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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Invasion and resistance: native perspectives of the Kamloops Indian residential school Haig-Brown Vayro, Celia 1986

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INVASION AND RESISTANCE: NATIVE PERSPECTIVES OF THE KAMLOOPS INDIAN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL BY CELIA HAIG-BROWN VAYRO B.A., THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Curriculum and Instruction) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1986 (g)Celia Haig-Brown Vayro In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Cuuo cu*\ujrr\ ond \r\sVrucVor\ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date Sep* e<wW H , \<\ STl DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Few e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s i n C a n a d a e x i s t . Much o f t h e e x t a n t l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n i s b a s e d o n m a t e r i a l s w r i t t e n by E u r o - C a n a d i a n s w i t h o n l y m i n i m a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p e o p l e o f whom t h e y w r i t e . The few m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e w h i c h d i s c u s s r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s u s u a l l y p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t o r t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s whose p o l i c i e s c o n t r o l l e d them. The p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r i s t o p r e s e n t N a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l . T h i r t e e n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h N a t i v e p e o p l e o f t h e c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r m e r s t u d e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l , f o r m t h e n u c l e u s o f t h e s t u d y . B e c a u s e so l i t t l e i s w r i t t e n o f N a t i v e p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s a n d b e c a u s e t h e i n t e r i o r p e o p l e t r a d i t i o n a l l y h a v e an o r a l c u l t u r e , i n t e r v i e w i n g was deemed t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e . T h r o u g h t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' own w o r d s , t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f l e a v i n g home, o f a r r i v i n g a t s c h o o l , o f s u r v i v i n g t h e d a i l y r o u t i n e s o f t h e s c h o o l , o f r e s i s t i n g t h e o p p r e s s i v e s t r u c t u r e i m p o s e d a n d , f i n a l l y , o f r e t u r n i n g home a r e r e s t r u c t u r e d . Two m a i n c o n c e p t s , c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n and r e s i s t a n c e , a r e o f p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e . I n f o r m a n t s were s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s t i m e p e r i o d s o f t h e s c h o o l ' s o p e r a t i o n . A c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t was made t o m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n m a l e and f e m a l e v i e w s , p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e v i e w s and t h e v i e w s o f s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d e d f o r l o n g e r and s h o r t e r t i m e s p a n s . I n a d d i t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m a number o f d i f f e r e n t Shuswap bands and i i f r o m b a n d s o u t s i d e t h e Shuswap N a t i o n w e r e s e l e c t e d . E f f o r t s w e r e a l s o made t o e n s u r e N a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d a t a a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . B a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t h r e e g r o u p s i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l - - t h e Shuswap, t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e g o v e r n m e n t s - - w a s o b t a i n e d f r o m v a r i o u s a r c h i v e s and l i b r a r i e s . The most o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e w h i c h i s r e v e a l e d by t h i s s t u d y i s t h e e x t e n t and c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e r e s i s t a n c e movement w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s d e v e l o p e d a g a i n s t t h e i n v a s i v e p r e s e n c e o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . The s t r u g g l e s f o r power and c o n t r o l w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l may be s e e n a s a m i c r o c o s m o f t h e o n - g o i n g s t u g g l e o f N a t i v e p e o p l e w i t h t h e E u r o - C a n a d i a n p r e s e n c e i n t h i s c o u n t r y . The n e e d t o d e v e l o p a m o d e l d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l one w h i c h c h u r c h , s t a t e and a c a d e m i c s t o o f r e q u e n t l y h a v e i m p o s e d u p o n N a t i v e p e o p l e - - o n e b a s e d on a u t h e n t i c d i a l o g u e - - i s shown. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f a q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e , a r e n u m e r o u s . From s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e s u c h as a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s a n d l a n g u a g e r e t e n t i o n t o more g e n e r a l c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l w i t h o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s o r o f t h e e f f e c t s o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , many p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e r a i s e d . U l t i m a t e l y e m e r g e s a p i c t u r e o f s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l s a n d s t r o n g c u l t u r e g r o w i n g , a d a p t i n g and s u r v i v i n g . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE I . INTRODUCTION 1 P r o b l e m S t a t e m e n t . 1 R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 6 I I . METHODOLOGY 16 The R e a s o n s 16 The M e t h o d s 21 I I I . S E T T I N G THE SCENE 30 The G o v e r n m e n t s 33 M i s s i o n a r i e s 37 The Secwepemc . . .43 IV. FROM HOME TO SCHOOL 49 A t Home 49 The T r a n s i t i o n 59 V. SCHOOL L I F E 75 The S c h o o l Day 76 E x t r a c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s 97 D i s c i p l i n e .105 F a m i l y V i s i t s a n d Summer H o l i d a y s . . . 110 V I . THE RESISTANCE 125 V I I . GOING HOME 148 V I I I . CONCLUSIONS 164 IX . BIBLIOGRAPHY 173 X. APPENDICES 180 A. I n f o r m a n t s .181 B. I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 182 C. Map o f B a n d s o f Shuswap N a t i o n . . .183 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r - q u i l t m a k e r t h a n k s t h o s e members o f t h e Shuswap, Thompson, L i l l o o e t and C h i l c o t i n N a t i o n s who s h a r e d so f r e e l y i n a l l o w i n g h e r t o l i s t e n t o t h e s t o r i e s . Thanks a r e a l s o due t o t h e Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y B o a r d and s t a f f p a r t i c u l a r l y R i t a J a c k and R o b e r t Matthew f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e , s u g g e s t i o n s and t r u s t . F i n a l l y I am g r a t e f u l t o my b r o t h e r A l a n H a i g - B r o w n f o r a l l h i s s u p p o r t , t o my a d v i s o r D r . Jane G a s k e l l f o r h e r c o n f i d e n c e and h e r d i s c e r n i n g comments and t o t h e members o f my c o m m i t t e e , J o - a n n A r c h i b a l d and Dr. A r t More f o r t h e i r most h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . v C H A P T E R X I N T R O D U C T I O N E v e r y t i m e I h e a r a w h i t e p e r s o n t a l k i n g a b o u t I n d i a n s , I g e t k n o t s i n my s t o m a c h . " V e r n a K i r k n e s s D i r e c t o r o f N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y o f BC 1 The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x a m i n e N a t i v e p e o p l e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l as r e v e a l e d i n t h e s t o r i e s w h i c h t h e y t e l l o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s t h e r e . Two m a j o r c o n c e p t s - - c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n a n d r e s i s t a n c e — e m e r g e a s s i g n i f i c a n t f r o m t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h i r t e e n N a t i v e p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d t h e s c h o o l a t some t i m e d u r i n g i t s e x i s t e n c e f r o m 1893 t o 1 967. A n t i d i a l o g i c a l a c t i o n , t h a t i s a c t i o n b a s e d o n t h e d e s i r e o f one g r o u p i n s o c i e t y t o d o m i n a t e and c o n t r o l a n o t h e r g r o u p t h r o u g h s i l e n c i n g t h a t g r o u p , i s a f o c a l p o i n t o f P a u l o F r e i r e ' s p e d a g o g i c a l t h e o r y . H i s n o t i o n o f c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n i s o f a phenomenon i n w h i c h : " . . . t h e i n v a d e r s p e n e t r a t e t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t o f a n o t h e r g r o u p , i n d i s r e s p e c t o f t h e l a t t e r * s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s ; t h e y i m p o s e t h e i r own v i e w o f t h e w o r l d u p o n t h o s e t h e y i n v a d e a nd i n h i b i t t h e c r e a t i v i t y o f t h e i n v a d e d by c u r b i n g t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n . " 2 E d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s e e n i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , d e v e l o p e d by i m m i g r a n t E u r o p e a n s and t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s f o r N a t i v e p e o p l e i n C a n a d a h a s t y p i c a l l y b e e n an e x p r e s s i o n o f c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n . As a u t h o r s o f and a c t o r s i n t h e i n v a s i o n , members o f t h e d o m i n a t i n g s o c i e t y h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o m o l d and h a v e c h o s e n and a c t e d f o r N a t i v e p e o p l e who a s o b j e c t s o f t h e 1 i n v a s i o n were e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w t h e c h o i c e s made f o r them. F r e i r e goes on t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h i s k i n d o f d o m i n a t i o n i s p e r p e t r a t e d t h r o u g h i n v a s i o n w h e t h e r o v e r t and p h y s i c a l o r c a m o u f l a g e d w i t h t h e i n v a d e r i n t h e r o l e o f t h e h e l p i n g f r i e n d . F r e i r e ' s d i s c u s s i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t when e d u c a t i o n i s d e s i g n e d i n d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e g r o u p f o r whom i t i s i n t e n d e d , an o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , one i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p t o t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l as human b e i n g s . On t h e o t h e r hand, when t h e p o l i c y d e s i g n e r s a r e f r o m a c u l t u r a l o r c l a s s g r o u p i n g o t h e r t h a n t h e one f o r whom t h e s c h o o l i n g i s i n t e n d e d , a l l t o o f r e q u e n t l y , t h e r e s u l t a n t s y s t e m i s o p p r e s s i v e and d e b i l i t a t i n g . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d e d t h e Ka m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l r e v e a l s t h e a n t i d i a l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e p o l i c i e s w h i c h were d e s i g n e d t o c o n t r o l t h e i r l i v e s . The s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e s e g o v e r n m e n t a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p o l i c i e s most o f t e n p r o v e d t o be o f d u b i o u s o r n e g a t i v e v a l u e f o r t h e N a t i v e c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d e d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . I n a l m o s t a l l c a s e s , i t was l e s s s u c c e s s f u l t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d by p o l i c y m a k e r s , t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s a l i k e . A l t h o u g h s i m i l a r n o t i o n s have been e x a m i n e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e c e n t d e c a d e s , l i t t l e o f t h e w r i t i n g h a s i n v o l v e d t h e a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f N a t i v e p e o p l e . I n i t i a l l y , s t u d i e s o f N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n w e re d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e E u r o p e a n p e r s p e c t i v e . S u c c e s s was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e 2 s c h o o l ' s a b i l i t y t o f u l f i l l t h e o b j e c t i v e s l a i d down by t h e p o l i c y m a k e r s ; a s s i m i l a t i o n was t h e p r i m e o b j e c t i v e . As t h e s c h o o l ' s l a c k o f s u c c e s s i n t h i s a r e a became c l e a r e r , r e s e a r c h e r s w r o t e f r o m a more c r i t i c a l s t a n c e a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n on N a t i v e p e o p l e . I n many c a s e s , t h e y s t i l l n e g l e c t e d t o i n v o l v e N a t i v e p e o p l e d i r e c t l y . R a t h e r t h e y c o n s u l t e d a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l : l e t t e r s and d i a r i e s w r i t t e n by E u r o p e a n s a b o u t N a t i v e p e o p l e , r e g i s t e r s and o t h e r r e c o r d s c o m p i l e d by E u r o p e a n s and r e p o r t s f i l e d by E u r o p e a n c h u r c h and g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s a b o u t N a t i v e p e o p l e . Even t h e more s u p p o r t i v e a n a l y s e s r e l i e d on i n f o r m a t i o n c o m p i l e d by t h e E u r o p e a n i n v a d e r s . When r e s e a r c h e r s d i d f i n a l l y b e g i n t o w o r k d i r e c t l y w i t h N a t i v e p e o p l e , t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y t o d i s t i l l t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o t a b l e s o f f i g u r e s s u r r o u n d e d by s p e c u l a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s by members o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y . T h i s f a i l u r e t o i n c l u d e t h e words o f t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e who have a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e l i f e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e documents i s n o t h i n g s h o r t o f a b s u r d . R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s began i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l i t l e more t h a n one h u n d r e d y e a r s ago. Most c l o s e d i n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 s . L i t e r a l l y t h o u s a n d s o f N a t i v e p e o p l e c u r r e n t l y l i v i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e a t t e n d e d one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e s c h o o l s a t some t i m e and have a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o s h a r e . When s t u d e n t s a r e c o n s u l t e d , a most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t r e c u r s w i t h i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . H a r d l y t h e p a s s i v e p e o p l e p o r t r a y e d i n much o f t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e , N a t i v e p e o p l e have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s i s t e d t h e o n s l a u g h t a g a i n s t t h e m s e l v e s 3 and t h e i r c u l t u r e . A f o c u s o f s t u d y f o r s e v e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e has been t h e n o t i o n o f c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n s c h o o l s ( A p p l e 1977, G i r o u x 1981). Whenever an o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m i s s e t i n p l a c e , an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e s i s t a n c e t o t h a t s y s t e m i s a l s o c r e a t e d . P a u l W i l l i s i n h i s s t u d y o f w o r k i n g c l a s s y o u t h i n an E n g l i s h i n d u s t r i a l town (1977) e x a m i n e s t h e phenomenon o f a c o u n t e r - s c h o o l c u l t u r e : " O p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l i s p r i n c i p a l l y m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e s t r u g g l e t o w i n s y m b o l i c and p h y s i c a l s p a c e f r o m t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s r u l e s . " 3 T h i s r e s i s t a n c e t o an o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m i s p a r a l l e l e d i n t h e K a m l o o p s r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . I n t h e s t o r i e s w h i c h f o l l o w , many o f t h e r e s p o n s e s o f N a t i v e c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s t o t h e s c h o o l d e m o n s t r a t e s c l e a r d e f i a n c e o f a u t h o r i t y w h i c h i n t u r n c r e a t e d a s t r o n g s u p p o r t g r o u p amongst t h e s t u d e n t s . T h i s community s p i r i t n o t o n l y p e r m i t t e d but a c t u a l l y f o s t e r e d t h e s u r v i v a l o f a s t r o n g N a t i v e i d e n t i t y p e r c e i v e d by t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s as v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e E u r o p e a n s who s e r v e d as t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n d u b i t a b l y had enormous i m p a c t on t h e l i v e s o f a l l who a t t e n d e d , i t f a i l e d i n i t s e f f o r t s t o a s s i m i l a t e N a t i v e p e o p l e i n t o E u r o p e a n m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y . I n t h e w ords o f t h e g r e a t Shuswap l e a d e r , G e orge M a n u e l : " A t t h i s p o i n t i n o u r s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l , t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a a r e e n t i t l e d t o d e c l a r e a v i c t o r y . We have s u r v i v e d . " 4 I n o r d e r t o examine t h i s s u r v i v a l i n t h e l i g h t o f i t s h i s t o r y , one must l o o k beyond t h e m o n o c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y i n h e r e n t i n much o f r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y and s t u d i e s t h e r e o f t o t h e w ords and e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e o f t h e t i m e s . The a c c o u n t s o f t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l r e v e a l a d i f f e r e n t v i e w o f h i s t o r y - - a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e d o m i n a n t v i e w so f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d i n m a i n s t r e a m e x a m i n a t i o n s o f N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n . F o r t h o s e N a t i v e p e o p l e whose c o n c e r n s t h i s p a p e r a d d r e s s e s , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s a s p e c t o f h i s t o r y f r o m t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e i s l o n g o v e r d u e . F o r t h e c h i l d r e n , i t has become a n e c e s s i t y . I n i t s h i s t o r i c document e n t i t l e d I n d i a n C o n t r o l o f I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n , t h e N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d has t h i s t o s a y : " U n l e s s a c h i l d l e a r n s a b o u t t h e f o r c e s w h i c h shape h i m : t h e h i s t o r y o f h i s p e o p l e , t h e i r v a l u e s and c u s t o m s , t h e i r l a n g u a g e , he w i l l n e v e r r e a l l y know h i m s e l f or h i s p o t e n t i a l as a human b e i n g . " 5 W i t h i n t h e s t o r i e s w h i c h f o l l o w , a p e o p l e - - s o m e t i m . e s d i s h e a r t e n e d b u t r a r e l y d e s p a i r i n g — f i g h t t o r e t a i n t h e i r v a l u e s and c u s t o m s , t h e i r l a n g u a g e and t o p r e s e n t t h e i r v i e w s o f a h i s t o r y l o n g d i s r e g a r d e d . T h i s p a p e r i s an a t t e m p t t o r e c o r d t h e t h o u g h t s , t h e words and t h e f e e l i n g s o f a few o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . By l i s t e n i n g t o t h e p e o p l e and p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r s t o r i e s as t h e b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s , t h e a u t h o r i s a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e s e n t a more c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e t h a n h a s been a c h i e v e d b e f o r e o f t h e c u l t u r a l c l a s h e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m f o i s t e d on t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e by t h e E u r o p e a n i n v a d e r s . 5 L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w I n a s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o a s t u d y o f t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l , t h r e e a r e a s r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l , a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s a l l e n l i g h t e n s u c h a r e v i e w . A l t h o u g h t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o v e r l a p a t t i m e s , t h e a r b i t r a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s b e tween them f a c i l i t a t e t h e n e c e s s a r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f w o r k s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s o r i g i n a t i n g i n E u r o p e have p l a y e d t h e m a j o r r o l e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Canada as a n a t i o n . R o b i n F i s h e r (1977) r e f e r r i n g t o h i s t o r i a n s w r i t i n g o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t a t e s t h a t : n . . . t h e s e h i s t o r i a n s d e a l w i t h t h e I n d i a n s o n l y as t h e y r e s p o n d t o t h e E u r o p e a n e c o n o m i c s y s t e m , a c c o m o d a t i n g t o E u r o p e a n demands r a t h e r t h a n a c t i n g i n t e r m s o f t h e p r i o r i t y o f t h e i r own c u l t u r e . * 1 6 A l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , e a r l y w o r k s showed E u r o p e a n p e r c e p t i o n s o f N a t i v e c u l t u r e s as i n f e r i o r and p r i m i t i v e ( M a c l e a n 1896, H i l l - T o u t 1907). T h i s s t r o n g s e n s e o f w h i t e s u p e r i o r i t y a c c o m p a n i e d by a t e n d e n c y t o g e n e r a l i z e , t o subsume t h e many and v a r i e d g r o u p i n g s f r o m a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y o r a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e i n t o one amorphous g r o u p i n g , r e s u l t e d i n a h a z y v i e w o f N a t i v e p e o p l e ( D . I . A . 1960, G r a n t 1984).Because a c a d e m i c s w r i t i n g o f N a t i v e h i s t o r y have t e n d e d t o r e l y on w r i t t e n r e c o r d s f o r t h e i r r e s e a r c h , t h e y p r e s e n t most o f t e n t h e v i e w s o f t h e w h i t e f u r t r a d e r , s e t t l e r , I n d i a n a g e n t and m i s s i o n a r y ( M o r i c e 1906, C r o n i n 1960, H e w l e t t 1964, 6 W i l s o n 1985). L a V i o l e t t e (1973) and o t h e r s o f t h e s e m e n t i o n e d do c o n s u l t o f f i c i a l d o c u m ents s u c h as t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f v a r i o u s R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s so as t o i n c l u d e some o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f N a t i v e p o l i t i c i a n s . However, by f a r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e l e n g t h y q u o t a t i o n s a r e t h e words o f E u r o -C a n a d i a n s ; a l l t o o r a r e l y i s a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h o s e o f t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s f a c t i s c l e a r : few N a t i v e p e o p l e have k e p t w r i t t e n r e c o r d s . I n t e r v i e w i n g i s a t t i m e s t h e o n l y means o f g a r n e r i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f h i s t o r y . W i t h n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s ( B e r g e r 1977 > 1981, B r o d y 1981), few r e s e a r c h e r s w r i t i n g o f N a t i v e p e o p l e have t a k e n t h e t i m e t o d e v e l o p t h e t r u s t i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s n e c e s s a r y f o r open c o m m u n i c a t i o n and m e a n i n g f u l i n t e r v i e w s . H i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s a b o u t N a t i v e p e o p l e t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e e x h i b i t a d e f i c i e n c y o f p r i m a r y s o u r c e m a t e r i a l e x p l i c a t i n g t h e N a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . B e c a u s e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r w ork r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e y s p e n d t i m e w i t h t h e p e o p l e whom t h e y s t u d y , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have f a r e d somewhat b e t t e r i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s o f N a t i v e p e o p l e . A l t h o u g h some s t u d i e s s u f f e r i n a c c u r a c i e s t h r o u g h t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o p r e s e n t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f N a t i v e c u l t u r e s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y ( J e n n e s s 1963), o t h e r s s u c h as t h o s e o f James T e i t (1900, 1909) a r e i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t . F l u e n t i n a number o f N a t i v e l a n g u a g e s and m a r r i e d t o a member o f t h e Thompson N a t i o n , T e i t i n h i s l i f e work w i t h t h e p e o p l e o f t h e I n t e r i o r o f B.C. has p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s on t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s c o n s i d e r e d a c c u r a t e by b o t h N a t i v e and E u r o - C a n a d i a n h i s t o r i a n s . Y e a r s 7 a f t e r T e i t , W i l s o n D u f f p r o d u c e d a book b a s e d on e x t e n s i v e e t h n o g r a p h i c work t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . As a r e s u l t , The  I n d i a n H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f 1 9 6 4 ) p r e s e n t s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n a p u b l i c a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e a v a r i e t y o f N a t i v e v i e w s on t h e i m p a c t o f t h e E u r o p e a n s on t h e i r s o c i e t i e s . About t h e same t i m e , Wax, Wax and Dumont (1964) p r o d u c e d a d e t a i l e d c a s e s t u d y o f t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e O g l a l a S i o u x o f t h e P i n e R i d g e r e s e r v a t i o n . T h o r o u g h f i e l d r e s e a r c h r e s u l t e d i n a c l e a r l y d e v e l o p e d s t u d y w i t h e m p h a s i s on t h e N a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i s e x a m p l e was f o l l o w e d q u i c k l y by a number o f c a s e s t u d i e s ( W o l c o t t 1967, K i n g 1967, Brow 1967). A l l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e c l e a r l y t h e work o f a c a d e m i c s i n v o l v e d f o r o n l y a l i m i t e d t i m e w i t h t h e p e o p l e whom t h e y s t u d i e d , f r e q u e n t l y w i t h a p r e d e t e r m i n e d a g e n d a . A l t h o u g h t h e y do p r e s e n t an a c c u r a t e v i e w o f t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e i r s t u d y , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o u l d be s a i d t o l a c k t h e d e p t h w h i c h comes w i t h l o n g - t e r m c o n t a c t . A s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h e number o f l e n g t h y q u o t a t i o n s o f N a t i v e p e o p l e i n c l u d e d . E d u c a t i o n a l w r i t i n g s , as a l l w r i t i n g s , a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s o c i e t y w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y a r e f o r m e d . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has a h i s t o r y w h i c h p r e c e d e s C o n f e d e r a t i o n o f r e f u s i n g t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f N a t i v e p e o p l e . U n l i k e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , few t r e a t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h r e l a t i v e l y few p o r t i o n s o f l a n d were drawn up t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . A l t h o u g h D o u g l a s , t h e f i r s t g o v e r n o r o f t h e c o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , i n s i s t e d t h a t : 8 n . . . o n l y a f t e r t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e had been e x t i n g u i s h e d by t r e a t y c o u l d s e t t l e m e n t p r o c e e d . . . t h e s e t t l e r s d e n i e d t h a t i t was t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t h e y w o u l d n o t v o t e f u n d s f o r t h e p u r p o s e . " 7 The p o l i c y o f d e n y i n g t h a t a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e had e v e r e x i s t e d p e r s i s t e d when t h e new c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u n i t e d w i t h V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d i n 1866. B e c a u s e t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t c h o s e t o i g n o r e N a t i v e p e o p l e , no c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a s s u m p t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r N a t i v e p e o p l e i n 1876 r e i n f o r c e d t h i s a t t i t u d e . I n h i s 1936 d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , "The H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e Crown C o l o n i e s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D o n a l d M a c L a u r i n , t h e A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d a n t o f E d u c a t i o n f o r B.C. n e v e r m e n t i o n s N a t i v e p e o p l e . As a r e s u l t o f f e d e r a l c o n t r o l as o u t l i n e d i n t h e I n d i a n A c t , p e o p l e w r i t i n g a b o u t N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n t e n d e d t o w r i t e a b o u t i t as a n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n . R e p o r t s and r e s e a r c h o f t e n f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e c o n c e r n s o r p e r s p e c t i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l t r i b a l n a t i o n s b u t r a t h e r r e f l e c t e d t h e n a t i o n a l v i e w s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . Much o f t h e r e s e a r c h and p u b l i s h i n g on N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n h a s been done u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e D.I.A. M a t e r i a l s w h i c h e m b e l l i s h t h e d e p a r t m e n t ' s image and d e p i c t i t s s u c c e s s e s a r e more a c c e p t a b l e t h a t t h o s e w h i c h m i g h t l e a d t o s u g g e s t i o n s o f r a c i s m and u l t i m a t e l y t h r e a t e n t h e c a r e e r s o f t h e e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s a t i t s h e a d . A book e n t i t l e d The E d u c a t i o n p£ I n d i a n C h i l d r e n i n Canada (1965) p r e s e n t s i t s e l f as "A s y m p o s i u m w r i t t e n by members o f t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s 9 E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n w i t h Comments by t h e I n d i a n P e o p l e s " . I t i n c l u d e s l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e t o N a t i v e p e o p l e ' s d e s i r e s f o r or c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m but r a t h e r o u t l i n e s p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and c h a n g i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . The d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t o f N a t i v e p e o p l e i s f o u n d o n l y i n t h e s h o r t c o m m e n t a r i e s w h i c h f o l l o w e a c h c h a p t e r . W i t h one o r two e x c e p t i o n s , t h e comments e i t h e r echo t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h o s e i n c o n t r o l : " I n s h o r t , no I n d i a n need e v e r w i s h f o r any e d u c a t i o n as l o n g as he shows an h o n e s t d e s i r e f o r i t . The g o v e r n m e n t w i l l s t e p i n and h e l p h i m a l l t h e way." 8 o r e x p r e s s a l m o s t e m b a r a s s i n g g r a t i t u d e t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t : " I have been d r e a m i n g o f b e c o m i n g a d o c t o r e v e r s i n c e I was f i v e y e a r s o l d and i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t h a t t h i s dream i s so c l o s e t o r e a l i t y . " 9 On t h e t o p i c o f N a t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , t h e c l o s i n g c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a most r e v e a l i n g s t a t e m e n t . " A t p r e s e n t t h e e d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n p e o p l e i s d i r e c t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y by o u t s i d e r s . The f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r g u e , d i s c u s s and d e c i d e . I n d i a n p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e , b u t more t o r a t i f y t h a n t o p l a n , so i s i t any wonder t h a t I n d i a n s c o n t i n u e t o r e m a i n u n e x c i t e d a b o u t o u r p r o g r a m f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n ? " 10 T h i s p a r a d o x i c a l a p p r o a c h c o n t i n u e s t o t h e p r e s e n t day: w h i l e p a y i n g l i p - s e r v i c e t o i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p e o p l e i n s e l f -d e t e r m i n a t i o n , t h o s e i n c o n t r o l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r e s e n t p l a n s f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n . I n F r e i r e ' s w o r d s , "The i n v a d e r s a c t ; t h o s e t h e y i n v a d e have o n l y t h e i l l u s i o n o f a c t i o n , t h r o u g h t h e a c t i o n o f t h e i n v a d e r s . " 11 Some n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s e x i s t t o t h e s e a c c o u n t s o f e d u c a t i o n f o r a p e o p l e r a r e l y c o n s u l t e d . The H a w t h o r n r e p o r t 10 (1967) w h i l e g e n e r a l i z i n g as A S u r v e y o f t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y I n d i a n s of_ Canada, i s s t r u c t u r e d a r o u n d r e s e a r c h w i t h a number o f bands a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . S p e n d i n g e x t e n s i v e t i m e i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s were a b l e t o p r e s e n t r e s u l t s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d some o f N a t i v e p e o p l e ' s c o n c e r n s . A m a z i n g l y , N a t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a and t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t i s v e r y l i m i t e d . The number o f a g e n c i e s and bands c o n s u l t e d i s a l s o v e r y l i m i t e d . As i s t h e c a s e w i t h many o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s , t h e c r e d i t e d q u o t a t i o n s a r e t h o s e o f t h e w h i t e e x p e r t s : c h u r c h p e o p l e , s c h o o l p e o p l e and d e p a r t m e n t p e o p l e . G e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t o s i n g l e words and p h r a s e s , N a t i v e p e o p l e ' s r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e need f o r e d u c a t i o n a r e made t o sound s h a l l o w and i l l - c o n c e i v e d : " E d u c a t i o n makes l i f e e a s i e r . " o r " E d u c a t i o n h e l p s you g e t a l o n g w i t h w h i t e s b e t t e r . " The 12 I n d i a n v o i c e s a r e g i v e n o n l y t h r o u g h l a y e r s o f E u r o p e a n i n t e r p r e t e r s . O t h e r e d u c a t i o n - r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , more s p e c i a l i z e d t h a n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , p r o v i d e i n s i g h t t o a number o f c u r r e n t i s s u e s . The work o f J u d i t h K l e i n f e l d (1975) w h i c h p i n p o i n t s t h e d e m a n d i n g but warm t e a c h e r as most e f f e c t i v e w i t h N a t i v e s t u d e n t s has been o f p a r t i c u l a r m e r i t . M o r e ' s (1984) work on q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e N a t i v e community members r a t h e r t h a n p r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . N a t i v e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s have made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . B a t t i s t e 11 (1985), K i r k n e s s (1978, 1981, 1985) a n d A r c h i b a l d (1984) a r e o n l y a few i n v o l v e d i n a w i d e r a n g e o f r e s e a r c h f r o m l i n g u i s t i c s t o f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s a nd c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t . Few w o r k s o n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s i n w e s t e r n C a n a d a e x i s t . The S c h o o l a t M o p a s s ( K i n g 1967), a s t u d y o f a Y u k o n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i s t h o r o u g h and i n c l u d e s c o n s i d e r a b l e comment on t h e s c h o o l by N a t i v e s t u d e n t s a nd w o r k e r s . The s t u d y was c o m m i s s i o n e d by t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h b e c a u s e o f f i c i a l s f o u n d t h a t t h e s c h o o l : w . . . i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t d o e s n o t p r o d u c e t h e k i n d o f p r o d u c t w h i c h i t i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o d u c e . The d e s i r e d ' p r o d u c t * m i g h t be d e f i n e d a s a w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n e q u i p p e d w i t h a t t i t u d e s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s t h a t e n a b l e h i m t o f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y i n b a s i c a l l y t h e same manner a s o t h e r c i t i z e n s . " 13 D e s p i t e t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t n o t t o be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f h i s s t u d y , h i s e t h n o c e n t r i c b i a s s u r f a c e s i n comments s u c h a s : " T h o s e e l e m e n t s [ o f t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e ] t h a t l i n g e r seem t o be a r e a c t i v e d e f e n s e m e c h a n i s m f o r c o p i n g w i t h t h e p o w e r f u l b u t g e n e r a l l y a p a t h e t i c W h i t e m a n s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n a d e l i b e r a t e o r f u n c t i o n a l p e r s i s t e n c e o f c u l t u r a l t r a i t s a s v a l u e d e n t i t i e s i n t h e m s e l v e s . " 14 On t h e o t h e r h a n d , h i s c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e s c h o o l and n e a r l y a l l p o r t i o n s o f s o c i e t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s i n h u m a n i t y and i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s a r e w e l l - t a k e n . Two a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d s e p a r a t e l y i n B_C S t u d i e s i n c l u d e some i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t s t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . C o a t e s (1985) r e l i e s h e a v i l y on a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l i n c l u d i n g f i l e s o f l e t t e r s f r o m N a t i v e p e o p l e t o s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s t o c o n s t r u c t h i s t h e s i s t h a t t h e s c h o o l a t C a r c r o s s i n t h e Y u k o n " . . 12 f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e t h e N a t i v e s t u d e n t s w i t h an o b v i o u s r o u t e i n t o e i t h e r n a t i v e o r w h i t e s o c i e t y . " R e d f o r d (1980) 15 s u m m a r i z e s a t t e n d a n c e s t a t i s t i c s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c o n t r o l w h i c h N a t i v e p a r e n t s had o v e r t h e s t a r t i n g d a t e and t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s t i m e a t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . A r e c e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f a r t i c l e s e n t i t l e d I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n i n Canada (Barman 1986) i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l a l l u s i o n s t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s i n Canada. A l t h o u g h t h e e m p h a s i s i s on a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l as a s o u r c e o f d a t a , i t i n c l u d e s n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c s t u d y o f B a t t i s t e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d and t h e summary o f an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y by P e r s s o n on t h e B l u e Q u i l l s s c h o o l i n N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a . O t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s a r e f o u n d w i t h i n l a r g e r s t u d i e s , o f t e n o n l y i n p a s s i n g comment. P e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e BC A r c h i v e s c o n t a i n s more i n f o r m a t i o n on K u p e r I s l a n d S c h o o l t h a n on any o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , r e s e a r c h e r s c i t e t h i s s c h o o l as an e x a m p l e more o f t e n t h a n any o t h e r i n t h e p r o v i n c e . M i t c h e l l and F r a n k l i n (1984) w h i l e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t f e m a l e d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e o r i g i n a l p e o p l e a r e ". . . l i v i n g r e p o s i t o r i e s o f n o t o n l y I n d i a n c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y b u t a l s o o f t h e common l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s o f women e v e r y w h e r e " , f a i l t o use a s i n g l e d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n f r o m 16 t h e s e s o u r c e s . Comments a b o u t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l a r e t h o s e o f r e m i n i s c i n g n u n s . Mary A s h w o r t h (1979) d i d t a k e t h e t i m e t o i n t e r v i e w a f o r m e r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s t u d e n t f o r i n c l u s i o n as a p a r t o f a c h a p t e r on t h e h i s t o r y o f N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n i n B.C. Her use o f o t h e r N a t i v e s o u r c e s f o r h e r i n f o r m a t i o n l e d 13 h e r t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t N a t i v e p e o p l e must c o n t r o l t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n , an i n d i c a t o n o f t h e d e p t h o f h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n . I n summary t h r e e p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g e x i s t i n g w r i t i n g s s b o u t N a t i v e p e o p l e a r e p a r a m o u n t . A l t h o u g h a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i m a r y s o u r c e s w h i c h may i n c l u d e t h e r e c o r d i n g o f N a t i v e comments, i s w o r t h w h i l e i n e x a m i n i n g h i s t o r y f r o m a N a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e o n l y c a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can e x p o s e t h e E u r o - C a n a d i a n b i a s o f much o f t h e m a t e r i a l . Whenever p o s s i b l e , a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s h o u l d s e r v e o n l y as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r r e s e a r c h a b o u t N a t i v e p e o p l e and s h o u l d be c o m p l e m e n t e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n i n t e r v i e w s . B e c a u s e o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t d u r a t i o n o f t h e E u r o - C a n a d i a n p r e s e n c e i n BC, t h e r e a r e s t i l l many o l d e r N a t i v e p e o p l e who h ave a w e a l t h o f memories t o c o n t r i b u t e t o an e f f o r t a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s o f e v e n t s w h i c h may be d o c u m e n t e d o n l y m i n i m a l l y i n t h e v a r i o u s a r c h i v e s . F i n a l l y , few d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d on t h e N a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . None e x i s t s f o r t h e K a m l oops I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l p r i o r t o t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . 14 CHAPTER I Footnotes 1. Verna Kirkness i n response to summation by Tom Berger at PreConference Roundtable of the World Conference of Indigenous People. Robson Square Media Centre, Vancouver, June 6, 1986. (from notes) 2. Paulo F r e i r e , Pedagogy of the Oppressed (New York: Continuum, 1982) 150. 3. Paul W i l l i s , L e arning to Labor (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977) 260. 4. George Manuel and Michael Posluns, The Fourth World: An  Indian R e a l i t y (Don M i l l s : C o l l i e r MacMillan, 1974) 4. 5. N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood, Indian C o n t r o l of Indian  Education (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood, 1973) 9 6. Robin F i s h e r , Contact and C o n f l i c t : Indian-European  R e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1774-1890 (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1977) x i . 7. Thomas Berger, F r a g i l e Freedoms (Vancouver: Cla r k e , Irwin and Co., 1981) 222-223. 8. Members of the Indian A f f a i r s Education D i v i s i o n with Comments by the Indian Peoples, The Education of Indian  C h i l d r e n in. Canada. (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1965) 22. 9. Members of Indian A f f a i r s , 10. 10. Members of Indian A f f a i r s , 96. 11. F r e i r e , 150 12. H.B. Hawthorn, A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of  Canada, Volume II (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967) 137. 13. A. Richard King, The School at Monass (Toronto: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1967) i x . 14. King, 27. 15. Kenneth Coates, "'Betwixt and Between': The An g l i c a n Church and the C h i l d r e n of the Carcross (Chooutla) R e s i d e n t i a l School, 1 91 1-1954," B_C Studie s (Vol.64, Winter 1985) 47. 16. M a r j o r i e M i t c h e l l and Anna F r a n k l i n , "When You Don't Know the Language, L i s t e n to the S i l e n c e : An H i s t o r i c a l Overview of Native Indian Women i n B.C.,"Not  Just P in Money, eds. Barbara K. Latham and Roberta J . Pazdro ( V i c t o r i a : Camosun C o l l e g e , 1984) 18. 15 CHAPTER I I METHODOLOGY " d o n ' t rhyme t h e w o r d s t o o c l o s e l y when y o u t e l l o u r s t o r y l e a v e t i m e and s p a c e f o r us t o i n s t a l l o u r b i t o f t r u t h . . . " S h e i l a E r i c k s o n 1 The a n a l y s i s o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d f o r c o l l e c t i n g a nd p r e s e n t i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h f a l l s n a t u r a l l y i n t o two m a j o r s e c t i o n s . P a r t one i n c l u d e s t h e r e a s o n s f o r u s i n g c e r t a i n m e t h o d s . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n r e c o u n t s d e t a i l s o f t h e m e t h o d s t h e m s e l v e s , i . e . how t h e r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d a n d how t h e d a t a was s e l e c t e d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n . The R e a s o n s " U n d e r s t a n d i n g human e x p e r i e n c e i s t h e c e n t r a l t a s k o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r . . . . Too o f t e n , t h e o r y f a i l s t o s p e a k t o t h e p e r s o n a l e v e r y d a y l i f e - w o r l d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s a n d becomes i n s t e a d a n o t h e r s e t o f a l i e n a t i n g c o n s t r u c t s . " 2 V a l e r i e P o l a k o w , i n a r e c e n t a r t i c l e , e l a b o r a t e s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t o r y - t e l l i n g i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e o r y c o n c e r n i n g t h o s e g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y who h a v e t e n d e d t o r e m a i n v o i c e l e s s — t h e i n v a d e d a n d t h e o p p r e s s e d . The a r t i c l e p o i n t s o u t t h a t t o o much o f mod e r n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h h a s be e n an a t t e m p t t o e m u l a t e t h e s o - c a l l e d t r u e s c i e n c e s . " I n c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i a l s c i e n c e , s t o r i e s a r e s o f t - -t h e y do n o t c o n s t i t u t e t h e r e a l d a t a o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c e n t e r p r i s e . . . . The i s o l a t i o n o f bo d y , o f m i n d , o f e x p e r i e n c e , o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s l e a d s t o d o c u m e n t a t i o n , t o a mere t a x o n o m y o f f a c t s c l o s e d i n o n t h e m s e l v e s , l e a d i n g us away f r o m , n o t t o w a r d s , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human e x p e r i e n c e . " 3 D e c r y i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h t o r e s e a r c h , s h e g o e s on t o p o i n t o u t 16 t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t o r y - t e l l i n g as a f o r m o f r e s e a r c h . The c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f s t o r i e s by t h e r e s e a r c h e r who w . . . i s an embedded p a r t i c i p a n t , n o t a d i s t a n t , u n i n v o l v e d o b s e r v e r o f t h e humanscope . . . " p r o v i d e s t h e k e y t o s t o r y - t e l l i n g as human s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h . I n w o r k s c i t e d e a r l i e r s u c h as t h o s e o f G e o r g e M a n u e l and James T e i t , t h e w r i t e r s have i n d e e d t a k e n t h e t i m e t o l i v e t h e l i v e s w h e r e o f t h e y w r i t e . Howard S. B e c k e r and W i l l i a m F o o t e Whyte a r e two s o c i o l o g i s t s r enowned f o r t h e i r work i n f i e l d r e s e a r c h . I n two c l a s s i c s t u d i e s , The O u t s i d e r s and S t r e e t C o r n e r S o c i e t y , t h e y i m m e r s e d t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e whom t h e y s t u d i e d . A l o n g w i t h o t h e r s o f t h e same s c h o o l a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e b e s t r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e s i n t e n s i v e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r s u b j e c t s . Whyte ( 1 9 5 5 ) had t h i s t o s a y a b o u t h i s s t y l e o f r e s e a r c h : "The i d e a s grow up i n p a r t o u t o f o u r i m m e r s i o n i n t h e d a t a and o u t o f t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s o f l i v i n g . • • To some e x t e n t my a p p r o a c h must be u n i q u e t o m y s e l f , t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and t o t h e s t a t e o f k n o w l e d g e e x i s t i n g when I began my r e s e a r c h . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e must be some common e l e m e n t s o f t h e f i e l d r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s . " 5 The f o r m a l r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s p a p e r began w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r as an i n f o r m a l p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r i n v o l v e d i n " t h e p r o c e s s o f l i v i n g " . As k n o w l e d g e o f t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e ' s l i v e s and h i s t o r y g r ew, t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i m p a c t o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l became c l e a r e r and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g l a c k o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i m p a c t . The i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o f o c u s on what had emerged as an a r e a o f c o n c e r n and s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r many N a t i v e p e o p l e o f t h e 17 Kamloops area. The purpose of t h i s paper, then, i s to t e l l the s t o r i e s of a few of the Native people who at some time i n t h e i r l i v e s attended the Kamloops Indian R e s i d e n t i a l School known to some as St. L o u i s M i s s i o n and to analyze these s t o r i e s i n terms of the concepts of c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n and r e s i s t a n c e . Only with the d i r e c t involvement--the words--of the people i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s t o r y can a Native p e r s p e c t i v e be reached. These s t o r i e s give a view of an aspect of e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y long n e g l e c t e d i n e x i s t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s . The r e s i d e n t i a l school which l i v e s i n the memories of the i n t e r v i e w e e s takes shape before our eyes. The c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n , the r e s i s t a n c e to t h i s i n v a s i o n — s o m e t i m e s overt and d i r e c t ; at other times, covert and s u b t l e — a n d u l t i m a t e l y the s u r v i v a l and c u l t u r a l p e r s i s t e n c e of a group of people i n the c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia are the emphases of the paper. A strong sense of irony focussed my a t t e n t i o n on the s t o r i e s of the students of K.I.R.S. O r i g i n a l l y the senior g i r l s 1 dormitory, the top f l o o r of the east side of the huge b r i c k b u i l d i n g completed i n 1923 now houses a program f o r Native people who wish to become elementary teachers. F r e q u e n t l y , students coming to be i n t e r v i e w e d f o r admission or to c l a s s f o r the f i r s t time say very calmly, " My bed was r i g h t by that window . . . n or that door or around that corner. With only s l i g h t encouragement, the s t o r i e s begin to pour f o r t h - - s t o r i e s of l o n e l i n e s s , pain, comradeship and r e s i l i e n c e . The i r o n y of the s i t u a t i o n comes with the people 18 who have returned to a place of t h e i r youth, a place of what was o f t e n very d i f f i c u l t formal education, to study to be te a c h e r s . They come of choice, as mature students, with c l e a r goals i n mind. How d i f f e r e n t from the other times. The s t o r i e s themselves spoke c l e a r l y to me. Although r e s i d e n t i a l school had f i g u r e d prominently i n the l i v e s of many Native people i n Canada, l i t t l e was w r i t t e n of t h e i r e x periences. H i s t o r i a n s had summarized the work of the m i s s i o n a r i e s and teachers (Cronin 1960 , Whitehead 1981) but almost nothing was w r i t t e n to express the Native p e r s p e c t i v e . Their s t o r i e s were c r y i n g to be t o l d . For people, both Native and non-Native, to begin to understand and acknowledge the d i r e c t i o n s of Native e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s today, the experiences that had come before needed to be documented and examined. The Kamloops Indian Band owns the b u i l d i n g s which were u n t i l r e c e n t l y the Kamloops Indian R e s i d e n t i a l School. Within these b u i l d i n g s , e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s from h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h to c u r r i c u l u m development are i n progress. They have the p o t e n t i a l to a f f e c t and have already a f f e c t e d the school l i v e s of the band c h i l d r e n . A b a n d - c o n t r o l l e d elementary-program i s o p e r a t i n g . A nursery school run by the band feeds the elementary s c h o o l . A band-run daycare and a Native teacher t r a i n i n g program are l o c a t e d i n the b u i l d i n g s . Perhaps most important e d u c a t i o n a l l y i s the Secwepeme C u l t u r a l Education S o c i e t y , a body endorsed by the m a j o r i t y of the seventeen Shuswap bands of the I n t e r i o r , whose mandate i n c l u d e s primary r e s e a r c h , the establishment of a resource 19 c e n t r e and museum, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s b a s e d on Shuswap c u l t u r e and h e r i t a g e , and t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a Shuswap l a n g u a g e p r o j e c t . I n o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e t h i s phenomenon as a t r e m e n d o u s e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e s u r v i v a l o f a c u l t u r e and a g r o u p o f p e o p l e , one must d e l v e i n t o t h e h i s t o r y w h i c h has l e d t o t h i s p r e s e n t s t a t e . B e n e a t h t h e c u r r e n t s u r g e i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y l i e s a l m o s t a c e n t u r y o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e most p a r t d o m i n a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d by r e l i g i o u s and g o v e r n m e n t a l p o l i c i e s e s t a b l i s h e d u n i l a t e r a l l y by E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . My i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h N a t i v e p e o p l e i n t h e K a m l o o p s a r e a s p a n s a p e r i o d o f f i f t e e n y e a r s . O r i g i n a l l y , as a t e a c h e r i n two o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , I w o r k e d w i t h some N a t i v e s t u d e n t s i n my c l a s s e s . A n o t h e r i n t e n s e c o n n e c t i o n was t h r o u g h a r o d e o company owned and o p e r a t e d by my h u s b a n d i n w h i c h I p l a y e d a f a i r l y a c t i v e r o l e . A number o f N a t i v e p e o p l e i n t h e K a m l o o p s a r e a have l i f e t i m e commitments t o r o d e o . Over t h e y e a r s I d e v e l o p e d s t r o n g f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h some o f t h e r o d e o p e o p l e . Ten y e a r s ago, I moved i n t o t h e f i e l d o f N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h my work as c o o r d i n a t o r o f t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m , an a l t e r n a t i v e p r o g r a m o f f e r e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r p r o s p e c t i v e e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s . I n t h i s c a p a c i t y , I s e r v e d as t e a c h e r , c o u n s e l l o r , s e m i n a r l e a d e r and p r a c t i c u m s u p e r v i s o r w o r k i n g w i t h N a t i v e a d u l t s . I m e n t i o n t h e s e i n v o l v e m e n t s b e c a u s e t h e y have p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r l o n g t e r m t r u s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e o p l e . The f r i e n d s h i p s 20 s e r v e d as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t w h i c h , when a c c o m p a n i e d by an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e work w h i c h I was d o i n g , e n a b l e d me t o i n t e r v i e w t h e p e o p l e i n d e p t h a b o u t an e m o t i o n - f i l l e d a r e a . The M e t h o d s I n i t i a l l y , my f o r m a l r e s e a r c h r e l i e s h e a v i l y on w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l t o p r e s e n t s o m e t h i n g o f t h e a t t i t u d e s and a m b i t i o n s w h i c h g u i d e d t h o s e p e o p l e who e s t a b l i s h e d and c o n t r o l l e d t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . I t r i e d t o s e l e c t q u o t a t i o n s f r o m r e p o r t s and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and some s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s w h i c h show t h e words and w o r l d s o f t h e n o n - N a t i v e p e o p l e w o r k i n g w i t h p e o p l e o f a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . R e c o r d s a t t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , O b l a t e House i n V a n c o u v e r , t h e Secwepeme Museum and A r c h i v e s and t h e l i b r a r i e s a t C a r i b o o C o l l e g e and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. p r o v i d e d a b a s i c p i c t u r e o f t h e E u r o p e a n p e r s p e c t i v e . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f m i s s i o n a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l p o l i c i e s and a s p i r a t i o n s i s f u n d a m e n t a l t o s h o w i n g t h e c u l t u r a l l y i n v a s i v e n a t u r e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . T h a t t o t a l c u l t u r a l a n n i h i l a t i o n was t h e g o a l o f t h e two g r o u p s i s u n d e n i a b l e when one e x a m i n e s t h e w r i t t e n r e c o r d s . T h a t t h e s e e f f o r t s t o a s s i m i l a t e N a t i v e p e o p l e were on t h e w h o l e s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s i s t e d i s t h e u l t i m a t e f o c u s o f t h e s t o r i e s w h i c h f o l l o w . B e c a u s e t h e s t o r i e s p e o p l e t o l d had so v i v i d l y d e p i c t e d l i f e i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , f r e q u e n t l y i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t l i g h t t h a n t h a t w h i c h t h e w r i t t e n r e c o r d s s u g g e s t e d , i n t e r v i e w i n g was deemed t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y 21 a p p r o a c h t o p r e s e n t i n g some o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e s c h o o l f r o m a N a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i r t e e n i n t e n s i v e one t o two h o u r i n t e r v i e w s f o r m t h e k e r n e l o f t h e d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n , I have k e p t f i e l d n o t e s on more c a s u a l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h numerous o t h e r N a t i v e p e o p l e . I n t e r v i e w s were t a p e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . B e c a u s e two i n f o r m a n t s d i d n o t want t o be t a p e d , I made n o t e s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s . I was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n f a c e t s o f s c h o o l l i f e w h i c h were deemed c o n t r a r y t o v a l u e s and b e l i e f s h e l d b e f o r e c o m i n g t o s c h o o l ; i n t h e f o r m s o f r e s i s t a n c e w h i c h s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p e d t o t h e f o r e i g n e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e i n c h a r g e ; and f i n a l l y , i n t h e e f f e c t s w h i c h s c h o o l i n g had on t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s when t h e y r e t u r n e d home. I a t t e m p t e d t o i n t e r v i e w a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f f o r m e r s t u d e n t s : m a l e and f e m a l e , l o n g and s h o r t t e r m p u p i l s and t h o s e who a t t e n d e d i n t h e e a r l y d a y s o f t h e s c h o o l and t h o s e who a t t e n d e d more r e c e n t l y . I n o r d e r t o g e t a somewhat r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e , I t r i e d t o m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e between t h o s e r e p o r t e d t o f e e l g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e a b o u t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e s c h o o l and t h o s e who were more n e g a t i v e . Those p e r c e i v e d by o t h e r s as more or l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r l i v e s were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s l a s t m easure i s , o f c o u r s e , h i g h l y a r b i t r a r y , v a l u e - l a d e n and t e n u o u s . I n a d d i t i o n I i n t e r v i e w e d p e o p l e f r o m a number o f d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s : r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f s e v e r a l Shuswap b a n d s , a L i l l o o e t b and, a Thompson band and a C h i l c o t i n band. A l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g t h e s c h o o l were Shuswap, 22 t h e r e were a l s o p e o p l e f r o m t h e C o a s t and a r e a s a r o u n d t h e Shuswap t e r r i t o r y . The i n t e r v i e w s t h e m s e l v e s w e re v e r y f l e x i b l e . A l t h o u g h I p r e p a r e d a s c h e d u l e (See A p p e n d i x B ) , I r a r e l y r e f e r r e d t o i t d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w . I n s t e a d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t o r i e s t h e p e r s o n w a n t e d t o t e l l . A t t i m e s , t h e f l o w o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was g u i d e d more by t h e s t o r i e s w h i c h t h e p e r s o n had t o t e l l t h a n by my s c h e d u l e . W i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t h e i s s u e s o f c u l t u r a l v i o l a t i o n and r e s i s t a n c e t o t h a t v i o l a t i o n w e r e m e n t i o n e d . The p l a c e o f i n t e r v i e w i n g was most o f t e n my o f f i c e w h i c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s . The room i t s e l f s t i r r e d many m e m o r i e s : " T h i s u s e d t o be s i s t e r ' s bedroom, " commented one i n f o r m a n t . On some o c c a s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when s p e a k i n g w i t h o l d e r p e o p l e , I went t o t h e i r homes. My k i t c h e n t a b l e was t h e s i t e o f many t a l e s t o l d by c a s u a l v i s t o r s a b o u t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . G e n e r a l l y I c h o s e t o i n t e r v i e w p e o p l e w i t h whom I had a l r e a d y had c o n t a c t o r p e o p l e whom o t h e r s had s u g g e s t e d as s t r o n g i n f o r m a n t s . Those who h e s i t a t e d when I a s k e d them, I d i d n o t i n t e r v i e w . T h r o u g h o u t t h e i n t e r v i e w , p e o p l e were made aware t h a t t h e y c o u l d end i t w h e n e v e r t h e y c h o s e and t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n s . A l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , p e o p l e s p o k e most o p e n l y and i n f o r m a t i v e l y a b o u t t h e i r s c h o o l l i v e s . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g w h i c h I d i d o n l y s c r a t c h e d t h e s u r f a c e . Many s t o r i e s a r e s t i l l u n r e c o r d e d and s t u d e n t s f r o m c e r t a i n e r a s a r e u n d e r -23 r e p r e s e n t e d . One i n t e r v i e w w i t h an o l d e r p e r s o n who s p o k e t o me t h r o u g h h e r g r a n d d a u g h t e r was l e s s c o m f o r t a b l e and open t h a n some o t h e r s . B e c a u s e t h e g r a n d d a u g h t e r a r r a n g e d t h e i n t e r v i e w , I had l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n . I t d i d g i v e me t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a n a l y z e some i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f o t h e r i n t e r v i e w s . Time s p e n t w a i t i n g f o r a n s w e r s i s most p r o f i t a b l e : p e o p l e need t i m e t o d i g i n t o t h e i r m e m o r i e s and o r g a n i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . A l t h o u g h two h o u r s seems t o be t h e maximum t i m e t h a t can be s p e n t on an i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c r e a t e a f e e l i n g t h a t t i m e i s l i m i t l e s s . P h r a s i n g o f q u e s t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o what has been s a i d i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . A l s o t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o b e and r e p h r a s e i n v o l v e s j u d g e m e n t s n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g — u l t i m a t e l y k n o w i n g when t o be s i l e n t and when t o push must be s k i l f u l l y b a l a n c e d . W o r k i n g w i t h an i n t e r m e d i a r y l i m i t s t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e n s e e m o t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n s h a r i n g p i e c e s o f l i f e w i t h an i n t e r v i e w e r , one must have e s t a b l i s h e d a warm r e l a t i o n s h i p b e f o r e t h e i n t e r v i e w o r be c a p a b l e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g r a p p o r t q u i c k l y . I n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n , t h i s a b i l i t y i s c r u c i a l as i s some a w a r e n e s s o f s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s . I do n o t mean t o i m p l y i n any way t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i n an e x p l o i t i v e way, i n o r d e r t o i n t e r v i e w , b u t r a t h e r t h e c o n v e r s e . The a c c o u n t s r e p r o d u c e d i n t h i s p a p e r were g e n e r a l l y f u l l e r and more open t h a n i s o f t e n t h e c a s e w i t h one t i m e i n t e r v i e w s , f o r t h e most p a r t b e c a u s e o f a l o n g t e r m 2M r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e i n t e r v i e w e r and t h e i n f o r m a n t . Two o f t h e m a i n p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t e r v i e w i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s k i n g p e o p l e t o r e c a l l e v e n t s w h i c h a r e i n t h e d i s t a n t p a s t i s t h e s e l e c t i v i t y o f memory and t h e p o s s i b l e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e s e m emories o v e r t i m e . I w o u l d l i k e t o p r e s e n t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n two p o i n t s i n t h i s r e g a r d . S e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i s a p r o b l e m e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h any d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f f a c t or h i s t o r y . M e m o r i e s w h i c h s u r v i v e o v e r t i m e i n p e o p l e ' s minds a r e u s u a l l y t h o s e o f t h e more s a l i e n t e x p e r i e n c e s . R a t h e r t h a n s e e i n g t i m e as d i s t o r t i n g , we m i g h t c o n s i d e r i t as a f i l t e r w h i c h a l l o w s c l e a r e r v i s i o n o f t h e m a t t e r s o f i m p o r t a n c e i n a p e r s o n ' s l i f e . S e c o n d l y , I f e e l i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o e m p h a s i z e t h e o r a l t r a d i t i o n o f t h e Shuswap p e o p l e and a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s . U n l i k e some N a t i v e c u l t u r e s i n Canada, t h o s e i n t h e c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e d i d n o t t r a d i t i o n a l l y t r a n s m i t c u l t u r e i n w r i t t e n f o r m . As has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d , s t o r y - t e l l i n g has been t h e most i m p o r t a n t means o f p a s s i n g a l o n g h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s . Even i n t h e now l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e o f t h e Shuswap, t h e a b i l i t y t o t e l l s t o r i e s w i t h a c c u r a c y i s r e s p e c t e d as a s k i l l . S t o r y -t e l l i n g c o n t i n u e s t o be an i m p o r t a n t d i a l o g i c a l t o o l f o r p a s s i n g a l o n g t r u t h s o f t e n i n t h e g u i s e o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t . I p r o p o s e t h a t t h e l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f s t o r y - t e l l i n g — o n e w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e r e - t e l l i n g o f s t o r i e s many t i m e s w i t h l i t t l e o r no change - - c o n t r i b u t e s t o a c c u r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e v e n t s 6 e v e n l o n g a f t e r t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e . One i n f o r m a n t commented on t h i s n o t i o n as i t e x i s t s i n h e r c u l t u r e : " T h e r e i s no 25 d i s t i n c t i o n b e t ween t e l l i n g l i e s and n o t r e m e m b e r i n g o r e x a g g e r a t i n g . T h e r e ' s no d i f f e r e n c e ; a l l o f them a r e l i e s . " F o r t h i s p e r s o n , r e m e m b e r i n g i s a v a l u e - l a d e n 7 a c t i v i t y . C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h , s p e a k i n g r emembrances i s s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e o n l y when i t i s f a i t h f u l t o t h e i n c i d e n t r e c a l l e d . S h o r t l y a f t e r e a c h i n t e r v i e w , I w r o t e f i e l d n o t e s on g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , p o i n t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r w i t h o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s and o u t s t a n d i n g d e t a i l s . U s u a l l y s e v e r a l m a i n p o i n t s s t o o d o u t i n my mind b o t h i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w and weeks l a t e r when I began t h e more c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l y s i s . These p a r t i c u l a r s f e l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e w h i c h s u p p o r t e d my n o t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n and r e s i s t a n c e and t h o s e w h i c h p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f w h i c h I was p r e v i o u s l y u n a w a r e . As my i n t e r v i e w i n g p r o g r e s s e d , I f o u n d my m e n t a l image o f t h e s c h o o l c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . E a c h new i d e a e x p r e s s e d p r o d u c e d a s l i g h t r e s h u f f l i n g o f t h e p i e c e s w h i c h made up t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n w h i c h I was d e v e l o p i n g o f t h e s c h o o l . O c c a s i o n a l l y an i n t e r v i e w p r o d u c e d so many i d e a s o r an i d e a o f s u c h i m p o r t , i t was as i f i n t u r n i n g a k a l e i d o s c o p e , t h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n c h a n g e d r a d i c a l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e o l d b i t s o f c o l o u r e d g l a s s w i t h new b i t s t o f o r m an e n t i r e l y new d e s i g n . These i n i t a l r e a c t i o n s t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s were f o l l o w e d by t h e more c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s and a r e v i e w o f t h e f i e l d n o t e s . 26 The d e e p e r a n a l y s i s began w i t h a t h o r o u g h r e a d i n g o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t s . A t t h a t t i m e , I marked n o t e w o r t h y p o i n t s . On a s e c o n d r e a d i n g , I p r e p a r e d a l i s t o f t h e most s t r i k i n g t o p i c s w h i c h a r o s e f r o m e a c h i n t e r v i e w . These c o n s i s t e d o f p o i n t s w h i c h I f e l t w o u l d be u s e f u l i n r e - c r e a t i n g t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e s c h o o l and i t s e f f e c t s on them. I had i n my mind a g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n m i g h t l e a d me b u t r e m a i n e d open t o c h a n g e s w h i c h s e c o n d a r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d a t a m i g h t e n c o u r a g e me t o e m p h a s i z e . I f o u n d m y s e l f t h i n k i n g most o f t e n o f a q u i l t m a k e r . The i n f o r m a n t s c r e a t e d t h e s q u a r e s and my j o b was t o a r r a n g e them i n an e f f e c t i v e d e s i g n and t o s t i t c h them t o g e t h e r t o f a s h i o n an i m p r e s s i v e e n t i t y . The s t o r i e s w h i c h f o l l o w f o r m o u r q u i l t , made o f p e o p l e ' s s t r e n g t h , r e s i s t a n c e , p a i n , change and a d a p t a t i o n . I n an e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s , I have i n c l u d e d o n l y m i n i m a l d e t a i l s a b o u t e a c h p e r s o n . I have a s s i g n e d e a c h i n f o r m a n t a number and have i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l s : t r i b a l o r i g i n , y e a r o f b i r t h , and y e a r s o f a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e s c h o o l . (See A p p e n d i x A.)The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a f o r t h e most p a r t i s n o t a r r a n g e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . When I f e l t t h a t t h e t i m e o f a p a r t i c u l a r comment was i m p o r t a n t , I have u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e d a d e c a d e . O u t s t a n d i n g i s t h e c o m m o n a l i t y o f f e e l i n g a b o u t t h e s c h o o l t h r o u g h o u t i t s y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e d e t a i l s o f d a i l y l i f e c h a n g e d , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s t o an o p p r e s s i v e and d e h u m a n i z i n g s y s t e m r e m a i n e d f a i r l y c o n s t a n t . B e c a u s e I came t o t h e N a t i v e c u l t u r e as a p r i v i l e g e d 27 g u e s t , I f e l t t h a t i t was most i m p o r t a n t t o s e e k t h e p e o p l e ' s a p p r o v a l o f my work b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g i t . The r e c e n t l y f o r m e d Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y has as i t s mandate " . . t o work i n u n i t y t o : P r e s e r v e and R e c o r d — P e r p e t u a t e and E nhance o u r Shuswap L a n g u a g e , H i s t o r y and C u l t u r e . " B e c a u s e 8 n o n - N a t i v e p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l and a c a d e m i c s i n p a r t i c u l a r have o f t e n been r i g h t f u l l y a c c u s e d o f a p p r o a c h i n g N a t i v e c u l t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e i n an i n s e n s i t i v e and e x p l o i t i v e way, I w a n t e d t o a v o i d t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . W i t h t h e s o c i e t y ' s a p p r o v a l and w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h s t a f f and some b o a r d members o f t h e s o c i e t y , I f e l t more c o n f i d e n t t h a t my work w o u l d n o t s i m p l y be. a e t h n o c e n t r i c a c a d e m i c e x e r c i s e but t h a t i t m i g h t p r o v e u s e f u l and e n l i g h t e n i n g t o t h e Shuswap i n t h e work f o r p o s i t i v e e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e i r p e o p l e . I a l s o f e l t i t was i m p o r t a n t t o g i v e t h e i n f o r m a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o comment on my use o f t h e i r s t o r i e s i n t h e p a p e r and my s p e c u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g what t h e y had s h a r e d . I met w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f them f o l l o w i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s p a p e r and w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t h e y a p p r o v e d o f what I had w r i t t e n and t h e way i n w h i c h I had e d i t e d t h e i r w o r d s . 28 CHAPTER H j_ Footnotes 1. S h e i l a E r i c k s o n , w don't rhyme the words too c l o s e l y " , Notice T h i s i s an Indian Reserve,ed.Kent Gooderham ( T o r o n t o : G r i f f i n House, 1972) 40. 2. V a l e r i e Polakow, "Whose S t o r i e s Should We T e l l ? A C a l l to A c t i o n " i n Language Arts 62:8 (December 1985): 826. 3. Polakow 826. 4. Polakow 826. 5. W i l l i a m Foote Whyte, S t r e e t Corner S o c i e t y The  S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of an I t a l i a n Slum (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1955) 280. 6. James T e i t , The Shuswap 1909. (New York:AMS Press, 1975) 621. 7. Informant 13: 4.(Throughout the paper, I have r e f e r r e d to informants as numbers and have i n c l u d e d the page number of the t r a n s c r i p t f o r that person. See Appendix A f o r d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g the informants. In f o o t n o t e s which f o l l o w , Informant i s a b b r e v i a t e d as I and f o l l o w e d by a number.) 8. Secwepeme C u l t u r a l Education S o c i e t y , The Shuswap  D e c l a r a t i o n (Kamloops: August 20, 1982) 29 CHAPTER I I I SETTING XKE. SCENE "Thus, at the i n c e p t i o n of the Indian School q u e s t i o n , we f i n d two main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which have ever since continued, i . e . the p r i n c i p a l of the per c a p i t a grant and the denominational i n t e r e s t . " Unsigned l e t t e r 1908. BC A r c h i v e s . 1 T h i s chapter i n c l u d e s some background i n f o r m a t i o n on the three groups whose ideas came together i n that i n s t i t u t i o n c a l l e d the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . The main group 2 and the s u b j e c t of the major p o r t i o n of the t h e s i s are the Native people of the Kamloops area. The other two groups whose p o l i c i e s d i c t a t e d the d i r e c t i o n of the school are the government and the m i s s i o n a r i e s . The Secwepemc were t r a d i t i o n a l l y a migratory hunting, 3 4 f i s h i n g , and g a t h e r i n g people. Because of the severe winter c l i m a t e of the r e g i o n , much of the summer was devoted to food g a t h e r i n g and p r e s e r v a t i o n . In the l a t e summer months, people t r a v e l l e d to and camped at salmon f i s h i n g grounds to catch and dry f i s h . Throughout the growing season, b e r r i e s and roots were gathered from a p p r o p r i a t e places and d r i e d or used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of food and u t e n s i l s such as baskets. Hunting, a most important a c t i v i t y , was c a r r i e d on through most of the year and o f t e n i n v o l v e d t r a v e l over great d i s t a n c e . Within the Secwepemc s o c i e t y e x i s t e d a l l the c o m p l e x i t i e s of c u l t u r e : government, r e l i g i o n , acknowledgement and c e l e b r a t i o n of l i f e c r i s e s , t r a d i t i o n s and o r a l h i s t o r y i n c l u d i n g a theory of o r i g i n . As with a l l c u l t u r e s , language served as e x p r e s s i o n of and f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n of the c u l t u r e . 30 I n t o t h e l i v e s o f t h i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e and t h r i v i n g c u l t u r e came t h e w h i t e E u r o p e a n . I n i t i a l l y t h e e n c o u n t e r s were l i m i t e d t o e x c h a n g e s w i t h an i t i n e r a n t f u r t r a d e r who had l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e l i f e s t y l e o f t h e p e o p l e who met hi m . T r a d e goods w h i c h e n h a n c e d o r made e a s i e r t h e work o f t h e N a t i v e p e r s o n were s e e n as d e s i r a b l e . As E u r o p e a n m a r k e t s became more d e m a n d i n g and t h e West became more f a m i l i a r , t h e N o r t h West Company began i t s push t o e s t a b l i s h t r a d i n g p o s t s t o c e n t r a l i z e e f f o r t s and r e d u c e t h e t r a v e l l i n g o f e m p l o y e e s . I n 1812, c l o s e t o t h e s i t e o f a w i n t e r v i l l a g e o f 5 Secwepemc, F t . Thompson was f o u n d e d a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f two r i v e r s known t o t h e E u r o p e a n s as t h e N o r t h and S o u t h Thompson. About t h e same t i m e , t h e O b l a t e s o f Mary I m m a c u l a t e were i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o l l o w i n g a somewhat d i s a p p o i n t i n g t i m e i n O r e g o n . The l a c k o f s u p p o r t by t h e A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t dampened t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f t h o s e i n c o n t r o l and B.C. became t h e t a r g e t o f a new m i s s i o n a r y t h r u s t t o I n d i a n p e o p l e . S i x t y y e a r s a f t e r t h e f o u n d i n g o f F t . Thompson, S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n became a c e n t r e o f o p e r a t i o n u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f F a t h e r G r a n d i d i e r O.M.I. D u r i n g t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , t h e O b l a t e s had become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h and, on many o c c a s i o n s , i m mersed i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e . B e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d numbers o f p r i e s t s and b r o t h e r s w o r k i n g , one c a n assume t h a t , i n o r d e r t o m i n i s t e r more e f f e c t i v e l y , t h e O b l a t e s v i e w e d s e t t l e m e n t i n t o an a g r a r i a n l i f e s t y l e as a 31 p o s i t i v e step f o r Native people. Indeed, i n t h e i r moves to " C h r i s t i a n i z e and c i v i l i z e " the Native people, the Oblates viewed the a c q u i s i t i o n of farming s k i l l s as progress - one i n l i n e with white European standards. The migrant l i f e s t y l e of the Native people, because i t was d i f f e r e n t from the European l i f e s t y l e , was seen as i n h e r e n t l y wrong. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of C a t h o l i c i s m to the Secwepeme was a r e l a t i v e l y easy process l a r g e l y because of s i m i l a r i t i e s between Secwepeme r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and those of the C a t h o l i c s . P a r a l l e l s e x i s t e d to God the Father and C h r i s t , h i s son. "The Shuswap b e l i e v e d i n two great s p i r i t s they c a l l e d the Old-One and Coyote. The Old-One. . .was a l l powerful. . .The Old-One had as h i s c h i e f a s s i s t a n t . . .a s p i r i t c a l l e d Coyote. Although the d e s c r i p t i o n of Coyote v a r i e s somewhat from the C h r i s t i a n i d e a of Jesus. . . there were enough s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two f i g u r e s to ensure f a m i l i a r i t y f o r the Indians. Coyote was sent by the Old-One to t r a v e l over the world and put i t to r i g h t s . " 6 Other s i m i l a r i t i e s i n c l u d e d the c e l e b r a t i o n of two annual f e s t i v a l s - - C h r i s t m a s or mid-winter and E a s t e r or mid-summer--and the acknowledgement of i n d i v i d u a l guardian s p i r i t s . I n i t i a l l y , the m i s s i o n a r i e s passed through the Secwepeme t e r r i t o r y preaching and c o n v e r t i n g . S h o r t l y a f t e r the establishment of the St. Louis M i s s i o n and Canadian Confederation, the d e s i r a b i l i t y of s e t t i n g up an i n d u s t r i a l school was c r y s t a l l i z e d . As a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by the Acts of 1868 and 1869, the f e d e r a l government saw the schools as e s s e n t i a l to educating the Indian to an a g r a r i a n l i f e s t y l e and u l t i m a t e l y to a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o a " s u p e r i o r " , European s o c i e t y . The 32 O b l a t e s r e c o g n i z e d t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f w o r k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r p a r e n t s and o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d a i l y r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n i n m o l d i n g y o u n g m i n d s . I t was t h e s e two f o r c e s - - g o v e r n m e n t and c h u r c h - - w h i c h had t h e s t r o n g e s t c u l t u r a l i m p a c t on t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e o f t h e K a m l o o p s a r e a . TflJ. GOVERNMENTS The P r o v i n c e o f Canada i n 1847 p u b l i s h e d a r e p o r t b a s e d on t h e i d e a s o f E g e r t o n R y e r s o n w h i c h f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s i n p o l i c y f o r I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n . C l e a r l y 7 e x p r e s s e d i s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e , t h e nee d " . . . t o r a i s e them [ t h e I n d i a n s ] t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e w h i t e s " , and t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f l a n d o u t o f I n d i a n h a n d s . A t t h e same t i m e t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y need t o i s o l a t e I n d i a n s f r o m t h e e v i l i n f l u e n c e s o f w h i t e s o c i e t y i s a c k n o w l e d g e d The g e n e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t were t h a t I n d i a n s r e m a i n u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e Crown r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y , t h a t e f f o r t s t o C h r i s t i a n i z e t h e I n d i a n s and s e t t l e them i n c o m m u n i t i e s be c o n t i n u e d and f i n a l l y t h a t s c h o o l s , p r e f e r a b l y manual l a b o u r o n e s , be e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f m i s s i o n a r i e s . 8 C u l t u r a l o p p r e s s i o n was b e c o m i n g w r i t t e n p o l i c y . W i t h i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i s t h e f o l l o w i n g comment: " T h e i r e d u c a t i o n must c o n s i s t n o t m e r e l y o f t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e m i n d , but o f a w e a n i n g f r o m t h e h a b i t s and f e e l i n g s o f t h e i r a n c e s t o r s , and t h e a c q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , a r t s and c u s t o m s o f c i v i l i z e d l i f e . " 9 What c l e a r e r s t a t e m e n t o f an e f f o r t t o d e s t r o y a c u l t u r e c o u l d e x i s t . The n e c e s s i t y o f m i n i m i z i n g p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e , 33 another t o o l of c u l t u r a l d e s t r u c t i o n i s f u r t h e r developed by Rev. Peter Jones i n the same r e p o r t : " I t i s a notor i o u s f a c t , that the parents i n general e x e r c i s e l i t t l e or no c o n t r o l over t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a l l o w i n g them to do as they please. Being thus l e f t to f o l l o w t h e i r own w i l l s , they too f r e q u e n t l y wander about the woods with t h e i r bows and arrows, or accompany t h e i r parents i n t h e i r hunting e x c u r s i o n s . 10 A more c u l t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e observer might have come to r e a l i z e that the acts d e s c r i b e d above were one of the main forms of education f o r Native people: c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d by observing and f o l l o w i n g t h e i r parents and by doing the tasks expected of a d u l t s . F o l l o w i n g the establishment of the Indian Act of 1 876, a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , the government commissioned N. F. Davin to r e p o r t on i n d u s t r i a l s c h ools e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Native people i n the United S t a t e s . Out of h i s r e p o r t came the str o n g recommendations which r e s u l t e d i n the establishment of many r e s i d e n t i a l s c h ools across Canada i n c l u d i n g the one at Kamloops. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the r e p o r t , Davin makes r e f e r e n c e s to P r e s i d e n t Grant's p o l i c y on the Indian q u e s t i o n : "The i n d u s t r i a l school i s the p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e of the p o l i c y known as 'ag r e s s i v e c i v i l i z a t i o n . ' " 11 Other comments show that some of Davin's a t t i t u d e s are r e i n f o r c e d by p o l i t i c i a n s i n v o l v e d with schools f o r Native people i n the U.S. One point which f r e q u e n t l y arose i n d i s c u s s i o n s of Native education was that working with a d u l t s or c h i l d r e n i n day sc h o o l s was i n e f f e c t i v e . "The experience of the United States i s the same 34 as our own as f a r as the a d u l t Indian i s concerned. L i t t l e can be done with him. . .The c h i l d , again, who goes to a day school l e a r n s l i t t l e , and what he l e a r n s i s soon f o r g o t t e n , while h i s t a s t e s are fashi o n e d at home, and h i s i n h e r i t e d a v e r s i o n to t o i l i s i n no way combatted." 12 While p o s i t i v e l y endorsing the no t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l s c h ools f o r Indians i n Canada, Davin* s f i n a l comment i s **. . . i f anything i s to be done with the Indian, we must catch him very young. ** 13 S e v e r a l amendments to the Indian Act of 1876 occurred before the implementation of Davin*s recommendations. One amendment r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l s i n 1880 i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t t y p i f i e s government*s c o n t r a d i c t o r y approach to input from bands. Even something as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as the teacher's denomination i s not l e f t to chance. " C h i e f s could henceforth frame laws i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: 1. As to what denomination the teacher of the school e s t a b l i s h e d on the re s e r v e s h a l l belong to; provided always, that he s h a l l be of the same denomination as the m a j o r i t y of the band; and provided that the C a t h o l i c or Pro t e s t a n t m i n o r i t y l i k e w i s e have a separate school with the approval of and under r e g u l a t i o n s to be made by the Governor i n C o u n c i l . " 14 What appears, at f i r s t glance, to give some autonomy to the Chief a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n s such c o n f i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s that the choice i s made. In 1887, L. VanKoughnet, then Deputy Superintendant General of Indian A f f a i r s , again s t r e s s e d the need f o r schools f o r Native c h i l d r e n . He wrote to the Right Honourable John A. MacDonald: "That the country owes to the poor Indian to give him a l l that w i l l a f f o r d him an equal chance of success i n l i f e with h i s white brother, by whom he 35 has been supplanted (to use no stronger expression) i n h i s possessions, goes without saying, and the g i f t f o r which we pray on h i s behalf, with a view to the discharge of t h i s j u s t debt, i s the education of h i s c h i l d r e n i n such a way as w i l l put beyond q u e s t i o n t h e i r success i n a f t e r l i f e . n 15 Although t h i s r e p o r t recommended the establishment of day schools, by 1920 amendments to the Indian Act i n c l u d e d compulsory school attendance of Indian c h i l d r e n and i n d u s t r i a l or boarding schools ' f o r Indians. F o l l o w i n g 16 these amendments were other minor ones r e l a t i n g to education. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n 1920 i n the House of Commons d i s c u s s i o n of changes to the Indian Act, Deputy Superintendant General Duncan Campbell S c o t t s t a t e d c l e a r l y the i d e a that Indian c u l t u r e s as such were to be e l i m i n a t e d . n . . .Our obj e c t i s to continue u n t i l there i s not a s i n g l e Indian i n Canada that has not been absorbed i n t o the body p o l i t i c and there i s no Indian q u e s t i o n , and no Indian department, that i s the whole object of t h i s B i l l . " 17 Not u n t i l 1946 was there s e r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t y for change i n t h i s a t t i t u d e and i n the expressed i n t e n t of Department of Indian A f f a i r s p o l i c y . J . A l l i s o n Glen, M i n i s t e r of Mines and Resources which at that time i n c l u d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Indian a f f a i r s d e c l a r e d : "The Indian, . . .should r e t a i n and develop many of h i s Native C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and . u l t i m a t e l y assume the f u l l r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of democratic c i t i z e n s h i p . " Also i n 1946 began d i s c u s s i o n s f o r 1 8 complete revamping of the Indian Act. For the f i r s t time, and only a f t e r i n i t i a l s t rong r e s i s t a n c e by committee members, Native input was a c t u a l l y permitted. Andrew P a u l l , P r e s i d e n t of the North American Indian Brotherhood appeared 36 before the S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee i n 1946. He was h i g h l y c r i t i c a l of the committee's l a c k of Indian r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . He condemned the e x i s t i n g Act as "an i m p o s i t i o n , the c a r r y i n g out of the most b u r e a u c r a t i c and a u t o c r a t i c system that was ever imposed upon any people i n t h i s world of ours." He 19 spoke s t r o n g l y f o r Indian self-government and f i n a l l y he commented that what was needed was: ". . .to l i f t up the morale of the Indians i n Canada. That i s your f i r s t duty. There i s no use i n passing l e g i s l a t i o n about t h i s or that i f you do not l i f t up the morale of the people. The only way you can l i f t up the morale of any people i s to l e t the members look a f t e r themselves and look a f t e r t h e i r people. " 20 His words f e l l upon deaf ears. In 1947, a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Diamond Jenness t o l d the Committee what i t wanted to hear. His "Plan f o r L i q u i d a t i n g Canada's Indian Problems w i t h i n 25 Years" recommended the a b o l i t i o n of Indian r e s e r v e s and the 21 establishment of an i n t e g r a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l system as the b a s i s f o r a s s i m i l a t i o n . The never-ceasing attempt by the now dominant m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y to make the Indian disappear continued unabashed through t h i s r e v i s i o n of the Indian Act. "The new Indian Act d i d not d i f f e r i n many r e s p e c t s from previous l e g i s l a t i o n . " I t d i d however serve as the 22 beginning of the end f o r many r e s i d e n t i a l s c h ools as i t allowed f o r Indian attendance i n the p u b l i c school system. MISSIONARIES 23 George Manuel, the Secwepeme l e a d e r and author w r i t e s , " A l l areas of our l i v e s which were not occupied by the Indian agent were governed by the p r i e s t . " Such was the case with 24 the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . While the government espoused 37 a s s i m i l a t i o n of the Indian through C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n and c i v i l i z a t i o n , i t turned the doing of the task over to the r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s - - p r i e s t s and tea c h e r s . Fort Kamloops, a North West Company t r a d i n g post founded i n 1812 and, s i n c e time immemorial, an important s i t e of winter homes f o r the Secwepemc, was a l o g i c a l s i t e f o r the establishment of a m i s s i o n . Father Demers, an Oblate, was the f i r s t m issionary to v i s i t the Kamloops area i n 1 842. In 1 87 8, Father G r a n d i d i e r was appointed r e c t o r and bursar of the permanent St. L o u i s M i s s i o n . The o r i g i n a l church and m i s s i o n were l o c a t e d 2 1/2 miles west of the present c i t y c e n ter. Father LeJacq served as s u p e r v i s o r from 1880-1882 and was succeeded by Father LeJeune i n 1893. Although the Oblates p r e v i o u s l y had been o p e r a t i n g a day school f o r the Native c h i l d r e n , i n 1 89 3 f the r e s i d e n t i a l school opened. Father A.M. C a r i o n took over d i r e c t i o n of the school and, with some time away, remained i n charge u n t i l 1916. Although the p r i e s t s were f r e q u e n t l y busy t r a v e l l i n g to preach to the Native bands of the area, t h e i r p o l i c i e s served to c o n t r o l the d i r e c t i o n of the s c h o o l . Father C a r i o n i n a r e p o r t from Kamloops Indian R e s i d e n t i a l School s t a t e s : nWe keep c o n s t a n t l y before the mind of the p u p i l s the o b j e c t which the government has i n view, .which i s to c i v i l i z e the Indians and to make them good, u s e f u l and law-abiding members of s o c i e t y . A continuous s u p e r v i s i o n i s e x e r c i s e d over them, and no i n f r a c t i o n of the r u l e s of m o r a l i t y and good manners i s l e f t without due c o r r e c t i o n . n 25 The Oblates of Mary Immaculate, a young order, was founded i n 1812 by Eugene de Mazenod i n France. He sought to 38 i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f p r i e s t s and o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n w h i l e a s k i n g members o f t h e o r d e r t o e m p h a s i z e s e l f - s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n , s t r i c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e r u l e s o f t h e o r d e r and, s e c o n d a r i l y , p r e a c h i n g t o t h e p o o r . O r i g i n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h N o r t h A m e r i c a came i n r e s p o n s e t o a r e q u e s t f r o m t h e b i s h o p o f M o n t r e a l . From t h e r e , a s m a l l g r o u p o f O b l a t e s moved w e s t i n t h e i r m i s s i o n a r y work a r r i v i n g i n O r e g o n i n 1847. H e r e , t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s w h i c h were t o g u i d e much o f t h e O b l a t e m i s s i o n a r y work i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were p u t i n t o a c t i o n . I n h i s " I n s t r u c t i o n s on F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s " deMazenod had w r i t t e n : " E v e r y means s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be t a k e n t o b r i n g t h e nomad t r i b e s t o a b a n d o n t h e i r w a n d e r i n g l i f e and t o b u i l d h o u s e s , c u l t i v a t e f i e l d s and p r a c t i s e t h e e l e m e n t a r y c r a f t s o f c i v i l i z e d l i f e . " 26 S e c o n d o n l y t o i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e a b a n d o n t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and t a k e up C h r i s t i a n i t y was t h e push f o r them t o a b a n d o n t h e i r m i g r a t o r y l i f e s t y l e . From a p r a c t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , i t p r o v e d v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o m i n i s t e r t o p e o p l e who were f r e q u e n t l y on t h e move. The d e s i r e t o c o n t r o l t h e l i v e s o f t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e s p i r i t u a l l y and i n t e r m s o f l i f e s t y l e were p r i m e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e O b l a t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e i r i m p a c t on N a t i v e p e o p l e was v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e w h i s k e y t r a d e and p r o f i t - s e e k i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n o f some E u r o p e a n s , t h e i m p a c t was e x p l o i t i v e i n t h a t t h e O b l a t e s c r e a t e d a g r o w i n g need f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . B e c a u s e t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s had more e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o f J e s u s C h r i s t t h a n N a t i v e p e o p l e , once c o n v e r t e d , t h e y had t o r e l y on t h i s s o u r c e o f s p i r i t u a l i t y . O n l y p r i e s t s c o u l d 3 9 say Mass and o f f e r the sacraments e s s e n t i a l to the p r a c t i c i n g C a t h o l i c . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the m i s s i o n a r i e s and governments worked hand i n hand to deal with the Indian "problem". Government must have seen the r e l i g i o u s order's e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l as most b e n e f i c i a l . Rather than sending s o l d i e r s and guns to c o n t r o l the l i v e s of the owners of the land, the governments had the m i s s i o n a r i e s who i n f l u e n c e d the Native people to l i m i t t h e i r movements, take up an a g r a r i a n l i f e s t y l e and abandon t h e i r c u l t u r e . The Oblates n o t i c e d that they were much more e f f e c t i v e with Native people who had not been i n v o l v e d with the c o r r u p t i v e i n f l u e n c e s of some White t r a d e r s . In 1861, Father Chirouse wrote: ". . .1 f i n d i t much more d i f f i c u l t to r e c l a i m and teach those who are brought much i n contact with the e v i l - d i s p o s e d and immoral among the whites than i s the case with those who are d i f f e r e n t l y s i t u a t e d . " 27 This r e c o g n i t i o n l e d to an even stronger push f o r c o n t r o l of Native people's l i v e s . I t was seen as an advantage to separate the Native people from the white settlements and, i n the beginning, even from the E n g l i s h language. In a l e t t e r to Father LeJeune i n 1892, L.N. Saintonge s t a t e s : "I agree with you that to teach E n g l i s h to the Indian i s too much of a task. Besides they always l e a r n i t too soon f o r t h e i r own good. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , when the Indians come to know E n g l i s h , they are more disposed to have r e l a t i o n s with the whites, and you know what the r e s u l t i s of t h e i r i n t e r c o u r s e . No, no, teach them no E n g l i s h . Let them l e a r n i t how they may, and as l a t e as p o s s i b l e . 