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Finding a workable holism Field, John A. 1988

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FINDING A WORKABLE HOLISM By JOHN FIELD A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Curriculum Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1988 ® John Anthony Field, 1988 Dr. Charles Brauner Dr. Leroi Daniels . Dr. Dennis Milburn In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) - i -PREFACE The motivation and rationale of this thesis are found in the Concept Gathering System as devised by Dr. Charles Brauner of U.B.C, Department of Social and Educational Studies. It is due to his patience and guidance that this paper takes its current form. To him is due my profound gratitude. The thesis is dedicated to my wife Bonnie, whose good typing and listening helped bring the work to completion. - i i -ABSTRACT The following thesis examines the need for a holistic learning vehicle. Rather than accept the claims made for left and right hemisphere thinking, an examination is made of holism as defined by respected writers. Culled from their works are ideas of undeniable logic and indisputable claim. These are exposed as the basic components of holism that are likely to receive unquestioned acceptance by the most scientific of educators. It is a holistic perception that the world has to be appreciated for the relationships that give i t unity. Only then will l i f e take on meaning beyond the superficial, transient, or short term. Decisions can then be made that consider broad ideas rather than any narrow focus detrimental to the large body, be i t a small community or the world. If this is to occur, there must exist a learning system that i s capable of conveying the unquestionable h o l i s t i c principles and ideas to children. Possessed of t h i s , every student will have an appreciation for the unity of his/her world. Once this is understood, the individual will be better able to make judgments and decisions that consider broad needs and views. By so doing s/he will enhance the quality of l i f e for him/herself and others. Upon these tenets are hung the attributes of Dr. Charles Brauner's Concept Gathering System. In Chapter III the earlier selected holi s t i c verities are given a one-to-one relationship with the System to show how i t incorporates the credible effects of holism. Subsequent chapters provide an in depth look at the Concept Gathering System. It is f i r s t described in detail (chapter IV). Then its function in practice is considered (chapter V). In chapter VI the benefits accruing from such holistic learning are outlined. Here the reader is reminded how the original values of holism are successfully met by the Concept Gathering System. Finally the System's application in the school i s reviewed with particular attention given to its suitability to the gifted c h i l d , and the advantages offered to i t by modern technological equipment. Appendix I is an example of the completed System. Appendix II shows how ideas and summaries can be gathered from a book passsage. - iv -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I Holism Explored: What the Experts Say 1 Chapter II The Credible Effects of Holism 55 Chapter III The Rationale for a Concept Gathering System 67 Chapter IV The Concept Gathering System 75 Chapter V The Concept Gathering System in Practice I l l Chapter VI Benefits of the Concept Gathering System 135 Chapter VII The Concept Gathering System and the School 166 References 200 Bibliography ; 202 Appendix I 208 Appendix II 350 - V .1 FIGURES AND TABLES Page Figure #1 27 Figure #2 95 Figure #3 100 Figure #4 109 Figure #5 146 Figure #6 170 Table #1 35 - vi -CHAPTER 1 - OUTLINE Page 1. Introduction 1 2. Organicism 3 a. Patterned Organicism 5 b. Harmonious Organicism 8 c. Reflective Organicism 10 d. Conclusions 13 3. Vitalism 15 a. Classical Vitalism 15 b. Equipotential Vitalism 17 c. Generative Vitalism 20 d. Conclusions 23 4. Holonism 24 a. Conclusions 30 5. General Systems Theory - L. von Bertalanffy 31 a. Paul Weiss' perspective 38 b. Erwin Laszlo's perspective 39 c. Conclusions 40 6. Systems Analysis 40 a. James Lovelock's interpretation 42 b. Conclusions 46 7. Evaluation of views for a workable holism 47 References 53 - 1 -INTRODUCTION Holism is defined by the Concise Oxford Dictionary (1960) as: the "Tendency in nature to form wholes that are more than the sum of the parts by creative evolution." An example: that mankind as a rational being is somehow more than the sum of his/her animal parts. For that extra the concept of mind and soul have often been advanced. But this suggests an accepted belief in the concept of holism that is not shared by, say, the Random House Dictionary (1966). Here holism is described as: "the theory that whole entities, as fundamental components of re a l i t y , have an existence other than as the mere sum of their parts." There is a subtle difference here so that an example of the latter can be: the idea that intangible or unobserved relationships often play a significant role in the development of otherwise isolated and independent entities, e.g. societies, and organic with inorganic matter. This reveals the lack of agreement that surrounds holism, both in its form and validity. In fact form tends to influence validity which consists of different attributes depending upon the theory being advanced. There are many theories and as much agreement as disagreement exists among them. Some theories have received sufficient support to make them popular, such as Einstein's unified f i e l d theory which sought one principle that would provide the key to universal organization, and the religions that contend God unifies our world and provides purpose. It is views of this order as well as some that are distinctive in their character, that I will describe in this paper. The writers Lewis Mumford, Theodore Roszak, and Teilhard de Chardin will exemplify three different forms of Organicism; Patterned, Harmonious, Reflective. In addition, the - 2 -outlooks of Hans Driesch and Henri Bergson will be examined under the headings of Equipotential Vitalism and Generative Vitalism. Arthur Koestler's ideas will be treated under the heading of Holonism, and the outlooks of those advocating General Systems Theory will be considered. Finally we will look at System Analysis. Taken together: 1. Organicism 1.1 Patterned Organicism 1.2 Harmonious Organicism 1.3 Reflective Organicism 2. Vitalism (Classical) 2.1 Equipotential Vitalism 2.2 Generative Vitalism 3. Holonism 4. General Systems Theory 5. Systems Analysis make up the various headings for the examination of holism. Once these main forms have been analysed, i t will be possible to form an opinion as to what aspects, i f any, constitute a valid form of holism. There are some factors, of course, that are common to a l l forms of holism. In the main holism attempts to explain the integrated nature of our world, what i t is that constitutes that something that makes the whole greater than the sum of the parts, and the seeming conflict between the state df order and disorder. So far holism has failed to become accepted as a science, in part because its theorists are so factionalized, and also simply because i t s theories are not empirically verifiable. Persuasion comes, for the most part, from reasoned arguments, and history has shown - 3 -that these collapse much quicker than paradigms supported by empirical data or mathematically formulated laws. With this in mind, and with apologies to those h o l i s t s whose work I have not included, we can look at the aforementioned examples of holism. ORGANICISM The Random House Dictionary (1966) definition of Organicism conveys the fundamental difference this school of holism has with the V i t a l i s t s . Organicism i s the view that holism occurs as a secular or worldly phenomenon, while Vitalism is the view that holism has its basis in the non-physical side of human existence. Random House speaks of Organicism as "the theory that vital activities arise not from any one point of an organism but from its autonomous composition." Vital activities are those that arise spontaneously and need to be satisfied i f the entity is not to be in some way diminished. Physiologically, the matter of breathing is a v i t a l activity. Although the lungs play an important part in this process i t occurs as a result of the individual's total condition and involves total bodily interaction. Therefore i t is not from any one point that we breathe, but by the individual being autonomous or self-directing. One might also cite a person's desire for music. Although the ears perceive i t , i t is the whole person, body and mind, that appreciates i t . A non-vital activity can be construed as one in which the cause is knowable. Eating may be considered a non-vital activity, even though the hunger pangs that cause th i s action do not f a l l under that heading. The term 'autonomous composition1 refers to the organism's ability to be self-directing, but the drive behind such action is unclear. Why, for instance, do we find beauty - 4 -in some things but not in others? Such a definition of Organicism presents us with several conditions, some of which will emerge as we look into the subject more closely. What is immediately apparent is that: 1. Any explanation of Organicism must involve a reliance upon speculation concerning vital causes. 2. Relationships must play a large part in the theory as no organism is capable of surviving entirely on its own. 3. The environment must necessarily be viewed as a part of a l l relationships. It is interesting to note here the five ideas that D.C. Phillips attributed to Organicism: i . The analytic approach as typified by the physico-chemical sciences proves inadequate when applied to certain cases-for example, to a biological organism, to society, or even to reality as a whole, i i . The whole is more than the sum of its parts, i i i . The whole determines the nature of its parts, iv . The parts cannot be understood i f considered in isolation from the whole. v. The parts are dynamically interrelated or interdependent. (Phillips, 1976, page 6.) Organicism seems to be most aptly applied to theories that concentrate upon the individual and its relationships, for i t is only this condition that emerges with any force out of the definition. Fortunately several holists f i t into such a category. - 5 -PATTERNED ORGANICISM Lewis Mumford exemplifies the organicist form of holism. He describes himself as a writer and city planner and takes the view that mankind has been incorrectly represented through the past centuries. Today s/he is paying the social price for that error. While i t has been recognized that mankind should be defined as sapient (wise), i t has been mainly his/her a b i l i t y to fabricate utensils and tools that has received attention and respect through the ages. Hence social organizations, e.g. c i t i e s , have catered to this dimension, and the efficiency of mankind, rather than to those factors that enable him to satisfy his needs as a sentient, i n t e l l e c t u a l being. To be f u l f i l l e d , mankind must satisfy naturally occurring vi t a l a c t i v i t i e s , e.g. aesthetic appreciation, perpetuation of r i t e s , taboos and spiritual well being, basic freedoms, et cetera. But this is not permitted when other concerns are made more pressing. In North America, the demand for efficiency has been allowed to claim attention to the detriment of the aforementioned needs. Complete self-expression is thus hampered by mankind's subordinating i t s e l f to material progress (Schumacher, 1974, p. 201-211). This complaint finds clear expression in Mumford's book The Urban Prospect (1968). Here he points out: Our trouble is that ... we have ceased to respect ourselves, just as we have ceased to love our neighbours and want to be near them; we have ceased to cherish our own history and enlarge our own prospects, by promoting character and variety and beauty wherever we find i t , whether in landscapes or in people. Because the machine, i f l e f t to i t s own devices, goes in for s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , mass p r o d u c t i o n , automation, quantitative excess, we have let our lives be governed by these same mechanical factors ... (p. 7) - 6 -In The Myth and the Machine, Mumford refers to mankind's ability to organize and so form itself into a mega-machine. This organization has gained steadily in power; the mechanized technologies overpowering the small craft processes, with subsequent loss of autonomy. The former system he refers to as authoritarian, and the latter democratic. The crafts are seen as democratic in a humanistic rather than a political sense, since demos takes its meaning from "of the people." Although the democratic system met mankind's needs best i t was easily wiped out by the authoritarian, high-efficiency systems. The qualities Mumford (1967, p. 236) ascribes to his idea of democracy tend to convey the sense of organic fulfillment that underlies his holism. The spinal principle of democracy is the perception that the traits and needs and interests that a l l men share have a superior claim to those put forward by any special organization, institution or group. As a self-proclaimed generalist, Mumford quite naturally expresses here a need for a balance that will satisfy each person's need and at the same time leave the environment and its resources in an unthreatened condition. Balance plays a large part in Mumford's philosophy. Its absence is most evident in cities that have been allowed to reach the megalopolitan stage. Here one can see "the strangulation of l i f e ... dying because of that cancerous overgrowth and congestion which many highly esteemed experts mistakenly confuse with economic dynamism and social v i t a l i t y " (Mumford, 1968, p. 213). Here our priorities have been wrongly assumed causing an imbalance between material and moral progress. Accompanying the growth of large cit i e s has been the neglect of rituals and taboos, the result of which - 7 -has been the increasingly evident social degeneration. Mumford holds that taboos, particularly, have been used as controlling influences on mankind in the past. They ensured self-control. Their practical value need not be great so long as they inhibited the destructive tendencies and encouraged order and cooperation in society. Mumford (1967, p. 70) cites an example from the Eualayi tribe in Australia where a child is invoked through a ritual not to steal, and to be kind. In this way, "Moral order and mental order thus developed together." Today in our society i t seems mankind's moral development has failed to keep pace with its material progress. But Mumford believes this imbalance is correctable once.we change our priorities and respond better to our organistic t i e s . This, he believes, we are quite capable of doing. By nature mankind is creative and orderly, Mumford (1967, p. 55) contends, and has an innate and satisfying tendency to produce "the arts of creation and constructive organization, the deliberate forming of patterns, the putting together of ordered wholes. This principle lies at the base of all organic development, ... i t is fundamental both to human culture and purposeful development." For Mumford an ordered whole is constituted by a central idea supported by components essential to the fulfillment of the idea's goal. The original idea should emanate from mankind's reflective nature as opposed to its desire for self-aggrandizement. Mumford sees no reason why mankind should not possess the characteristics to be found in every other form of organic l i f e . To him i t is only necessary to be aware of this condition to realize a more satisfying existence. What Mumford is getting at is that while mankind is quite capable of organizing i t s e l f , there are right and wrong ways of doing so. The right way will enhance the - 8 -individual by stressing relationships that have the greatest significance for him/her as an organism. The whole w i l l then be composed of healthy, r e l i a b l e parts, parts suitable to their purpose. To paraphrase Mumford1s thinking, mankind's a b i l i t y to see things in terms of patterns enabled him/her to devise a r e l i g i o n and a supporting structure. Inorganically t h i s i s evident i n Gothic architecture where suitable stone was c a r e f u l l y tai l o r e d to i t s position in the structure. The resultant building permitted s u f f i c i e n t l i g h t for congregational worship. The pattern of stone created a whole ideal for the purpose. Organically the Passion Festival at Ober Ammergau in Germany presents a pattern i n time attended by participants rendered suitable for the purpose of celebrating Christ's c r u c i f i x i o n by centuries of celebration. The resulting whole i s a stable society whose religious f a i t h i s periodically affirmed. Harmonious Organicism: Another who focuses upon the autonomous nature of the individual i s Theodore Roszak. He was profoundly influenced by Lewis Mumford to whom he dedicated his book Person/Planet. This takes (even further than Mumford carried i t ) the concept of individual f u l f i l l m e n t . Roszak o r i g i n a l l y drew attention through his book The Making of a Counter  Culture, which elaborated on the 1960's denial of the post-war i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y and how t h i s movement sought s e l f - i d e n t i t y yet f a i l e d to si g n i f i c a n t l y change the world. In Person/Plant Lewis Mumford's philosophy i s written even larger. Roszak (1978, p. XXV) argues for complete s e l f -f u l f i l l m e n t for everyone as opposed to their "being cramped into some pre-e x i s t i n g social s l o t which simply w i l l not adapt to th e i r shape." The family, school and workplace stand accused of despising 'personhood'. They - 9 -represent a world "whose policy is to grind personhood down into rubble and then to remold the pieces into obedient, efficient, and, of course, cheerful personnel" (p. XXVII/XXVIII) Like Mumford, Roszak decries bigness and sees this as the cause of our environmental problems (p. 36). We possess, he says, "... an economic style whose dynamism is too great, too fast, too reckless for the ecological systems that must absorb its impact" (p. 330). Yet he visualizes an interaction between mankind and earth that promises to resolve this conflict. Personal growth (by which he means the development of mankind's spiritual and creative needs) is needed to counteract (by specific actions) the bigness of industry. Roszak even goes so far as to hypothesize that "Perhaps this is even the subtle interaction which the Earth uses to defend [itself] against our depredations" (p. 37). The call here is obviously for compromise and equipoise. Like Mumford, Roszak stresses balance. This is made clear by his reference to psychospiritual explorations - telepathy - psychokenesis - ESP etc. and the limited role played by women, up to now. These two notions are blended when Roszak calls for the cure to our social i l l s by the feminine virtues of intuition, compassion, organic nurturing and trusting, for these comprise "a l i f e g i v i n g d i s c i p l i n e that w i l l balance our society's technological excesses." (p. 44). Referring to James Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis, of which we will speak later, he suggests we need the s p i r i t of woman now. "Rather the Goddess is going to have to be born in our midst, not simply as a systems analyst's hypothesis, but as a living creature." (p. 45). The Goddess referred to is the Greek Mother of Earth used by Lovelock to represent the self-regulating aspect that appears to control our plant. What form this Goddess will take, and what role she will play in the world, - 10 -Roszak does not say, but i t is important to note that he divorces himself from Lovelock's analytic approach. This somewhat confirms D.C. P h i l l i p s ' view of Roszak as reacting to systems analysis as traditional science. Most important to Roszak appears to be the democratic (in Mumford's terms) interaction between mankind and mankind, and mankind and planet, so that a true balance of needs is obtained. This brings us to the importance of relationships. The main thrust of Organicism's holism is irrevocably connected to the importance of relationships and Roszak's comments seem to reflect t h i s . He asks us to perceive the world from the prospect of a constituent part. He contends that the degree to which we are successful at doing this will determine the knowledge we can gain of nature. If the web of the universe is threading itself through us, the degree to which "... we know ourselves 'inside' is ultimately what we will allow ourselves to know of nature 'outside', for nature is also us .... We are intimately part of the pattern we try to understand when we investigate the world." (Roszak, 1978, p. 47). Since that is the case, Roszak condemns that part of the s c i e n t i f i c mentality that sets out to conquer nature. He reasons, that a people who are part of nature and out to conquer nature are working against their own contentedness. From this, he recommends that the world should be viewed ho i i s t i c a l l y , as a pack of interacting systems (1978, p. 49). In effect Roszak is calling for us to recognize the harmony inherent in our world, a harmony that requires we utilize a l l the given components. Reflective Organicism: Another important feature of Organicism i s complexity. Lewis Mumford referred to i t , but so does Pierre Teilhard de - 11 -Chardin. A geologist and member of the Society of Jesus, Teilhard de Chardin accepts the importance of complexity in the evolution of l i f e . He points out that our world is facing ever increasing complexity. This is being manifest not only in the generally accepted notion of an expanding universe, but also in the in-folding of matter. Living beings, says Teilhard de Chardin, are the culmination of this in-folding process, or arranging. The in-folding is a "formidable growth of complexity, increasing with the passage of time and resulting in proteins, cells and living matter of every kind" (P. Teilhard de Chardin, 1964, p. 251). It was a cosmic in-folding that "gave birth to the f i r s t cell and the f i r s t thought on earth" (p. 253). Teilhard de Chardin feels we must accept that there is an inexorable process in progress that points "to a continuous global d r i f t of the 'stuff of things' towards" a concentration of human l i f e (p. 252). This optimistic view of evolution has its ultimate expression in anthropogenisis. Although Teilhard de Chardin speaks of our general awakening to the "vast and extreme organicity of the universe as a whole, considered in terms of its internal forces of development," he is quite specific as to how the anthropogenisis functions. It is by means of individual education that each organism advances. Hence education plays an important part in his philosophy, "for we see heredity pass through education beyond the individual to enter into its collective phase and become social" (p. 29). The i n d i v i d u a l and society are mutually enhancing, for while the individual's reflective psychism engenders totalisation, this "by i t s nature does not merely differentiate but personalizes what i t unites" (p. 254). Teilhard de Chardin reiterates Mumford's comments when he states that, since the ice age, mankind has achieved a great deal in terms of social - 12 -organization. He goes even further and remarks: "What an extraordinary and irreversible increase of collective consciousness is manifest in the growth, association and opposition of techniques, visions, passions and ideas! What an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of re f l e c t i v e l i f e . " (p. 274). But t h i s social organization is a product of more than just mental processes: i t has a geographic component too. The largeness of our numbers is decreasing the planet's size, to the point where we must embark upon a more intense human 'planetisation'. (p. 258). Teilhard de Chardin posits that the earth's curvature geographically compresses the population to the point where "there arises ... an irresistible grouping principle, which in its impact on the intelligence, almost automatically overrules the egotistical and mutually repulsive tendencies of the individual." This together with a mental curvature represents the "reflective, psychic environment which surrounds us," compelling us forward (p. 283). But there is another element to consider and that is the focus - Love or God - the end towards which we should be moving, and which will eventually transform man, until there is just God "all in a l l " (p. 309). Society, i t seems, must have an objective in order to achieve totalization - Teilhard de Chardin's term for a unity that will embrace the world. It is now, he feels, that we must make the choice to assume a collective faith so that we can "reaffirm our sense of the Species on a new plane" (p. 257). Underlying this faith will be the precepts " L i f e , Trust and Freedom" (p. 258). He feels a superorganization is already under way and will culminate in the emergence of an ultra-humanity. It is Teilhard de Chardin's fascination for the mind that permits him to hold such an optimistic view for mankind. Here is a unique, reflective - 13 -instrument, what Teilhard de Chardin (1964) calls "the most 'centro-complex1 organism yet achieved to our knowledge in the universe" (p. 220). On i t s potential rests the future of mankind, and while its endowment may have happened by either "hazard, position or structure" its source continued to "pass a c r i t i c a l barrier separating the Unreflective from the Reflective-that is to say, to enter the sphere of intelligence, foresight and freedom of action" (p. 220). It is this freedom of action that is so important to our look at Organicism, but i t is s t i l l conditional upon the will or the mind. This occupies what Teilhard de Chardin labels the Noosphere, the "thinking envelope of the Earth" (p. 132) which floods "thought over the entire surface of the biosphere" (p. 220). It is this developed thought that has assumed the place of the vis a tergo or 'push from behind' as Bergson expressed i t . The intelligence that was originally a means of survival "gradually elevated to the function and dignity of a 'reason for living' with a resultant modification in anthropogenisis (p. 276). Man has thus reached a stage where he may accept or reject "whatever does not appear to satisfy his heart or his reason." (p. 277). Ultimately, then, man controls his own destiny by his thoughts and actions. Conclusions Our look at Organicism has shown that certain aspects distinguish this form of holism. These are: 1. The whole is considered greater than the sum of the parts. 2. The whole is influenced by the quality of the parts. 3. Relationships play a major part in the well-being of the parts and the whole. - 14 -4. Balance is required between order and diversity. 5. There is a place for the psychic element in this balance. 6. Harmony is required - Roszak's notion of a Goddess is intended to impart balance and a sense of proportion to the whole. 7. Reflection is essential - man's constant advance demands he constantly reappraise his place in the world. It is interesting to compare the above with the findings of D.C. Phillips as expressed on page 4. - 15 -Vitalism The Concise Oxford and the Random House Dictionaries are in agreement as to the definition of Vitalism. Both see i t as the "Doctrine that l i f e originates in a vital principle distinct from chemical and other physical forces." The philosophers whose theories we will look at make this very obvious. They a l l share the view that an organism is driven to i t s purpose by some vital force. Throughout this study on holism, I wished to examine only theories proposed in this century. However, on the subject of Vitalism i t seems inconceivable that we should ignore a thinker who has had enormous impact on the western world (B. Russell, 1961, p. 90 & 193): Aristotle. He o r i g i n a l l y conceived of four causes in l i f e : the material, formal, efficient and f i n a l . Only the last two concern us here, the f i r s t two now being conditions of the third. It is modern science that is occupied with this third, efficient cause, or what would now be called cause in 'cause and e f f e c t1. Only occasionally do we concern ourselves today with the fourth, or final cause as Aristotle intended i t . This is when we attribute some purpose to the action of an organism, often the task of psychology or reiigion. Originally final cause acted on the organic and the inorganic, and was conferred by God, the prime mover. Russell (1961, p. 181) points out that there was more than one God and i t is unclear whether a l l were prime movers. Mankind supposedly progressed closer to this equivalent of the divine state which embodies a maximum of form and a minimum of substance. However, mankind was never expected to realize this sublime state (Russell, 1961, p. 181). Nevertheless contemplation was highly valued, for i t was the primary occupation of God who was eternal (McKeon, 1941, p. 879-A 1072b, 25). Even - 16 -though final cause acted on all matter i t lent i t s e l f easily to the subject of biology, of which more will be said later. What should be pointed out here is that final cause was the ultimate pinnacle, transcending even the task of the soul, or the mind. The final cause acted as a kind of magnet that drew everything to i t since i t was the thing toward which a l l things were supposed to aim or aspire. Although Aristotle holds that the body possesses a soul which gives i t form, the soul is not as important as the mind, which alone is capable of thought. Only i t can strive to the perfection exemplified by God. "Hence the mind can be immortal, though the rest of the soul cannot." Yet the soul can impart unity such as making the marble into a statue through the efforts of a sculptor. And when instilled in man or woman s/he has the form that renders him/her "an organic whole, having purpose as a unit" (B. Russell, 1961, p. 183). But neither the soul nor the mind can impart movement (McKeon, 1941, p. 879-A 1072b). This comes from the final cause which also provides the oneness implicit in the assembly of parts. Aristotle provides the example of flesh composed of fire and earth. Apart they are elements; together they are flesh. The syllable "ab" is different from the separate elements "a" and "b", hence, "the syllable ... is something - not only i t s elements (the vowel and the consonant) but also something else, and the flesh is not only f i r e and earth or the hot and the cold, but also something else." This something else is the final cause "which makes this thing flesh and that a syllable." (McKeon, 1941, p. 811-A 1041b, 11-30). Bertrand Russell (1977) points out that Aristotle's teleological view arose to explain the states or order he found in nature. But his eagerness to unify the organic and inorganic prompted Aristotle to suggest that both - 17 -had purpose or potentiality, and therefore f i n a l i t y (p. 89). Sometimes this f i n a l i t y might be as t r i v i a l as, the purpose of the stone is to f a l l to the ground. Nevertheless this can be seen as an optimistic view, such as in his Ethics where "He believes in the scientific importance of final causes, and this implies the belief that purpose governs the course of the development in the universe." Then a l l changes suggest an increase in organization" a perfecting of the form and furthering of cause so that the entity more closely approximates its final cause or purpose (B. Russell, 1961, p. 194). This sense of development, process, or evolution toward a f i n a l goal implicit in the very nature of things as they were ordained by its creator is at the very heart of Classical Vitalism. Classical Vitalism held sway in the western world until about three hundred and f i f t y years ago, at which time more scientific accounts were being advanced for the behaviour of inorganic matter. There has s t i l l been a place, however, for a v i t a l i s t i c explanation of organic functions, particularly at the beginning of this century. In the main, past support came from Hans Driesch and Henri Bergson in the form of Equipotential Vitalism and Generative Vitalism. Equipotential Vitalism: Hans Driesch (1929), a biologist, was struck by the morphogenetic independence of embryonic parts in organisms that constituted "one whole in organization and in function." This prompted him to consider that whole organisms arrive at their natural states through three harmonies" causal, functional and "some sort of harmony of constellation" which "must be said to be one of the most fundamental characters of a l l production of individual form." Of this harmony he shows wonder in "the fact that there - 18 -is a whole organism at the end, in spite of the relative independence of the single events leading to i t " (p. 78). As suggested earlier, i t is here in biology that vitalism received i t s most obvious expression. Driesch, therefore, labelled the inner harmony he observed in organisms the "harmonious-equipotential system" (p. 88 & p. 102). Observing t h i s harmonious development even when parts have been taken away, Driesch notes that cause could not be mechanical in nature, "For a machine, typical with regard to the three chief dimensions of space, cannot remain i t s e l f i f you remove parts of i t or i f you rearrange its parts at w i l l " (p. 103/4). His explanation for this self-direction of the organism is entelechy, a term borrowed from Aristotle to impart the sense of purpose or teleology integral to every organism. Actually, Driesch shies away from the term teleological because of the possible confusion i t poses between primary and secondary purposes. Secondary purpose refers to the willing and knowing acquired through experience (p. 244). Primary purpose refers to entelechy as i t occurs in Driesch's vitalism. Entelechy acts on electrons, atoms, forming enzymes and arranging zymogens "in morphogenesis as well as in physiology", where morphogenesis refers to the origin of form. Zymogens is a term for any of various substances that may change into an enzyme because of some internal change. This would constitute zymogenesis. Its actions are not constant, in fact, i t only interferes when needed. Mechanical functions take over, "until entelechy interferes de novo." One assumes this occurs at times of regeneration (what Driesch calls restitutive), or in morphogenesis (1929, p. 285). Entelechy is really a single entity that can diversify to cover the many parts of an organism, and i t acts into space rather than resides there - 19 -(p. 284). Its action is that of a causal agent, but i t is hard to describe, for as Driesch says, " i t is not energy, not force, not intensity and not constant " Even so, i t possesses the ability to activate or cease generation for "It acts by suspending and setting free reactions based upon potential differences regulatively" (p. 268). Here Driesch accounts for suspended activity but does not fully explain i t . Lacking energy entelechy may set free into actuality what i t has i t s e l f prevented from becoming a part of actuality, "what is has suspended hitherto" (p. 262). It should here be explained that while Driesch's entelechy does not attempt to impart cause to the organic as Aristotle did (that is in a t r i v i a l way), i t does operate upon inorganic substances, and i t is these that are being suspended or released. In that way there is something of entelechy at play in the basic structures of l i f e . It is entelechy that influences an organism's constituents, whose actions were usually attributed to the diversities that kept them from equilibrium (p. 259). For the behaviour of a system "is not exclusively dependent on the differences of intensity among the constituents, but on something further" (p. 261). This 'something further' being entelechy, a pervading force that directs the organism to a purpose. Not surprisingly this vitalism runs into conflict with some of Darwin's theories, namely "natural selection, and contingent variation. The latter refers to the effect of random mutations. To Driesch, Darwinism is not credible because i t f a i l s to explain the restitutive action of organisms (pp. 168-175). It also f a i l s to explain, even in mechanistic terms, "the origin of any organic institution," which prompts Driesch to claim validity for the autonomy of l i f e - his own form of vitalism (p. 175). Of his entelechy, Driesch is - 20 -eager to point out that "There is nothing like i t in inorganic nature" (p. 268). Whereas Jan Smuts (1926) perceives i t as just another label for 'Life' (p. 172). Generative Vitalism: Henri Bergson's philosophy also greatly relied upon cause. He used the term elan vital to refer to the creative urge that imbued a l l l i f e and advanced i t to a state of becoming. The word 'becoming' imparts a sense of flow or continuance which could be found in Driesch's philosophy, but is the essence of Bergson. His ideas are somewhat hard to grasp, and the reason for this may be traced to his coming from the irrationalist tradition emerging out of Rousseau and the Romantic movement, in reaction to the more mechanistic reasoning of, say, Descartes (B. Russell, 1977, p. 292). Bergson felt that the rationalists, with their c a r e f u l e f f o r t s to achieve p r e c i s i o n , were missing something by concentrating on the static, material world. Only space, out of time and space, was being considered. He wanted to address time, not in a measured way, but h o l i s t i c a l l y . Hence the stress upon flow. His expression of time was duration and this referred to an attitude of mind, somewhat mystical in form, that required one release the controls of ego and attain a state of just being. Even Bertrand Russell confessed, in regard to duration, "It is ... a very d i f f i c u l t conception. I do not fully understand i t myself Yet Russell (1961) managed to convey the unity one was supposed to acquire by stating, "It forms the past and the present into one organic whole, where there is mutual penetration, succession without distinction" (p. 759). The past needed to be blended with the present so as to be an "indivisible and indestructible continuity", like that of a "melody where the past enters - 21 -into the present and forms with i t an undivided whole which remains undivided and even indivisible in spite of what is added at every instant, or rather, thanks to what is added." It is as i f the very meaningfulness of the way a properly attuned l i f e is lived from moment to moment gives the past and the present extraordinary unity that is identical to the way the melody of a song gives i t continuity over time. Of t h i s duration one must grasp an 'i n t u i t i o n ' rather than an intellectual representation (H. Bergson, 1946, p. 83). For the latter can provide a "spacial transportation ... and metaphorical translation alone ..." (p. 84). It is perhaps easier to grasp intuition by considering what i t is not - intellectual rationalism - but i t demands description. Bergson referred to intuition as a shadow, somewhat diminished from its concrete form. And even the shadow suffers under explanation because we have to resort to symbols to project i t (p. 129/30). The great attribute of int u i t i o n i s i t s negation of any preconceived notion. It denies the intellectual logic forcing the mind to recall experiences and emotions and thus register the act of livin g . What Bergson required of us is to capture the action of becoming so that no separateness between solid things is realized. In conjunction with duration and intuition is the elan v i t a l , the v i t a l , creative impulse that drives our being. The term creative is significant and brings together the ideas of oneness and creation, or fulfillment. Like Driesch, Bergson disagreed with Darwin's theory of evolution because this suggested advances by gradual accretions or mutations. In Bergson's view evolution would take the shape of comparatively quantum - 22 -leaps, for such would be possible in a system possessing a creative v i t a l i t y . Such leaps can also be found in ar t i s t s , who are individuals sufficiently divorced from the practicalities of l i f e to be able to respond intuitively and creatively to the elan vital embodied within them. And like Driesch, but for different reasons, Bergson denies a teleological view that presupposes a known end. For the life-force is capable of producing genuine novelty and is truly creative. Hence the t i t l e of his book Creative  Evolution. This effectively n u l l i f i e s the mechanistic or teleological theories where the outcome is never anything fundamentally new (B. Russell, 1977, p. 292). At the same time there is no opportunity here to 'give us pause1, for we are within a process of instinctive urging from behind where the perceptions of the present have greater validity than the recollections of the past. This demands that attention should be given to our ongoing experience, which in its basic form is represented by instinct, and in it s advanced form, by intuition. But in our society both are subordinate to intell e c t . To Bergson the task of intellect was mundane analysis to which the individual had to adhere when coping with the practical aspects of our world. This suggests a limited scope for Bergson's ideas in terms of their practicability, but i t was a limit of which he was well aware (H. Bergson, 1946, p. 225). As one would expect, criticism of Bergson's ideas have concentrated upon: the unrealistic expectation that everyone can experience intuition of duration by introspection and "the denial of the intellect" (J. Marotaom. 1955, p. 115/6). Even so Bergson's concept of time and space, and becoming influenced Wm. James, Alfred North Whitehead and some of today's theoretical physicists. - 23 -Conclusions Vitalism is distinguished by a faith, one that depends upon a single idea, and therefore explanation, to account for the evolving of organisms and systems that other theories seek to explain by various compilations of mutually supporting ideas. True, other elements are described in v i t a l i s t i c theories (such as Bergson1s duration and intuition) but these are part of the process, not conditions that need to be f u l f i l l e d . In the end only one attribute needs to be present, ie. the life-force: a l l the rest is merely d e s c r i p t i o n . Vitalism i s perhaps the simplest form of holism (the descriptive conditions notwithstanding), but at the same time i t is the easiest to fault. It provides l i t t l e to support its claim other than the denial of conventional theories. Perhaps Bertrand Russell (1961) may be excused his flippancy when he declared that anyone "whose action is built on contemplation ... will not regret that there is not reason to think i t {Bergson1s philosophy] true" (p. 765). - 24 -Holonism: In Janus - A Summing Up, Arthur Koestler advances a compendium of ideas, of which some refl e c t his earlie s t writings. His outlook is essentially optimistic, but one is hard put to categorize him into any one camp. His views, nevertheless, make him worthy of examination. A g e n e r a l i s t , strong supporter of General Systems Theory (GST) and humanitarian philosophy, Koestler (1978) hesitates to ascribe the order of our world to anything more specific than a "third order of r e a l i t y " , which he likens to "a text written in invisible ink" and therefore unknowable (p. 285). He has an independent idea as to causality that blends hierarchy with several other c r i t e r i a . His theory is termed SOHO or Self-regulating Open Hierarchic Order. Vital to the appreciation of this concept is the holon, a term coined by Koestler to describe l i f e ' s independent components that act autonomously. Perhaps Holonism is as good a name for Koestler's outlook as any. Whether in the form of an organelle, a piece of tissue, or a whole heart, each can be considered a self-contained whole while at the same time functioning as a subordinate part. Hence Janus, the name of Koestler's book, suggests a dual outlook. Named after the two faced God, i t stands for upward and downward as well as an inward and outward view. This dual vision is incorporated in what Koestler refers to as the holon. Such a view forces him to deny any value to the gestalt. He views the gestalt as a power attributed to the whole and in need of no intermediary assistance of the kind that only the holon can provide. By so doing he draws himself away from both Organicism (as defined by D.C. Phillips, his point #4) and GST. Koestler actually makes a point of stressing, regarding the special position - 25 -of the holon, that i t "is meant to supply the missing link between atomism and holism, and to supplant the dualistic way of thinking in terms of 'parts' and 'wholes', ..." (1978, pp. 292/3). Instead of the gestalt, Koestler looks toward structures to demonstrate the holon's principles of interaction in order to bring about change and order. These structures can be stable inorganic systems, ranging from atoms to galaxies, (p. 306) or fluctuating, organic and social systems. All satisfy the conditions of a holon by being both part and whole. Interacting with these tendencies for change are the instigators of change that are seen to operate much like the human nervous system .where 'scanners and f i l t e r s ' convey information, which in turn 'triggers' the appropriate response. Both phylogeny and ontogeny are effected this way. Phylpgeny being the necessarily long term evolution of a species, or being, while ontogeny refers to the briefer development of a being. It is the self-transcending tendency of the holon that supplies the "innate drive in living matter to perfect i t s e l f [or to take i t ] towards an optimal actualization of i t s evolutionary potential" (p. 225). This somewhat v i t a l i s t i c explanation of a system is as close as we will get to the heart of Koestler's theory. Koestler declares his position regarding vitalism: The purposiveness of a l l vital processes, the strategy of the genes and the power of the exploratory drive in animal and man, a l l seem to indicate that the pull of the future is as real as the power of the past. Causality and finali t y are complementary principles in the sciences of l i f e ; i f you take f i n a l i t y and purpose out you have taken the l i f e out of biology as well as psychology [asterisk omitted]. If this be called vitalism, I have no objection ... (p. 226) In some ways, Holonism, like General Systems Theory, which we will - 26 -examine next, shows a great appreciation of Organicism. Organicism is quite compatible with the duality of the holon that renders i t s e l f , and therefore the whole system, self-regulating. Embodied in the holon is the catalyst that synthesizes systems, making them viable and progressive. It is this v i t a l i s t i c element that gives one hope that, in time, man will evolve to the point where he will be capable of using the f u l l potential of the brain, which, to this point, has been beyond his capacity to realise (p. 276). In summary, then, the holon exhibits the following properties: 1. It is upward-downward facing. 2. It is inward-outward facing. 3. It makes a thing a self-contained whole. 4. It is self-transcending. 5. It is self-assertive. 6. It is innate. 7. It is a driving force. 8. It drives living matter to perfect i t s e l f . 9. It moves things toward the actualization of their evolutionary potential. 10. It i s , l i k e l y , a non-material property. In other words, i t seems to have a l l the characteristics traditionally associated with the concept "soul." We can now turn our attention to the Open part of the SOHO concept. 'Open' reveals the wide scope to be found in Koestler's theory of systems. He could have used the word for several reasons, the most important being that self-regulating organisms can only operate in open systems. For an explanation of open systems, see ahead to section on GST, - 27 -in this chapter. Only here, where interaction with the environment can occur, is i t possible to establish the necessary interrelationships. This fact alone j u s t i f i e s use of the word 'open', yet i t also captures the strategy component of the strategy/rules nature of the holon. Like the game of chess, the holon also possesses rules of the game, and strategies that are guided by the rules. Instinct, reflex and practice a l l demonstrate rule-bound behaviour that contain order and s t a b i l i t y , but they can be affected by a flexible strategy which is determined by higher level mental processes. At its highest level, this becomes symbolic thought (p. 43). This introduces the idea of a holon hierarchy, which is an important consideration, but will be f u l l y addressed shortly. What should be mentioned here is the way the system displays openness. Facilitating and expanding the interactions within holon hierarchies are the reticulation and arborizing networks operating at various levels within the system. Koestler has likened the idea to a forest where the trees resemble the hierarchies. He provides an example of such a system in the attempt to use abstract memory. This " i s not based on a single hierarchy but on several interlocking hierarchies pertaining to different sensory realms such as vision, hearing and smell" (p. 50). The following diagram helps illustrate this point.And while openness applies to the Fig. 1 - 28 -interaction of hierarchies, i t also bears upon the very nature of the hierarchy i t s e l f . Some hierarchies are pote n t i a l l y l i m i t l e s s , and i t is to thi s phenomenon that Koestler applies the term 'open ended1. The hierarchy can be '"open ended' in one or both directions." Take, for example, the chemist analysing a chemical compound. His apex will be the molecular l e v e l , "branching into chemical radicals, branching into atoms." Whereas in a more penetrating study that examines sub-atomic processes, "what appears to the chemist as a complete tree turns out to be.merely a branch of a more comprehensive hierarchy" (p. 55). More significant yet is the fact that the chemist's 'hierarchic tree' faces him with only a very limited number of the potential hierarchies of our world (Koestler, 1978, p. 56). Although our look at the term 'open' has forced us to consider certain qualities of hierarchy, there is s t i l l more that can be said about the third component of Koestler's SOHO. The term hierarchic inclines one to think that certain rules exist so that holons remain stable, and to a certain extent, predictable. Koestler confirms this by suggesting that the holon is subject to regulation channels, mechanization and elements of freedom. Regulation channels are the pathways through which signals travel sequentially so as to react to environmental changes or to establish equilibrium. Any attempt at short-c i r c u i t i n g "intermediary levels by directing conscious attention" to otherwise automatic functions will lead to psychosomatic disorders. This relates to the terms mechanization and freedom, where i t will be seen that i t is counterproductive to ask a higher order process to do a lower one. As the levels of the holons increase in the hierarchy, the degree of - 29 -freedom (as was mentioned earlier) also increases, and mechanization decreases. Take, for instance, Koestler's example of typing a letter. The lower order operations of finger movement are automatic and mechanistic, requiring l i t t l e thought, just simply operating on learned channels of experience and practice. Composing the letter's contents, on the other hand, requires a great deal of thought, construction, and therefore freedom. Any attempt to apply freedom to the lower function of finger movement-thinking out each automatic action - would greatly impair the performance. At the same time, composition is beyond the capacity of a mechanistic act. Mechanization can, therefore, apply to those actions that are learned by practice, eventually becoming automatic routines, while freedom refers to the f l e x i b i l i t y that accompanies, and is commensurate with, higher levels of thought. With Koestler's assertion that in both phylogeny and ontogeny consciousness is an emerging quality (p. 310), freedom takes on greater significance. The term freedom can be synonymous with greater degrees of complexity, e.g. a game of chess compared to draughts, or in the sub-atomic world of physics (p. 237). This also applies to both ends of a hierarchy where choices, complexity and freedom equally extend. At these levels "the constraints diminish, and the degrees of freedom increase, ad infinitum" (p. 239). This suggests a conundrum of infinite regress accompanying the open ended holon, that Koestler finds impossible to answer. He can only advocate perceiving freedom as something to cherish and nurture. He has come to realise that i t is too easily lost either by passive behaviour, mechanical routines that lead to complacency, or irresponsible actions arising out of primitive levels in the hierarchy residing in the 'old brain' (p. 240). - 30 -Even more important to human kind is the use of freedom made by the a r t i s t , that u t i l i z e r of the integrative "power of his imagination" (p. 135). Here is likely to occur "the highest manifestation of the integrative tendency ... that of extracting order out of disorder and information out of noise" (p. 310). Now we have reached the last concept of S0H0, that of order. The correct balance between order and disorder i s equilibrium. Equilibrium is established by the interactions of particles, elements or organisms with their environment ameliorating stresses that have become manifest. Because i t is active, Koestler speaks of a dynamic equilibrium. The dual nature of the holon is expected to behave so as to achieve t h i s . A monopoly of either tendency - self-assertive or integrative - will disrupt the equilibrium to the ultimate detriment of the whole. This may bring about changes to society, or an organism that can be degenerative, or regenerative, depending on the circumstances. Regenerative conditions are implemented by "fluctuations from the highest level of integration down to earlier, more primitive levels, and up again to a new, modified pattern" (p. 311). But while the holon is the tool that may carry out the job, i t is impossible to lose sight of the fact that the condition just described must rely on some sort of vitalism, or remote purposer, for its completion, as Koestler has made clear. To summarize: the holon and S0H0, with i t s emphasis on hierarchy, present specific attributes which tend to characterize Koestler's holism. The holon is both inward and outward facing. It is both self-assertive and self-transcending. It imparts autonomy so the entity is a self-contained whole. It is innate in l i f e . - 31 -It provides direction and drive. It causes living matter to perfect i t s e l f . It stimulates self-actualization and evolutionary potential. It likely possesses a non-material form. SOHO suggests a l l the above regulating features together with: Infinite scope for complexity through its open nature and hierarchy. Greater freedom as complexity increases in the hierarchy: This improves the opportunity to bring about order. Order, or balance, is maintained through the interaction of holons. This look at the holon and the SOHO model gives a good insight into Koestler's, philosophy and tends to show why he is somewhat removed from other holists by his theory. His adherence to hierarchy tends to remove his work from the Organicism camp, but aligns him strongly to General Systems Theory and systems research. Yet his fascination for the para-normal places him in the Organicism camp, but excludes him from the scient i f i c orthodoxy of systems research. He i s , of course, the perfect example of a transition between Organicism and systems theory, and adequately prepares us to look at General Systems Theory. GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY: General Systems Theory (GST) is characterized by a faith in the self-organizing power of hierarchic open - as opposed to closed - systems. This faith approximates the inherent drive associated with - 32 -vitalism.