s were e s t a b l i s h e d a s a r e s u l t of t h i s A c t , i n c l u d i n g t h e V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l s A s s i s t a n c e Agreement which provided secondary-school level vocational training. Although the provinces collected much f e d e r a l f u n d i n g f o r o p e r a t i n g p u r p o s e s , Dupre ( p . 15) notes that few programmes used the c o n d i t i o n a l matching grants available f o r c a p i t a l expenditure, less than half the federal allotment being used. P r o v i n c e s were less easily persuaded i f t h e y were r e q u i r e d t o match any g r a n t s . 5. The g r a n t s were s p e c i f i c a l l y e x c l u d e d from b e i n g used for Industrial Arts, or "general shop"-type, f a c i l i t i e s and programmes (Cameron, p. 1 6 7 ) .  41  Chapter  The  Development of  Planning  for  programmes f o r began  in  i n t h e summer o f  1962  was  c h a n g e s were General  to  they  to t h i s  The  much  Education  briefs of  seen as  courses,  had  f o r those  (BCDE, The  had  been  the  intact  since  the  was  a  f o r those  the Royal  from  (RCE,  Science offering a  "advisable  42  "couldn't  had  Commission 313),  been  10  on  and  a  recommended.  Modified  Science  had  Science  10  selection and  20"  of and  for slower—learning pupils  whose i n t e r e s t s  Sciences-1959).  who  p.  "judicious  both  "meaningless  Columbia  in  were  little  1984).  criticism  been  Curriculum  (Henderson, British  appropriate content be  what  to t r y to g i v e a  only  [ARJ,  dramatic  Vocational  which  hearings  Report  t h e most  in  and  schools"  secondary  course  which  which might  of  and  senior  remained  programme"  the General  Many s c h o o l s  in  "wanted  programme,  science  received  and  place  Director  the u n i v e r s i t y  revision  the e n t i r e  reorganized,  take  hodge-podge" and cut  be  The  that  12  Secondary  (BCDE, A n n u a l  Programme, w h i c h had  recalled status"  Senior  Although  to  1950s.  Science  "appropriate vocational courses  1962/63, p. W43).  early  Industrial  pupils  programme  5  l i e in special  These m o d i f i e d  fields  courses  "  were  to  be  "terminal" science  the student 1961,  the  decided  to c o n t i n u e Department  that  necessary  a  (3),  on of  2).  schools,  representing  Teachers  A s s o c i a t i o n , had  F.P.  Levirs,  Curriculum  S c i e n c e 20.  Committees  had  in  1962,  the  heads  responded  Chairman  By  late  course  was  Association, a committee from  British  allow  apparently  science"  department  the  would n o t  Teachers  Early  Education  and  Education  Science  Industrial  by  to  "vocational  (BC  Newsletter  courses  of  Vancouver  Columbia  Shop  to questions  asked  of  The P r o f e s s i o n a l  :  Q. I s t h e r e a need f o r a more p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e course a p r e - v o c a t i o n a l s c i e n c e course - to enable students i n the p r e - v o c a t i o n a l program t o c o p e w i t h new i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t so often involve science at any l e v e l o f employment ? A. T h e r e i s a need f o r a more p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e c o u r s e but t h e work s h o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s - NOT overlapped. (BCSTA, M i s c . P a p e r s ) In J u l y , officials  and  Burnaby  vocational  secondary  school  developed  in  September, The  into 1965  teachers,  School,  teams t o p r e p a r e  courses.  and  time  a group of Department of  Vocational  course-writing  1963).  1963,  served draft  Education meeting on  three  outlines  f o r the  T h e s e o u t l i n e s were t o be full  courses"  (BCDE  D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l  remembers t h e aim  was 43  for  Curriculum  "revised  implementation  Newsletter,  Curriculum  "to develop  at  courses,  at  Oct. that  and  to  do  i t quickly,  1963/64 t h e y so  on".  h u r r i e d l y , but could  Department  had  divisions  Vocational  Programme  Industrial, program,  and  For  Programme  allow  Programme  and  Senior  c o u r s e names 12,  and  for  Vocational published  to  be  Commerce called  Vocational  specializations in Trades".  established these  three  Programme.  It  Programme  that  I n d u s t r i a l Math 11, Science  each  The  by  the  divisions was  within  three  new  I n d u s t r i a l Power 12  - appeared  in  11 the  proposal.  three  outlines  to  Industrial  the  "Specific  teams  Vocational  Industrial  Department's The  or  corresponded  the  Within  Vocational  allow  three  Vocational  was  or Business;  Mechanics,  Vocational  writing the  by  the  teams  various  Programme.  meetings,  Book".  in  Senior  specializations  would  course-writing  Department  Commerce, Service.  the  on  overall  specialization  Accounting,  Construction, three  : Vocational  example,  Secretarial,  1963  that  review,  settled  the  Vocational  would  Industrial  tentatively  within  further  possible.  &  so  come i n f o r c r i t i c i s m ,  separate  the  them o u t  (Henderson)  The  within  get  s u b d i v i s i o n s of  Their  Department,  i n what came  T h i s G r e y Book was  44  concentrated  to  on the  recommendations soon be  a f t e r the called  the  the  Senior were July, "Grey  then c i r c u l a t e d t h r o u g h o u t  British elicit  Columbia  during  responses  The  from  British  following  1963.  I t s r e p o r t was  Trades' fall  BCSTA the  Programme,  w i t h i n the  addition  to  The  parties.  meeting  in  to the  on  Curriculum proposal but  Vocational  Association to  (BCTF)  Committee  most o f  Vocational areas  directed  1963/64 t o  responded  Executive  Federation  Curriculum. approved  an  year  Shop T e a c h e r s '  Committee  Book  Professional  school  interested  Columbia  (BCSTA) C u r r i c u l u m  Teachers'  the  British members  proposed  within  specialties  that  by  October, Columbia the  Senior  Secondary  Committee  (BCSTACC)  for  the  revised Senior  recommended  more  Industrial  programme, t h e Graphic  specialty  Programme.  the Department  in Electronics,  Grey  of  t o t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n , M e c h a n i c s , and areas  the  of  BCSTA  In  'Specific Education  recommended  Arts,  and  Power  Mechanics. In  promoting  Electronics noted  and  the  idea  Power M e c h a n i c s ,  of  specialties  t h e BCSTA  in  committee  that: U n l e s s i t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t I n d u s t r i a l Power 11 become a s t r i c t l y t h e o r y c o u r s e , t h e r e i s f a r t o o much m a t e r i a l t o be c o v e r e d i n one y e a r by even t h e b e s t o f s t u d e n t s . S u r e l y i t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Program be a t h e o r y program. [BCSTACC, R e p o r t , O c t . 29, 1963, p. 1]  45  T h i s comment from Shop T e a c h e r s '  by t h o s e  science courses  Programme.  t h e t h r e e new  and  Industrial  after of  charged  with  i n d i c a t i o n of developing  f o r the V o c a t i o n a l  The r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e BCSTA  program", a s a p p e a r e d of  Committee o f t h e  A s s o c i a t i o n was t h e f i r s t  t h e dilemma f a c e d applied  the Curriculum  p o s s i b l e with  courses  to a  "theory  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  (especially  Industrial  S c i e n c e ) , was s t a t e d o n l y  the f i r s t  Industrial  V o c a t i o n a l Programme  three  Power months  meetings of J u l y  1963. In a December, 1963, m e e t i n g  between t h e  BCSTA E x e c u t i v e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e w r i t i n g teams, a r e l a t e d level  caveat  was n o t e d  of achievement a n t i c i p a t e d  students" The  (BCSTA M i n u t e s ,  crucial  in  the other aspect  courses  section  d e a l i n g with  the S p e c i f i c  w h i c h was t o p r o v e  of the I n d u s t r i a l  Industrial  Trades  area  Electricity  [BCSTACC, The  Power be p l a c e d  "where i t i s p o s s i b l e t o  get Federal grants f o r the very c o s t l y  with  of the  The BCSTA C u r r i c u l u m Committee recommended  the proposed  course  to the  - the perceived n e c e s s i t y of o b t a i n i n g Federal  funding. that  Committee r e s p o n s e  foreshadowed  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e new  by [ s i c ] t h e  Dec. 13, 1 9 6 3 ) .  BCSTA C u r r i c u l u m  "Grey Book" a l s o  concerning "the  equipment".  n.d.] C u r r i c u l u m Committee o f t h e BCSTA  t h e Grey Book  proposal  46  concurred  t h a t each s p e c i a l t y  within  the V o c a t i o n a l course took  called  pains,  Industrial Industrial  be  directly  not  a generic course;  Industrial The  t h e one  expressed  the  taught  by  The  12.  The  t h a t the  that i s , f i v e  course  with  were e n v i s a g e d  and  respect to  Science  12  by  theoretical  t h a t i t had  Department of E d u c a t i o n Teachers'  -  PSA  background".  the  Power  [BCSTACC  ,n.d.]  i n March o f by  work t o g e t h e r  1964).  r e s p e c t i v e e x e c u t i v e members was  the with  Science  (A  meeting  of  two  no  r e c o r d o f what t r a n s p i r e d , o r c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t  meeting  was  research.)  held, could The  w h e t h e r i t was  be  t o be  considered  industrial  education  d o u b t . The  BCSTA N e w s l e t t e r  that  " C i ] t should  be  course  kept  education  teachers w i l l  these  courses."  new  arranged  located during  p r e c i s e s t a t u s of  the  Industrial  apparently  f o r M a r c h , 1964,  i n mind  that  47  the  Science or  still  an in  notes  industrial  i n many i n s t a n c e s be  Although  but  present  a science course  - was  -  have a  Industrial  (BCSTA M i n u t e s , March 30,  to  be  - presumably  " t h a t we on  similar  "should  t e a c h e r s who  "been s u g g e s t e d "  and  the  Industrial  course  education  area  distinct  BCSTA v i c e - p r e s i d e n t r e p o r t e d  course"  committee  committee a l s o s t a t e d a concern  industrial  the S c i e n c e  have a  to the s p e c i a l t y  courses  Industrial  practical  1964  related  Science  BCSTA.  that  Science  however, t o e m p h a s i z e  should be  Programme would  the C u r r i c u l u m  teaching Committee  of  the  BCSTA had  teachers  be  juncture  i t was  Science  the  would  BCSTA n o t e d education The during  recommended  that  and  full  AR,  1964/65, p.  be  summer o f  1963/64 on  p r o j e c t which  Industrial  Science  would one  with  had  math  writing  the  courses  members o f  teams, t h e  that of  Science,  the  Book  described persons  guides"  (BCDE,  the  BCSTA  correlation  industrial  the  of  courses,  w r i t i n g of  Vocational  Vocational  In  a  the  Programme  letter  to  Industrial  D i r e c t o r of  that a l l courses  Curriculum,  in science  and  Programmes, i n c l u d i n g  would  be  committees e s t a b l i s h e d s o l e l y because t h e r e  the  by  treatment.  the  math f o r t h e V o c a t i o n a l  was  noted  Grey  Report  the  other  provincial  J.R.Meredith, noted  Industrial  the  decided  require different  of  the  concerns expressed  Committee r e s p e c t i n g  and  having  " i n v o l v e d 28  Curriculum  science  1964,  again  D50).  the  Department  industrial  C o u r s e w r i t i n g teams met  the  the  responsible.  days i n w r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m  Despite  the  i t s province;  Department's Annual  "extensive" 10  within  at  Industrial  " i n many i n s t a n c e s "  would  Vocational  for  this  whether  unclear  comments made t h r o u g h o u t  this  course,  still  only  The  education  the  teachers  proposals.  industrial  ones to teach  come s o l e l y  Easter  that  existed  48  prepared for that  in final  form  purpose.  "some l i k e l i h o o d  of  This  having  by  duplications math and  and  conflicts  science courses  i n m a t e r i a l s " with  the  i n the o t h e r V o c a t i o n a l  Programmes. Although  the f i n a l  c o u r s e was  not  vocational  writing  vocational  group t h a t  was  t o be  understood  by  c u r r i c u l u m of  the s c i e n c e  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  teams, M e r e d i t h their  of  the  assured  the  c o n c e p t i o n of  the Department  the  course  :  [ i ] t w i l l s t i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e v o c a t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l team t o s e t f o r t h as c l e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e a t l e a s t some o f t h e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l needed o r v a l u a b l e from t h e p o i n t of v i e w o f t h e p u p i l t a k i n g an i n d u s t r i a l programme. The m a t h e m a t i c s and s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l can be p r e s e n t e d s i m p l y as raw m a t e r i a l f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n f i n a l form by t h e c o m m i t t e e s c o n c e r n e d . T h o s e who f e e l t h a t s u c h c o u r s e s m i g h t become " u n d u l y a c a d e m i c " and l o s e t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s h o u l d know t h a t we a r e aware o f t h i s and w i l l t a k e i t i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e s e programmes. ( L e t t e r t o B.H. C a m p b e l l , May 14, 1964))  1963 of  The  course  and  1964  two  or  initial  one  W.  and  w o r k s h o p s was  by  the Department  the  "old  course writer workshop.  performed  for  Hancock, d e s c r i b e d of  d e v e l o p m e n t work a t  t h r e e t e a c h e r s f o r each  d e v e l o p m e n t work  assigned F.  revision  t o an  A  Vancouver Tech  teacher  who  remembered 49  that  the  Science  individual  was  teacher.  Department o f f i c i a l  ' m e c h a n i c s ' " , was  for Industrial  groups  c o u r s e . However,  Industrial  by a  British  by s m a l l  the  Science during taught he  with  "came  the  sole  the  1964  Hancock from  as  at  more o f  that  math-science  background,  area...[and] I don't because  that  aspect." courses  think  only  added  Hancock, who at  course"  that  Coordinator  "they of  had  had  been  "unusable"  f o r the  a  good  teaching  teaching  Education  thought Hancock's m a t e r i a l was  was  the  shop choice  industrial  " d i d n ' t work o u t him  Industrial  in  to the e s o t e r i c / t h e o r e t i c a 1  Vancouver Tech,  and  less  from  during the  in a  shop  math."  The  that  period  summer s e s s i o n  course:  I remember him w e l l . He had a l o t o f m a t e r i a l t h e r e but he d i d n ' t seem t o r e g i s t e r t o o much w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . He had good i d e a s and had good t h o u g h t s but i t d i d n ' t come t o g e t h e r as a c o u r s e . (Jupp, I n t e r v i e w , 1984) The  Supervisor  Vancouver  recalled  theoretical  slant  Education man  The  education theory  the  , "but  we  Education the  material  reservations  teachers  couldn't  Industrial  realized  get  in  September,  for  this  first  Industrial this  other  (Cuthbertson, by  industrial  relying material  overly  on  presented  Science.(1) the  t h a t the  ready  by  the c o u r s e  for  perceived  with  expressed  about  were b o r n e o u t  Early  be  discussing  of  teachers  Industrial  [ H a n c o c k ] t o c h a n g e h i s mind a t a l l "  1984).  for  of  Industrial  the  1965.  Fall  of  1964,  Science  the course  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new (As  a  50  grade  Department  12  could  not  programmes i n course,  its  implementation the  was  not  programme.)  Education,  The  Joseph  e x e c u t i v e of  t h e BCSTA  separate  of  Industrial  Faculty  J.R.  Meredith,  1964,  i n an  October,  1964  1964).  In November, 1964,  decided  to  the D i r e c t o r Science letter  Meredith  to  Professor UBC, of 12  to  to prepare G.H.  was  Course  to  [i.e.,  that developed  P r o f . Cannon o f  by  of by  chair  Development November  developed  summer"  the  requested  Curriculum,  material  a  Cannon  suggested  on  the  establish  needed  based  the  meeting.  s t a t e d t h a t what was  outline  of  Industrial out  Education,  In h i s  year  this  course.  Industrial  Committee. 9,  of  first of  development committee  Science  the  this  Oct.  pointed  Education  course  i n the  Coordinator  Jupp,  (BCSTA, N e w s l e t t e r , Department  essential  was  "an last  Hancock] :  S i n c e t h e r e has a l r e a d y been some work done on t h e p r o b l e m , I do n o t a n t i c i p a t e a l o n g and i n t e n s i v e s t u d y by t h e c o m m i t t e e . I n d e e d , I hope t h a t we may be a b l e t o i s s u e , a t l e a s t i n t e m p o r a r y f o r m , an o u t l i n e f o r t h e c o u r s e i n the s p r i n g of next y e a r .  The Meredith  aim  of  the  explained  Industrial  Science  12  i t t o P r o f . Cannon, was  course, :  t o p r o v i d e f o r one y e a r o f s t u d y o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s , p r o d u c t s , and p r o c e s s e s o f s c i e n c e i n i n d u s t r y as c l o s e l y r e l a t e d as p o s s i b l e t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s and t h e o c c u p a t i o n s f o r which they are p r e p a r i n g pupi1s.  51  as  As  in  his  Meredith  letter  to  emphasized  developing  B.H.  the  Campbell,  need  a s c i e n c e program  noted  to s t i k e  above,  a balance  for Industrial  in  Programme  students:  The p r o b l e m i s t o a v o i d on t h e one hand a s o r t of mass descriptive, informational type of course in a p p l i c a t i o n s o f s c i e n c e and on t h e o t h e r hand, a v e r y t h e o r e t i c a l t y p e of c o u r s e , the significance of w h i c h would be d i f f i c u l t f o r these p u p i l s to g r a s p . ( M e r e d i t h , L e t t e r t o G.H. Cannon, Nov. 3, 1964)  Prof. teacher Tech,  Cannon  who  had  had  also  prior  to j o i n i n g  intensively  involved  revisions area chair  as the  were D.V.  at t h i s  a  Education  two  but  representative.  had  Committee  first was  H.  J.R.  of  on  the  R.I. the  December 52  as  to  members  "modified"  R.E.  Phillips, Industrial  the  Industrial  attended  the  third  trades  choice  committee  of  was  course  in a  obvious  Meredith  the committee  meeting  Cannon  worked w i t h  W.R.F. S e a l (2)  Vancouver  K i r c h n e r , an  Commencing w i t h  held  an  T e c h , and  D e p a r t m e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was The  at  science  physics  remaining  teacher; and  the  made him  at Vancouver  meetings of  school  his experience  W i n t e r i n g h a m , who  teacher,  high  electricity  with  c o m m i t t e e . The  science  a  t h e F a c u l t y o f UBC.  time,  Teacher T r a i n i n g U n i t . first  taught  well apparently  science courses also  been  the  Department  meeting,  the  MacLoughlin. Course 2,  Development  1964,  with a l l  members  present.  