28 Although h i s words suggest that a c q u i s i t i o n of E n g l i s h i s HO i n e v i t a b l e , one can assume t h a t he h opes t o have C h r i s t i a n i t y e n g r a i n e d b e f o r e e x p o s u r e t o e v i l i n f l u e n c e s . D e s p i t e i t s good i n t e n t i o n s , t h i s d e s i r e f o r c o n t r o l o v e r N a t i v e p e o p l e p a r t i a l l y t h r o u g h s e g r e g a t i o n and more d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e r e v e a l s t h e i n v a s i v e n a t u r e o f t h e O b l a t e s . R e f e r e n c e s t o "my I n d i a n s " a r e f r e q u e n t and t h i s p o s s e s s i v e n e s s , w h i l e s h o w i n g a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e p e o p l e , a l s o b e l i t t l e s and r e l e g a t e s t h e p e o p l e t o b e i n g p o s s e s s i o n s o f a n o t h e r human b e i n g . F r e i r e i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n r e f e r s t o w e l l -i n t e n t i o n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s who i n v a d e n o t as a d e l i b e r a t e i d e o l o g y but as an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r u p b r i n g i n g . He g o es 29 on t o p o i n t o u t t h a t c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n " a l w a y s i n v o l v e s a p a r o c h i a l v i e w o f r e a l i t y , a s t a t i c p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d and t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s w o r l d v i e w upon a n o t h e r . " R o b i n 30 F i s h e r s u m m a r i z e s m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s as f o l l o w s : " B e c a u s e t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s d i d n o t s e p a r a t e W e s t e r n C h r i s t i a n i t y and W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h e y a p p r o a c h e d I n d i a n c u l t u r e as a w h o l e and demanded a t o t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n p r o s e l y t e . T h e i r a i m was t h e c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e g r a t e d I n d i a n way o f l i f e . The m i s s i o n a r i e s demanded e v e n more f a r - r e a c h i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h a n t h e s e t t l e r s and t h e y p u s h e d i t more a g g r e s s i v e l y t h a n any o t h e r g r o u p o f w h i t e s . " 31 E d u c a t i o n was s e e n as a p r i m a r y t o o l i n e f f e c t i n g t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I n a v e i n s i m i l a r t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s n o t i o n " o f g e t t i n g them w h i l e t h e y a r e y o u n g " , t h e O b l a t e s saw t r e m e n d o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . Here t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d be i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s and a d a i l y , s y s t e m a t i c 41 i n c u l c a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n theory and p r a c t i c e became p o s s i b l e . C o n t r o l became c l o s e to absolute i n that students attended from August to June and v i s i t s from home were s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d . In a r e v e r s a l of Saintonge's recommendation, the use of E n g l i s h became mandatory. Through p r o h i b i t i o n of the Native languages, the very base of c u l t u r e was a t t a c k e d . In Kamloops, the r e s i d e n t i a l school was b u i l t on land purchased by the government f o r the purpose at the edge of what i s now the Kamloops Indian Reserve. I t was across the r i v e r from the town p r o v i d i n g the s e p a r a t i o n deemed o p t i m a l . In a d d i t i o n , i t was s e v e r a l miles from the Indian v i l l a g e i t s e l f . The government had r e f u s e d to purchase the b u i l d i n g s owned by the Oblates some miles away because i t was f e l t that they were asking too much money. In 1890, three two-storey b u i l d i n g s were completed and provided separate d o r m i t o r i e s f o r boys and g i r l s , l i v i n g area f o r teachers, classrooms and play area. A f t e r a f a l t e r i n g s t a r t under the guidance of a l a y teacher Michael Hagan, the school was taken over by the Oblates i n 1893. The S i s t e r s of St. Ann a l s o played a major r o l e i n working with the g i r l s . S i s t e r Mary Joachim s t a r t e d at the school i n 1890, l e f t s h o r t l y a f t e r , but returned i n 1894 when the Oblates had taken over and remained u n t i l her death i n 1907. Throughout most of i t s o p e r a t i o n u n t i l i t s 32 c l o s u r e i n 1966, the K.I.R.S. was guided by the Oblates a s s i s t e d by the S i s t e r s of St. Ann. In the usual male-female h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n the Church, the Oblate p r i e s t s c o n t r o l l e d p o l i c y and served as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s while the S i s t e r s worked 42 o b e d i e n t l y as teachers, c h i l d care workers, and s u p e r v i s o r s along with the Oblate b r o t h e r s , the l a b o r e r s of the order. Most students who attended the school f e l l w i t h i n the governmental j u r i s d i c t i o n c a l l e d the Kamloops Agency. This area i n c l u d e d the southern Shuswap Bands of Bonaparte, ChuChua, Skeetchestn, Kamloops, Adams Lake, Chase, N e s k o n l i t h , (See Appendix C) and s e v e r a l bands of Thompson Indians of the N i c o l a V a l l e y . People from the N i c o l a V a l l e y could choose to send c h i l d r e n to St. Joseph's School i n L y t t o n i f they were P r o t e s t a n t and to St. Louis M i s s i o n i n Kamloops i f they were C a t h o l i c . In a d d i t i o n , some c h i l d r e n from the C h i l c o t i n and c o a s t a l bands attended the s c h o o l . F o l l o w i n g the 1916 McKenna-McBride Commission hearings, day schools were b u i l t on s e v e r a l r e s e r v e s l o c a t e d some d i s t a n c e from Kamloops. R i s i n g b i r t h r a t e s and enforced attendance a f t e r 1920 provided students not only for these schools but a l s o f o r an i n c r e a s i n g number at the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . THE SECWEPEMC The Secwepemc whose c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d at that f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l school i n 1893 had l i t t l e experience with the formal European s t y l e of s c h o o l i n g o f f e r e d by the Oblates. They saw ch i l d h o o d and s c h o o l i n g as an i n s e p a r a b l e part of the on-going process of l i f e and l i v i n g . "The methods used to teach s k i l l s f o r everyday l i v i n g and to i n s t i l l values and p r i n c i p l e s were p a r t i c i p a t i o n and example. Within communities, s k i l l s were taught by every member, with E l d e r s p l a y i n g a very important r o l e . Education f o r the c h i l d began at the time he or she was born. The c h i l d was prepared f o r h i s r o l e i n l i f e whether i t be hunter, fisherman, wife, or mother. This meant that each c h i l d grew up knowing h i s place i n the 43 s y s t e m . . . . I n t e g r a l t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m was t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y and community as e d u c a t o r s . n 33 W h i l e w a r n i n g o f t h e d a n g e r o f g e n e r a l i z i n g , Mary A s h w o r t h s a y s o f t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n amongst t h e d i v e r s e t r i b a l g r o u p s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : " E d u c a t i o n was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a l l and i t was a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . P a r e n t s , g r a n d p a r e n t s and o t h e r r e l a t i v e s n a t u r a l l y p l a y e d a m a j o r r o l e , b u t o t h e r members o f t h e t r i b e p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e e l d e r s h e l p e d t o shape t h e y o u n g p e o p l e . " 34 I n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y , James T e i t , an e t h n o g r a p h e r who l e a r n e d t h e Shuswap l a n g u a g e and s p e n t h i s l i f e w o r k i n g w i t h N a t i v e p e o p l e o f t h e C e n t r a l I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w r o t e e x t e n s i v e l y o f t h e Shuswap p e o p l e ' s t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e . C h i l d r e n u n t i l t h e y r e a c h e d p u b e r t y had few r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o r d u t i e s . A l t h o u g h he does n o t comment i n d e t a i l on Shuswap c h i l d h o o d , T e i t p o i n t s o u t t h a t c h i l d r e n o f t h e Thompson, a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t r i b e t o t h e S o u t h , had few r e s t r i c t i o n s . They had t o r i s e e a r l y , wash f r e q u e n t l y i n c o l d w a t e r and l i m i t t h e i r p l a y a f t e r s u n s e t . Shuswap c h i l d r e n a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c o m p l e x ceremony t w i c e a y e a r c a l l e d " w h i p p i n g t h e c h i l d r e n " i n w h i c h t h e y were e n c o u r a g e d t o overcome f e a r and u l t i m a t e l y d e m o n s t r a t e c o u r a g e . O t h e r t h a n t h a t , p u b e r t y was t h e t i m e o f f o c u s on 35 t r a i n i n g . G i r l s were a s s i s t e d by a g r a n d m o t h e r , m o t h e r o r a u n t and s p e n t a y e a r i n i s o l a t i o n p r a c t i s i n g a l l t h e work w h i c h a woman must do. B o y s , i s o l a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e , f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n when t h e i r v o i c e s c h a n g e d o r t h e y dreamed o f women, a r r o w s and c a n o e s b u t t h e i r t r a i n i n g c o u l d l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s . 36 44 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g , i n t h e e v e n i n g s , e l d e r s s p e n t much t i m e t e l l i n g s t o r i e s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d e t h i c a l c o n c e p t s and myths i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p e o p l e . F r e q u e n t l y t i m e was s p e n t a d d r e s s i n g t h e yo u n g p e o p l e d i r e c t l y . "These were t h e t i m e s when t h e o l d p e o p l e w o u l d a d d r e s s t h e y o u n g , and t h e n t h e y w o u l d a d m o n i s h them t o f o l l o w t h e r u l e s o f p r o p e r e t h i c a l c o n d u c t . " 37 The s t a r t l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n Shuswap e d u c a t i o n and t h a t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l a r e numerous. E d u c a t i o n w i t h t h e Shuswap was a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h a r e d by f a m i l y and c o m m u n i t y . O n l y a t p u b e r t y d i d c h i l d r e n remove t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e community f o r any l e n g t h o f t i m e . G e n e r a l l y e d u c a t i o n was o n - g o i n g , n o t f o c u s s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y on y o u n g p e o p l e . The myths and s t o r i e s t o l d by t h e e l d e r s w e r e r e s e r v e d n o t o n l y f o r c h i l d r e n b u t were a p a r t o f t h e l i f e - b l o o d o f t h e communi t y . W i t h t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , c h i l d r e n were removed f r o m t h e i r c o m m u n i t y , p l a c e d i n l a r g e g r o u p s and e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w a t i g h t s c h e d u l e . Add t o t h e s e f a c t s t h a t t h e a d u l t s w i t h whom t h e y had c o n t a c t had v e r y d e f i n i t e i d e a s a b o u t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s need f o r c h a n g e s i n l a n g u a g e , b e l i e f s and l i f e s t y l e and t h e o p p r e s s i v e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l , r e l i g i o u s s c h o o l i n g becomes c l e a r . 45 CHAPTER 111 A. F Q P t h P t e s 1. U n s i g n e d s u b m i s s i o n : L e t t e r t o R e v e r e n d and Dear S i r O t t a w a , 21 M a r c h , 1908 (PABC RG10 VOL. 6001 F i l e 1-1-1 P t . 2 S c h o o l F i l e s ) 2 2. Much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s d i s t i l l e d f r o m t h r e e m a j o r s o u r c e s : Kay C r o n i n ' s C r o s s i n t h e  W i l d e r n e s s . M a r g a r e t W h i t e h e a d ' s The C a r i b o o M i s s i o n and James T e i t ' s The Shuswap. 3. Secwepeme i s t h e o r i g i n a l word f o r Shuswap. I have u s e d t h e two w o r d s i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n t h i s p a p e r . 4. M i g r a t o r y i s u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Shuswap p e o p l e t r a v e l l e d o n l y f o r s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d t o f o o d g a t h e r i n g . A c e n t r a l w i n t e r home was p e r m a n e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e same way t h a t p e o p l e now have summer c a b i n s a t t h e l a k e , b u t c o n s i d e r t h e i r w i n t e r h o u s e s as m a j o r p l a c e s o f d o m i c i l e , 5. See F i s h e r . 6. M a r g a r e t W h i t e h e a d , The C a r i b o o M i s s i o n ( V i c t o r i a : Sono N i s P r e s s , 1981 ) 2 9 - 3 0 . 7. " R e p o r t on t h e A f f a i r s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f C a n a d a " , J o u r n a l o f L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f Canada (1847) i n A l i s o n L. P r e n t i c e and S u s a n E. H o u s t o n e d s , F a m i l y f S c h o o l and S o c i e t y i n N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r v Canada. ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975) 218. 8. R e p o r t 2 2 0 . 9. R e p o r t 2 2 1 . 10. R e p o r t 22 1 . 11. N i c h o l a s F. D a v i n , R e p o r t on I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l s f o r  I n d i a n s and H a l f b r e e d s . ( O t t a w a : 14 M a r c h 1879. PABC RG 10 V o l . 6001 F i l e 1-1-1, p a r t 1) 1 12. D a v i n 2. 13. D a v i n 12. 14. K a h n - T i n e t a M i l l e r , George L e r c h s and R o b e r t J . M o o r e , The H i s t o r i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n Ac_L. 2nd Ed. ( O t t a w a ( ? ) : T r e a t i e s and H i s t o r i c a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , P.R.E. Group, I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , 1978) 78. 15. L. V a n K o u g h n e t , L e t t e r t o J o h n A. M a c D o n a l d ( O t t a w a , 2 6 t h A u g u s t 1887. PABC RG 10 V o l . 6001 F i l e 1-1-1, 46 CHAPTER I I I : F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) p a r t 1. S c h o o l F i l e s ) 16 . M i l l e r 115 1 7 . M i l l e r 114 . 1 8 . M i l l e r 1 3 0 . 1 9 . S p e c i a l J o i n t C o m m i t t e e o f t h e S e n a t e and The House o f Commons a p p o i n t e d t o examine and c o n s i d e r t h e I n d i a n A c t . M i n u t e s o f P r o c e e d i n g s and E v i d e n c e No. 1 T u e s d a y , May 2 8 , 1946 ; T h u r s d a y , May 3 0 , 1946 ( O t t a w a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1947) 4 2 7 . 2 0 . SJC (1947) 4 2 7 . 2 1 . SJC (1947) 3 1 0 - 3 1 1 . 2 2 . M i l l e r 1 4 9 . 2 3 . Much o f what i s w r i t t e n h e r e i s d i s t i l l e d f r o m two m a i n r e f e r e n c e s . W h i t e h e a d (1981) and C r o n i n ( 1 9 6 0 ) . 2 4 . M a n u e l 6 3 . 2 5 . Kay C r o n i n , C r o s s i n t h e W i l d e r n e s s . ( V a n c o u v e r : M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1960) 2 1 5 . 2 6 . W h i t e h e a d 18 . 2 7 . C r o n i n 1 3 9 . 2 8 . L.N. S a i n t o n g e , L e t t e r t o F a t h e r L e J e u n e . ( T r o y , New Y o r k : 19 June 1892) K a m l o o p s . Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y . V e r t i c a l F i l e - F a t h e r L e J e u n e . 2 9 . F r e i r e 1 5 4 . 3 0 . F r e i r e 1 5 9 . 3 1 . F i s h e r 1 4 4 - 4 5 . 3 2 . K a m l o o p s S o u v e n i r E d i t i o n . (May 21 , 1977) 8 3 3 . R i t a J a c k , " L e g a c y o f t h e R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l " Secwepemc  C u l t u r a l A r t s M a g a z i n e 1 : 1 , (June 19 85) 9 . 3 4 . Mary A s h w o r t h , The F o r c e s W h i c h Shaped Them ( V a n c o u v e r : New S t a r B o o k s , 1979) 6 3 5 . James T e i t , The Thompson I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 0 0 . New Y o r k : AMS P r e s s I n c . 1975) 308 , 3 0 9 . 47 CHAPTER I I I _L F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) 36. T e i t , The Shuswap. 587-90. 37. T e i t , The Shuswap. 617. 4 8 CHAPTER I I FROM HOME i f l SCHOOL " T h e r e was a l o t more t o o u r t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n t h a n j u s t some ' M i c k e y Mouse' c o u r s e s i n m o c c a s i n m a k i n g . " N i s h g a e l d e r 1 At Home The Shuswap c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d e d K a mloops I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l h a d, b e f o r e t h e y r e a c h e d s c h o o l a ge, e x p o s u r e t o many a s p e c t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y l i f e . As w i t h a l l c h i l d r e n , t h e s e i n i t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s had t r e m e n d o u s i m p a c t on t h e i r e v e n t u a l f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l and i t s l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s . I n o r d e r t o b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e v a r y i n g e f f e c t s , one may examine t h e memories o f t h e l i f e and t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n b e f o r e t h e y r e a c h e d s c h o o l . "The t h i n g t h a t I c a n remember a b o u t t h a t l i t t l e s o d r o o f - i t was l i k e h e a v e n t o me I g u e s s , ' c a u s e i t was so f u l l o f l o v e and h a p p i n e s s , f r e e d o m . We'd h e l p my grandma p a c k h e r wood and t h e n s h e ' d cook us s o m e t h i n g t o e a t . Then i n t h e e v e n i n g , she v e r y s e l d o m p u t a l i g h t i n t h e r e b e c a u s e we d i d n ' t need a l i g h t . . . .At one end o f t h a t l i t t l e s o d r o o f . . t h e y pegged some l i t t l e s t i c k s o r p o s t s a c r o s s , j u s t so h i g h and t h e y p u t b o a r d s . And t h e y f i l l e d i t w i t h t h a t s l o u g h h a y , f u l l o f t h a t m i n t g r a s s and t h a t bed u s e d t o s m e l l so n i c e . She w o u l d p u t a t a r p o v e r i t and t h e n q u i l t s and t h a t ' s w here we a l l s l e p t . And my grandma w o u l d s i t down, she had so much p a t i e n c e , I g u e s s b e c a u s e she l o v e d us so much. . . .She had a h a b i t o f a l w a y s m a s s a g i n g o u r h e a d s . . . s h e ' d r u b o u r b a c k s . And she w o u l d s t a r t t e l l i n g us l i t t l e l e g e n d s . . .Sometimes we w o u l d h e a r t h e same l e g e n d o v e r and o v e r but I g u e s s t h e l e s s o n s i n t h o s e l e g e n d s i s what she was t r y i n g t o g e t a c r o s s t o u s . . . .At t h e end o f t h e s t o r y , she w o u l d s a y 'Tat a maa 1 1 w h i c h meant ' See t h a t m a n , ' : t h i s i s what w o u l d h a p p e n i f y ou d o n ' t do i t o r you do i t . To me when I l o o k b a c k , I c a n s e e me, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s p r i n g when t h e l i t t l e b i r d s come b a c k and you c a n h e a r them- makes you f e e l so good 49 and I c o u l d j u s t see me r u n n i n g a r o u n d t r y i n g t o c a t c h a b u t t e r f l y . And we n e v e r had b o u g h t s h o e s , we a l w a y s had m o c a s s i n s a l l t h e t i m e . And I g u e s s t h o s e were t h e n i c e s t most b e a u t i f u l t i m e s o f my w h o l e l i f e . . . t h a t f r e e d o m , my l i f e so f u l l o f l o v e . 2 W i t h i n t h e s e w ords o f remembrance l i e s e v e r a l l i f e v a l u e s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o N a t i v e p e o p l e : t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e g r a n d m o t h e r and h e r t e a c h i n g t h r o u g h l e g e n d s , f a m i l i a l p a t i e n c e and l o v e , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e n a t u r a l - - m i n t g r a s s , b u t t e r f l i e s and f r e e d o m - - a n d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f e ven t h e l i t t l e s t c h i l d t o t h e work o f t h e h o u s e h o l d . L i f e b e f o r e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l was s e e n as p o s i t i v e , c a r e f r e e t i m e by most o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d . I t was a t i m e o f l e a r n i n g s m a l l and l a r g e r t a s k s s u c h as h e l p i n g w i t h c o o k i n g , s p l i t t i n g and p a c k i n g wood, l e a r n i n g ways o f g o i n g i n t h e woods o r mowing h a y . " F i r s t o f a l l , I s e n s e d t h e r e was an e x p e c t a t i o n f o r me t o do t h o s e [ t h i n g s ] and b e c a u s e o f t h a t I s t a r t e d w a t c h i n g . . . I l e a r n e d how t o chop wood a f t e r o b s e r v i n g my f a t h e r , my g r a n d f a t h e r and my m o t h e r c h o p p i n g wood and how s a f e t y c o n s c i o u s t h e y were i n t a k i n g c a r e o f t h e axe and m a k i n g s u r e t h a t no harm w i l l be done. I w o u l d t r y on l i t t l e p i e c e s o f wood, maybe t h e k i n d l i n g a n d , i f t h e y d i d n o t i c e me h o l d i n g t h e axe t h e w r o n g way, t h e n t h e y w o u l d p o i n t o u t t h e r i g h t way t o do i t We f o l l o w e d Dad w h i l e he w o r k e d on t h e f a r m mowing h a y . . . [ I n ] p l a y i n g , we a l s o knew why he s t o p p e d t h e m a c h i n e - - i t was p l u g g e d up--and what he d i d t o c l e a r i t . He d i d n ' t use h i s h a n d s ; he u s e d a s t i c k t o c l e a r away i n c a s e t h e h o r s e s moved...We d i d t h a t as a game n o t so much as d i r e c t 1 e a r n i n g . . . A r o u n d a b o u t s e v e n o r e i g h t [ y e a r s o l d ] , he s a i d t o u s , ' I want you t o t a k e a r o u n d . ' . . . a n d maybe t h a t w i l l be a l l f o r a y e a r . As a l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t o r , he went up t h e h i l l and he'd i n v i t e us as y o u n g s t e r s . . . t o be w i t h h i m . We need n o t do a n y t h i n g . . . b u t I i m a g i n e h i s p u r p o s e was f o r us t o w a t c h him do t h i n g s - h o w t o c u t a l o g so i t w i l l f a l l a c e r t a i n way." 50 F o r some p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e who had l a r g e f a m i l i e s and who d i d n o t go s c h o o l u n t i l t h e age o f n i n e o r t e n , t h e work was more a r d u o u s . "...Coming f r o m a l a r g e f a m i l y , we a l l had c h o r e s t o do as s o o n as we were a b l e t o p i c k up a n y t h i n g and t h e n t h e r e was a l w a y s a baby. B e i n g t h e o l d e s t t h e r e I was a t t h e age o f s e v e n , s i x . . . a l r e a d y b a b y s i t t i n g . . . I e v e n h e l p e d d o i n g t h e d i a p e r s and f e e d i n g t h e baby...And t h e n we w o r k e d o u t i n t h e g a r d e n , we p a c k e d wood, we done a l l t h e s e c h o r e s . " H A p e r s o n who s t a r t e d a t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n 1958 a t t h e age o f t e n r e p o r t e d t h a t h i s m o t h e r k e p t h i m o u t o f s c h o o l so t h a t he c o u l d h e l p w i t h a l l h i s l i t t l e b r o t h e r s . He was a l s o e x p e c t e d t o h e l p w i t h a l l t h e h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s i n c l u d i n g w a s h i n g c l o t h e s and d i s h e s . Y e t , he remembered t h i s t i m e as a t i m e o f f r e e d o m . A l t h o u g h h i s m emories may be i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s l i f e i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m t o w h i c h he was l a t e r s u b j e c t e d , t h e s e e m o t i o n s r e m a i n s t r o n g i n h i s m i n d . F o r a few, l i f e b e f o r e s c h o o l was n o t a l l s e c u r i t y . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a l c o h o l and t h e c o m i n g t o p a r e n t h o o d o f a g e n e r a t i o n o f p e o p l e , who t h r o u g h a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l had l i t t l e o p p o r t u n t i t y t o l e a r n p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s , c r e a t e d some u n h e a l t h y s i t u a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n . "My mom u s e d t o l e a v e u s , a y e , and t h i s one t i m e she l e f t us w i t h t h i s s i t t e r . A t t h e t i m e , I u s e d t o t r u s t e v e r y b o d y and t h i s t i m e she l e f t me w i t h h e r u n c l e t o b a b y s i t us...My mom and dad w a n t e d t o go t o t h e dance so t h e y l e f t and t h i s u n c l e o f h e r s , h e . . . s e x u a l l y a b u s e d me. I g o t t o a p o i n t w h e r e I f o r g o t a b o u t i t and w e l l I g u e s s I h a t e d t h e t h o u g h t s so much , I j u s t f o r g o t . I remembered 51 a f t e r and I d i d n ' t know w h e t h e r I s h o u l d t e l l my p a r e n t s . I was r e a l l y ashamed." 5 I n what i s now u n d e r s t o o d as t h e t y p i c a l r e a c t i o n o f an a b u s e d c h i l d , t h i s p e r s o n f e l t t h a t she must somehow be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e b e t r a y a l o f t r u s t o f t h e a d u l t i n c h a r g e . B u t i n c i d e n t s s u c h as t h i s one were r a r e l y m e n t i o n e d by t h e p e o p l e r e c a l l i n g t h e i r l i v e s b e f o r e s c h o o l . T h e e m p h a s i s was on a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f r e e d o m t o p l a y and c h o r e s t o be done. G r a n d m o t h e r s , as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , p l a y e d a m a j o r r o l e i n e d u c a t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , g r a n d p a r e n t s were t e a c h e r s o f t h e community as a w h o l e and t h e c h i l d r e n i n p a r t i c u l a r ; t o t h i s d a y , e l d e r s a r e r e s p e c t e d as t e a c h e r s . " I f e l t good when I was w i t h my g r a n d m o t h e r . I f e l t l i k e I was w i t h n a t u r e and I f e l t l i k e I was w i t h s o m e t h i n g t h a t was r i g h t f u l l y m ine. She t a u g h t me a b o u t n a t u r e , a b o u t m y s e l f , a b o u t my I n d i a n n e s s . She t a u g h t me a l l t h e s e t h i n g s and I t h i n k t h a t gave me a l o t o f c o u r a g e t o be wh e r e I am t o d a y . . . The g r a n d m o t h e r ' s t e a c h i n g s were v e r y p a t i e n t , you know...I was t a u g h t how t o make m o c a s s i n s a t an e a r l y age o f e i g h t and I knew i n l a t e r y e a r s my f i r s t p a i r o f m o c a s s i n s w a s n ' t t h e b e s t . But my g r a n d m o t h e r p r a i s e d me and t o l d me, she s a y s , 'You j u s t c o n t i n u e . . . You a r e g o i n g t o do b e t t e r a t i t e a c h t i m e . ' Her b e l i e f s o f t e a c h i n g s was y o u t r y t o do i t on y o u r own, t r y t o t h i n k f o r y o u r s e l f . T h i n k i n g b a c k now, she was t r y i n g t o t e l l me some t h i n g . . . a n d I k e p t on t r y i n g . . . b e c a u s e I had so much l o v e f o r my g r a n d m o t h e r and g r e a t -g r a n d m o t h e r ... I w a n t e d t o do more f o r them." 6 A l o n g w i t h t h e l e s s o n s and e n c o u r a g e m e n t came o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s o f g r a n d m o t h e r . " I n t h e w i n t e r months, we l o v e d s t a y i n g w i t h o u r g r a n d m o t h e r b e c a u s e g r a n d m o t h e r s have a h a b i t o f c o l l e c t i n g a l o t o f g o o d i e s . I remember my g r a n d m o t h e r u s e d t o have a box i n t h e c o r n e r . We were n o t a l l o w e d t o t o u c h i t . We were o b e d i e n t ; we 52 n e v e r t o u c h e d i t b e c a u s e we knew we were g o i n g t o g e t i t anyway. And we were n e v e r h u n g r y w i t h my g r a n d m o t h e r . I f we were e x c e p t i o n a l l y g o o d . . . s h e w o u l d r e w a r d us w i t h t h e t h i n g t h a t I l o v e d — t h a t f r u i t l e a t h e r . She u s e d t o p i c k w i l d r a s p b e r r i e s , h u c k l e b e r r i e s , oh any s o f t f r u i t s . She'd t a k e i t and mash i t and, by t h i s t i m e , she had t i n p l a t e s , p o u r i t i n t i n p l a t e s and s e t i t o u t i n t h e h o t s u n . I t w o u l d f o r m a c r u s t on t o p and t h e n she w o u l d f l i p i t o v e r and i t w o u l d f o r m a c r u s t on t h e o t h e r s i d e , no s u g a r a dded t o i t . The i n s i d e w o u l d f o r m i n t o l i k e a j e l l y and t h e n s h e ' d p u t them away...What she u s e d t o do was b r e a k a p i e c e o f f f o r us a n d , boy, we u s e d t o j u s t l o v e i t . " 7 A l w a y s t h e r e were l e s s o n s t o be l e a r n e d . Some came t i e d up i n l e g e n d s , some came as e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o t r y and some as c u l t u r a l n i c e t i e s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h c e n t u r i e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r Shuswap p e o p l e . "My g r a n n y was f o r e v e r , e v e r y t i m e she went v i s i t i n g h e r r e l a t i v e s o r f a m i l y , she a l w a y s came ba c k w i t h b u n d l e s o f g o o d i e s . A n d when h e r f r i e n d s w o u l d come t o v i s i t h e r , s h e ' d g i v e them s t u f f . . . T h a t was one o f t h e t r a d i t i o n s t h a t when you went t o v i s i t y o u r f r i e n d o r y o u r r e l a t i v e , you n e v e r l e f t e m p t y - h a n d e d . I t was t h e i d e a o f t h e n i c e f e e l i n g a b o u t g i v i n g . . . T h e p e r s o n y o u g i v e i t t o r e s p e c t e d y o u e v e n i f she m i g h t have l o a d s and l o a d s o f d r i e d s a s k a t o o n s o r h u c k l e b e r r i e s o r w h a t e v e r , b u t i t was t h e i d e a . I t w a s n ' t i n b i g , l a r g e p a c k a g e s ; i t was i n j u s t l i t t l e p a e k a g e s . l t was t h e i d e a t h a t y o u ' r e g o i n g w i t h a l i t t l e g i f t ; y o u ' r e t a k i n g s o m e t h i n g f r o m t h a t p e r s o n . . . A n y w a y , t h a t was t h e t y p e o f t h i n g t h a t I l e a r n e d when I was y o u n g . " 8 These t r a d i t i o n s were e n g r a i n e d b e f o r e t h e c h i l d r e n went t o s c h o o l and were p a r t o f what c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e Shuswap p e o p l e d e s p i t e t h e o n s l a u g h t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d i n l a r g e p a r t t h r o u g h r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l t r a i n i n g . A n o t h e r p e r s o n , now a t e a c h e r , r e c a l l s i m p o r t a n t m e t h o d o l o g y he l e a r n e d a s a y o u n g s t e r f r o m h i s g r a n d m o t h e r . " I had a g r a n d m o t h e r who l i v e d w i t h us w h i l e o u r 53 m o t h e r and f a t h e r were away...She was c r i p p l e d . . . s o she w o u l d , f r o m h e r b e d s i d e , t e l l us,»Fill t h e w a t e r t h r e e q u a r t e r s f u l l . T u r n t h e p o t a t o e s now t o t h i s l e v e l . Make f i r e . * She p r o v i d e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e and we j u s t c a r r i e d o u t t h e d i r e c t i o n s . B u t , a t t h e same t i m e , when i t was c o o k e d and w e l l done, we'd s a y , 'Oh, I c o o k e d , ' and t h a t i n d i r e c t way o f l e a r n i n g was good b e c a u s e we were n o t d o i n g i t as a t a s k , b u t we were d o i n g i t t o h e l p g r a n d m o t h e r as i f we were i n some k i n d o f p a r t n e r s h i p . . . N e x t week, she w o u l d go o u t . She l o v e d t o go o u t f o r l i t t l e w a l k s and she w o u l d s a y , 'Do you t h i n k you c a n h a n d l e c o o k i n g up t o t h e end?'And I ' d s a y , ' Yes, I c a n . ' Oh, i f we made t h e odd m i s t a k e , s h e ' d come and f i x i t up. I t gave us t h e s e c u r i t y t o go i n t h e r e and do t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e j o b we c a n . G e n e r a l l y , we were 70 t o 80% c o r r e c t and she w o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e 80$ and n o t r e a l l y f o c u s on t h e 20% t o o much. T h a t was h e r t a s k ; t h e 20% was h e r s t o go i n t h e r e and f i x i t up...My y o u n g e r b r o t h e r w o u l d a t t i m e s bake and h i s p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l was 5055 , b u t he f e l t good b e c a u s e G r a n d m o t h e r f o c u s e d on t h e 50%. She'd s a y , 'You d i d good up t o t h i s p o i n t . The r e s t i s my j o b . I ' l l f i x i t up.'" 9 The e m p h a s i s on p u t t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f o b s e r v i n g t a s k s w h i c h were t r a d i t i o n a l l y t o be t h e i r l i f e w o r k was a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t method u s e d by t h e Shuswap. Young c h i l d r e n went a l o n g and p l a y e d but a t t h e same t i m e began t h e d u t y o f l e a r n i n g f i r s t by o b s e r v i n g and l a t e r by d o i n g . " I went e v e r y w h e r e w i t h h e r [my g r a n d m o t h e r ] . And so by g o i n g e v e r y w h e r e w i t h h e r I was l e a r n i n g . . . I t h i n k t h a t was r e a l l y where my e d u c a t i o n s t a r t e d . , . 1 p i c k e d b e r r i e s w i t h h e r . I d o n ' t remember d o i n g i t y e t I went w i t h h e r , b u t she p i c k e d t h e b e r r i e s and I g o o f e d a r o u n d , you know... I may have w a t c h e d h e r more t h a n once do t h a t i n t h e g r o u n d c o o k i n g , t h a t steam c o o k i n g , b u t I remember t h a t one t i m e t h a t I w a t c h e d h e r , I d o n ' t e v e n t h i n k t h a t I w a t c h e d 100$. I remember l o o k i n g f o r t h e r o c k s and h e r p i l i n g up a l l t h e t h i n g s she was g o i n g t o n e e d , b u t I t h i n k when she was a c t u a l l y c o o k i n g t h e f o o d , I must have been p l a y i n g somewhere, b u t I remember e a t i n g i t . " 10 T h i s p e r s o n ' s g r a n d m o t h e r d i e d when she was s e v e n and she was s u b s e q u e n t l y s e n t t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . C l e a r l y , t h e s e were t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n s w h i c h c o u l d have been b u i l t upon as 54 t h e c h i l d grew. I n an e x t r e m e l y g e n t l e way, t h e c h i l d was made aware o f p l a c e s t o p i c k b e r r i e s and ways t o p r e p a r e and c o o k f o o d . A n o t h e r p e r s o n remembers an i n c i d e n t on a r o o t -d i g g i n g t r i p w i t h g r a n d m o t h e r . " We u s e d t o go w i t h h e r d i g g i n g r o o t s . . . S h e had t h i s mare t h a t had t h i s l i t t l e c o l t and s h e ' d t a k e t h e mare and s h e ' d put a l l o u r b e d d i n g on t h e b a c k o f t h e mare and a l l o f h e r b a s k e t s and a l l o u r f o o d t h a t we're g o i n g t o t a k e and maybe camp o v e r n i g h t . So we'd go w i t h h e r . And e v e r s i n c e t h a t c o l t was b o r n , we u s e d t o h a n d l e i t . I t was so tame; as i t grew b i g g e r , we u s e d t o g r a b i t . My grandma w o u l d be w a l k i n g a l o n g w i t h h e r c a n e , l e a d i n g t h e h o r s e and we'd be r u n n i n g b e h i n d . And we w o u l d c a t c h t h e l i t t l e c o l t and we'd h a n g o n t o i t , a l l t h r e e o f u s , and t h e c o l t was t r y i n g t o g e t away. We'd w a i t u n t i l she g o t q u i t e a ways and one o f us w o u l d g e t on and hang on f o r d e a r l i f e . T h a t l i t t l e c o l t w o u l d r u n t o b e a t h e c k t i l l s o o n i t w o u l d c a t c h up t o i t s m o t h e r and she w o u l d s t o p w i t h a j o l t and o v e r we'd g o . " 11 B o t h t h e r o o t d i g g i n g e x p e d i t i o n and t h e i n i t i a l s t e p s i n r i d i n g and t r a i n i n g h o r s e s were s k i l l s w h i c h m i g h t p r o v e u s e f u l i n a d u l t l i f e . A man i n h i s f o r t i e s r e m i n i s c i n g a b o u t h i s l i f e b e f o r e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l r e c o u n t s t h a t t h e r e were a l w a y s p l e n t y o f h o r s e s t o r i d e . T h i s p o i n t he remembers ab o v e a l l o t h e r s . A g a i n t h a t w h i c h m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o be i m p o r t a n t i n a d u l t l i f e was i n t r o d u c e d a t an e a r l y age. F o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n , h o r s e s have t u r n e d o u t t o be h i s m a i n o c c u p a t i o n i n l i f e . H o r s e s and h o r s e m a n s h i p c o n t i n u e t o be v a l u e d by and v a l u a b l e t o many Shuswap p e o p l e t o d a y . B e d t i m e , a l w a y s an i m p o r t a n t t i m e f o r l i t t l e c h i l d r e n and o f s e l d o m d i s c u s s e d c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , was a happy t i m e - - a communal t i m e . The hay and m i n t g r a s s m a t t r e s s i n g r a n d m o t h e r ' s one room c a b i n has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d . 55 A n o t h e r p e r s o n i n h e r l a t e t h i r t i e s had t h i s t o s a y a b o u t b e d t i m e . " . . . a t home we o n l y had two bedrooms. So t h e b o y s a l l s l e p t i n one bed and t h e g i r l s a l l s l e p t i n a n o t h e r bed. And Mum and Dad and w h a t e v e r t h e baby was s l e p t i n Mum and Dad's room. So we w e re n e v e r , e v e r s e p a r a t e f r o m one a n o t h e r . We done e v e r y t h i n g t o g e t h e r , s l e p t t o g e t h e r , e v e r y t h i n g . . . " 12 F o r some, t h e C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n had a l r e a d y begun t o p l a y a m a j o r r o l e i n t h e i r l i v e s . P a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e many s i m i l a r i t i e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l Shuswap r e l i g i o n and p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f e f f e c t i v e m i s s i o n a r y work on t h e p a r t o f t h e O b l a t e s , C a t h o l i c i s m had q u i c k l y g a i n e d a f o o t h o l d i n much o f t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e . " I knew a l l a b o u t t h e Church...My mum and dad were r e l i g i o u s p e o p l e ; t h e y were G o d - f e a r i n g p e o p l e . . . B e f o r e I went t o s c h o o l , I was a l r e a d y t a u g h t t h e r e was a God. My mum w o u l d p o i n t o u t a l o t o f t h i n g s [ a n d s a y ] , 'You know, t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y a God.'" 13 A n o t h e r p e r s o n r e c a l l s : "The o l d p r i e s t r e f e r r e d t o t h e g r o u n d r i g h t u n d e r us as h i s t e x t book, as h i s c a t e c h i s m . . . h e w o u l d j u s t s i t us down, s o m e t i m e s we'd k n e e l on t h e f l o o r o r s o m e t i m e s on h i s k n e e . He w o u l d s a y , 'See t h e w a t e r , see t h e b i r d s , s e e t h e s k y , see t h e m o u n t a i n s . View e a c h one b e c a u s e t h e y were made by a g r e a t e r b e i n g t h a n u s ' . . . A n d t h e n he went i n t o h u r t i n g and n o t h u r t i n g one a n o t h e r . . . O f c o u r s e , t h e s e t o o were t a u g h t by o u r c h i e f s . . . O n e o f t h e s t o c k t a l k s t h e y w o u l d g i v e w o u l d be t o g i v e t h a n k s t o t h e C r e a t o r f o r g i v i n g us t h e w a t e r , t h e t r e e s , a l l t h e p l a n t s and a n i m a l s and a l l t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e e a r t h : t h a t t h e y c o u l d n ' t be made by man, t h a t t h e y had t o be made by h i g h e r b e i n g s t h a n u s . " 14 F o r t h e y o u n g c h i l d r e n , t h e s e p r i e s t s seem t o have de-e m p h a s i z e d t h e c o n c e p t s o f g u i l t , c o n f e s s i o n and f o r g i v e n e s s w h i c h c o n t i n u e t o p l a y p r o m i n e n t l y i n C a t h o l i c i s m . Some 56 i n f o r m a n t s s p o k e p o s i t i v e l y o f t h e f o r m a l r e l i g i o n w h i c h t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d b e f o r e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . Most f a i l e d t o f o c u s on r e l i g i o n and no one s p o k e n e g a t i v e l y o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i h i t b e f o r e s c h o o l . D i s c i p l i n e e m p l o y e d by Shuswap p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s d i d p r o v e s i g n i f i c a n t t o most o f t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom I s p o k e . G e n e r a l l y i t i n c l u d e d a minimum o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e and most f r e q u e n t l y was d e p i c t e d as m i l d but f a i r and e f f e c t i v e . " I f you had c h o r e s t o d o , . . . y o u had b e t t e r g e t them done. My mum v e r y s e l d o m gave us t h e s t r a p . We j u s t went b a c k and done them and y o u j u s t s t a y e d t h e r e u n t i l you had f i n i s h e d them." 15 Even g r a n d p a r e n t s who were a l i t t l e f r i g h t e n i n g d i d n o t r e s o r t t o p h y s i c a l a b u s e . " My g r a n d f a t h e r u s e d t o g e t mad a t my mum and dad a l l t h e t i m e , b e c a u s e o u r p a r e n t s l e f t us w i t h them so much. They g o t mad a t us t o o , you know; t h e y g o t t i r e d o f u s . . . I was r e a l l y a f r a i d o f my g r a n d p a t h e n ' c a u s e he u s e d t o h o l l e r l o t s . . . N o , t h e y n e v e r s p a n k e d any o f u s . My grandma was r e a l l y n i c e t h o u g h . " 16 A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t r a i s e d by h e r g r a n d m o t h e r r e c a l l e d t h a t on o n l y one o c c a s i o n had h e r g r a n d m o t h e r p u n i s h e d h e r s e v e r e l y . She had gone t o t h e washroom w i t h o u t h e r g r a n d m o t h e r ' s p e r m i s s i o n d u r i n g a community dance and was g a z i n g f a s c i n a t e d l y a t an o l d e r g i r l p u t t i n g on l i p s t i c k , "...when a l l o f a s u d d e n , 'Whack! Whack!' and t h e r e was my g r a n d m o t h e r j u s t t u g g i n g me o u t t h e d o o r . " One p e r s o n , a f t e r d e s t r o y i n g 17 a number o f p l a n t s i n a g r e e n h o u s e r e p o r t e d t h a t when h e r m o t h e r demanded a r e a s o n f r o m h e r , she r e s p o n d e d t h a t she had done i t b e c a u s e she w a n t e d t o . B e c a u s e she was h o n e s t , she 57 " . . . n e v e r g o t a l i c k i n ' o r a n y t h i n g . I d i d n ' t do i t b e c a u s e I h a t e d h i m or h a t e d h e r or a n y t h i n g . I [ j u s t ] w a n t e d t o . " I n 18 a n o t h e r i n c i d e n t , t h e same p e r s o n d e s c r i b e s what may be s e e n as t h e a d u l t c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h e r b e h a v i o u r . " A n o t h e r t i m e t h e same guy, he was t e a s i n g me and I was a c r o s s t h e h e a t e r and t h e r e was a p o k e r t h e r e f o r t h e h e a t e r . He was t e a s i n g me and I was mad...I s a i d , ' I ' l l h i t you w i t h t h i s . ' I t o o k t h e p o k e r and he s a i d , 'Go a h e a d . Go ahead.'And I d i d . I went l i k e t h i s [gesturing].»Boink.» He d i d n ' t t h i n k I w o u l d and I d i d . He l o o k s a t my mum and my mum n e v e r s a i d a n y t h i n g . F i n a l l y , he s a i d , ' A r e n ' t you g o i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t i t ? ' My mum s a i d , 'What can I do? She t o l d y o u she was g o i n g t o h i t y o u ; you s a i d t o go a h e a d . " 19 I n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e i s t h a t t h e p e r s o n e n g a g e d i n t h e a l t e r c a t i o n w i t h t h e c h i l d was n o n - N a t i v e . C l e a r l y , he d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n Shuswap c u l t u r e were v i e w e d as y o u n g a d u l t s i n many ways and t h a t u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , he had made an e r r o r i n j u d g e m e n t . These s t o r i e s h i g h l i g h t t h e i m p o r t a n t memories o f home l i f e b e f o r e s c h o o l f o r p e o p l e who were a l l d e s t i n e d f o r t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l . W h i l e some o f t h e c a r e f r e e n a t u r e o f l i f e may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n were no more t h a n t e n y e a r s o f age and t h e r e f o r e had l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e t e n o r o f l i f e c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e g r a n d m o t h e r ' s p r e s e n c e and t e a c h i n g s , w h i c h i n many c a s e s c o n t i n u e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c h i l d r e n i n t o a d u l t h o o d , and t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e f u l l - f l e d g e d c o n t r i b u t i n g members o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s t a n d o u t as e x t r e m e m l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e s e Shuswap c h i l d r e n . Of p a r t i c u l a r 58 s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h e r e s u l t a n t c l a s h o f t h e s e c u l t u r a l n o t i o n s w i t h t h e s y s t e m a t i z e d , E u r o p e a n - i n f l u e n c e d l i f e a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . The r i g i d t i m e s c h e d u l e s , t h e d e a r t h o f f a m i l y c o n t a c t e v e n amongst s i b l i n g s and t h e c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n a c c o m p a n i e d by s e v e r e p u n i s h m e n t s f o r d e v i a t i o n were a s p e c t s o f a way o f l i f e f o r e i g n t o Shuswap c h i l d r e n . The. T r a n s i t i o n I n t o t h e i d y l l i c summer l i f e o f c a m p i n g , b e r r y and r o o t g a t h e r i n g , i n A u g u s t came t h e s c h o o l t r u c k . Out s t e p p e d a huge E u r o p e a n man i n b l a c k c l o t h i n g w i t h a l i s t i n h i s ha n d . The s e p a r a t i o n began. n The s c h o o l t r u c k u s e d t o come w i t h a l i t t l e f e n c e a r o u n d t h e b a c k , you know. Used t o come, I t h i n k f o r C h a s e , i t was A u g u s t 3 0 t h or was i t t h e 3 1 s t ? Anyway, t h e y had me r e a d y . My mum b r o u g h t me and e v e r y b o d y g r o u p e d a r o u n d t h e t r u c k . And I t h i n k i t was A n t h o n y L i a h w o u l d have a l i s t o f names and y o u went on up t h e s e l i t t l e s t a i r s as y o u r name was c a l l e d . " 20 Most p e o p l e now r e f e r t o t h i s t r u c k a s t h e c a t t l e t r u c k b u t , a t t h a t t i m e , i t was c a l l e d t h e s c h o o l t r u c k . F o r many c h i l d r e n , i t s e r v e d as t h e i r i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a way o f l i f e i n w h i c h t h e i r f a m i l y i d e n t i t y was o b s c u r e d , t h e i r l a n g u a g e became u s e l e s s and e v e n d e s p i s e d and t h e i r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was a number w r i t t e n i n p u r p l e i n k on t h e i r w r i s t s and on t h e s m a l l c u p b o a r d i n w h i c h t h e i r few b e l o n g i n g s w e re s t o r e d . Not a l l s t o p s were as o r d e r l y as t h e one d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . F o r some s t u d e n t s , t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o a new c u l t u r e 59 began w i t h t h a t i n i t i a l c o n t a c t . One i n f o r m a n t d e s c r i b e d t h e s e h o r r i f i c s c e n e s . " I c a n remember Dad l e f t r e a l l y e a r l y t h a t m o r n i n g 'c a u s e he n e v e r , e v e r w a n t e d t o see us go o f f t o s c h o o l . And when he l e f t t h a t m o r n i n g a t f i v e , I t r i e d s n e a k i n g o u t w i t h h i m . He was r e a l l y c r y i n g , my dad was. And he t o l d me, 'No, you s t a y . You g o t t o go t o s c h o o l . ' And I j u s t [ s a i d ] , 'No, I want t o s t a y w i t h y o u . I want t o s t a y w i t h y o u . ' And I was c r y i n g j u s t as h a r d as he was. F i n a l l y , I j u s t w r a p p e d my arms and l e g s r i g h t a r o u n d h i m and e v e r y t i m e he went t o t a k e a s t e p , he had t o p a c k me w i t h h i m ' c a u s e I was h a n g i n g on t o h i m so h a r d . He w a l k e d b a c k i n t h e h o u s e and p u l l e d me o f f o f him and s a t me on t h e c o u c h and he f i n a l l y y e l l e d a t me, 'You s i t r i g h t t h e r e and d o n ' t y o u move u n t i l them p e o p l e come.' But he was c r y i n g . He w a l k e d o u t and he g o t on h i s h o r s e and went and l e f t . T h a t was r e a l l y h a r d t o t a k e , you know... When t h a t t r u c k d i d come, boy, I t e l l y o u . We had a b a c k d o o r and a f r o n t d o o r and we b e e l i n e d i t . I d i d n ' t know e x a c t l y where t h e y were g o i n g , b u t when e v e r y b o d y s t a r t e d r u n n i n g , I s t a r t e d t o r u n t o o and r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e t r u c k was t h e r e . And t h e y l i t e r a l l y c h a s e d us down... And t h e k i d s t h a t a r e on t h e t r u c k , t h e y ' r e a l l b a w l i n g b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e s e e i n g u s , you know, s c r e a m i n g and y e l l i n g . . . O f c o u r s e , t h e y ' r e a l l c r y i n g b e c a u s e w e ' r e c r y i n g and Mum's c r y i n g and I c a n remember [ s a y i n g ] , 'What'd I e v e r do t o y o u ? Why a r e you mad a t me? Why a r e you s e n d i n g me away?'...She was r e a l l y h e a r t b r o k e n . " 21 The c o n f u s i o n and d i s t r e s s on t h e p a r t o f b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n were c l e a r . The p a i n f u l p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n , t h e f i r s t s t e p o f w h i c h i n v o l v e d r e m o v i n g t h e c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , had begun. A l t h o u g h t h e " c a t t l e t r u c k " was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y remembered t r a v e l l i n g c o n v e y a n c e , some c h i l d r e n came t o s c h o o l u s i n g o t h e r means. One p e r s o n who a t t e n d e d i n 1907 r e c a l l e d : "When o u r p e o p l e b r i n g us back t o s c h o o l , t h e y go on t h e wagon a few d a y s a h e a d . And t h e y camp c l o s e t o t h e r i v e r , on t h i s s i d e o f t h e b r i d g e . L o t s o f 'em do t h a t . They g o t no c a r , j u s t go on a wagon o r 60 a buggy. Take l o t s o f l u n c h . When i t ' s t i m e t o go b a c k t o s c h o o l , t h e y b r i n g you t o t h e s c h o o l , t h e I n d i a n s c h o o l . " 22 C e r t a i n l y , t h i s t r i p t o s c h o o l p r o v i d e d a t e m p o r a r y s t a y t o t h e i m p e n d i n g a t t a c k on t h e c h i l d ' s way o f l i f e by t h e a g e n t s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t and c h u r c h . A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t remembered g o i n g t o s c h o o l by c a r . " . . . o u t o f t h e b l u e t h e r e comes t h i s c a r , d r o v e up t o my m o t h e r and f a t h e r ' s p l a c e . And my m o t h e r was d r e s s i n g up my s i s t e r and I . . . a n d my m o t h e r t o l d us t h a t we were g o i n g t o be r i d i n g i n t h a t c a r ...and t h a t we were g o i n g t o go t o s c h o o l . We d i d n ' t know what a s c h o o l was. I t h o u g h t mavbe we'd go t h e r e and come r i g h t b a c k . And t h a t was t h e most t e r r i f y i n g p a r t o f my w h o l e l i f e . I t seemed l i k e t h a t c a r c h u g g e d a l o n g f o r e v e r . . . I t t o o k us seemed l i k e a w h o l e day and i t seemed l i k e we were gone t o t h e o t h e r end o f t h e w o r l d and we'd n e v e r f i n d o u r way home." 23 T h i s p e r s o n ' s s t o r y o f f e a r i s made more p o i g n a n t on u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t , f o l l o w i n g an i n c i d e n t much d i s c u s s e d i n h u s h e d t o n e s by t h e a d u l t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , she had been w a r n e d t o r u n i f she e v e r saw a w h i t e man. S u d d e n l y she f o u n d h e r s e l f i n a c a r w i t h a s t r a n g e E u r o p e a n p e r s o n g o i n g she knew n o t w h e r e . The i n c i d e n t , she h e a r d y e a r s l a t e r , had i n v o l v e d t h e r a p e o f a y o u n g N a t i v e woman by t h r e e E u r o p e a n men. The woman's baby w h i c h had been s t r a p p e d t o h e r b a c k was s m o t h e r e d d u r i n g t h e e n c o u n t e r . F o r o t h e r c h i l d r e n , t h e day f o r g o i n g t o s c h o o l was a t i m e o f p l e a s e d a n t i c i p a t i o n . New c l o t h e s b r o u g h t g r e a t e x c i t e m e n t t o one p e r s o n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s c h o o l i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s . "What u s e d t o happen i s o u r p a r e n t s u s e d t o buy new c l o t h e s and t h e n we were s e n t t o s c h o o l . . . I t h i n k we went o v e r on t h e bus and I was k i n d o f l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o t h i s ' c a u s e w e ' r e g o i n g on t h i s t r i p 61 w i t h o u r b r a n d new c l o t h e s . My s i s t e r s n e v e r even t o l d me what i t was l i k e t h e r e . . . t h e y n e v e r t a l k e d a b o u t t h e s c h o o l . And I w o n d e r e d what i t was g o i n g t o be l i k e . I t was a l m o s t l i k e a c e l e b r a t i o n c o m i n g u p . . . T h a t was t h e g r e a t e s t t h i n g t o have new c l o t h e s . " 2 4 F r e q u e n t l y t h e c h i l d r e n who went t o s c h o o l a c c e p t i n g l y were o l d e r , n i n e o r t e n y e a r s , and t h e y u s u a l l y had some u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i r p a r e n t s w o u l d m i s s them d r e a d f u l l y , l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e was o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e . "My mum e x p l a i n e d t o me, when we d i s c u s s e d i t . . . s h e s a i d , ' I ' m s e n d i n g y o u t o l e a r n t o r e a d and w r i t e and t o l e a r n y o u r c a t e c h i s m , t o l e a r n a b o u t God...So I knew why I was c o m i n g t o s c h o o l . My c o u s i n E was a p p o i n t e d t o b r i n g me...I was a p p r e h e n s i v e . I was w o n d e r i n g how i t was g o i n g t o be. I knew I was l e a v i n g my mum...but we had d i s c u s s e d i t so many t i m e s b e f o r e and i t was h a p p e n i n g , you know, i t was r e a l . But I g u e s s w i t h E , on t h e b u s , she j u s t had s u c h a h a r d t i m e t o keep f r o m c r y i n g . " 25 Two p o i n t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a r i s e i n t h i s s t o r y . The f i r s t i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s m o t h e r had n e v e r a t t e n d e d r e s i d e n t i a l o r any s c h o o l and E had. B e c a u s e she u n d e r s t o o d what l a y ahead f o r t h e c h i l d , E f e l t some t r e p i d a t i o n . The m o t h e r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some good c o u l d come o f l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e and saw t h e s e as t h e g o a l s o f t h e s c h o o l . S e c o n d l y , t h e c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s e x p l a i n e d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s c h o o l t o them f e l t more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e i r j o u r n e y t o s c h o o l . I n t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e s e c o m p l e x e x p l a n a t i o n s were u n n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n was p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l f l o w o f l i f e . W i t h t h e c u l t u r a l o n s l a u g h t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , p a r e n t s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o make a m a j o r 62 a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e i r way o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o smooth t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n t o a p l a c e o f f o r e i g n c u l t u r e . O n l y f o r some was t h i s need r e c o g n i z e d . W i t h a r r i v a l a t t h e s c h o o l , t h e c u l t u r a l a t t a c k s began i n e a r n e s t . Some o f t h e c l a s h e s were d e l i b e r a t e , a p a r t o f t h e O b l a t e s 1 p l a n and t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s mandate t o " c i v i l i z e and C h r i s t i a n i z e " t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e . O t h e r s w h i c h may have been w e l l i n t e n t i o n e d d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e l a c k o f c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e p e o p l e i n c h a r g e o f t h e c h i l d r e n . More t h a n any o t h e r t i m e a t t h e s c h o o l , t h e memories o f t h e f i r s t day l i v e v i v i d l y i n t h e minds o f e v e r y p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w e d . " Coming t o t h i s huge, huge b u i l d i n g , i t s t a g g e r e d u s . W i t h e i g h t o f us i n a home and s o m e t i m e s t e n , we l i v e d i n a one room h o u s e . . . I t seemed, as we came i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g , we were j u s t s w a l l o w e d up by some s t r a n g e b e i n g . E v e r y t h i n g was s t r a n g e , e v e n t h e r u n n i n g w a t e r was s t r a n g e . The b a t h r o o m was s t r a n g e . The echo o f t h e h a l l w a y was a n o i s e I h a d n ' t h e a r d b e f o r e and t h e b a n g i n g o f d o o r s f r o m f a r away was s t r a n g e . We came i n t o a t o t a l l y s t r a n g e w o r l d . " 2 6 A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t remembered t h i s s c e n e : " A l l o f a s u d d e n , h e r e we come i n f r o n t o f t h i s b u i l d i n g . And a f t e r b e i n g t o t o l d t o be a f r a i d o f w h i t e p e o p l e , you c a n i m a g i n e t h e f e e l i n g we had. We were h e r d e d i n t o t h e f r o n t and down t h e h a l l w h e re t h e d i n i n g room i s . We were a l l s t a n d i n g t h e r e : my s i s t e r and I h a n g i n g o n t o e a c h o t h e r . We were a l r e a d y so s c a r e d and we were l o n e l y f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f o u r p a r e n t s . We d i d n ' t know what we were g o i n g t o be g e t t i n g i n t o . [We wondered],'Why d i d my m o t h e r and f a t h e r send us away?' And t h e n , a l l o f a s u d d e n , we s e e n somebody c o m i n g down t h e h a l l w a y a l l i n b l a c k and j u s t t h i s w h i t e f a c e and t h a t ' s when I s t a r t e d j u s t s h a k i n g and we a l l s t a r t e d c r y i n g and b a c k i n g up...We were d o i n g t h a t o f s h e e r f r i g h t . T h i s s i s t e r i s c o m i n g t o w a r d s us and what has been g o i n g i n h e r mind i s , ' H e r e ' s t h e s e l i t t l e w i l d a n i m a l s . ' You know 6 3 when you go t o t o u c h a l i t t l e w i l d a n i m a l , i t c r i n g e s and we s a y r i g h t away, 'Oh, i t ' s a w i l d a n i m a l . We've g o t t o tame i t . ' I c o u l d j u s t i m a g i n e what was g o i n g on i n h e r m i n d , 'These l i t t l e w i l d I n d i a n s : I ' v e g o t t o tame them.'