* Accompanying this characteristic is the belief that GST is a tool that can unify the various sciences by its application to their various problems. This would be achieved through mathematical models whenever possible, or by an attempt to find "general aspects, correspondence and isomorphisms common to 'systems'" (von Bertalanffy, 1975, p. 157). Growing out of the Organicism movement, GST was f i r s t introduced by Ludwig von Bertalanffy orally in the 1930s and in publications after the war (p. 153). The process is predicated on belief in systems as wholes. In fact, GST is the "scientific exploration of 'wholes' and 'wholeness'" (p. 157). "No longer do [they] see in the world a blind play of atoms, but rather a great organization" (p. 123). Critical to this theory is the a b i l i t y of biological open systems to maintain a state of "dying and becoming" so as to achieve a steady state. An open system is one that is able to exchange matter with its environment: something a closed system cannot do. The significance of open and closed systems was made obvious by the second law of thermodynamics, which was contradicted by living systems maintaining themselves in a steady state. Prior to i t being recognized that living systems were open, this maintenance was considered "as the bulwark of vitalism" (p. 120). The second law of thermodynamics states that closed systems - by which is meant systems that cannot draw on, or exchange with its environment, e.g. our universe is considered a closed system (Mattessich R., 1978, p. 274)-*Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Perspectives on General System Theory, George Braziller, New York, 1975. While von Bertalanffy denies Driesch's vitalism has any power of equifinality over the biological open system, he uses Bergson's term 'elan v i t a l ' to describe his own active system. See page 133. See also Ludwig von Bertalanffy, General System Theory, George Braziller Inc., New York, 1968, page 192. - 33 -increase in entropy, or a state of maximum disorder, to "the disappearance of existing differentiations" (von Bertalanffy, 1975, p. 46). Strangely enough, this manifests itself in states of equalization or balance, where e.g. gases of different temperatures when combined will level out to an even temperature rather than remain separate. This condition produces a dissipation of energy that will eventually bring the universe to a final state where everything is uniformly distributed. But in the case of open systems such as constitute animate nature, the very opposite appears to be true. Here, where the organism is able to interact with its environment, "the living organism maintains itself in a state of highest organization [passing] ... from states of lower to higher heterogeneity." There i s , in fact, a movement towards higher organization and complexity. The entropy charge found in a closed system always being positive, is here found to be negative, resulting in a dynamic morphology, permitting an interactive metabolism (p. 46). Open living systems demonstrate another fact that Driesch attributed to entelechy, but von Bertalanffy credits to equifinality, or the ability of the organic process to achieve the same goal "from different starting points and in d i f f e r e n t ways" (p. 100). It is only in equif i n a l i t y and anamorphosis that von Bertalanffy finds arguments for vitalism, or f i n a l i t y , in the regulability of organic systems (p. 79). However, his arguments for a mathematical proof that would make causality another expression of f i n a l i t y f a l l short of being convincing. Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1968) proves here only that events will occur either pushed or pulled by f i n a l i t y to reach a state of equilibrium. As he points out, the mathematics proves nothing. We are therefore left with only his biased teleological argument - 34 -hinged to the goal directedness of systems (p. 77). The process of e q u i f i n a l i t y is intriguing in the normal forming organism "where the organism reaches its final size irrespective of its i n i t i a l size and growth pattern " (von Bertalanffy, 1975, p. 100). But, like Driesch, von Bertalanffy was captured by the organism's potential when taken from i t s normal state. The fusing of two embryos into one organism, or deriving the same from a 1/2 or a 1/4 of an embryo, indicated the uniqueness of equifinality (p. 120). While von Bertalanffy claims this "is not derived from a v i t a l i s t i c prerequisite, but is a general characteristic of systems reactions" (p. 100), he places i t as a phenomenon of dynamic teleology in his discussion of final i t y (von Bertalanffy, 1968, p. 78). At the same time, he points out that e q u i f i n a l i t y i s a consequence "of the characteristic state of the organism as an open system, and thus accessible to scientific interpretation and theory" (p. 70). This shows that Professor von Bertalanffy is in something of a quandary as to where equifinality f i t s : his struggle is to avoid the epithet of vitalism, and at the same time to show that his idea is a legitimate pursuit for science. He attempts to resolve this dilemma by asserting that teleological or direct behaviour can "well be defined in scientific terms ..." (p. 80). Coupled with the p r i n c i p l e s of open systems as r e l a t e d to thermodynamics is the notion of hierarchy which is considered fundamental to GST (p. 27). An example of hierarchy is given in Table I. - 35 -Table I. An Informal Survey of Main Levels in the Hierarchy of Systems. Partly in pursuance in Boulding, 1956b DESCRIPTION AND THEORY AND LEVEL EXAMPLES MODELS Static structures Atoms, molecules, crystals biological structures from the electron microscopic to the macroscopic level E.G. structural formulas of chemistry: crystallography; anatomical descriptions Clock works Clocks, conventional machines in general, solar systems Conventional physics such as laws of mechanics (Newtonian and Einsteinian) and others Control mechanisms Thermostat, servo-mechanisms, homeostatic mechanism in organisms Cybernetics: feedback and information theory Open systems Flame, cells and organisms in general maintaining themselves in flow of matter (metabolism) (a) Expansion of physical theory to systems (b) Information storage in genetic code (DNA) Connection of (a) and (b) presently unclear Lower organisms "Plant-like" organisms: Theory and models Increasing differentiation almost lacking of system (so-called "division of labor" in the organism); distinction of reproduction and functional individual ("germ track and soma") Animals Increasing importance of tr a f f i c in information (evolution of receptors, nervous systems); learning; beginnings of consciousness Beginnings in automata theory (S-R relations), feedback (regulatory phenomena), autonomous behavior (relaxation oscillations), etc. Man Symbolism; past and future, self and world, self-awareness, etc., as con-Incipient theory of symbolism - 36 -sequences; communication by language, etc. Socio-cultural systems Populations of organisms (humans included); symbol-determined communities (cultures) in man only Statistical and possibly dynamic laws in population dynamics, sociology, economics, possibly history. Beginnings of a theory of cultural systems. Symbolic systems Language, logic, mathema-t i c s , sciences, arts, morals, etc. Algorithms of symbols (e.g. mathematics, grammar); "rules of the game" such as in visual arts, music, etc. N.B. - This survey is impressionistic and intuitive with no claim for logical rigor. Higher levels as a rule presuppose lower ones (e.g. l i f e phenomena those at the physico-chemical level, socio-cultural phenomena the level of human activity, etc.); but the relation of levels requires clarification in each case (cf. problems such as open system and genetic code as apparent prerequisites of " l i f e " ; relation of "conceptual" to "real" systems, etc.). In this sense, the survey suggests both the limits of reductionism and the gaps in actual knowledge, (von Bertalanffy, 1975, p. 84) In 1975, a GST of dynamic hierarchic order, which in 1968 was considered to be a "mainstay of general systems theory," was s t i l l being sought, and was regarded as a "pressing problem" (von Bertalanffy, 1968, p. (1975, p. 148). H i e r a r c h i c order was seen to be "intimately connected with . . . d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , evaluation, ... the measure of organization ... or information theory" (1968, p. 28). Its importance is indicated by Arthur Koestler's feeling that the two concepts, of hierarchy and thermodynamics, may be unified to become the theory of "The Tree and the Candle" (1975, p. 28). This is a good simile, in which the proportions are probably correct, for i t is the belief that a l l forms of l i f e f a l l within some sort of hierarchic system that permits the adherents of GST to hold that their findings can be quite generally applied. - 37 -Kenneth E. Boulding who, together with von Bertalanffy, Anatol Rapoport and R.W. Gerard, founded GST research, saw an application for GST in the area of economics and social science. Others in the fields of psychology, physiology, communications, psychiatry and biology saw similar opportunities (Ervin Laszlo, 1972). What lay behind this drive was the idea that a l l such disciplines could be shown to be systems possessing isomorphic hierarchies. The aims of a 1954 GST research program give a clear indication of their expectations. Major functions are to: (1) investigate the isomorphy of concepts, laws, and models in various f i e l d s , and to help in useful transfers from one fi e l d to another; (2) encourage the development of adequate theoretical models in the f i e l d s which lack them; (3) minimize the duplication of theoretical effort in different f i e l d s ; (4) promote the unity of science through improving communication among specialists. • (von Bertalanffy, 1975, p. 155) Von Bertalanffy was, in fact, quite emphatic that GST was the s c i e n t i f i c vehicle that would provide isomorphic mapping of various disciplines. The "basic areas of physiology, i.e. physiology of metabolism, excitation, and morphogenesis ... would fuse into an integrated theoretical f i e l d under the guidance of the concept of open systems" (p. 154). This meant that i t could be extended to include even sociology (von Bertalanffy, 1968, p. 195). GST was hereby being proposed as a new paradigm for science, and to i t s proponents, i t offered the promise expected of any revolutionary theory. Others have committed themselves to GST either as a component of their theories or as the entire structure. Among the former is Arthur Koestler who made hierarchical systems fundamental in The Ghost in the Machine, and Janus (D.C. Phillips, 1976, p. 69). Among the latter is Paul Weiss, who, - 38 -unlike Koestler, denies that after gaining knowledge of the whole something of this can be realized through the properties of the parts (p. 33). This is confirmed in Weiss (1983, p. 252). In 1983, Weiss, originally a biologist, applied GST to the social question of personal identity and potential, in his book Privacy. Here there is abundant evidence of hierarchical systems (p. 25 and 120). Also evident is the successful application of values in one social system being used to evaluate another: the cross-disciplinary application of GST (p. 120). He stresses the importance of relationships with regard to their cause which, in human terms, is revealed in how the individual will act at each decision point. It will be for his own benefit (p. 93-96). Man's actions are necessarily connected to freely-made decisions that depend upon what occurred before (p. 157). This denies being 'drawn on to act', in the s i m p l i s t i c manner of behaviourism. (See Weiss, 1983, p. 5, and von Bertalanffy, 1975, p. 112-3.) Instead i t recognizes the complex forces that influence decisions. Man's "preference, choice and will carve out possible agencies [modes of action], they are like actions which emphasize what is to be rather than what has been or i s " (Weiss, 1983, p. 161). Weiss also explains GST's departure from systems analysis, which is the f i e l d of people like James Lovelock, of whom we'll speak in a moment. Analysis reflects a loss and "at i t s best, replaces an irrelevant conjunction with a disjunction" (1983, p. 163). He suggests that the conjunction of items is dependent on the human objective condition and is therefore as t r i v i a l as the analyst's disjunction or separate inspection. This view of Weiss is in keeping with the findings of D.C. Phillips, who found that in GST's and Weiss's holism only knowledge of the whole was relevant (Phillips, 1976, p. - 39 -34). One who has the ambitious plan to extend GST to world order is Erwin Laszlo, a long time adherent of social enquiry. For Laszlo (1974), conceptual reali t y is founded in how structures are organized. In i t s simplest form, i t is a system with identifiable relations (the parts) and summed relations that constitute the system i t s e l f . In i t s turn, i t manifests "some identifiable set of (external) relations to other entities (systems)" (p. 18). Hierarchy is basic to the theory of organization, for "whatever living system we analyse, we find hierarchical order in descending steps from the whole system down to the most basic subsystem" (p. 223). Laszlo also observes that the higher up the hierarchy, the smaller the populations get. "Ultimately there is but one global ecosystem which, together with its human components, forms the world system which is the principal object of ... enquiry." Where Laszlo isolates himself from systems analysis i s his assertion that "the properties emerging at successive levels in hierarchical systems are irreducible transformations of the systems [sic] invariences that hold true on a l l levels" (p. 225). This suggests a commonality that permits cross-application of GST much as foreseen by Weiss and von Bertalanffy. And like von Bertalanffy, Laszlo has difficu l t y with cybernetics as a companion tool for GST. Cybernetics will be described more full y shortly, but for now can be conceived as any self-regulating entity. In mechanical terms, this can be seen as a thermostat that dictates i t s own action. While cybernetic principles can benefit the design for a global guidance system, for Laszlo "an organic systems approach to sociocultural and political systems is more fruitful than the more narrow ... cybernetic approach" (p. 187). Although this look at GST leaves a lot - 40 -unsaid, there is sufficient here to be able to make a summary. CONCLUSIONS There are several premises in GST, some of which find agreement with other forms of holism. 1) Life systems are inherently hierarchic and self-organizing. 2) There are commonalities between l i f e systems that render them isomorphic. 3) GST is deemed a cross-disciplinary t o o l , and a potential new paradigm for science. 4) The whole cannot be made known by analysis of the parts. Criticism of GST has focused on the lack of credibility i t offers. R. Mattessich (1978) points to their radical attitude and overambition which with occasional lack of rigor "... cast GST into the role of a philosophic stepchild" (p. 274). Mention is also made of von Bertalanffy1s claim that the entropy law does not apply to open systems. Mattessich refutes t h i s , claiming "this law holds for open no less than for closed systems ..." (p. 275). But GST's most ardent c r i t i c is probably D.C. Phillips (1976), who sums up a chapter on the subject with von Bertalanffy's own view about i t s explanatory and predictive value: "There is no question that new horizons have been opened up, but the relations to empirical facts often remain tenuous" (p. 67). Our next task, then, is to look at another form of systems research that deals with holism: systems analysis. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Systems analysis is perhaps the most easily described form of holism encountered here. Its holistic nature derives from there having to be a - 41 -superstructure under which, or within which, a l l analysis is carried out. This provides, like Kuhn's notion of paradigms, an umbrella or contact point for a l l investigations (R. Mattessich, 1978, p. 275). R. Mattessich provides the following three basic requirements of systems analysis. (1) Systems analysis aims at an expansion of the analytical superstructures serving the empirical and normative sciences. (2) The system notion is a conceptual tool serving man's need to categorize the universe into separate functional or goal oriented entities. (3) To overcome the dangers inherent i n such an a r t i f i c i a l departmentalization, system analysis insists that every system must be analyzed within the context of its environment in order to be more than a mere structure" (p. 20-21). Rather than rely upon any form of vitalism systems analysts prefer to stress the third principle and look for cause in the control and feedback mechanisms of science like cybernetics (p. 275). This means examining systems as they interact with their environment: a dynamic rather than a static process. So important a tool is cybnernetics to systems analysis that Mattessich considers i t to be synonymous with that form of research (p. 3). It w i l l be remembered that cybernetics received only q u a l i f i e d acceptance from GST, but they diff e r on another point also. Systems analysis opposes the view that i t is safe to maintain that "a system is characterized by the fact that i t is more than the sum of its parts" (p. 20). Without attempting to attribute cause to one specific entity, systems analysts suggest i t is meaningful enough to analyze systems in keeping with their environment. This brings us to a characteristic complaint that systems analysts raise against traditional science. The complaint is that - 42 -by drawing tight system boundaries they neglect environmental aspects. This places the system in an unnatural isolation (p. 21). The above features are, to a degree, exemplified by systems analyst, James Lovelock. James Lovelock is a British scientist and inventor whose book Gaia- A New Look At Life On Earth (1979) was gaining increased attention in 1985/6. While he postulates that the earth is essentially a self-regulating giant organism, he eschews any v i t a l i s t i c theory. He also contends that the earth and nature must be viewed as something more than a phenomenon to be "subdued and conquered" (p. 12). It is the earth's relationships and interactions that strike Lovelock as important. These appear to bring about conditions of homeostasis, and help to explain the hitherto unexamined atmospheric changes that have occurred on earth. In contrast to the anthropocentric slant of previously examined ho l i s t s , Lovelock and his biologist partner in this hypothesis, Lynn Margolis, are pessimistic about the long term prospects of man, but not of the plants and microbes that share our world (CBC, 1975, p. 18). Lovelock's is a new idea but one in which the importance is not so much the answers given so f a r , but the questions the hypothesis raises. Lovelock's hypothesis provides evidence of relationships existing between and within organic and inorganic matter that establish homeostasis in systems. This appears to occur at all levels and suggests that not only hierarchy is involved in our systems, but networks and reticulation. The term Lovelock has given to this self-regulating power of the earth is Gaia-named after the Greek goddess of the earth. One way of searching for Gaia is to ask questions about conditions as they exist on earth. One of those asked why the sea is salt. It was soon realised that the question should be - 43 -rephrased to ask, "Why is the sea not saltier?" Assuming that the sea gains its salt from rivers that wash the mineral off the land, there should be some sort of 'sink' in our oceans i f the seas are not to increase in salinity. As the salt in our seas remains quite constant, Lovelock proposes that a system must have evolved to take care of the excess. Similar questions have also been asked of gases and their densities. Oxygen, carbon-dioxide, methane and nitrogen are among those gases questioned as to what process keeps them at levels stable enough for l i f e on earth? Lovelock goes so far as to posit that our atmosphere is the circulatory system of our biosphere. This suggests that our atmosphere is not only a transportation system, but an information system as well. If true, man will have to preserve and protect i t in order to keep l i f e as we now know i t . Lovelock even suggests that man is part of Gaia. Man must calculate his effect and cooperate with nature so as to inconvenience the process of homeostasis as l i t t l e as possible. And only i f man is able to discard the parochial yoke does Lovelock see any hope of the earth being regarded in a suitably holistic manner. He hopes that the relationship between Gaia and humanity will become more firmly established for "We are not yet a truly c o l l e c t i v e species, corralled and tamed as an integral part of the biosphere, as we are indeed, of course, as individual creatures" (CBC, 1985, p. 7). This implies that a concerted effort is needed for mankind to realise i t s role in relation to earth. It is not likely to happen by chance. For Lovelock, any suggestion that chance has played a part in earth's development is too much to ask. Chance f a i l s to account for the successful appearance of oxygen at a time when its occurrence would have represented a - 44 -poisonous threat to the l i f e then existent. As i t was, the biosphere responded in such a manner that oxygen became one of i t s essential components. Such behaviour indicates a form of planetary control where systems can behave automatically to bring about homeostasis. What needs to be examined, then, is what i t is that brings this state into being: how does one system know when i t should interact with another? Lovelock offers cybernetics as a way in which systems can be examined. Cybernetics has been interpreted in various ways. The Random House Dictionary refers to cybernetics as "the stuff of human control functions and of mechanical and electrical systems designed to replace them while R. Mattessich (1978, p. 275) speaks of the "mathematical theory of control mechanisms, made widely popular by Norbert Wiener (1894-1964)" and expanded upon by others. It is regarded by Lovelock "to cover a l l knowledge concerned with systems which maintain steady states whilst regulating the flow of matter and energy in the pursuit of some goal" (CBC, 1985, p. 4). Essentially, i t is the examination of information feedback loops, but Lovelock attaches to i t more than a scientific function. He observes: "The key to understanding cybernetic systems is that, like l i f e i t s e l f , they are always more than the mere assembly of constituent parts. They can only be considered and understood as operating systems. A switched off or dismantled oven reveals no more of its potential performance than does a corpse of the person i t once was" (Lovelock, 1979, p. 52). Here Lovelock tends to break, somewhat, with the systems analysis position and side more with GST in giving credit to that certain 'something' that constitutes the 'whole' when the 'whole is considered greater than the sum of i t s parts'. Speaking of l i f e processes where systems are seen to provide l i f e to the - 45 -biosphere by evolving, merging, and coordinating, he points out: "The more complex cooperative network would have properties and powers greater than the sum of its parts and to this extent may be recognized as one of the faces of Gaia" (p. 27). This dynamic power is evident whenever a natural cybernetic system is in place and therefore demands a particular analysis:-one that considers the interrelationships involved, as a whole. In the case of our planet, its gases need to be studied in their relationship to other gases. What Lovelock is saying is that we can only find out more about the whole - our planet - by examining i t , keeping in mind we are dealing with a coordinated body. For Lovelock, i t seems something of the whole can be learned from analysis of its parts, as long as the whole is kept constantly in mind. In this he is consistent with Mattessich's idea of systems analysis. However, he branches away from that described methodology when he says of cybernetics 'the whole is greater than the sum of its parts'. This suggests that Lovelock recognizes the existence of some sort of vital cause, but finds systems analysis the only logical path by which to discover anything about i t . Scientific enquiry conducted through systems analysis reaches into this realm with the Gaian hypothesis. Lovelock's faith in the Gaian process is revealed in the following: If we accept the proposition that l i f e actively controls and adapts the atmospheric environment to i t s needs, i t s relationship with water vapour illustrates our conclusion that the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s of b i o l o g i c a l cycles and inorganic equilibria are more apparent than real, (p. 82-83) This suggests that imbalances or inconsistencies we discover in our world are part of the life-giving Gaian process. Any investigation that ignores - 46 -the h o l i s t i c nature of our world is seen by Lovelock as a defeatingly limited form of enquiry. Like other systems researchers, Lovelock decries the narrow outlook taken by traditional science where "the boundaries between the sciences are jealously guarded by the professors, and within each territory there is a different arcane language to be learnt" (p. v i i i ) . The enthusiasm to specialize and delve ever deeper into established sciences means that the cross-disciplinary relationships are being overlooked. Oceanography, for example, has "fragmented into separate sub-sciences: marine biology, chemical oceanography, ocean geographies and other hybrid subjects, of which there are as many as there are professors to defend them as territories" (p. 85). This presents an obvious problem of organization, but amply demonstrates that the sciences have been possessed of more hierarchy than network. The aim of system analysis now seems quite clear and allows us to sum up their position. CONCLUSION Systems analysis appears to adhere to the following notions: 1) It is important to encourage the enlarging of the analytical superstructures serving the sciences. 2) There is a belief in hierarchy and networks that constitute goal oriented systems. 3) Systems must be analyzed with the superstructures kept constantly in mind. 4) Cybernetics is considered a vital tool for systems analysis. 5) The isolation of traditional science tends to overlook c r i t i c a l relationships the entity has with its environment. 6) Life's v i t a l principles are envisioned to be held within the cybernetic system. Lovelock's systems analysis appears prepared to - 47 -accept this as implicit without requiring empirical evidence. EVALUATION In order to find a workable holism, a selection of the attributes from the foregoing should be made. This, of course, suggests there is some basis for our selection. Our aim is a workable holism, so a method of looking at the world that shows evidence of a reasonable degree of practicability is called for. Therefore, we must exclude ideas that lack conviction, and accept only those that suggest a logical, though not necessarily empirical, approach. By necessity this has to be a somewhat subjective task, but one that, i f based on reason, should find general acceptance. Patterned Organicism. The appeal of this form of holism is i t s sense of balance and equilibrium. This knits in well with the belief that i t is important to develop a l l aspects of the entity. While i t rightly suggests a tendency towards pattern, care must be taken as to when and where to perceive this. It should not be expected, for example, to find pattern in regulated conformity: the world does not work that way. What might appear to be a coherent pattern might, on reflection, be detrimental to, or incompatible with, a larger one. Lewis Mumford's mega-machine is a good example. On the other hand, what may appear to be an untidy break in a pattern may be consistent with the diversity necessary to l i f e . Diversity in the short term can become pattern in the long. The decline in carbon dioxide over the eons might be viewed as destabilizing i f i t were not for the fact that in the long run i t was compensating for the increasing temperature of the sun. Therefore, pattern is not always self-evident, although i t might be present. This necessitates care and sensitivity on the - 48 -part of decision makers. Is the pattern being sought the right one? Our search for balance through pattern should, therefore, be a cautious one. Harmonious Organicism. In t h i s case, the emphasis is upon potentiality. Man has been endowed with the opportunity to make choices, and the nature of these greatly affects his environment. The l i f e on our planet depends upon the potentials developed or neglected. Ultimately this affects world harmony, which, i t should be remembered, can be of high or low quality, for a harmony of some sort is often present. The aim, of course, is to increase the quality. Without man's presence, this occurred naturally and spanned millions of years without dramatic changes taking place. Mankind's arrival on earth has brought men and women, in addition to their ability to think, a great responsibility; that of maintaining the existing harmony. Roszak sees this resulting from developing individual potential, and i f this seems u n r e a l i s t i c , surely the alternative - of absolving ourselves of responsibility - is even more so. Reflective Organicism. It is appropriate that this form of Organicism should come last, for both pattern and harmony demand reflection. Teilhard de Chardin1s views enjoy a large degree of optimism, holding as they do that the universe is undergoing a perfecting and in-folding of matter. Science tends to bear him out, of course, and whether or not one shares his religious view, i t is d i f f i c u l t not to see the scope in what he calls the Noosphere. From this comes the opportunity for reflection and the chance to do what a l l Organicists seem to agree upon, and that is to enhance each individual's potential. Equipotential Vitalism. Hans Driesch rather courageously attempted to explain a fundamental question in biology. This approximated trying to - 49 -explain the very source of l i f e . Not surprisingly, his attempt i s unconvincing, incorporating as i t does an unacceptable amount of suppositions. Several acts of faith are asked for, such as the ability of entelechy to divide specifically when needed, or i t s leaving organisms suspended, or that i t s own or mechanical actions occur automatically. Smuts, perhaps, summed up Equipotential Vitalism best when he saw i t as simply a label. In the long run we have just been presented with phenomena, not a believable explanation of causes. Equipotential does of course suggest the need organisms have to develop all their parts, and from this we can gain a reaffirmation of potential. Generative Vitalism. This form of holism demands a reestablished view of the world that is d i f f i c u l t for many to achieve. Bergson provides a different perspective, a different way of seeing things. Essential to this perspective is the emphasis on flow, which seems to demand a greater use of our senses and emotions than traditional reasoning admits. In this realm of f e e l i n g , we approach the unexplainable, the insecure ground of which rational enquiry is so skeptical. But for our purposes, this is valuable, for i t stresses an ongoing process where relationships are in constant interaction. The degree to which this process is aided by Bergson1s intuition is hard to determine, i f i t has any bearing at a l l . But there is l i t t l e doubt that emotions and feelings play a significant part in the sphere of human social behaviour. The idea of an elan vital that aids creativity is an optimistic one, but i t does l i t t l e to help us predict anything about our environment. At it s best, i t merely complements the notion of organic potential where creative leaps are more easily explained by environmental circumstances. - 50 -Thomas Kuhn (1962, p. 121) has pointed out that quantum leaps in knowledge have long been a feature of traditional science. It would seem advisable for a workable holism to avoid the temptation of any vitalism that might detract the individual from open-minded reflection. Holonism. Arthur Koestler's ideas tend to reflect the Organicist source from which they emerged. Emphasis on the individual is apparent with a clear explanation of how each unit contributes to the whole: through i t s self-assertive and self-transcending tendencies. The notion of freedom increasing with the level of hierarchy presents an optimistic view of our world's complexity, one that has been further developed by Ilya Prigogine (1984). The problem lies in the fact that Holonism offers, basically, no more than a l i s t of attributes for organic substances. It can also be argued that l i f e forms can exist in systems that are other than hierarchic, which further limits this theory. One does not feel needful to contest Koestler's idea of dynamic equilibrium, or even the way i t is individually expressed. It is the notion that holons instigate a l l action that 'puzzles the w i l l ' , for any further enquiry on this subject must be as much guesswork, or conjecture, as was the originally well conceived idea. True, each organism is self-assertive and integrative, but the concept of the holon existing in everything organic encounters problems similar to those found with Vitalism: we end up with a need to have a faith in a v i t a l i s t i c holon. By clinging to v i t a l i s t i c notions we tend to absolve ourselves from some degree of intellectual activity, the very condition Koestler argues against. So once again we are left with an accurate observance of behaviour, but no ful l y convincing theory that permits a completely workable holism in spite of its - 51 -good points. For one thing, i t lacks any predictive power. The same can be said of GST. General Systems Theory. The thrust of GST i s i t s b e l i e f in hierarchies. This permits the suggestion that isomorphism is possible from one discipline to another. If true, this would be tantamount to finding Einstein's unified f i e l d theory. It would provide easy explanations for a l l problems by cross-disciplinary knowledge. Unfortunately, the idea relies more on its simplistic appeal than empirical fact. Another characteristic that isolates GST is the intractable view that.the whole cannot be known by its parts. D.C. Phillips argues that we know elements can combine to make compounds and this indicates we can know the whole from i t s parts. But this tends to beg the issue of what property in nature allows this to occur? - a question to which GST is attempting to find an answer. This reveals their basic problem, for i t is that certain vital process that permits entities to coalesce and make 'the whole greater than the sum of its parts'. By being unspecific on the question of vitalism, GST gets neither complete sc i e n t i f i c nor h o l i s t approval. No doubt we should be looking for systems and relationships, but ones that are not necessarily hierarchic or isomorphic in form. Systems Analysis. There is an obvious similarity between Lovelock's systems analysis and Arthur Koestler's holonism. Both act so as to bring about equilibrium or homeostasis. In Koestler's case he concedes that the holon i s granted a v i t a l i s t i c component, while Lovelock essentially sidesteps the question by attributing necessary adjustments to the self-regulating process. This is intentional, of course, for the Gaian hypothesis is intended only as a proposal, not yet a theory, by means of - 52 -which a l i f e force can be sought. Such a claim is re a l i s t i c when dealing with something so far removed from our present knowledge base. Lovelock's enquiry, like many other holists - the Organicists and Koestler - seeks potential in relationships. But on Gaia's part they are discretionary, for circumstances change with the need to establish homeostasis. This form of rational enquiry, whose holism demands that the whole simply needs to be kept in mind, helps us formulate our workable holism. A workable holism must recognize the potential of individual organic matter tempered by a far sighted view of the whole. We must be sensitive to the material and non-material effects on l i f e processes as they interact in their relationships bringing forth the unexpected, at times. One source of the unexpected is man's creative mind. Here Teilhard de Chardin's 'reflection' and Bergson's 'becoming' find expression. Lovelock provides us with the umbrella, or framework, of earth within which to reflect, but eventually this must be expanded to our galaxy. In short, our reflections must be forever growing and tying together, by clear details, the relationships that constantly manifest themselves to us. There will be occasion for patterns and systems, and perhaps, eventually, a recognition that the 'whole is great than the sum of its parts', a notion that for now has to remain implicit rather than exp l i c i t . Our workable holism, then, is not a simple, easily described concept. Instead, i t is pragmatically eclectic, using the features given above when appropriate, but essentially concentrating on bringing together ideas and relationships under a superstructure made suitable by penetrating reflection. - 53 -REFERENCES Bateson, Gregory, Mind and Nature, E.P. Dutton, New York, 1979. Bergson, Henri, The Creative Mind, Philosophical Library, New York, 1946. Bohm, David, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, England, 1980. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Transcripts: Ideas - The Leading Edge; Gaia Hypothesis, Dec. 30th - Feb. 7th 1985, 4-1D-105, Montreal. The Concise Oxford Dictionary, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1960. Driesch, Hans, Science & Philosophy of the Organism, A. & C. Black, London, 1929. Koestler, Arthur, Janus - A Summing Up, Random House, New York, 1978. Kuhn, Thomas S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962. Laszlo, Erwin, ed., The Relevance of General Systems Theory, George Braziller, New York, 1972. Lovelock, James, Gaia - A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1979. Maritain, Jacques, Bergson Philosophy and Thomism, Philosophical Library, New York, 1955. Mattessich, Richard, Instrumental Reasoning and Systems Methodology, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Boston, USA, 1978. McKeon, R. ed., The Basic Works of Aristotle, Random House Library, New York, 1941. Mumford, Lewis, The Myth of the Machine. Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York, 1967. Mumford, Lewis, The Urban Prospect, Harcourt and Brace, Inc., New York, 1968. P h i l l i p s , D.C., Holistic Thought in Social Science, Stanford University Press, California, 1976. Prigogine, Ilya, & Stengers, Isabella, Order Out of Chaos, New Science Library, Shambhala, Boulder and London, 1984. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, New York, 1966. - 54 -Rifkin, Jeremy, Entropy: A New World View, Bantam Books, London, 1981. Roszak, Theodore, Person/Planet, Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, New York, 1978. Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy, George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, 1961. Russell, Bertrand, Wisdom of the West, Crescent Books, Inc., London, 1977. Schumacher, E.F., Small Is Beautiful, Sphere Books Ltd., London, 1974. Sheldrake, Rupert, A New Science of Life, Blond & Briggs, London, 1981. Smuts, Jan, Holism and Evolution, McMillan & Co., Ltd., London, 1926. Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre, The Future of Man, Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1964. von Bertalanffy, Ludwig, General System Theory, George Braziller, New York, 1968. von Bertalanffy, Ludwig, Perspectives on General Systems Theory, George Braziller, New York, 1975. Waddington, C.H., Presenter, Biology and the History of the Future, an IUBS/UNESCO Symposium, Edinburgh University Press, 1972. Weiss, Paul, "The Living System: Determinism Stratified," Arthur Koestler and J.R. Smythies, eds., The Alpbach Symposium Beyond Reductionism, Hutchinson of London, 1969. Weiss, Paul, Privacy, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, 1983. ^ 55 -CHAPTER II  THE CREDIBLE EFFECTS OF HOLISM HOLISTIC ATTRIBUTES AND CONCEPT GATHERING It is true that our look at holism did not provide any conclusive evidence as to its validity, due to its reliance on f a i t h , or on hypotheses concerning vital forces. What can be found, however, are numerous axioms, or maxims whose worth is best exhibited when attached to the gathering of ideas. It is intended in this chapter to expose these maxims and show their potential as learning tools. It will be observed that many of these maxims find support in quite separate holistic views. This fact merely elevates, or throws into greater repute, the maxim involved. Once the maxims have been established, i t will be the task of the following chapter to show how they can be arranged to produce a system of learning that develops ideas. MAN IS A REFLECTIVE BEING Teilhard de Chardin was careful to point out the importance of reflective thought. It is this, after a l l , that separates us from other animal l i f e and is the vehicle for mankind's abstracted ideas. History records the increasing sophistication of these ideas, which leads de Chardin to speculate that there exists a perfecting of man's intel l e c t . Certainly i t is axiomatic that any advance in mankind's condition will have to rely upon the extent to which men and women use the mind to grasp and develop ideas. The mind and its application, then, is fundamental to any forming of ideas about our world. It can form impressions in a casual unsystematized way, but will reach practical conclusions sooner when a systematic approach is employed. Such an approach will reveal i t s e l f as we examine further - 56 -contributions from holistic thought. Although more wil l be said about individual e f f o r t later i t i s appropriate to mention at this stage the importance of this aspect of reflection. One need not be so totally holistic as to believe, as Emil Durkheim did, that society forms the individual's ideas to recognize that indeed society does contribute to individual ideas. De Chardin recognized this but he also saw that individual reflection was ultimately interpretive. So while there may be a consensus concerning general, basic ideas, their intricacies demand that every individual will form a personal view that might have substantial differences to someone else. This can be accounted f o r , to some extent, by the cultural baggage the individual possesses, previous learning experiences, the degree of effort given to the study of the particular idea, and the manner in which the idea is conveyed. In short, the individual will arrive at conclusions about ideas that are completely personal in nature. (Historiography is an example of how interpretations of events can vary greatly.) For this reason i t is important that the individual knows how to gather ideas in a systematic way in order to minimize unnecessary differences. Differences will s t i l l exist but will be capable of being explained so as to account for the viewpoint in a rational way. For now, holism has shown that ideas are developed by r e f l e c t i o n , and while they can permeate and change s o c i e t y , t h e i r assimilation occurs through individuals who bring to bear the i r own systematic interpretation of the facts. THE WORLD EXHIBITS RELATIONSHIPS AND PATTERNS It is certainly not d i f f i c u l t to accept the fact that, as Theodore - 57 -Roszak contends i t is possible to observe elements of one entity in another. For example: the curved beak in a l l meat-tearing birds; the effect of evaporation for cooling, e.g. transpiration and perspiration; or the general benefit of camouflage. Nor is i t d i f f i c u l t to understand the relatedness of one entity to another, such as the case of pilot fish and dolphins, the increase of algae in oxygen deprived water, or the dependence of predator on prey. The relationships described are a few of the countless such instances in our world. In fact, i t would not be an exaggeration to say that a l l aspects of our world can trace for themselves some form of relatedness in one form or another. Therefore, in terms of assembling ideas, relationships are fundamental. They are the front line of connectedness, the point at which detail makes sense by its placement relative to other details. Roszak sees the world as a pack of interacting systems of which man is a part. He also contends that by understanding ourselves we get closer to understanding the rest of nature. When Arthur Koestler speaks of relationships, he refers to a source of order. The efficacy of his holon is not in question here, for we are concerned only with the nature of relationships. He uses this concept of relatedness within his hierarchies which provide relationships of both a high and low order. (Koestler believes these relationships move in a continuum and take the form of new hierarchic branches when they reach their nadir and zenith.) What this serves to establish is that relationships are pertinent to a l l objects worthy of study. It is the individual's responsibility to make the necessary connections where they seem most logical. As these develop, i t makes sense to interpret the relationships as - 58 -something greater, more significant. For this reason i t is possible to conceive that we have reached a point where relationships are forming patterns. Lewis Mumford asserted that mankind has an inclination to create wholes, by which he meant societies and religions. These wholes are built around a central idea and f u l f i l l a function or purpose useful to the organizing body. Mankind's ability to reflect is demonstrated when men and women are able to move beyond recognizing relationships and create a pattern such as a totem, ritual or belief. This a b i l i t y to perceive patterns reveals mankind's capacity to organize i t s e l f . It is evidence of an a b i l i t y to use abstract representation as opposed to concrete articles. But in so doing, care must be exercised. Great sensitivity is required when assessing the pattern's components, and discretion is needed to not make assumptions about larger cases. For example, i t would be unwise to use any of the tenets of family budgeting in the preparing of a country's fiscal framework, although this has been known to occur. Another who dwells on relationships at a level here referred to as patterns is James Lovelock. His concern is that the interrelatedness of our world is being overlooked, and like Roszak he fears the results of a specialized interpretation that f a i l s to take into account the relationships that exist. All these people recognize that while patterns develop they cannot be isolated from the environment in which they interact. This consideration is important to our view of holism contributing to a system of gathering ideas. It means that i t must be possible to harness patterns that emerge out of perceived relationships and offer them the opportunity to - 59 -enmesh with other patterns that show a similar or l i k e method ,of organization. We have, therefore, a pyramidal system that replicates, or exemplifies, nature in its structure. But like nature, integral to i t s structure is a need for balance. OUR WORLD DISPLAYS BALANCES Isaac Newton's Third Law described how for every action there was an equal and opposite reaction. Lewis Mumford and Theodore Roszak stressed the need for adopting a view of the world that took this fact into account. In doing so one would appreciate a l l the relevant aspects of l i f e and not concentrate upon one at the expense of another. Mumford, of course, was pointing to man's ability to organize and make tools while neglecting his need to develop his spiritual needs. Roszak made the same appeal but on a grander scale stating that the planet would be diminished unless the whole of its human resources were utili z e d . This implies that any sort of narrow view does an injustice to the total picture. This concept of balance is obviously compatible with the aforementioned recognition of relationships and patterns, and has implications for any concept-gathering system. Such a system, i f i t is to accurately reflect r e a l i t y , must have the opportunity of operating under the same principles to be found in the general environment. And here we recognize the application of balances. There must be, then, an opportunity to develop areas of thought that both complement and contrast. These must be capable of being expanded in a manner that allows contact to be constantly maintained with the implications of their existence. In this way, the consequences of developing a particular idea or view - 60 -are made explicit. One will be continuously reminded of the quality of study being rendered, and the implications of the course being followed. A balance can also be maintained by embracing a wide selection of ideas, ideas that may well suggest a balance by their fitment with previous ideas. In this way, the concept gathering system will be able to grow and the patterns observed may coalesce to form signs of order integral to both man and nature. To accomplish this, a system of recording must be available. MANKIND AND NATURE EXHIBIT A SENSE OF ORDER Common to al l holists is their respect for natural order. Mankind too has conformed to this habit and is able to enjoy its present security and well-being due to being able to impose order on his world. When nature is unable to supply the necessities of l i f e for man, he applies his knowledge and manipulates nature in order to bring these necessities about. Lewis Mumford recognized that man has an inclination to create ordered wholes and by so doing is able to organize societies and religions. Not surprisingly, Arthur Koestler ascribes to the holon the capacity for bringing order out of chaos. He also realized that man has a tendency to integrate and create order. To the artist he attributes the greatest praise, for i t is s/he who is capable of using his/her imagination to produce order out of disorder. Vitalists