procedure  to  This  be  committees of  the  by  course  Department  of  Education,  devoted"  developing  appropriate  Programme  students.  his letter  done not  at  to  the  viewed  introduced  followed  "primarily  in  meeting  t o a d i s c u s s i o n of science  Despite  Prof.  material Mr.  Cannon,  Vocational  but  was  problem  of  for  Industrial  Meredith's a s s e r t i o n the  meeting  development  the  preliminary  Course W r i t i n g  as u s e f u l . The  the  work  Workshops  r e p o r t noted  was  :  A v a r i e t y o f s u g g e s t i o n s had been made a t t h e two V o c a t i o n a l C o u r s e W r i t i n g Workshops i n t h e summer o f 1963 and t h e summer o f 1964. I t was r e c o g n i z e d b o t h by t h e D e p a r t m e n t and by t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n t h e w r i t i n g up o f t h e s e suggestions t h a t a g r e a t d e a l more work was needed i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e n a t u r e and c o n t e n t o f t h i s course. The Committee i s f r e e t o make w h a t e v e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i t t h i n k s b e s t . I t may use whole o r i n p a r t , o r r e j e c t any o f t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t l y proposed. ( I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e Course Development Committee [ I S C D C ] , M i n u t e s , Dec. 2, 1964) The  difficulties  were r e c o g n i z e d despite  his  requesting minutes, summer  that  he  written workshop  organizing that  the  both  to  the  chair  content  a l s o by  of  in  note  Meredith,  the  that  major of  letter  and  content  the  ISCDC  with  problem  t h i s content  itself  completed  c o m m i t t e e . The  "[a]  selection  53 9  the  Meredith,  presenting the  work a l r e a d y  Cannon  material,  in and  by  the  c o m m i t t e e and  assurance  encountered  way  by  with  in  and  the was the  i n such teaching  a of  it  would  accomplish  Minutes, well  Dec. 2, 1 9 6 5 ) .  aware  of  "appropriate" for  its  decide and,  the o b j e c t i v e s envisaged" The Committee  the  presentation.  t o make no as  a  was a p p a r e n t l y  difficulty  m a t e r i a l and  choosing  in a  selecting  viable  The Committee would  use of  committee  t h e work  member  (ISCDC,  ultimately  already  recalled,  manner  attempted  "started  from  scratch". At  this  first  meeting,  "science-as-content" issue with not  versus  respect to  arrive  developing  at  a consensus.  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  be  accomplished  topics  for  study;  important  "blocks"  to  Some members a r g u e d  without  form  but c o u l d  of the process  then  i t necessary  principles  Science,  the  teachers  the  that  of s c i e n c e  specifying  understanding  thing,  of t o p i c s  believed  i f  discussed the  "science-as-process"  Industrial  could  the  t h e members  precise  process  was  could  select  c o u r s e . Other  members  that c e r t a i n  basic  must be i n c l u d e d w h i c h would  scientific  c o n s t i t u t e the  c o r e o f t h e c o u r s e . The i s s u e was n o t r e s o l v e d a t t h i s initial  meeting,  and p r e s a g e d  f u t u r e debates  to take  p l a c e w i t h i n t h e Committee. The guidelines" agreement".  meeting on  concluded which  These  with  "there  four guidelines  minutes as f o l l o w s :  54  four  "tentative  appeared are stated  to  be  i n the  1. The c o u r s e s h o u l d be an a c t i v i t y o r e x p e r i e n c e - c e n t r e d c o u r s e r a t h e r than a r e a d i n g course or a course l a r g e l y with demonstrations, n o t e s and t e x t - b o o k s t u d y . 2. The c o u r s e s h o u l d be based upon good s c i e n c e . T h e r e i s some d a n g e r t h a t s t u d i e s o f t h i s k i n d i n v o l v e t h i n g s o t h e r than s c i e n c e . The a p p r o a c h s h o u l d be t h r o u g h p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s b u t t h e s e need n o t c o n t r a d i c t o r be u n r e l a t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t f i e l d i t s e l f . 3. The c o u r s e must be f l e x i b l e b e c a u s e i t w i l l be t a u g h t t o p u p i l s w i t h d i f f e r e n t backgrounds, with d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s , taking d i f f e r e n t s p e c i a l t i e s , and a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l i n d i f f e r e n t communities. 4. C a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n t o s e e t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g d o e s n o t become t o o s o p h i s t i c a t e d o r r i g o r o u s or a r t i f i c i a l or u n r e l a t e d to the t o t a l programme o f t h e s t u d e n t . F i e l d t r i p s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , use of a p p a r a t u s of a s i m p l e k i n d , t h e use o f f i l m s and f i l m s t r i p s , and t h e conducting of experiments - a l l of these w i l l have a m a j o r p a r t t o p l a y i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f the c o u r s e . (ISCDC, M i n u t e s , Dec. 2, 1964) In an an  attempt  industrial  prepare  to  science  individual  o u t l i n e s of  topics  Despite  fashion.  understanding  of  c o u r s e , t h e members a g r e e d  to  "statements  their  of  f o r the second apparent  g u i d e l i n e s noted t h e y were  clarify  above,  future  Industrial  of  concept  individual  to  interpretation.  c o u r s e would  be  based  on 55  the  four  become  the  that  to  be  realization  subject  They a l s o "good  showed  S c i e n c e had  o r e x p e r i e n c e - c e n t e r e d " , but was  brief  members i n t h e same  "activity this  on  meetings  by a l l  that  and  meeting.  agreement  not understood They a g r e e d  purpose"  agreed  science"  to that and  much the that  "practical  applications"  need  Beyond  general  however,  this  conception practice.  of  how  They  "flexible"  goal, this  balance  agreed  and  not  that  reiterated  contradict this. there  would  the  the  course  to the t o t a l  programme o f t h e s t u d e n t " .  become c l e a r  that  ability  members. D e s p i t e guidelines,  the  agreement o f t h i s specifics  committee's  concentrated  concerning agreed  the  course  should  Industrial whichever should  The  be  Science,  on  and  the  into  one,  also  that i t  taught  a  could Science  the  committee d e c i d e d , shop p r a c t i c e "  1965).  56  I t was  combine t h e  for  decided  Industrial with  to  further that  be t a u g h t teacher,  Science other.  the by an and  12, t h e r e Industrial  was t o be " b o t h (ISCDC,  2,  statements  course.  would a t t e m p t  or  on J a n u a r y  individual  of  committee  consultation the  the four  understanding  meeting,  the  philosophy  Education  s c i e n c e and good 12,  second  be s u c h  teacher  Committee  came t o be d e b a t e d .  statements  discussion.  among  m e e t i n g was t o d i s s o l v e a s t h e  t h a t Mr. M e r e d i t h  individual  Programme  c o n s e n s u s on  superficial first  Y e t , i t was t o  Industrial  greatly  apparent  of the course  The 1965,  this  remain  rigorous" or "unrelated  of  varied  must  p o i n t t h a t i t must n o t  s o p h i s t i c a t e d or  students'  little  be a c h i e v e d i n  become " t o o  estimates  was  good  Minutes, Jan.  One  of  remembered as  an  the  science  the question  issue  that  teachers  on t h e c o m m i t t e e  o f who s h o u l d  was  never  teach  decided,  personally  felt  The  minutes r e p e a t e d l y emphasized  be  ISCDC taught  strongly a  by  a  and few  the Committee's  Science  the course's second  should  either  industrial  Industrial  was s e l d o m ,  that i t could  s p e c i a l i t y , and  were  Science,  i f ever,  he  teach i t .  with  education  teachers  both  teacher. to  assume  and t h e i d e a l  realized  despite  recommendations. ability-level  of  - p e r h a p s t h e most c r u c i a l  development -  meeting  satisfaction. this  an  anticipated students  although  the idea of team-teaching  for  team-teaching  The  of  science  responsibility of  teacher  promoted  science  However,  that science teachers  the course  but  was  was a l s o  not  Industrial aspect of  debated  at this  resolved to everyone's  The m i n u t e s r e p o r t e d  the  discussion in  fashion : We must be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s of the p u p i l s . T h e r e i s some d a n g e r t h a t we w i l l o v e r - e s t i m a t e t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s . ( T h i s p o i n t caused c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n . ) From t h e c l a s s r o o m p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e i m p r e s s i o n i s t h a t we c o u l d be o v e r — e m p h a s i z i n g t h e t h e o r y and c o n c e p t s . On t h e o t h e r hand, we s h a l l a l s o have, p r e s u m a b l y , p u p i l s c a p a b l e o f some f a i r l y a d v a n c e d s c i e n c e work, p r o v i d e d i t i s p r a c t i c a l and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i n d u s t r y . I n d e e d , some p u p i l s , a t l e a s t , w i l l need t h i s kind of content. (ISCDC, M i n u t e s , J a n . 12, 1965)  57  The provided  phrase, i tis  "some f a i r l y practical"  advanced  ,  points  faced  by  t h e c o m m i t t e e on t h i s  their  ambiguous r e s p o n s e  point  of  level  of achievement of the students  view",  "practical"  there  to  content.  some s t u d e n t s would  The  ability-level  Industrial  course  units  thought  "the classroom  with  the expected lack of  members i n s i s t e d  that at  this  could  kind of content". be  Programme s t u d e n t s was n e v e r  the committee  sums up  and t h e  "need  which  t h e dilemma  It also  i t . From  Other  least  to  issue.  was c o n c e r n  s c i e n c e work,  members. E a c h member,  expected agreed  upon by  i n developing the  f o r w h i c h he was r e s p o n s i b l e , a c t e d  best  based  on  his  of  estimate  of  a s he  what  was  appropriate. The noted the  in  "considerable the minutes  committee  committee  discussion"  above, i s c l e a r l y  members. A  recalled  on  science  this  point,  remembered by  teacher  on  the  :  Dr. Cannon had t a u g h t a t t h i s s c h o o l , and he s a i d t h a t he knew what t h e s e k i d s were c a p a b l e o f , t h a t he had seen them g e t h o n o u r s i n P h y s i c s 91. I wouldn't argue, but they weren't h e r e , b e c a u s e i t c o u l d n ' t happen. They c o u l d n ' t read ! P o o r D r . S e a l , we were p o l e s a p a r t . And Dr. Cannon t o o . The o t h e r two were t e a c h e r s , and t h e y b o t h went a l o n g p r e t t y w e l l w i t h me. Not c o m p l e t e l y , b u t p r e t t y w e l l . ( W i n t e r i n g h a m I n t e r v i e w , F e b . 2, 1984) A n o t h e r c o m m i t t e e member a l s o  58  remembered  the debate :  Subject:  Int. Subj .  (Seal An  II  I can remember one member o f t h e c o m m i t t e e who was v e r y much i n f a v o u r of having e v e r y t h i n g kept a t a v e r y , very simple l e v e l . "  li  You  d i d n ' t agree  No, no, I d i d n ' t a g r e e w i t h t h a t a t a l l . I know t h a t w i t h good t e a c h i n g i t ' s a s t o n i s h i n g what you can g e t o u t of s t u d e n t s . I t r e a l l y i s astonishing. And I r e a l l y , a f t e r a l l my l i f e , I s t i l l d o n ' t know how t o i n j e c t t h i s i n t o people...." I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 22, 1984) Education  D e v e l o p m e n t Committee, teaching  Electricity  opinion  that  who  teacher  followed  on  have  experience  misled  him,  typical  of  Industrial  Course  expressed  the  with  Electricity  because  "electrical  are g e n e r a l l y h i g h l y motivated"  considered  the  P r o f . Cannon i n  a t Vancouver Tech,  Cannon's  may  students  t h a t . li  II  Industrial  students  with  and  Education  cannot  be  students.  He m i g h t have, may I s u g g e s t , been coming a g a i n w i t h c e r t a i n p r e - c o n c e i v e d i d e a s o f how much o f t h i s s c i e n c e t h e s e s t u d e n t s would be i n t e r e s t e d i n and a b l e t o c o p e w i t h . ( K i r c h n e r I n t e r v i e w , Aug. 23, 1984) These  differing  expectations  Programme s t u d e n t s were n e v e r the  Committee.  That  developing  a course  would  of  further  be  observation  meeting; a it  lower  notebook  could enable  "the  the in  academic the  was pupil 59  many  considered  resolved  felt of  ability minutes  Industrial  fully  committee  which  from  t o be  for  they  the  by  were  students  i s shown i n a of  this  important  o f more l i m i t e d  second because  ability  to  learn to a  to  follow directions  i n an  record conclusions in systematic feeling  of c o n f i d e n c e  the e x t e n t was  open  colour well  to which  and  the s t u d e n t s '  operation  of  fashion  and  of s u c c e s s " .  ability  of  and  to o b t a i n  was  the  Industrial  Yet  limited  T h i s ambiguity  a l l future deliberations the  form  a sense  t o wide i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  as  orderly  was  to  Committee,  as  Science  in  the  from  the  schools. Only second Mr.  two  meeting  Kirchner  avoiding  what  p r o p e r t i e s of properties  of  of  the  "statements  of  purpose"  have s u r v i v e d i n P r o f . Cannon's presented was  a  termed  case, the  materia1s  with  papers.  examples,  for  " a b s t r a c t " approach;  would  be  studied,  the  not  the  matter:  ...the e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t the a p p l i e d approach s h o u l d be c o u c h e d i n need t o be o f a v e r y c o n c r e t e n a t u r e , s e t up i n t h e n a t u r a l environment of the p u p i l . . . . The e x p e r i e n c e s need t o be d e s i g n e d s o t h a t t h e p u p i l can s e e a v a l u a b l e a p p l i c a t i o n i n the immediate f u t u r e . [ T h i s a p p r o a c h ] would a l s o d e v e l o p t h e h i g h e r mental processes of analysis, s y n t h e s i s and e v a l u a t i o n , not i n the a b s t r a c t s i t u a t i o n but using the vehicle of the c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e that i s understandable, familiar, and not awesome or fearful as f a r as the s t u d e n t i s concerned. This student is capable of developing the a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s but t h e r e g i o n i n which the developments takes place must be one i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t f e e l s s e c u r e . (ISCDC, M i s c . P a p e r s ) Mr.  Seal's  proposals  Kirchner'5  i n attempting  of  who  student  would  be  to  concurred be c o g n i z a n t  studying  60  Industrial  with of  the  Mr. type  Science  12  ("the  students  likely  to  thinkers"),  the  be  concrete  yet  presented  the c o u r s e . that  f o r whom  The  Industrial  course  is  designed  t h i n k e r s r a t h e r than a  first  draft  Science  12:  different of S e a l ' s  abstract  philosophy proposal  s h o u l d n o t be a s p o r a d i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g a random c h o i c e of i n d u s t r i a l processes. (ISCDC, M i s c . P a p e r s ) The in  final  draft  deleting  course  of S e a l ' s  the sentence  should  provide  proposals above,  are  of  stated  the  s o f t e n s somewhat,  and  stating  that  the  students:  w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c principles w h i c h a r e u t i l i z e d i n a p r a c t i c a l way i n t h e m a c h i n e s and p r o c e s s e s o f i n d u s t r y . In t h e t i t l e , I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , t h e word " S c i e n c e " i s t h e key t o t h e c o n t e n t and t h e word " I n d u s t r i a l " i s t h e key t o t h e method o f teaching. (ISCDC, M i s c . Despite thinkers", levels  Papers)  h i s comments c o n c e r n i n g  Seal  studying  a l s o foresaw Industrial  "concrete  p u p i l s of a l l a b i l i t y  Science  12  :  P u p i l s o f l e s s than a v e r a g e c a p a b i l i t y w i l l have a c h i e v e d t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e c o u r s e i f they understand the p r i n c i p l e s without n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n g a b l e t o a p p l y them i n quantitative fashion. P u p i l s o f a v e r a g e o r g r e a t e r than a v e r a g e c a p a b i l i t y s h o u l d be a b l e t o s o l v e q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o b l e m s based on t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . The a b i l i t y to apply p r i n c i p l e s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y w i l l g i v e s u c h p u p i l s i n c r e a s e d i n s i g h t and g r e a t e r satisfaction. (ISCDC, M i s c . P a p e r s )  61  T h i s second Committee this  concluded  point,  proposals  Perhaps  achieving course,  than  but  on  Course  agreeing  to  be  of  Development  i t was  i n the  difficulty direction  suggested  s u b j e c t matter  on  to prepare  covered  the  the o v e r a l l  stage,  identify  the d e t a i l s  members  because  "Ca]tthis  the  no common u n d e r s t a n d i n g  content  consensus  merely  of  with  with  f o r the  course.  should  meeting  in  of the t h a t we  content",  rather  of i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n :  In o t h e r words, we were a t t e m p t i n g t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n : What s h a l l we t e a c h i n a c o u r s e i n I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e ? P r e v i o u s o u t l i n e s have had two w e a k n e s s e s : t h e weakness o f b e i n g t o o b r o a d , e . g . , a t o m i c s t r u c t u r e , m a t t e r and e n e r g y , e t c . , o r t h e weakness o f b e i n g t o o s p e c i f i c , e . g . , speed o f a motor a s b e i n g d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e c o u n t e r EMF and v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y as the f i e l d . (ISCDC M i n u t e s , J a n . 1 2 , 1965) These o u t l i n e s committee February In in  members  this  differences,  third  prior  to  the  next  i n advance t o meeting  on  emerge. I f  t h e c o m m i t t e e members h e l d  discussion  and c o n c e n t r a t e d  the l a t t e r  philosophical  The t i m e  pressures f o r  may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  o r perhaps  of course  on  i n s t e a d on t h e s u g g e s t e d  of the course.  of the course  decision,  discussion  meeting,  their  outline  completion this  be d i s t r i b u t e d  10.  abeyance  content  were t o  content  i t was hoped a  common  was t h e c a s e  62  that  through  ground  would  i t was n o t t o be,  as  the philosphical issue  draft  units The  study,  some  arise  again  when t h e  reviewed.  committee  optional. as  were  would  t e n t a t i v e l y designated  of  which  The u n i t s  were  and t h e i r  to  authors  ten units of be  considered  were  determined  follows: 1.  