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Negotiation of ethical principles and procedures in case study evaluation : the Humanities Curriculum… Bath, Stephen William 1983

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NEGOTIATION OF ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES IN CASE STUDY EVALUATION: CURRICULUM  THE  HUMANITIES  PROJECT AND THE SUCCESS  AND FAILURE AND RECENT INNOVATION  PROJECT  By STEPHEN WILLIAM BATH B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Centre  f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m  and I n s t r u c t i o n )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  J u l y 1983 ® Stephen W i l l i a m Bath, 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  thesis  thesis  s h a l l not be allowed without my  written  permission.  Department of  Centre for the Study of Curriculum  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  July  1983  and Instruction  ABSTRACT  This  t h e s i s r e p o r t s on  educational Education  researchers  the methodology and  a s s o c i a t e d with  p r i n c i p l e s and  CARE group's Humanities C u r r i c u l u m Recent I n n o v a t i o n T h i s e t h i c was  r o l e of  by  negotiation  procedures when case s t u d y i n g  P r o j e c t (HCP)  and  the  Success and F a i l u r e and  P r o j e c t (SAFARI) l e d to the developmnt of a 'SAFARI e t h i c '  a response to i s s u e s c o n f r o n t i n g an approach to e v a l u a t i o n  a n a l y s i s of the i s s u e s and  s t r a t e g i e s d e a l t w i t h when  a l t e r n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n approach r e v e a l s a fundamental problem.  SAFARI e t h i c i s shown to l a c k a p r i n c i p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the other and  The  from the a l t e r n a t i v e ' i l l u m i n a t i v e ' paradigm of e d u c a t i o n a l  A conceptual this  of the case study  the Centre f o r A p p l i e d Research i n  (CARE) i n the U n i v e r s i t y of E a s t A n g l i a .  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c e r t a i n key  derived  the use  two  of j u s t i c e without which  fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of  the r i g h t to know i s i n i m i c a l .  ii  research. developing The the  confidentiality  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  Page  ABSTRACT  I  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v  INTRODUCTION  1  Problem and Overview  1  P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures Primary Sources The Cambridge Conferences The CARE Group . . . SAFARI II  . . . . . .  AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF RESEARCH  11  The A g r i c u l t u r a l - B o t a n y Paradigm The B e h a v i o u r a l O b j e c t i v e s Approach Democratic E v a l u a t i o n Negotiation of Interpretation Condensed F i e l d w o r k Problems With C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . . . . . The P r i n c i p l e of J u s t i c e The K n i g h t ' s Move I III  13 15 20 26 28 37 38 41  .  AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO RESEARCH  50  An A l t e r n a t i v e Response to the P s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l The C o n t r o l l e d R e l a t i v i t y Paradigm S y s t e m a t i c I n q u i r y Made P u b l i c S e n s i t i z i n g Versus D e f i n i t i v e Concepts Progressive Focussing Portrayal IV  50 53 57 62 68 74  THE SOCIO-POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ALTERNATIVE RESEARCH PARADIGM  78  The P o l i t i c a l Nature o f Research Methodological Implications The F a l l a c y o f O b j e c t i v i t y V  3 5 7 9  78 83 85  AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF EVALUATION E v a l u a t i o n Versus T r a d i t i o n a l Research MacDonald's Four P r o p o s i t i o n s A N o n - O b j e c t i v e ' s View The H o l i s t i c View The I n n o v a t i o n Gap The Schools C o u n c i l M u l t i p l e D e f i n i t i o n s o f Innovation  iii  90  . . . . .  90 93 95 97 97 100 108  CHAPTER VI  EMS.  AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO EVALUATION  110  The Humanities C u r r i c u l u m Approach Value Decisions P o l i t i c a l Characteristics . . Ambitions of the P r o j e c t I n t r i n s i c Recommendations C o n t r o v e r s i a l Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . The HCP E v a l u a t i o n The Measurement Phase A F r e s h Approach t o E v a l u a t i o n Information C r i t e r i a HCP E v a l u a t i o n Reports VII  IMPLICATIONS OF THE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT APPROACH ON THE EVALUATION OF THE HCP The Halo E f f e c t The Hawthorne E f f e c t The S t a t u s Enhancement E f f e c t Simbiotic Relationships Fear of R e p r i s a l C o g n i t i v e Dissonance I n s t i t u t i o n a l Dissonance E v a l u a t i n g Dissonance Confused T h i n k i n g  VIII  . . . . .  THE NEGOTIATION OF THE PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF THE FOUR HCP CASE STUDIES Introduction The R o s e h i l l Study Canon Robert's School Case S t u d i e s of the D i f f u s i o n Stage Redmore Brookland/Brookshire  X  13 7  . . . .  ..  IMPLICATIONS OF THE CASE STUDY APPROACH TO CURRICULUM EVALUATION The Bias of the A l i e n S u b j e c t i v e P e r c e p t i o n Generalisability Validity An Indeterminate P e r s p e c t i v e  IX  110 113 115 117 120 123 127 129 130 133 134  138 139 142 145 147 149 152 153 155  159 . . . . . . . .  160 165 170 172  175 175 178 180 192 193 197  SUMMARY  201  BIBLIOGRAPHY  216  APPENDIX A  225  APPENDIX B  227  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Thanks must go t o C e c i l e Hoey, the p u b l i c a t i o n s s e c r e t a r y , of t h e Centre f o r Research i n E d u c a t i o n  i n the U n i v e r s i t y of East A n g l i a .  was i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g i n v o l v e d i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s  the 'trans-oceanic' l i t e r a t u r e  thesis.  Ms Hoey  search  Her prompt and safe forwarding of  m a t e r i a l s and h e r 'chasing up' of mimeographed papers and out o f p r i n t m a t e r i a l s was g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d .  v  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  T h i s r e p o r t p r o v i d e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c e r t a i n n e g o t i a t i o n procedures used by a group Centre f o r A p p l i e d Research A n g l i a , England.  e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s and  of r e s e a r c h e r s a s s o c i a t e d with the  i n E d u c a t i o n (CARE) i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y of E a s t  Two p r o j e c t s conducted  by the CARE group have been  chosen  which were concerned w i t h c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s : the Humanities  Curriculum  P r o j e c t (HCP),  (SAFARI)  Project.  and the Success  These p r o j e c t s  and F a i l u r e  and Recent  Innovation  l e d to the development of an a c t i o n based view o f  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h of which the p r i n c i p a l method of e v a l u a t i o n was the case study.  Out o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , CARE members who used  a concern w i t h e t h i c a l problems and the r o l e the key p r i n c i p l e s : the r i g h t  Problem  the r i g h t  the case study e v o l v e d  of n e g o t i a t i o n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  to c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ,  the r i g h t  to know, and  to j u s t i c e .  and Overview  C e n t r a l to case study e v a l u a t i o n are e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s c o l l e c t i o n and use of i n f o r m a t i o n .  t h a t i n f o r m the  The CARE r e s e a r c h e r s have pursued  s t u d y e v a l u a t i o n f o r a number of y e a r s , and more than any group, r e f l e c t i v e l y and c r i t i c a l l y on t h e i r own work. this  thesis,  and Recent  have w r i t t e n  The q u e s t i o n addressed by  t h e r e f o r e , i s : What e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s  e v a l u a t i o n of the Humanities  case  guided the case  study  C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t and the Success and F a i l u r e  Innovation Project?  2 The  c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e s and  n e g o t i a t i o n , and procedures,  the s e t of procedures f o r case  the premises and  informed  the process  justifications  involved.  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s while negotiated  and  v a l i d a t e d by the n e g o t i a t i o n of  three p r i n c i p l e s guide the r e s e a r c h e r  data g a t h e r i n g ;  c o n t r o l of both access  principles  of a p o r t r a y a l of an i n s t a n c e ; e x e m p l i f i -  c a t i o n s of c u r r i c u l a r a c t i o n were bounded and those  f o r these  study  the n e g o t i a t e d and  research  r e l e a s e of i n f o r m a t i o n ;  r e l e a s e ; and  a g a i n s t the enstrangement of the s e p a r a t e  and  ethics.  the  the n e g o t i a t e d  safeguards  The  and  principles  procedures are as f o l l o w s :  The  F i r s t P r i n c i p l e i s the R i g h t Premise One.  P a r t i c i p a n t s have c o n t r o l over the  Premise Two.  Researchers n e g o t i a t e for  Justification.  Educational  The  researcher  information Justification.  to i n f o r m a t i o n  lives.  i n exchange  r e s e a r c h has  consequences f o r the  lives  involved.  Second P r i n c i p l e i s the R i g h t Premise.  access  f a c t s of t h e i r  confidentiality.  of those  The  to P r i v a c y .  may  to Know. e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over the r e l e a s e  i n the i n t e r e s t of d i f f e r e n t  Democratically j u s t i f i e d  of  groups.  r e l e a s e pre-empts  the  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s .  The  T h i r d P r i n c i p l e i s the R i g h t t o J u s t i c e . Premise.  Negotiation s o c i a l and  r e q u i r e s equal  l i b e r t y and  economic advantage.  fair distribution  of  Justification.  The  e x e r c i s e of c o n t r o l r e q u i r e s f a m i l i a r i t y and  s p i r i t of  self-denial.  P r o c e d u r a l Standards must be Premise.  a  Procedural  Negotiated.  standards  must be  subjected  to on-going  n e g o t i a t i o n as some groups have more knowledge i n s i t u a t i o n s which may Justification. P r i n c i p l e s and The  No  be employed one  expediently.  group should  g a i n c o n t r o l of knowledge.  Procedures  d i s c r e p a n c i e s that continued  to thwart a s u c c e s s f u l accomplishment  of case study p r a c t i c e c l u s t e r e d around the d e v e l o p i n g two  ethical principles.  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and  The  problematic  the r i g h t to know.  d u r i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g . in  c o n t r o l of the f a c t s of t h e i r  negotiate  access  problematic  f i r s t p r i n c i p l e was  and  The  lives.  The  major CARE premise was  inimical.  had  The  to  second  in releasing  that a democratically  justified The  c o u l d e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over the r e l e a s e of i n f o r m a t i o n i n the The  problem was  a g a i n s t enstrangement of these  two  c o u l d not be a r r i v e d a t to ensure t h a t no one knowledge.  research  educational researcher  to i n f o r m a t i o n i n exchange f o r c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y .  i n t e r e s t of d i f f e r e n t groups. safeguards  two  P a r t i c i p a n t s of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h were  p u b l i c r i g h t to know c o u l d pre-empt n e g o t i a t e d c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . researcher  of  to  based on  the p a r t i c i p a n t s of  p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d the r o l e of the r e s e a r c h e r  information.  safeguarding  e t h i c s concerned the r i g h t  The  premises about the r o l e of the r e s e a r c h e r  and  A p r i n c i p l e was  missing,  and  the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of ethics.  Procedural  standards  group c o u l d gain c o n t r o l over  the f i r s t  two  principles  alone  were  4 CARE advocates and  critics  discovered  an antagonism between the r i g h t  t o p r i v a c y and  the r i g h t of the p u b l i c to know the  research.  inconsistency  The  between the  two  f a c t s of  e t h i c s c o u l d not be  w i t h o u t the acceptance of a t h i r d p r i n c i p l e of j u s t i c e . to be  given  educational  I f p a r t i c i p a n t s were  o n l y c o n d i t i o n a l c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y (as there were  j u s t i f i a b l e instances  ameliorated  democratically  t h a t pre-empted t h e i r ownership to the f a c t s of  l i v e s ) then they needed to have on-going n e g o t i a t i o n  their  of the procedures f o r  e x e r c i s i n g t h i s a u t h o r i t y i n the maintenance of the r i g h t .  Just  required  fair distribution  deliminations  of s o c i a l and  t h a t would p r o v i d e  economic advantage.  equal l i b e r t y and  T h i s a d d i t i o n a l concept was  n e g o t i a t i o n of contiguous c o n t r o l over access and  r e l e a s e of  J u s t i f i c a t i o n came from the e x p e r i e n c e where r e s e a r c h e r s c o u l d use  p r i v i l e g e d information  negotiation. The  (the  the  premises are a d e v e l o p i n g  The  of e d u c a t i o n a l  formation  or  from  from the experiences of  Negotiation  method of bounding and  the  the  research.  The  and  key for  the CARE e t h i c a l  v a l i d a t i n g the p o r t r a y a l of  action.  of the SAFARI e t h i c s under d i s c u s s i o n can be  the d e s c r i p t i o n of an a l t e r n a t i v e view of r e s e a r c h a l t e r n a t i v e was  expediently.  these e t h i c s of case study are s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i a  the p r a c t i c e of c u r r i c u l a r e v a l u a t i o n .  an i n s t a n c e  or p a r t i c u l a r groups  SAFARI p r o j e c t s are c e n t r a l to a c t i o n - b a s e d  concepts t h a t d e f i n e  the  information.  s e t of procedures t h a t evolved  CARE c o n c e r n w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n and Humanities and  t h a t of  'whole or complete p i c t u r e ' ) to c o n t r o l  U n f a i r advantage c o u l d be manipulated  three p r i n c i p l e s and  conduct  (Chapter I I ) .  traced i n This  a response to argued i n a d e q u a c i e s of the ' p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l '  ' a g r i c u l t u r a l - b o t a n y paradigm.  1  The  a l t e r n a t i v e view to r e s e a r c h  i n an a l t e r n a t i v e approach (Chapter I I I ) .  T h i s approach accepted  the  resulted  5 prominence o f ' e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h a l t e r n a t i v e view and approach  a l t e r n a t i v e view of e v a l u a t i o n  a l t e r n a t i v e approach  ' r e s e a r c h on e d u c a t i o n . '  The HCP  (Chapter V) and  The HCP  approach  e f f o r t s of the HCP  (Chapter I V ) .  to e v a l u a t i o n  Development Team was The HCP  Development Team and  brought many unique  e v a l u a t o r s were n o t  an exemplar of t h i s  E v a l u a t i o n Team  out of the a l t e r n a t i v e approach  to e v a l u a t i o n  the E v a l u a t i o n Team had many  t r a d i t i o n a l i s s u e s to d e a l w i t h (Chapter V I I ) . the case study approach  The  to t r a d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , a s i m i l a r  to c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h .  Team p r o v i d e d a working (Chapter V I ) .  over  to r e s e a r c h had many i m p l i c a t i o n s  As a r e s u l t of the a l t e r n a t i v e s  (Chapter VI) were d e v i s e d .  1  Furthermore,  the a d o p t i o n of  i s s u e s (Chapter V I I I ) .  'successful'  (Chapter I X ) .  The Yet,  case study e x p e r i e n c e s g r e a t l y informed the d e v e l o p i n g SAFARI e t h i c . p r i n c i p l e s and procedures were more a response  to the HCP  ought not to be done, than the e x t e n s i o n of a s u c c e s s f u l expanded n o t i o n of case study developed by SAFARI was however.  of which reduced the SAFARI procedures  T h i s p r i n c i p l e of j u s t i c e was  of p r i n c i p l e s and procedures  Primary  These  examples of what 'style'.  The  also problematic,  t o 'manipulation' (Chapter  a means of p r o v i d i n g adequate  negotiation  f o r case s t u d y .  Sources  The  literature  to be drawn upon was  compiled  from those  a d d r e s s i n g the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l debate attempts  the  Both e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l c r i t i c s p e r c e i v e d a m i s s i n g p r i n c i p l e -  the absence X).  early  writings  s u r r o u n d i n g the  to p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e to the t r a d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h on e d u c a t i o n .  T h i s debate  informed the development of the s p e c i f i c  and procedures n e g o t i a t e d .  The  case study  principles  i n t e n t i s not to review the l i t e r a t u r e ,  nor  6 to p r o v i d e  a bibliographic description.  considered  a curriculum  for analyses  materials.  from CARE) are  were i n v o l v e d  and  included  No  d i s s e r t a t i o n s nor  unpublished  included.  the p u b l i s h i n g of SAFARI papers (1967-81).  to v a r y i n g degrees and  d e a l t w i t h were e c l e c t i c :  there was  Hence, many of the e l a b o r a t e purposes of t h i s p r e s e n t Issues c o n c e r n i n g observation,  at d i f f e r e n t periods. little  Stake, 1978;  ( c f . Barton and  Lawn, 1981;  Simons, 1980  MacDonald, 1975;  and  they inform  procedures.  taken up.  discussions  and  Humble and 1977;  Simons,  Stenhouse, 1979b;  Walker, 1981). and  literary  The  open-ended  (the p r i n c i p a l techniques of case study) have not been d e a l t  w i t h except as e t h i c s and  to mass  documentary f i l m making or  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n interviewing  tradition.  l i t e r a t u r e were excluded f o r  the comparison of case study r e s e a r c h  MacDonald, 1977;  Walker and  Authors  concerns  sense of a contiguous  themes i n t h i s  i n v e s t i g a t i v e journalism,  Kemmis, 1981;  The  the  thesis.  n a r r a t i o n have been avoided  clarify.  writings  be  CARE group w r i t i n g s were w r i t t e n a t d i f f e r e n t times between  i n c e p t i o n of the HCP  not  The  to  are a l l a v a i l a b l e from the Centre f o r A p p l i e d Research i n  papers ( u n a v a i l a b l e  1978;  i s this report  c r i t i q u e of e i t h e r p r o j e c t .  E d u c a t i o n or are p u b l i s h e d  The  Neither  And  The  finally,  the i s s u e s and 'race  r e l a t i o n s pack' c o n t r o v e r s y  of the HCP  of is  the phenomenological umbra t h a t shadowed  of the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n  The  s t r a t e g i e s of the n e g o t i a t i o n  of r e a l i t y are d i s c u s s e d  only  apparent p e r v a s i v e n e s s of such concepts would p r o v i d e  to enough  d i s c u s s i o n to c o n s t i t u t e another t h e s i s . The  scope of the  literature  R a i s i n g of the S c h o o l L e a v i n g Age  includes  the e a r l y w r i t i n g s  (ROSLA) i n i t i a t i v e  about  to which the HCP  the was  a  7 response  ( c f . Great B r i t a i n ,  C o u n c i l , 1965, HCP  1967,  (Humble, 1971;  MacDonald, 1978;  1970  E a r l y L e a v i n g , 1954;  and  1980)  Schools  1970); a l l of the summative p u b l i c a t i o n s of the  Humble and Simons, 1978;  Rudduck, 1976;  MacDonald and E l l i o t ,  1975;  and Verma, 1980); the i n t e r i m papers  SAFARI (MacDonald and Walker, 1974; the two  N i s b e t , 1973;  Norris,  seminal Cambridge Conferences  1977); the summative accounts  (Hamilton, et a l . ,  as w e l l as the (too numerous to l i s t )  of  1977  and  of  Simons,  r e l e v a n t CARE a s s o c i a t e  writings.  The Cambridge The  Conferences  a n a l y s i s of the CARE e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s g u i d i n g case study p r o v i d e s  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of important i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g the access and r e l e a s e of  knowledge i n g e n e r a l , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e f e r e n c e to an  alternative  paradigm of r e s e a r c h a s c r i b e d to by a group f i r s t a s s o c i a t e d a t a Cambridge University In  conference.  1972  the N u f f i e l d Foundation  n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l modes of e v a l u a t i o n . C o l l e g e i n Cambridge and was At t h i s time MacDonald was Evaluation Unit.  The HCP  the Schools C o u n c i l .  was  that explored  held at C h u r c h i l l Parlett.  Curriculum Project  i n i t i a l l y funded by the N u f f i e l d Foundation  Malcolm P a r l e t t was  and  i n v o l v e d w i t h D a v i d Hamilton i n  for Learning Project.  f o r the c o l l o q u i u m :  Out of t h i s r e s e a r c h  " E v a l u a t i o n as  Approach to the Study of Innovatory Programmes"  (Hamilton and P a r l e t t , Hamilton  conference was  the d i r e c t o r of the Humanities  came a seminal d i s c u s s i o n paper a New  The  a conference  convened by B a r r y MacDonald and Malcolm  c o n d u c t i n g the N u f f i e l d Resources  Illumination:  sponsored  1976).  The mutual concerns  s e t out the aim of the c o n f e r e n c e :  of MacDonald, P a r l e t t  and  " g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e develop-  8 merit i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l modes of e v a l u a t i o n . "  Subsequently,  ' a l t e r n a t i v e or i l l u m i n a t i v e ' c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n was authors, e t a l . : Evaluation  Beyond the Numbers Game:  MacDonald and Rob  Walker,  method of case study, E d u c a t i o n a l Research  a second Cambridge conference i n l i n e with the two  the conference was  was  e v a l u a t o r s were accused P a r t i a l l y due  Barry  r e s e a r c h e r s ' adoption of the  entitled  "Methods of Case Study i n  to t r a d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n .  of r e l y i n g on enigmatic to some in-house  was  p r e v a l e n t a g a i n s t the Illuminative  interpersonal s k i l l s  advocates,  a c q u i r i n g an assumed m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and  the f l e d g l i n g  as a  alternative  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l stance t h a t  c l a i m e d the methods f o r forming judgements and  interpretations  e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena were i n e x p l i c a b l e - as they r e l i e d on (Simons, 1980:  convened by  and E v a l u a t i o n . " A p r i n c i p l e aim of t h i s c o l l o q u i u m  "illuminative alternative"  The  these  A Reader i n E d u c a t i o n a l  t o d i s p e l the "mystique of method" c r i t i c i s m t h a t was  was  p u b l i s h e d by  (1977).  In December of 1975  method.  a reader i n  about  "intuition"  6).  conference  fell  p r i n c i p l e s , procedures book " a r i s i n g from  s h o r t of i t s g o a l t o p r o v i d e a handbook of  and methods of case study i n e d u c a t i o n .  the c o n f e r e n c e "  The  actual  was:  Towards a S c i e n c e of the S i n g u l a r : Essays about Case Study i n E d u c a t i o n a l Research and E d u c a t i o n . E d i t o r , Helen Simons. Centre f o r A p p l i e d Research i n E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of E a s t A n g l i a . Norwich: CARE O c c a s i o n a l Papers #10, 1980. In Towards a S c i e n c e of the S i n g u l a r , Helen Simons brought "collective  t h i n k i n g " of those authors concerned  of case s t u d y . account.  Her book, however, was  together  with the theory and  the  practice  e x p l i c i t l y not a " s t a t e of the a r t "  9 The CARE Group The  r e s e a r c h e r s who  contribute  attended the conferences and c o n t i n u e d to  to an emerging t r a d i t i o n of case study were d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with the Centre f o r A p p l i e d Research U n i v e r s i t y of E a s t A n g l i a , England. r e l o c a t i o n of the Humanities  CARE was  Schools Study O f f i c e r ,  initially,  d i r e c t o r of the P r o j e c t was  i n E d u c a t i o n i n the  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1970 with the  Curriculum P r o j e c t .  P h i l l i p a Fawcett C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n from  by  1967.  The HCP had been c e n t r e d i n MacDonald became the  then the d i r e c t o r of e v a l u a t i o n .  The  Lawrence Stenhouse, and he a l s o became the  d i r e c t o r of CARE.  SAFARI A t the same time as the c o n f e r e n c e , and CARE, MacDonald submitted a p r o p o s a l from f o r a Success  and F a i l u r e and Recent  t h i s p r o p o s a l was  subsequent  the Centre  to the F o r d  of  Foundation  I n n o v a t i o n P r o j e c t (Ford SAFARI).  accepted, MacDonald e n l i s t e d  m a j o r i t y of the conference members.  to the opening  When  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the  They were to study "'medium  term'  e f f e c t s of s e v e r a l r e c e n t l y concluded p r o j e c t s i n the c u r r i c u l u m of  British  secondary  to use  s c h o o l s " (MacDonald, 1 9 7 4 ) .  I n i t i a l l y MacDonald proposed  " h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and a n a l y s i s " as an  approach.  When SAFARI r e c e i v e d the go-ahead, MacDonald (as the a p p o i n t e d Rob Walker as the S e n i o r Research from the N u f f i e l d Secondary (1972).  Associate.  director)  Walker came t o CARE  Science Programme, when funding was  He became the s o l e f u l l - t i m e member of SAFARI.  terminated  Walker and MacDonald  "took the b e s t p a r t of a year to a r r i v e a t a r e s o l u t i o n to work with what [they] c a l l e d  'case study' methods" (Walker,  1981:  199).  10  MacDonald and Walker proposed, i n "Case Study and of E d u c a t i o n a l Research" as a r e s e a r c h method.  "pedigree"  They wrote some three years  SAFARI t h a t a method had came seven years  (1974), to examine the  after  the S o c i a l  after  not been s u c c e s s f u l l y reached.  Philosophy  of the case  the b e g i n n i n g  study of  T h i s acknowledgement  the s t a r t of t h e Humanities C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t .  MacDonald and Walker s t a t e d : As we imagine i t and d e s c r i b e i t , e d u c a t i o n a l case study has as y e t no p r a c t i t i o n e r s . We have attempted to d e s c r i b e a k i n d of r e s e a r c h we f e e l o u r s e l v e s working towards r a t h e r than one we have s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished. (1974: 11) At l e a s t u n t i l r e s e a r c h was Simons, 1978;  1981,  still  o n l y an a s p i r a t i o n  Elliot,  Lawn and B a r t o n ,  s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e of the case  1977;  1981).  study  as  educational  ( c f . MacDonald, 1978b; Humble  Simons, 1980;  Kemmis, 1980;  Jenkins,  and  1980;  and  11 CHAPTER I I AN  In h i s a r t i c l e H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n "  ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF RESEARCH  "Case Study and Case Records: (1978),  Stenhouse o u t l i n e d  dominant paradigm of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . need f o r r e s e a r c h t h a t was  based  Towards a Contemporary  some inadequacies of  the  At the same time, he d e s c r i b e d a  on an adequate n o t i o n of teacher  "action":  The encounter with the u n p r e d i c t e d c a l l s f o r cont i n o u s r e s p o n s i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as a b a s i s f o r r e s o u r c e f u l a c t i o n , and he [the teacher] f i n d s i t more e f f e c t i v e to base such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on a n o n - b e h a v i o u r i s t model which a l l o w s as data the r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e of o t h e r s and p o s s i b l y the r e f l e c t i v e testimony of p u p i l s as w e l l . Second, he i s c a l l e d upon to j u s t i f y h i s own a c t i o n s i n terms which imply a frame of r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n . T h i r d , h i s own a c t i o n s are a t stake and he cannot observe h i s own behaviour purged of h i s own r e f l e c t i o n on h i s experience. He needs a t h e o r y of a c t i o n as i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d , not s i m p l y a t h e o r y of b e h a v i o u r . The d e v i c e of c o n c e p t u a l i s i n g a c t i o n as behaviour i s adopted o n l y i n order to make p o s s i b l e a s t r a t e g y of o b s e r v a t i o n a l study p r o d u c t i v e i n many f i e l d s , b u t apparently y i e l d i n g disappointing results i n education. I f we are to go back to b a s i c s , we must, I b e l i e v e , q u e s t i o n t h i s concept of behaviour and r e t u r n to commonsense views of e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena as comp r i s i n g a c t i o n s i n the f u l l e s t sense. A c t i o n s , not b e h a v i o u r s , are the raw data, so raw t h a t we s h a l l n o t assume t h a t we know p r e c i s e l y how t o c o n c e p t u a l i s e them to make them a c c e s s i b l e to s t u d y . (p. The its  CARE group, of which Stenhouse was  23)  the d i r e c t o r , based  much of  case study r a t i o n a l e on the n e c e s s a r y development of a theory of a c t i o n  and a r e t u r n to commonsense views of e d u c a t i o n a l phemomena.  T h i s was  a  r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the " a g r i c u l t u r a l - b o t a n y " view of r e s e a r c h i n which a p r i o r i concepts  d e f i n e d s t r a t e g i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l study; these  'definitive  12 c o n c e p t s ' o f t e n superseded the commonsense c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of  the  participant. In p l a c e of r e s e a r c h research  on e d u c a t i o n ,  o r i g i n a l l y derived  from what they c a l l e d  Subsequently, the case study was democratic e v a l u a t i o n .  the CARE group's  possible.  The  d e f i n i t i o n of a s i t u a t i o n  of n e g o t i a t i o n by those  involved.  the i n t e r - s u b j e c t i v i t y (or m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s )  a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n an attempt to i n f o r m  had  to  case worker o n l y c o l l e c t e d d e f i n i t i o n s which were then  i n t e n t to p o r t r a y  development o f  conducting  Rather than i l l u m i n a t i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' world  v a l i d a t e d by a continuous process The  the i l l u m i n a t i v e model.  adopted as the means of  them, the democratic approach assumed t h a t no one was  educational  'condensed f i e l d w o r k ' .  The  t h e i r d e c i s i o n making, l e d to premises were t h a t the  the  researcher  to c a r r y out the case study under the every-day r e s t r a i n t s c o n f r o n t e d  the p a r t i c i p a n t ; t h a t the sense n o t i o n s ; turned  and  language of the study should  t h a t data,  not  of  by  supersede common-  to be u s e f u l to d e c i s i o n makers, had  to  be  over q u i c k l y . The  time demands of democratic e v a l u a t i o n - where both the d e s c r i p t i o n  of the phenomena c o n s t i t u t i n g data a c t i o n were n e g o t i a b l e  - and  the  and  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  time r e s t r a i n t s of condensed  educational fieldwork,  r e s u l t e d i n a t e n s i o n t h a t undermined the procedures s a f e g u a r d i n g principles.  As a r e s u l t , a c a l l was  CARE p r o c e e d i n g s .  Access to and  to be  negotiated.  Since  their  liberty,  question,  i t was  made to r e - i n t r o d u c e  ethical  judgement i n t o  the  r e l e a s e of data were concomitant procedures i n the  i n t e r e s t of a l l groups to p r o t e c t  then each group needed to n e g o t i a t e  "What c o n s t i t u t e d r e l e a s e of i n f o r m a t i o n  Only when t h i s c o n d i t i o n a l c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was  an answer to  the  i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ? "  acknowledged, and  the  13  p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e a p p l i e d , c o u l d be  The  release  addressed.  Agricultural-Botany The  Paradigm  CARE group was  i n v o l v e d i n the development of an a l t e r n a t i v e to  t r a d i t i o n a l paradigm t h a t d e f i n e d and  the dilemma between access and  educational  research.  The  the  epistemological  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l premises of the a g r i c u l t u r a l - b o t a n y paradigm were  challenged.  T h i s paradigm was  statistical,"  a l t e r n a t e l y described  a f t e r Stephen Feinburg  Q u a l i t a t i v e Data C o l l e c t i o n " (1977).  coined  "psycho-  the phrase i n "Next Steps i n  Lawrence Stenhouse addressed  a s p i r a t i o n towards an a l t e r n a t i v e to t h i s of the S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n a l  as the  s t y l e of r e s e a r c h  Research A s s o c i a t i o n  the  at a conference  (SERA):  The i l l u m i n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n , sometimes c a l l e d " p o r t r a y a l " , sometimes c a l l e d " h u m a n i s t i c " sometimes c a l l e d " d e s c r i p t i v e " , now seems to have got o f f the ground both i n r e s e a r c h and i n evaluation. I t no l o n e r needs to f i g h t to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f as an a l t e r a n t i v e to the " p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l " paradigm worthy of cons i d e r a t i o n ; and today I want to look from a p o s i t i o n of sympathy a t the problem of e s t a b l i s h i n g a c c e p t a b l e standards w i t h i n t h a t research s t y l e . (1979b: 5) D a v i d Hamilton c o n s i d e r e d the  the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l s t y l e a d e r i v a t i o n of  a g r i c u l t u r a l - b o t a n y paradigm, and  latter  type of r e s e a r c h  Galton  and Ronald F i s h e r "  he  i n "Educational  traced  the development of  Research and  the Shadows of  (1980b):  The mental measurement movement began i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y with F r a n c i s Galton's work on i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ; the e x p e r i m e n t a l movement 'took o f f i n the 1930's with the impetus o f f e r e d by Ronald F i s h e r ' s r e s e a r c h with a g r i c u l t u r a l b o t a n i s t s . In B r i t a i n both  this Francis  14  these e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n s were imported from p s y c h o l o g y where they developed s i d e by s i d e i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n . . . . (p.154) Hamilton a s s e r t e d educational  research  t h a t procedures were r a s h l y deduced and  from the w r i t i n g s of these two  r e s u l t e d because the w r i t e r s ' concepts "not definitions  of s c i e n c e  educational  ideologies"  but  a l s o r e s o n a t e d harmoniously with the  (p.163).  This  o n l y agreed with the  Hamilton c r i t i c i z e d  premise t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l - b o t a n y paradigm " l a i d educational  pioneers.  applied  (p.163).  Relegation  d e f e r e n c e to m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e x i g e n c i e s , f e a t u r e of t h i s  borrowing  current prevalent  t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n on  the bases f o r analyses  phenomena t h a t p l a y down the importance of h i s t o r i c a l  societal influences"  to  and  of such important i n f l u e n c e s , i n  was  considered  to be an  research:  . . . a p p l y i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l - b o t a n y paradigm to the study of i n n o v a t i o n s i s o f t e n a cumbersome and inadequate p r o c e d u r e . We are not, of course, arguing here a g a i n s t the use of e x p e r i m e n t a l l o n g i t u d i n a l or survey r e s e a r c h methods as s u c h . Rather, f o r the reasons suggested, we submit t h a t they are u s u a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e , i n e f f e c t i v e or i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r p r o j e c t e v a l u a t i o n p u r p o s e s . Too o f t e n , the e v a l u a t i o n f a l l s s h o r t of i t s own t a c i t c l a i m s to be c o n t r o l l e d , exact and unambiguous. R a r e l y , i f ever, can e d u c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s be s u b j e c t to s t r i c t enough c o n t r o l to meet the design's requirements. Innovations, i n p a r t i c u l a r , are v u l n e r a b l e to m a n i f o l d extraneous i n f l u e n c e s . Yet the t r a d i t i o n a l evaluator ignores these. He i s r e s t r a i n e d by the d i c t a t e s of h i s paradigm to seek g e n e r a l i z e d f i n d i n g s along p r e - o r d a i n e d lines. His d e f i n i t i o n of e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y i s narrow. One e f f e c t of t h i s i s t h a t i t d i v e r t s a t t e n t i o n away from q u e s t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e towards more c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n c e r n s . (Hamilton, 1976:  88)  inexorable  the of  15 CARE r e s e a r c h e r s restraints.  sought an a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t broke away from the  They wanted to p r a c t i c e i n q u i r y t h a t r e f l e c t e d the  concerns of the p a r t i c i p a n t s - r a t h e r  Behavioural  Objectives  Approach:  Much of the r e v o l t a g a i n s t the p e r c e p t i o n behavioural  natural  than c e n t r a l i z e d a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  concerns expressed through the b e h a v i o u r a l  The  dictated  objectives  approach.  Faulty Practice  the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm d e r i v e d  of a l a c k of success and  the p r o b l e m a t i c  o b j e c t i v e s approach to c u r r i c u l u m  nature of  from  the  research.  A t l e a s t two fundamental i s s u e s b e d e v i l the a s p i r a t i o n s of t h i s approach. The f i r s t i s whether i n our s o c i e t y there i s s u f f i c i e n t consensus about l e a r n i n g p r i o r i t i e s to s u s t a i n and j u s t i f y the use of the approach f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y p u r p o s e s . The second i s s u e i s whether we have the t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y to measure those l e a r n i n g s we most v a l u e . The answer to both q u e s t i o n s i s , I s u s p e c t , i n the negative. (MacDonald, 1978: 133) Whether b e h a v i o u r a l  o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d be agreed upon, and  c o u l d be measured, were problems which had s a t i s f a c t i o n of the c r i t i c s . o b j e c t i v e s model was  applied  then whether they  not been addressed to  MacDonald was to e d u c a t i o n a l  of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , l e a r n i n g p r i o r i t i e s c o u l d  concerned when the evaluation be  f u r t h e r d i s t o r t e d to f i t e x i s t i n g psychometric  the  behavioural  because, i n the name  'manufactured' and technologies:  'Tunnels to d y s t o p i a ' seems not too s t r o n g a term to apply to those emergent forms of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y which r e s t t h e i r f a i t h on the f a l s e promise of t h i s v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l scientism. The d i f f i c u l t i e s of g a i n i n g consensus on the range of s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g s f o r c e them to adopt a p r o c e s s of c o n s u l t a t i o n t h a t i s c l o s e r i n e f f e c t to the manufacture of consensus than to i t s d i s c o v e r y , while the  then  16 l i m i t a t i o n s of psychometric c a p a b i l i t y ensure t h a t even t h i s a r t e f a c t w i l l not s u r v i v e t e c h n o l o g i c a l conversion without f u r t h e r distortion. (MacDonald, 1978: In MacDonald's view, r e a c h i n g objectives necessitated technologists. The  r e s u l t was  g o a l consensus i n terms of  acquiesence to the  behavioural  t e c h n o l o g i c a l h o n o u r i f i c s of  This group consensus on goals a two-fold  135)  the  then underwent more changes.  t r a n s l a t i o n of i n t i t i a l  aspirations:  The q u e s t i o n i s , what happens to these a s p i r a t i o n s i n the hands of the t e c h n o l o g i s t s who have the task of d e v i s i n g instruments and procedures f o r the m o n i t o r i n g team? Under the requirement of mass implementation, aims must be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o o b j e c t i v e s and o b j e c t i v e s i n t o key q u e s t i o n s or t e s t items, a process which t y p i c a l l y imposes i n c r e a s i n g s t r a i n upon the consensus reached a t the goal-generation stage. What happens i s t h a t the c o n s t r a i n t s of the technology r a p i d l y become predominant, the p r o c e s s of item or c r i t e r i o n p r e p a r a t i o n becomes d e c r e a s i n g l y s u b j e c t to endorsement by the s y s t e m - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e groups, and the gap between the i n i t i a l a s p i r a t i o n s and the products of the t e c h n o l o g i s t s widens alarmingly. (p.134) For MacDonald the approach was Alternative evaluation we  are  1979:  s i m p l i s t i c and  designs p r o v i d e d  t r y i n g to change, and  l e d to a narrow  focus.  "a more adequate view of what i t i s  what i s i n v o l v e d  i n changing i t " (MacDonald,  89). The  i n a d e q u a c i e s of the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm  models such as evaluators,  the b e h a v i o u r a l  (and  i t s evaluation  o b j e c t i v e s approach) were, to the i l l u m i n a t i v e  i m p l i c i t i n the paradigm's  postulates:  We suspect t h a t what students l e a r n i s the p r o d u c t of many s o c i a l and b i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s which i n t e r a c t i n ways we d i m l y apprehend but cannot q u a n t i f y i n even a s i n g l e case, so t h a t  17 we are unable to i s o l a t e the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s c h o o l . And we know t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l l i f e which generate these f o r c e s a r e u n s t a b l e and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e , so t h a t we cannot know t o whom or what we may a t t r i b u t e changes i n the l e a r n i n g accomplishments of s t u d e n t s . D e s p i t e a l l t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y , we are asked t o b e l i e v e t h a t the way to improve s c h o o l i n g i s to take instruments which few of us comprehend and a p p l y them r e g u l a r l y to a form of s o c i a l l i f e t h a t we do n o t understand. The r e s u l t a n t samples w i l l , i t i s argued, f u n c t i o n as i n d i c e s of p r o d u c t i v i t y , to guide r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r a i s e and blame. No need, a p p a r e n t l y , to f i n d out whether the s c h o o l s p r o v i d e humane and c a r i n g environments f o r the young, or whether the p r o c e s s e s through which the young pass make sense to those who p r e s e n t l y e n t e r t a i n doubts. (MacDonald, 1978: 136) Defining school l i f e  so t h a t i t f i t s  the c r i t e r i a  of our instruments,  u s i n g the r e s u l t a n t samples as i n d i c e s of p r o d u c t i v i t y , ' t e c h n o l o g i c a l ' o r 'end-means' c o n c e p t i o n  fits  then  n i c e l y with a  of i n n o v a t i o n , b u t i t l a c k s  semblance w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . Hamilton problematic.  and P a r l e t t addressed  how t h i s ends-means approach was  They c i t e d a t y p i c a l example of an 'assembly-line' breakdown o f  goals: (1) What g o a l s s h o u l d the program achieve? (2) What i s the p l a n f o r a c h i e v i n g the goals? (3) Does the o p e r a t i n g program r e p r e s e n t a t r u e implementation of the plan? (4) Does the program, when developed and put i n t o o p e r a t i o n , a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d goals? (Hamilton Question means. checking  (1) e s t a b l i s h e s the ends.  Questins  and P a r l e t t , 1976: 86)  Question  (2) e s t a b l i s h e s the  (3) and (4) a r e the measurement of g o a l achievement,  (2) a g a i n s t ( 1 ) .  Of t h i s scheme they  observed:  18 A t face value these q u e s t i o n s seem reasona b l e . But they embody p r o b l e m a t i c assumptions. For example, p r o j e c t s r a r e l y have c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d and commonly agreed ' d e s i r e d g o a l s . Measurement of 'goal achievement i s never unequivocal. To speak of a 'true implementat i o n ' i s Utopian, even n o n - s e n s i c a l i n terms of educational p r a c t i c e . 1  1  (p. 98) If  the d e s i r e d g o a l was  i n c r e a s e d crop p r o d u c t i o n  and  the means had  w i t h v a r i o u s s t r a i n s of g r a i n grown under equal c o n d i t i o n , then measurement of g o a l achievement c o u l d be q u i t e u n e q u i v o c a l . s e c t i o n of the f i e l d S t r a i n B.  life  i s not t h i s  Stenhouse a l s o noted c r i t i c a l  S t r a i n A, i n  simple.  problems f a c i n g the o b j e c t i v e s  approach: R a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g must take account of the r e a l i t i e s of classroom s i t u a t i o n s . It i s not enough to be l o g i c a l . And there are two c r u c i a l p r a c t i c a l problems; a c h i e v i n g a degree of value consensus as a b a s i s f o r a c t i o n , and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h a t consensus i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . . . . o b j e c t i v e s are inadequate as d e f i n i t i o n s of v a l u e p o s i t i o n s . T h e i r a n a l y t i c n a t u r e , f a r from c l a r i f y i n g and d e f i n i n g value d i v e r g e n c e , appears to make i t p o s s i b l e to mask such d i v e r g e n c e . Teachers i n t e r p r e t o b j e c t i v e s d i f f e r e n t l y and s y n t h e s i s e them i n d i f f e r e n t ways, a c c o r d i n g them d i f f e r i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l status. Of course, o b j e c t i v e s may c l a r i f y problems of value consensus, but i t seems c l e a r t h a t they f r e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e a c o n c e p t u a l framework which serves as a medium through which to r a t i o n a l i s e incoherence of v a l u e s . Groups of teachers who c l a i m to have agreed on t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s o f t e n demonstrate i n the c l a s s r o o m t h a t t h e i r agreement was i l l u s o r y . (Stenhouse, 1971b:  do  the  under d u p l i c a t e c o n d i t i o n s , produced more y i e l d  Educational  to  78)  than  one  19 While Stenhouse f e l t  t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s may c l a r i f y problems, o t h e r s  of the i l l u m i n a t i v e paradigm were much l e s s l e n i e n t .  MacDonald  and P a r l e t t  stated: The o p t i m i s t i c r a t i o n a l i s m which shaped and s u s t a i n e d the movement has been muted, i t s i n h e r e n t assumption o f value-consensus exposed as an h a l l u c i n a t i o n . (MacDonald and P a r l e t t , 1973: 75) Such r e f e r e n c e s as i l l u s o r y , h a l l u c i n a t i o n , n o n - s e n s i c a l and d y s t o p i a a r e s u c c i n c t l y derogatory. "new paradigm" h e l d  They r e f l e c t  t h e i r views.  the z e a l with which adherents to the  More to the p o i n t , they demonstrated t h e  i r r e v e r e n t view h e l d by these authors f o r the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l MacDonald  reiterated  paradigm.  t h i s d i s r e g a r d when he spoke of the a b s u r d i t y o f  u s i n g an e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n based on the b e h a v i o u r a l approach i n the HCP evaluation: There i s i n the f i r s t p l a c e a l a c k of adequate e f f i c i e n t procedures and i n s t r u m e n t s o f evaluation. Even i f you reduce e v a l u a t i o n to the t e s t i n g of p u p i l l e a r n i n g , which i n a p r o j e c t of t h i s k i n d I would regard as form of r e d u c t i o ad absurdum, one q u i c k l y becomes aware of the l i m i t e d range of a v a i l a b l e measures, not to mention t h e i r dubious v a l i d i t y . Even t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s tend to be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by f a c t u a l r e c a l l , and when you g e t i n t o the f i e l d o f a f f e c t i v e outcomes then good measures are almost n o n - e x i s t e n t . (MacDonald, 1978b: 14) T h i s a c c u s a t i o n o f " r e d u c t i o ad absurdum" was made i n a 1971 speach to the new " t r a i n e e s " of the HCP s c h o o l  teams.  The a l t e r n a t i v e paradigm was, however, a r a d i c a l s h i f t .  I t was not  simply an exchange of methodologies i n an attempt to shed b e h a v i o u r a l objectives.  20 The paradigm s h i f t e n t a i l e d i n adopting i l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n r e q u i r e s more than an exchange of methodologies: i t also involves new s u p p o s i t i o n s , concepts and terminology...The aims of i l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n are to study the i n n o v a t o r y p r o j e c t : how i t o p e r a t e s ; how i t i s i n f l u e n c e d by the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s i n which i t i s a p p l i e d ; what those d i r e c t l y concerned regard as i t s advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s ; and how students' i n t e l l e c t u a l tasks and academic experiences are most affected. I t aims to d i s c o v e r and document what i t i s l i k e to be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the scheme, whether as teacher or p u p i l ; and, i n a d d i t i o n , to d i s c e r n and d i s c u s s the i n n o v a t i o n ' s most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s , r e c u r r i n g concomitants, and c r i t i c a l processes. (Hamilton, Discovering  and  perspective,  documenting i n n o v a t o r y  while  1976:  p r o j e c t s from the  t a k i n g i n t o account the m a n i f o l d  89)  particpant's  extraneous  t h a t operate i n e d u c a t i o n a l  s e t t i n g s , was  paradigm.  requirements t h a t minimized h i s t o r i c a l  R e j e c t i n g design  s o c i e t a l influences challenged terminology.  In t h e i r p l a c e ,  acceptable  standards.  Democratic  Evaluation  This  the new  tradition,  In the and  distinct.  and and  to develop a l t e r n a t i v e and  p r i n c i p l e s of the a l t e r n a t i v e to  concerns with h i s n o t i o n of democratic  y e t was  s t r a t e g y f o r democratic  paradigm had  the core  type of e v a l u a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d  research  traditional  fundamental s u p p o s i t i o n s , concepts  B a r r y MacDonald i n i t i a t e d centralized bureaucratic  a response to the  influences  evaluation.  much from the i l l u m i n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l The  case study was  the  principal  evaluation.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  the i l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t o r  the p a r t i c i p a n t s , the democractic had  the s i m i l a r aim  to inform  evaluator  the d e c i s i o n  21 makers.  They d i f f e r e d ,  however, i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n  p a r t i c i p a n t - d e c i s i o n makers. comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t u d y r e p o r t was  to be  maker-participants  The  these  i l l u m i n a t i v e r e p o r t sought to p r o v i d e  t h a t a c t s upon the d e c i s i o n makers.  a concomitant endeavour t h a t i n c l u d e d  i n the bounding of the  Hamilton and  of the r o l e of  P a r l e t t described  the  case and  the  The  a  case  decision  the conduct of the  study.  i l l u m i n a t i v e approach.  I l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n thus c o n c e n t r a t e s on the i n f o r m a t i o n - g a t h e r i n g r a t h e r than the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g component of e v a l u a t i o n . This task i s to p r o v i d e [emphasis added] compreh e n s i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the compex r e a l i t y ( o r r e a l i t i e s ) s u r r o u n d i n g the p r o j e c t : i n short, t o ' i l l u m i n a t e . In h i s r e p o r t , t h e r e f o r e , the e v a l u a t o r aims to sharpen d i s c u s s i o n , d i s e n t a n g l e c o m p l e x i t i e s , i s o l a t e the s i g n i f i c a n t from the t r i v i a l , and r a i s e the l e v e l o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of d e b a t e . 1  (Hamilton and In the the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e v a l u a t o r  p r e d i c a t o r while The  relationship.  "Evaluation  published  and  the  earlier  ing  and  h i s or her  audience d e f i n e  of  (MacDonald, 1974 first  published  a c a s e - s t u d y method of e d u c a t i o n a l  the HCP.  The  research  i n 1974  for  considerations.  MacDonald  stated:  case  "develop-  i n q u i r y " (MacDonald, 1976b:  on p o l i t i c a l  the  later  type of democratic  MacDonald made a d i s t i n c t i o n between e v a l u a t i o n and  d i s t i n c t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n and  -  in  a  the democratic approach) grew out  e v e n t u a t e d SAFARI'S p r i m a r y g o a l :  e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e centred  former i s  the r e c i p i e n t s .  While the paper was  the SAFARI P r o j e c t (and  the HCP  99)  MacDonald o u t l i n e d democratic e v a l u a t i o n  case study experience  study d e a l t with by  1976:  the p a r t i c i p a n t s , the  the C o n t r o l of E d u c a t i o n "  i n Tawney, 1976).  SAFARI Papers One, of  d e c i s i o n makers are  r o l e s of the democratic e v a l u a t o r  much d i f f e r e n t paper  the  and  Parlett,  research.  135). The  Describing  the  22 I t remains the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the r e s e a r c h e r to s e l e c t the problem and d e v i s e the means, a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y safeguarded by the totem of 'academic f r e e d o m . 1  The p o s i t i o n of the e v a l u a t o r i s q u i t e d i s t i n c t , and much more complex. The e n t e r p r i s e he i s c a l l e d upon to study i s n e i t h e r of h i s choosing nor under h i s c o n t r o l . He soon d i s c o v e r s , i f he has f a i l e d to assume i t , t h a t h i s s c r i p t of e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s , a c t i o n s and consequences i s b e i n g acted out i n a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r e e t t h e a t r e which a f f e c t s not j u s t the performance, b u t the p l a y i t s e l f . I am s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the r e s o l u t i o n of these i s s u e s commits the e v a l u a t o r to a p o l i t i c a l s t a n c e , an a t t i t u d e to the government of e d u c a t i o n . No such commitment i s r e q u i r e d of the r e s e a r c h e r . He stands o u t s i d e the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , and v a l u e s h i s detachment from i t . For him the p r o d u c t i o n of new knowledge and the s o c i a l use of t h a t knowledge are r i g o r o u s l y s e p a r a t e d . The e v a l u a t o r i s embroiled i n the a c t i o n , b u i l t i n t o a p o l i t i c a l process which concerns the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power, i . e . , the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of g o a l s , r o l e s and t a s k s . (MacDonald, 1976b: The  r e s o l u t i o n of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s t h a t MacDonald a s c r i b e d  the process  of e v a l u a t i o n r e q u i r e d a commitment to a p o l i t i c a l  i l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t o r , on cesses  MacDonald f e l t  such avoidance was  naive.  