Hans Driesch and Henri Bergson, and G.S. Theorist Ludwig von Bertalanffy, were struck by the regenerative power of nature whereby order was automatically imposed. Von Bertalanffy and Koestler both relied heavily upon hierarchy as the vehicle upon which order became established. Von Bertalanffy even went so far as to assert that a hierarchy in one discipline was isomorphic with another which therefore made i t possible to predict one - 61 -case from another. The veracity of the doctrine notwithstanding, i t does bear out the significance ascribed to order. In terms of gathering ideas, order plays an important role. That device must be used to organize information before relationships and patterns emerge. Order must be applied from the very start of any idea gathering process. At the same time, the process must have in place a mechanism for imposing this order so that relationships can emerge later. As the relationships and patterns develop, they w i l l often show the attributes of structure. NATURE CAN BE VIEWED AS HAVING STRUCTURE Lovejoy's Great Chain of Being emphasized the importance ascribed to hierarchy in the past, but our look at holism has also revealed the current appeal of hierarchy. Arthur Koestler, von Bertalanffy and the G.S. Theorists, together with James Lovelock, a l l appreciated the significance of hierarchy. For Koestler and von Bertolanffy, hierarchy is integral to their holistic views. For Lovelock, i t operates in unison with networks so that hierarchy does not dominate so intensely. The General Systems Theorists tend to overemphasize hierarchy and by so doing reveal their weakness: a tendency to grasp at unifying causes or laws. They submit to a total commitment rather than an appraisive view based upon results. Nevertheless, i t is possible to show that hierarchy exists both in nature and in man's organization. Hierarchy basically allows that one thing can build upon another. The building blocks of l i f e : atoms, molecules, c e l l s , et cetera, show this to be true, so the concept deserves recognition and has value for any concept - 62 -gathering system. If ideas are to be drawn from nature and l i f e , they must be permitted to demonstrate their origins, that i s , their place in nature. A structure for recording ideas must, therefore, possess an ability for one idea to s i t upon, or grow out of, another; that i s , to allow for hierarchy when i t appears. At the same time, i t must permit the occurrence of networks or cross referencing when this appears to be more effective. The choice of whether the emphasis is on hierarchy or network is an open one and demands that a concept gathering system be open, allowing the freedom to follow either direction. Structures such as hierarchies and networks provide paths along which ideas can develop. Their open nature allows progression to be unrestricted. FREEDOM AND PERFECTION CAN BE FOUND IN INDIVIDUAL POTENTIAL Pierre de Chardin pointed out that our world has been evolving in a manner that brings i t closer to perfection. Arthur Koestler made the same point but added that there exists in a hierarchy a freedom of movement and an openness in scope that renders hierarchies limitless. It is true that our contact with space is expanding previous concepts so as to find their extension away from this planet. Exobiology (biology of space) is now a study undertaken with the view that such information will help explain phenomena on earth. The notion of perfection, however, has implications for a concept gathering system. If i t is to do justice to the idea that concepts can be constantly developed, there must be some provision in the system for this to occur. Like Koestler's contention that hierarchies are open and more interpretive as they develop, the system must allow room for this freedom. - 63 -Although we have been relating man's a b i l i t y to learn with the structure found in nature, i t is an unfair expectation for man to replicate i t entirely. For this reason greater freedom is necessary as a concept approaches the pinnacle of i t s development. For i t is here that we encounter the greatest complexity. At this l e v e l , many networks and hierarchies coincide with the concomitant diffi c u l t y of accounting for the contribution and effect of each. In this respect, man's pursuit of concepts can replicate nature, for i t too possesses greater f l e x i b i l i t y and freedom at this level. As the complexity of detail is increased, the whole by which i t is known may well appear simplified in terms of a known concept. The various phenomena that create our seasons are myriad and complex, but i t suffices us to refer to the end result by the simple terms of Spring, Summer, et cetera. The whole notion of perfection, though, can be better addressed i f we view i t as a matter of reaching unlimited potential. OUR SOLAR SYSTEM CAN BE SAID TO REPRESENT A HARMONIOUS UNIT When relationships and patterns operate to produce an integral whole, that whole can be looked upon as a harmonious unit. Theodore Roszak realized this and used our planet to describe such a situation, but the harmony is more pure the further i t extends. Our solar system, of which we are a part, displays greater harmony than earth. The spiraling Milky Way Galaxy is more harmonious than the solar system which forms only a small part of i t . Harmony, therefore, encompasses a l l previous details and something more that gives i t beauty and simplicity. It is the focus of the action contained within i t . As Roszak points out, harmony occurs when a l l the - 64 -components within have been utilized to their utmost capacity. The larger the concept, the less significant the flaws found at the microscopic l e v e l . Such flaws are not possible as the concept enlarges, for immutable laws ensure that harmony is maintained. Harmony, then, gives us a receptacle into which can be placed the relationships, interactions and patterns that have become obvious. The success of interpretive reflection can be measured by the quality of the harmony realized. A weakness in any part of the concept will show up as a disharmony. Man's search for knowledge focuses upon producing concepts that find their parallel in nature. When these concepts retain unanswered questions, the cause of that harmony has yet to be found, but to seek i t is s t i l l the best path to success. A concept-gathering system must, clearly, provide an opportunity for ideas to develop so that they may be allowed to suggest this harmony, and at the same time be capable of becoming an integral part of the larger concept. This is made easier when details are examined thoroughly yet under the direction of a defined and purposeful train of thought as opposed to an investigation that is amorphous and lacking direction. IDEAS VIEWED HOLISTICALLY It was James Lovelock who reminded us of the systems analyst's concern with superstructure. His concern was that i t was only safe to make broad enquiries when the reason for them was kept constantly in mind. Clearly, the logic of this is that while assistance can be obtained through a wide investigation, i t is also easy to become sidetracked. By holding this view, Lovelock sanctions a holistic yet scientific approach to learning. By so - 65 -doing, he escapes the trap of restricting enquiry to one specific discipline which might give a false impression of the problem. This reflects something of Theodore Roszak's view that to be unidirectional, underutilizing many components of l i f e , leaves the person and society diminished. At the same time, i t is necessary to be ful l y conversant with the concept being explored. This brings us back to our starting point in this chapter. Penetrating reflection on a l l facets is the only way to be sure that a concept has been well grasped so that relationships and patterns can be i d e n t i f i e d . A concept gathering system must have provision for reaffirming ideas by being able to find and read the original information. The attitude of thoroughness also imbues the system with a standard, or quality, that cannot be sidestepped. In addition, i t must be possible to make broad enquiries under a firm superstructure so that a sense of direction is maintained. CONCLUSION The foregoing has gathered the useful aspects of holism in respect to collecting ideas, and at the same time has not had to deal with the issue of vitalism, or that something that makes the whole greater than the sum of it s parts. In brief, we have learned that holism makes the following demands upon a suitable learning system. 1. The ideas must lend themselves well to the act of reflection, or contemplation. 2. The ideas must support one another, so they contribute to the extension or perfecting of further thought. 3. The ideas must be recorded so that patterns can be made visible. - 66 -4. The ideas that emerge from the patterns must be capable of being arranged so that they form harmonies, or structures. 5. The ideas must be placed in a system broad enough in scope to allow for individual interest, yet at the same time possess a well organized, guiding structure that permits unrestricted enquiry. 6. The ideas must be subject to the freedom of self-expression, without undue judgement, in order to capture individual potential. 7. The ideas must be seen to res i d e under an umbrella or superstructure that will indicate their correctness of f i t , or harmony. The next chapter will look at concepts as valuable tools of learning; make recommendations for their organization; and fi n a l l y propose a concept gathering system that appears to comply with a l l the prerequisites given above. - 67 -CHAPTER III  A CONCEPT GATHERING SYSTEM RATIONALE Our look at hoi ism's components revealed several aspects of educational value. These were outlined in chapter II and tended to convey a sense of combining or pulling together the various elements of our world. All learning depends on this, but a complete education embraces topics that span al l forms of knowledge rather than narrow ones that may be more u t i l i t a r i a n in their aim. This chapter will focus on what the literature has to say about working with concepts. The next will expose a concept gathering system that appears to meet the needs outlined at the end of the last chapter. There is a real fear for some that our rapidly advancing technological age is advancing towards a tendency to focus upon training as opposed to educating. Tasos Kazepides, professor of philosophy at Simon Fraser University, in an article in the B.C. Teacher, April 1987, suggested that the value of training is narrow and instrumental, while the value of education goes beyond u t i l i t y . He classifies education as something good in and of i t s e l f , as opposed to something suited to some further end. His fear is that the highly trained, who we need to serve our world, are bringing about such profound changes that we need educated people, by which he is suggesting people with high proven values, to run our world. Certainly i t makes sense to have our young exposed to the highest ideals our c i v i l i z a t i o n can offer. Then the individual will have the opportunity to make judgments based upon the perspective of what i t means to live as a human being. One way for this knowledge to be gathered and assessed is to make - 68 -socially approved ideas the focus. The term 'idea' is here supposed to refer to something abstracted that can reach the absolute. In Hegel's words, i t is "the idea that thinks i t s e l f " (Bertrand Russell, 1977, p. 247). truth bound to reason, i t can also be seen as an economic vehicle that permits the classifying of knowledge and experience. It is in this context that a system of gathering ideas, or concepts, was conceived by professor Charles Brauner of the University of British Columbia. The system i t s e l f will be explained further in another chapter, but f i r s t i t should be pointed out that the development of concepts has already found some highly respected adherents. Those we shall look at are: Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, John Wilson and Henry Clay Lindgren. One of the most influential men in conceptual thinking is Jean Piaget who proposed that a child progressed through developmental stages in which the world was conceptualized s e q u e n t i a l l y . Concepts of greater sophistication could only be grasped after the adoption of simpler ones. Knowledge of the conceptual stages was thought to aid the teacher in preparing lessons that were compatible with the child's capacity at his/her point along that continuum. These stages are: 1. The sensory-motor period (birth - 18/24 months). 2. the concrete operations period. This consists of the While Plato's consideration of the idea showed more appreciation of i t as a Preoperational period, A. Preconceptual phase (18/24 months - 4 years) B. Intuitive phase (4 years - 7 years), and the C. Concrete operations phase (7 years - 11/12 years). 3. Formal operations period (11/12 years +). - 69 -The achievements possible at each stage do not concern us here, but what should be observed is that Piaget is suggesting that the a b i l i t y to conceptualize is predetermined, and while feedback is required to bring about concept attainment, the individual has l i t t l e control over the process. Piaget's work s t i l l provides a guide to child development, but more recent studies have shown that personal factors make these stages less rigidly bound. Jerome Bruner is one who has deeply examined the conceptualizing inherent in learning. His working definition of a concept is "the network of inferences that are or may be set into play by an act of categorization" (Bruner, 1956, p. 244). Categorization occurs on the basis of our experience. It i s , in fact, a method by which we reduce the complexity of our environment by grouping "the objects and events and people around us into classes, and ... respond to them in terms of their class membership rather than their uniqueness (Bruner, 1956, p. 1). The concept is therefore an important part of our capacity to simplify and understand our world. When we categorize to form concepts, we classify attributes. Bruner suggests we do this in one of three ways: conjunctive, disjunctive and by relation. The conjunctive category is used when a number of attributes are seen to be present, such as boys, over the age of thirteen who are l e f t handed. The disjunctive category is characterized by its arbitrariness, and may require one attribute or another to f u l f i l l the category. An example may be the selection of any attributes that f u l f i l a certain condition such as, anyone paying taxes in Seattle will be deemed a citizen of that c i t y . Finally, classifying by relationship occurs when specific commonalities are found between attributes. For instance, the same relationship can be seen - 70 -to be apparent in vehicle classification when weight and engine size are stated. The term transom also applies to a window when i t is placed over a door. All three methods of categorizing are simply "rules for grouping" which permit the establishment, or non-establishment, of a concept. On this premise, Bruner goes on to look at concept attainment, the process and the various strategies used. Concept attainment builds upon concept formation. Formation might be the understanding that some mushrooms are poisonous while others are non-poisonous. Attainment requires further understanding so that the attributes of each group are known and one is able to t e l l one type from the other. What emerges is that the process is highly complex and very subjective. It positively correlates to the position in which the individual finds him/herself. For this reason, the strategies employed are not fixed things, but are highly creative. The art of this process is summed up when Bruner states that attaining "concepts is a highly patterned, skilled performance" (Bruner, 1956, p. 55). By focusing on the term "performance" as opposed to "response," he recognizes the complex intricacies of concept attainment which he nevertheless makes an effort to explain systematically. His task is rendered more d i f f i c u l t by his acknowledgment that factors "situational and personological alike - will in some measure affect the definition of a task and in so doing affect the objectives that go into the forming of a behaviour strategy" (p. 59). Once the concept has been attained, i t is necessary to record i t for later use. Bruner suggests this is done in two ways, one building upon the other. By summarizing the exemplars of the class established, the process of memorizing has been simplified. This means averaging many of the values - 71 -present. In the case of sorting mushrooms, the presence of a cup at the base of the stalk will indicate the mushroom is likely to be poisonous. Another device is to relate the concept learned to some "generic instance" or model, so that i t is stripped of any "noisy" or irrelevant attributes. Bruner cites the example of an isosceles right-angle triangle that is visualized to capture the concept of a right-angle triangle. Every concept attained can then assume its place or f i t as i t relates to larger concepts. What emerges from Bruner1 s A Study of Thinking is that not only are concepts an economic vehicle of thought, but also they are very complex and personal in nature. Before looking at methods of organizing concepts, we should develop personal significance even further. In his book Educational Psychology in the Classroom, Henry Clay Lindgren developed the point that learning is more effective when the task involved is personally meaningful. Children learned concepts easier when the process made reference to their own world and perceptions. While learning will take place in the absence of such meaning, Lindgren suggests that those who concede to memorize information will do so only for the short term, or until a grade has been assigned. On the whole, children will not be able to solve problems they do not have (Lindgren, page 269/70). He emphasizes that something we learned "on our own" has more meaning than something merely assigned. It is personalized, and therefore more likely to be remembered. The implications for this form of learning, Lindgren feels, are quite far-reaching. The effects carry over into areas removed from the learning environment, so that the student "who identifies himself with society will not attack i t as a delinquent" (p. 272). Being that the desire to apply personal meaning to concepts occurs - 72 -naturally, Lindgren suggests i t should be viewed as a drive whereby the greatest potential of the individual can be realized. He goes so far as to say that the synthetic and a r t i f i c i a l methods currently used in the schools could be lessened i f these drives were developed. Less reliance would therefore have to be placed on competition "and traditional marking systems" (p. 272). It would seem, then, that a system of ordering concepts in a manner whereby they have personal meaning would present an advantageous form of learning. A method of dealing with concepts, albeit in a somewhat traditional sense, is John Wilson's Thinking With Concepts. In this book he deals with the need for conceptual analysis. Simply put he attempts to show that problems are solved easier when a l l parts are so thoroughly analysed that the intent of every word involved is made clear. The purpose has a very practical intent. It is most effective when dealing with examination questions: a time when one must remain particularly objective, and where subjective interpretation can lead to a l l sorts of p i t f a l l s . Much of the reason for this emanates from our language, where words like "science," "democracy," "good," and "kind" do not have a precise meaning. When the answer to a problem is desired and such words have been used, i t is necessary to define their intended meaning. If we f a i l to do so, we will be operating on our perceived meaning of the words rather than that of the individual posing the question. Wilson takes pains to point out that both word meaning and concepts are subject to interpretation. In the analysis of concepts, for instance, he suggests there " i s no 'complete answer1, but only a number of logical sketches of greater or less merit" (p. 48). He confirms our previous - 73 -findings that concepts are formed independently and are based upon individual sense experience (p. 54). Concepts basically take shape depending upon our perceived meaning of words, and as these can hold subtle differences, so too can the concepts: hence the need to use some sort of systematic analysis. Even though Wilson concentrates upon concept analysis for the purpose of facing examinations, his method can find application beyond that le v e l . It is a sound approach to everyday problems. But what i t denies is essentially what we have found necessary to give the student who wishes to build his/her repertoire of concepts, i.e. a subjective, as opposed to objective, approach to interpreting ideas. This brief look at conceptual learning has made i t clear that for the purpose of learning a system providing an organized approach for gathering concepts, one that can remain attached to the personal interpretation given, would seem to offer the best conditions. Such a system is that devised by Dr. Charles Brauner of the University of British Columbia. What follows is an outline of his Concept Gathering System. - 74 -REFERENCES Bruner, Jerome S., Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Austen, George A., A Study of  Thinking, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1956. Kazepides, Tasos, "To Train or To Educate," B.C. Teacher, March/April, 1987, Vol. 66, No. 2, p. 15-18. Lindgren, Henry Clay, Educational Psychology in the Classroom, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1967. Russell, Bertrand, Wisdom of the West, Crescent Books, Inc., London, 1977. Wilson, John, Thinking With Concepts, Cambridge University Press, London, 1963. - 75 -CHAPTER IV  THE CONCEPT GATHERING SYSTEM THE SYSTEM IN BRIEF If we accept Chapter II's position that ideas are at the centre of, and capture a l l , the components of holism that have validity, then a system of learning based on ideas so founded will contribute to a sound holis t i c education. In this belief the Concept Gathering System formulated by Professor C. Brauner has been created in the Appendix 1 and wi l l be described in this chapter. Briefly, the system is this: the student is required to read books from a predetermined bibliography. These books are classics and therefore hold a wealth of ideas that, being fundamental to our western society, comply readily with the criteria set for them at the end of Chapter II, i.e., they demand contemplation, suggest patterns, expose relationships, et cetera. In each book ideas deemed to have significance are noted and later their substance is recorded. These idea summaries will grow to be a v formidable number and, as they address ideas rather than d e t a i l , can be expected to find association with each other. This association is logical and expected, and developed further when a concerted e f f o r t i s made to sort the summaries into their related categories. What starts off as a multitudinous pile of ideas later becomes an organized structure as they f a l l within related patterns and harmonies. The student has travelled from the concrete to the general using ideas. This captures the collection, or input, phase of the system, but there is also a distribution, or output, phase. - 76 -While the foregoing described the gathering of ideas i t must be understood that these ideas will eventually demand expression and must therefore be retraceable. For this, the structure constructed earlier is read in reverse, and the student l i t e r a l l y works backwards tracing ideas from the general to the concrete, or specific. Ideas that appear a l l encompassing at the end of the system may well provide a thesis, or line of thought, upon which the student can backtrack to show support for a position or philosophical view taken. Being a hard, or written system, i t is expected to last a lifetime and undergo many changes as experience influences thinking and opinion. The Concept Gathering System, then, expands, and flows from the o r i g i n a l l y conceived bibliography and the ideas contained in i t . Eventually, the flow can revert back to this source. This makes the bibliography the heart or center of the system. For this reason i t is the f i r s t area to be addressed in a detailed description of the system, which diagramatically looks as follows: I. II. III. Bibliography Idea Selection Summary Writing IV. V. VI. Forming Forming Themes Retrieval Categories Before giving a description of how the system works, each stage needs to be explained in greater detail. I. The Bibliography This can also be thought of as the "source," for i t harbours the ideas upon which the system is based, and from which a l l new ideas form and flow. - 77 -It consists of a minimum of twenty books, a l l of which are carefully selected classics. Authors used in this particular system ranged from Henry Adams to Max Weber. II. Idea Selection This refers to ideas that are pulled from the books in the bibliography because they are deemed significant. The criteria for what makes an idea significant are quite subjective in nature. III. Summarizing Once the ideas have been selected, they need to be recorded in a succinct way, and yet s t i l l be able to yield the important circumstances that f i r s t made them significant. Here general terms can be used in place of specific ones. IV. Categorizing Ideas culled from so many books as those found in our bibliography are bound to produce a large number of summaries. In turn, these will display an impressive number of occasions when they will align themselves into common elements. These elements are referred to, in this system, as Categories, and their formation plays an important part in the bringing together of ideas in order to impart meaning and knowledge. V. Themes Categories will also show that together they can suggest a large idea. The larger idea is here being called a Theme, and i t will embrace a l l the categories, summaries and ideas that contributed to its composition. Themes constitute the major ideas of our world, such as Harmony. VI. Retrieval This phase allows reentry into the system for the purpose of self-- 78 -expression. It is an output rather than an input stage, permitting the student to support, by specific comments, the ideas s/he holds. It is now possible to describe how this system works using the above six stages. It should be kept in mind that every stage is an outgrowth of the one before. Each i s , therefore, mutually supporting. However, simply because i t in i t i a t e s the actions that occur later, perhaps i t is not unreasonable to attach greatest importance to the bibliography. The f i r s t thing to examine is the bibliography. BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Henry, The Education of Henry Adams, Constable and Co., Ltd., London 1928. Brooks, Cleanth, The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, 1975. Bulfinch, Thomas, Bulfinch's Mythology, The Modern Library, New York. Cassirer, Ernst, Language and Myth, Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1946. Darwin, Charles, The Origin of Species, New American Library, New York, 1958. de Tocqueville, Alexis, Democracy in America, vols. 1 & 2, Vintage Books, New York, 1945. Dostoevsky, Feodor, Notes From Underground, Dial Press, New York, 1945. Durkheim, Emile, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, The Free Press, New York, 1969. Eastman, Max, editor, Capital and Other Writings by Karl Marx, The Modern Library, New York, 1959. Empson, William, Seven Types of Ambiguity, The Hogarth Press, London, 1984. Freud, Sigmund, The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud, The Modern Library, New York, 1938. - 79 -James, William, The Varieties of Religious Experience, Collier-MacMillan Ltd., London, 1961. Lovejoy, Arthur 0., The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an  Idea, Haprer & Row, Publishers, New York, 1965. Low, D.M., editor, Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Harcourt, Brace and Company, New York, 1960. Orwell, George, The Penguin Essays of George Orwell, Penguin Books, Middlesex, 1984. Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London, 1961. Shepherd, William, translator, Herodotus: The Persian War, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982. Tolstoy, Leo N., What Is Art?, Bobbs-Merrill Educational Publishing, Indianapolis, 1982. Veblen, Thorstein, The Portable Veblen, Viking Press, New York, 1969. Weber, Max, The Protestant Ethic and the Spir i t of Capitalism, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1958. - 80 -A SYNOPSIS OF EACH BOOK As with any system, or form of construction, the outcome is only as good as the foundations permit. The bibliography has therefore received a great deal of attention in order to make i t not only an abundant source, but also a reliable source of important ideas. It will be shown that in a l l cases, books have been selected because they present ideas the western world deems to be important. In most instances, the originator of the idea has been chosen to convey the point. Of course, another l i s t of equally good books would do just as well. The ideas conveyed do not have to be currently supported. It is sufficient to recognize that the idea held sway at some point and will s t i l l have adherents today. For the most part, i t will be seen that the ideas forthcoming are recognized as being fundamental to our world, as i t is presently organized. The sources, therefore, convey many of the ideas upon which we base our behaviour. They have not only great depth in them, but also great scope, which means there will be numerous occasions when they will find association with other ideas. In The Education of Henry Adams, we have an individual taking responsibility for his own education that is in no way formalized. His astute observations, from the point of view of an American ambassador's son, make his ideas concerning society and politics c r i t i c a l to understanding the development of our own political and social history. These necessarily reflect much that came to be the compromise between the England Adams c r i t i c a l l y describes and the American of abundant energy. The perspicacity of Adams is demonstrated by his realization that man's technological advance, like that of his education, must allow for leaps as - 81 -much as sequential gain. No wonder Adams despairs at trying to understand his world (Adams, p. 471) but he would be reassured to learn that the theory of quantum leaps has been confirmed in modern physics. Even though Adams exposed us to a world seen through the eyes of a diplomat, his interest in p o l i t i c s , science and history served to inform and at the same time pose questions, questions that find their parallel in the books of other thinkers and writers. Whereas Adams dealt with interpreting human behaviour as witnessed in one specific setting, Cleanth Brooks penetrates man's soul from where he generates ideas that are more emotive and interpretive. The Well Wrought  Urn is therefore justified for its inclusion in the bibliography because of this approach. His thesis, that poetry is a relative thing and must be interpreted and appreciated in light of its time and environment, means taking the poem for what i t is rather than attempting to analyse and grade i t . The ideas forthcoming, therefore, tend to develop man's capacity, i f not inclination, to perceive the whole, such as when analysing his feelings and attempting to use words to make these clear. Emotional communication does not lend i t s e l f to a scientific construction of prose, as easily as i t permits the rebuilding and remaking of language to convey the point.* At the same time, The Well Wrought Urn provides an opportunity to examine what i t is that imparts that essential beauty in poetry. It also includes in our bibliography a component that deals st r i c t l y with the affective domain. While the previous books required the use of examination, memorizing, *In Ernst Cassirer's Language and Myth the emotional construction of language is also addressed. The books build upon each other. - 82 -and interpretation, Bui finch's Mythology demands something more: analogy. It is this requirement that makes the book so valuable. The ideas i t yields stem from the stories and myths that, otherwise, offer l i t t l e beyond acquaintance with ancient fable and appreciation of the poetic language of that day. Also imparted, however, are the values and ideals of three ages, and while these might not always be obvious today they serve to remind us of the importance of codes of behaviour and the need to live by personally valued standards. Bulfinch's Mythology, then, provides incentive to adopt moral standards, the underpinning of which will be as practical today, as then, even i f the superficial behaviour differs greatly. In some cases just the author's name justifies the work's inclusion. Such is the case with Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species. The book provides ideas that have influenced the way we think about our world's structure. Darwin's is a consistent thesis about nature, even i f there is abundant evidence today to show that natural selection does not provide us with a l l the answers. Natural selection and survival of the fi t t e s t are principles that can be found in creations of man: for example, his economic system. This is possible because man's systems employ the sense of order and hierarchy found in nature. This permits the observation of structure and classification as applicable to man's organization as i t is to nature's. Darwin's theory of evolution is so fundamental to the way we view the world that i t is impossible to eliminate i t in other writers. In our bibliography, there are those who will embrace, or not, his theory in order to make their point, e.g. Veblen and Marx. In fact, the inclusion of Darwin brings us to question causes in other areas. In their own way, Durkheim, de - 83 -Tocqueville, Weber, Veblen, Freud, and Wm. James a l l seek to provide causes for the effects they see. This allows an interplay to occur that has the potential for producing compatible ideas. By including Darwin we are, therefore, putting forth the ideas that lay behind many of our modern sciences. They have underpinned anthropology, biology, zoology, et cetera, for many years, and i f the theory is not so unquestioningly held today i t is only because Darwin has been used as a point of departure. Enquiry into evolution has been able to proceed along a very clear path, and advances from this point on will occur simply because so much trust could be placed in Darwin's work. For this reason, i t merits inclusion in our bibliography, as i t will likely be some years yet before his theory is overthrown. Around the time Darwin was making his d i s c o v e r i e s , Alexis de Tocqueville was being just as insightful about Democracy in America. In his two-volume book, he reveals the difference in outlook between American democracy and the until-then-prevailing European aristocracy. Highlighted are attitudes that today are taken for granted, but are the foundations of democracy. His work is necessary reading i f we are to understand the history, sociology, viability and potential of democracy. Equally important for us is the fact that an essential area of knowledge-government - is covered by one who wrote about a modern system at i t s inception. Ideas can also be selected from works that are less didactic than Darwin or de Tocqueville. In Dostoevsky's Notes From Underground we are provided with a short story from which i t is possible to draw ideas about the human character and its failings. Dostoevsky reveals the inconsistency - 84 -of our drives that appear to focus on the detrimental and lugubrious as much as the beneficial. It is a book that questions the human condition rather than providing answers. It generates rather than supplies ideas, but i t studies an important area: that of mankind's relationship to mankind. In so doing, Dostoevsky brings the reader into a situation that s/he can experience. The reader must face the anomalies and wrestle with the inconsistencies. At the same time, the reader is forced to be interpretive, to use judgement based upon his own experience. The book is necessary and justified i f only because i t requires this personal consideration and examination of human psychology. Occasionally a classical writer can be found who promotes a clear and consistent thesis. Darwin was one. Another was Emile Durkheim. In The  Elementary Forms of the Religious Life he takes the position that i t is the whole that conditions the part. Society, for instance, influences the individual's behaviour rather than the other way around. Once again we are faced with a somewhat radical proposal, but one that is argued so well that i t is impossible not to be influenced by this world-renowned sociologist. Naturally, nearly every idea forthcoming is consistent with the thesis which develops a l l aspects of religious behaviour. This reveals another advantage for our bibliography: i t provides information on a l l the aspects that contribute to religion; the r i t e s , symbols, totems, cults, et cetera. Again we have an author who addresses cause and effect, and by so doing originates very fundamental ideas. Such ideas are capable of influencing our view of how the world is organized and how i t operates. If our bibliography is to generate ideas that are basic to today's - 85 -world, we cannot omit Karl Marx's Capital. This is not simply because Marx became the platform and underpinning for Communism. Marx's theory has influenced historiography, economic and social views. He basically holds that capital places working class people in thrall and the latter perpetuate their degraded condition as they attempt to raise themselves out of i t . Whether one agrees with Marx or not, one is bound to find in his work ideas that stimulate. Comparison can be made between the freedom called for here and the freedom of opportunity advocated in de Tocqueville. As with our other authors, the depth of Marx's ideas is profound, and address politics by way of economics. It is therefore possible, through Marx, to balance our appreciation of p o l i t i c a l , social, and economic ideas. Our bibliography does not forget the arts or how they should be appreciated. A fine example of this is found in William Empson's Seven  Types of Ambiguity. It has a message for the c r i t i c as well as the layman. The c r i t i c is able to relate to the degrees of ambiguity that, Empson argues, defines and separates pieces of poetry. But for the c r i t i c and the layman he speaks against analysis and for personal a r t i s t i c appreciation. Here too is a case for gathering ideas about classification, albeit in the poetic sense. Proposing these ideas is a man most highly regarded in literary criticism circles. We have therefore captured in Seven Types of  Ambiguity two theses: degrees of poetic ambiguity, and appreciation of language as something of beauty without the need for explanation and analysis. In both cases, we are able to work with ideas that are as viable today as they were in 1930. Influential ideas must be able to satisfy deep-rooted questions i f they are to be eff e c t i v e . William James' book The Varieties of Religious - 86 -Experience meets this need by addressing the basic reason for religious belief in the f i r s t place. Rather than having to find reason in any abstract philosophical system, his thesis suggests that beliefs stem from inner personal experiences. This frees the individual to recognize the value of his inner feelings, rather than adhering to the rational explanations of philosophy. Once again we have a writer who is prepared to support a thesis that f l i e s against the prevailing view of belief systems. He was as qualified as any in his day to do so, being a respected experimental psychologist of deep religious conviction. The value of this book, for us, lies in the recognition of man's inner experiences. The ideas help to explain our behaviour as well as our be l i e f s , for the former is influenced by the latter. It sanctions and attempts to validate that each of us has the right to adhere to individual beliefs irrespective of their adhering to any particular philosophy. In essence, James is calling for religious freedom and understanding using the most deep rooted of arguments. Similarly, in the work of Sigmund Freud, we are being encouraged to attach significance to the individual's experience. The importance of Freud for our bibliography is that he goes even further and suggests that man's pathological conditions find their counterpart in his psyche. This is most often revealed in a completely relaxed state, as when dreams occur, when thoughts are able to surface without being suppressed by any psychic effort. The appropriateness of Freud for our bibliography is his approach of logical explanation of experience. His dream-interpretation, for example, is a process of logical deduction. Dreams are analysed so that meaning can - 87 -be grasped from each incident which is related to the emotional needs of the individual. While this generates ideas along the path of investigation, i t also poses questions raised by other authors, for example Dostoevsky. Can analysis accurately interpret pathology i f the individual possesses perverse ambitions inconsistent with normal psychological desires? In several ways Freud is a harbinger of new ideas, particularly in regard to sexuality and our perception of what is normal and what is not. As a basis for psychological understanding, Freud is indispensable to our bibliography. The idea of perfection initiated by Darwin is extended by Arthur Lovejoy in The Great Chain of Being. The assumption of a God presupposes a perfection in keeping with Plato's idea of plenum formarum where everything that is possible has been brought into l i f e . An alternative to this idea is that the universe gives evidence of heading toward perfection and therefore towards a perfect being, which suggests God has yet to be created. Such fundamental ideas, including the suggestion of leaps in evolution, pervade the book, and offer stimulating alternatives for a belief system. The idea of cause and effect surfaces in a book that recognizes the connectedness of everything in the world. Lovejoy offers the idea that effect is always greater than the cause in keeping with the world's move to perfection. Various philosophies are described, challenged, and connected in order to make obvious their often unassumed relatedness. The Great Chain  of Being offers insight into the basic human thinking of western c i v i l i z a t i o n and for that reason is warranted for inclusion in our bibliography. Edward Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire chronicles the history of Rome from AD 100 to 1590. During this period we are exposed to - 88 -the conquests of Rome and the development of the church. Ideas are generated out of the age's practices which often reveal the baser acts of man. There are obvious lessons to be learned, such as when the Roman Empire became too large to be managed. At the same time, there are plentiful examples of more prosaic weaknesses like treachery, greed, vanity, revenge, and cowardice. The Decline and Fall is justified here for the above reasons and for how the quest for power will corrupt. Few are reported to have been good rulers, for in most cases their character was insufficient to withstand the temptations offered. In this case, we have a fund of human failings that emerge out of a period of conflict. Gibbon supplies historic detail devoid of explanations and causes so one is left to interpret for oneself the misfortunes that occur. It is this that provides us with a wealth of ideas consistent with every human character t r a i t . Whereas Gibbon provides a macroscopic look at the world's human fail i n g s , Orwell reveals a microscopic view. The advantage of reading George Orwell is the contact made with his perception. This is manifested in his l i s t of Essays which rely upon his personal experience. The sensitivity he applies to a wide range of topics and character discussions provides a wealth of ideas. These ideas form quicker due to Orwell's easy writing style. They reach deep into the cause of human behaviour and attitudes and cover topics that, without Orwell's sensitive handling, would appear t r i t e . In Orwell's Essays we have, captured, the author and his ideas more than a subject and thesis. In a l l his writing he presents a very humanitarian view. In this there is no need for interpretation. His writing is faithfully honest, almost naively so. The ideas evoked might - 89 -appear almost too commonplace, but like many human values and f r a i l t i e s , they require utterance i f they are not to be overlooked and forgotten by their familiarity. Orwell's Essays, therefore, provide the quality of ideas that have made him such a respected novelist. Our bibliography would be incomplete i f we failed to include one of the greatest minds of this century - Bertrand Russell. In his History of  Western Philosophy, we have not only ideas from Russell, but also from philosophers ancient to modern. The substance of these ideas can be accepted as significant in view of their contribution to Western thought. It also provides our bibliography with great scope and repute, coming, as i t does, from a wide span of time and ethnic backgrounds. In his book, Russell imparts much of the basic knowledge that underlies our thinking today. What cannot be ignored is that we are unavoidably brought into contact with Russell's view of each philosopher, as he interprets them. This is a necessary compromise given the alternative of reading each philosopher personally. The benefit of this compromise is that we have a most qualified guide to introduce us to the various branches of knowledge. This makes his History of Western Philosophy a rewarding method of surveying the great western philosophers, and at the same time an opportunity to experience the formidable mind of Bertrand Russell. In Herodotus - The Persian War, translated by Wm Shepherd, we have a very good vehicle for ideas about values, principles, and conf l i c t . The book provides an appreciation of Persian and Greek thought, thereby conveying how two great civilizations will differ in their structure. In addition, we are exposed to the earliest of western writers. As the translator points out, we are treated to a genuine enquiry into the conflict - 90 -between the Greeks and Persians, one that shows the earliest appreciation of causes. The editor's notes greatly aid interpretation of the author's writing, but i t is up to the individual to develop ideas about values. The extent to which bribes, or g i f t s , assuaged Greek indignity over plans of action, is le f t open to interpretation. At all times, i t is necessary to understand how different was the perspective of that era. When this is achieved, ideas that focus on basic human values emerge. In Tolstoy's What Is Art, translated by Almyer Maude, we have a many faceted approach to art. It includes art criticism, theory and function, as well as opinion on l i f e ' s meaning. The book holds a firm thesis: Art, to be good, must intentionally convey the artist's emotions. Failure to do so will mean the artist has put more emphasis on form - how the work is done-rather than upon the subject matter - what i t is transmitting. The book tends to initiate questions as much as furnish set ideas. Tolstoy's opinions present a view that can be agreed with in t o t a l , in part, or not at a l l . No matter what the position taken, one is going to find ideas that establish a perspective on how art is viewed. Like Cleanth Brooks, and Wm. Empson, Tolstoy approaches art holistically and gives our bibliography credibility due to his own a r t i s t i c reputation. The reason for including The Portable Veblen, a selection of Thorstein Veblen's economic writings, edited by Max Lerner, is twofold. It immediately supplies ideas that relate to a new economic condition which started to occur toward the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when small units were being combined to form larger ones. In addition, his look at economic structure is from a socialist position, but - 91 -one that perceives the human condition more re a l i s t i c a l l y than Marx. Veblen provides a counter-perspective to Marx, but not one that is entirely antithetical. As opposed to Adam Smith, who contends there are natural laws that apply to economics, Veblen suggests that a l l economic systems are man made and suffer the same f r a i l t i e s and imperfections that characterize a l l his achievements. He equates the economic system to that of a machine, specialized in its parts, and more impersonal as the pecuniary aspects of i t increase. The ideas he yields bring approbation on the individual and condemnation on big business and large institutions. The l a t t e r are shown to be the corrupters of man whose basic drive of workmanship inspires him to achieve much that is noble in this world. The book's several essays are rich in ideas that allow alternative opinions to be pitted against Marx and Max Weber. Yet another book that develops economic thought is Max Weber's The  Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. It contains a very definite thesis that, rightly or wrongly, puts forward the idea that the demands of religion influenced the progress of Capitalism. This thesis carries with i t complementary ideas of how society developed during the emergence of Protestantism. There is much to be gained from a book such as this that delves into economics, re l i g i o n , and social behaviour. It is easy to recognize many of the fundamental relationships that exist today, in modern society. Many people have adopted Weber's explanation for the composition of Capitalism which makes his book a useful comparison of ideas with the other authors we have looked at in those three areas. Ernst Cassirer's Language and Myth satisfies three areas that have already been addressed. Fi r s t , i t proposes a new way of assessing man's - 92 -ability to reason logically. Second, i t brings an association to language and myth that has largely been ignored: they developed together to form a basis for thought. Third, i t carves a place for art, language and myth that shows poetry to be the vehicle for pure feeling via the world of il l u s i o n and fantasy. In the f i r s t case, Language and Myth develops the idea that man's language occurred not as a result of his innate logic or rationalizing a b i l i t y , but in consequence of his myth making tendency. His foremost concern is to convert conceptions into symbols. Language is born out of these conceptions and then works to aid in the understanding of facts through logical thought. Logical thought is therefore not immediately possessed by man but results as an outgrowth of his environmental interpretation. This is a theory of pre-logical conception that brings a new appreciation to the philosophers exposed by Bertrand Russell. The second point develops Cassirer's primary thesis that language and myth worked together to produce man's perceptions. The logic we see manifest emerged out of the knowledge gained through his mythical creations and the language these inspired. Cassirer argues that man's f i r s t impressions of new phenomena were often the result of emotional reaction where intellectual reasoning had no operational base. This interpretation of myth's function can be allowed to interplay with the views that can be found in other parts of our bibliography: namely the books by Emile Durkheim, Wm. James and Sigmund Freud. The third point, respecting poetry, brings Cassirer into a strong connection to Cleanth Brooks and Wm. Empson. All emphasize the total effect of poetry, but Cassirer goes so far as to show that i t takes us back to - 93 -those metaphorical and analogous conceptions that permit self-revelation. In a l l three areas, Cassirer is a body to which the other authors can be attached for reasons of comparison. From the foregoing, our bibliography can be seen to possess works that are not only respected classics, but capable of complementing each other so as to fu l l y circumscribe the major disciplines. The resulting embodiment of ideas is expected to stimulate thought by the relationships revealed and the new concepts suggested. It can be shown that various writers lend themselves to being grouped together by subject. This was done intentionally so that they would interact and stimulate the production of ideas. The arrangement this assumed is shown as follows. While this illustrates the major headings under which the authors were combined, i t must be recognized that they shared many other commonalities. Art Conflict Resolution Economics Evolution Politics and Sociology Cleanth Brooks, Wm. Empson, Leo Tolstoy Thomas B u l f i n c h , Edward Gibbons, Herodotus Karl Marx, Thorstein Veblen, Max Weber Charles Darwin, Arthur Lovejoy Henry Adams, Alexis de Tocqueville Philosophy Ernst Cassirer, Bertrand Russell Psychology Dostoevsky, Sigmund Freud, George Orwell Religion Emile Durkheim, Wm. James In this way, our bibliography of classics develops specific major d i s c i p l i n e s , but i t can obviously be enlarged to explore h i s t o r y , anthropology, or various sciences in order to gain more fundamental principles. - 94 -IDEA SELECTION This area of the Concept Gathering System can be divided into two components: the identification, and the recording of ideas. For ease of description, i t is better i f the task of recording is considered f i r s t . Record of the idea can be made on a strip of paper 8" x 2". What needs to be recorded is where to find the idea, and its content. We need: 1. the author's i n i t i a l s . 