Introduction  to Science  and T e c h n o l o g y  -  Prof.Cannon 2.  Concept  of Matter  3. M e a s u r e m e n t 4.  Mechanics  5. M e c h a n i c s 6. H e a t ,  Light  8.  Electricity  9.  Metals  Brief  each  Unit  would of that  instance,  the  "considerable  Winteringham  - Prof.  Cannon  Kirchner - Mr.  Seal  and F i r s t  Aid -  Kirchner  conception  symbolic,  - Mr.  and A l l o y s  discussions  responsible  - Mr.  Winteringham  Industrial Safety Mr.  Seal  Phillips  and Sound  - Mr.  - Mr.  Cannon  of F l u i d s  Chemistry  direction  - Prof.  - Mr.  7.  10.  and M a t e r i a l s  were  should  held take  understand topic.  equations  that  would  6Z  so  respect  that  Chemistry  decided, word, be  as  to the  t h e member  t h e Commitee's  In t h e  Committee  discussion",  with  general  Unit, f o r following opposed  acceptable  to  where  possible. their  The  unit  February  material  24  themselves Not this  members  (just  in  units  on  1965  not  but  this  that  well".  far.  U n i t 2,  opinion  certain  minutes that  theoretical  go  on  approach  examined  4,  now  next,  changes f o r course  was  "optional"  be  somewhat  open-ended  of  titled  this  as  "enrichment" and  was  left  "open-ended"  the  depth  The a  a more  Seal  agreed  Solids, a  was few  p r e s e n t P h y s i c s 91  material.  source  to allow  for  Electricity  t o o , i t was  breadth of 64  and  possible  this  the  if  members recommending  draft.  and  Mr.  unit,  unit.  Mechanics  the  reviewed  succeed  considered".  as  t o what some  theory i n the  would n o t  was  determine  have t o be  "[m]embers were o f  ( U n i t 8) best  Materials,  a response  say,  to  members,  to  suggested or  The  and  would  the  t o make M a t t e r  on  draft  the next  and  for  decided  reliance  was  with  I t was  Matter  units  the c o u r s e  prepare a second Unit  on  t h i s was  as a heavy  prepare i t  reviewed  draft.  " t h e c o u r s e would  Apparently  members saw the  unit  by  meeting.  committee  thus  Mechanics  c o p i e s of  for typing  or e l s e  M a t e r i a l s U n i t 3 i n the f i n a l reviewing  forward  a l l u n i t s were r e a d y  the  presented  o p e n - e n d e d , and  to  weeks away)  surprisingly,  determined  as  two  to  the Department  f o r t h e March 3,  make t h e u n i t and  to  f o u r t h meeting,  draft  agreed  decided,  the teacher study which  "to will  b e s t meet t h e n e e d s o f h i s s t u d e n t s " . was  also  decided would  changed,  that  be  and  as  agenda a d o p t e d included  Materials, Safety  The yet  approval  Mechanics.  to i n c r o s s on M e t a l s  n o t t o be n e c e s s a r y i n other  f o r the next meeting,  final  fifth  and  f o r March  u n i t s M a t t e r and  Effects.  actually  continued with  undetermined,  convened  the review  that  on  optional  units.  130-135 h o u r s meeting,  a core of c e r t a i n  would  the  be  Science  based  members  12  alloted  on o n e - h o u r c l a s s also  course  & Wayne,  Throughout repeated  was  S,  units.  units,  as  approximately left for  requested  p e r i o d s . At t h i s  c o p i e s of the text  be s e l e c t e d  for  the I n d u s t r i a l  - Fundamentals of A p p l i e d P h y s i c s  1963). the minutes  references  the d r a f t  April  The c o u r s e was t o r e q u i r e one y e a r o f  w h i c h would u l t i m a t e l y  topics  and  of d r a f t  t w o - t h i r d s of the course time, with o n e - t h i r d  in  because  u n i t s . The  planned  f o r the  Electrical  meeting  committee d e c i d e d  (Olivo  I t was u n i t , but  The u n i t  was c o v e r e d  title  material.  The 1965,  the course.  was d e t e r m i n e d  much o f t h e m a t e r i a l  24,  Effects.  a b l o c k and r e f e r r e d  throughout  Alloys  Electrical  Unit  S a f e t y would n o t be a s e p a r a t e  written  references  to  The  units. easily  of t h i s  t o t h e need While  a  assembled,  65  fifth  f o r more list  of  finding  meeting a r e "activities" concepts or "practical"  activities Of  five  viewed unit  u n i t s reviewed as  on  certain and  to i l l u s t r a t e  deficient  notes  during  in  Mechanics areas  them  of  was  troublesome.  t h i s meeting,  student Solids.  f o u r were  activities. "members  [ a n d ] Mr. P h i l l i p s  f o r teachers".  more  will  In t h e  questioned  add  activities  F o r t h e u n i t on  Electrical  Effects; I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t one o r two s i m p l e a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e u n i t and i t w i l l be c o m p l e t e and r e a d y f o r p r i n t i n g . The s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n would a s s i s t t e a c h e r s i n determining t h e way t h e m a t e r i a l c o u l d be hand 1ed.  The  material  on S a f e t y  and F i r s t A i d :  w i l l p e r h a p s r e q u i r e a m p l i f i c a t i o n i n t h e form o f an a p p e n d i x s u g g e s t i n g ways t h e m a t e r i a l m i g h t be t r e a t e d . On U n i t  5, M e c h a n i c s o f S o l i d s :  I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t more s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s be i n c l u d e d . The  u n i t on M a t t e r  units  felt  activities  to  and M a t e r i a l s  be  sufficient  centred  was one in  and d i r e c t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s  o f t h e few  terms  of  student  :  Members s p e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e s t u d y i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s suggested f o r t h i s u n i t . Mr. S e a l was commended f o r h i s e x c e l l e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f this material. (ISCDC, M i n u t e s , A p r . 8, 1965) Units in  which s t i l l  had  n o t been  the minutes. These i n c l u d e d , Unit  I - Introduction  66  developed with  were  author,  - P r o f . Cannon  listed  Unit  II - Measurement - P r o f . Cannon  Unit  VI  Sound - P r o f . Cannon  Unit  IX - M e t a l s and  A l l o y s - Mr.  The  agenda the  meeting.  for  It  to  was  At an o r a l  Seal  sixth  meeting  on A p r i l  of  these  units  which,  be  s e n t t o members p r i o r  concluded  that  Science  12  Industrial  further  Winteringham  the  editing  were  presentation  to the D i r e c t o r  would  be  "if  to  the C u r r i c u l u m  25  the  Guide  ready  of C u r r i c u l u m a f t e r  for three  meetings. the  April  report  Industrial material  25  meeting,  on  Science  unit;  Measurement The  P r o f . Cannon  as h i s p r o p o s a l f o r the he a g r e e d  f o r the next meeting.  perusal. unit  and - Mr.  possible",  unit  Light  U n i t VII - Chemistry  included  for  - Heat,  was  committee  held  submitted  Introduction  to prepare  A written presented  draft for  some c o n c e r n s  to  written of h i s members'  about  this  and: [ c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e was d e v o t e d t o t h i s m a t e r i a l by Committee members. I t was a g r e e d t h a t t h i s u n i t be expanded and s u b m i t t e d f o r committee review a t the next meeting. A r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p o r t i o n s o f t h i s u n i t was a l s o a g r e e d upon, and w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e rewri te. (ISCDC, M i n u t e s , A p r i l 25, 1965) The  summarized  committee their  reviewed  the  other  units  p r o g r e s s t o d a t e , as shown below : 67  and  Unit  1 - Introduction for  Unit  2  - Draft  copy  t o be r e a d y  May 10  - Measurement  - Final  copy  t o be r e a d y f o r  May 10 Unit  3 - Mechanics of S o l i d s - U n i t  completed,  has no a p p e n d i x Unit  4 - M a t t e r and M a t e r i a l s - U n i t and appendix  Unit  5  completed  - Mechanics of F l u i d s - Unit  and a p p e n d i x  completed Unit  6 - H e a t . L i g h t and Sound - D r a f t  copy f o r  May 10 Unit  7 - C h e m i s t r y - D r a f t copy  Unit  8 - Electrical Appendix  Unit  9 - Safety  (ISCDC,  The  seventh  Aid - Unit  completed  t o come on May 10  - the l a s t  May 10, 1965.  on  a  M.I.T.  (a  "meeting  conference  noted),  for  -  t o come on May 10  meeting  report  plan  Completed  M i n u t e s , A p r . 25, 1965)  m i n u t e s - was h e l d  minutes  E f f e c t s - Unit  and F i r s t  Appendix  f o r May 10  of  which  technical,  f o r w h i c h we  Prof.  Cannon  have  gave a  he had r e c e n t l y a t t e n d e d a t Scientists  in  Boston", the  had a d v o c a t e d a  comprehensive  vocational  68  and  occupational  education  in  according Prof.  the  to the  Cannon,  providing  summary viewed  " f o r the  (ISCDC, M i n u t e s , made a v a i l a b l e prove of  United  States.  This  conference,  provided  the  c o m m i t t e e by  the  "immediate  non-employable  May 10, during  assistance  problem"  group  as  in society"  1 9 6 5 ) . M a t e r i a l s were t o be  the  summer o f  to teachers  1965 w h i c h  of I n d u s t r i a l  "may  Science  12" . The  draft  Chemistry.  the  units only  further The  12  was  Based on a y e a r the  following  The  and  u n i t s ready  minor changes  time  also  for this  hours,  at  the  this  have  units :  Unit  2 - Measurement - 10 h o u r s  Unit  3 - M e c h a n i c s o f S o l i d s - 30 h o u r s  Unit  4 - M a t t e r and M a t e r i a l s - 20 h o u r s  Unit  5 - M e c h a n i c s o f F l u i d s - 30 h o u r s  units  meeting.  c o u r s e would  1 - Introduction  remaining  area.  for Industrial  established  o f 135  required  allotment  and  recommended,  Unit  teacher  - 10 h o u r s  would  to j u d i c i o u s l y s e l e c t  be  o f 35 h o u r s , would  include: 69  optional,  according  n e e d s and a b i l i t i e s o f t h e c l a s s " . total  Effects  a d d i t i o n s made t o t h e " a c t i v i t i e s "  suggested  Science  Electrical  unfinalized  m e e t i n g , were r e v i e w e d with  on  " f o r the  to i n t e r e s t s ,  These u n i t s , f o r a  Unit  6 - Heat, L i g h t  Unit  7 -  Unit  8 - Electrical  It although be  taught  was  Course  confirmed  throughout  programme  of  committee  suggestion  General  "mathematical  thus  freeing  in  12  science" 11  in  Some  and  that  - both  remembers t h e  impossible".  "in  to the  " i t was  this  in  Education.  70  courses,  be  Science the  and  combined, course  context  Industrial  of  Science  recommendation  for a  obviously impossible one  T h i s recommendation was  the Department of  the The  Programme  could  Industrial  Seal  all  of  reviewed...."  -  c o u r s e . Mr.  to  depth  or  be added  because  and  two-year  compulsory  mathematics  two-year c o u r s e ,  the  Industrial  nature" f o r an  discussed  11  then  through  would  A p p l i e d Mathematics  would  get  Aid,  the  becoming a  breadth  i n the  the time  Grade XI.  the  was  Programme C o n s t a n t s , both  First  the course,  then  Science  studied,  Business  and  the c o n t e n t of Committee  "because prepared,  Safety  year.  Industrial  material  and  that  the  Development of  Effects  t o be spoken o f a s a u n i t ,  established  possibility  Sound  Chemistry  i t continued  Having  and  year....  Quite  n o t a c t e d upon  by  The progress  meeting  concluded  to date,  the  Units  3 - Mechanics of  Unit  4 - M a t t e r and  Unit  5 - Mechanics of  Unit  7 -  Unit  8 - Electrical  Effects  Unit  9 - Safety  First  2 -  6 - Heat. L i g h t copies  will  25,  of  25,  1965,  and  be  Sound  available for  study  on  1965)  meeting  two  a t meeting  Introduction  Curriculum  and  given  Prepared:  Unit  above, one  Aid  25,1965)  May  approval  t o be  1 -  Committee, May  Fluids  Completed:  Unit  last  Solids  Measurement  t o be  (Draft  report  record:  Materials  and  approval  May  Units  have a  of  Chemistry  Partially  (Final  the  f o r w h i c h we  listing  Completed:  Unit  for  another  Unit  Units  The  last  with  of was  Guide.  u n i t was u n i t s had  71  the to As  Course finalize  shown  still not  yet  to  Development the  material  i n the  progress  be  given  final  been w r i t t e n ;  these  u n i t s were t h e In  interviews with  after  "in  was  they  cases  Another  "very,  expressed  meetings  busy  at  which  Interview).  One  seriousness  didn't  Prof.  he  by  Prof.  Cannon.  at  be  recalled the  he  time did  committee appear  frustration  Cannon was  would  member  very  prepared  c o m m i t t e e members, twenty  performance. many  quickly".  t o be  the  i t s operation,  Chairman's and  three  at  the  very  busy  and  out  that  the  Chairman  and  we  had  not  member t o be  in  years  appear"  recalled  there"  many (Seal  that  "the  :  We were d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e manner i n w h i c h i t was c h a i r e d . We were d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w - u p and m a t e r i a l s . H a r r y Cannon was the l a s t t o put i n h i s m a t e r i a l s . In f a c t , I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t we e v e r d i d s e e some o f h i s m a t e r i a l . And t h a t was a n n o y i n g t o members, most a n n o y i n g . . . . I t wasn't a w e l l - r u n r e v i s i o n committee. (Kirchner Interview, 1984) The  provincial  Science  12  itself  was  was  issued  not  guide o u t l i n e d the Vocational  Science and  12  Mechanics  specialty, for  the  Industrial  a  for  1965,  although  offered  until  September,  Industrial and  required  specialties, Drafting Science  12 12,  72  course  in could  probably  The Senior  s p e c i a l t y areas  i n the  but,  course  1966. the  Electricity. course  Industrial the  Programme o f  i t s three  M e c h a n i c s , and  was  guide  in  Programme  Construction,  curriculum  on  of  Industrial Construction  the  Electricity  be  substituted  the  assumption  that  electricity  sufficient The  students  background  would  likely  have  a  in science.  s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e of  the I n d u s t r i a l  Programme  was : to p r o v i d e the i n i t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s u c c e s s f u l employment i n a r a n g e o f i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s and t o d e v e l o p t h o s e q u a l i t i e s o f c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t make f o r good citizenship. (BCDE, I n d u s t r i a l Power, I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 1965, p. 4)  It  is  finalizing  not the  recorded  who had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  curriculum  guide,  although  assume t h a t P r o f . Cannon, a s C h a i r m a n , the  Division  introduction statements  to  the  Curriculum the course  found  Development intended  of  in  the  Committee.  that theory  for  outline  echoed of  stating  and c o n c e p t s  preamble t o t h e g u i d e  presented  may i t to  approval.  minutes In  we  The  many o f t h e the  Course  t h a t i t i s "not  be o v e r  emphasized",  went on t o s a y :  [ o ] n t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a r e some p u p i l s c a p a b l e o f some a d v a n c e d s c i e n c e work, p r o v i d i n g i t i s p r a c t i c a l and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to i n d u s t r y , (p. 19) The be  curriculum  taught  science  by  either  teacher"  incorporate  "good  guide an  noted  that the course  industrial  and r e p e a t e d  that the course  s c i e n c e and good shop  19) .  73  education  "may or a  should  p r a c t i c e " (p.  The  four  curriculum  specific  guide  for Industrial  interesting  facet  Industrial  Science  identical  to  the Science, in  Ontario  1964,  Except  12.  study  12  in  present  objectives  Trades  These s p e c i f i c  f o r the bracketed paragraph  from []  on l a b  an  o b j e c t i v e s were listed for  Science  programme  ( O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n ,  duplicated  the  of the development of four  the f i v e and  listed  Science  These  Technology  items  following in  to t h i s  four of  p. 1 5 ) . (3)  the o n l y  objectives  Science,  o b j e c t i v e s were n o t t h e O n t a r i o document.  s e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d , the  instruction  was  identical  each:  [To r e a l i z e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s l a b o r a t o r y ] i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d t o p e r m i t p u p i l s t o work i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n s m a l l g r o u p s . The number o f p u p i l s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r w i l l depend, t o some e x t e n t , on t h e s i z e o f t h e c l a s s , [ ( i d e a l l y , twenty-four p u p i l s , with not more than t h i r t y p u p i l s ) , ] on t h e e q u i p m e n t a v a i l a b l e , and on t h e t o p i c s s t u d i e d . F o r c e r t a i n t o p i c s , where t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e experiments undertaken i s not f i x e d , the e x p e r i m e n t s may be c a r r i e d on s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . (BCDE, p. 19; ODE, p. 15)  At Columbia  least  Industrial  duplicated  from  Despite suggestion science  two  other  Science  12  Columbia  that the course  in  the B r i t i s h  c u r r i c u l u m guide  the O n t a r i o guide.  the B r i t i s h  teacher  paragraphs  were  (4) curriculum  guide's  could  be t a u g h t  by e i t h e r  o r an i n d u s t r i a l  education  teacher, i t  74  a  went  on  to  instructor  imply  might  that  have t r o u b l e  ("log")  book.  science  department,  educational log  book"  respect  It  the  authority  an  assist  who would  The those above. Prof.  Seal  topics  as  for  comparison  columnar,  been  in  the  other  lab  activities  Course to  Science  12  course  t o be t a u g h t  by  guide  corresponded to Committee,  for  18  resistance  usually  to  be  e x p e r i m e n t s on o f wood,  to  a  load,  The o t h e r  Units  headings  the For  modified  t h e most  of  part,  o u t l i n e s of the  performed,  despite  the  activities. Committee  curriculum  75  lateral  with  t o emphasize  produce  nailing  or  skeletal  Development  - f o r which  columnar,  and N o t e s . only  noted  by t h e C o m m i t t e e -  shear s t r e n g t h  U n i t s gave  Committee's e f f o r t s  with  the assumption  and M a t e r i a l s  various  formats,  these  assertion  Industrial  complimented  the  Contents, A c t i v i t i e s ,  deadline  guide's  lubricants, et cetera.  presented  The  of the  Development  optimum  of  or  the course,  on M a t t e r  had  i n the evaluation  detailed instruction  patterns  were  in  Course  Unit 4  provided such  the  " t h e head o f t h e  teachers.  Unit Outlines  of  the lab  other  Education  Education  12  some  the  teach  Science  evaluating  that  made t h a t  Industrial  Industrial  in  principal,  (p. 2 1 ) . Despite  to  Industrial  suggested  a p p e a r s t o have been was  the  guide,  met i t s but i t s  internal  debate  Industrial  Science  12 was  expectations  held  The  students, the  presaged  the balance  "practical",  members  and  made  d i d not hold  Industrial  were under  the  76  and  "good shop and  i n Chapter  issues f o r  7, Committee  pleased  the pressures  12.  