a c t i o n " which i s n e i t h e r "of h i s choosing taken on  The and  "The  evaluator  i s embroiled  nor under h i s c o n t r o l " .  "which d e c i s i o n makers he w i l l  to  The  pro-  "information-gathering  A  i n the stance  serve".  degree to which the e v a l u a t o r addressed i s s u e s of power and i n t e n t ,  h i s or her methods of such i n c l u s i o n , were d e f i n e d by  t h a t c o u l d be  t a k e n . The  democratic,  the b u r e a u c r a t i c and  the c h o i c e s MacDonald d e f i n e d i n " E v a l u a t i o n and (1976b).  stance.  the other hand, c o u l d a v o i d the p o l i t i c a l  of d e c i s i o n making - c o n c e n t r a t i n g r a t h e r on  must be  131)  three  'stances'  the a u t o c r a t i c were  the C o n t r o l of  Education"  23 MacDonald r e f e r r e d to the  ' b u r e a u c r a t i c e v a l u a t o r ' as the  hack': B u r e a u c r a t i c e v a l u a t i o n i s an u n c o n d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e to those government agencies which have major c o n t r o l over the a l l o c a t i o n of educational resources. The e v a l u a t o r a c c e p t s the values of those who h o l d o f f i c e , and o f f e r s i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l h e l p them to accomplish t h e i r p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . He a c t s as a management c o n s u l t a n t , and h i s c r i t e r i o n of success is client satisfaction. His techniques of study must be c r e d i b l e to the policy-makers and not l a y them open to p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m . He has independence, no c o n t r o l over the use t h a t i s made of h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , and no c o u r t o f appeal. The r e p o r t i s owned by the bureaucracy and lodged i n i t s f i l e s . The key concepts o f b u r e a u c r a t i c e v a l u a t i o n are ' s e r v i c e ' , ' u t i l i t y ' and ' e f f i c i e n c y ' . I t s key j u s t i f a c t o r y concept i s 'the r e a l i t y of power'. (p. 132) The  ' a u t o c r a t i c e v a l u a t o r ' was  the  'evaluator  king.'  Autocratic evaluation i s a conditional service to those government agencies which have major c o n t r o l over the a l l o c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l resources. I t o f f e r s external v a l i d a t i o n of p o l i c y i n exchange f o r compliance with i t s recommendations. I t s v a l u e s are d e r i v e d from the e v a l u a t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and moral o b l i g a t i o n of the b u r e a u c r a c y . He focuses upon i s s u e s of e d u c a t i o n a l m e r i t , and a c t s as e x p e r t a d v i s e r . His techniques of study must y i e l d s c i e n t i f i c p r o o f s , because h i s power base i s the academic r e s e a r c h community. His c o n t r a c t u a l agreements guarantee n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e by the c l i e n t , and he r e t a i n s ownership of the study. His r e p o r t i s lodged i n the f i l e s of the bureaucracy, but i s a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n academic j o u r n a l s . I f h i s recommendations are r e j e c t e d , p o l i c y i s not validated. His c o u r t of appeal i s the r e s e a r c h community, and h i g h l e v e l s i n the b u r e a u c r a c y . The key concepts of the a u t o c r a t i c e v a l u a t o r a r e ' p r i n c i p l e ' and ' o b j e c t i v i t y ' . His key j u s t i f a c t o r y concept i s 'the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of office'. (p.  133)  'hired  In p l a c e of these evaluator's  two  r o l e s , MacDonald d e f i n e d the  democratic  role: Democratic e v a l u a t i o n i s an i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e to the whole community about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an e d u c a t i o n a l program. Sponsorship of the e v a l u a t i o n study does not i n i t s e l f c o n f e r a s p e c i a l c l a i m upon t h i s s e r v i c e . The democratic e v a l u a t o r r e c o g n i z e s value p l u r a l i s m and seeks to r e p r e s e n t a range of i n t e r e s t s i n his issue formulation. The b a s i c value i s an informed c i t i z e n r y , and the e v a l u a t o r a c t s as broker i n exchanges of i n f o r m a t i o n between groups who want knowledge of each o t h e r . His techniques of d a t a - g a t h e r i n g and p r e s e n t a t i o n must be a c c e s s i b l e to n o n - s p e c i a l i s t audiences. His main a c t i v i t y i s the c o l l e c t i o n of d e f i n i t i o n s o f , and r e a c t i o n s t o , the programme. He o f f e r s c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y to informants and g i v e s them c o n t r o l over h i s use of the i n f o r m a t i o n they p r o v i d e . The r e p o r t i s non-recommendatory, and the e v a l u a t o r has no concept of i n f o r m a t i o n misuse. He engages i n p e r i o d i c n e g o t i a t i o n of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with sponsors and programme p a r t i c i p a n t s . The c r i t e r i o n of success i s the range of audiences served. The r e p o r t a s p i r e s t o ' b e s t - s e l l e r ' status. The key concepts of democratic e v a l u a t i o n are ' c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ' , 'negotiation' and ' a c c e s s i b i l i t y ' . The key j u s t i f i c a t o r y concept i s * the r i g h t to know'. (p.  MacDonald's r e f e r e n c e was  to the b u r e a u c r a t i c e v a l u a t o r  p e j o r a t i v e , y e t h i s g r e a t e s t d i s d a i n was  MacDonald r e j e c t e d the n o t i o n v a l u e - f r e e study. v a l i d a t i o n " was  133) as a " h i r e d hack  f o r the a u t o c r a t i c e v a l u a t o r .  t h a t the independent e v a l u a t o r c o u l d p r o f f e r  Furthermore, the a l l e g e d bedrock of academic suspect:  I t seemed to me t h a t the a c t of e v a l u a t i o n i s not v a l u e - f r e e . The r e s e a r c h community might be n o t i o n a l l y c o n s t r u e d as c u s t o d i a n of the s c i e n t i f i c detachment of i t s members, and guarantor of the v a l i d i t y of t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s , i n f a c t , the community has shown few s i g n s  "external  25  o f any d e s i r e to extend t h a t j u r i s d i c t i o n . When r e s e a r c h i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to i d e o l o g y / as i s the case w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , h i s t o r y suggests t h a t we l o c k up the s i l v e r . (MacDonald, 1976b: MacDonald f e l t  t h a t the h o n o r i f i c a f f o r d e d c u s t o d i a n s  detachment" was  a c t u a l l y s u r r e p t i t i o u s despotism.  "stand  outside  simply  a contrivance  the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . " t h a t may  c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n makers. related  have had  to i d e o l o g y " - as was  a b s o l u t i s m - e v a l u a t i o n had the s o c i a l use  Unlike  evaluation. still  " a i d i n g and  on  no c l a i m s  to  of power" his  the a s s e r t i o n t h a t Evaluation  cannot  interpretion.  developed a t CARE I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were  Case s t u d y i n g  the  r e q u i r e d democratic e v a l u a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s  Educational  needed to be q u i c k l y completed  "closely  activity in i t s e l f .  but were m u t u a l i s t i c a l l y d e r i v e d .  pragmatically.  was  founded  MacDonald concluded  been "exposed as h a l l u c i n a t i o n s . "  p o l i t i c a l ethos of s c h o o l s  not  abetting"  "the d i s t r i b u t i o n  the i l l u m i n a t i o n approach, the case study  as condensed f i e l d w o r k .  could  While r e s e a r c h c o u l d be  b u r e a u c r a t i c e v a l u a t i o n with  viewed as a p o l i t i c a l  'provided'  e t h i c a l l y and  An e v a l u a t o r  be v a l i d - as long as i t has  r e q u i r e d n e g o t i a t i o n of the e v a l u a t o r ' s not  as an aim  of the knowledge g e n e r a t e d .  t h e i r promulgations had  "scientific  a f f i r m a t i o n to the c o n t r a r y  to be concerned with  d i s c u s s i o n of a u t o c r a t i c and  escape b e i n g  Any  of  Research c o u l d not be v a l u e - f r e e as i t was  a ' p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e o l o g y ' and  and  134)  socioas w e l l  s e t t i n g s made s t r i c t demands both  A case study designed to be of use  to inform  decision-making  to persons i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m  26  innovation. required  Yet,  the i m p l i c a t i o n s such a r e p o r t had  time to n e g o t i a t e  counteractive. inimicality  The  initial  p r i n c i p l e s and  for p a r t i c i p a n t s  procedures.  These two  f a i l u r e by CARE workers to d i s c e r n  demands were  this  l e d to an e t h i c a l s l i g h t of hand which undermined the  of the moral p r i n c i p l e s governing democratic e v a l u a t i o n . discordance,  a third principle  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and  credibility  To reduce such  t h a t governed the n e g o t i a t i o n of  p u b l i c a t i o n was  needed.  T h i s was  the p r i n c i p l e  of  justice.  Negotiation The  of I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  skill  i n case s t u d y i n g ,  d i s r u p t i o n of normal p a t t e r n s  Elliot  maintained, " i s a v o i d i n g  of i n t e r a c t i o n " (1978: 23).  d i s r u p t i o n d i d not mean non-involvement. get  " i n t o the a c t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y  pant's p e r s p e c t i v e "  (p.23).  to begin  What was  i n t r u s i v e n e s s - not r e d u c t i o n  The  a  Avoiding  p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r had  to see  needed was  things  from the  partici-  a 'control' for  (Walker, 1981b: 205).  Involving  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s d i r e c t l y i n the drawing of the case boundaries answered concern about i n t e r v e n t i o n . evaluator's  Having accepted  i n t r u s i v e n e s s , and  given  to  the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of  the e x p l i c i t concern  the  the  with  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s , the CARE group sought ways of p r o v i d i n g c o n t r o l t o participants. they p r o v i d e d  When p a r t i c i p a n t s assumed t h e i r r e c i p r o c a l r i g h t to the r e s e a r c h e r s  normal p a t t e r n s case were  with means of c o n t r o l l i n g  of i n t e r a c t i o n .  negotiable.  The  conduct and  the  intervene,  t h e i r e f f e c t s on  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  the  27 MacDonald p r o v i d e d from a Headmaster."  The l e t t e r s were to a r e s e a r c h e r  conduct a case s t u d y . questions process  a p o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o of such n e g o t i a t i o n i n " L e t t e r s  MacDonald's f i c t i t i o u s  who had requested to  headmaster p r o v i d e d  t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s " r i g h t to i n t e r v e n e  the type o f i n the  of r e s e a r c h " : . . . I have brought together our q u e r i e s about the nature of the process of case study and the p a r t we expect to p l a y i n i t . What does access mean, e x a c t l y ? Access to s t a f f , p u p i l s , myself, classrooms, s t a f f r o o m s , s c h o o l f i l e s and r e c o r d s , governors, parents? Which of these, how o f t e n , and on what c r i t e r i a of selection? How, i n other words, a r e the b o u n d a r i e s o f the case t o be drawn? And what conventions or p r i n c i p l e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n cont r o l do you i n t e n d to employ? ... In any publ i s h e d account, what i s the s t a t u s of o u r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s v i s a v i s yours? (MacDonald, 1980: 40)  Simons p r o v i d e d She  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the n e g o t i a t e d  process  q u e r i e d by the head.  addressed both the boundaries of the case and the s t a t u s of p a r t i c i p a n t  regarding  the f i n a l  report:  The i n t e n t i o n i s to r e f l e c t i s s u e s of concern to the i n t e r v i e w e e s and s e l e c t i o n of which i s s u e s are to be r e p o r t e d i s n e g o t i a t e d w i t h them. This may h e l p to reduce b i a s i n the interviewer's selection. (Simons, 1980: 27) MacDonald r e p l i e d  to the l e t t e r s .  He o u t l i n e d how the n e g o t i a t i o n d e s c r i b e d  above by Simons d e f i n e d what was i n c o r p o r a t e d by p o l i c y : Our p o l i c y (and i t seems to be t h a t any o t h e r p o l i c y would be c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e ) i s t o seek the agreement o f the s t a f f concerned about the v a l i d i t y of the study and to i n c o r p o r a t e i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n any a d d i t i o n s or modif i c a t i o n s which would g a i n such agreement. (MacDonald, 1980: 27)  28 The CARE workers' concerns  with n e g o t i a t i o n of i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and bounding would, they f e l t i n i t i a l l y ,  c o u n t e r - a c t the  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems c o n f r o n t i n g case study r e s e a r c h . Walker and MacDonald l i s t e d  the many i s s u e s c o n f r o n t i n g case  study  workers i n "Case Study and the S o c i a l P h i l o s o p h y o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research" (1975).  The development of the SAFARI e t h i c was a response  to these  issues.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s were t o be g i v e n a means of c o n t r o l t h a t c o u l d r e p l a c e r e l i a n c e on p e r s o n a l  trust:  Normally i n case study r e s e a r c h the case study worker i s h e a v i l y dependent on p e r s o n a l t r u s t . I n s t e a d of r e l y i n g e n t i r e l y on p e r s o n a l t r u s t we f e e l t h a t i n the c o n t e x t s we work i n i t may be p o s s i b l e to m a i n t a i n t r u s t through h o l d i n g s t r o n g l y to a c a r e f u l l y formulated e t h i c . The t r u s t we seek depends on g e n e r a t i n g a s t y l e o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n which methods and procedures are e x p l i c i t and v i s i b l e . We are i n t e r e s t e d i n attempting to p l a y down the p e r s o n a l e x p e r t i s e o f the r e s e a r c h e r i n order to enhance p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . (Walker, Early efforts  to formulate  1981: 52)  t h i s e t h i c were p r o b l e m a t i c , however.  The aim o f  case study r e s e a r c h - t o i n f o r m d e c i s i o n makers - was i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the need of democratic  Condensed In  e v a l u a t o r s to n e g o t i a t e methods and p r o c e d u r e s .  Fieldwork his article  and Procedures" double-bind  "The Conduct of E d u c a t i o n a l Case S t u d i e s : E t h i c s ,  Theory  (1981 [ o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1974]) Walker o u t l i n e d a  f a c i n g the case s t u d y .  On one hand ( v i z democratic  evaluation)  the aim was to " c o n f r o n t and p o r t r a y what i s a c t u a l l y happening i n s c h o o l s " (p.31).  T h i s e n t a i l e d the problems of "access  was most concerned  with.  Secondly,  to knowledge" which MacDonald  however, the case study sought  "a f a s t  29 turn-around of data  to those  consequences of the  dilemma:  being  studied"  (p.32).  Walker wrote of  the  These a s p i r a t i o n s c o n f l i c t i n t h a t the f i r s t tends to push us towards methods of r e s e a r c h t h a t seem to r e q u i r e long term immersion both i n the f i e l d and subsequently i n the d a t a . On the other hand the second tends to push us towards short-term, almost j o u r n a l i s t i c s t y l e s of r e p o r t i n g i n which the r e s e a r c h e r has l i t t l e time to check h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a g a i n s t e i t h e r the data or c o n t i n u i n g e v e n t s . (Walker, 1981: Walker f e l t  t h a t "condensed" f i e l d w o r k  Simons took e x c e p t i o n  with  this  followed  32)  from the democratic  style.  thesis:  In l i n k i n g condensed f i e l d work a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i t h a democratic s t y l e of r e s e a r c h SAFARI has confused s e v e r a l i s s u e s . Condensed f i e l d work i s not, as Rob Walker i n d i c a t e s , 'an i n e v i t a b l e consequence of the demands of a democratic mode of r e s e a r c h . ' (Simons, 1977: Simons developed her  argument a g a i n s t l i n k i n g  d e m o c r a t i c s t y l e i n her a r t i c l e , P a r t i c i p a t i o n and  "Building a Social Contract:  P o r t r a y a l i n Condensed Fieldwork  N e g o t i a t i o n c o u l d not be  f i e l d w o r k with  a  Negotiation,  Research" (1977) .  condensed:  N e g o t i a t i o n , as I have a l r e a d y argued, i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h s h o r t time s c a l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y - one of the 'key concepts' of a democratic s t y l e of r e s e a r c h - i s adopted. (Simons, 1977: Bounding the case i n terms of i t s circumstances were very  34)  time consuming when each stage was  and  to be  36)  d e f i n i n g shared negotiated:  N e g o t i a t i o n with sponsors and s u b j e c t s and the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a range of i n t e r e s t s i s c e n t r a l but there i s n o t h i n g i n h e r e n t i n the model as d e f i n e d by B a r r y MacDonald and quoted by Walker to suggest t h a t t h i s be c a r r i e d out i n a short time. (Simons, 1977:  5)  beliefs  30 The p r a c t i c a l e x i g e n c i e s adopted  when seeking to inform d e c i s i o n makers would  appear to exclude p r o t r a c t e d n e g o t i a t i o n .  As a consequence, SAFARI i n v o k e d  the n e c e s s i t y of condensed f i e l d w o r k i n the hope of matching the time s c a l e s for  d e c i s i o n making by p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  In a d d i t i o n to the p r a c t i c a l  needs of  d e c i s i o n makers, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s n e c e s s i t a t e d reduced scales.  Teachers  and  students were i n c o n s t r a i n e d p o s i t i o n s .  w i t h s t u d e n t s , s h o r t p e r i o d s were not s u f f i c i e n t  to e s t a b l i s h  time  Especially the  necessary  trust. With such r e s t r i c t i o n s  i n mind, the f o l l o w i n g agreed  been used by the CARE case study s t a f f  as a guide  i n t e r v i e w s should be conducted confidentiality;  s e t of r u l e s  to condensed f i e l d  on the p r i n c i p l e  work:  of  i n t e v i e w d a t a i s the p r o p e r t y of the i n t e r v i e w e e s and should o n l y be made a c c e s s i b l e to others w i t h t h e i r agreement; how the data may be used the people i n t e r v i e w e d ;  should be n e g o t i a t e d with  i n t e r v i e w e e s have u l t i m a t e c o n t r o l over what i n f o r mation becomes p u b l i c ; the study i s r e s t r i c t e d to seven days i n the f i e l d g a t h e r i n g data and twenty-one f o r w r i t i n g and n e g o t i a t i n g spread over a y e a r . (Simons, 1977: U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the s e t of r u l e s appeared  to be  unrealistic:  J u s t as the t w e n t y - e i g h t day time s c a l e poses problems f o r the n e g o t i a t i o n and r e l e a s e of d a t a so the seven day i n the f i e l d r e s t r i c t i o n i s a c o n s t r a i n t on the s t y l e of i n t e r v i e w i n g advocated i n t h i s paper. To put [democratic p r i n c i p l e s ] . . . i n t o p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s more time than a t h i r t y - f i v e to f o r t y minute p e r i o d and a few days i n a s c h o o l . (p.  132)  had  112)  31  Adherence to the p r i n c i p l e s of democratic e v a l u a t i o n  required  condensed f i e l d w o r k  of the  provided.  Simons f e l t  the blend  more time than  two  styles  was  impracticable. SAFARI, i t seems, speaks with two v o i c e s . The ground on which the r e s e a r c h c l a i m s are made s h i f t s f r e q u e n t l y so much so t h a t one i s l e f t wondering i f a marriage was arranged between the two concepts of r e s e a r c h because MacDonald ( a d v o c a t i n g a democratic s t y l e ) and Walker ( a d v o c a t i n g condensed f i e l d w o r k to c l o s e the gap between r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e ) j o i n e d f o r c e s a t one p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n time. (p. The  long s t a n d i n g  fieldwork  member of CARE went as  39)  f a r as to suggest t h a t condensed  i n e v i t a b l y l e d to an a u t o c r a t i c mode of  research:  When time i s l i m i t e d ...one i s tempted to argue from p r a c t i c e t h a t an a u t o c r a t i c mode of r e s e a r c h i s an i n e v i t a b l e consequence of condensed f i e l d w o r k . (p. Simons was  not alone i n her  suggestion  35)  t h a t condensed f i e l d w o r k  l e a d to an e r o s i o n of democratic p r i n c i p l e s i n e v a l u a t i o n . 1981,  two  CARE workers a s s e r t e d  t h a t the  'final  r e p o r t most o f t e n remains a u t o c r a t i c , d e s p i t e Kushner and  Norris described,  N a t u r a l i s t i c Research," the naturalistic  chapter'  As  as  of a case study  the democratic a s p i r a t i o n .  i n "Interpretation, Negotiation  time c o n s t r a i n t s  f a r on  could  and  faced by r e s e a r c h e r s  studies:  Researchers do not have to be o v e r l y j e a l o u s about guarding t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s - time w i l l u s u a l l y do a l l the guarding n e c e s s a r y . N a t u r a l i s t i c s t u d i e s i n e d u c a t i o n p r e s e n t enormous management problems i n t h a t they u s u a l l y demand to run over d e a d l i n e s i n order to c o n f i r m t h e i r  Validity in of  such  32 responsiveness and n o n - p r e o r d i n a c y . To d i s c u s s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s with p a r t i c i p a n t s i s c o s t l y i n time, and there comes a p o i n t i n the r e s e a r c h when time i s l e a s t a v a i l a b l e . The " f i n a l chapter" most f r e q u e n t l y remains the p r e s e r v e of the r e s e a r c h e r . (1981: The  a s p i r a t i o n towards a "quick  of n e g o t i a t i o n .  turn-around of d a t a  know.  The  evaluator  key  of the i n f o r m a t i o n  cuts  fieldwork.  an informed c i t i z e n r y .  offered confidentiality  short  antagonistic  j u s t i f i c a t o r y concept of democratic e v a l u a t i o n was  b a s i c value was  h i s or her use  necessitated  1  Complex democratic a s p i r a t i o n s c o u l d o f t e n be  towards a s p i r a t i o n s of condensed The  35)  to informants they p r o v i d e d .  On  and  the other  the r i g h t hand,  the  gave them c o n t r o l over  There was  considerable  t e n s i o n between these two a s p i r a t i o n s : The r e s e a r c h e r i s caught i n the t e n s i o n between meeting the o b l i g a t i o n s owed to the audience and the o b l i g a t i o n s owed to the subjects. The democratic model does not d i s s o l v e t h i s t e n s i o n but f o r m a l i s e s the need for negotiation. (Walker, 1981: MacDonald suggested  55)  ( i n the words of h i s f i c t i t i o u s headmaster) t h a t such  n e g o t i a t i o n c o u l d , indeed,  be  formalized:  We would l i k e to work towards a w r i t t e n agreement, a c o n t r a c t between y o u r s e l f and us to be lodged with a t h i r d p a r t y (another item to be n e g o t i a t e d ) who would c o n s t i t u t e a c o u r t of appeal i n the event of any c o n f l i c t between us r e a c h i n g the p o i n t of impasse. The any  agreement would c o n s t i t u t e an appendix of p u b l i s h e d study, perhaps. (MacDonald, 1978b:  The  e a r l y conduct of the CARE group, however, never f o r m a l i z e d  to the p o i n t of a w r i t t e n agreement.  There were, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  294)  negotiations initial  to  33 contacts the  which imposed a "framework of c o n s t r a i n t s a f f e c t i n g the conduct of  e n t i r e study"  (Kemmis, e t a l . , 1980b).  n e c e s s i t y of the p r a c t i c a l i t i e s  These c o n s t r a i n t s were a  of p a r t i c i p a n t s :  Case study r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n , because i t i s rooted i n the p r a c t i c a l i t i e s and p o l i t i c s of r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i s more l i k e l y to expose those s t u d i e d to c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l , censure or condemnation. The uses to which i n - d e p t h case study r e p o r t s are p u t are t y p i c a l l y beyond the c o n t r o l of the case study worker. The case study worker w i l l be p a r t y to many i n s i d e s t o r i e s not a l l of which w i l l be n e g o t i a b l e c u r r e n c y i n d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the group under s t u d y . He knows more than he should t e l l . The l i m i t i n g cons i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t the case study worker acknowledges t h a t others must l i v e with the consequences of h i s f i n d i n g s . (Kemmis, e t a l . , 1980: P a r t i c i p a n t s needed the o p p o r t u n i t y  to l i m i t access to data,  f i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n or r e l e a s e d u r i n g  the  146)  conditions  for  study.  MacDonald premised h i s " P o r t r a y a l o f Persons as E v a l u a t i o n Data" with a d r a m a t i c reminder of the consequences of e d u c a t i o n a l with a reference  t o Harry W o l c o t t and  where the ethnographer  the s o c i a l  evaluation.  consequences of  the  so  evaluation,  51)  a c c e p t (as d i d Walker and MacDonald) " t h a t knowledge i s o f t e n  s p r i n g f o r a c t i o n and  t h a t access to knowledge i s f r e q u e n t l y used as  mechanism of c o n t r o l " (Walker, 1981: social  did  stated:  "How would you f e e l i f your d a t a was used to c o n t i n u e , r e v i s e or terminate a c u l t u r e ? " (MacDonald, 1977: If r e s e a r c h e r s  He  consequences of e d u c a t i o n a l  30),  then they need to address  evaluation  the  for i n d i v i d u a l persons.  a  34 Brugelmann r e f e r r e d to the i n f l u e n c e of the e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t as i t s "disturbance  potential".  His use  of m i l i t a r y metaphors i l l u s t r a t e d  considerable  i n f l u e n c e r e p o r t s may  carry:  ...reports carry a considerable disturbance p o t e n t i a l . . . t h e r e s e a r c h e r has some o b l i g a t i o n to face the consequences of h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e r a t h e r than l e a v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a well-equipped a r s e n a l of weapons on the b a t t l e f i e l d a t the end. (Brugelmann, 1974: The  relative  the  53)  s t r e n g t h of arms t h a t each p a r t i c i p a n t would assume i n such a  show-down was  not n e c e s s a r i l y determined by h i e r a r c h i a l p o s i t i o n :  . . . i t may not be those i n the lowest p a r t of the h i e r a r c h y who are a t r i s k but those a t the top or i n d i v i d u a l s i n key p o s i t i o n s i n between. (Simons, 1977: Whichever l e v e l was p o t e n t i a l was  a t most r i s k was  found to p l a c e  difficult  to know, but  the  43)  disturbance  someone i n a v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n :  Innovations i n s c h o o l s t h r e a t e n the balance of power around e s s e n t i a l values which are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d w i t h the i d e n t i t i e s of those c o n c e r n e d . Innovations f r e q u e n t l y t h r e a t e n to make e x p l i c i t the t a k e n - f o r granted assumptions t h a t members of the s c h o o l h o l d about the nature and value of e d u c a t i o n , so c r e a t i n g new v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s , new a l l i a n c e s , new views as to what i s possible. (MacDonald and Walker, 1975: An e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t can expose those concerned to p u b l i c c e n s u r e . conflicts, vulnerabilities Without the information, study.  The  and  s h i f t s i n power a l l e g i a n c e s can  f o r m a l i s a t i o n of the the p a r t i c i p a n t s may evaluator  has  t e n s i o n between access have l i t t l e  to and  18) Internal  ensue. release  power a t the c o n c l u s i o n  an o b l i g a t i o n to the s u b j e c t s , but  a l s o to  of of a  the  35 audience.  The r i g h t to c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y competes with the p u b l i c ' s r i g h t to  know. The  t e n s i o n between the two ' r i g h t s ' needed f o r m a l i z e d n e g o t i a t i o n s : When the 'understanding* on which the study has proceeded turns o u t to be misunderstandings, when the ' e x p e c t a t i o n s ' t h e y have e n t e r t a i n e d and t h e 'assumptions' they have made prove t o be a t v a r i a n c e with the a c t i v i t i e s or i n t e n t i o n s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , there i s l i t t l e they can do o t h e r than appeal to the i n v e s t i g a t o r or t h r e a t e n to disavow the study, an a c t i o n l i k e l y t o have the same e f f e c t as the d e n i a l of rumour. Once the data has been c o l l e c t e d the balance of power has t i l t e d c o n c l u s i v e l y i n f a v o u r of the i n v e s t i g a t o r , who may d i s p o s e of i t v i r t u a l l y ' as he sees f i t . (MacDonald, 1978b: 19)  The q u e s t i o n o f c o n t r o l was c e n t r a l i n MacDonald's statement. worked through many i s s u e s i n t h e i r attempt of power and t o develop  the procedures  The CARE group  to a r r i v e a t the proper  balance  which allowed such an agreement.  The  s h a r i n g o f c o n t r o l was l a r g e l y made n e c e s s a r y by the i n f e a s i b i l i t y o f anonymisation. I f the anonymisation i s s u f f i c i e n t l y impenetrable to d i s g u i s e the i d e n t i t y o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s even from those c l o s e to the s i t u a t i o n , then, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether i t can feed r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n w i t h i n the situation i t s e l f . I f , on the other hand, the anonymisation works o n l y f o r o u t s i d e r s , those with most to g a i n or l o s e a r e s c a r c e l y p r o t e c t e d by i t . (Kemmis, e t a l . ,  1980b: 146)  Anonymising data t h a t was to be drawn from a sample i n order to p r o v i d e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s was p o s s i b l e . publish a portrayal While  Anonymising the data of a case i n order to  that fed n a t u r a l i s t i c  g e n e r a l i s a t i o n was n o t p o s s i b l e .  names c o u l d be and were f i c t i t i o u s ,  the ' r i c h n e s s ' n e c e s s a r y i n the  s t u d y made the i d e n t i t i e s d i s c e r n a b l e to a l a r g e sphere  of r e a d e r s .  The  36 s o l u t i o n seemed to be n e g o t i a t i o n of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (which i n c l u d e d and  access)  then n e g o t i a t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n . MacDonald and Walker wrote of the pros and  cons of shared c o n t r o l :  The s h a r i n g of c o n t r o l over data with p a r t i c i p a n t s does mean t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r o f t e n has to face the f a c t t h a t some of h i s f i n e s t d a t a i s l o s t , d i l u t e d or permanently consigned to the f i l e s . On the other hand h i s access to knowledge about what are s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s to h i s informants may guide h i s r e s e a r c h i n s i g n i f i c a n t and unexpected ways. (1975: When p a r t i c i p a n t s expect c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ( u n l e s s were apt  to r e v e a l more s e n s i t i v e m a t e r i a l .  allow dissemination information viewing.  as  of such i n f o r m a t i o n .  otherwise n e g o t i a t e d ) t h e y  They c o u l d ,  Yet,  answered e x p l i c i t l y and  the r e s e a r c h e r  not u n p r o b l e m a t i c .  e a r l y i n the  study.  could  been c o l l e c t e d the balance of power t i l t s  favour.  Sooner, r a t h e r  than l a t e r ,  use  and  Questions needed to  i n the  to the  interbe  As MacDonald s t a t e d , once  data has  of  however, r e f u s e  ' s e n s i t i z i n g concepts' t o guide f u t u r e o b s e r v a t i o n  C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was  10)  the  researcher's  the p a r t i c i p a n t needs to adopt the  role  "plaintiff": For the p a r t i c i p a n t s , i t i s a problem of l i m i t i n g the scope of the r e s e a r c h so t h a t the boundaries between what i s p u b l i c and what i s p r i v a t e (or what i s s e c r e t and what i s open) are c l e a r l y defined...The r o l e the p a r t i c i p a n t s are asked to p l a y i n the n e g o t i a t i o n of i s s u e s i s t h a t of P l a i n t i f f . (Kushner and N o r r i s , 1980:  The  "boundaries between what i s p u b l i c and  drawn, nor  what i s p r i v a t e " were not  were they permanent: ...while i t i s p o s s i b l e to apply the p r i n c i p l e s and procedures to statements made by i n d i v i d u a l s about t h e i r own b e l i e f s and  85) easily  37 p r a c t i c e s , t h i n g s q u i c k l y g e t i n v o l v e d once they begin t a l k i n g about each other...One person may i n s i s t t h a t data on the p r i v a t e l i v e s of the teachers remain a prominent p a r t of the study, another may i n s i s t i t should be reduced i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . (Walker, 1981b: 202) Such problems needed s t r a t e g i e s o r p r i n c i p l e s o f procedure to safeguard t h e 'plaintiffs'  rights.  Problems With  Confidentiality  Assuring  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y across  the board f a c i l i t a t e d candidness, b u t  there was a p r i c e to pay: Giving blanket c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y creates a problem over the use of the data; i t tends t o d e f e a t the a s p i r a t i o n to complete the study i n a s h o r t time because r e l e a s e of data c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y has to be n e g o t i a t e d a t each stage; i t sometimes means t h a t data which c o u l d be used t o break the r h e t o r i c o r push the i n t e r v i e w forward i s locked i n confidence. (Simons, 1977b: 132) The  researcher  negotiated.  may have become bound - l i t e r a l l y - by the c o n s t r a i n t s  The time of the study may have been lengthened.  c o u l d a l s o f i n d h i m s e l f or h e r s e l f i n a semantic o b s t a c l e  The r e s e a r c h e r  course:  While much of the data must remain l o c k e d i n c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the i n t e r v i e w e r t o a v o i d u s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n gained from p r e v i o u s i n t e r v i e w s to sharpen and focus subsequent ones. I t may a l s o be n e c e s s a r y to f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . But i t does r a i s e a d i f f i c u l t e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n i f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s assured. The i n t e r v i e w e r may breach c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y q u i t e u n w i t t i n g l y as he asks a q u e s t i o n which was s t i m u l a t e d by i n f o r m a t i o n he gained from p r e v i o u s interviews. (p. 121)  38 I t may not have been easy t o keep the t r u s t n e g o t i a t e d when i n the day-to-day practice  o f case s t u d y i n g .  unnoticed.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s  self- inflicted  'damage . 1  understood t h e i r r i g h t s were s t i l l  The  Confidentiality  that  c o u l d go  may needed guidance t o p r e s e r v e themselves from  Furthermore, even presupposing that  a l l parties  and were competent i n advocating such r i g h t s ,  there  the problems of time and a c c e s s .  Principle  of J u s t i c e  Simons, E l l i o t  and J e n k i n s a l l had fundamental c r i t i c i s m s of the  democratic e v a l u a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s "SAFARI e t h i c . " the  had many s u b t l e t i e s  that  e v e n t u a l l y were r e f e r r e d  to as the  The essence of t h e i r c r i t i q u e s c e n t r e d on the p r i n c i p l e of  r i g h t to know.  Simons c h a l l e n g e d t h i s e s s e n t i a l  assumption:  The democratic p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y o f access on the face of i t marries u n e a s i l y with the p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y of r i s k . One cannot assume t h a t i t would be i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of a l l groups to g i v e knowledge o f themselves to other groups. (Simons, 1977: 43) Simons reduced the n o t i o n o f p u b l i c a pluralistic Elliot Social  society:  i n t e r e s t down to the l o g i c a l elements o f  the i n t e r e s t s  of d i f f e r e n t  groups.  addressed the same r e d u c t i o n i n "Democratic E v a l u a t i o n as  Criticism": S i n c e 'the c i t i z e n r y ' e x i s t i n a s t a t e of v a l u e p l u r a l i s m the aim of the d e m o c r a t i c e v a l u a t o r i s to r e p r e s e n t 'the i n t e r e s t s ' o f a range o f s o c i a l groups i n h i s e v a l u a t i o n study. In other words MacDonald apprears to assume t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n a p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y have the r i g h t to know as members of p a r t i c u l a r ' i n t e r e s t ' groups r a t h e r than as members of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . (Elliot,  1977: 191)  39 Elliot  agreed w i t h Simons t h a t one cannot assume a l l groups should  knowledge  have  of a l l o t h e r s . I want to argue t h a t t h i s assumption i s f a l s e ( l a t e r I s h a l l also assert that i s i s c y n i c a l and d e s t r u c t i v e ) . I f i t i s c o r r e c t then e v e r y group i n a democracy i s o b l i g e d t o f o s t e r the i n t e r e s t s o f e v e r y other group by p r o v i d i n g them with i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s . There i s an obvious paradox here s i n c e i t may n o t be [ i n a g r o u p ' s ] . . . i n t e r e s t s to i n f o r m [another group] who may use the i n f o r m a t i o n to harm them. (p.  Given the "obvious paradox" of democratic e v a l u a t i o n , MacDonald's  192)  Elliot  refuted  e n t i r e democratic p e r s p e c t i v e : MacDonald's view of democratic s o c i e t y i s wrong. As a member of a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t group democracy r e q u i r e s me to t o l e r a t e b u t not to a c t i v e l y promote i n t e r e s t s which d i f f e r from my own. I f democracy as such does n o t r e q u i r e everyone to a c t i v e l y promote the i n t e r e s t s o f every s o c i a l group, i t does n o t a s c r i b e to everyone as members of p a r t i c u l a r groups the r i g h t to know...The d e c i s i o n t o r e l e a s e i n f o r m a t i o n about one group's a c t i v i t i e s t o members of other i n t e r e s t groups can never be j u s t i f i e d d e m o c r a t i c a l l y on the grounds t h a t people have an automatic r i g h t to know as members o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t groups. (p.  In  p l a c e of an automatic r i g h t  justice. their  to know, E l l i o t  offered  192)  the p r i n c i p l e o f  He began w i t h the premise " t h a t s i n c e a l l groups d e s i r e to pursue  i n t e r e s t s i t i s i n everyone's i n t e r e s t to d e s i r e freedom from  interference"  ( p . 1 9 3 ) . Hence, a l l groups s h o u l d work towards the " f a i r  d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l and economic  advantage"  ( p . 194). T h i s l i n e o f  t h i n k i n g then d e f i n e d the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t as those " p r i n c i p l e s which everyone would a c c e p t i n a s i t u a t i o n where they are f r e e from b i a s "  (p.195).  40 N e g o t i a t i n g from a s i t u a t i o n  free  from b i a s was n o t the same as n e g o t i a t i n g  from a s t a n d p o i n t of a member of the p u b l i c . The  principle  of j u s t i c e provided  the c r i t e r i a  to n e g o t i a t e o u t of t h e  paradox: Democratic e v a l u a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n v o l v e s an a p p r a i s a l o f the e x t e n t to which the presumption of p r i v a c y i s j u s t i f i e d . I t c e r t a i n l y i n v o l v e s being taken i n t o p a r t i c i pants' c o n f i d e n c e b u t always on the unders t a n d i n g t h a t the promise of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s c o n d i t i o n a l upon them w a r r a n t i n g the r i g h t of p r i v a c y i n the l i g h t of the p r i n c i p l e s o f justice. I f they cannot j u s t i f y t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n of t h i s r i g h t , i f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s c l e a r l y i n f r i n g e the p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e , then they are o b l i g e d to t e l l the t r u t h about t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to members of the p u b l i c who now warrant the r i g h t to know. (Elliott, Without such c r i t e r i a ,  the SAFARI e t h i c  was a case of moral s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  I t was i r r a t i o n a l t o assume both the r i g h t The  to p r i v a c y and the r i g h t  p r a c t i c a l dilemmas induced by an incomplete e t h i c  'manipulative t e c h n i c a l  1977: 198)  to know.  reduced i t t o a  device':  MacDonald argues t h a t the key j u s t i f i c a t o r y concept of democratic e v a l u a t i o n i s 'the r i g h t to know'. However, w h i l e t h i s r i g h t e t h i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d n e g o t i a t i o n as a procedure i t does not, I b e l i e v e , e t h i c a l l y j u s t i f y promising c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . The key j u s t i f i c a t o r y concept f o r the l a t t e r i s 'the r i g h t to p r i v a c y ' . T h i s concept i s conv e n i e n t l y i g n o r e d by MacDonald i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the key concepts of democratic e v a l u a t i o n and y e t i t i s the o n l y grounds a g a i n s t which p r o m i s i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y can be e t h i c a l l y r a t h e r than merely t e c h n i c a l l y justified. I f 'the r i g h t to know' i s the s o l e j u s t i f i c a t o r y concept as MacDonald c l a i m s then 'promising c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ' l a c k s r e a l e t h i c a l i n t e n t and becomes as J e n k i n s  41 suggests, a manipulative, t e c h n i c a l , device r a t h e r than an e t h i c a l s t a n c e . Perhaps i n the SAFARI p r o j e c t we have no genuine e t h i c of access a t a l l . A l l can be reduced to the e t h i c s of r e l e a s e based on the r i g h t to know. (p. 197) The  SAFARI e t h i c was incomplete  recognition  and m a n i p u l a t i v e  because there was  t h a t the promise of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was c o n d i t i o n a l .  n e g o t i a t i o n s were a c t u a l l y a sequence of two e t h i c s . of consensus which governed access n e g o t i a t e d an agreement.  Much l a t e r ,  a second e t h i c was i n t r o d u c e d . evoke an assumed democratic educational research. cipants having  to d a t a .  little  The  F i r s t came the e t h i c s  P a r t i c i p a n t s and r e s e a r c h e r s  when the study was n e a r i n g  The r e s e a r c h e r or other  completion,  i n t e r e s t groups c o u l d  r i g h t of t h e ' p u b l i c ' to know the f a c t s o f  The e t h i c s changed from agreement to d e f e n c e .  Parti-  been o f f e r e d b l a n k e t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y c o u l d be f a c e d with the  pre-empting of t h e i r r i g h t  to p r i v a c y by the p r i n c i p l e  of the p u b l i c  interest.  The  Knight's  Move  D a v i d J e n k i n s , i n "An A d v e r s a r y ' s Study,"  (1980) l a b e l l e d  the e t h i c a l  Account of SAFARI'S E t h i c s of Case  shift  as the " k n i g h t ' s move." Jenkins was  i n v o l v e d w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t t h a t began near to the time of t h e HCP and which was a l s o "embarked on" with the young s c h o o l l e a r n e r s p e c i a l l y i n mind Keele  (Schools C o u n c i l Working Paper #33, 1971: 5 ) . The  I n t e g r a t e d S t u d i e s P r o j e c t r a n from 1968-71.  was r e l a t e d  The i n t e n t of the study  to the Humanities: A Study to e x p l o r e the p o s s i b l e means to and meaning of i n t e g r a t i o n i n the h u m a n i t i e s . (Working Paper #33, 1971: 40)  42 The  approach a l s o had  similarities:  The approach, which i n v o l v e s some form of team t e a c h i n g , i s based on the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i n t e g r a t e d u n i t s are v i a b l e w i t h i n a number of organizational patterns. Each u n i t c o n t a i n s an a n a l y s i s of the area of i n q u i r y , suggested a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s , t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , and i n f o r m a t i o n o f f u r t h e r s o u r c e s . (p. Jenkins  attended and  workers r e c i p r o c a t e d  published  ( c f . MacDonald, e t a l . , 1975).  member of the CARE group, per Jenkins account o f position  i n CARE endeavours ( J e n k i n s ,  also i d e n t i f i e d  1977;  He was,  1980); CARE  however, not  the  "paradox a t the h e a r t of MacDonald's In h i s adversary's account he  whole [ o f the SAFARI e t h i c a l ] s t r u c t u r e i s argued t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s of procedure of  the  democratic evaluator  were " l i k e a r h e t o r i c a l c o n t r i c k , based on  the  knight's  move..." ( J e n k i n s ,  internal  l o g i c governing an i m p l i c i t  there was  156).  The  the r e s e a r c h e r  appeared to be  (Kushner and N o r r i s , 1980:  33).  confidants  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  separate " e d i f i c e s " ,  e x p e d i e n t as opposed to moral.  the  negotiation  (1981:  While the i n t e n t was  55).  forming final  for release.  to J e n k i n s ,  was  "to c r e a t e a more honest  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y [was  to g a i n f a s t e r a c c e s s . . . R e l e a s e of data i s then  p r o g r e s s i v e l y negotiated"  researcher.  the c r i t i q u e of the  according  p o s i t i o n , " Walker s t a t e d t h a t " o f f e r i n g b l a n k e t adopted] i n order  and  of  privacy,  r e l i n q u i s h i n g power by  d r a f t c o n s t i t u t e d a s e p a r a t e s e t of n e g o t i a t i o n s : The  the  When the n e g o t i a t i o n  of the r i g h t to  Yet,  the  devious  move d e s c r i b e d  s h i f t of e t h i c .  a " s h i f t i n power base" between the  'contract'  knight's  of data took over from the n e g o t i a t i o n  Initially a  1980:  took  manipulative."  In d o i n g so, Jenkins  the r e l e a s e  a  se.  'democratic e v a l u a t i o n ' . "  t h a t "the  41)  43 "Freed by a code of p r a c t i c e . . . [ t h e case worker c o u l d ] go truth confident  t h a t the  a " t r i c k , " however.  f i g h t i s now  I t l a y i n the  fair"  1980:  151).  the  There  was  s h i f t i n the power base between  negotiation  f o r c o n t r o l over the data and  When he was  addressing  information,  (Jenkins,  after  negotiation  of the r i g h t to know.  the d i s t i n c t i o n between p u b l i c and  Walker both acknowledged t h i s s h i f t and  private  t h a t the  researcher  became more p o w e r f u l because of i t : T h i s k i n d of s h i f t i n the p o s i t i o n o f f e r s some c o n c e s s i o n to the c r i t i c i s m made both by s t r u c t u r a l i s t s and by b u r e a u c r a t s commissioni n g the r e p o r t s , f o r i t allows the r e s e a r c h e r a s t r o n g e r hand i n i n t e r p r e t i n g p u b l i c s t a t e ments, and, to some degree, makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r the r e s e a r c h e r to argue f o r the p u b l i c r i g h t to know what i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s may p r e f e r to s u p p r e s s . (Walker, 1981b: Walker a l s o acknowledged J e n k i n s '  c r i t i c i s m i n the same a r t i c l e ,  Involved  A Personal  i n Curriculum  Research:  203) "Getting  History":  [Jenkins]...argued t h a t the SAFARI p o s i t i o n i s a r a t h e r s u b t l e s l e i g h t of hand. Prot e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s ' r i g h t s i s seen as a d e v i c e f o r b r e a k i n g down t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e and, while p r e s e n t i n g a r h e t o r i c of s u b j e c t s c o n t r o l l i n g the uses made of data, t h i s i s used to d i s g u i s e a range of s o c i a l and i n f o r m a l p r e s s u r e s t h a t are brought to bear i n order to secure t h e i r agreement to the r e l e a s e of s e n s i t i v e d a t a . Far from being a p o s i t i o n of weakness, i t i s argued, the SAFARI p o s i t i o n i s , i n f a c t , a p o s i t i o n of disguised strength. (Walker, 1981b: The  presence of a r h e t o r i c a l "device  substantiated  by  the CARE group's own  negotiations,  researchers  f o r breaking words.  204)  down...resistance"  When they d e s c r i b e d  appears  how,  a s c r i b e p a r t i c i p a n t s i m p l i c i t r o l e s , Kushner  N o r r i s s t a t e d t h a t the SAFARI team:  during and  44 ...employed q u a s i - l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s and procedures intended to normalise the power c o n t e x t i n a way t h a t allowed f o r g r e a t e r access to i n f o r m a t i o n . The team's vocab u l a r y was h e a v i l y s u f f u s e d with q u a s i - l e g a l terminology, and t h e i r appeal f o r l e g i t i m a c y was to l o o s e l y d e f i n e d concepts of j u r i s prudence and p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e . The aim was to coopt the respondents i n t o a c o l l a b o r a t i v e stance by p r o m i s i n g them a c e r t a i n degree of c o n t r o l over the process of data c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n or use;... (1980: 34) Procedural  n e g o t i a t i o n s , aimed a t ' c o o p t i n g '  were g i v e n  to imply  it  had  participants into collaboration,  an a r b i t e r r o l e f o r the s u b j e c t .  the e f f e c t of " f a c i l i t a t i n g  Simons a t t e s t e d to t h i s  access  T e c h n i c a l l y , however,  to the r e s e a r c h e r "  (Jenkins,  effect:  A l l i n t e r v i e w e e s were guaranteed c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . T h i s guarantee of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y would, we hoped, p r o v i d e the k i n d of s e t t i n g i n which they would speak f r e e l y and h o n e s t l y . (Simons and Humble, 1978: What m o r a l i s t i c a l l y c o u l d be gained  f o r the  researcher  access  Having been g i v e n a b l a n k e t models of r e f u s a l , d u r i n g things  to s e n s i t i v e data:  guarantee and  the  they d i d not  193)  seen as p r o t e c t i n g the c o n f i d e n t s , t e c h n i c a l l y  In the hands of s k i l l e d i n t e r v i e w e r most p e o p l e are i n e x p e r i e n c e d and w i l l r e v e a l t h i n g s they do not i n t e n d . Only by a l l o w i n g r e t r o s p e c t i v e c o n t r o l of e d i t i n g and r e l e a s e of data to informants can the case study worker p r o t e c t h i s s u b j e c t s from the penet r a t i v e power of the r e s e a r c h as w e l l as c h e c k i n g h i s own m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s or misunderstandings . (Walker, 1981:  'revealed  1977).  first  having  little  knowledge of adequate  ' s e t ' o f n e g o t i a t i o n s , the  intend.'  56)  subjects  45 What the case worker had e f f e c t e d was a 'tone' t h a t pre-empted a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f the d a t a . has  become c o n f i d e n t i a l " ( J e n k i n s ,  susceptible  " I t i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t  1980: 155). The p a r t i c i p a n t was  to the argument t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r  c o u l d be e n t r u s t e d  s e c r e t s because r e l e a s e of data was o f f the c u r r e n t agenda. Elliot "the  s t a t e d , was prepared to w a i t .  Later,  with  The seducer,  the p a r t i c i p a n t would f i n d  that  e t h i c s of consensus [had been] s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y r e p l a c e d by the e t h i c s o f  power" ( p . 1 5 5 ) . When the time came to n e g o t i a t e  release  of data,  the r i g h t  of a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l or group to have i n t e r e s t s remain p r i v a t e no longer  depended on a b l a n k e t  agreement of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . The e t h i c s o f the  a c c e s s t o data were not the same as those o f i t s r e l e a s e . Jenkins  provided  a scheme o f the s l i g h t of hand.  a c c e s s to s e n s i t i v e data low  high  1  2  3  4  low ) ) a b i l i t y to ) release data high )  SAFARI "case study e t h i c s " i s i n p a r t a r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e to f a c i l i t a t e performance of t h i s q u e s t i o n a b l e k n i g h t ' s move. Between boxes 1 and 2 we have a gate l a b e l l e d the e t h i c s of a c c e s s . Between boxes 2 and 4 we have a gate l a b e l l e d the e t h i c s of r e l e a s e . Softly. Softly. ( J e n k i n s , 1980: 153) The  p r a c t i c a l consequences of t h e 'moral s c h i z o p h r e n i a '  SAFARI l e d E l l i o t  to r e a l i z e  p r a c t i c e d by  the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of such e v a l u a t i o n .  was a need to p u t judgement back i n t o The u n d e r l y i n g cause of the stems from the i n c o n s i s t e n t e v a l u a t o r [and] the e t h i c a l n a t u r e of h i s p r o c e d u r e s . . .  evaluation. p r a c t i c a l dilemma b e l i e f s of the inconsistent ( p . 197)  There  46 People have a r i g h t to p r i v a c y as members of a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t group because i t i s a guarantee of n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i r freedom to pursue t h e i r i n t e r e s t s without interference. But t h i s l a t t e r r i g h t of freedom of a c t i o n o n l y holds i f i t i s compatible with those p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e which c o n s t i t u t e the common good, e.g., such as t h a t o f 'equal l i b e r t y ' . S i m i l a r l y people have the r i g h t to know' as members of the p u b l i c i f the p u r s u i t of s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n f r i n g e s the p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e . MacDonald's SAFARI e t h i c can o n l y escape i n t e r n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y i f i t puts judgment back i n t o e v a l u a t i o n . 