2. the book's number, 3. the page bearing the idea, 4. the page section where the idea starts, 5. a brief note on the idea. The recording slips are a temporary record and remain with the book during the i n i t i a l reading in order to receive the location of the ideas found. They assist in the building of summaries, but can be discarded once the categories have been built. If they are retained with the book, they can provide interesting feedback about the i n i t i a l reactions to ideas selected. The author's i n i t i a l s . Identifying the record slip with just the author's i n i t i a l s saves both time and space. This simple form of identification is quite sufficient to allow the slip to be attached to the book should they get separated. The book's number. For ease of later recall and organization i t is desirable to give each book a number. There is no need to use alphabetical order here as new books will be expected to join the system and will have to gain a number as they - 95 -arrive. The idea's page number. The strip is now ready for employment. When a passage containing a significant idea is found, the page on which i t starts must be noted. Record the page section. Again, for ease of later recovery, the section of the page bearing the idea must be recorded. This can be achieved by visualizing the page to be in five (5) parts. The topmost is one (1), the bottommost five (5). The placement of a small dot separates the page from the section number. Describe the idea. In most cases i t will take no more than two or three words to briefly describe the idea. This will greatly assist the later task of summary writing. In appearance, the record slip will look like that shown in F i g . 2 . 1. Author's i n i t i a l s 2. Book number ^5. Idea note The second part of idea selection is that of identifying the idea. This requires that the book be read with an eye forever alert to a significant idea. Once found, the passage that holds i t can be marked at the beginning and end by a small tick. The manner of finding an idea is 3. Page sectior 4.-"^  Page number Fig. 2'.. 7.3 Perfection 25.1 Unstable genius ,30.3 Religious cause - 96 -best exemplified by using samples extracted from the Appendix. The f i r s t example will come from Wm. James' The Varieties of Religious  Experience. The book's thesis holds that evidence for God resides more in individual experience than in abstract philosophical systems. Only individual experience provides a contact, or link, with the divine. Those with sufficient genius to claim they have been personally chosen for this insight may often exhibit eccentric behaviour. This last idea can be culled from the following passage, which supports the main thesis. There can be no doubt that as a matter of fact a religious l i f e , exclusively pursued, does tend to make the person exceptional and eccentric. I speak not now of your ordinary religious believer, who follows the conventional observances of his country, whether i t be Buddhist, Christian, or Mohammedan. His religion has been made for him by others, communicated to him by tradition, determined to fixed forms by imitation, and retained by habit. It would profit us l i t t l e to study this second-hand religious l i f e . We must make search rather for the original experiences which were the pattern-setters to al l this mass of suggested feeling and imitated conduct. These experiences we can only find in individuals for whom religion exists not as a dull habit, but as an acute fever rather. But such individuals are "geniuses" in the religious line; and like many other geniuses who have brought forth fruits effective enough for commemoration in the pages of biography, such religious geniuses have often shown symptoms of nervous instability. Even more perhaps than other kinds of genius, religious leaders have been subject to abnormal psychical visitations. Invariably they have been creatures of exalted emotional s e n s i b i l i t y . Often they have led a discordant inner l i f e , and had melancholy during a part of their career. They have known no measure, been liable to obsessions and fixed ideas; and frequently they have fallen into trances, heard voices, seen visions, and presented a l l sorts of peculiarities which are ordinarily classed as pathological. Often, moreover, these pathological features in their career have helped to give them their religious authority and influence. (Page 24-5.) - 97 -Out of the foregoing i t is possible to extract the main idea that religious extremists are often perceived as being unusual, unpredictable, even unstable. For now i t is sufficient to record the passage as one in which a significant idea may reside. The brief description can be, "Religious extremists unstable." Further into this same chapter, James develops the idea that our sp i r i t u a l beliefs cannot be explained away in terms of our physical condition. This notion is found expressed in the following passage: To plead the organic causation of a religious state of mind, then, in refutation of i t s claim to possess superior s p i r i t u a l value, is quite i l l o g i c a l and arbitrary, unless one has already worked out in advance some psycho-physical theory connecting spiritual values in general with determinate sorts of physiological change. Otherwise none of our thoughts and feelings, not even our scientific doctrines, not even our dis-beliefs, could retain any value as revelations of the truth, for every one of them without exception flows from the state of its possessor's body at the time. (p. 30.4) A short description for this idea can be, "Beliefs not physically derived." In Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America Vol. 1, he describes the differences to be found between countries with aristocratic backgrounds, and democracy in America. At one point he elaborates on conditions found in American townships that permit democracy to work there as well as in the country as a whole. The following passage explains the reason for this very eloquently, and thus provides another significant idea. The American system, which divides the local authority among so many citizens, does not scruple to multiply the functions of the town o f f i c e r s . For in the United States i t is believed, and with truth, that patriotism is a kind of devotion which is strengthened by ritual - 98 -observance. In this manner the activity of the township is continually perceptible; i t is daily manifested in the fulfillment of a duty or the exercise of a right; and a constant though gentle motion is thus kept up in society, which animates without disturbing i t . The American attaches himself to his l i t t l e community for the same reason that the mountaineer clings to his h i l l s , because the characteristic features of his country are there more distinctly marked; i t has a more striking physiognomy, (p. 70.3) It can be said that the idea embodied here is that Americans have adopted democracy as a belief system and observe i t s practices at a l l l e v e l s . The descriptive note might be, "Democracy deeply embedded." Someone else forming an idea from this passage will quite possibly arrive at a different conclusion, but this is perfectly acceptable and what makes the Concept Gathering System the personal instrument i t i s . Even so, i t does not do to misinterpret what the author is attempting to say. To be sure of accurate interpretation, one must remain sensitive to not only the content, but also to the author's writing style. The passages from Wm. James demonstrate how the idea can be unequivocally extracted from the passage because i t is specific. The de Tocqueville passage is less clear due to the nature of his writing at that point. Being less specific, i t is open to broader interpretation. When gathering ideas, i t is necessary to be aware of both forms, the obvious and the implied. The l a t t e r offers the greatest scope for interpretation, but i t also demands the utmost care not to twist the author's meaning. Obviously, as the system provides more personal input i t exacts a greater degree of responsibility, but more will be said about this in chapter V. For now, i t should be clear, from the examples given, how ideas can be gathered from the various books. The next task is to write out - 99 -these ideas in a succinct but clear way. Summarizing Ideas. Like idea selection, summarizing ideas has a physical and an abstract component. The physical items are simply paper and pencil. The paper needs to be 8" x 2" and can receive the following information. 1. The author's i n i t i a l s . 2. The book's number. 3. The page number. 4. The page section number. 5. The summary. The Author's i n i t i a l s . The i n i t i a l s are perfectly s u f f i c i e n t to permit r e c a l l of the particular work involved. There is no need for the author's f u l l name or the book t i t l e . Later use of these slips makes some sort of effective identification imperative. The book's number. De Tocquevilie's book of two volumes demonstrates the need for a book number to be recorded on the s l i p . Without i t we would have to write out book t i t l e s and/or volumes. Once the number has been noted, i t i s immediately possible to relate that summary to the book from which i t came. This is the same book number called for during idea selection. The page number. Recording the page number allows the idea's supporting passage to be found later on. The page selection number. This simply renders the job of finding the idea more easy. - 100 -The summary. This information is vital because i t is being used to advance the system. Each summary can be seen as a building block contributing to the final construction of the structure. An illustration of the summary is given in Fig. 3. W.J. 2-341.2 Passions and mystical intuitions fix our beliefs that are afterwards defined by reason cf E.C. & C.B. F i g . 3 The abstract component of summary formation was initiated during idea selection. That idea now has to be put into a form so that i t s fullest meaning is conveyed. Extending the examples given in idea selection will help explain the summary-making process. To start with, a return has to be made to the book involved where the idea record slip can be found. This will help in retracing the ideas f i r s t perceived. Now, with the help of the brief description made earl i e r , an assessment of the idea can be made. Such careful consideration of the passage is necessary for several reasons. 1. The perception of each idea may have changed after reading the whole book. 2. Other books read may have provided a new outlook, or appreciation, of the idea. 3. It may have been a mistake to believe there was any idea there in the f i r s t place. - 101 -4. It is necessary to gain a feeling for the idea in order to compose a summary for i t . To achieve its purpose, the summary needs to be a reformulation of the original idea that does not alter the basic principle. If this can be done i t will confirm that the idea has been ful l y grasped by the fact that i t s housing structure has been reduced significantly. It will also provide for later use of the idea without the fear of plagiarism. What will have occurred is a resynthesizing of the idea revealed during earlier analysis of the passage. Using the example of Wm. James given earlier in idea selection, where the description was "Religious extremists unstable," the final summary will look as follows. 1-24.5 W.J. People of great religious persuasion wi l l sometimes exhibit behaviour interpretable as eccentric, or unstable. The second example also came from Wm. James, and the passage suggested that i t is inappropriate to charge that a religious belief is held only as a result of a physiological condition, for all beliefs emanate from bodies in various states. An appropriate summary for the description "Beliefs not physically derived" would be: 1-34.4 W.J. Religious b e l i e f s are not determined by physiological states or conditions. We next examine a passage from de Tocqueville where the idea emerged - 102 -that democracy in America is nurtured by the practice of democracy at a l l l e v e l s . The description was "Democracy deeply embedded," and, after reviewing the passage again, can yield the summary: 16-70.3 de T. Practicing democracy at all levels serves to entrench the belief overall. Further examples of passages, ideas selection, and summary formation are given in Appendix II. They supply the added advantage of being placed in close proximity so the sequence of idea development is more readily observed. By these examples the process of summary writing is made e x p l i c i t . The intensity of effort applied at this stage will produce benefit further into the system. This is nowhere more obvious than when attempting to find threads of relationship that will establish categories of ideas. Category formation. It will be remembered that this stage of the Concept Gathering System required that the summaries be examined in order to find the relationships existing between them. To achieve t h i s , the accumulated summaries are placed in one p i l e , and a process of sorting started. Although, again, there is a physical and an abstract component to this process, only the abstract requires description. It starts by operating on an intuitive basis so that summaries are brought together by their apparent sense of f i t . Piles may start to form under the heading of: Reason, Faith, Physical, Abstract, Chaos, Order, et cetera. The important thing is to make a beginning of this process, then, after having manipulated the summaries - 103 -for some time, they will start to reveal their potentiality for final alignment. After much shifting around of paper, 20 or so piles might be ready for being organized into smaller groups. It is important that the category headings adopted be terms conceived by the system builder rather than those found in nomenclature systems such as libraries. The reason for this is to ensure that the system reflects the individual's thinking rather than that of any institution. Categories will then be tailored to the individual's conception of the world and will carry those subtle nuances that categorize individual thought. Almost every pile will be large enough to .assemble smaller categories that relate to the original pile's main idea. In the system shown in Appendix I, the original p i l e labelled "Materialism" broke into the categories: Drive of Materialism, and Materialism and the S p i r i t . The pile labelled Change produced the categories: Change by Reason, Change by Force, and Change Environmental. Yet even these categories could be further reduced into sub-categories to create: Drive of Materialism - Ownership Efficiency Change by Reason - Economic Practical concerns Reason in Balance Change by Force - Religion Economic When the categories have reached this stage, the summaries that compose them - 104 -must be recorded on a permanent summary record sheet. These are f i l e d in a numerical order for easy future reference. Recording summaries. The 8" by 5" summary record sheet has been designed to make i t easily found, and readily yielding of its information. It takes the following form. Each sheet has two sections, one providing labelling information, and one where the summary is written. Labelling shows (see Appendix 1 for examples): 1. Category heading - This displays the category t i t l e . 2. Sub-heading - Here any category sub-heading is noted. 3. Category number - Every category receives a Roman numeral which is placed in the top right hand corner. This allows each category to be traced and permits cross-referencing. 4. No. - In this column is placed the book's number, page and page section number. 5. Author - The author's name is placed in this column. 6. Order - The listing arrangement given to the summaries is stated in this box. It is usually done by book and page number order. The largest spaces are reserved for the summaries themselves. Once the sheets have been f i l l e d i n , they can be placed in numerical order into the summary record book. The order given to the categories can be alphabetical, but i t must be remembered that this will be disrupted when new categories join the system. These will have to be added on the end in order to receive the next numbers in sequence. The reason for producing a sheet of the 8" by 5" size is to allow the heading to be visible despite being overlapped by other sheets. Further assistance in forming categories - 105 -will be provided in the next chapter. For now, we can look at how to form the highest component of the system, that of themes. Theme formation. As summaries formed categories, so categories are capable of suggesting themes. Themes are here conceived as being large, a l l encompassing ideas, much broader in scope and application than the ideas found under idea selection. Themes are suggested by an aggregation of categories, whose composition will vary depending upon the individual's viewpoint. Once again, i t is expedient to use the system displayed in the Appendix to demonstrate how themes are acquired. The message conveyed by a theme will be very broad and seen to apply to many instances. For instance, the following theme uses three terms that can be interpreted in many ways. In "Education, in some form, i s the necessary component of a l l human aspiration," i t can be recognized that education, component, and aspiration are a l l open ended terms. It essentially suggests that no matter what goals we set ourselves, we have to prepare, by some sort of learning, our minds and bodies. Contributing to this thought were the following categories: XII Education - Features of - Purpose of XV Forms of thought - Philosophical Nature Religion XX Justice - Ancient Modern XXII Active knowledge XXI Modes of knowing - Experiencing - 106 -Integrated learning Challenge and scope of learning Philosophical views can also emerge as themes. The impression of an irrepressible flow can be gathered from some of the categories. This evokes Bergson's elan vital and the inexorable progress and process of l i f e . The theme "There appears to be an unstoppable flow of l i f e controlling our universe" was prompted by the following categories: IV Change by force III Change, environment XIII Equilibrium XXVII Drive of materialism XXVI Mass appeal XXVIII Materialism and the spirit XXV Man's needs and drives Conditions that are fundamental in our world also present themselves as themes. For instance, structure is present in everything and therefore hard to avoid as a theme. Although the l i s t could be unending, just the following categories were chosen to support the theme. II Codes of behaviour VI Modes of communication V Communication in art VIII Diversity and chaos IX Need for diversity XI Steps to democracy and war X Democracy XIV Power of Faith, et cetera. - 107 -Although the l i s t will be stopped here, by its very nature i t could be continued indefinitely. What should be clear, from the previous examples is the method by which themes are developed. As the system builds, i t can be expected that more themes will become obvious. While i t is possible to create themes by looking outward and reducing categories, the system can also be put into reverse, so that the original ideas can be retrieved and used as support for the theme. Retrieval. If a theme is put forward as a thesis, i t is advantageous to be able to reach the original ideas that are capable of supporting i t . This is where the retrieval process becomes necessary. In effect i t is the Concept Gathering System put into reverse. The manner of doing this is best demonstrated by developing a theme stated earlier. The easiest one appears to be the idea of l i f e ' s flow - "There appears to be an unstoppable flow of l i f e controlling our universe." This theme is capable of being supported by many categories, but we will use only those that are most supportive. Drives appear to offer the most favourable path and give us two categories in which to delve: XXV-Man's needs and drives, and XXVII - Drive of materialism. In order of operations we must: 1. Trace the category through the roman numeral to be found on the summary record sheet. 2. Scan the summaries within each category to find the most suitable supporters of the theme and thesis. In the f i r s t category mentioned, #XXV, the most suitable appear to be: 4-151.2 Dostoevsky, "Man's basic need i s for the process of - 108 -attainment.; To reach the end or final product is something he dreads"; 5-427.3 Adams, "Man is by nature an active animal who is motivated by ennui." In the second, #XXVII, there i s : 17-38.1, de Tocqueville, "The nature of the American is to be drawn earthward to the pursuit of practical objects"; 17-50.1 de Tocqueville, "Art in democratic countries often follows the useful, or what makes l i f e easy." By perusing other categories, i t is possible to find more ideas. For instance, in Art #1, there i s : 15-143.2 Tolstoy, "Art should t i e in to the society's religious conception, for each society, like a river, will have a flow of direction in which i t is going"; 12-280.2 Orwell, "History must reflect objective truth i f future generations are going to view the past accurately. Therefore, great responsibility f a l l s upon writers to reveal the truth." These and other summaries can be used to support the theme directly. At the same time, those like Dostoevsky and Adams suggest avenues of further enquiry, i.e. into the psychology affecting man's drives. The system accounts for this and expects i t to occur during the retrieval stage. The opportunities to retrieve from and/or reenter the system are shown in Fig. 4. Retrieval allows for the need to conduct enquiry along new lines. The flow chart in Fig. 4 headed New Input shows that one place where this may occur is when themes are established (5). The theme of Pattern may suggest enquiry into Art and Design, which might produce new ideas (6). These are brought into the system in the same way ideas were created - 109 -Retrieval Process - New Input Entry at Source 1. Book Source 7. Process Repeated adjustments made to system. New Enquiries, new ideas 2. Idea Selected 3. Summary Made 4. Category Established Theme Established Output - Entry through Themes Philosophy determines theme of exposition Restructuring of ideas leads to alteration of exposition. 2. Category compatible with theme is selected. 3. Summaries will provide ideas that will support the category and theme New Input process generates new ideas. 4. The Source will make available specific quotable passages. 5. Need for new support, or new ideas takes student to New Input. Fig. 4 - 110 -originally. The resulting summaries will either join existing categories, or generate new ones. The Output stage in Fig. 4 shows how exposing support for a theme may require new input (5). This may be needed to develop a weak point, but may well bring forth information that could alter the thesis' contention and the application of the theme. It could even influence the arrangement of categories, and ultimately one's view of the world. Again, the ideas will be processed in the same way as when the system was constructed. This concludes the detailed explanation of how the system operates in both forward (building) and reverse (retrieving). Next to be addressed are the opportunities that can be encountered when the individual constructs his/her own Concept Gathering System. - I l l -CHAPTER V THE CONCEPT GATHERING SYSTEM IN PRACTICE - WHAT IT OFFERS, AND HOW TO USE IT The system of learning by concepts developed by Dr. Brauner is an individualized method that provides a personally tailored approach to learning. As we have seen, the nature of the system is to read a number of recognized classics on a broad range of topics, and draw from these ideas of significance that will combine to produce even broader fundamental concepts. The types of books read and the order in which they are studied is l e f t up to the student and/or the person organizing his/her program, but a qualified bibliography has been prepared - see page 79. Starting with the bibliography, this chapter will point out, the manner of developing the system, i t s function, and the opportunities i t offers. Bibliography. It has already been pointed out at great length that the bibliography is exceptional because i t is composed of classical literature. While this provides immediate benefits in terms of the quality of ideas brought to the student's attention, i t brings certain demands too. S/he has to use his/her i n i t i a t i v e frequently, particularly when presented with words that are unfamiliar. Sometimes, in order to grasp ideas, use has to be made of the dictionary. In the case of Thorstein Veblen's book, i t is imperative to understand what is meant by de jure, and de facto. When the tenor of his argument is combined with the dictionary definition, the meaning of the two terms becomes clear, and so too does the idea to which they are applied. On page 345, Veblen was using the terms to illustrate how business interests, which - 112 -he refers to as pecuniary interests, and industry, differ in their thinking. His idea brought about the following summary. 19-343.4 Veblen: The two classes of those in business and those in industry have grown apart sufficiently for there to be l i t t l e understanding between them. The dialectic and sufficient reason of natural-rights (for land) of business is not understood by the cause and effect mentality of industry, and vice versa. A clarification of the word 'teleological' helped to cl a r i f y Veblen's interpretation of Adam Smith's economic theory, and resulted in the summary 19-245.2 Veblen Adam Smith's economic theory is viewed as being based upon natural laws that apply to a l l l i f e . by taking the initiative to look up unclear words and terms, the student will gain access more readily to ideas the author is putting forward. Such independence of thought will also help when acquiring the books in the f i r s t place. Acquiring such an extensive l i b r a r y of books as shown in the bibliography can be costly, so good use should be made of used bookstores. Those close to a university or college offer the greatest potential for success. Each book is intended to remain with the student as a source of reference, and, as with any classic, the time spent reviewing the ideas i t holds will justify the i n i t i a l cost. The care taken in the selection of the bibliography assures the student of a powerful knowledge base that will influence his/her learning and ultimate philosophy. - 113 -Idea Selection - finding ideas. One must be wary when reading classical literature that ideas are not missed. For this reason, the purpose for reading should be kept in mind at a l l times. The problem is that the book can be so beguiling that the reader's attention is absorbed and the need to make notes on ideas is temporarily forgotten. To avoid this happening, a concentration for the search for ideas can be centered on chapter introductions and conclusions. Here the ideas central to the chapter are likely to be condensed. They should correlate, of course, with the chapter's heading and details, but by quickly grasping the author's style the best place for ideas can be observed, and time perhaps saved. The discipline necessary for this is encouraged by the fact that focusing on ideas renders the book more coherent, for these ideas will frequently support the author's thesis. Therefore, the work as a whole is made more understandable. This is the case with Bertrand Russell's History  of Western Philosophy. Like many other authors, Russell's grand scheme, or philosophy, is declared in the preface, or introduction. This view is something the idea seeker should keep constantly in mind as i t will be the standard for the whole book. In Russell's case, we are forewarned that he is a liberal who supports the idea of a stable society "without involving more restraints than are necessary for the preservation of the community" (page 22). This does not restrict the number of his ideas; in fact, his philosophy encourages them. The point i s , he has declared his colours so the reader may feel free to agree or disagree with his position. Inherent in the task of finding ideas is the opportunity for personal interpretation, but its employment requires careful consideration. Personal - 114 -biases, while they can provide great incentives for learning, have the potential to steer enquiry in one direction only. It is possible to be blinkered to the point of being non-receptive to ideas that are incompatible with such biases. When this occurs, there is potential for the idea to be corrupted. Realization of this will eventually present it s e l f at either the category forming, theme forming, or the retrieval stage, when the original passage is consulted for cl a r i f i c a t i o n . Usually such errors are spotted at the summary writing stage when the passage is read for the second time in order to clari f y the idea. Then i t can be removed from the system, or adjusted to f i t correctly. An illustration of being misled by personal bias occurred during the composition of our Concept Gathering System, and is explained below. Ernst Cassirer in Language and Myth presented a thesis that can be misinterpreted. He proposed that language and myth grew together. When unexplained events occurred, they were coupled to myth at a specific stage of language development for the culture. Even today, language and myth are intertwined, but we are often too close to recognize this. Viewing language as an outgrowth of myth denies man's immediate possession of logic, which had to emerge out of this interaction. On page 10.1 Cassirer states: The mythical form of conception is not something super-added to certain definite elements of empirical existence; instead, the primary "experience" it s e l f is steeped in the imagery of myth and saturated with its atmosphere. Man lives with objects only in so far as he lives with these forms; he reveals. reality to himself, and himself to reality, in that he lets himself and the environment enter into this plastic medium, in which the two do not merely - 115 -make contact, but fuse with each other. Approaching this passage from the perspective that logic has always been inherent in man (a personal bias) the idea was seen as: "Man gives objects form and binds them together with language"; a seemingly logical conclusion. But Cassirer meant nothing of the sort, and a rereading produced the conclusion: "Personal experience and the forms that present themselves are given their reality by the culture's language which i t s e l f has been formed by immediate impressions and associations"; a complete reversal of the f i r s t claim. This example points to the advantage of rereading passages before the idea takes written form in the summary. Another problem that can be caught in this way is the taking of fact for idea. It is possible to quote two passages from Herodotus, one of which provides fact and suggests only a skimpy idea of t a c t i c s , the other supplying facts that withstand a broader interpretation and address the idea of commitment. On page 56, the f i r s t passage states: The Spartans fought superbly, showing the difference between skilled fighters and unskilled. One of their best tactics was to turn their backs and pretend to run. The Persians would come shouting and clattering after them, and when they were about to catch up, the Spartans turned and faced them and killed an immense number. Only a few Spartans f e l l . After failing to gain any ground attacking in waves or in any other way, the Persians withdrew. While these attacks were going on i t is said that the King leapt up from his throne three times in fear for his army. The most this passage seems to provide is that the Spartans thought up p r i m i t i v e t a c t i c s t h a t , nevertheless, probably required c a r e f u l organization. This offers very l i t t l e when compared to the second. - 116 -[After a Persian scout had seen the Spartans washing and combing themselves, the Persian king, Xerxes] ... sent for Damaratus to ask him about i t , hoping to find out what i t meant. "I told you about these men before, when we began this expedition," Damaratus said. "You laughed when I told you how I saw your plans would turn out. My task is to t e l l you the truth, King. Now listen. These men have come to fight us for the pass. They are getting ready to do t h i s , following their custom. When they are about to face death, they wash and comb their hair. This passage, which is also on page 56, possesses fact that conveys the idea of faith and commitment. The idea i t evokes has far greater depth than the f i r s t passage and fact. It is the student's task to observe this and overlook one while favouring the other. Occasionally, though, simple facts can find employment within the system. Such was the case with Gibbon 10-617.5: "Justinian tried to establish the unity of the faith through the power of 'fire and sword'." This seemingly contradictory blend of religion and war fitted in with other ideas in the same vein and contributed to the category "Change by Force - Religion #11. Very few short statements like this are capable of being so useful, therefore, i t is necessary to watch for ideas formed within large passages rather than expect to find them in short, pithy statements. Another source of ideas, or an explanation of one, is footnotes. Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the S p i r i t of Capitalism uses them extensively. The #145 for chapter IV vividly describes how the empirical study of physics was a means by which the Puritan could be expected to find God in nature through asceticism. Although this idea is consistent with the tenor of the book, i t brings in a new perspective in the relationship between religion and science. - 117 -On the other hand, the footnotes found in Emile Durkheim's The  Elementary Forms of the Religious Life can have the property of bringing an idea more to l i f e by way of its explicit example. #47 in chapter 1 of book three (3) is a good example of individual faith in a totem. The footnote presents a short scenario, which in turn creates a picture that clearly expresses how primitive tribes perceive the totem. For the reasons described, the student would be well advised to look to footnotes in the harnessing of ideas. As the ideas amass the proximity of their relationships will grow obvious. For this reason, the student may want to pit one author against another, developing areas of interest they are known to have in common (see page 94). By looking at the system in the Appendix, i t is possible to see categories that demonstrate the commonality of subject area. In #XXIX, "The Need for Opposites," we have: 8-224.2 Empson 11-103.3 Brooks 226.1 11-130.3 Brooks 8-235.2 Empson In category #XXXII, "Organization in Nature," there occurred ideas from both Darwin and Lovejoy. 1-90.2 Darwin 7-59.4 Lovejoy 1-181.2 Darwin 7-170.4 Lovejoy 1-222.2 Darwin 7-231.1 Lovejoy The student may wish to seize the opportunity to select ideas from specific authors so that they will interact and stimulate each other. The l i s t of authors by subject on page 94 may assist in choosing a reading order. To sum up, then, idea selection demands the student look for ideas that - 118 -appear to have depth. They don't necessarily have to excite, or provide previously unknown information, although t h i s i s stimulating when encountered; more l i k e l y , the reader will respond to a sense of c l a r i t y , even though the idea might be prosaic. Often the commonplace w i l l demonstrate great meaning. In fact, as ideas develop they tend to encompass these smaller ones, but at the same time tend to assume greater simplicity. This is expected, and proof that the system is unfolding as i t should. Idea selection - recording the idea. It was pointed out earlier that concepts will find better expression in one passage than in any other. It is this area that must be marked with a small tick of a pencil at its beginning and end. At the same time, a system of recording this location must take place. For ease in recording summaries later, i t is preferable to keep in the book a slip of paper approximately 8" x 2" on which can be written the idea's page and portion number. The alternative of putting in a s l i p of paper at each discovery point can be cumbersome as these tend to f a l l out. Any lover of books will be pleased that the smallest possible blemish has been rendered to the book by the small ticks. Even the thickest books of 1000 pages or so will find their ideas contained on only two or three of the paper s l i p s , which allow quick contact with the tick and idea. When recording the idea's position, i t is advisable to state, in a couple or so words, its focus. This will act as a check when the time comes for forming a summary. An example of this method of noting so as to aid the summary formation can be found in Appendix II. If i t occurs that, on rereading, the words on the slip seem to have l i t t l e bearing on the idea contained in the passage, a complete reevaluation is called for. If the - 119 -original idea does not present i t s e l f , does a new one do so? Once i t has been decided to claim or reject the idea for a new one, summary formation becomes easy. Summary formation - composition. It is during summary formation that the student will sense s/he is undergoing his/her f i r s t self-evaluation, for i t is here that proof is given that the idea has been truly grasped. The summary must capture what the author has said, but at the same time express within i t a concept of significant meaning. This is necessary because the purpose of the summary is to carry this idea into the system, in a manner capable of rendering i t suitable for uniting with other summaries, so that categories can be formed. Just how well any summary f i t s with others to form categories is another measure of how well i t was written in the f i r s t place. When written correctly, the summary will expose the idea without a great deal of superfluous detail. The following summary from Ernst Cassirer is an example of a powerful idea being couched in simple language. 21-22.4 Cassirer: Religious connotations can be applied to objects that suggest a c r i t i c a l role in one's l i f e . In keeping with Cassirer's thesis is the next summary, but this offers the additional advantage of how we perceive the individual. 21-50.3 Cassirer: It is the case in some cultures that the individual is only granted his individuality by being given a name. A summary written in the latter way provides at least two opportunities for - 120 -category formation later on. It can support the idea that language contributes to perception, and i t can show that, for some, a name will influence a person's social acceptance. It is important that the summary be in the student's own words as opposed to transferring something of the book's content. This is for two reasons. F i r s t , the summary can be quoted later without the fear of plagiarism. Second, by reformulating the idea, the student is showing a complete understanding of i t . An evaluation of his/her success in doing this is immediately available when the summary is compared with the passage from which the idea came. The former should be a clear encapsulation of the latter. The idea and summary must be seen to f i t , or match. Such a f i t will demonstrate there is a clear understanding of the concept, which will be more readily internalized for this reason. Internalizing what has been read is an important part of the Concept Gathering System and is aided by the second reading of the passage. This raises the question as to when the summary should be written after f i r s t reading the book. The summary can be written at any time during the process of reading; either immediately after the idea has been selected, when the entire book has been read, or after a series of books has been read. There is room for personal preference here, but the last alternative appears to offer the greatest number of advantages. It allows the book to make i t s message abundantly clear; provides a period of time over which the material can be digested; and allows new material to play a part in the development of ideas. Rereading the noted passages for ideas tends to show that f i r s t impressions have faded and new interpretations of the writing have taken - 121 -place. It is preferable i f rereading focuses on material both before,.and after the passage marked. In this way errors and/or false impressions, caused for whatever reason, are eliminated. The original observation may be given new parameters by information gathered later on, or i t may retain i t s f i r s t impression. There will even be times when nothing emerges at a l l , but for the most part, rereading enhances the understanding of marked passages, and something of significance is gained. The honing of ideas that occurs during the rereading serves to improve the student's understanding of the writer's thesis. This is no accidental spin-off of the system, but one that is to be expected. Withdrawing ideas at regular intervals is bound to expose their commonality. This repetition of the same theme will have the effect of ingraining i t s e l f into the student's mind. The effect is most noticeable in the works of Ernst Cassirer, de Tocqueville, Durkheim, Marx, Russell, and Veblen. So summary writing permits a better understanding of the writer's position. A somewhat similar effect, with a subsequent gain in knowledge, occurs when books on the same subject are read close together. Here new information can colour one's judgement so that new, or altered, impressions may be gathered about earlier ideas. The positions of Veblen and Marx are made clearer by bringing them and their ideas closer together. It can be read into Veblen, for instance (page 617), that the industrial worker i s manipulated by a man-made economic system which continues to reduce his cultural talent while, at the same time, elevating the pecuniary class to higher levels of conspicuous consumption. This t r a i t imbues the system at a l l levels and thereby perpetuates i t . Marx, on the other hand, points to the same manipulated system creating - 122 -surplus goods which will eventually generate its own problem of having an insufficient market. An outlet for these goods being impossible to find among the capitalist class, there will appear the expected disequilibrium between production and consumption. Ideally, the excess would go back to the working class; but i f not, the lack of market will bring down the system, or labour w i l l . This i s , perhaps, a l i t t l e simplistic, but generally Veblen implies that the working class is bound within a system, and will have no control over i t until they can organize their technicians to sabotage the system from within. Marx sees the need for the working man to organize, but also recognizes an implicit weakness in the system that will eventually bring about i t s collapse. The difference of their views ultimately resides in their philosophies. Veblen, a Darwinian, sees the need to construct a class that can successfully compete with pecuniary interests. Marx, a Hegelian, simply argues for the last of Hegel's three stages, that of synthesis, to be brought to bear and everything will f i t into place. This, coupled with man's natural rights, sums up Marx's position, which was made clearer by reading Veblen. By placing these books together, a better appreciation of each was gathered. This allows greater confidence to be placed in the resulting summary when i t comes to take its place among the categories. Summary formation - coding the summary. In order to retrieve the original idea in its passage, the summary must be identified with a series of numbers. This was discussed in chapter IV. These numbers provide great f l e x i b i l i t y within the system, particularly when there is a need to show how one summary can be cross referenced to another. - 123 -Any indication that a summary has some sort of relationship to another should be noted at the time of writing. From this time on any occasion where cross referencing appears to take place should be noted. Forming categories. It is during this process that summaries are condensed in meaning so as to reveal their fundamental substance, much the way earlier passages were made to give up their ideas for summaries. To do this a search must be made for attributes they may have in common. It will be remembered that the 500 or so summaries are placed in one pile for this purpose, and their coupling up with each other will see groups form and dismantle a number of times. Eventually about 20 groups will take shape. In the case of the system exhibited in Appendix I, the following emerged as the f i r s t categories. Action Material ism Behaviour Nature Change Opposites Chaos Order Diversity Perfection Economics Reason Equilibrium Religion Holism Science Logic Unity Mass War These later expanded to 48 in number, and can be seen with their sub-categories beginning on page 125. The process of looking for commonalities does not cease once the category has been established. It is immediately obvious that many groups - 124 -List of categories to be found in Appendix I: Number Heading I Art II Behaviour, Codes of III Change IV Change by force V Communication in Art VI Communication, Modes of VII Conceptions & Prejudices VIII Diversity & Chaos IX Diversity, the need for X Democracy XI Democracy & Control, steps to XII Education XIII Equilibrium XIV Faith, the power of XV Forms of thought Sub-headings Art & Religion Art interpretations Written Visual Technology & Art Ancient & Modern Environmentally stimulated Economic Reiigious Poetry's interpretation Poetry's construction Visual communication Individual communication Social/Group communication Negative effects Positive effects Democratic inefficiency Elements of democracy War & democracy Features of education Purpose of education Economic relationships Social relationships Individual faith Secular faith Social aspects Natural Philosophical Reiigious - 125 -List of Categories (continued) XVI Freedom XVII Hierarchy XVIII Holistic scientific beliefs Human behaviour XIX XX XXI XXII XXIII XXIV XXV Justice Knowing, modes of Knowledge: active, empir-i c a l , sensate Language: fable and myth Learning, modes of Man's needs and drives XXVI Mass appeal XXVII Materialism, drive of XXVIII Materialism and the spi r i t XXIX Opposites, a r t i f i c i a l and natural XXXI Organization by man XXXII Organization in nature XXXIII Parts influence the whole XXXIV Perfection Organization in society/nature Individual Social Ancient Modern Experiencing Challenge and scope Integrated learning Long term needs Short term needs Negative effects Positive effects Efficiency Ownership Division by opposites Order and religion Order and society Diversity Structural Individual Social Man Nature Art - 126 -List of categories (continued) XXXV Pragmatism - effects of science XXXVI Reason XXXVII Reason, change by XXXVIII Religious logic XXXIX Religious thought XL Science XLI Self-interest collective XLII Self-interest XLIII Suffering & Diversity XLIV Unity XLV Values, human XLVI Values, human practical XLVII Whole, parts formed by the The arts Poetry Science Balance Practical concerns Economic Social Beliefs Physical manifestations Spiritual Principles & views of God Ancient Modern Individual God Man General Pragmatic Economic Economic Society XLVIII Beauty - 127 -are s t i l l too large to be functionally worthwhile and need to undergo even further division. This is when sub-categories become v i s i b l e . Category #XXVII, "Materialism, drive of," warranted further division and produced the sub-categories: Efficiency - five summaries Ownership - twelve summaries Although i t is obviously possible to overload some categories due to their broad application - for example, change, diversity, nature or reason-this does not seem to occur. Usually this is due to the summary suggesting one idea more than any other, but there are occasions when the obvious is ignored in order to take advantage of other opportunities offered. Such was the case with the summary: 18-181.5 Marx: As the labourer's needs increase with the prosperity of capital, misery of the labourer will always correspond to the accumulation of capital, for he is inextricably linked with i t . This found application in the category #XLVII, "Parts Formed by the Whole," whereas i t could just have easily joined #XXVII, "Drive of Materialism," with as much effect. The apparent ease with which summaries seem to apply themselves to other areas should be seen as an advantage, and to be expected. It suggests that their later alignment as themes will occur more readily. The readiness of summaries to f i t more than one category can also be an advantage at the retrieval stage of the system, but to aid this cross-referencing is required. The author column is the best place to locate such - 128 -numbers, and when put into practice looks as follows. The f i r s t example shows that a summary in "Parts Formed by the Whole," #XLVII, will f i t with similar advantage into #XXXI, "Organization by Man." 17-245.4 de Tocqueville: cf XXXI Love of one's country, patriotism, is a relatively recent phenomenon which found no application when individuals looked up only to the person next above them in the hierarchy, for example the vassal lord. The ultimate government was unknown to the vassal of the land. On another occasion, a summary from Weber in #XLVI, "Practical Human Values," was found to be equally effective in #XXXVI, "Reason." 13-52.3 Weber: cf XXXVI Virtues are only virtues in as much as they are useful to the individual and accomplish desired ends. At other times, summaries may appear within the same category but be so close in their statements that they demand cross referencing. This was the case with Leo Tolstoy and Alexis de Tocqueville in #1, "Art," when the following statements were made: 15-70.5 Tolstoy cf de Toe #1 Sometimes art is for the upper classes and is only well understood by them. 17-61.2 de Tocqueville cf Tolstoy #1 Art that develops in aristocratic countries is capable of - 129 -becoming aloof from the people and as such risks becoming impotent. When such cross referencing has been undertaken, i t will be f e l t that f u l l advantage has been taken of the interrelationships that exist between the various summaries. Forming categories - naming them and ordering summaries. The act of naming categories is another way of measuring how effective the sorting process was in establishing the correct f i t for the summaries. This is reevaluated when the summaries are reviewed to ascertain their sense of direction or implication. The topic that emerges will be the most obvious choice for the t i t l e of that category. Any summary that appears to be out of step with the others in that group can be considered for reclassification. The act of providing a name for the category forces the student to look deeply into the summaries gathered there to find, not only the idea binding them, but a name that will attach i t s e l f effectively. Naming the category i s , therefore, another way of confirming the integrity of the summaries that compose i t . Once the naming has been done, the categories will be in piles with a name affixed to each. The next task is to place the summaries into some sort of order. This means arranging any sub-categories i t may contain f i r s t . Then a preferred, but non-judgemental, order can be applied. In the category #XXIV, "Modes of Learning," two sub-categories were easily formed: 1. Challenge and scope. 