...And h e r e me, I'm s a y i n g , ' I ' m so s c a r e d . What i s she g o i n g t o do t o me?' And a f t e r h e a r i n g them k i l l i n g o u r own p e o p l e , ' A r e t h e y h e r e t o b u t c h e r us o r what a r e t h e y g o i n g t o do t o u s ? ' " 27 The s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n as w i l d and a n i m a l - l i k e i s s u p p o r t e d by comments made by t h e O b l a t e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s t o i n s t i l l E u r o p e a n v a l u e s i n t o t h e m i n d s o f t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e . The f i r s t c l o s e up v i e w o f t h e nuns b r o u g h t f e a r t o many c h i l d r e n . n I j u s t c o u l d n ' t g e t o v e r t h e s e nuns w e a r i n g l o n g b l a c k . . . I was k i n d o f s c a r e d o f them; t h e y l o o k e d so w h i t e . They had t h i s l i t t l e p a r t o f t h e i r f a c e s h o w i n g , e v e r y t h i n g e l s e was c o v e r e d . . . t h e i r l o n g beads r a t t l e d . When t h e y w a l k e d , t h e i r l i t t l e h e e l s c l i c k e d on t h e cement f l o o r . W h e r e v e r t h e y went, you c o u l d h e a r them w a l k i n g b e c a u s e t h e y had t h a t h e e l and t h e l i t t l e j a n g l e . ' ' 28 S t r a n g e s i g h t s and s t r a n g e s o unds f i l l e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s f i r s t d a y s o f s c h o o l . A l t h o u g h many c h i l d r e n came t o t h e s c h o o l i n t e a r s , t h e d e f i a n t w e r e d r a g g e d k i c k i n g and s c r e a m i n g f r o m t h e t r u c k . " . . . t h e f i r s t day I went t o t h a t s c h o o l , t h e y had t o l i t e r a l l y c a r r y me o f f t h e t r u c k and t h a t nun, I h ave h e r o u t f i t i n s h a m b l e s . I was c a l l i n g h e r a w i t c h and j u s t k i c k i n g and s c r e a m i n g a t h e r . I mean I w a s n ' t t h e o n l y one; t h e r e was a l o t o f o t h e r k i d s t h a t were d o i n g t h a t and f i n a l l y t h e head n u n . . . s h e had t h e s t r a p and she went, 'Whack! Whack!' on t h e t a b l e . . . ' O k a y , you k i d s , ' she s a i d , ' T h a t ' s enough o u t o f you o r y o u ' r e g o i n g t o g e t t h i s . ' " 29 F o r c h i l d r e n who had r a r e l y e x p e r i e n c e d p h y s i c a l p u n i s h m e n t , t h e t h r e a t o f t h e s t r a p must have seemed e s p e c i a l l y f e a r s o m e . Once i n t h e s c h o o l , s t u d e n t s w e r e o f t e n s u b j e c t e d t o 64 head c h e c k s f o r l i c e b e f o r e t h e m a n d a t o r y h a i r c u t s . "We had t o g e t i n t h i s l i n e and we had t o g e t o u r heads c h e c k e d f o r l i c e . . . S o m e o f t h e k i d s had t o g e t t h e i r heads c l e a n e d . And s o o n as t h e y f i n i s h e d c h e c k i n g o u r h e a d s , t h e y c u t o u r h a i r . They c u t o u r h a i r i n f r o n t l i k e bangs above t h e eye b r o w s , s i d e t o s i d e on y o u r f a c e h e r e by t h e t e m p l e s . . . and j u s t r i g h t a t t h e t o p p a r t o f y o u r e a r , i t was c u t s t r a i g h t a r o u n d and on t h e b a c k where y o u r n eck i s , i t was c u t so s t r a i g h t t h a t t h e b a c k p a r t s h e r e were s h a v e d . . . I t h i n k we p r a c t i c a l l y a l l l o o k e d t h e same ' c a u s e we a l l had t h e same h a i r c u t , t h e same c o l o u r e d c l o t h e s and a l l had t h e same e v e r y t h i n g . " 30 A c c o m p a n y i n g t h e i n i t i a l s h o c k and f e a r o f l e a v i n g p a r e n t s and c o m i n g t o a s t r a n g e p l a c e , c u t t i n g h a i r added s a l t t o t h e wounds. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , s t y l i n g o f f e m a l e s ' l o n g h a i r had p l a y e d a r o l e i n i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s i n c l u d i n g p u b e r t y r i t e s . C u t t i n g h a i r s h o r t had been u s e d as p u n i s h m e n t f o r a d u l t women f o r o f f e n s e s s u c h as a d u l t e r y . A l t h o u g h p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h o s e who a t t e n d e d t h e s c h o o l i n l a t e r y e a r s , t h e h a i r c u t t i n g may n o t have had o v e r t c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , many p a r e n t s m a i n t a i n e d t h e t r a d i t i o n o f l e a v i n g g i r l s ' h a i r u n c u t . The o t h e r c o n c e r n e x p r e s s e d by t h e i n f o r m a n t d e a l t w i t h a f e e l i n g o f l o s s o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y a t a v e r y s e n s i t i v e t i m e as c h i l d r e n r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e y now a l l " l o o k e d t h e same." F o r t h o s e w i t h f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s a t t e n d i n g t h e s c h o o l , one w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h e i r s u p p o r t m i g h t e a s e t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n t o s c h o o l . As has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d , f r e q u e n t l y s i b l i n g s and f r i e n d s d i d n o t d i s c u s s t h e i r s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s a t home. P r e s u m a b l y t h e p a i n o f s c h o o l was a t o p i c t o be a v o i d e d d u r i n g t i m e away. B u i l t i n t o t h e r i g i d 6 5 s t u c t u r e o f t h e s c h o o l were s e g r e g a t i o n s w h i c h s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o o t h e r f a m i l y members. W h e t h e r t h i s was done i n t e n t i o n a l l y as a means o f c o n t i n u i n g t h e a s s a u l t on t h e s t r o n g f a m i l y t i e s w h i c h m i g h t p e r m i t t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f c u l t u r a l t r a i t s o r w h e t h e r i t was m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o r s t a f f r e m a i n s u n c l e a r . The c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e age g r o u p s : j u n i o r s f o r g r a d e s one t o t h r e e , i n t e r m e d i a t e s f o r g r a d e s f o u r t o s i x and s e n i o r s f o r g r a d e s s e v e n and e i g h t . T h e r e was l i t t l e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n p e r m i t t e d amongst t h e g r o u p s . One p e r s o n r e c a l l e d h e r s i s t e r ' s f i r s t day a t t h e s c h o o l . "...I remember h e r r e a l l y , r e a l l y g e t t i n g s c a r e d . You know, she was e x c i t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , a t home, f e e l i n g s a f e , h a v i n g s a f e s u r r o u n d i n g s and t h e n f r o m t h e r e she was t a k e n w i t h us on t h e bus a l l t h e way down h e r e . . . H e r and I had t o go i n s e p a r a t e p a r t s o f t h e b u i l d i n g so I remember h e r c l i n g i n g o n t o my arms when we were g o i n g up t h e s t a i r s . . . a n d she k e p t t e l l i n g me i n C h i l c o t i n she d i d n ' t want t o go...She d i d n ' t know E n g l i s h v e r y much and t h e s i s t e r s y a n k e d h e r away b e c a u s e I had t o go t o my room... I remember f e e l i n g v e r y s o r r y f o r h e r and f e e l i n g l i k e I c o u l d n ' t h e l p h e r v e r y much, f e e l i n g h e l p l e s s . I f e l t l i k e I was p u t i n a p o s i t i o n t o l o o k o u t f o r h e r , b u t t h a t d i d n ' t t a k e f o r m b e c a u s e she c o u l d n ' t s p e n d a week w i t h me t o a d j u s t t o t h e w h o l e t h i n g — m e t e l l i n g h e r e x a c t l y what t h e r o u t i n e was. But t h e y d i d n ' t t h i n k o f t h a t ; t h e y d i d n ' t t h i n k o f I n d i a n k i d s ' i n t e r e s t s I d o n ' t t h i n k . " 31 O t h e r p e o p l e r e c o l l e c t e d k n o w i n g t h a t t h e i r s i s t e r s w e r e i n a room b e s i d e them b u t t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t v i s i t one a n o t h e r . T h i s s e p a r a t i o n o f f a m i l y members s o m e t i m e s r e s u l t e d i n a f e e l i n g o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s as e x p r e s s e d by t h e o l d e r s i s t e r a b o v e . F o r t h e O b l a t e s ' p u r p o s e s and i n t h e l i g h t o f t r a d i t i o n a l E u r o p e a n s c h o o l i n g t h i s s e n s e o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s 66 was a p p r o p r i a t e t o c h i l d r e n who w e re s e e n as mere o b j e c t s t o be s u b j e c t e d t o t h e t r e a t m e n t deemed f i t t i n g f o r them by t h e i r e l d e r s and b e t t e r s . Of c o u r s e , t h i s a p p r o a c h i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Shuswap v i e w t h a t c h i l d r e n were i n many s e n s e s f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g members o f a h o u s e h o l d . The p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s f e e l i n g o f i m p o t e n c e i s r e i t e r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : " B e f o r e I l e f t [ h o m e ] , I was f u l l o f c o n f i d e n c e : I c o u l d do e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was needed t o be done a t home...But when I a r r i v e d h e r e a l l t h a t l e f t me. I f e l t so h e l p l e s s . The Shuswap l a n g u a g e was no use t o me...the s u p e r v i s o r s c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d ." 32 F o r an o l d e r c h i l d c o m i n g t o s c h o o l , t h i s s e n s e o f h e l p l e s s n e s s was b r o u g h t on by h e r f i r s t c u l t u r a l c l a s h . Her i n i t i a l t i m e a t t h e s c h o o l had been r e l a t i v e l y c o m f o r t a b l e : "I have no e m o t i o n s y e t and, you know, i t ' s a l l new and I have t o keep my e y e s open and l e a r n . " T h i s h e a l t h y i n t e r e s t came t o a r u d e end a f t e r t h e f i r s t s u p p e r . " A f t e r s u p p e r , e v e r y b o d y had j o b s . . . A n d I'm s t a n d i n g t h e r e , you know, [ t h i n k i n g ] , 'Where's e v e r y b o d y g o i n g ? What's h a p p e n i n g ? ' And t h i s s i s t e r c a l l e d me and s a i d , ' Y o u ' r e new; you go t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n room.' And I have no i d e a what t h e r e c r e a t i o n room i s and I'm s t a n d i n g t h e r e . . . N o w t h e r e i s t h e f i r s t e m o t i o n I had. 'What i s she s a y i n g ? 1 And she c a l l s , ' C l a r a , come h e r e . ' So I l o o k e d b a c k and h e r e t h i s l i t t l e g i r l comes b o u n c i n g t o w a r d s s i s t e r . ' C l a r a , you t a k e down t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n room and t h e n y o u come bac k and do y o u r w o r k . ' And t h i s l i t t l e g i r l t a k e s my h a n d , s m a l l e r t h a n me, s h e ' s so bouncy and happy l o o k i n g , she t a k e s me and I'm d y i n g o f shame t h a t t h i s l i t t l e g i r l knows what t h i s b i g w o r d i s and she knows w h e r e she i s g o i n g t o . H o l y man, I mean w h a t ' s t h e m a t t e r w i t h me? Oh, I'm so ashamed. She t a k e s me t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n room and s a y s , ' T h i s i s t h e r e c r e a t i o n room,» and she s m i l e s a t me and she l e a v e s . And I go i n t h e r e . I g u e s s t h e r e a r e some more o f us b i g dummies..." 33 67 A l t h o u g h i n t e n d e d t o be h e l p f u l , s i s t e r ' s a c t i o n v i o l a t e d a s o c i a l r u l e . To be h e l p e d by someone o b v i o u s l y s m a l l e r and y o u n g e r , i n f r o n t o f o t h e r p e o p l e was p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n . To t h i s d a y , l o s i n g f a c e p u b l i c l y i s s e e n by many Shuswap p e o p l e as a t e r r i b l e i n s u l t ; t o t h a t c h i l d on t h a t day so l o n g ago, t h e a c t i o n was d e v a s t a t i n g . Not o n l y were o l d e r and y o u n g e r s i b l i n g s s e p a r a t e d , but i n t h e s p i r i t o f o l d C a t h o l i c i s m , m a l e s and f e m a l e s were i s o l a t e d f r o m one a n o t h e r . S e x u a l i t y has o f t e n been v i e w e d by c o n s e r v a t i v e f a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h as an a r e a w h i c h may l e a d t o s i n . T h i s p o i n t i s a d d r e s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s p a p e r . I n i t i a l l y , i t r e s u l t e d i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . More t h a n one i n f o r m a n t r e p o r t e d s e e i n g h e r b r o t h e r once o r n o t a t a l l d u r i n g y e a r s o f a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e s c h o o l . The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o l i f e on t h e b o y s ' s i d e was s e e n by most i n f o r m a n t s as v e r y r o u g h . "The f i r s t n i g h t I had t h r e e s c r a p s on a c c o u n t o f my b r o t h e r s . You a l w a y s g o t t e s t e d o u t . I showed t h e m . . . I was more o u t - g o i n g , r e a d y f o r a n y t h i n g on a c c o u n t o f my [ p u b l i c ] s c h o o l i n g o v e r t h e r e . " 3 4 The b o y s ' r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e s y s t e m b e i n g i m p o s e d upon them t o o k d i f f e r e n t f o r m f r o m t h e g i r l s ' w h i c h t e n d e d t o be more s u b t l e b u t j u s t as e f f e c t i v e . I n t h e a c t i o n o f f i g h t i n g t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e s c h o o l , t h e y a l s o d e v e l o p e d a c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e o f c l i q u e - l i k e g r o u p i n g s s o m e t i m e s b a s e d l o o s e l y on r e s e r v a t i o n o r i g i n s . Some bo y s who a r r i v e d l a t e r i n S e p t e m b e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s , ("I s u p p o s e t h e y l o o k e d a t 68 t h e i r l i s t , saw t h e r e was s t i l l room a t t h e s c h o o l , and t h e y went b a c k and g o t u s . w ) , f o u n d t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n v e r y t r y i n g . " Do y o u know when we s e e p i c t u r e s o f musk ox i n a c i r c l e b e i n g a t t a c k e d by w o l v e s . . . i t seemed we were t h a t . . . w e were i n t h e c e n t e r - - f o u r o f u s . Y o u n g s t e r s o f a l l ages t o u c h i n g us and w a t c h i n g o u r r e a c t i o n s as we t r i e d t o g r a b o r s c r a t c h or h i t . As o u r b a c k s w ere t u r n e d , somebody w o u l d g r a b us f r o m t h e b a c k . And we j u s t w i s h e d we c o u l d r e t u r n home t o a more s a f e and s e c u r e p l a c e . " 35 E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p i n g s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d amongst t h e b o y s i n t h e i r d a i l y l i f e a t t h e s c h o o l s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i n i t i a t i o n was p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e b o y s ' s c r e e n i n g newcomers t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r t o u g h n e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s , t h i s t y p e o f b e h a v i o u r was n o t t y p i c a l o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s a t home, but was p r o d u c e d by t h e o p p r e s s i v e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e s c h o o l . One g i r l ' s b r o t h e r had been t o t h e s c h o o l b e f o r e h e r and he a p p a r e n t l y t r i e d t o p r e p a r e h i s s i b l i n g s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t w h i c h t h e y c o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o on a r r i v a l a t s c h o o l . "My o l d e s t b r o t h e r , he w a n t e d t o p r e p a r e us f o r o u r l i f e . L i k e he was t e a c h i n g us how t o f i g h t and he t a u g h t us t h a t we s h o u l d n ' t c r y i f s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n e d t o us...He w a n t e d us t o be t o u g h . " 36 T h i s t y p e o f b e h a v i o u r a t home was d e s c r i b e d o n l y by t h i s p e r s o n ; no o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s r e p o r t e d s u c h c a s e s . L a n g u a g e , t h a t a s p e c t o f c u l t u r e so c e n t r a l t o i t s e x p r e s s i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n , was a m a j o r i s s u e w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l . W i t h o b v i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e l i m i n a t i n g t h i s t o o l o f c u l t u r e , t h e O b l a t e s began t h e i r 69 a t t a c k on t h e N a t i v e l a n g u a g e s d u r i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s f i r s t d a y s a t s c h o o l and c o n t i n u e d t o e s c a l a t e t h e c o n f l i c t w i t h t h o s e who d i d n o t c o - o p e r a t e i n a b a n d o n i n g t h e i r l a n g u a g e . F o r t h e c h i l d r e n who s p o k e o n l y Shuswap on t h e i r a r r i v a l a t s c h o o l , t h e i r f i r s t d a y s w ere ones o f g i b b e r i s h b e c a u s e o l d e r c h i l d r e n were n o t p e r m i t t e d t o s p e a k t h e l a n g u a g e and few s u p e r v i s o r s e v e r s p o k e Shuswap. No t r a n s i t i o n t i m e was a l o t t e d f o r t h e b e g i n n e r s i n w h i c h t h e y m i g h t r e a c h some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s y s t e m b e f o r e b e i n g a s k e d t o l e a r n a new l a n g u a g e . One n i n e y e a r o l d remembered: " And k n o w i n g v e r y l i t t l e E n g l i s h , I had some d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h a t . I g o t i n t o t r o u b l e b e c a u s e o f n o t k n o w i n g E n g l i s h and n o t s p e a k i n g o u t o r s a y i n g t h e wrong w o r d , even b e i n g c o n f u s e d a b o u t y e s and no...One o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s w r o t e o u r names and o u r n umbers: we e a c h had a s c h o o l number on o u r w r i s t . So r a t h e r t h a n a n s w e r i n g i n E n g l i s h , ' W h a t i s y o u r number? What i s y o u r name?'...we w o u l d j u s t show o u r w r i s t . . . T h a t was o u r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; t h e y w r o t e i t i n t h a t p u r p l e p e n c i l . " 37 F o r some, t h e f i r s t day o f s c h o o l was t o o f u l l o f new e x p e r i e n c e s f o r l a n g u a g e t o have been a m a j o r f o c u s : one p e r s o n who d i d s p e a k E n g l i s h r e p o r t e d , " I d o n ' t t h i n k I d i d v e r y much t a l k i n g t h e f i r s t few d a y s ' c a u s e , you know, you had t o g e t u s e d t o e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d h e r e . " The f i n a l s h o c k o f t h e f i r s t day came a t b e d t i m e . I n s t e a d o f t h e communal beds o f home, t h e c h i l d r e n were d i r e c t e d t o d o r m i t o r i e s c o n t a i n i n g r ows and rows o f i n d i v i d u a l beds w i t h w h i t e s h e e t s and a s i n g l e b l a n k e t . F o r a f e w , t h i s t i m e meant h a p p i n e s s : "What I remember t h e most was g e t t i n g i n t o a bed o f my own and i t had c l e a n s h e e t s . The p l a c e s m e l l e d g r e a t . " A n o t h e r p e r s o n d e s c r i b e d h i s f i r s t 38 70 n i g h t v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y : he r e c a l l s s t a n d i n g a t t h e window h o l d i n g h i s two b r o t h e r s ' hands as t h e y c r i e d and g a z e d l o n g i n g l y t o w a r d t h e i r n e a r b y home on t h e K a m l o o p s R e s e r v e . " I k e p t l o o k i n g o v e r t h e r e — f r e e d o m , what I u s e d t o d o . " F o r 39 a n o t h e r p e r s o n , t h e s h e e t s and p i l l o w o f f e r e d l i t t l e s o l a c e . "When t h e y t r i e d t o p u t me t o bed w i t h o u t my s i s t e r , i n t h i s one bed w i t h my own p i l l o w , my own s h e e t , I d i d n ' t e v e n t h i n k t h a t was v e r y n i c e . I c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t I d i d n ' t have nobody t o s l e e p w i t h . T h a t I was g o i n g t o have a bed a l l t o m y s e l f s o r t o f s c a r e d me and I h o w l e d a l l n i g h t . " 40 A g a i n no r e c o g n i t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e Shuswap ways and no a l l o w a n c e f o r g r a d u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n o f E u r o p e a n c o n v e n t i o n s was p e r m i t t e d . I n a s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n , t h e O b l a t e s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e Shuswap c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s were n o t a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e s c h o o l . I n a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e , f r o m l a n g u a g e t o s l e e p i n g h a b i t s , E u r o p e a n b e h a v i o u r s were t o s u p p l a n t t h o s e w h i c h had been f o l l o w e d by g e n e r a t i o n s o f Shuswap p e o p l e . From t h e s e f i r s t d a y s , no c o n c e s s i o n s w e r e made: f a m i l y t i e s w e r e b r o k e n , l a n g u a g e use was f o r b i d d e n and l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s d i s c o u n t e d . As t h i s o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m began t o o p e r a t e , g l i m m e r i n g s o f a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e w e re a l s o i n e v i d e n c e . I n s u b t l e and n o t so s u b t l e ways, t h e c h i l d r e n began t h e d e l i c a t e b a l a n c i n g a c t o f a d a p t a t i o n t o a new o r d e r w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e i n d e l i b l e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e . T h i s r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e s y s t e m w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s u b - c u l t u r e s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l began on t h e f i r s t d a y s as w e l l . The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e t y p i f i e s t h e 71 u n d e r g r o u n d c u l t u r e i n o p e r a t i o n . " I had t o s n e a k t o my s i s t e r ' s bed. She was i n t h e same dorm as I was. I d o n ' t know who t h e g i r l s w e r e who were s l e e p i n g b e s i d e us but t h e y were g o i n g t o s q u e a l on us and she up and t o l d them s h e ' d b e a t t h e l i v i n g s h i t r i g h t o u t o f them i f t h e y so much as s a i d a w o r d . She was c l a s s i f i e d as one o f t h e t o u g h g i r l s so t h e y l i s t e n e d t o h e r . " 40 W h i l e c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n had begun i n e a r n e s t , t h e f o r c e s o f o p p o s i t i o n were a l s o f o r m i n g r a n k s . I t i s t h i s s t r e n g t h o f r e s i s t a n c e w h i c h has e n s u r e d t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e Shuswap p e o p l e as a n a t i o n t o d a y d e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s o f b o t h g o v e r n m e n t s and m i s s i o n a r i e s t o u n d e r m i n e t h e i r c u l t u r a l r o o t s and h a v e them become an i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e p a r t o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h i t s e f f e c t s h ave been d e v a s t a t i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l was n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s a t t e m p t s t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e o f t h e C e n t r a l I n t e r i o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e . 72 CHAPTER JXL F Q Q t n p t e s 1. Quoted i n Ray H. Merkel, T r a d i t i o n a l Indian Eduoationfunpubl. The T r a d i t i o n a l Indian Education Society,n.d.) 2. Informant 5:6. 3. 1.6:2 4. 1.4:2 5. 1.12:5 6. 1.2:16 7. 1.5:6 8. 1.5:6 9. 1.6:3 10. 1.7:10 11. 1.5:7 12. 1.10:12 13. 1.4:2 14. 1.6:11 15. 1.4:2 16. 1.12:11 17. 1.8:5 18. 1.7:5 19. 1.7:5 20. 1.7:1 21. 1.10:10 22. 1.1:5 23. 1.5:8 24. 1.12:1 25. 1.7:2 73 CHAPTER I V : F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) 2 6 . 1 .6:1 27. 1 . 5 :8 2 8 . 1 . 1 2 : 2 2 9 . 1 . 1 0 : 1 2 3 0 . 1 .12:1 3 1 . 1 .13:11 3 2 . 1 .6:1 3 3 . 1 . 7 : 3 3 4 . 1 . 1 1 : 8 3 5 . 1 . 6 : 1 3 6 . 1 . 1 2 : 5 3 7 . 1 . 6 : 3 / 4 3 8 . 1 .4:1 3 9 . 1 . 1 1 : 2 4 0 . 1 . 1 0 : 1 2 4 1 . 1 . 1 0 : 1 2 / 1 3 74 C H A P T E R V_L S C H O O L L I F E n T h r e e t h i n g s s t a n d o u t i n my mind f r o m my y e a r s a t s c h o o l : h u n g e r ; s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h ; and b e i n g c a l l e d a h e a t h e n b e c a u s e o f my g r a n d f a t h e r . n George M a n u e l 1 I n r e c a l l i n g t h e i r t i m e a t t h e K a m loops I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l , p e o p l e s h a r e d m e m o r i e s w h i c h c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h r e e w a y s : g e n e r a l d e t a i l s o f t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , s p e c i f i c s e n s a t i o n a l i n c i d e n t s , and t h e i r c u r r e n t i m p r e s s i o n s o f what h a p p e n e d t h e r e b a s e d on t h e two f o r m e r t y p e s o f memories and t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . The t h r e e t y p e s do i n t e r t w i n e w i t h one a n o t h e r and i n so d o i n g p r o v i d e f a s c i n a t i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e e f f e c t s w h i c h t h e s c h o o l had. One i n f o r m a n t r e p o r t e d t h u s : "To me, t h e I n d i a n s c h o o l g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g was s o r t o f l i k e y o u w e re t a k e n o v e r by a s u p e r i o r f o r c e , by t h e g o v e r n m e n t and [ t h e y ] t r y t o m o l d you i n t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e and t h e y were v e r y s t r i c t a b o u t •it- « 2 A n o t h e r p e r s o n had s i m i l a r r e c o l l e c t i o n s : " A t t h e I n d i a n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , we were n o t a l l o w e d t o s p e a k o u r l a n g u a g e ; we w e r e n ' t a l l o w e d t o d a n c e , s i n g b e c a u s e t h e y t o l d us i t was e v i l . I t was e v i l f o r us t o p r a c t i c e any o f o u r c u l t u r a l w a ys. . . . Some o f t h e g i r l s w o u l d g e t some I n d i a n f o o d . They'd t a k e i t away f r o m us and j u s t t o be mean t h e y ' d d e s t r o y i t r i g h t i n f r o n t o f u s . You know, t h a t ' s how bad i t was." 3 A l t h o u g h t h e r e was some change o v e r t i m e , I n d i a n c u l t u r e was n e v e r a c c e p t e d by t h e s c h o o l as a r e a l , l i v i n g c u l t u r e . R a t h e r i t was s e e n as s o m e t h i n g a r c h a i c and u n d e s i r a b l e , s o m e t h i n g t o be a n n i h i l a t e d . As t h e d o m i n a n t c u l t u r e g a t h e r e d s t r e n g t h and i t p e r c e i v e d t h a t I n d i a n c u l t u r e was i n d e e d 75 " d y i n g " , t h e r e was n o t i c e a b l e r e l a x a t i o n i n what was a l l o w e d i n t h e s c h o o l . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f d a i l y l i f e i n t h e s c h o o l a c c e n t s t h e s e c l a i m s and d e m o n s t r a t e s c l e a r l y t h e s y s t e m a t i c d e s t r u c t i o n o f c u l t u r e w h i c h was a t t e m p t e d . The School Pay M o r n i n g came e a r l y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l i n t h e 1930s. " I n t h e m o r n i n g , we had t o g e t up a t s i x o ' c l o c k , p e r f e c t s i l e n c e . We a l l t o o k t u r n s g o i n g i n t o t h e b a t h r o o m : we'd f i l l o u r b a s i n f u l l o f w a t e r and we'd t a k e i t t o o u r b e d s i d e . We'd wash, t a k e t h a t b a s i n , empty i t , c l e a n i t o u t , p u t i t b a c k , f i x o u r bed, g e t d r e s s e d and as s o o n as y o u ' r e f i n i s h e d — you o n l y had h a l f an h o u r t o do a l l t h i s — b r u s h y o u r t e e t h , g e t i n a l i n e and s t a n d i n l i n e i n p e r f e c t s i l e n c e . I f y o u ' r e c a u g h t e v e r s p e a k i n g one w o r d , boy, you g o t c u f f e d a r o u n d . And t h e n we m a r c h e d f r o m t h e r e down t o t h e c h a p e l and we s p e n t o v e r an h o u r i n t h e c h a p e l e v e r y m o r n i n g , e v e r y b l e s s e ' d m o r n i n g . And t h e r e t h e y i n t e r r o g a t e d us on what i t was a l l a b o u t b e i n g an I n d i a n . . . . H e w o u l d j u s t g e t so c a r r i e d away; he was p u n c h i n g away a t t h a t o l d a l t a r r a i l . . . t o hammer i t i n t o o u r heads t h a t we were n o t t o t h i n k o r a c t o r s p e a k l i k e an I n d i a n . And t h a t we w o u l d go t o h e l l and b u r n f o r e t e r n i t y i f we d i d n o t l i s t e n t o t h e i r way o f t e a c h i n g . " H What b e t t e r way t o w o r k a t i n d o c t r i n a t i o n t h a n t o t a k e h u n g r y c h i l d r e n e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g and t o s u b j e c t them t o a h a r a n g u e on t h e e v i l s o f t h e i r f a m i l y ' s way o f l i f e . I t c e r t a i n l y a p p e a r s t o be an i m p e l l i n g way t o c r e a t e c h a n g e . No a t t e m p t was made a t d i a l o g u e o r r e a c h i n g common u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C o m p l e t e s i l e n c e o f t h e " o b j e c t s " b e i n g a d d r e s s e d e n s u r e d l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o p u t t h e a t t a c k i n t o a c o n t e x t w h i c h m i g h t e n a b l e them t o u n d e r s t a n d more f u l l y t h e w ords d i r e c t e d a t them. They had no 76 o p p o r t u n i t y t o q u e s t i o n t h e p r i e s t and no o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e a k t o one a n o t h e r a b o u t what t h e y had h e a r d . Those who were c a u g h t s p e a k i n g t o one a n o t h e r were q u i c k l y p u n i s h e d . " Oh, i n c h u r c h when t h e g i r l s were l a u g h i n g . . . s o m e b o d y must be w a t c h i n g . J u s t g r a b them by t h e n e c k , make them l a y down on t h e f l o o r t i l l a f t e r c h u r c h . ' 1 5 Of c o u r s e , t h e Mass a t t h i s t i m e was g i v e n i n L a t i n . Not o n l y were t h e c h i l d r e n e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n E n g l i s h , t h e y were a l s o e x p o s e d t o a t h i r d l a n g u a g e i n c h u r c h . I n l a t e r y e a r s , d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e a t Mass was no l o n g e r m a n d a t o r y . One o f t h e b e n e f i t s f o r t h o s e who were i n v o l v e d i n s p o r t s o r d a n c i n g was b e i n g e x c u s e d f r o m t h e d a i l y c h a p e l s e r v i c e on o c c a s i o n . However, t h o s e who c h o s e n o t t o a t t e n d t h e v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s o f t e n f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s a s s i g n e d e x t r a c l e a n i n g d u t i e s d u r i n g t h e Mass t i m e . F o l l o w i n g c h a p e l , t h e c h i l d r e n a g a i n moved i n r a n k s t o t h e d i n i n g room. S t a f f a t e i n a s e p a r a t e n e a r b y room. E v e n t u a l l y , a p a r t i t i o n was c o n s t r u c t e d down t h e c e n t r e o f t h e d i n i n g room so t h a t t h e s e x e s c o u l d n o t v i e w one a n o t h e r d u r i n g m e a l s . A l m o s t e v e r y o n e i n t e r v i e w e d m e n t i o n e d t h e i n f a m o u s p o r r i d g e s e r v e d e v e r y m o r n i n g a t t h e Kamloops I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l . P r e p a r e d by s t u d e n t s w i t h o n l y m i n i m a l s u p e r v i s i o n by t h e nuns o r o l d e r s t u d e n t s , i t was d e s c r i b e d most o f t e n as lumpy and b u r n t . A s t u d e n t who had been i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r i n g t h e p o r r i d g e d e s c r i b e d i t t h i s way: "We had some p r e t t y good c o o k s t h e r e and some p r e t t y bad c o o k s . . . . When y o u make p o r r i d g e i n t h o s e g r e a t b i g p o t s . . . y o u l e a r n e d t h a t p o r r i d g e i s t o be 77 c o o k e d i n b o i l i n g w a t e r and a b i t o f s a l t and t h a t y o u s t i r i t so t h a t i t d o e s n ' t b u r n on t h e b o t t o m . . W e l l , i f t h e y cook i t i n j u s t warm w a t e r and n o t b o i l i n g w a t e r , you c a n be s u r e i t ' s g o i n g t o be s t i c k y b e c a u s e t h a t p o r r i d g e s i t s t h e r e a l l n i g h t . . . . I f y ou have t o , t h e n y o u add a l i t t l e more h o t w a t e r i n t h e m o r n i n g . You know, t h a t ' s one t h i n g t h a t s t i c k s i n my mind i s t h i s s t i c k y p o r r i d g e . " 6 The p o r r i d g e e v e n became t h e f o c u s o f s m a l l g e s t u r e s o f r e s i s t a n c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h o s e who r e f u s e d t o e a t i t f o u n d i t w a i t i n g f o r them a t t h e n e x t m e a l as was t h e c a s e w i t h a l l r e j e c t e d f o o d . O t h e r s f o u n d t h e p o r r i d g e a s o u r c e o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t i n an o t h e r w i s e mundane m o r n i n g m e a l . " I u s e d t o g e t a k i c k o u t o f t h a t when I t h i n k b a c k . We u s e d t o have t h i s h a b i t [ t o s e e ] who c o u l d s t r e t c h t h e p o r r i d g e t h e l o n g e s t . We'd t a k e o u r s p o o n and we'd s t a r t t a p p i n g t h e p o r r i d g e up and down. F i n a l l y we'd g e t i t g o i n g l i k e a l o n g s t r i n g o f gum and we'd s e e who c o u l d g e t i t t h e l o n g e s t . And we'd g e t c a u g h t a nd, boy, d i d we e v e r g e t a l i c k i n g . " 7 However, t h e c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y a t e i t . "You know, when y o u ' r e h u n g r y , y o u ' l l e a t a n y t h i n g . They p u t a b l o b o f t h a t [mush] i n o u r p l a t e , a p i e c e o f b r e a d , a l i t t l e b i t o f b u t t e r and a g l a s s o f b l u e m i l k . " 8 M e a l s w e r e s e r v e d by t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s and a t l e a s t one p e r s o n f e l t t h e r e was some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e u n a p p e t i z i n g f o o d . " I f o r g e t how many k i d s t h e r e was when I was g o i n g t h e r e . I m a g i n e t r y i n g t o cook f o r them. You c o u l d n ' t p u t [ t h e f o o d ] i n t o i n d i v i d u a l p l a t t e r s and make i t l o o k a p p e t i z i n g . You know, t h e r e had t o be a b i g p o t a t t h e end o f t h a t t a b l e . . . [ w i t h ] t h o s e e i g h t c h i l d r e n — e i g h t on e a c h s i d e o f t h e t a b l e and one s e r v e s . " 9 The d o m i n a n t i m p r e s s i o n o f m e a l t i m e i s a s e n s e o f r e g i m e n t a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l i t y h e r e and a t o t h e r t i m e s was n o t 78 a c o n c e r n . The numbers o f c h i l d r e n who had t o be f e d were s e e n a s o b j e c t s t o be p r o c e s s e d as c h e a p l y and e f f i c i e n t l y as p o s s i b l e and p a s s e d a l o n g t o t h e n e x t s t a t i o n . A n o t h e r s o u r c e o f c o n c e r n t o t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d was t h e i n e q u i t y b e t ween t h e s t a f f ' s f o o d and t h e c h i l d r e n ' s . Those who w o r k e d i n t h e k i t c h e n w e re most aware o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s . One p e r s o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e method o f p r e p a r a t i o n was t h e g r e a t e s t d i s p a r i t y . R a t h e r t h a n b e i n g c o o k e d a h e a d o f t i m e i n huge v a t s , t h e s t a f f ' s m e a l s were p r e p a r e d j u s t b e f o r e s e r v i n g . O t h e r s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l t h e t a s t y and n u t r i t i o u s f o o d w h i c h t h e y saw b e i n g d e l i v e r e d t o t h e s t a f f d i n i n g room. A s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d i n t h e s i x t i e s commented on t h e d o u b l e s t a n d a r d she f e l t was e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i n e q u i t y . " F o r them i t was d i f f e r e n t . . . . T h e y d i d n ' t e a t t h e same f o o d we a t e ; t h e y a t e much b e t t e r f o o d . We had mush and t h e y had b a c o n and e g g s . They were s e p a r a t e f r o m e v e r y b o d y e l s e i n one room w h e r e t h e w h o l e s t a f f a t e . " 10 T h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was m e n t i o n e d by s e v e r a l p e o p l e . The s e n s e o f i n j u s t i c e c a u s e d by t h e v a r y i n g q u a l i t y o f t h e f o o d was i n t e n s i f i e d when s t u d e n t s w a t c h e d t h e m e a l s b e i n g t a k e n i n t o t h e s t a f f room as t h e y were g o i n g i n t o t h e i r l e s s s a t i s f y i n g m e a l . Many p e o p l e remember h u n g e r . G e o r g e M a n u e l i n h i s book, The F o u r t h W o r l d names h u n g e r as t h e f i r s t o f t h r e e t h i n g s w h i c h s t a n d o u t i n h i s mind a b o u t s c h o o l . One o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s o f t h i s s t u d y r e p o r t e d : " S o m e t h i n g I remember was t h a t I was a l w a y s h u n g r y . I l o s t w e i g h t t h e r e . I g a i n e d t e n t o t w e l v e pounds i n two months a t home. I go down t h e r e and I l o s e two o r t h r e e i n t e n m o n t h s . " 11 79 T h i s c h i l d was, o f c o u r s e , g r o w i n g . T h a t some o f h i s w e i g h t i n c r e a s e i n summer was g r o w t h - r e l a t e d makes even more s i g n i f i c a n t t h e s u b s e q u e n t l o s s d u r i n g t h e t i m e a t s c h o o l . D u r i n g t h e t e n m o n t h s , he w o u l d have been g r o w i n g w h i l e a c t u a l l y l o s i n g w e i g h t . F o l l o w i n g a l e s s t h a n s a t i s f a c t o r y b r e a k f a s t and t h e m o r n i n g c l e a n i n g d u t i e s , t h e c h i l d r e n moved t o t h e c l a s s r o o m b l o c k . F o r t h e newcomers, more a d j u s t m e n t s w e r e n e c e s s a r y on t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a n o t h e r unknown. ••Our f i r s t day we went t o t h e c l a s s r o o m . They had a l l t h e s e l i t t l e d e s k s l i n e d up; I t h i n k t h e r e were a b o u t t h i r t y o r t h i r t y - f i v e s e a t s i n t h i s l i t t l e room, maybe more.... So t h i s nun was t h e r e ; she was o u r t e a c h e r . I s t i l l w a s n ' t u s e d t o l o o k i n g a t t h e s e people....We were g o i n g i n t o t h i s c l a s s r o o m two by two and t h e y j u s t t o l d us t o s i t down so we g o t t o p i c k any p l a c e . And some k i d s w e re c o m i n g i n t h a t day [who] were r e a l l y s c a r e d . The l i t t l e g i r l s w ere so s c a r e d t h e y were c r y i n g r e a l l y l o u d . . . . T h e g i r l s were k i c k i n g and s c r e a m i n g and two o l d e r s t u d e n t s w e re h o l d i n g them by t h e arms, t r y i n g t o b r i n g them i n . . . . A n d t h a t s c a r e d t h e r e s t o f u s , 'ca u s e we were so s m a l l s i t t i n g t h e r e wondering,'What»s g o i n g on? Why a r e we h e r e ? ' And day a f t e r d a y , we went b a c k t h e r e and i t t o o k us a l o n g t i m e t o g e t t o know e a c h o t h e r . " 1 2 A c h i l d who s t a r t e d s c h o o l a t n i n e y e a r s o f age remembered h e r a w k w a r d n e s s on t h a t f i r s t d a y : "You know when you f i r s t e n t e r t h e room, you'd n e v e r s e e n d e s k s b e f o r e . . . . Y o u were j u s t l i k e c a t t l e . And t h e s e k i d s t h a t were t h e r e . . . w e r e l a u g h i n g a t u s , you know....We were t h e same age, but t h e y ' d been i n s c h o o l b e f o r e . . . . And t h e y were o u r own p e o p l e s a y i n g t h e s e t h i n g s . " 13 The f i r s t h o u r o f c l a s s r o o m t i m e was d e v o t e d t o r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g . A l t h o u g h a s s i m i l a t i o n was t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p r i m e o b j e c t i v e f o r t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e , t h e O b l a t e s had as t h e i r g o a l , " t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c h i l d ' s 80 c h a r a c t e r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e t r u e c o n c e p t o f C h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n . " F o r some o f t h e s t u d e n t s , i n r e t r o s p e c t , t h i s c o n c e p t as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s was o f q u e s t i o n a b l e w o r t h . " I remember when we were i n t h e s c h o o l t h e r e t h a t a l l o t h e r c h u r c h e s w e r e w r o n g . I f you b e l i e v e d o r r e a d any o f t h e o t h e r b o o k s , you were g o i n g t o h e l l . T h a t was pus h e d i n t o o u r b r a i n day a f t e r day a f t e r day a t s c h o o l . D i d n ' t m a t t e r what c h u r c h , what r e l i g i o n . . . t h e C a t h o l i c was t h e o n l y c h u r c h . T h e r e was no o t h e r c h u r c h , a b s o l u t e l y . " 15 F o r o t h e r s , r e l i g i o n was j u s t l i k e any o t h e r c l a s s . " I t j u s t s t a r t e d t o be l i k e a r i t h m e t i c , l i k e r e a d i n g , b e i n g t a u g h t c a t e c h i s m w h i l e s i t t i n g i n a row....To me anyways . . . i t d i d n ' t q u i t e t i e i n b e c a u s e i t went by t h e b e l l . I t went by s t r i c t r o u t i n e . I g u e s s I m i s s e d t h e p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t t h a t we s t a r t e d w i t h a t home w i t h G ranny and w i t h t h e p r i e s t . . . . And so i t became l i k e t h e m a i n t e x t book was t h e c a t e c h i s m book, a l w a y s m e m o r i z i n g . . . t h e B a l t i m o r e C a t e c h i s m . " 16 O t h e r s r e c a l l t h e s e n s e o f g u i l t w h i c h t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o d e v e l o p as a p a r t o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g . "When y o u ' r e r a i s e d a C a t h o l i c , e v e r y t h i n g i s w r o n g t h a t y o u ' r e d o i n g . A t l e a s t t h a t was my o p i n i o n . I f you went t o t h e washroom, t h a t was w r o n g . I f you w i p e d y o u r a s s , t h a t was w r o n g . I f you l o o k e d a t y o u r p r i v a t e p a r t s , t h a t was w r o n g . . . . I f you t a l k e d t o t h i s p e r s o n , i t was w r o n g o r i f you l o o k e d a t t h a t p e r s o n , i t was w r o n g . The w h o l e a t t i t u d e o f t h e r e l i g i o u s u p b r i n g i n g r e a l l y s q u a s h e d y o u . You w e r e n ' t a b l e t o e x p r e s s y o u r t r u e s e l f . E v e r y t h i n g was c o n t r o l l e d . " 17 Some f o u n d t h a t t h e i r d e v e l o p i n g r e l i g i o u s s e n s e s h a t t e r e d t h e i r image o f s e l f and f a m i l y . ". . . t h e y s t a r t e d t a l k i n g t o us a b o u t s i n , a b o u t what s i n was . . . I f e l t r e a l l y d i r t y ' c a u s e t h i s [ s e x u a l a b u s e ] happened t o me. . . .They s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g me t h e i r r e l i g i o n . . . t e l l i n g me who God was, what H e l l was and what a n g e l s w e r e . . . . They s a i d , ' . . . anybody t h a t d o e s n ' t go t o c h u r c h i s a p a g a n . ' I s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g , ' Hey, my p a r e n t s d o n ' t go t o c h u r c h a l l t h e t i m e . They must be 81 p a g a n s . . . . • P e o p l e t h a t g o t d r u n k , t h e y w o u l d r e a l l y p u t them down. I t h o u g h t , ' G e e , o u r f a m i l y i s r e a l l y t h e p i t s . * And I ' d go home and I ' d be r e a l l y ashamed o f my p a r e n t s . " 18 A l t h o u g h m a j o r c e l e b r a t i o n s i n r e l i g i o u s u p b r i n g i n g s u c h as F i r s t Communion and C o n f i r m a t i o n w e r e happy t i m e s , " Those were n i c e d a y s b e c a u s e we g o t d r e s s e d up so n i c e , p r e t t y d r e s s e s . Even t h e b o y s g o t s p e c i a l l i t t l e c l o t h e s , t o o . " , 19 t h e S a c r a m e n t o f Penance w h i c h p r e c e d e d H o l y Communion was a n o t h e r m a t t e r . " . . . t h e y w a n t e d us t o go t o C o n f e s s i o n and t e l l o u r s i n s . W e l l gee, I d i d n ' t know what k i n d o f s i n I was t o t e l l . I t was f u n n y s t a n d i n g t h e r e i n l i n e on S a t u r d a y ; we'd a l l be i n t h e h a l l r e a d y t o go t o C o n f e s s i o n . So we'd go i n t o t h e s e l i t t l e b o x e s , a y e , and t h e p r i e s t w o u l d be i n t h e r e and one g i r l on t h e o t h e r s i d e and one on t h i s s i d e and i t was d a r k . . . . T h e p r i e s t w o u l d s a y , 'Okay, what d i d y o u d o ? ' o r w h a t e v e r . . . . I u s e d t o make up l i e s and I ' d s a y , ' Oh, I t o l d s e v e n t e e n l i e s . . . " I j u s t made up t h e s e t h i n g s and t h e p r i e s t w o u l d s a y , 'Okay, I want y o u t o go and s a y t e n H a i l M a r y ' s , f i v e G l o r y Be's and one Our F a t h e r . ' . . . a n d we'd go do t h a t . . . " 20 F o r a n o t h e r s t u d e n t , c o n f e s s i o n became a t i m e o f g r e a t t e n s i o n when t h e p r i e s t c o n s i s t e n t l y a s k e d h e r i f she had had s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h a n y o n e . H i s u n s e e m l y i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t c o m b i n e d w i t h h i s d i s p l a y s o f a f f e c t i o n f o r h e r w h i c h i n v o l v e d t o u c h i n g h e r i n p u b l i c l e d t h e s t u d e n t t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p r i e s t was m a k i n g o v e r t u r e s t o h e r . I n h e r f a m i l y , t h e r e was m i n i m a l d i s p l a y o f a f f e c t i o n . A s s u m i n g t h e p r i e s t ' s i n t e n t i o n s w e r e h a r m l e s s , h i s i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o h e r d i s c o m f o r t was n o t . The o r g a n i z e d C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n , a r e n o wned f o r c e i n e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , had a p r o f o u n d a f f e c t on e v e r y s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n 82 K a m l o o p s . F o r t h o s e who had e x p e r i e n c e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o C a t h o l i c i s m b e f o r e l e a v i n g home and whose p a r e n t s had a d o p t e d and a d a p t e d t h e r e l i g i o n as a p a r t o f t h e i r way o f l i f e , t h e c u l t u r a l s h o c k o f i t s t e a c h i n g s had l e s s o f an i m p a c t . F o r o t h e r s , t h e v a l u e s e n f o r c e d by t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e r e l i g i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e n o t i o n s o f e v i l , s i n , g u i l t , and h e l l f i r e w e re f o r e i g n and f e a r s o m e . The l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s o f t h e s e t e a c h i n g s were many and i n some c a s e s a r e s t i l l b e i n g f e l t . The use o f r e l i g i o n as a weapon i n t h e a t t a c k on t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e s p i r i t u a l i t y and o t h e r c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s was p a r t i c u l a r l y d e v a s t a t i n g t o t h o s e i n d i v d u a l s whose f a m i l i e s w ere a l r e a d y s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e c h a n g e s e x p e c t e d o f them. F o l l o w i n g t h e h o u r o f r e l i g i o n e a c h m o r n i n g , a mere two h o u r s were d e d i c a t e d t o t h e a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s : b a s i c r e a d i n g , a r i t h m e t i c and w r i t i n g c o m b i n e d w i t h a few o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s s u c h as a r t and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . A l t h o u g h some s t u d e n t s f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f them i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , many o t h e r s f o u n d t h e t i m e t h r e a t e n i n g and u n p l e a s a n t . "We were g r a d e d v e r y much as we do t o d a y . . . . T h e r e were a l o t o f s l o w l e a r n e r s and t h e n t h e ones t h a t were a l i t t l e b e t t e r and t h e n t h e ones t h a t a d v a n c e q u i t e f a s t and u n d e r s t a n d b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s . I t h i n k I was a b o u t i n t h e m i d d l e . . . F o r no r e a s o n , I t h i n k , t h e y s a i d , 'You have t h e b r a i n s ; y o u ' r e j u s t l a z y . We know you can do i t . ' And I know I c a n do i t , but o f t e n t i m e s I g o t b e h i n d and t h e n I s t a y e d b e h i n d . " 21 F o r t h i s s t u d e n t , s c h o o l t i m e was f u l l o f p r e s s u r e . She w o r k e d h a r d b u t when she c o u l d n o t meet e x p e c t a t i o n s , she f e l t i n a d e q u a t e . The comments made t o h e r were so d i f f e r e n t 83 f r o m h e r m o t h e r ' s d i r e c t i o n s t o go and f i n i s h what was l e f t u ndone. B e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t had a l w a y s f o u n d t h i s p u n i s h m e n t enough, t h e e x t r a s e v e r i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s v e r b a l h a r a n g u e was d a m a g i n g t o h e r s e l f - i m a g e . On t h e o t h e r hand, many p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d f o u n d t i m e s p e n t on t h e a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s was q u i t e p o s i t i v e . M e m o r i e s a r e n o t i c e a b l e i n t h a t t h e y a r e h a r d e r t o r e c a l l . When p r o b e d , i n f o r m a n t s had comments l i k e t h i s . " I d o n ' t know what we l e a r n e d . I remember we s t a r t e d l e a r n i n g , I t h i n k J o e and R u t h b o o k s . We had r e a d e r s . . . . I r e a l l y c a n ' t e v e n t e l l you what we l e a r n e d . I remember t h i s b i g book t h e y u s e d t o h ave h a n g i n g on t h e f r o n t . I t was s o m e t h i n g a b o u t R o v e r and Bob and t h o s e w e re t h e words t h a t we l e a r n e d . And i f we were r e a l l y good w i t h o u r work . . . t h e t e a c h e r w o u l d go t o t h e n e x t pages o f t h i s g r e a t b i g book w i t h b i g l e t t e r s . I l i k e d t h a t . . . n 22 These s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h e a c a d e m i c work c h a l l e n g i n g and t h e t e a c h e r s f a i r . R e g a r d i n g h e r t e a c h e r , t h e i n f o r m a n t a l s o q u o t e d d i r e c t l y a b o v e s a i d : " I t h o u g h t she was q u i t e f a i r . She had w o r k e d h a r d and she was a r e a l t e a c h e r you know. She r e a l l y t a u g h t u s . . . . Oh, I know one o f t h e f i r s t t h i n g s we d i d . . . She gave us p a p e r s and p e n c i l s and we had t o w r i t e o u r name. . . . I was t a u g h t by someone, t o p r i n t my name w i t h c a p i t a l l e t t e r s and I c o u l d remember w o r k i n g on t h a t . Oh, I was so p r o u d t h a t I c o u l d w r i t e my name. 11 23 I n f o r m a n t s * g e n e r a l comments a b o u t s c h o o l a r e b e s t s u m m a r i z e d i n t h e i n i t i a l s e n t e n c e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n . T h i s p e r s o n i s t h e o n l y one who m e n t i o n e d work o t h e r t h a n r e a d i n g and a r i t h m e t i c when d i s c u s s i n g t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s . "You l e a r n t t h e t h r e e R's t h e r e , you know, t h e b a s i c s . You l e a r n e d a l i t t l e b i t a b o u t h i s t o r y . . 