1  (Elliot, The  evaluator  would i n e v i t a b l y be c o n f r o n t e d  n e g o t i a t i o n methods. order  A conception  of ' s u b s t a n t i v e  1977:  199)  with a need f o r c r i t e r i a ' was  t h a t the common good or p u b l i c i n t e r e s t c o u l d be judged.  subtle  needed i n The  ethic  had  shifted: While the concept of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y d e f i n e s the e t h i c s of a c c e s s (move one), t h a t of n e g o t i a t i o n d e f i n e s the e t h i c s of r e l e a s e (move two). W i t h i n the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y e t h i c the power of the e v a l u a t o r to use i n f o r m a t i o n is restricted. But w i t h i n the n e g o t i a t o n e t h i c a l l kinds of m a n i p u l a t i v e devices, which r e s t r i c t the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t r o l over the data and i n c r e a s e the e v a l u a t o r ' s , become permissible. Jenkins r e f e r s to such s t a n d a r d d e v i c e s as 'the m a n i p u l a t i o n of time s c a l e s ' and t h a t o f ' r e p r e s e n t i n g the t a s k ' as "improving" an account and thereby d e f l e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n from the f a c t of r e l e a s e to i t s form'. (Elliot, P a r t of the  s h i f t i n power r e l a t i o n s was  s t a t u s of the  researcher.  quasi-insider." of  The  Rapport had  1977:  196)  a t t r i b u t e d by Jenkins  to the  changed  ' o u t s i d e r ' became " i n the know...a  been e s t a b l i s h e d .  the management of n e g o t i a t i o n and  most knowledge about ' i n f r i n g e m e n t s '  The  evaluator  was  i n charge  as a q u a s i - i n s i d e r c o u l d c l a i m to have by  sectional interests.  All-in-all,  the  47 s u b j e c t s were l u l l e d different  i n t o a f a l s e sense  s e t of e t h i c a l p r o c e d u r e s .  of s e c u r i t y ,  "Acquiesence"  then p l a c e d under a was most o f t e n the  result. J e n k i n s concluded  h i s account  of the SAFARI e t h i c with the statement  t h a t "the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an e t h i c a l stance i s i t s s e l f - d e n i a l . " SAFARI group's use of such terms as c o o p t i n g ; t h e ' r e a l p o l i t i c k ' ;  The  the help  of the a u t h o r i t a t i v e p o s i t i o n ; and provoking divergency, p o i n t e d towards Jenkins'  "disreputable conclusion."  The SAFARI p r i n c i p l e s of procedure d i d  "not begin to q u a l i f y as [an] e t h i c a l s t a n c e " The  (p.157).  r e a l i z a t i o n o f an e t h i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y , a c c o r d i n g to E l l i o t ,  r e q u i r e d a change i n the e v a l u a t o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : MacDonald i s wrong i n h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t democratic e v a l u a t i o n has no c o n c e p t i o n o f ' i n f o r m a t i o n misuse'. The e v a l u a t o r cannot escape r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r judgment a g a i n s t p u b l i c c r i t e r i a i f he i s to remain g e n u i n e l y democratic. ( E l l i o t , 1977: 194) Walker acknowledged the presupposed  v a l u e s t h a t operated w i t h i n t h e  democratic mode: The democratic mode of e v a l u a t i o n i s c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h a t i t presupposes v a l u e s i n the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n t h a t need p r o t e c t i o n . I t s n e g a t i v e a s p e c t i s i n e r t i a , which i s i n h e r e n t l y c o n s e r v a t i v e p r e c i s e l y because i t o f f e r s support, perhaps even u n t h i n k i n g s u p p o r t to the s t a t u s q u o . . . I t i s p o t e n t i a l l y a way of s c r e e n i n g o u t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e a l l y r a d i c a l view. Whether t h i s l o g i c ever gets turned i n t o p r a c t i c e i s another matter. (Walker, When the e x i s t e n c e of a d i f f e r e n t e t h i c a l possible  1981: 38)  s e t was n o t r e a l i z e d , i t was n o t  to ' f u l l y - d i s c u s s ' v a l u e s i n the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n  protection.  t h a t needed  Without a c r i t e r i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , groups and  48 individuals they are  lapse into i n e r t i a .  a t a stage where the  "support...the status  quo."  I f a c t o r s i n a s i t u a t i o n do  p r i n c i p l e of j u s t i c e p r e v a i l s , they E l l i o t defined  the p r i n c i p l e as  everyone would a c c e p t i n a s i t u a t i o n where they are was no  not  the  t h e i r own  free  accepted s i t u a t i o n amid SAFARI p r o j e c t s .  c r i t e r i o n of  " j u s t i c e " ) would s t i l l  'interests.'  negotiation  involving  not  I t would be "sectional  be  easy to see  why  the  that  will "which  from b i a s . "  The  a d v o c a t i n g the  that  realize  confidents  Such (having  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of common denominator  i n t e r e s t s " would screen out  the  of  "really  r a d i c a l view." The  desire  p r i n c i p l e s of allowed that been the  the the  to c o r r e c t  the  SAFARI e t h i c ,  imbalance of power, by fell  upholding  s h o r t of i t s g o a l .  i r o n i c a l i n c r e a s e i n power to the  the  In f a i r n e s s ,  r e s e a r c h e r may  not  Jenkins have  hidden agenda: I t i s more humane to c o n s i d e r the SAFARI case students as h o p e l e s s l y caught i n the c r o s s f i r e between c o n f l i c t i n g a s p i r a t i o n s . ( J e n k i n s , 1977:  Walker would appear to support t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - and  not  a deliberate  researcher's authority  "rhetorical contrick." had  been once and  of p a r a d o x i c a l  There was  restraints  no pretense that  for a l l controlled:  Those who have c r i t i c i s e d the SAFARI r h e t o r i c f o r a d o p t i n g too s o f t a p o s i t i o n , f o r conceding too much to the r i g h t s of the s u b j e c t , have sometimes f a i l e d to see the power t h a t the r h e t o r i c can g i v e the r e s e a r c h e r once the p r i n c i p l e s and procedures are e s t a b l i s h e d . In e f f e c t you can say t o p e o p l e ' F e e l f r e e to t e l l me whatever you want. Our c o n v e r s a t i o n i s c o n f i d e n t i a l . If you want i t to go no f u r t h e r we can e d i t i t from the r e c o r d . ' As J e n k i n s has p o i n t e d out i n h i s c r i t i q u e ( J e n k i n s , 1977) i t i s o f t e n much more d i f f i c u l t f o r people to e d i t the  152)  the  49 r e c o r d than we tend to assume. The a u t h o r i t y of the r e s e a r c h e r cannot be i g n o r e d as a f a c t o r i n the s i t u a t i o n , nor can the f a c t t h a t everyone i n v o l v e d has s u s p i c i o n s as to what others might have s a i d to you. Conf i d e n t i a l i t y may be intended to p r o t e c t the i n d i v i d u a l , but i t s e f f e c t i s o f t e n to d i v i d e people and to engender m i s t r u s t . (Walker, 1981: Walker's defense a g a i n s t the c r i t i c i s m  of a ' s o f t p o s i t i o n ' was  t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t e n d i v i d e d p a r t i c i p a n t s , and a u t h o r i t y of the The  p r i n c i p l e of j u s t i c e was  socio-political realities  i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of two The  of e d u c a t i o n a l  research  s t y l e s of case study:  out  the  included i n premised  as w e l l as by  democratic and  d e c i s i o n makers.  The  the  condensed  r e s u l t c o u l d be an  the r e s e a r c h e r  by  an  r e v e a l e d by  r e s t r a i n t s of time of the f i r s t approach p r e c l u d e d  of e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s by  q u i c k l y inform  to be  T h i s p r i n c i p l e was  T h i s inadequacy was  n e c e s s a r y n e g o t i a t i o n time of the second. manipulation  a c t u a l l y enhanced  the n e c e s s a r y next step  incomplete s e t of e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s .  fieldwork.  to p o i n t  researcher.  the development of CARE's case s t u d y method. the  206)  i n h i s or her  the expedient desire  to  Whatever the developmental l i m i t a t i o n s of  the case study became, however, CARE r e s e a r c h e r s  were committed to  the  development of an a l t e r n a t i v e approach to the dominant a g r i c u l t u r a l - b o t a n y paradigm.  They e s p e c i a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l approach to  educational  research,  with  i t s use  of p r e s p e c i f i e d t e r m i n a l behaviours  benchmarks of s u c c e s s f u l implementation, was on e d u c a t i o n  Such  research  superseded the commonsense i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e a l i t y of  p a r t i c i p a n t s and action.  too s i m p l i s t i c .  i t superimposed a t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of  as  the  curriculum  50 CHAPTER I I I AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO RESEARCH  The  a l t e r n a t i v e view of r e s e a r c h accepted  n e c e s s i t a t e d a d i f f e r e n t approach to the study The  by the CARE group of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i o n .  group d e s c r i b e d t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e approach as ' E d u c a t i o n a l Research', as  opposed t o 'Research on E d u c a t i o n . '  A b a s i c premise of such r e s e a r c h was  t h a t no one d e f i n i t i o n of a s i t u a t i o n was a u t h o r i t a t i v e . In p l a c e of the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of phenomena, the CARE group (with adhered t o the ' c o n t r o l l e d r e l a t i v i t y paradigm.' concepts'  which acted as a p r i o r i  ' s e n s i t i z i n g concepts'  exceptions)  In p l a c e of ' d e f i n i t i v e  r e s e a r c h d e s c r i p t o r s , the a l t e r n a t i v e  were employed.  These l a t t e r  'progressive focussing' during research.  concepts  allowed  The r e s u l t of such f o c u s s i n g was a  ' p o r t r a y a l ' o f the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r own commonsense concepts.  The a l t e r n a t i v e approach to r e s e a r c h presented  methodological  problems.  An A l t e r n a t i v e Response t o the P s y c h o - S t a t i s t i c a l Elliot The  labelled  the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l  style  "Research on E d u c a t i o n . "  a l t e r n a t i v e paradigm became " E d u c a t i o n a l Research."  He o u t l i n e d the  distinctions: Parameter  E d u c a t i o n a l Research  Research on E d u c a t i o n  Perspective  Natural-objective  Scientific  Concepts  Sensitizing  Definitive  51 A posteriori  A priori  Data  Qualitative  Quantitative  Theory  Substantive  Formal  Method  Case Study  Experimental  Generalization  Naturalistic  Formalistic  Participation  Teachers and p u p i l s  No t e a c h e r / p u p i l  participate Techniques  participation  Participant observation and  Non-participant  informal  t i o n using a p r i o r i  interviews  category (Elliot,  The without  paradigm o u t l i n e d by E l l i o t  i t s own problems.  bothersome.  systems.  1978: 20)  and e x p l o r e d by the CARE group was n o t  Methodological  questions  were p a r t i c u l a r l y  R e j e c t i o n of the e s t a b l i s h e d method e n t a i l e d  a new j u s t i f y i n g base f o r r e s e a r c h .  observa-  the development o f  An o n t o l o g i c a l b a s i s was necessary to  s u b s t a n t i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l b a s i s was needed t o v a l i d a t e q u a l i t a t i v e knowledge. nor c o h e s i v e  tradition.  However, the CARE group was not a  E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s were a s s o c i a t e d with CARE a t  d i f f e r i n g p e r i o d s and with d i f f e r i n g degrees of involvement. the c e n t r a l concern case  study  provenance.  continuous  was a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h .  Furthermore,  The p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the  approach o u t s t r i p p e d the e x p l i c a t i o n of the p h i l i s o p h i c a l T h i s l a c k of s u c c i n t n e s s l e f t  'mists of ambiguity'  surrounding  the CARE work. A g r e a t d e a l of ambiguity T h i s ambiguity  continued  had surrounded the i l l u m i n a t i v e  approach.  and a f f e c t e d the p r a c t i c e and theory of case  "Many of the i s s u e s are s t i l l  problematic;  a l l need to be s u b j e c t e d  study:  to the  s c r u t i n y of p r a c t i c e and t h e o r e t i c a l c r i t i q u e "  (Simons, 1980: 1 0 ) .  Stenhouse a l s o r e f e r r e d to t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y i n r e f e r e n c e  to d o c t o r a l d i s s e r -  tations : As an examiner of d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s I f i n d no s u b s t i t u t e f o r the b u i l d i n g of a r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n as a b a s i s f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n and cumulation i n i l l u m i n a t i v e research. I t h i n k some d o c t o r a l students and some p o s t - d o c t o r a l r e s e a r c h e r s - a r e d e c l a r i n g themselves " i l l u m i n a t i v e " to escape the p r e s s u r e of standards and t h a t t h i s cannot be allowed to c o n t i n u e . A t the same time most d o c t o r a l s u p e r v i s o r s are unsure what standards t o advocate i n i l l u m i n a t i v e research. (Stenhouse, 1979b: 7) In 1979 he s t a t e d , "Now, a t the moment I'm q u i t e tender  on t h i s  problem,  because i t i s not p u b l i c l y c l e a r w i t h i n the academic community what the standards  f o r t h i s k i n d of work should  In 1981, Lawn and Barton prevailed.  The Centre was s a i d  around Stenhouse, a t t r a c t i n g with  s t a t e d t h a t the CARE ambiguity to operate  and w i t h  still  " l i k e a c h a r i s m a t i c movement  the d i s c o n t e n t amongst the e d u c a t i o n a l  t h e i r i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s a c t i n g as a cohesive  hostility, until  be...."  force against outsider  t h e i r ambiguity a c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r continued  the new orthodoxy i s c r e a t e d "  (p.11).  faithful,  The authors  existence  maintained  t h a t an  orthodoxy or t h e o r e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n was not e x i s t e n t .  They went so f a r , i n  f a c t , as the a s s e r t i o n t h a t the CARE group had turned  i t s back on t h e o r y -  which Lawn and B a r t o n alternative  f e l t was a n e c e s s a r y  c o n d i t i o n of a bona f i d e  tradition.  Most CARE members r e j e c t e d the c r i t i c i s m theoretical.'  Instead,  they c o n s i d e r e d  t h a t they were  'anti-  the c r i t i c s to be locked i n t o an  a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e which c o u l d not encompass t h a t of the CARE  53 researchers. research."  Kushner and N o r r i s c o n s i d e r e d In the 1981  article  N a t u r a l i s t i c Research" the two  t h e i r CARE work as  "naturalistic  " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , N e g o t i a t i o n and V a l i d i t y i n authors  wrote of the  paradigmatic  distinction: N a t u r a l i s t i c r e s e a r c h a r i s e s out of an i n t e r e s t i n understanding. I t i s not simply an a l t e r n a t i v e method f o r c o n d u c t i n g empirical research i n educational settings but an a l t e r n a t i v e way of s e e i n g and c o n s t r u i n g the world of e d u c a t i o n . Thus, n a t u r a l i s t i c r e s e a r c h has d i f f e r e n t e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and o n t o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s t o those o f , say, the e x p e r i m e n t a l or psychos t a t i s t i c a l traditions i n educational research. As such, we should be wary of s e e i n g them as compatible, or even complementary, forms of e n q u i r y . (Kushner and N o r r i s , 1981: The  b e l i e f expressed  p s y c h o l o g i c a l world  was  that d i f f e r i n g  views.  of r e a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n was  The  p e r s p e c t i v e s are founded on  This conception shared  27)  of t r u t h and  the i m p l i e d  differing notion  by o t h e r CARE members.  C o n t r o l l e d R e l a t i v i t y Paradigm John E l l i o t  relativism'  termed such p e r s p e c t i v a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  (1974).  He  coined  the term i n the c o n t e x t  a r t i c l e by Hans Brugelmann (1974). of an  ' a b s o l u t i s t view  1  Elliot's  by Brugelmann.  'contingent  of a c r i t i q u e  notion described  the  of  rejection  E l l i o t addressed Brugelmann's  argument: Note t h a t so f a r i n the argument we are working a t the l e v e l of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l explanation. P e r s i s t e n t disagreement i s e x p l a i n e d i n terms of d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s of t r u t h . I ' l l c a l l t h i s t h e s i s c o n t i n g e n t relativism. I f true i t c e r t a i n l y f a l s i f i e s the a b s o l u t i s t view t h a t there i s some archimedean p o i n t a g a i n s t which we can check the o b j e c t i v i t y of our t h e o r i e s . (1974:  119)  an  54 If  one  accepted  the premise of ' d i f f e r i n g conceptions  Kushner and N o r r i s a s s e r t e d above) the tenets theory  research,  represented  forms of v a l i d a t i o n had  "an a l t e r n a t i v e way  education."  As E l l i o t  paradigm.  f o r o n t o l o g i c a l / e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l tenets  traditional  went on  the n o t i o n of a paradigm s h i f t meant t h a t  to be abandoned;  essay  Elliot  which s t a t e d t h a t "no  Educational Evaluation:  paradigm" also  applying  1974:  120)  thesis.  to the premise of the CARE view of case  studies  group's d e f i n i t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n i s allowed  become a u t h o r i t a t i v e . "  outlined  of  any:  t i t l e might suggest, he r e j e c t e d t h i s  took e x c e p t i o n  to  Brugelmann, i n "Towards Checks and Balances i n On  the Use  of S o c i a l C o n t r o l i n Research Design,"  t h i s premise i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of "the c o n t r o l l e d r e l a t i v i t y (Brugelmann, 1974).  " s p e l l i t out,  case  these  SAFARI S o l i p s i s t s " ,  ...change of a l l e g i a n c e from one paradigm t o another cannot be a matter of r a t i o n a l commitment. At b e s t i t i s n o n - r a t i o n a l . S i m i l a r l y f o r Brugelmann who argues t h a t the i n i t i a l step of commitment 'cannot be founded on any l o g i c a l or e m p i r i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n o u t s i d e the b e l i e f system i t s e l f . ' (Elliot, As E l l i o t ' s  to guide  of s e e i n g or c o n s t r u i n g the world to w r i t e , i n "The  (as  psycho-statistical  c o u l d not be a p p l i e d as c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t the new  S i m i l a r l y , i n the search study  of the  of t r u t h , ' then  together  MacDonald and Walker, a c c o r d i n g with  i t s methological  to  Elliot,  implications, very  clearly": I t i s i m p l i c i t i n the n o t i o n of case-study t h a t there i s no one true d e f i n i t i o n of the situation. In s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , t r u t h i s multiple. The case worker i s a c o l l e c t o r of definitions. The c o l l e c t i o n i s v a l i d a t e d v i a a continuous process of n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h those i n v o l v e d . (Walker and  MacDonald, 1975b: 9)  55 The by  Elliot  l o g i c of Brugelmann, Walker and MacDonald was p a i n s t a k i n l y examined i n his effort  to show how t h e i r  "epistemological  r e l a t i v i s m " was  illogical: The view t h a t we cannot know whether the f a c t s are independent of our c o n c e p t i o n s o f them i s based on an appeal to c e r t a i n psychological f a c t s . I t i s equivalent to s a y i n g 'I want you to b e l i e v e there are no o b j e c t i v e f a c t s because of these o b j e c t i v e facts.' The whole argument i s i l l o g i c a l . . . I f Brugelmann wants to argue t h a t o b j e c t i v i t y i s not p o s s i b l e he must do so on p h i l o s o p h i c a l r a t h e r than p s y c h o l o g i c a l grounds. As a p r e c o n d i t i o n he must admit t h a t I c a n a c c e p t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t t h a t I cannot know r e a l i t y i n d e p e n d e n t l y of my c o n c e p t i o n s of i t and s t i l l q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t l y ask the q u e s t i o n , 'How can I know t h a t what I conceive e x i s t s independently?' Notice that my q u e s t i o n assumes the p o s s i b i l i t y of objectivity. His task would be to p r o v i d e some p h i l i s o p h i c a l grounds to show t h a t the assumption behind my q u e s t i o n i s f a l s e . I s h a l l now show t h a t every s i n g l e o b j e c t i o n he makes leaves me f r e e to go on asking t h i s question. (Elliot, The  f a c t t h a t Brugelmann d i d n o t ( i f one accepts the completeness o f E l l i o t ' s  analysis) provide premise  adequate p h i l i s o p h i c a l grounds f o r the q u i n t e s s e n t i a l  (which E l l i o t  possibility  l a b e l l e d "contingent  f o r such an argument b e i n g  r e l a t i v i s m " ) does not r u l e out the  advanced s u c c e s s f u l l y . Y e t ,  Brugelmann's venture i n t o " o n t o l o g i c a l and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l fell  1974: 120)  presuppositions"  s h o r t of a r t i c u l a t i n g a 'new orthodoxy.' In the view of B a r t i n and Lawn, CARE s t i l l  concerning  lacked a s y s t e m a t i c  t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l grounding i n 1981: We are sympathetic to the e n t e r p r i s e upon which they are engaged, y e t we f i n d a p u b l i c  treatise  56 d i s c u s s i o n w i t h them hard to g e n e r a t e . In response to our c r i t i c i s m s , "the mists of ambiguity" was a phrase used i n one l e t t e r from the C e n t r e , d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r need f o r p r i v a c y and a d e l i b e r a t e a n t i - t h e o r e t i c a l journey!... From the e a r l y days of the d e v i a n t Humanities C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t to the p r e s e n t ambivalence about involvement with t h e o r y and e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y - m a k i n g , CARE has developed an ambiguity about i t s work, though i t has always been f o r t h r i g h t i n i t s independence. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s not w i t h o u t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , s i n c e Centre s t a f f may a l s o be u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r s , h i g h e r degree s u p e r v i s o r s , and c o n f e r e n c e s p e a k e r s . And the i n t e g r a t i o n o f CARE with a l o c a l c o l l e g e of e d u c a t i o n ( t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ) w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y merely sharpens the p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r a d i c t i o n of e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a U n i v e r s i t y y e t r e s i s t i n g academia. (Barton and Lawn, 1981: 8) The CARE group, however, r e j e c t e d such ' a n t i - t h e o r e t i c a l ' c r i t i c i s m . c o n s i d e r e d a m i s a p p l i c a t i o n of f a l s e c r i t e r i a . p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm t h e i r own t h e o r y .  sought  The adherents  I t was  to the  to e x p l a i n CARE r e s e a r c h by the tenets o f  The n o t i o n o f paradigm  established  the f a l l a c y of such  criticism. S c i e n t i s t s a c t w i t h i n paradigms which are d e f i n e d i n terms of the b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t possessed by t h e i r a d h e r e n t s . These concepts s p e c i f y standards f o r what are to count as t r u e or f a l s e c l a i m s . Now Kuhn (1970) c l a i m e d t h a t many p e r s i s t e n t disagreements amongst s c i e n t i s t s can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the d i s p u t a n t s a d h e r i n g to r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s of t r u t h . Moreover, s i n c e the d i s p u t e i s about what i s to count as t r u t h t h e r e i s no way i n which the adherent of one paradigm can judge the c l a i m s o f adherence o f another a g a i n s t some n e u t r a l criterion. (Elliot,  1974: 119)  57 Elliot  felt  t h a t the c o n c e p t i o n  of theory  to which Kuhn a s c r i b e d was the same  as t h a t of h i s f e l l o w CARE workers (Brugelmann, MacDonald and W a l k e r ) . MacDonald and Walker f e l t  t h a t people from d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s had  m u l t i p l e d e f i n i t i o n s of t r u t h . instance.  There was no one true d e f i n i t i o n of any  Furthermore, where Kuhn maintained  t h a t there was an absence of  n e u t r a l c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which the adherents of one paradigm c o u l d judge the claims  of another, Brugelmann b e l i e v e d t h a t as there were m u l t i p l e  t r u t h was c o n t i n g e n t societal belief  on the r e l a t i v e adherence o f people to a l t e r n a t i v e  systems.  The "academia" to which Lawn and Barton  (and CARE r e s i s t e d ) was one such source the CARE workers c o n s i d e r e d presuppositions  Systematic  of d e f i n i t i o n s of t r u t h .  t h e i r educational research  As such,  to have a l t e r n a t i v e  I n q u i r y Made P u b l i c some understanding  CARE group i n " A p p l y i n g Research t o E d u c a t i o n "  o f the ambiguity of the  (1978b).  This paper was  a t the B r i t i s h E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n conference  September, 1978.  of  Stenhouse d e s c r i b e d an a l t e r n a t i v e approach to s t u d y i n g  e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e which he c a l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a l  action  Stenhouse began h i s d i s c u s s i o n by d e f i n i n g r e s e a r c h i n q u i r y made p u b l i c .  upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  research. as s y s t e m a t i c  He f u r t h e r d e f i n e d i n q u i r y as "a t e l e o l o g i c a l  of a c t i o n whose purpose i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . "  pattern  Such s a t i s f a c t i o n was s t r u c t u r e d  Understanding, i n t u r n , was the o p p o s i t e  misu nderstanding and n o t u n d e r s t a n d i n g . these  adhered  to the dominant p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l r e s e a r c h on e d u c a t i o n .  Lawrence Stenhouse p r o v i d e d  presented  realities,  to both  The need f o r a d i s t i n c t i o n  two l a t t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s was "to l i n k the p e r s o n a l  between  and the  58 social." claim.  To no longer misunderstand r e q u i r e d a p u b l i c assessment of t h a t To understand, where one had n o t understood, was a p e r s o n a l  t h a t had a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  claim  basis:  From the p o i n t o f view of a r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between unders t a n d i n g and misunderstanding hinges on the building of publicly accessible interpretat i o n s of t h e o r i e s , which are s u s c e p t i b l e of improvement. T h i s i m p l i e s p u b l i c c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s an improvement - t h a t i s , m e t a t h e o r i e s - and behind these a study which regards the t h e o r i e s and metat h e o r i e s as p r o b l e m a t i c . This i s epistemology, the i n q u i r y i n t o the b a s i s o f c l a i m s to knowledge; and t h i s i t s e l f has behind i t the area of i n q u i r y which A r i s t o t l e c a l l e d metaphysics and i s now t h a t branch of metaphysics c a l l e d o n t o l o g y , whose i n q u i r y i n t o the nature of r e a l i t y n e c e s s a r i l y has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r epistemology. (Stenhouse, 1978b: 2) If a r e s e a r c h basis  t r a d i t i o n was to be b u i l t on e x p e r i e n c e , then there must be a  f o r assessing  collaboration. criteria  a c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of work done i n  In l i g h t of the need f o r s y s t e m a t i c  f o r assessing  scepticism,  there must be  the " d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between understanding and mis-  unders t a n d i n g . " T h i s p u b l i c p o s s e s s i o n of the standards and c r i t e r i a which u n d e r w r i t e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s c e p t i c i s m i s one main reason why our d e f i n i t i o n of r e s e a r c h must i n c l u d e the i d e a of making p u b l i c , o f p u b l i s h i n g . A second main reason i s t h a t r e s e a r c h i s c o l l a b o r a t i v e . I t enables each r e s e a r c h e r to use the work o f o t h e r s , to stand on many s h o u l d e r s . Thus i t i s important t h a t p u b l i s h e d work should be p r e s e n t e d i n forms which are a t once a c c e s s i b l e to c r i t i c i s m and u t i l i z a b l e by o t h e r s as c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h e i r own work. When I address the problem of the a p p l i c a t i o n of r e s e a r c h to e d u c a t i o n , the c r u c i a l i s s u e i n e d u c a t i o n , as i n other a p p l i e d f i e l d s , i s  59 t h a t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s c h o l a r s h i p r e s e a r c h to a c t i o n .  and (p.  The  3)  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm of s c h o l a r s h i p  research  to a c t i o n was  Stenhouse was  believed  to be  problematic.  'indebted' f o r much of h i s r e f u t a t i o n of the  s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm t o David Hamilton.  'agricultural-botany  Applications  designs to c u r r i c u l u m  research  psycho-  Stenhouse r e f e r r e d t o Hamilton's  treatment of the development of the of a g r i c u l t u r a l - b o t a n y  and  paradigm'  (1980).  and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  were p r o b l e m a t i c . ...the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of two a l t e r n a t i v e procedures by the use of an experiment c a s t i n the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm i s an e f f e c t i v e guide to a c t i o n o n l y i f a standard procedure must be used i n a l l c a s e s . At system l e v e l t h i s i m p l i e s u n i f o r m i t y of treatment i n a l l s c h o o l s i r r e s p e c t i v e of c o n t e x t . At c l a s s room l e v e l t h i s i m p l i e s u n i f o r m i t y of treatment of a l l c h i l d r e n . Teaching i s l a r g e l y a response to the observ a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g of l e a r n i n g i n c a s e s . I f t h i s i s so, then a c r u c i a l problem of the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm as the d e s i g n f o r a d i s c r i m i n a n t experiment i s not simply t h a t i t d e a l s i n g e n e r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s , but t h a t i t o f f e r s to guide t e a c h e r s by o v e r r i d i n g , r a t h e r than by s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r judgement. (pp.  T h e o r e t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s to p r a c t i c e c o u l d c l a s s r o o m s were t r e a t e d u n i f o r m l y . general  p r e s c r i p t i o n i n f e a s i b l e , the  uniformity.  research  o n l y guide a c t i o n i f a l l  In p r a c t i c e , however, not ' a r t ' of teaching  o n l y was  mitigated  such  against  T e a c h i n g s t y l e s worked towards i n s t r u c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t a t i o n -  meet d i s p a r a t e The  6-8)  s t u d e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s - not  towards  uniformity.  a l t e r n a t i v e to the p r o b l e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o l a r s h i p to a c t i o n was  "experimental a c t i o n  to  research."  and  60 I am a r g u i n g f o r a s h i f t of paradigm on the p a r t of a t l e a s t a p r o p o r t i o n of r e s e a r c h e r s , f o r t e s t i n g a new approach. The key to t h i s approach i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of r e s e a r c h to e d u c a t i o n through an appeal t o t e a c h e r judgement. The a s s e r t i o n i s t h a t the improvement of t e a c h i n g r e s t s upon the development of the a r t of the teacher and not through the t e a c h e r ' s a d o p t i o n of u n i f o r m procedures s e l e c t e d from competing a l t e r n a t i v e s .... The p o i n t of view I am t a k i n g i m p l i e s t h a t r e s e a r c h i s b e s t a p p l i e d to e d u c a t i o n by p r o d u c i n g t h e o r y which can e n r i c h a c t i o n . The a c t i o n i s the a c t i o n of the teacher, and t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the t h e o r y of t e a c h i n g must be understood by the t e a c h e r . Of c o u r s e , t h i s c a l l s for greater research l i t e r a c y among t e a c h e r s , but i t a l s o c a l l s f o r much more a c c e s s i b l e r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y . (p. 9) The  expressed  procedures  aims were to not o v e r r i d e teacher judgement; to not  f o r 'adoption';  p r a c t i t i o n e r s ; and  a c t i o n r e s e a r c h was  to be understood  c o u l d be understood, concepts.  I t was  or  by  teachers.  to p r o v i d e a theory of  not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the teacher  theory  i n commonsense  t o 'go  to the  the teacher, i t should go  her. The f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to p r a c t i c e i s to p r o v i d e a t h e o r y of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e t e s t a b l e by the experiments of t e a c h e r s i n c l a s s r o o m s .  In a sense t h i s c a l l s f o r the development of the r o l e of teacher as r e s e a r c h e r , but o n l y i n a minimal sense. The b a s i c desideratum i s  The  teaching  In order t h a t such p r a c t i c a l  of such r e s e a r c h was  to  teaching s t r a t e g i e s .  i t must have come from and be phrased  r e s e a r c h ' - as the audience him  research inaccessible  to not p r e - o r d a i n c u r r i c u l a r and  a l t e r n a t i v e experimental which was  t o not make t h e o r y and  offer  to  61 s y s t e m a t i c i n q u i r y ; i t i s not necessary t h a t t h i s i n q u i r y be made p u b l i c u n l e s s i t o f f e r s a c o n t r i b u t i o n to a p u b l i c theory of education. (p. The  commitment to a new  form of r e s e a r c h p r e c l u d e d  p u b l i c v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e o r y ('consensual however, a f l i g h t from t h e o r y .  validation').  A l t e r n a t i v e experimental  e n t a i l e d a s y s t e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f procedures d i f f e r e n t k i n d of  designed  10)  the n e c e s s i t y of T h i s was  not,  action research  to generate  a  theory.  A c t i o n r e s e a r c h i n e d u c a t i o n r e s t s upon the d e s i g n i n g of procedures i n s c h o o l s which meet both a c t i o n c r i t e r i a and r e s e a r c h c r i t e r i o n , t h a t i s , experiments which can be j u s t i f i e d both on the grounds of what they teach teachers and r e s e a r c h e r s and on the grounds of what they teach p u p i l s . A s y s t e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e of such procedures I c a l l a h y p o t h e t i c a l c u r r i c u l u m . Such a c u r r i c u l u m i s the a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l procedure through which r e s e a r c h i s a p p l i e d by t e s t i n g , r e f i n i n g , and g e n e r a t i n g t h e o r y i n the l a b o r a t o r y of the c l a s s r o o m . (p.  11)  The  r o l e of the r e s e a r c h e r i n g e n e r a t i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l c u r r i c u l u m c a l l e d  new  concepts.  generated.  Both a c t i o n c r i t e r i a  The  and  r e s e a r c h c r i t e r i a had  How  such g e n e r a t i o n took p l a c e e n t a i l e d  concerns.  Such s h i f t s  researcher.  The  theory.  canons.  there was  While such  and g e n e r a t i o n of  further shifts i n interest  had  to  theory. and  r e s u l t e d i n r e c a s t e d n o t i o n s - o f the r o l e of the  researcher, having  r e s e a r c h , needed new alternative,  to be  development of a s y s t e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e of procedures  d e r i v e from the 'day-to-day' t e s t i n g , r e f i n i n g ,  upon  still  abandoned the a p r i o r i guides  Although  the nature of the r e s e a r c h was  the n e c e s s i t y of t e s t i n g r e f i n i n g and  t h e o r y was  to  to be meaningful  an  generating  to p r a c t i t i o n e r s , and  hence  62 cut  the r e s e a r c h e r l o o s e from the l e x i c o n of d i s c i p l i n e s , meaning s t i l l  to be s e l e c t e d i n a r e l i a b l e and  Definitive Rob  and S e n s i t i z i n g  v a l i d manner.  Concepts  Walker wrote of the problems of s e l e c t i n g  and L o s i n g Meaning"  had  meaning i n "Making Sense  (1976).  Making sense i s e s s e n t i a l l y a matter of s e l e c t i n g meaning. Problems of making sense a r e continuous and c o n t i n u a l . For the s o c i a l r e s e a r c h e r , i n whatever medium, they have to be accepted as both endemic and s y s t e m i c . (p. The  234)  c o n t i n u a l problems i m p l i c i t to r e s e a r c h are those i n v o l d e d i n  meaning.  When E l l i o t  s t a t e d t h a t E d u c a t i o n a l Research was  whereas Research on E d u c a t i o n was the c e n t r e of "making sense."  a priori,  he  understanding  by i n d u c t i o n a f t e r  the case had  e d u c a t i o n , on  the other hand, would s e l e c t  constituted priori  ' f a c t s ' from a f o r m a l t h e o r y .  concepts,  subculture."  understanding  Meaning was  t h a t abandoning s e n s i t i z i n g  The  between d e f i n i t i v e concepts  and  p r i n c i p l e of i n t e n t i o t o t a l l y , was  s u b t l e y e t fundamental  sensitizing  Research:  concepts  S c i e n c e or Commonsense?"  the problem of s e l e c t i n g  and  animi i m p l i e d  impossible.  not to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  was  E l l i o t r e - i n t r o d u c e d " d e f i n i t i v e anbd s e n s i t i z i n g "Classroom  on  of the case by a method  s p r i n g from a " l o c a l e  N e v e r t h e l e s s , e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s were c a r e f u l The  Research  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n the absence of  (a p r i o r i ) concepts  p r e - o r d a i n a method of d e d u c t i o n .  at  c a t e g o r i z i n g system) what  d i d not simply  selected.  t h a t was  develop  been ' p o r t r a y e d ' .  the f a c t s  of d e d u c t i o n , having d e f i n e d (by an a p r i o r i  a posteriori,  drew a d i s t i n c t i o n  E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h would  selecting  (1978).  distinction  taken up by concepts"  Elliot.  in  In order to  clarify  meaning, he drew on the ideas of Herbert Blumer from  63  the a r t i c l e to  "What i s Wrong w i t h S o c i a l Theory?"  answer h i s t i t l e q u e s t i o n , Blumer f e l t  (Blumer  1954).  In an attempt  t h a t the c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l of  r e s e a r c h needed to be addressed: In my judgment the a p p r o p r i a t e l i n e o f p r o b i n g i s w i t h r e g a r d to the c o n c e p t . Theory i s of v a l u e i n e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e o n l y to the e x t e n t to which i t connects f r u i t f u l l y w i t h the e m p i r i c a l w o r l d . Concepts are the means, and the o n l y means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g such c o n n e c t i o n , f o r i t i s the concept t h a t p o i n t s to the e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s about which a t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s a l i s made. (Blumer, E l l i o t believed remain behind jeopardizing Elliot  t h a t Blumer p r o v i d e d a r a t i o n a l e  "mists of ambiguity"  1954: 4)  t h a t allowed theory t o  (Lawn and Barton's quote) w i t h o u t  the v e r a c i t y of r e s e a r c h . stated  t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h employed s e n s i t i z i n g  which gave o n l y a g e n e r a l sense of the e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e .  concepts  Research on  e d u c a t i o n , as a p p l i e d by the dominant t r a d i t i o n of classroom r e s e a r c h , used o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of v a r i a b l e s i n advance of the r e s e a r c h which were definitive  concepts.  The d i s t i n c t i o n between s e n s i t i z i n g and d e f i n i t i v e  concepts was taken from Blumer: The d e f i n i t i v e concept ' r e f e r s p r e c i s e l y to what i s common to a c l a s s of o b j e c t s , by the a i d o f a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n i n terms of a t t r i b u t e s or f i x e d bench marks' and s e r v e s 'as a means of c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n s t a n c e of the c l a s s and the make-up of t h a t i n s t a n c e t h a t i s covered by the c o n c e p t . The s e n s i t i z i n g concept on the o t h e r hand ' l a c k s such s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a t t r i b u t e s or bench marks and consequently i t does not enable the user to move d i r e c t l y to the i n s t a n c e and i t s r e l e v a n t c o n t e n t . I n s t e a d , i t g i v e s the user a g e n e r a l sense of r e f e r e n c e and guidance i n approaching e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s . ' Blumer sums i t up by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t d e f i n i t i v e concepts t e l l us what to see w h i l e s e n s i t i z i n g concepts merely 1  64 g i v e us a g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n look.  a l o n g which to (Elliot,  Without  the use o f a p r i o r i  1978:  bench marks, the r e s e a r c h e r who  used  concepts had o n l y "a g e n e r a l sense of r e f e r e n c e and guidance." Researcher attributes, particular  on E d u c a t i o n was  13)  sensitizing While  committed to c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  the E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher  had  to " a c t and r e a c t i n r e l a t i o n  s i t u a t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r people and events w i t h i n i t . "  than s u b j u g a t i n g s u b j e c t i v i t y to d e f i n i t i v e concepts r e s e a r c h e r what to s e e ) 1  s e n s i t i z i n g concepts  (which " t o l d  (when t e s t e d and  a g a i n s t the e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s ) a l l o w e d a d i s c i p l i n e d o u t l i n e d the two  the  The f i r s t seeks to develop p r e c i s e and f i x e d procedures t h a t w i l l y i e l d a s t a b l e and d e f i n i t i v e e m p i r i c a l c o n t e n t . I t r e l i e s on neat and s t a n d a r d i z e d t e c h n i q u e s , on e x p e r i mental arrangemetns, on mathematical categories. I t s immediate world of data i s n o t the n a t u r a l s o c i a l world of our e x p e r i e n c e but s p e c i a l i z e d a b s t r a c t i o n s out of i t or s u b s t i t u t e s f o r i t . The aim i s to r e t u r n to the n a t u r a l s o c i a l w o r l d w i t h d e f i n i t i v e concepts based on p r e c i s e l y s p e c i f i e d p r o c e d u r e s . While such procedures may be u s e f u l and v a l u a b l e i n many ways, t h e i r a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h genuine concepts r e l a t e d to the n a t u r a l world i s c o n f r o n t e d b y . . . s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s which so f a r have n o t been met s u c c e s s f u l l y . . . . The o t h e r l i n e of a t t a c k accepts our concepts as b e i n g i n t r i n s i c a l l y s e n s i t i z i n g and not definitive. I t i s spared the l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n f r o n t i n g the f i r s t l i n e of a t t a c k but a t the expense of f o r f e i t i n g the achievement of d e f i n i t i v e concepts with s p e c i f i c , o b j e c t i v e bench marks. (Blumer, 1954: 10)  to a  Rather the  assayed  subjectivity.  l i n e s of a t t a c k :  of  Blumer  65 At  first  g l a n c e , the apparent l o s s of r i g o u r a s s o c i a t e d with the use of  s e n s i t i z i n g concepts may Stenhouse of  make them seem q u e s t i o n a b l e .  I t may  found f o r many d o c t o r a l s t u d e n t s ) to be an escape  standards.  Yet, as Blumer a s s e r t e d , t h i s was  seem (as  from the p r e s s u r e  p o s s i b l y but not  necessarily  the case: The g r e a t v i c e , and the enormously widespread v i c e , i n the use of s e n s i t i z i n g concepts i s to take them f o r granted - t o r e s t content with whatever element of p l a u s i b i l i t y they p o s s e s s . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the concept takes the form of a vague s t e r e o t y p e and i t becomes o n l y a d e v i c e f o r o r d e r i n g or a r r a n g i n g e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s . As such i t i s not t e s t e d and assayed a g a i n s t the e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s and thus f o r f e i t s the o n l y means o f i t s improvement as an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l . But t h i s merely i n d i c a t e d inadequate, s l o v e n l y o r l a z y work and need not be. If varied e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s are chosen f o r study, and i f t h a t study i s c a r e f u l , p r o b i n g and i m a g i n a t i v e , w i t h an ever a l e r t eye on whether, or how f a r , the concept f i t s , f u l l means are p r o v i d e d f o r the p r o g r e s s i v e r e finement of s e n s i t i z i n g c o n c e p t s . (Blumer, Inadequate,  1954:  s l o v e n l y or l a z y work c o u l d lead to the s u b s t i t u t i o n of vague  stereotypes f o r d e f i n i t i v e concepts.  Necessary t e s t i n g and a s s a y i n g , on  o t h e r hand, allowed f o r abandonment of d e f i n i t i v e " p r o g r e s s i v e r e f i n e m e n t of s e n s i t i z i n g The move away from  concepts."  the "canons of the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm"  (and the a p r i o r i  "commonsense concepts" was  importance  the  concepts i n favour of  a move away from the p e r c e i v e d i n a d e q u a c i e s of t h a t paradigm's concepts  9)  afforded  them).  a move to adopt s e n s i t i z i n g  The c o n n e c t i o n between s e n s i t i z i n g and commonsense concepts s h o u l d now be o b v i o u s . They are d e s c r i p t i o n s of the same concepts because s e n s i t i z i n g concepts - c o n c r e t e u n i v e r s a l s - g e t t h e i r sense from a world o f  definitive  The move towards concepts:  was  66 common e x p e r i e n c e . commonsense.  They a r e the concepts of  I would suggest t h a t one can t h e o r i z e e i t h e r from the s t a n d p o i n t of s c i e n c e or from t h a t of p r a c t i c e , and t h a t the l a t t e r c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of d e v e l o p i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f commonsense concepts through the study of concrete p a r t i c u l a r s . In o t h e r words p r a c t i c a l t h e o r i z i n g e x p l o r e s commonsense concepts through case s t u d y . It i s therefore through case study t h a t the s e n s i t i z i n g concepts which guide p r a c t i c e can be improved. (Elliot, Case s t u d i e s ,  1978: 15)  then, were the means of e m p i r i c a l l y grounding p r a c t i c a l  theory.  T h i s grounding was a c o n n e c t i o n made p o s s i b l e by the r e f i n i n g of s e n s i t i z i n g concepts.  These concepts  ( i n Blumer's words) p o i n t e d " t o the e m p i r i c a l  i n s t a n c e s about which a t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s a l i s made." D i s c o m f o r t w i t h attempts  to d i s e n t a n g l e accumulated  wisdom from i t s  s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t , was a concern w i t h a p r o b l e m a t i c r e - d e f i n i t i o n of s e n s i t i z i n g concepts to d e f i n i t i v e c o n c e p t s .  T h i s p r o c e s s , as E l l i o t  l i n e d , was the r e - d e f i n i t i o n or s u p e r s e s s i o n of e m p i r i c a l l y grounded  outconcepts  i n t o a "separate domain of thought": I t i s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of commonsense b e l i e f as e s s e n t i a l l y • t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d ' which l e a d s many ' t h e o r i s t s ' to conclude t h a t t h e r e i s no room f o r r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y w i t h i n the domain of commonsense. 'Rationality' i s d e f i n e d by ' d i s c i p l i n e s ' , which operate i n a s e p a r a t e domain of thought. Therefore commonsense concepts cannot be improved by r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y w i t h i n the domain o f commonsense. They can o n l y be improved upon and superseded. Hence the tendency t o ' r e d e f i n e ' commonsense concepts operationally. However, the t r a n s l a t i o n o f s e n s i t i z i n g concepts cannot occur without the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r and meaning of the data from which they d e r i v e t h e i r sense b e i n g lost. . (Elliot,  1978: 16)  67 The  re-definition  (and subsequent  a p p l i c a t i o n ) of d e f i n i t i v e concepts  "commonsense concepts" was c r i t i c i z e d by the CARE proponents simplistic  and i n s e n s i t i v e .  Furthermore,  When these improved-upon concepts were  to new s i t u a t i o n s ,  the i n i t i a l  as too  When the t r a n s l a t i o n took p l a c e , " d i s t i n c t i v e  c h a r a c t e r and meaning" were l o s t . then used, a p r i o r i ,  from  justification  they were e q u i v o c a l and i n a d e q u a t e . f o r s u p e r s e d i n g commonsense  concepts  was c h a l l e n g e d . Elliot  felt  the c l a i m t h a t commonsense concepts were e s s e n t i a l l y  t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d came from a 'confused'  interpretation:  In my view the assumption t h a t commonsense c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s are n e c e s s a r i l y 'taken f o r g r a n t e d ' i s based on a c o n f u s i o n between c o n t i n g e n t and n e c e s s a r y f e a t u r e s of commonsense b e l i e f . Commonsense t h e o r i z i n g through case study doesn't f u n c t i o n to generate r e l i a b l e predictive generalizations like s c i e n t i f i c theorizing. (Elliot, The  n e c e s s a r y procedures  t h a t Blumer o u t l i n e d  1978: 16)  to t e s t and assay  concepts  a g a i n s t e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s were the means of not t a k i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s for  granted.  To E l l i o t ,  t h i s procedure was the case  study:  When a concept i s taken f o r granted i t takes the form o f a vague s t e r e o t y p e i n t o which i n s t a n c e s i n the world are made to f i t . As such i t s adequacy as a means of understandi n g the i n s t a n c e cannot be t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e s t u d y of the i n s t a n c e i n a l l i t s p a r t i c u l a r ity. Case study then i s n e c e s s a r i l y the means by which commonsense c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of the world are t e s t e d and improved. (Elliot,  1978: 15)  68 The  case study,  concepts.  then, was  Yet, as E l l i o t  a means f o r t e s t i n g s e n s i t i z i n g or a n t i c i p a t o r y s t a t e d above, the purpose  " t r a n s l a t e " such assayed concepts tions."  The  case study was  formal theory. Elliot  The  was  not to then  into "reliable predictive  generaliza-  not s i m p l y a means of g e n e r a t i n g concepts  commitment was  to p r a c t i c a l  concerns.  drew a d i s t i n c t i o n between a r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t i v e  t i o n and a p r a c t i c a l a n t i c i p a t i o n . c o n j e c t u r e s was  The  generaliza-  i n t e n d e d outcome of the t e s t i n g of  not the proof of some h y p o t h e s i s .  The end i n view was  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the process and m i l i e u x of the e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e . s e n s i t i z i n g concept was  used i n the " i n t e r e s t s and concerns  not so t h a t commensense concepts definitive  for a  an The  of p r a c t i c e , "  c o u l d be r e d e f i n e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y  and  into  concepts.  Progressive Focussing Hamilton  d e s c r i b e d the t e s t i n g of a s p i r a t i o n s - the improvement of  s e n s i t i z i n g concepts - as " p r o g r e s s i v e f o c u s i n g . " purposes  He o u t l i n e d  the  practical  of t h i s p r o c e s s : The t r a n s i t i o n from stage to stage as the i n v e s t i g a t i o n u n f o l d s , occurs as problem areas become p r o g r e s s i v e l y c l a r i f i e d and re-defined. The course of the study cannot be c h a r t e d i n advance. B e g i n n i n g with an e x t e n s i v e data base, the r e s e a r c h e r s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y reduce the breadth of t h e i r i n q u i r y to g i v e more c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t e n t i o n to the emerging i s s u e s . This 'progressive f o c u s i n g ' permits unique and u n p r e d i c t e d phenomena to be g i v e n due weight. I t reduces the problem of data o v e r l o a d , and p r e v e n t s the accumulation of a mass of a n a l y s e d material. (Hamilton, 1976:  Kemmis and Robottom added to the metaphor:  93)  69 In order to accommodate the e v o l u t i o n a r y nature of i n n o v a t i v e programmes, the e v a l u a t i o n undergoes a process o f ' p r o g r e s s i v e f o c u s i n g ' from a broad data-base to more c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t e n t i o n on emerging i s s u e s . (1981: 152) 'Progressive concepts.  f o c u s i n g ' was the a p o s t e r i o r i grounding of s e n s i t i z i n g  I t avoided  the premature c l o s u r e and i n s e n s i t i v i t y o f a p r i o r i  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and answered the 'taken f o r granted'  criticism  against  commonsense t h e o r i z i n g . The  use of s e n s i t i z i n g concepts was e s s e n t i a l i f e d u c a t i o n a l  was to serve  the " i n t e r e s t s and concerns of p r a c t i c e . "  As E l l i o t  The development, m o d i f i c a t i o n , and r e v i s i o n of concepts through case study i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of e d u c a t i o n a l research. T h i s f o l l o w s from the f a c t t h a t s e n s i t i z i n g concepts are embedded i n the world. (Elliot,  research wrote:  1978: 22)  Concepts embedded i n the world were a s p i r a t i o n s , mediated by i n t e l l i g e n t action,  t h a t were c o n t i n u a l l y developed, m o d i f i e d  wrote of t h i s  and r e v i s e d .  