2. Integrated learning. Within these two groups, a loose sense of time helped place them into order. However, few categories are this obliging and for the most part lend - 130 -themselves to being arranged by book and page number order. Once the summaries have been arranged in this way, they are ready to be entered onto the summary record sheets where they will be a tangible presentation of the Concept Gathering System. Category formation - entering summaries onto summary sheets. The categories are ready for typing, and i t only remains to decide on what order this should occur, for these too must receive a number which should lend i t s e l f to some sort of sequence. Nothing serves this purpose better than alphabetical order, which will make the finding of a known concept easier. Therefore, the f i r s t numbers can be attached to the categories that appear f i r s t alphabetically. In our case, i t was "Art" #1, "Behaviour, codes of" #11, "Change" #111, and so on. Numbering the categories in this way aids cross referencing and permits use of the system without the need to employ time and space consuming t i t l e s . The job of typing out the summaries and f i l i n g them is a lengthy but satisfying one. It produces visible evidence of a l l the work that has contributed to i t . Unfortunately, the system cannot be considered operational until the summaries have been carefully reviewed for accuracy and f i t . Forming categories - reviewing for accuracy. Each summary within a category is a statement supporting the category heading. Its effectiveness in the future is determined by how accurately i t reflects the original passage in the book, and the idea behind the category with which i t has been associated. Now that the summaries have been arrayed on the summary record sheets they are admirably suited to being reviewed against each other. A weak link in the category will need to be checked with its source for accuracy of the original idea stated in the summary. - 131 -Any changes needed to the summary should be made, after which i t can be returned to the original category, or resituated elsewhere. The system in Appendix I was not beyond benefitting from a review of the summaries, and while the idea had been adequately transferred to the summary, there was a need to relocate i t to a new category. 16-384.5 de Tocqueville Many southern crops, for example cotton, require year round attention. This aspect made slaves worth keeping. This found better expression when aligned with XXXVII, "Drive of Materialism, Ownership." Once this task has been accomplished, i t can safely be assumed that the foundation of this system of learning through ideas has been established. Forming themes. The system is now ready to function as intended. Set out neatly in categories are ideas selected from some of the most highly regarded books and minds of the western world. Now a truly contemplative look at the contents can take place in order to gather new insights and connections. No doubt reference will be made to the original sources to see i f and how the themes were developed, but more lik e l y the spur will be to gather new material from which more ideas can be harvested. These will be added to the system and may even suggest a new category, support for which can be drawn from some of the summaries already entered. So far the categories have been the highest, and most encompassing, ideas in the system. They embody the patterns and relationships found to exist within the input material. Yet they also play a part in creating - 132 -ideas by forming alliances with each other so as to produce themes. Themes can assume great significance at this point because they wil l be the conjunction of three or more categories showing that they are the threads that unify. This thread of unification demonstrates how the world gives a great deal of evidence that its parts share much in common. Undertaking this look for themes in a peaceful environment conducive to producing a relaxed state will allow, by matching and questioning the categories and their summaries, more ideas to develop. These ideas should be recorded separately, for they will represent areas of speculation that will influence the student's thinking, and thus philosophy. The questions such thinking raises can suggest future reading material that will enhance knowledge, i f not the concept involved. Retrieval. The Concept Gathering System's quality of construction determines how effective the retrieval process will be. As outlined in chapter IV, the retrieval process is not unduly lengthy, yet i t offers the chance to state one's point of view under the umbrella of respected ideas. These ideas will have supplied the theme from which has been derived the thesis. This is now supportable throughout its development due to the categories and summaries of the Concept Gathering System. Even so, i t is unlikely that the piece of writing being undertaken will use the Concept Gathering System in isolation. More probable is that extra reading will occur and the ideas this generates will find their way back into the system as described in chapter IV. It is now that f u l l use can be made of a l l the names associated with the books in the bibliography, the cross-referencing, and supporting categories. - 133 -A paper addressing 'The Reasons Behind Man's Pursuit of Wealth' will have a large amount of material to draw upon. Using less than half the system, we got: Parts formed by whole, #XLVII 19-75.3 Veblen - economic 19-392.5 " 19-512.1 " 13-281.3 Weber - social 19-73.3 Veblen Self-interest #XLI 17.311.2 de Tocqueville Religious logic, #XXVIII 13-103.3 Weber Change by reason, #XXXVII 18-121.2 Marx Organization by man #XXXI 19-619.2 Veblen Man's needs and drives, #XXV 5-427.3 Adams 12-273.3 Orwell 4-151.2 Dostoevsky Materialism and the spirit #XXXVIII 10-362.3 Gibbon. With al l this support, i t is best to select those summaries that appear to speak closest to the problem. The position taken overall will be the tenor suggested by these summaries. For us this became: "Some men/women possess a natural desire to be wealthy, and this is often accompanied by complementary character trait s . " Our summaries permitted us to carry this idea through as a paper with specific chapter headings developing ideas. These unfolded to be: an historic perspective, using Weber and Gibbon, a religious view from Weber, - 134 -a political slant from de Tocqueville, a psychological position from Dostoevsky, Adams, and the neo-Darwinian view from Veblen; this without indulging in any desired extra reading. What this points out is the ease with which the summaries can provide information, and then be arranged into chapters by the category heading. The final product becomes a well organized and documented body of work, with each stage and claim supported by highly respected literature. The system that gave the student an opportunity to learn quickly becomes a double edged sword capable of cutting convincingly into worldly topics. This gives some indication of the way the Concept Gathering System behaves in practice and how its intentions are realized. It possesses great f l e x i b i l i t y within a firm structure in which the student can never lose sight of the objective: that of amassing ideas. Our next task is to look in detail at the benefits i t offers. - 135 -CHAPTER VI BENEFITS OF THE CONCEPT GATHERING SYSTEM  TO THE STUDENT Being an open learning approach, the Concept Gathering System has a great deal to offer the conscientious student. Each stage demands active participation and commitment. When this is achieved, greater retention and learning is likely to occur. The personal formation of ideas during the summary, category and theme forming stages will contribute to their more likely assimilation. This will reveal itself during the retrieval stage when the student is in f u l l control of the ideas amassed to that point. So obvious are the benefits to a student that i t is possible to itemize and illustrate them by referring to the system in Appendix I. As they apply to the System, they are: 1. It supplies a broad curriculum 2. It encourages in-depth study by: A. Looking beyond details B. Developing ideas C. Focusing thought 3. It develops individual potential 4. It develops an enquiring mind 5. It develops personal growth through: A. Organization and study habits B. Reading and vocabulary development C. Written expression 6. It develops understanding of relationships and structure 7. It provides opportunities for writing papers - 136 -8. It develops recognition for the need of a bibliography 9. It develops a student's philosophy 10. It develops a holistic world view. 1. It supplies a broad curriculum The breadth of the curriculum i s i n i t i a l l y as broad as the bibliography. In the case of our system in the Appendix, we have 21 books that range through most of the primary disciplines (see page 79). Yet this is only the s t a r t . It is expected that other books w i l l join that bibliography, and in so doing will add to the comprehensiveness of the course of study. Logical additions to our bibliography might be: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring on ecology and evolution, Barbara Tuchman's Guns of August on conflict resolution, and John Porter's The Vertical Mosaic on sociology and p o l i t i c s . While these books, tend to j o i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s found in our bibliography, there is no reason why new areas should not be explored, for example, anthropology, history, or education. Each book will add to the supply of knowledge and ideas. These, in their turn, can be expected to inspire more reading which will further develop the curriculum range. More than l i k e l y , the student will tend to explore those topics in which s/he has some personal interest. Since the student developed the ideas within the system, i t i s anticipated that his/her reading will branch from these ideas. The bibliography has been constructed to allow such ideas to flow easily by the placing of more than one writer into a classification. Then questions on such topics as economics, totems, religions et cetera are approached from - 137 -different points of view established in well founded philosophies. Their interplay will furnish the student with a variety of ideas, ranging from those stated, to an amalgam. The already broad curriculum is expected to become even broader. 2. It encourages in-depth study by: A. Looking beyond deta i l . Ideas that do not seem hinged to the writer's thesis can be considered isolated, but nevertheless important. Examples of these, and the need to look beyond the details presented, are found in the works of Henry Adams and Alexis de Tocqueville. The majority of ideas that come from Adams have to do with the search for unity. Ideas that do not make this obvious can be considered isolated. On page 170.3 he brings forward the idea that British custom has a negative effect upon British thinking. It dulls the mind and prevents acuity, as the following passage makes clear: ... he had no suspicion of the thought floating in the mind of the American Minister's son, for the British mind is the slowest of a l l minds, as the f i l e s of the Times proved, and the capture of Vicksburg had not yet penetrated Delane's thick cortex of fixed ideas. Even i f he had read Adam's thought he would have fe l t for i t only the usual British contempt for a l l that he had not been taught at school. It needed a whole generation for the Times to reach Milne's standpoint. The summary developed here became: 5-170.3 Adams: British custom tends to narrow and inhibit thought. In this case, i t was necessary to see beneath the detail whereby Adams - 138 -complained of the British attitude to any learning taught outside of school, and recognized this to be symptomatic of an attitude that pervades their very culture. In this way the student is asked to see beyond the superficial detail. A similar case is found in de Tocqueville whose ideas are primarily concerned with the conditions associated with the development of American democracy. On page 245.4, he considers the separate issue of feudal honor and loyalty: The state of society and the political institutions of the Middle Ages were such that the supreme power of the nation never governed the community d i r e c t l y . That power did not exist in the eyes of the people: every man looked up to a certain individual whom he was bound to obey; by that intermediate personage he was connected with a l l the others. Thus, in feudal society, the whole system of the commonwealth rested upon the sentiment of f i d e l i t y to the person of the lord; to destroy that sentiment of which all the members of the aristocracy had constant opportunities of estimating the importance; for every one of them was a vassal as well as a lord and had to command as well as obey. While he goes on to develop the issue further, that written above provides sufficient for i t to be realized that behind the facts about feudal society in the Middle Ages, de Tocqueville is talking about a system of hierarchy. Our rather lengthy summary of this passage, which found application to more than one category, was: 17-245.4 de Tocqueville: Love of one's country, patriotism, is a relatively recent phenomenon which found no application when individuals looked up only to the person next above them in the hierarchy, for example the vassal lord. The ultimate government was unknown to the vassal of the land. - 139 -These two examples point to the need to look beneath the details and facts to the underlying idea. At other times, the ideas are more readily observed as they follow the pattern established by the thesis. B. Developing ideas. Emile Durkheim provides an excellent opportunity for us to observe the development of ideas as he supports his thesis in a passage that prompted the summary: 14-172.5 Durkheim Our social patterns suggest to us the organization we can ascribe to nature. In order to understand Durkheim's meaning here, we must look at most of a lengthy passage that brings us through an introduction, explanation, statement, and conclusion. The seed is planted with: The idea of class is an instrument of thought which has obviously been constructed by men. But in constructing i t , we have at least had need for a model; for how could this idea ever have been born, i f there had been nothing e i t h e r in us or around us which was capable of suggesting i t to us? The need to look for a logical cause begins with: In a l l probability, we would never have thought of uniting the beings of the universe into homogeneous groups, called classes, i f we had not had the example of human societies before our eyes ... He emphasises his point with the statement: ... there are really relations of subordination and coordination, the establishment of which is the object of a l l classification, and men would never have thought - 140 -of arranging their knowledge in this way i f they had not known beforehand what a hierarchy was [through society]. In conclusion, he points out: The hierarchy is exclusively a social a f f a i r . It is only in society that there are superiors, inferiors and equals. Consequently, even i f the facts were not enough to prove i t , the mere analysis of these ideas would reveal their origin. The student does not have to be too insightful here to grasp the idea that man's cl a s s i f i c a t i o n of nature is seen by Durkheim to have been inspired by the society he established. This is just one example of Durkheim's thesis, that the whole influences the parts. When the student is supplied with a continuity of such ideas, an understanding and appreciation of what the writer is saying is acquired. This appreciation extends beyond the knowledge imparted by the earlier mentioned isolated d e t a i l . In this case, the student is given the opportunity to gather a variety of information, a l l of which goes to develop a specific idea. Once this has been achieved, the student is ready to approach the final aspect of in depth study; that of focusing thought. C. Focusing Thought By reviewing the summaries that emerged from Emile Durkheim and the categories they formed, we will get a sense of how the Concept Gathering System focuses thought. F i r s t , i t must be appreciated that Durkheim is a holist who contends that the individual acts in accordance with the dictates of the larger social group. Once this is understood, i t is possible to see how so many summaries generated by his book found their way into the same categories. The best example of this is XXXVI, "Mass Appeal - Positive - 141 -Effects." Here four of his summaries a l l reflect the thesis as stated. They are: 14-262.3 14-308.2 14-387.3 14-390.1 Even though other categories hold Durkheim summaries, they a l l contain a semblance of his thesis. This consistency of thesis carrying over to the categories is not isolated to Durkheim. It occurs with Lovejoy, Weber, James, Veblen and many others. All are able to achieve this consistency because of the unequivocal nature of their position. This assists the student in finding those threads of commonality between the summaries that help to make the categories. With or without this help from the writers, the student's task is to focus a particular thought as i t applies to the category being b u i l t . This effort of concentration is required again when forming themes. Thought has to be focused upon one idea when the eyes are being presented with many. It is not surprising that the most demanding method of study occurs at the end of the system, for like the system i t s e l f the application of thought is progressive. It provides the added advantage that, rather than demand more effort from the student, i t permits higher levels to build on those below. Developing ideas uses the earlier s k i l l of finding ideas within d e t a i l , but is granted the assistance of a thesis to draw the student's attention to the idea. The thesis helps again when category formation demands the independent act of determining what the summaries hold in common. The relationships contained in the categories assist in forming themes later on. In three ways, then, the student is helped to develop his/her method of in-depth study. - 142 -3. It develops individual potential It is the open-ended nature of the Concept Gathering System that makes this claim possible. It allows for an unlimited amount of student i n i t i a t i v e . The composition of every Concept Gathering System will differ because every student will have different a b i l i t i e s . Fortunately, the system contains various avenues where students are able to give expression to their potential. This occurs at various levels, the f i r s t of which is in the bibliography. Over and above the original bibliography, the student is free to follow any train of thought suggested by the reading. Such action not only helps to develop the individual, but also invigorates the system as a whole. If i t stimulates the system, the one to benefit will be the student. It is s/he who will work with the ideas that surface from new works, and i f these are ideas towards which the student has an ability to work, the higher ideas they create will help to develop that potential. Due to the student's l i k e l y high i n t e r e s t , the process w i l l be, to some extent, s e l f -perpetuating. It is the student who decides when the enquiry should stop. Creativity is also given great scope. Throughout idea gathering, forming summaries, forming categories and finding themes, there is no restriction on the student's creative thinking. All these connections are made at the student's discretion. The categories to be found in our system can be challenged by someone with a different creative sense. A summary by Durkheim placed in the category #XXXVI11 Religious Logic might just have easily found its way into #XXI Organization by Man i f someone else composed the categories. The summary read: - 143 -14-251.2 Durkheim: Totems assume their particular form because they attach themselves readily to concepts too complex in form to be mentally carried as a meaningful unit. For example, a country's flag. When i t comes to generating themes, interest and creativity can be combined to form the idea, and suggest the areas for research to lend i t support. The idea of Quality, for instance, can be examined through such subjects as: art, music, religion, even industry. Retrieval is perhaps the most obvious vehicle for the student to demonstrate the potential of his/her ideas. Here the system allows for the fu l l e s t expression of the student's capabilities. No matter what the thesis, the resulting paper should present a format as well supported as the system from which i t is gained, and as well organized. The student will be well advised to emulate the structure to be found in the system, then s/he can be sure that what is said will appear credible. 4. It develops an enquiring mind. The basis of the Concept Gathering System is that of enquiry. In view of t h i s , the student must possess and bring to the system an enquiring mind. The system will capitalize on that capacity and strengthen i t . It will do so i n i t i a l l y through the bibliography. The bibliography's composition will go a long way to stimulate enquiry, particularly i f i t is compiled with the assistance of the student. In this way books with a definite appeal for the student will be included as much as possible. The system's f i r s t objective is to secure ideas from respected sources. Any additional enquiry for such ideas the student is motivated to - 144 -make can only further that aim and contribute to the system's success. For this reason, the student is encouraged to make enquiries beyond that of the original bibliography. The need for enquiry is also found at every stage of the system. While i t begins with the search for incidental ideas, i t continues with the watch for the constant ideas that make up the thesis. It is taken up again during the search for the threads that will unite the summaries into categories, and when synthesizing the categories to form themes. This need for enquiry is made obvious when we look at an example from the system in the Appendix. The most obvious need for enquiry is when information is given that must be c l a r i f i e d , e.g. unknown words or terms. This arose when reading Darwin. In addressing the topic of natural selection, he made reference to "a single diluvial wave" (page 100). Enquiry revealed this had to do with a flood, which made the sentence understandable. Further on (page 101), as he spoke about the intercrossing of individuals, use was made of the term "hermaphrodite." Enquiry here revealed not only the word's meaning, which made Darwin's point clear, but also its origin. Once enquiry has made the details clear i t can be used to decide on the idea being established and whether or not i t appears significant. This can lead to the idea being noted, then summarized, and fi n a l l y categorized; a l l stages requiring a certain level of enquiry. After working with the system the student will have enhanced his/her capacity to enquire and question. This t r a i t is one that is shared by a l l the writers in our bibliography, and was a characteristic that made them such respected writers in the f i r s t place. - 145 -5. It develops personal growth through, A. Organization and study habits. The Concept Gathering System is a highly organized and structured method of learning, so i t should not be surprising that something of this is imparted to the student. It is observable, in a tangible way, at the very outset. Before reading can commence, the books have to be acquired and numbered. This act introduces a series of occupations that i n s t i l l a sense of organization and time management. The latter is essential in order to manage the amount of reading required. The chart in Fig. 5 gives some indication as to how much of the time required to develop the system must be devoted to reading. Managing such a commitment demands pacing oneself through the use of tenacity and method. A long term project such as this demands commitment, and i f this is poorly developed, the system's challenge will make obvious the need to improve i t . Reading alone requires a great deal of looking up unknown words, following footnotes, and noting ideas. There will be times when rereading is necessary to make the writer's meaning obvious. To maintain such a course of study, the student must be able to apply a large measure of self-discipline. This lies behind any ability to display good study habits. By making oneself take the time to make a brief description of the idea on the idea s l i p when reading a book, the student is practicing sound organization and study habits. The description i s , in effect, a note to oneself to be read later. Although i t will serve to aid the summary writing, i t is also a form of self-communication, an important part of any organizing strategy. The fact that such actions are necessary i f the system is to take its required shape forces the student to apply self-discipline. From this will emerge good study habits and the recognition of sound - 146 -Estimate in percentage of time spent constructing the Concept Gathering System. #3 20% Number Description of task Percentage 1 Compiling the bibliography 5 2 Reading for ideas 45 3 Forming summaries " ' 20 4 Forming categories 15 5 Recording summaries onto summary record sheets 10 6 ' Reviewing summaries for their f i t 5 100 - 147 -organization. To organize, or give orderly structure to ideas, indicates that there exists a correct place for a l l the parts involved. The system makes this obvious as the student works his/her way deeper into i t . It is there in burgeoning form as ideas are set into summaries, but becomes more established as the categories are composed and typed onto the summary record sheets. Then the structure, with every idea set into its proper place, assumes its function as a workable schematic. The organization is now real and v i s i b l e , capable of supplying information as well as providing a structure upon which to hang ideas. What the system has to teach about organization and structure is capable of being applied during the retrieval stage. At this point, the student can allow the detail supporting his/her position to flow from headings that themselves contribute to the major thesis. In this way, s/he is simply replicating the organization and structure to be found in the Concept Gathering System. B. Reading and vocabulary development. A bibliography that presents new information, and perhaps new ideas, is likely to provide other aspects that are challenging, and will contribute to student growth. Two that surfaced during the compilation of our system were readability and vocabulary usage. Often the way language is used determines the readability of a book. This can vary greatly, from the lucid to the arcane. To illustrate the point, the work of Thomas Bulfinch and Sigmund Freud will be compared. In his introduction, Bulfinch informs us that we are to be entertained by the stories provided. Therefore, the phrasing is designed to be easily - 148 -read, and is quite poetic, as this passage illustrates. Then the king established a l l his knights, and to them that were not rich he gave lands, and charged them a l l never to do outrage nor murder, and always to flee treason; also, by no means to be cruel, but to give mercy unto him that asked mercy, upon pain of forfeiture of their worship and lordship; and always to do ladies, damsels, and gentlewomen service, upon pain of death. Also that no man take battle in a wrongful quarrel, for no law, nor for any world's goods. Unto this were a l l the knights sworn of the Table Round, both old and young. And at every year were they sworn at the high feast of Pentecost, (page 338.4) The language is certainly poetic, but more important, the idea is quite clear. This summary took the form: 20-338.4 Bulfinch: King Arthur's knights were sworn to acts of honour, and to eschew any worldly goods. Then i t found a place in the category #XXVIII, "Materialism and the Spi r i t . " Freud's writing, on the other hand, presents a greater challenge. The personal anecdotes that comprise his research become rather hard to endure after a period of time, as with the following passage that attempts to describe what has since become known as a Freudian s l i p : One evening, wishing to excuse myself for not having called for my wife at the theater, I said: "I was at the theater at ten minutes after ten." I was corrected: "You meant to say before ten o'clock." Naturally, I wanted to say before ten. After ten would certainly be no excuse. I had been told that the theater program read, "Finished before ten o'clock." When I arrived at the theater, I found the foyer dark and the theater empty. Evidently the performance was over earlier and my wife did not wait for me. When I looked at the - 149 -c l o c k , i t s t i l l wanted f i v e minutes to ten. I determined to make my case more favourable at home, and say that i t was ten minutes to ten. Unfortunately, the speech-blunder spoiled the intent and laid bare my dishonesty, in which I acknowledged more than there really was to confess, (page 86.3) Freud's great use of detail to get this point across makes the idea harder to extract. Part of the cause is the seeming t r i v i a that seems to comprise that deta i l . When this excess of detail is coupled with l i t t l e paragraph r e l i e f , the job becomes even more onerous. Freud's evaluation of wit, which starts on page 658, makes the point. In his d i s t r e s s , a needy man borrowed twenty-five dollars from a wealthy acquaintance. The same day, he was discovered by his creditor in a restaurant eating a dish of salmon with mayonnaise. The creditor reproached him in these words: "You borrow money from.me and then order salmon with mayonnaise. Is that what you need the money for?" "I don't understand you," responded the debtor, "when I have no money I can't eat salmon with mayonnaise. When I have money, I mustn't eat i t . Well then, when shall I ever eat salmon with mayonnaise?" (p. 659) Let us return to the example "salmon with mayonnaise," which is the purest of its [the joke] kind. What is new in i t will direct us into various paths. In the f i r s t place, we have to give a name to the mechanism of this newly discovered technique. I propose to designate i t as displacement, for its most essential element, the deviation of the trend of thought, consists in displacing the psychic accent to another than the original theme. It is then incumbent upon us to find out the relationship of the technique of displacement to the expression of the witticism. Our example (salmon with mayonnaise) shows us that the displacement technique is absolutely independent of the verbal expression. It does not depend upon words, but upon the mental trend, and to abrogate i t we are not helped by substitution so long as the sense of the answer is adhere to. (p. 659) Freud continues to explain that this is not a joke but a cynicism. - 150 -Nevertheless, the point about his r e a d a b i l i t y must be well taken, particularly when i t is contrasted with that of Thomas Bulfinch. Not surprisingly, the differences in vocabulary between these two writers are also great. This is not to suggest that they should be in any way alike, for they are books that have vastly different jobs to accomplish, but the student does have each of them to consider. Bulfinch uses a rich vocabulary that conveys the time to which i t refers, but for the most part i t is quite familiar. Freud, as our last example showed, uses terms that demand immediate assimilation, or c l a r i f i c a t i o n . In the last passage we had: displacement, psychic accent, and mental trend. This look at the wide range of readability and vocabulary in the bibliography of classical literature indicates how real is the student's challenge. It should be remembered, however, that this is just another way the system contributes to student growth. C. Developing written expression An active part of the Concept Gathering System is the forming of summaries. Here the student has to apply his/her writing s k i l l s to the task of developing an idea. Like a l l s k i l l s , that of writing will improve with practice, and i t is this that the system supplies. Our system in the Appendix contains about 500 summaries which means there were about 500 occasions to rehearse the writing of ideas effectively. One way of doing this is to apply a broad vocabulary to the task. General terms are substituted for narrow ones. This can be demonstrated using an example from Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. In the following passage, Gibbon addresses the practice of obsequious and humble postures that characterize the greeting between men of rank and their - 151 -inferiors. Only the beginning of this lengthy passage is given here. The most lofty t i t l e s , and the most humble postures, which devotion has applied to the Supreme Being, have been prostituted by flattery and fear to creatures of the same nature with ourselves. The mode of adoration of falling prostrate on the ground and kissing the feet of the emperor, was borrowed by Diocletian from Persian servitude; but i t was continued and aggravated t i l l the last age of the Greek monarchy. The passage continued to give examples of this behaviour, but even the beginning quoted above implanted the idea of hierarchy and rank, although these words are not used by Gibbon. In order to be more encompassing, the summary used words that were broad in scope, yet s t i l l retained the idea to be found in the passage. 10-710.3 Gibbon: The idea of levels is found in the greetings between peoples of differing rank. Use of the words 'levels' and 'rank' expanded on the book's vocabulary and permitted the summary to suggest its applications to the idea originally envisaged: hierarchy. For this reason, the summary fitted easily into the category #XVII Hierarchy - organization in nature and society. Not only vocabulary is involved here. Consideration has to be given to how the summary is constructed. It must be succinct and therefore use words in an effic i e n t manner. The summary is expected to reduce detail and capture the idea. When done successfully, its promise of a larger concept embodied within w i l l be evident, while the supporting detail w i l l be scarcely v i s i b l e . This is the writing s k i l l being practiced during every summary formation and statement. The student will be able to display - 152 -his/her economy with words during the later stage of retrieval too. An ability to be direct, to the point, and not be redundant, will serve to make any paper more convincing. 6. It develops relationships and structures. Relationships: During idea selection and summary writing, the student is required to find the underlying principles in passages of classical literature. The student is required to be more independent when building, or forming categories. Here relationships are sought without the aid of a writer. Forming categories has to rely upon the student's independent perception. The difference between finding the principle behind the detail in order to compose a summary, and the forming of categories, is that the former is stated by the writer and only needs to be recognized, while the latter has to be fabricated out of numerous random ideas. Here the student needs to think deeply about those larger ideas that demonstrate how many various aspects of our world share relationship. This becomes obvious as we watch the system in action. In the following category #XVI, "Freedom," the summaries share the same relationship, even though only three of the ten make any mention of the word freedom. Nevertheless, each summary can be said to have this idea behind i t . In the following summary, the reference to freedom is implicit in the notion that men are able to enjoy a variety of careers. 16-442.5 de Tocqueville: In America i t is not uncommon for one man to carry out a variety of careers of which he has a need. This renders him more intelligent than one who specializes. - 153 -Categorizing concentrates on this a b i l i t y to find common elements of relationship between different cases. A look at any category should produce the realization that every summary contained therein, displays, to some degree, the relationship depicted by the heading. In this way the student is made to observe the principles that unify our world, and at the same time, recognize the interdependence of everything in i t . Unifying structures. Once the system has been assembled, the search for themes can begin, and i t is here we uncover unifying structures. Themes d i f f e r from categories only by the vastness of the concepts they use. Themes can be seen to apply to many more circumstances than those found in one category. That was why categorizing was such a thought-provoking job. In the theme "All things are perfecting," the following categories can be used, for a l l show something of this idea. #XIV Faith, the power of XXXII Organization in nature XXXIV Perfection XXXVIII Religious logic XXXIX Religious thought XLIV Unity Themes and their unifying structures are, therefore, the takeoff point, or extension of the relationships developed earlier. The student is merely being asked to look deeper into ideas so as to come up with a structure that will unite them, and at the same time, his/her world. 7. It provides opportunities for writing papers. The forming of themes does more than provide a sense of unity: i t also - 154 -offers a view that can become a position to be personally developed in the future. At the same time i t provides a systematic structure to use as a vehicle for that position. When a theme is realized from amidst the categories, this can be used as a thesis for subjects that lend themselves to i t . An example of categories forming a theme that aids the development of a particular topic is given as follows. The theme "Random events contribute to evolution" was perceived in these categories: #111 Change IV Change by force VIII Diversity and chaos XIII Equilibrium, balance, and relationships XXV Man's needs and drives XXIX Opposites, the need for XXX Opposites, artificial/natural XLIII Suffering and diversity Knowing thi s , i t is possible to undertake the topic "The progress of fatal diseases in the 20th century" with a clear sense of direction. The system provided the thesis, or hypothesis, which will obviously require support from the literature of the discipline. If i t is forthcoming, then the thesis will find support both inside and outside its f i e l d . If no inside support can be found, the hypothesis may have to be changed. Viewed in the correct light, this is no loss, but a gain in knowledge. An advance has been made on previous thinking. When the relevant literature is examined, the search for information w i l l not be random, but directed. The student knows what sort of - 155 -information s/he is after, and need not follow other paths until the time is right to do so. Such focus is the superstructure the thesis provides. When this is coupled with the organizational structure inherent in the system, both the input and the output of information will be clearly presented. Therefore, the system does more than merely suggest an opportunity for writing: i t provides the necessary support for enquiry and expression. 8. It develops the need for a bibliography. Although new reading will be stimulated by the books read, i t will also be spurred by the categories and themes that emerge. The category "Mass Appeal" might well attract the student to the works of Ortega y Gasset, particularly his Revolt of the Masses, while 'Diversity and Chaos' might direct one to read Ilya Prigogine's Order out of Chaos. Whatever the circumstances, the enquiring student is bound to increase his/her books read, and by so doing increase the bibliography. The bibliography has not been numbered alphabetically because i t is expected that new books will be read and added on in order to assume the next numbers in sequence. The ease of being able to add to the bibliography is intentional because i t is from here that the system is expanded. By paying such close attention to recording the details of the books added to the system, the student is made aware of the importance of a bibliography. This is reinforced by the permanent recognition the system displays for the books from which the ideas came in the f i r s t place. The student is never allowed to lose sight of the fact that credit for certain ideas must be given to particular writers. This regard for the bibliography culminates during the retrieval stage, when recourse might have to be taken to the idea's originator. Then, not - 156 -only the book, but the particular page is made available. When used as intended, the system presents the bibliography as a necessary part of any expression of ideas, rather than simply as a required adjunct. 9. It develops a student's philosophy. The advantage of reading is that i t brings an understanding of the world to the individual without that person having to go through the actual experience. Our knowledge has certainly been advanced because of this process, but even so i t takes years of acquiring such knowledge before one can say that even a pre-philosophical base has been established. The Concept Gathering System is capable of speeding up that process by exposing the principles that underlie so many experiences. It can be shown that focusing on these principles, that would otherwise be left unaddressed, forces the student to recognize their contribution to the world's aff a i r s . Using three different categories, support can be found for the statement that 'Large organizations can have a negative effect for the individual1. Herodotus points out that: #XIX 16-14.3 It is easier to fool many men than to fool one. This is found in the category "Human behaviour - social," but could just as successfully be put in "Mass appeal - negative effects." The summary comments on the power of social pressure that when brought to bear, requires exceptional strength to break its imagined expectations. Thomas Hobbes, in The Leviathan, quoted in Russell, prophetically observed: - 157 -9-540.1 Russell: As government bureaucracy expands individual resistance is going to be more d i f f i c u l t . This summary was placed in category #XXXI, "Organization by man-order and society," but could also have been placed in #VI, "Communication, modes of-social/group." It observes that bureaucracy is self-serving, and gives the individual only arbitrary and token access to its control and capabilities, not heeding individual needs. This is more l i k e l y to occur as the bureaucracy grows in size. Then, in Emile Durkheim, we find: 14-240.3 Durkheim: The crowd, group, or mob will excite the individual to acts that would not occur i f s/he were left alone. This summary f a l l s where i t might be expected to, in #XXVI, "Mass appeal-negative effects." It emphasises the enormous power of persuasion, perhaps even coercion, held by a crowd. The mere size of a crowd leaves the individual at a distinct disadvantage. From either intimidation, or a wish to identity with his social group, the individual will often act contrary to his/her usual conscience. All these summaries stress one particular thought: there is a negative effect to the individual in bigness. Without taking up the merits or weaknesses of the argument, i t is obvious that every summary will contribute in some fashion to the student's knowledge. This, in turn, will make i t possible for him/her to develop a specific train of thought concerning large bodies. - 158 -As small as i t might be, the belief statement produced by this array of summaries will contribute to forming the student's pre-philosophy. The more encompassing the belief statement, the broader and more mature will be the pre-philosophy. The Concept Gathering System is expected to start a process where the student can assimilate enough ideas to be able to construct a reasonable and defensible philosophy. The sequence of summary building, category formation, and forming of themes is expected to supply the sort of progression that makes this possible. 10. It develops a holistic world view. There is a flow to the ideas that come out of the Concept Gathering System. This flow, like that of a river, starts with small streams and rivulets that feed rivers. These feed larger rivers which eventually merge with that total mass of water: the sea. Composed of various oceans, the sea is the one that embodies a l l that has passed through the previous structures. The outcome is the same with ideas. They make their appropriate c o n t r i b u t i o n , and demonstrate that the whole is composed of many interrelated and common parts. The student is able to see the world as a harmonious unit, both physically and abstractly. The ideas in themes act as umbrellas under which the world operates. This h o l i s t i c viewpoint is not provided without some sense of direction. The student is encouraged to see that a holistic view can employ various themes to unify the world. Those used will indicate the philosophy of the person presenting i t . The fact that another can propose a world based upon different themes, and therefore a different philosophy, points out that respect must be given to differing points of view. Our system is - 159 -capable of showing how this state of affairs comes about. It is important to recognize that the forming of categories is a perfectly arbitrary task: one that, i f done by another, would produce quite different results. This circumstance emphasises that every person will view the world differently, for each will have had different experiences and form different perspectives. Rather than emerge from the category forming process with the view that this is how the world works, or should work, i t should be realized that this is just one of the ways the world works, or should work. Although i t can be said that the world f i t s neatly together, judged by the categories formed, the same can be said of other-category formations. We saw this on page 158 when three categories lent their summaries to support just one idea. It is the same world, then, even when viewed from many perspectives. This realization is expected to make the student appreciate that the world's complex relationships can shift to a certain extent, depending upon from where they are viewed. When this occurs, a form of parallax is created. Of this Wm. James spoke, and gave us the summary: 2-260.2 James: If we do not share another's appreciation for certain emotions, our only recourse is to observe and record what we see. One logic is not always shared by another, so there is a need to empathise. The ease with which i t is possible to reinterpret ideas is best described by another example from the system in Appendix I. In the category #XXIX, "Opposites, the need f o r , " Dostoevsky contributed two observations that both support the category and show they - 160 -ascribe to a ho l i s t i c view of l i f e . It is possible to let these two summaries work together for this purpose, or use a different perspective and make them produce quite a different point. Read in a manner sympathetic to the category in which they have been put, the following summaries are compatible. 4-135.2 Dostoevsky: There is a place in nature for the diseased and lowly. 4-137.3 Dostoevsky: Nature recognizes no differences in man that would permit class distinctions. The suggestion in both is that nature has no conscience and works in keeping with i t s own immutable laws. By so doing, i t recognizes no class distinction, but will tolerate the success of one man over another by reason of his adaptability in a particular environment. When these summaries are viewed from a human social perspective, particularly by one who wishes to increase and display his success, the interpretation of the summaries can take a different slant. There may be more emphasis placed upon the place in nature for the diseased and lowly. It could be argued that while nature recognizes no differences in man that permit class distinctions, man is a part of the same nature that upholds natural selection. It is up to man to decide i f he wishes to emphasise his superiority over others by use of class distinction. By taking this particular view the summaries have been moved from their role justifying, or not, the need for opposites, to act in support of class distinction. The - 161 -rationalization applied to the second summary is that i t neither supports nor denies the validity of class distinctions. The point being made here is that each perspective is capable of arguing its case for the world assuming the shape i t requires. The example attempts to show that the interpretations given to the ideas in the system can be expected to form different viewpoints. The student must understand that while s/he will gain a holistic impression of the world after working with the system, the ideas that contribute to that view may differ greatly from others. While the endpoint will be the same, the journey will have taken different paths. CONCLUSION It is timely at this juncture to il l u s t r a t e how well the Concept Gathering System has answered the demands of holism made at the end of chapter II. The degree to which this has occurred will indicate to what extent the Concept Gathering System delivers a holistic education. 1. The ideas must lend themselves well to the act of ref lect ion, or contemplation. The measure by which the ideas stand up to reflection or vigorous contemplation begins with the idea's original selection and never really ends, but rests at category formation. During this process the idea is subject to continual review, in part for its original content, and in part for its suitability for alignment with other ideas. The consideration given to i t has to be extensive and in depth. The system has no d i f f i c u l t y satisfying the particular requirement of reflection. Reflection is the bulwark of the system's composition and when the i n i t i a l idea has been fully - 162 -developed, contemplation is given to the categories that were created by those ideas. 2. The ideas must support one another so they contribute to the extension or perfecting of further thought. When summaries are aligned to create categories, ideas are being allowed to show how their alliance constructs concepts of greater meaning. The ideas contribute to a hierarchy in which each branch acts as an umbrella that i t s e l f finds protection under another umbrella, or branch. This perfecting of thought occurs because ideas assume a structure by their relationship to each other. By its very label - hierarchy - ideas perfect themselves in a structured way, and like a l l hierarchies there is no projected end point. So, like perfection, the ultimate is an aspiration, something for which we can only hope to reach. 3. The ideas must be recorded so that patterns can be made v i s ib le . The Concept Gathering System supplies a written record of the relationship and patterns that emerge from the selected ideas. This record makes obvious the individual's understanding of the world. It i s immediately apparent i f any imbalances have been created. If there has been, they will have resulted from the individual's interpretation of the specialized ideas. The breadth offered by the large bibliography attempts to eliminate narrow thinking and offer thought great scope. When applied responsibly, a balance of patterns, or connections, will emerge, and will be obvious in the written account of summaries and categories. In this way, the individual's understanding of the world is made obvious. 4. The ideas that emerge from the patterns must be capable of being arranged so that they form harmonies, or structures. - 163 -A considerable portion of h o l i s t i c thought i s given to the interrelationships that exist in our world. These interrelationships have the effect of influencing their position to each other and so contribute to structure. The Concept Gathering System is capable of realizing these structures, but not necessarily in any hard and fast way. This i s imperative considering the myriad circumstances that affect what i s perceived as structure. The word perceived is important here because the world is in the process of being understood by individuals of limited experience. The ideas that merge must do so in a manner comprehensible to the individual involved. They must be capable of being moved, or adjusted, to a degree that makes sense to that person. The summary slips and the freedom to control category construction assure the individual that the structures formed will be compatible with the thinking that arranged them. A look at the Concept Gathering System in the Appendix will confirm that i t s very makeup is structured in a way that lends i t s e l f easily to receiving the world's details, very much like the manner in which they exist naturally. 5. The ideas must be placed in a system broad enough in scope to allow for individual interest, yet at the same time possess a well organized guiding structure that permits unrestricted enquiry. Although the bibliography provides the sort of scope demanded by the above holistic guidelines, every book is also a model of breadth due to i t s classical nature. A classic, to be so qualified, demonstrates i t s strength by offering its thesis over a broad range of circumstances. It is generous in the application of its details and language, and by so doing brings to the reader a great breadth of knowledge. The unrestricted nature of the Concept Gathering System is also found - 164 -in the way i t encourages the spread of personal interests. It is expected that new books w i l l be read after being inspired by the o r i g i n a l bibliography. At the same time, the bibliography can receive books that stem from the individual's own interests. In both depth and breadth, the examination of ideas by the System is unlimited. The manipulation of these ideas occurs within the composition that constitutes the Concept Gathering System. The student is therefore able to follow a set path or guideline when disseminating the many ideas. 