84 but there was no h i s t o r y about B.C. . . . They never taught us why Vancouver was c a l l e d Vancouver or anything l i k e t h a t . They taught us a l l about Quebec and French and a l l the e x p l o r e r s . We learned a b i t about South America. . . . We l e a r n e d about King Henry the Eighth and F i f t h and a l l those guys. f f 24 Needless to say, no Shuswap h i s t o r y was taught. With the e t h n o c e n t r i c b i a s of the times, only European-based h i s t o r y was deemed important enough to be taught i n s c h o o l s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , when a c u l t u r e i s being attacked i n an e f f o r t to dominate i t or to r e p l a c e i t with an a l t e r n a t i v e way of l i f e , an e f f e c t i v e t a c t i c i n c l u d e s l a c k of acknowledgement of that c u l t u r e ' s h i s t o r y . The most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the s c h o o l i n g which was done at the r e s i d e n t i a l school i s that, u n t i l the l a t e 1940s, no c h i l d attended school for longer than two hours a day. The discrepancy between the hours of s c h o o l i n g i n r e s i d e n t i a l school and the f i v e hours spent by students i n the p u b l i c school r e s u l t e d i n the i n a b i l i t y of most students to t r a n s f e r i n t o the p u b l i c school i f they had chosen to continue t h e i r education a f t e r grade e i g h t . In most cases, c o n t i n u a t i o n was not encouraged and was considered i n a p p r o p r i a t e and unnecessary f o r Native people. The governments and the m i s s i o n a r i e s had decided that Native people should be farmers or farmers' wives not s c h o l a r s . A person who l e f t school i n the 1940s r e c a l l e d : "I think once you l e f t there, you're s i x t e e n or seventeen, most of us. When I found out there was going to be no high school . . . we d i d n ' t care about education any more. We j u s t wanted to work f o r a l i v i n g . . . . [The p r i e s t s ] never t a l k e d to me at a l l . Never s a i d , 'How would you l i k e to come back?' or 85 'We'll make arrangements.' . . . not l i k e nowadays [when they] t r y to put you ahead. . . . You d i d n ' t have any c o u n s e l l o r s and the o l d f o l k s d i d n ' t care one way or another." 25 Any person who d i d decide to attempt high school or f u r t h e r education would have been breaking new ground with l i t t l e support e i t h e r from people at the r e s i d e n t i a l school or at home. Not u n t i l 1946 was the high school program i n s t i t u t e d at the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . At that time one student began high s c h o o l . The f o l l o w i n g year, f i v e c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d others j o i n e d him. For the f i r s t time i n t h e i r l i v e s , they were expected to attend school from nine to three. "Then came grade nine. We s t a r t e d high school and we had to go f u l l day . , . and those teachers had to t r y and teach us to graduate i n four years. We had to w r i t e p r o v i n c i a l exams." 26 In w r i t i n g these p r o v i n c i a l examinations, students were judged along with those who had been i n the p u b l i c school system fo r twelve years. The Native students had experienced approximately f i v e p u b l i c school years d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l e i g h t years at the r e s i d e n c e . The f a c t that the s i x o r i g i n a l graduates had passed t h e i r exams with only the e q u i v a l e n t of nine years of p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g demonstrated t h e i r strong academic a b i l i t y . This comparison i s not emphasized i n e x i s t i n g accounts of the e a r l y graduates of Kamloops Indian R e s i d e n t i a l School. To do so would have drawn a t t e n t i o n to the i n e q u i t i e s of the education system for the Native students. For students such as these, the time for academic s t u d i e s was the high point of t h e i r day. They tended to be 86 t h e ones whose p a r e n t s had e x p l a i n e d t o them t h a t t h e p u r p o s e f o r g o i n g t o s c h o o l was t o l e a r n t o r e a d and w r i t e . The a b l e s t u d e n t s f r e q u e n t l y c o m p l e t e d t h e t h r e e g r a d e one l e v e l s - - 1 c , 1b, and 1 a — a l l i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r a t s c h o o l . n I d i d do a l l g r a d e 1 c , g r a d e 1b and g r a d e 1 a [ w h i c h was] s u r p r i s i n g [ b e c a u s e ] i t t o o k me so l o n g t o g e t s t a r t e d . I u s e d t o be so n e r v o u s a b o u t d o i n g my work and w a n t i n g t o do i t so w e l l . I a c t u a l l y p u n c t u r e d my book . . . I p u t my p e n c i l r i g h t t h r o u g h i t - - a l l t h a t m u s c l e t e n s i o n - - t r y i n g t o g e t an A o r B. . . . [ A ] l i t t l e p a s t m i d - y e a r , I began t o l o o k a t t h i n g s , ' I know t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , ' . . and I g o t i n t e r e s t e d i n m a t c h i n g i t w i t h a word t h a t t h e t e a c h e r w o u l d h a v e . And h a v i n g t h i s d i s c o v e r y , ' C a r r y i n g w a t e r , I ' v e done t h a t . ' T h a t ' s a s i m p l e e x p e r i e n c e t h a t m a t c h e d what I was d o i n g . M a k i n g f i r e , t h a t ' s a s i m p l e e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t m a t c h e d w i t h m a k i n g f i r e i n w o r d s . T h a t drew me: t h i s i s e x c i t i n g ; t h i s i s f a s c i n a t i n g . . . j u s t t h e mere f a s c i n a t i o n o f m a t c h i n g a p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e a c t u a l w o r d s . I w o u l d t h i n k o f t h a t a f t e r s c h o o l and l o o k i n g a t a t r e e , ' I must l e a r n t h e w o r d f o r t r e e . I must l e a r n t h e w o r d f o r m o u n t a i n ; I must l e a r n t h e w o r d f o r g r o u n d . . . '" 27 Such t r e m e n d o u s s e l f m o t i v a t i o n c o u l d l e a d o n l y t o s u c c e s s as a s t u d e n t . I n d e e d , t h i s p e r s o n was t h e f i r s t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e o f t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l . F o r o t h e r s t u d e n t s , g e n e r a l i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e i r c o n c e r n s a b o u t d e c i s i o n s made a b o u t them and t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s made s c h o o l t i m e more t u m u l t u o u s t h a n i t n e e d e d t o be. One s t u d e n t who t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o K . I . R . S . f r o m a n o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l was u p s e t by an u n e x p l a i n e d d e c i s i o n t h a t she r e p e a t a y e a r . " I d o n ' t remember how t h e y d e c i d e d t h a t I was t o go b a c k one more g r a d e . I was g r a d e two and t h e y p u t me b a c k i n g r a d e one. . . . I remember t h i n k i n g t h a t i t was n e g a t i v e l i k e maybe I was dumb o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . I d o n ' t remember b e i n g t o l d why. They i m m e d i a t e l y p u t me b a c k i n g r a d e o n e . " 28 87 The want of an e x p l a n a t i o n e x e m p l i f i e s the l a c k of understanding of c h i l d h o o d concerns on the part of the a d u l t s i n charge. Another informant r e p o r t e d s u f f e r i n g to t h i s day because of a c t i o n taken with a c l o s e f r i e n d from her r e s e r v e . "The f i r s t few days of school what I remember was B from our reserve was a l s o a newcomer and about four days a f t e r we came . . . a l l of a sudden, they packed her up and they sent her home. Why, I don't know, you know. And I t h i n k , 'She's the same age as me. We come from the same p l a c e . What's d i f f e r e n t ? . . . I do not understand and I have f e e l i n g s that somebody should e x p l a i n i t to me. . . . Why, who and what made that d e c i s i o n ? . . I don't know why . . . but i t hurts me today yet. " 29 Again a simple e x p l a n a t i o n might have s u f f i c e d to calm the c h i l d then and through the y e a r s . Because she wanted to be at s c h o o l , she worried that the same t h i n g might happen to her. She a l s o w o r r i e d f o r her f r i e n d and her f e e l i n g s about having to leave s c h o o l . Although t h i s treatment i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the treatment of c h i l d r e n p a r t i c u l a r l y before the 1960s and even to the present day, the f a c t that the school personnel were s e r v i n g both as teachers and as surrogate f a m i l i e s to c h i l d r e n from another c u l t u r e might have i m p l i e d the need f o r s p e c i a l awareness of p o t e n t i a l l y u p s e t t i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The r e s u l t a n t a c t i o n could have a l l a y e d the f e a r s of the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . A shortage of s t a f f may have c o n t r i b u t e d to the i n a b i l i t y of those i n v o l v e d to deal with the d i f f i c u l t i e s which students encountered. Inadequate funding f o r s t a f f i n d i c a t e s the low p r i o r i t y of Native education i n the government's budget. Memories of the lunch which f o l l o w e d morning c l a s s e s 88 were l i t t l e b e t t e r than those of the b r e a k f a s t mush. n They used to put potatoes, t u r n i p s , c a r r o t s , chunks of meat, cabbage, e v e r y t h i n g a l l i n one pot and b o i l the h e l l out of i t . By the time they were ready to serve i t , you couldn't even see a l i t t l e chunk of potato; i t was a l l l i k e a chowder. And that we had f o r lunch every day. . . . F r i d a y s : I don't know where they used to go. Up S q u i l a x somewhere I guess, Adams River and they'd get b a r r e l s and b a r r e l s of that spawned sockeye. They'd put them i n b a r r e l s of s a l t and that was what they cooked i n great b i g pans. Then, [they'd] mash i t . . . and they'd blob i t i n our p l a t e and that was what we ate on F r i d a y s : s a l t y f i s h , always that blue m i l k . " 30 F o l l o w i n g lunch, the hard work of the day began. Accompanying the r e l i g i o u s people's m i s s i o n to C h r i s t i a n i z e was the government's goal to " c i v i l i z e " the Native people. The program for c i v i l i z a t i o n i n c l u d e d t e a c h i n g students the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r farming, gardening, sewing, cooking and c l e a n i n g . The outcomes b e n e f i t t e d the r e s i d e n t i a l school i n two ways: government requirements were met and the work necessary f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the school was accomplished. In some years, the o p e r a t i o n of the school a c t u a l l y showed a p r o f i t and sums of money were sent to P r o v i n c i a l House i n Vancouver. One student who s e v e r a l times made ref e r e n c e to h i s hunger at the school shared t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n : " We used to c o l l e c t 300, 350 eggs a day from the chickens. . . . Now we got eggs every second Thursday, one egg a piece. . . . They must have s o l d the eggs." 31 Father O'Grady i n a 1954 r e p o r t on K.I.R.S. wrote t h a t : "The f i n a n c e s are sound and a l a r g e s u r p l u s i s sent a n n u a l l y to the P r o v i n c e . " 32 The t r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e f o r the males and i n household s k i l l s f o r the females was expected to create white 89 p e o p l e w i t h brown s k i n s : p e o p l e who w o u l d m e l d i n t o t h e l a r g e r E u r o p e a n d o m i n a t e d s o c i e t y . M e m o r i e s o f c h o r e s were m e n t i o n e d by a l l t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d , most f r e q u e n t l y i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l t h a n m e m o r i e s o f a c a d e m i c w o r k . Not o n l y d i d t h e work o c c u p y c o n s i d e r a b l y more t i m e e a c h day, i t a l s o o c c u p i e d a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s * c o n s c i o u s n e s s a b o u t t h e i r l i v e s . The f e m a l e s ' c h o r e s w e re c l e a r l y s e x u a l l y d e f i n e d . "The a f t e r n o o n i s s p e n t i n t h e k i t c h e n o r t h e s e w i n g room," r e p o r t e d one s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d i n t h e l a t e t h i r t i e s . A n o t h e r s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d e a r l i e r r e c a l l s : " I was m o s t l y p u t i n t h e d a i r y and i n t h e s e w i n g room but t h e r e w e re a l o t o f o t h e r c h o r e s t h a t e a c h o f us had. . . . We had t o r o t a t e o u r c h o r e s . . . . [ I n t h e s e w i n g r o o m ] , what we were d o i n g was m o s t l y p a t c h i n g c l o t h e s and t h e r e was some t h i n g s we had t o make l i k e t h e u n d e r w e a r . " 33 Over t h e y e a r s t h e amount o f s e w i n g done v a r i e d . One s t u d e n t d e s c r i b e d c l o t h i n g made by c u t t i n g up army s u r p l u s u n i f o r m s and s e w i n g them i n t o t u n i c s . I n l a t e r y e a r s , most o f t h e s e w i n g was c o n f i n e d t o p a t c h i n g . T h r o u g h r o t a t i o n o f t h e j o b s , s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d a l l a s p e c t s o f h o u s e k e e p i n g i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y become p r e p a r e d f o r k e e p i n g t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e homes i n good E u r o p e a n f a s h i o n . The c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e homes where t h e s t u d e n t s ' f a m i l i e s l i v e d and t h e r e s i d e n c e b u i l d i n g s has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d . F o r most o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d e d b e f o r e m i d - c e n t u r y , k n o w i n g how t o wash and wax a f l o o r was h a r d l y a p p r o p r i a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e i n a house w i t h a d i r t f l o o r . R a t h e r t h e s k i l l s l e a r n e d were i n t e n d e d t o prompt s t u d e n t s ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s * way o f l i f e . A l t h o u g h no 90 one c o u l d a r g u e w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d e v e l o p i n g b e t t e r h o u s i n g w i t h some N a t i v e p e o p l e o f t h e a r e a , t h e method o f c r e a t i n g f a m i l y d i s h a r m o n y and i n d i v i d u a l c o n f u s i o n a b o u t t h e i n h e r e n t v a l u e o f a waxed f l o o r was a n o t h e r t a c t i c i n t h e c u l t u r a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e p l a n s o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s . A l t h o u g h t h o s e i n c o n t r o l may have had l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f N a t i v e homes, a l w a y s t h e E u r o p e a n way was p r e s e n t e d as t h e r i g h t and o n l y way t o l i v e . Any o t h e r way o f l i f e was u n w o r t h y o f d i s c u s s i o n and t o be d e s p i s e d . When n o t o c c u p i e d i n t h e s e w i n g room o r i n c l e a n i n g t h e g i r l s were on d u t y i n t h e k i t c h e n . K i t c h e n c h o r e s were d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : "When you g e t i n t o t h e k i t c h e n , t h e cook a s s i g n e d y o u . Some o f them w o u l d be t h e c o o k ' s h e l p e r , some t h e p o t s and p a n s , and some t h e b o w l s and u t e n s i l s . One was f o r t h e p a n t r y : you s l i c e d t h e b r e a d and made s u r e y o u made enough f o r t h e meal and l u n c h i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . Then she w o u l d a s s i g n two g i r l s t o t h e d a i r y where t h e y c h u r n e d t h e b u t t e r and made i t i n t o p o u n d s . " 34 A m a z i n g l y , t h e c l e a n i n g d u t i e s w e r e s h a r e d by t h e b o y s and g i r l s . They d i d , o f c o u r s e r e m a i n s e g r e g a t e d w i t h t h e g i r l s on one s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g c l e a n i n g t h e i r q u a r t e r s and t h e b o y s c l e a n i n g t h e i r s . Teams were a s s i g n e d t o t h e v a r i o u s a r e a s . "We had a cha n g e o f o f f i c e e v e r y month. M o t h e r S u p e r i o r w o u l d come down i n an e v e n i n g and she w o u l d r e a d o u t names o f who i s g o i n g t o w o r k i n t h e p l a y r o o m . . . c l e a n i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n room, t h e p u b l i c b a t h r o o m s T h e r e was a g r o u p a s s i g n e d t o t h e c h a p e l . . . . A g r o u p w o u l d go t o t h e s e c o n d f l o o r - - t h a t ' s t h e c l a s s r o o m s , s u p e r i o r s ' c o m m u n i t y . The h a l l s had t o be s h i n e d a l l t h e t i m e . Then t h e r e was a n o t h e r g r o u p went u p s t a i r s t o t h e dorm. . . . And t h e n t h e r e was a g r o u p a s s i g n e d t o t h e l a u n d r y . " 35 91 One o f t h e male c l e a n e r s r e p o r t e d s i m i l i a r d u t i e s . "We g r a d u a l l y g o t i n t r o d u c e d t o c h o r e s . . . . A c l e a n - u p team w o u l d be composed o f some s e n i o r s , some i n t e r m e d i a t e s and some j u n i o r s . . . w h i c h was a good way. . . . At f i r s t maybe t h e y were e a s y on u s : we d i d t h e d u s t i n g . I t was a l o t s i m i l a r t o how I l e a r n e d t h i n g s a t home w h i c h was good. We had t h e b a t h r o o m s t o do. My j o b as a l i t t l e one was t o f l u s h a l l t h e t o i l e t s o r t o p i c k up t h e b i g t h i n g s so t h a t t h e s w e e p e r c o u l d sweep. . . . B u t I g r a d u a l l y g o t t o know what t h e o t h e r s were d o i n g . . . we w o r k e d as a team. . . . T h e r e was enough t i m e t o g e t t o know one a n o t h e r . I b e l i e v e t h e t e r m was one month a t a t i m e and t h e n a new l i s t was g i v e n . " 36 The c a m a r a d e r i e w h i c h d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s p r o v i d e d a welcome r e s p i t e f r o m t h e c u l t u r a l a t t a c k s . As N a t i v e c h i l d r e n w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r , t h e y c o u l d r e v e r t t o t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f d i v i d i n g t h e l a b o u r i n what may have a p p r o a c h e d t h e f a m i l i a l way: t h e o l d e r s t u d e n t s a c t i n g i n t h e r o l e o f p a r e n t s e x p e c t i n g t h e y o u n g e r ones t o h e l p as t h e y c o u l d and g r a d u a l l y t o become aware o f t h e more c o m p l e x t a s k s t o be done. I n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s * c o m f o r t w i t h t h e i r w ork went u n r e c o g n i z e d by t h e s u p e r v i s o r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e harmony w i t h w h i c h c l e a n i n g was done was v i e w e d by t h o s e i n c h a r g e as a c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t t h i s k i n d o f work was most s u i t a b l e f o r t h e N a t i v e s t u d e n t s . T h r o u g h a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e E u r o p e a n o v e r s e e r s a p p a r e n t l y f a i l e d t o a p p r e c i a t e t h a t t h i s work p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . A N a t i v e g r a d u a t e o f K . I . R . S . who became a s u p e r v i s o r i n t h e s c h o o l f o u n d h e r a p p r o a c h e s t o c h o r e s u p e r v i s i o n d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f t h e nuns who had g u i d e d h e r : " . . . I f o u n d t o o i f you t r e a t them good and k i n d 92 o f make them l i k e y o u r s e l f , t h a t y o u ' r e n o t up t h e r e and t h e y ' r e down t h e r e , t h a t t h e y ' r e e a s i e r t o g e t a l o n g w i t h and y o u c o u l d g e t more o u t o f them. . . .1 w o r k e d w i t h them a l o t . I j u s t d i d n ' t s a y , 'You go i n t h e r e and s c r u b t h e k i t c h e n f l o o r . ' I g o t down and I w o r k e d w i t h them." 37 She a t t r i b u t e d t h i s a b i l i t y t o h e r m o t h e r ' s g u i d a n c e : " I s p e n t t h e f i r s t t e n y e a r s w i t h my m o t h e r . . . .1 t h i n k she was my b e s t t e a c h e r . . . . When we weeded, my mum weeded w i t h u s , t o o . I remember h e r c r a w l i n g b e s i d e us . . ." 38 T h r o u g h o u t h e r y e a r s o f d o i n g s c h o o l c h o r e s , she remembered most c l e a r l y t h e w o r k she had done w i t h h e r m o t h e r . C l e a n i n g t i m e o c c u p i e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e day a n d , b e c a u s e i t was a t i m e when s t u d e n t s c o u l d i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t and when s u p e r v i s i o n was o f n e c e s s i t y l e s s r i g o u r o u s , i t was c o n s i d e r e d more r e l a x i n g t h a n c l a s s t i m e o r p r a y e r t i m e . W h i l e t h e g i r l s were c o o k i n g and s e w i n g , t h e boys g a r d e n e d and f a r m e d . One man had t h i s t o s a y : " Oh, we l e a r n e d a l i t t l e a b o u t f a r m i n g t o o . Not a n y t h i n g a b o u t f e r t i l i z e r . They n e v e r e x p l a i n e d t o us why t h e y do t h i n g s . They j u s t t o l d us how t o do i t , you know, l i k e h a r r o w i n g , p l o w i n g and s e e d i n g and p l a n t i n g p o t a t o e s . . . When I g o t o l d e r , my l a s t y e a r o r two, I u s e d t o do a l o t o f p l a n t i n g and i r r i g a t i n g i n t h e g a r d e n . They had huge g a r d e n s . And t h e y had a p l a n t e r w h ere you p u t t h e s e e d i n and y o u j u s t f o l l o w i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e . . . And t h e y l e a r n a l i t t l e b i t a b o u t d a i r y , but we n e v e r l e a r n e d a n y t h i n g a b o u t p l a n n i n g o f a n y t h i n g o r t h e f i n a n c i n g o r a c c o u n t i n g o r a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . " 39 The l a s t comment i s c o m i n g f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a man who now u n d e r s t a n d s c o n s i d e r a b l y more a b o u t E u r o p e a n b u s i n e s s s t y l e t h a n he d i d as a c h i l d . He r e c o g n i z e s now t h a t t h e b o y s were b e i n g t r a i n e d n o t t o r u n a s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s as 93 farmers, but simply to grow enough food to support t h e i r f a m i l i e s and to provide a labour pool for neighbouring farms and ranches. Even as a s s i m i l a t i o n was s t a t e d as the goal of education for Native people, the a s s i m i l a t i o n was to take place under c o n d i t i o n s which would cause no t h r e a t to the surrounding business and farming community. The no t i o n of c o n t r o l by the c u l t u r a l invaders i n the guise of church and s t a t e was the powerful determinant of e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . The s e n i o r boys rose e a r l y to care f o r the l i v e s t o c k . " The s e n i o r boys used to get up . . . i n the mo r n i n g — t h o s e that go to the barn and milk the cows, feed the chickens, pigs--5:30 i n the morning. You know, work over there an hour and a h a l f . And then you'd come back and go to church f o r another p r e t t y near an hour and then you'd have b r e a k f a s t . " 40 Another student who attended K.I.R.S. ten years l a t e r r e p o r t s that h i s work i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : " Dairy c a t t l e , beef c a t t l e , chickens, turkeys, horses, going haying. . . . For a l i t t l e w hile, we had pigeons, bees. Most of us made the s t a t i o n s working through a l l of those places so we knew when i t was our turn f o r p l a n t i n g . . . . We'd have a calendar and we'd mark o f f the date when we planted, harvested and how to t e s t when they were r i p e . Not too many of us used the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . I suppose the s k i l l s were t r a n s f e r r a b l e . " 41 Although t h i s person d i d not use the farming s k i l l s which he lea r n e d at sc h o o l , some d i d f i n d the s k i l l s u s e f u l . Some of the boys a l s o got i n v o l v e d with carpentry and shoe r e p a i r . These s k i l l s were taught as part of the t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l . Those who were s e l e c t e d to attend these c l a s s e s avoided some of the chore d e t a i l so they were pleased to be s e l e c t e d to go. 94 " I f you g o t i n t o t e c h , i t ' s n i c e and warm i n t h e w i n t e r . And y o u l e a r n how t o do a b i t o f c a r p e n t r y , t h e b a s i c s t u f f , make j o i n t s and m o r t i s e . . . . One y e a r , I was m e n d i n g s h o e s . They had a l a t h e t h e r e and a c o u p l e o f t h o s e s h o o l a p s . They had g r e a t b i g p i e c e s o f r e a l t h i c k l e a t h e r . We u s e d t o c a r v e o u t s o l e s and a h e e l . . . t a c k i t on and t h e n you p o l i s h i t . And r u n n i n g s h o e s , we u s e d t o sew t h i n b l a c k l e a t h e r o r p a t c h e s . . . " 42 W i t h t h e i r n e w l y a c q u i r e d c a r p e n t r y s k i l l s , t h e b o y s were p u t t o work m a i n t a i n i n g t h e e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s , c o n s t r u c t i n g a huge p i g pen and i n s t a l l i n g a f l o o r and c e i l i n g i n t h e new gymnasium. " . . . t h e bo y s p u t i n t h e f l o o r i n g , f i n i s h e d f l o o r i n g . . . . They u s e d f l a t head n a i l s and t h e y n a i l e d i t on t h e t o n g u e so t h a t t h e n a i l head n e v e r showed. And we went o v e r i t a f t e r we f i n i s h e d . You c o u l d n ' t s e e a hammer mark. . . .And we p u t i n t h e donna c o n n a c e i l i n g . We had t o have h i g h s c a f f o l d s , m easure i t o u t . We done t h a t o u r s e l v e s . So we l e a r n e d a l i t t l e . " 43 T h i s p e r s o n e v e n t u a l l y u s e d h i s c a r p e n t r y s k i l l s i n b u i l d i n g h i s own h o u s e s . The work done by t h e c h i l d r e n was c o n s i d e r e d o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e by g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s . As l a t e as 1 9 5 4 , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s A n n u a l R e p o r t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m p r o u d l y l i s t e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s e w o r k -r e l a t e d s k i l l s a s a p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d i e s f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f N a t i v e c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e " . . . i n l e s s a d v a n c e d a r e a s . " F o r t h e c h u r c h , t h e i n c u l c a t i o n o f 44 C a t h o l i c v a l u e s was o f pa r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e . A t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e l i s t o f p r i o r i t i e s f o r b o t h p a r t i e s was an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o b a s i c r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and a r i t h m e t i c . The c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n was c l e a r l y a c k n o w l e d g e d , d e t a i l e d and d o c u m e n t e d . E u r o p e a n ways a r e C a n a d i a n ways and N a t i v e p e o p l e must comply 95 with these e x p e c t a t i o n s . One school o f f i c i a l made t h i s comment during the 1950s: "The problem of Indian education i s not primarily-one of g i v i n g the Indian c h i l d r e n the same s c h o o l i n g as a l l our other c h i l d r e n . I t i s a problem of changing the p e r s e v e r i n g Indian community i n t o a Candian community. Then the Indian c h i l d cannot help but grow up i n a Canadian c u l t u r e and then the o r d i n a r y Canadian school w i l l meet t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs."45 The f i n a l part of the school day i n c l u d e d an hour of study, supper, clean-up, some h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d r e c r e a t i o n time, more prayers and then bed. Night time found the c h i l d r e n c o l d , l o n e l y and f r e q u e n t l y a f r a i d . "At the Indian s c h o o l , you only had one [ b l a n k e t ] no matter how c o l d i t was." The l o n e l i n e s s came with s l e e p i n g alone 46 i n a bed: many c h i l d r e n had been accustomed to s l e e p i n g with s i b l i n g s at home. The f e a r came with the unknown behind a c l o s e d door or with the n i g h t l y v i s i t s of the watchman. "We were not allowed to sleep with each other and they were very s t r i c t about th a t . We were not allowed to t a l k to each other. . . . And at night, the watchman would come around and we were very, very scared of him. We o f t e n thought he was wicked and ready to get us. I don't know where we got that i d e a from." 47 The f e a r and l o n e l i n e s s o f t e n were manifested i n bed-wetting. One person estimated that 25% of the boys wet t h e i r beds. A student who l e f t i n 1960 remembered her bed-wetting. "I never d i d do that when I was home. The f i r s t night . . .when I peed the bed, I was so ashamed. . .1 was j u s t f i l t h y d i r t y . And I couldn't b e l i e v e that I done i t , you know. This i s i n c r e d i b l e . I never wet the bed at home. Why am I doing i t now? And I asked a thousand q u e s t i o n s . " 48 Always bedtime was the l o n e l i e s t part of the day. The c h i l d r e n longed f o r t h e i r parents, the warmth of the f a m i l y 96 bed and t h e s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y w h i c h t h e y had known. E x t r a c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s W i t h t h e l a t e 1 940s, numerous c h a n g e s w e r e made i n t h e s c h o o l . As w e l l as t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l , e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as c o m p e t i t i v e d a n c i n g , a b r a s s band and s p o r t s t o o k on g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e . G r a d u a l l y c h o r e t i m e was r e d u c e d as t i m e f o r t h e s e o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s assumed s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c o f N a t i v e s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m i n g was s e e n as a p o s i t i v e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s move by t h e s c h o o l ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Work was i n p r o g r e s s on r e v i s i o n s t o t h e I n d i a n A c t and b o t h t h e p o l i t i c i a n s and t h e s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s w ere c o n s c i o u s o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s c h o o l s w h i c h were t o make I n d i a n s d i s a p p e a r had n o t been s u c c e s s f u l . A t t h e same t i m e , some s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h e i r s u c c e s s i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s r e w a r d i n g . One s t u d e n t commented t h a t t h e K . I . R . S . teams ". . . were t h e b e s t a t e v e r y t h i n g : s o c c e r , b a s k e t b a l l , e v e r y t h i n g . " Some o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f b e i n g on 49 teams were n o t c o n f i n e d t o w i n n i n g . Many p e o p l e r e c o g n i z e d t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f g e t t i n g away f r o m t h e s c h o o l as t h e m a j o r a t t r a c t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , i n f o r m a n t s w e re j u s t l y p r o u d o f t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t s w h i l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e v a r i o u s s p o r t s . One man d e s c r i b e d h i s s u c c e s s a t b o x i n g . He q u a l i f i e d t o f i g h t i n t h e B u c k s k i n G l o v e s t o u r n a m e n t t h r e e y e a r s r u n n i n g . The u l t i m a t e t o u r n a m e n t o f t h e y e a r , i t r e q u i r e d t h a t b o y s p l a c e i n t h e 97 s i x o r s e v e n p r i o r t o u r n a m e n t s h e l d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . O n l y t h e t o p f o u r o r f i v e b o x e r s f r o m e a c h r e g i o n were s e l e c t e d and q u a l i f y i n g t o box a t e v e n t h e s m a l l e r meets was no mean f e a t . "The o n l y o u t s i d e a c t i v i t y was s p o r t s . I n o r d e r t o go and compete a n y w h e r e o u t s i d e , you had t o b e a t o u t 200 o t h e r p e o p l e . Maybe t h a t ' s why you were t h e b e s t o u t t h e r e . Even i n b o x i n g y o u had s i x t y o r s e v e n t y o t h e r p e o p l e t o b e a t o u t e a c h y e a r . So y o u w e r e n ' t s p a r r i n g , you w e r e b o x i n g . " 50 A n o t h e r s t u d e n t , who l e f t t h e s c h o o l i n 1960, s p o k e h i g h l y o f t h e s c h o o l l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h team s p o r t s . He t o o f e l t a k e e n s e n s e o f c o m p e t i t i o n . " I f you s t u b b e d y o u r t o e , t h e y j u s t p u t someone e l s e on. So y o u had t o g i v e 100$. . . .You had t o w o rk h a r d t o make t h e team. . . . We g o t t o p l a y f o r t h e teams i n town. T h a t was what was r e a l l y e n j o y a b l e a b o u t t h i s s c h o o l . The i n t e r m e d i a t e teams i n town d r a f t e d s t u d e n t s f r o m t h i s s c h o o l t o p l a y . We e ven g o t t o s t a y a t t h e c o a c h ' s house on t h e w e e k e n d s . " 51 The f o s t e r i n g o f a s e n s e o f c o m p e t i t i o n may have h e l d some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e s t u d e n t s i f t h e d i v i d e and r u l e p h i l o s o p h y was f e l t t o be b e n e f i c i a l by t h e d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , Shuswap c o m m u n i t i e s have e x i s t e d t h r o u g h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s w i t h one a n o t h e r . One p e r s o n who was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n s p o r t s f o u n d h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s l e s s s u c c e s s f u l b r o t h e r s n o t i c e a b l y s t r a i n e d . As a r e s u l t o f t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o s t e r e d b e t ween them a t s c h o o l , t h e y have n e v e r been c l o s e . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e s c h o o l ' s p u b l i c image was e n h a n c e d t h r o u g h t h e c h i l d r e n ' s s u c c e s s i n c o m p e t i t i o n a l s o p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f 98 c o m p e t i t i v e dance g r o u p s i n t h e s c h o o l . Seen by many s t u d e n t s as t h e way t o p r o v i d e v a r i e t y i n t h e i r l i v e s e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t r a v e l t o c o m p e t i t i o n s , d a n c e r s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e s p e c i a l b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e t o them. " The o n l y r e a s o n why I s t a y e d i n t h e dance g r o u p was b e c a u s e y o u g o t p r i v i l e g e s . . . . Sometimes on Sunday, you d i d n ' t have t o g e t up f o r e a r l y Mass. Then you s o m e t i m e s g o t e x t r a g o o d i e s t h a t o t h e r k i d s d i d n ' t g e t . . . . I r e a l l y e n j o y e d m y s e l f when we went t o R e v e l s t o k e on t h e t r a i n . I t h o u g h t t h a t was p r e t t y n e a t . . . . My mum had bought me t h i s r e a l l y n i c e h a t and d r e s s o u t f i t . " 52 A n o t h e r s t u d e n t hoped t h a t j o i n i n g t h e dance g r o u p w o u l d h e l p h e r s t a y o u t o f t r o u b l e . " I s a i d , ' W e l l , i f I have t o s t a y h e r e , I m i g h t as w e l l g e t s o m e t h i n g o u t o f t h i s p l a c e . ' So I d e c i d e d t o j o i n t h e i r d a n c i n g g r o u p . . . . They l e t me j o i n ; I d o n ' t know why. You know, I d i d n ' t e ven know i f t h e y w o u l d t a k e me a f t e r r u n n i n g away." 53 M e m b e r s h i p i n t h e dance g r o u p was v i e w e d as a p r e s t i g i o u s p o s i t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e t r a i n i n g was r i g o u r o u s , many g i r l s e n j o y e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o f e e l good a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s and s o u g h t c o n f i r m a t i o n f r o m o u t s i d e . Most i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e dance g r o u p p e r f o r m e d d a n c e s f r o m many E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s s u c h as t h e f o u r and e i g h t hand r e e l , I r i s h j i g s and t h e S w e d i s h m a s q u e r a d e , no Shuswap d a n c e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d . Even t o t h e f i n a l d a y s o f t h e s c h o o l , t h e N a t i v e c u l t u r e was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a l e g i t i m a t e one, w o r t h y o f r e c o g n i t i o n . S t u d e n t s ' a c t i v i t i e s c o n t i n u e d t o be f a s h i o n e d on t h e E u r o p e a n m o d e l . Not a l l was p l e a s a n t f o r t h e g i r l s who d e c i d e d t o become d a n c e r s . One l o n g - s t a n d i n g member o f t h e g r o u p had some p a r t i c u l a r l y b i t t e r m e m o r i e s . 99 w . . . my t o e n a i l s a r e p e r m a n e n t l y damaged f r o m [ h a v i n g ] t o s t a n d on y o u r t o e s . I f you d i d n ' t s t a n d on y o u r t o e s , you were whacked w i t h a s h i l l e l a g h and s h e ' d whack yo u damn h a r d on y o u r l e g s . . . . The f i r s t few t i m e s you r e a l l y t r i e d b e c a u s e yo u f o u n d o u t t h a t t h i n g s were a l o t b e t t e r i f you were a d a n c e r . . . . You went p l a c e s t o o , so t h a t made you t o g e t o u t o f t h a t s c h o o l . . . . B u t t h e n a f t e r a w h i l e , i t ' s n o t f u n a n y m ore: i t ' s a c h o r e b e c a u s e y o u ' r e n e v e r any g ood. . . . They n e v e r swore a t y o u but t h e y c a l l e d y o u dumb and s t u p i d . . . and so t h e n t h e f u n was o u t o f i t . And a f t e r a w h i l e y o u k i n d o f d i d n ' t want t o do i t b u t . . . t h e y d i d n ' t want t o r e t r a i n somebody so t h e y ' d keep m a k i n g y o u do i t . . . . I remember t h e f i r s t t i m e I e v e r g o t w h a c k e d . I s t o o d t h e r e and t h o u g h t , ' W e l l , I'm g o i n g t o d e f y t h i s woman.' . . . I j u s t g l a r e d a t h e r and she gave me a n o t h e r one and I k i n d o f g l a r e d . B u t I w a s n ' t g l a r i n g t o o h a r d ' c a u s e i t h u r t e d and t h e n e x t t i m e she w h a c k e d me, I r e a l l y b r o k e down and h o w l e d . " 54 Even t h e p r i z e s began t o l o s e t h e i r m e a n i n g f o r t h i s p e r s o n . "You won p r i z e s and w o n d e r e d why t h e h e l l you e v e n b o t h e r e d t o go b e c a u s e when yo u g o t b a c k i t was s t i l l t h e same way."55 A n o t h e r p e r s o n who o b s e r v e d t h e d a n c i n g t r a i n i n g a l s o remembers t h e s t i c k . " I f you were d a n c i n g , s h e ' d come up and s h e ' d h i t y o u on t h e l e g s , ' L i f t them l e g s up!' Geez them p o o r g i r l s w o u l d be j u s t a--you know. They l e a r n e d t h o s e S c o t t i s h j i g s , t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f d a n c e s f r o m t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . But t h e g i r l s r e a l l y won a l o t o f m e d a l s f o r i t so i t was good e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r them." 56 W h i l e o f f e r i n g some e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o t h e g i r l s , t h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h e dance g r o u p s was as a s h o w - p i e c e t o be d i s p l a y e d i n p u b l i c f o r t h e s c h o o l ' s p r e s t i g e . The r e l e v a n c e o f t h e d a n c e s t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s and t h e l o n g - t e r m b e n e f i t s o f t h e r a t h e r s a v a g e t r a i n i n g a r e h i g h l y q u e s t i o n a b l e . W i t h no c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e Shuswap c u l t u r e , t h e y 1 0 0 a p p e a r t o be m e r e l y someone's i d e a o f what w o u l d be good f o r "them", t h e N a t i v e c h i l d r e n o f K.I.R.S. B e f o r e t h e 5 0 s , a r a r e few deemed t o have e x c e p t i o n a l a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s e m i - p r i v a t e d i a l o g i c m e e t i n g s w i t h s t i m u l a t i n g i n s t r u c t o r s . F o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s , t h e t i m e was a b l e s s e ' d r e l i e f f r o m t h e i m p e r s o n a l a t m o s p h e r e o f much o f t h e r e s t o f t h e day. Some o f t h e l e s s o n s d e a l t w i t h a more p h i l o s p h i c a l v i e w o f b o t h r e l i g i o n and t h e a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s . "Some p r i e s t s h e r e w o u l d c a l l a few o f us i n t o a d i a l o g u e o f l i f e . . . . They c a l l e d us i n a room and t h e y w o u l d j u s t g i v e us t h e f r e e d o m t o e x p l o r e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s o f l i f e and t i e some t h i n g s t o g e t h e r . . . . A n o t h e r one . . . u s e d t o t a k e some o f us t o hav e d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t h i s t o r y and a l m o s t p h i l o s o p h i c a l a r e a s . . . H i s g e t - t o g e t h e r s w i t h us were much l i k e a u n i v e r s i t y s e m i n a r . And h e ' d j u s t c h a l l e n g e us . . . h e w o u l d g i v e us t i m e , 'You t h i n k o f t h a t , c l o s e y o u r e y e s , e x t e n d . . . 'He w o u l d s a y , ' T h e r e i s a u n i v e r s i t y . T h e r e a r e t h o u s a n d s o f books on t h i s . Y o u r mind c a n keep on g o i n g . . . . ' They t a u g h t me more a b o u t l o o k i n g a t t h i n g s t h a n t h e c l a s s r o o m ' c a u s e t h e c l a s s r o o m was mundane. . . These were i d e a t h i n g s and he r e s p e c t e d o u r i d e a s , no m a t t e r how s m a l l t h e y w e r e . " 57 The g r o u p d e s c r i b e d met d u r i n g t h e 40s and c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e o r s i x b o y s o u t o f a s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n o f 300 o r 350. A l t h o u g h t h e s e l e s s o n s w e r e h i g h l y s t i m u l a t i n g f o r t h o s e f e w , many o f whom went on t o become c h i e f s and l e a d e r s , t h e y were n o t c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e o r w i s e f o r t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n . T h i s k i n d o f c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and e n r i c h m e n t f o r a c h o s e n few i s t y p i c a l o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m so much a p a r t o f a l l a s p e c t s o f E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y i n c l u d i n g t h e 101 o r g a n i z e d C h u r c h . I t a p p e a r s t o have been an a t t e m p t t o i n d u c t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e b e l i e f s y s t e m t h a t a s p e c i a l few a r e e n t i t l e d t o p r i v i l e g e s u n f i t f o r t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The m e e t i n g s a l s o p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d t o e x p e r i e n c e a s e t t i n g more l i k e t h e i r home e n v i r o n m e n t and t o r e i n f o r c e t h e Shuswap way o f r e l a t i n g t o c h i l d r e n r e s p e c t f u l l y . A n o t h e r n o t a b l e a s p e c t o f t h i s p e r s o n ' s comment i s " . . .He gave us t i m e . " I n r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f N a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t y l e s , t h e amount o f t i m e b e t w e e n a s k i n g a q u e s t i o n and e x p e c t i n g an a nswer has p r o v e n v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . S t u d e n t s r e s p o n d w i t h much more r e g u l a r i t y and d e p t h when a d e q u a t e t i m e i s a l l o w e d . I f t h i s n o t i o n had been a p p l i e d i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m , t h e s u c c e s s r a t e o f s t u d e n t s a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l m i g h t have been a f f e c t e d . O t h e r happy memories c e n t e r on g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n t i m e , s p e c i a l h o l i d a y s and c h a n g e s f o r t h e b e t t e r . " I t w a s n ' t a l l bad. We had a l o t o f f u n . We l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o t h e p i c n i c s , C h r i s t m a s . . . . We s t a y e d h e r e f o r C h r i s t m a s so we u s e d t o have l i t t l e c o n c e r t s . . . i t made us f e e l good . . . I t was j u s t a r e a l t r e a t t o have a b o u g h t d o l l . I g o t one . E v e r y one o f t h e k i d s had a b o u g h t g i f t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n o u r w h o l e l i f e . T h a t was t h e h i g h l i g h t o f my s c h o o l d a y s . And t h e n t h e y began b u y i n g us b e a d s . We were a b l e t o s t r i n g beads and make l i t t l e b eaded t h i n g s We had a r a d i o f o r t h e p l a y r o o m . . . Then t h e p r i e s t a l l o w e d us t o have d a n c e s -- j u s t g i r l s , no b o y s . . . . F r i d a y n i g h t . . . We were a l l o w e d t o wear c l o t h e s f r o m home . . . We began t o g e t n i c e r f o o d . 5 8 A l l t h e s e c h a n g e s i n t h e l a t e HOa were a t t r i b u t e d t o a new p r i n c i p a l a r r i v i n g a t t h e s c h o o l . A p e r s o n who a t t e n d e d n e a r 102 t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y f o n d l y remembered a p i c n i c . "Gee, one t i m e , t h e s i s t e r and t h a t man t h a t l o o k s a f t e r them, we went up s t r a i g h t o v e r t h e m o u n t a i n . We g o t some l u n c h . A f t e r we g o t o v e r , way down t h e r e ' s a c r e e k . . . we p i c n i c ( t h e y c a l l them p i c n i c ) . n 59 The o p p o r t u n i t y t o be i n an e n v i r o n m e n t more l i k e home, p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e t h e f o n d l y remembered summer camps, must have f e l t good t o t h i s l i t t l e g i r l . A n o t h e r s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d much l a t e r , d u r i n g t h e 60s r e m i n i s c e d a b o u t h e r r e c r e a t i o n t i m e . n . . . i n t h e r e c room . . . t h e y u s e d t o have a r a d i o t h e r e . We u s e d t o l i s t e n t o t h e s o n g s . . . E l v i s P r e s l e y . . . I u s e d t o l i k e h i s s o n g s . . . I d o n ' t know how I s t a r t e d l e a r n i n g t o dance . . . T h i s one s u p e r v i s o r we had, she s a i d , 'Do y o u know w h a t ? I w i s h e d I was a good d a n c e r . ' She was an I n d i a n l a d y t h a t t h e y h i r e d . . . I s a i d , ' I t h i n k I know how t o d a n c e . ' . . . so she g o t h e r r e c o r d p l a y e r and she p u t a r e c o r d on and I and h e r s t a r t e d t o dance . . . A l l t h e o t h e r l i t t l e g i r l s u s e d t o w a t c h . . . . Then I s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g them how t o dance and a f t e r t h a t e v e r y b o d y d a n c e d . . . We p l a y e d b a s e b a l l and s o m e t i m e s . . . we'd s i t a r o u n d and we'd make up s t o r i e s . . . 'Boy, i f I was r i c h , I w o u l d do t h i s and t h a t , you know.' n 60 The p r e s e n c e o f a N a t i v e p e r s o n as s u p e r v i s o r , w h i l e n o t c h a n g i n g t h e s y s t e m , d i d make a d i f f e r e n c e t o some a s p e c t s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s d a i l y l i v e s . W i t h h e r , t h e c h i l d r e n w o u l d be r e m i n d e d o f home and w o u l d p r o b a b l y have an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f some c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s . T h i s s t u d e n t f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e enough w i t h a N a t i v e s u p e r v i s o r t o t a k e a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e a t r e c r e a t i o n t i m e . She a l s o commented on h e r f a n t a s i e s o f b e i n g r i c h . " I d o n ' t know how we were e x p o s e d t o r i c h n e s s and h a p p i n e s s . . . When we g o t t o i n t e r m e d i a t e , i t was a l i t t l e h a r d e r , ' c a u s e t h e n some o f t h e k i d s t h e r e w e r e a l i t t l e r i c h e r . . . You g e t t o wear y o u r own 103 c l o t h e s . . . y o u ' r e a l l o w e d t o f i x y o u r h a i r . . . I f you were p o o r , you d i d n ' t have a n y t h i n g n i c e . . . I t was a h a r d t i m e b e c a u s e o f t h e p e e r p r e s s u r e . n 61 P e e r p r e s s u r e w h i c h c o n t i n u e s t o i n f l u e n c e t e e n a g e r s t o t h i s day c o u l d h a v e p a r t i c u l a r l y d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s when c h i l d r e n a r e e x p o s e d t o i t t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s a d a y . F o r c h i l d r e n who a r e w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s t h e p r e s s u r e t i m e may be l i m i t e d t o s c h o o l h o u r s . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e was no e s c a p e . I n t h i s c a s e , as w i t h t h e d a n c i n g g r o u p , t h e happy t i m e s a r e t a i n t e d w i t h some p a i n f u l m e m o r i e s . One o t h e r p e r s o n s p o k e n e g a t i v e l y o f r e c r e a t i o n t i m e . A p a r t i c u l a r p r i e s t was t h e c a u s e o f h e r c o n c e r n . " T h a t one p r i e s t he was k i n d o f odd. . . . I was k i n d o f s c a r e d o f him, I g u e s s . . . .We w e re a t t h e m o v i e t h e r e one F r i d a y n i g h t . He went and he s a t w i t h t h e l i t t l e g i r l s . I was k i n d o f w a t c h i n g and I s a i d , 'Gee, i t must be n i c e t o have a f r i e n d . * . . Anyway, I e n d e d up b e s i d e h i m . . . and a l l o f a s u d d e n he s t a r t e d t o f e e l my l e g s . . . .1 was g e t t i n g r e a l l y u n c o m f o r t a b l e and he s t a r t e d t r y i n g t o p u t h i s hands i n my p a n t s . . . .And I j u s t g o t up and I moved r i g h t away but I n e v e r t h o u g h t t o t e l l a n y b o d y . " 62 A number o f p e o p l e m e n t i o n e d s e x u a l o v e r t u r e s made t o them d u r i n g t h e i r t i m e a t s c h o o l . T h i s p r i e s t a l s o was known t o s p e n d e x t e n s i v e t i m e a r o u n d t h e l i t t l e g i r l s when t h e y p l a y e d o u t s i d e . H i s o p p r e s s i o n o f p e o p l e went beyond t h e r a c i a l t o t h e s e x u a l . I n a much l i g h t e r v e i n , one s t u d e n t r e c o l l e c t e d an i n c i d e n t c o n n e c t e d t o I n d i a n d a n c i n g a t t h e s c h o o l . T h i s was t h e o n l y r e f e r e n c e t o I n d i a n d a n c i n g made by t h e i n f o r m a n t s I i n t e r v i e w e d . Of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h a t , by t h i s t i m e i n t h e l a t e 5 0 s , r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s had e x e r t e d 104 enough i n f l u e n c e t h a t p e o p l e i n power were c o n f i d e n t t h a t N a t i v e c u l t u r e was r a p i d l y d i s a p p e a r i n g . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , some d a n c i n g c o u l d be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e i n t e n t o f b r i n g i n g N a t i v e p e o p l e i n t o m a i n s t r e a m E u r o p e a n - i n f l u e n c e d s o c i e t y . As a new s t u d e n t a t t h e s c h o o l , t h i s t e e n a g e r was c h a l l e n g e d by o t h e r s t u d e n t s t o show h e r I n d i a n n e s s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e nun's i n q u i r y as t o who knew how t o I n d i a n d a n c e , . . one o f t h o s e two h o l l e r e d o u t , knows how t o I n d i a n d a n c e ' and I d i d n ' t . . . So S i s t e r s a y s , 'O.K. g e t up t h e r e and d a n c e . ' And I t h o u g h t , 'Oh my God. I d o n ' t know what t h e h e c k I'm d o i n g . ' And I t h o u g h t t h e o n l y p e r s o n t h a t ' s g o i n g t o know t h e m i s t a k e . . . a r e t h e g i r l s t h e m s e l v e s b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e I n d i a n . S i s t e r a i n ' t g o i n g t o know so she a i n ' t g o i n g t o h i t me on t h e l e g s . . . I g o t up t h e r e and j u s t d i d a war whoop and d a n c e , j u s t r e a l l y f a k e d i t . " 63 W i t h t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e new g i r l p a s s e d t h e t e s t p u t t o h e r by t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s and was a c c e p t e d by them. Most n o t e w o r t h y a b o u t t h e e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e d a r e s p i t e f r o m t h e r e g i m e n t e d d a y . They a l s o p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r some s t u d e n t s t o grow i n c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f - e s t e e m . W h i l e s t i l l p r e d o m i n a n t l y d e n y i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e N a t i v e c u l t u r e , t h e y d i d s e r v e i n some c a s e s as a f o u n d a t i o n o f s u c c e s s f o r t h e w i n n e r s t o b u i l d on. A t t h e l e a s t , t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s gave s t u d e n t s a c h a n c e t o r e l a x , t o know one a n o t h e r , t o remember and p r a c t i c e some c u l t u r a l l y r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r s and t o dream a l i t t l e o f what m i g h t be. D A s c i p l j n e D i s c i p l i n e i n t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l 105 was s e v e r e . B a s e d p e r h a p s on t h e o l d s a y i n g " S p a r e t h e r o d and s p o i l t h e c h i l d " , p u n i s h m e n t was a t o p i c r a i s e d r e p e a t e d l y by i n f o r m a n t s . The s t r a p was m e n t i o n e d most f r e q u e n t l y but o t h e r f o r m s o f p u n i s h m e n t i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n , head s h a v i n g and b r e a d and w a t e r d i e t s w e r e a l s o r e p o r t e d . The o l d e s t i n f o r m a n t r e c o l l e c t e d : "Some p e o p l e g o t p u n i s h e d ; t h e y g o t t o l a y down on t h e f l o o r . J u s t p u r e b r e a d and w a t e r t o e a t , l a y i n g on t h e f l o o r . . .oh, I d o n ' t know how many d a y s . " 64 A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t b r o u g h t t o mind t h e s e s c e n e s . " I was p u n i s h e d q u i t e a b i t b e c a u s e I s p o k e my l a n g u a g e . . .1 was p u t i n a c o r n e r and p u n i s h e d and s o m e t i m e s , I was j u s t g i v e n b r e a d and w a t e r . . .Or t h e y ' d t r y t o e m b a r r a s s us and t h e y ' d p u t us i n f r o n t o f t h e w h o l e c l a s s . " 65 P u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n was one o f t h e w o r s t f o r m s o f p u n i s h m e n t f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y o t h e r p e o p l e l a u g h i n g a t a p e r s o n s e r v e d as a s t r o n g s o c i a l c o n t r o l . James T e i t i n h i s e x t e n s i v e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f t h e Shuswap r e c o u n t s l i s t s o f t a b o o b e h a v i o u r s a l m o s t a l l o f w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e w a r n i n g s t h a t t h o s e who do s u c h t h i n g s w i l l be l a u g h e d a t or g o s s i p e d a b o u t . F r e q u e n t l y t h e s t r a p was g i v e n p u b l i c l y t o add i n s u l t t o i n j u r y . ". . . i f we g o t c a u g h t , we r e a l l y g o t p u n i s h e d and i f t h a t d i d n ' t w o r k , we g o t s e n t t o t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e . And t h a t was l a s h e s we g o t t h e r e , i n f r o n t o f t h e w h o l e s c h o o l : r e a l h u m i l i a t i o n . " 66 A n o t h e r s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d i n t h e 60s r e c a l l e d : " I g o t i n t r o u b l e f o r c h e w i n g gum. . . . I t was s u c h a m i n o r , m i n o r t h i n g i n my v i e w . But I was t a k e n i n t o t h e p l a y r o o m . . .She was a l a y p e r s o n . She t o o k down my p a n t s r i g h t i n f r o n t o f e v e r y b o d y . . C a n ' t remember w h e t h e r she u s e d h e r hand t o spank 106 me or whether she used a r u l e r or a s t r a p . . .but I remember being punished." 67 Another student remembered the worst s t r a p p i n g she r e c e i v e d because of i t s i n j u s t i c e . "One time, we were i s s u e d these b a r r e t t e s . .You only got one a year. . . .One of the in t e r m e d i a t e s had l o s t hers so she s a i d , 'Can you lend i t to me u n t i l r i g h t a f t e r the check?'. . . I t was the very time that s i s t e r n o t i c e d I d i d n ' t have i t on. . .1 got the s t r a p f o r that. . .1 d i d n ' t want to t e l l on the g i r l e i t h e r so I got punished."68 She remembers there were a ". l o t of s t r a p p i n g s going on. . . .They took your pants down and they lean you over a bench i n f r o n t of everybody." Again p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n was 69 combined with c o r p o r a l punishment. Perhaps the punishers understood enough of Shuswap c u l t u r e to know that p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n was the worst form of punishment or perhaps, a l a c k of awareness caused them to punish c h i l d r e n doubly. In e i t h e r case, the punishments used, although e f f i c i e n t , appear inhuman i n r e t r o s p e c t . Bedwetters were a l s o punished s e v e r e l y . "When I was a j u n i o r , I used to wet the b e d -whipped us f o r that, too. He had a scheme; he t r i e d to stop people from wetting the bed. . . F i r s t of a l l he t r i e d to get us up a couple of times at ni g h t . . . .For a l o t of us i t d i d n ' t work so he thought he'd do i t the hard way, give them whippings. . . .He f i n a l l y q u i t doing i t . That was on your bare [bottom] too." 70 Other c h i l d r e n remembered having t h e i r wet sheets put over t h e i r heads and being spanked. One admitted, "I don't remember that part or I don't want to remember." Such 71 memories were too p a i n f u l to l i v e with and were re p r e s s e d . A man r e c a l l e d that the l i t t l e boys had to wash t h e i r sheets i n 107 t h e r i v e r and t h a t h i s d a u g h t e r had been l o c k e d i n a c u p b o a r d f o r c o n t i n u a l w e t t i n g o f h e r bed. S e v e r a l o t h e r s m e n t i o n e d 72 w a s h i n g t h e i r own s h e e t s e v e r y d a y . B e d w e t t i n g , so f r e q u e n t l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n who a r e u p s e t i n some way, was a s u r e s i g n t h a t l i f e was v e r y s t r e s s f u l f o r many c h i l d r e n a t K . I . R . S . Head s h a v i n g was a n o t h e r f o r m o f p u n i s h m e n t a c t u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d more s e v e r e t h a n s t r a p p i n g p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d . The i n i t i a l h a i r c u t was p u n i s h m e n t enough. S h a v i n g was w o r s e . "As a l i t t l e g i r l , my h a i r was r e a l l y l o n g and c u r l y . . .my h a i r was down t o my h i p s . . . S i s t e r c u t i t ; s h e k e p t c u t t i n g i t t i l l she s h a v e d my h a i r ' c a u s e she t h o u g h t I was c u r l i n g my h a i r . . . . I t was v e r y e v i l f o r us t o have c u r l y h a i r . E v e r y t h i n g we d i d was e v i l . " 73 A r u n away i n t h e e a r l y 60s r e t r a c e d t h e s e p a i n f u l s t e p s : "When I g o t b a c k t o t h e s c h o o l , b e c a u s e I r a n away, t h e y were g o i n g t o g i v e me p u n i s h m e n t . So i n s t e a d o f s t r a p p i n g me, t h e y s a i d , 'You g o t t o k n e e l down on t h e f l o o r , i n f r o n t o f e v e r y b o d y and t e l l them y o u ' r e s o r r y you r a n away. . . . ' B e c a u s e I r a n away, t h e y s a i d t h e y were g o i n g t o g i v e me a r e a l s h o r t h a i r c u t f o r p u n i s h m e n t . So my h a i r was c u t r e a l l y s h o r t , a l m o s t l i k e a b o y ' s . " 74 By t h i s t i m e , t h e d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s must have r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p u b l i c m o r t i f i c a t i o n was t h e w o r s t f o r m o f c h a s t i s e m e n t f o r t h e c h i l d r e n and t h a t head s h a v i n g was e f f e c t i v e i n t h a t i t c r e a t e d l o n g - t e r m e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d d i s g r a c e . O t h e r i n c i d e n t a l d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n was a l s o m e n t i o n e d . One b r o t h e r who l o o k e d a f t e r t h e f i r s t a i d p o s t p r o v i d e d t h i s gruesome t r e a t m e n t t o a c h i l d who had s c r a t c h e d t h e s o r e on t o p o f h i s h e a d . "He had a p i t c h e r t h e r e and he u s e d t o a l w a y s have 108 c a s t o r o i l i n i t . When he g o t mad a t somebody, .he'd t a k e t h a t c a s t o r o i l and g r a b h i m by t h e h a i r and f i l l h i s mouth up. . .1 must have been a b o u t 7 o r 8 y e a r s o l d t h e n . He p u l l e d my head b a c k and he f i l l e d my mouth w i t h c a s t o r o i l and p r e t t y n e a r made me g a g . Then he k e p t my head b a c k t i l l I s w a l l o w e d i t . " 75 T h i s t r e a t m e n t was n o t h i n g s h o r t o f c r u e l and u n u s u a l p u n i s h m e n t i n f l i c t e d by a s h o r t - t e m p e r e d p e r s o n . Whether t h e a c t i o n was common i s n o t known, but t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e j u g s u g g e s t s p e r h a p s i t was. A n o t h e r e p i s o d e o f c a s t i g a t i o n i n v o l v e d a l i t t l e boy who was h u n g r y . "One t h i n g t h a t s t i c k s i n my mind was t h e one l i t t l e g uy. . .Poor l i t t l e t h i n g , I g u e s s he was so h u n g r y , he u s e d t o go down t o t h e r i v e r bank and p i c k t h o s e t h o r n b e r r i e s . . .One day he f i l l e d a l l h i s l i t t l e p o c k e t s . . .and t h e d a r n p r i n c i p a l , he was so mean. He g r a b b e d t h a t l i t t l e boy and t u r n e d h i m u p s i d e down by h i s l e g s and shook h i m . B e r r i e s went a l l o v e r t h e f l o o r . The l i t t l e boy s t o o d t h e r e c r y i n g . A l l t h e s e h u m i l i a t i n g t h i n g s t h a t t h e y d i d t o u s . " 76 A l t h o u g h t h e i n f l i c t i o n s s u f f e r e d by t h e s t u d e n t s were numerous, l i t t l e c o u l d be done a b o u t them. U n t i l t h e 5 0 s , s t u d e n t s were i n r e s i d e n c e e l e v e n months o f t h e y e a r . L e t t e r s w r i t t e n home were a l w a y s c e n s o r e d . One i n f o r m a n t r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : "They c e n s o r e d a l l o u r l e t t e r s . I f you made a c o m p l a i n t . . . t h e y w o u l d make a b i g s p e e c h - - i f we c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t f o o d i n a l e t t e r . T h e r e w a s n ' t v e r y many t h a t c o m p l a i n e d . . . ' c a u s e we knew i t w o u l d n ' t g e t o u t anyway." 77 A n o t h e r p e r s o n w r o t e t o h e r g r a n d m o t h e r t o a s k i f she c o u l d l i v e w i t h h e r i n s t e a d o f s t a y i n g a t t h e s c h o o l . " I n e v e r d i d e v e r g e t an a n s w e r f r o m h e r . . . .1 d i d n ' t know t h a t t h e nuns n e v e r s e n t t h e l e t t e r • c a u s e t h e y r e a d [ i t ] . . .They'd c e n s o r y o u r l e t t e r s and so t h e y n e v e r b o t h e r e d s e n d i n g my l e t t e r . " 109 P u n i s h m e n t o f a l l s o r t s was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e work o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s k e e p e r s . C h i l d r e n w e r e t o l e a r n t o be o b e d i e n t , t o aba n d o n t h e i r c u l t u r e s and t o comply w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s . P e r c e i v e d l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n was d e a l t w i t h q u i c k l y . One c o u l d assume t h a t u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f many c h i l d r e n and few s t a f f t h e s e m e a s u r e s w e r e e x p e d i e n t . The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e c a s t i g a t i o n s and t h e l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s a r e more q u e s t i o n a b l e . I n r e t r o s p e c t , t h e p u n i s h m e n t s seem u n n e c e s s a r i l y s e v e r e . F a m i l y V i s i t s and Summer H o l i d a y s F a m i l y v i s i t s and summer h o l i d a y s c r e a t e d m y r i a d c o m p l e x f e e l i n g s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n a t K . I . R . S . A l t h o u g h remembered w i t h m i x e d f e e l i n g s , c o n t a c t w i t h f a m i l y p r o v i d e d some c o n t i n u i t y and s u p p o r t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s and l e f t them w i t h t h e f e e l i n g t h a t w h i l e s c h o o l m i g h t f e e l i n e s c a p a b l e , o u t s i d e i t s w a l l s , Shuswap l i f e c a r r i e d on. U l t i m a t e l y t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n may be s e e n a s p o s i t i v e ; a t t h e t i m e , t h e c h i l d r e n f e l t t o r n . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s , many p e o p l e e x p r e s s e d common f e e l i n g s ; f o r o t h e r s t h e r e were ones s p e c i f i c t o t h e i r l i v e s . F o r t h o s e whose f a m i l i e s saw v a l u e i n a d a p t i o n t o some o f t h e E u r o p e a n ways, l e s s d i s r u p t i o n o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s o c c u r r e d . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l ' s e x i s t e n c e , c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s c o u l d n o t o r d i d n o t c o n f i d e i n them a b o u t t h e p u r p o s e o f s c h o o l were t h e most a f f e c t e d by i t s i n v a s i v e n a t u r e . A commonly m e n t i o n e d r e a c t i o n t o p a r e n t s was one o f a n g e r and a f e e l i n g o f r e j e c t i o n on b e i n g s e n t t o t h e s c h o o l . 1 1 0 F o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n , f a m i l y v i s i t s t e n d e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e c o n f u s i o n s . "We were t h e r e f r o m A u g u s t ; we o n l y had one month's summer h o l i d a y and t h a t was J u l y . . .We n e v e r even went home f o r C h r i s t m a s and we were a l l o w e d p a r e n t v i s i t s o n l y a b o u t once a month. . . I n t i m e t h e y come; y o u g o t u s e d t o i t , [ t h e s c h o o l ] . . .You were t o r n i n - b e t w e e n . . .1 know I bla m e d my p a r e n t s f o r p u t t i n g me t h e r e b e c a u s e I f e l t t h e y d i d n ' t want me. And I blamed t h e s i s t e r s and t h e f a t h e r s t h a t t h e y were t r y i n g t o t a k e s o m e t h i n g away f r o m me. . . .1 f e l t I was b e g i n n i n g t o have h a t e . . . .1 was b e g i n i n g t o have r e s e n t m e n t a g a i n s t my mo t h e r and my dad b e c a u s e I f e l t . . . t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t l o v e me, t h a t t h e y j u s t p u t me i n t h e r e and t h r e w me t o t h e w o l v e s . " 79 A n o t h e r s t u d e n t r e c a l l e d a t r e m e n d o u s f e e l i n g o f s e l f - c o n t r o l when h e r m o t h e r v i s i t e d . " I remember t h e y came once i n t h e f a l l and j u s t f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e . . . .They came i n t h e t r u c k and I went w i t h them i n t h e t r u c k j u s t a l i t t l e ways. We s a t and we t a l k e d and i t f e l t r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t . . . T h e r e a r e no t e a r s o r a n y t h i n g b e c a u s e I u n d e r s t o o d what i s g o i n g t o happen f o r a few y e a r s . But I t h i n k i f I was y o u n g e r I m i g h t have been c l a w i n g h e r and s c r a t c h i n g h e r . B u t I'm a y o u n g l a d y , a y e , and I know why. I t was n i c e she came." 80 The f i n a l comment d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e m o t h e r ' s v i s i t f o r t h i s p e r s o n d e s p i t e h e r i n t e r n a l a m b i v a l e n c e . A l t h o u g h some o f t h e f e e l i n g s o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t may be a t t r i b u t e d t o c h i l d r e n ' s u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f a m i l y v i s i t s , j u s t b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e were f e e l i n g s t h a t somehow t h e v i s i t w o u l d s a v e them f r o m t h e o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m , t h a t m i r a c u l o u s l y t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o go home and be a p a r t o f t h e f a m i l y a g a i n . Such w i s t f u l f e e l i n g s may be common t o some a d u l t s s e e k i n g a l o s t c h i l d h o o d but h e a l t h y c o n f i d e n t c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y l o o k f o r w a r d t o a p p r o a c h i n g y e a r s . The r e a c t i o n s r e i n f o r c e t h e n o t i o n t h a t s c h o o l was an unhappy 11 1 p l a c e t o be even f o r t h o s e who knew why t h e y were t h e r e . I n c o n t r a s t , a s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d i n t h e 1960s f o u n d t h a t t h e r e g u l a r b i - w e e k l y v i s i t s o f a m e n t o r - u n c l e were o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e t o h i s p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s a t t h e s c h o o l . T h i s u n c l e who t o o k t h e s t u d e n t away f r o m t h e s c h o o l d u r i n g h i s v i s i t s o f f e r e d a d v i c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o h i m s u g g e s t i n g ways t o make t h e most o f h i s s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . The u n c l e ' s n e v e r - f a i l i n g i n t e r e s t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e s t u d e n t ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n team s p o r t s was a g r e a t s u p p o r t f o r t h e s t u d e n t and a l s o h e l p e d h i m d e v e l o p a k e e n s e n s e o f c o m p e t i t i o n w h i c h has s e r v e d h i m w e l l . 81 F o r some p e o p l e whose p a r e n t s w e re f a r away o r busy w i t h a l a r g e f a m i l y a t home, v i s i t s w e r e i m p o s s i b l e . "Some k i d s had p a r e n t s t h a t came a l l t h e t i m e b u t . •where we l i v e way up h e r e . . .you had t o c a t c h t h e t r a i n . . .1 t h i n k once [when] we were a t t h e s c h o o l t h e y t r a v e l l e d way down t o go t o work i n t h e t o m a t o f i e l d s ; t h e y t r a v e l l e d down w i t h t h e i r h o r s e and wagon. And money was h a r d t o come by so we d i d n ' t g e t a n y t h i n g . We n e v e r come home a t C h r i s t m a s . A l o t o f c h i l d r e n d i d b u t , as I grew o l d e r , I t h o u g h t t h a t was j u s t i t b e c a u s e t h e r e we had t h e w h o l e s c h o o l and e v e r y t h i n g was j u s t r e l a x e d . " 82 Over t i m e , t h i s s t u d e n t grew a c c u s t o m e d t o s c h o o l , and a c c u s t o m e d t o s e e i n g l i t t l e o f h e r p a r e n t s d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r . Her d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e f a m i l y ' s way o f l i f e a l s o grew. A l t h o u g h some p a r e n t s t o o k c h i l d r e n away f r o m t h e s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e i r v i s i t s , many d e s c r i b e d r a t h e r s t i f f m e e t i n g s i n t h e s c h o o l p a r l o u r w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l f r e q u e n t l y h o v e r i n g n e a r b y . These v i s i t s w e r e one o f t h e few o c c a s i o n s t h a t s i b l i n g s o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s and s e x w e re p e r m i t t e d t o be 11 2 t o g e t h e r . n I c a n ' t remember what h o l i d a y i t was, but my p a r e n t s came t o v i s i t . . .1 was r e a l l y happy t o s e e them. I w a n t e d t o go home r i g h t away b u t my mum. . . s a i d t h a t I c o u l d n ' t go home. I t was r e a l l y h a r d t o s e e them l e a v e u s . . . . We met i n t h i s one room t h e y c a l l e d t h e p a r l o u r and t h e r e was a few b e n c h e s i n t h e room. . .The p r i e s t w o u l d come a r o u n d t o t h e d o o r once i n a w h i l e and t h e p r i n c i p a l w o u l d s a y h e l l o . . . . I d i d n ' t know why I had t o s t a y , why t h e y c o u l d n ' t say I c o u l d go home w i t h them b e c a u s e I t h o u g h t , ' W e l l , t h e y ' r e my mum and d a d . They u s e d t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r I c o u l d go home w i t h them o r n o t . ' B e f o r e I went t h e r e , t h e y u s e d t o l e a v e us w i t h s i t t e r s and t h e y ' d come and p i c k us up. I c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d why t h e y c o u l d n ' t j u s t s a y , •O.K. l e t ' s go home.'" 8 3 W h i l e t h e c o n n e c t i o n s made b e t w e e n f a m i l y members d u r i n g t h e s e v i s i t s w e r e c l e a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n m a i n t a i n i n g a k i n d o f f a m i l y u n i t y and a s e n s e o f c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n , t h e p a i n a t b e i n g s e p a r a t e d a g a i n was e x c r u c i a t i n g . I n t h e p l a n t o have s t u d e n t s become a p a r t o f E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e , v i s i t s w e r e somewhat o f a d e t r i m e n t i n t h a t t h e y r e m i n d e d t h e c h i l d who he was and who h i s f a m i l y was. I n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a s e n s e o f b e i n g I n d i a n , b e i n g p a r t o f a f a m i l y , t h e y were i n t e g r a l . H o l i d a y s r a i s e d s i m i l a r q u a n d r i e s i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' m i n d s . A d j u s t m e n t p e r i o d s w e r e common when s t u d e n t s a r r i v e d home. One s t u d e n t remembered h e r s i b l i n g s ' r e t u r n . " [ T h e y ] w o u l d come home f r o m t h a t s c h o o l and t h e y w e r e n ' t r u n n i n g a r o u n d and b e i n g t h e m s e l v e s . They were q u i e t and s o m e t i m e s j u s t s a t f o r h o u r s . .My y o u n g e r b r o t h e r and I were j u s t [ t h i n k i n g ] , •Oh, t h e s e g u y s a r e r e a l l y b l o o p e r s : t h e y j u s t s i t and do n o t h i n g . * Mum w o u l d s a y , 'You k i d s , g e t o u t t h e r e and f e e d t h e c h i c k e n s and J o r R w o u l d s a y , ' T h a t ' s n o t my j o b . ' . . .By t h e n , t h e y were d e f y i n g Mum. . They g o t so t h e y had t o g e t l i c k i n g s t o g e t them t o go do t h i n g s . " 8 4 F o r t h e w h o l e f a m i l y , a d j u s t m e n t s were n e c e s s a r y . The 1 1 3 c h i l d r e n f e l t out of place and had begun to assume behaviours common to r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . Rather than r e c o g n i z i n g that d u t i e s were shared by the f a m i l y , they began to defy parents and expect punishment as a means of e n f o r c i n g r u l e s . Language was another area of concern. For some the t r a n s i t i o n back to t h e i r n a t i v e language was smooth. As time went on, more of the parents spoke only E n g l i s h i n response to t h e i r own t r a i n i n g at the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l - - t r a i n i n g which convinced them that t h e i r language had no place i n Euro-Canadian s o c i e t y and as a r e s u l t of i n c r e a s i n g involvement with E n g l i s h speakers both Native and non-Native. "When I le a r n e d my Shuswap, we l i v e d as a t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t . Previous to 1938, there was not much moving about o u t s i d e of the reserve area. . . .When I came to s c h o o l . . .1 can see now my f a t h e r began branching out working away from home; my grandfather went f a r t h e r away from home. . . .The Shuswap language continued to be spoken whenever they [the f a m i l y ] got together but as we gained more knowledge of the E n g l i s h and because of r a n c h i n g out, [work] i n l o g g i n g camps, they moved g r a d u a l l y to speak more E n g l i s h . And then when we a l l came home, I could see the switch i n t o E n g l i s h as we s t a r t e d to move through the y e a r s . . . . They would s l i p i n t o Shuswap whenever an e l d e r would come who had not l e f t the reserve and they would j u s t f l i c k back and f o r t h i n that way. . .That happened i n our f a m i l y and I think that happened i n a l a r g e number of other f a m i l i e s . w 85 T h i s q u o t a t i o n summarizes very c l e a r l y the e r o s i o n of the language which occurred i n the Kamloops area. By the l a s t few years of the school's o p e r a t i o n , students coming to school almost a l l had p r i o r knowledge of E n g l i s h and i n some cases had never learned t h e i r own language. Those who had s u f f e r e d f o r speaking Native languages wanted to help t h e i r c h i l d r e n avoid s i m i l a r treatment. 11 k F o r some s t u d e n t s g o i n g home j u s t f e l t g o o d . "We were p o o r , a y e , and I d o n ' t know why g o i n g home was so g o o d . B e c a u s e - - L o v e i s what c o v e r s i t a l l . And t h e n y o u ' r e f r e e t o t a l k and y o u ' r e j u s t r i g h t b a c k and i t ' s a l l o p e n , open d o o r a g a i n . . . F o r t h e f i r s t few d a y s , we were s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h and t h e n a f t e r a w h i l e we s t a r t e d m i x i n g i t . And t h e n by end o f summer we were s p e a k i n g Shuswap a g a i n . " 86 A n o t h e r p e r s o n had s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s . He a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t a l t h o u g h . . . ". . . i t w a s n ' t as c l e a n . . . 1 was h a p p i e r a t home. . . . 1 know I g e t l o t s t o e a t and I g e t a b i t o f f r e e t i m e . . . 1 c o u l d p l a y . I had t o work s o m e t i m e s m a k i n g h a y , and w e e d i n g t h e g a r d e n b u t I was j u s t as happy t o be home. When we had o u r c h o r e s done, we c o u l d roam t h e c o u n t r y . Do as we w i s h . " 87 The p l e n t i f u l f o o d s u p p l y o f summer and t h e c o n t r a s t t o t h e o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m o f t h e s c h o o l may have c o l o u r e d t h e s e p e o p l e ' s m e m o r i e s . At t h e same t i m e , t h e m e m o r i e s s e r v e t o e m p h a s i z e t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n n a t u r e o f s c h o o l . When c h i l d r e n p r e f e r m a k i n g hay and w e e d i n g g a r d e n s t o s c h o o l l i f e , one must assume t h a t s c h o o l ' s t a s k s a r e more a r d u o u s . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e s e home v i s i t s were v e r y l i k e l y i n t e g r a l t o m a i n t a i n i n g a s e n s e o f s e l f , f a m i l y and c u l t u r e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . F o r some c h i l d r e n i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s , g o i n g home became a t i m e o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . A n t i c i p a t e d w i t h e x c i t e m e n t , t h e r e a l i t y o f a f a m i l y and a c u l t u r e b e i n g e r o d e d by p r e s s u r e s o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y d o m i n e e r i n g E u r o p e a n i n f l u e n c e was n o t a l w a y s p l e a s a n t . " B e c a u s e we were t h e n a l l t h r o u g h t h e s y s t e m , we c l u n g t o g e t h e r , you know, l i k e j u s t us k i d s . And Mum and Dad were k i n d o f o u t . . . .By t h e n t h e y ' d 115 s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g . See, when we f i r s t s t a r t e d g o i n g t o t h a t s c h o o l t h e y n e v e r d r a n k . . . .1 g u e s s b e c a u s e t h e r e was none o f us k i d s a t home, t h e y s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g so when we came home, i t was s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t . I mean t h e r e was booze i n t h e h o u s e , t h e r e was p a r t i e s and t h i n g s s t a r t e d r e a l l y c h a n g i n g f r o m what we knew o f i t b e f o r e . . . . w 88 When t h e p a r e n t s no l o n g e r had t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h them, a l c o h o l c o u l d e a s e t h e i r s e n s e o f l o s s . A n o t h e r p e r s o n f e l t a p e r s o n a l s e n s e o f shame a t h e r p a r e n t s ' d r i n k i n g : " I t h o u g h t , 'Wow, t h e s e g u y s a r e d r u n k s , ' , and i t was l i k e I d i d n ' t have a p l a c e a n y w h e r e - n o t a t t h e s c h o o l and n o t a t home." A n o t h e r p e r s o n r e c a l l e d h e r homecoming as f o l l o w s : 89 "Upon a r r i v i n g home, we w o u l d be r e a l l y e x c i t e d . . .and t h e n t h e r e w o u l d be a d r u n k Daddy, Mum n o t f e e l i n g so v e r y good and t h a t w o u l d b r i n g down t h e w h o l e e x c i t e m e n t . You'd be d i s a p p o i n t e d but you w o u l d be g l a d t o s e e y o u r p a r e n t s . . . . A f t e r l i k e a day o r s o , we w o u l d be b a c k i n t o p l a y i n g o u t s i d e , l o o k i n g a t t h e o l d p l a y g r o u n d s . . .and s p e n d i n g some t i m e w i t h Mum i n bed w i t h h e r t e l l i n g s t o r i e s . . . . I remember as I g o t o l d e r when I went home, I f o u n d i t h a r d t o s p e a k o u r l a n g u a g e t o my p a r e n t s . . . .1 remember s t u m b l i n g , s t u m b l i n g , s t u m b l i n g and t h e words n o t c o m i n g f l u e n t l y so I t h i n k we were r u s t y f o r q u i t e a w h i l e . " 90 Home v i s i t s t h e n h e l d two ma i n f e e l i n g s : a s e n s e o f h a p p i n e s s t o be t h e r e t o o o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e d by a g r o w i n g s e n s e t h a t l i f e had c h a n g e d i r r e v o c a b l y . T h i s change was n o t s i m p l y t h e g r a d u a l one o f c h i l d r e n g r o w i n g o l d e r . C o n s c i o u s l y o r s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , t h e c h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e c u l t u r e w h i c h d e f i n e d them and t h e i r p a r e n t s was n o t a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y a r o u n d them. Summers ended and t h e c h i l d r e n r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l . B i t t e r s w e e t memories o f t h e l a s t d a y s s t a n d o u t i n one p e r s o n ' s m i n d . 116 " B e f o r e we'd go back t o s c h o o l , we'd go b r i n g t h e cows i n . . . .We'd s t a y o u t i n t h e b l o o d y m o u n t a i n s and j u s t t h o r o u g h l y e n j o y o u r s e l v e s . . . . I t w o u l d be j u s t a b o u t l i k e how i t was b e f o r e b u t , you know,you'd n e v e r e v e r g e t b a c k t o i t b e c a u s e .you g o t a l o t o f h u r t s f o r f e e l i n g s and y o u know w h a t ' s ahead o f y o u . " 91 The i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f l i v i n g as a f a m i l y on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s and t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t l i f e w o u l d n e v e r be as i t was a r e c l e a r l y s t a t e d . A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t who s a i d she a c t u a l l y e n j o y e d s c h o o l remembers h e r f i r s t d a y s b a c k t h e r e a f t e r t h e h o l i d a y s . " I know I c o u l d n ' t s t a y home. I knew t h a t . But t h e t i m e s t h a t r e a l l y , r e a l l y g e t s t o t h e b o t t o m o f my s o u l : t h e f i r s t day b a c k . . . . Y o u ' r e f e e l i n g p r e t t y l o n e s o m e , s u d d e n l y go t o bed and i n t h e m o r n i n g , you wake up and y o u s e e t h i s w h i t e c e i l i n g . You may as w e l l have a k n i f e and s t a b me t h r o u g h my h e a r t . . . . You know where you a r e and you g o t t o s u r v i v e and y o u j u s t c o v e r i t o v e r , s e a l i t up f o r t e n m o n t h s . " 92 T h i s p e r s o n ' s a t t e m p t t o s e a l up h e r r e a l s e l f f o r t e n months i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e t h e o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m was one way o f p r o t e c t i n g h e r i d e n t i t y as f a m i l y member and Shuswap p e r s o n . W i t h t h e r e t u r n t o s c h o o l , t h e a t t a c k on f a m i l y ways o f l i f e was r e n e w e d . T h i s t i m e t h e s t u d e n t s knew what t h e s y s t e m h e l d f o r them but f o u n d l i t t l e s e c u r i t y i n t h a t k n o w l e d g e . One must f a c e t h e i n e v i t a b l e q u e s t i o n o f why p a r e n t s s e n t t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e K.I . R . S . F o r some as a l r e a d y has been d o c u m e n t e d , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g was p a r a m o u n t . The O b l a t e s d i d a good j o b o f c o n v i n c i n g p e o p l e t h a t p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l was t h e most e f f e c t i v e p l a c e f o r l e a r n i n g t h e c a t e c h i s m . The D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n c l u d e d a c l a u s e i n t h e I n d i a n A c t s t a t i n g 117 t h a t a t t e n d a n c e was m a n d a t o r y : f a i l u r e t o comply c a r r i e d f i n e s and i m p r i s o n m e n t as p e n a l t i e s . A p e r s o n who a t t e n d e d t h e s c h o o l h e r s e l f and who w a n t e d t o keep h e r c h i l d r e n o u t r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : " W i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e I had as a c h i l d , I d i d n o t want t o s e e my c h i l d r e n b e i n g g i v e n t h e abuse I had. . . .When we f i r s t s e n t o u r c h i l d r e n t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l , we f o u g h t t h e s y s t e m . . .The D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s went as f a r as s a y i n g we'd l o s e o u r s t a t u s . . . .They s a i d we'd have t o pay f o r o u r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . We s a i d we w o u l d b e c a u s e we d i d n ' t want o u r c h i l d r e n t o s u f f e r t h e way we d i d . . . . The O b l a t e s t o l d us we'd go t o H e l l . They r e a l l y s o r t o f d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t u s . . . .They t o l d us t h a t t h e w h i t e man's t e a c h i n g w o u l d c o r r u p t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s m i n d s . " 93 I n t h e f a c e o f t h i s o p p o s i t i o n , t h i s f a m i l y f i n a l l y r e l e n t e d and s e n t t h e i r c h i l d r e n as day p u p i l s t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . O t h e r p a r e n t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e power o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y and hoped t h a t s c h o o l c o u l d e n s u r e an e q u a l p o s i t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . " I d o n ' t e v e r remember any o f my g r a n d f a t h e r o r m o t h e r t e l l i n g me a b o u t t h e n a t u r e , a b o u t t h e c u l t u r e o f I n d i a n s . They n e v e r s p o k e a b o u t t h e I n d i a n c u l t u r e and I t h i n k t h e y a l r e a d y were s t a r t i n g t o f o r g e t e ven as o l d as t h e y were. They s e e n a w h i t e man. . . i n a b e t t e r w o r l d so t h e y d i d n ' t s t r e s s o u r c u l t u r e . . . . T h e r e was a few t h i n g s t h e y w o u l d t e a c h y o u . " 94 T h i s same p e r s o n t o l d e x t e n s i v e s t o r i e s a b o u t e a t i n g I n d i a n f o o d f r o m t h e w i l d and s e v e r a l o t h e r d e t a i l s o f Shuswap c u l t u r e . I m p o r t a n t t o n o t e a r e h i s f e e l i n g s a b o u t h i s p a r e n t s * t h o u g h t s . He r e c e i v e d t h e message t h a t E u r o p e a n ways a r e s u p e r i o r t o Shuswap ways. A n o t h e r s o u r c e who a t t e n d e d y e a r s l a t e r r e p o r t e d t h a t h e r f a t h e r t h o u g h t t h e w h i t e s "were t h e s m a r t e s t human b e i n g s on e a r t h . " 95 1 1 8 O t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e s r e p o r t e d more p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e . One, i n r e f e r e n c e t o h i s f o s t e r p a r e n t s , r e c o u n t e d : "They s e n d t h e k i d s so t h e y d o n ' t have t o f e e d them i n t h e w i n t e r . You know, t h e s e a r e t h e f a c t s o f l i f e . You c a n ' t deny i t . . . . B i g f a m i l i e s d i d n ' t h ave enough t o f e e d some." 96 Y e a r s l a t e r , a s t u d e n t who t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o K . I . R . S . a f t e r s p e n d i n g some t i m e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l e x p l a i n e d : "The o n l y r e a s o n I was a b l e t o go t o s c h o o l i n town was b e c a u s e I s t a y e d home w i t h Mum. I f t h e y c o u l d s u p p o r t y o u a t home, t h e n y o u c o u l d g o . " 97 L a t e r when no one was w o r k i n g a t home, r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l became a n e c e s s i t y as h i s m o t h e r f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . I n r e t r o s p e c t a n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t u n d e r s t o o d h e r m o t h e r ' s u n s p o k e n r e a s o n s . " I t was j u s t what she f i g u r e d was b e s t f o r u s . L i k e she w a n t e d us t o l e a r n t h e w h i t e man's way so we'd g e t a h e a d i n t h e w o r l d . And h e r e we t h o u g h t she h a t e d u s . " 98 Many c h i l d r e n d i d n o t a t t e n d . Some came l a t e a t t h e age o f n i n e o r t e n . Many l e f t e a r l y when t h e y became s i c k and j u s t n e v e r r e t u r n e d . "The p r i e s t s end me home. I'm a l w a y s s i c k . I d o n ' t s t a y . Go t o s c h o o l e v e r y d a y - - e a r - a c h e , s o r e t h r o a t , o h, a l l k i n d s o f s i c k n e s s . So t h e p r i e s t s e n d me home. He t o l d me, ' I ' l l t a l k t o t h e p e o p l e t o come down f o r you and t h e y t a k e y o u home - no use t o s t a y h e r e . ' " 99 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e r e p o r t e d : "The o n l y way I g o t o u t was I was v e r y s i c k . So my f a t h e r and m o t h e r went t o I n d i a n A f f a i r s and t o l d them. I had s c a r l e t f e v e r t h e n . . .1 g o t o u t . . .and I o n l y had g r a d e t h r e e . " 100 N e i t h e r o f t h e s e two e v e r r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l . One i n f o r m a n t 11 9 r e c o u n t e d t h a t h i s p a r e n t s t o o k h i m home f r o m s c h o o l a f t e r a s i b l i n g was k i l l e d i n an a c c i d e n t a t home. They w a n t e d t o have h i m c l o s e t o them. Some c h i l d r e n r a n away and were 101 w e l l h i d d e n . Some n e v e r f o u n d t h e i r names on t h e l i s t i n t h e f a l l . One c h i l d who s i n c e r e l y w a n t e d t o a t t e n d was k e p t home t o do c h o r e s f o r an a g i n g g r a n d m o t h e r . Those p a r e n t s who 102 d i d s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n d i d so f o r one o r more r e a s o n s . They r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l i t e r a c y , t h e y were r e s p e c t f u l o f t h e c h u r c h ' s w i s h e s , t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t E u r o p e a n ways were s u p e r i o r , o r t h e y f o u n d f e e d i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s d i f f i c u l t as t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g and f o o d g a t h e r i n g l a n d s s h r u n k a r o u n d them. As t i m e went on, more p a r e n t s k e p t t h e i r c h i l d r e n home e i t h e r t o a t t e n d t h e g r o w i n g number o f day s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d on r e s e r v e s o r t o go t o p u b l i c s c h o o l . O t h e r s who l i v e d c l o s e t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l d e c i d e d t o s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n as day p u p i l s when t h i s c h o i c e became p o s s i b l e . 120 CHAPTER V_L F o o t n o t e s 1. M a n u e l 6 3 . 2 . I n f o r m a n t 3 :12 3 . 1 .2 :9 4 . 1 . 5 :9 5 . 1 .1 :2 6 . 1 . 4 :5 7 . 1 .5 :10 8 . 1 . 5 :10 9 . 1 . 4 :5 10 . 1 . 1 3 : 5 1 1 . 1 .3:11 12 . 1 . 12 :3 1 3 . 1 . 7 :4 1 4 . C r o n i n 223. 1 5 . 1 . 3 :12 1 6 . 1 . 6 :12 1 7 . 1 . 8 :12 1 8 . 1 . 12 :6 19 . 1 . 12 :10 2 0 . 1 . 12 :10 21 . 1 .4 :4 2 2 . 1 . 7 :5 23. 1 .7 :6 2 4 . 1 . 3 : 1 1 - 1 2 2 5 . 1 .3 : 17 -18 2 6 . 1 . 7 :13 2 7 . 1 .6 :8 121 C H A P T E R y_i F o o t n o t e s (continued) 28. 1.13:10 29. 1.7:3 30. 1.5:10 31. 1.3:12 32. F.O'Grady OMI, 1954 Act o f V i s i t a t i o n (K.I.R.S. 1943-1966 Oblate A r c h i v e s ) 29 33. 1.2:2 34. 1.5:1 35. 1.5:1 36. 1.6:7 37. 1.4:7 38. 1.4:7 39. 1.3:14 40. 1.3:19 41 . 1.6:15 42. 1.3:14 43. 1.3:14 44. Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Report of  Indian A f f a i r s Branch f o r the F i s c a l Year Ended March  31.1955.(Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956) 51. 45. Father James M u l v a h i l l , "On I n t e g r a t i o n " Tape 130-2 (Kamloops:Secwepeme C u l t u r a l Education Resource Centre, 1 957) 46. 1.10:21 47. 1.13:21 48. 1.10:14 49. 1.11:1 50. 1.11:8 51 . 1.9:1 1 22 C H A P T E R YJL Footnotes (continued) 52. 1.10:18 53. 1.12:6 54. I.10:17-18 55. 1.10:18 56. 1.8:2 57. 1.6:16 58 r 1.5:4 59. 1.1:6 60. 1.12:8 61. 1.12:8 62. 1.12:9 63. 1.8:2 64. 1.1:2 65. 1.2:6 66. 1.5:3 67. 1.13:16 68. 1.4:4 69. 1.4:16 70. 1.3:15 71 . 1.5:16 72. F i e l d Notes 73. 1.2:12 74. 1.12:6 75. 1.3:16 76. 1.5:3 77. 1.3:12 78. 1.10:15 123 C H A P T E R V_L Footnotes (continued) 79. 1.2:14 80. 1.7:6 81 . 1.9:4 82. 1.4:3 83. 1.12:3 84. 1.10:8 85. 1.6:5 86. 1.7:14 87. 1.3:16 88. I.10:32-33 89. 1.12:6 90. 1.13:18 91 . I.10:35 92. 1.7:14 93. 1.2: 19-20 94. 1.3:23 95. 1.13:6 96. 1.3:13 97. 1.11:7 98. 1.10:10 99. 1.1:1 100. 1.2:16 101 . F i e l d Notes. 1 02. F i e l d Notes. 1 24 C H A P T E R H i X B J . RESISTANCE ". . . ' t h e l a d s ' o f t h i s s t u d y have a d o p t e d and d e v e l o p e d t o a f i n e d e g r e e i n t h e i r s c h o o l c o u n t e r -c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c w o r k i n g c l a s s t h e m e s : r e s i s t a n c e ; s u b v e r s i o n o f a u t h o r i t y ; i n f o r m a l p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s and f a l l i b i l i t i e s o f t h e f o r m a l ; and an i n d e p e n d e n t a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e d i v e r s i o n and e n j o y m e n t . " P a u l W i l l i s 1 W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m w h i c h was K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l came r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e s y s t e m . Humans, b e i n g what t h e y a r e , r a r e l y c o m p l y f u l l y and e a s i l y t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o p p r e s s i o n . Even w i t h t h e c o n t r o l s a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d w e l l i n p l a c e , t h e s t u d e n t s f o u n d t i m e and s p a c e t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s and t o p r o d u c e a s e p a r a t e c u l t u r e o f t h e i r own w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l . Much o f t h i s c u l t u r e was b u i l t a r o u n d o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s g u i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' d a i l y l i v e s . A n o t h e r m a j o r f a c e t o f t h e r e s i s t a n c e was e x p r e s s e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s u b - c u l t u r e — o n e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h a t b e i n g p r o m o t e d by t h e r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s . W h i l e i t i n c l u d e d c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s , t h i s c u l t u r e a l s o t o o k on a l i f e o f i t s own. F i n a l l y t h e r e were t h o s e s t u d e n t s who s o u g h t r e f u g e w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m as a means o f i m m e d i a t e s u r v i v a l b u t whose a c t i o n s l e d t o e v e n t u a l c h a n g e s w i t h i n i t . S t e a l i n g was common t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l . B e c a u s e h u n g e r was p r e v a l e n t , f o o d was t h e m a i n t a r g e t . I t was s t o l e n f o r i m m e d i a t e p e r s o n a l u s e , f o r s h a r i n g w i t h s m a l l e r c h i l d r e n , f o r b a r t e r and t o e n h a n c e t h e s c a n t y m e a l s o f t h e d i n i n g room. Those who w o r k e d i n t h e k i t c h e n had e a s y a c c e s s t o f o o d . 125 " B e c a u s e we're on t h a t s i d e [ t h e g i r l s ' s i d e ] , y o u ' r e a c c e s s e d t o t h e f o o d . [ T h e y ] u s u a l l y e v e n t a k e o r a n g e s i n t o t h e i r f r i e n d s . I f t h e r e i s some w h i n e y k i d , t h e n y o u c a n s t e a l some o r a n g e s and go and g i v e i t t o them. Then you g o t a p i e c e o f b r e a d b e c a u s e i t ' s a l l t h e r e . Y o u ' r e t h e one t h a t s l i c e s i t and s i s t e r d o e s n ' t c o u n t how many p i e c e s you g o t . " 2 The s h a r i n g o f s t o l e n f o o d r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r s u b - c u l t u r e . B e c a u s e s t e a l i n g became a c o m p l e x o p e r a t i o n , t h e r e were o f t e n s e v e r a l i n v o l v e d i n t h e a c t i t s e l f as w e l l as g u a r d s on l o o k - o u t and t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e g o o d s . The f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s . " I n my t i m e , we were a l w a y s h u n g r y . . . .1 s e e n them b r i n g i n g i n b o x e s and boxe s o f a p p l e s n o t t o o f a r f r o m t h e d a i r y room. So I g o t t h e s e young women and I s a i d , 'How a r e we g o i n g t o g e t some a p p l e s ? ' . . .So f o r d a y s and d a y s t h e g i r l s were s c r o u n g i n g a r o u n d f o r s t r i n g s and my j o b was t o l o o k f o r s p i k e n a i l s . . . .We t i e d t h e s t r i n g s t o g e t h e r and t h e r e was an a i r h o l e i n t h e r o o t c e l l a r . So we'd have a l l t h e s e g i r l s w a t c h i n g o u t f o r u s . . .and we'd t r y t o s p i k e a p p l e s . T h a t ' s how we u s e d t o g e t o u r a p p l e s t o f e e d t h e l i t t l e o ne s. . . We g o t c a u g h t and we g o t p u n i s h e d but i t t o o k a l o n g t i m e b e c a u s e we s u p p o r t e d e a c h o t h e r i n o u r c r i m e . " 3 The boys a l s o f o u n d t h e i r way t o t h e r o o t c e l l a r , s o m e t i m e s w i t h s p e a r s . A l t h o u g h t h e y had a c c e s s t o t h e b a r n s and a l l t h a t was p r o d u c e d t h e r e , t h e y s o m e t i m e s r e s o r t e d t o e a t i n g c a t t l e f o o d o r w i l d p l a n t s and b e r r i e s i n s e a s o n . " I t d e p ends on t h e t i m e o f y e a r . I n t h e f a l l , . t h e r e were b e r r i e s and c h o k e c h e r r i e s and c a r r o t s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t b u t a s . . . [ t h e y ] went, we s t a r t e d e a t i n g g r a i n , b r a n o r wheat chop. And t h e y w o u l d m i x t h i s cow f e e d . . . we u s e d t o e a t t h a t t o o and we'd e a t m a n g l e s e v e n . . . . When we g o t h i g h e r up, we u s e d t o go down t o t h e c e l l a r and s t e a l w h e n e v e r we c o u l d . . . Now, t h i s t i m e o f y e a r [ M a y ] , you know t h o s e r o s e b u s h e s t h e y have t h a t b e r r y on them. . .we'd e a t t h a t 126 b e r r y . E a r l i e r i n t h e s p r i n g when t h e s h o o t s come o u t on t h e r o s e b u s h . . .we u s e d t o e a t t h a t . I t ' s s w e e t . . . . We u s e d t o e a t t h o s e t h i n g s l i k e w i l d o n i o n s and you w o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e i t . . . t h a t m u s t a r d weed. T h a t ' s a w f u l . T h a t was t o w a r d s p r i n g when t h e c e l l a r was empty." 4 F o o d was u p p e r m o s t i n many s t u d e n t s ' m i n d s . S e v e r a l p e o p l e m e n t i o n e d g a t h e r i n g b e r r i e s o f a l l k i n d s and c a r r y i n g them w i t h them t o e a t as s n a c k s . T h i s a c t i o n was n o t p e r m i t t e d by t h e s u p e r v i s o r s b u t as more t h a n one p e r s o n p r o u d l y c l a i m e d , "We n e v e r g e t c a u g h t . " One i n f o r m a n t d e s c r i b i n g h e r b l o o m e r s s u d d e n l y remembered how u s e f u l t h e y had b e e n . "We u s e d t o go i n t h e p r o v i s i o n room d o w n s t a i r s and t h e r e u s e d t o be b u c k e t s and b u c k e t s . . . f u l l o f d r i e d p r u n e s , a p r i c o t s , a p p l e s , r a i s i n s , n u t s t h a t t h e y u s e d t o cook f o r t h e s t a f f o n l y . And boy, we d i d n ' t l e t them have i t a l l . . . .We'd d u c k i n t h e r e i f i t was open and g r a b a h a n d f u l o f t h i s and a h a n d f u l o f t h a t , s h o v e i t up y o u r b l o o m e r l e g s . F i l l i t up and t a k e o f f down t h e h a l l and go i n t o t h e b a t h r o o m and t a k e i t a l l o u t . . .we'd go a r o u n d n i b b l i n g on t h a t . And t h e n o t h e r g i r l s t h a t c o u l d n ' t s t e a l w o u l d b a r t e r f o r i t . " 5 The f a c t t h a t s o m e t h i n g o f a r o u t i n e d e v e l o p e d a r o u n d t h i s s t e a l i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was a f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e . B e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d amount o f f o o d s u p p l i e d by t h e s c h o o l , t h e c h i l d r e n d e p e n d e d on t h e i r s t e a l i n g and b a r t e r i n g . I t became an i n t e g r a l and e x c i t i n g p a r t o f d a i l y l i f e — o n e i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n , u n l e s s t h e y were c a u g h t , c o u l d f e e l some s e n s e o f power and c o n t r o l . A n o t h e r r o u t i n e was e s t a b l i s h e d by a g r o u p o f boys who w o r k e d i n t h e d a i r y u s i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n t o i n s t i t u t e a c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s w h i c h e n s u r e d a more n u t r i t i o u s and 127 t a s t i e r b r e a k f a s t . " A t n i g h t , one o f t h o s e t h a t s e p a r a t e d t h e m i l k . . . w o u l d come a l o n g and t a p on t h a t window f r o m t h e o u t s i d e . . . .He'd have a b e e r b o t t l e f u l l o f cream. I ' d t a k e i t and p u t i t down i n t h a t s p a c e i n t h e c h a f f and l e a v e i t t i l l m o r n i n g . . . .Then, a f t e r we c l e a n t h e h o r s e s and f e e d them. . .1 p u t t h a t cream i n my b o o t . . . .And t h e n , I ' d t a k e i t i n t o b r e a k f a s t and we'd p u t t h a t on o u r mush. .1 was t h e c a r r i e r . We done t h a t and n e v e r g o t c a u g h t . " 6 A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e h u n g e r was r e f i n e d t o a t a s t e f o r cream. I m p o r t a n t t o n o t e i s t h e c a m a r a d e r i e c r e a t e d by t h e common i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e c r i m e . One c a n i m a g i n e t h e f e e l i n g o f s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e b o y s had as t h e y t a s t e d t h e i r i l l g o t t e n g a i n s . T h i s s e a r c h i n g f o r power a l s o had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t s who s e r v e d as a g e n t s o f the s u p e r v i s o r s . Some c h i l d r e n w o u l d t e l l t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a b o u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s m i s d e m e a n o u r s . B e c a u s e t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s had t o be c o n t r o l l e d , t h e s e who were m i s b e h a v i n g f r e q u e n t l y b u i l t i n methods f o r r e s t r a i n i n g them. A t t i m e s t h e t h r e a t o f i n f o r m i n g was u s e d as b l a c k m a i l by s t u d e n t s as t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e shows. "We'd c r a w l a l o n g t h i s d i t c h and g e t t o t h e a p p l e o r c h a r d and s n e a k a p p l e s b a c k . . . . [ t w o b o y s ] were s t e a l i n g a p p l e s and we h a d n ' t g o t t o t h e a p p l e o r c h a r d y e t . But t h e y were on t h e i r way b a c k , so we t h r e a t e n e d i f t h e y d i d n ' t g i v e us any a p p l e s , we were g o i n g t o s q u e a l on them. So t h e y gave us some a p p l e s . " 7 T h i s i n c i d e n t t o o k p l a c e i n t h e l a t e f i f t i e s when an a p p l e o r c h a r d was i n p r o d u c t i o n a t t h e s c h o o l . S h o r t l y a f t e r , i t was l e v e l l e d and r e p l a c e d by a new d o r m i t o r y b u i l d i n g . The most a m a z i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e s t e a l i n g were i t s p r e v a l e n c e and 128 t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s schemes f o r a c q u i r i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e g o o d s . S t e a l i n g w i n e was a l s o b r o u g h t up as r e c u r r i n g i n c i d e n t i n t h e s c h o o l . The o l d e s t i n f o r m a n t i n t e r v i e w e d r e c a l l e d : n G e e , some k i d s , some bo y s and g i r l s , t h e y must have s t e a l some w i n e . T h a t ' s w i n e . . . t h e p r i e s t u s e d . t h e y must have s t e a l some [ b u t ] n o t u n t i l t h e y g e t d r u n k , d o n ' t g e t d r u n k o v e r w i n e . " 8 A n o t h e r p e r s o n who a t t e n d e d i n t h e 1950s r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t . She had been a s s i g n e d t o c l e a n up t h e b a c k o f t h e c h a p e l a f t e r t h e p r i e s t s a i d M a s s . "Then t h i s one d a y , t h i s one boy k n o c k e d on t h e b a c k d o o r . So I o p e n e d t h e do o r t o c h e c k what was t h e r e and he l o o k e d a t me and s a i d , 'Oh, w h e r e ' s C ?' and I s a i d , 'She d o e s n ' t work h e r e anymore. I do.' So t h a t was t h a t ; he went away. And a b o u t t h e t h i r d t i m e , I was bac k t h e r e a g a i n and he k n o c k s on t h e d o o r and s a y s , ' I ' v e g o t a n i c k e l i f you c a n f i l l t h i s l i t t l e j a r up.' So I s a y s , ' W i t h w h a t ? , S a l t w a t e r ? You g o t t o be c r a z y . ' And he s a y s , 'No, no, n o t h o l y w a t e r . I want w i n e . ' And I g o t b i g e y e s , 'No way. Go away.' So t h a t l a s t e d f o r a b o u t , I t h i n k , a week I h e l d o u t . And t h e n we had a candy s t o r e e v e r y Sunday m o r n i n g . . . . E v e r y b o d y e l s e was g o i n g t o buy c a n d y and h e r e I am w i t h no money and w a n t i n g c a n d y . . . .So t h a t S u n d a y , t h e same guy came and k n o c k e d on th e d o o r . ' P l e a s e f i l l t h i s up,' he s a i d . ' I ' l l g i v e you a dim e . ' So I s a i d , 'Okay.' I t o o k t h e j a r and t h e r e was t h r e e g a l l o n s o p e ned so I t o o k a l i t t l e b i t o u t o f e a c h one t o f i l l t h e t h i n g up and he g a v e me t h e di m e . So away he went and. . .1 was r e a l l y s p o o k y - -I mean I was s c a r e d . I went o u t and k n e l t down and p r a y e d i n f r o n t o f t h a t a l t a r . . . . ' I ' l l n e v e r , e v e r do t h i s a g a i n . I p r o m i s e . ' I swore up and down I w o u l d n ' t . . . .Then n o t h i n g seemed t o happen t o me. I c h e c k e d m y s e l f o u t ; my h a i r was s t i l l t h e r e . And I d i d n ' t have n i t s . . .1 n e v e r g o t s i c k o r a n y t h i n g so I t h o u g h t t h a t was p r e t t y good. So t h e n he come a g a i n . . .1 w o u l d s e l l t o them b u t I w o u l d t a k e i t o u t o f e a c h j a r . And t h e n i f i t l o o k e d l i k e I m i g h t have t a k e n t o o much, I w o u l d p u t a l i t t l e w a t e r i n t h e w i n e . . . .1 n e v e r g o t c a u g h t a t i t n e i t h e r . I q u i t p r a y i n g . I d i d 129 t h a t f o r two y e a r s . " 9 T h i s s t o r y i n d i c a t e s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e s c h o o l m i g h t be i n v o l v e d i n a f o r m o f " o r g a n i z e d c r i m e " . The l e s s o n s t h e s e l l e r l e a r n e d w e re v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t t o h e r : s t e a l i n g was p r o f i t a b l e and one c o u l d s t a l l t h e b u y e r t o a c h i e v e a l a r g e r p r o f i t . S t e a l i n g w i n e t h a t was u s e d by t h e p r i e s t f i r s t o f a l l j u s t i f i e d p r a y e r b u t , when i m m e d i a t e r e t r i b u t i o n f a i l e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e , became j u s t b u s i n e s s . Not o n l y was t h e t h e f t a c c o m p l i s h e d b u t she a l s o l e a r n e d t o c o v e r h e r t r a c k s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e b o y s who w e re p a y i n g f o r t h e w i n e were e n g a g e d i n an i n t e r e s t i n g p r o c e s s . I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e amount o f wine was i n s i g n i f i c a n t . R e p o r t e d l y i t was d i v i d e d amongst s e v e r a l b o y s . A g a i n w i t h i n a r e p r e s s i v e s i t u a t i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d g a i n some s e n s e o f s e l f - e s t e e m i n r e p e a t e d l y s u c c e e d i n g a t t h e i r s e l f - a s s i g n e d t a s k . The s t u d e n t s ' a w a r e n e s s o f t h e c h i n k s i n t h e armor o f t h e o p p r e s s o r p r o v i d e d hope f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l as i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a g e n d a s o f t h e i r own. D e f i a n c e m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n ways o t h e r t h a n t h i e v e r y . A l t e r n a t i n g b e t w e e n v o i c e d and s i l e n t d e f i a n c e , one s t u d e n t d e a l t w i t h t h e i n j u s t i c e s o f t h e s y s t e m . " T h a t ' s why t h e name c a l l i n g , I u s e d t o c a l l t h e nun [ i n S h u s w a p ] , . . t h a t ' s ' d i r t y b e h i n d nun'. And t h e t h i n g I remembered when she u s e d t o s t r a p me. . .1 knew I was g o i n g t o g e t f i v e o r t e n s t r a p s on e a c h hand and I knew i t was g o i n g t o draw b l o o d — b u t I w o u l d r e m i n d m y s e l f , ' I t ' s n o t g o i n g t o h u r t . J u s t so I can make y o u a n g r y , I'm n o t g o i n g t o l e t you know i t h u r t s . . .' and I w o u l d j u s t s t a r e a t h e r i n t h e f a c e . . .and I w o u l d n ' t even l e t a d r o p , a t e a r come down. God, t h a t u s e d t o make h e r mad. She'd e v e n t a k e me and s h a k e my head and s a y , 'The d e v i l i s i n you so s t r o n g . How am I g o i n g t o b e a t t h e d e v i l o u t o f y o u ? 