Stenhouse  process:  E d u c a t i o n a l a c t i o n . . . i n v o l v e s an i n e s c a p a b l e element o f r e s p o n s i v e n e s s . Intelligent a c t i o n i s i n t e r p r e t i v e and mediates the s p i r i t of an a s p i r a t i o n i n terms o f a r e a d i n g of s i t u a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s . I t i n v o l v e s cont i n u a l reassessment and judgement. (Stenhouse, 1978: 29) Given t h i s nature  of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i o n , making sense i n v o l v e d the  following: A commonsense approach to understanding a c t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n a l process goes, I t h i n k , something l i k e t h i s . We seek to i n t e r p r e t i n the l i g h t of our e x p e r i e n c e , which p r o v i d e s both e x p l i c i t and t a c i t knowledge, the s i t u a t i o n s i n which we have t o a c t as they u n f o l d . We seek to improve our  70 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s by d i s c u s s i o n with others and t o r e v i s e them when they are f a l s i f i e d i n a c t i o n by the e x p e r i e n c e of s u r p r i s e . This s u r p r i s e i s not e x p e r i e n c e d because of the n e g a t i o n of p r e s p e c i f i e d p r e d i c t i o n s based upon g e n e r a l p r o p o s i t i o n a l law. Rather i t a r i s e s from the disappointment of a n t i c i p a t i o n s c o n t i n u o u s l y c r e a t e d by d i a g n o s t i c judgements which r e l a t e the e x p e r i e n c e of a p a r t i c u l a r course of events i n which we are i n v o l v e d to g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c e founded on the encounter with other courses of events with elements of s i m i l a r i t y . I t i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e to the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e - t h a t i s , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n s t a n c e - which i s r e v i s e d r a t h e r than the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e . General e x p e r i e n c e i s extended g r a d u a l l y by each appearance but no e x p e r i e n c e can f a l s i f y the p r e v i o u s e x p e r i ence of other c a s e s . i) (Stenhouse, 1978: The  a p p l i c a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e to the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e  t i o n of or  the  instance.  This  s u p p o r t of p r e s p e c i f i e d  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  not  29)  was  the  then a p p l i e d  interpretaas  negation  prediction.  I t i s because our p r a c t i c a l purposes i n inter-personal situations necessitate s t r u c t u r i n g our e x p e r i e n c e i n terms of b a s i c s u b j e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t the l e s s fundamental concepts we employ s p e c i f y s u b j e c t i v e phenomena. Attempts by b e h a v i o u r a l ' s c i e n t i s t s ' to o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e those concepts can o n l y r e s u l t i n making them l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t for p r a c t i c a l purposes. In the c o n t e x t of a c t i o n mental concepts are essentially sensitizing. (Elliot, Anticipations  guided p r a c t i c a l purposes w i t h i n  educational  a p p l i c a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e to the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e subjective and  not  studying  categories."  c o n s t r u e d as was  the  was  1978:  17)  action.  The  i n terms of  "basic  These mental concepts were p r a c t i c a l a n t i c i p a t i o n s  reliable predictive generalizations.  r e v i s i o n of  the  interpretations  of the  The  aim  instance  of case  rather  than  71  of  general p r i n c i p l e s .  The r e s u l t was p r a c t i c a l  theory which d i d n o t  supersede the commonsense c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n educational action. As E l l i o t  s t a t e d , much of the c r i t i c i s m of the a l l e g e d CARE  t h e o r e t i c a l j o u r n e y " was a problem of c o n f u s i o n .  Walker rephrased  c o n f u s i o n as misconceptions  of CARE's " r e c a s t e d notions  the r o l e of the r e s e a r c h e r "  (Walker, 1981).  The  Walker's aim was  involvement The  i n procedures  above.  gave a study r e l i a b i l i t y  concepts.  and v a l i d i t y by t h e i r  and e t h i c s - i n t h e i r every-day language.  c e n t r a l theme of the r e c a s t e d n o t i o n s of the r o l e of the r e s e a r c h e r  was t h a t o f 'making sense.' to  practical  theory r e q u i r e d t h a t r e s e a r c h not supersede commonsense  " p r a c t i t i o n e r audience"  the  of r e s e a r c h and of  t h e o r y i n the sense of the " p r o g r e s s i v e f o c u s s i n g " d i s c u s s e d Practical  "anti-  A r e l u c t a n c e to use a p r i o r i  concepts  r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e d the procedure of ' p r o g r e s s i v e f o c u s i n g . '  ment of ' s e n s i t i z i n g concepts',  This  as guides refine-  i n Blumer's view, was not r e a l i z e d .  ...by i n t r o d u c i n g a new v o c a b u l a r y of terms or s u b s t i t u t i n g new terms - the task i s not one of l e x i c o g r a p h y . I t i s not achieved by e x t e n s i v e r e f l e c t i o n on t h e o r i e s to show t h e i r l o g i c a l weaknesses and p i t f a l l s . It i s not accomplished by forming o r i m p o r t i n g new theories. I t i s not a c h i e v e d by i n v e n t i n g new t e c h n i c a l instruments or by improving the r e l i a b i l i t y of o l d techniques - such i n s t r u ments and techniques are n e u t r a l to the concepts on b e h a l f of which they may be used. (Blumer, 1954: 5) Furthermore, a c c o r d i n g via in  the process situ  t o CARE procedures,  of " d i s c i p l i n e d  theoretical definitions.  were a l s o h e l d  problematic:  concepts  subjectivity",  were not to be grounded  when the r e s e a r c h e r  Such s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  developed  procedures  72 Ethnographic theory tends to be e s o t e r i c and i n a c c e s s i b l e to the a c t o r s i n the s i t u a t i o n studied. There i s a l r e a d y c r i t i c i s m o f s o c i a l anthropology as t e n d i n g to i n c r e a s e the power of the community to which t h e ethnographer belongs without making a s i m i l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n to those who are s t u d i e d . In a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l r e s e a r c h should feed p r a c t i c e and hence should be a c c e s s i b l e t o practitioners. T h i s c a l l s f o r parsimony of theory, and theory which i s w i t h i n the l i t e r a c y of the a c t o r . (Stenhouse,  1979b: 8)  Stenhouse a l l u d e d to a time when r e s e a r c h e r s c o u l d win t h e i r way back t o a " l e x i c o g r a p h y " t h a t c o u l d be grounded i n the e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s of educational action.  Such was not the s t a t e of r e s e a r c h i n 1978, however:  The s c i e n t i f i c c r i t i q u e of u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e s t s t r a d i t i o n a l l y on s u c c e s s f u l p r e d i c t i o n o f the outcomes of s p e c i f i e d procedures by r e f e r e n c e to g e n e r a l laws or p r o p o s i t i o n s . The s c i e n t i s t ' s procedure i s i d e a l l y p r e o r d i n a t e , not r e s p o n s i v e . That i s , i t i s designed i n advance a c c o r d i n g to an e x p e r i mental model of r e s e a r c h which s t r e s s e s p r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n as a warranty of the i n t e g r i t y o f the method and i s c r i t i c a l of ex post f a c t o i n t e r p r e t i v e responses. Such a s t r a t e g y does not i n v o l v e the judgement of s i t u a t i o n s as wholes b u t r a t h e r the a n a l y s i s o f f a c t o r s i n the s i t u a t i o n , i n terms of which the outcome may be p a r s i m o n i o u s l y predicted. I t i s the c a t e g o r i s a t i o n s which t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i e behind such a n a l y s e s o f human a c t i o n which I have argued should be held problematic. Hence we cannot adopt the s c i e n t i f i c c r i t i q u e of u n d e r s t a n d i n g , though i n due course, as a r e s u l t of a programme o f r e s e a r c h , we may win our way back to i t on d i f f e r e n t terms of c a t e g o r i s a t i o n . (Stenhouse, The  1978: 24)  terms o f c a t e g o r i z a t o n t h a t may e v e n t u a l l y be won would p r e s e n t a  f a i t h f u l p o r t r a y a l of i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s as wholes. a l t e r n a t i v e was the p r o b l e m a t i c  a n a l y s i s of f a c t o r s .  The p r e v a i l i n g  73 The holistic  d i s c u s s i o n s of making sense, e s p e c i a l l y where concerned p e r s p e c t i v e s , was  pronouncedy e i d e t i c .  While Blumer was  with removed  from the group under d i s c u s s i o n , he emphasized the use of v i s u a l metaphors l a t e r found  i n the w r i t i n g s of CARE e v a l u a t o r s and  researchers:  Since the immediate data of o b s e r v a t i o n i n the form of the d i s t i n c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n i n the separate i n s t a n c e s of study are d i f f e r e n t , i n approaching the e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s one cannot r e l y on bench marks or f i x e d , o b j e c t i v e t r a i t s of e x p r e s s i o n . Instead, the concept must guide one i n d e v e l o p i n g a p i c t u r e of the d i s t i n c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . (Blumer, 1954: The then  image of a " p i c t u r e " - f i l l e d  i n by r e s e a r c h e r and  s c r u t i n i z e d by a l l f o r i t s ' r e a l i s m ' - was  filled  out h i s metaphor more s u c c i n c t l y .  formulated  and  8)  participant alike,  an apt metaphor.  S e n s i t i z i n g concepts  and  Blumer  were  communicated:  ...by e x p o s i t i o n which y i e l d s a meaningful p i c t u r e , a b e t t e d by apt i l l u s t r a t i o n s which enable one to grasp the r e f e r e n c e i n terms of one's own e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i s how we come to see the meaning and sense i n our c o n c e p t s . Such e x p o s i t i o n , i t s h o u l d be added, may be good or poor - and by the same token i t may be improved.  When d e s c r i b i n g a c t i o n s i m i l a r " e x p o s i t i o n " of the o b s e r v e r , researcher  to what Blumer r e f e r r e d to above as  Stenhouse r e v e a l e d why  c o u l d not be regarded  the p i c t u r e of  as p o r t r a y i n g a l l t h a t was  notice": Now i t i s c l e a r than any d e s c r i p t i o n , . . . r e s t s upon the judgement of him who observes and d e s c r i b e s , both i n r e s p e c t of what he s e l e c t s as worthy of n o t i c e and i n r e s p e c t of i n t e r p r e t a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n . There may a l s o be e v a l u a t i v e comment and r e f l e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and indeed i t may be argued t h a t these make the d e s c r i p t i o n more a c c e s s -  the  "worthy o f  the  74 i b l e to c r i t i c i s m because they p r o v i d e evidence r e g a r d i n g the p o s i t i o n of the observer. A l l d e s c r i p t i o n d e r i v e s i t s form from f a l l i n g i n t o p l a c e w i t h i n a p e r s p e c t i v e whose s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e i s i n s e p a r a b l e from the p o i n t of view of an o b s e r v e r . (Stenhouse, 1979: Stenhouse's c a u t i o n r e g a r d i n g p e r s p e c t i v e was approach.  but one  the i n s e p a r a b i l i t y of p e r c e p t i o n  of the i n t e n t i o n s f o r adopting  8)  and  an e i d e t i c " p o r t r a y a l "  MacDonald i n c l u d e d t h i s i n t e n t i o n among three which he p r o v i d e d i n  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the case  study concept  of p o r t r a y a l .  Portrayal MacDonald p r o v i d e d  further e i d e t i c description i n his a r t i c l e  P o r t r a y a l o f Persons as E v a l u a t i o n Data" d e s c r i p t i o n of the appeal  of the concept,  ( i n : N o r r i s , 1977).  "The  He began with  a  of ' p o r t r a y a l ' :  P o r t r a y a l i s a key concept of the c o u n t e r c u l t u r e i n e v a l u a t i o n which i n the l a s t decade has mounted an i n c r e a s i n g l y a r t i c u l a t e c h a l l e n g e to the p r e v a i l i n g e n g i n e e r i n g paradigm. Whether the i n t e n t i o n i s to p r o v i d e " v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e " as Stake suggests, or to "re-educate p e r c e p t i o n " as E i s n e r has i t , or more simply ( i r o n y intended) to " t e l l i t l i k e i t i s " (Kemmis), t h e r e i s a shared concern among members of t h i s s c h o o l to c r e a t e and convey images of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y which both p r e s e r v e and i l l u m i n a t e i t s complexity. (MacDonald, 1977: To p r e s e r v e  the complexity  51)  of an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t a n c e - with i t s " d i v e r s e  p a t t e r n i n g s of meaning, s i g n i f i c a n c e and work" - r e q u i r e d i l l u m i n a t i o n i n the language and  i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  conveyed these  "images" i n the v o c a b u l a r y  Portrayal created  of the non-research  and  community.  F u r t h e r i n g such p i c t o r i a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , Kemmis (1980) wrote about the s e l e c t i o n of meaning as i n f l u e n c e d by  "frameworks":  75 The o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e s s u n a v o i d a b l y c a l l s i n t o p l a y the frameworks of the observer j u s t as the process of communication u n a v o i d a b l y c a l l s i n t o p l a y the frameworks of the h e a r e r . In a l l knowing, the knower - the c o g n i t i v e s u b j e c t - b r i n g s to bear h i s language and p e r c e p t u a l h a b i t s , framed by a p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l background. In o b s e r v i n g and i n communicating the " r e s u l t s " of o b s e r v a t i o n , these are f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by the a c t u a l and a n t i c i p a t e d language, the p e r c e p t u a l h a b i t s , and the p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l backgrounds of o t h e r s . (p. 108) The  observance of the i n f l u e n c e a knower b r i n g s to bear on o b s e r v a t i o n  r e q u i r e d procedures  and e t h i c s .  The "language and p e r c e p t u a l h a b i t s " of the  r e s e a r c h e r needed to be c o n t r o l l e d .  In o b s e r v a t i o n , when m u l t i p l e  were b e l i e v e d t o e x i s t , the frameworks of the observer to p r e s e r v e be  complexity.  Likewise,  used as the i l l u m i n a t i v e process  provided  t h e 'vocabulary'  realities  needed to be  addressed  the frameworks of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were t o when communicating.  Portrayal hopefully  which c o u l d c o n t r o l p e r s p e c t i v a l i n f l u e n c e s .  Brugelmann d e s c r i b e d the f u n c t i o n o f p o r t r a y a l to p r e s e r v e p l i c i t y of r e a l i t y as v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . p o r t r a y a l i n the v o c a b u l a r y  the m u l t i -  The i n t e n t to i l l u m i n a t e such  of p a r t i c i p a n t s was to p r o v i d e r i c h n e s s :  One should bear i n mind t h a t a case-study has two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s : one i s to d e s c r i b e a s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e ( ' v e r i s i m i l i t u d e ' ) ; the second i s to s t i m u l a t e other people's p e r c e p t i o n and j udgement ( ' r i c h n e s s ' ) . (Brugelmann, 1974: 54) A r i c h p i c t u r e of an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t a n c e p r o v i d e d v i c a r i o u s experience. facilitated  Perceptions  the reader  and judgements were s t i m u l a t e d which  n a u t r a l i s t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to the audience's  V e r i s i m i l i t u d e and r i c h n e s s allowed  ('viewer') with  own  situation.  ' r e - e d u c a t i o n ' o f the audiences'  p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r own  experience,  which c o u l d a l l o w them to change  their  circumstances. The  i n t e n t i o n s of p o r t r a y a l by case  study were to p r o v i d e accounts  r e s e a r c h t h a t were open to r e c o g n i t i o n and  comparison.  U n l i k e psycho-  s t a t i s t i c a l data which were ' s t r i p p e d ' o f r e c o g n i z a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n t e x t s , p o r t r a y a l of cases p r o v i d e d And  i n a d d i t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the case, but  of  f o r c r i t i c i s m i n l i g h t of  and  experience.  d i d not presume to g i v e h i s or her the audience was  provided  a holistic  portrayal. To pursue these l i n e s of development f u l l y may have r a d i c a l implications for research, i n p a r t i c u l a r i t may d i v e r t us from the primary quest f o r a n a l y s i s , and i n s t e a d l e a d us to develop p o r t r a y a l as our primary g o a l . In other words we r e f r a i n from g i v i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s our view of how the system works ( f o r them to a c c e p t or r e j e c t ) and i n s t e a d c o n c e n t r a t e on g e t t i n g to them i n f o r m a t i o n which p r o v i d e s a more complete b a s i s f o r t a k i n g decisions. Or a l t e r n a t i v e l y by making a v a i l a b l e s k i l l s which a l l o w them to c r e a t e t h e i r own information independently. (Walker, 1977: The  r o l e of the  ' c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e ' e v a l u a t o r was  complete b a s i s f o r d e c i s i o n makers.  The  d e f i n i t i o n s of an i n s t a n c e i n a c t i o n .  case  The  sense of the m u l t i p l e t r u t h s i n a s o c i a l  aim  22)  t h a t of p r o v i d i n g a more  study was  the c o l l e c t i o n  of t h i s p o r t r a y a l was  situation.  of  to make  Exploring multiple  meanings of an i n s t a n c e i n the every-day-language of p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e d basis for v i c a r i o u s experience. by  Such experience  the r i c h n e s s of the p o r t r a y a l .  d e c i s i o n makers to c r e a t e t h e i r own experience  of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i o n .  sense of a c t i o n based  research.  The  case  study  was  enhanced or  allowed  i n f o r m a t i o n and  facilitated  p a r t i c i p a n t s and  to re-educate  a  their  own  They were i n t e g r a l l y i n v o l v e d i n making  77 The  CARE group d e c i s i o n to pursue an a l t e r n a t i v e approach  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h brought them f a c e - t o - f a c e with e x p l i c a t i n g a new  philisophical basis.  i n t e n t to p r a c t i c e e x p e r i m e n t a l y e t no  d e f i n i t i o n of a s i t u a t i o n was p r o c e d u r e s to capture p o r t r a y a l needed to be  task  of  At the same time, the d i c t a t e s of  Adopting  the premise that no  a u t h o r i t a t i v e meant having  the m u l t i p l i c i t y of r e a l i t y . i l l u m i n a t e d i n the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l premise t h a t p e r c e p t i o n and  an  more immediate one  to d e f i n e adequate  Furthermore, such a  language of the  When s e l e c t i n g meaning, the case study worker was  case study  the formidable  a c t i o n based r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e d  l e s s demanding c h a l l e n g e s .  to  practitioner.  challenged  by  the  p e r s p e c t i v e were i n s e p a r a b l e .  approach f a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  issues.  The  78  CHAPTER IV THE SOCIO-POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ALTERNATIVE RESEARCH PARADIGM  Abandoning the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l r e s e a r c h approach was the CARE group's a l t e r n a t i v e view of r e s e a r c h . raised p o l i t i c a l  and  methodological  e x i s t e n c e of m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s ;  necessitated  This d i f f e r e n t  challenges.  The  perspective  acceptance of  the a s p i r a t i o n to p o r t r a y these  case study  process  implications instances. set he  and  the i n t e n t i o n to inform  to c o n s t r a i n t s and  or she  influences.  These  the  socio-political  Such r u l e s were not, however, a methodology per t h a t informed  and  d e c i s i o n makers opened  l e d to a need f o r r u l e s of conduct i n case s t u d y i n g  of e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s  the  i n the  language of ' e v e r y - d a y - l i f e ' ; the hope to democratise the r e s e a r c h evaluation process;  se.  educational They were a  the r o l e of the case study worker  produced procedures f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and  by  as  d i s t i n c t case study i n  situ.  The  P o l i t i c a l Nature of Research In "Case Study and  the S o c i a l P h i l o s o p h y  Walker and MacDonald d i s c u s s e d between the r e s e a r c h e r information gathering  and and  the p o l i t i c a l  the r e s e a r c h e d  and  political  r e l e a s e of i n f o r m a t i o n  c o n d i t i o n s and  nature  (1975).  r e l e a s e d i s c u s s e d by  response to the CARE a l t e r n a t i v e view and of data  of E d u c a t i o n a l Research," of the r e l a t i o n s h i p The  r e - o r i e n t a t i o n to both  the authors  was  approach to r e s e a r c h .  a  necessary Collection  to d e c i s i o n makers were both s u b j e c t  restraints.:  We have presented a view of c a s e - s t u d y r e s e a r c h i n e d u c a t i o n which has i t s primary focus on the p o l i t i c a l nature of r e l a t i o n -  to  79  s h i p s between the r e s e a r c h e r and h i s s u b j e c t s , s p o n s o r s , audiences and r e l a t e d groups. We have emphasised such q u e s t i o n s as who has c o n t r o l o v e r , o r access t o d a t a , and under what c o n d i t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s should the r e s e a r c h e r seek and p r e s e n t h i s f i n d i n g s . Our recommendations are d e r i v e d from a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o / p h i l o s o p h i c a l stance. (p. 11) • The p o l i t i c a l  c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the case study impinged  on the seeking and  p r e s e n t i n g of f i n d i n g s . Kemmis, e t a l . , a l s o addressed  i n t h e i r s y n o p s i s of the second Cambridge c o n f e r e n c e ,  the p o l i t i c a l  c i r c u m s t a n c e s of a p a r t i c u l a r the  nature of case s t u d y i n g .  They wrote how t h e  i n s t a n c e would l a r g e l y determine  the conduct of  study: In e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h , the circumstances i n which the case study i s conducted w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g to whether the e v a l u a t i o n i s by mandate, i n v i t a t i o n or n e g o t i a t i o n , and whether the f u n d i n g agency i s ' o u t s i d e ' the i n s t i t u t i o n to be s t u d i e d . At i t s c r u d e s t t h i s means t h a t any p a r t i c u l a r case study w i l l have been sought, bought or sponsored. (Kemmis, Adelman and J e n k i n s , 1980b: 53)  The  'crude' acknowledgement was t h a t any case study w i l l have been an outcome  of some " p o l i t i c a l . . . r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e s e a r c h e r and h i s s u b j e c t " (MacDonald and Walker, 1975). The CARE group made i t t h e i r mandate to d e l v e i n t o the p o l i t i c s of case s t u d y with o n l y a few ' a l t e r n a t i v e ' p r i n c i p l e s  to guide them:  They endorsed three s p e c i a l i n s i g h t s : first, t h a t e v a l u a t i o n and r e s e a r c h are n e c e s s a r i l y p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ; second, t h a t the e t h i c s of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h had been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l o r e d ; and t h i r d , t h a t there was a need t o e x p l o r e a r e s e a r c h e t h i c enacted i n procedures which aimed to democratise the r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . (Kushner and N o r r i s , 1980: 28)  80  The  first  i n s i g h t ( t h a t e v a l u a t i o n and  pertained  to the a c t i o n s of the  c i r c u m s t a n c e s of c u r r i c u l a r much to do w i t h  research  were n e c e s s a r i l y p o l i t i c a l )  researcher/evaluator  innovation.  the purpose of i n f o r m i n g  audience c o u l d d i c t a t e r e l e v a n c e  i n the  The  as w e l l as  i n f l u e n c e s on  d e c i s i o n makers.  to  the  the r e s e a r c h e r The  needs of  had  the  ' s e l e c t i o n of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' .  A broad base of agreement a t CARE about the nature of e d u c a t i o n and the r e s e a r c h e r ' s r o l e i s c l e a r from w r i t i n g s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s . Yet the p a r t i c u l a r emphasis of each i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t i o n to h i s or her work i n e v a l u a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , or teacher development p r o j e c t s i s significant. I t i s not j u s t a q u e s t i o n of p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s and i n f l u e n c e s but the audience and the w r i t e r has i n mind - the teacher i n the classroom, the e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , or the u n v e r s i t y academic. The audience a l t e r s the emphasis. ( B a r t e r and Lawn, 1981: MacDonald i l l u s t r a t e d  the i n f l u e n c e of the  analogy he a t t r i b u t e d to Robert S t a k e . revealing.  'A see-through blouse  was  1  looking.  was  The  audience by  metaphor i s now  A c a s e study t h a t aimed to i n f o r m p r e s e n t  i t was  I f the i n f o r m a t i o n of l i t t l e  use.  The  was  not  to  dated,  not a see-through blouse  d e c i s i o n makers ( c u r r i c u l u m implementors) had status.  reference  1) an yet  unless  someone  and p o t e n t i a l  to a s p i r e t o 'best  seller'  r e l e v a n t to the d e c i s i o n makers' needs,  audience, thus,  had a s t r o n g  i n f l u e n c e on  the  s e l e c t i o n of meaning. The  second area  the s c h o o l i t s e l f . c o n d i t i o n s and  of p o l i t i c a l A l l o c a t i o n and  a c t i o n to be acknowledged was  within  e x e r c i s e of a u t h o r i t y were i m p o r t a n t  r e s t r a i n t s a c t i n g on i n n o v a t i o n .  foremost i n the study of  that  Questions of power were  schools:  In the a n a l y s i s of s c h o o l s the balance of power between departments, and between the departments as a whole and the s e n i o r s t a f f ,  81  p r o v i d e s c r i t i c a l l i n e s of cleavage i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . When power r e s i d e s i n the c o l l e c t i o n of knowledge, the department becomes the b a s i s of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . Attempts to innovate w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m i n e v i t a b l y touch the p o l i t i c s of the s c h o o l because they can be seen as attempts to a l t e r the r e l a t i v e s t a t u s of s u b j e c t s , to r e a d j u s t t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d a r i e s , or i n extreme cases t o b r i n g about the c r e a t i o n or demise of departments. If the head of the s c h o o l i s k i n g , the head of department i s baron. F a c u l t y s t r u c t u r e s , while a b o l i s h i n g narrow i n t e r e s t s , succeed i n r e p l a c i n g them with l a r g e r ones which may c o n t a i n t h e i r own tensions. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so where teachers working i n f a c u l t i e s s u s p e c t a l l e g i a n c e s a r i s i n g from t h e i r background, e d u c a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . The barons become s u p e r - o v e r l o r d s i n such a dispensation. (MacDonald and Walker, 1975b: Curriculum 'tense'  i n n o v a t i o n was  subject  to " s u p e r - o v e r l o r d s "  s t r u g g l e under the r u l e of t h e i r k i n g - the  who  were i n v o l v e d i n a  s c h o o l head.  metaphor were a p p l i e d f u r t h e r to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the team a t the  s c h o o l and  B r i t i s h Educational The  LEA  officer  the e x t e r n a l LEA  terms],  the  c o n t r o l l e d the c o f f e r s .  He  the  was  other  the  implementation  the Court of the  or she  promotion, d i s p e r s a l , workshop ( t r a i n i n g ) , and on  If  [see Appendix f o r a g l o s s a r y  l a t t e r would be  13)  of  Exchequer.  responsible  for  components of c a r r y i n g  curriculum: The p o t e n t i a l of the LEA f o r the p r o j e c t c e n t r a l team l a y i n i t s a b i l i t y to promote the a d o p t i o n of the p r o j e c t i n s c h o o l s . [The]... other face concerns the c o n s t r a i n t s which LEAs may impose upon s c h o o l s - more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the i n f l u e n c e which LEAs may have over curriculum innovation. (Simons and  The  balance of power w i t h i n the s c h o o l s  innovation  'promoted' t h e i r way;  who  Humble, 1978:  entailed choices:  w i l l get  who  the most support  56)  w i l l have when  an  82 'adopting'  the p r o j e c t ; and  what i n t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s w i l l  p l a n n e d change to take p l a c e ? 'relative  A l l of these  s t a t u s ' of an e d u c a t i o n a l  setting.  To r e p o r t on these by r e f l e c t i n g  the s i t u a t i o n - thus " i l l u m i n a t i n g " such t e n s i o n s  data  to one  the  and  the  political  'realities'  all.  of  The  concerns r e g a r d i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n were compounded by the p o l i t i c s  of  gathering. "The  e t h i c s of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h " , Kushner and N o r r i s s t a t e d ,  been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l o r e d " .  E t h i c s were d i r e c t l y concerned with  d i s t i n c t i o n between r i g h t and wrong. i n f l u e n c e , the concern became one any  allow  actions influenced, i n turn,  m a c h i n a t i o n s i n v a r i a b l y touched t h i s balance  political  allow or not  ethos p o l i t i c a l  knowledge was  When combined with a focus on  of the good or bad  a c t i o n must have a b a s i s .  "had  the political  e x e r c i s e of power.  Walker and MacDonald f e l t  the c a p i t a l of such moral p l a n n i n g  and  In that  conduct:  We b e l i e v e t h a t the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of new knowledge ought to be a p r i o r , not a p o s t , c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g and conduct o f educational research. Knowledge i s the b a s i s on which many forms of power are l e g i t i m a t e d and, i n the case of e d u c a t i o n , the medium through which power i s e x e r c i s e d . (Walker and MacDonald, 1975b: 6) The  emphasis upon the d i s s e m i n a t i o n  of knowledge and  the  i n f l u e n c e s upon power r e l a t i o n s h i p s extended to both the gathering  and  p r e s e n t a t i o n stages  of e v a l u a t i o n .  t h a t had  summative r e p o r t i n g .  d i r e c t impact on  case study worker was 'neutrality'.  not  information  In f a c t ,  d e m o c r a t i c e v a l u a t i o n were a p p l i e d to the processes implementation and  consequential  the p r i n c i p l e s  of c u r r i c u l u m  Such p r i n c i p l e s  the p a t t e r n of d i s s e m i n a t i o n  of  innovation,  l e d to procedures  of knowledge.  The  ' o b j e c t i v e ' , though he or she d i d a s p i r e towards  83  Methodological  Implications  The d e c i s i o n to acknowledge and i n c l u d e p o l i t i c a l concerns when case s t u d y i n g r a i s e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems.  The  r e s e a r c h e r had  to i n c l u d e  i n f l u e n c e s i n the p o r t r a y a l as w e l l as account f o r h i s or her conduct.  The  l a t t e r account concerned  such  'obtrusive'  the e f f e c t s t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  presence had on the r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g : Case-study methods r e l y h e a v i l y on human i n s t r u m e n t s , about which o n l y l i m i t e d knowledge can be o b t a i n e d and whose p r i v a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s , d e s i r e s and i n t e r e s t s may b i a s the study i n u n a n t i c i p a t e d and unacknowleged ways. Lack of r u l e s f o r c a s e - s t u d y leaves r e s e a r c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s open to both r e a l and imagined abuse. (Walker and MacDonald, 1975b: 9) Researchers needed to acknowledge and c o n t r o l f o r t h e i r e f f e c t . was  unavoidable.  discredited  Stenhouse it  'critical  record': to  impact  T h i s d i d not imply t h a t such o b t r u s i v e n e s s n e c e s s a r i l y  the v e r a c i t y of a s t u d y .  i n f l u e n c e s under  Such  "critical  There were ways to b r i n g  such  scrutiny".  i n t r o d u c e d a means of s c r u t i n i z i n g case study work, c a l l i n g  intersubjectivity'.  which was  an ethnography.  His statement was  i n r e f e r e n c e to the 'case  to the case study what an ethnographer's He  wrote:  The problem of c o m p i l i n g a case r e c o r d i s to a t t e n u a t e and expose to c r i t i c i s m the p o l i t i c a l and academic b i a s of the r e s e a r c h workers as w e l l as h i s p e r s o n a l b i a s , which i s more e a s i l y d e t e c t a b l e by t r a d i t i o n a l criticism. The a s p i r a t i o n i s to produce s u b j e c t i v e data whose s u b j e c t i v i t y i s s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n t r o l l e d to a l l o w c r i t i c a l scrutiny. The a s p i r a t i o n i s to c r i t i c a l i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y , not to o b j e c t i v i t y . (Stenhouse, 1978:  33)  field  notes were  84 Stenhouse drew h e a v i l y on the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t r o l c o u l d be Elsewhere, 'disciplined  to o u t l i n e how  such  realised. critical  i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y was  subjectively',  equated  ' s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g , and  with such concepts  as  'perspectival bracketing'.  1  The key n o t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g were openess,  tradition  ' s u b j e c t i v i t y ' and  researcher  impact  c l a r i f i c a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m .  To r e t a i n the v i a b i l i t y and i n t e g r i t y of h i s r e s e a r c h p o s i t i o n and the t r u s t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r o j e c t , the i n v e s t i g a t o r needs from the o u t s e t to c l a r i f y h i s r o l e , to be open about the aims of h i s study, and to ensure t h a t there i s no misunderstanding or ambiguity about who, f o r example, w i l l r e c e i v e the r e p o r t . (Hamilton and P a r l e t t , 1976: The  reason t h a t an  'open r e c o r d ' of documentation  was  do with the u n r e p l i c a b i l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l events and case r e c o r d s .  And  even i f time had p e r m i t t e d a f u l l  not s u f f i c i e n t had  to  the sheer volume of review,  and a  c o u l d have been r e - e n a c t e d , the c o m p l e x i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e s e l e c t i o n which would have been (by the p r i n c i p l e of i n t e n t i o determined  9)  situation  called for animi)  idiosyncratically.  Simons d i s c u s s e d t h i s i n e x o r a b l e r e s i d u e , and  the problem  r e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e of the S i n g u l a r : One of the o t h e r major i s s u e s f a c i n g r e s p o n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n or case study r e s e a r c h i s the i n t e r p e r s o n a l , i n t e r a c t i v e nature o f the e x e r c i s e where the ' s e l f i s the primary i n s t r u m e n t of d a t a g a t h e r i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and where the case study worker or e v a l u a t o r i s i n c o n t r o l of the exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n between d i f f e r e n t groups of people w i t h i n and between i n s t i t u t i o n s . Whatever procedures are adopted to document the p r o c e s s of the study and check f o r b i a s and c o n t r o l there i s much i n the techniques of data o b s e r v i n g and  of ' c l o s e - u p '  85  r e p o r t i n g i n case study t h a t i s l e f t to the judgement of the e v a l u a t o r . . . . (Simons, 1980: 6-7) The  u n a v o i d a b l e judgement of the e v a l u a t o r  c o u l d be p a r t i a l l y met by c l a r i t y  and e x p l i c i t n e s s : I t i s common i n r e s e a r c h to use the term r e l i a b i l i t y to r e f e r to a f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y and one which o f t e n dominates d i s c u s s i o n of case study r e s e a r c h : the problem o f replicability. Would another r e s e a r c h e r e n t e r i n g the same s i t u a t i o n produce s i m i l a r results? E d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s are r a r e l y r e p l i c a b l e and t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n would be d i f f i c u l t to t e s t , b u t i n theory i t would seem t h a t where procedures are c l e a r and e x p l i c i t then r e l i a b i l i t y i n t h i s sense would be h i g h e r than i t would g i v e n a f r e e hand t o the r e s e a r c h e r i n the d e s i g n and conduct of the case s t u d y . (Walker, 1981: 45) R e l i a b i l i t y c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d procedures. basis  The  Critical  given  c l e a r and s u c c i n c t r e p o r t i n g o f  s e l f - a w a r e n e s s or i n t e r - s u b j e c t i v i t y c o u l d p r o v i d e  f o r s c r u t i n y - but n o t f o r o b j e c t i v i t y .  F a l l a c y of O b j e c t i v i t y Against  a l l e g a t i o n s t h a t the case s t u d i e s were  interpretations',  the CARE r e s e a r c h e r s  psycho-statisticians.  turned  'personal  the t a b l e s on  Such c r i t i c i s m of the CARE s t u d i e s was made on the  b a s i s of 'erroneous assumptions': Behind such q u e s t i o n s l i e s a b a s i c b u t erroneous assumption: t h a t forms of r e s e a r c h e x i s t which are immune to p r e j u d i c e , experimenter b i a s and human e r r o r . T h i s i s not s o . Any r e s e a r c h study r e q u i r e s s k i l l e d human judgements and i s thus v u l n e r a b l e . Even i n e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s t h a t handle a u t o m a t i c a l l y p r o c e s s e d n u m e r i c a l data,  a  86  judgement i s n e c e s s a r y a t every stage: i n the c h o i c e of samples; i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n or s e l e c t i o n of t e s t s ; i n d e c i d i n g c o n d i t i o n s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; i n s e l e c t i n g the mode o f s t a t i s t i c a l treatment ( e . g . whether or not to use f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ) ; i n the r e l a t i v e weight g i v e n to d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s ; and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n the s e l e c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of f i n d i n g s in reports. (Hamilton, 1 9 7 6 : 9 6 ) The  p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm was argued to be e q u a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o  ' p r e j u d i c e , experimenter b i a s and human e r r o r ' . Human a t t r i b u t e s can be sampled, b u t we deny o u r s e l v e s the assumption t h a t a c t i o n s can be regarded as a t t r i b u t e s . Whether and under what c o n d i t i o n s a c t i o n s can be sampled and whether and under what c o n d i t i o n s a c t i o n s can be r e p r e s e n t e d as behaviours - and sampled as such - are problems whose s o l u t i o n must be d e f e r r e d u n t i l we understand much more c l e a r l y the world of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i o n . The immediate problem i s how to approach the task o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , when we r e j e c t the premises of the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l paradigm. (Stenhouse, 1 9 7 8 : 24) Adherents to the t r a d i t i o n a l paradigm had f a l l e n v i c t i m s of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e model. explained  to the r e i f i c a t i o n  D e s c r i b i n g human a c t i o n as behaviour  away the problem of s o c i e t a l and h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e s , b u t such a  model c o u l d not p r o v i d e Confronting  the type of u n d e r s t a n d i n g sought by the CARE g r o u p .  the dominant paradigm without a f i r m  t r e a t i s e or meta-theory made the a l t e r n a t i v e r e s e a r c h e r s t h e i r greater  philisophical hyper-conscious  risk:  The proposed methodology e n t a i l s , however, a g r e a t e r r i s k o f a r b i t r a r i n e s s and p o s s i b l e abuse than the c l a s s i c a l d e s i g n . Lest i t s c r e d i b i l i t y should s u f f e r , safeguards have t o be b u i l t i n to minimise such r i s k s . (Brugelmann, 1 9 7 4 : 31)  of  87  The  g r e a t e r r i s k was  not simply  the absence of a p r i o r i  canons of  a g a i n s t which the conduct of the study c o u l d be measured. to r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on Case study r e s e a r c h was  The  the p a r t of the  o b t r u s i v e by i n t e n t and  research,  new  approach  researcher.  circumstance:  Case study r a r e l y proceeds by o b s e r v a t i o n i n the sense of merely watching: observation a l s o e n t a i l s such i n t e r v e n t i o n s as i n t e r v i e w i n g , r e c o r d i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . l e t alone data a n a l y s i s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and s e l e c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s to observe or interview. In these r e s p e c t s case s t u d y . . . resembles other forms of r e s e a r c h as i n t e r v e n t i v e , not p a s s i v e . (Kemmis, 1980: An i n t e r v e n t i v e r e s e a r c h e r was, to s t r i v e  not o b j e c t i v e .  f o r n e u t r a l i t y i n p l a c e of o b j e c t i v i t y .  e x p l i c i t r u l e s of conduct. of such  by d e f i n i t i o n ,  Walker d e s c r i b e d  109) He or she  'Neutrality' required  the consequences of the  absence  rules: The problems we are l o o k i n g a t concern the p r o d u c t i o n of case s t u d i e s - and here t h e r e are o f t e n tremendous d i f f i c u l t i e s . Lack of r u l e s f o r case study leaves r e s e a r c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s open to abuse. Not o n l y w i l l people and i n s t i t u t i o n s s t u d i e d g i v e t h e i r own accounts as to why they are being s t u d i e d , they might w e l l have t h e i r own reasons f o r wanting to be s t u d i e d and these may not always be made e x p l i c i t to the researcher. T h i s a g a i n may i n f l u e n c e and c o n s t r a i n the r e s e a r c h i n unacknowledged ways e s p e c i a l l y when, as we are s u g g e s t i n g , t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s and responses may be b u i l t - i n to research procedures. (Walker, 1981:  The  necessary  developed  r u l e s of the p r o d u c t i o n of case  i n answer to the  aimed to democratise  42)  s t u d i e s were  third i n s i g h t already cited  N o r r i s as "a need to e x p l o r e  a r e s e a r c h e t h i c enacted  the r e s e a r c h and  had  those  from Kushner i n procedures  e v a l u a t i o n process"  (1980:  and which  28).  P o r t r a y a l of e d u c a t i o n a l people and i n s t i t u t i o n s  t h a t r e l i e d on 'human  i n s t r u m e n t s ' r e q u i r e d s a f e g u a r d s and r u l e s . E t h i c a l procedures priori.  There  f o r case study c o u l d not, however, be p r e s c r i b e d a^  c o u l d be no m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e to a l l  cases: S i n c e the problem f o r the case study workers i s always to e x p l i c a t e the nature of the c a s e , and s i n c e the methods employed i n the study w i l l depend upon the h y p o t h e s i z e d n a t u r e of the case, a " m e t h o d o l o g i c a l " d e f i n i t i o n w i l l always seem inadequate to the e x p e r i e n c e d case study worker - i t w i l l not grasp the problem of case study as the case s t u d y worker e x p e r i e n c e s i t . (Kemmis, 1980: 108) I have d i s c u s s e d the 'SAFARI approach' here as though i t were a d i s c r e t e and coherent methodology b u t t h i s i s m i s l e a d i n g . What i s d i s t i n c t i v e about the approach i s i t s concern to e v o l v e a s e t of d i f f e r e n t f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s e a r c h e r s / e v a l u a t o r s , s u b j e c t s / p a r t i c i p a n t s and a u d i e n c e s . It i s l e s s a methodology than a s e t of e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t r a n s l a t e d as procedures f o r the d e s i g n and conduct of r e s e a r c h / e v a l u a t i o n project. Looked a t another way, the a s p i r a t i o n i s to develop an a l t e r n a t i v e educational professional role for educational research. (Walker, 1981: 206) The procedures  t h a t c o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d  from e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s p r o v i d e d  a s p i r a t i o n s or s e n s i t i z i n g concepts about  the r o l e of the case  study  worker. The a d o p t i o n of an a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e to r e s e a r c h r e s u l t e d a l t e r n a t i v e approach. democratise  i n an  The a s p i r a t i o n s of the case study approach were t o  the r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s e s ; t o feed the judgement of  d e c i s i o n makers; to a c c e p t and p o r t r a y the m u l t i p l i c i t y of d e f i n i t i o n s o f  89 educational  s i t u a t i o n s and  language of t e a c h e r s .  to convey t h i s p o r t r a y a l i n the  These aims t h r u s t  ' s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l ' c o n t e x t of e d u c a t i o n a l socio-political realities  of r e s e a r c h  institutions.  Furthermore, the  the CARE workers i n t o life.  Acknowledging  e n t a i l e d both the  r e s e a r c h e r to those being r e s e a r c h e d and  the  r e s e a r c h e r was  not  methodological constraints  and  He  not  influence  was  Such o b t r u s i v e  'objective'  intervention  and  was,  had  an  in situ.  The  aspirations  case study e t h i c s were not  c o n c e r n i n g the  r o l e of  the  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  only on guard  influences on  however, ' n e u t r a l ' .  development of e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which c o u l d  the  the  i n t e r n a l power r e l a t i o n s h i p s  p o l i t i c a l and or she  every-day-  be  of  for  from p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the  research  setting.  N e u t r a l i t y demanded  translated  a methodology, but  case study worker.  the  into procedures, they were  90 CHAPTER V AN  ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF  B a r r y MacDonald was  l e f t with  little  EVALUATION  choice  but  to develop  a l t e r n a t i v e view f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the Humanities p r o j e c t . research  adopted by  the development team p r e c l u d e d  a means of e v a l u a t i o n - the p r o j e c t was Following  f o r a model of  The  behavioural  view o f  objectives  as  not a " t e c h n o l o g i c a l " approach.  the mandate of the S c h o o l s C o u n c i l , the HCP  development of c u r r i c u l u m .  an  aim was  Consequently, MacDonald had  teacher  t o 'look  elsewhere'  evaluation.  MacDonald d e r i v e d  f o u r p r o p o s i t i o n s which can be  of the i l l u m i n a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e views of r e s e a r c h . between r e s e a r c h  and  e v a l u a t i o n , y e t the  viewed as  He made a  reflections  distinction  same p e r s p e c t i v a l concerns of  Cambridge c o n f e r e n c e t h a t addressed r e s e a r c h  found there way  concerns about the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of h i s judgements r e g a r d i n g  the  into his innovation.  E v a l u a t i o n Versus T r a d i t i o n a l Research In the d i s c u s s i o n of the between r e s e a r c h  and  ' a l t e r n a t i v e view of r e s e a r c h ' a  e v a l u a t i o n was  o u t l i n e d [see p . 21].  From  d i s t i n c t i o n MacDonald developed h i s d e f i n i t i o n s of the  three  evaluation:  Unlike  who  bureaucratic,  s e l e c t e d the  forged  'problem' and  from n e c e s s i t y .  the e v a l u a t o r was  The  'embroiled  cooly f i t questions the  a u t o c r a t i c and  democratic.  'means', the e v a l u a t o r ' s  researcher  was  outside  i n the a c t i o n ' .  to f a m i l i a r  distinction this  types of the  researcher  perspective  was  of the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s  While the r e s e a r c h e r  'technology', the e v a l u a t o r was  ' s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r e e t t h e a t r e ' o f the s e t t i n g .  could  thrown i n t o  -  91 MacDonald was researchers value  critical  of the absence of an acknowledgement by  of the b i a s i n t h e i r work.  He  was  a l s o q u i t e e x p l i c i t about  the  bias i n evaluation: The r e l e v a n c e of t h i s i s s u e to my p r e s e n t t h e s i s [ e v a l u a t i o n and the c o n t r o l of e d u c a t i o n ] i s easy to demonstrate. The p o l i t i c a l stance of the e v a l u a t o r has consequences f o r h i s c h o i c e of techniques f o r i n f o r m a t i o n - g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y s i s . (MacDonald, 1976b: 132)  MacDonald acknowledged t h a t h i s c h o i c e by h i s involvement with v a l u e s . 'democratic' stance"  (p. 133)  He  had  of techniques was a "personal  directly  preference  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s focus  on  influenced  for  the  the  information  needs of p a r t i c i p a n t - d e c i s i o n makers: A c r u c i a l problem i s the f a c t t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n makers are f o r c e d by the c o m p l e x i t y of r e q u i r e d d e c i s i o n s to review a much wider range of evidence than has u s u a l l y been gathered i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . (MacDonald and P a r l e t t , 1973: Such audience needs, i n MacDonald's view, were not met the  researcher  ' s e l e c t e d ' the  problem" would o n l y be met  problem and  'devised'  when the e v a l u a t o r  by  the  research  means.  accepted the  76)  The  - where "crucial  "script"  provided. The evaluator  HCP's d e l i b e r a t e abandonment of b e h a v i o u r a l without an e s t a b l i s h e d model.  a p p r o p r i a t e l y not c a s t ) b e f o r e  The  d i e had  objectives  left  the  been c a s t (or more  MacDonald j o i n e d the P r o j e c t .  described: To abandon the support of b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s i s to take on the task of f i n d i n g some other means of t r a n s l a t i n g aim i n t o p r a c t i c e . We attempted to analyze the i m p l i c a t i o n s of our.aim by d e r i v i n g from i t a s p e c i f i c a t i o n of use of m a t e r i a l s and a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p u r s u i t  As  Stenhouse  92 of the aim. In other words we c o n c e n t r a t e d on l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y between classroom process and aim, r a t h e r than between predetermined t e r m i n a l behaviours and aim. (Stenhouse, 1973: 163) The  absence of predetermined t e r m i n a l behaviours  for  the e v a l u a t o r " .  devoid  MacDonald was  of b e h a v i o u r a l  objectives.  Furthermore, when he began to study  left The  to d e s i g n evaluator  left  "no  ready-made  niche  a suitable evaluation began to look  the p r o j e c t to p r o v i d e  elsewhere.  interim  'feed-back' he q u i c k l y became aware of the shortcomings t h a t the ' i n t e n t i o n achievement' model would have p r e s e n t e d ,  had  Stenhouse not chosen  "to  abandon" i t . MacDonald wrote: As I became aware of the c o m p l e x i t y and d i v e r s i t y of what was going on i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l s c h o o l s , I became i n c r e a s i n g l y s k e p t i c a l of the n o t i o n of c o n f i n i n g e v a l u a t i o n to measurement of i n t e n t i o n achievement....Any e f f o r t to reduce the c o m p l e x i t y to s i n g u l a r i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s tends to d i s t o r t the r e a l i t y , and may m i s l e a d those who seek to understand the r e a l i t y . L e a s t of a l l does i t h e l p those who l i v e i n it. (MacDonald, 1971:  166)  By n e c e s s i t y , then by c h o i c e , MacDonald's s k e p t i c i s m with perspectives view'.  l e d to a 'bolder e v a l u a t i o n ' d e s i g n .  His r e j e c t i o n of the  holistic  too s i m p l i s t i c  approach to e v a l u a t i o n " (p. 169).  team d e s c r i b e d innovation  this  type  Humble, 1978:  sought a 'more adequate  approach l e d to a b e l i e f i n "a L a t e r members of the  of e v a l u a t i o n as "an  i n a f u l l e r context,  He  singularistic  evaluation  attempt to l o c a t e c u r r i c u l u m  to d e f i n e i t s t o t a l c o n s t i t u e n c y "  (Simons  178).  MacDonald's Four P r o p o s i t i o n s MacDonald's development of an a l t e r n a t i v e view of e v a l u a t i o n  was  and  influenced  by h i s c o n t a c t  Conference.  with other e v a l u a t o r s  a t the f i r s t  Cambridge  Lawrence Stenhouse, i n h i s r e c a l l of MacDonald's 'attempt t o  understand i n n o v a t i o n ' ,  r e f e r r e d to the conference c o n t a c t s  as a " c r u i c i a l  s e r i e s of d i a l o g u e s " : Looking back on MacDonald's work and on c o n v e r s a t i o n s with him, I see a s i g n i f i c a n t pattern. He was p r e s e n t e d with a p r o j e c t l a c k i n g a s p e c i f i c a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s . Objectives c o n s t i t u t e a s e l e c t i o n of hypotheses a c c o r d i n g to hopes. Lack of o b j e c t i v e s t h r u s t s on the e v a l u a t o r of a complex a c t i o n r e s e a r c h with v a s t numbers of v a r i a b l e s the task of s e l e c t i n g hypotheses. MacDonald s t r u g g l e d with the problem o f j u s t i f y i n g h i s own judgements of s i g n i f i c a n c e and i n a c r u c i a l s e r i e s of d i a l o g u e s with the P r o j e c t team and w i t h American s c h o l a r s began to develop p r o p o s i t i o n s which reached towards g e n e r a l i s a t i o n and d i s t i n g u i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n t variables. (Stenhouse, 1973: 165) In the attempt t o ' j u s t i f y h i s own judgements of s i g n i f i c a n t ' and t o understand the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s devised  four  that influence  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i o n , MacDonald  propositions:  1  Human behaviour i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i s s u s c e p t i b l e to a wide range of v a r i a b l e influences. T h i s i s commonplace y e t i n c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n i t i s sometimes assumed t h a t what i s intended to happen i s what a c t u a l l y happens, and t h a t what happens v a r i e s l i t t l e from s e t t i n g to setting.  2  The impact of an i n n o v a t i o n i s not a s e t of d i s c r e t e e f f e c t s , b u t an o r g a n i c a l l y r e l a t e d p a t t e r n of a c t s and consequences. To understand f u l l y a s i n g l e a c t one must l o c a t e i t f u n c t i o n a l l y w i t h i n the pattern. I t f o l l o w s from t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t i n n o v a t i o n s have many more u n a n t i c i p a t e d consequences than i s  94 normally assumed i n development evaluation designs.  