education  "theoretical"  between  not  reaction  i n the schools.  industrial  high expectations  Science  the  t o be c o n t e n t i o u s  be d i s c u s s e d  themselves  compromises  for  balance  good s c i e n c e " , were s t i l l  of  to receive  between  the  t e a c h e r s . As w i l l  much  with  the  of a deadline,  f o r the  success of  1. In 1971, Mr. Hancock r e s p o n d e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c i r c u l a t e d by t h e T e c h n i c a l Advisors ( s e e n o t e #10, C h a p t e r 6) w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s respecting Industrial Science 12 and h i s p e r s o n a l course outline. T w o - t h i r d s o f Mr. H a n c o c k ' s c o u r s e dealt with Machines & Controls, comprised of f i v e units : Applied Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Electromechanics, Electrical Power, and Industrial Electronics. The 32 c o n c e p t s t o be c o v e r e d i n t h e Applied Mechanics u n i t i n c l u d e d : Bow's notation f o r graphical solutions, c e n t r e of g r a v i t y of a system o f p a r t i c l e s , g r a p h i c a l s o l u t i o n of a concurrent coplanar f o r c e system i n e q u i l i b r i u m , r e s u l t a n t of a noncurrent c o p l a n a r f o r c e system, r a d i u s of g y r a t i o n , moment o f i n e r t i a o f c o m p o s i t e a r e a s , and r e c t i l i n e a r m o t i o n o f a particle. As Mr. Hancock e x p l a i n e d , " [ t ] h e problem facing the student is the l o g i c a l approach to p r i n c i p l e s , versus hisability t o understand through empiricism."  2. Fred Hancock applied f o r membership on t h i s c o m m i t t e e , i n r e s p o n s e t o a BCTF r e q u e s t f o r nominees to submit t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t , b u t was n o t s e l e c t e d . I t i s not c l e a r whether this was a d e c i s i o n of the Department o r t h e BCTF, which would f i r s t screen n o m i n e e s . The S u p e r v i s o r o f I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n w i t h The Vancouver School Board at that time, when i n t e r v i e w e d about t h i s matter, r e p l i e d : You know why [ h e was n o t s e l e c t e d ] ? He was s o s e t i n h i s ways. He would n e v e r have a d j u s t e d . He c o u l d n ' t a d j u s t . ( C u t h e r b e r t s o n I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 4, 1984) Harold Development applied to c o n t a c t e d by  Kirchner, who served on the Course Committee, remembered that he had n o t join the committee but instead was the Department.  3. J.R. M e r e d i t h had f o r w a r d e d this publication to P r o f . Cannon i n a November 25, 1964 l e t t e r , soon a f t e r Cannon's a p p o i n t m e n t a s C h a i r m a n . The only missing objective was " t o arouse c u r i o s i t y regarding natural objects and phenomena, i n order to develop an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y f a c t s of nature".  77  4.  One  paragraph  stated:  Teachers may find i t necessary to set up certain pieces of apparatus as permanent e q u i p m e n t t o be i n r e a d i n e s s f o r frequent use. Whenever p o s s i b l e , o t h e r equipment used s h o u l d be a s s e m b l e d by t h e p u p i l s .  The O n t a r i o curriculum guide stated that " [ s ] u i t a b l e t e x t - b o o k s , as w e l l as books o f r e f e r e n c e , s h o u l d be provided in laboratories and in classrooms where science i s s t u d i e d " . The B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m guide stated that "[a] s u i t a b l e text-book, as w e l l as books of reference, may prove v a l u a b l e " [emphasis added]. They b o t h c o n t i n u e d : Illustrative material, such as pamphlets, charts, process d i a g r a m s , and sample p r o d u c t s s h o u l d a l s o be procured and filed f o r ready reference. P u p i l s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o use these books and materials [;] to secure additional information on t h e t o p i c s s t u d i e d , [;] t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of scientific principles [;] and t o r e a l i z e t h e i r va1ue.  78  Chapter  Industrial  Industrial Columbia with  Science  secondary  the  course  education little  Science  course  teachers,  viewed and  offering.  the  Problems  five  1966  and  for  t h e most  Education  support The  only  place during  Technical Education workshops Science  12,  consultation"  parties  12  the  new  during  Programme  with  summer  t h e BCTF and  79  of  provide  inservice  t o have  taken  courses.  the Department  provide  courses,  the  of  session concerning a l l  Vocational Division to  the  viable.  Science  Vocational  For  involved in  s t r u g g l e d to  t e a c h e r s was  and  Department  t o make t h e c o u r s e  attempted on  situation.  BCSTA,  inservice  education  facilities  at pre-implementation  Senior and  industrial  attempt  a larger  had  science  teaching  the  part,  thinly-veiled  various -  Industrial  course.  Advisors -  necessary  Industrial  new  the  British  t h e new  acquiring  the  Technical  as a  in  difficulties  immediately.  expected in  years,  Education,  the  Schools  introduced  in  tradesmen  the course  not  Industrial  for  was  evident  equipment exacerbated  the  12  i n the  e x p e r t i s e i n , o r sympathy w i t h ,  Students  next  12  schools  were  6  The of  some  inservice  including  Industrial  of  BCSTA.  1966, (1)  "after  These Industrial Technical  Senior  Vocational  Science  12,  Senior  Notification in  a  May  24  f e e s would was  of  from  u s u a l l y the case  the c i r c u l a r teachers; science  no  of  fee  charged,  It  be  would  unlikely  have been  aware  of  that  the  apparently and  by  the  boards  to by  Industrial  only  to b r i n g  Industrial  Programme  the  possibility  teaching  have i n s u r e d of  the  that  course.  even w i t h o u t that only teachers  that science teachers the  no  incurred  were a s k e d  t h e workshop i n m i d - J u l y ,  is  schools  asked  expenses  made of  1966.  workshops)  been  professionally-motivated  attend. even  was might  Scheduling  most  had  to the a t t e n t i o n of mention  to  "to encourage school  principals  teachers  being  (which  the workshops d e a l t w i t h  Programme, s c h o o l  - 22,  circulated  f o r BCTF-sponsored  out-of-pocket  t e a c h e r s . " As  11  Vancouver  t h e BCTF, w h i c h n o t e d  Superintendents  with  including  at  July  f o r the c o u r s e  Department of E d u c a t i o n assist  held  t h e workshop was  charged  that D i s t r i c t  were  Secondary School,  flyer  be  workshops,  Industrial  a  the  would would  Science  12  Science  12  sessions. A  one-page  report  of  the  workshop found  i n the  session.  r e p o r t expressed  that it  The  "a c o u r s e could  be  BCSTA  Archives  of  t h i s nature  a  "strong" 80  Industrial  the  was  course  summarized  participants'  necessary" in  the  and  the view that  Industrial  Programme. become a that  I t warned  about  permitting  "watered-down" s c i e n c e c o u r s e ,  t o "keep t h e c o u r s e  cooperation  at a high  [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ]  was  suggested  as a  v a l u a b l e approach  nature.  This  echoed  but, on  e n t e r t a i n e d by  as noted  the  i t is  t h e workshop e v e r  reached  report  m a t e r i a l to cover  in  that  no  become  more more  Equipment were  made  in It  additional  workshops  actual  report  concluded  established would year.  was  becomes  obtain  with  the  to  and,  determined  the  teachers  material."  "many  phone  calls  opinion that  be so  whereby  t e a c h e r s of  necessary that  that  some  Industrial  other  "when  teachers  equipment."  expressed  81  12  participants'  recommending  was  i t was  amount  s u p p l i e s and  by  hope  the  locate  with  each  the  Science  present  and  would  practice  for  of  Committee  about  "until  the  available  be a b l e t o h e l p The  added  attempt"  materials.  equipment  concern  were d i s c u s s e d an  f o r a course  that information  Industrial  be  familiar  lists  Team-teaching  science teachers.  for additions,  should  be  science  aspirations  unlikely  did express  despite suggestions  the  the Course Development  above,  The of  departments."  to  suggested  t h e r e must  between  industrial  course  education  and  level  and  this  the course  during t h a t the  (2)  can The  means  be  Science  12  the  school  Industrial  Education  Inspectors  could  handle  this  "clearing  house" f u n c t i o n . Despite  the  workshops  (we  have no  t h e number a t t e n d i n g ) , t e a c h e r s difficulties  with  introductory  year.  had  to o f f e r  12  decided on  March 31,  decision  was  from members" Executive  By  course  "[i]n  providing  of  teachers'  use  of  made " t o g e t  some o f  together have them  expected  the course  February  3,  Science This requests  1967).  The  summer's workshop lab test  be  is  felt  a t t e m p t was t h e men  who  equipment. the  a l s o to laid  some i d e a s o f  taught"  in  (BCSTA,  out how  be the  they  Minutes,  1967).  Along  with  of  this  lack  of  equipment c o n t i n u e d were  held  during  Department of E d u c a t i o n discuss  the  g i v e us to  its  Executive  to  February,  difficulties t h a t an  meetings  BCSTA  response  previous  Executive's decision  shortage  1966/67,  s e s s i o n would overcome some  the  practical  on  experienced  a workshop i n I n d u s t r i a l  t h a t the  by  and  the  (BCSTA N e w s l e t t e r ,  the shortcomings  course  during  February,  apparently  hoped  of  apparently  f o l l o w i n g t h e BCSTA C o n v e n t i o n .  of  A sense  the  information  this  Education, coordinating  and  issue.  Joseph the  The  Jupp, use  understanding, t o be the  spring  BCTF/BCSTA Coordinator  who  was  o f TVTA f u n d s ,  82  a problem  Bill  to  Industrial  responsible and  and  between  officials of  the  for  Allester  of  t h e BCTF, a t t e n d e d  attempt  "to  Industrial to  resolve  Science  an o v e r h e a d  Science  12 e q u i p m e n t  of  problems  meeting  of  i n an  equipment  12." In May, Mr. J u p p a g r e e d  have  TVTA f u n d s  a BCSTA E x e c u t i v e  for  to t r y  p r o j e c t o r added  to the Industrial  list,  that i n using the  but noted  i t was n e c e s s a r y  t o work t o s p e c i f i c  lists  equipment. While  waiting  teachers'  problems  began  tackle  to  teachers of  they  suggested  teachers' Education's  the course, issue.  Duncan  in  the  April  dissatisfaction curriculum  of with  guide,  of  Island  to develop  Science BCSTA  the a  education  1967 a t w h i c h  be s t r u c k  the  to  r e g i o n a l groups  on V a n c o u v e r  f o r Industrial  president  response  Industrial  t h a t a committee  curriculum"  to  provincial  t h e Cowichan d i s t r i c t  a workshop a t  letter  with the  held  "concrete  for a  12.  In a  expressing  Department  teacher  a  from  of the  Duncan workshop w r o t e : A f t e r having the o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e C s i c ] with t h e men c o n c e r n e d a b o u t I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 s e v e r a l f a c t s emerged. The men i n t h i s province a r e well t r a i n e d to teach the practical skills. Now t h a t t h e change t o t e c h n o l o g y has t a k e n p l a c e i t i s c a u s i n g r e a l problems. T h e r e i s no p r e c e d e n t i n t h i s t e a c h i n g a r e a and no a t t e m p t has been made t o provide core m a t e r i a l s t o permit the f i r s t year to be t a u g h t w i t h o u t e n d l e s s h o u r s o f r e s e a r c h . In common w i t h many o t h e r s I have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o my f a m i l y a s w e l l a s my profession. The s o l u t i o n a s I s e e i t i s t o have w r i t i n g teams o r g a n i z e d f o r t h i s summer, h i r e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n NOW. The c o u r s e i s 83  a l r e a d y b r o k e n up i n t o r e l a t e d s e c t i o n s . Mr. Jupp has a l r e a d y c o n c l u d e d a s u r v e y o f t a l e n t . I am s u r e I n s p e c t o r s ' r e p o r t s w i l l p o i n t o u t t h o s e who a r e h a v i n g s u c c e s s i n t h i s f i e l d . T h e s e w r i t i n g teams s h o u l d be p a i d 1 w e e k s [ s i c ] s a l a r y f o r t h e i r p r e p a r a t o r y work. A few d a y s C s i c ] g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n would c l a r i f y t h e aims and then s m a l l e r g r o u p s c o u l d c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r p r e p a t o r y u n i t s i n t o a manual f o r e a c h section. The l a s t few d a y s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o c o - r e l a t e C s i c ] m a t e r i a l . In a l l 10 men o r 12 c o u l d w r i t e the i n i t i a l u n i t s . D e v e l o p m e n t must n o t s t o p h e r e f o r t h e s e u n i t s a r e o n l y i n t r o d u c t o r y and t h e need i s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t of a p a r t i c u l a r study f i e l d . I n i t i a l l y 2 weeks t o g e t h e r w i t h s a l a r y f o r 3 weeks t o c o v e r w r i t i n g t h e u n i t s s h o u l d p r o d u c e significant results. The above i s a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f how t o s t a r t t h e b a l l r o l l i n g i n a p u r p o s e f u l manner. (BCSTA N e w s l e t t e r . May 1967, #2) The after  writer's  the  implementation  amount a l m o s t that  there  states  that  suggestions,  was  no  "endless  precedent hours of  deficiencies  aims  the  clarification  The the  course  and  work would o n l y  in  was that  the  also the  12,  Noting  a course,  reasearch" are  even w i t h new  viewed  he  necessary  the c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . as  The  needing  u n i t s developed,  that  be " i n t r o d u c t o r y " .  Science  12  w r i t e r s to course  BCSTA E x e c u t i v e a t a s p e c i a l which  Science  course.  f o r such  were  i d e a of employing  Industrial  e i g h t months  Industrial  to a p l e a to r e w r i t e the  because of of  of  written  BCTF G e n e r a l present. Department  was  meeting  further  d i s c u s s e d by w i t h Mr.  S e c r e t a r y , Mr.  Mr.  Jupp i n f o r m e d  of 84  Education  develop  Jupp,  Charlie the had  the at  Ovans,  Executive agreed  to  sponsor  a workshop d u r i n g  attended At  by John M e r e d i t h ,  that  writing  t h e summer,  time,  this  the D i r e c t o r of  suggestion  teams f o r I n d u s t r i a l  consideration" The apparently workshop,  of  unwilling felt  t h a t an  to  Industrial  S c i e n c e and  was  necessary.  A proposal  1967,  was  Educational an  School  University  of  university.  Mr.  that  i t  in  the  for  Regan's  field  of  while  85  research study  into  Power this,  at  courses  dated  May  Laboratory Needs by  associations, centred is  support  Regan, 1967  funded  and  #1).  summer  and  for  (LEARN)Vancouver and at  the that  interesting  in  f o r the concept  of  the  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  :  the  the  proposal  strong  Science, many  teacher  1967, Ross  Industrial  group  Victoria,  implies  Industrial delineated  wait  advocating  research  Boards,  1,  BCSTA,  to  further  12 would " r e c e i v e  the  forwarded  be  Curriculum.  employ  May  Advancement, R e s e a r c h  educational  Island  Science  independent  the  4,  to  (BCSTA N e w s l e t t e r ,  President  w h i c h would  same being  time  it  experienced  P r o p o s a l f o r R e s e a r c h S t u d y Programme i n A r e a of I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e and I n d u s t r i a l Power Courses. S u b m i t t e d by R o s s Regan, P r e s i d e n t , B.C. Shop T e a c h e r s ' A s s n . May 4, 1967 Objectives: 1. To c o o r d i n a t e a s p e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l n e e d s and modern  these courses trends.  2. To p r o v e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s of a science course.  with  practical  3. To f u r t h e r d e v e l o p t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s of E n g l i s h , M a t h e m a t i c s , P h y s i c s and o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l education courses.  a  4. To p r o v e t h e need f o r a r e s o u r c e c o u r s e r e l a t e d t o a wide a r e a o f i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h w i l l b e n e f i t most p u p i l s . 5. To i l l u s t r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t u d y r e p o r t s and f a c t u a l o u t l i n e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s and procedures.  Reasons  f o r Suggesting  These  Courses:  1. E q u i p m e n t c o s t s have been l a r g e l y met v i a F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s t o v o c a t i o n a l education. 2. The new c o u r s e s have n o t y e t been p r o v e n i n a p p l i c a t i o n ; t h e r e i s a wide d i s c r e p a n c y i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s . 3. T h e r e i s a m a j o r need f o r a s u c c e s s f u l approach to the i n t e g r a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s i n i n d u s t r y and t h e s c h o o l s and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e r e s p e c t i v e c o n c e p t s i n t h i s f i e l d o f study. 4.  There should  be c o n v e n i e n t 86  c o o r d i n a t i o n of  i n d u s t r i a l p e r s o n n e l and use o f e q u i p m e n t required for e f f e c t i v e learning. 5. T h e r e i s need f o r s u i t a b l e r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l a s t e x t s and work books w h i c h may e v e n t u a l l y be u s e d i n a l l s c h o o l s . Individuals i n v o l v e d l a c k t h e t i m e and e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e d to develop the c o u r s e . 6. T h e r e i s ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o o r d i n a t e r e s o u r c e s o f t e a c h e r s from o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s and d e v e l o p a team a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g the s u b j e c t s . 7. T h e r e i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o f u r t h e r s t u d y p u p i l s l e a r n i n an a r e a w h i c h c o m b i n e s t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e .  how  8. The need e x i s t s f o r more a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n of p u p i l background i n p r a c t i c a l a r e a s f o r t h o s e e n t e r i n g i n d u s t r y upon graduation. 9. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o d e v e l o p s t a t u s o f t h i s d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e e y e s o f p a r e n t s and i n d u s t r y f o r a c c e p t a n c e as a s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e on t h e academic s p e c i a l t i e s . T h i s would p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y to adopt a c r i t i c a l approach to t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of a programme w h i c h c o u l d meet t h e n e e d s o f a l a r g e g r o u p who have t h u s f a r been i g n o r e d i n a d a p t i n g c o u r s e s t o t h e i r s p e c i a l needs.  Funds used f o r : 1.  R e s e a r c h i n t o t h e b e s t means o f t e a c h i n g v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of t h e s e c o u r s e s .  2.  The e x p e n s e s i n c u r r e d i n t h e use persons.  3. I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g these courses.  of  teachers  of  resource  involved in  4. E x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v e t h e b e s t i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s , e.g. f i l m s , slides, projectuals. 87  the  5. W r i t i n g o f a d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l , workbook and c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . 6. D e v e l o p m e n t o f a j o b e x p e r i e n c e pupils in this f i e l d .  plan f o r  7.  required.  Rental  of s p e c i f i c  e q u i p m e n t as  8. F l e x i b l e accommodation student c o n s t r u c t i o n .  planning  - possible  9. H i r i n g o f a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f t o e n s u r e r e a s o n a b l e c l a s s s i z e s (Dr. H. Cannon, C h a i r m a n o f c o u r s e w r i t i n g team s u g g e s t e d c l a s s s i z e of 16.) 10.  Transportation.  Industry  to supply  :  1.  E q u i p m e n t u s e f u l as  2.  A d v i s o r s and  3.  Guides f o r f i e l d  instructional  resource  aids.  persons.  trips.  4. V i s u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n pictures, projectuals.  a i d s as s l i d e s ,  5.  new  Sample m a t e r i a l s and  films,  products.  6. C u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and s t a t i s t i c s on u s e o f m a t e r i a l s and e q u i p m e n t w h i c h i s b e i n g used and tested i n these courses. (BCSTA, M i s c . P a p e r s )  Mr. Science  Regan's s u p p o r t and  Industrial  document, n o t a b l y of  the  Power  i n numbers  the o b j e c t i v e s .  after  f o r the concept  of  Industrial  i s apparent  2 and  4  ("to  in  prove...")  This proposal, written nine  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  88  Industrial  Science  this  months  12,  also  highlights afflict lack of  some  of  the course  of  printed  the  problem  through  team-teaching  confusion  as  the next  to  with  "the  other  best  proposal  something of  the  for this  "was  my  study, own  t h a t came t h r o u g h  BCSTA, he  members t h a t  he  approach  to  centre,  LEARN,  proposal,  of c o o r d i n a t i o n  of  the  teaching",  equipment,  the  and  the  noted  that  sizes.  Interviewed the  : the  disciplines,  means of  years  interpretations  the absence  unfami 1 i a r i t y / u n a v a i l a b i 1 i t y large class  few  r e s o u r c e s , the v a r i e d  the c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e ,  and  a r e a s w h i c h were t o  had  felt  this  submission;  it  t h e BCSTA."  might the  " p a i d no Mr.  Regan  was  have been  course.  attention  Regan c o u l d n o t  not  As P r e s i d e n t  r e c e i v e d s o many c o m p l a i n t s  improving  and  Mr.  a  possible  The  research  whatsoever" recall  from  to  " i f they  the even  responded." In  an  Industrial had  to  Science  12,  planned  mentioned as w i t h deal  effort  Programme,  to  many  of  not  only  As  t o be with  to  the  problems of  Department of  workshops which  t h e BCSTA  w o r k s h o p s were sessions.  the  t h e summer  the p r e v i o u s  with  respond  Education  Mr.  Jupp  Executive in A p r i l .  year, the  these courses  Industrial  the  Science  h e l d a t Kelowna i n two  the p r e v i o u s  89  However,  workshops in  had  were  to  Industrial 12.  The  different  y e a r s ' workshops,  the  Department of E d u c a t i o n be  charged.  the -  Industrial  Junior  21  inclusive,  and  the  indicated  encouraged Junior  circular  with not  the  held  and  July  the  Science  Power  appeal  10  were  courses,  Industrial to  Power,  teachers  half-day  likely  would  announcing  science  were  fees  Industrial  However, I n d u s t r i a l  Programme  arrangement  t h a t no  were t o be  that  to a t t e n d .  taken c o n c u r r e n t l y an  Science,  Programme s e s s i o n s  workshops  the  emphasized  and  to  be  sessions,  to  science  teachers. The  o b j e c t i v e s of  to p r e l i m i n a r y already  t h e workshop seemed more s u i t e d  work r a t h e r  been i m p l e m e n t e d  1. To teach  d e v e l o p the the c o u r s e s  than  f o r at  to courses  least  one  which  had  year:  particular s k i l l s required u s i n g t h e new e q u i p m e n t .  to  2. To examine and e s t a b l i s h c u r r e n t methods i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s to the s t u d e n t s . 3. To d e v e l o p an a p p r o a c h t o t h e new programmes w i t h i n t h e t e r m s of a r e s o u r c e c o u r s e . 4. To i n t e r p r e t t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f I n d u s t r i a l Programme. (BCSTA, N e w s l e t t e r . May 1, 1967) Despite  the  a p p a r e n t need  f o r such workshops,  Kelowna s e s s i o n s  had  applicants;  pre-registration  Department numbered Again,  the of  only  the  t o be  Education eight  mid-July  teachers  c a n c e l l e d due  to a  received  for  Industrial  (AR,  1966/67,  scheduling  90  the  might  be  lack by  the of the  Science p.  assumed  F86). to  be  at  least  The  partially  Department  responsible  of  that  in  lieu  would  be  complied  the  be  workshops, and  the  develop Power  Annual  provide  and  Science  the  schools.  (4)  the  absence  of  direction  an 12  to and  Industrial possible  costs  manual."  This  Industrial  Science  names were n o t the  Industrial  Although members, science  on  in main  plans 12  t e a c h e r s who  courses  "to f u r t h e r Industrial  up  year  concern  of  t o $200."  of  t o do  to develop  resource  and  a  asked  to n o t i f y  of  58  were  12.  91  year  in  circulated  The  October  with  respect "needs  material  and  list  of  those  whose  58  of  Angus F r a s e r . only  t o BCSTA  teachers did include a teaching  was  provide  the Chairman  Committee, Mr. was  on  determine the  included  teachers list  a survey  to  work  t h e BCSTA  teachers.  and  Science  list  a plan  as  indicated  m a t e r i a l which c o u l d  this newsletter the  BCSTA  1967/68, i t s s e c o n d  newsletter  the  left  distribution  materials for  individual  Science  I t was  and  intensive  resource  N e w s 1 e t t e r announced  "suggestions"  (3)  the  approved  Science  The  for  of  learning  Industrial  Industrial  stated  the Department of E d u c a t i o n ,  had  BCSTA began  response.  Report  teaching  compilation  Report  Executive  and  The  by  low  Annual  distributed.  this  undertaken  June 1967  that  Education's  of  ambiguous whether would  f o r the  Industrial  few  Science  Mr.  Fraser reported  O c t o b e r 20 funding  meeting,  of  Science  up  at  to  resource  t o t h e BCSTA E x e c u t i v e which  $100.  group".  to The  time set  at i t s  they  authorized  an  "Industrial  up  minutes noted  that :  [Mr. F r a s e r ] has d e f i n e d h i s o b j e c t i v e s and i s c i r c u l a r i z i n g a l l Industrial Science t e a c h e r s a s k i n g what h e l p t h e y can o f f e r o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n t h e way o f i n n o v a t i o n s and r e s o u r c e materials. A f t e r these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are r e t u r n e d he i n t e n d s c a l l i n g t o g e t h e r a s m a l l g r o u p of i n t e r e s t e d t e a c h e r s t o s o r t , a s s e m b l e and d i s t r i b u t e t h a t w h i c h t h e g r o u p c o n s i d e r s pertinent. (BCSTA M i n u t e s , O c t o b e r 20, 1967) The the  November N e w s l e t t e r  establishment  encouraging having  It  Directors for  with  the  noted part  also  of  the  this  responses,  trouble  course."  of  notified  committee that  of  the  announced BCTF had  distribution  of  BCSTA members o f and,  in  "[e]verybody  is  Industrial  that  the  Science  Curriculum  pledged  financial  material  received  support by  the  committee. The letter taught  Industrial and  survey  the c o u r s e  recipients  who  were  present  teacher,  gather  during  asked  The  curriculum  Committee  instrument  were  Science  Education".  Science  to  its first  no  longer  to  pass  "be  he  primary  92  teachers year,  the Science  which  a  who  had  1966/67.  The  teaching  purpose of  materials  directed  survey or  Industrial on  the  Industrial  the survey could  to  be  was  to  made  available expressed Science  to  a l l teachers.  Mr.  t h e BCSTA's p r a g m a t i c  Fraser's  letter  view o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l  situation:  The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s u r v e y i s t o a c c e p t t h e I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e c o u r s e i n i t s p r e s e n t form and w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h i s framework t o p r o v i d e the a s s i s t a n c e n e c e s s a r y t o t h e t e a c h e r t o o f f e r an i n t e r e s t i n g and c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o g r a m . R e g a r d l e s s o f whether changes i n t h e c o u r s e a r e needed o r n o t I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e w i l l c o n t i n u e i n i t s p r e s e n t form f o r a t l e a s t two o r t h r e e more y e a r s . W i t h t h i s i n mind any r e q u e s t f o r c r i t i c i s m s have been o m i t t e d . . . . F o r t h i s program t o work, e v e r y o n e ' s c o o p e r a t i o n i s needed. No m a t t e r how s m a l l y o u r c o n t r i b u t i o n i s , i t w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d . We c a n o n l y g e t h e l p i f we h e l p o u r s e l v e s . ( L e t t e r , November 3, 1967) Implicit teachers  felt  Industrial present [it]  in a  major  Science  form";  will  Mr. F r a s e r ' s  12  comments i s t h a t many  change -  "...  was  to accept  "...whether c h a n g e s  continue  f o r at  y e a r s " . He e x p l i c i t l y  required  least  in  ... i n i t s  a r e needed  or not  two o r t h r e e more  points out that c r i t i c i s m  i s not  requested. This negative  r e a c t i o n by t e a c h e r s  Science  12 became an  General  Meeting.  Industrial  Science  issue at  After  t h e BCSTA  to Industrial Fall  Annual  r e p o r t i n g on t h e work o f t h e  Committee,  t h e m i n u t e s commented  :  Some t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t t h e c o u r s e c a n n o t s u c c e e d and a r e t a k i n g a c o m p l e t e l y n e g a t i v e view t o " t r y i n g t o p r o l o n g i t s l i f e " . Gus [Mr. F r a s e r ] , f o r t u n a t e l y has t a k e n t h e p o s i t i v e view. The c o u r s e i s b e i n g o f f e r e d , most t e a c h e r s a r e h a v i n g p r o b l e m s o f one k i n d o r 93  a n o t h e r , s o l e t s [ s i c ] make t h e c o u r s e work through i n t e r n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . (BCSTA M i n u t e s , November 24, 1967, p. 2)  The  response  to  Committee's survey  BCSTA  was v e r y  follow-up  letter  that only  15 r e s p o n s e s  and  the  poor.  on J a n u a r y  5,  the  Mr. F r a s e r s e n t a  1968,  material  received.  received  the committee,  b u t twenty  27  from  meeting  session  a t t h e BCTF b u i l d i n g .  newsletter  the course  report of  o f who s h o u l d  that  team  education Industrial  approach  teachers Science.  districts,  passed  should  Newsletter•  strongly that  the important  the course,  and c o n c l u d e d  science  which  e q u i p m e n t and f a c i l i t i e s " 94  that  to  be  be  noted  (5)  be made i n t e r e s t i n g and  and  stated offered  were  industrial  t h e b e s t way t o h a n d l e "  motion, d i r e c t e d  not  (four  the January  The p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g  and a  was  of  "would  were d i s c u s s e d  Science  teach  finally  r e s u l t s of t h i s  felt  The g r o u p a l s o r e t u r n e d  question  no  I n t e r i o r , and  the meeting  present  was good and c o u l d  meaningful".  The  is  teachers  the  i n the February  a l l of the teachers  a  from  were  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d ) a t t e n d e d  were r e p o r t e d  The "almost  Island, three  27 t o  There  responses  rest  reported  January  many  the  which  on  on  from Vancouver  how  meet  information by  Science  had been r e c e i v e d o f 80 m a i l e d ,  t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e would  compile  Industrial  equipment  t o s c h o o l s and that  unless  provided.  Industrial "minimum  The  c h o i c e of  the  teachers  the  Department  present  Wayne, 1962) condition list a  of  as an  industrial The  of  26  Mr.  S m i t h and  Executive  that  commissioned for  He  noted  course  Industrial  of  m e e t i n g , Mr. unspoken  a  Jupp  two  (7)  by and  12,  Technical  Advisors,  Jupp informed  of  Education  would  teachers  "a  stated  had  the  also  to the  w h i c h would  write  the  and  an  emphasized  the  Science again  man  approach. one  "an  course."  of  Industrial  At  The boy on t h e i n d u s t r i a l Programme p o s s i b l y can n o t h a n d l e an a c a d e m i c  this  the h i t h e r t o Science  course:  95  the  be  and  of  Industrial  which  team-teaching also  Science  course  two-man team  man"  of  on  of a correspondence  new  of  meeting  Industrial  Mr.  Department  writing  assumptions  textbook  teachers  a special  to the  the  comprised  importance  the  &  the  been p r e p a r e d  science  held  Tidmarsh.  Education  has  to  (Olivo  attached  from  the C o o r d i n a t o r  to a s s i s t  t h a t the was  - with  Science  guide  and  (6)  prior  the  the  Industrial  excellent  replacement  J u p p , and Mr.  removed  industrial  - t h e day  Education, Mr.  book be  Executive  Committee m e e t i n g  suggestion  i n t e r i m measure, but  consultants." BCSTA  also discussed,  g a v e a lukewarm e n d o r s e m e n t  a suitable  committee  was  Education's  " t h a t the  after  January  a textbook  who s c i e n ce  12  course i s able to get c r e d i t his transcript.  f o r a s c i e n c e on  (BCSTA, M i n u t e s , J a n u a r y 26, 1968, However l a u d a b l e t h i s was  doomed  to  institution  in  intention  failure  the  when  Technology,  may have been, i t no  province,  p.l)  post-secondary  including  Institute  of  would  agree  Industrial  S c i e n c e 12 a s a s c i e n c e  credit.  As a r e s u l t Industrial  Science  survey;  equipment  their  Science  Industrial second  of  January  Committee Resource  t h i s one  27  to  accept  called  Committee)  the  developed a  t h e adequacy  and r e s o u r c e s i n t h e s c h o o l s  BC  meeting, the  (now  to determine  the  of  for Industrial  S c i e n c e . (8) The  results,  report,  showed  present  made a v a i l a b l e a  marked  facilities  i n a March 22, 1968  dissatisfaction  and e q u i p m e n t .  The r e t u r n  the  questionnaire  was 64 7. (54  76  7.  responses i n d i c a t e d  of  those  were p a r t i a l l y , o r t o t a l l y , to  the  supplies  question, and  "Do  equipment  o f 84  and  feel  ranged  answered  from c o m p l e t e  in  the  which  In r e s p o n s e  you have s u f f i c i e n t  adequate  f a c i l i t i e s to  affirmative.  satisfaction  rate f o r  facilities  t e a c h a m e a n i n g f u l l [ s i c ] c o u r s e ?", o n l y responses  the  r e s p o n d e d ) , and  unequipped.  you  with  22 o f t h e 54 Comments  :  [w]e have been a f f o r d e d c o m p l e t e freedom t o g e t the f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e c o u r s e . No c o m p l a i n t s a t a l l . New l a b p r o v i d e d . 96  to  the d e s p a i r i n g : t h e s e c l a s s e s a r e b e i n g t a u g h t i n a Home E c . Sewing room and a S e n i o r Wood shop - e q u i p m e n t borrowed from S c i e n c e on a p e r i o d b a s i s . (BCSTA, M i s c . P a p e r s )  The  committee's  concern  must be  report shown  concluded  by  both  authorities  in establishing  Science  no  TVTA  12;  funds  traditional The were  Meeting  r e s u l t s of to  of  the  recommended  wide  notification The  dropping  the  available,  and  i t was  school  not  going  the  was  upcoming  following  year.  m o t i o n was  the  as  use  of  opposed  to  a t the S p r i n g  of  22. the  "serious  where  (9)  Industrial  by  meeting that  Education.  d i s c u s s i o n " about  t h a t one  After  carried  of  facilities  reported to o f f e r  The  General  r e s u l t s and  the Department  noted  course  Industrial  facilities.  March  distribution  also  the  on  to  provincial  labs for about  more  e q u i p m e n t / f a c i 1 i t i e s survey  members  BCSTA  that  and  Science,  education,  this  be s e n t  minutes  proper  Industrial  industrial  brought  local  q u e s t i o n s were r a i s e d  for  only  were  not  (unidentified) Science  12 i n  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the  the assembly  :  t h a t no I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r a c c e p t a p o s i t i o n t o t e a c h I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e where a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s and e q u i p m e n t do n o t e x i s t . (BCSTA, M i n u t e s , March 22, 1968, p . l ) The material to  p r o b l e m s of  lack  continued,  and  meet w i t h  the  of  equipment  and  t h e BCSTA E x e c u t i v e  C o o r d i n a t o r of 97  Industrial  resource continued Education  and  t h e T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s i n an e f f o r t t o r e s o l v e t h e  problems. they  The T e c h n i c a l  began  their  attempt  Industrial  Science  industrial  education  the  course lab  which  c h a n g e d , and  provide assistance to  The m a j o r  complaint of  t e a c h e r s who  taught  f o r them w i t h  respect to the l a b  were t o  - prompted  manual  to  teachers.  lack of d i r e c t i o n  activities  Advisors' role  have been  the heart of the  the Technical Advisors  i n 1969.  T h i s manual  the course-  to publish a  had been d e v e l o p e d  a t e a c h e r , Gary t i o t t , who was a s t r o n g a d v o c a t e course the  and  operated  best  Industrial  province.  was c o n s i d e r e d  Science  Mott's  instructions, experiments many o f  what  with which  the  manual  provided  Industrial by  the  beginning  an  extended  improve  major  Industrial  Department o f and step  of  various  much-needed 12  Technical  teachers.  