6. The ideas must be subject to the freedom of self-expression, without undue judgement, in order to capture individual potential. Arthur Koestler showed us that freedom increases with the level of a hierarchy. It therefore seems reasonable to state that perfection is commensurate with increasing freedom. If an individual is to capture his/her potential, s/he must be free to interpret and manipulate ideas. The Concept Gathering System permits this beginning with the manner in which ideas are interpreted and condensed in order to produce summaries. The review of these summaries leaves the student absolute freedom to manipulate them as s/he feels f i t . At this juncture, new areas of knowledge will allow the establishment of significant categories. Such freedom is necessary i f the Concept Gathering System is to deliver a personalized method of learning. At the same time, this freedom captures the assets every individual brings to his/her learning ensuring the f u l l e s t benefit, or potential, is realized. 7. The ideas must be seen to re s ide under an umbrel la, or superstructure, that wil l indicate their correctness of f i t or harmony. - 165 -The Concept Gathering System starts with the reading of books that generate ideas. These ideas contribute to summaries and categories that comprise an understanding of the world as perceived by the individual student. Guiding this process is the inherent structure of the Concept Gathering System, the book's author, and the individual's world perception. It is the last that takes the form of an umbrella or superstructure that directs action. I n i t i a l l y , this will be weak in resolve but will grow stronger as the student becomes better informed. Observable here is the development that will affect the degree of importance placed upon themes. Themes, or harmonies as expressions of very large ideas, can be expected to change as knowledge and maturity develop. This may take many years during which the system is expanded, but at a l l times some sort of guiding theme is evident. A review of the detail that created the theme is always possible and will confirm the need to leave, restructure, or amend i t . The contribution of new ideas ensures that the system will be constantly expanding, embracing and tying together more of the world's phenomena. The result will be a constantly expanding, holis t i c view of the world. This concludes our l i s t of what the Concept Gathering System provides for the student. It only remains for us to consider what sort of student can work with the system. - 166 -CHAPTER VII WHO CAN WORK WITH THE CONCEPT GATHERING SYSTEM? If Dr. Brauner's system of learning through ideas is able to deliver our workable holism, its implementation as a method of study in the school system must be addressed. In it s present form, the system possesses characteristics that make certain demands upon those who use i t . Therefore, i t seems advisable that i t should be adopted only by those who can meet it s demands. Once this special group has successfully used the system, i t s application to a more general body can be entertained. Our f i r s t task is to make clear the nature of these demands. Following that we will look at the sort of student who can meet them, and the qualities possessed by that student. The demands are: 1. The student must be able to read well and enjoy the process of reading. This is necessary because the system relies so heavily upon written material as its source of input. Writing ability is not so c r i t i c a l to the process even though a f a c i l i t y with words will be reflected in the final outcome. This is a s k i l l the system can enhance, whereas poor reading a b i l i t y w i l l frustrate the student without a major adaptation of the bibliography. It is possible to benefit from the system i f writing s k i l l s are poor, but not i f this is the case with reading. 2. The student must be capable of seeing ideas and relationships, for this is the focus of the system. In order to do this, the student must have the capacity to abstract. S/he will need to call upon higher level thinking s k i l l s in order to recognize the larger ideas residing in often complex arrangements of details. - 167 -3. There must be present a desire to know, or a curiosity that will translate into a task commitment. Not a l l books will be capable of holding the student's interest constantly, so when ideas do not emerge readily a great deal of perseverance is required to remain within the task. The system is also a long-term one, requiring tenacity and commitment. Its most significant rewards appear only after a long period of enquiry. It also seems realis t i c to expect the student with such task commitment to be responsible enough to maintain the system's inherent organization and record keeping. This demands the constant application of will power so that opportunities to make and connect ideas are not missed. 4. There is also a need for the student to be able to experiment with ideas. S/he must have the courage and ingenuity to follow new paths of thought, and be independent of mind. This independence should incorporate an emotional and aesthetic sensitivity that is unrestricted by any feelings of uniqueness. There should be a certain preparedness to take risks. These highly selective demands preclude many of the students in our classrooms. More accurately they refer to the minority of students usually referred to as the gifted. Before examining the suitability of gifted people for our learning system, i t is necessary to gain a f u l l e r explanation of just what constitutes giftedness. Identifying giftedness. Although there is no unanimity as to what makes giftedness, there is general agreement that people are gifted in certain areas (Marland, 1972; E. Hagen, 1980). This appreciation for the various dimensions of giftedness removes the undue emphasis that was placed on intellectual superiority as measured by standardized intelligence tests, after the work by Terman and - 168 -Oden (1959). For the purposes of this paper, i t is appropriate to assume Clark's (1979) interpretation of giftedness. This distinguished "these individuals from those of more average mental accomplishments by the formers' a b i l i t y to think in abstracts ( s i c ) , to generalize, to solve complex problems, and to see unusual and diverse relationships" (page 5). This view, that giftedness is more than a single characteristic of an individual (Hagen, 1980), supports the idea that i t can also be expressed in many ways. It appears to be generally accepted today that the term 'potentially gifted' is a more r e a l i s t i c way of perceiving a child who might show giftedness as an adult (see Clark, 1979; Maker, 1982; Renzulli, 1977). This is particularly so in the preschool years, even though this stage is marked "by discontinuity and i n s t a b i l i t y . " Children who give evidence of outstanding achievement in a positive way have shown that "the potential for giftedness can be nurtured ..." (Karnes and Shwedel, page 475, 1983). This means id e n t i f y i n g the area of potential giftedness and developing complementary interests. Identification should consider not only classroom achievements, but also peer relationships, products developed, parent or guardian views, and community involvement (Hagen, 1980). Potential giftedness is best established when various indicators are brought together. Even the role of those assessing children is being shifted from an emphasis of 'identifier of giftedness' to that of 'spotter' of potential (Weber and Battaglia, 1985, page 38). This makes sense when i t is realized that the term 'gifted' is more accurately applied to mature persons who have gained recognition, or become eminent, through their contributions to society (Renzulli, 1985). At the same time, using the word 'potential' - 169 -unburdens the child. Another service to the child is to recognize that giftedness, or potential giftedness, is not a generalized achievement. Hagen (1980) stresses that, among other things, i t should be remembered when identifying the potentially gifted that their talents are not absolute. More often, the individual is identified as gifted "or potentially gifted because he or she possesses more of a certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or characteristics than do others" (p. 5). This view of the specific nature of giftedness has implications for the programming put in place. It serves no useful purpose to assess an individual as potentially gifted in a particular way i f there is no program in place that will suit his or her needs. This demands that particular programs must be created, and these become the c r i t e r i a for searching for the gifted; a somewhat narrow approach. There are others in the f i e l d , however, who place less importance on the areas of giftedness and more on the individual's character t r a i t s . Joseph Renzulli contends that giftedness does indeed consist of interacting characteristics, but not so complex that they cannot be defined. Above-average a b i l i t y , task commitment, and creativity contribute to a three-ring conception of giftedness. Each cluster is an important part of the model which relies on a l l three interlocking so as to be equally supportive. The shade portion in Figure 6 indicates the interaction expected to occur. The Renzulli model's specific inclusion of three characteristics that may vary in their proportion, but must a l l be present to make potential giftedness possible, opens the door to other than those with above-average a b i l i t y . The model is geared to include as gifted those students who can actively use information, rather than just store i t (Renzulli, 1985, p. 5). 170 -i Fig. 6. What makes giftedness? V » T»SK eommHnt6nt V . This embraces the creative/productive student whose development of original ideas and matter allows the solving of problems, and i t permits the inclusion of high achieving students who draw to a larger extent upon task commitment. Added to these important characteristics is the catalyst of interest, which can contribute to a high level of productivity that cannot always be found to accompany above-average ability alone (Renzulli, 1985, page 15). Renzulli's conception of the potentially gifted is more generous and optimistic compared to others, and perhaps for this reason has received a great deal of attention from them (see Clar, 1979; Maker, 1982; Moller, .1986; Weber and Battaglia, 1985). The philosophy embedded in his view has been implanted into an educational model that Renzulli calls the Enrichment Triad Model. This model' appears to offer some advantages to our Concept Gathering System, so more will be said about i t further into this chapter. For now, while the attributes that contribute to potential giftedness can vary, the demands of our system do not, and we would be wise i f , for the - 171 -moment, we consider only the academically potentially gifted as suitable students. The reason for this, i f not already obvious, will be exposed as we look into how well our chosen student matches the system's demands. The system's demands, and how well they are met by the gifted. 1. The student needs to be a good reader, and enjoy the process sufficiently to complete the bibliography. Our learning system demands the student be a good reader, and the cri t e r i a for the academically gifted appear to meet this requirement. It seems superfluous to explain why the student needs to read well; the bibliography and the examples provided earlier tend to make this need obvious. The particular s k i l l of reading has been pinpointed as one that typifies the gifted (Clark, 1979, p. 48; Hildreth, 1966, p. 82). Good reading a b i l i t y often accompanies early stimulation, encouragement and education, a l l of which are seen as possible contributors to giftedness. In fact Dr. Calloway's work with young children and their special sensitivity to early experiences prompted Clark (1979) to ask, "Could i t be true that children are gifted because they read early?" (p. 50). The gifted from low-income families show a weakness in "knowledge and vocabulary - factors that result from their lack of exposure to reading materials and information." For while they do read, "They may not be as interested in reading as other gifted children who have been exposed to interesting materials and have been read to a l l their lives" (Maker, 1982, p. 184). Although this supports the interactive notion of giftedness, and demonstrates that a higher than normal reading ability accompanies being gifted, i t cannot be said that a l l good readers can be considered academically gifted. - 172 -2. The student must be able to see ideas and relationships. Although our bibliography is most practical for a student at the f i r s t year university level or above, others may be employed that are more suited to the child's a b i l i t i e s . However, the bibliography used must be capable of supplying ideas of suitable depth for the student to experience sufficient growth. The ideas available for this purpose must be neither too simple, nor too complex. When the reading material is of the correct le v e l , i t is r e a l i s t i c to apply the same expectation for concept development to a l l . Since an alternative to our bibliography is not yet available, we must, for the moment, seek students capable of observing ideas and relationships of the type described so far. This means s/he must be able to discern the idea held in a passage such as that from Wm. James that follows. It starts at 240.1 and covers the whole page, but for brevity, just the highlights need be given. Where to seek the easy and the pleasant seems instinctive - and instinctive i t appears to be in man; any deliberate tendency to pursue the hard and painful as such and for their own sakes might well strike one as purely abnormal. Nevertheless, in moderate degrees i t is natural and even usual to human nature to court the arduous. It is only the extreme manifestations of the tendency that can be regarded as a paradox ... Some men and women, indeed, there are who can live on smiles and the word 'yes' forever. But for others (indeed for most), this is too tepid and relaxed a moral climate. Passive happiness is slack and insipid, and soon grows mawkish and intolerable. Some austerity and wintry negativity, some roughness, danger, stringency, and effort, some "no! no!" must be mixed i n , to produce the sense of an existence with character and texture and power. The range of individual differences in this respect is enormous; but whatever the mixtures of yeses and noes may be, the person is i n f a l l i b l y aware when he has struck i t in the right proportion for him ... Every individual soul, in short, l i k e every individual machine or organism, has i t s own best - 173 -conditions of efficiency. A given machine will run best under a certain steam-pressure, a certain amperage: an organism under a certain diet, weight, or exercise. As the passage opens, James introduces the idea "It is natural for man to openly seek hardships." But he elaborates on this to show that these hardships, and their degree, will vary, for each person attempts to maintain the balance that is just right for him/herself. The student is required to gather from reading this the idea that: "Every l i f e requires the right balance of joy and sorrow, ease and hardship, for complete fulfillment." So put, this can immediately form the summary. Not only ideas, but relationships must be observed, particularly when category formation takes place. The previously formed summary is a good example of an occasion to apply more than one relationship. This provides the advantage that i t can be placed in more than one category. Our student must realize that this summary could be placed with any of the following. #XI11 Equilibrium - social relationships #XIX Human behaviour - individual #XXV Man's needs and drives #XXIX Opposites, the need for - social #XLI Self-interest - individual #XLIII Suffering and diversity - man Summaries in al l these categories contain an element that gives them some sort of connection or relationship to the Wm. James summary. It can be seen from this that an ability in our student to see ideas and relationships is essential. The student. - 174 -The ability to perceive ideas and relationships suggests the student will have some f a c i l i t y with language. There is evidence to suggest that gifted children possess this f a c i l i t y . "Gifted children are usually accelerated in language development ..." (Karnes and Shwedel, 1983, p. 475), and generally exhibit the ability "to work comfortably with abstract ideas, and to synthesize diverse relationships ..." (Clark, 1979, p. 22). Clark goes on to show that the forming of ideas is characteristic of the gifted. They differentiate from normal children by a "heightened capacity for seeing unusual and diverse relationships" (Clark, 1979, p. 24). They also have an " a b i l i t y to generate o r i g i n a l ideas and solutions," and see early " d i f f e r e n t i a l patterns for thought processing (e.g. t h i n k i n g i n alternatives, abstract terms, sensing consequences, making generalizations" (Clark, 1979, p. 25). This ability of the gifted to form ideas was the reason for Roberts and Haensly (1984) formulating their h o l i s t i c synthesis approach to social studies. In this the objective is for the student to use right brain divergent thinking to form into a gestalt the knowledge provided by the l e f t brain's convergent process. The individual is expected to use the senses and emotional involvement, intuitive leaps and analogies to bring about a holistic 'big picture1. In order to carry out such an exercise the student has to be able to work well with ideas and relationships. While the foregoing indicates the gifted possess the abstracting capabilities our system demands, i t would be unrealistic to expect them to develop ideas and relationships without some sort of help. This can be supplied by direct instruction, or through a period of experiences where s k i l l development will have an opportunity to occur. An advantage of - 175 -working with the gifted is that they will learn very quickly how and when to use their talents. 3. Task commitment. Before looking at the qualities of the gifted in respect to task commitment, the demands being made by the system should be examined. Various degrees of tenacity will be required by the following areas, i . The reading and marking of ideas, i i . Forming summaries, i i i . Forming categories, i v . Recording the summaries, v. Reviewing the summaries, v i . Finding themes. v i i . Extending the system and retrieving ideas. Reading and marking ideas. While the nature of the Concept Gathering System is one demanding a great deal of task commitment, this varies in intensity through the system. One of the greatest demands, but one in which the student takes the most passive role, is the reading of the bibliography and the marking of ideas. As the chart on page 14|5 showed, by far the largest period of time is spent on this activity. In order to complete the required reading, a prodigious amount of task commitment must be applied. Just how much is influenced by the degree of interest placed in the occupation i t s e l f . Task commitment is most necessary when the student perceives the system as an assignment of a specific length. Viewed this way, the job is formidable, but a more realistic approach is to focus on the process by which knowledge is to be gained by the development of ideas. This is more - 176 -likely to produce an engagement on the student's part that will bring about more immediate gratification. At the same time, i t will lessen the amount of task commitment needed, although i t will not eliminate the need completely. Forming summaries. Once the books have been read and the ideas selected, they have to be reread so that summaries can be formed. It is this that the student might find arduous i f the interest level is not high. Even though the passages have appeal for the ideas they contain, i t must be remembered that these are being asked to work in isolation, extracted as they are from the book's context. Once again, the activity is made more appealing i f the student's interest is engaged in the ideas yielded by the passages. Forming categories. At this point, we again meet with a high need for task commitment. The ideas have been culled from the passages, made into summaries and assembled in a large and confused pile on a table ready for sorting. Their number is imposing, and a method of classifying them is slow to suggest i t s e l f . The student is made to realize that the process is entirely dependent upon his/her own decision making, as categories form only to collapse and reform in a new way. There is at this stage a real need for task commitment which nevertheless is lessened by the forming of the categories and the insight these provide. Also ameliorating the demand is the active nature of the task, and the realization that a great achievement is taking place. Even so, i t must not be forgotten that category formation is mentally a taxing process requiring great commitment. Recording the summaries. - 177 -What occurs here is one of the most f u l f i l l i n g jobs within the system and requires the summaries to be placed, in a legible manner, on the summary record sheets. This is really the publication of the system. Here the summaries acquire their home, without which a permanent record of what constitutes a category will not be evident. The somewhat mechanical process is made more bearable by the contribution each summary makes to the conceived system. Reviewing the summaries. This is also something of a book-keeping job, but at the same time, an opportunity to enjoy the system's structural beauty. Although nearly every summary is capable of being fitted into more than one category, a check must be made that its final resting place is one that is most suitable. It is also an opportunity to make note of summaries that j u s t i f y cross-referencing. This procedure demands an attitude of conscientious attachment made a l l the more d i f f i c u l t by the confidence placed in the categories as originally classified. It takes a high degree of task commitment to incur the extra work involved in challenging e a r l i e r made decisions. The motivation for such an undertaking is the desire to make as perfect as possible the relationships formed by the summaries. Finding themes. The task commitment demanded here is far less than that experienced during previous stages, and yet i t does exist. The student has to be prepared to give studied attention to what has been established so f a r , and decide on what large ideas are made evident. The job is made easier i f the system is able to reflect past commitment and interest. - 178 -Extending the system and retrieval. The least amount of task commitment is required at this stage. This is because i t is expected that the student has realized the degree of commitment needed to produce the sort of product capable of being effective. The only reservation is i f the student considers his/her job to have ceased with the construction of the system after completing the o r i g i n a l bibliography. Obviously this is not the case, but any misapprehension on the student's part here will mean that a great deal of task commitment will have to be applied i f the enthusiasm for continuing has dropped. The task commitment needed during retrieval should be minimal being that the system w i l l be suggesting the themes and theses. The only consideration is i f the student is having to work with a system that was poorly constructed, for whatever reason. In such a case, the d i f f i c u l t y of working with poorly f i t t i n g summaries and developed ideas would raise the amount of commitment required. The student. As we have seen Renzulli's definition of giftedness brings into i t s three ring formula the need to display task commitment. He points out "the argument for including this non-intellective cluster of t r a i t s in a definition of giftedness is nothing short of overwhelming" (1978, p. 60). Its relationship to giftedness has been demonstrated by Anne Roe, and L.M. Terman, among others. Roe (1952) studied 64 scientists: their family, social and scholastic backgrounds, in order to find a common characteristic that might link them. Although their backgrounds varied a great deal, i t was found that a l l of them shared an independent drive, or commitment to their particular interest. - 179 -L.M. Terman, whose early work attached a great deal of importance to academic ability and intelligence in the gifted, later recognized that inner direction contributed heavily as well. This could take the form of a desire to know, or drive to achieve. The former constituted the second factor in gifted subjects as rated by teachers. The most influential factor was held to be general intelligence at 97% above the mean of the control group, while the desire to know was rated at 90%. Also rated highly, but not included as an intellectual t r a i t , was: will power, perseverance, and the desire to excel, a l l of which contribute to task commitment (1959, p. 14). As opposed to Renzulli's simplified notion of what makes giftedness, Hagen sees the components as being a "complex set of i n t e r a c t i n g characteristics." Even so, she submits that one of these components is "motivation or commitment to achieve" (1980, p. 10). They further agree that the term "motivation" does lack the ability to convey the long term commitment found in the achiever (whom we are including in our notion of the gift e d ) , which is often displayed in extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . This recognition of task commitment as a component of giftedness is encouraging in view of the system's call for this attribute and its corollary, the need to know. 4. The student must be independent and creative. This requirement can be addressed quite readily in two parts. i . The personal interaction between the student and the books, and between the ideas and the student's perception of the relationships they hold, demands an ability to work independently. i i . In order to see ideas and establish relationships between sometimes disparate bodies of knowledge, the student must be to some extent - 180 -creative. The need for independence. The Concept Gathering System is a personally tailored method of learning capable of presenting the world in a unified manner. Its primary usefulness being to the individual who constructs i t makes i t obvious that the interaction involved must be between the student and the system alone. This necessitates the need for independence on the student's part. Both the reading for ideas, and the l a t e r establishment of relationships call for independent interpretations, for only these will make sense as they are asked to interact with one another. The system's creator will know best why categories have formed the way they have, for they will tend to be an expression of his/her burgeoning philosophy. Being supplied with the opportunity to work independently brings the added demand of maturity in both work habits and judgement. The adoption of good work habits is imperative i f the system's structure and organization is to be maintained. This was made clear in chapter VI, section 5. At the same time, the need for mature judgement is necessary particularly when working with the present bibliography, which contains quite adult ideas. The need for maturity is reinforced by the fact that the bibliography conveys the i n i t i a l ideas which, in turn, have to be enlarged through student insight. With so much depending upon student independence of thought and behaviour, the need to work independently cannot be taken 1ightly. The need for creativity. In chapter VI, section 3, creativity was shown to be one aspect of a student's potential the system could develop. The use of creativity starts - 181 -with idea selection and increases its usefulness through summary formation, category formation, and finding themes. The student is being creative to some extent when s/he f i r s t perceives an idea in the passage being read. As much as the idea has been suggested by the writer, i t is also allowed to align i t s e l f with the student's sense of what is important. In forming the summary and finding i t a place in a category, further signs of creativity are shown. This is evident by the summary's wording, which displays more clearly the idea found, and the category's heading, which extends the idea to greater application. This is exemplified in a passage selected from Bertrand Russell. The idea selected, which was to do with friendship, was chosen, in part, by Russell's comment that a large part of Aristotle's Ethics was concerned with friendship. Although, as Russell pointed out, the comments given did not rise much beyond common sense, they displayed enough depth to warrant being used to support an idea. The passage starts on page 191.4. One should not be friends with a person of higher station than one's own, unless he is also of higher virtue, which will justify the respect shown to him. We have seen that, in unequal relations, such as those of man and wife or father and son, the superior should be the more loved. ... The good man should love himself, but nobly (1169a). Friends are a comfort in misfortune, but one should not make them unhappy by seeking their sympathy, as is done by women and womanish men (1171b0. It is not only in misfortune that friends are desirable, for the happy man needs friends with whom to share his happiness. Something of these ideas entered the summary: 9-191.4 Russell: Friendship: i t is impossible to be friends with many - 182 -people. In relationships the superior should be loved the more. (Aristotle) The creativity used became more visible when the summary was placed in a category. By joining #XLV, "Values - human," the underlying concept was ut i l i z e d . It exposed friendship as a necessary part of man's world. Viewed from this perspective, friendship could be coupled with any number of categories to qualify, or be a condition of, a theme. The creativity displayed when developing a theme can be more than at any other time. This is because the concept has become so broad in scope that i t applies to a great many cases. Just one example of creativity applied to the construction of a theme can be seen in the following: The world is enriched by any friendship, whether i t occurs between man and man, nature and nature, or man and nature. The categories lending themselves to the theme are: #11 Behaviour, codes of XVI Freedom XIII Equilibrium - social relationships XIX Human behaviour XXXIII Parts influence the whole XII Self-interest XLV Values - human In view of the need to make relationships such as these creativity must be considered to be a necessary component of our student. The student. A review of the literature on the gifted indicates that this group - 183 -possesses independence and creativity to the degree demanded by the system. There is l i t t l e explicit reference made in the literature to the independence of many gifted, and yet this characteristic is often implicit in the expectations held for them. Leadership is one of those non-academic s k i l l s the gifted are shown to display (DiVesta & Thompson, 1970, p. 587; Karnes & Shwedel, 1983, p. 475). Here, independence of mind is an essential quality. Vignettes of the gifted also describe gifted children as independent, confident and poised "whose character and personality are well defined." A child was seen as "... an individualist with a strong sense of who she is and what she wants to do" (Karnes & Shwedel, 1983, p. 475). On another occasion, the child was described as: "petulant, overbearing, indifferent, with a clear sense of himself" (p. 476). At the same time i t has to be pointed out that they have also been seen as: moody, unsure of himself. A loner (p. 476). In spite of this rather mixed presentation of the gifted, the overall impression gained is that the ability to work independently seems to apply to most. The differences between gifted and nongifted children manifest themselves not only in larger vocabularies and better comprehension but also, perhaps more importantly, in the range and quality of responses to open-ended questions and in th e i r a b i l i t y to solve problems independently (p. 477). For the most part, independence seems to accompany other attributes, like creativity and task commitment. In terms of task orientation, the work of MacKinnon (1964) included as - 184 -traits important to creative/productive accomplishments, the following. It is clear that creative architects more often stress their inventiveness, independence and individuality, their enthusiasm, determination, and industry (p. 365). Often a gifted child's independent nature can cause problems in the classroom where they may prefer to depend upon their own decisions rather than those of others. This may lead to d i f f i c u l t i e s with s o c i a l interaction, and, i f the problem is not handled with understanding, loss of interest in school work (Di Vesta & Thompson, 1970, p. 588). Maker (1982) makes i t clear that questions to the gifted must not encourage closure at any point. They should be open and expansive in the way of the following examples: - Closed: Do you think a school band will benefit the school? + Open: In what ways will a school band benefit the school? - Closed: Did the fire cause much damage? + Open: What effect did the f i r e have on the community? It is possible to see here how open-endedness provides scope for the independent thought required by the gifted. Such open-endedness, of course, is inherent to the Concept Gathering System. In considering a match between the gifted and our learning system, i t should be mentioned that creativity is closely linked to independence. In fa c t , they even require each other. Clark (1979) pointed out that the gifted use intuition, and this is influential in learning. Fritjof Capra sees intuition being a complement to rational thinking in that i t supplies the creative element (1975). But he stresses that intuition tends to come suddenly, during periods of relaxation after "concentrated intellectual - 185 -activi t y " (p. 32). This means the student must be permitted to work independently. Clark (1979) advocates that students work in independent programs where the parent and child are able to make the decision. It is necessary to create a climate "conducive to risk taking, exploration, and growth" (p. 150). Although the ability to work independently cannot be applied to every gifted c h i l d , i t seems the opportunity to find such students is best found in this group. Creativity. It is accepted today that creativity is a component of being gifted (see Clark, 1979; Hagen, 1980; Maker, 1982; D. Treffinger, 1986; Renzulli, 1985; Weber & Battaglia, 1985). Its inclusion on evaluation procedures of the gifted is advised despite the difficulty of measuring this component. The problem with measuring creativity is that i t applies to specific areas like music, drawing, writing, etc. (Hagen, 1980, p. 10). At times, i t is d i f f i c u l t to find a vehicle for measuring creativity, and i t has to be done subjectively. Maker (1982, p. 27), in referring to the gifted, warns us that "Their creativity characteristics of curiosity and willingness to take risks suggest that they enjoy involvement in very different content areas." Joseph Renzulli, who i t will be remembered includes creativity as a necessary component in his three ring triad, confirms Maker's finding, but shows that there are elements of play involved. Included in the tr a i t s he attributes to creativity are: Fluency, f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y of thought. Openness to experience: receptive to that which is new and different (even irrational) in the thoughts, actions and products of oneself and others. Curious, speculative, adventurous and 'mentally playful'; willing to take risks in thought and action, even to the point - 186 -of being uninhibited. Sensitive to detail, aesthetic characteristics of ideas and things; willing to act upon and react to external stimulation and one's own ideas and feelings (1985, p. 12). The very personal nature of these attributes is picked up by Nancy M. Roberts and Patricia A. Haensly (1984) in their paper advocating a program for the gifted. In " H o l i s t i c Synthesis in the Social Studies: A New Approach to Enrichment," Roberts and Haensly are attempting to satisfy the last of Bloom's taxonomy, that of synthesis. To their mind, this aspect of the taxonomy is often neglected in programs for the gifted. The reason for this happening probably resides in the fact that synthesis is a right-brain a c t i v i t y , whereas knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation are left hemisphere activities. Important from our point of view is the fact that synthesis involves the use of intuition, leaps of insight, analogies, questioning and creativity. It is on the basis that the gifted can apply such divergent s k i l l s that the approach was formulated. One of the seven steps involved concentrates on the creative aspect in a manner conducive to working with our own system. Intuition or insight. The purpose of emphasising intuition and insight is to ensure that students are aware of and making use of the creative process, especially the aspect of planning for incubation of ideas (p. 102). Here then is a method of study for the gifted that concentrates i t s attention on their capacity to be creative. Even though the assessing of creativity is d i f f i c u l t , in that i t does not appear to correlate with measured intelligence or divergent thinking - 187 (Renzull, 1978), i t does lend itself to subjective observation (Renzulli, 1985; Weber & Battaglia, 1985). By being able to assess, even subjectively, this aspect of giftedness, i t means we have in this specialized group individuals capable of meeting this need of our system. In fact they appear to satisfy a l l four of our demands. It is therefore not surprising that we can draw on literature that supports the idea of the gifted working on a system, such as ours, that concentrates upon the development of concepts. Support for the gifted working with concepts. In a paper addressing the need for excellence, Maker (1984) urged that when planning for the gifted educators pay less attention to content which tends to maintain traditional boundaries. Instead, "The focus should be on underlying principles and ideas that are manifested in several traditional areas. Gifted students are the ones who can best understand these underlying principles and see innovative applicants in new areas" (p. 8). She tends to echo our own contention that programs for the gifted will eventually spread so that the ideas used will reach a l l children, and closes her article by restating her argument. Asking that the findings of two reports be acted upon so as to bring higher level thinking s k i l l s into the classroom, she cleverly reaffirms her position. "However, we do know that we can use our combined wisdom to interpret past trends and project possible future needs. Such an interpretation will be more likely to provide appropriate solutions than will an interpretation based only on an analysis of the past" (p. 8). While this supports the notion of seeking ideas and relationships in our own learning system, i t is also possible to find support for the individual's development of self-knowledge. - 188 -A paper by Moller (1986) stressed the importance of developing the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s , research s k i l l s , quality of product, and independence. The method used for this purpose was the solving of problems in academic areas, the outcome of which was expected to indicate to the student his/her developing interests. These would become obvious through extensive record keeping of the material read. The following excerpt demonstrates how closely her outline resembles our own learning system. Students should develop annotated bibliographies within their areas of interest so that each new project can build on previous information. A f i l e of index cards that contains complete bibliographic information and summaries of the sources that the student has read serves several purposes. F i r s t , this enables the teacher to determine both the quantity and the quality of material that students read in preparing their projects. Second, students have a ready reference guide so that they can find the source of specific information by checking their summaries. Third, the teacher may review this f i l e to determine how comprehensively a student has become acquainted with a particular f i e l d . This information may then be used in instructional planning to recommend sources and authors that the student has not read which are considered classics in the fi e l d (p. 13). The whole process is started in the primary years and continued through until secondary school. The intent of the program is similar to the Concept Gathering System in that i t expects gifted education to be perceived not as "a loosely guided series of activities or projects but as [sic] continuous progress toward meaningful goals" (p. 14). Perhaps i t should be asked whether or not i t is realistic to begin the program as early as the primary years considering the amount of organization necessary, but the potential to structure individual learning here is impressive. Another who i s concerned with individual c h i l d development i s - 189 -Treffinger (1975) whose self-directing method eventually enables the child to learn without constant adult supervision. Through a gradual process of training, the student is encouraged to make increasingly more choices and decisions, until s/he is eventually operating independently, although teacher advice is always available. This graduating process serves to remind us that even gifted children, while ideally suited to being independent learners, require i n i t i a l direction and guidance like other students. Summary It has been established that the demands made by the Concept Gathering System have been answered by the academically gifted and the traits they are said to exhibit. It was also found that support exists for concept learning systems that help the gifted become more independent, and aware of their own s e l f - i n t e r e s t s and self-growth. Having established t h i s f i t and compatibility between the two, i t now remains to decide how the Concept Gathering System can best be implemented in the school. The Educational Model. It has to be remembered that our learning system is a process as well as a product - a means as well as an end. It can develop s k i l l s , and be a vehicle for learning, and for this reason i t f i t s well into the second stage of Renzulli's Enrichment Triad Model (1977). As a final product, i t will f i t well into the third stage of this same model. The suitability of Renzulli's model will become obvious as i t is explained in more d e t a i l . Renzulli suggests that i n i t i a l l y the top 15 to 20% of the students be selected for the gifted program on the basis of academic achievement. They may attend the f i r s t stage of the gifted program which is intended to - 190 -collect into a talent pool not only those with the highest IQs, "but is also open to others who show equal potential for creative production" (1985, p. 12). His system, The Revolving Door Identification Model (RDIM), attempts to include as g i f t e d those who would otherwise be excluded when representations are the usual two or three percent that normally get selected. Even so, i t has been found that this larger proportion can usually handle the activities given to gifted students (Renzulli, 1985, p. 12). During this f i r s t stage, or experience, the children are exposed to interests that represent as closely as possible the form they would take professionally. In science, for example, inventions and discoveries would be described so as to outline the accidents, lucky breaks, and chance occurrences that contribute to scientific advance. History would focus on historiography and the "excitement and joy of discovery that an historian experiences ..." (Renzulli, 1977, p. 19). At a l l times, the stress is upon information that t e l l s children about different areas of study rather than the facts that have accumulated over time. The child is expected to appreciate a meaningful content with a l l the action and dynamism the reality implies. From this, the child is expected to find genuine interests that shape future projects, rather than have these imposed by the teacher. Those who express an interest in pursuing a topic (the practicality of which is observed in many different ways) (Renzulli, 1977, p. 18-24; 1985, p. 12-14) are permitted to advance to the second stage of the tria d . Here, as a group, they are trained in methods that will allow them to garner more information about their particular interests. If the f i r s t stage can be considered the content area, the second is the process, where the 'how to' is given. Often this relates to the interest expressed so as to give the 191 -learning more meaning, and also to cultivate that interest further. If the student has an interest in music, for example, classification work will focus on musical forms. Whereas i f the interest was in rocks, the individual would learn 'classification' as i t related to the physical sciences. Over and above the learning function of this stage i t also serves as a takeoff point for individual interests. The teacher will be watching for the opportunity to make a learning task into an engrossing project. The student who demonstrates the inclination to start a project that is not just a random involvement, will be encouraged to experience the third stage of the triad. It is here that the interest is made re a l , and the child is brought to as near the professional reality as possible. It is Renzulli's intent that this stage take on the mood, or atmosphere, of a laboratory: not in the enclosed sense, but where the student can assume the role of ' f i r s t hand enquirer'. This might take the person to any location where meaningful investigation, or reporting, can take place. The opportunity is given for the student to engage in an intensive study that uses information as raw data to be interpreted by him/her as s/he feels f i t . The whole idea is that they become producers, or users, as opposed to consumers, of knowledge. The final product should be prepared with a specific audience in mind. It is this audience that provides the motivation for the student's efforts, and gives the project purpose. It i s the second and third stages of this triad into which the mechanics of our system would f i t . The manner of selecting the students does not concern us for the moment. The second stage can be associated with the assembly portion of our system, while the third stage will see the development of themes and retrieval projects. Such a relationship with - 192 -Renzulli's triad is possible because our learning system is also a process, where ideas are aligned so as to impart knowledge; and a product, containing a body of verifiable content. The choice can be made to employ the Concept Gathering System individually, as described, or work with groups. To begin with, everybody would read independently and select their own ideas. The teacher then has the option of arranging groups where discussions will show how and why p a r t i c u l a r ideas were selected. This provides everybody with the opportunity of exploring avenues more divergent and embracing than those developed alone. The occasions of meeting as a group will vary with every class, and should be established by a teacher with great sensitivity to the dynamics of each group, and the room as a whole. Summary formation. Although a teacher will instruct how this task is best carried out, small groups can assist individuals to gain expertise.* Proficiency at this task will enable students to eventually work alone to develop their own ideas. Category formation. It is unrealistic to expect groups to contribute to this process advantageously. Individuals will work alone on their summaries to produce concepts that will have lasting meaning. Once assembled, the summaries will be recorded on the summary record sheets under the appropriate category heading. *For information on working co-operative groups, see David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, Edythe Johnson Holubec, and Patricia Roy, Circles of  Learning, Minneapolis, 1984. - 193 -While the system operates very much as expected i f done independently, the student has the added benefit of a teacher. The teacher's role is that of instructor/guide. S/he instructs how to convert ideas into summaries, and summaries into categories. At the same time, s/he leads students to observe the trends that have developed in the process. Students are encouraged to realize where his/her thoughts are being directed by the categories that have emerged. When this can be articulated and coupled with an interest or concern, the student is ready to enter Renzulli's stage III, or project stage. In terms of the Concept Gathering System, i t is the retrieval stage. Those who enter this stage will have the advantage of possessing some sense of direction. They will be able to take a position on a topic of interest. By so doing, they are adding another dimension to Renzulli's t r i a d , not only an interest to develop but a path of attack as well. The topic of deep, or extremely motivating interest now has a structure upon which to hang. It can be expected that a feeling for the world gathered from the Concept Gathering System will influence the nature of the enquiry by the hypothesis held. An example w i l l indicate what is meant here, and i l l u s t r a t e how Renzulli's call for a project to be undertaken can be satisfied. Categories formed. #IV Change by force - economic XI Democracy and control, steps to XIII Equilibrium, economic relationships XXVII Materialism, drive of - 195 -will further knowledge. This rationale perfectly reflects the aims of the Concept Gathering System. The expectations of both appear to be realized when allowed to work together. Now that we have the system operating in the school, i t should be asked what assistance the new technologies can offer. Computer and the Concept Gathering System. Computer technology i s advancing r a p i d l y and so i s computer accessibility. While schools are creating computer laboratories, individual families are making the computer a part of their media center. It therefore seems rea l i s t i c to investigate how suitable the Concept Gathering System is for processing by computer. Due to the ease with which information can be f i l e d , retrieved, disseminated, and collated, the computer appears to have a great deal to offer at every stage. Bibliography. This l i s t can be accessed in f u l l , and will show the identification number assigned to each book. Idea selection. Here the computer offers no advantages. All the books have to be read and marked as before, with f u l l use made of the idea selection s l i p s . The need here is for direct interaction with the book. Summary formation Although this too is an intellectual task, the computer can offer some advantages. Once the wording of the summary has been established, i t can be entered into the computer using the code of book, page, and section numbers. A printout of these will guarantee the survival of the summary despite any loss of the recording medium. These tangible copies assist in the next stage. - 196 -Category formation. The summary printouts can be amassed into a p i l e , as before, so that categories can be formed. Once this has been achieved, each summary can be entered into the computer under the appropriate category heading and number, by its identification numbers alone. The computer will already have the content on f i l e , so this can be recalled at any time by merely providing the appropriate call numbers. It will also be easy to obtain a copy of a l l the categories formed at any one time. Method of entry. As earlier stated, once the summaries' contents have been entered into the computer along with their identification numbers, only these numbers need be used to gain access to that content again. The entry process, therefore, occurs in mainly two stages. The f i r s t stage sees the summary content entered together with the numbers that correlate to i t . The second stage has those summaries arranged into categories. The order of operations will look as follows: Open category f i l e and select the particular one required. Then enter the particular summaries being used, by number only. Category number Category Category sub-heading Summary t i t l e and number numbers 13- 274.3 15-54.3 1 Art Art and Religion, 15-143.2 I-i 15-149.2 15-159.1 1 Art I - i i 5-317.3 Art interpretation 8-247.2 11-75.3 14- 264.2 etc. - 197 -With this information in the computer, the student can withdraw a wide assortment of data. The following l i s t gives an impression of what can be el i c i t e d . Retrievable from the computer: Bibliography Category l i s t showing number or name, or both. Category l i s t , as above but including sub-headings in number and/or name. List of summaries within a category. List of summaries in a sub-heading within a category. Summary contents within a sub-heading in a category. The contents of individual summaries. As impressive as this l i s t appears, other p o s s i b i l i t i e s present themselves, such as retrieving summary cross references. To do this the reference number must be attached to the summary that gives i t importance. Either another column can be made available, or the number can be included with the summary comment. In this way extra support for a summary is immediately obvious. If careful consideration is given to the wording of a l l summaries i t opens up the possibility of correlating those of similar ideas, even though they may be housed in different categories. Unfortunately the computer is not able to deal in ideas; at least i t cannot perceive them, i t can only recognize unequivocal terms. If, therefore, i t is asked to retrieve a l l summaries using the terms 'primary' or 'f i r s t cause' or 'teleological' i t can do so. In this way i t can provide summaries from every category within the system that support the idea of final cause, or the view that everything moves to the purpose for which i t has been made. This application of the - 198 -computer can be of great assistance to an idea gathering system such as ours, but in order to be so a significant amount of organization must take place. To be effective standardized terms should be adopted and used whenever the opportunity presents i t s e l f . For instance, any summary concerned with a religious issue should use the word "religion" in its description. This makes i t traceable later on. The computer cannot hope to capture a l l the subtleties contained in the various ideas and so relate them to other areas. What i t can do is present blocks that appear to show relationships and leave the decision making to the student. Our look at computers shows that they complement our learning system well. If organized correctly, they permit easy retrieval of associated ideas through specific terms. Yet i t may well be that the written copy will be used in conjunction with the computer, for while this can provide speedy access to information, i t is not able to reason. At present, only man is able to perceive the relationships that exist between ideas: only he can apply those h o l i s t i c tendencies that permit the world to be seen as interrelationships. Conclusion. Our objective has been to find a path of study that uses the creditable aspects of holism to provide the student with an arguable appreciation of that belief. Dr. C. Brauner's Concept Gathering System has shown, through examination, i t s capability to impart such beliefs. The most suitable student will be one who is considered academically potentially gifted, and with this caliber of child the system can be implemented in the classroom. It is justified as a course of study by the extent to which i t unerringly - 199 -achieves i t s aim: to bring the student to a better appreciation of a holistic world by the obvious interrelationships of its primary ideas. - 200 -REFERENCES Bunch, Catherine B. "Schooling for the Gifted: Where do we go from here?" Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 1, Winter 1984, p. 12-16. Clark, Barbara. Growing Up Gifted: developing the potential of children at  home and at school, Mer r i l l , Columbus, Ohio, 1979. Di Vesta, Francis J . & Thompson, George G. Educational psychology:  Instruction and behavioral change, Meredith Corporation, New York, 1970. Hagen, Elizabeth. Identification of the Gifted, Teachers College Press, New York, 1980. Hildreth, Gertrude H. Introduction to the Gifted, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1966. Karnes, Merle B. & Shwedel, Allan M. in Paget, Kathleen D. & Bracken, Bruce A., eds., The Psychoeducational Assessment of Preschool Children, Grune & Stratton, New York, 1983. MacKinnon, D.W. "The creativity of architects," in C.W. Taylor (ed.), Widening horizons in creativity, John Wiley, New York, 1964. Maker, June C. Teaching Models in Education of the Gifted, Aspen Systems Corp., Rockville, Md., 1982. Maker, June C. & Schiever, Shirley W. "Excellence for the Future," Gifted  Child Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 1, Winter 1984, p. 6-8. Marland, S. Education of the Gifted and Talented, Report to the Congress'of the United States by the U.S. Commission of Education, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972. Moller, Barbara W. "A Developmental Model for a Gifted Program Using Renzulli's Enrichment Triad," Gifted Creative Talented, Vol. 9, No. 2, March/April, 1986, p. 11-14. Renzulli, Joseph S. The Enrichment Triad Model: a guide for developing  defensible programs for the gifted and talented, Creative Learning Press Inc., Conn., 1977. Renzulli, Joseph S. "What Makes Giftedness? Reexamining a Definition," Phi  Delta Kappan, Vol. 60, No. 3, November 1978, p. 180-184. R e n z u l l i , Joseph S. "The three-ring conception of giftedness: A developmental model for creative productivity," South African Journal  of Education, Vol. 5, No. 1, Winter 1985, p. 1-18. - 201 -Roberts, Nancy M., and Haensly, Patricia A. "Holistic Synthesis in the Social Studies: A New Approach to Enrichment," Roeper Review, November 1984, p. 100-102. Roe, Anne. The Making of a Scientist, Dodd Mead, New York, 1952. Terman, L.M. and Oden, M. Genetic Studies of Genius: The Gifted Group at  Midlife, Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, Ca., 1959. Treffinger, Donald J . "Teaching for Self-Directed Learning: A Priority for the Gifted and Talented," Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. XIX, No. 1, 1975, p. 46-59. Treffinger, Donald J . "Research on Creativity," Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 1, Winter 1986, p. 15-19. Weber, Patricia and Battaglia, Katherine, "Reaching Beyond Identification through the 'Identi-Form1 System," Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 1, Winter 1984, p. 12-16. - 202 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Bateson, Gregory, Mind and Nature, E.P. Dutton, New York, 1979. Bergson, Henri, The Creative Mind, Philosophical Library, New York, 1946. Bohm, David, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, England, 1980. Bruner, Jerome S., Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Austen, George A., A Study of  Thinking, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1956. Clark, Barbara. Growing Up Gifted: developing the potential of children at  home and at school, Merrill, Columbus, Ohio, 1979. The Concise Oxford Dictionary, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1960. Di Vesta, Francis J . & Thompson, George G. Educational psychology:  Instruction and behavioral change, Meredith Corporation, New York, 1970. Driesch, Hans, Science & Philosophy of the Organism, A. & C. Black, London, 1929. Hagen, Elizabeth. Identification of the Gifted, Teachers College Press, New York, 1980. - 203 -Hildreth, Gertrude H. Introduction to the Gifted, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1966. Karnes, Merle B. & Shwedel, Allan M. in Paget, Kathleen D. & Bracken, Bruce A., eds., The Psychoeducational Assessment of Preschool Children, Grune & Stratton, New York, 1983. Koestler, Arthur, Janus - A Summing Up, Random House, New York, 1978. Kuhn, Thomas S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962. Laszlo, Erwin, ed., The Relevance of General Systems Theory, George Braziller, New York, 1972. Lindgren, Henry Clay, Educational Psychology in the Classroom, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1967. Lovelock, James, Gaia - A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1979. MacKinnon, D.W. "The creativity of architects," in C.W. Taylor (ed.), Widening horizons in creativity, John Wiley, New York, 1964. Maker, June C. Teaching Models in Education of the Gifted, Aspen Systems Corp., Rockville, Md., 1982. Maritain, Jacques, Bergson Philosophy and Thomism, Philosophical Library, New York, 1955. Marland, S. Education of the Gifted and Talented, Report to the Congress of the United States by the U.S. Commission of Education, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972. Mattessich, Richard, Instrumental Reasoning and Systems Methodology, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Boston, USA, 1978. - 204 -McKeon, R. ed., The Basic Works of Aristotle, Random House Library, New York, 1941. Mumford, Lewis, The Myth of the Machine, Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York, 1967. Mumford, Lewis, The Urban Prospect, Harcourt and Brace, Inc., New York, 1968. P h i l l i p s , D.C., Holistic Thought in Social Science, Stanford University Press, California, 1976. Prigogine, Ilya, & Stengers, Isabella, Order Out of Chaos, New Science Library, Shambhala, Boulder and London, 1984. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, New York, 1966. Rifkin, Jeremy, Entropy: A New World View, Bantam Books, London, 1981. Roe, Anne. The Making of a Scientist, Dodd Mead, New York, 1952. Roszak, Theodore, Person/Planet, Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, New York, 1978. Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy, George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, 1961. Russell, Bertrand, Wisdom of the West, Crescent Books, Inc., London, 1977. Schumacher, E.F., Small Is Beautiful, Sphere Books Ltd., London, 1974. Sheldrake, Rupert, A New Science of Life, Blond & Briggs, London, 1981. Smuts, Jan, Holism and Evolution, McMillan & Co., Ltd., London, 1926. - 205 -Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre, The Future of Man, Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1964. Terman, L.M. and Oden, M. Genetic Studies of Genius: The Gifted Group at  Midlife, Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, Ca., 1959. von Bertalanffy, Ludwig, General System Theory, George Braziller, New York, 1968. von Bertalanffy, Ludwig, Perspectives on General Systems Theory, George Braziller, New York, 1975. waddington, C.H., Presenter, Biology and the History of the Future, an IUBS/UNESCO Symposium, Edinburgh University Press, 1972. Weiss, Paul, "The Living System: Determinism Stratified," Arthur Koestler and J.R. Smythies, eds., The Alpbach Symposium Beyond Reductionism, Hutchinson of London, 1969. Weiss, Paul, Privacy, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, 1983. Wilson, John, Thinking With Concepts, Cambridge University Press, London, 1963. - 206 -Journal Articles Bunch, Catherine B. "Schooling for the Gifted: Where do we go from here?" Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 1, Winter 1984, p. 12-16. Kazepides, Tasos, "To Train or To Educate," B.C. Teacher, March/April, 1987, Vol. 66, No. 2, p. 15-18. Maker, June C. & Schiever, Shirley W. "Excellence for the Future," Gifted  Child Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 1, Winter 1984, p. 6-8. Moller, Barbara W. "A Developmental Model for a Gifted Program Using Renzulli's Enrichment Triad," Gifted Creative Talented, Vol. 9, No. 2, March/April, 1986, p. 11-14. Renzulli, Joseph S. The Enrichment Triad Model: a guide for developing  defensible programs for the gifted and talented, Creative Learning Press Inc., Conn., 1977. Renzulli, Joseph S. "What Makes Giftedness? Reexamining a Definition," Phi  Delta Kappan, Vol. 60, No. 3, November 1978, p. 180-184. R e n z u l l i , Joseph S. "The three-ring conception of giftedness: A developmental model for creative productivity," South African Journal  of Education, Vol. 5, No. 1, Winter 1985, p. 1-18. Roberts, Nancy M., and Haensly, Patricia A. "Holistic Synthesis in the Social Studies: A New Approach to Enrichment," Roeper Review, November 1984, p. 100-102. Treffinger, Donald J . "Research on Creativity," Gifted Child Quarterly, - 207 -Vol. 30, No. 1, Winter 1986, p. 15-19. Treffinger, Donald J. "Teaching for Self-Directed Learning: A Priority for the Gifted and Talented," Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. XIX, No. 1, 1975, p. 46-59. Weber, Patricia and Battaglia, Katherine, "Reaching Beyond Identification through the 1Identi-Form' System," Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 1, Winter 1984, p. 12-16. Transcript Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Transcripts: Ideas - The Leading Edge; Gaia Hypothesis, Dec. 30th - Feb. 7th 1985, 4-1D-105, Montreal. - 208 -Appendix I - 209 -1— Category: ART #1 1 Sub-head : A r t and R e l i g i o n No. Author Order: ] 1 1 L3-274.3 Weber Shakespeare hated Puritanism because i t was i n i m i c a l -to the a r t s . 1 1 1 .5-54.3 55.4 Tols toy Vrt consis tent with the aims and a s p i r a t i o n s of the iccepted r e l i g i o n i s c a l l e d good a r t . 1 1 1 .5-143.2 Tols toy c f . Durkheiir krt should t i e i n to the s o c i e t y ' s r e l i g i o u s conception for each s o c i e t y , l i k e a r i v e r , w i l l have a flow of i i r e c t i o n i n which i t i s go ing . • Category: ART Sub-head: A r t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n No. Author Order: B o o k a n d P a g e 15-317.3 Adams 3y 1870-90 ar t could no longer be s i m p l i s t i c , 8-247.2 Empson As poetry re la tes to the object of l i f e i t should permit the reader to "maintain one's defences and equ i l ibr ium and l i v e as wel l as one can." Hence ana lys i s i s not necessary. 1.1-75*3 Brooks It i s suggested that a poem be read c a r e f u l l y to r e a l i se i t s e f fect as sofiiething organic , by which i t must be meant that i t i s i n touch wi th , rather than distanced from, present r e a l i t y . - 210 -Categorj : Above : 1 Sub-head: Above \ ! No. Autb or Order: —! 15-149.2 Tol s toy C h r i s t i a n a r t tends to unite everyone to whom i t i s expressed - the world , whereas c u l t - na t iona l -n o n - C h r i s t i a n ar t d iv ides i t s e l f from a l l outside that frame of re ference . ' i ' I L5-159.1 * Tols toy The nature of the fee l ings being transmit ted i n a r t define the piece as e i ther C h r i s t i a n or U n i v e r s a l , the l a t t e r being the highest form. Ll J - -Categorj : A R T Sub-heac : Writ ten A r t "1 • No. Auth or Order: Book and page i 11-256.3 Brooks Poetry does not t es t or state ideas , but rather deals with the way man comes to terms with "ideas and events". — 12-12.4 Orwell By the time you have perfected a w r i t i n g s t y l e you have already outgrown i t . J L2-81.3 Orwell Joyce, l i k e Dickens, could always create because he cared . _1 - 211 -u — LI 1 : 1 —— • -i Category: Above ir l Sub-heac ; Above No. Auth or Order : Book and page U J : 1 L7-29.1 de Tocque-v i l l e Poets i n democratic countries are bet ter able to appreciate man's place i n the universe and the same design that ru les a l l d e s t i n i e s . - I ] 1 .2-280.2 Orwell l i s t o r y must r e f l e c t object ive t ru th i f future generations are going to view the past a c c u r a t e l y . Therefore great r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f a l l s upon wri ters to reveal the t r u t h . 4 • Category : ART Sub-head: V i s u a l A r t No. Author Order: Book and page ! i 12-259.3 Orwell D a l i i s a good example of the a r t and the a r t i s t where i t i s poss ible to admire the a r t and loath the a r t i s t . The two can be separable . — 15-114.5 -116.1 Tol s toy A r t i s perverted when i t i s granted the nature of pro fe s s ion . A r t cannot be taught , only something resembling ar t can. a 1 1 - 2 1 2 -Category : Ahnvp Sub-head ; Above J71 j No. Author Order: Book and page 1 ' 14-264."X Durkheim Symbols, even t a t o o i n g , make poss ib le s o c i a l l i f e by t r a n s l a t i n g soc ie ty forming inf luence into some -— th ing i n d i v i d u a l l y understandable. L5-70.5 To l s toy Sometimes a r t i s for the upper c lasses only and i s 1 only wel l understood by them. j t~ .5-140.2 Tol s toy ' ~ i ^.rt i s the greater the more i t in fec t s the beholder . \ Category: Above Sub-head : Above 1 1 .1 No . Author Order: B o o k a n d P a ° e 15-141.3 Tols toy The more the a r t i s t can draw from the depths of h i s J nature the more s incere w i l l h is expression be. J J 1 L7-61.2 de Tocque-v i l l e c f . Leo ^ Tols toy ( ilrt that develops i n a r i s t o c r a t i c countries i s capable of becoming a loo f from the people and as such r i s k s becoming impotent. -.1 - 213 -j j Category: ART Sub-head I: Technology and A r t 1 1.1 No. Author Order: Book and page 1 j J 1 S-388.2 Adams The power i n machines could not be embodied i n a r t . They are two d i f f e r e n t forms, c f . Organizat ion ._ 12-344.3 Orwell T o t a l i t a r i a n mechanization i s not the forum from which to generate imaginative a r t . 1 15-104.4 Tol s toy To praise a r t for i t s rea l i sm i s to pra i se i t s extent of c o u n t e r f e i t . - 214 -Category: CUDUs; OF btlUVJ.UUK *11 Sub-head: Ancient and Modern No. Author Order: Book and page -6-71.4 lerodotus F ight ing for honour was s u f f i c i e n t reward for the Greeks and th i s surpr i sed the Persians and t y r a n t s . 1 10-22.1 « Gibbons AD 98-180. C i t i e s i n Rome competed with each other to improve t h e i r environment for strangers and c i t i z e n s . .1 1 20-362.1 B u l f i n c h A medieval nat ion of cowardice i s one who app l i e s i n i t i a t i v e outside the code of f i g h t i n g that has been deemed acceptable . Category : Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page 11-34.1 Brooks The hypocr i te can be sa id to wear c lothes that do not f i t . c f . Macbeth J _ ill L 2-18.3 0 Orwell Ingrained a t t i tudes are hard to break even when t h e i r c o n t r a d i c t i o n - s t a r e s one i n the face . L2-155.2 Orwell The i n v i s i b l e chain that binds England permits a tolerance and l a t i t u d e unknown i n other c o u n t r i e s . For example: freedom of nat ionals during wartime. - 215 -1 Category: Above Sub-head Above No. Author Order : Book and page j .. 1 1 12-159.2 Orwell Fascism had more to a t t r a c t the Eng l i sh upper c lasses than Comiiiunism, but the r u l i n g body did not s e l l the people into semi-s lavery as was done i n France, c f . Eugenics in U. 3. and England, and Ford-Nazi funds. • i i j i 19-93.4 Veblen Good manners give evidence of the i n t r i n s i c worth of the i n d i v i d u a l and his s u p e r i o r i t y or subserviance to others i n s o c i e t y . 1 j l • 1— 1 1 —1 : : 1 Category: Above .11 Sub-head ; Above No. Author Order: Book and page j I 20-362.5 B u l f i n c h Non-compliance with s o c i a l l y acceptable behaviour brought shame to a medieval kn ight . For example: Lancelot t r a v e l l i n g i n a cart and not on horseback. i 1 J 1 20-364.5 B u l f i n c h Dishonour was the ult imate disgrace with which to be faced during the time of kn ights . 1 1 I 9-303.5 Russe l l r r a d i t i o n s w i l l endure only i f they are embedded i n i secure phi losophy. - 216 -Category: CHAXGE Sub-head: Environment Stimulates Change No. Author Order: Book and page 1 1 1 1-274.3 Darwin Changes i n the condi t ion of l i f e benef i t a l l l i v i n g th ings : i n breeding, environmental , even h a b i t . 1-279.5 Darwin Organic beings taken from t h e i r na tura l environment become i n s e n s i t i v e to t h e i r normal r e s t r i c t i o n s . 16-375 de Tocque-v i l l e The north of America r e a l i z e d s lavery was uneconomical and eventual ly the south were i n a p o s i t i o n whereby they had slaves whom i t was too expensive to keep but imprac t i ca l to re l ease . Category: Above Sub-heac Above No. Auth or Order: B o o k a u d ^ a g e 1 1 1 18-195.2 Marx Turning the peasants o f f the a g r i c u l t u r a l laud not only provided a source of labour for c a p i t a l but also gave i t i t s market which has constant ly expanded. 18-306.1 Marx The creat ion of urban centers occured through the d i v i s i o n of labour c o l l e c t i n g i n areas where the excess of t h e i r product ion could f i n d a market. L9-289.3 Veblen Overproduction i s seen by Veblen as an i n t e g r a l feature of Marxian economics because the wage earner i s unable to purchase the products he produces. - 217 Category: CHANGE BY FORCE Sub-head: Economic No. Auth or Order: Book and page /IV 12-280.3 Orwell Not only does power corrupt , but also the means by which power i s obtained can be c o r r u p t i n g , i f i t i s v i o l e n t through r e v o l u t i o n . 16-392.2 de Tocque-v i l l e A few thousand black people were sent to L i b e r i a so they could be i n t h e i r natura l environment. 18-362.5 Marx The bourgeoise must be eradicated by means of arms, i — ; _ 1 _ J — : : • -— • : 1 Category: Above #1V Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Above J l i 18-380.3 Marx The 1870 Paris Commune demonstrates the a c t i o n necessary to oppose the i n e f f e c t u a l assurances of democracy that leave the wage labourer i n an unchanged c o n d i t i o n . i J j L9-71.2 Veblen The change from a peaceable to a predatory cu l ture :an only occur with the increase i n p r e v a i l i n g technology. 1 1 - 218 -Category: CHANGE BY FORCE : t IV Sub-head: R e l i g i o n No. Author Order: Book and oa.ue - i LO-294.2 Gibbon The f i r s t C h r i s t i a n Emperor Constantine was also the f i r s t to lead an army into ba t t l e profess ing the support of God. ! i LO-617.5 Gibbon J u s t i n i a n t r i e d to e s t a b l i s h the unity of the f a i t h through the power of " f i re and sword". LO-679.2 Gibbon Mahomet f e l t r e l i g i o n should be introduced by the sword rather than by fas t ing and prayer . - 219 -Category: COMMUNICATION IN ART Sub-head: Poetry ' s In terpre ta t ion No. Auth or Order: Book and page 8-8.5 Empson Just the reading of a poem can convey the tone and f e e l i n g one i s expected to gather . 8-9.4 Empson Some c r i t i c s of poetry may tend to comment on the poem's beauty and others may do th is and analyse i t s source of beauty too . The l a t t e r i s Empson. 8-15.5 Empson Poetry can be apprec ia ted on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s : pure sound, ana lys i s and atmosphere. Atmosphere, i e . impl ied meaning,' should be kept i n mind during a n a l y s i s . Category; Above Subhead: Above No. Auth or Order: Book and page 8 - 6 2 . 2 Empson To understand a poet one must construct h is poems i n your own mind. 3-151.5 Empson Wordsworth o f f e r s , i n T i n t e r n Abbey, an opportunity to d i g , analyse , and f i n d his way-of t h i n k i n g - h is pentheism. 3-175.4 Empson The Romantic movement's poet ic technique provided a c o l l e c t i o n of words intended to produce a sensory image that cannot be evoked by anyone. - 220 -Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Au tli or Order: Book and page 8 - 2 3 9 . 1 Empson ks with many other subjects poetry and i t s c r i t i c i s m must be conveyed as a compound rather than as separate elements. 8 - 2 4 5 . 1 limps on The c r i t i c faces the d i f f i c u l t y of conveying a l i v i n g process , one, i n which, as a p a r t i c i p a n t , he cannot divorce h imsel f from the j o i n t process of becoming. 8 - 2 4 8 . 3 Empson A c r i t i c that values c u r i o s i t y over sympathy i s incapable of examining the poem. Category: Above Sub-head: Above No, vuthor Order: Book and page 1 1 - 5 2 . 4 Brooks When experiencing poetry one should be aware, i f a c r i t i c , of the author's intended audience and circum-stances at the time of w r i t i n g . - 221 -Category: COMMUNICATION IN ART Sub-head: Poetry's Construct ion No. Autli or Order: Book, and page 8-20.1 Emps on Nineteenth century poets were less ambiguous ( in Empson's terms) and therefore created less atmosphere, 8-25.1 Empson The coupl ing together of two ambiguous or contras t ing words, l i k e swift and s t i l l , leave the reader to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r meaning. 8-237.4 Empson There i s a place today for ambiguity, used knowledgably, so as to convey a v a r i e t y of poss ib le statements. But i t should not be by chance or accident that i t occurs . Category: Above Sub-heac No. . Above Author Order: Book and page 11-59.1 Brooks Light i s a most expressive way of creat ing an ambience through the use of opposites , the accuracy of which the E n g l i s h language would not possess. J Ll-73.2 Brooks Water can be used i n i t s many forms to provide a symbolism i n poetry no d i c t i o n a r y could supply . .1-76.1 Brooks The poet has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or opt ion to remake language and should not be expected to e f f e c t i v e l y :ommuuicate anyth ing . What emerges from the poem i s r i g h t l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , in most cases of good poetry , i f the reader . - 222 -Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Auth or Order: Book and page 11-206.3 Brooks Poetry i s a process of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n employing 'various tens ions ' and dramatic processes . Considering t h i s , a poem i s unique i n i t s method of express ion . 11-212.4 Brooks The poem i s 'un ique i n that i t i s a summation of personal experience u n i f i e d rather than.a s c i e n t i f i c analogue of experience. 11-263.1 Brooks The f i n a l t es t for any poetry i s whether or not the use of the symbols has been adequate to the task given to i t by the poet. T Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Auth or Order: Book and pge 12-361.4 Orwell A good wri ter w i l l constant ly r e f l e c t and ask himself questions on how he can improve on what he i s say ing . 21-99.2 C a s s i r e r Poetry attempts to reconnect us with the realm of pure, f e e l i n g s . - 223 r Category: COMMUNICATION IN ART Sub-head V i s u a l Communication No, Auth or Order: Book and page L5-46.2 Tols toy Art i s conceived to be something of beauty but t h i s f a i l s to define a r t i n the same way that the subject ive opinion about food f a i l s to define good food because each person's taste v a r i e s . Also the purpose of food i s nourishment and value i s not a t t r i b u t e d to food in th i s way. 15-49.2 Tols toy As one of the obvious elements of l i f e , A r t can be viewed as a means by which man shares h is f ee l ings through a union or non-verbal i n t e r c o u r s e . 15-51.4 Tols toy A r t i s the a b i l i t y to express i n a non-verbal way one's emotions and fee l ings to the extent that another can share the same emotions and f e e l i n g s . - 224 -Category: MUDiio ui-' CUAi;,.-L'-\iCAX 1 OA *V1 Sub-head: Ind iv idua l Communication No. Author Order: Book and page 1 3-94.2 Freud L i t e r a r y errors are often prompted by i n h i b i t i o n s or reservat ions i n the unconscious. _ i 3-207.1 a Freud Wish- fu l f i lment i s the purpose of in terpre ted dreams, c f . page 218 .1 J j .... 3-467.1 Freud Dream-work which mediates between Dream thought and content is rooted i n the unconscious and acts i n a way that the conscious mind f inds d i f f i c u l t to • understand. 1—i Categor\ r; Above # V I Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page .1 .1 J \ 3-542.4 Freud iven though our unconscious mind surrounds pur conscious mind i t i s imperfect ly cominunicated to us . 1 1 3-549.2 Freud Dreams lead us to the future by t h e i r ' i n d e s t r u c t i b l e wish ' . 1 6-45.1 lerodotus Themistocles gave a more o p t i m i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the oracle and planned a successful miss ion . - 225 -Category: Communication. Modes of Sub-head: Ind iv idua l i \To, Author Order : Book and nage V I i 3-1.78.3 Freud Psychosis , neuros is ,and anxiety are a l l expressions of our sub-conscious . Category: MODES OF COMMUNICATION Sub-head: S o c i a l or Group Communication No. 8 - 7 0 . 3 Empson Author The more c i v i l i z e d the language (and presumably s o c i e t y ) , the more simple can be i t s s t r u c t u r e . Order: V I 8-236 .1 Empson The E n g l i s h language i s being used i n an over s i m p l i f i e d nanner today, to the point where nuance of meaning i s jeing s a c r i f i c e d to word e f f i c i e n c y . 1 0 - 5 5 6 . 5 Gibbons Low (ed.) observes that r i o t s are a l eg i t imate form of communication between the people and an emperor. - 226 -u 1 • ••• U J •"••'1' Category: Above VI „ , , Above Sub-head: No . Author Order: Book and page _.i -1 _ j • 19-388.3 Veblen Sabotage - or unemployment had to be the expedient of industry at times of overproduct ion. J -J _l 1 - 227 -Category: CONCEPTIONS AND PREJUDICES ^vii Sub-head: No. Au Hi or Order: Book and page 12-28.2 Orwell S o c i a l pressure can force one to do the opposite of "one's i n t e n t i o n s , merely by t h e i r presence - a s i l e n t expectat ion . -I 12-61.4 Orwell Dickens perpetuates the stigma attached to c lass d i f ference and while he supports 'the people 1 he does not wish to be one of them - hence h i s heros d i sp lay evidence of being from a higher c l a s s . 1 ] | 12-329.3 Orwell Competitive team games are more l i k e l y to occur i n urban centers when the opportunity to engage i n the r u s t i c sports of the r u r a l s to spend energy i s l i m i t e d . J Category: Above V l Sub-head: No. Auth or Order: Book and page J i 13-38.2 Weber Catho l i c s are found to occupy the craf t s and Protestants tend to grav i ta te to factory work and s k i l l e d labour and adminis trat ive work. J 1 19-343.4 Veblen The two classes of those i n business and those i n industry have grown apart s u f f i c i e n t l y for there to be l i t t l e understanding between•them. The d i a l e c t i c and s u f f i c i e n t reason of n a t u r a l - r i g h t s (for land) of business i s not understood by the cause and e f fec t men-t a l i t y of industry and v ice v e r s a . 1 19-475.1 Veblen 'flie i n t e l l e c t u a l Jew q u a l i f i e s as one aule to br ing an increase and d i f f u s i o n of knowledge to the west by reason of his non-contamination by i n h i b i t i o n s . - 228 -Category : Above ' V i i 1 • Sub-head: No. Author Order: Book and page i 19-555.2 Veblen The r i g h t of ownership and usufruct by reason of i possession holds no v a l i d i t y for Veblen . i 1 21-9.3 C a s s i r e r Our language ore-scribes our r e a l i t y which once assumed i s d i f f i c u l t to change. J - 229 -Category: DIVERSITY AND CHAOS Sub-head: Negative Ef fec t s of Chaos No. Au th or Order: Book and page V l l l 10-137.3 Gibbon A . D . 313 the ar t s and genius d e c l i n e d during the d i s t r a c t i o n s of the Roman Empire to despotism, s o l d i e r s ' l i cence and barbarian a t tacks . 12-48.4 Orwell Dickens' sense of revo lu t ion as a monster d i f f e r s to the c lass s truggle where the t y r a n i c a i noblemen are are necessary contr ibutors to the process and per i sh equal ly with the perpetrators of the t e r r o r . 12-167.2 Orwell In terms of e f f i c i e n c y fascism i s more e f f e c t i v e than cap i ta l i sm or s o c i a l i s m . What fascism lacks is the d i v e r s i t y to which p r o f i t s may be channeled. Category: DIVERSITY AND CHAOS Sub-head: Benef i ts of Chaos No , Author Order: Book and page V l l l 1-86.2 Dickens For organisms there i s a constant s truggle for l i f e during which there are periods of great des truc t ion and from which w i l l emerge the. vigorous and hea l thy . 5-406.5 Adams Like F r i g o g i n e , Henry Adams saw that "unity was chaos" or at l east required chaos. 7-65.3 Lovejoy One view under the 'Great Chain of Being ' i s that man nerely f i l l s a place that would otherwise be l e f t vacant. P l o t i IUS f e l t that perpetual war amongst animals and uuongst men i s necessary for the good of the whole. - 230 -Category: Above V I 1 1 j Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page _ l 1 0 - 1 0 7 . 2 Gibbon Gibbon f inds that genius surfaces at times of confus ion. — 1 0 - 4 4 1 . 1 Gibbon A.U. 4 0 3 . The i d l e multitude indulged i n extravagances and amusements ca l cu la ted to d i s s ipa te t h e i r s o c i e t y . A } - 231 -Category: T H E N £ E D e 0 R P.IVERSITY Sub-head No, Author Order: Book and page I X 2-140.4 Jam e s There i s a place for e v i l facts in l i f e , f or they are "a genuine port ion of r e a l i t y " and perhaps the key to "the deepest l eve l s of t r u t h " . E v i l i s an aspect of d i v e r s i t y . 2-266.2 James The d i v e r s i t y of r e l i g i o n s i s necessary cons ider ing the diverse needs of man. 1-145.2 Dostoevsky Rat ional i sm's attempt to create a c a l c u l a t e d Utopia denies the need for d i v e r s i t y that can only come with the i n d i v i d u a l ' s unfettered c a p r i c e . Category: Above Sub-head: Above No, Auth or Order: Book and page I X 7-10.2 Lovejoy The r e a l i z a t i o n of complexity generated ideas tha t , of necess i ty , held notions that were general and vague, i . e . the h o l i s t i c not ion that no clement is a complex can be understood "apart from i t s r e l a t i o n s wi th in that complex." 7-182.4 Lovejoy There is no need i n Nature for a quant i ty or number to be maximalized. "(hat should reach the l i m i t of p o s s i b i l i t ; i s the state of d i v e r s i t y . 7*307.3 Lovejoy Romantic-Divers i tor ianisra suggests we-should cher i sh the d i f ferences that ex i s t between men. I n d i v i d u a l i t y takes precedence. - 232 -1 1 —J Category: A b o v e if 1 Sub-henc L . Above IX _ 1 No . Author Order: Book and page 1 3 - x i i i . 4 Erax^son Wil l iam Empson suggests that good poetry stems from a -J background of c o n f l i c t which might not be understood - i by the age i n which i t was w r i t t e n . 9-508.1 R u s s e l l D i v e r s i t y was absent from T . More's Utopia , but i t has j also been absent from planned s o c i a l systems too and J I t h i s i s t h e i r weakness. _ • 10-853.^ Gibbon k.D. 1453. The daunting m u l t i p l i c i t y of Christendom 1 twarted any c l ear d i r e c t i o n from above. Category: Above # 1X Sub-head: Above No. Au thor Order: Book and. page -11-7.2 irooks Wordsworth's panthe i s t i c b e l i e f s pressed him to have h i s poetry convey that the customary holds great beauty. 1 12-144.5 Orwell Nations d i f f e r to each other by the composition of the people. England for example i s "highly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . " 1 J : 14-271.2 Durkheim. R e l i g i o n i s not i n d i f f e r e n t to contrad ic t ions i n nature and takes account of a l l such occas ions , as opposed to science whose l o g i c i t a lso shares . - 233 -Category: Above Sub-head: Above No, Auth or Order: Book and page IX L7-15U.2 ae iocque-v i l l e although t r a n q u i l i t y i s a good t h i n g , i t behoves a country not to respect i t so much as to become a s lave to i t and the mechanism that makes i t p o s s i b l e . - 234 -Category: n^OCRACY Sub-head: Democratic I n e f f i c i e n c y No. Auth or Order: Book and page 16-54.3 de Tocque-v i l l e In knowledge as i n wealth there i s a mediocrity i n America not found i n an a r i s t o c r a c y . 16-94.1 de Tocque-v i l l e C e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of U. S. government but i t errs on the side of i n e f f i c i e n c y for the sake of being s e n s i t i v e to the people. It gives freedom over domination. 6-99.3 Herodotus A Democracy that allows s e l f - v o t i n g a r r i v e s at no dec i s ion other than second place p o s i t i o n . J Category Above •Sub-he ad No. Above Author Order -: B o o k a n d Pil%e 16-209.4 de Tocque-v i l l e The equal i ty evident i n a democracy does not ensure that the wisest dec is ions are those that are made. J 16-224.1 de Tocque-v i l l e In democracies expenses increase i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the people . 16-247.5 de Tocque-v i l l e - i The great merit of U. S. democracy i s that i t i s able to commit f a u l t s i t can afterwards r e p a i r . - 235 -! I I J Category: A h n v p Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page _ 17-146.: de Tocque-v i l l e Democracy has created opportunity for every man, but i n so doing i t has congested what was once an open market so that no one i n d i v i d u a l can f i n d an easy path to success amongst the compet i t ion . 17-273.: de Tocque-v i l l e The l i k e l i h o o d of changing men's opinions is rare i n a democratic soc ie ty where each person must be convinced b> reason, for in the past changes have occured by great names who c a r r i e d inf luence amongst the few i n high p o s i t i o n , f or example Luther . 1 J - 236 -Category: STEPS TO DEMOCRACY AND-CONTROL Sub-head: Elements of Democracy No. Author Ordur: Book and page X I 9-496.2 Russe l l Por s t a b i l i t y i t i s wiser to give more power to the people . 16-28.4 16-30.3 de Tocque-v i l l e Poverty and misfortune were among the. condi t ions that formed America's f i r s t s e t t l e r s , and such condit ions created a v i s i b l e physiognomy that d i s t i n g u i s h ear ly formers of democracy. 16-70.1 de Tocque-v i l l e Americans adhere to t h e i r communities because they have grown to i d e n t i f y with them and the governing s tructure that uses i t s own people i n i t s autonomous admin i s t ra t ion Category: Above Sub-head No, Above Author Order : Book and page X I 16-318.3 de Tocque-v i l l e Moving from an a r i s t o c r a c y to a democracy: as the people became t h e i r own masters i t i s necessary to replace the p o l i t i c a l t i e with a moral one. Hence the need for a D i e t y . 17-105.4 de Tocque-v i l l e The chain of community members from peasant to king i s broken at every l i n k with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a democracy where the i n d i v i d u a l fee l s he contro l s his own des t iny . 237 -Category':' STEPS TO DEMOCRACY AND CONTROL Sub-head: War and Democracy No. Auth or Order: Book and page 6-66.3 Herodotus. In was as i n l i f e motivat ion is imparted by the i n d i v i d u a l having a vested i n t e r e s t i n , and a chance to contr ibute to the decis ions of the e n t e r p r i s e . 9-203.3 Russ e l 1 The s ize of a State depends on the techniques of war and industry to 'make i t s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . 9-427.4 Russe l l In twel f th century I t a l y , c i t i e s e s tab l i shed themselves as pro tec t ive areas i n war and commerce. This enhanced the development of business in that area and made" c i t i e s sanctuaries for free t h i n k e r s . Category: Above Sub-head: Above No'. Auth or Order: B o o k a n d P ; iS e X I 10-793.5 Gibbon The crusades had the ef fect of dep le t ing the baron's ranks and making way for new, smal ler e n t i t i e s of in f luence . 17-297.4 de Tocque-v i l l e de Tocquev i l l e percept ive ly saw that while war i s more d i f f i c u l t to s t a r t among democratic nat ions , i t i s more pervasive i n that i t spreads over a l arger a r e a . - 238 -T Category: EDUCATION Sub-heat. No. Features of Education Auth or Order: B o o k a l l d ^iie X l l 5-300.4 Adams The teachers e f fect i s extens ive , and his p u p i l w i l l th ink according to h is t eaching . 10-831.G Gibbon It took an immersion in to Greek and Roman thought before there could emerge a new i n i t i a t i v e i n l earning at the Renaissance. 12-432.1 Orwell Learning i s not improved by t h r e a t s . Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Auth or Order: Book and page X l l 12-433.:! Orwel1 It should be remembered that c h i l d r e n are prepared to be l ieve in the knowledge and power of a d u l t s . 18-102. Marx The education given to boys employed i n the f a c t o r i e s was scant and poorly administered. - 239 -I "1 1 | L.J Category : EDUCATION 1 Sub-head : Purpose of Education XI1 U No. Auth or Order: Book and page LI Ui i 5-170.3 Adams The B r i t i s h respect only l earning a s s i m i l a t e d at s choo l , i r i t i s h custom tends to narrow and i n h i b i t thought. J -J l 5-347.2 Adams The measure of education should be i t s f i tness as re f lec ted by success of i n d i v i d u a l s . ! J J 5-348.3 Adams S o c i a l p o s i t i o n triumphed over education for soc ie ty had f a i l e d to determine the sort of education i t r e q u i r e d . Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page X l l 10-246.1 Gibbon Constantine hoped, by schools and pro fe s sors , to regenerate the ar t s that had dec l ined by A. D. 324. 10-570.^ Gibbon Education was for the purpose of enquiry and persuasion and one might study r h e t o r i c or phi losophy, but schools were not for commerce or business , A . D. 502-505. 17-20.1 de Tocque-v i l l e Apply ing general p r i n c i p l e s i n p o l i t i c s can be dangerous. To avoid th i s adherence people should be immersed i n the d e t a i l s of p o l i t i c s by heavy or constant occupation, by which they w i l l get to know the subject b e t t e r . - 240 -Category: RniTTT.TBRTITM Sub-head: R^nnmic Eqii i 1 i hr i nm No. Auth or Order: XI11 10-244. Gibbon For many years Constantinople was the most a t t r a c t i v e center for trade and commerce i n the world . 16-384. ii de Tocque-v i l l e Many southern crops , for.example cot ton , require year round a t t e n t i o n . This aspect made slaves worth keeping, J J 18-22.3 Marx There is i n industry a net p r o f i t r a t e , or e q u i l i b r i u m , or average, that i s achieved through the e f fec t s of compet i t ion, money/capital g r a v i t a t i n g to those areas of highest y i e l d . Category: Above Sub-head No. Above • Author Order: Book and page XI11 J 18-32.3 Marx as materia ls r e l a t e to labour, Marx puts f o r t h these tenets: 1. Exchange value cons is t s of the amount of labour contained i n au a r t i c l e and t h i s r e l a t e s to others i n t h i s way; 2. The greater the amount of labour i n an a r t i c l e the greater the value; 3. A r t i c l e value occurs only when given s o c i a l use; 4. Such a r t i c l e s must possess u t i l i t y to Lave va lue . 18-100.4 Marx The employment.of the whole f a m i l y increased household :osts , for ready made c lo th ing had to be bought i n place i>f home-made sewing, e t ce tera . - 241 -Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: B ook and page K i l l 18-139. :i Marx Increase ol' machinery allows c a p i t a l to i n c r e a s e - i t s investment i n labour , but to a n.uch smaller extent than i f new machinery were not introduced. lihat i s forgotten here is that only the e f f i c i e n c y of new machines renders i t poss ib le to increase production and to a small extent labour - Marx overlooks t i i i s f a c t . 18-306, Marx The expansion of the producer/consumer r e l a t i o n s h i p disrupted e q u i l i b r i u m to the extent where new, more complicated i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the pattern developed, for example export of products . 18-309.: Marx The e q u i l i b r i u m e x i s t i n g between production and consump-t i o n can be d i srupted a f ter the impulse of the consumer demands' greater product ion; for then product ion must increase i n a manner consis tent with i t s own c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n which cooperation between components i s e s s e n t i a l , aud—wiijeT-e^J^^i^Ja-t_insis.j;_thja.t pro.du c t ± o n _ e x c e e d the .. 'consumer & of parts . demands—bo—achieve the—necessai y—uuupwi a l i uu Category: Sub-head:  No. Author Order: -1 242 -Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and ^age X l l l 19-262. Veblen Value . For Adam Smith t h i s res ides i n the heightening of the s e r v i c e a b i l i t y of the materials g iven . For Bentham i t i s the discomfort or irksomeness that goes in to procuring the goods. 19-26G.1 Veblen Adam Smith's economic view is p o s i t i v e i n that i t suggests that rewards to those in industry coincide with benef i t s -by way of goods and services - tliat accrue to s o c i e t y . Category: EQUILIBRIUM Sub-head: Soc ia l , Re la t ionships No, Author Order: tinnk a n f l f ) a > r e £111 12-53.4 Orwell Revolutions r e a l l y asp ire to ask, "How can we prevent power from being abused?" This ra i ses two quest ions: 1. Vihat i s the use of a system before changing men's hearts? 2. How can we change men's hearts a f ter the system has been changed? 12-78.2 Orwell Orwell describes Dickens' w r i t i n g as poor i n whole but marvelous i n d e t a i l - "rotten a r c h i t e c t u r e but beaut i fu l gargoyles ." 12-158.1 Orwell The Eng l i sh r u l i n g c lasses have been quite a n a c r o n i s t i c and out of touch with the changing world , hence s i tua t ions have been saved by those lower on the s c a l e . - 243 -1 1 I I '•J u Category: Above // X l l l Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page LJ -1. 14-388.4 Durkheim Indiv iduals need soc ie ty as much as soc ie ty needs i n d i v i d u a l s . S o c i e t y , as with r e l i g i o n , can only ex i s t i n so far as i t can occupy human consciousness. -J 1 -1 / - 244 -i l Category: po\v»R OF FAITH if XIV Sub-head: I n d i v i d u a l R e l i g i o n and Fa i th No. Author Order: Book and page 1 1 1 I " I _ ! 2-110.2 James Re l ig ion or f a i t h has the p o t e n t i a l for preventing and curing disease as much as sc ience . J j i 2-210.2 James Once converted to r e l i g i o n the i n d i v i d u a l continues to i d e n t i f y h imse l f with i t even i f his enthusiasm d e c l i n e s . — 10-400.1 Gibbon In the 4th century, Theodosius the emperor c a r r i e d out i penance prescr ibed by the archbishop Ambrose. Category: Above XIV Sub-head Ahove No. Au Uior Order: B o o k a n d P a ° e J i 10-471.1 Gibbon The f i r s t hunger s t r i k e by an emperor could have been that of Theodosius when he challenged his excommunication b;, a monk. i 1 1 1 10-510.2 Gibbon Voluntary monastic devotion demanded much of the d i s c i p l e His b l i n d submission could mean undergoing extraordinary hardships . The r e s u l t i n g being was a fanat ic of b e l i e f , or a madman. I ij i ! i-13-106.2 iVeber C a l v i n exhorted his people to d i s t r u s t even t h e i r c loses t f r iends and t r u s t only God. - 245 -Category: Above it XIV Sub-head: Above — No. Author Order: Book and page 1 1 i 1 1.3-261.: 13-158.: i Weber Calvinism authorized that one watch how time was spent as c l o s e l y as one watched one's gold or s i l v e r . Sleep needed regu la t ing as d id contemplative thought. 14-185.: Durkheim A b o r i g i n a l t r i b e s demonstrate a c lose a f f i n i t y between man and animal , to the point where the state of one w i l l e f fec t the other . J 14-257.i Durkheim The worship that occurs between the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s god serves to strengthen the bond between the i n d i v i d u a l and soc ie ty of which the god i s j u s t a ' f i g u r a t i v e ex-press ion 1 . . j | ~ i - J Categors : Above // Sub-head ; Above XIV — No. Au th or Order: Book and page -J - i l 20-217.^ Bui f inch • The transmigrat ion of sou l s , or Metempoychosis, which i s the doctr ine of India that denies them harming any animal because i t might possess the soul of an ancestor , vas explained by Anchises to h is son AEneas i n the plan of c r e a t i o n . I - i 1 -* — • - 246 -Category: POWER Or' FAITH i XIV L Sub-head: Secular F a i t h No. Auth or Order: Book and page ! I l' 2-60.2 James The sentiment of r e a l i t y attaches i t s e l f so f i rmly to b e l i e f that our whole l i f e i s s trongly in f luenced , even though there i s nothing present that can be given d e f i n i t e d e s c r i p t i o n . J 10-484.i Gibbon A t t i l a , King of the Huns, incu lca ted the doctr ine of predest inat ion to his army. -_1 J •J 1— 13-227.[ Weber Predes t inat ion appl i e s to one's fate i n t h i s and the next wor ld . Category: A b o v e // XIV Sub-head: Above No, Auth or Order : B o o k a n d P a " e —. 1 1 i 1 20-26.5 B u l f i n c h Sephalus and P r o c r i s show that a lack of f a i t h can bring punishing consequences.  1 1 20-455.E B u l f i n c h The s tory of. Owain and the l i o n t y p i f i e s the i n v i s i b i l i t y j f the legend's heroes. — 1 - 247 -' Category; P 0 W K R 0 i , P A I T H Sub-head: S o c i a l R e l i g i o n and F a i t h No. Auth or Order : Book and page XIV 9-331.3 R u s s e l l Mirac les had worked e a r l i e r for the Jews and l a t e r for C h r i s t i a n s . 9-440.3 Russe l l Alb igeuses ' crusade i n 1209 was seen as an at tack on heresy - treason to C h r i s t - and those accused were dea l t with h a r s h l y . 10-161. !> Gibbon The acceptance of myst i ca l occurrences or miracles i s more r e a d i l y given to e a r l i e r per iods , for example the fourth century, than to periods close to our own t ime. Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Auth or Order : Book and page XIV 10-426.I Gibbon Constant ine 1 s r e l i g i o n won Rome over, but was i t s e l f capt ivated by the i d o l a t r y of paganism and imi tated i t to a large extent . 10-857.1 Gibbon l . D . 800-1100. Publ ic opinion and habit gave the pope jreater inf luence than the emperor. 14-255.2 Durkheim The s o c i a l force that dominates man has been i n t e r p r e t e d as r e l i g i o u s . R e l i g i o n , there fore , i s the source for moral and mater ia l l i f e . - 248 -Category: FORMS OF THOUGHT XV Sub-head: ,-?„,.„,«, n r Thmmht » nd Nature No. Auth or Order: R n n k a m l „ e — 1 1-66.3 Darwin There i s apparent in nature an 'ac tua l passage' along which l i i ' e and organisms trave l so as to blur the d i s t i n c t i o n between species and s u b-spec ies ,.: arid sub-species and v a r i e t i e s . 1 . 1 1-284.4 Darwin The close s i m i l a r i t y between o f f s p r i n g of species and v a r i e t i e s suggests there i s no e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between them. 1 1 1 1-337.4 Darwin The close resemblence of embryos of recent and ex t inc t species suggests the p r i n c i p l e of i n h e r i t a n c e . Forms of Thought Sub-head: Natural XV No. Auth or Order: Book and page 3-803.3 Freud The economy of form i n wi t , comic and humour becomes more soph i s t i ca ted the older we get and needs to be so to be e f f e c t i v e . — • ! - 249 -1 • . . - f L J Category : Above // ' • Sub-head : Above XV . Ll No. Author Order: Book and page 1 7-58.2 Lovejoy If there i s suggested a place for a species between some known to ex i s t i t i s consistent with ' p l e n t i t u d e ' for that species to ex i s t so as to produce no gap. - 1 i | 19-62.4 Veblen I n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i s the ( i m p l i c i t ) view that cons is ts of 'any attempt by man to use non-human elements of nature for the use of man.' J 1 - 1 | 19-245.2 Veblen Adam Smith's economic theory i s viewed as being b; upon natural laws that apply to a l l l i f e . L s e d •-J Category: FORMS OF THOUGHT // Sub-head: P h i l o s o p h i c a l Forms of Thought XV - I No. Auth or Order : B o o k a u c l P ; l« e J 2-33.2 . James empirical philosophy contends that our guide should be the search for t r u t h . Truth is what w i l l appear v iab l e 3 r capable of s u r v i v i n g . _J . 1 3-781.3 Freud Magic i s character ized by man's making iiis ideas subst i tute for the order of nature. a - 1 - 1 3-882.3 Freud The r e a l i z a t i o n that s u p e r s t i t i o n , anx ie ty , dreams and demous are simply the screens behind which l i e s understanding, gives new perspect ive to p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s . - 250 -Category: Above it XV Sub-head: xhnvp No. Author Order: U o o k and page i I. 7 -3 .5 1 7-7.2 Lovejoy Ideas, and therefore phi losophy, i s composed more of i m p l i c i t assumptions of the time than c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , or isms, i m p l i e s . Such pat terns , as opposed to content, are better i n d i c a t o r s of the h i s tory of ideas . J J 7-12.1 Lovejoy There ex i s t s i n philosophy an appeal tu the reader that i s i m p l i c i t i n the concepts, and \%hich generates a f e e l i n g of empathy i n some readers . For example, the appeal to the unknown and mysterious i n il. Bergson. 7-14.2 Lovejoy Phi losophic semantics i s often an obstacle to understanding. 1 1 1 1 ! 1 Category: Above // Sub-hea< i ; Above XV — No. Author Order: Book and page 1 1 J 7-16.5 Lovejoy The h i s tory of l i t e r a t u r e i s r e a l l y the h i s tory of the movement of ideas which have inf luenced thought. Hence l i t e r a t u r e c a r r i e s p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought. J 1 1 7-292.5 Lovejoy The Enlightenment can be thought of as the "s tandard iz -a t i o n of thought and l i f e " , that i s , s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . 1 9-269.2 Russe l l Epic te tus and Marcus A u r e l i u s l i v e d (A. D. 100) at a time when the future was foreseen as bleak at best . The ir philosophy i s therefore one of enduring rather than one of hope r-o \_«,t.•*.•», Co«i arc 4^) - 251 -Category: KORM.-i OS THOUGHT Sub-head.: No. 2-76.5 Farms—oX Author Jam e s Thought iind Rpli j j inn Order: Book and page Professor J . R. Seeley suggests that any hab i tua l and regulated admirat ion , such as our music and sc ience , can be taken as a form of r e l i g i o n . 2-265.1 James S u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t also app l i e s to r e l i g i o n s , 7-39.5 Lovejoy P la to ' s idea of an i n e f f a b l e !One' i s the basis for the r e l i g i o n s - Judaism, Moslem, and C h r i s t i a n . Category: Above Sub-head; No. Above Author Order: B o u k a u d ^ a ° e XV 7-94.1 Lovejoy There are two necessary p r i n c i p l e s emerging out of the One u n i t y : Good and E v i l . One can be attached to the undivided at rest while the other can f i n d i t s p a r a l l e l i n a c t i v i t y and motion. For example, co ld and heat, l i g h t and dark. 7-97.5 Lovejoy By the 18th century, a 'This Wor ld ly ' philosophy found acceptance together with the not ion that sens ib le experience was good and a part of the a c t u a l i z a t i o n of v a r i e t y that demonstrated evidence of d iv ine a c t i o n , a c o r o l l a r y to supersensible p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 7-102.4 Lovejoy Man's c en tra l p o s i t i o n i n the universe i n the 15th century assumed as many negative as p o s i t i v e explanat i ons. - 252 -!