and  3  No two s c h o o l s are so a l i k e i n t h e i r circumstances t h a t p r e s c i p t i o n s of c u r r i c u l a r a c t i o n can adequately supplant the judgement of the people i n them. H i s t o r a l / e v o l u t i o n a r y d i f f e r e n c e s alone make the i n n o v a t i o n 'gap' a v a r i a b l e which has s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  4  The g o a l s and purposes of the programme developers are not n e c e s s a r i l y shared by i t s u s e r s . We have seen the power s t r u g g l e between s t a f f f a c t i o n s , as a way of i n c r e a s i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a c u s t o d i a l p a t t e r n of p u p i l c o n t r o l , and as a means of g a r n i s h i n g the image of i n s t i t u t i o n s which cover the wrapping, but not the merchandise of i n n o v a t i o n . The l a t t e r g i v e s r i s e to the phenomenon of i n n o v a t i o n without change. (MacDonald quoted i n Stenhouse, 1973:  164)  MacDonald's f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n r a i s e d the f a m i l i a r concern with i n s u f f i c i e n c y of a p r i o r i outcome measurements and simplification. simplified.  The  second supposal  o u t l i n e d the complexity  Human behaviour i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s was  " o r g a n i c a l l y r e l a t e d p a t t e r n of a c t s and t h i s premise i n t o a theme he not be understood without was  the  ' t o t a l context'  consequences".  called holistic  evaluation.  o f an i n n o v a t i o n .  of the e v a l u a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e  The  t r a c i n g the  between p r o j e c t i n t e n t i o n s and  experience,  "as  perceived  t h a t was  d e f i n e d as  overan  MacDonald developed A single act could  third postulate  informing  ' i n n o v a t i o n gap'.  f a i l u r e of the d i s s e m i n a t i o n  of the American e d u c a t i o n a l reform  phenomenon was  over-  l o c a t i n g i t f u n c t i o n a l l y w i t h i n t h a t p a t t e r n which  MacDonald's judgement of s i g n i f i c a n c e concerned the  curricula  their implicit  the  movement had  lamented the  a c t u a l i n n o v a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s .  Much of gap  This  to be p a r t i a l l y unique to the North American  American as popcorn", y e t the CARE group was  i n f l u e n c e d by  conclusions resulting  drawn from the  innovation  gap.  f a i l u r e of p r e s c r i p t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m , The  theme addressed by MacDonald's  p r o p o s i t i o n concerned the s h a r i n g struggles; staff of innovation included  (or l a c k of) goals  and  MacDonald addressed t h i s  the  last  purposes; power  f a c t i o n s ; a c q u i s i t i o n of " p u p i l c o n t r o l " and  without change.  and  the phenomenon  theme, and  the  concerns, where he wrote about m u l t i p l e d e f i n i t i o n s of s i t u a t i o n s .  T h i s approach to e v a l u a t i o n  was  c i t e d as  "guiding  [MacDonald's]  continuing  fieldwork".  A Non-Objectives View The  f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n MacDonald's view of e v a l u a t i o n  i n a d e q u a c i e s of p r e - o r d a i n e d t h a t the  behavioural  objectives.  "wide range of v a r i a b l e i n f l u e n c e s " of school  u n i f o r m treatment c o n d i t i o n s . especially  In the  case of the HCP,  the  major premise  settings this  was  precluded  latency  was  critical: I t soon became obvious t h a t to have such c r i t e r i a . . . [ s h o r t term p u p i l l e a r n i n g ] i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e when the programme under consideration constitutes a r a d i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the s c h o o l system. (MacDonald, 1971:  The  The  r e f e r r e d to  " r a d i c a l " nature of the HCP  was  164)  a l s o expressed by Stenhouse.  d i s c u s s i n g the S c h o o l s C o u n c i l Working Paper #2 d e p a r t u r e of the p r o j e c t " , the d i r e c t o r s t a t e d  (1965), as that this  ...suggested t h a t the whole p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s and of a u t h o r i t y i n s c h o o l s would have to be rethought to achieve such a programme. I f t h i s were so, a c u r r i c u l u m which faced t h i s demand would have a s i g n i f i c a n c e f a r beyond i t s own p l a c e on the timetable. I t would p r o v i d e a l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e i n which teachers c o u l d work out a  the  When  "point  initial  of  mandate:  96 new view of t h e i r task and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with p u p i l s . The f u n c t i o n of a t e a c h i n g aim was b r i e f l y to d e s c r i b e the d i r e c t i o n of c l a s s r o o m work i n o r d e r to i n f l u e n c e the ' s e t ' o f the teacher i n the c l a s s r o o m . The aim f i n a l l y adopted f o r the p r o j e c t handbook (1970) was as f o l l o w s : 'to develop an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and human a c t s and of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l v a l u e i s s u e s which they r a i s e ' . I t was intended t h a t t h i s should imply an a p p l i c a t i o n of the p e r s p e c t i v e s of s o c i a l s c i e n c e , h i s t o r y , the a r t s and r e l i g i o u s t h i n k i n g to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human i s s u e s . Such u n d e r s t a n d i n g should take account of the need to attempt o b j e c t i v i t y on the one hand and to tap i m a g i n a t i v e sympathy on the o t h e r . And i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the c r u c i a l problem i n h a n d l i n g human i s s u e s was c o n t r o v e r s i a l ! t y . (Stenhouse, 1973: 153-4) It i s within  this  "fuller  "adequate approach". were c o n f l i c t u a l and  context"  MacDonald was necessitate  t h a t the e v a l u a t i o n  team sought  e x p l i c i t t h a t the aims of the  t h i s enlarged  orientation:  The p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s aim, i n terms of p u p i l and teacher r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , meant s e t t i n g up i n many s c h o o l s a p a t t e r n of behaviour i n c o n f l i c t with e s t a b l i s h e d assumptions and h a b i t s . G i v e n the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t such a c o n f l i c t would i n f l u e n c e the work of the p r o j e c t , and the c e r t a i n t y t h a t the degree of c o n f l i c t would d i f f e r from s c h o o l to s c h o o l , the e v a l u a t o r had to study the c o n t e x t i n which the programme was to o p e r a t e . The c e n t r a l assumption of the p r o j e c t ' s d e s i g n was t h a t there c o u l d be no e f f e c t i v e , f a r - r e a c h i n g c u r r i c u l u m development without teacher development. I t was i m p o r t a n t f o r the success of the p r o j e c t t h a t teachers should understand t h i s p o s i t i o n and see themselves as c r e a t o r s of c u r r i c u l u m change r a t h e r than mere s p e c t a t o r s . For the e v a l u a t o r t h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t some study of the p r o j e c t team's communications and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s with the s c h o o l s would be  an Project  97 c a l l e d f o r , i n order to gain i n f o r m a t i o n about the success or otherwise of t h i s effort. In s h o r t , some a t t e n t i o n to i n p u t from the p r o j e c t was n e c e s s a r y . (MacDonald, 1973: The  H o l i s t i c View The  required  'fuller  context  1  i m p l i e d by  such f a r r e a c h i n g  ' r a d i c a l ' aims  the type of e v a l u a t i o n MacDonald premised with h i s second  proposition. an  82)  The  view expressed was  t h a t e v a l u a t i o n design  needed to l o c a t e  a c t f u n c t i o n a l l y w i t h i n a l a r g e r ' o r g a n i c a l l y r e l a t e d p a t t e r n ' : "more  unanticipated alluded  consequences" would have to be e x p e c t e d .  MacDonald and  to t h i s unknown " s c r i p t " u s i n g a w h i m s i c a l s i m i l e , i n Beyond  Numbers Game:  A Reader i n E d u c a t i o n a l  Walker the  Evaluation:  In the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , as i n bank robbery, the method of a t t a c k i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y an o p p o r t u n i s t i c response to the observed nature of the c a s e . (Hamilton, MacDonald's view of e v a l u a t i o n became one  e t a l . , 1977:  183)  of o p p o r t u n i s t i c f l e x i b i l i t y  and  thorough ' c a s i n g ' o f the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e .  The  Innovation  'Gap'  MacDonald's t h i r d p r o p o s i t i o n d e a l t with f e l t was  a f a l s e premise.  w r i t i n g and  a notion a r i s i n g  Manyof the c u r r i c u l u m  evaluations  from what he  of h i s time o f  " l o o k i n g elsewhere" f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s were a d i r e c t response  the dominant and dissemination.  p r e s c r i p t i v e centre-periphery According  measured outcomes and  to such models, the  intended  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and/or r e d u c i n g the c o n t r a r y ,  outcomes was  models of  to  curriculum  r e d u c t i o n of 'gaps' between  accomplished by  r e s i s t a n c e to ' a d o p t i o n ' .  increasing  MacDonald f e l t ,  t h a t 'gaps' were an unavoidable consequence of attempts  to  to  98 supplant  the judgement of the people i n the  of c u r r i c u l a r a c t i o n were i n t e n d e d . possible innovation The  questions  innovation  was  'gaps', but  not why  shools  f o r whom the p r e s c r i p t i o n s  His view was  expect and  c e r t a i n intended  not  to look  report unanticipated  the aim was  consequences.  changes d i d not happen, but  (by d e f i n i t i o n o p p o r t u n i s t i c ) a c t u a l l y took p l a c e .  wrote i n 1971,  f o r 'causes' o f  As  how  Simons  to know:  ...what happens to these p r o j e c t s , how and why do they s u r v i v e or f a i l i n the rough and tumble of the s c h o o l s once the e x t e r n a l s u p p o r t systems t h a t have i n i t i a t e d and promoted them are withdrawn. (1971: This s u b t l e d i s t i n c t i o n was questions,  "How  do  between i n t e n t and The  team was  adoption'.  schools  a moot p o i n t .  The  d e a l w i t h change?" versus "How  between the  happens i n the classroom" 'alleged f a i l u r e ' ,  had  American as popcorn".  curriculum  there  reform movement,  and  To  to  the  "the  the CARE group,  the  society.  t h i s i d e a of a " c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t ,  failure  two  what a c t u a l l y  the American view of  thought occured to him  puzzling  I t was  p r o j e c t s and  (Simons, 1971,: 124).  been p r e c i p i t a t e d by  The  t h a t movement.  i n t e n t of c u r r i c u l u m  "suddenly s t r u c k " by  the e a r l i e r  is  aware of the N o r t h American concern with ' l a c k of  (1971), Simons c i t e d John Goodlad, where he p o i n t e d  gap  MacDonald was  much gap  the  outcome?" r e v e a l s a c e n t r a l tenet of the CARE group.  ' p r e c i s e nature of the a l l e g e d f a i l u r e ' of  explain  d i f f e r e n c e between p o s i n g  When w r i t i n g about the American " c u r r i c u l u m  decades o l d "  formidable  120)  years l a t e r as he  as  tried  to  of the T y l e r i a n a p p l i c a t i o n of  development "to take r o o t " i n B r i t a i n .  MacDonald a s s o c i a t e d T y l e r t h a t concept of c u r r i c u l u m end-means assumptions.  (1950) with the  development s t r e s s i n g  MacDonald d e s c r i b e d  advent and  proliferation  "engineering-style"  the model as  follows:  of  [ I t ] begins by s p e c i f y i n g l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n terms of end-of-course p u p i l b e h a v i o u r . The c o n t e n t of the programme and the method by which i t i s taught are then v a r i e d u n t i l the d e s i r e d behaviour i s e l i c i t e d . These programme o b j e c t i v e s p r o v i d e the e v a l u a t o r with h i s c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s , s i n c e h i s main task i s to assess the e x t e n t to which they have been a c h i e v e d . T h i s model i s c l e a r l y most u s e f u l where statements of o b j e c t i v e s are easy to make and command wide agreement, where s i d e e f f e c t s are l i k e l y to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t or e a s i l y d e t e c t e d and c o n t r o l l e d and where s t r i c t adherence to the o b j e c t i v e s i s u n l i k e l y to undermine e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s which they do not contain. (MacDonald, 1973: 82) By advancing a c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t  to e x p l a i n  c u r r i c u l u m development to N o r t h America, a c c u s e d of " i n c i p i e n t e l i t i s m " .  the containment  of t h i s model o f  MacDonald was aware that he c o u l d be  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he want on to s t a t e  that:  The theory and p r a c t i c e of the o b j e c t i v e s model o f e v a l u a t i o n i s thus wedded to an American view of s o c i e t y , and an American f a i t h i n technology. P l u r a l i s t s o c i e t i e s w i l l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to u s e . U n i f i e d s o c i e t i e s w i l l use i t , and d i s c o v e r they are pluralist. (MacDonald, 1976b: 129) I t was assumed t h a t the B r i t i s h c u r r i c u l u m development model, a t l e a s t as p r a c t i c e d by the HCP, was not 'wedded' t o such a view of s o c i e t y .  The  h i s t o r i c a l / e v o l u t i o n a r y d i f f e r e n c e s of separate i n s t a n c e s of implementation ( t h a t c o u l d be viewed creative  as i n n o v a t i o n gaps) were g i v e n a more p o s i t i v e and  interpretation.  o f optimum implementation  Rather  than c o n c e i v i n g of d i f f e r e n c e s as a f a i l u r e  o f the " p r e s c r i b e d technology", the d i f f e r e n c e s  were a d e s i r e d outcome t h a t needed to be planned f o r .  The S c h o o l s C o u n c i l The d i f f e r e n c e between the American  and B r i t i s h p e r s p e c t i v e s was  100 evidenced  by the aims and  C o u n c i l was  purposes of the Schools  the co-sponsor, then s o l e f i n a n c i a l  address of the J o i n t S e c r e t a r y of the Schools convention,  the C o u n c i l was  described  Council i n England.  supporter  of the HCP.  C o u n c i l to a 1970  The In  the  national  as:  ...a d e l i b e r a t e r e s o r t to democracy, an attempt to secure the commitment of teachers by i n v o l v i n g them d e c i s i v e l y a t every s t a g e i n the i n n o v a t i o n programme. ( N i s b e t , 1973: The  address c o n t i n u e d  with a d i s c u s s i o n of why  democratic involvement.  the C o u n c i l sought such  D e f i n i n g a u t h o r i t y as the r i g h t to  obedience, the S e c r e t a r y a s s e r t e d do  31)  enforce  t h a t the C o u n c i l "cannot i n s t r u c t anyone to  anything." I t means t h a t the use of any m a t e r i a l s or methods t h a t the C o u n c i l may recommend r e q u i r e s a p o s i t i v e a c t of agreement by the teachers concerned. (p.  The  C o u n c i l had  "prevent  "extremely e l a b o r a t e " and  i t becoming a c u r r i c u l u m d i c t a t o r "  Curriculum provided  a c o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t was  P r o j e c t was  begun by  o n l y an i n i t i a l  remainder and  later  of the funds.  The  i n t e r r e l a t e d with  31)  (p. 9 ) .  funding.  The  and  organization  C o u n c i l assumed  ( d u r i n g the d i s s e m i n a t i o n / e v a l u a t i o n philosophy  to  While the Humanities  the N u f f i e l d Foundation, the  25% o f the  designed  the  stage) provided  c o n s t i t u t i o n of the C o u n c i l  100%  was  the CARE approach.  Simons and Humble wrote of the o u t l o o k  t h a t guided  Unit: ...we wanted to r e p o r t the experience from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the people i n v o l v e d , n o t our own. To t r y and meet t h i s a s p i r a t i o n we adopted the r o l e of the sympathetic  the HCP  Evaluation  101 independent observer j udgement.  who  refrains  from  (Simons and T h i s aim  may  - refraining  seem a t f i r s t  to be a h y b r i d of the b u r e a u c r a t  from judgement y e t c l a i m i n g independence.  d i f f e r e n c e arose, however, with of choosing  audiences.  The  b a s i s of i s s u e f o r m a t i o n . of these  Humble, 1978:  g o a l s and  and  The  purpose was  to d i s c e r n the  to inform  i n exchanges of i n f o r m a t i o n . "  to be  community  the c i t i z e n r y .  Speaking  evaluator  needs  as a  was  "broker  H i s t o r i c a l / e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  ( p r o p o s i t i o n two)  establishment  182)  between i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g and  analogous to MacDonald's metaphor of the democractic  The  the manner  purposes, Simons and Humble s t a t e d :  n o t i o n of c r e a t i n g a " f i t "  the i n n o v a t i o n  autocrat  'democratic'  We took as our audiences teachers and s c h o o l heads. LEAs, the Schools C o u n c i l and examining boards. T h i s procedure i s not as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as i t may seem. The i n f o r m a t i o n requirements c o u l d not be f u l l y pre-specified. The study of the p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d the study of decision-making about the p r o j e c t , so t h a t p a r t of our l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e was the attempt to c r e a t e a f i t between the i n f o r m a t i o n we were g a t h e r i n g and the needs of our a u d i e n c e . (Simons and Humble, 1978: The  the  the means of a s s e s s i n g needs and  democratic g o a l was The  200)  were the data  to be  the  shared.  of the range of i s s u e s t h a t the e v a l u a t i o n team h e l d  relevant, further i l l u s t r a t e d  t h e i r democratic  conception:  In time our aim f o r e v a l u a t i o n was formulated i n terms of p r o v i d i n g evidence about the p r o j e c t i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s , from which i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n makers might glean h e l p f u l c l u e s about the importance of c e r t a i n problems and f a c t o r s i n implementing i t . We were not attempting to p r e s c r i b e d e c i s i o n s , only provide relevant information. Relevance, i n our view, was not to be d e f i n e d by your p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s and v a l u e s . (Humble and Simons, 1978:  182)  102 The  democratic  e v a l u a t o r was n o t the 'guardian  of important  educational  v a l u e s ' , nor was he or she an amoral t e c h n o c r a t , a c c e p t i n g the p r e s c r i p t i o n of  a s p o n s o r i n g agent or p a r t i c u l a r power group.  maintained  the informed  r o l e i n "Innovation  Instead,  d i a l o g u e of the market p l a c e .  the broker  Simons a l l u d e d to t h i s  and the Case-Study of S c h o o l s " :  The l a t e Derek M o r e l l , a p i o n e e r of the S c h o o l s C o u n c i l , w r i t i n g o f the need f o r an open p r o f e s s i o n a l d i a l o g u e to be e s t a b l i s h e d and maintained to cope with r a p i d s o c i a l change s a i d : "The f i r s t and most i m p o r t a n t form of support open to human beings who have anxious problems i s to draw c l o s e r t o g e t h e r , and to p o o l r e s o u r c e s , e x p e r i e n c e s , and perspectives. Unless t h i s i s done, i t i s easy f o r p a r t i c u l a r groups w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e t o imagine t h a t they alone are the guardians of important e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s , which other groups e i t h e r do n o t v a l u e so h i g h l y , o r even wish to d e s t r o y . . . " C a s e - s t u d i e s of s c h o o l s w i l l be about human beings f a c i n g anxious problems. They c o u l d p r o v i d e an agenda f o r such a d i a l o g u e , o r be the u n w i t t i n g i n s t r u m e n t of f u r t h e r mistrust. (Simons, 1971: 123) The  e v a l u a t i o n team was to drawn t h e i r audiences  closer  together.  as MacDonald d e s c r i b e d , was to a c q u i r e ' b e s t - s e l l e r ' s t a t u s . was an agenda f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l d i a l o g u e . and  t h a t she a t t a c h e d  affinity of  Success,  What was s o l d  That Simons quoted Derek M o r e l l ,  to him the compliment of "pioneer", demonstrated the  t h a t t h e HCP e v a l u a t i o n team had f o r the p r i n c i p l e s and p r i n c i p a l s  the C o u n c i l . Derek M o r e l l was a p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y to the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , S i r  David E c c l e s , i n the e a r l y 1960's. Schools C o u n c i l .  These years saw the f o r m a t i o n of the  M o r e l l became one of the f i r s t J o i n t S e c r e t a r i e s of the  newly formed C o u n c i l .  In May, 1963, a conference  was proposed between t h e  103 M i n i s t r y o f Education,  the t e a c h e r ' s  a s s o c i a t i o n s , and l o c a l  education  a u t h o r i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to d i s c u s s s e t t i n g up a new Schools Curriculum the  and Examinations.  The memorandum c a l l i n g  Council f o r  t h i s conference  statement, phrased as a q u e s t i o n s , by M o r e l l a t the 1962 Annual  Meeting of the N a t i o n a l Foundation f o r E d u c a t i o n  repeated General  Research:  How can we b e s t g i v e form and shape to a genuine p a r t n e r s h i p between the v a r i o u s agencies concerned, which w i l l i n c r e a s e the speed and r e l e v a n c e of c u r r i c u l u m development, and base i t more soundly on an i n c r e a s e d volume of r e s e a r c h , without i n the process s u r r e n d e r i n g or even endangering what i s e s s e n t i a l to a f r e e s o c i e t y i n our t r a d i t i o n of freedom f o r the teachers i n c u r r i c u l u m matters? ( N i s b e t , 1973: 24) Two weeks l a t e r ,  i n the p u b l i c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n ,  A s s o c i a t i o n of Education  the S e c r e t a r y of the  Committees, S i r W i l l i a m Alexander, gave an  answer: I t i s a matter of urgency and importance t h a t the work of the C u r r i c u l u m Study Group should be brought e f f e c t i v e l y under a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body i n which l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s and the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n a r e i n membership. ( N i s b e t , 1973: 25) When the conference  was proposed, then convened i n J u l y o f 1963, the d r a f t i n g  of terms of r e f e r e n c e was begun:  " g i v i n g p r i d e of p l a c e to the p r i n c i p l e  t h a t each s h o o l should have f u l l e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s own work" ( p . 27) . Following  the f i r s t  Secondary Schools  conference,  Examinations C o u n c i l , completed a r e p o r t of the proposed  "terms of r e f e r e n c e " .  A t the second c o n f e r e n c e ,  the recommendations unanimously. priorities:  S i r John Lockwood, the S e c r e t a r y of the  J u l y 1964,  a vote  approved  John N i s b e t wrote of the purpose and  104 The Lockwood Report s e t our p r e c i s e terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the C o u n c i l , and these were adopted without a l t e r a t i o n . The f u l l t e x t extends to 23 l i n e s of p r i n t . The opening paragraphs s t a t e : "The o b j e c t s of the Schools C o u n c i l f o r the C u r r i c u l u m and Examinations are to uphold and i n t e r p r e t the p r i n c i p l e t h a t each s c h o o l should have the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e measure of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s own work, with i t s own c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h i n g methods based on the needs of i t s own p u p i l s and e v o l v e d by i t s own s t a f f . . . In order to promote these o b j e c t s , the C o u n c i l w i l l keep under review c u r r i c u l a , t e a c h i n g methods and examinations i n primary and secondary s c h o o l s . . . " (paragraph 19) The i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s c h o o l i s thus p l a c e d f i r s t , and the task of r e v i e w i n g c u r r i c u l a and examinations i s f i r m l y s u b o r d i n a t e to t h a t primary o b j e c t i v e . In the r e p o r t , no doubt i s l e f t about t h i s : "The r e s u l t s of the C o u n c i l ' s work should possess o n l y t h e i r own i n h e r e n t a u t h o r i t y . . . ( I t s h o u l d ) produce recommendations which...had taken a l l r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s i n t o account and were agreed by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a l l the member i n t e r e s t s concerned. But they should s t i l l be recommendations, addressed to those who have t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . . . I n p a r t i c u l a r , the C o u n c i l would n e i t h e r p u b l i s h , nor approve, a n y t h i n g i n the nature of a t e x t book." (paragraph 21) ( N i s b e t , 1973: 29) The is  i n t e n t was thus p l a c e d  t h e i r own  quite e x p l i c i t : first".  decisions".  "the  i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the  Members of the s c h o o l s and LEA The  "must be  C o u n c i l s ' o n l y a u t h o r i t y was  f r e e to  that inherent i n  their offerings. MacDonald wrote d u r i n g  the i n i t i a l  stages  of the  schools  evaluation:  The sponsor of the e v a l u a t i o n was a government agency w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  take  105 n a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m development, but w i t h l i t t l e experience i n the r o l e . There was a need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would a i d p l a n n i n g at t h i s l e v e l . T h i s suggested t h a t our focus f o r e v a l u a t i o n might be upon the p a t t e r n s of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the system i n i t i a t e d or i l l u m i n a t e d by p r o j e c t i n p u t s . (MacDonald, 1973: While the C o u n c i l may  have had  "little  purpose and  p r i o r i t i e s were s u c c i n c t .  the i n i t i a l  HCP  experience"  i n i t s new  Furthermore, i t had  p e r i o d of f o u r m i l l i o n pounds.  o b j e c t i v e s of the HCP  83) role, i t s  a budget d u r i n g  A n a l y s i s of the  eventual  Team, next to the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l aims of the C o u n c i l ,  r e v e a l s a marked s i m i l a r i t y of purpose.  The  view of e v a l u a t i o n adopted owed  much to the C o u n c i l . The  o v e r l a p of the  two  purposes i n no way  inconsistency.  In f a c t ,  democratic,  s i n c e the C o u n c i l was  the  and  team to u t i l i z e ,  s i n c e the  i m p l i e s a weakness or  task of the e v a l u a t i o n came to a major "consumer", i t was  i n p a r t , the C o u n c i l ' s  relevancies.  crystalize: The f i n d i n g s from the e v a l u a t i o n of the Humanities C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t had to be r e l e v a n t to r e c u r r i n g problems of e d u c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and c o n t r i b u t e to a cumulative t r a d i t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m study. With these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n mind, the o b j e c t i v e s of the e v a l u a t i o n u n i t c o u l d be d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : (a) to a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t s of the p r o j e c t , document the circumstances i n which they o c c u r r e d , and p r e s e n t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n a form which would h e l p e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s to e v a l u a t e the l i k e l y consequences of adopting the programme; (b) t o d e s c r i b e the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n s of the s c h o o l s being s t u d i e d so t h a t decision-makers c o u l d understand more f u l l y what i t was they were t r y i n g to change; (c) to d e s c r i b e the work of the p r o j e c t team i n terms which would h e l p the sponsors v  The  be encumbant  task began to  on  106 and p l a n n e r s of such ventures to weigh the value of t h i s form of investment, and t o determine more p r e c i s e l y the framework o f support, guidance and c o n t r o l which were appropriate; (d) t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to e v a l u a t i o n theory by a r t i c u l a t i n g problems c l e a r l y , r e c o r d i n g experiences and, perhaps most important, p u b l i c i z i n g e r r o r s ; (e) t o c o n t r i b u t e to the understanding o f the problems of c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n generally. (MacDonald, 1973b: 88) This d e f i n i t i o n of the task and l i s t  of o b j e c t i v e s was d e r i v e d from an  e x p l o r a t i o n o f the needs of the consumers of the e v a l u a t i o n . team r e d e f i n e d consumers as d e c i s i o n makers.  In l a r g e p a r t the "need f o r  i n f o r m a t i o n a t . . . [ t h e C o u n c i l ] l e v e l " suggested John N i s b e t o u t l i n e d how, on the other  the t a s k .  end of the consumer analogy, the  c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the C o u n c i l c r e a t e d a 'buyer's market' seller).  (the HCP b e i n g the  Paragraph 22 of the Lockwood Report "shaped the a c t i v i t i e s and  s t r u c t u r e of the C o u n c i l " . structure,  In time the  the s t a f f i n g  I t showed i t s e f f e c t s  " i n the committee  and i n the p a t t e r n s of the C o u n c i l ' s development  p r o j e c t s " . Paragraph 22 echoed  (perhaps foreshadowed) the l i s t  o b j e c t i v e s above: ...we are r e c o r d i n g our b e l i e f t h a t i f new ranges of c h o i c e are made a v a i l a b l e , the s c h o o l s w i l l f r e e l y s e l e c t f o r themselves any approach to s y l l a b u s c o n t e n t or t e a c h i n g methods which c l e a r l y o f f e r s a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n than t h a t p r e v i o u s l y available. The need f o r a more r a p i d response on the p a r t of the s c h o o l s t o changing e d u c a t i o n a l needs i s not i n doubt. But there i s no need to t r a n s f e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the c e n t r e i n order to b r i n g t h i s about. The response w i l l be f r e e l y made by the s c h o o l s themselves once t h e i r room f o r manoeuvre has been i n c r e a s e d , and once the teachers are enabled to p l a y a b i g g e r p a r t i n r e s e a r c h , and i n the  of HCP  107 development of new ranges of p r o f e s s i o n a l c h o i c e . " (paragraph 22) ( N i s b e t , 1973: 30) J u s t as MacDonald's c h o i c e necessitated choice  by  of an a l t e r n a t i v e view of e v a l u a t i o n was  the P r o j e c t ' s abandonment of b e h a v i o u r a l  of a democratic s t y l e of e v a l u a t i o n was,  stance of the C o u n c i l . E v a l u a t i o n U n i t (and  present  range of c h o i c e "  this information  so  continued  to p r o v i d e  i n Lockwood's r e p o r t .  the  M u l t i p l e D e f i n i t i o n s of Simons and  HCP  They sought to  responsibility  to p r o v i d e  t h a t d e c i s i o n makers c o u l d understand more f u l l y and  room f o r manoeuvre o u t l i n e d by  the  educational  t r a n s f e r of  They attempted  by  to develop means  to t h e i r a u d i e n c e s .  the work of the P r o j e c t ' a p p r o p r i a t e l y ' . the  perhaps, n e c e s s i t a t e d  i n a form which would h e l p  d e c i s i o n makers i n an e f f o r t envisioned  objectives, his  In l i n e with the b e l i e f s of the C o u n c i l , the  the CARE group g e n e r a l l y )  t h a t c o u l d o f f e r a "new  initially  such  weigh the  They were attempting  to  information value  of  provide  Lockwood.  Innovation  Humble wrote of the HCP  evaluation  team aims:  The t e s t of how good a job we have done i s how s u c c e s s f u l we have been i n enhancing the r e a d e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the process of c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the people i n v o l v e d . (1978: The  hope of such a view was  involved  i n the  f u t u r e and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  to enable t e a c h e r s  'actual'  an  aim was  to be passed on  ('readers') and  contemporary i n n o v a t i o n  Furthermore, the p e r s p e c t i v e situation  194) others  of the p r o j e c t to g a i n  an  (as opposed t o 'intended') i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . of those i n v o l v e d was  the d e f i n i t i o n of  (as a broker would t r a n s f e r stocks  t h a t expressed i n MacDonald's f o u r t h and  last  the  or bonds).  proposition:  Such  108 addressing  the i n f o r m a t i o n needs of both p o t e n t i a l users  and p a r t i c i p a n t s o f  c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g v a r i o u s g o a l s and purposes. In c o n t r a s t to i l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n , MacDonald d i d not view e v a l u a t i o n as simply  an a l t e r n a t i v e means of p r e s e n t i n g the p e r s p e c t i v e of  people i n v o l v e d - the e v a l u a t o r unenlightened  participants.  i l l u m i n a t i n g the complexity  Evaluators  to otherwise  were a l s o concerned with the  a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the data g a t h e r i n g process  to r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s .  N e g o t i a t i o n , c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y were means of f u l f i l l i n g the aim  of i n v o l v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s as p r e d i c t o r s of the e v a l u a t i o n - not s i m p l y  recipients.  Out of t h i s view arose  the procedures and p r i n c i p l e s of the  democratic approach to e v a l u a t i o n . The  a l t e r n a t i v e view of r e s e a r c h  adopted by the CARE group r e s u l t e d i n  a r e j e c t i o n of the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l approach.  Similarly,  the a l t e r n a t i v e  view o f e v a l u a t i o n adopted by MacDonald and implemented i n the procedures of the Humanities and SAFARI P r o j e c t s r e j e c t e d p r e s p e c i f i e d ' t e r m i n a l behaviours'  as an approach to c u r r i c u l a r  evaluation.  J u s t as the a l t e r n a t i v e  view of r e s e a r c h argued a g a i n s t the ' t e c h n o l o g i c a l ' ends-means approach t o c u r r i c u l u m development, MacDonald's view of e v a l u a t i o n r e q u i r e d a t t e n t i o n to the  ' o r g a n i c a l l y r e l a t e d p a t t e r n of a c t s and consequences' of a s c h o o l  setting.  Unanticipated  consequences were an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the  implementation of i n n o v a t i o n .  From t h i s h o l i s t i c view came the t h i r d  t h a t s o - c a l l e d ' i n n o v a t i o n gap' e x p l a n a t i o n s judgement of people i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l a r mirrored  premise  were attempts to s u p p l a n t the  action.  The e v a l u a t o r ' s  concern  the concern of the i l l u m i n a t i v e d i s c o u r s e about the supersedence of  common sense concepts by r e s e a r c h e r s .  The p e r s p e c t i v e of the p a r t i c i p a n t  from which d e c i s i o n s were taken was a n e c e s s a r y  and c e n t r a l p a r t of the  109 explanation  or d e f i n i t i o n of such a c t i o n .  emphasized the importance of p o l i t i c a l determining in  the course  the g a t h e r i n g and The  influenced  The  p r e s e n t i n g of  evaluator  and power r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n  theory  to i n c l u d e ' i n t e n t i o n a l and the HCP  the development of a model to e v a l u a t e  the HCP  research' responsible  development and the p r o j e c t .  the adopted approach were a l s o an a l t e r n a t i v e to  A d e s c r i p t i o n of the HCP  included  data.  emerging paradigm informed  o r i e n t a t i o n and of b o t h .  resources  the  i l l u m i n a t i v e paradigm developed a view of ' a c t i o n - b a s e d  e v a l u a t i o n and tradition.  finally,  of implementation - i n f l u e n c e s t h a t must be  which went beyond b e h a v i o u r a l action'.  And  subsequently T h i s view o f prevailing  development team's c u r r i c u l u m  e v a l u a t i o n team's model r e v e a l s the i n t e r - r e l a t e d n e s s  110 CHAPTER VI AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO CURRICULUM AND EVALUATION  The  development of the Humanities C u r r i c u l u m  approach to the dominant ' c e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y '  was an a l t e r n a t i v e  model.  The p r o j e c t team  accepted  the mandate of the Schools  C o u n c i l to have teachers  the s c h o o l s . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  there were many i m p l i c i t value d e c i s i o n s i n the  curriculum  t h a t had c o n s i d e r a b l e  impact on the ' s e t ' o f the t e a c h e r .  Because the p r o j e c t had a modus operandi schools,  to develop c u r r i c u l u m  within  the development team sought r e v i s i o n s to m a t e r i a l s as p a r t of the  "experiment".  The e v a l u a t i o n team, t h e r e f o r e , was b e r e f t of a u s u a l  f u n c t i o n of e v a l u a t o r s . to a b e h a v i o u r a l team d e v i s e d  Coupled with  fact,  the p r o j e c t was not amenable  Consequently, the e v a l u a t i o n  an a l t e r n a t i v e approach to e v a l u a t i o n t h a t e n t a i l e d i n f o r m i n g  Humanities C u r r i c u l u m The  this  objectives style evaluation.  d e c i s i o n makers by case study  The  develop c u r r i c u l u m w i t h i n  reports.  Project  Humanities C u r r i c u l u m  P r o j e c t began with  N u f f i e l d Foundation and the Schools  Council.  j o i n t funding  In 1970, a f t e r  from the  three years, the  f u n d i n g was extended s o l e y by the C o u n c i l f o r an a d d i t i o n a l two y e a r s . e x t e n s i o n was g r a n t e d postponed u n t i l The and  and  l e a v i n g age was  1972/73.  p r o j e c t team produced nine  Living i n Cities,  Education,  when the r a i s i n g of the s c h o o l  The  The Family,  'packs' o f m a t e r i a l s :  Law and Order, Poverty,  Production,  Race  People and Work, War,  and R e l a t i o n s Between the Sexes.  The m a t e r i a l on Race  L i v i n g i n C i t i e s was not c l e a r e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by the C o u n c i l .  The  111 other c o l l e c t i o n s were f i r s t schools.  The teachers  introduced  The t r i a l e x p e r i e n c e s  The packs were p u b l i s h e d  commercially,  strategies  i n 36  presented  were i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n 1970 and were disseminated  t r a i n i n g scheme throughout England and Wales. published  form t o 150 teachers  were asked to adhere to t e a c h i n g  as hypotheses f o r experiment. final editing.  in trial  into via a  As the m a t e r i a l s were  not every group of purchasers  a v a i l e d i t s e l f of  training. The  o r i g i n a l r e m i t of the P r o j e c t was a response to the intended  r a i s i n g of the s c h o o l l e a v i n g age t o 16 i n 1970-71. ( R a i s i n g o f the S c h o o l L e a v i n g  Age) had been mapped out i n the E d u c a t i o n A c t  of 1944, and i t "marked a f u r t h e r stage education  for a l l "  C o u n c i l had decided priority  (Schools  along  the r o a d . . . l e a d i n g  C o u n c i l Working Paper No. 2, 1965).  to secondary The  a t i t s f i r s t meeting i n October, 1964, to g i v e  Schools  high  to a "programme of a c t i v i t y i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the r a i s i n g of the  s c h o o l l e a v i n g age".  T h i s a c t i v i t y r e s u l t e d i n the Working Paper No. 2:  R a i s i n g the S c h o o l L e a v i n g and  The ROSLA i n i t i a t i v e  Age (1965) and the Working Paper No. 11:  the Young School Leaver,  R a i s i n g o f the S c h o o l L e a v i n g  A Humanities Programme i n P r e p a r a t i o n Age (1967).  i n Scarborough, England.  Humanities C u r r i c u l u m  P r o j e c t was f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s e d  At the f i n a l p l e n a r y  Lawrence Stenhouse, c a u t i o n e d dissemination  A t t h i s Conference the  s e s s i o n the appointed  " t h a t the P r o j e c t was l i k e l y to f a i l i n support"  The P r o j e c t went ahead.  MacDonald r e c a l l e d what he e n v i s i o n e d , aims o f the HCP:  i n the s e v e r a l  director,  f o r want of adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r t r a i n i n g and  (Rudduck, 1976: 1 3 ) .  f o r the  In the s p r i n g o f 1969 the C o u n c i l  convened a conference  working groups.  Society  when f i r s t  confronted  with t h e  112 I t seemed to me t h a t what I was going to be i n v o l v e d i n was an e x e r c i s e i n the pathology of i n n o v a t i o n . . . a n d t h a t the f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t might be p u b l i s h e d i n the form o f a p o s t mortem. (MacDonald, 1978b: 17) MacDonald was concerned with the c u r r i c u l u m ' s scope Lawrence Stenhouse i n d i c a t e d  the scope  and i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t .  of the HCP:  The p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e of the p r o j e c t was a passage i n S c h o o l s C o u n c i l Working Paper No. 2 (1965) r e f e r r i n g to work i n the Humanities: 'The problem i s to g i v e every man some access to a complex c u l t u r a l i n h e r i t a n c e , some h o l d on h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e and on h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the v a r i o u s communities to which he belongs, some e x t e n s i o n of h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , and s e n s i t i v i t y towards, o t h e r human b e i n g s . The aim i s to forward u n d e r s t a n d i n g , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and judgement i n the human f i e l d - i t w i l l i n v o l v e r e l i a b l e f a c t u a l knowledge, where t h i s i s appropriate, d i r e c t experience, imaginative e x p e r i e n c e , some a p p r e c i a t i o n of the dilemmas of the human c o n d i t i o n , o f the rough hewn nature o f many of our i n s t i t u t i o n s , and some r a t i o n a l thought about them.' ( p a r a . 60.) (Stenhouse,  1973: 151)  The Schools C o u n c i l d e f i n i t i o n of the aim o f Humanities  - " t o forward  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and judgement i n the human f i e l d " - p r e s e n t e d a difficult  problem  to Stenhouse:  An extremely d i f f i c u l t problem, p r o b a b l y i n a d e q u a t e l y s o l v e d , was to produce a statement of aim. The aims of the p r o j e c t must f i r s t o f a l l be s e p a r a t e d from those o f the c u r r i c u l u m . The aim of the p r o j e c t was to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r t e a c h e r s to develop t h e i r work i n the d i r e c t i o n of the a s p i r a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n these b a s i c statements. T h i s meant a continuous development of i n s i g h t on the p a r t of the team about teacher problems and needs. The f u n c t i o n of a t e a c h i n g aim was b r i e f l y t o  113 d e s c r i b e the d i r e c t i o n of c l a s s r o o m work i n o r d e r to i n f l u e n c e the ' s e t ' o f the teacher i n the c l a s s r o o m . Such an aim i s a summary task d e f i n i t i o n . (Stenhouse, 1973: The  7  151)  " C e n t r a l Team' of the P r o j e c t sought to uphold the C o u n c i l ' s mandate:  "to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r teachers apparently teacher  to develop t h e i r work", yet they had  c o n t r a d i c t o r y t e a c h i n g aim  i n the c l a s s r o o m " .  The  to " i n f l u e n c e the  'set' of  an  the  C o u n c i l ' s mandate to f o s t e r t e a c h e r  development of c u r r i c u l u m appeared c o n t r a r y to the Humanities d e s i r e to influence while  "the d i r e c t i o n of the a s p i r a t i o n s " of the  the C o u n c i l had  the i d e a l of teacher  purpose of the humanities a c t i v i t i e s  themselves.  Value  There was  Pragmatically,  Similarly,  development, they d e f i n e d  as p r o v i d i n g " s t i m u l u s ,  m a t e r i a l s " to a i d the ROSLA i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . develop the c u r r i c u l u m .  teachers.  I d e a l l y the  teachers  support  teacher  would need help  a f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n between s t i m u l u s  the  and  and  would to  help  patronage.  Decisions Stenhouse was  e x p l i c i t about the value d e c i s i o n s to which he and  P r o j e c t members t r i e d  'to i n t e r e s t ' the  practitioners:  When a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l claimed t h a t h i s f i f t e e n - y e a r - o l d students were not i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l a t i o n s between the sexes, we d i d not attempt to j u s t i f y our i n c l u s i o n of t h i s t o p i c by a s s u r i n g him t h a t they were. Rather we claimed t h a t they ought to be, and t h a t i t was h i s job to t r y to i n t e r e s t them i n any t o p i c as important as t h a t one. We have a l s o made value d e c i s i o n s a t another level. We have a s s e r t e d t h a t procedures and m a t e r i a l s must be j u s t i f i a b l e i n terms of c e r t a i n values fundamental to e d u c a t i o n . (Stenhouse 1971: 156) The  P r o j e c t workers a s s e r t e d what 'ought to be'  taught,  that 'certain  the  114  values'  were 'fundamental', and  attitudes.  t h a t teachers  Stenhouse r e i t e r a t e d these 'value  had  to m a i n t a i n p a r t i c u l a r  positions':  I t seemed t h a t the b a s i c classroom p a t t e r n s h o u l d be one of d i s c u s s i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n i n e v i t a b l y i m p l i e s t h a t the teacher cannot m a i n t a i n a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n . In the d i s c u s s i o n the teacher should be n e u t r a l on the i s s u e s which form the agenda of the group, but he should a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r i g o r and q u a l i t y of the work. A c c o r d i n g l y , the teacher i s seen as a n e u t r a l and r e l a t i v e l y r e c e s s i v e chairman, though not a p a s s i v e one, s i n c e i t would be h i s job to d e v e l o p q u a l i t y i n the students' work by shrewd though s p a r i n g , q u e s t i o n i n g . (Stenhouse, 1971: The  notion  of a n e u t r a l chairman and  classroom pattern teachers. had  to be  The  should  be, d e s c r i b e d  chairman was  to be  d e s c r i p t i o n of what the  the  basic  ' e x p e r i m e n t a l ' r o l e of  'recessive' yet not  'shrewdly' i n v o l v e d p r o v i d i n g  discussions  'passive'.  'evidence' and  the He  facilitation  or so  she that  remained of q u a l i t y .  'Evidence' had  no  legalistic  support a p a r t i c u l a r stand the  the  157)  nine proposed packs was  connotation.  I t was  on a c o n t r o v e r s i a l theme. illustrative  and  not d e s i g n e d  The  facilitative  presumptive: Thus, the use of the word evidence must not be taken to imply a u t h o r i t a t i v e documentation. The word i m p l i e s a way of u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and not the s t a t u s of t h a t information. The c o l l e c t i o n s have a s t r u c t u r e which i s intended to ensure t h a t the teacher i s l i k e l y to have a t h i s d i s p o s a l a t l e a s t one p i e c e of m a t e r i a l to cover any i s s u e l i k e l y to a r i s e within a given topic area. In other words, the s t r u c t u r e i s there to help a c h i e v e c o v e r a g e . The m a t e r i a l s are not intended to be used i n a predetermined sequence, but  material  to  i n each of  as opposed  to  11 5 r a t h e r to be brought i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n i n response to p o i n t s a r i s i n g from the group. (Stenhouse, 1969: 111) These c o l l e c t i o n s , as w i t h the v a l u e s to be f o s t e r e d , c a r r i e d 'intentions'.  specific  The packs were ' i n t e n d e d to ensure' t h a t t o p i c m a t e r i a l s were  r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , and they were not i n t e n d e d to be used as p r e - s e l e c t e d determinors of d i s c u s s i o n .  Political  Characteristics  The HCP sought to answer t h e i r i m p l i c i t q u e s t i o n s with e x p l i c i t and approaches.  The q u e s t i o n s posed by Stenhouse:  aims  What should be taught?  What are the ends i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l values? and How would  'neutrality'  about c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e e f f e c t democratic v a l u e s ? , were a l l based on political  suppositions: The i n i t i a l premise on which the idea of n e u t r a l i t y was based was p o l i t i c a l . I assume t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s i n the c l a s s i c sense a branch of p o l i t i c s , and I d i s t i n g u i s h between a p e r s o n a l e t h i c and a p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h i c . In most s o c i e t i e s the s c h o o l has two f u n c t i o n s which may be c a l l e d e d u c a t i o n and socialisation. E d u c a t i o n i s concerned w i t h the t r a n s m i s s i o n of knowledge and understanding. S o c i a l i z a t i o n i s concerned w i t h the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f the values and folkways of a s o c i e t y or a sub-group i n s o c i e t y on the b a s i s of s o c i a l consensus r a t h e r than on the b a s i s of p h i l o s o p h i c a l justification. (Stenhouse, 1973: 157)  Given an assumption polities',  t h a t e d u c a t i o n was i n the ' c l a s s i c  t r a n s m i s s i o n of values was i n e v i t a b l y based on s o c i a l  Philosophical j u s t i f i c a t i o n politick.'  sense a branch o f  c o u l d give way to the p o s s i b l y  irrational  T h i s pragmatic concern was e v i d e n t from the Humanities  Introduction.  consensus. 'real  116 The  S c h o o l s C o u n c i l / N u f f i e l d Foundation  Curriculum P r o j e c t :  p u b l i c a t i o n , The Humanities  An I n t r o d u c t i o n (1970),  was an i n t e r i m r e p o r t and  i n t r o d u c t i o n w i t h the aim "to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r . . . t e a c h e r s t o mount t h e i r own s c h o o l s e x p e r i m e n t a l programmes of r e s e a r c h and development on the p l a t f o r m of e x p e r i e n c e gathered  by the P r o j e c t " ( p . l ) .  The p l a t f o r m was  acknowledged as p o l i t i c a l : C y n i c i s m about the s c h o o l as an i n s t i t u t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o unease about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s c h o o l and l i f e , b u t goes beyond it. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to produce a thumbnail d i a g n o s i s , b u t f o u r important elements i n i t are: the f a i l u r e of s c h o o l s to make good t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n t h a t they value students e q u a l l y whatever t h e i r academic a b i l i t y , the tendency of s c h o o l s to l i m i t the e x t e n t to which students can shape t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e by t h e i r own c h o i c e , the endorsement by s c h o o l s of s t y l e s of t h i n k i n g , speaking, d r e s s i n g and behaving which are merely e x p r e s s i o n s of s o c i a l c l a s s o r g e n e r a t i o n a l f a s h i o n s , and the a d o p t i o n of a u t h o r i t a r i a n p a t t e r n s of c o n t r o l , that i s the use of a u t h o r i t y without s u f f i c i e n t s e n s i t i v i t y to the need to j u s t i f y i t t o those a f f e c t e d by i t . (The HCP I n t r o d u c t i o n , 1970: 3) The  rhetoric  tendency without  used  to d e s c r i b e s c h o o l s i n t h i s passage ( c y n i c i s m , f a i l u r e ,  to l i m i t , merely  e x p r e s s i o n s of s o c i a l c l a s s , a u t h o r i t a r i a n , and  s u f f i c i e n t s e n s i t i v i t y ) was the f i r s t  many p r a c t i t i o n e r s The  exposure to the p r o j e c t t h a t  encountered.  l a s t of Stenhouses'  p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s concerned  democratic  values  and how these c o u l d or would be i m p l i c a t e d i n the intended c l a s s r o o m p a t t e r n . The  hope was to 'develop  e x p l o r e ' important  understanding'  issues.  so t h a t students c o u l d 'approach and  As the HCP I n t r o d u c t i o n q u o t a t i o n r e v e a l e d , a  l a r g e p a r t of the i n t e n d e d understanding  was p o l i t i c a l  i n nature.  The  students needed t o 'shape t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e by t h e i r own c h o i c e ' .  117 The  development of such competence was the i n t e n t being served by the  Humanities  approach:  1  The e n q u i r y s h o u l d be a rewarding and demanding e x p e r i e n c e f o r s t u d e n t s . They should emerge f e e l i n g t h a t they have g r a p p l e d p r o f i t a b l y with important i s s u e s and come t o g r e a t e r , a l b e i t incomplete, u n d e r s t a n d i n g . They w i l l have developed a v a r i e t y o f techniques f o r approaching and e x p l o r i n g matters and m a t e r i a l of c o n s i d e r a b l e c o m p l e x i t y and s e n s i t i v i t y . Understanding i m p l i e s the a b i l i t y to use the d a t a s u p p l i e d by r e s e a r c h and i m a g i n a t i o n to b u i l d an a p p r o p r i a t e and c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i v e map which s t r u c t u r e s a new e x p e r i e n c e and r e l a t e s i t to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s own e x p e r i e n c e and s i t u a t i o n . (HCP I n t r o d u c t i o n , 1970: 33) The p r i n c i p l e o f the use of knowledge was the aim of the c u r r i c u l u m , which Stenhouse d i s t i n g u i s h e d from  the aims of the p r o j e c t .  And, as the  I n t r o d u c t i o n h i n t e d a t above, the ' t r a n s l a t i o n ' o f these c u r r i c u l a r i n t o r e s e a r c h aims was  HCP  aims  unique.  Ambitions Stenhouse d e s c r i b e d the o v e r a l l The  f o l l o w i n g procedure  was  'ambitions' o f the HCP as f o l l o w s : adopted:  1 S e l e c t a cogent g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y statement i n the c u r r i c u l a r f i e l d i n question. 2 By r e l a t i n g i t s l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s to the r e a l i t i e s of the classroom, produce the o u t l i n e of a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y c o n s i s t e n t with the aim and f e a s i b l e i n p r a c t i c e . 3 Attempt to develop the s t r a t e g y , t e s t i n g i t s l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n d i s c u s s i o n and i t s f e a s i b i l i t y i n experimental s c h o o l . 4 Make case s t u d i e s of experimental s c h o o l s to generate hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the problems and e f f e c t s to be expected i n  118 implementing the c u r r i c u l u m i n a wider range of s c h o o l s . 5 Use t h i s case study experience to d e s i g n d i s s e m i n a t i o n procedures which w i l l attempt to meet the a n t i c i p a t e d problems. 6 Monitor the e f f e c t s i n d i s s e m i n a t i o n both by case study and by measurement. 1 ) , 2 ) , 3) and 5) were the concern of the p r o j e c t ; 4) and 6) o f the e v a l u a t i o n u n i t . (Stenhouse, From t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of procedures,  1973: 151)  we can see t h a t #1 was p r o v i d e d by the  recommendations of Working Papers 2 and 11.  