on  lab  direction for  Advisors  effort  detailed  Its  marked t h e  their  part to  the course.  That with  i n the  offered  Science  of the  t o be one o f  courses  photographs,  distribution of  12  by  1970/71. of  difficulties Science  12  Education's  was  discussing  i t s  corresponded  with  this  made  Annual  B o t h r e p o r t s took  mentioning  were b e i n g  course  i n the  f o r 1969/70  the extremely  beginning 98  obvious  Reports  difficulties. the  experienced  unusual  specifically Those of  and  comments  the curriculum  efforts it  by  was  the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s .  noted  that  undertaken  with  throughout  the  w o r k s h o p s had year's  "considerable view  to  province. been  AFR  with  indirectly  s c h o o l s and  had  AR, been  zone w o r k s h o p s  previous attempts  provincial  in  scope.)  however,  the  next  was  being  Industrial  at  some  the course effort  t e a c h e r s to improve  The  expressed  the d i f f i c u l t i e s questioned  1969/70  study"  holding  (The  (1970/71),  exasperation and  a  In t h e  in  made by  Science  12:  I t has become o b v i o u s t h e I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 course i n t r o d u c e d i n the S e n i o r Secondary program i n 1965 was r e c e i v i n g l i t t l e o r no a t t e n t i o n i n some s c h o o l s where a s [ s i c ] i n a v e r y few s c h o o l s a d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t was b e i n g made t o o f f e r an e f f e c t i v e c o u r s e . (AR, 1970/71, p. C68)  The  major e f f o r t s of  implementation the  first  ceased  association meetings.  either course  be  a  major  and  the course  Apparently, had  reached  through over  willingness Department felt  Industrial  t h r e e y e a r s . The  to  teachers  of  that  the  one  Science  to 12  further  subsided  topic  of  concern  s e l d o m was  after  schools  and  accomodation with  teacher's  for  mentioned  or  at i t s  the c o u r s e with  the  i t  had  A s s o c i a t i o n may  accomplished  99  all  it  :  the  school's  t o p r e v a r i c a t e when r e p o r t i n g marks t o 9 ) . The  the  individual  experience  the p r e v i o u s t h r e e y e a r s ,  (see note  the  BCSTA a r c h i v e s show t h a t i t  some  an  BCSTA  the  also  have  could  with  respect turn  to I n d u s t r i a l  its  a t t e n t i o n to  Industrial from cannot  involvment  Technical  Science  The to  Coordinator prior  of  12  1971,  Their  stated  expressed  to  aspects  of  the  gradual  that  aims i n  various the  the  12.  announced  Science  through  leading  role  12 was its in  the  devoted  Departmental  that  they  intended  Science  doing  reflect  which  the  Course  workshops, previous  few  and years  1. t o d e t e r m i n e and s p e c i f y Industrial Science. 2. t o p r o d u c e an e s s e n t i a l match t h a t c o r e .  and  many o f  the  Development BCSTA  had  : core  for  of equipment  3. t o c o m p i l e and d i s t r i b u t e a book o f Industrial Science resource material. 4. t o d e m o n s t r a t e u s e f u l I n d u s t r i a l u n i t s a t D i s t r i c t Workshops.  Science  5. t o c o n s i d e r ways and means o f s c h e d u l i n g I n d u s t r i a l Science i n small schools or with small enrollments. ( i e , 71. (1) n.p. ) 100  to  problems."  the  a valid list  the  "to give  p e r i o d of J a n u a r y  Industrial this  much o f  Their  Education  [ s i c ] during the  withdrawal  the course  Advisors  Science  [sic],  to  over  need  Industrial  over  Technical  objectives  Committee,  the  trouble-shooting.  Industrial  attention  June,  same  two  ie_  other  meaning  took  Industrial  newsletter,  saw  Department of E d u c a t i o n ,  Advisors,  Industrial  1971  The  and  BCSTA's with  i n t e r p r e t e d as  problem-free.  12  t h e many  Programme. The  active be  Science  to  This was t o This  first  i s s u e of  investigate survey  opportunity were f e l t  the  would to  provide  could  recommend  Science".  reorganization, Industrial  so  noted  instructors  of  more p o s i t i v e  direction."  appropriate  equipment."  Advisors  as  the orphan  the  also and  areas  of The  require[d]  required "at some  used  adequate  to describe i t s  Education to  1965  concern" i n  "invariably  phrase,  referred  that  Power c o u r s e s . "  They  the I n d u s t r i a l  Technical "truly  "in  facilities  In a t e l l i n g  place within  been  courses  the  greatest  and I n d u s t r i a l  these  which  for Industrial  since  the  had  the  the u n i t s  content  that  "[e]asily  Science  with  the Technical Advisors  valid  Education  Industrial  " t o pan  that  "a more  They  teachers  and  which  of the course.  on t h e c u r r i c u l u m a r e a s  t o be i m p o r t a n t  inappropriate"  a survey  problem a r e a s  decide  seem  least  ie_ announced  programme, t h e  Industrial  since i t sinception"  Science  12  ( i e , 71 {1},  n . p. ) . The  T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s noted  difficulty  for Industrial  "newness" o f  the  provided  "initial  the  experience direction nature  i n the  Science  course  and  roadblock".  field  themselves,  courses.  A 101  areas of  12 i n s t r u c t o r s .  lack  i n other j u r i s d i c t i o n s  of the  t h r e e main  of  a  precedent,  Teachers, could  The  without not f i n d  because of the unique  second  major  difficulty  noted  by  Science the  the  was  rarely  teacher,  who  accompanying Science,  T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s was the major a r e a would  shop  notion  science  of  instructing Industrial  planning  set  subject."  up  established  a result  workshops  in  throughout  the  154  teachers  of  "the  workshops,  the  a  were a v a i l a b l e .  workshops, developed Industrial  a by  in  large teachers  Science  for  given  the  last  use  of  some  into  other  Advisors'  matter of  (10)  efforts,  1971,  held with The  topics discussed, (p.  D30)-  for  debate.  At  these  the  Technical  Advisors'  collection  a of  field  R e s o u r c e Committee  102  odds."  science"  As  the  of  had  1970/71, p. Ch8) .  (AR_,  in  who  were f i n a l l y  the S p r i n g  a  major  " [ a ] g a i n s t a l l the  industrial  results  Finally,  "crowded  t h a t , among t h e of  teachers,  and  Science  taking part  still  survey  course  province  apparently  (The  a l s o p r a i s e d those  Industrial  future  preparation."  mentioned.)  the T e c h n i c a l  1971/72 AR_ r e p o r t e d was  "a  being  used  and  receive  u s u a l l y be  Advisors  effective  of  Industrial  o r a team o f  not  often  and  The  not  time-tabling  facilities/equipment, facility  was  would  in  area.  and  teachers,  Science  responsibility  trades could  the c o u r s e  consideration  As  a  consequently, degree of  Industrial  have a m a j o r s u b j e c t a r e a  in  justifiable  of  that  result resource (which had  of  these  material the  BCSTA  attempted  in  1968)  was a s s e m b l e d  through  efforts  the  t o improve  time,  decided  the  that  Education before,  was i n need  Naylor,  Education made  "evaluate,  the  specific n.d.).  of  course  improvement objectives"  Education to (p.  Industrial throughout Advisory  the  Committee.  a t t h a t time,  W.B.  purpose  the I n d u s t r i a l  indeed  result  i nthe  to  undertake  (BCTF, Pro.D.,  bulletin,  that the I n d u s t r i a l  Committee courses  The  " t h e recommendations  AR announced  meet  and  the  would  review a l l  recommend current  "necessary educational  D29). Science period  Committee's  determined  to serve  committees  revisions"  Advisory  Industrial  nominees  revise"  might  other  The 1971/72  Education  o f 1970,  Advisory  that  years  September  sought  not  but  committee  establishment  five  t h e BCTF t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s  programme,  by  Industrial  just  D i r e c t o r of Curriculum  to  had a l r e a d y  entire  In  making  12 c o u r s e a t  of Education  of review.  Education  were  Science  reorganized  of Education  informed be  Advisors  province's  programme,  Department's  soon  Department  to teachers  office.  the I n d u s t r i a l  Industrial  would  available  Technical  the  t h e Department on an  made  the Technical Advisors'  Although  this  and  12 of  continued the  changes  103  the schools  Industrial  deliberations,  that  in  to  but the  Education  t h e Committee course  were  necessary.  In t h e Autumn  Industrial  Education  workshops a t which to  replace  i.e.,  11  (BCSTA, N e w s l e t t e r ,  Ballard,  Industrial its  introduction  was  Department  of  Technology  11  and  Education, of of  Power  This  Curriculum  Guide  that  courses  (p.167).  "Technology"  f o r Industrial G.O.  to replace  s i x years  Science  after  only  Technology (1977).  in This  could  develop  be  their  104  1976.  The  of  new  previous  the  Industrial (Industrial  with  t h e Department  of l o c a l  interpretation  a  brief,  the Industrial  four—page Education  d i s c u s s i o n pointed out "as  (p.169);  c o n t r a s t with  the Industrial  courses"  In l i n e  was  of until  to the  experiences"  In  Science,  s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were t o  new p h i l o s o p h y there  to  (The  description  and 12 c o u r s e s  of  "expected  courses  be d i s c u s s e d  decision  completed  1977, p. 1 6 7 ) .  teachers'  to  made j u s t  Education's  discussion  the  new  by a BCSTA member,  reorganization  Industrial  courses,  concerning  i n September, 1966.  not  Education's  was  suggested  " i n t r o d u c e a new a p p r o a c h Power  12"  been  12 was  T h i s complete programme  of proposed  1972).  i n 1969.)  Science  t h e BCSTA  Dec. 7,  Industrial  early  Coordinator of  Power and I n d u s t r i a l and  had f i r s t  and  to  the "format  Technology  Science  wrote  Industrial  appellation  o f 1972, t h e  diversified  as the  teachers  were  own p a r t i c u l a r  the approach  courses"  of ten years  earlier, 11 and  "[t]he  12] becomes  operating The  that  was  Technical  policies."  Education  d i d not  successful  continue This  within d i s t r i c t  course  course  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Industrial  Technology and  development of each  under  the  in  keeping  new  of the school  (p.12)  Guide  noted  necessarily  Industrial  have  that the t o be new  Science courses could  designation,  with  [ i n grades  the  "Technology".  advice given  A d v i s o r s i n a 1976 e d i t i o n  by t h e  o f ie_ :  I f y o u r p o p u l a r I n d u s t r i a l Power program c o n t i n u e s , c a l l i t T e c h n o l o g y 11. If your e x c e p t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 program c o n t i n u e s , c a l l i t T e c h n o l o g y 12. [ e m p h a s i s added] ( i e , 1976, n.d.,n.p.)  Among t h e g r e a t e s t i m p e d i m e n t s t o t h e Industrial  Science  contradictory, to  be.  12  was  Committee show, some o f  of the Course  the developers  typically  The  e m p h a s i s on t h e " p r a c t i c a l "  was f o u n d  as simply  as a n e c e s s a r y  often  Development  openly  as s c i e n c e f o r the l o w e r — a c h i e v i n g  who  viewed  confused,  c o n c e p t i o n o f what t h e c o u r s e was meant  As t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s  the course  the  success of  i n the  Industrial  student  Programme.  and " c o n c r e t e " was n o t  an a l t e r n a t e mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n , b u t  means o f i n s t r u c t i n g  poorly motivated  viewed  Industrial  105  the s e m i - l i t e r a t e ,  Programme  students.  Yet  o t h e r s who did  worked on t h e C o u r s e D e v e l o p m e n t  not share  Industrial  t h i s viewpoint.  Science  science course, studies,  the  12  perhaps  T h i s ambiguity  areas two  rigorous applied  precursor  nature  conceived  to engineering  o f w h i c h would  almost  was n e v e r  Committee.  opposing  r e s o l v e d by  the Course  While committee minutes  camps s e p a r a t e d  I f one "camp" c a n be s a i d  was  those  limitations student. reading  who  the  The n a t u r e level  Science  and  12 i n t o  questions  of  meetings  was  o b j e c t i v e s of general,  vocational  lab  of  education and t h e  of  Course  Development  followed  Industrial  One  teachers  of  in  s u r v e y s and  the  g o a l s and  The s c h o o l , and s o c i e t y i n education  imparting  to i t s t y p i c a l  106  the r e c u r r i n g  their  understanding  industrial  training  t h e academic  activities  the  Department  of  that  course.  the course.  role  have s a i d  t e x t were s e e n a s i n a p p r o p r i a t e  t h e shop that  recalled  unbridgable  industrial  the schools.  expected  traditional  12 would understand  the  aims  the  by an  noted  t o have p r e v a i l e d , t h e  typical  Education  ambiguous  Committee  not  of  of the  an I n d u s t r i a l The  Science  did  of  differ  i n k i n d , but n o t degree.  teachers of I n d u s t r i a l  for  more  they  o f "much d i s c u s s i o n " , c o m m i t t e e members  gulf.  it  a  a  practical  from a c a d e m i c c o u r s e s  Development  as  Instead,  Committee  to maintain i t s  v o c a t i o n a l and s e m i clientele.  How  was  this  to  be  objectives  r e c o n c i l e d with of  responsible called 12  the  for  new  course?  implementing  f o r more d i r e c t i o n  f i t  into  the a p p a r e n t l y  the  as  overall  ambiguous  Those  the c o u r s e  who  were  continually  t o how  Industrial  goals  of  the  Science  Industrial  Programme. The  haste  exacerbated 12.  Amid  the  little  The  predominant.  of  Industrial  Programme t o  Industrial  entire  high  be  spared  for  the  to r e c e i v e the  This i s ironic  t h e magic guidelines.  12 50 A  written  the  implement  Science  this  of  was  to  could  to  thereby  was  remembered  course  changes  and  time  rush  Programme, and  TVTA  the  wholesale  courses,  programme,  with  which  the e q u i v o c a l n a t u r e  education  course.  in  the  new  pushed 7. l e v e l  industrial  the  school the  funding, existence  Industrial  r e q u i r e d to  teacher  push f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  at  one  Industrial  federal  i n t h a t the  Science  that  comply time  :  They knew i t had t o be implemented b e c a u s e o f t h e f e d e r a l f u n d s . . . . I n f a c t , one of t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n people f i n a l l y t o l d them [BCSTA] a t one t i m e - when i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s were t r y i n g t o d e l a y t h e implementation and s a y i n g t h e y needed more t i m e to d e v e l o p t h i s - he s a i d , " W e l l , t a k e o u t y o u r t i m e t a b l e and y o u r t i d e s t a b l e , and you c o u l d look up on September 2 what t i m e t h e t i d e i s coming i n , and I'm g o i n g t o t e l l you t h a t t h e t i d e i s coming i n on September 2 and t h e c o u r s e i s g o i n g t o go !" (Regan I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 13, 1984)  107  The  students  respond  positively  expectation around  of  for  to  the  industrial  include  one  of the t h i n g s they  education  l a b o r a t o r y work  academic  expressed  not  the  enjoy  teachers  who  oriented  courses  student  the  had  The  interest,  a  Industrial An  science  of  of  by  the  Science  12 a s an  The little  12  encouraged  exception.  the course an  In  much a s  adjunct  their  to  in  students'  the  was i t s n o n a c c e p t a n c e a s a  Institute  Technology  which and  of were  vocational  acceptable science student  of  Industrial Lacking  dissipated.  dearth of resource m a t e r i a l f o r teachers  background  in  the  108  subject,  for  training in  credit.  motivation  Not  or the  responsible  recognized completion  incentive,  unfavorable  institutions.  technical  Columbia,  this  Science  post-secondary  institutes,  British  even  students d i d  number o f y e a r s  factor  the p r o v i n c i a l  most  teachers  activity-  simply  the course  credit  vocational  behind i n  a l l  that  was  Programme.  additional  perception  even  as  Science  had l e f t  b u t t h e s e were t h e  did,  s h o p , and d i d  effective,  most s c h o o l s , s t u d e n t s v i e w e d instructors  revolved  Industrial  developed over  courses  Almost  opinion  course.  Their  i n the  assumed t h e y  12 d i d n o t  either.  in science.  programme.  interviewed  Science  course  "making" t h i n g s , w o r k i n g  not  the  Industrial  which  with  t h e BCSTA  tried  to  course's did  alleviate, failure.  was  When  the  with  was  teachers,  perhaps because  course  within  was  also  the of  the  Education  sessions after  became a p p a r e n t , industrial their  confusion  the Department  teachers Science  12.  The  the  little  education  reaction  of  Industrial  to  the  Technical  The  responsibility  for  support  with  Vocational Department Presented  and  Advisors  had  been  C l a s s e s whose r o l e was  just  position  had  of  Coordinator  of  been e s t a b l i s h e d t o a c t  as  of  Labour the  avenues through the Department priority  began  area,  problems  worked on  new  which  four years  successful  curriculum.  Curriculum  with  Other  not  to  shortage,  or  The  the  D i r e c t o r of  mainly  with  course,  teachers  seek g u i d a n c e . Industrial  By  the  1970/71,  had  a l r e a d y determined also  i t s history  mitigated of  had  few  the  time  Science  in  Industrial  12  over  as the  i t s fate. against Science  i n some s c h o o l s t h e c o m p l e t e  109  for  a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programmes.  to view  implementation  for  Industrial  among t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government  funding  previous  to  Education  Technical  Education  as  difficulty  two  - inspection.  liaison  of  experiencing  Inspectors  TVTA  by  of  of  noted p r e v i o u s l y .  There  that  shown  aspect  Department  the course  interest  The  important  t r y t o p r o v i d e summer i n s e r v i c e  difficulties  a  an  lack,  the 12. of  equipment noted  f o r an  by t e a c h e r s .  availability TVTA, w h i c h  the  possible.  the  responsibility of  traditional  vocationa1-type  Science  education" perceived  as  of the l o c a l  of  Industrial  Science  and  education  teachers  many  a  forthis  novel  t o t h e more  requirements  of the  " s c i e n c e " and an  "industrial  also  with  respect  responsible  12 a s  both  remarkably the of  a  the  and  ambiguous  yet this  the merits of d i d not  of secondary  The  upshot  industrial  responsibility  school  was t h a t education  f o r the course.  the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l  110  industrial  designation  the r e a l i t i e s  nor  officials  course,  rare. Despite  science  categorized  Department  science  team-teaching  The  s c i e n c e and i n d u s t r i a l  and  of  f o r the  to the course.  