1 She'd p u t me 130 i n a d a r k p l a c e and t e l l me t o s t a y t h e r e . I was a bad e x a m p l e f o r t h e r e s t . " 10 W i t h h e r d i g n i t y r e l a t i v e l y i n t a c t and t h e nun's f r u s t r a t i o n l e a d i n g h e r t o make a d i s p l a y o f o u t r a g e , t h i s c h i l d f e l t she had won t h e b a t t l e . She was n o t h u m i l i a t e d b e c a u s e she d i d n o t c r y . A l t h o u g h she was p u n i s h e d , she m a i n t a i n e d h e r c o n t r o l . O t h e r p e o p l e s p o k e o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r d i g n i t y t h r o u g h s i l e n c e . Many t i m e s i n t e r p r e t e d as p a s s i v i t y by t h e more v o c a l E u r o - C a n a d i a n s , N a t i v e s i l e n c e i s f o r many a s i g n o f s t r e n g t h . T h i s s t u d e n t showed h e r a n g e r f i r s t by s i l e n c i n g h e r s e l f and, i n a l a t e r i n c i d e n t , i n a more d r a m a t i c way. Her m o t h e r , who had l i t t l e money, had managed t o s e n d h e r two b e a u t i f u l new b l o u s e s . She was t o l d t h a t she c o u l d k e e p o n l y one and must g i v e t h e o t h e r away. "She [ t h e nun] d i d n o t know o r u n d e r s t a n d a n y t h i n g a b o u t home and how h a r d i t was f o r my mum t o g e t and I know t h i s . And y e t h e r e i s a s y s t e m and so i f she s a y s , t h a t be done. W e l l , you j u s t numb y o u r s e l f . . . .You make a c h o i c e and you numb y o u r s e l f t o t h a t h u r t . " 11 The f a c t t h a t t h i s p e r s o n saw h e r s e l f m a k i n g an a c t i v e c h o i c e n o t t o s p e a k o u t a b o u t h e r h u r t a l s o gave h e r a s e n s e o f s e l f - e s t e e m . She r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e nun d i d n o t know a b o u t h e r l i f e as she d i d . I n t h a t k n o w l e d g e , she was s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e p e r s o n c a u s i n g h e r p a i n . She seemed t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f u t i l i t y o f t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n t o t h i s f o r e i g n e r why t h e b l o u s e s w e r e so i m p o r t a n t . I n a n o t h e r i n c i d e n t , t h e r e p r e c u s s i o n s f o r n o t k n o w i n g h e r l i f e w ere i m m e d i a t e . " E v e r y b o d y was g e t t i n g s i c k and we a l l had t o t a k e c a s t o r o i l . So God has ways t o g e t e v e n , t o o . . . .At home I f o u n d o u t I c o u l d n o t t a k e i t . 131 . S i s t e r s a i d , ' Y o u ' r e no d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e r e s t o f them.'. . .She made me t a k e i t . I t came r i g h t b a c k on h e r a p r o n . . . . I t was f u n n y and I p r e t e n d e d I was a p o l o g e t i c and I g o t c l e a n e d up." 12 She f e l t t h a t she had made a v e r b a l e f f o r t t o p r e s e n t h e r s i t u a t i o n . When i t was i g n o r e d , she i n w a r d l y r e j o i c e d a t t h e outcome. I t gave h e r c o n f i d e n c e t h a t she s h o u l d h a v e been l i s t e n e d t o : t h e nun's f a i l u r e t o r e s p o n d b r o u g h t i t s own r e t r i b u t i o n . I n c i d e n t s o f t h i s n a t u r e w e re v i e w e d as g r e a t j o k e s on t h e s u p e r v i s o r s . The I n d i a n d a n c i n g e p i s o d e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r i s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h i s k i n d o f r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e p e o p l e i n c o n t r o l . A l l t h e g i r l s knew t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t ' s dance was a m o c k e r y . B e c a u s e o f h e r f e a r l e s s p e r f o r m a n c e and t h e nun's a c c e p t a n c e o f i t as bona f i d e I n d i a n d a n c i n g , she became an a c c e p t e d g r o u p member w i t h t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s who f o u n d h e r b e h a v i o u r h i l a r i o u s . 13 F o r some s t u d e n t s , l a n g u a g e was a n o t h e r a r e a f o r d e f i a n c e . A g a i n t h e b e t r a y e r s had t o be w a t c h e d f o r b u t some s t u d e n t s s e r v e d t o e d u c a t e newcomers on s i t u a t i o n s where N a t i v e l a n g u a g e s c o u l d be u s e d w i t h o u t f e a r o f r e p r i s a l . " F i r s t y e a r , I g u e s s we w e r e , and L came and we were a l l t a l k i n g Shuswap. . . .She s a i d t o u s , 'Y o u ' r e n e v e r t o g e t c a u g h t t a l k i n g y o u r l a n g u a g e . . Y o u ' l l g e t w h i p p e d ; y o u ' l l r e a l l y g e t p u n i s h e d . ' . . .So we were c a r e f u l a f t e r t h a t n o t t o be c a u g h t s p e a k i n g . . . .When we were way o u t t h e r e , we'd t a l k t o g e t h e r i n o u r l a n g u a g e . " 14 A n o t h e r p e r s o n who a t t e n d e d i n t h e 50s r e c a l l e d t h a t he f o u n d i t " t o u g h f o r a b o u t a y e a r . I was k i n d o f c a r e f u l where I u s e d i t . " One C h i l c o t i n s p e a k e r h e l d d e f i a n t l y t o h e r 15 l a n g u a g e w i t h i n h e r s e l f b e c a u s e t h e r e were few o t h e r s i n 132 K.I.U.S. who s p o k e h e r l a n g u a g e . " I remembered t r y i n g t o remember some w o r d s . .1 was t r y i n g t o remember one word and t h a t was s q u i r r e l and i t was so e a s y . . .1 remember s t r u g g l i n g w i t h i t a l l day and t r y i n g t o remember. And t h e n a t n i g h t when I went t o bed, I k e p t t h i n k i n g a b o u t i t and I t h o u g h t and t h o u g h t and t h e n i t came u p — K G L I C K . " 16 T h i s i n d i v i d u a l i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t w i t h h e r r o o t s t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e . A l t h o u g h she w o r k e d a l o n e t o remember, she f e l t a s t r o n g need t o k e e p t h e words i n h e r t h i n k i n g v o c a b u l a r y . The t i m e f o r r e u n i o n w i t h o t h e r C h i l c o t i n s p e a k e r s was i n e v i t a b l e . F o r h e r , t h e l a n g u a g e n e v e r l o s t i t s power and i n f l u e n c e . C o n n e c t i n g w i t h t h e o p p o s i t e s e x was a n o t h e r m a j o r p r e o c c u p a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e o l d e r s t u d e n t s . The k i t c h e n p r e s e n t e d i d e a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x c h a n g i n g l o o k s , q u i c k w o r d s and sometime n o t e s as t h e b o y s d e l i v e r e d m i l k , cream and e g g s . L i n e - u p s f o r m e a l s and t i m e i n t h e c h a p e l were o t h e r p r i m e t i m e s f o r e x c h a n g e s i n c l u d i n g t h e o f t -m e n t i o n e d t e c h n i q u e o f m i r r o r f l a s h i n g . " T h e y ' r e n o t a l w a y s j u s t h o v e r e d o v e r a l l t h e t i m e . L i k e when I w o r k e d i n t h e k i t c h e n , t h o s e b o y s came f o r t h e g a r b a g e . You saw them i n c h u r c h e v e r y m o r n i n g . . . .A l o t o f them, t h e y had m i r r o r s . So i f you had a b o y f r i e n d i n t h e b a c k you had a l i t t l e m i r r o r i n f r o n t o f y o u r hymn book. . . . T h e r e were n o t e s c o n s t a n t l y f l y i n g b a c k and f o r t h somehow o r a n o t h e r . T h e r e were c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . " 17 I n c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h b o y s , a n o t h e r c o m p l e x s y s t e m was d e v e l o p e d a g a i n w i t h c a r e t o a v o i d t h e t a t t l e r s and w i t h d e l i v e r i e s made by m e s s e n g e r s . One p a r t i c u l a r l y i n g e n i o u s method o f n o t e - p a s s i n g was d e v i s e d by a g i r l who w o r k e d i n t h e k i t c h e n : she s l i c e d t h e c r u s t o f b r e a d e x t r a t h i c k , c u t a 133 s p a c e i n t h e m i d d l e and h i d a n o t e t h e r e w h i c h was d e l i v e r e d t o h e r b o y f r i e n d ' s t a b l e . O l d e r t e e n a g e r s s o m e t i m e s managed t o meet a t t h e r i v e r bank. One o f t h e l a y w o r k e r s i s r e p o r t e d t o have f a t h e r e d a number o f c h i l d r e n w i t h g i r l s who a t t e n d e d t h e s c h o o l . One i n t e r v i e w e e commented: " N a t u r e i s so s t r o n g . You c a n ' t h e l p i t ; y o u c a n n e v e r d e s t r o y n a t u r e . Y o u r body g r o w s . . .1 d o n ' t c a r e i f you c o v e r i t up w i t h l a y e r s and l a y e r s o f c l o t h e s , i t i s s t i l l d o i n g i t s t h i n g as a human b e i n g . " 18 The r e s i s t a n c e t o an u n n a t u r a l c o n t r o l o f common human f e e l i n g s was s t r o n g and e f f e c t i v e . D e s p i t e t h e s c h o o l ' s i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t s t o c o m p l e t e l y s e g r e g a t e t h e s e x e s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r r e d . F o r t h e g i r l s , h a i r c u r l i n g and u s i n g make-up c o n s t i t u t e d a n o t h e r r e l a t e d f o r m o f r e s i s t a n c e . These were p r o b a b l y p e r c e i v e d by t h e s c h o o l s t a f f as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e e v i l i n f l u e n c e s o f w h i t e c u l t u r e . F o r t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e y were a n o t h e r way o f e x p r e s s i n g a s m a l l amount o f c o n t r o l w i t h i n t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h t h e y f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s . "You were n o t a l l o w e d t o p u t makeup on y o u r f a c e o r l e t a l o n e p u t a k i s s c u r l i n y o u r h a i r . . . . I f you t r i e d , t h e nun w o u l d g r a b us by t h e t o p o f t h e head and d r a g us u n d e r t h e s i n k and t u r n i t on f u l l b l a s t . . .many's t h e t i m e , I g o t h a l f drownded."19 The same d e f i a n t i n f o r m a n t remembered Sunday a f t e r n o o n w a l k s w i t h p l e a s u r e . "We'd p o o l o u r b i t s o f m o n i e s t o g e t h e r and. . . [ t w o g i r l s ] t h e y ' d buy a t u b e o f l i p s t i c k and r o u g e and powder and c o l d cream. . . .On Sunday a f t e r n o o n when we'd go f o r a l o n g w a l k , we w o u l d make s u r e we were way up f r o n t w h e r e t h e nun i s i n t h e r e a r . And when we h e a r d h e r b l o w t h e w h i s t l e . . .we u s e d t o c a r r y a l i t t l e wet c l o t h w i t h u s . We'd w i p e 134 t h a t s t u f f o f f and t h e n we'd r u n b a c k . . . .1 g u e s s we must have l o o k e d l i k e a b unch o f c l o w n s . " 20 E a c h s m a l l s t e p o u t o f l i n e was an i m p o r t a n t one i n s e l f -d e f i n i t i o n . T h e r e was a s c h o o l s o c i e t y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p o wers o f t h e p r i e s t s and n u n s , more i m p o r t a n t and f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e s t u d e n t s was t h e i r s e l f - p r o d u c e d s u b -c u l t u r e w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r s y s t e m . Some s t u d e n t s who f o u n d c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e s c h o o l ' s a u t h o r i t y p a l a t a b l e u n d e r most c i r c u m s t a n c e s , became d e f i a n t i n d e f e n s e o f t h e i n j u s t i c e d e a l t t o t h e l a w b r e a k e r s . " I became a k i n d o f an a d v o c a t e f o r some o f t h e p e o p l e who I t h o u g h t c o u l d n ' t h e l p t h e m s e l v e s . I o f t e n became t o o o u t s p o k e n i n h e l p i n g a p e r s o n o u t o f a jam. I n t r y i n g t o r a t i o n a l i z e why t h e y d i d i t , why one was c a u g h t w i t h c a r r o t s i n h i s s h i r t , I had t o e x p l a i n he was h u n g r y , somebody t o o k h i s meat o r h i s p o r r i d g e away f r o m him. So he was p u n i s h e d a n d , I s u p p o s e b e c a u s e I c h a l l e n g e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r i n f r o n t o f t h e w h o l e g r o u p , I was p u n i s h e d w i t h him. . . . A f t e r a w h i l e , I g o t my r e w a r d s f o r i t . . .he'd s l i p me a c a r r o t f o r a r e t a i n e r f e e . " 21 W i t h t h i s b e h a v i o r , a new r o l e i n t h e s u b - c u l t u r e was d e f i n e d : t h a t o f t h e a d v o c a t e . Even t h e r e s i s t a n c e movement i t s e l f had c o m p l e x i t i e s ; a l o n g w i t h t h e a d v o c a c y r o l e came a f e e f o r s e r v i c e s . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e s u p e r v i s o r d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n c o u l d be s u b v e r t e d t o be on t h e s i d e o f t h e s y s t e m . He was p u t i n c h a r g e o f a c l e a n i n g team. When h i s team c l e a n e d so q u i c k l y and e f f i c i e n t l y t h a t he c o u l d l e a d them o u t t o t h e p l a y g r o u n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n w h i l e t h e o t h e r teams were s t i l l w o r k i n g , t h e s u p e r v i s o r c o u l d n o t a p p r o v e . " I t b a c k f i r e d on u s . We'd f i n i s h i n h a l f t h e t i m e , we'd go o f f and t h e y ' d c a l l us b a c k . They added a n o t h e r t a s k t o u s . . . i n s t e a d o f r e w a r d i n g u s . . . 135 .1 s a i d [ t o my g a n g ] , 'We were b e t r a y e d . . . w e ' l l j u s t do o r d i n a r y w o r k.'" 22 The message t o t h i s i n s t i g a t o r was c l e a r . P l a y t i m e was n o t an a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n f o r b o y s who s h o u l d be c l e a n i n g and no r e w a r d s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r e f f i c i e n t w o r k . One s h o u l d use a l l t h e t i m e p r e d e t e r m i n e d by s t a f f as n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k . A l t h o u g h he u n w i l l i n g l y c o - o p e r a t e d , he saw t h e s y s t e m f o r what i t was: i n c a p a b l e o f d e a l i n g w i t h e f f i c i e n c y o f t h i s n a t u r e . C l i q u e - l i k e g angs were t y p i c a l o f l i f e on t h e b o y s ' s i d e o f t h e s c h o o l . The f o u r m a l e s i n t e r v i e w e d e a c h made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e g a n g s . They d e f i n e d a l i f e o f t h e i r own a p a r t f r o m t h e d i c t a t e s o f t h e s c h o o l and o v e r t h e y e a r s o p e r a t e d w i t h o n l y o c c a s i o n a l a t t e m p t s a t c o n t r o l by t h e s u p e r v i s o r s . One i n f o r m a n t d e s c r i b e d t h e g r o u p s as f o l l o w s : "They w e r e n ' t t h a t b i g o f a g r o u p . The o l d e r b o y s , some o f them were d o m i n a t i n g t h e r e s t o f t h e k i d s and t h e y had t h e k i d s t e r r o r i z e d — t h e y o u n g e r o n e s . T h a t was g o i n g on a l l y e a r . They c o u l d n ' t r e p o r t i t . I f t h e y e v e r r e p o r t e d i t t o t h e s t a f f , t h e y w o u l d be b e a t up. They g o t away w i t h i t . " 23 O t h e r comments a b o u t t h e c l i q u e s s u g g e s t e d t h a t e i t h e r t h e s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l were unaware o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e o r more l i k e l y t h a t t h e y s i m p l y i g n o r e d what t h e y c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l . By t h e l a t e 5 0 s , t h e f a c t i o n s had become more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and on o c c a s i o n w e re e x t r e m e l y c o m p e t i t i v e . "See, you had y o u r c l a n s . E v e r y r e s e r v e was s e p a r a t e . I had c o u s i n s i n B o n a p a r t e and A s h c r o f t so K a m l o o p s and B o n a p a r t e , we r e a l l y s t u c k t o g e t h e r . Then I was s o r t o f t h e c l i q u e l e a d e r . I g r a d u a l l y had Chase b r o u g h t i n and t h e n some o f L y t t o n a f t e r t h a t . J u s t a b o u t a l l o f us [ i n t e r m e d i a t e b o y s ] were i n : f o r t y - t w o o f us t o be e x a c t . I t g o t p r e t t y h o t and h e avy — t h e s c r a p p i n g . 136 T h e r e was one g r o u p t r y i n g t o l e a d one way and I was l e a d i n g t h e o t h e r way. . . .The s u p e r v i s o r s c o u l d n ' t do n o t h i n g . " 24 E v e n t u a l l y t h e " s c r a p p i n g " l e d t o p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a m a j o r b a t t l e f o r t h e l e a d e r s h i p . When somebody " s q u e a l e d " , e v e r y b o d y was h e r d e d i n t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n room where t h e y were r e l i e v e d o f t h e i r weapons i n c l u d i n g b r a s s k n u c k l e s , c l u b s and s w i t c h b l a d e s . The s u p e r v i s o r ' s comment was t h a t t h i s was p o l i c e b u s i n e s s , n o t s c h o o l b u s i n e s s . E v e n t u a l l y t h e f i g h t d i d t a k e p l a c e u n d e r l e s s p u b l i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The i n t e r v i e w e e ' s f i n a l comment on t h e s i t u a t i o n was: "He was d o i n g i t j u s t f o r show. . . .Them f o r t y - t w o were my p e o p l e . " 25 D a i l y , t h e c l i q u e s were i n v o l v e d i n l e s s c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as s e n d i n g r u n n e r s t o town t o buy a l c o h o l d u r i n g t h e F r i d a y n i g h t m o v i e s and i n f o o d t h e f t and o t h e r m i n o r " c r i m e s " . T h e i r s u c c e s s was b a s e d on a need by s t u d e n t s t o f e e l a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g and t o have some c h o i c e a b o u t t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e i r l i v e s . As t h e f o r m e r l e a d e r w i s e l y p o i n t e d o u t , "The p o i n t [ f o r f i g h t i n g ] o n l y come t o t h e s u r f a c e once a y e a r . B u t what i t r e a l l y was, was b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e i n h e r e , [ p o i n t i n g t o h e a r t ] . " S t r o n g 26 r e a c t i o n t o t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e boys l i v e d e x h i b i t e d i t s e l f a t t h e s e t i m e s , but t h e b o y s f e l t t h e i n h u m a n i t y o f t h e s y s t e m c o n t i n u a l l y . A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t who c h o s e n o t t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e g r o u p s a f t e r h i s i n i t i a l e n c o u n t e r w i t h " t h e meanest g r o u p o f p e o p l e I e v e r met i n my l i f e . " , o f f e r e d t h i s a n a l y s i s . 137 " I w o u l d i m a g i n e t h a t i f y o u ' r e n o t f e e l i n g good a b o u t y o u r s e l f , you b e g i n t o l o o k f o r w e a k e r o n e s . . .and you g e t y o u r l i c k s i n b e f o r e t i m e p a s s e s by. .Those who i n t e n d e d t o make f u n o f us when we s t a r t e d p r o b a b l y were n o t f e e l i n g good a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s : a b o u t t h e i r p r o g r e s s , t h e i r l i f e . B e i n g s a d a b o u t l e a v i n g t h e c o m f o r t s o f home j u s t l i k e we w e r e , [ t h e y ] f o u n d us t o be t h e w e a k e s t . . l o o k i n g b a c k , I t h a n k them f o r i t . . . b e c a u s e i t pu t some s t r e n g t h i n t o u s . " 27 He c h o s e t o s e t h i m s e l f a p a r t and submerse h i m s e l f i n h i s a c a d e m i c w o r k . B e c a u s e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e g r o u p s c h a n g e d o v e r t h e y e a r s , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t any p a r t i u l a r t i m e may be somewhat i n a c c u r a t e . Whether p e o p l e banded t o g e t h e r f o r m u t u a l s u p p o r t and t h e s e n s e o f f a m i l y w h i c h d e v e l o p e d o r i f t h e s t r o n g e r were e s t a b l i s h i n g and d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y p r o b a b l y v a r i e d o v e r t i m e . The gang o f i n t e r m e d i a t e boys d e s c r i b e d i n i t i a l l y f e l l i n t o t h e f o r m e r c a t e g o r y i n t h a t t h e y o r i g i n a l l y came t o g e t h e r t o r e p e l t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e s e n i o r s . As t i m e went on and t h e i r s t r e n g t h grew, t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n p e r p e t u a t e d i t . W i t h i n t h e o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m , t h e gang p r o v i d e d a r e s i s t a n c e f o r c e and become o p p r e s s o r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . T h i s t e n d e n c y o f o p p r e s s i o n t o b e g e t o p p r e s s i o n i s t y p i c a l o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n s y s t e m s . B e c a u s e t h e c h i l d r e n l i v e d i n an inhumane e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e y l e a r n e d t o a c t i n inhumane ways. One p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w e d d e c i d e d t h a t r a t h e r t h a n a c t i v e l y r e s i s t , she w o u l d make h e r s e l f an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e . When she a r r i v e d a t t h e r e s i d e n c e she q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e nuns w o u l d l e a d h e r t o a p l a c e o f p r i v i l e g e and some power. "Once I l e a r n e d t o r e s p e c t t h e nuns. . .when you 138 done as you were t o l d and w o r k e d h a r d , you g o t l i t t l e p r o m o t i o n s . You no l o n g e r have t o work i n t h e h a l l w a y s or i n t h e b a t h r o o m s . You d o n ' t have t o s c r u b anymore. You went up t h e l a d d e r . You went up i n where t h e nuns a r e , t h e i r q u a r t e r s . You s t a r t e d t o work t h e r e and t h e n f r o m t h e r e , you g o t t o g r a d u a t e t o w h e r e t h e p r i e s t s ' q u a r t e r s a r e and t h e n i n t o t h e c h a p e l p a r t w here i t ' s c l e a n e r and e a s i e r . Then i n t h e k i t c h e n , t o o , i t ' s up t o y o u . I f yo u want t o r e m a i n i n t h e s c u l l e r y , i f you t h i n k i t ' s f i n e , t h e n t h a t ' s w here y o u s t a y e d , b e c a u s e y o u ' r e n o t t r y i n g t o a d v a n c e and g e t i n t o t h e s t a f f c o o k i n g . . . . C o o k i n g f o r them [ t h e s t a f f ] was more f u n t h a n c o o k i n g f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . . . . Y o u ' r e a c c e s s e d t o a l l t h a t b e a u t i f u l f o o d on t h e s t a f f s i d e . And i f you so l i k e , you c a n j u s t f i l l up on t h e r e and n e v e r mind a l l t h a t mushed up f o o d . " 28 T h i s p e r s o n a t t r i b u t e d h e r p r a c t i c a l a p p r o a c h t o l i f e a t t h e s c h o o l t o h e r p a r e n t s . B e c a u s e she was t h e o l d e s t i n a l a r g e f a m i l y , she had a l w a y s been e x p e c t e d t o w o r k v e r y h a r d — p e r h a p s h a r d e r t h a n c h i l d r e n w i t h o l d e r s i b l i n g s o r t h o s e f r o m s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s . She knew d i s c i p l i n e t h r o u g h n e c e s s i t y . Not a c t i v e l y r e s i s t i n g t h e s y s t e m , she c h o s e r a t h e r t o work i t t o h e r a d v a n t a g e . I n h e r p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n , she g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l o v e r h e r l i f e and as a r e s u l t d e v e l o p e d a s e n s e o f s e l f - e s t e e m . A n o t h e r f o r m o f a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e was r u n n i n g away. From t h e t i m e t h e s c h o o l b e g a n , c h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e d t h i s o p t i o n . F o r some i t was a t h r i l l and a t e m p o r a r y b r e a k f r o m s c h o o l ; f o r o t h e r s i t was a g r a p h i c p l e a t o t h o s e a t home t o s a v e them f r o m t h e i r m i s e r y . One i n f o r m a n t who a t t e n d e d e a r l y i n t h e c e n t u r y r e c a l l e d : "Gee, one t i m e s i x g i r l s r u n away. I t was a t n i g h t ; t h e y p u t t h e s h e e t s o u t t h e window. They have t o [go b a c k ] . Somebody l o o k f o r them on t h e I n d i a n r e s e r v e . They f o u n d them down. . .Ben's home. They t a k e them b a c k . They d i d n ' t s t a y t o o l o n g : a b o u t one day and 139 a h a l f maybe. . . . [They ran away] j u s t f o r fun, maybe, fed up with going to s c h o o l . They asked me to go. I t o l d them, 'No, I don't want to go; t h e y ' l l j u s t b r i n g me back to the s c h o o l . ' I d i d n ' t go." 29 C h i l d r e n who ran away were punished s e v e r e l y : heads were shaved or h a i r cut very short f o r ones who were returned. One person o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g : "They always came back. They got them back. I don't remember anybody g e t t i n g away completely. . . .Some got e x p e l l e d . they got twenty lashes and then they got e x p e l l e d . . . . Father had a s t r a p ; i t was about an inch , i n c h and a h a l f maybe. And there was two doubled and they were r i v e t t e d together. He used t h a t . " 30 Another informant remembered a s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t . "They'd been pla n n i n g f o r weeks on end, packing s t u f f and h i d i n g i t o u t s i d e . And then one night they a l l went to bed with t h e i r nightgown over t h e i r c l o t h e s . . . .A g i r l f r i e n d and myself watched a l l t h i s . How e x c i t i n g . Anyways they went one by one down the f i r e escape. . . .There used to be a watchman. . .you could see the l i g h t every time he came around the windows. . .so probably these g i r l s timed him. . .1 guess when they got around the corner then they a l l ran. You could hear them on the r o c k s . . . .Crazy us, we gave them an hour and then a f r i e n d of mine said,'I'm going to go and knock on s i s t e r ' s door and t e l l her some of the g i r l s are m i s s i n g . ' I t took q u i t e a while; the l a s t one took about a month before they found her." 30 Although these ones a l l returned to the s c h o o l , other runaways p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n l a t e r years d i d not come back. I t was not uncommon f o r c h i l d r e n to run away and be kept home by t h e i r parents. Others were not so l u c k y . In the school's o f f i c i a l r e g i s t e r s of 1947, the f o l l o w i n g note i s the f i n a l entry for three boys: "Absconded Noon, Sept. 24. K i l l e d i n f r e i g h t wreck Sept. 27." A student who attended i n the e a r l y 32 s i x t i e s h i t c h i k e d home a f t e r running away and was raped. Her 140 p a r e n t s s e n t h e r back t o s c h o o l b u t , when t h e r e s u l t a n t p r e g n a n c y became e v i d e n t , she was e x p e l l e d . R u n n i n g away was one o f t h e ways s t u d e n t s showed t h e i r u n h a p p i n e s s . B e f o r e t h e o p t i o n s o f day s c h o o l on r e s e r v e o r p u b l i c s c h o o l , s t r i n g e n t l a w s f o r c e d t h e r e t u r n o f most o f t h e f u g i t i v e s . P a r e n t a l and p o l i t i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s c h o o l , a l t h o u g h i n f r e q u e n t l y s o u g h t o r a c t e d upon by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e i n j u t i c e s o f t h e s y s t e m . I n 1913, C h i e f L o u i s o f K a m l o o p s e x p r e s s e d h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e now i n f a m o u s McKenna-M c B r i d e c o m m i s s i o n . As was c l e a r l y t h e c a s e w i t h t h e move t o c u t o f f p o r t i o n s o f r e s e r v e l a n d , t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s , p r i m e e x a m p l e s o f F r e i r e ' s c u l t u r a l i n v a d e r s , a p p a r e n t l y came n o t t o l i s t e n b u t , w i t h t h e i r m i nds a l r e a d y made u p , t o p e r s u a d e . " C h i e f L o u i s , s a i d : -». . .1 e x p e c t e d t o s e e my p e o p l e i m p r o v e when t h e y f i r s t went t o I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , but I have n o t s e e n a n y t h i n g o f i t . When t h e y come o u t f r o m s c h o o l t h e y d o n ' t seem t o have i m p r o v e d much. . . The C h a i r m a n . A r e y o u n o t g e t t i n g t h e b e n e f i t o f t h a t t o some e x t e n t ? F o r i n s t a n c e can you w r i t e ? A. I w r i t e i n my h e a r t o n l y . Q. Can y o u w r i t e w i t h a pen? A. No. Q. Don't you have t o a p p l y now and a g a i n t o some o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n who have been t o s c h o o l t o w r i t e f o r you? A. Y e s . Q. And t h a t i s some h e l p , i s i t n o t ? A. Y e s . Q. And some o f them c a n r e a d ? A. Y e s , t h e y b r i n g me news. Q. W e l l , t h e s c h o o l i s d o i n g some good t h e n ? A. W e l l , y e s . The C h a i r m a n : - I have s e e n t h e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n go t h r o u g h t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n , and have s e e n them p a s s t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n s q u i t e as w e l l as any w h i t e c h i l d r e n I have e v e r s e e n , s u r e l y t h a t i s i m p r o v i n g 141 them, i s i t n o t ? A. Y e s . " 33 W i t h t h a t , t h e r e c o r d e d i n t e r v i e w ended. R a t h e r t h a n s e e k i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d C h i e f L o u i s ' s c o n c e r n s , t h e c h a i r m a n showed h i m t h a t , f r o m t h e W h i t e p e r s p e c t i v e , i m p r o v e m e n t was t a k i n g p l a c e . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h e r e was no f o l l o w - u p t o t h e c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d . A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t r e c a l l e d a number o f t h e c h i e f s v i s i t i n g t h e s c h o o l i n t h e t h i r t i e s . " T h e r e w a s n ' t v e r y many t h a t c o m p l a i n e d . . . b e c a u s e we knew i t w o u l d n ' t go o u t anyway. I t was c e n s o r e d . But t h e odd n o t e g o t o u t and so t h e y i n v i t e d a l l t h e c h i e f s . I know a b o u t t h r e e t i m e s , f o u r t i m e s w h i l e I was t h e r e . . . A r o u n d 193 7» 38, t h e y i n v i t e d a l l t h e c h i e f s f r o m a l l s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s t h a t had c h i l d r e n t h e r e . . . .Then t h e y ' d g i v e us a d e c e n t m e al w h i l e t h e c h i e f s were t h e r e . T h a t ' s no g o o d . " 34 On t h e s e v i s i t s u s u a l l y h e l d i n r e s p o n s e t o c h i e f s ' c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s c o m p l a i n t s o f h u n g e r , t h e s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l made e f f o r t s t o p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s i n a good l i g h t . W h i l e i t i s n o r m a l t o have good f o o d when g u e s t s a r e i n v i t e d , t h e a c t i o n s e r v e d t o t h r o w d o u b t on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a c c u s a t i o n s and t o c a l m t h e p a r e n t s ' a p p r e h e n s i o n s . I n 1946, C h i e f Andrew P a u l l , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , a f t e r much l o b b y i n g was p e r m i t t e d t o a d d r e s s a R o y a l C o m m i s i o n a p p o i n t e d t o c o n s i d e r r e v i s i o n s t o t h e I n d i a n A c t . He p r e s e n t e d N a t i v e p e o p l e ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n s a b o u t a 35 number o f i s s u e s i n c l u d i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . One i n f o r m a n t r e c a l l e d : " P a r e n t s were b e g i n n i n g t o c o m p l a i n a b o u t t h e way t h e c h i l d r e n were b e i n g f e d a n d . . . t h e way t h e i r c h i l d r e n were b e i n g t r e a t e d . . . .The I n d i a n p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s s t a r t e d f i g h t i n g f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . Then 142 i n 1 945, w e S o t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e l a t e Andy P a u l l . .and f r o m t h e n on we s t a r t e d f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . . . .They f o u g h t f o r b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n ; t h e y f o u g h t f o r b e t t e r t r e a t m e n t . They f o u n d o u t a l o t o f t h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e . . . d i d n ' t h ave no c h a n c e i n l i f e u n l e s s t h e y were [ f r o m ] a s t r o n g f a m i l y o r y o u were a s t r o n g p e r s o n . . . .You had t o be t o l d what t i m e t o e a t , what t i m e t o go t o bed , what t i m e t o b a t h , what t i m e t o c h a n g e , a l l t h i s t y p e o f t h i n g . " 36 T h r o u g h p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , s t i m u l a t e d by t h e i r own and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e s a t t h e s c h o o l , t h e t w e n t y y e a r c a m p a i g n t o c l o s e t h e s c h o o l b e g an. On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , s t r o n g a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e p a r e n t s had i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t . The c h i l d r e n were u p s e t by t h e c r u e l t e a t m e n t t h e y were r e c e i v i n g a t t h e hands o f t h e m u s i c i n s t r u c t o r . "We had been s n e a k i n g l e t t e r s home t o o u r p a r e n t s [ a b o u t ] how we were b e i n g t r e a t e d h e r e . . . .The C h i e f f r o m home came one weekend w i t h two o t h e r c h i e f s . They came and. . .we went t o t h e p a r l o u r and v i s i t e d w i t h h i m . He t o l d us what t h e y were p l a n n i n g t o do, s a i d , ' I f anybody g e t s b e a t up a g a i n by t h i s Mr. , we want t o know a b o u t i t . * So t h i s one n i g h t we were a l l down i n t h e d i n i n g room and we were p r a c t i c i n g hymns. And g i r l s were g e t t i n g i r r i t a t e d b e c a u s e he s a i d he w a s n ' t s a t i s f i e d . . . .And t h i s was g e t t i n g t o w a r d s m i d n i g h t and we were g e t t i n g t i r e d . He went a l o n g t o t h e s e n i o r b e n c h and he l i s t e n e d . He p u t h i s e a r r i g h t down t o t h e i r mouth and A w a s n ' t even s i n g i n g . She was mad. T h e r e was a n o t h e r g i r l . . . .He s l a p p e d A b u t [ t h e o t h e r g i r l ] , . . a n s w e r e d h i m back and t h a t j u s t b l e w him. He h i t h e r w i t h t h e h a r m o n i c a and she s t a r t e d b l e e d i n g . I t s p l i t h e r h e a d . And t h a t ' s when e v e r y b o d y s t a r t e d s c r e a m i n g and t h e y a l l r a n o u t when t h e y s e e n b l o o d . And he j u s t went w i l d , g r a b b e d h e r and s h o o k t h e h e l l o u t o f h e r . And she r a n . . . . W i t h i n two d a y s , [ t h e c h i e f s ] were h e r e . . . .And I remember. . . [ o n e ] a t t a c k i n g t h e g u y . He t o l d h i m i f he d i d n ' t l e a v e t h e s c h o o l t h a t he w o u l d c h a r g e h i m . . . .And I remember t h a t o l d guy l e a v i n g . The n e x t y e a r he came b a c k i n a b r o t h e r s u i t : he became a b r o t h e r . . . .And. . . [ t h e c h i e f ] came a g a i n when we t o l d h i m t h a t t h i s Mr. i s a 143 B r o t h e r . . . and he i s b a c k . And t h e c h i e f came and r e a l l y r a i s e d h e l l w i t h h i m , t o l d h i m ' I d o n ' t c a r e i f you come c a m o u f l a g e d i n a p r i e s t s u i t . . . we t o l d y ou t o l e a v e . We d o n ' t want you b a c k . G e t ! ' He d i s a p p e a r e d and we've n e v e r s e e n him s i n c e . " 37 A l t h o u g h l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and p a r e n t s had l i t t l e power t o a f f e c t t h e e v e r y d a y l i f e o f t h e s c h o o l , i n e x t r e m e i n c i d e n t s s u c h as t h e one d e s c r i b e d , t h e y t o o k power and w i e l d e d i t f o r c e f u l l y . T h i s m o r a l s u p p o r t h e l p e d t h e c h i l d r e n d e a l w i t h t h e h a r d s h i p s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e and i n s p i r e d them t o c o n t i n u e t o b e l i e v e i n t h e i r p e o p l e ' s s t r e n g t h . P a r e n t s a l s o became d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s w e l f a r e . One p e r s o n d e s c r i b e d h e r p a r e n t s ' h o r r o r a t t h e head s h a v i n g and k e r o s e n e t r e a t m e n t h e r s i s t e r had r e c e i v e d . The k e r o s e n e had b u r n e d t h e g i r l ' s h e a d . As t h e c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s w e re c o m m i s e r a t i n g i n t h e p a r l o u r d u r i n g a f a m i l y v i s i t , t h e h a p l e s s p r i e s t w a l k e d i n : "Dad j u s t g r a b b e d h i m and sh o o k h i m up." The i r a t e f a t h e r t r i e d t o 38 r e l i e v e h i s s e n s e o f h e l p l e s s f r u s t r a t i o n c a u s e d by h i s d a u g h t e r ' s p l i g h t . The same i n f o r m a n t d e s c r i b e d a n o t h e r v i s i t by h e r p a r e n t s . She was on a s p e c i a l d i e t t o p r e v e n t a l l e r g i e s . "They t r i e d t o make me e a t what e v e r y b o d y e l s e was e a t i n g . . .1 w o u l d n ' t e a t so she made t h a t p l a t e s i t t h e r e u n t i l t h e n e x t meal and I s t i l l w o u l d n ' t e a t . . . T h i s went on f o r f o u r m e a l s . . . .We s n u c k a l e t t e r o u t . . . .So t h e n e x t d ay, my mum and dad b o t h came. . . .They knew we were e a t i n g so t h e y j u s t w a l k e d r i g h t down t o t h a t room. . . .My dad w a l k e d i n t o w h e r e t h e nuns and p r i e s t s were e a t i n g . .and he s a i d t o t h a t p r i e s t , 'And y o u e x p e c t my d a u g h t e r t o e a t t h i s s l o p and you guys a r e i n t h e r e e a t i n g l i k e k i n g s and q u e e n s . ' " 39 F o l l o w i n g t h e e n s u i n g a l t e r c a t i o n , a l l a g r e e d t h a t t h e 1 4 4 s p e c i a l d i e t w o u l d be r e - i n s t a t e d . A g a i n t h e c h i l d was g i v e n a s e n s e o f h a v i n g some r i g h t s i n an a p p a r e n t l y inhuamne e n v i r o n m e n t . The p o c k e t s o f r e l s t a n c e were s i g n i f i c a n t a t K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l . Those s t u d e n t s n o t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n o p p o s i n g t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e few. A t t i m e s , t h e o p p r e s s i o n p r o d u c e d c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e s : g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n who d e f i n e d r o l e s , p r o j e c t s and ways o f d a i l y l i f e f o r and w i t h one a n o t h e r . They d i d so w i t h o u t t h e s a n c t i o n o f , and i n some c a s e s , w i t h o u t even t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h o s e who o f f i c i a l l y h e l d t h e power o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s c h o o l a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e s e o p p o s i t i o n movements l i v e c l e a r l y i n p e o p l e ' s m e m o r i e s as t i m e s o f s t r e n g t h . F a s c i n a t i o n and f e a r a r e r e c u r r i n g themes f o r p e o p l e d i s c u s s i n g t h e s u b - c u l t u r e s . T h e r e i s wonder a t t h e i n v e n t i v e n e s s o f t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e r o l e s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d and some f e a r a t t h e r e c k l e s s n e s s o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d and t h e e x t e n t s t o w h i c h s t u d e n t s went t o d e f i n e t h e i r v e r s i o n s o f power and c o n t r o l , A t t h e same t i m e , n o t one i n t e r v i e w e e i n v o l v e d i n t h e t h i e v e r y , t h e gang w a r f a r e o r t h e o t h e r f o r m s o f r e s i s t a n c e i n d i c a t e d any s e n s e o f r e g r e t f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s . I n r e t r o s p e c t t h e y a r e v i e w e d as t h e a c t i o n s o f s t r o n g p e o p l e a g a i n s t a s y s t e m w h i c h d e g r a d e d and d e h u m a n i z e d . 145 CHAPTER .VI: Fac-tnot.es 1. W i l l i s 84 2. I n f o r m a n t 3. 1.2:11 4. 1.3:19-20 5. 1.5:1 6. 1.3:21 7. 1.10:7 8. 1.1:2 9. 1.10:2-4 10. 1.5:2 1 1. 1.7:7 12. 1.7:8 13. 1.8:2 14. 1.7:8 15. 1.9:1 16. 1.13:16 17. 1.4:16 18. 1.5:12 19. 1.5:2 20. 1.5:2 21 . 1.6:19 22. 1.6:14 23 . 1.3:13 24. 1.11:8 25. 1.11:8 26. 1.11:8 27. 1.6:6 CHAPTER m . Footnotes (continued) 28. 1.4:3-5 29. 1.1:1 30. I. 3:15 31. 1.4:25 32. Kamloops Indian R e s i d e n t i a l School, School R e g i s t e r f o r 1947 (Kamloops: Secwepeme C u l t u r a l Education S o c i e t y A r c h i v e s ) 33. Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s f o r the Province of B.C., T r a n s c r i p t s (Kamloops: Secwepeme C u l t u r a l Education S o c i e t y , 1913) 75-76 34. 1.3:12 35. S.J.C., 1946. 419 36. 1.2:22-24 37. 1.5:3 38: 1.10:2 39. 1.10:31 147 CHAPTER V I I : GOING HOME "Who a r e y o u , who a r e y o u ? I h a v e t o a d m i t t o them, t o m y s e l f I am an I n d i a n . " F r a n c e s K a t a s s e 1 E v e n t u a l l y t h e t i m e came f o r l e a v i n g s c h o o l . Some s t u d e n t s w e r e s e n t home when t h e y became i l l . O t h e r s who r a n away were a l l o w e d t o s t a y home. Some s t u d e n t s , t h o s e who d i e d a t t h e s c h o o l , n e v e r went home. "She was a r e a l l y g o o d f r i e n d . T a t o o i n g y o u r h a n d s [was common.] And she done t h a t , s h e u s e d a common p i n o r n e e d l e . . .and w r o t e h e r i n i t i a l s on h e r h a n d a n d t h e n i t g o t b l o o d p o i s o n i n g f r o m t h e i n k . L i k e h e r hand was s w e l l i n g a n d s w e l l i n g . Two o r t h r e e d a y s l a t e r . . . .she s t a r t e d g e t t i n g a f e v e r . So she showed t h e nun and t h e y j u s t s e n t h e r t o b e d . And when she must h a v e b e e n i n b e d a b o u t two d a y s . . .she was g e t t i n g so she w a s n ' t e v e n h e r s e l f . . . .And she j u s t l a y i n bed a n d two d a y s l a t e r she d i e d . " 2 O t h e r r e p o r t s o f d e a t h by t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d i n c l u d e one a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h by h a n g i n g when some c h i l d r e n l e f t a p l a y m a t e who was p r e t e n d i n g t o be an o u t l a w . The box he was s t a n d i n g o n s l i p p e d f r o m u n d e r h i m when no one was t h e r e . By t h e t i m e someone n o t i c e d h i m m i s s i n g f r o m s c h o o l , t h e e n s u i n g s e a r c h was t o o l a t e . C h i l d r e n who became i l l w i t h s c a r l e t f e v e r , t u b e r c u l o s i s a n d o t h e r d i s e a s e s w e r e s e n t home o r t o h o s p i t a l s . Many n e v e r r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l . O t h e r s l e f t s c h o o l when t h e y r e a c h e d t h e f i n a l g r a d e o f f e r e d : f o r many y e a r s , i t was g r a d e e i g h t . From 1951-1 959 f some p e o p l e g r a d u a t e d a s h i g h s c h o o l was i n t r o d u c e d . B e g i n n i n g i n 1960, h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d s c h o o l a t S t . A n n ' s Academy i n K a m l o o p s . 3 148 Most s t u d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d c r e d i t t h e s c h o o l w i t h m a k i n g them t o u g h . I n a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n "What d i d y o u l e a r n i n s c h o o l ? ' ' , one r e s p o n d e n t r e p l i e d , "To w a t c h y o u r s e l f and i n d e p e n d e n c e . " N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h e a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s were o f l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s p e r s o n . An o l d e r p e r s o n summed up h e r e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s way: " A l l i n a l l my l i f e h a s n ' t r e a l l y been t h a t bad. I t i s j u s t k n o w i n g I went t h r o u g h t h a t h u m i l i a t i o n and t h a t h u r t , t h a t l o w s e l f - e s t e e m and h a v i n g come ou t o f i t . And n e v e r l e a v i n g t h a t h a t e l e a v e a s c a r on me. I d o n ' t h a t e anymore. . . . I do g e t a n g r y b u t i t d o e s n ' t mean I h a t e a n y b o d y . . T h a t ' s t h e s t r e n g t h I g o t f r o m what I went t h r o u g h . I n a l o t o f ways I have t h i s p l a c e [ K . I . R . S . ] and t h e p e o p l e t h a t p u t me t h r o u g h i t t o t h a n k f o r t h e s t r e n g t h I g o t . . .a l o t o f s t r e n g t h t o f i g h t b a c k and t h a t s t r e n g t h I g o t i s w h a t ' s made me i n t o t h e woman I am t o d a y . " 5 A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t c o n c u r r e d : " I n r e t r o s p e c t , t h e r e a r e t i m e s when I t h a n k them [ t h e t o u g h b o y s ] f o r i t b e c a u s e t h e y p u t f i g h t i n t o me p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y . They h e l p e d make me m e n t a l l y t o u g h b e c a u s e I met o t h e r t o u g h s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h were n o t as t o u g h as t h a t . . . .And h a v i n g s u r v i v e d t h a t , I t h i n k I c a n s u r v i v e a n y t h i n g . " 6 F o r o t h e r s t u d e n t s t h e s c h o o l ' s s t e r n d i s c i p l i n e was a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y e f f e c t i v e . As one y o u n g e r i n t e r v i e w e e s a i d , "My e x p e r i e n c e i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l made me a p a s s i v e , o b e d i e n t p e r s o n . " T h i s p e r s o n f e l t s t r o n g l y t h e o p p r e s s i v e n a t u r e o f 7 t h e o n s l a u g h t a g a i n s t h e r c u l t u r e . " I w o u l d sum i t up by s a y i n g t h a t t h e y were d e f i n i t e l y s t r i p p i n g us o f o u r c u l t u r e . . . .The r e m i g h t have been w o r k e r s who d i d n ' t know e x a c t l y what was h a p p e n i n g but t h e y had t o f o l l o w r u l e s . T h e r e was no d o u b t t h a t t h e y were d r i v i n g o u t t h e c u l t u r e . 8 Some o f t h e l e s s o n s had e f f e c t s o p p o s i t e t o t h o s e i n t e n d e d . "They s t r e s s r e l i g i o n o v e r e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . . G o i n g t o c h u r c h was more i m p o r t a n t t o them t h a n 119 t h e c l a s s e s . . . .The r e l i g i o n p a r t was h a b i t . . . . I t was j u s t a t h i n g you done day i n and day o u t . I f t h o s e k i d s w o u l d s u d d e n l y have t o go and p r a y on t h e s i d e o f a m o u n t a i n by t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y w o u l d n ' t know how. . . .1 t h i n k when t h e y were s a y i n g t h e i r g r a c e f o r t h e i r m e a l , t h e y were l o o k i n g a t what k i n d o f u g l y s t u f f t h e y were g e t t i n g . . . .Mass was c e l e b r a t e d i n L a t i n and we d i d n ' t know what we were s a y i n g . . . . I t ' s j u s t l i k e a p u n i s h m e n t g o i n g t o c h u r c h . " 9 T h i s same man commented t h a t he'd l e a r n e d more a b o u t l i f e w h i l e i n t h e army t h a n he d i d i n s c h o o l . " I n t h e s c h o o l , we d i d n ' t l e a r n a n y t h i n g a b o u t l i f e , o t h e r t h a n r e a d , and w r i t e and a r i t h m e t i c and a l o w g r a d e and g o i n g t o c h u r c h . " 10 When p e o p l e were f i n i s h e d s c h o o l and r e t u r n e d home, some r e - a d j u s t e d q u i c k l y t o t h e i r f a m i l y ' s ways. One young woman a l w a y s a k e e n l e a r n e r f o u n d g o i n g home e x c i t i n g . " I went home and I s t a y e d home w i t h my m o t h e r . I h e l p e d . . . g a t h e r i n g f o o d s and l e a r n i n g how t o d r y s a l m o n . . . e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e t y p e o f f o o d and t h e [ t i m e o f ] y e a r t h a t t h e y a t e . I had t o a c q u i r e t h e t a s t e t o i t b e c a u s e I had f o r g o t t e n i t a f t e r so many y e a r s . . . .1 f o u n d t h a t I'm e a s y t o a d j u s t t o t h i n g s and I'm a l w a y s aware t h i s was an e x p e r i e n c e I w a n t e d t o l e a r n . I w a n t e d t o know how d i d my p a r e n t s s u r v i v e h e r e i n t h e w i n t e r . " 11 F o r a f e w , t h e i d e a o f s u c c e e d i n g i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y was c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f b e i n g Shuswap. One man who was h e s i t a t i n g a b o u t h i s p l a n s f o r l i f e a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n r e c e i v e d s t r o n g w o rds o f a d v i c e f r o m an e l d e r . " I c o m p l a i n e d , ' I w o u l d l i k e t o be a d o c t o r o r a t e a c h e r b u t I'm j u s t an I n d i a n and I n d i a n s d o n ' t become d o c t o r s . ' And I ' d keep on t h i s . ' I w o u l d l i k e t o go t o b i g s c h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y t h e y c a l l i t . . . . T h e r e ' s nobody t h e r e who's I n d i a n . ' She was a l i t t l e t i n y woman. She jumped up and s t a m p e d h e r f e e t . . . .She s a i d , ' T h a t ' s an e x c u s e . . . .You have h a n d s , you have a m i n d , you have p e o p l e who l i v e d l o n g b e f o r e y o u who had a c o n t r o l o f l i f e . . . . T h a t i s I n d i a n . T h a t i s Shuswap. You have i t f l o w i n g t h r o u g h y o u r v e i n s . . . . I t i s b e c a u s e yo u a r e an I n d i a n t h a t y o u do w e l l 150 w h a t e v e r you do. . . . " 12 T h i s a d v i c e was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g i v i n g t h e p e r s o n t h e s t r e n g t h t o a c c e p t h i s I n d i a n n e s s w i t h p r i d e and t o b u i l d a s u c c e s s f u l and happy l i f e on t h a t f o u n d a t i o n . F o r o t h e r s c u l t u r a l c l a s h e s s u r f a c e d . F o r t h e women who l e f t i n t h e f o r t i e s , a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s were t h e f o c u s o f c o n f l i c t . One p e r s o n who r e t u r n e d t o w o r k a t t h e s c h o o l t o a v o i d h e r p a r e n t s ' d e c i s i o n e n l i s t e d h e r b r o t h e r ' s s u p p o r t . He s a i d : " W r i t e t o F a t h e r . W e ' l l w r i t e h i m a l e t t e r and w e ' l l t e l l h im a l l a b o u t i t . You d o n ' t want t o g e t m a r r i e d and you want t o keep on g o i n g t o s c h o o l . . . .So b o t h o f u s . . . w r o t e a l o n g l e t t e r . . .and q u i t e a few d a y s l a t e r , my mum and dad g o t a l e t t e r t h a t I was t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l . And my mum was v e r y a n g r y . " 13 A n o t h e r woman e v e n t u a l l y m a r r i e d t h e p e r s o n h e r m o t h e r had c h o s e n . However, she d i d so when she f e l t r e a d y and o n l y a f t e r s p e n d i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e w o r k i n g . " S t i l l I was y e a r n i n g f o r more l e a r n i n g . A f t e r one y e a r a t home. . .1 g u e s s t h e r e a s o n I w a n t e d t o g e t o u t o f t h e r e was my m o t h e r w o u l d n ' t l e a v e me r e s t : I had t o g e t m a r r i e d . But I d i d n ' t want t o ; I w a s n ' t r e a d y y e t . . . .1 w a n t e d t o know what i t was t o be i n d e p e n d e n t . And I f o u g h t my m o t h e r ; I r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t h e r . " 14 She w o r k e d f o r d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s i n t h e a r e a as a h o u s e k e e p e r and began some r e a l l e a r n i n g . "The one t h i n g I s t o l e f r o m t h e s c h o o l . . .was an o l d t o r n up d i c t i o n a r y . . . . The t h i n g t h a t I l e a r n e d when I was w i t h them [ t h e p e o p l e I w o r k e d f o r ] , we u s e d t o s i t a r o u n d t h e b r e a k f a s t t a b l e and d i n n e r t a b l e and I u s e d t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n . I ' d h e a r a w o r d . One word t h a t a l w a y s s t i c k s i n my m i n d , .was t h e w o r d n a i v e . I t h o u g h t , 'Gee, t h a t ' s a new word.