Procedure  #2 (the o u t l i n e o f a  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y ) was p r o f e r r e d by MacDonald as " f i v e major  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  premises":  t h a t c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s should be handled i n the classroom with adolescents. t h a t the teacher accepts the need to submit h i s t e a c h i n g i n c o n t r o v e r s i a l areas to the c r i t e r i o n of n e u t r a l i t y a t t h i s stage of e d u c a t i o n , i . e . t h a t he regards i t as p a r t of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not to promote h i s own view. t h a t the mode of e n q u i r y i n c o n t r o v e r s i a l areas s h o u l d have d i s c u s s i o n , r a t h e r than i n s t r u c t i o n , as i t s c o r e . t h a t the d i s c u s s i o n should p r o t e c t d i v e r g e n c e of view among p a r t i c i p a n t s , r a t h e r than attempt to a c h i e v e consensus. t h a t the teacher as chairman of the d i s c u s s i o n should have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r q u a l i t y and standards i n l e a r n i n g . (MacDonald, 1978b: 10)  These premises  were ' c o n s i s t e n t with the aim' of the Schools C o u n c i l , and the  P r o j e c t members f e l t  t h a t they were ' f e a s i b l e  Stenhouse's p r o c e d u r e  i n practice'.  #3 a l l u d e d to the ' t r i a l  where c e r t a i n s c h o o l s worked with  s t a g e ' of t h e P r o j e c t  the p r o j e c t m a t e r i a l s , s t r a t e g i e s ,  premises  119 and  the s t a f f of the C e n t r a l P r o j e c t Team.  of the s t r a t e g y proved problems.  The  to be  experience  d i s s e m i n a t i o n procedures MacDonald  (1978b),  procedure  #4 and  T e s t i n g the l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y  f r a u g h t with c o n t r o v e r s y and  of the t r i a l  procedural  stage were to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the  (procedure #5).  The  case s t u d i e s conducted  by  and Simons and Humble (1978) were the enactment o f  #6,  respectively.  MacDonald summed up the approach to d e v e l o p i n g such  procedures:  To put i t simply, they s e t out to answer t h r e e q u e s t i o n s , i n the f o l l o w i n g sequence: what c o n t e n t i s worthwhile? what g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c e i s most conducive to f u r t h e r i n g t h a t aim? Answering the l a s t of these q u e s t i o n s would i n v o l v e e x t e n s i v e experimentation i n classrooms. Using hypotheses about e f f e c t s , r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e s , the team hoped to develop the g e n e r a l l i n e s of an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y consonant with the a t t i t u d e they had adopted towards the t e a c h i n g of c o n t r o v e r s i a l issues. (MacDonald, 1973: The  'ambiguity'  surrounding  82)  the d i s t i n c t i o n between 'hypotheses  about  effect,  r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e s ' a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the problems of the P r o j e c t . Verma, the HCP claimed  E v a l u a t i o n Team member r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the "Measurement phase"  t h a t the Team d i d not choose themes "as a means of  p r o v i d i n g . . . r a t i o n a l v a l u e judgements".  The  p r e s p e c i f i e d as i n t e n d e d s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r s .  c u r r i c u l u m aims were not The  c u r r i c u l u m was  influence  the d i r e c t i o n of c l a s s r o o m work, and hence to a l t e r  classroom  social relations.  had  The  aim of the p r o j e c t was  "nothing to recommend" i n terms of " c u r r i c u l u m " : The Team saw themselves as a ' r e s e a r c h ' group o f f e r i n g s c h o o l s new knowledge and hypotheses about e n q u i r y t e a c h i n g , r a t h e r than  designed  to  the s e t of  distinct.  The Team  120 prescribing a curriculum. "We have n o t h i n g to recommend", s a i d Stenhouse. But teacher ' n e u t r a l i t y ' was a p r o v o c a t i v e concept, and they were soon caught up i n an i n f l a t i o n a r y s p i r a l of r h e t o r i c a l debate... (MacDonald, 1978B: The  p r o j e c t , d e s p i t e Stenhouse's c l a i m , had  much to recommend.  a s t r a t e g y ; a ' s e t ' of v a l u e s ; and a p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s of s c h o o l s t h a t was  Intrinsic The  "radical"  12)  view of the  They had  institutional  i n i t s recommendations.  Recommendations recommendations encompassed by the c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e d the t a r g e t  ( a b i l i t y ) group.  Stenhouse quoted from the C o u n c i l ' s working  papers:  A l l of t h i s may seem to some teachers l i k e a programme f o r people who have both the mental a b i l i t y and m a t u r i t y beyond the reach of most who w i l l leave a t the age of s i x t e e n . The C o u n c i l , however, t h i n k s i t i s important n o t to assume t h a t t h i s i s so, but r a t h e r to probe by experiment i n the classroom how f a r o r d i n a r y p u p i l s can i n f a c t be taken. The f a c t i s t h a t n o t h i n g can prevent the f o r m a t i o n of ideas and a t t i t u d e s about human nature and conduct. (Stenhouse, 1973: 152) The  assumption  t h a t o r d i n a r y p u p i l s c o u l d have t h e i r f o r m a t i o n of ideas  a t t i t u d e s extended, proved p e r s i s t a n t c r i t i c i s m was Many c o n s i d e r e d  problematic  i n the  that concerning  the r e a d i n g l e v e l  s c h o o l s case  the a b i l i t y  studied.  l e v e l of the  A  evidence.  too h i g h .  A second major recommendation had chairman.  trial  and  P r a c t i t i o n e r s were a d v i s e d  to do with  to have f a i t h  development of c o h e s i o n , even though not guided  the r o l e of the n e u t r a l i n the s t u d e n t s '  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  As members come to share the chairman's i d e a of a worthwhile d i s c u s s i o n and accept the f u n c t i o n s he performs they w i l l develop coherence as a group and w i l l want then to  eventual  sense:  121 take some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i s c u s s i o n process. T h i s should be viewed by the chairman as a d e s i r a b l e development f o r i t i s a c r i t e r i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of h i s chairmanship. I t means t h a t students have i d e n t i f i e d themselves with the f u n c t i o n s he t r i e d to perform on t h e i r b e h a l f . (HCP I n t r o d u c t i o n , 1970: 26) Deafening s i l e n c e s , dominating i n d i v i d u a l s and i n a p p r o p r i a t e some of the severe problems encountered when e n a c t i n g  this  behaving were  recommended  procedure. I t was f u r t h e r recommended  that Humanities teachers  treatment - double b l o c k s  for periods,  meet r e g u l a r l y , and other  f i n a n c i a l dispensations  The  Humanities teacher  h i s or her i n n o v a t o r y  time f o r the S c h o o l (film  be g i v e n s p e c i a l Humanities team t o  hire, outings,  was a l s o asked to be a n a l y t i c a l and d i a g n o s t i c  etc.). towards  style:  The s e l f - t r a i n i n g programme assumes that t e a c h e r s working together i n a s c h o o l w i l l tape r e c o r d t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s and l i s t e n t o them a n a l y t i c a l l y . I t i s most p r o f i t a b l e to meet to analyse tapes and d i s c u s s d e v e l o p i n g i n s i g h t s and o u t s t a n d i n g problems. (HCP I n t r o d u c t i o n , 1920: 26) In a d d i t i o n to the i m p l i e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of group and i n d i v i d u a l time, the precept  of s e l f - t r a i n i n g proved  C e n t r a l Team e v e n t u a l l y Teachers, i n f a c t ,  A final authority.  t r a i n e d teachers  travelled  of the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s  to be the most d r a m a t i c a l l y r e v e r s e d . i n the Humanities P r o j e c t  The  strategy.  to the U n i v e r s i t y of E a s t A n g l i a to a t t e n d  some  a t CARE.  s u p p o s i t i o n concerned the a s s i s t a n c e of the L o c a l  Education  The LEA was assumed to be t a k i n g an a c t i v e r o l e i n the l o c a l  development of the ' s t r a t e g y ' .  122 The remainder of t h i s handbook r e p o r t s on t h i s two-fold task. I t assumes t h a t the reader, a c c e p t i n g the premises o u t l i n e d above, wishes to adopt t h a t s t r a t e g y which i n the e x p e r i e n c e of the P r o j e c t i s most l i k e l y to d e f i n e c l e a r l y the problems which beset t h i s k i n d of work, and to a s s i s t him towards s o l u t i o n s and towards the s k i l l s to r e a l i s e them i n the c l a s s r o o m . (HCP I n t r o d u c t i o n , 1970: Furthermore,  the P r o j e c t Team was  most i n v o l v e d i n t e l l i n g  necessary) what 'ought to be' t a u g h t and how j u s t i f i c a t i o n was 'trial'  t h a t the approach was  s c h o o l s and,  materials i n i t i a l l y  s c h o o l s (when  i t should be done.  developed  packages were g i v e n to the e x p e r i m e n t a l  by e d i t o r s  packaged w i t h o u t  - War/People and Work).  way".  The  teachers i n 36 s c h o o l s d u r i n g  an o b j e c t of experiment.  t e s t i n g or c o n s u l t a t i o n i n s c h o o l s .  t h a t the e d i t i n g of the packs e n t a i l e d  direct  The  'trial' the  (1968-1970).  of the m a t e r i a l s was  fundamental l e v e l " .  The  ( i n c l u d i n g Stenhouse -  These m a t e r i a l s were produced i n t r i a l form i n order to serve the needs of e x p e r i m e n t a l s c h o o l s which have worked with the P r o j e c t i n the s e s s i o n s 1968-69 and 1969-70. The o b j e c t of the experiment i n those s e s s i o n s was t w o - f o l d : to t e s t the s u i t a b i l i t y of the m a t e r i a l s , and to develop i n the c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c a l procedures f o r chairmen running d i s c u s s i o n groups with the g e n e r a l aim and p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d above. (HCP I n t r o d u c t i o n , 1970: suitability  or  curriculum.  c o l l e c t e d and packaged were of nine themes.  R e l a t i o n s between the Sexes - and E l l i o t  The  The  i n 'experimental'  hence, came as a teacher developed  t e a c h i n g pack m a t e r i a l s were pre-assembled  Developmental T r i a l s  41)  10) These had  been  Stenhouse acknowledged  " d e c i s i o n s of v a l u e a t the most  The P r o j e c t s e t about to "extend  experience  i n a very  123 I t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the p o s i t i o n taken by the p r o j e c t a t t h i s p o i n t i s not value-free. In the f i r s t p l a c e , the d e c i s i o n to i n c l u d e c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m f o r a d o l e s c e n t s i m p l i e s a value judgment, and the c h o i c e of i s s u e s to be t a c k l e d i s based on the value judgment t h a t they are i s s u e s of importance. We have made d e c i s i o n s of v a l u e a t the most fundamental l e v e l i n answering the q u e s t i o n , what i s worthwhile and t h e r e f o r e worth teaching? (Stenhouse, 1971: 156) Even i n the e a r l y years by  the fundamental nature of the value  decisions  taken  the p r o j e c t was made known: We have a l s o made value d e c i s i o n s a t another level. We have a s s e r t e d t h a t t e a c h i n g procedures and c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s must be j u s t i f i a b l e i n terms of c e r t a i n values which are fundamental to e d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n must always i n v o l v e a p r e f e r e n c e f o r r a t i o n a l r a t h e r than i r r a t i o n a l procedure, f o r s e n s i t i v i t y r a t h e r than i n s e n s i t i v i t y , f o r example. I t w i l l always be concerned to examine and e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a and s t a n d a r d s . The a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e of teachers to p u p i l s w i l l always i n v o l v e r e s p e c t f o r persons and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r w e l f a r e . (Stenhouse, 1969: 107)  The  criteria  and standards of an a p p r o p r i a t e  and  of p u p i l s to teachers  c o n t r o v e r s i a l aspect  Controversial  a t t i t u d e of teachers  was perhaps the most misunderstood and  of the 'experiment'.  Issues:  When P u p i l s Become O l d Enough Stenhouse d e s c r i b e d  a "controversial issue":  A c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e i s one which d i v i d e s t e a c h e r s , p u p i l s , and p a r e n t s . Such i s s u e s tend to come i n t o the c l a s s r o o m when p u p i l s become o l d enough to want to i n t e r p r e t p a r t i c u l a r cases which p r e s e n t themselves as  to p u p i l s  124 dilemmas i n the a d u l t world. It i s specific cases which make f o r c o n t r o v e r s y ; t h e r e can be no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p r a c t i c a l v a l u e s i n the a d u l t world which does not d e a l with s p e c i f i c cases. (Stenhouse,  1969: 103)  When the s t u d e n t was " o l d enough t o want to i n t e r p r e t . . . d i l e m m a s world",  Stenhouse wished  bo see the process of t r a n s m i s s i o n of the values of  a s o c i e t y on the b a s i s of s o c i a l philisophical justification understanding  i n the a d u l t  consensus changed to one based on  (Stenhouse,  1973: 157). The aim of d e v e l o p i n g  would a l l o w such j u s t i f i c a t o r y  interpretation.  The aim of d e v e l o p i n g understanding a l s o i m p l i e s the d e s i r a b i l i t y of d i s c u s s i o n r a t h e r than i n s t r u c t i o n as the b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l activity. To understand the i s s u e s , d i s p u t a n t s must examine and r e f l e c t on d i f f e r e n t arguments and reasons with a view to a s s e s s i n g t h e i r i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , and t h i s can o n l y be done by understanding one's own values and a t t i t u d e s and e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these and other people's. (Elliot, The b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y  1975: 51)  t h a t had to be enacted was q u i t e a l i e n  to  t h a t which the s t u d e n t n o r m a l l y experienced  to  understand  the change i n r o l e s  f o r both  as i n s t r u c t i o n .  the teacher and themselves:  I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t students understand a t the o u t s e t what the aim of the work i s , what t h e i r task i s , why the teacher i s adopting a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e and t h a t the e n q u i r y c o n s i s t s of a balance between d i s c u s s i o n and r e s e a r c h and c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . (HCP The  P u p i l s needed  I n t r o d u c t i o n , 1970: 40)  r o l e changes were d r a m a t i c : The teacher as chairman of the group should not i n t e r v e n e to advance a view or i n f l u e n c e a c o n c l u s i o n , though he should o f f e r open q u e s t i o n s which ask f o r r e f l e c t i o n and s e l f - c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g on the p a r t of the group, and he should help them toward  125  i n f o r m a t i o n they r e q u i r e . This means t h a t he seeks to i n t e r p r e t m o t i v a t i o n , n o t to o r g a n i z e i t . He t r i e s to be aware of the c u r r e n t s of the d e s i r e to l e a r n i n the group and to know how to feed them: he i s r e s p o n s i v e , not d i r e c t i v e . (Stenhouse, 1971: 160) The  impact of t h i s newly d e s c r i b e d  r e s p o n s i v e r o l e had many r a m i f i c a t i o n s .  Not  the l e a s t of these was the e f f e c t on the p r e v i o u s l y d i r e c t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between teachers and p u p i l s : The i m p l i c a t i o n of the p r o j e c t f o r the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e became i n c r e a s i n g l y clear. Teachers found themselves locked i n r o l e c o n f l i c t s , or i n attempts to b r i d g e an unforeseen c r e d i b i l i t y gap between themselves and t h e i r p u p i l s . (MacDonald, 1973: 85) The  c o n f l i c t of the n e u t r a l chairman r o l e with the a u t h o r i t y  schools  contributed  structure i n  to a c r e d i b i l i t y gap i n the students towards the  teachers. P r a c t i t i o n e r s c o n t e m p l a t i n g the HCP q u e s t i o n e d the i d e a l i s m the  approach.  underlying  Humble and Simons quoted one headmaster:  I should add t h a t I am not i n c l i n e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e , f i r s t l y on the grounds of f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n on our c a p i t a t i o n b u t s e c o n d l y and p r i n c i p a l l y by the prime requirement t h a t the teacher w i l l have t o f a c e the t r a n s i t i o n to a new r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d o l e s c e n t p u p i l s and s t a f f . Whenever I r e a d language l i k e t h i s I know I s h a l l f a i l to match the i d e a l i s m of the writer. (1978: 165) 1  1  Even when the t r a n s i t i o n to a new r e l a t i o n s h i p was taken up, not everyone i n the  school  could  be expected to endorse the i d e a l i s m nor the fundamental  value l e v e l of the new r e l a t i o n s h i p s . status  Teachers who d i s a p p r o v e d of the a d u l t  accorded to students would not a p p r e c i a t e  authority.  the t h r e a t  to t h e i r  126 The P r o j e c t Team members were very s e n s i t i v e nature of the c u r r i c u l u m .  T h i s t h r e a t was  imposed upon the Humanities  teachers.  e x p e r t i s e of a s u b j e c t a r e a . with a departmental 1973:  The  to the ' t h r e a t e n i n g '  exacerbated  The HCP  by the  vulnerability  i n n o v a t i o n p l a y e d down the  e s t a b l i s h e d base of h i g h s t a t u s t h a t comes  ' e s o t e r i c body of knowledge' was  removed  (MacDonald,  83). Since the Humanities  c o n f l i c t with the concerns  c u r r i c u l u m took the School Team d i r e c t l y of o t h e r s , they needed a u t h o r i t a t i v e  T h i s need, however, had been  into  support.  under-estimated:  The importance of headmasters i n i n n o v a t i o n was under-estimated by the team, who d i d not a t f i r s t see the s c a l e of the demands they were making on r a t h e r i n f l e x i b l e administrative i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t was not easy f o r s c h o o l s to c r e a t e the necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r the experiment, nor f o r t e a c h e r s to undertake such d i f f i c u l t and n o v e l work without the head's u n d e r s t a n d i n g support. (MacDonald, 1973: 84) The e x t e n t and nature of the head's understanding c r i t e r i o n of the case s t u d y . for  problem  c y n i c a l about  the p u p i l s .  central supports  understanding.  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n ' t r a n s i t i o n ' a l s o met  from  a  H i e r a r c h i c a l i n f l u e n c e s were n e c e s s a r y  the d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n of the p u p i l s ' The  s u p p o r t was  The dilemma was  a f o r m i d a b l e and  unforeseen  t h a t students d i s t r u s t e d and were  the change i n a t t i t u d e apparent  i n the HCP  Of a l l the problems f a c i n g the s c h o o l s , the one which looms l a r g e s t i n the minds of teachers i s t h a t of the r e l u c t a n t s t u d e n t . * * S i n c e i t i s one of the assumptions of t h i s work t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s need to be t r e a t e d as a d u l t s , the term s t u d e n t i s used r a t h e r than p u p i l . There a r e , f o r example, areas where, the secondary s c h o o l s experience acute r e l u c t ance on the p a r t of the s t u d e n t s , though the  strategies:  127 primary s c h o o l s are r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l . In such a s i t u a t i o n secondary school students - and p a r t i c u l a r l y a d o l e s c e n t s - appear s c e p t i c a l of the s c h o o l ' s w i l l i n g n e s s to take account of l i f e as the student knows i t and c y n i c a l about the s c h o o l as an i n s t i t u t i o n . But we may hope to develop e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s which w i l l meet l e g i t i m a t e c r i t i c i s m and change these a t t i t u d e s . (HCP P u p i l s , having  reached  been the most u n s u c c e s s f u l incapacity. 'cynicism')  They had  I n t r o d u c t i o n , 1970:  the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n age (ready  learned  t o the i n f l e x i b i l i t i e s  o f 14-16  to leave s c h o o l ) had  to a c q u i e s c e  (in their  3) and  having  been ' t r a i n e d ' i n t o  ' s c e p t i c i s m ' and  of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l  life:  The teachers d i d not a n t i c i p a t e the e x t e n t to which a l a r g e number of p u p i l s , i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s s c h o o l i n g , had been ' t r a i n e d ' i n t o i n c a p a c i t y f o r t h i s work, nor the depth of a l i e n a t i o n from any k i n d of c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g f e l t by a good many of them. Nor did teachers a l l o w f o r the degree to which they and t h e i r p u p i l s had been moulded i n t o a t r a d i t i o n of teacher dominance and c u s t o d i a l attitudes. (MacDonald, 1973: Such a l i e n a t i o n was  the anathema c o n f r o n t e d by  The  e v a l u a t i o n of the i n n o v a t i o n had  The  Humanities C u r r i c u l u m There was  the i d e a l i s m of the P r o j e c t .  to p o r t r a y such  dissonance.  Project Evaluation  a strong p o s i t i o n underlying  considerable challenge  85)  to the HCP  the HCP  E v a l u a t i o n Team.  which  presented  Stenhouse d i s c u s s e d  this: The p o s i t i o n I have o u t l i n e d above i s b a s i c a l l y a p o l i t i c a l one. In p e d a g o g i c a l terms i t r e a l l y means a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t b e f o r e students leave s c h o o l they should l e a r n to s u b j e c t s o c i a l values to c r i t i c i s m i n the l i g h t of e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s . That i s , they should come to see that the t o o l s of  128 t h i n k i n g which the s c h o o l o f f e r s them can be used to c r i t i c i s e s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l positions. At the same time these t o o l s are not l i k e l y to produce consensus: r a t h e r they w i l l p r o v i d e procedures f o r h a n d l i n g divergence i n ways t h t w i l l be conducive to understanding. This i s the essence of r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . (Stenhouse, 1973: 159) The  intended  ' t o o l s of t h i n k i n g ' were conceived  and  this resulted i n considerable  i n various  ways by  critics  i n s i t u problems:  ...cut a d r i f t by C o u n c i l (though not by N u f f i e l d ) , and a s s a i l e d v a r i o u s l y from the L e f t - "bourgeois i n d o c t r i n a t i o n " , from the R i g h t - "dangerous r e v o l u t i o n " , by academics - " e t h i c a l r e l a t i v i s m " , and by a c t i v i s t s " s u b s t i t u t i n g s o c i a l a c t i o n with a p a r l o u r game", the p r o j e c t was v i g o r o u s l y defended by an e q u a l l y d i v e r s e range of a l l i e s , and a c q u i r e d something of a ' c u l t ' r e p u t a t i o n w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g to compete s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the market p l a c e . (MacDonald, 1978: The  curriculum  r e q u i r e d a " p a t t e r n of behaviour i n c o n f l i c t with  assumptions and  habits".  The  became something of a ' c u l t ' . affected  12)  basically political The  essence of the P r o j e c t  p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the  the d e v i s i n g of an e v a l u a t i o n .  The  established  context  had  to be  conflict  studied  to  determine the p a r t i c u l a r degree of c o n f l i c t a f f e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . Barry (having  MacDonald was  first  acquired. acquired  appointed  the D i r e c t o r of the E v a l u a t i o n Team  been the Schools Study O f f i c e r ) a f t e r a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g  He worked alone a s t a f f of three  Simons, Stephen Humble and  during f o r the  the  two  year t r i a l  "dissemination  Gajendra Verma.  stage was  to e s t a b l i s h by  1972  Wales who  c o u l d s u s t a i n the experiment.  The  phase (1968-70) then  phase" aim  (1970-72):  of the  Helen  implementation  a network of people throughout England Trained  and  was  experienced  and  educators  1 29 c o u l d i n t r o d u c e o t h e r s , c o n t i n u e r e - t h i n k i n g the s t r a t e g i e s , i n n o v a t o r y nature of the The  and m a i n t a i n  approach.  e v a l u a t i o n took two paths  and  focused on both  "phases" of  Project.  Verma persued  MacDonald  (1978b) c a s e - s t u d i e d the t r i a l phase ( R o s e h i l l S c h o o l and  Roberts)  and  the Measurement o p e r a t i o n s ( d u r i n g both  phases). Canon  Brookshire  County).  Measurement Phase The  measurement p r o c e e d i n g s  were l a r g e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l .  procedures  limited  hypotheses  t h a t c o u l d be analyzed produced  significance.  the r e l i a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s .  The  o n l y e f f e c t suggested  scrutiny") resulted This one  variable  from  no  The  statistical  l e v e l s of  statistical  by Verma c o u l d have (upon  "a few extreme cases  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l  t h a t "seems to have some v a l i d i t y "  was  tenet).  have c l a s s e s of students  t h a t d i d l e s s w e l l than e i t h e r i n Humanities  the c u r r i c u l u m ; and c l a s s e s i n s c h o o l s without  stand-alone  professional  teacher who  implement the c u r r i c u l u m proved from whom the P r o j e c t c o u l d The  had  The  group". shift  teachers appeared  to  school-leaving-aged  Schools  t h a t d i d not  the Humanities.  t r a i n i n g and  to be an inadequate  who  The  tried  to  'experimental c o l l e a g u e '  learn.  e v a l u a t i o n by measurement was  case study.  no HCP  "further  a negative  'Untrained' Humanities  student i n 'trained' c l a s s e s ; students  Problematic  few  ( c o n t r a r y to a major HCP  take  the  Simons and Humble (1978) c a s e - s t u d i e d the d i s s e m i n a t i o n phase  (Redmore and Brookland Comprehensive S c h o o l :  The  the  f a r o u t s t r i p p e d i n importance  tenets of the P r o j e c t , i n f a c t , d i c t a t e d  t h a t p l a y e d down the psychometric  e v a l u a t i o n attempted  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the measurement of student  a 'fresh  by Verma.  l e a r n i n g and  by  the  approach' Verma had  the assessment  130 of  the P r o j e c t ' s measured impact.  The  former " r e q u i r e d a degree of c o n t r o l  which i s not a v a i l a b l e to an independent e v a l u a t i o n u n i t " Humbler, 1978:  183).  The  l a t t e r n a t i o n a l survey  " s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t to l e a d now appropriateness" necessary  (p. 8 3 ) .  flexibility  The  (Simons  experienced  problems  to some r e s e r v e on our p a r t about case  to respond  s t u d i e s , however, p r o v i d e d  to u n a n t i c i p a t e d  and  their  "the  events".  A Fresh Approach to E v a l u a t i o n When c o n f r o n t e d  with  the knowledge t h a t the HCP  would not have  b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s to t e s t , MacDonald wrote: I c o u l d of course have put p r e s s u r e on the Team to t r a n s l a t e t h e i r g e n e r a l aim of understanding i n t o s p e c i f i c t e r m i n a l b e h a v i o u r s . . . I n any case, as I became more f a m i l i a r with the o b j e c t i v e s model and a l s o a t the same time became aware of the nature of the impact of the P r o j e c t i n the s c h o o l s I became i n c r e a s i n g l y s k e p t i c a l of t h i s approach. (MacDonald, 1978b: Not having  18)  the convenience of o b j e c t i v e s MacDonald d e c i d e d  what happens'.  To  t h i s end  he d e v i s e d  r e p o r t i n g forms and  P r o j e c t members to complete on t h e i r v i s i t s MacDonald t r i e d  to ' j u s t  questionnaries for  to s c h o o l s .  to comprehend the volumes of i n p u t he was  to combine t h i s with s c h o o l v i s i t s  during  describe  the  t r i a l phase.  too much: We have t h i r t y - s i x s c h o o l s and t h a t ' s a l o t i n v i s i t i n g and study terms. I t r i e d to v i s i t a l l the s c h o o l s but i t wasn't r e a l l y f e a s i b l e and i n the end I s e t t l e d f o r a number of case-study s c h o o l s i n which I've t r i e d to understand the i n f l u e n c e s or f o r c e s which have determined the p a t t e r n of e f f e c t s i n those s c h o o l s . (MacDonald, 1978b: 31)  The  r e c e i v i n g and task proved  131 The  scope of the p r o j e c t was  approach to e v a l u a t i o n . evaluator's  f u n c t i o n of  one  of the reasons MacDonald s e t t l e d  Another reason was  for a fresh  that he d i d not have the  usual  "making judgements about m a t e r i a l s " .  There were s u f f i c i e n t p r a c t i c a l reasons f o r d e v i s i n g a f r e s h approach to e v a l u a t i o n . In the case of the Humanities C u r r i c u l u m n P r o j e c t , the p r o j e c t team, not the e v a l u a t i o n u n i t , was p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r i a l and r e v i s i o n of p r o j e c t m a t e r i a l s . This meant t h a t one of the u s u a l f u n c t i o n s of e v a l u a t o r s , making jdugements about m a t e r i a l s , was undertaken by the p r o j e c t developers. Even more s i g n i f i c a n t , perhaps, was t h a t the p r o j e c t team d i d not use the o b j e c t i v e s model so common i n c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n and i t s e v a l u a t i o n . The p r o j e c t was an open-ended programme based on process c r i t e r i a r a t h e r than measurable o b j e c t i v e s . These were two of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which the d i r e c t o r of e v a l u a t i o n had to take i n t o account i n the t r i a l phase of the p r o j e c t (1968-70) i n d e v i s i n g an e v a l u a t i o n . (Simons and The  developmental approach u s i n g  c r i t e r i a " was present could  with  judge m a t e r i a l s by  181)  open-ended programme based on  a t t r i b u t a b l e to the Schools C o u n c i l .  the s c h o o l s  The  reference The  to how  Council's  process  p r o j e c t could  an ends-means c u r r i c u l u m where-in the  changes i n p u p i l b e h a v i o u r . a s s e r t i n g the  "an  Humble, 1978:  not  evaluator  w e l l they e f f e c t e d p r e s c r i b e d c o n s t i t u t i o n was  explicit in  opposite:  ...each s c h o o l should have the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e measure of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s own work, with i t s own c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h i n g methods based on i t s own p u p i l s and e v o l v e d by i t s own s t a f f . [Paragraph 19 of the Lockwood Report] ( N i s b e t , 1973: This mandate may o f f e r e d an  have been the reason t h a t HCP  "open-ended" method and  suggested  29)  "had  nothing  that the  to recommend";  "evidence"  of  the  132 m a t e r i a l packs be  used as  the  teacher  deemed r e l e v a n t  to emerging  discussion. The  teacher/experimental colleague  needed a s s i s t a n c e  ' f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e measure of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ' and Team sought to  t h a t was  to bear what the  this Evaluation  provide:  With the S c h o o l s C o u n c i l as our frame of r e f e r e n c e we look upon HCP as a case-study i n the e v o l u t i o n and d i f f u s i o n of i n n o v a t i o n as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n that w i l l help the p l a n n e r s to make b e t t e r d e c i s i o n s with regard to the s e l e c t i o n , d e s i g n , s t a f f i n g , communication, support and c o n t r o l of f u t u r e projects. (MacDonald, 1978b: The  HCP  development team was  stage i n the team was  innovation  a c t i v e i n v o l v i n g teachers  programme"  a c t i v e m o n i t o r i n g such  (Lockwood Report) .  121)  " d e c i s i v e l y at every The  HCP  evaluation  input:  The c e n t r a l assumption of the p r o j e c t ' s d e s i g n was t h a t there c o u l d be no e f f e c t i v e , f a r - r e a c h i n g c u r r i c u l u m development w i t h o u t teacher development. To promote t h i s development, the team asked teachers to a c c e p t the p r o j e c t as a means of e x p l o r i n g for themselves the problems of t e a c h i n g c o n t r o v e r s y r a t h e r than as an a u t h o r i t a t i v e s o l u t i o n d e v i s e d by e x p e r t s . I t was important f o r the success of the p r o j e c t t h a t teachers should understand t h i s p o s i t i o n and see themselves as c r e a t o r of c u r r i c u l u m change r a t h e r than mere s p e c t a t o r s . (MacDonald, 1973: Formative e v a l u a t i o n was continuing curriculum. future  communications and  needed to a s s i s t personal  Summative e v a l u a t i o n  projects.  was  contact  83)  the development team w i t h with the  ' c r e a t o r s ' of  necessary f o r support and  their  the  c o n t r o l of  133 Information  Criteria:  Answers to Questions The  aim  t h a t No One  to p r o v i d e  i s Asking  " i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l h e l p the p l a n n e r s "  c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n , What i n f o r m a t i o n i s necessary? freedom f o r the teacher entailed  The  e v a l u a t o r had  (MacDonald, 1973: necessary  82).  to enable  the s a n c t i t y  no ready made niche  to wait, observe,  His or her  informed  - there was  p o r t r a y and  accomplishment was  the  f o r the  interpret  to d i s c o v e r what  was  judgements:  The major p o i n t of e v a l u a t i o n was to make the P r o j e c t usable and to enable people to make informed judgements about i t ; to expose i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y ; to communicate n o t i o n s about the c o n d i t i o n s under which i t i s l i k e l y to prosper or to f a i l . (Simons and Humble, 1978: The  the  of  i n c u r r i c u l u m matters ( S c h o o l s C o u n c i l ) - and  s i t u a t i o n a l determinations  evaluator.  Given  raised  p a r t i c u l a r problem, of which e f f e c t s  v a r i o u s "experiments" u n f o l d e d  118)  to study, became c l e a r e r as  i n the t r i a l  schools.  The  the  i d e n t i t y of  the  consumers a l s o became r e f i n e d and r e s t a t e d : T h i s n o t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n f o r consumers became r e f i n e d and r e s t a t e d as the process of o b t a i n i n g and p r o v i d i n g r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r decision-makers and four main d e c i s i o n making groups suggested themselves - s c h o o l s , l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , examination boards, and the S c h o o l s C o u n c i l . (MacDonald, 1978b: MacDonald's case The  Experience  either  of I n n o v a t i o n  the i n i t i a l  curriculum after t h e i r case  s t u d i e s of the 1968-70 t r i a l i n 1978.  experimental  the P r o j e c t ceased  s c h o o l s were p u b l i s h e d i n  They came f a r too l a t e  s c h o o l s or those i n 1972.  19)  to  inform  s c h o o l s implementing  Humble and  Simons p u b l i s h e d  s t u d i e s of the l a t e r d i s s e m i n a t i o n phase i n From C o u n c i l  Classroom, a l s o i n 1978.  The  d e l a y was  the  a consequence of having  to  to d i s c o v e r  134 and  refine  the method of the case  study a t the same time as f u l f i l l i n g  a l t e r n a t i v e and f r e s h approach to e v a l u a t i o n ( i n f o r m i n g The  decision-makers,  hence, were presented  decision-makers).  with p e r i o d i c e x c e r p t s by the  E v a l u a t i o n Team t h a t were b e s t d e s c r i b e d as b i t s of the case were o f f e r e d to a l l whom c o u l d be reached implementation;  an  record.  These  t h a t were i n v o l v e d i n the HCP  through the p u b l i c a t i o n HCP  Evaluation  Reports.  HCP E v a l u a t i o n Reports There were nine HCP E v a l u a t i o n Reports p u t out by the p r i n c i p a l Stephen Humble, d u r i n g approximately  the 1970-72 d i s s e m i n a t i o n phase.  10-12 pages l o n g .  s c h o o l s and i n s t r u c t o r s .  They were i n i t i a l l y  Reports recorded  encountered  (Report #2).  Each r e p o r t was  sent to a l l i d e n t i f i e d  L a t e r , c o p i e s were sent t o LEA's to d i s s e m i n a t e  non-HCP s c h o o l s , and o t h e r s were d i r e c t l y m a i l e d The  editor,  accounts  to HCP  to c o n t r i b u t e e x p e r i e n c e  on any of the p o i n t s r a i s e d by r e a d i n g c o n t r i b u t o r s . were those  on the " s t u d y - i n - d e p t h  schools".  Humble  Schools.  of problems t h a t HCP Schools  The aim was  of c u r r i c u l u m n  to  Issues  had  and views  also reported  i n n o v a t i o n a t work i n the  summed up the purpose as f o l l o w s :  T h i s r e p o r t i s being sent to a l l s c h o o l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e yours working i n the HCP which have had p o s i t i v e c o n t a c t with the Evaluation Unit. I t s purpose i s to s e r v i c e a r e g u l a r c o n t a c t among HCP teachers and with o u r s e l v e s , p r o v i d i n g them with i n f o r m a t i o n and r e q u e s t s from other t e a c h e r s , the P r o j e c t C e n t r a l Team and the U n i t . I t w i l l be p u b l i s h e d a c c o r d i n g to your demand. We hope i t provokes response and c r i t i c i s m . (HCP E v a l u a t i o n Reports, The  HCP E v a l u a t i o n Report was a "news-sheet f o r t e a c h e r s " .  satisfied  the one aim of i n f o r m i n g  i n - p r o c e s s development.  1971: I) The p u b l i c a t i o n Case s t u d i e s  135 would come l a t e r than would meet the equal aim of r e p o r t i n g such enactment f o r p r o s p e c t i v e The  innovators.  a l t e r n a t i v e views of r e s e a r c h and the adopted approach t h a t  r e s u l t e d f o r the HCP Developmental Team i m p l i e d major value the i n t e n t was  to have the s c h o o l  curriculum i n s i t u , recommendations.  teachers  The b a s i c value assumptions were p o l i t i c a l  was to p r o v i d e  develop  i n nature,  and the s t u d e n t .  the student with an understanding  The  of c o n t r o v e r s i a l  i n an a d u l t manner.  The  was to remain ' n e u t r a l ' i n t h i s achievement - n o t p r o v i d i n g  authoritative direction. considered had  While  t h e Humanities approach had many impacted  i s s u e s and how he or she c o u l d approach these teacher  decisions.  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  d e f i n i n g both an a l t e r n a t i v e r o l e f o r the teacher ambition  in-process  continuously  The s t r a t e g i e s to e f f e c t such r o l e changes were experimental.  Furthermore, the teacher  and  student  no s e t of procedures to guide t h e i r d i s c o v e r y , o n l y p r i n c i p l e s .  to d i s c o v e r  their  r o l e s as they went  They had  along.  Devoid of a means of p r e s p e c i f y i n g t e r m i n a l student  behaviours,  the  E v a l u a t i o n Team of the HCP had to d e v i s e a " f r e s h approach' t o e v a l u a t i o n . They a s c e r t a i n e d a need to focus the i n n o v a t i o n was intended  on both c o n t e x t  to develop u n i q u e l y  s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s were most important. were to r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g techniques)  and i n p u t v a r i a b l e s . i n each s e t t i n g , the  Similarly,  s i n c e the t e a c h e r s  ( a l b e i t s t r a t e g i e s as opposed to s p e c i f i c  the ' i n p u t ' to each s c h o o l was a d e t e r m i n i n g  factor.  The  C o u n c i l mandate t h a t such s i t u a t i o n a l development had to be c a r r i e d t h a t p r o j e c t s must support  Since  the s c h o o l s  Schools  out, and  i n t h e i r own e f f o r t s a t c u r r i c u l u m  development, f u r t h e r emphasized the importance of the i n p u t o f i n f o r m a t i o n to the  schools.  136  The  Evaluation  effectiveness  Team was b e r e f t of the usual  of m a t e r i a l s ,  as t h a t was a f u n c t i o n of the i n t e n t to r e v i s e  packs by the Development Team. informing  participants evaluation  Consequently, they assumed the major task of  d e c i s i o n makers i n v o l v e d  implementation s t a g e s . to f u t u r e  f u n c t i o n of j u d g i n g the  i n the i n n o v a t i o n  ( t r i a l ) and  They a l s o sought to p r o v i d e the p e r s p e c t i v e consumers.  of such  I t was out of these a l t e r n a t i v e views of  t h a t the a l t e r n a t i v e approaches were d e v e l o p e d .  137 CHAPTER VII IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMANITIES APPROACH ON EVALUATION  The acceptance o f an a l t e r n a t i v e approach  CURRICULUM  to c u r r i c u l u m development  the HCP n e c e s s i t a t e d a s i m i l a r e v a l u a t i o n change.  by  Out of the uniqueness of  the i n n o v a t i o n arose a p l e t h o r a of e f f e c t s t h a t c o m p l i c a t e d the p r o c e s s e s o f i n t e r v i e w i n g and p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n adopted as the techniques of the case study approach.  E f f e c t s analagous  to those of t e s t i n g and i n s t r u -  mentation i n the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l approach were numerous. on a ' c u l t ' image which r e s u l t e d of t h i s and  'image.  1  the r e a l i t i e s  The p r o j e c t  i n an acceptance of the p r o j e c t on the b a s i s  The s c h o o l s soon found a gap between the b e l i e v e d of implementing  p r o j e c t development  the ' r a d i c a l ' approach.  team i n t e n t i o n a l l y and u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y  considerable dissonance.  took  In f a c t ,  Furthermore, t h e introduced  they went as f a r as to c l a i m  s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l v e of such dissonance was the e s s e n t i a l  'panacea'  t h a t the  i n t e n t i o n of the  p r o j e c t implementation. The ships"  'Humanities approach' e n t a i l e d  (MacDonald  and Walker,  a "radical shift  1973: 1 2 ) . levels.  potential for institutional  and change"  MacDonald f e l t  relation-  'Dissonance' was i n t r o d u c e d a t the  s t u d e n t , teacher and i n s t i t u t i o n a l growth  i n power  T h i s d i s t u r b a n c e r e p r e s e n t e d "the (MacDonald,  1978b: 3 3 ) .  t h a t such d i s t u r b a n c e , and how ' i n the end' i t was  resolved,  marked the ' t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ' i n s c h o o l s t h a t was the i n t e n t of the p r o j e c t . In the case of the HCP t h e romantic i d e a l s t h a t were t y p i c a l o f acceptance of the p r o j e c t - d e s c r i b e d by Stenhouse scholarship"  (MacDonald,1978b:  of the e v a l u a t i o n team.  as near to a " c o n c e p t i o n o f m e d i e v a l  31) - m i t i g a t e d  the d a t a g a t h e r i n g  When t h e 'devout' r a n i n t o d i f f i c u l t y  problems  'making t h e  138 c u r r i c u l u m work, The  they were c a b l e of d i s t o r t i n g and  e v a l u a t i o n team, i n an attempt  e v a l u a t i o n , had  The  1  to enact  withholding  information.  t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e views  to  many c h a l l e n g e s .  Halo E f f e c t The  high p r o f i l e of the p r o j e c t c r e a t e d  acquiesced  of t e a c h i n g '  hard  pressed  Simons and  to d i s t i n g u i s h c o n s c i e n t i o u s ' a n a l y s i s  Humble addressed  Communication of the HCP  approach' c o n d u c i v e to the i n f e c t i o u s n e s s was p r o j e c t ' s ideas  t h i s problem of a u t h o r i t y  ideas d i d not always produce a  teacher  g e n e r a l l y conveyed - "an  excitement and  both student  ' s t r a t e g y ' the teacher  from a l o s s of c o n f i d e n c e " and  teacher  assumptions and  It  Yet,  form the p u b l i c i t y surrounding  the p r o j e c t as w e l l as the LEA  pressure 162).  Humble p r o v i d e d  examples of teachers  ' f i s h bowl' s e t t i n g c r e a t e d  strategy did was  an i n t e n s e e x t e r n a l  who  to succeed, d e s p i t e a ' l o s s of c o n f i d e n c e '  The  (148).  The  i n t e n t i o n a l l y 'experimental.'  Simons and  there was  pressure  involvement.  f e l t under i n c r e a s i n g (Simons and  Humble,  i n v o l v e d had  requests  that they be  difficulty  1978:  i n some s c h o o l s extended to s i t u a t i o n s  where tours were brought through to observe the c l a s s e s i n a c t i o n . s c h o o l s had  the  could q u i c k l y  (p. 162). habits.  An  commitment to  t h a t i m p l i e d t h a t they need not be q u e s t i o n e d "  to some e x t e n t  'reflective  a n a l y s i s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach.  Without a r e f l e c t i v e approach to the  challenge  Consequently,  (on the p a r t of the e x p e r i m e n t o r - t e a c h e r ) from r e a c t i o n to  'infectiousness'.  "suffer  schools  or r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the assumed p r o j e c t a u t h o r i t y .  the e v a l u a t i o n team was  (1978).  s i t u a t i o n s where  f e a t u r e d f o r media p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  i f they c o u l d not  'make the p r o j e c t work.'  Some Teachers The  case  139  study  i n t e r v i e w e r was l i k e l y  to have a b e s t (or i n cases worst) s i d e  presented. The stages  particular  'cult'  v a r i a b l e i n f l u e n c i n g the d i s s e m i n a t i o n  was an added i s s u e to the i n h e r e n t  studies.  i n f o r a few days c o u l d experience Students c o u l d  g i v e ' r i g h t ' answers" could e q u a l l y f e e l  An o u t s i d e  field Yet,  the  " s t r a n g e r " who dropped  " d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g beyond  (Simons, 1977b: 1 2 2 ) . The t e a c h e r ,  institutional and t r y t o  head or LEA o f f i c e r  e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of t h e HCP, and  what they p e r c e i v e d  of an i n t e r v i e w - b a s e d  reliability  case study  to be a s u c c e s s .  In s h o r t , the  approach r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s  about the  and v a l i d i t y of data: Perceptions  differ  t o o . How the i n t e r v i e w e e  p e r c e i v e s the i n t e r v i e w e r a s sympathetic, c r i t i c a l or t h r e a t e n i n g , f o r example, w i l l i n f l u e n c e what k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f f e r e d ; how the i n t e r v i e w e r p e r c e i v e s the i n t e r v i e w e e , as i n t e r e s t e d , i n d i f f e r e n t o r h o s t i l e w i l l a f f e c t how he or she behaves. The i n t e r v i e w , i n other words i s a complex s o c i a l process i n which much more than i n f o r m a t i o n i s being sought or communicated.  The  of most  " t r e a t the i n t e r v i e w as a t e s t s i t u a t i o n ,  'on t r i a l ' ,  endeavour to p r e s e n t adoption  effect"  Simons addressed the problem when i n t e r v i e w i n g p u p i l s .  same c o u l d be t r u e f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s .  habits."  "halo  and t r i a l  ( p . 117)  Hawthorne E f f e c t When d e a l i n g w i t h  an i n n o v a t i o n aimed a t improving  the c u r r i c u l a  o f f e r e d by s c h o o l s - i n the case of the HCP, an a d d i t i o n f o r the young school  l e a v e r - t h e r e was a danger t h a t the n o v e l t y of the i n n o v a t i o n s  excitement of the implementation were the causes o f 'improvement.' 'aura'  surrounding  the HCP c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s  whole r h e t o r i c suggested  or the  The  'Hawthorne e f f e c t ' : " I t s  t h a t i t was a c u r r i c u l u m  of some importance which  140  had  i t s origins  education" reached  f i r m l y based  i n a coherent p h i l o s o p h y about the s t r u c t u r e of  (Simons and Humble, 1978:  students i n v a r i o u s ways.  t e a c h e r s of some importance. involved.  One  Such a t t r a c t i o n and  C u r r i c u l u m of some importance  They c o u l d b r i n g an excitement  deputy headmaster, who  e x p l a i n e d t h a t the o t h e r s t a f f  146).  became the Humanities  a c t i v e l y supported him.  Such  were not the o n l y people  (Elliot,  1975:  i m a g i n a t i v e teachers c o u l d promote t h e i r  1975:  successes.  t h a t , " G e n e r a l l y i t i s c o n t a c t with t h i s  promotion 14).  team, the s c h o o l s a c t i v e l y  sought  (Simons and Humble, 1978: Simons a t t r i b u t e d  a u t h o r i t y to the way team, i n i t s defence, t r a i n i n g courses d i d not support  Heads  and  t h a t leads to  (Walker,  added to the  et a l . , typical  Humanities  'expert' judgements i n s t e a d of  149).  the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of t h i s p e r c e p t i o n of  c e n t r a l i n n o v a t i o n was  organized.  The  developmental  s t a t e d t h a t they went to some lengths to convey i n  t h a t they should not be p e r c e i v e d as a u t h o r i t a t i v e . t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : " R e l i g i o u s and  example, were used by teachers to d e s c r i b e the way presented  "Would  CARE SAFARI group  [wider] world  When t h i s a t y p i c a l z e a l or m o t i v i a t i o n was  Humble and  students  142).  r a t h e r than o u t s t a n d i n g success i n the classroom"  experimenting  The  Competent The  p e r c e p t i o n of a u t h o r i t y t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s had of the Project  'solidarity'  i n f l u e n c e d by these e f f e c t s .  gained c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t a c t with the o u t s i d e s c h o o l s .  observed  to students  such e x p e c t a t i o n s , yet the deputy head asked,  they have done so i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t ? " Students  attracted  teacher,  " r e f e l e c t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to e n t e r t a i n h i g h t e x p e c t a t i o n s . " were s a i d to have met  excitement  to them" (Simons and Humble, 1978:  149).  Others  s a l e s metaphors, f o r i n which the p r o j e c t Furthermore,  was  Stenhouse  141  acknowledged t h a t expression  the team had made two e r r o r s .  Both had to do with the  of the methodology as i n j u n c t i o n s :  F i r s t , g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s d i d not h o l d . Teacher judgement was a t a l l times n e c e s s a r y . Second, s i n c e i n j u n c t i o n s were statements, they were t r e a t e d as i n s t r u c t i o n s to teachers r a t h e r than hypotheses. (Stenhouse, 1973: 163) The  p r o j e c t p r e s e n t e d an o p e r a t i o n a l  dissemination and  stage ( a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the p r o j e c t handbook i n 1970),  they o f f e r e d  a platform  ' i n j u n c t i o n s ' p r i o r to t h i s .  Upwardly mobile e d u c a t o r s had  f o r promotion and a r o l e d e f i n i t i o n w i t h i n  demonstrate t h e i r The  r o l e d e f i n i t i o n d u r i n g the  which they  merit.  e f f e c t a t i s s u e had impact on a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s  (including  s t u d e n t s ) and had to be d e a l t with i n some way by those g i v e n 'mapping' independent p a r t i c i p a n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . difficulty  could  as the c r i t i c a l n e s s  of the 'teacher  the task of  MacDonald a l l u d e d  t o the  variable':  ...teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s of p u p i l performance seems to te i n some s i t u a t i o n s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t as sources of e x p l a n a t i o n of p u p i l response and t h a t there are rewards and p e n a l t i e s i n c a r e e r terms that d i f f e r e n t i n n o v a t i o n s o f f e r to teachers i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s t h a t seem to be an i m p o r t a n t element of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t i a l teacher r e s p o n s e . (MacDonald, 1978b: 30) The the  t e a c h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e on p u p i l response was n o t simply i n terms o f  curriculum  development.  i n f l u e n c e on the e v a l u a t i o n  The e v a l u a t o r  was presented with  of teacher i n f l u e n c e !  teacher  The problem arose when  the  i n s t i t u t i o n a l personnel a s s i s t e d i n s e l e c t i n g pupils f o r interviewing.  The  introductions  by the teachers to the purpose of the i n t e r v i e w ,  as w e l l as  the p u p i l s e l e c t i o n , were d i f f e r e n t from those which the i n t e r v i e w e r  would  142 have chosen.  S t r a t e g i e s needed to be a r t i c u l a t e d  that c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s  which were b u i l t i n t o the i n n o v a t i o n . Despite exacerbated  the p o s s i b i l i t y  such  as u n a v o i d a b l e .  t h a t the zealousness  of the HCP  team may  have  i n f l u e n c e s , many CARE workers came to r e g a r d such i n f l u e n c e s MacDonald r e i n f o r c e d Simons and Humble r e g a r d i n g  this  'inevitability': Genuine i n n o v a t i o n begets incompetence. I t d e s k i l l s teacher and p u p i l a l i k e , s u p p r e s s i n g a c q u i r e d competencies and demanding the development of new ones...the d i s c o m f o r t and the dismay are b u i l t i n ; they are the d e f i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n n o v a t i o n . Those p u n d i t s who s t i l l c h e r i s h fond n o t i o n s of the happy p r o j e c t bandwagon and the d i s t o r t i n g i n f l u e n c e of the Hawthorne e f f e c t should have a c l o s e look a t a f u l l - b l o o d e d changeeffort. I t ' s no j o k e . (Macdonald, 1975:  The  11)  S t a t u s Enhancement E f f e c t The  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' use  of involvement  paramountcy d i d not o n l y i n v o l v e a rush  i n an i n n o v a t i o n to f u r t h e r  to g a i n e c l a t .  The  everyday  workings  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s p r o v i d e d a p e r v a s i v e ' s t a t u s enhancement effect.'  The  e f f e c t operated  i n t e r n a l l y and  externally,  to i n d i v i d u a l  schools.  Walker p r o v i d e d a c o n t e x t f o r d i s c u s s i n g the e f f e c t i n a paper  o r i g i n a l l y d e l i v e r e d a t a seminar on The A p p l i e d Anthropology O r g a n i z a t i o n a t the 34th Annual Meeting pology  i n Amsterdam,  of  of the S o c i e t y of A p p l i e d  1975:  A q u e s t i o n I've found myself a s k i n g a l l week, i s i f a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s are so keen to p r e s e r v e the c u l t u r e of North American Indians why i s n ' t someone s t u d y i n g the Bureau of I n d i a n Affairs? I t may not be so glamorous, i t may p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l problems, but i t s u t i l i t y would be c o n s i d e r a b l e . In  School Anthro-  143 e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h we are c o n s t a n t l y made aware t h a t we are d e a l i n g with complex s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l systems. U s e f u l as i t might be on some o c c a s i o n s to t h i n k of i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s or classrooms as s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c u l t u r a l n i c h e s , what happens i n c e n t r a l government, i n c i t y h a l l or even i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s , sends r i p p l e s i n t o the system. Sometimes the r i p p l e s c o n s t i t u t e a t i d a l wave... 23)  (Walker, 1977: The p r o f i l e  of the HCP  implications.  ' i n e v i t a b l y ' s e t up complex s o c i a l and  Parents,  f e l l o w t e a c h e r s , LEA  aware of the i n n o v a t i o n . lives.  The  Visits  head had  from o u t s i d e  more o p p o r t u n i t y  to drop i n and  ' e x p e r t s ' brought importance  spoke of the as  "belonging  and  On  the  provide  p l e n a r y and  e v a l u a t i o n team had  the d i s s e m i n a t i o n .  i n f l u e n c e on  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ' and  case  on-going  Some of the  teachers  One  records.  perceptions  teacher  to the Order of S t . Lawrence"  teacher's  (Simons  could  standing. effects'  to be a d r o i t i n the d e t e c t i o n of The  aim  of r e a l i t y  one  in particular  p a r t i c i p a n t ' s perceptions  c o n t e x t where r a n k i n g was teachers were p r e s e n t e d  an  this  to c o n s t r u c t "'networks of contexts"  (SAFARI  papers 2, I n t r o d u c t i o n , p . 7) n e c e s s i t a t e d ' p r o g r e s s i v e f o c u s s i n g . ' t h i s meant checking  The  blocks,  to a s c e r t a i n such 'status enhancement  They a l s o had  t h e i r own  task.  (double  ' p l a t f o r m of promotion' the HCP  c o n s i d e r a b l e e l e v a t i o n to the  The on  150).  class.  ' r i p p l e s i n t o the system'.  d e s c r i b e d the experience Humble, 1978:  individual  to the t e a c h e r ' s  afforded special dispensations  to d i s c u s s i o n 'in-the-round',  the HCP  to  o t h e r s were  d i s c u s s the  committees) a l l added to the esteem of 'the p r o j e c t . ' a s s o c i a t e d with  heads and  D a i l y a c t i v i t i e s brought l u s t r e  r e l e a s e from other d u t i e s and rooms conducive  officers,  political  against another's.  i n f l u e n t i a l determinor  of behaviour,  to o t h e r s by the e v a l u a t o r was  Often In a  how  a major c o n c e r n .  What  1 44  those  other p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d with  "Giving information  t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was j u s t as  to somebody i n need of i t may s t r e n g t h e n  p o s i t i o n i n s t e a d of t h a t of somebody e l s e "  important.  h i s value  (Brugelmann, 1974: 6 9 ) . The  e v a l u a t i o n d i r e c t o r was q u i c k l y made aware of the degree to which  this  c o n c e r n would f a s h i o n h i s conduct: I have a c q u i r e d a tape r e c o r d e r and r e c o r d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h heads, HCP s t a f f , other s t a f f and p u p i l s . Immediate r e p e r c u s s i o n - I am bearded i n a s m a l l o f f i c e by one HCP t e a c h e r who t h r e a t e n s to sue me u n l e s s I d i v u l g e t o him immediately the contents of the i n t e r v i e w I have had with the head. I t takes h a l f an hour to persuade him to l e t me leave the room. He appears to b e l i e v e t h a t the o t h e r HCP t e a c h e r s are c o n s p i r i n g with the head a g a i n s t him, and t h a t I am being used t o further this conspiracy. Is t h i s r e l e v a n t to my e v a l u a t i o n , I ask myself on the way home, or j u s t a l i e n noise? The q u e s t i o n never goes away. I t ' s with me y e t . (MacDonald, 1978b: 287) Status was a l s o a f a c t i t i v e considerations  issue f o r students.  t h a t p u p i l s might b r i n g to bear, when asked to g i v e  i n an i n t e r v i e w , i n " C o n v e r s a t i o n Case Study Research" perceptions  (1977b).  Piece:  The P r a c t i c e o f I n t e r v i e w i n g i n  Students may have been c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e i r  their  low s t a t u s image c o u l d have l e d them " t o  adopt a bravado stance - 'I don't care what I say'"  was  (Simons, 1977b: 1 1 4 ) .  i n t e r v i e w s performed f o r the HCP e v a l u a t i o n r e v e a l e d how the  s e l e c t i o n o f 'low s t a t u s evaluator.  'opinions'  of low s t a t u s ("It's o n l y the c l e v e r people who have  "opinions"), or conversly,  The  Simons o u t l i n e d t h e  In an e f f o r t  1  students to assess  could also a f f e c t the f u l l  the s t a t u s of the  range of e x p e r i e n c e s ,  the team  i n t e r e s t e d i n the ' i n a r t i c u l a t e p u p i l s ' who were the l e s s i n v o l v e d i n  Humanities c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s . 'hostile witnesses.'  Teachers o f t e n p e r c e i v e d  such students as  By i n t e r v i e w i n g such i n d i v i d u a l s the e v a l u a t o r c o u l d be  145 seen to be staff"  ' a l i g n i n g ' him  (p. 128).  or h e r s e l f and  "lose c r e d i b i l i t y  i n the eyes of  There were no easy s o l u t i o n s to handle such  enhancement e f f e c t s . '  Methods needed to be  devised  the  'status  to i d e n t i f y  their  i n p a r t i c i p a n t observation  "lies  latency.  Simbiotic  Relationships  Elliot  observed t h a t the  skill  a v o i d i n g a d i s r u p t i o n of normal p a t t e r n s and  MacDonald p o i n t e d  of power are  out  l e g i t i m i z e d and,  these two  groups.  The  and  case of e d u c a t i o n ,  (Walker and  and  be  MacDonald, 1975b: 6 ) .  Placed  the importance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h a t the  its "political  When they a p p l i e d the  two  "primary f o c u s " when nature"  (Walker and  related studying  MacDonald,  procedures of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  open-ended i n t e r v i e w i n g , the p o l i t i c a l  ledge  the medium through  h i s s u b j e c t s , sponsors, audiences and  CARE group c o n s i d e r e d  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p should 1975b: 11).  i n the  a s s e r t i o n s accent  between the r e s e a r c h e r  Walker  t h a t "knowledge i s the b a s i s on which many forms  which power i s e x e r c i s e d " together,  of i n t e r a c t i o n " (1978: 23).  in  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the know-  accessed  and  the  predominance.  The  power t h a t r e s i d e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n of knowledge c o u l d  and was and  perceived  s t a t u s of i n f o r m a n t / p a r t i c i p a n t s c a r r i e d  able  MacDonald, 1975b:  to " a l t e r  the r e l a t i v e  s t a t u s of s u b j e c t s "  13).  Simons a l s o a l l u d e d to the n e c e s s i t y of being nature of i n t e r v i e w i n g . of  "lengthy  interviews  (Walker  In her example she was with  aware of the  d i s c u s s i n g the  the Head":  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i r s t and i n f a c t , do so at l e n g t h to involvement i n the  a v o i d i n t e r v i e w i n g him i t may be advantageous to secure h i s c o n f i d e n c e and study. However, l e n g t h y  political  implications  146  i n t e r v i e w s with the Head may be u n h e l p f u l i n terms of how they a f f e c t t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of you and your subsequent i n t e r v i e w s w i t h them. A l r e a d y you have access to knowledge, i n c l u d i n g perhaps the head's judgement of them, which they may not have. The Head may a l s o have given you ' c a r t e blanche' t o i n t e r v i e w p u p i l s , a p o i n t over which teachers might have e x e r c i s e d more reserve. (Simons, 1977b:  113)  Whether or not the Head d i v u l g e d c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n or gave p e r m i s s i o n access  to p u p i l s was  immaterial.  Teachers  p e r c e p t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h e r s and affected.  The  concern  may  subsequent i n t e r v i e w s with  arise.  In the absence o f  arising  teachers  misunderstandings  "For example, i f the r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w s p u p i l s i n c o n f i d e n c e  s p i r a t o r i a l r o l e with p u p i l s "  (p. 115).  the  and  see the i n t e r v i e w e r i n a c o n -  Similarly,  of the same r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e s e a r c h e r and distort  be  from the absence of  ' r u l e s of i n f o r m a t i o n use'  does not r e v e a l what they say teachers may  may  their  them would  The p o s s i b l e ' r e s e r v e ' of the  c o u l d have been a r e s u l t of m i s u n d e r t s t a n d i n g s 'sets'.  and  w i t h p e r c e i v e d 'symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p s ' r e q u i r e d  s e t s of n e g o t i a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  such  ' p e r c e i v e ' such,  for  the p u p i l may  conceive  the t e a c h e r , and  they  data:  Where p u p i l s have been s e l e c t e d by the teacher they may a s s o c i a t e the i n t e r v i e w e r w i t h t e a c h e r s and the a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e and t h i s may r e s t r i c t d i s c u s s i o n . (p.  122)  As Walker and MacDonald s t a t e d , a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the have t h i s  ' p o l i t i c a l nature.'  Walker i d e n t i f i e d  researcher  a common p e r c e p t i o n of  e v a l u a t o r as " o p e r a t i n g under a s e r i e s of c o n s t r a i n t s from sponsors" 39).  L e g i t i m a t e or not, a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s have an  being s t u d i e d and  t h e i r own  reasons  f o r wanting  "account  of why  the  (1981:  they  to be s t u d i e d " ( p . 4 2 ) .  are  147 Fear o f R e p r i s a l A s i m i l a r i s s u e to the 'halo e f f e c t ' t h a t arose i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the HCP was the p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t 'feedback'  received  from open-ended  v i e w i n g c o u l d be d i s t o r t e d out of ' f e a r of r e p r i s a l . ' 'balance' touched by the e v a l u a t i o n . 'on t r i a l '  Stenhouse  inter-  Much c o u l d be i n the  d i s c u s s e d how t e a c h e r s  p a r t i a l l y due to the unavoidable a u t h o r i t y o f n a t i o n a l  felt  projects:  We u n d e r e s t i m a t e d the a u t h o r i t y o f n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s backed by the Schools C o u n c i l and the ambivalent a t t i t u d e they may g e n e r a t e . We saw the p r o j e c t as t e s t i n g hypotheses: many o f the teachers w i t h whom we worked saw e i t h e r themselves or us as on t r i a l . Often i n s t e a d of u s i n g t h e i r judgement to inform us, t e a c h e r s a l l o w e d what were intended by us as t e n t a t i v e hypotheses to o v e r r u l e t h e i r judgement. Some e x p e r i m e n t a l feedback was d i s t o r t e d by t h i s a t t i t u d e . I t might be designed to r e a s s u r e us, to c h a l l e n g e us o r merely to p r o t e c t the teacher concerned. In the end, t h i s has p a r t l y been overcome, b u t i t has been a f o r m i d a b l e problem. (Stenhouse,  1973:  156)  MacDonald made the same o b s e r v a t i o n a t the time: I t emerged t h a t the p r o j e c t team had f a i l e d at the o u t s e t to communicate the nature o f the e n t e r p r i s e s u c c e s s f u l l y . From the t e a c h e r s ' p o i n t of view, the ethos of the p r o j e c t was e v a n g e l i c a l r a t h e r than e x p l o r a t o r y , and the suggested t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s looked l i k e t e s t s of teacher p r o f i c i e n c y r a t h e r than r e s e a r c h hypotheses. Many f e l t on t r i a l . T h i s both reduced t h e i r c a p a c i t y to p r o f i t from the e x p e r i e n c e and a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r feedback to the c e n t r e . (MacDonald, 1973: The  f e a r of f a i l u r e and the r e s u l t i n g consequences  head-masters.  a l s o extended  85) to the  I f the r e p u t a t i o n of the s c h o o l might be i n v o l v e d , the  school-based team found  themselves  under ' g u i l t y p r e s s u r e s ' to e s t a b l i s h a  c o n s p i r a t o r i a l s t y l e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Teachers may have l e a r n e d to  148  ' d i s g u i s e ' what they were doing feedback i s l i k e l y to occur fictitious The  as a r e s u l t of t h i s a n x i e t y .  i n such a s i t u a t i o n and t h i s can l e a d to  implementation of a p r o j e c t " (Verma, 1980: 2 6 ) . e v a l u a t i o n team r e a l i s e d  between the head and t e a c h e r s . hide  "False  t h a t c o n s p i r a c i e s c o u l d be i n i t i a t e d  In one case the s e c r e t purpose was not to  i n f o r m a t i o n b u t had to do with an i n f l u e n c e on the p a t t e r n of e f f e c t s  i n the s c h o o l q u i t e unknown to the HCP s t a f f .  Teachers appeared " s t i f f as  boards and sweating" when MacDonald observed a c l a s s .  He e v e n t u a l l y  discovered,  promotion i f they  achieved  " t h a t the head has promised these  s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved p u b l i c examination r e s u l t s  t h i s up by committing school"  teachers  then  followed  them h e a v i l y to HCP, a non-examined c u r r i c u l u m i n t h i s  (MacDonald, 1978b: 287).  At the l e v e l of student  observation  and i n t e r v i e w i n g the i n f l u e n c e of  power on r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l s o d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n Expression  c o u l d have been c u r t a i l e d by p e r c e p t i o n s  exchange.  of powerlessness or  incompetence: P u p i l s l e a r n to l i v e by r u l e s and conventions p r e s c r i b e d by those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the running o f the s c h o o l and may not f e e l as f r e e as teachers to express t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s . In s c h o o l s which have a f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m , furthermore, p u p i l s may not have had much o p p o r t u n i t y to t a l k i n c l a s s or i n f o r m a l l y to teachers o u t s i d e class. (Simons, 1977b: 122) How students teacher  perceived  may a l s o have r e s t r i c t e d or d i s t o r t e d t h e i r r e p l i e s .  directional  institution  confidentiality. narrow.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n t e r v i e w e r and the  the student  The student's  I t may have been hard  In a u n i -  may not have much f a i t h i n  experience  with a u t h o r i t y was g e n e r a l l y  to b e l i e v e t h a t an ' o u t s i d e r ' c o u l d have  149 s u f f i c i e n t a u t h o r i t y to r e s i s t the student  from the  l a t e r e x e r c i s e of r u l e s and  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the running of r e p r i s a l . what had  the s c h o o l s t a f f ' s  of the s c h o o l .  D i r e c t pressure  had  been s a i d i n i n t e r v i e w s  Simons o f f e r e d one  one  may  (p. 125).  get  those  bore out such f e a r s  insulation  group i n t e r v i e w i n g .  to r e v e a l  from  the  Unfortunately,  taken away by the c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n of operate  in a constricting  way  mileage out of group i n t e r v i e w s with p u p i l s "  of r e p r i s a l  appeared  to be a major area  meaning of a c t i o n s toward the r e s e a r c h e r . i n t e n t i o n s and  by  116).  approach t h a t c o u l d provide  "...peer group norms may  little  Fear  Experience  (Simons, 1977b:  the g a i n from group anonymity c o u l d be  and  conventions  to p r o t e c t  been brought to bear on students  power r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the s c h o o l :  peer i n t e r a c t i o n :  i n s i s t a n c e s , or  d i s p o s i t i o n s were  for studying  the  Means of a s c e r t a i n i n g such  necessasry.  C o g n i t i v e Dissonance The  HCP  presented  innovators  recommendations.  The  should  which values  be  taught;  p r o j e c t team had  Schools how  The  Schools  f a r o r d i n a r y p u p i l s can  61, p . 14).  The  in this  the p r o j e c t d i f f e r e d  Council i n i t i a l l y provided  i n f a c t be  MacDonald p o i n t e d out  C o u n c i l ' s assumptions.  realized  teaching;  A "statement of a s p i r a t i o n " by  the assumptions taken by  Council.  intrinsic  made v a l u e - d e c i s i o n s about what  were to be  best to develop democratic v a l u e s . r e v e a l e d how  of t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m  taken"  an aim  t h a t Stenhouse ' d i s s e n t e d ' with more.  In broad terms the o b j e c t i v e w i l l be to p r o v i d e f o r the m i n o r i t y of p u p i l s , something o f the q u a l i t y and range of l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n h i t h e r t o r e s e r v e d f o r the m i n o r i t y of more  of  "to probe 2,  how  Stenhouse  from those  (Working paper No.  d i r e c t o r wished to provide  and  para. the  the  150 academically-minded p u p i l s , and to do t h i s i n terms which a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y sound while a t the same time i n t e r e s t i n g and r e l e v a n t to the p u p i l ' s needs. T h i s r a t h e r low key statement of a s p i r a t i o n may w e l l have passed u n n o t i c e d among the w e l t e r of f a m i l i a r p r a c t i c a l i t i e s and procedures o u t l i n e d i n the c i r c u l a r , but i t c o n s t i t u t e d Stenhouse's f i r s t p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n of d i s s e n t from the assumptions o f . . . S o c i e t y and the Young School Leaver [Schools C o u n c i l ,  1967].  (MacDonald, 1978b: 43) Stenhouse and h i s p r o j e c t that  team were swept up i n a ' c h a r i s m a t i c '  ' b u i l t up u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s '  captured by the excitement, only  f o r t e a c h e r s : " . . . t h e y had been  to r e a l i z e subsequently t h a t  f u l l y understood the i m p l i c a t i o n s  movement  of p u t t i n g  the p r o j e c t  they had n o t  into practice"  (Simons, 1978: 4 8 ) . Without f i r s t  understanding  the i m p l i c a t i o n s  of p u t t i n g  i n t o p r a c t i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r s were c a r r i e d away by 'euphoria.' o f f e r e d a ' l i b e r a l and p o t e n t i a l l y l i b e r a t i n g i d e a l . ' charisma were p e r c e i v e d  as a 'genuine a l t e r n a t i v e . '  MacDonald observed, Stenhouse f e l t only  to an e l i t e  of s c h o o l s . "  that  the p r o j e c t The HCP  The r h e t o r i c and U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as  the p r o j e c t might have to be " s u i t e d  The r e a l i t i e s  of the s c h o o l s c o n f r o n t e d the  i d e a l of the p r o j e c t . Many of the teachers who j o i n e d the 'crusade' found themselves imprisoned i n a gap between the p r o j e c t ' s i m p l i c i t model of the school and the r e a l i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l m i l i e u x i n which they were l o c a t e d . (MacDonald, 1976: 81) The in  project  s e t up a r o l e c o n f l i c t  a gap between the p r o j e c t ' s  f o r the teacher which 'imprisoned' them  inwrought i d e a l of e d u c a t i o n a l  everyday i n t e r w o r k i n g s of the s c h o o l .  l i f e and the  151 Teachers, heads and LEA o f f i c e r s a l t e r n a t i v e rather  accepted the c u r r i c u l u m as a  than an u n t e s t e d i d e a l .  genuine  Schools had d i f f i c u l t y a c c e p t i n g  o r understanding the e x p e r i m e n t a l nature of the i n n o v a t i o n : One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n communication i s to break through the assumptions t h a t people have i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . I t seems t h a t i t i s not enough simply to t e l l the people t h a t you are engaging i n an experiment - people can understand t h a t v e r b a l l y but i t doesn't seem to break through c e r t a i n assumptions which c o n t r a d i c t t h a t understanding and o v e r - r i d e i t - so t h a t you get people i n a s t a t e of c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e , to use F e s t i n g e r ' s c l a s s i c phrase, a phenomenon t h a t has been o b s e r v a b l e i n a number of people a t t h i s c o n f e r e n c e and, I may add, i n HCP c e n t r a l team members. (MacDonald, 1978: In response  to the s t a t e of c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e , some abandoned the  some gave up t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r . only to f i n d appetency  themselves  only p a r t i a l l y  Teachers were caught up i n the  b a t t l i n g against traditions  i n defence  (1981).  Role c o n f l i c t was  socialized,  themselves,  attitudes.  The  style  HCP,  'crusade'  of an  understood.  Verma wrote of the r a d i c a l s t y l e e x p e r i e n c e d i n The Innovation  29)  experienced since  Impact of  t e a c h e r s had  i n t o a t r a d i t i o n of dominance and  they used i n the r e s t of t h e i r  ' i r r e c o n c i l a b l y ' c o n f l i c t u a l w i t h the Humanities. c o n f l i c t as a r e s u l t of the ' s w i t c h . '  custodial  teaching  Pupils,  They r e s i s t e d  the  Role c o n f l i c t p r o v i d e d d i s s o n a n c e : A major cause of t h i s dissonance was the change i n r o l e s of both teacher and p u p i l ; i . e . , the teacher was no longer seen as having e x p e r t i s e to t r a n s m i t and the p u p i l was no longer seen as the p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t of teacher knowledge. In t h a t k i n d of t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r / p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p there i s p u p i l dependence on the teacher which, i n  been  was  too, e x p e r i e n c e d  unfamiliarity.  152  HCP, i s something teachers must t r y to break i f the P r o j e c t i s to succeed. C e n t r a l to the p r o j e c t i s the i d e a t h a t the teacher must r e l i n q u i s h h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominant position. (p. 26) Teachers, p u p i l s , the r e s t of the s c h o o l s t a f f and sometimes parents threatened Yet,  by the r e l i n q u i s h i n g of a ' t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominant p o s i t i o n . '  the teacher  work."  found h i m s e l f  Initially,  or h e r s e l f committed t o 'making the p r o j e c t  they may have b e l i e v e d t h a t the p r o j e c t c o u l d p r o v i d e 'an  i n s t a n t panacea f o r classroom  ills.'  would have to master c o n s i d e r a b l e expectation The  t h a t i n n o v a t i o n would make l i f e  such a support  they r e a l i z e d  and r e l e a r n i n g .  that  they  The g e n e r a l  e a s i e r was n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  When d e a l i n g with  s t r u c t u r e i m p l i e d support  Teachers needed to have t h e i r experiences  Eventually,  unlearning  change of r o l e r e q u i r e d s u p p o r t .  teaching  were  by  a divergent  s t y l e of  'understanding.'  (perhaps) unexpected and c h a l l e n g i n g  v a l i d a t e d by c o l l e a g u e s .  Mesalliance  b r i n g immediate r e s u l t s , and the d i s u n i o n with c r e a t e d more t e n s i o n - an " i n s t i t u t i o n a l  with  students  traditional  d i d not  deportment  dissonance."  I n s t i t u t i o n a l Dissonance Walker d e s c r i b e d how an i n n o v a t i o n c o u l d s p l i t schools  from l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  s t a f f and i s o l a t e  The u l t i m a t e e f f e c t c o u l d be "one of  d i v i s i o n and s u s p i c i o n a t a number of l e v e l s i n the system, anarchy a t the periphery  as seen from the c e n t r e ; malign c o n s p i r a c y  from the p e r i p h e r y "  (1981: 5 1 ) . MacDonald l i s t e d  ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l disturbances'  over twenty  separate  c r e a t e d by t h e HCP (MacDonald, 1978b: 3 4 ) .  These ran from absences of s t a f f parental response.  a t the c e n t r e as seen  while  take  The c e n t r a l team f e l t  training  to  unfavourable  the p r o j e c t c r e a t e d  "dissonance  at  153  all  l e v e l s of impact"  ( p . 80).  Stenhouse d e s c r i b e d  how the s e c u r i t y o f  working w i t h i n an academic and i n s t r u c t i o n a l framework c o u l d b l i n d the  "profound t h e o r e t i c a l r o o t s which l i e beneath i t " (1978: 3 1 ) . Teachers  were devoid on other threats  of a ' s u p p o r t i n g  t r a d i t i o n ' and t h i s l e d to 'in-groups,'  departments, r e l e a s e s from other d u t i e s , to e s t a b l i s h e d  The  Schools accepted  an image t h a t e v e n t u a l l y r e v e a l e d a The e d u c a t i o n a l  by the p r o j e c t and t h a t l i v e d by s c h o o l s  "imprisonment i n a gap f i l l e d with 84).  ' p r i v i l e g e d ' a t t e n t i o n and  on incomplete and erroneous  s i g n i f i c a n t gap between i n t e n t and p r a c t i c e . conceived  demands  traditions.  HCP was o f t e n i n i t i a l l y accepted  assumptions.  process  c o u l d and d i d l e a d t o  glamorous daydreams" (MacDonald, 1976:  Such c o n f l i c t , between the i m p l i c i t model of the p r o j e c t and the  realities  of the classroom  and s c h o o l system, l e d to a " s p i r a l of demands"  (Walker and MacDonald, 1975b: 2 4 ) . Both t e a c h i n g had  one to  to be met.  M u l t i p l e g o a l s of l e a r n i n g , ' p a s t o r a l c a r e ,  onal f u n c t i o n i n g needed s y n t h e s i s .  could  was f a c e d with  l e a d to i s o l a t i o n  1  and i n s t i t u t i -  The dissonance i n t r o d u c e d  "a p o i n t where r e - s y n t h e s i s becomes d i f f i c u l t When the teacher  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l demands  could  i f not i m p o s s i b l e "  (p. 24).  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f ' b r i d g i n g the gap' i t  and d e f e n s i v e n e s s .  School  teams c o u l d  acquire  'conspiratorial feelings.'  Evaluating  Dissonance  Cognitive heighten  dissonance  ( s p e c i f i c a l l y about r o l e c o n f u s i o n )  could  p e r t i n a c i t y , y e t such p e r s i s t e n c e was not always an a s s e t -  especially  lead t o  to the e v a l u a t i o n team: ...the teachers made a g r e a t e r e f f o r t t o implement and s u s t a i n the model, f o r the  154 experiment, but they a l s o f e l t more g u i l t and p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e as a r e s u l t of which feedback g e n e r a l l y has been r a t h e r d e c e p t i v e , and we have tended to get more feedback from the s c h o o l s with fewer problems than from the s c h o o l s with more problems. (MacDonald, 1978b: The p o s s i b i l i t y of d e c e p t i v e feedback  and  the p o s s i b l e  29)  lack of i n f o r m a t i o n  f o r t h c o m i n g from s c h o o l s with more problems were compounded by the other ' l e v e l s ' of d i s s o n a n c e .  Eventually, attention  to s c h o o l attempts  to  r e s o l v e such i n c o n g r u i t i e s became a c a r d i n a l concept of the e v a l u a t i o n : I may summarise t h a t i t appears t h a t HCP a c t i v a t e s the s c h o o l by i n t r o d u c i n g dissonance a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s - v a l u e d i s s o n a n c e a t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to the a u t h o r i t a r i a n / p a r t i c i p a t o r y ethos of the s c h o o l c o g n i t i v e dissonance a t the teacher l e v e l and p a r t i c u l a r l y a degree of r o l e c o n f u s i o n a f f e c t i v e dissonance a t the p u p i l l e v e l where many p u p i l s have t h e i r s e t t l e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of the teacher/pupil/knowledge r e l a t i o n s h i p confounded. In the end the l a s t i n g impact o f i n s t i t u t i o n , t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s depends on how i n p a r t i c u l a r cases these dissonances a r e r e s o l v e d , whether by moving on to new p r a c t i c e s , s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e d or r e v e r t i n g t o o l d ones . (MacDonald, 1978b: The p r o j e c t development team had change i n s c h o o l s .  The  been u s i n g v a r i o u s dissonances  ' a u t h o r i t a r i a n / p a r t i c i p a t o r y ethos' had  the teacher had  to r e c o n c i l e v a l u e s and  relationships.  S u c c e s s f u l r e s o l v e of dissonances  Such impact  an i n s t a n c e of a s h i f t  was  the students had  35) to e f f e c t to change,  to a c c e p t  l e d to ' l a s t i n g  new impact.'  i n the d i r e c t i o n of c l a s s r o o m work -  and an a l t e r i n g of the t e a c h e r ' s ' s e t ' towards students - the two major aims of the development team. disharmony was  These aims were not simply teacher c e n t r e d , b u t  " a c t i v i a t e d " at i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the s c h o o l s unlocked  themselves  from  l e v e l s and  student l e v e l s .  the d i s u n i o n c r e a t e d by the HCP  When  "impli-  155 cations" or  they had developed a p a t t e r n , an i n s t a n c e or a 'case' of s u c c e s s f u l  u n s u c c e s s f u l implementation  of an i n n o v a t i o n .  The e v a l u a t i o n team's aims were to develop i n s i g h t i n t o the development of  d i s s o n a n c e resolvement  demonstrations realized  and to p o r t r a y such cases as p r a c t i c a l  f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e consumers of t h e HCP.  t h a t not a l l dissonance was i n t e n t i o n a l , even though  instrumental.  In a d d i t i o n  e s t a b l i s h e d assumptions) communication"  to the ' a c t i v a t i o n ' of enmity  the implementation  MacDonald i t was  (to break down  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 'bad  and 'confused t h i n k i n g ' from the c e n t r a l  team:  There was always too the q u e s t i o n as to what e x t e n t misunderstanding on the p a r t of t r i a l s c h o o l t e a c h e r s was due to bad communication from the c e n t r a l team, or perhaps e f f e c t i v e communication of confused t h i n k i n g , as a g a i n s t simply the d i f f i c u l t y of b r e a k i n g down e s t a b l i s h e d assumptions about the n a t u r e of the e n t e r p r i s e . There c e r t a i n l y was i n the e a r l y days enormous c o n f u s i o n and lack of u n d e r s t a n d i n g , l e a d i n g to f a i r l y wide-spread f a i l u r e to respond ' a p p r o p r i a t e l y . There were many u n a n t i c i p a t e d problems and wide-spread misp e r c e p t i o n of the demand t h a t the P r o j e c t was making. 1  (MacDonald, 1978b: 26) G a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the ' d i s s o n a n c e s , ' the 'enormous c o n f u s i o n ' and the ' m i s p e r c e p t i o n s , ' then p o r t r a y i n g and  these to a s s i s t the development team  i n n o v a t o r s d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l and d i s e m i n a t i o n s t a g e s , became the  modus operandi o f the e v a l u a t i o n  team.  'Confused T h i n k i n g ' MacDonald c h r o n i c l e d h i s f i r s t days with the p r o j e c t , r e v e a l i n g the c o n f u s i o n he found.  He e x p e r i e n c e d the ambiguity  first  hand.  After  156 ' e x p l a i n i n g ' the p r o j e c t  to MacDonald d u r i n g h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n as a new s t a f f ,  Stenhouse l e f t on v a c a t i o n the next day. had  MacDonald d i d not understand  what  been e x p l a i n e d (MacDonald, 1978b: 285). He began to focus h i s  initial  e v a l u a t i o n on the development team,  itself:  There seems to be no common p l a t f o r m everyone has a d i f f e r e n t n o t i o n of what the P r o j e c t stands f o r . No wonder Stenhouse i n s i s t s t h a t a l l p u b l i c statements go through him. (MacDonald, 1978b: 286) MacDonald confirmed h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s with a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to t e s t Of  twenty f i v e statements  staff.  MacDonald asked  there was disagreement  Given dissonance  the nine  "So what has the P r o j e c t been s a y i n g to those  t e a c h e r s out t h e r e . . . ? " (p. 286). ambiguity.  on every one from  consensus.  He r e v i s e d  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to reduce  There was o n l y agreement on s i x o u t of s i x t e e n i t e m s . the enormous c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g  the group some of the  had to be u n i n t e n t i o n a l . As an example, the u n d e r - e s t i m a t i o n of  the head-master's r o l e meant t h a t they were not always made to understand or at  l e a s t not be p r e s e n t e d w i t h  'the necessary c o n d i t i o n s ' (Verma, 1980:  15) . The importance of headmasters i n i n n o v a t i o n was underestimated by the c e n t r a l team, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of the degree of d i s t u r b a n c e i n the s c h o o l g e n e r a l l y which a programme of t h i s k i n d can cause, the c o n d i t i o n s which are necessary f o r i t s implementation, and the support s t r u c t u r e which such d i f f i c u l t and n o v e l work seems t o c a l l f o r . The P r o j e c t has been m a n i p u l a t i n g major v a r i a b l e s i n the s c h o o l i n c l u d i n g e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l c o n t r o l , a concern v e r y r e a l to those who work i n schools. (MacDonald, 1978b: 27)  157 The  team, not having a n t i c i p a t e d  i n t e n t i o n a l l y created this w i t h 'understanding most i n f l u e n t i a l .  and  the heads' importance,  ' d i s t u r b a n c e , ' which then needed to be r e s o l v e d  support.'  T h i s l e v e l of dissonance, however,  to have a chance of success a t any  support was  needed.  i m p l i c a t i o n s , ' met (1978:  was  Simons and Humble went as f a r as to s t a t e t h a t i f the  p r o j e c t was  failure  c o u l d not have  level  the head's  He or she must have r e c o g n i z e d the the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r e c o n d i t i o n s and  informed  'radical allowed f o r p o s s i b l e  164).  As f u r t h e r example of u n i n t e n t i o n a l d i s s s o n a n c e , the development team a l s o underestimated neutrality.  or f a i l e d  T h i s concept d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d  not i n t e n t i o n a l l y designed It  proved  to e x p l i c a t e  variables")  much harder (Stenhouse,  t o 'track' 1973:  MacDonald's i n i t i a l  "confused  acknowledge t h a t they had course about they l i k e .  (i.e., " i t s relationship  to s c h o o l s d u r i n g the ' t r i a l  1978b: 287).  they don't  this  to dependent  like  stage'  the cause open to e i t h e r  communication".  not understood  That p a r t i c i p a n t s  they thought was  In one  or  s c h o o l the teachers  what had been s a i d a t the  induction  "They t h i n k they can do what  what they t h i n k Stenhouse s a i d " 'hadn't understood'  and  (MacDonald,  d i d n ' t ' l i k e what  s a i d ' were consequences of the e q u i v o c a l n e s s of the  P r o j e c t ' s aims and poor The  "bad  yet l e f t  the p r o j e c t b e i n g an experiment. And  As a r e s u l t  159).  visits  t h i n k i n g " and  of  of d i s c o r d a n c e e x p e r i e n c e d .  than expected.  supported h i s o b s e r v a t i o n of ambiguity, both  t h e i r concept  the t e a c h e r ' s ' s e t ' - b u t i t was  to provoke the degree  to be much more s i g n f i c i a n t  v a r i a b l e was  sufficiently  communication.  i n t e n t i o n a l and  u n i n t e n t i o n a l dissonances  i n t r o d u c e d by the  i n t o s c h o o l s were e s s e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s of the i n n o v a t i o n .  The  HCP  developmental  158 team f e l t  t h a t such r a d i c a l s h i f t s  i n the power r e l a t i o n s of the s c h o o l were  n e c e s s a r y i f the s e t of the teacher and the approach 'transformed.' charismatic (which  Many i n n o v a t o r s accepted  image.  They d i d not r e a l i z e  to students were to be  the p r o j e c t on the s t r e n g t h of a the s i g n i f i c a n c e  of the impact  the ' l o g i c ' i m p l i e d ) would have on the s c h o o l s . The  c o g n i t i v e dissonance  e x p e r i e n c e d by teachers and p u p i l s and the  many i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s confounded e v a l u a t i o n team.  Fictitious  implementation  a g a i n s t as w e l l as the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n influences  t h a t might have accounted  a l t e r n a t i v e approach many extraneous  the d a t a - g a t h e r i n g task of the r e p o r t i n g had to be guarded  of e x t r a o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n s and f o r observed  to c u r r i c u l u m development adopted  effects.  The  by the HCP r e s u l t e d i n  The e v a l u a t i o n team had to make these  the aim of t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n .  dissonances  They c o n c e n t r a t e d on the success or f a i l u r e o f  such r e s o l v e as the i n d i c e s of the implementation innovation.  and r e p o r t e d e v e n t s .  of the c u r r i c u l u m  159 CHAPTER V I I I IMPLICATIONS OF THE CASE STUDY APPROACH TO CURRICULUM EVALUATION  The  a l t e r n a t i v e approach to e v a l u a t i o n  E v a l u a t i o n U n i t had presented  by  behavioural  i s s u e s of i t s own,  that was  which were added to the  the development team's approach. criteria;  the  usurpation  of m a t e r i a l s ' judgements; and  of the  Added to the  techniques  issues of  The  and  Furthermore, the HCP  to capture  of the b i a s of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  alien  Evaluation  had  The  i n the  The  Bias  inform  major areas  the  the more g e n e r a l  development adopted by  the  issues  of  the CARE group,  procedures i n the  democratic  evaluation.  of the R e s e a r c h e r ' s A l i e n S u b j e c t i v e  In "Classroom R e s e a r c h :  Sub-  r e s o l v e of the p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s  n e g o t i a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s and  case study approach to c u r r i c u l u m  three  the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and  of case study, and  the a l t e r n a t i v e approach to c u r r i c u l u m resulted  the  aims to  subjective perception,  i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y of  techniques  there  the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the case study. the  function  concepts when  From these aims arose many i s s u e s t h a t c l u s t e r e d around the  a s s o c i a t e d with  of  open-ended i n t e r v i e w i n g .  applied  of the  lack  ' p o r t r a y a l ' were those a s s o c i a t e d with  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y were p r o b l e m a t i c  interdeterminancy  problems  epistemological/  j e c t i v i t y , v a l i d i t y and  decision-makers and  HCP  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r a d i c a l d i s s o n a n c e s ,  of p a r t i c i p a t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  to case study.  the  t r a d i t i o n a l evaluation  were endemic problems of the case study approach. methodological  adopted by  Science  Experience  or Commonsense?"  (1978) E l l i o t  defined  160 informal interviewing workers. the  The  and  participant  accounts of  participants.  The  the  'outsider'  i n t e r v i e w was  T h i s method of o b s e r v a t i o n was to  'get  the  into  the  action'  participant.  Participants  introspection" subjective fully.  that  a c t has  fulfilled  the  aims of  the  infeasible.  documents and  the  i t right.'  a t t e s t , the  In a d d i t i o n ,  sum  the  of  alternative  an  i n t e r e s t in 'getting  evaluation Yet,  anyone who  'right' parts  portrayal  fieldnotes;  r e p l i c a t e a study.  an  such a c t i o n s .  "The  and  via  disposition i n terms of  informed  i s not  Editing  by  has  the  success-  f o r case  studies  necessarily  takes p l a c e  complete d e t a i l (or  to the  critic's  unavoidably. 'naturalism') transcripts,  taped  interviews; matched  inability  perceptions' of  of  a valid  of v e r a c i t y were necessary to  'alien subjective  to  been quoted out  then s e e i n g i f t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  absurd a l t e r n a t i v e  this  i t right.'  l i s t e n i n g to r e e l a f t e r r e e l of  Nevertheless, tests  p o s s i b i l i t y of  'subjective  team were p a r t i a l l y intended  as  of  data.  to be  c o u l d be  researcher  to the  C r i t i c s wading through thousands of pages of  r e s e a r c h e r ' s was  observer.  participants  had  of  perspective  were c l o s e r  explain  of a c t i o n  t o t a l context.  viewing hours of v i d e o tape and  the  t h i n g s from the  of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h had  Interpretation  CARE  observation.  allowed the  procedures which p r o v i d e d f o r g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n  ' h o l i s t i c ' account of  for  data' and  d i r e c t access to h i s i n t e n t i o n  meaning i n order t h a t  c o n t e x t can  the  to the  the  checked a g a i n s t those  e x t e n s i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t  able to i n t e r p r e t and  (p. 2 3 ) .  ensure t h i s ' g e t t i n g  was  'close  actions  Consequently, they had The  an  to be  perform them, p a r t i c i p a n t s  were b e t t e r  performer of an  had  s u f f i c i e n t l y to see  Since the  meaning' f o r those who  o b s e r v a t i o n as understood by  the  to control  participant  161 The case study was a form o f " q u a l i t a t i v e and d e s c r i p t i v e work" which Stenhouse Without  d e s c r i b e d as l a c k i n g v e r i f i a b i l i t y  such q u a l i t i e s of t r a d i t i o n a l  utilized  the two bases f o r ' c r i t i c a l  and v a l i d a t i o n by those s t u d i e d . Stenhouse  argued  Stenhouse  was working  machine-readable  and cumulation (1978: 3 3 ) .  ' p u b l i c s c h o l a r s h i p ' the case s t u d y assessment'  of internal  coherence  In "Case Study and Case Records"  t h a t these two bases were "not s u f f i c i e n t . " towards  In t h e i r p l a c e  a 'manageable' case r e c o r d t h a t was lodged i n a  case r e c o r d data base.  "The E d u c a t i o n a l Case  Records  P r o j e c t " a t CARE was a b e g i n n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o such an indexed educational records archive.' source t o which  critics  (1978)  'national  I t was i n t e n d e d to lodge case r e c o r d s and be a  c o u l d g a i n access when s c r u t i n i z i n g  case  studies.  The data base would be a f o u n d a t i o n f o r cummulation  that p r o v i d e d the m i s s i n g  public scholarship quality  The impact of such an  to case study r e s e a r c h .  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system on c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y would be s i g n f i c a n t , b u t i t may have p r o v i d e d c o n t r o l s f o r s u b j e c t i v i t y and v a l i d i t y . The  concern t h a t Stenhouse  maintained w i t h the attempt  to v a l i d a t e the  r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n v i a p a r t i c i p a n t endorsement was t h a t the aim o f r e s e a r c h was to e v e n t u a l l y undergo " r e t r o s p e c t i v e a n a l y s i s " . purposes of r e s e a r c h were f u r t h e r e d by a temporary  While the  focus on t h e ' l i v i n g  i n t e n t i o n a l i t y ' o f the case, the r e s e a r c h e r ' s res j u d i c a t a r e s t e d upon the public  t h e o r e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n of s o c i a l s c i e n c e .  E v e n t u a l l y the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  v i e w p o i n t had t o be detached from t h a t of the p a r t i c i p a n t - which 'locked i n t o Elliot,  the s i t u a t i o n  remained  observed.'  i n "The SAFARI S o l i p s i s t s , "  a l s o advanced  concerns with the  avowed c o n t r o l of s u b j e c t i v i t y v i a the v a l i d a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s . t h i s view, as proposed by Brugelmann (1974) and Walker (1974), as  He took  162 "illogical."  L i k e Stenhouse, E l l i o t maintained t h a t the aim of r e s e a r c h  to go beyond the e m p i r i c a l by means o f the d e f i n i t i v e c o n c e p t . researcher  was to take r e s t r o s p e c t i v e l y d e r i v e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e s e a r c h intersubjectivity.  1  a c t i o n and theory  Thus, the p r o c e d u r a l  perceptions  the other  Brugelmann and Walker, the i n s i t u  always l e a d to a product born from the  s u b j e c t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t o r . refuted  the "mirror  theory"  of the  ' n e u t r a l ' demeanour gave way t o  hand, espoused t h a t any attempt to r e - d e f i n e  commonsense concepts of the case w i l l  The  and conceive an ' a l t e r n a t i v e  ' l a t e r work' o f f a s h i o n i n g a p e r s p i c u o u s a c c o u n t . on  was  which h e l d  that, given  ' o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y ' c o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d .  cohesive  Brugelmann p r o c e e d i n g s , an  Hence, c o n s e n t i e n c e c o u l d  only  operate i n s i t u . Elliot reality  rephrased Brugelmann's argument as the statement "I cannot grasp  independent of my c o n c e p t i o n  of i t " (1974: 121). Brugelmann used  t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l concept to prove t h a t knowledge was i m p o s s i b l e s u b j e c t i v e concepts, hence, there was no o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . o b j e c t i v e f a c t s because t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l such a proof  philisophically.  f a c t was t r u e .  without  There were no Elliot  The f a c t t h a t one c o u l d not grasp  refuted reality  independent of one's concept of i t d i d not p r e v e n t the c o n s i s t e n t asking of the q u e s t i o n , Perception  'How do I know t h a t what I conceive e x i s t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y ? '  psychology, which Brugelmann used as h i s b a s i s f o r argument, c o u l d  not p r e c l u d e  this p h i l i s o p h i c a l question.  used the t r u t h of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y was i n h e r e n t l y i l l o g i c a l . fact!  Furthermore, the argument  f a c t to d i s p r o v e  the e x i s t e n c e  that  of o b j e c t i v e  I t was based on the appeal t o an o b j e c t i v e  With the r e f u t a t i o n of t h i s major premise, the p r i n c i p l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n  163 f o r r e l y i n g on the v a l i d a t i o n of the case by p a r t i c i p a n t s was  study  researcher's  interpretation  challenged.  Whereas Stenhouse and E l l i o t  sought the d e f i n i t i o n of ' o b j e c t i v e f a c t s '  of r e s e a r c h a c t i o n w i t h i n a ' p u b l i c t h e o r e t i c a l  tradition,'  MacDonald and Walker sought a p p r o b a t i v e  MacDonald s t a t e d t h a t  " o b j e c t i v i t y i s not o b t a i n a b l e " i n a b i l i t y of the r e s e a r c h e r  (1978b: 30).  to produce an  own  r e s o u r c e s " n e c e s s i t a t e d the use  the  final  study"  a u t h o r i t y over 60). was  (1981: 5 4 ) .  interpretation  The  Walker maintained  " a u t h o r i t a t i v e study  case  study worker was  l a c k of " c r i t i c a l perceptions  "absolute  are shaped by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s e a r c h "  Regardless  (1978:  to "accept d i s c i p l i n e s  i t s back' on  t h e o r e t i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n and  the  whose 36).  There  was  to make such  the HCP  e v a l u a t i o n and  of d i s c i p l i n a r y  s t u d i e s t h a t were ' e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y i n harmony' with  Open-ended i n t e r v i e w i n g was d a t a of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The  case  boundaries.  ' s e t s of n e g o t i a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s '  the p r i n c i p l e s and  subsequent  the purposes of c a n o n i c a l w r i t i n g ,  the expansion  they sought to develop  and  relativity  of the s t r e n g t h of the c r i t i c i s m of v a l i d a t i o n and c o n t r o l  SAFARI methodology 'turned  experience  What  work p o s s i b l e . "  of s u b j e c t i v i t y by p a r t i c i p a n t a r b i t r a t i o n ,  Instead,  i n f l u e n c e " (p.  to such a paradigm was  canons a p p l i c a b l e to the p e r c e p t i o n of one  c r i t i c i s m of h i s own  from p e r s o n a l  t r u t h paradigm."  a "controlled  Stenhouse p e r c e i v e d a c h a l l e n g e  doubt" t h a t the f i e l d worker had  the  to r e l i n q u i s h "some  to g a i n g r e a t e r c r e d i b i l i t y and  needed i n the absence of such a n o t i o n was (1974).  that  of "responses of p a r t i c i p a n t s as p a r t of  Brugelmann r e j e c t e d the n o t i o n of an  paradigm"  "no  facts.  Brugelmann,  procedures  the  of democratic  the technique  - case  practitioner's evaluation.  f o r g a t h e r i n g the  study w o r k e r / p a r t i c i p a n t observer  validating checked  164 perceptions  w i t h i n the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  i n t e r v i e w i n g , where i n t r u s i o n was their observations,"  34).  Evidence was  t h e o r e t i c a l constructs  i t by  The  made to " i n v i t e p a r t i c i p a n t s to  record  ascertained  'closeness  s u b j e c t imposed i t s "own  from  participation.  to the data.'  They were not  a u t h o r i t y on 224).  Academic d i s c i p l i n e s were  to "deep background."  Headmaster."  The  fictitious  the i n f o r m a t i o n  p a r t of the r e s e a r c h e r  you  head asked, "By seek on  i n " L e t t e r s from a  what c r i t e r i a  this occasion?"  n e g o t i a t i n g access  anthropology, psychology and  (MacDonald, 1980:  interpreted  this  use  l a c k of a s i n g l e p e r s p e c t i v e  term ' e c l e c t i c ' has  been a p p l i e d w i t h  intend  to the s c h o o l , r e p l i e d :  We  economics"  do you  to  MacDonald, p l a y i n g  n o t committed to a s i n g l e p e r s p e c t i v e .  The  be  the sense t h a t i s made of  MacDonald addressed the matter of d i s c i p l i n e s  evaluate  "a  (Stenhouse,  or hypotheses brought to the s i t u a t i o n to  the i n v e s t i g a t o r " (Kemmis, 1976:  relegated  case study i n t e r v i e w was  or as a s e t t i n g of o b s e r v a t i o n s "  confirmed and  O b s e r v a t i o n s were d e r i v e d from  tested.  formal  the p a r t i c i p a n t observer  means of v e r i f y i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s 1978:  Unlike  the  "...we are  concepts from s o c i o l o g y , 33).  as both naive  a derogatory  and  Critics  have  disorganized.  connotation:  The m a r g i n a l i t y of the CARE e n t e r p r i s e - the movement from theory and the use of e c l e c t i c procedures and a r t i s t i c methaphors - i s s i m i l a r to Mass O b s e r v a t i o n . . . [which] s u f f e r e d the d e r i s i o n of the academic community f o r i t s n a i v e t y and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the same way as CARE does. (Barton The  i n f e r e n c e was  randomly - as  t h a t the CARE worker made use  they helped  and Lawn, 1981:  20)  of t h e o r e t i c a l concepts  to i l l u m i n a t e problems.  Such c r i t i c i s m d i d  not  165 address range  t h e ' c a r e f u l bounding  of i n s t a n c e s ' which p r e s c r i b e d a ' d i f f e r e n t  of c o n s t r a i n t s and l i m i t a t i o n s . '  The p r o c e s s was not random.  Walker d e s c r i b e d how the p e r s p e c t i v e used when i n t e r p r e t i n g a case was 'imposed.'  In "Making Sense and L o s i n g Meaning" he s t a t e d  s t u d i e s t h a t "remain  that evaluation  c l o s e to c a r e f u l l y bounded i n s t a n c e s are s u b j e c t t o  a d i f f e r e n t range of c o n s t r a i n t s and l i m i t a t i o n s "  (1976: 225). The  immediate c o n t e n t of the i n s t a n c e bounded the study, r a t h e r than c o n s t r u c t s from a p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e . The  theoretical  The case imposed i t s own  logic.  framework t h a t informed the conduct and p r a c t i c e of the i n v e s t i g a t o r was  n o t u n d i s c i p l i n e d r e s e a r c h , nor was an instance-bound ' c u l - d e - s a c ' because such bounding  of i t s case-bound  study n e c e s s a r i l y a  p r a c t i c e s and conduct.  made i t i m p o s s i b l e to accumulate  an attempt  of  practice"  that  knowledge was seen as a  t r a d e - o f f - a " l o s s of some a n a l y t i c i n s i g h t or c r i t i c a l in  The f a c t  theoretical  insight"  to "develop r e s e a r c h forms which connect d i r e c t l y with problems (Walker,  1981:  210).  Generalizability The of  admission of the l o s s of some a n a l y t i c a l i n s i g h t and accumulation  knowledge d i d not mean t h a t the case study was i n c a p a b l e of use i n  generalizations. distinct  from  The n o t i o n of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  traditional notions.  Stenhouse  from the case was, however,  addressed g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y when  he r e h e a r s e d the ' i s s u e s u r r o u n d i n g a b s t r a c t i o n of f e a t u r e s from cases.' d e s c r i b e d how the p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l experiment obtain r e s u l t s .  used samples (not cases) t o  The case study sought judgments ( n o t r e s u l t s )  1979b: 6 ) . E l l i o t p r e f e r r e d  He  to r e p l a c e the " p s y c h o - s t a t i s t i c a l "  (Stenhouse, l a b e l with  " r e s e a r c h on e d u c a t i o n " and " i l l u m i n a t i v e " w i t h " e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . "  He  166  p o i n t e d out t h a t the p r a c t i c e of a b s t r a c t i n g  f e a t u r e s from cases was  c o n s i d e r e d p r o b l e m a t i c i n r e s e a r c h on e d u c a t i o n . study.  In "Classroom Research:  allowed that a b s t r a c t i n g and p a t t e r n s . ' I t was 'critical  'across the board  analysis.'  The onus f o r ' g e n e r a l i s a t i o n ' was  The  to case  formulae' c o u l d p r o v i d e 'trends  However, the p r a c t i t i o n e r needed more than  evaluation  team's a u s p i c e was  generalities.  team to r e f r a i n  from  ' r e d i s t r i b u t e d ' to  to p r o v i d e the study of  The p o s s i b i l i t y of the b i a s of the case study e v a l u a t o r  i n f l u e n c i n g the s e l e c t i o n of meaning was a d o p t i o n of the CARE group participants portrayal.  a problem  Science o r Commonsense?" (1978) E l l i o t  the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s needs t h a t l e d the HCP  the 'consumer'. 'cases'.  I t was  not  raised  of an aim  an i s s u e t h a t needed c o n t r o l .  to r e f l e c t  the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y o f  f u r t h e r i s s u e s of e s t a b l i s h i n g  the v e r i t y of such  The CARE group were d i v i d e d i n t h e i r approach  i n h e r e n t problems of s u b j e c t i v i t y and v a l i d i t y ,  The  and  to r e s o l v i n g  the  those most d i r e c t l y  concerned w i t h the case s t u d y i n g of s c h o o l s (MacDonald and Walker) moved towards the 'grounding' o f such r e s o l v e i n the case study i t s e l f .  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s were c a l l e d upon to p r o v i d e s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of the  'dialectical  p r o c e s s ' o f the case c o n s t r u c t i o n .  the methods of  That i s , both the data and  case study work were i n t e r p r e t e d and in  a c t i o n demanded a t t e n t i o n  needed to be rendered  The bounding  of an i n s t a n c e  to the interdependency of a c t i o n s , which then  'to view.  f a v o u r of connectedness  selected.  