initially  neither  1967,  The  Industrial  organization.  departments f e l t  districts.  nature  departmental the  was  school  was  virtues  a proposal,  recognize  12  of  developers  the  was  Science  of the funds  equipment  Education  extolled  occurrence  d e s p i t e the  o f t e n was s u b j u g a t e d  both  confusion  The  was o f t e n  courses.  course  education.  was  Industrial  understandable  Department  such  of  interdisciplinary 12  course  u n d e r Program One o f t h e  The d i s b u r s e m e n t  course and  The  funds  facilities  enigmatic  shortage  existence  made  provision  science  This  of federal  had  and  applied  Science  By  12 a s a  science  course  had  D e p a r t m e n t and education  i t was  science  but  the  was  of  somewhat  students  with  the  from  task.  slower  such One  a  as an  by  the  industrial  course  industrial  to  the  unwillingness and  the  their (11)  ability  usually  industrial as  to  teachers  without education  whether  There  teachers  the  "too  properly  commented  of  were e x c u s e d  destroying i t s special teacher  of  disdained  education  could  to  Others  level  that science teachers  hand,  lack  t e a c h e r s worked.  and  of  Many s p o k e  education.  of  held  absence  course.  students  students  science  interviewed  teachers'  science  suspicion  theoretical"  the  industrial enviously  the other  expressed  brightest  opinion  teaching  On  solely  attitudes  science  whom  a definite  the  dropped  teachers  instructing  of  understanding spoke  education  teachers  any  listed  conflicting  disparagingly teach  quietly  course.  Industrial curiously  been  teach  nature.  :  P e o p l e d o n ' t change v e r y much i n a s h o r t p e r i o d of t i m e and t h o s e who had been t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e f o r y e a r s , t h e y went ahead w i t h what t h e y knew. I t ' s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o have any d e p t h o f i n s i g h t i n t o what s h o p s do. They j u s t don't understand. ( S e a l I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 23, 1984)  Another  observed:  I d o n ' t t h i n k i t has t o be t a u g h t by a shop t e a c h e r , but i t would be b e s t t a u g h t by a shop t e a c h e r . A l o t o f t h e s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s have 111  n e v e r worked - I mean o t h e r than t e a c h i n g - and t h e y were s u c c e s s f u l t h r o u g h s c h o o l . They t a k e f i v e y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y and t h e y ' r e r i g h t back in school again. And t h e y r e a l l y d o n ' t have any p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e s t u f f t h e y teach. ( W r i n c h I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 1984)  A  certain  education  pride  teachers'  felt  teachers  found  whom o t h e r course  practical  whole,  industrial  Industrial within  and,  Nevertheless,  did  not  desiring  of  assignments It  was  not  "the  on  f e l l o w who  a popular  course  students  t o keep  were  On felt  better  the the that  served  department. to  into  the course  and  teachers  industrial  the course.  industrial  worthwhile.  desire  translate  to teach  "foisting"  difficult,  education  the  in  to i n s t r u c t  students  the  within often  ability  hence,  12  industrial  12  evident  education  Science  the  Science  was  keep  Industrial  education  department  individual  teachers'  Many t e a c h e r s n o t e d to  the j u n i o r  could  least  teachers'  handle  among i n d u s t r i a l  the  it".  education  teachers: I t was c o n s i d e r e d a dog o f a c o u r s e so i t was g i v e n t o t h e j u n i o r guy as much as p o s s i b l e i n a l o t o f c a s e s , and so i t k e p t c h a n g i n g from teacher to teacher to teacher. ( W r i n c h I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 1984) At  the  time,  were t r a d e s m e n programme  to  who  most  industrial  had  qualify  education  undertaken as 112  teachers.  an  teachers  "accelerated"  Their  programme  would c o n c e n t r a t e areas.  Many,  since  high  related  not having  school,  instructing preferred  on c o u r s e s  a  to  did  science teach  area  training.  Indeed,  programme  and  studied science not  feel  course.  their  which  i n pedagogy and t e c h n i c a l  the  school  confident  As t r a d e s m e n ,  own  they  themselves  specialty  area  had s t u d i e d d u r i n g  structure  of  departments  in they or a  teacher  the i n d u s t r i a l  was based on  this  specialization. T h a t was t h e p r o b l e m . You s e e , most o f u s would t a k e a d o u b l e I . E . m a j o r - when I went t h r o u g h i t was a l w a y s Wood and M e t a l , and you g o t m i n i m a l e l e c t r o n i c s and a l i t t l e b i t o f d r a f t i n g . And s o when you were a p p o i n t e d t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l y o u had a Woodwork l o a d , l e t ' s s a y , and i f t h e r e wasn't q u i t e enough and t h e y needed some I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , t h e y ' d s a y , "Hey, S m i t h , y o u ' r e t e a c h i n g I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e n e x t y e a r . " W e l l , S m i t h wasn't p r e p a r e d f o r i t . ( W r i n c h I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 1984) (12)  Industrial of  responsibility  areas the  Science -  that  - and c o n s e q u e n t l y teacher.  burden,  In  the course  teachers  each  an was  year.  this  resource  development  The  would  resulted  ultimately  received  sealed  main  area  be one o f t h e t r a d e less  a t t e n t i o n by  effort  to share  the perceived  often  assigned  to d i f f e r e n t  in  for  have t o b e g i n  teachers'  would  While s u p e r f i c i a l l y  practice,  teacher  12 was n e v e r o n e ' s  a lack the  o f c o n t i n u i t y and  course.  Each y e a r , a  anew.  reaction to i t s fate. 113  a desirable  Industrial While  Science  much e f f o r t  12 was  expended on  the c o u r s e  Department  of  fact";  as  Committee,  and  communication  to  and  Industrial  Science  become an  integral  "orphan o f  the  wherewithal  an  the the  provide  12,  in  of  imposed,  the c u r r i c l u m " .  114  Course weak  the  "after  the  had  already  to  provide  of  teachers' atrophied.  t h a t i t would  the V o c a t i o n a l isolated  the  channels  course hope  later,  Development  improvement,  d e s p i t e the  part  i t was  the course  by  belief  of  with  given  interest  merely  Lacking  written  BCSTA and,  much  the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  course  became  the  Education,  been e s t a b l i s h e d . the  by  Programme,  adjunct  -  the  1. The January 1966 BCSTA N e w s l e t t e r had posed t h e q u e s t i o n of whether teachers wanted a workshop i n Industrial Science 12 b e c a u s e " [ i ] n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s may f i n d t h e m s e l v e s t e a c h i n g t h e course next f al 1 2. As w e l l as " s t a n d a r d " would i n c l u d e s u c h items testers.  s c i e n c e l a b equipment, t h i s as material and hardness  3. The 1966/67 AR later s t a t e d t h a t "[a] s e r i e s of workshop were held...to prepare [ t e a c h e r s ] to b e t t e r handle the new material i n I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e [and o t h e r c o u r s e s ] " (p. F87), however, no mention o f , i n information concerning, these workshops has been unearthed. The BCSTA Archives, which are very complete i n terms of m e e t i n g m i n u t e s and n e w s l e t t e r , c o n t a i n n o t h i n g c o n c e r n i n g Summer 1967 w o r k s h o p s o t h e r than t h e c a n c e l l e d Kelowna sessions. I t may be t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t i n t h e AR was a result o f c o n f u s i o n on the part of two d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s o f two d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of the r e p o r t . 4. P e r h a p s t h e t o n e o f the y e a r ' s work was i n d i c a t e d by a motion which was p r e s e n t e d to a meeting of the Industrial Education Sub-Association of the G r e a t e r Victoria Teachers' Association in October. I t was moved, r a t h e r a m b i g u o u s l y , t h a t : our o r g a n i z a t i o n support I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e f o r f o u r (4) y e a r s on a t r i a l b a s i s [ e m p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ] b e f o r e we d e c i d e t o d i s b a n d t h e course. (BCSTA, M i n u t e s , O c t . 3, 1967) R o s s Regan, who a t t e n d e d t h i s meeting, recalled that t h e i n t e n t o f t h e m o t i o n was t o s u p p o r t t h e c o u r s e f o r a p e r i o d of time, and not to assume the c o u r s e ' s u l t i m a t e demise. 5. The cover of the February Newsletter, which Mr.Regan remembered d r a w i n g , showed a hand holding a "HELP" s i g n r e a c h i n g up t h r o u g h ocean waves, w i t h l i f e preservers labelled "Industrial Science Materials", among o t h e r s , b e i n g t o s s e d t o t h e u n f o r t u n a t e p e r s o n . 6. F o l l o w i n g t h i s m e e t i n g , on F e b r u a r y 26, 1968, the BCSTA S e c r e t a r y w r o t e t o t h e P r e s i d e n t of the B r i t i s h Columbia Science T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n r e q u e s t i n g an o p i n i o n c o n e r n i n g t h e O l i v o & Wayne t e x t , F u n d a m e n t a l s of A p p l i e d P h y s i c s , and s o l i c i t i n g o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s . The s e l e c t i o n o f O l i v o & Wayne was announced i n the 115  Department's Curriculum Circular 25-3-68 ( i . e . , of March 3, 1 9 6 8 ) . Most teachers felt that this text was inappropriate f o r t h e i r students b o t h i n c o n t e n t and reading l e v e l . One teacher described i t as " f i r s t year university reading". The Coordinator of I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n remembered i t as a " d i f f i c u l t " t e x t "and f o r a compulsory course, t h a t i s dynamite". The I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n T e x t b o o k S e l e c t i o n Committee of t h e BCSTA, formed i n 1965 t o work i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Department i n c h o o s i n g t e x t s , e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a new t e x t f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12 a s i t s t o p p r i o r i t y a t an A p r i l , 1968 m e e t i n g , one month a f t e r the adoption of Fundamentals of A p p l i e d P h y s i c s . 7. The A d v i s o r s had f o r m e r l y Industrial Classes.  been c a l l e d  Inspectors of  8. T h i s questionnaire, dated February 9 1968 investigated general facilities such as f l o o r a r e a , s t o r a g e a r e a , g a s and w a t e r p r o v i s i o n , e t c e t e r a . It also queried teachers concerning the specialized equipment r e q u i r e d f o r I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e , such as t h e heat-treating furnace, Rockwell hardness tester, m o i s t u r e meter, o p t i c a l comparator, e t c e t e r a . 9. T h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n i n the minutes as t o how t h i s could be a c c o m p l i s h e d . The s t a t u s o f I n d u s t r i a l Science 12 as a required course i n both the Construction and Mechanics s p e c i a l t i e s had n o t been c h a n g e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t . However, d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s with teachers of Industrial Science 12, i t became c l e a r t h a t many s c h o o l s o f f e r e d a l t e r n a t e c o u r s e s i n a number of s u b j e c t a r e a s (math, p l a s t i c s , a d d i t i o n a l woodworking, a e r o n a u t i c s , et cetera), yet reported these as Industrial Science 12 marks f o r the p r o v i n c i a l "dogwood". 10. A l t h o u g h a c o p y o f the survey instrument itself exists, no record has been found of the survey results. Mr. Rozell Smith, who developed the instrument, recalled i n an interview the g e n e r a l l y u n f a v o u r a b l e tone of responses b u t no l o n g e r had t h e compi1ation.  11. An i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s was g i v e n a t t h e 1962 A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g o f t h e S c i e n c e PSA, when t h e f o l l o w i n g m o t i o n was c a r r i e d : . . . t h a t t h e i n c o m i n g BC S c i e n c e TA E x e c u t i v e be i n s t r u c t e d t o c o n t a c t t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s PSA 116  [ s i c ] with a view to d i s c u s s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of a g r e a t e r l i a i s o n between s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s and I.A. t e a c h e r s . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t would be f r u i t f u l t o c o n s i d e r how t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f I.A. c o u l d be a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e making o f apparatus f o r s c i e n c e . (BC S c i e n c e T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c . , M i n u t e s , Apr. 25, 1962) 12. In 1967, a course t i t l e d " M a t e r i a l s and T e c h n o l o g y " was added t o the teacher training programme in response to the creation of I n d u s t r i a l S c i e n c e 12.  117  Chapter  7  Conclusion  That  a specific  as a r e s u l t  of  situation.  Although  entire  societal  programs,  revisions  -  in  the  often  pressures  we  may  fields  immediate  milieu.  Science  12,  secondary  school  programme  programme viewing  within  i t  are  i t a s an i s o l a t e d  Industrial  Science  industrial  programme  original  12  entity  pressures, While isolation  and  genesis In  which  outside  the  and  the  case of  complicating  factors  Yet, i n  a keystone  of  the  industrial in  many ways,  course  i t s relatively  makes  their  of the  u n i q u e and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i t , as a resulted  from  societal  considered  totally in  worthwhile. no from  course  evidence  seen as a very  can  be  i t s particular  educational  compelling  was  i n terms of  reorganization  course.  and  conception  distinct  overall  the  a unique  physics, et cetera-  had t h e i r  Industrial  arise  a s computer s t u d i e s ,  sex e d u c a t i o n ,  educational  not  courses  such  be s e e n a s h a v i n g  is  should  often think  individual  values education, can  curriculum or course  offerings, that  specific  programme there  Industrial response  118  and  the  a p p e a r s t o be  Science  12  t o a number o f  c a n be thorny  educational discuss  issues.  this  societal  As  specific  concerns  such,  it  at that  drawing  board,  Science  12 must have seemed a godsend  with  responding  educational  keystone  the  concerns  of  myriad  this  Science  the v a r i o u s  Senior  Vocational  requirement  for  12  funding.  T h i s was  requirement  number  Industrial  time of  as a  the  same  the  public  education  time.  on  the o t h e r ,  The  with  would  be  to  apparent  ways.  financial  considered  hand, and  Its existence within  the  "50  One  (High  consideration  The  appeal  problem  those groups which  vocational dealt  geopolitical would  traditionally l y  in of  scientific/technical education  with.  Thus,  and  i t  of  areas at  both  course,  for  l a y i n i t s hoped-for  p o i n t e d t o as a c u r r i c u l u m r e s p o n s e  "vocational"  the  "/." t i m e  c o u r s e c o u l d be economic  a  p e r c e p t u a l c o n f u s i o n of to  tidily  the  charged  c o u l d have been met  perceived  respect  t h e one  and  Programme  concept  to address other  to  Industrial  t h e V o c a t i o n a l Programme b u t ,  alternative  Science  as  study  a crucial  course,  this  of  Act  of  ability  be  up  the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  any  public  can  Programme TVTA  t i m e . On  to  period.  programmes  the  answer  to those  c o u r s e f o r a number o f r e a s o n s .  brought  School)  a manifold solution  to  Industrial  justifiable  c o u r s e as a c a l c u l a t e d  being expressed  such  is  necessities. be  on the to  As  a  wel1-received  by  supported  vocational-  education  (very o f t e n , both  business  more a c a d e m i c a l l y - r e s p e c t a b l e industrial  courses  directions been  -  more  -  variant  perhaps  a  Industrial  Science  acceptable  to  question  "general" science, at  programme s t u d e n t s . of  the  major c o n c e r n s  to which  If  such,  i t was by  served  as  course  would  a strong be  of  hint  recollections  of  members b e a r completion  the c u r r i c u l u m .  organization,  seriously The Science  for vocational  the Chant had  the  to  t h i s out.  could As  realities  teacher et  to  repond.  12  was  of  The  cetera -  a of  The  be  to  have the  minutes and  the  pressures  strong,  not  one  Commission,  Science  were so  d e v e l o p m e n t of  given  vexing  Committee m e e t i n g s  deliberation  receptiveness,  the  the development  t h a t adequate  -  vocational  fraught with d i f f i c u l t i e s .  the course's  curriculum  of  f u n c t i o n s , t h i s might  that  the Course Development  future  a l s o have  a response  Industrial  a variety  of  would  least  a  traditional  addressed  raised  the e x i s t e n c e of serve  for  also  the Department of E d u c a t i o n  neatly  of  As  of  opponents  The  l a b o u r ) . As  portent 12  education. of  course  and  however,  given  workable,  in  the  usable  school/department  preparedness, Industrial  student  Science  12  was  flawed. time 12  was  constraints developed  120  under  which  Industrial  were s t r o n g l y f e l t  by a l l  involved.  As a r e s p o n s e  requisite  for  for  federal  two-thirds  introduced  of  i n 1965,  to the Chant Commission, dollars,  the  least  a  through  t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n had  made a t  1966.  attempt  proved  be  ready  for  Senior  Vocational  Course  Development  meeting  until  realized  Having  Committee  i t had  been  and  in  Committee 1964;  once  then,  course  with the  entire  However,  the  hold i t s f i r s t the  be  to  the  1965.  could not  1964,  that  d i d not by  direction  to a c t q u i c k l y  hoped  Programme  the c o u r s e  Department  i n the s c h o o l s  1965. reached  implementation  t i m e was  o f 1963  implementation  December,  that  by September  its  t o p r o v i d e some  unusable  meet i t s d e a d l i n e . I t had would  S c i e n c e 12  summer w o r k s h o p s  that material  V o c a t i o n a l Programme t o be i n  tentative the  course  had  t h e s c h o o l s by September, Although  as a compulsory  Senior  Industrial  as a  not  spent  members  t h i s understanding date, in  interviewed  r e f e r e n c e t o how  were a t  this  programme b e i n g  t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s why deliberation  constant  time.  