* A f t e r I f i n i s h e d e a t i n g , I e x c u s e d m y s e l f , I r a n ' up t o my bedroom. I l o o k e d t h r o u g h my d i c t i o n a r y and I s t u d i e d how you s p e l l i t and how 151 you p r o n o u n c e i t and what i s t h e m e a n i n g . Then a few d a y s l a t e r , I ' d t r y t o use i t i n my own c o n v e r s a t i o n . . . . And t h e r e were many words a f t e r t h a t . . . .1 r e a d books one a f t e r a n o t h e r . . .and I began t o l e a r n . I l e a r n e d how t o e x p r e s s m y s e l f and I l e a r n e d how t o t a l k a l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n I l e a r n e d i n h e r e [ K . I . R . S . ] . " 15 A l t h o u g h t h e r e a d i n g s k i l l s she had l e a r n e d i n s c h o o l a l l o w e d h e r t o p r o c e e d i n t h i s way, u n f o r t u n a t e l y s c h o o l had n e v e r p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h i s k i n d o f i n v e s t i g a t i v e and s t i m u l a t i n g e d u c a t i o n . O n l y a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m and f i n d i n g a new s e n s e o f p u r p o s e and s e l f - w o r t h d i d t h i s p e r s o n f e e l h e r i m p o r t a n t l e a r n i n g b e g an. F o r b o t h women i n t e r v i e w e d , d e f y i n g t h e i r p a r e n t s ' w i s h e s f o r i m m e d i a t e m a r r i a g e was i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d b a s e d on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s a t s c h o o l . Whether i t was a p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l ' s t a c t i c s t o a t t a c k t h e i d e a o f a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s o r i f i t had m e r e l y t a u g h t them d e f i a n c e i s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , b o t h woman d i d d e f y t h e i r p a r e n t s ' w i s h e s . N e i t h e r m e n t i o n e d comments by t h e s c h o o l r e l a t e d t o a r r a n g i n g m a r r i a g e s . B e c a u s e E u r o p e a n s had d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e p r a c t i c e , one may assume t h a t t h e s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l w o u l d o p p o s e t h e i d e a and c o n s e q u e n t l y s u p p o r t t h e women i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n . The w h o l e a r e a o f s e x u a l i t y p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r f o c u s f o r c l a s h e s . The c h i l d r e n had been t a u g h t i n s c h o o l t o de-e m p h a s i z e s e x u a l i t y . I n t r a d i t i o n a l Shuswap l i f e , i t was v i e w e d as a n a t u r a l p a r t o f l i f e . A woman who a t t e n d e d s c h o o l f o r o n l y t h r e e y e a r s d e s c r i b e d h e r g r a n d m o t h e r ' s t e a c h i n g s a b o u t s e x . 152 "When I was g r o w i n g up and g e t t i n g i n t o womanhood, [ G r a n n y ] t o l d me. . . 'You g o t a b e a u t i f u l b ody; you l o o k a f t e r t h a t body. . . .Don't abuse i t . ' S h e t o l d me a b o u t t h e f a c t s o f l i f e ; she t o l d me how t o c l e a n s e my body. . . . I ' d l o o k a t m y s e l f and I ' d s a y t o m y s e l f ' . . .Granny a l w a y s s a y s my body i s b e a u t i f u l . Look a f t e r i t w i t h g r e a t r e s p e c t . ' " 16 I n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p h y s i c a l s e l f , t h e r e l i g i o u s p e o p l e a t s c h o o l i n s i s t e d i n c o v e r i n g t h e body a t a l l t i m e s . P e o p l e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y were t o l d t o wear t h e i r u n d e r w e a r i n t h e s hower and t h a t t h e i r b r e a s t s were n e v e r t o be s e e n e v e n as t h e y c h a n g e d c l o t h e s . Sex was n o t a t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e s c h o o l . "The nuns were r e a l l y p a t h e t i c . . . . L a t e r on as an a d u l t , I t a l k e d t o them. They s a i d , 'We t h o u g h t you k i d s knew l o t s , ' b e c a u s e we came f r o m t h e r e s e r v e . And we knew n o t h i n g . " 17 A woman who a t t e n d e d s c h o o l t e n y e a r s l a t e r f o u n d what she l e a r n e d a b o u t s e x had t r e m e n d o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n h e r l i f e . " I was r e a l l y s c a r e d . . . . E v e r y t i m e I went t o t h e washroom. . . i t ' s wrong. You b e t t e r n o t t o u c h y o u r s e l f . . . . I f I l o o k e d a t somebody:. . . l u s t , s e x , and I g o t s c a r e d o f t h o s e s e x u a l f e e l i n g s . And I d i d n ' t know how t o h a n d l e them. . . . What r e a l l y c o n f u s e d me was i f i n t e r c o u r s e was a s i n , why a r e p e o p l e b o r n ? . . . I t t o o k me a r e a l l y l o n g t i m e t o g e t o v e r t h e f a c t t h a t . . . I ' v e s i n n e d : I had a c h i l d . " 18 A l t h o u g h b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l Shuswap and C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n s e m p h a s i z e d t h a t s e x s h o u l d be c o n f i n e d t o m a r r i a g e , t h e methods f o r p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e v i e w s a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y . T r a d i t i o n a l Shuswap v a l u e s e m p h a s i z e t h e p o s i t i v e : t h a t t h e body i s b e a u t i f u l and s h o u l d be c a r e d f o r a c c o r d i n g l y . " I ' v e a l w a y s been a Shuswap and I ' v e a l w a y s been a woman. I l o o k e d a f t e r m y s e l f and I a l w a y s b e l i e v e t h a t where my c h i l d r e n come f r o m , t h a t ' s l i k e a t e m p l e . " 153 The C a t h o l i c c o n t r o l s d e s c r i b e d by i n f o r m a n t s s t r e s s e d t h e n e g a t i v e : s e x i s c l o s e l y t i e d w i t h s i n ; d a i l y c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o p p o s i t e s e x can l e a d t o s i n i n t h o u g h t , word o r d e e d . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t y r a n n i c a l c o n t r o l s i m p o s e d by t h e s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l , t h e t h r e a t o f s i n and h e l l f i r e w e r e v i s u a l i z e d as a p p r o p r i a t e means o f m i n i m i z i n g s e x u a l t h o u g h t s o f any k i n d . O t h e r t h a n t h e s e t h r e a t s , t h e most common c o n t r o l was t o i g n o r e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s e x u a l i t y — t o c o v e r b o d i e s and n e v e r t o m e n t i o n t h e t o p i c . T h i s n e g a t i v i s m c l a s h e d w i t h Shuswap i d e a s and f o r a number o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d c r e a t e d p r o b l e m s w h i c h r e q u i r e d c a r e f u l r e s o l u t i o n i n l a t e r l i f e . N a t i v e l a n g u a g e s were a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e f o r p e o p l e g o i n g home. As ha s been n o t e d , t h e use o f Shuswap, Thompson, C h i l c o t i n o r any o t h e r N a t i v e l a n g u a g e was f o r b i d d e n i n t h e s c h o o l . A l t h o u g h s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n s a t t e n d i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l f r e q u e n t l y d i d n o t s p e a k t h e i r l a n g u a g e , t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n managed t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r k n o w l e d g e a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y . Many who s t a r t e d s c h o o l a t n i n e o r t e n have e i t h e r r e t a i n e d t h e i r f l u e n c y o r r e g a i n e d i t w i t h t h e r e c e n t d e v e l o p i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l a n g u a g e t o c u l t u r e . Those who l e f t s c h o o l i n t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s f o u n d some need t o r e a d j u s t t o u s i n g t h e l a n g u a g e . One i n f o r m a n t commented: "You know s o m e t h i n g f u n n y a b o u t s p e a k i n g y o u r own l a n g u a g e . When I f i r s t come o u t o f s c h o o l , I was e m b a r a s s e d t o s p e a k my l a n g u a g e i n f r o n t o f w h i t e p e o p l e . . . .Now I s p e a k Shuswap any p l a c e and any t i m e . . .but i t t o o k a b o u t t h r e e or f o u r y e a r s . . . t o g e t away f r o m t h a t e m b a r r a s s m e n t o f s p e a k i n g i t on t h e s t r e e t . . . .They j u s t a b o u t b r a i n w a s h e d us o u t o f i t . " 20 154 W i t h i n t h e s e words l i e a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t by t h e s c h o o l t o e r a d i c a t e t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e ' s l a n g u a g e . Not o n l y were s t u d e n t s f o r b i d d e n t o s p e a k i t i n s c h o o l , t h e y were a l s o c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i r use o f t h e l a n g u a g e was an i n d i c a t i o n o f i n f e r i o r i t y . The i m p o r t a t t a c h e d t o p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n f o r Shuswap p e o p l e has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . I n t h i s c a s e , i t was i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n d o c t r i n a t i o n w h i c h was hoped w o u l d s e r v e as a c o n t r o l even a f t e r p e o p l e had l e f t t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f i t s p e r p e t r a t o r s . The f a c t t h a t some p e o p l e d i d n o t manage t o r e s i s t t h e s e c o n t r o l s i s i n d i s p u t a b l e . A l t h o u g h one p e r s o n who c o n t i n u e s t o s p e a k h i s l a n g u a g e p u z z l e d a b o u t t h o s e who swore t h a t t h e y had f o r g o t t e n how t o s p e a k t h e i r l a n g u a g e , a n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s h e d some i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t on t h e s u b j e c t . " I s p o k e I n d i a n when I went t o s c h o o l . I c o u l d s p e a k some E n g l i s h b e c a u s e [my s i s t e r s ] went t o s c h o o l . So y o u l e a r n t . They t o l d you when t h e y came b a c k . . .'You c a n ' t s p e a k I n d i a n ; you g o t t o s p e a k E n g l i s h . I f you s p e a k I n d i a n , you g e t w h i p p e d . I t t o o k them a l o n g t i m e t o g e t i t o u t o f me. And t o t h i s d a y. . .1 s p e a k some w o r d s . . .but I d o n ' t s p e a k i t f l u e n t l y . I u s e d t o be a b l e t o s p e a k i t f l u e n t l y b e f o r e I went t o s c h o o l . ' 1 21 She t h e n d e s c r i b e d h e r r e c e n t a t t e n d a n c e a t a s p i r i t u a l s w e a t ceremony i n w h i c h she c o u l d t e m p o r a r i l y s p e a k h e r l a n g u a g e f l u e n t l y . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l s d e v e l o p e d by t h e s c h o o l p r e v e n t h e r f r o m s p e a k i n g i t . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y a l s o e x i s t s t h a t some k e y , p e r h a p s t h e r a p y t o c r e a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s y s t e m w h i c h " g o t i t o u t o f h e r , " c o u l d e n a b l e h e r t o s p e a k t h e l a n g u a g e a g a i n . D i s c u s s i o n w i t h a p e r s o n who has r e t u r n e d t o 155 h i s l a n g u a g e a f t e r t i m e away c o n f i r m s t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . "Most o f my Shuswap was l e a r n e d f r o m b i r t h t o t h e t i m e I come t o s c h o o l . . .And I l e f t t h e l a n g u a g e u n t i l t e n y e a r s ago. T h a t ' s r o u g h l y a p e r i o d o f t h i r t y y e a r s when I d i d n ' t have t h e l a n g u a g e s p o k e n . I s p o k e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y w i t h some e l d e r s b u t when I r e t u r n e d t o t h e l a n g u a g e I had no d i f f i c u l t y a t a l l . I'm f l u e n t . I was f l u e n t when I was e i g h t and I t e a c h t h e l a n g u a g e now." 22 A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t who commented " I s h o u l d n ' t e v e n s a y I'm p r o u d ; I had t o put w o r d s t o i t . I t ' s my l a n g u a g e ; i t ' s who I am," p r o v i d e d more i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t a l a n g u a g e l e a r n e d i n c h i l d h o o d r e m a i n s b u r i e d i n t h e m i n d . " T h e r e a r e a l o t o f words I h a v e n ' t s a i d y e t , but i t ' s i n my c o m p u t e r [ b r a i n ] , I f o u n d t h a t o u t l a s t y e a r : I n e v e r s a i d ' S I ' gh g e e ' and y e t I know i t . I n e v e r s a i d i t t h r o u g h my mouth. . . . T h e r e ' s a l o t o f words i n t h e r e I h a v e n ' t s a i d t h r o u g h my mouth y e t b e c a u s e t h o s e w e r e p u t i n when I d i d n ' t need t o use t h o s e w o r d s . Now as an a d u l t I need t o use them." 23 F o r t h o s e who came t o s c h o o l w i t h t h e i r l a n g u a g e , t h e i r c h a n c e s o f r e t e n t i o n w e r e r e l a t i v e l y good p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h summer v i s i t s t o r e i n f o r c e i t s u s e . P e r h a p s t h e s c h o o l ' s b i g g e s t e f f e c t on l a n g u a g e use c o u l d be c a l l e d s e c o n d a r y : a l t h o u g h p u n i s h i n g c h i l d r e n f o r s p e a k i n g t h e i r l a n g u a g e d i d n o t e r a d i c a t e i t , as a d u l t s many c o n s c i o u s l y d i d n o t t e a c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n a N a t i v e l a n g u a g e so t h a t t h e y m i g h t a v o i d t h e p u n i s h m e n t s i n c u r r e d t h r o u g h use o f i t a t s c h o o l . O t h e r s b e l i e v e d t h e p r o p a g a n d a d e s i g n e d t o c o n v i n c e them t h a t Shuswap was u n i m p o r t a n t . T h i s g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l has had d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s on t h e c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s a t t e n d e d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . Many o f them have n e v e r l e a r n e d t h e i r N a t i v e l a n g u a g e . F o r many p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d K . I . R . S . t h e r e l i g i o u s 156 t e a c h i n g s l e a d t o c o n f u s i o n and l a c k o f f a i t h . " T h e r e was a l o t o f t i m e s I u s e d t o wonder why God d i d n ' t a n swer my p r a y e r s . P e o p l e s a i d i f you p r a y , God w i l l h e a r y o u . I t seemed l i k e I p r a y e d so much, I u s e d t o p r a y t o go home and. . .you j u s t c o u l d n ' t go home. I u s e d t o wonder what k i n d o f God i t was. . . . I t was h a r d t o t a k e r e l i g i o n . " 24 T h i s p e r s o n has s i n c e moved away f r o m t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h w h i c h had l i t t l e m e a n i n g f o r h e r . O t h e r have managed t o combine t h e i r C a t h o l i c b e l i e f s w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l o n e s . "I'm a C a t h o l i c t o d a y , a p r a c t i c i n g C a t h o l i c . And w h a t e v e r I b e l i e v e f r o m my a n c e s t r y i s r e a l and I b e l i e v e i n t h a t . I want t o l i v e as b e s t I c o u l d . .On my own s p i r i t u a l i s m o f my p e o p l e , I know t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g t h e r e and I know i t ' s r e a l . . . They [ C a t h o l i c and t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n s ] a r e n o t [ m u t u a l l y e x l u s i v e ] e s p e c i a l l y i f you g e t away f r o m t h e m o r t a l s i n and God's g o i n g t o p u n i s h y o u . . . .God i s l o v e . He made e a c h o f u s . " . 25 T h i s p o s i t i v e a p p r o a c h t o a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e two ways o f s p i r i t u a l i t y has l e d t h i s p e r s o n t o a p e a c e f u l r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n t h e two. Not a l l p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d t h e K a mloops I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l managed t o r e a c h s u c h a c o m p r o m i s e . F o r m e r s t u d e n t s who a r e now p a r e n t s r e c o g n i z e t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f a m i l y u n i t s . One i n f o r m a n t commented, "The r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s t o o k away t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p a r e n t s b e c a u s e t h e p a r e n t s d i d n ' t see t h e k i d s a l l y e a r . " C h i l d r e n l e a r n p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s by t h e 26 way t h e y a r e p a r e n t e d . Those who s p e n t e i g h t , t e n o r more y e a r s a t K . I . R . S . had l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e as f a m i l y members. I n t h e same way t h a t t h e i r l a n g u a g e use i s b a s e d on t h e k n o w l e d g e t h e y g a i n e d b e f o r e g o i n g t o s c h o o l , so t h e i r p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s must draw on t h a t l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e . 157 A l c o h o l a l s o became a f o r c e i n t h e l i v e s o f some f a m i l i e s . Some p a r e n t s , h e a r t b r o k e n a t t h e l o s s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and o b j e c t s o f c o n t i n u i n g o p p r e s s i o n f r o m a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y e s c a p e d t h e s e p r e s s u r e s w i t h a l c o h o l . F o r some c h i l d r e n a l c o h o l became t h e norm on v i s i t s home. "When we s t a r t e d c o m i n g home a t C h r i s t m a s t i m e , . i t was one b i g p a r t y . Even us k i d s g o t i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e d r i n k i n g . We s a t t h e r e and g o t as d r u n k as e v e r y b o d y e l s e d i d . . . .When I t h i n k a b o u t i t , we r e a l l y . . , b l a m e [ d ] Mum a l o t f o r what h a p p e n e d . And I t h i n k t h a t ' s p r o b a b l y a n o t h e r r e a s o n why she s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g was she t h o u g h t we d i d n ' t need h e r anymore." 27 T h i s p e r s o n saw two f o r c e s r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h e r m o t h e r ' s a l c o h o l i s m . Her m o t h e r f e l t u n needed and i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d f e l t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b l a m i n g h e r f o r s e n d i n g them t o s c h o o l . She w o u l d have them on t h e one h a n d , p l e a d i n g t o s t a y home, and t h e g o v e r n m e n t and c h u r c h on t h e o t h e r , i n s i s t i n g t h a t she se n d them t o s c h o o l . A d e s i r e t o e s c a p e f r o m t h e s e i n e s c a p a b l e p r e s s u r e s i s i n h e r e n t l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . S u i c i d e , t h e u l t i m a t e e s c a p e f r o m a h a r s h r e a l i t y , was a n o t h e r r o u t e t a k e n by d e s p a i r i n g p e o p l e . A l t h o u g h none o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d m e n t i o n e d v i c t i m s o f s u i c i d e , one p e r s o n c o n t e m p l a t e d i t when h e r l i f e a p p e a r e d t o be w i t h o u t m e a n i n g . " I s t a r t e d t o t h i n k , ' W e l l , t w e l v e y e a r s h e r e . I d o n ' t want t o be h e r e f o r t w e l v e y e a r s . ' By t h e t i m e I was i n g r a d e f i v e , t h e y u s e d t o l e t us go f o r w a l k s . . . .1 d e c i d e d . . . t o go down t o t h e Thompson R i v e r . . . . [ I t ] was r e a l l y h i g h ; i t was s p r i n g t i m e , I g u e s s and you c o u l d s e e t h a t t h e w a t e r was deep and I d o n ' t know how many t i m e s . 158 .1 u s e d t o t h i n k o f d r o w n i n g m y s e l f . I w o u l d be s t a n d i n g t h e r e and I w o u l d t h i n k 'Gee, l i f e c a n ' t c o n t i n u e l i k e t h i s . ' " 28 W h i l e blame f o r N a t i v e s u i c i d e s c a n n o t be l a i d e n t i r e l y w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , i t can be s e e n as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o p e o p l e ' s c o n f u s i o n o v e r v a l u e s and t h e m e a n i n g o f l i f e and s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e s o c i a l o p p r e s s i o n w h i c h may l e a d t o s u c h a t t e m p t s . P e r h a p s , one o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y l i e s w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e words and ways o f t h e e l d e r s and o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s s t i l l have t r e m e n d o u s i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r l i v e s and t h e l i v e s o f many Shuswap p e o p l e . D e s p i t e t h e y e a r s o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n g , p a r e n t a l and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s r e m a i n e d s t r o n g w i t h i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h e s . " [ G r a n n y ] had dreams. B e f o r e , I g u e s s t h r o u g h my C a t h o l i c t e a c h i n g , I t h o u g h t dreams and a l l t h e s e o t h e r t h i n g s w e re wrong l i k e s i n . But i n p r a y i n g a b o u t i t i n my a d u l t l i f e . . .we a l l have t h o s e p o w e r s . I ' v e come t o b e l i e v e t h a t . " 29 T r a d i t i o n a l ways a r e i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f t h e l i v e s o f most o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d . One p e r s o n r e p o r t e d on t h i s c u s t o m . " A l l t h e p e o p l e f r o m o u r way t e a c h us n e v e r use f o o d i n an a r g u m e n t . . . .You d o n ' t w i t h h o l d f o o d o r abuse i t i n an a r g u m e n t . Food i s s u s t e n a n c e . " 30 A n o t h e r p e r s o n f e e l s h e r g r a n d m o t h e r ' s p r e s e n c e i n t h e house w h i c h she i n h e r i t e d f r o m h e r . "Her s p i r i t i s r e a l l y s t r o n g i n t h e h o u s e . Sometimes i f I n e g l e c t t o do s o m e t h i n g , she l e t s me know, o r s o m e t i m e s i f I g e t b a l k y . . . s h e ' s g o t enough p a t i e n c e , s h e ' l l w a i t u n t i l I'm r e a d y b e c a u s e I s o m e t i m e s g e t s c a r e d o f what she i s t r y i n g t o t e a c h me." 31 She d e s c r i b e d b u r n i n g s a g e i n h e r house as a c l e a n s i n g 159 t e c h n i q u e w h i c h she had l e a r n e d by w a t c h i n g h e r g r a n d m o t h e r . " I j u s t w a t c h e d h e r . She n e v e r t o l d me n o t h i n g . She'd j u s t g e t i t and b u r n i t . " A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t d e s c r i b e s a c u s t o m 32 h e r g r a n d m o t h e r u s e d w i t h h e r t h a t she now u s e s w i t h h e r g r a n d c h i l d r e n . " I remember h e r d o i n g t h a t t o me [ g e s t u r i n g ] and s a y i n g , 'Whsst, w h s s t . ' T h a t was l i k e e v e r y e v e n i n g . And o t h e r t i m e s she w o u l d p a t my h a i r . . I t h i n k she t a l k e d t o me t h o s e t i m e s b u t she u s e d t o a l w a y s do t h a t , 'Whsst, W h s s t . ' I a l w a y s f i n d t h a t f u n n y . I do t h a t t o my g r a n d c h i l d r e n . I wonder what t h a t was a l l a b o u t , but my k y a a u s e d t o do t h a t t o me." 33 A l t h o u g h a p p a r e n t l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t l i t t l e d e t a i l s i n l i f e , i t i s t h i s u n q u e s t i o n i n g a c c e p t a n c e t h a t t h i s i s t h e way p e o p l e do t h i n g s w h i c h f o r m s some o f t h e b a s i s f o r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and s t r e n g t h . As a n o t h e r g r a n d m o t h e r was b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d , h e r g r a n d c h i l d r e n , y o u n g a d u l t s , s a t a t a n e a r b y k i t c h e n t a b l e p r e p a r i n g p i n e n e e d l e s f o r " G r a n n y ' s m e d i c i n e . " I n many ways, t h e t r a d i t i o n s a r e p e r p e t u a t e d . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e s u r v i v o r s . The a l c o h o l i s m and t h e s u i c i d e s t a t i s t i c s s p e a k f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The i n f o r m a n t s , who were s u b j e c t e d t o a m a s s i v e o n s l a u g h t a g a i n s t t h e i r c u l t u r e and a l l i t s t o o d f o r h a v e , i n a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e human s p i r i t grown, c h a n g e d , d e v e l o p e d and a t t h e same t i m e r e m a i n e d c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r a n c e s t r y . T h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s , t h e s u r v i v o r s have r e s i s t e d t h e c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n a r o u n d them. The p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d K . I . R . S . were i n d u b i t a b l y c h a n g e d by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . However, n e i t h e r g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y n o r m i s s i o n a r y f e r v o u r t o 160 a s s i m i l a t e t h e I n d i a n s was s u c c e s s f u l . T h r o u g h p a i n , h u n g e r , c o l d and c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t , t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d managed t o r e m a i n t h e i r a n c e s t o r s ' c h i l d r e n and t o g l e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b e i n g N a t i v e as an i r r e p r e s s i b l e p a r t o f l i f e . 161 CHAPTER VII ; Footnotes 1. Frances A. ( B a z i l ) Katasse, "Uncertain Admission," I Am An Indian. ed. Kent Gooderham (Toronto: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1969) x i . 2. Informant 10:26 3. Souvenir E d i t i o n . 4, 10. 4. 1.11:3 5. 1.5:14 6. 1.6:6 7. 1.13:17 8. 1.13:4-5 9. 1.3:18-19 10. 1.3:18 11. 1.5:11 12. 1.6:12 13. 1.4:9 14. 1.5:4,12 15. 1.5:4 16. 1.2: 17 17. 1.7:16 18. 1.8:13 19. 1.7:16 20. 1.3:22 21 . I.10:36 22. 1.6:5 23. 1.7:14 24. 1.12:7 25. 1.7:16 26. 1.12:1 162 CHAPTER V I I : Fo_otno__te_s_ ( c o n t i n u e d ) 2 7 . 1.10:33 28. 1.12:5 29 . 1.7:11 30. 1.7:12 31. 1.8:11 32. 1.8:10 33. 1.7:10 163 CHAPTER I X L U . C_0N.CLJJ5J[DJLS "And when the t e l l i n g i s done and the v o i c e s of the v o i c e l e s s are heard, does s t o r y - t e l l i n g not invoke a c a l l to a c t i o n ? " V a l e r i e Polakow 1 The most outst a n d i n g n o t i o n which emerges from these s t o r i e s of Native people a t t e n d i n g the Kamloops Indian R e s i d e n t i a l School i s the extent and complexity of the r e s i s t a n c e movement. The students i n t h e i r wisdom recognized the i n j u s t i c e of the system which attempted to c o n t r o l them and to transform them. In innumerable ways, they fought f o r some c o n t r o l i n an i m p e r s o n a l i z e d system: for decent d a i l y l i v e s without c o l d and hunger and f o r the means to s u r v i v e the o p p r e s s i o n around them while m a i n t a i n i n g a sense of s e l f and f a m i l y . The s t r u g g l e s at the Kamloops Indian R e s i d e n t i a l School were s t r u g g l e s f o r power and c o n t r o l as the invaders and the r e s i s t a n c e clashed with one another over these i s s u e s . European teachers and p r i e s t s , s t r o n g i n t h e i r b e l i e f i n h i e r a r c h y and i t s connotations of the s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e i r c u l t u r e s , attempted to a n n i h i l a t e Native c u l t u r e s and to absorb the c h i l d r e n of those c u l t u r e s i n t o t h e i r power s t r u c t u r e . Inherent i n the n o t i o n of h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n democracy i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of r i s i n g to a p o s i t i o n of s u p e r i o r i t y . Rarely acknowledged by the proponents of the system i s that t h i s myth allows f o r few i n the upper echelons while the masses s t r u g g l e amongst themselves against the hegemony which the system p e r p e t r a t e s . For one to win, the 164 o t h e r s must l o s e . I n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , t h e message g i v e n t o t h e s t u d e n t s was c l e a r l y t h a t t h e y , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r h i s t o r y , were i n f e r i o r . C u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n as d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s and as r e v e a l e d i n t h e s t o r i e s w i t h i n i t i s one means o f i m p o s i n g a power s t r u c t u r e : i n t h i s c a s e t h e E u r o p e a n h i e r a r c h i c a l m o d e l , upon a n o t h e r d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l g r o u p , t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e o f t h e K a m l o o p s a r e a . The p o l i c y m a k e r s and i m p l e m e n t o r s o f b o t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t and t h e c h u r c h a d h e r e d t o t h e n o t i o n o f t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e N a t i v e c h i l d r e n . They knew what was b e s t . T h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h l i f e were s i g n i f i c a n t and t o be a c t e d upon; t h e s t u d e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e s were d e v a l u e d and d i s m i s s e d . B o t h C h u r c h and g o v e r n m e n t a r e t h e m s e l v e s o l i g a r c h i e s . W i t h i n t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , t h e pope i s t h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s f a l l c l e a r l y i n t o p o s i t i o n b e n e a t h h i m . B l i n d o b e d i e n c e t o s u p e r i o r s i s an e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t o f t h e c h u r c h ' s e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r . Though l e s s d o g m a t i c , g o v e r n m e n t i s s t r u c t u r e d s i m i l a r l y . W i t h i n d e p a r t m e n t s t h e m i n i s t e r s h o l d t h e u l t i m a t e i n f l u e n c e . Too o f t e n , t h e y depend on t h e v i e w s o f p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e i r i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h t h e y e s t a b l i s h p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y i n an e f f o r t t o s i m u l a t e i n p u t f r o m t h e p e o p l e a t t h e community l e v e l , p r e d e t e r m i n e d a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n a m o c k e r y o f f r e e c h o i c e . A c t i o n s s u c h as t h e s e , r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e d a y s o f b e n e v o l e n t d e s p o t s , t y p i f y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ' i d e a s on N a t i v e i n p u t i n e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r a r e a s t o t h e 165 p r e s e n t d a y . Some bands i n e f f o r t s t o combat t h e c o n t i n u i n g l a c k o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e i r needs a r e t a k i n g more c o n t r o l o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n and community i n v o l v e m e n t . The r e s i s t a n c e w h i c h was e x e m p l i f i e d a t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l c o n t i n u e s t o grow. P a u l o F r e i r e w r i t e s o f t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n as c u l t u r a l s y n t h e s i s . C h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i a l o g u e amongst a l l p e o p l e i n v o l v e d , t h e n o t i o n o f c u l t u r a l s y n t h e s i s i s f l u i d . The p e o p l e l i s t e n a u t h e n t i c a l l y t o one a n o t h e r as a b a s i s f o r a c t i o n . " I n c u l t u r a l s y n t h e s i s t h e a c t o r s who come f r o m ' a n o t h e r w o r l d ' t o t h e w o r l d o f t h e p e o p l e do so n o t as i n v a d e r s . They do n o t come t o t e a c h or t o t r a n s m i t o r t o g i v e a n y t h i n g , but r a t h e r t o l e a r n w i t h t h e p e o p l e a b o u t t h e p e o p l e ' s w o r l d . " 2 T h r o u g h t h i s l e a r n i n g , p e o p l e can t h e n b e g i n t o w o r k t o g e t h e r f o r a b e t t e r w o r l d f o r a l l i n v o l v e d . C o n t r a r y t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , no i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p h o l d s t h e power. I t becomes t h e domain o f a l l who l e a r n and a c t . T h i s m o d el has been a d o p t e d by t h e l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g i s t s o f S o u t h A m e r i c a and o t h e r s o - c a l l e d T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r i e s much t o t h e c o n s t e r n a t i o n o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . C o n t r a r y t o t h e n o t i o n o f b l i n d o b e d i e n c e t o s u p e r i o r s , t h e s e p r i e s t s t a k e t h e i r d i r e c t i o n f r o m t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom t h e y work. As a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y and i t s c o n c o m m i t a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power, l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g i s t s v i s u a l i z e power l y i n g w i t h t h e p e o p l e . The a b i l i t y t o know t h e m s e l v e s and t o 1 6 6 d i r e c t t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e i r l i v e s i s u l t i m a t e l y p o w e r - g i v i n g and h u m a n i z i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s w o u l d be w i s e t o f o l l o w 3 s u c h a model and t o a b a n d o n t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l c o n c e p t s o f the p a s t . E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f r o m t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s t o e l e m e n t a r y and p r e - s c h o o l s must be r e s p o n s i v e t o l o c a l e x p e r i e n c e s and n e e d s . T e a c h e r s must d e s i g n t h e i r l e s s o n s w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s as w e l l as t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r more o f t e n deemed i m p o r t a n t . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g b o t h i n s c h o o l and o u t must be i n t e g r a l t o any s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . F r e i r e ' s p e d a g o g i c a l m o d e l , i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e b a n k i n g method o f e d u c a t i o n e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , demands t h o u g h t f u l a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f a l l i n v o l v e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . T h i s p r a x i s i s b o t h h u m a n i z i n g and l i b e r a t i n g . 4 I n l i g h t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a d o p t i n g a s i m i l a r m o d e l i n g o v e r n m e n t and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s must be a d d r e s s e d . O n l y t h r o u g h t h e p e o p l e and t h e e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i r power and w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r i n d i a l o g u e c a n m e a n i n g f u l change come a b o u t . W i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , N a t i v e p e o p l e have e f f e c t e d c hange t h r o u g h i n s i s t e n c e on d i a l o g u e . Andrew P a u l l ' s s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t s i n 1 9 4 6 and t h o s e o f t h e N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d i n 1 9 7 3 had e f f e c t . The s y s t e m s must be r e s t r u c t u r e d t o welcome s u c h i n p u t as a p a r t o f m e a n i n g f u l d i a l o g u e r a t h e r t h a n f o r c i n g c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o i n c l u d e a u t h e n t i c c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h N a t i v e p e o p l e . 1 6 7 The s t r e n g t h o f N a t i v e c u l t u r e i s e v i d e n t i n t h e way N a t i v e p e o p l e d e a l t w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l by s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s i s t i n g i t s i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n t h e i r l i v e s . R e p e l l i n g i t s g o a l o f a s s i m i l a t i o n , N a t i v e p e o p l e i n s t e a d a d o p t e d a s p e c t s w h i c h a p p e a r e d w o r t h w h i l e and r e j e c t e d o t h e r s . Those who q u e s t i o n e d , who r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n s y s t e m p e r p e t r a t e d upon them, s u r v i v e d . W i t h t h e s t r e n g t h o f f a m i l y , o f m e n t o r s and f r o m w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s , t h e s u r v i v o r s r e f u s e d t o comply f u l l y w i t h t h e o p p r e s s o r s ' e f f o r t s t o d i c t a t e t h e i r l i f e s t y l e . R a t h e r , t h e y a d a p t e d t h e i n v a d e r s ' l i f e s t y l e t o t h e i r own way o f b e i n g . C a t h o l i c i s m was c o m b i n e d w i t h N a t i v e s p i r t u a l i s m ; t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e was a c c e p t e d but N a t i v e l a n g u a g e s w ere n e v e r c o m p l e t e l y a b a n d o n e d . T r a d i t i o n s and c u s t o m s p a s s e d on t h r o u g h g e n e r a t i o n s were m a i n t a i n e d . N a t i v e p e o p l e r e s i s t e d ; N a t i v e c u l t u r e s u r v i v e d ; and t o d a y t h e two a r e r i s i n g f o r c e s f o r a c t i o n and change w i t h i n a s e l f - d e f i n e d N a t i v e c o n t e x t . The r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i s c l o s e d . I t s b u i l d i n g s now owned by t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n Band a r e , as h a s a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d , t h e s c e n e o f i n c r e a s i n g , N a t i v e - c o n t r o l l e d a c t i v i t y . P e o p l e c a n j u s t l y c e l e b r a t e t h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i n d o m i n i t a b l e human s p i r i t . The i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e a l l s u r v i v o r s . A l t h o u g h many have e x p e r i e n c e d and c o n t i n u e t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e need t o pu t t h e i m p a c t o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n t o p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e y a r e a t t h e same t i m e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e i r c u l t u r e i n 168 i n n u m e r a b l e ways. As p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s , p o l i t i c i a n s and band e x e c u t i v e s , e n t r e p r e n e u r s and r o d e o c h a m p i o n s , t h e y d e f i n e t h e i r N a t i v e c u l t u r e i n i t s v i b r a n t and e v o l u t i o n a r y s t a t e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d by t h i s s t u d y a r e m y r i a d . More d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s on some o f t h e a s p e c t s i n t r o d u c e d h e r e c o u l d p r o v e most r e w a r d i n g : t h e c l i q u e s o f t h e 1 9 5 0 s , a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s , N a t i v e p e o p l e who r e t u r n e d t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l as w o r k e r s and t e a c h e r s and more e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r t i m e p e r i o d s a r e o n l y a few e x a m p l e s . R e l a t e d t o p i c s i n c l u d e a s t u d y o f p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o p u b l i c s c h o o l s and t h e c u r r e n t move t o b a n d - o p e r a t e d s c h o o l s . The w h o l e a r e a o f l a n g u a g e r e t e n t i o n , o f what i s v i e w e d by some o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s as t e m p o r a r y l a n g u a g e i n h i b i t i o n and t h e i n c r e a s i n g e f f o r t s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h l a n g u a g e f o r t h o s e who h a v e had l i t t l e o r no o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n i t c o u l d a l s o p r o v e t o be f r u i t f u l a r e a s o f s t u d y . F o r t h o s e whose g o a l i s t o q u a n t i f y , t h i s s t u d y i n i t s e l f c a n p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r v e r y m e a n i n g f u l e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s . The use o f f i e l d r e s e a r c h , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e open-ended i n t e r v i e w , can s e r v e as t h e f o c u s f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s o f a number o f a r e a s t o u c h e d upon i n t h i s w o r k . E d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d p a r t i a l l y t o e n a b l e p e o p l e t o f a c e and d e a l w i t h t h e i m p a c t o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n a r e o p e r a t i n g i n t h e K a m l o o p s a r e a . I n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e o p p r e s s i v e s y s t e m d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e p a g e s , t h e p r o g r a m s b u i l d upon an 169 e x a m i n a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f s e l f as a b a s i s f o r m e a n i n g f u l e d u c a t i o n i n any s u b j e c t a r e a . P r o g r a m s s u c h as N a t i v e Human S e r v i c e s , K.E.E.N.,a r e - e n t r y p r o g r a m o p e r a t e d by t h e BC N a t i v e Women's S o c i e t y , and t h e c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t i o n c o u r s e d e v e l o p e d by t h e I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l and t h e Secwepeme C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y a r e a r e a s f o r t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g r e s e a r c h . T h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e methods w i t h n e c e s s a r y c o n t e n t a r e a n o t h e r f a c e t o f t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h has e n a b l e d N a t i v e p e o p l e t o s u r v i v e and grow d u r i n g t h e f i r s t 200 y e a r s o f c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o - C a n a d i a n s . These d i s t i n c t i v e a p p r o a c h e s h o l d p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o t h e r N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s and any h u m a n i z i n g p e d a g o g y . The s u b s t a n c e o f t h i s t h e s i s a l s o h o l d s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a c a d e m i c s and r e s e a r c h e r s who a d d r e s s N a t i v e i s s u e s . L i s t e n i n g and l e a r n i n g must f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . F o r t o o l o n g , E u r o - C a n a d i a n s have s t u d i e d d o c u ments w r i t t e n by o t h e r E u r o - C a n a d i a n s a b o u t N a t i v e p e o p l e as t h e b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s o f N a t i v e c u l t u r e . A r c h i v e s may s e r v e as an a i d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f a c u l t u r e b u t i n a l l r e s e a r c h t h e p e o p l e who p r o c e e d f r o m t h a t h i s t o r y s h o u l d be d i r e c l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s work i n some way. To u n d e r s t a n d a p e o p l e ' s h i s t o r y , a l e a r n e r s h o u l d s t a r t w i t h t h e l i v i n g g e n e r a t i o n o f t h a t c u l t u r e . T h e i r c o m b i n e d l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s most o f t e n b r i n g them c l o s e r t o t h e i r h i s t o r y t h a n any book o r p a p e r i n a l i b r a r y c a n . Not o n l y t h e b a s i s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , d i a l o g u e s h o u l d 170 s e r v e as t h e g r o u n d work f o r r e s e a r c h as w e l l . The p e o p l e and t h e a c a d e m i c s must w o r k t o g e t h e r i n d a t a g a t h e r i n g , i n a n a l y z i n g d a t a and u l t i m a t e l y i n b u i l d i n g a u t h e n t i c t h e o r y . A c c e p t a n c e o f a l l p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e as l e g i t i m a t e , t h e s h a r i n g o f p e r c e p t i o n s and b i a s e s i n t r u e e f f o r t s t o a r r i v e a t common u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r m t h e b a s i s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c r e a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r f r u i t f u l a c t i o n . I n t h e words o f R i t a J a c k , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y , "The l e g a c y o f t h e R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e i s t h a t we now have g e n e r a t i o n s o f Shuswap p e o p l e who, n o t by t h e i r own c h o i c e , a r e u n a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c a d e m i c e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I n o r d e r t o b e s t p l a n f o r t h e f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f Shuswap c h i l d r e n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . . . .We need once more t o make e d u c a t i o n a p r i o r i t y i n c o m m u n i t i e s . " 5 W i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p a s t , p e o p l e can p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i a l o g u e w i t h one a n o t h e r t o make a d i f f e r e n t f u t u r e . The s t r e n g t h w h i c h r e s i s t e d t h e o n s l a u g h t o f c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n p e r p e t r a t e d by t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l f o r a l m o s t a c e n t u r y i s t h e s t r e n g t h o f a p e o p l e and a c u l t u r e w h i c h c o n t i n u e s t o s u r v i v e and grow. 171 C H A P T E R VTTT; Znoiaates 1. Polakow 826 . 2. F r e i r e 181. 3. For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n see: Theo W i t v l i e t , A. Place i n the  Sun An I n t r o d u c t i o n to L i b e r a t i o n The.ol.g_gy. i n th_e T h i r d World (London: SCM Press, 1985) and Quentin L.Quade ed..The Pope and R e v o l u t i o n (Washington: E t h i c s and P u b l i c P o l i c y Center, 1982) 4. For more d e t a i l , see F r e i r e , Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 5. Jack 9. 172 BIBLIOGRAPHY 173 BIBLIOGRAPHY A c t s o f V i s i t a t i o n . K a m l oops I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l 1943-1966. O b l a t e A r c h i v e s , V a n c o u v e r , BC. A ngus, Mary, Ann P a u l and K a r e n Thomas. The Summer  S t u d e n t P r o j e c t Ren Kve 7e (My G r a n d m o t h e r ) . K a m l o o p s : B.C. N a t i v e Women's S o c i e t y , 1983. Anonymous. L e t t e r , O t t a w a : 21 M a r c h 1908. PABC RG 10 V o l . 6001 F i l e 1-1-1 P t . 2 S c h o o l F i l e s . A p p l e , M i c h a e l . " S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , I d e o l o g y and C u r r i c u l u m " i n M a r t i n Lawn & L e n B a r t o n ed R e t h i n k i n g C u r r i c u l u m  S t u d i e s : A R a d i c a l A p p r o a c h . L o n d o n : Croom Helm, 1 981 . A r c h i b a l d , J o - a n n . " L o c a l l y D e v e l o p e d N a t i v e S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m An H i s t o r i c a l and P h i l o s o p h i c a l R a t i o n a l e . " P r e s e n t e d t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e M o k a k i t I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n . 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I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Shuswap P e o p l e ^ . K a m l o o p s : Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1986. M e r k e l , Ray H. " T r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n " unpub. p a p e r o f The T r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y , n.d. M i l l e r , K a h n - T i n e t a and George L e r c h s . The H i s t o r i c a l  D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . O t t a w a ( ? ) : T r e a t i e s and H i s t o r i c a l R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , P.R.E. G r o u p , I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , 1978. M o r i c e , A.G. The H i s t o r y o f t h e N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a . S m i t h e r s : I n t e r i o r S t a t i o n e r y , 1978. More, A r t h u r J . Okanogan Miopia Indian Q u a l i t y SX Education S t u d y . . P e n t i c t o n : Okanagan I n d i a n L e a r n i n g I n s t i t u t e , 1984. M u l v a h i l l , James."On I n t e g r a t i o n " Tape 130-2.Kamloops: Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y R e s o u r c e C e n t r e , 1 957. N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d . I n d i a n C o n t r o l o f I n d i a n E d u c a t i o j i . O t t a w a : N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , 1973. Ormsby, M a r g a r e t A. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A H i s t o r y . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l i a n , 1958. P a r m i n t e r , A.V. "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n t e g r a t e d S c h o o l i n g f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " T h e s i s . UBC, 1964 P e t e r s o n , L.R. " I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " T h e s i s . UBC, 1959. P o l a k o w , V a l e r i e . "Whose S t o r i e s S h o u l d We T e l l ? A C a l l t o A c t i o n " . L a n guage A r t s 62:8 December, 1985. P r e n t i c e , A l i s o n L. and S u s a n E. H o u s t o n . 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Whose Heritage? Vancouver: UBC Centre f o r Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 977. Whitehead, Margaret. The Cariboo M i s s i o n A. H i s t o r y o£ the  Oblates. V i c t o r i a : Sono Nis Press, 1981. Whyte, W i l l i a m Foote. S t r e e t Corner S o c i e t y The S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of an I t a l i a n Slum. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1955. W i l l i s , Paul. Learning to Labour: How Working C l a s s Kids  Get Working C l a s s Jobs. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977. Wilson, T. Donald and D.C. Jones eds. S c h o o l i n g and S o c i e t y  i n Twentieth Century B r i t i s h Columbia. Calgary: D e t s e l i g E n t e r p r i s e s L t d , 1980. 178 W i t v l i e t , Theo.A P l a c e i n t h e Sun L i b e r a t i o n T h e o l o g y i n t h e  T h i r d W o r l d . L o n d o n : SCM P r e s s , 1985. W o o l c o t t , H a r r y F. A. K w a k i u t l V i l l a g e and S c h o o l . T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1967. 179 APPENDICES 1 80 APPENDIX A: Informant 1. Female, Shuswap 2. Female, Shuswap 3. Male, Shuswap 4. Female, Shuswap 5. Female, Shuswap 6. Male, Shuswap 7. Female, Shuswap 8. Female, Shuswap 9. Male, Shuswap 10. Female, L i l l o e t t 11. Male, Shuswap 12. Female, Thompson 13. Female, C h i l c o t i n INFORMANTS B i r t h d a t e b. 1900(?) b. 1918(?) b. 1924 b. 1925(?) b. 1918 b. 1929 b. 1931 b. 1942 b. 1944 b. 1947 b. 1947 b. 1950 b. 1957 Attendance 1 907-1908 1 927-1930 1930-1940 1935-1944 1926-1934 1938-1950 1940-1951 1959 1952-1960 1952-1960 1958-1961 1957-1963 1965-1967 181 APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. T e l l me about your involvement with the s c h o o l . Years? Grades? 2. What were the r u l e s which stood out i n your mind? 3. C h i l d r e n o f t e n have ways of g e t t i n g around r u l e s . Did you? Did others? In what ways? 4. Describe your day. What d i d you do i n the classroom?What s u b j e c t s ? How long? S p e c i f i c l e s s o n s ? 5. How o f t e n d i d you go home? Where was i t ? Did your parents v i s i t ? Describe v i s i t s . 6. Were there aspects of school which c o n t r a d i c t e d what you were taught at home? What were they? 7. R e l i g i o n was an important part of s c h o o l . Was i t compatible with what you had lear n e d at home? 8. And f r i e n d s . Did you see f r i e n d s r e s i s t i n g school? Complying with school? 9. Going home. How was i t to go home? Were there adjustments w i t h i n y o u r s e l f that had to be made? Did f r i e n d s or other r e l a t i v e s s t r u g g l e with going home? 182 ISoda Creek k>rj| •Sugar Cane • William* Lake Riskie i North CJ ChikxitiaMoutho South (jfnon o i Creek o" Empft Valley o fAlkali Lake [Oog Creek Hk* B a r ' ; " v " • North Thompson ™an Mr,.,... tfCreen Timbre 7 1 3avillio Big Bar M^n Thompson o Bonaparte •*_^sksAnlithe) > Clin* Kamloops * ABORIGINAL TERRITORY of the SHUSWAP NATION o Upper rWth Thomr] /^(Tete J a \ e Cached BANDS OF THE SHUSWAP NATION •Revelttoke wap Salmon Arm • Spallumcheeri \Shus Territory occupied by the Chilcotin after 1880 0 20 40 • existing bands o extinct bands 0 ~80 60 80 100 m. 160 k m Usei w\'tK pernrusSjon Or-Society. 1 6 3 

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