1  By c h o o s i n g t o 'lose a n a l y t i c a l i n s i g h t  with the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s every-day  1  c o n t e x t , the case  study worker p r o v i d e d f o r a s h i f t i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . The  case imposed i t s own  which the case was  l o g i c , not the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of some ' c l a s s ' t o  to be r e l a t e d .  in  Hence, the r e a d e r - p r a c t i t i o n e r s were  167 c a l l e d upon, through ' v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , 1  their  idiosyncratic  to g e n e r a l i s e ' n a t u r a l l y ' to  contexts.  Walker d e s c r i b e d the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s needs r e g a r d i n g g e n e r a l i s a t i o n : Our view i s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h operates w i t h i n a paradox. I t aims f o r understandings which have been g e n e r a l i s e d from s p e c i f i c and l o c a l i s e d i n f o r m a t i o n , and o f f e r s h i g h l e v e l s of p r e d i c t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y . Yet i t a l s o aims to i n f o r m p r a c t i t i o n e r s who operate i n the c o n t e x t of problems and d e c i s i o n s which are e s s e n t i a l l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c and u n i q u e . The problem they face i s not how the g e n e r a l i s e from, but how to i n f e r from the g e n e r a l to the s p e c i f i c . In t h i s c o n t e x t most r e s e a r c h o f f e r s the p r a c t i t i o n e r trends and p a t t e r n s , but l i t t l e h e l p with h i s p a r t i c u l a r case. In t a k i n g the next step the p r a c t i t i o n e r tends to r e l y l e s s on r e s e a r c h and more on wisdom accumulated from past experience. (Walker, 1974: The  case  study audience had  s p e c i f i c was contexts. t h a t was  to i n f e r  the i d i o s y n c r a t i c and  from the g e n e r a l  unique problems and  29)  to the s p e c i f i c .  Their  d e c i s i o n s of t h e i r  Case s t u d i e s needed to p r o v i d e a c o n n e c t i o n with  these  own  contexts  'a s t e p to a c t i o n . ' Case s t u d i e s are 'a s t e p to a c t i o n ' . They begin i n a world of a c t i o n and c o n t r i b u t e t o it. T h e i r i n s i g h t s may be d i r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d and put to use f o r s t a f f o r i n d i v i d u a l self-development, for w i t h i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l feedback, f o r i n f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n , and i n e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y making. (Kemmis, e t a l . , 1980b:  The  case  study p r o v i d e d  aim  of classroom  observers'  steps  o b s e r v a t i o n was  r e f l e c t i o n upon and  (Walker, 1974:  t h a t would f a c i l i t a t e  25).  I t was  taken  149)  'natural p r a c t i c e . '  to be a means to o f f e r  'natural  improvement of t h e i r r o u t i n e p r a c t i c e s  the p u r s u i t of r e f l e x i v e means f o r  improving  The  168 natural p r a c t i c e that necessitated precluded  the  'production  of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s ' by  In t h e i r account of the HCP reservations  c o n c e r n i n g the  (1978: 189).  They saw  the  situation.'  and  evaluation,  difficulties use  r e a d e r i n another s i t u a t i o n . i n d i v i d u a l instances  a l o s s of t h e o r e t i c a l development  of the The  case as  Vicarious increase his  experience, according  evaluator  "The  had  adequately described one  a 'small  step'  to MacDonald, had  'fulfilled  from the  axiom:  interactive effects.'  the  does or does not  the  "to  made t h i s p o i n t i n The  case study  MacDonald  "the  sample must  function' of generalisation.  criteria  The  for 'evaluating  a p p l y ' to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  " g e n e r a l i s a t i o n from one  the  ' i n d i v i d u a l cases,  Then, when the  'burden of  The  audience had  case  an  knowledge of each reader's  own  the p o r t r a y a l i n terms of what This was  a form  of  case to another, making educated judgements about  degree to which known d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  t o . . . i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and  be  s h i f t e d to the p r a c t i t i o n e r , the  ' i m p l i c i t c o n t r o l group' i n t h e i r heads. l o c a l e provided  He  Data."  must f i r s t seek to a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ' f o r g e n e r a l i s a t i o n was  the  (1977: 55).  as a purpose  i n terms of a l l i t s r e l u c t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " to  t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  study  generalisation  "vicarious  'abandoned the hope of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . '  m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t was  conclusion  type of  to p r o v i d e  P o r t r a y a l o f Persons as E v a l u a t i o n  not  of  understandings.  the g e n e r a l i s a b i l i t y of the d a t a "  article  study  'highly i d i o s y n c r a t i c  to p r o v i d e the  t h e i r own  case  the  ' d e p i c t i n g ' a s i t u a t i o n to a to take d e s c r i p t i o n s  n e c e s s a r y f o r ' h i g h - l e v e l p o l i c y - m a k i n g ' but e x p e r i e n c e " which would inform  Simons addressed  of g e n e r a l i s i n g from the  reader was  not  researcher.  Humble and  r e l a t e them to t h e i r own  Thus, the attempt was  the  and  e f f e c t s " (p.  55).  r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s might  lead  169 Elliot  outlined  t h i s f u n c t i o n of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n as " n a t u r a l i s t i c "  the n o t i o n p r e s e n t e d by Stake  after  (1978).  E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n classrooms g e n e r a l i z e s n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y while research i n education generalized f o r m a l i s t i c a l l y . The two k i n d s of r e s e a r c h are r e l a t e d here to Stake's n a t u r a l i s t i c - f o r m a l i s t i c d i s t i n c t i o n . One g e n e r a l i z e s from the case s t u d i e s of educational research n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y ; that i s , to one's own e x p e r i e n c e . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n here i s not the p r i n c i p l e task of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h but of t h e i r audience, c l a s s r o o m practitioners. N a t u r a l i s t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n v a l i d a t e s case study as a method of i l l u m i n a t i n g g e n e r a l t r u t h s which cannot be f u l l y understood i n terms of f o r m a l s t a t e m e n t s . It i s therefore t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s which v a l i d a t e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and not the procedures of s c i e n c e . (Elliott, N a t u r a l i s t i c g e n e r a l i s a t i o n was  by  meant to ' t u t o r judgement'.  of case w i t h c a s e ' E l l i o t  ' v a l i d a t i o n ' o f case s t u d i e s became s e p a r a t e d from Teachers the  These needs were  met,  'understanding i n terms of formal statements.'  case study, on the other hand, was the g o a l o f 'comparison  22)  not meant to inform the type of h i g h - l e v e l  i n f o r m a t i o n needs a l l u d e d to by Simons and Humble. according to E l l i o t ,  1978:  and p u p i l s are l e f t  The  By a d o p t i n g  (above) concluded  that  'procedures of s c i e n c e . '  the task of c o n f i r m i n g the 'general t r u t h s ' of  portrayal. P r a c t i t i o n e r s needed the assurance gained from n a t u r a l i s t i c  sations before deciding The concern was  to implement a c u r r i c u l u m such as the  not w i t h how  p o p u l a t i o n of c u r r i c u l a .  generali-  Humanities.  w e l l the c u r r i c u l u m r e p r e s e n t s the whole  The case had  research action within a p r a c t i c a l  to a s p i r e towards r e p r e s e n t i n g  theory.  Such p o r t r a y a l would a l l o w  170 'experimental u n d e r s t a n d i n g '  (whereas f o r m a l i s t i c g e n e r a l i s a t i o n  t h e o r e t i c a l understanding).  There was a 'harmony' between the reader's  experience  l e d to  and the down-to-earth and a t t e n t i o n - h o l d i n g epistemology  of the  case study (Stake, 1978: 5 ) . Validity J u s t i f i c a t i o n or v a l i d a t i o n of the case study was i m p e r a t i v e , i f the of p r a c t i t i o n e r s were to d i r e c t l y  i n f o r m t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n s .  v e r i t y was somehow to be i n c l u d e d i n the case n a r r a t i v e . p a r t i c i p a n t s was 'not s u f f i c i e n t . '  A t e s t of the  V a l i d a t i o n by the  Kushner and N o r r i s , i n " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  N e g o t i a t i o n and V a l i d i t y i n N a t u r a l i s t i c Research"  (1981) d i s c u s s e d how the  n o t i o n t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r s were the " u l t i m a t e a r b i t e r s of change or t r u t h " was too s i m p l i s t i c  ( p . 3 0 ) . P r a c t i t i o n e r s d i d not have ' e x c l u s i v e understanding  of p r a c t i c e . '  The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t mere r a t i f i c a t i o n by p r a c t i t i o n e r s  constituted validation  ' e n t a i l e d an assumption  as i t was p l a i n tongued.'  The p r a c t i t i o n e r s d i d not a u t h e n t i c a t e f i e l d w o r k  s i m p l y on the s t r e n g t h t h a t i t made "sense." u n e q u i v o c a l - d i s c u s s i o n s of v a l i d i t y of meaning." processes  t h a t t r u t h was as u n e q u i v o c a l  Nor was t r u t h c o n s i d e r e d  should not have i g n o r e d "the c o n t e x t s  J u s t i f i c a t i o n was c o g n i t i v e and c u l t u r a l , r e f l e c t i n g the  i n v o l v e d i n the f i e l d w o r k : The i m a g i n a t i o n of the case and the i n v e n t i o n of the study are c o g n i t i v e and c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s e s ; the case study worker's a c t i o n s and h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s must be j u s t i f i e d both i n terms of the t r u t h s t a t u s of h i s f i n d i n g s and i n terms of s o c i a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . S o c i a l s c i e n c e has the unique problem o f t r e a t i n g o t h e r s as o b j e c t s f o r study; the unique problem i n case study i s i n j u s t i f y i n g to o t h e r s why the r e s e a r c h e r can be a knowledgeable o b s e r v e r - p a r t i c i p a n t who t e l l s what he s e e s . (Kemmis, 1980: 120)  171 The main reason  t h a t the case study worker had to j u s t i f y  her r o l e was r e l a t e d to the process of making 1  Walker s t a t e d t h a t "'meaning sense  does not f a l l  1  n a t u r a l l y out of the d a t a ,  S e l e c t i o n took p l a c e a t every s t a g e , "from choosing  to sampling  material"  events  (1981: 4 3 ) .  cases f o r  In answer to the " c o n s i d e r a b l e problems" posed by the  p a r t i c i p a n t c o r r o b o r a t i o n , the 'examination e n t a i l v a l i d a t i o n o f the 'procedures t o ' v a l i d a t e the procedures  d a t a p e r se.'  'partial  and i n s t a n c e s , and to e d i t i n g and p r e s e n t i n g  p a r t i a l i t y of the case study, and i n response  had  1  has to be made of i t " (1976: 232). Case s t u d i e s were always  accounts. study,  1  sense.  to others h i s o r  to the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of  of i n s t a n c e s i n a c t i o n  and techniques' used.  and techniques  The methods and procedures  1  had t o  The case  study  adopted  as w e l l as p r e s e n t the  of p r o d u c i n g  the study needed to be  d i s s e m i n a t e d a l o n g w i t h the f i n d i n g s . The  case study p r e c l u d e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n .  the i n c l u s i o n of v a l i d a t i o n w i t h i n the c a s e . m e t h o d o l o g i c a l bounding d e r i v e d from  The i n a b i l i t y  (1980).  of the Case and the  The r e s e a r c h e r had l i t t l e  the ' i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . ' lives  to p r o v i d e a  the " i n d e t e r m i n a t e nature of the case."  Kemmis advanced t h i s argument i n "The Imagination I n v e n t i o n o f the Study"  This n e c e s s i t a t e d  foreknowledge of  His or her i n t r u s i o n i n t o t h e  and work of o t h e r s demanded 'remedial a c t i o n s ' , s e l e c t i o n a t every  stage, and ' u p - c l o s e ' o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e ' l i v i n g i n t e n t i o n a l i t y ' o f educational contexts. The  The r e p o r t had to 'render  case study worker j u s t i f i e d  these  interdependencies.'  h i s or her own work 'through  the r e p o r t .  1  T h i s view i m p l i e d t h a t he or she "should g i v e an account of the study and 'make h i s [or h e r ] a c t i o n s open to view'" (Kemmis, 1980: 132). Kemmis d e s c r i b e d a new ' p e r s p e c t i v e ' t o p r o v i d e such  justification.  172 An Indeterminate P e r s p e c t i v e The  cognitive  ( i m a g i n a t i o n ) and  the c u l t u r a l  i n v o l v e d i n case study were the a c t i v i t i e s  (invention) processes  t h a t d e f i n e d the ' i n s t a n c e i n  a c t i o n ' . "Both the o b j e c t s and methods of case study work" had indeterminancy so t h a t the audience was p r o c e s s e s of i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n " case study r e f e r r e d  (Kemmis, 1980:  119).  The  to the n e c e s s a r i l y simultaneous  " p a r t i c u l a r circumstances f o r a c t i o n 105)  reminded "of the  dialectical ' d i a l e c t i c ' o f the  ascertainment o f  ( f o r example, r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g s ) "  and v e r i f i c a t i o n of d e f i n i t i o n s and  shared b e l i e f s .  t r u t h r e q u i r e d r e s o l v i n g both a u t h e n t i c a t i o n s as 'problems related.  to p r e s e r v e  (p.  A s s e r t i o n of a dialectically  1  U n l i k e the case study worker, the e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t 'suppressed dialectic'  The  latter  saw  circumstances f o r a c t i o n . '  no problem i n d e f i n i n g  'samples' from  the  'particular  A sample need not have been 'bounded' as  p r e c i s e l y as the case: In any p a r t i c u l a r study the e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t f o c u s s e s a t t e n t i o n on one or a few t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s and suppresses the d i a l e c t i c of the r e s e a r c h programme which h i s t o r i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e s the nature of a phenomenon as a whole. The e x p l i c i t n e s s o f the d i a l e c t i c i n case study i s what makes i t seem so t e n t a t i v e and so f a l l i b l e to those " s h o r t - r u n " e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t s who "don't see the wood f o r t r e e s " - who c o n c e a l from thems e l v e s the long-term d i a l e c t i c . (Kemmis, 1980: Failure  to address  the d i a l e c t i c  relevant multivariate i n d e p e n d e n t l y of one establishing  114)  i g n o r e d the nature of cases as c o n t a i n i n g  f a c t o r s i n which i n d i v i d u a l components  varied  another or e n t e r e d i n t o complex i n t e r a c t i o n s .  By n o t  the i n c o n t r o v e r t i b i l i t y of the 'sample , the e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t 1  173 c o u l d n o t p r o v i d e an a u t h e n t i c a t e d d e f i n i t i o n of the s o c i a l s e t t i n g . initial  "nature of the phenomenon" must have been e s t a b l i s h e d  The  to p r o v i d e  s u b s t a n t i a t i o n f o r any p e r s p e c t i v e ( ' t h e o r i z e d r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y ' ) . The reader.  case study r e p o r t had to e s t a b l i s h i t s "reasonableness" to the  S u s t a i n i n g the d i a l e c t i c was not s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f  dialectic  i s not a form  - "the  to which appeals are made" (Kemmis, 1980: 1 3 7 ) . The  d i a l e c t i c needed to be c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the case study r e p o r t - " i t i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n and a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of r a t i o n a l i t y as reasonableness."  (p. 137)  The s c e p t i c always c o n f i r m s t h a t r e l a t i v e l y few a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s may be s u s t a i n e d and r e l a t i v e l y few independent c o n j e c t u r e s can be r e f u t e d by the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n the r e p o r t . That i s why i f case study i s to be j u s t i f i e d , i t must make i t s p r o c e s s a c c e s s i b l e to the r e a d e r : so t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to e v a l u a t e the reasonableness o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the c a s e . To confound the n e g a t i v i s t i c c r i t i c i s m of the s c e p t i c , the author of a case study r e p o r t must s e t out the reasonableness of h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the case, thus p r o v o k i n g reasoned c r i t i q u e r a t h e r than simple doubt. For the r e a d e r , the r e p o r t i s an a r t e f a c t of s o c i a l l i f e and i s judged a c c o r d i n g l y ; i t i s not above criticism. (p. The  case study s a c r i f i c e d a degree of connectedness  122)  to 'theoretical  development' by not a d o p t i n g g o a l s of f o r m a l i s t i c g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . 1  than c r i t i c a l itself  Rather  a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s , the case study opened  to 'reasoned  the c a s e . '  1  c r i t i q u e u s i n g the reasonableness  of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  T h i s s h i f t was made p o s s i b l e by the process of n e g o t i a t i o n which  a l l o w e d the s u s t a i n e d development of the d i a l e c t i c of the i m a g i n a t i o n of the case and the i n v e n t i o n of the s t u d y .  Since t h i s g e n e r a l i s a t i o n was d i r e c t l y  174 concerned with i n f o r m i n g c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  the a b i l i t y of the  r e a d e r to have access to e v a l u a t i n g the case study became i m p e r a t i v e . a p p e a l t o ' r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n ' of the d i a l e c t i c p a r t i c i p a n t s was not enough.  and the endorsement o f  T r u t h was not u n e q u i v o c a l .  n e c e s s a r y to n e g o t i a t e the p r i n c i p l e s and procedures study and to i n c l u d e these i n the r e p o r t . the d i a l e c t i c ,  The  I t was t h e r e f o r e  f o r bounding the case  Such continuous  n e g o t i a t i o n was  and an a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l of t h i s process i n the every-day  language of p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e d a means of e x p e r i e n t i a l  understanding.  175 CHAPTER IX NEGOTIATION AND THE OF THE FOUR HCP  At  the time of the i n i t i a l  PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES EVALUATION CASE STUDIES  two  case s t u d i e s of the HCP  a l s o d u r i n g the conduct of the second  two  (1968-70) and  (1970-72) the "importance  of  n e g o t i a t i o n as a method of data c o l l e c t i o n and involvement of p a r t i c i p a n t s " was  underestimated  (Simons,  1977:  26).  The much d i s c u s s e d SAFARI i n t e n t to  f a c i l i t a t e p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r o l over access and r e l e a s e of data was  reported  by Walker as a r e s u l t of the ' s t y l e of case study developed by MacDonald' d u r i n g the HCP  evaluation.  Such a r e s u l t , however, was  not an acceptance  a r e f i n e d s t y l e but a r e a c t i o n to the p r o b l e m a t i c and o v e r t l y s t y l e of the e a r l y case s t u d i e s . to  be done, and what was  r a t h e r than a developed to  of  undemocratic  These cases were examples of what ought  not  needed to safeguard a g a i n s t s i m i l a r problems style.  N e g o t i a t i o n became a key concept i n response  a r e l a t i v e d e a r t h of n e g o t i a t i o n i n e a r l y case  studies.  I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Four S t u d i e s MacDonald conducted  h i s case s t u d i e s without n e g o t i a t o n of the  p u b l i c a t i o n as expounded by the SAFARI w r i t i n g s .  final  He d i d , however, t r y t o  c a p t u r e the " s u b j e c t i v e meanings of a c t i o n s " of the s c h o o l dynamics (MacDonald, 1978b: 3 1 ) . 'instance i n action.' defined' as of HCP  The The  ' e x p e r i e n c e ' of the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l became the  ' c o n d i t i o n s ' o f each attempt  ' i s s u e s ' t h a t needed to be r e s o l v e d .  The  to innovate were  ' l i n e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n '  MacDonald's e v a l u a t i o n f o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n of t h i s r e s o l v e , or l a c k of resolve.  He  (and l a t e r  the other members of the e v a l u a t i o n team) looked  " p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r evidence of dissonance and consonance between the n o t i o n  176  of a u t h o r i t y i m p l i c i t i n the P r o j e c t ' s e x p e r i m e n t a l a u t h o r i t y embodied i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and  form and  policy"  the n o t i o n s  of  (MacDonald, 1978b:  35). I r o n i c a l l y , when the a u t h o r i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e of s c h o o l of each case study was by  the e v a l u a t o r was  increased,  decreased.  o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s had  the  'democratisation'  the  of the  study  Where the head e x e r c i s e d most a u t h o r i t y , the  l e a s t c o n t r o l over access  and  r e l e a s e , and  vice  versa. MacDonald case s t u d i e d a 'number of s c h o o l s ' but he p u b l i s h e d cases,  per  se  (MacDonald, 1978b).  the other Canon R o b e r t s . Both s t u d i e s were of the or t r i a l  stage  In 1970  The  One  was  names of p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o anonymatised.  'experience  of i n n o v a t i o n ' d u r i n g  the  s t u d i e s of e l e v e n  'implementation stage' began.  'measurement phase.'  schools.  occasions.  to u n t r a i n e d  The  e v a l u a t i o n team Verma  Simons and Humble conducted  case  U n l i k e the seven day mandate of 'condensed  s t u d i e s of the s i x t r a i n e d s c h o o l s  visits  experimental  Gajendra Verma j o i n e d .  f i e l d w o r k , ' Simons and Humble v a r i e d the time spent  separate  the  of the c u r r i c u l u m development (1968-70).  the second or  on  two  f i c t i t i o u s l y named R o s e h i l l and  expanded as Helen Simons, Stephen Humble and concentrated  only  l a s t e d from one  i n each s c h o o l . to three days on  Case four  From the maximum of twelve days a t t r a i n e d s c h o o l s , s c h o o l s were s h o r t e r than one  day  each, on  less  the  than f o u r  occasions. One titled,  of the u n t r a i n e d "A D i s a s t e r C a l l :  s c h o o l s was  the s u b j e c t of the s h o r t e r case  the Study of Redmore's d e a l i n g s with  (Simons and Humble, 1978).  Humble and  circumstances'  They presented  a t Redmore.  Simons s t u d i e d the  study  the p r o j e c t "  'unique  the i s s u e s of the case assuming  177 t h a t t h e i r p o r t r a y a l would c o n t r i b u t e to "understanding of  the g e n e r a l process  c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n " (p. 19). The  second  l o n g e r study p u b l i s h e d i n , From C o u n c i l to Classroom:  E v a l u a t i o n of the D i f f u s i o n of the Humanities Humble, 1978), was  of a t r a i n e d s c h o o l and  C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t (Simons and  i t s L o c a l Education A u t h o r i t y .  Case study i n the management of c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n : Comprehensive S c h o o l , B r o o k s h i r e County" was c o m p r i s i n g 61 pages of t e x t . d i f f e r e n t from  The  written i n six sections  Rather  than the l o c a l  t r a i n i n g course.'  ' c e n t r a l r e s i d e n t i a l f i v e - d a y c o n f e r e n c e , ' the HCP  as  education  a u t h o r i t y sending d e l e g a t e s to a c e n t r a l t r a i n i n g c o u r s e , the l o c a l in-service  staff  In p l a c e of the  team worked l o c a l l y i n  Brookshire. When Simons and Humble chose  to i n c l u d e f o u r 'case p r o f i l e s '  e v a l u a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n ) which were 'based on case study work, encountered  1  (in their  they  a dilemma:  Each time we t r i e d to d i s t i l the case study i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o p r o f i l e s , we were unaware t h a t we ran the r i s k of d i s t o r t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e and o v e r - s i m p l i f y i n g what we knew to be v e r y complex s i t u a t i o n s : what we have t r i e d -to do i s p r e s e n t the ' c r i t i c a l ' i n f o r mation ( i . e . , i n f o r m a t i o n which seems n e c e s s a r y to g a i n some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the whole e x p e r i e n c e ) i n the b r i e f e s t p o s s i b l e form and, by j u x t a p o s i n g the p r o f i l e s , to convey the d i v e r s i t y of e x p e r i e n c e s with the project.  (Simons and Humble, 1978:  114)  Readers of the p r o f i l e s do not have access to the case r e c o r d s , which were e i t h e r not completed available.  "A  Brookland  authors d e s c r i b e d the implementation  the ' n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . '  were p r o v i d e d w i t h 'an extended  An  f o r p u b l i c a t i o n or not deemed s u i t a b l e .  They were not  Hence the p r o f i l e s were w r i t t e n with the aim of p r o v i d i n g the  ' c r i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ' n e c e s s a r y to g a i n some 'understanding of the whole  178  experience.'  The reader of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , u n l i k e those o f Simons and  Humble, can g a i n access to the f o u r cases of the HCP e v a l u a t i o n . Consequently,  the f o l l o w i n g ' p r o f i l e s ' and analyses are not intended t o  p r o v i d e an understanding Instead, t h e ' c r i t i c a l  of the 'whole e x p e r i e n c e ' o f each case  information' provided w i l l  be t h a t which addressed the  development o f the n e g o t i a t i o n and p r i n c i p l e s and procedures study t r a d i t i o n s :  The  study.  of the CARE case  the e t h i c s of a c c e s s , r e l e a s e and j u s t i c e .  R o s e h i l l Study The R o s e h i l l Study had the l e a s t semblance to the case study ' s t y l e ' p u t  forward by MacDonald and Walker d u r i n g the l a t e r SAFARI w r i t i n g s . c u r r i c u l u m had been i n i t i a t e d do a case study  'from  over a year, MacDonald sought  t h e Headmaster i n a l e t t e r . '  subsequent ' n e g o t i a t i o n ' : w i t h the n o n - P r o j e c t s t a f f ,  " P e r m i s s i o n was granted I understand)"  A f t e r the  'permission' t o  MacDonald d e s c r i b e d the (without any c o n s u l t a t i o n  (MacDonald, 1978: 1 3 1 ) .  The A u t h o r i t y o f the Head MacDonald i n c l u d e d m a t e r i a l i n the study t h a t e x p l o r e d meanings of a u t h o r i t y ' a t R o s e h i l l . authority.  He asked  'the v a r i o u s  the Head about h i s own  Mr. Edwards r e p l i e d : I'm as democratic as p o s s i b l e , b u t on o c c a s i o n I have to be the a u t o c r a t . . . T h e s t a f f l i k e me t o make d e c i s i o n s because i t makes l i f e e a s i e r f o r them, and y e t I do with some t h i n g s keep throwing i t back a t them because I want them to be i n v o l v e d . F i r s t the s t a f f d i s c u s s . . . b u t i t o f t e n b o i l s down to the f a c t t h a t I have to s t i c k my neck out because we would never g e t a d e c i s i o n otherwise. (p. 80)  179  MacDonald began h i s study with o n l y  the  ' o u t l i n e ' of h i s ' i n t e r e s t  proposed procedures'  o f the summer 1969  letter  s c h o o l i n September.  F i v e weeks l a t e r  there was  students  he had  interviewed.  members of s t a f f and  They had  to the Head.  He  visited  and the  an i n c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g  been 'hauled  out' o f c l a s s by  f o r c e d to r e v e a l the substance of these  two  interviews.  The  i n c i d e n t caused an e s c a l a t i o n of disharmony between the Humanities s t a f f  (who  were not i n v o l v e d ) and was  called  some of the  to which MacDonald was  Humanities t e a c h e r s , who  'non-project'  asked to a t t e n d by  l e d the d i s c u s s i o n .  extraneous i s s u e s without  ' n e g o t i a t i o n of a c c e s s , '  amicably.'  MacDonald had  F i n a l l y a meeting  the  leader of  The meeting sounded  coming to the i s s u e of the i n t e r v i e w e d  T h i s meeting, which c o u l d have formed the type t o as  staff.  out students.  of n e g o t i a t i o n forum a l l u d e d  'reached no c o n c l u s i o n s ' and  first,  the  'dispersed  however, ' b l u n t l y ' s t a t e d h i s  role:  I d i d so b r i e f l y , and I t h i n k b l u n t l y , emphasising t h a t I d i d seek i n f o r m a t i o n about the a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e of the s c h o o l , the p u p i l s ' e x p e r i e n c e of d i s c i p l i n e , and t h e i r experience of r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the s t a f f . I a l s o s a i d t h a t I used i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from p u p i l s to cross-check statements made by their teachers. (MacDonald, 1978b: This,  then, was  the  ' r o l e n e g o t i a t i o n ' about access  ' c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ' nor introduced. The offered  No  any  R o s e h i l l implementation was little  'evidence  c o n c l u s i o n of the study provide  "advice  the P r o j e c t . "  to i n f o r m a t i o n .  of the other p r i n c i p l e s of the  f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n was  the e v a l u a t o r  The  ' e t h i c ' were  'effective'  f o r MacDonald to e x p l o r e .  asked the Humanities teachers  t h a t they would g i v e to headmasters who T h i s m a t e r i a l was  Neither  reported.  an exemplar.  of d i s s o n a n c e '  143)  innovation At  the  to  were about to  begin  summarised i n t o f o u r of the 144 pages of  180  t e x t on R o s e h i l l . T h i s was  the e x t e n t  the case s t u d y . g r a n t e d by for  The  teachers  'agreed on each p o i n t a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n . '  of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the n e g o t i a t i o n  In the absence of any  other  data,  of r e l e a s e  the i n i t i a l  permission  the headmaster would appear to have c o n s t i t u t e d the  p u b l i c a t i o n of the  of  approbation  study.  Canon Roberts School In h i s second case study MacDonald d e s c r i b e d  the head's ' p o l i c y and  power' a t Canon Robert's as a ' b e l i e f i n a h o r i z o n t a l d e c i s i o n making structure.'  The  head, Mr.  Summers, d e s c r i b e d  i t thus:  ...I'm o r g a n i z i n g t h i s s c h o o l i n the same s o r t o f way i n which our l a r g e community i s organized - democratically. I t diminishes my i n f l u e n c e , but what i f I had a fundamental p o l i c y which was opposed by the m a j o r i t y of my teachers? T h i s would be chaos. T h i s devine r i g h t of heads i s a bunch of nonsense... I f we have d e c i s i o n s t h a t are taken which are i n e f f i c i e n t i n one sense because they are not d o i n g the job t h a t I would l i k e to see done, they are e f f i c i e n t i n the sense t h a t the r i g h t p e o p l e took the d e c i s i o n - wrong or r i g h t . (MacDonald, 1978b: Mr.  P a r r y was  the  l e a d e r of the HCP  asked him  what he  he d i d n ' t  t h i n k i t worked.  didn't Mr.  like  K e l l y was  thought of 'the  decision-making s t r u c t u r e . '  never put  a Humanities teacher  to say:  on Mr.  anything being  up  able  Parry's  were s i m i l a r l y c r i t i c a l .  weakness of the s c h o o l ' was  The  s t a f f a t Canon Roberts, and  the i d e a of some 'young pup'  the head's p h i l o s o p h y  willing  He  186)  stated  t h i s w i l l be done" (MacDonald, 1978: any  stated  to vote down h i s  a l a c k of a f i r m h i e r a r c h y :  above comments were made before  He  f o r d i s c u s s i o n and  team and  He  MacDonald  reference  he  ideas.  h i s comments the  that  on  'fundamental  "someone who's  187). to p u b l i c a t i o n of  the  181  case study had been s u g g e s t e d . 'remarks would f i n d  The teachers  t h e i r way i n t o p r i n t . '  MacDonald had sought p e r m i s s i o n  had n o t ' r e a l i s e d ' t h a t  their  T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n came o n l y a f t e r  to p u b l i s h the case study - a f t e r i t s  c o m p l e t i o n and n o t from them b u t from the headmaster, Mr. Summers.  The head,  in  to h i s  faith  to h i s ' b e l i e f s , ' would o n l y agree to the r e l e a s e  former c o l l e a g u e s  "subject  a t Canon Robert's c e n t r a l l y concerned i n the work being of  l i k e mind" ( p . 259).  Ironically,  i t was the notions  of a u t h o r i t y embodied i n  Canon Robert's i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e that not o n l y a f f e c t e d the implementation b u t a l s o the e v a l u a t i o n enter  of t h e HCP.  MacDonald was f o r c e d t o  i n t o a ' n e g o t i a t i o n of r e l e a s e ' which r a i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e  the v a l i d i t y o f h i s  ' p o r t r a y a l of i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y . '  When the team was given were extremeley c r i t i c a l  an ' o p p o r t u n i t y '  of the c o n t e n t s . '  they were i n no mood to a l l o w p u b l i c a t i o n :  t o read  the case study  The teachers  case, t h i s d i d n o t always prove p o s s i b l e "  case s t u d y . One"  (MacDonald, 1978b: 261).  I t was t i t l e d  T h i s was i n c o r p o r a t e d  their  as an addendum to the  "Canon Roberts - P a r t Two - A r e f u t a t i o n o f P a r t  Humanities team a t Canon Robert's School found i t d i f f i c u l t  'commentary a t the l e v e l of p r o f e s s i o n a l disagreement.'  afforded  the o p p o r t u n i t y  to keep  When they were  to r e a c t to the case study i t was not i n the s p i r i t  ' n e g o t i a t i o n of c o n t r o l ' e n v i s i o n e d  by Simons.  i s s u e s of r e l e a s e became a concern, the s c h o o l way  to i n c l u s i o n of a  (p. 183) . The  of  assessment.'  initially  But, i n the nature o f  MacDonald agreed to an o f f e r to a l l o w p u b l i c a t i o n s u b j e c t 'written c r i t i c a l  wrote t h a t  'they  "We were concerned to keep the  commentary a t the l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l disagreement. the  c r i t i c i s m of  o f ' n e g o t i a t i o n of a c c e s s . '  Furthermore, before the  s t a f f had had l i t t l e  MacDonald had asked the head only  i n the i f he  182  c o u l d share to  information with  ' f e l l o w e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s ' i n order  ' p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement.'  The  to g a i n  head agreed on c o n d i t i o n t h a t  access  no  i n f o r m a t i o n would "impugn the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e g r i t y of any member of  Staff"  (p. 278).  there  for  There was  the two  teaching  years  no mention a t t h i s  t h a t the s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  of the l i f e  of the School  members of the c e n t r a l team" (p. team a t the s c h o o l was  w i t h i n the  s t y l e and pains  'put some of t h e s e ' to r a t i o n a l i s e  their  nor  was  stage.'  "openly  The  discussed  appeared to be of i n t e r e s t  to  280). a f f o r d e d no o p p o r t u n i t y  to monitor the  the s c h o o l of i n f o r m a t i o n from or about them.  t h a t allowed MacDonald to take  at  'trial  s t a f f , g i v e n such a vague ' n e g o t i a t i o n of access'  whatever aspects  The  time of a case study,  I t was  this  use fact  the comments made about the head's democratic to him. 'less  In the  ' r e f u t a t i o n ' the teachers  than f l a t t e r i n g ' comments.  were  These  c r i t i c i s m s were made " a t a time when [ t h e i r ] f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n were perhaps a t t h e i r most i n t e n s e " the p h i l o s o p h y The  (p. 278).  of the head i n more c o n c i l i a t o r y  Canon Robert's teachers  They f e l t  They went on a t l e n g t h to d i s c u s s  were most upset  of the S c h o o l "  gained  with  this  (p. 256).  s u f f i c i e n t evidence  supporting  evidence  school s t a f f .  The  The  evidence  i n the day  through open-ended i n t e r v i e w s nor  from p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , Canon Robert's team f e l t  deceived  regarding  strong c r i t i c i s m  style.  HCP  evaluator's  countered  day  sought  i n the o p i n i o n of  t h e i r comments i l l u s t r a t e d  f o r MacDonald's  to  any  r e s e a r c h e r s would appear to have n e i t h e r  ' p o s s i b i l i t y of p u b l i c a t i o n ' and  The  'putting i t to.'  the remarks were " u n c r i t i c a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the r e p o r t without  apparent attempt to seek a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t i n g life  terms.  the  the  t h a t they  had  the n o t i o n of d e c e i t with a r e f e r e n c e  to a  183  l e t t e r w r i t t e n to the s c h o o l by the S c h o o l s L i a i s o n O f f i c e r , Jean Rudduck. The  t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e d the l e t t e r  i n their  refutation directing  d e c i d e whether the contents should have a l e r t e d publication. did  The passage i n Rudduck's l e t t e r  the reader to  them to the p o s s i b i l i t y o f  t h a t l e d to the misconceptions  not, indeed, p r e s e n t an i n t e n t t o p u b l i s h : The study w i l l be planned and s u p e r v i s e d by B a r r y MacDonald, our E v a l u a t i o n O f f i c e r . He w i l l want to v i s i t your s c h o o l f o r , i n g e n e r a l , two p e r i o d s of about ten days each. While t h e r e , he would hope to study the o r g a n i s a t i o n of the s c h o o l , l e a r n something of the l o c a l i t y , t a l k to the s t a f f , p u p i l s and some p a r e n t s , and make sound v i d e o - t a p e recordings. The data o b t a i n e d would be regarded as c o n f i d e n t i a l and on no account c o u l d i t be made a v a i l a b l e o u t s i d e the p r o j e c t and e v a l u a t i o n teams w i t h o u t the p r i o r consent of the s c h o o l and i n d i v i d u a l s concerned. (p. 256)  While by  the l e t t e r does n o t s t a t e p u b l i c a t i o n would not take p l a c e , the c l a i m  the t e a c h e r s t h a t the l e t t e r ' s contents d i d not ' a l e r t them to the  p o s s i b i l i t y ' seems q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e . their  The second  i s s u e , which they  ' c e n t r a l t h e s i s ' , was a l s o r a i s e d by t h i s passage.  i n t e n t was to study the o r g a n i s a t i o n , l o c a l i t y ,  called  The expressed  s t a f f , p u p i l s and p a r e n t s .  MacDonald was to do a l l o f t h i s i n two p e r i o d s of about ten days each. did,  i n f a c t , v i s i t Canon Robert's  January  twice.  He  However, a two day v i s i t i n  1969 was made t e n months b e f o r e the l e t t e r  r e g a r d i n g the r e q u e s t to  case study the s c h o o l (September, 1969).  During  the 1969-70 s c h o o l year ( t h e  year of the study) he made o n l y one v i s i t  of two days.  A f t e r Rudduck's  i n d i c a t i o n of twenty days, MacDonald was i n the s c h o o l o n l y 2 days. D e s c r i b i n g the f i r s t v i s i t he a l s o acknowledged t h a t s i n c e Canon Robert's had used  t h e HCP as a s i n g l e component i n a ' l a r g e r programme f o r e a r l y  learners'  184  he had  had  d i f f i c u l t y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g 'between r e a c t i o n s to t h i s programme  a whole and initial  r e a c t i o n s to the P r o j e c t p r o p e r . '  concern (to understand the c o n t e x t  the i n n o v a t i o n s no  expectations)  - the p a t t e r n of implementation "This  was  as more i n v o l v e d  Compounding the problem of the P r o j e c t w i t h i n a p r o j e c t , the  school  had  task."  attempted with problem and  the  l a r g e r p r o j e c t to d e a l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  an e d u c a t i o n a l  problem.  main disagreements between the HCP the a c t u a l experience failed  This  c e n t r a l team and  of the p r o j e c t .  The  Stenhouse.  followed  felt  team  t h a t the HCP  s c h o o l and  a u t h o r i t y i m p l i c a t i o n s of the P r o j e c t " of a s e r i e s by  the CARE s t a f f  had  the  regarding team  had  been  the h e e l s of a December  he had  perhaps not f u l l y (p. 198).  school.  similar  (of a ' b r i e f  length)  "Team leader i s an  that followed  a u t h o r i t y throughout the study of the i n January, 1969,  c l o s e on  stated:  a u t h o r i t a r i a n with p l e n t y of energy and  later,  the s c h o o l  Stenhouse's ' r o u t i n e v i s i t '  r e s u l t e d i n a w r i t t e n r e p o r t where he  first  School  the source of  over-simplifying.  MacDonald's f i r s t v i s i t had v i s i t by  with a c o n t r o l  i n t e n t i o n was  to understand the a c t u a l p a t t e r n a t the  s u p e r f i c i a l and  1968  his  than expected:  simple  and  MacDonald c o n s i d e r e d  as  understanding  Stenhouse's remark was the  of the  theme of too much  When MacDonald v i s i t e d  "impressions":  I r e p o r t e d my impressions of t h i s v i s i t to a c e n t r a l s t a f f team meeting on the 22nd January 1969. The minutes r e c o r d I was p e s s i m i s t i c about the p r o s p e c t s f o r the P r o j e c t i n t h a t setting. There appeared to be c o n f l i c t between the need to move away from a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m which the P r o j e c t c a l l e d f o r , and a move towards a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m which the s c h o o l team saw as a p r e - c o n d i t i o n of effective curricular action. (p.  217)  a month  185  MacDonald based h i s impressions ' r e f l e c t e d Mr.  on an  i n t e r v i e w with Mr.  P a r r y ' s views f a i r l y c l e a r l y . '  Parry which  MacDonald surmised t h a t  "the  team were r e l u c t a n t to employ modes of i n q u i r y t h a t might p r e j u d i c e the c o n t r o l they had  achieved"  (p. 217).^ The  t e x t of the i n t e r v i e w was  of behaviour problems encountered by P a r r y stages  of the p r o j e c t .  control."  The  There was  and  h i s team d u r i n g  these  no mention of a f e a r of l o s i n g  perhaps too d i f f i c u l t  p u p i l s " was  litany  the e a r l y "tight  o n l y apparent d i g r e s s i o n from a d i s c u s s i o n of "the  problems posed by  a  particular  the a l l e g a t i o n t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m  (an a l l e g a t i o n made by  teachers  tight  i n most of the  was  case  studies): And we're having t h i s t e r r i b l e problem, you see. I wonder whether, b a s i c a l l y , i t doesn't seem to be aimed a t the wrong a b i l i t y range...I mean, we stand on our heads, t r y e v e r y way we p o s s i b l y can, and y e t many of the m a t e r i a l s j u s t do not go. (p. P a r r y had  expressed  215)  t h i s same sentiment i n more c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l language t o  Stenhouse when he had  first visited.  MacDonald r e p o r t e d P a r r y ' s  rememberance  as t h a t of t e l l i n g Stenhouse i f the p r o j e c t d i d n ' t work a t t h e i r s c h o o l " i t is  going  Parry's  to f a i l  i n thousands of s c h o o l s  observations  P a r r y was  marked by  were s u b s t a n t i a t e d by h i s team members. the HCP  team as an  MacDonald's p e r c e p t i o n o f P a r r y ' s e v a l u a t o r having  throughout the country"  viewed a c l a s s of the  the e v a l u a t i o n team and Despite  a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m was team l e a d e r .  s t a t e d t h a t i t had  the HCP  Nevertheless,  made without  In f a c t ,  they had  the  the m a j o r i t y  observations.  been convenient  the development team as one,  h i s p r i m a r y r o l e as  221).  " i n f l u e n c e " that needed a t t e n t i o n .  MacDonald's e n t i r e case r e c o r d came from John E l l i o t ' s the Canon Robert's team had  (p.  When  to t h i n k of good  development team c o o r d i n a t o r ,  reason. Elliot's  of '  186  comments and c o l l e c t e d data became a major source case  study  of t h e HCP e v a l u a t i o n team  record.  Elliot  had s a t i n on a l l three of the morning groups of the Humanities  on one of h i s v i s i t s . One of these groups was the only o b s e r v a t i o n made o f Parry's  style.  Elliot  called  i t ' c o l d e r , more f o r m a l . '  e l e v e n months a f t e r MacDonald's f i r s t v i s i t , p r o j e c t had s t a r t e d .  This v i s i t  was made  f o u r t e e n months a f t e r the  When he drew c o n c l u s i o n s about the ' d e f e a t i s t '  a t t i t u d e s encountered, he had h i g h l i g h t e d the statement of one teacher Parry The  'was a l l o w i n g the P r o j e c t to s l i d e  acquiesence  of t h a t teacher  that  f o r the young s c h o o l - l e a v e r group.'  t o P a r r y ' s d e f e a t i s m was drawn i n t o a g e n e r a l  conclusion. The problem seems to be to g e t members of the team a c t i n g on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e and t o s t o p subduing i n d i v i d u a l judgements i n the i n t e r e s t s of s o l i d a r i t y or l o y a l t y . " ( p . 228) Elliot  returned  to the s c h o o l f o u r months l a t e r  the experiment on 'more e x p e r i m e n t a l visit  on February  1970, a week l a t e r .  MacDonald recounted  then o n l y a f t e r  243).  He f o l l o w e d up t h i s  attempted  E l l i o t wrote "only a few students  'chairmen' i n the  approach.  Stenhouse made a s p e c i a l v i s i t be done to cope with 221).  spoke,  long s i l e n c e s . . . the d i s c u s s i o n was not a s u c c e s s " (P.  Something had to "be done" about Mr. P a r r y .  (p.  to c h a i r a s u c c e s s f u l  One o f E l l i o t ' s p r i n c i p l e f u n c t i o n s was to t r a i n  Humanities  two day  P a r r y made E l l i o t a c h a l l e n g e .  the i n c i d e n t as E l l i o t  group d i s c u s s i o n of t h e Humanities. and  lines.'  to g e t the s c h o o l to remount  MacDonald r e p o r t e d  to the s c h o o l " t o see whether a n y t h i n g  that could  the a u t h o r i t a r i a n c a s t of the team l e a d e r , Mr. P a r r y "  The v i s i t was c o n s i d e r e d a f a i l u r e  s i n c e P a r r y met Stenhouse  with  187  the  head and  Parry  or any  the HCP  d i r e c t o r couldn't  others learned  they were asked to r e l e a s e Stenhouse c o u l d not  not  - e x c e p t f o r the  of such v i s i t s (p.  the head a l o n e .  The  and  i n the  f e e l i n g s was  first  that  case study  221).  influence  l e a d to a f r e s h s t a r t . '  see  The  the head, and  school  Elliot's  team e v e n t u a l l y  'examination c l a s s e s . '  The  head  'intervention  did  l e t the p r o j e c t  drop  stated:  The team - they're worn o u t . They've stuck to t h e i r guns f o r a v e r y long p e r i o d of time and now some of the steam has gone out of them... they f a i l e d m i s e r a b l y with these k i d s . . . I t h i n k they gave the p r o j e c t a f a i r t r i a l . I would have p r e f e r r e d them to have gone on. I s t i l l have g r e a t f a i t h i n t h i s P r o j e c t ; I t h i n k i t ' s wonderful and has a l o t to o f f e r , these young s c h o o l l e a v e r s . But I must a c c e p t what the team say, t h a t they've given i t e v e r y t h i n g they've got - and i t s f a i l e d . I've even t r i e d to do i t m y s e l f . (p. 243) The  HCP  c e n t r a l team had  r e a s o n f o r the an  conveyed through t h e i r case study t h a t a major  f a i l u r e was  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s c h o o l -  ' a u t h o r i t a r i a n c e l l w i t h i n a democratic s t r u c t u r e . '  disagreed,  considering  of m o n i t o r i n g by The  school  the  school  pointed  out  i n t h e i r ' r e f u t a t i o n ' the  on  the p a r t of the  c e n t r a l team and  insufficiency.  e a r l y ' d e f i c i e n c i e s ' were h e l d  p a r t of the m i s c o n c e p t i o n of a ' c o e r c i v e a d o p t i o n of a c o e r c i v e  style'.  c o n t r o l were c r i t i c i z e d  f a c t s of the  s i t u a t i o n as we  by  the  team  f a u l t of a  c e n t r a l team of the e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s of the  absence of r e s e a r c h  not matching "the  The  t h i s a ' s i m p l i s t i c view' l a r g e l y the  team had  The  within-a-school,  lack  school.  earlier  continued  responsible  for a  large  Assumptions made about the  recall  school  staff  them" (p.  D u r i n g the unmonitored f i r s t months of the p r o j e c t there " u n i l a t e r a l d e c l a r a t i o n of i n t e n t [to t r y to f o s t e r ] . . . a n  was  as  267). a  atmosphere  the  simply  188  congenial  to the t e a c h i n g  s t r a t e g y advocated by t h e P r o j e c t " ( p . 268).  team found, however, t h a t t h e i r outward appearance of being t o l e r a n t and sympathetic  (relative  the a l r e a d y extremely d i f f i c u l t students  to student  experience)  and u n c o o p e r a t i v e  uncommonly  tended to worsen  behaviour of s t u d e n t s .  "would not, or c o u l d not" meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s  from a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m c a l l e d  The  f o r by the P r o j e c t .  The  of the move away  The team concluded  that:  C l e a r l y , the v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n the P r o j e c t ' s s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e p u p i l behaviour, had l i t t l e i n common with the v a l u e s , norms and behaviour p a t t e r n s o f t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t s u b - c u l t u r e which e x e r c i s e d a p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e both w i t h i n and beyond the w a l l s of the S c h o o l . (p. 269) The  school  team f e l t  t h a t the i n s i s t e n c e on the n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n  chairman' r o l e o n l y exacerbated and  behaviour p a t t e r n s . '  'difficult  The p o s s i b l e d e g e n e r a t i o n  s i t u a t i o n was added to by the s c h o o l ' s Visitors  and uncooperative  becoming  came from f a r and near i n s e a r c h  T h i s a t t e n t i o n i n c r e a s e d the ' v o l a t i l i t y  'neutral  v a l u e s , norms  of an a l r e a d y bad  'an o u t s i z e d g o l d f i s h bowl.'  of i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e P r o j e c t . and u n p r e d i c t a b i l t y ' o f the  students. The  team had been attempting  'leavers'. relied  a formal  Things 'were t h r e a t e n i n g  upon as being  themselves d e p l o y i n g  c u r r i c u l u m f o r one hundred  to g e t o u t of hand.'  the ' s l i g h t l y more s t a b l e teacher.' t h e i r emotional  resources  Mr. P a r r y was When others  'found  t o t a l l y with s i t u a t i o n s  s l i p p i n g beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , ' P a r r y became ' p e r f o r c e the l a s t  ditch  disciplinarian.'  Eventually  the  He was c a l l e d upon t o ' r e s t o r e e q u i l i b r i u m . '  team 'took a formal d e c i s i o n ' t o r e t u r n to a r e l a t i o n s h i p where the  teacher  'dominated.'  They f e l t  " t h e r e was no c l e a r a l t e r n a t i v e t o [ t h e i r ]  requirements a t the time" ( p . 271).  The HCP e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d not have  189  realised  these events as there was no one on the scene.  refutation's Parry's  1  v i n d i c a t i o n of Mr. P a r r y :  "...the b l i n d  f a c t l e d to the  a s s e r t i o n of Mr.  a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m i s p l a i n l y an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the i s s u e s  involved"  ( p . 281). MacDonald had impressions  regarding  i a n i s m which were u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d . ' c l e a r l y ' i n d i c a t e d them.  The  team f e l t  misrepresented  Parry's  experience  was a l s o  to make c l e a r the i n t e n t i o n s of the study,  because the team spent i n s u f f i c i e n t  time i n v o l v e d .  'Well over h a l f t h e  t e x t ' o f the case study was drawn from the s c h o o l year p r i o r agreement to be case s t u d i e d .  the ' p o r t r a y a l  by MacDonald as " b l i n d a s s e r t i o n . "  t h a t the l a t e r p a r t of the s c h o o l ' s  because of a f a i l u r e  authoritar-  He proposed to have  The team a t Canon Robert's l a b e l l e d  of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e ' p r e s e n t e d  and  This  The s t a f f  i n f o r m a l , r e l a x e d and f r i e n d l y ' manner.  to the head's  spoke to the r e s e a r c h e r s They d i d not f e e l , l a t e r ,  ' i n an that  their  responses would have been the same had they known the i n t e n t i o n s . No one saw any  t r a n s c r i p t s of tapes or i n t e r v i e w s  draft.  and no one saw any of the case  study  They were not aware of the nature of any of the p u p i l i n t e r v i e w s .  l a c k o f time a t the s c h o o l and the f a i l u r e SAFARI terms) l e d to much c o n f u s i o n  to n e g o t i a t e  and erroneous  interpretation (in  conclusions:  ...they m i s t a k i n g l y e l e c t e d to l i m i t t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l concern to the P r o j e c t proper, on the assumption t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e i t s e f f e c t s i n i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t of t h e School's c u r r i c u l a r arrangements. In our view, i t was a fundamental e r r o r . Two examples o f such c o n f u s i o n that student school  were s i g h t e d .  i n t e r v i e w s would f i n d  team ' s e t up' MacDonald.  The  In one i n s t a n c e ,  not knowing  t h e i r way i n t o a p u b l i c a t i o n , the HCP  190 'Boy  2 - A Set  Up'  When Macdonald had  asked to i n t e r v i e w  majority  of u n - c o o p e r a t i v e p u p i l s ,  s e n t him  'the  i t would be  three  'more than h a l f the s t u d e n t as  t e a c h e r s (one  being  most d i s a f f e c t e d p u p i l s i n the  f o u r t h year.'  They  The  1  t e x t of the  interviews  t o t a l number of responses.'  boy  was  expelled  the  Leaving the s c h o o l  spring he  younger s t u d e n t who  happened to be  MacDonald used the  t e x t of 'Boy  time of making the  recording,  undertake."  He  MacDonald had  uncommonly good e f f e c t " ( p .  interview  always enjoyed by  discussion."  the  was  in  no  and  quarrel."  to get p e r m i s s i o n  "to wag  the  to  h i s v i t u p e r a t i v e tongue to  274).  t r a d i t i o n a l classroom s i z e ) met One  He  " i n a case study which, a t  he hadn't t r o u b l e d boy  a "timid"  he  had  acknowledged h i m s e l f  the P