With  extremely  two  committee meetings,  to  a  for  busy t h e y the  rewritten,  was  with r e s p e c t to  entire  of  the  this and  seconded  the Chairman  senior  secondary  the Department of E d u c a t i o n  then  consultant.  121  course.  s t u d y made  preoccupied. Meredith attended but  more  passed  Prof.  the  first  responsibility  Cannon  had  other  curriculum  development  offerings.  For  duties  i n d u s t r i a l education  introduction  o f an e n t i r e  complicated  the  unusual,  of  1965  until saw  of  With  September  The written  completion  haste  with  which  held  were n e c e s s a r i l y  prescribed  t o be d e l a y e d  Industrial  inherent  endeavour.  to  announced  apparently  but t o produce a c u r r i c u l u m .  interpretations  concern  was  rather  by t h e S p r i n g  - c o m m i t t e e members  ambiguities  curriculum  one,  Department's  mitigated against a clear  various  Science  s p e c i a l i s t s , the  this  implementation  1966  the  V o c a t i o n a l Programme  of  the  the course's  - although  no o p t i o n  Senior  scrutinizing  course.  anticipation  for  by  produce  the  Industrial  its  members  in  the  course  such  of the  a  novel  (1)  of Spring,  not  development  team  because o f the o v e r r i d i n g  something.  Science do  understanding  12 was  The d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and  p u t on h o l d  deadline  Science  Course  Although  the  1965, was r e a l i z e d Development  remember  the  Committee,  experience  one, n o r were t h e y  course.  Of t h e f i v e n o n - D e p a r t m e n t c o m m i t t e e members,  one  d i e d and  present all  research  expressed  Industrial course  one c o u l d  n o t be  was u n d e r t a k e n ; dissatisfaction  Science  curriculum.  as being:  122  with  as a  positive  had  pleased  by  the r e s u l t i n g  l o c a t e d when t h e  the remaining with  Mr. S e a l  the  three  completed  described the  h a s t i l y assembled out of a n c i e n t textbooks p e o p l e who were r e a l l y s h o r t o f t i m e . Mr.  Winteringham  by  stated :  L e t ' s f a c e i t - t h e c o u r s e o b v i o u s l y wasn't made p r o p e r l y . . . . We d i d n ' t do t h e p r o p e r j o b . Mr.  K i r c h n e r commented  t h a t he  thought:  i t was r e a l l y q u i t e a gamble t o implement t y p e o f program and a l o t was assumed by members o f t h e c o m m i t t e e .  this  I would have t o say t h e r e was n o t , even a t t h e completion of t h i s , high e x p e c t a t i o n s of i t s success.  The by  the  crucial,  if difficult  development committee  Industrial  Science  "practical".  ability  As  level  detailed  "theoretical"  this  of  debate  4,  the committee  for  more r i g o r o u s , a c a d e m i c a l l y - d e m a n d i n g  the o t h e r  could  not  group  succeed  stressing  with  Interestingly,  industrial  this  subject-specialty  lines  not  science  a  case  rigour  and  least  one  curriculum  of  industrial of  the  that  split  one  such  d i d not  a  the a b i l i t i e s  123  pushing approach  students.  evolve  along  members. I t  teachers  the  was  academic  resisting;  thought of  was  conception  t e a c h e r s demanding  science teachers  overestimated  group  education  of committee  education  the  education  split  and  i s s u e , with  or  was  industrial  i n Chapter  this  the degree to which  be  to  issue faced  roughly a  on  was  would  Concommitant  anticipated students.  12  to d e f i n e ,  that  at the  intended  students,  and  specialists  thought  keep  the  one the  curriculum  committee attempted, on  this  the  industrial  committee at  but  was  of miscommunication  open  and  acknowledged  by  course  compromise indicate,  was  which, pleased  Teachers  i t  as  of  Course  on  guide or  t o be  much o f  the  i t the  above  an  the  education their  view  universally  with  their  "good shop  and  difficulties  of  subject areas  optimistic  industrial  d i d not  "theoretical".  and  issue, a tacit  t h a t the S c i e n c e other  12  almost  words  by  understanding  education  teachers  course  seems  deliberations :  rather patronizing suggestion  "some  not  but  excerpts  Committee,  team-teaching  this  industrial  the  however; t h e y  previously discrete  committee  in  consensus  unsatisfactory  Science  underestimated  Despite  coloured  an  o v e r l y " a c a d e m i c " and  about  two  as  The  o v e r r i d i n g . The  interview  Industrial  school.  t h i s was  the  Development  science",  integrating  viewed  to  n e i t h e r group.  being  assumptions  by  as  as a compromise,  good  a  members,  resulting  The  level.  or misunderstanding;  t o p r o d u c e a c u r r i c u l u m was  saw  a  to reach  obligation  it  attempting  f a r too simple failed,  education  i s s u e . T h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s a g r e e m e n t was  a result was  of  to  in a the that  taught have  for instance,  i n the  curriculum  D e p a r t m e n t Head, t h e  Principal,  educational 124  authority" could  assist  with evaluating this  tacit  failed and by  the  lab  book.  (2)  Notwithstanding  premise,  the  Course  Development  t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e impediments t o  failed  to provide the d e t a i l  t h o s e who were t o t e a c h The  introduction  represented  a  huge l e a p  such  Industrial  of f a i t h  last  desired  decade  change,  implementation introduced, July  1966  lone  made  the greater  that  clear, i s the  p r o g r a m . When  Science  workshop was  information.  t e a c h e r s would s t u d i e s of  need  f o r a sound  S c i e n c e 12 was  i ti s  today; the  t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n ' s  to The  12  the g r e a t e r the  Industrial  t h i s was n o t t h e t r u i s m  attempt  education  have  needed  S c i e n c e 12.  make t h e c o u r s e work. As t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n the  a course  and d i r e c t i o n  Industrial  of  Committee  provide  pre-implementation  unpreparedness  t e a c h e r s and t h e i r  of  industrial  unfami 1 i a r i t y  with such a  programme were o b v i o u s  from  t h e o u t s e t . The BCSTA a n d ,  a  the  Department  few  years  attempted  later,  t o compensate f o r t h i s ,  of  Education  b u t t h e a i d was  late  in  coming and a n e g a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e c o u r s e had  by  then  been  Perhaps with sense would  this  established. more  than  t y p e o f c o u r s e was a l a c k  of  "ownership"  have worked  Although  important  many  to  of,  of b e l i e f  Industrial  overcome  industrial  mere u n f a m i 1 i a r i t y  the  i n , or  S c i e n c e , which  other  hindrances.  education teachers professed  125  support  for  the  concept  Science,  the  strength  question.  Prior  to  actually  their  industrial  to  was  education  their  teaching  the  course  strongly  teachers.  As  the  course,  for  schools,  the  idea  industrial  supported  one  Industrial  c o n v i c t i o n i s open  i t s introduction in  science  students  of  underpinning  teacher  of  to or an  programme  by  industrial  put i t :  I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e r e was a n y o n e who didn't think there was a real need for i t and t h a t t h e c o u r s e was g o o d . What a l w a y s w o r r i e d them was t h a t they would have t o t e a c h i t (Laughs). ( W r i n c h I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 1984)  Ultimately, Science  12  was  the not  various  classroom  Sarason  termed  discussed and  in  the  To two  a  strong i t  the 6,  of  was  Education's  of  of  of  may of  have  the  two  rapid  126  both  of  As  material  the  traditional a l l  acted  Science.  noble  attempt  been  responsible for  subject  of  what  post-secondary  programmes,  for  implemented.  de-listing  of  students,  responsibility  being  supersede  the  regularities".  denial  Industrial the  Industrial  withstand  to  shortage  the  for  to  or  vocational  success  Neither sense  the  expectations  areas  enough  "existing  large extent,  subject  result.  as  the  support  exigencies  resources,  understanding against  strong  Chapter  curriculum  credit,  professed  the  to  groups  integrate  carried  Industrial The  as  a  Science  Department  course  this  of  Science  left  it  by  Educaiton Science  department  -  teaching  Senior  Students  result  studied  f o r the  was  no  the  of  the  students those  in  schools  - u n d e r t h e name  provincial  "dogwood"  Senior  at  not,  itself  In  that  science  Industrial  or  s c i e n c e to  Programme.  12  the  design  a l t e r n a t e courses  Science  ironic  of  unburdened  "general"  Vocational  Industrial the  obligation  had  w h i c h came t o o f f e r of  an  d e p a r t m e n t . Whether by  problem of the  default  Vocational  all  during  Science  12  their  programme.  This some  study  of  support  discussed  for  in  differences  and  by  the  industrial  Goodson's s e c o n d  hypothesis-  t o move  partially,  d e v e l o p m e n t o f an  or  internal,  in this  light.  (as  agreement w i t h The  tradition  toward  temporarily,  borne  Science.  opposed  to  science at  as n o t e d ,  a  the out The for  general,  a l l ) must  teachers  the  be  professed  concept.  "shifting  traditions"  And,  promoting  applied science course  "watered-down" s c i e n c e , o r no seen  from  Industrial  students  hypotheses, important  utilitarian  of  provided  although  "tend  example  three  2,  noted.  that s u b j e c t groups  a c a d e m i c " - was  Goodson's  Chapter  were  pedagogic  Industrial  amalgamations  sub-groups  and  were v i s i b l e i n t h e d e b a t e s c o n c e r n i n g  the  127  of  course  and  the  hypothesized be  permutations  t h a t the  determined  by  consider that as  an  who  their  subject as  that  supported  be  accorded  end;  consider  supported  the  field.  an  12  course  two  and  and  to  course  who  felt i t  not  achieve  unmistakably  If  instead  the s u b j e c t  sub-groups  sub-  i t i s clear  became  as  the  choose  did  course.  would  science  field,  Education of  of we  industrial  Science  Goodson  priorities  If  priority,  education  identification  and  subject f i e l d ,  some  Industrial  follow.  influence  f o r the  Industrial  industrial  the  relative  a p p r o p r i a t e one  should  an  Science  those  boundaries  the  groups w i t h i n that  i t might  -  those  who  board  officials,  we  field,  those  d i d not  -  who  becomes  possible. D e p a r t m e n t and the  teacher-training  strong  advocates  these  advocates  industrial  what c o u l d was If  be  a select  more  is  As  field,  an  and  be c o m p r i s e d  practical 128  teachers the  12.  BCSTA, Many o f  education  as  almost  above,  at  with  the c o n c e p t i o n  for Industrial  identified  discussed  faculty  influence within  industrial  to allow  t o be  i t would  on  Science  were i n p o s i t i o n s o f  altered  shop t e a c h e r s .  few  initially,  Industrial  education  a sub-group  conception,  of  considred  suitably  based  unit,  s c i e n c e b a c k g r o u n d s and,  were  the  school  difficulties  course  Science.  opposing solely  t h i s may  of  of  this the  have been  rather  than  philosophical strong  advocates  scuttled  of  the  of  Ultimately,  teachers  there  was  Industrial  Science  Industrial  Education  internal  "shifting  industrial  the  the  remarkable 12  was  the  effectively  apparent  in  among  field  of  success  of  teachers  who  determining  among i n d u s t r i a l  the  education  unanimity. settled  Once  within  the  department of a s c h o o l , t h e r e  debate concerning  amalgamations".  which allowed  12  into  i t is  influence  o f a s u b j e c t and  teachers  Science  d e s p i t e the  greatest  priorities  little  Industrial  education,  proponents.  have  shortage  i t s actual incorporation  industrial its  o n e s . The  Industrial education  the c o u r s e ,  and  Thus, t h e c o n c e p t u a l Science  t o be  course  was  was few  change  considered tentative  an and  temporary. It in  the  i s interesting light  to  view  o f Goodson's h y p o t h e s i s  "much c u r r i c u l u m d e b a t e can conflict  between  territory" the in  highest terms of  to  be  s u b j e c t s over  - s u b j e c t s taught i n s t a t u s and resources  There i s l i t t l e accrue  Industrial  status, resources  and  territory.  doubt  that high  As  which s t a t e s t h a t  "most a b l e "  consequently  industrial  course.  a  Vocational  Programme, i t was 129  12  i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of  to the  science s p e c i a l i s t s  Science  being  b e n e f i t i n g most  s t a t u s would  teaching  course  and  a  within  understood  not  specifically the  t h a t the  Senior "most  able"  students  course.  i n t h e s c h o o l would  Consequently,  between S c i e n c e over  Industrial  well  be  and  Science  12  education  be  the  perceived status  as  the  elementary  status  for  influence  that within  this,  small  unreliable  of  area  be  committee  based  T h o s e who  universally  noted  earlier,  Senior  Vocational  an  industrial of  a programme,  such  hypothesize result in  positions  on  -  - may  members,  such well Given  of as  have the  however, i t i s  an  entire  the Course  pertinent  r e a c t i o n s of  that a  in increased  suggests.  to  science  subject  Development  investigation  those  who  taught  12.  few  Science  more the  taught  almost  Industrial  A  of  Science  solely  Industrial  community  motives  may  at a  Those  subject  It  the c o u r s e  Committee members  work. made  Industrial  may  would  the  to a s c r i b e  Committee's might  we  as Goodson's h y p o t h e s i s  number  specialty  Within  specialty.  Course Development felt  level.  course  specialists  that  as  keeping  the  evidenced  aspirations  by  Senior Vocational,  "more a c a d e m i c "  was  as a s u b j e c t a r e a .  t e a c h e r s were b e t t e r s e r v e d relatively  taking  Education  the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  would  course,  12  be  conflict  Industrial  that, with  Science  little  not  the  Industrial  dissatisfied Science course;  with  as  a  12  the c o u r s e .  specialists  Programme, 130  Science  course i t  was  were As  taught  the  within  the  instantly  perceived assigned  as  an  industrial  t o t e a c h e r s on  increased  status  industrial  education  Two  reaction  : 1) t h e  status  was  liklihood  subject  area  resource  allocation  it  near of  enjoys  of  of  as  school,  The  to  the  value  the  desire  industrial little  o f money  TVTA.  of the for this  or,  2)  education status,  and t e a c h e r  Industrial  other  for status.  t h e t o p ; t h i s was t r u e even  the  persuade  one c o u r s e i n c r e a s i n g  remote;  very  and was  promise of  c a n be s u g g e s t e d  outweighed  the  course  sufficient  teachers  viewed  Within  advent  not  possibilities  considerations  ranks  that basis.  was  course.  education  as a  yet i n  deployment, prior  education,  to the perhaps  because of the s p e c i a l  clientele  seen  t h e s c h o o l , i s n o t d e p e n d e n t on  to  serve within  status -  i n Goodson's  able students  would  not  education The  not  a  of  in  in  comparison  courses, lower  material  w h i c h many  status  i n Goodson's s e n s e  students;  support.  Goodson  necessary  instructing  noted the  i t is  t h e most  Therefore, the in  case  his studies  of i n d u s t r i a l  courses.  12  education reflect  be  lack  Science  terms of  - for financial  push f o r s t a t u s w h i c h  and f u n c t i o n  the  course  resources with  other  teachers  f o r the of being  industrial  mentioned, d i d  course  but o b v i o u s l y  taught  to  was e s s e n t i a l l y  131  for Industrial  less  able  compulsory f o r  those a  i n the S e n i o r  group  of  students  academically-able would  be  those  explained Drafting  programme was  to  Goodson's  Industrial  entire  accrued Although  of  upon  as  to  select  12.  During  teachers,  even  this  within  within  the  status  according  those  teaching  to  Goodson's c o n c e p t i o n  power when c o n s i d e r i n g  programmes  the  more  who,  t h e most a b l e  D e p a r t m e n t , no  programme i t a p p e a r s t o be impinge  as  Thus,  have e x p l a n a t o r y  range  Science  was  stream, i t  specialty  education  repeated.  Science.  s t a t u s may  Industrial  terms  considered  permitted  students  Education  If there  industrial  were  industrial  electricity  Industrial  the  be  the E l e c t r i c i t y  i n s t e a d of  interviews with  the  within  in  Programme.  which c o u l d  previously, 12  view of  Vocational  of  a  lacking;  attainment  of the  school, within many o t h e r  of  a  factors  status  within  Science  12,  a  departmen t .  The  demise  retrospect, laudable  of  may  be  i t was the  seen  was  implementation  of  to  as  not  of  pragmatic  Unfortunately, evident  Industrial  suggest  inevitable.  concept  t h e more  course.  pragmatism  tempting  Industrial  the e d u c a t i o n a l  have been, initiated  of  that 132  However  the  course  concerns the  may  which  same d e g r e e  i n the development Science  in  12.  and  It  is  t h e mere e x i s t e n c e o f  the  c o u r s e was lack  thereof,  t h i s would sincere the  t o be  be  of  development; for  the  future will  i n the an  belief  part  sufficient  schools  i n the  value  responsible  there  difficulties  was  simply  involved.  in developing  evidence a greater  p r o b l e m s and  that  was  its  success,  secondary.  I  e x a g g e r a t i o n . There appeared  those  efforts  and  of  Industrial for a  lack  I t i s to applied  awareness  a d e e p e r committment  133  its  of to  believe to  a on  and  appreciation  be  hoped  science the  their  be  Science  creation  of  or  that  courses  curricular resolution.  1. The w h o l e s a l e verbatim borrowing c u r r i c u l u m guide, noted i n Chapter i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s concern.  from t h e O n t a r i o 5, i s a further  2. The D e p a r t m e n t - d e s p i t e i n i t i a l l y c a t e g o r i z i n g t h e c o u r s e a s b o t h S c i e n c e and I . E . - seems t o have s h a r e d this premise when directing Industrial S c i e n c e 12 workshop i n f o r m a t i o n t o " I n d u s t r i a l Programme t e a c h e r s " .  134  BIBLIOGRAPHY  PRIMARY SOURCES  Alberta.  D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n . (1959) . R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on E d u c a t i o n . Edmonton : L . S . W a l l , Queen's P r i n t e r .  Bargen,  P.F. 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