• 1 # XV. Sub-head: A b o v e No. Auth or Order: Book a n d page • i i i 9-411.1 Russe l l An e x a m p l e o f A n s e l m ' s o n t o l o g i e a l a r g u m e n t : s i m p l y b e c a u s e o u r t h o u g h t s c a n c o n c e i v e o f God, w h o i s t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e o b j e c t o f t h o u g h t , He m u s t e x i s t . • i _ i • j J J / J - 253 -r i Category: FREEDOM Sub-head: E f f e c t s of Freedom No. Author Order: Book and page XVI 6-123.3 Herodotus The Greeks shared the spo i l s of war among themselves, 9-22.3 Russel1 l i b e r a l i s m des ires a secure society without over many c o n s t r a i n t s . 9-234.1 Russe l l S p e c i a l i z a t i o n occured during the 4th and 5th centuries B . C . i n Greece. Although one's func t ion might change over time one would be expected to perform a s p e c i a l i z e d ro le when requ ired . Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page XVI 16-44.3 de Tocque-v i l l e There are two kinds of l i b e r t y . 1. The freedom of every i n d i v i d u a l to do good or e v i l and is incompatible with a u t h o r i t y . 2. The other freedom subs is t s on author i ty aud is of a nature to be protected for i t was sanctioned by C h r i s t . 6-14.2 Herodotus Those who work for a master are more e a s i l y defeated than those who work for themselves. In a democracy where freedom of the press ex i s t s p o l i t i c a l opinions change very l i t t l e . 16-195.' de Tocque-v i l l e - 254 -: Above Category  Sub-head; Above No. Author Order: Book and page XVI 16—142. de Tocque-v i l l e In America i t i s not uncommon for one man to carry out a var ie ty of careers of which he has needs. This renders him more i n t e l l i g e n t than one who s p e c i a l i z e s . 17-24.3 de Tocque-v i l l e The Koran of Mohammed is very p r e s c r i p t i v e i n i t s laws, .vhereas the Gospel speaks' of no more than general re la t ions with God. For th i s reason the former w i l l never f i n d acceptance i n a democrat ic;country. 17-80.5 de Tocque-v i l l e In a democracy the subjects of poetry may be rendered less numerous, but more vas t . The poet's scope is- in-rr :reased. Category; A b o v e Sub-head: Above No, Author Order: Book and pige XVI 17-144, de Tocque-v i l l e P a r t i c i p a t i o n in a democracy brings with i t a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and pressure that w i l l e f fec t the count-enance of the i n d i v i d u a l to appear more ser ious and less l i gh thear ted than the feudal peasant. 17-148. }de Tocque-v i l l e A close r e l a t i o n s h i p exis ts between freedom and economic p r o d u c t i v i t y . 17-234.C de Tocque-v i l l e The noise of the crowd i n a democracy tends to hide the voice of a d i ssenter who i n an a r i s t o c r a t i c environment stands out p l a i n l y amid the hush. 255 -J Category: Above Sub-heac. No. Above Author Order: B o o k a a d ^ i l 8 e XVI 18-74.2 Marx J The e f f i c i e n c y of s p e c i a l i z e d product ion unavoidably imparts a loss of animism such as i s found when a v a r i e t y of tasks are undertaken, for example, h a n d i c r a f t s . - 256 -L,aiegory : HJErUftCHY Sub-head: Organizat ion i n Nature and Soc ie ty No. Auth or Order: Book and page XVI1 1-72.3 Darwin Dominant species tend to grow l a r g e r to the point where they i'orni smaller genera and d iv ide into a hierarchy of groups. 1-386.1 Darwin The ac t ion of natura l s e l e c t i o n argues for a "natural arrangement" or h i e r a r c h y . • 1-387.2 Darwin The community of descent i s the bond that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and hierarchy revea l to us . Category: Above Sub-head : Above No. Au lh or Order: Book and page it XVI1 10-707. Gibbon Like Mahomet's seven steps, Theophilus organized the palace of Constantinople so that the most i n f e r i o r people were placed at the bottom. The idea of l eve l s i s round i n the greetlugs b e t w e e n peoples of d i f f e r i n g rank. 10-710.! Gibbon 12-2-14. . O r * e l l Yeats be l ieved too i n the importance of a more h i e r a r c h i c a l age'. - 257 -Laic -gory : Auove it XVI1 Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page 14-173.: Durkheim Hierarchy i s the basis upon which soc iety is b u i l t and i s r e f l e c t e d in nature provid ing things h igher , lower and equal . 17-11.1 de Tocque-v i l l e In an a r i s t o c r a t i c soc ie ty people look up to the i n d i v i d u a l ; in an e g a l i t a r i a n soc ie ty respect i s given to the major i ty . - 258 -: nfi'i TsTrn s MXYTTPffi HKI.TRPS *XVI11 Sub-head: i N'o. Auth or Order : B o , . , . : £ ) n r l "p.,gp i 1 • 1 1 ! . i 5-431.3 Adams Science has put m u l t i p l i c i t y i n the place of unit} • i 5-454.3 Adams Poincare pointed out that the tendency to be l ieve in simple s c i e n t i f i c laws has been abandoned to a great degree. J J -• 9-64.3 Russe l l Physics has shown that mater ia l can evaporate into a phys ica l process - energy - which i s what i s permanent. l Catego r\ : Above if , , , , Above XVI11 \'o . Au th or Order: Book and page J -I . i 9-517.2 Russe l l An aesthet ic bias had accompanied science up to the discovery by Kepler of the e l l i p s e . J 1 17-48.3 de Tocciue-v i l l e Science that continues to examine secondary causes only and neglects primary ones may su f f er to regret l o s i n g p r i n c i p l e s that provide a path for c i v i l i z a t i o n . 1 20-256. ! Buli ' inch The Hindu's creator of the universe i s Brahma, whose a t t r i b u t e s - crea t ion - preservat ion - d e s t r u c t i o n , coincide with our western ideas of the un iverse . 1 - ! - 259 -Category: Above i Sab—head: No. Author Order: B n o k ftrw1 n f t p e • 21-7.4 C a s s i r e r . The language of science is not primary but a formation of a r b i t r a r y schemes. 1 • J -- 260 -Category: HUMAN BEHAVIOUR Sub-head: I n d i v i d u a l Behaviour No. Author Order: Book and page XIX 3 - 1 2 Freud Ego attempts to contro l the i d ' s lawless tendencies, I n a b i l i t y to do so renders a c o n f l i c t r e s u l t i n g i n psychosi s. 3-12.5 Freud Super ego i s the p r e c i p i t a t e of a l l l earn ing an continues from the ego. It i s the bed of conscience. Neurosis r e s u l t s from a c o n f l i c t between these two s ta tes . 3-60.4 Freud Among other reasons, forge t t ing is caused by the need to avoid unpleasant or pa in fu l memories. Category! Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page 3-63.4 Freud Concealing or not r e c a l l i n g ear ly memories can be re la t ed to tiie degree to which ti.ey are attached to important impressions one wishes to forget . 3-110.5 3-112.3 Freud Important reso lut ions can be forgot ten when they are supplanted by more press ing concerns. I n h i b i t i o n s can t r a n s f e r a r e s o l u t i o n . 3-319.2 Freud Dream-content i s the manifest i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of dreams, thoughts which bur consciousness does not remember or know about. In terpre t ing content , there fore , i s mis leading. - 2 6 1 -1 f L i z : Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order : Book and page XI; 3-586.3 Freud A suck l ing c h i l d presents a p i c t u r e of sexual g r a t i f i c a t i o n . -J 3-589.3 Freud The c h i l d who w i l l not defecate i s perceived as naughtly. 3-864.2 Freud Neuroses are often forms of a s o c i a l behaviour. Category: Above Sub-head: Ahnvp No, auth or Order : B n n l t ., n A o a , , e XIX 5-108.3 Adams Henry Adams held that a ' f r i e n d in power i s a f r i e n d l o s t 1 . 10-107.< Gibbon The Usurpers' e levat ion to Emperor was more often the act of fear to refuse , than amuit ion. 12-133.Z Orwell For H. M i l l e r there i s an appeal to being absolved of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and being merely an observer of the world. - 262 -. 1 i i J Category: HUMAN BEHAVIOUR f .Sub-head : S o c i a l Behaviour No. Author Order: Book and page -1 J 3-40.3 Freud Some forge t t ing is motivated by repres s ion . i • I 3-152.3 Freud Chance inc idents often have t h e i r base i n unconscious r e l a t i o n s h i p s . — I 1 3-236.4 Freud Neurotic anxiety is based in the sexual l i f e and r e f l e c t s the thwarting of the l i b i d o . ...... 1 Category: Above XIX Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page — 5-180.5 Adams Eng l i sh e c c e n t r i c i t y was notorious even i n the 19th century when an American thought i t a great waste of energy. 6-14.3 Herodotus It i s eas ier to fool many men than one. 1 !• 6-26.1 Herodotus Revenge was used as a s u i t a b l e excuse for invas ion when the object was a t t r a c t i v e enough. - 263 -I ~  Category; A,boye Sub-head; Above No. Au th or Order: Book and page /A XIX 6-89.4 Herodotus The case of Mardonius is an example of behaving in the most expedient manner, vo lunteer ing himself a r i s k to o f f se t i n e v i t a b l e chastisement. 6-116.3 Herodotus The common sense of l e t t i n g circumstances that ex i s t i n your favour win the bat t l e for you is sometimes ignored for the pleasure of warfare . 6-119.3 Herodotus The s i n of pr ide prevented Auompharetus from r e t r e a t i n g and thus caused confusion i n the Greek army.. Category : Above XIX . 1. Sub-head : Above 1 I No. auth or Order: Book and page I _ 6-125.2 Herodotus C o l l e c t i o n of. s p o i l s by helots i s evidence of mis t r u s t . placed 7-201.4 Lovejoy Condemnation of the s i n of pr ide had i t s r o o t s , i n the time of Opoe and Rousseau. Pr ide caused us to quest ion and challenge our pluce i n order of th ings . J 9-199.3 R u s s e l l A r i s t o t l e : what is common to most men rece ives the l eas t care from 'them. J , - 264 -1 I I - J -! Category: Above -vlA Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page J J 9-231.3 R u s s e l l It i s f e l t that tenure of a country i s more secure when those occupying i t are engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e as opposed to commerce alone. - 1 J . i 20-36.4 Bu l f inch The fable of Phaeton reminds us of the impetuosity of youth that w i l l not l i s t e n to reason. i l 20-150.2 Bu l f inch Penelope's web can re f er to any a r t i c l e which i s dismantled a f t e r being assembled so as to delay c o n s t r u c t i o n . Category: Above Sub-head: Above XIX J No. Author Order: Book and page i j i i 21-50.3 C a s s i r e r I t i s the case i n some cul tures that the i n d i v i d u a l i s only granted his i n d i v i d u a l i t y by being given a name. J J ] - 265 -1 1 Category: JUSTICE if \ - v Sul.-iioud: Ancient \ t ' » Au Uior Order: Book and page J 1 6-40.1 Herodotus Spartans feared t h e i r law mora than any one man and this gave them great s trength . 1 1 1 9-46.5 Russe l l Che Greek idea of J u s t i c e corresponded to the s tern neasure i n that the world consisted of balances beyond vhich one should not go. 1 -1 i 1 10-443.i I Gibbon '?here i s a h i g h . p r i c e to be paid for v i s i b i l i t y when a populace takes revenge on i t s own people. o T T C o g O i j it XX Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page 16-345. 5 de Tocque- ' v i l l e < ["he black s l a v e , as the North American iud ianj has been lebased by submitt ing to unreasonable requests to where le i s unable to funct ion reasonably in white s o c i e t y . I 17-176.:! de Tocque-v i l l e Equal i ty of condit ions i n America renders the American compassionate, but t h i s ceases with the occasion of i n e q u a l i t y , for example s laves . 1 1 1 • - 266 -1 1 ~ i * • J ! . 1 Category: JUSTICE it XX Sub-head: Modern AO . An t l i o r Order: B o o k a n d P a & e J :l j 1 2 - 1 5 0 . £ Orwell Part of England's i n t e g r i t y is i t s respect for the law. 1 J I 10-46.5 de Tocque-v i l l e The "ba i l" or committal a l t e r n a t i v e s i n America's j u s t i c e system are a remnant of Eng l i sh a r i s t o c r a c y and a n t i t h e t i c a l to a democratic country. 1 1 16-295.4 de Tocque-v i l l e The jury system i n a democracy teaches people to judge others f a i r l y and to take on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the a f f a i r s of others I - 267 -1 i i 1 1 I i Category: MODES OF KNOWING it' XXI .. Sub-head: Exoeriencing \"o. Auth or Order: Book and page 1" 1 i 2-172.3 James Professor E . D. Starbuck pos i t s two ways of t h i n k i n g : one by v o l i t i o n , the other by s e l f - s u r r e n d e r (such as t r y i n g to remember a name). Re l ig ious conversion occurs through the l a t t e r . 1 1 1 1 2-335.2 James adoption of mystic b e l i e f s a l t e r s the facts we have i n our l i v e s so that they take on a d i f f e r e n t hue, but they do not change the fac t s s u b s t a n t i v e l y . f 1 ! 2-354.3 Jame s The a b i l i t y of reason to demonstrate the "truth of the del iverances of d i r e c t r e l i g i o u s experience i s ibso lu te ly hopeless ." Li a I f j ' u ' l v": , # XXI Sub-head: Above No. Auth or Order: Book and page 2-386.5 James The world needs to be perceived o b j e c t i v e l y and s u b j e c t i v e l y . A fact cannot be appraised i n i s o l a t i o n from man's emotional s ta te . Science and r e l i g i o n must combine. 2-401.5 James The f a i t h of people i n God may help Him be " e f f e c t i v e l y f a i t h f u l to His own greater tasks ." This f a i t h asserts that there is another world besides our v e r i f i a b l y s c i e n t i f i c one. 1 1 i 3-146.3 Freud Only for the most balanced minds i s external r e a l i t y not d i s t o r t e d by "the psychic i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the one perce iv ing i t . " - 268 -Li Cale<for\ : Above it . , , , Above ,-iub-head: XX1--Au Lli or Order: Book a nil caje U J 1 8-XV.4 Kmuson Great peotry appeals to a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from the s p e c i f i c example presented, and c a l l s upon human experience and judgements to reach t h i s . J I 8-79.4 Empson Ambiguities ex i s t i n l i f e as i n language: a p r i o r i knowledge cannot be known through sense, yet there i s no other ( s c i e n t i f i c ) mode o L' knowledge; no person can reach our i s o l a t i o n , but human contacts are of va lue . -1 J 3-243.1 Empson For a c r i t i c to success fu l ly say what was i n the w r i t e r ' s mind and what should occur to the reader i s too dangerous a task . Wil l iam Empson fee l s i t i s bet ter to t a l k about both part ies at once. -Category : Above - • ; ft XXI - Sub-head : Above 1 No. Auth or Order: Book and page j 1 | ! 11-21.1 Brooks ?he imagination i s a paradox but a necessary one from vhich we may enjoy "Beauty, T r u t h , and R a r i t i e " . The same may not come from a n a l y s i s . i i 11-177.; Brooks The L y r i c s i m p l i c i t y of a poem i s the e s sen t ia l housing that binds the i n t r i c a c i e s and complexit ies formulated by the poet. This should be observed rather than a thoughtful meditat ion g iven . That i s , emotion, not i n t e l l e c t . ! 11-191.^ Brooks Yeats wishes us to experience his poetry and the images i n i t as i t occurs , not to be s t a t i c a l l y reviewed or considered. - 269 -Above Catego ry:  Sub-head: Above No. Au th or Order: Book and page XXI 12-414.1 Orw e l l Others, l i k e T o l s t o y , might miss the magic i n Shakespeare as the o ld man misses that element and energy of chi ldhood that he has l o s t . 17-43.2 de Tocque-v i l l e Meditat ion contr ibutes to the betterment of science but A m e r i c a lacks a conducive environment with a l l i t s bust l ing and rush and s t r i v i n g for for tune . 21-30.4 C a s s i r e r Concepts derive t h e i r meaning from the autonomous, and s u b j e c t i v e , a c t i v i t y of the mind. Category: Above Sub-liead: No. Author Order: Book and page X X I 21-34.5 C a s s i r e r Poetry i s rooted i n the subject ive experiencing or f e e l i n g , rather than i n an object ive view of things , - 270 -Cuiegorv : yMOWT-Kr,!^: ACT TVS . liN^TRICAL . SS>&k<vfc u It XXI1 1 Sub-head: 1 No. .Author Order: Book and page 1 4-144.2 Dostoevsky C i v i l i z a t i o n has presented man with merely greater opportuni t ies for v a r i e t y of sensat ions . J 11-111.2 Brooks America's use of Eng l i sh inure accurate ly accords with o r i g i n a l meaning than present day Eng l i sh i n England. 1 1 ] -1—' 12-67.4 Orwell Dickens' w r i t i n g is often a s t a t i c cons iderat ion of i n d i v i d u a l s as pr ivate rather than s o c i a l beings . J 1 1 : 1 Category: Above it XXI1 Sub-head: A b o v e \'c> . Auth or Order: B o o k } i n d ii i l°e J 1 14-434.3 Durkheim Urasping of concepts is a very i n d i v i d u a l task in which we see the d e t a i l of content and the r e l a t i o n s h i p i t has i n i t s l o c a t i o n . 1 J L4-494.3 Durkheim The dichotomy of sense and matter' v s . pure and impersonal reason i s explained somewhat i n ' t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . 1 L6-330.1 de Tocque-v i l l e The A m e r i c a n ' s knowledge'of democracy comes from his f i r s t hand experience of working with i t . - 271 -Category : Above Sub-head: Above t i l l _ .\To. Auth or Order: Book and page i 1 i 18-11.2 Marx Man's consciousness develops from materia l c o n d i t i o n s , 1—' and these have to be in place , and witnessable i n a measurable way, before conscience can grasp the ideo-I l o g i c a l forms a transformation suggests, be i t expressed p o l i t i c a l l y , j u d i c i a l l y , r e l i g i o u s l y , e t c e t e r a . i l - 26 .2 C a s s i r e r The p a r t i c u l a r receives i t s meaning by the place i t i s given a s we synthesize i t w i t h past experience under a given i d e a . 21-58.1 C a s s i r e r Dnce a name has been given to an object i t becomes r e a l , | seing fused with i t , and becomes the symbol of establ ished meaning. - 272 -i u Category r : LANGUAGE: FABLE AND MYTH it 1 Sub-head: X X l l l , j \To . Au t h o r Order: B o o k H a d P a « e -1 J 10-130.1 Gibbon Grandiose epithets l o s t t h e i r sense of importance or through t h e i r overuse, for example: d i v i n i t y . by i 20-103.3 B u l f i n c h "Bel lerophonic l e t t e r s " describe l e t t e r s i n which the bearer is subject to t h e i r content that i s p r e j u d i c i a l to h imse l f . ! 20-107.4 Bu l f inch The term "Argonauts" ind icates how language can be derived from myth. 1 — Category Sub-heac : A b o v e • — '^XXl l l No. Author Order: Book and n a p e 1 i 20-219.5 B u l f i n c h S i b y l i s a mortal who received from Apol lo her wish f o r longevi ty and survived about 1000 years , but she forgot to ask for l a s t i n g youth and grew s h r i v e l l e d and ugly as she aged. . i 20-263.2 B u l f i n c h The g o d Pan i s assoc iated with nature and the f o r e s t s . Terror f i l l e d t;:ose who ventured into the fores t s at n ight , hence the name panic . i 21-3.2 C a s s i r e r In the world of myth i t i s poss ib le to f i n d an objec t ' s essence i n i t s 'name. - 273 -! '1 i i •  — •- — • • •• •"' •1 L J Category: Above ' W i 1 ! Sub-head: No. Author Order: TJ„„I.- ..„,I LJ \ —. ,i 21-11.5 C a s s i r e r . . . . . . « r •-(-,-Language i s an ent i ty unto i t s e l f and appl i ed i t s mechanics to the representat ions and symbols we gave i t . It is detached from objects and events. -J 1 } 21-20.3 C a s s i r e r Diet ies 1 names often oervadd language i n order to convey the a t t r i b u t e s given to them. r • 1 11 21-84.1 C a s s i r e r Metaphorical th inking is common to both myth and language. Category: . *bove i Sub-head: " X A T I I No. Author Order: Book and page r 21-86.2 Cass i'rer Mythology i s construed by some to be language where the metaphorical connection i s ;:>yth has been l o s t . i _ 1 j 1-J J • - 274 -J Category; MODES Off LEARNING. Sub-head; Challenge and scope of l earn ing No, Au th or Order : Book and page J 3-8G.3 Freud Mistakes in speech are u n l i k e l y to occur when the speaker i s mindful of content and f u l l of c o n v i c t i o n . -J -J 5-148.3 Adams •Truth cau enjoy only a l i m i t e d scope i n the world and an education i n tact and d i s c r e t i o n allows t h e - r i g h t amount to be employed. 5-302.3 Adams A good teacher w i l l not pretend to teach what he does not know, but w i l l j o i n the students i n t h e i r quest to l e a r n . Category: Above Sub-head: Above No, Au th or Order : Book and page XXIV 5-302.4 Adams One philosophy of teaching i s to work with the top students and c u l t i v a t e those who t r u l y want t o , and can, l e a r n . -382.1 Adams The in t roduc t ion of new rays , dynamos, engines and atoms exploded educational p r a c t i c e s . It was enough to gather the concept without the p r i n c i p l e . 9-138.4 Russe l l In order to experience the ecstasy of u t t er c e r t a i n t y i n knowledge one must immerse oneself i n the d e t a i l s , u n t i l the time when one sees the whole. - 275 -i 1 1 1 J Category: A b o v e XXIV Sub-head: Above Ko. Author Order: B o o k a u d l> aS e 1 10-G-1G.2 Gibbon A . D . 9G2 Charlemagne's e s tab l i sh ing of schools introduced a new era into Europe. — 1 1. 1 1 1 i. 1 Ca Legory : MOOES OF 1 » XXIV Sub-head: Integrated Learning No. Author Order: Book and page j. 5-312.3 A d a m s The epitome of a good education seemed, to A d a m s , one that was broad but that was of a p iece , s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d . — 1 5-123.2 Adams Internat iona l r e l a t i o n s i s the only sure basis of h i s t o r y . 1 l • i • 5-428.4 Adams Not sc ience , only r e l i g i o n and the Schoolmen of fered Unity for our wor ld . This came from God whose force created mind, which in turn devised form. Mind and Unity were mutually support ive . - 276 -I Ca to«/o r Above Sub-head: Above au th or Order: Book and page XXIV 7-16.4 Lovej oy The inf luence of Eng l i sh gardens on general thought during the Romantic per iod i s an.example of a connection the knowledge of which would a i d us i n understanding present ly poorly conceived f a c t s . Our u n i v e r s i t i e s •should be working in th i s area . 7-18.3 Lovejoy Education that considers or inves t igates a subject over a per iod of time for comparison (for example, England of 1600-1900) i s u n l i k e l y to appreciate the more probable commonalities e x i s t i n g between d i f f e r e n t countries during the same per iod (for example, Renaissance i n England and France) . 7-20.1 Love j oy. I n f e r i o r wr i ters can r e f l e c t t h e i r t ime's cond i t ion more accurate ly than a good w r i t e r . This makes t h e i r books worthy of h i s t o r i c a l study. Here may appear general ideas , notions as opposed to those of a se lec t few . Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Au Mi or Order: Book and page XXIV 14-32.5 Durkheim The h i s t o r y of ideas i s the source for an attempt at a theory of knowledge. 14-260.: Durkhe iin Emile Durkheim argues that ideas possess something cohesive that cannot be found by ana lys i s of mater ia l s t r u c t u r e s . 2 1 - 5 . 2 C a s s i r e r Mythology ex is t s today, a l b e i t unobserved, forming languages as language exercises i t s power on thought. - 277 -1 • I I _ 1 • -\ • • Category: MAN'S NEEDS AND DRIVES It XXV «51 it» 11 c» s I H : Man's Long term Needs No. Author Order : Book and page 1 J -1 >-2 97.5 James Ult imate ly every i n d i v i d u a l must make his own r e l i g i o u s dec i s ion based upon what answers- h is own s p e c i f i c needs. —J 1 1 1 i-178.3 Freud Psychosis, . neuros i s , anx ie ty , e tcetera are a l l expressions of our sub-conscious . V i ! ;-803.3 Freud The economy of form in wi t , comic and humour becomes more soph i s t i ca ted the older we get and needs to be so to be effect ive . . 1 : i Category: . b o v e Sub-head: Above tt No. Author Order: Book and page x x v t i .! | 1-147.3 Dostoevsky . L i f e consis ts of reason and w i l l , the l a t t e r of which i s most important for i t " s a t i s f i e s the whole of l i f e . " — 1-148.2 Dostoevsky Personal i ty and i n d i v i d u a l i t y are , for some, the most precious things for mankind.• J J 1-151.2 Dostoevsky Man's basic need i s for the process of attainment. To reach the end or f i n a l produce i s something he dreads. - 278 -. j L1 Category: Above // : XXV Sub-head: A b o v e iVo . Au t!i or Order: Book and page - l .-3 >-427 .3 Adams Man is by nature an ac t ive animal who i s motivated so by ennui . ' » . | .2-273.3 Orwell Power is admired when i t takes the form i n which i t can be persona l ly apprec ia ted , for example in i n d i v i d u a l s as opposed to i n s t i t u t i o n s . — 1 .A . 8 - 1 0 1 . 4 Marx The death rate increased in areas where mothers i. ere absent from the home due to work. Man's Needs juu-i ieud: Short term No. 3 - 2 1 . 2 3-739. Author Freud Order: Book and uage •  xxv Hit i s modern man's safety valve , Preud The "Psychic da;:.mi ng" invoked by the comic acts as a pleasurable gushing when removed. 3 - 7 9 8 . 1 Preud Humour i s most e f f ec t ive when the content has been economically condensed. 279 -1 — • r i_l | L l ' i Category: A b o v e it XXV S u b - h e a d : i h n v o Xo. Author Order: - b o v o ; j J • 1 4-139.4 Dostoevsky To be at ease is .man's aim, -whether h e operate on primary or 'secondary causes. - 1 J ' 4-166.3 Dostoevsky The preservat ion of d ign i ty - the respect o f fe l low man - warrants acts that would otherwise be too base to contemplate. — •.. 12-208.4 Orwell Lewd comic postcards f i l l a need in much of the B r i t i s h populace depending uoon the degree to which the i n d i v i d u a l needs to s a t i s f y a humour o f lowuess or obsenity . - 280 -Category: M A S 0 A J ^ E A L Sub-head: Negative E f f e c t s of Masses No. 12-48.5 auth or Orwell Order : B 0 0 ] t and page If XXVI Dickens evokes a powerful sense of mob h y s t e r i a in "A Tale of Two C i t i e s " , ami also how unfee l ing and anarchic th i s can be. 12-180. J Orwell V i a r i s a great i n s t i g a t o r of change. It makes the i n d i v i d u a l aware that he is•more than an i n d i v i d u a l . He i s a necessary part of a larger i u t i t y . 14-240. 3 Durkheim The crowd, group, or mob w i l l exci te the i n d i v i d u a l to acts that would not occur i f he were l e f t i n h is o r i g i n a l s t a t e . Category: xVbove Sub-head: Above No, Author Order: Book and page :xvi 0-534.1 B u l f i n c h The Saracens i n f i g h t i n g Kind .Richard used a v a r i e t y of noise makers to excite the sp- ir i t and courage of t h e i r men and int imidate the foe . 281 -Ca to gory MASS APPEAL Sub-head: P o s i t i v e Mass E f f e c t s No. Au LIi or Order: Book and page XXVI 5-2 52.3 Adams Such a mind i s descr ibed that r e f l e c t e d outside images l i k e water, so s o l i t a r y was i t s nature. Durkheim Indiv idua l consciousnesses are c losed to one another unless there ex i s t s a form of expression that demonstrates shared i n t e r n a l s ta te s . f or example, a running club shows a commonality of the desire to run which i s made p h y s i c a l l y obvious. 14-308.2 Durkheim In the c o l l e c t i v e ideas of Emile Durkheim the i n d i v i d u a l plays a necessary part that i s enhanced with the greater number and d i v e r s i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s . Category: Above Sub-head: Above No, Author Order: Book and.page // XXVI 14-387, Durkheim The common f a i t h which binds men together is reaff irmed when the group'meets. 14-390.1 Durkheim Reconvening as a group rees tab l i shes the s o c i a l i d e a l s , and, by so doing, s o c i a l order . - 282 ---j Category: DRIVE OF M •TERT Vl.TSM Sub-head: \To , Efficiency Author Order: BooU and page XXVI1 A 5-238.2 5-239.2 Adams The rai lway introduced an extravagance and haste which was before unknown. 13-235.5 Weber It is suggested that ear ly Puri tanism infused the m i l i -tary with i t s r i g i d d i s c i p l i n e , ' f o r example: Cromwell's uethods. L7-38.1 de Tocque-v i l l e The nature of the American i s to be drawn earthward to the pursu i t of p r a c t i c a l objec t s . Cat egory •i 1 ' f •> y p Sub-head: Above No, Author Order: Book and page XXVI1 17-50.1 de Tocque-v i l l e Art in Democratic countries often follows the u s e f u l , or what makes l i f e easy. It can a lso r e p l i c a t e nature instead of being au expression unique in i t s e l f . J 18-73.2 Marx The r e p e t i t i v e nature of s p e c i a l i z e d , detai l - labourers i s more e f f i c i e n t and cost e f f ec t ive than the handicraf t worker. - 283 -f Ca tegurv DRIVE OF MATERIALISM Sub-head Ownership Auth or Order: Book and page it XXVI1 4-140.5 Dostoevsky The hypocrisy of cher i sh ing the f i n e r aspects of l i f e i s witnessed in our successful men. 5-145.4 Adams The m a t e r i a l i s t i c American i s motivated to such an extent that his a sp i ra t ions supersede his a f f ec t ions to women, who, by necess i ty , are forced to follow s u i t . 6-125.5 Herodotus From evidence of the two d i f f e r e n t forms of meals i t seemed the Persians were moving from a p o s i t i o n of wealth to one of poverty . L a l e g ory . u o v o Sub-head: Above No. Auth or Order: Book and page it XXVI1 13-53.2 Vi e b e r Economic a c q u i s i t i o n is the primary concern of man i n order to s a t i s f y his materia l needs. 13-175.3 Vi' e b e r The Methodists recognized that wealth was m i s d i r e c t i n g people wiiose i n t e r e s t focused more on t h e i r increased goods. 1, 14-254.4 Durkheim Forces of soc ie ty are often conceived of as mater ia l forms and therefore i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that they are c l o s e l y re la t ed to mater ia l th ings . Hence "they (totems) dominate the two worlds (of moral and mater ia l l i f e ) . - 284 -i" Category Above Sub—head Above Auth or Order: Book and page it XXVll 16-305.1 de Tocque-v i l l e The American's emotions are excited by the opportunity for gain and for tune . Such i n d i v i d u a l focus i s as much a v i r tue as a disadvantage. 18-XX1V-1 luarx Surplus value is the source of c a p i t a l i s t p r o f i t s and const i tutes that por t ion of a worker's day occupied working ai'ter lie has earned his wages. 19-125.4 Veblen There is in man a need for conspicuous consumption to i i s p l a y or give evidence of his success. Category: = ^ h n _ if . XXVll Sub-head: Above No. Auth or Order: Book and page 19-159.4 Veblen Pecuniary beauty is often a feature of devout ceremony i n order to give i t the r i g h t degree of power or p r e s t i g e . 19-233.2 Veblen '''il. Man's conduct i s to a degree d ic ta ted by his economic l i f e h i s t o r y which i s i t s e l f a cumulative process of means and ends. Habits of yesterday determine his behaviour today. 1 1 16-384.< de Tocuue-v i l l e ilany southern crops , f o r example co t ton , require year round at tent ion . - This aspect made s laves worth keeping. - 285 -M a t e r i a l i s m , Drive of 1 Sub-iiead: Ownershin " XXVI1 No. Author Order: Book and oa^e - I " i j 19-273. L Veblen Vihen money i s seen to act as a medium of exchange, as opposed to Adam Smith's c i r c u l a t o r y not ion , i t normalizes l i f e forming processes such as man's object ive va lues . Ie. i t f a c i l i t a t e s a need to e s tab l i sh personal worth. J • . . . 1—: 1 • / - 286 -Category: MA.TERIiVL.ISM AND THE S P I R I T Sub-head: No, Author Order: Book and page XXVI11 10-362.3 Gibbon The ethics of the bishop of Jerusalem were not above s e l l i n g port ions of the holy cross which remained remarkably i n t a c t . 2 13-25.4 Weber C a p i t a l i s t i n t e r e s t s i n India and China d i d not use the p r e v a i l i n g knowledge i n business perhaps because of the d i f ference of t h e i r r a t i o n a l i s m to the Western" c u l t u r e . L3-235.4 Weber Weber stresses that the Reformation took asce t i c i sm of the monestaries and p u t i i t in to a c t i v e l i f e . out Category: Above Sub-heac No, Above Author Order: Book and page XXVI11 .3-282.3 Weber The craftsmau has l o s t the opportunity to experience joy i n his c r e a t i o n . It was supplanted by Pur i tan i s c e t i c i s m . Today that i s l o s t to the power of c a p i t a l . J J 5-172.3 Tols toy Art should help progress h u m a n i t y t o w a r d s u n i t y a n d D l e s s e d n e s s . As i t i s , i t h a s been treated l i k e a w o m a n , p r o s t i t u t e d for i t s l o o k s r a t h e r t h a n the ( m a t e r n i t y ) i n s p i r a t i o n of w h i c h i t i s capable. 7-142.1 de Tocque-v i l l e The fervour of f a n a t i c a l s p i r i t u a l i s m i n America i s a f fec ted by the d i v i s i o n i t holds to the mater ia l object ive most often pursued there . The peadulum swing has to be great to account for the d i f ference i n number and perspec t ive . - 287 -Category . Above XXV111 i t Sub-head: A b o v e No.- Auth or Order: R n f > l c . ,„ , , n . , ; „ p .j" 17-154.4 de Tocque-. v i l l e Mater ia l i sm possesses the danger, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a democratic country, of suggesting to the people that a l l i 1 is matter, thus foresaking the s p i r i t u a l . ! 20-332.4 Bul f inch King A r t h u r ' s knights were sworn to acts of honour and i l to eschew any world's goods. J * - 288 -I Category': THE NEED FOR OPPOSLTES Sub-head: Natural Qpposites No. Author Order: Book and page it X X I X 4-135.2 Dostoevsky There i s a place i n nature for the diseased and lowly . 4-137.3 Dostoevsky Nature recognizes no d i f ferences i n man that would permit c lass d i s t i n c t i o n s . 7-64.5 Lovejoy Within the concept of "The Great Chain of Being" there i s a place for low characters without whom the whole would be d iminished. i Category: Above It X X I X Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page 1 8-224.2 226.1 P-uiuson The c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s more apparent than r e a l when ooposites are juxtaposed. Although they need r e s o l v i n g eventual ly they have the e f fec t of imparting something of the whole. L 1 . i 8-235.2 Rmpson Ambiguity conveys tension which increases with the degree of ambiguity. Poetry should convey and maintain t h i s t eus ion . J J • 9-556.4 Russ.el 1. Spinoza f ee l s that we should view the world as i f everything i s part of the Whole. F . v i l , then, i s only a oart viewed as i f i t were s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t which i t i s not . 289 -Category: Above • S u b - h e a d : A b o v e No, Author Order: Book and page XXIX 11-103.3 Brooks By b l e n d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t h e Gay a n d t h e S e r i o u s P o p e manages t o convev . i u s t t h e r i g h t t r i v i a l t o n e t o h i s p o e m . 11-130.3 Brooks Wordsworth's use of symbolism is subt le i n respect to h is contras t ing two aspects of l i g h t . 19-435.1 Veblen •Sabotage i s a r e s t r a i n t a n n l i e d by syndicates and b u s i -ness and industry to contro l forces that would otherwise create a threatening d ise t iua l ibr ium. Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page X X I X 19-581.C Veblen Ind iv idua l prest ige f inds i t s c o r o l l a r y i n D a t r i o t i s m where the object i s to enhance the country by d iminish ing the ooponent. 19-586.5 Veblen Patr io t i sm eventual ly f a l l s back uoon compet i t ion between opponents that i s j o i n t l y damaging. L J " - 290 -JF Category: T H E N K E D F m OPPQSITES S u h - h o a d : ' S o c i a l Q p p o s i t e s No. Author Order: Book and page XXIX 4-175.2 Dostoevsky There i s a natura l repu l s ion of opposites that creates d i v i s i o n s i n a c lassed s o c i e t y . 14-29.3 D u r k h e i m Organism and Soc ie ty represent the two i n t e r n a l / e x t e r n a l outlooks i n man. 16-6.2 de Tocque-v i l l e The l e v e l i n g o f f i n soc i e ty has been occurr ing s ince the eleventh century, and as the noble has f a l l e n , the peasant has r i s e n . Sub-head: Above N o . Author Order: Book and page it XXIX 16-356.1 de Tocaue-v i l l e The Indian s trongly resembles the Kuronean noble i n that hunting and war are the only manly p u r s u i t s . Commerce i s beneath them. 18-155.£ Marx The r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a p i t a l i s t and wage labourer i s that of buyer and vendor, a s i t u a t i o n i m p l i c i t i n the nature of c a p i t a l i s m . 19-65.2 Veblen In p r i m i t i v e people the two acts e s s e n t i a l to l i f e -e x p l o i t a t i o n and industry - are c a r r i e d out by man and woman r e s p e c t i v e l y . - 291 -1 . 1 i. w OPPOSITES : ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL it XXX S u b - h e a d : n f v i s i n h - h v f l n T i n s i i i e s No. Author Order: R n r i k a n ( 1 n n c r f t . . ... 1 • _ 1 4-168.2 )ostoevsky ) i appreciat ion of "the good and the b e a u t i f u l " i s most Diouant when viewed from the contrast of the low, s i m D l e and v u l g a r . _ 1 j 1 4-175.4 Dostoevsky 3eauty corrupted i s d e p r a v i t y . The more external the seauty the more corrupt ib le , i t i s . —it 1 6-90.2 Herodotus Setter to have your enemy go free than to be a pr i soner causing d i s r u p t i o n i n your midst . 1 1 - Category: Above // Sub-heac l : Above XXX No. Author Order: Book and page f j I 6-128.1 6-129.3 Herodotus The employment of the enemy i n your ranks suggests e i ther a naivety on the part of the Persians or foo l i shness on the part of the opposing enemy. ^The r e s u l t i n g distrust corresponds to WV11 i n Canada and Japan.) 1 1 9-252.4 Russe l l Epicurus advocated p a s s i v e rather than a c t i v e p leasures , for example, e q u i l i b r i u m i s the des ired s t a t e . Hunger with i t s accompanying pain would be a c t i v e , while s a t i a t i o n ( ^ " e q u T l i b r i u m ) i s pass ive . 1 1 10-167.1 Gibbon Ear ly C h r i s t i a n s p r a c t i s e d behaviour that was the a n t i t h e s i s of the e a r l i e r Roman wor ld . Hence they d e n i e d sensual pleasure and abstained from m i l i t a r y defence or admin i s t ra t ive involvement, a pendulum e f f e c t . - 292 -0 - - „• :1 ! Sub-head : Above ;t XXX No. Author Order: Book and page 12-57.3 Orwell Knglaud i s t y p i c a l of a n a t i o n a l i s t i c country where — "Xenophobia" i s bred into the people. 12-122.3 Orwell During the prosperous 1910-30's wr i t er s f e l t comfort-able enough to look at t h e . p e s s i m i s t i c side of l i f e . J 1 During hard times the need i s to be optomis t i c . 12-178.3 Orwell George Orwell considers there i s no appeal for J communism i n western Europe; fascism i s perhaps more a t t r a c t i v e . 1 — J Category: A b o v e it 1 Sub-head i . Above XXX i No. Author Order: E o o k a n < i P^ge ] 14-345.3 Durkheim Sacred days simply put the two opposing ideas (sacred - J .! and nrofane) into perspective and create a proper balance of the two by separat ing them. 14-468.2 Durkheim C h r i s t i a n i t y r e a l i s t i c a l l y portrays e v i l as a good - j - of extensive uower that represents l i f e ' s impur i t i e s ~ ^ and as i n l i f e has l i g h t overoowering darkness. 15-73.3 To l s toy The upper c lasses who produced a r t found plenty to occupy them i n ' t h e i r own c lass but found the lower -••1 classes devoid of content. - 293 -0 . . _ . . Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page XXX 20-139.1 Bulf inch" The Pates ordained the Famine and Ceres (cereal ) cannot meet, which i s i n keeping with nature ' s laws. - 294 -Category . ORGANIZATION BY MAN it . Sub-head Order and R e l i g i o n XXXI | - No. Author Order : Book and page - i 1 0 - 1 6 4 . E Gibbon C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s ensured that the C h r i s t i a n behaved i n a manner that accorded to public oeace and lawful engagement. J 1 0 - 1 7 0 . 1 Gibbon The Bishop and presbyters administered the ear ly C h r i s t i a n communities, for even the most perfect freedom and. enua l i ty "requires a d i r e c t i n g hand." Whole congregational sufferage exempli f ied workable • governments that l a t e r synods jo ined together . 1 0 - 7 9 7 . 4 Gibbon A . D . 1 4 2 5 - 1 4 4 8 . Every f i f t h c h i l d of the C h r i s t i a n s was inducted into the highly r igorous T u r k i s h army. Category: Above ft Sub-head: Above — No. Author Order : Book and page v — 13-119 .1 Weber Order was brought to P u r i t a n men by a subordinat ion the emotions and a des truc t ion of "spontaneous, impulsive enjoyment." of 14-170 . ' , Durkheim E a r l y r e l i g i o n s showed r e c o g n i t i o n of the resemblances of things i n nature by ass igning them together as they correspond i n a f f i n i t y or r e p u l s i o n . J J -IF J 295 -Category: ORGANIZATION BY MAN Sub-head: Order and Society No. Author Order: Book and page it XXXI 7-193.5 Lovej oy Kant perpetuated the Northern myth by s t a t i n g that man's per fec t ion increased with his distance from the sun. J 7-206.3 Lovej oy One's place i n soc ie ty was deemed one's place i n the Great Chain . Any attempt at equa l i ty de f i ed th i s intended order . 8-205.2 Empson Machines have a beauty unique, for they have the strength of passion without d i s o r d e r . Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page it XXXI 9-540.1 R u s s e l l Although our government has taken roughly the shape Hobbes imagined, and although we have the checks and balances suggested by Locke in h is d i v i s i o n of power, i t i s evident that as the S ta te ' s funct ions increase i n d i v i d u a l res i s tance i s going to be more d i f f i c u l t . 13-22.2 -24.1 V / e b e r Capi ta l i sm i n the O c c i d e n t i s charac ter i zed by the fact that : 1. business i s kept separate from the household; 2. there has ex i s ted a nat iona l organizat ion of free labour . 14-172.! Durkheim Our s o c i a l patterns suggest to us the organ iza t ion we can ascr ibe to nature . - 296 -1 i. 1 • Category: Above it XXXI Sub-head [• Above No. Author Order: Book and page J J 1. 19-619.1 Veblen " Those se lec ted to be engaged i n the admin i s t ra t ion of the country should come from the top ten per cent . -J 1 1 21-81.3 C a s s i r e r Naming and c l a s s i f y i n g gives' man a world that i s comprehensible, for example the whole known by i t s p a r t s . -J - 297 -r — ! Category; ORGANIZATION IN NATURE Sub-head; D i v e r s i t y i n Organizat ion No. Author Order: Book and page XXXI1 1-128.5 Darwin Increased d i v e r s i t y i n a spec ie ' s decendants improves that spec ie ' s chance of s u r v i v a l by enlarging u n t i l a new d i s t i n c t genera i s produced. 1-156.3 Darwin Organic beings low i n the scale are more v a r i a b l e than those high on the s c a l e . 1-178.3 Darwin Throughout nature d i v e r s i f i e d means are often employed to produce the same end, for example, the wings of b i rds and bats . Category; A b o v e Sub-head; A h n v o No. Author Order : Rnnk nnd pnge XXX11 1-369.3 Tlarwin Animals and fresh water b irds disperse the seeds and low animal l i f e which produces the d i s t r i b u t i o n we now have. 1-384.3 Darwin Lowly oreanized organisms are more v a r i a b l e than higher ones. 1-435.2 Darwin D i v e r s i t y , e x t i n c t i o n and b i r t h are the features of the "Natural System" which operates on the basis of "Nature non f a c i t saltura". - 298 -Category: ^bove Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page tt XXXI1 12-243.2 Orwell Yeats tended to be l i eve i n the fact of r e c u r r i n g cyc les i n l i f e , so that we are only repeat ing something that has occurred before . 14-31.2 Durkheim Soc ie ty i s part of nature and exhib i t s the same ideas , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , groups, e t ce t era , i . e . analogies that i n the i n d i v i d u a l are more apparent. 20-258.2 B u l f i n c h While the Hindu r e l i g i o n and idea of castes imparts some hardships i t a lso provides advantages to the lowest group who can eat any form of meat d e s i r e d . Category: n p r r A y T 7 A T r r , M T V \ T A T ( FR P. Sub-head: S t r u c t u r a l Organizat ion No. vuth or Order: Book and page tt xxx i i 1-90.2 Darwin Nature's product ion , due to i t s long d u r a t i o n , i s f a r truer to the i d e a l than man's which concentrates on the short term. 1-181.2 Darwin In nature natural s e l e c t i o n acts through successive v a r i a t i o n s as opposed to sudden leaps . 1-222.2 Darwin Gradations of s t ruc ture with d i f f e r i n g funct ions for each organism occur across spec ies . - 299 -j 1 l l LJ Category: A b ° v e XXXI1 Sub-head . . Above No. Author Order: B o o k a n d Pil*e L J J J 7-59.4 Lovej oy Since P l a t o ' s Cont inu i ty and A r i s t o t l e ' s not ion of h i e r a r c h i e s , there has come the b e l i e f i n a "Great Chain of Being", suggesting a cont inu i ty of l i f e , each d i f f e r -ing to the one before and a f t er by the ' l eas t pos s ib l e ' degree of d i f f e r e n c e . • 1 7-170.4 Lovej oy Leibniz; declares that God has a choice i n what inhab i t s the ear th . The choice appl ies to what composes the sets that r e l a t e to each other . . 7-231.1 Lovejoy Buffou concluded that a cont inu i ty discounted the idea that species could be c l a s s i f i e d - t h e i r gradations would be too c l o s e . - 300 -i i i i L - J Cateoorv: P A R T S // XXX111 S u b - h e a c No. Author Order: B o o k P a S e • J 2 - 3 6 . 3 James Neurot ic s , psychopaths, e t ce t era , of high i n t e l l e c t are more l i k e l y to inf luence t h e i r age than i f they were l e s s n e u r o t i c . • J J 1 3 - 1 9 4 . 3 Freud • Freud's ana lys i s of dreams i s done i n d e t a i l rather than en masse. It conceives dreams as b u i l t .UD or composed, as opposed to being one symbol. _ i 9 - 4 2 8 . 5 R u s s e l l Anselm, a nomina l i s t , held that a whole that has parts has no r e a l i t y of i t s own. Only the parts are r e a l . Categor\ : Parts inf luence the whole ii Sub-head : Ind iv idua l X X X l l l J No . Author Order: Book and Page J 4-147.3 Dostoevsky L i f e cons is t s of reason a n d - w i l l , the l a t t e r b e i n g the most important, for i t " s a t i s f i e s the whole of l i f e ." -1 J * -- 301 -1 I I Category: PARTS: INFLUENCE AND CONTROL OP THE WHOLE // CXX111 Sub-head : S o c i a l Pai •ts No. Author Order: Book and page J A - . i ! 2-390.1 James The surest way of capturing f e e l i n g , and therefore l i f e ' s v i t a l essence, i s to coucehtrate on the i n d i v i d u a l who cannot funct ion without f e e l i n g . R e l i g i o n i s best perpetuated through the i n d i v i d u a l . - j | 4-149.3 Dostoevsky Wan i s not a manipulated being by nature and should not be used as such by nature or s o c i e t y . :j 4 i 8-154.2 EmDson A poet might achieve an e f fec t through s o c i a l pressure and be unaware that he has done so. if XXX111 Sub-head: No. Author Order: Book and page 1 6 - 4 5 2 . £ de Tocaue-v i l l e The United States and Russia are dest ined to sway the des t in ie s of the g lobe . (1840) J J 1 17-91.4 de Tocque-v i l l e Events of t h i s world can be a t t r i b u t e d i n oart to very general facts and i n oart to s p e c i a l i n f l u e n c e s . Democratic countries are dominated by a greater proport ion of the former compared to the l a t t e r , while i n a r i s t o c r a t i c countr ies the reverse i s t r u e . 1 J 1 9 - 5 7 8 . 3 Veblen A State can e s t a b l i s h oeace with another nat ion but i t has l i t t l e e f fec t unon maintaining i t . - 302 PERFECTION Sub-head: P e r f e c t i o n and Man No. Author Order: Book and page it XXXIV 10-407.1 Gibbon Gibbon out l ines the degeneracy that led to the dec l ine of Rome. (AD 395) 10-529.2 Gibbon Gibbon speaks of a per fec t ing of our world and man's place i n i t . 15-107.1 To l s toy A good a r t i s t must br ing to h i s work not only t a l e n t but aspects from the highest l i f e - c o n c e p t i o n of h i s time and the des ire >to transmit h is emotions. Category: Above Sub-heat. No. Above Author Order ; Book and page XXXIV 15-179.3 To l s toy A r t should move the i n d i v i d u a l from reason and i n t e l l e c t to the perfec t ion of f e e l i n g and uni ty found i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s percept ion . 16-409.4 de Toctiue-v i l l e Americans ho ld that everyone has the r i g h t to s e l f -government and that there i s a p e r f e c t a b i l i t y i n man. 17-35.2 de Tocuue-v i l l e As mankind advances s o c i a l l y he D e r c e i v e s i n d i v i d u a l weakness c l e a r e r but gives hone for a perfec t ing of man over t ime. - 303 -1 ^- . - 0 ~ - j . Above it OX1V Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page : 19-301.3 Veblen Veblen D e r c e i v e s no sens ib le d i f f erence between the races of Euglish-Dutch-German and Slavs of Great R u s s i a . j j . 19-302.5 Veblen The German race may not d i f f e r to many others as a race but c u l t u r a l l y there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference and i t i s one p e c u l i a r to a h y b r i d people . -& 1. 1 | 19-627.3 Veblen A state i n which necuniary in tere s t s between nations and c lasses are unstable i s u sua l ly s t a b i l i z e d by f o r c e . ' • " " * • J Category: P£R*ECTI0N it Sub-heac P e r f e c t i o n i n Nature XXXIV —: No. Author Order: Book and page J J J 1-57.4 Darwin The slow orocess .of natura l s e l e c t i o n accounts for the change i n nature's soec ies , for what i s success fu l i s the most perfect or su i tab l e allowed by s e l e c t i o n . 1 1 1-58.5 Darwin' Organisms are per fec t ing themselves i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r environment. J 1-190.4 Darwin Although natura l s e l e c t i o n w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y l ead to absolute p e r f e c t i o n , larger populations w i l l possess greater perfect ion than smal ler ones. - 304 . . . 0 - - u . Above Sub-head: Above Mo. Author Order: Book and page it XXXIV 1-434 Da rwin A s m a n s e l e c t s v a r i a t i o n t h a t i s u s e f u l t o h i m , s o d o e s n a t u r e b y n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n . 1-439.2 Darwin Newer, or more recent species show evidence of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n compared to .more ancient forms. 1-450.2 Darwin Natural s e l e c t i o n works for the good of a l l leading to greater p e r f e c t i o n . Category: Above S u b - h e a d ; A b o v e No. Author Order ; Book and page XXXIV 2-7.4 James The necessary elements of good and e v i l nrevent per fec t ion i n Reformation thought. M y s t i c a l thought comes c lose only because i t denies wor ld ly r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s . 5-33.5 Adams - In 1850 i t was poss ib le to reach per fec t ion through educat ion. 5-402.1 A d a m s Modern science i s the more perplexing for a student who has t r a v e l l e d from an age where p e r f e c t i o n was p o s s i b l e . 305 -o--- • Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page X X X I V 7-25.3 Love.i oy Lovejoy proposes that the t r u l y good and r e a l bear no resemblance to the occuoations of man's mind: being that h is thoughts are f l e e t i n g , ephemeral, auagraires and d e l u s i v e . 7-256.4 7-259.4 Love.i oy Le ibn iz saw a cont inua l crea t ive advance occuring i n nature , a per fec t ing of matter, an endless Becoming. Category: PERFECTION Sub-heacL No. Perfect !on Author and the A r t s Order: Book and page XXXIV 7-52.3 Lovej oy Assuming that e terna l essences have temporal counter-p a r t s , and a l l such w i l l be manifest , then the world i s bet ter the more things i t conta ins . (P lato ' s P lent i tude) 7-211.3 Love.j oy V o l t a i r e he ld that the per fec t i on of the whole was poss ible only by the m u l t i p l i c i t y of e v i l s . 9-77.2 R u s s e l l (430 BC) The stimulus of V i c t o r y imparted to Athens the a V i l i t y to produce works of a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , sculptures and dramatists that have not been surpassed even today, though nothing of note came before . - 306 -i o— • Above if XXXIV r Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page — 11-158.1 11-159.3 Brooks Poetry that remains i n the unreal becomes p e r f e c t i o n when compared to the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e : hence the s u p e r i o r i t y of ar t that conjures up an existence surpassing the c o r o o r a l . J 1 J • 1 x - 307 -0 P R A f r M A T T S V . // XXXV Sub-head: T>-„ + - , , No. Author Order: n - - v - - a — 8-187.3 Rmpson Nineteenth century noetic ( l i t e r a r y ) vagueness permitted an ambiguity that could not be achieved by a language that had been rendered more s p e c i f i c by s c i e n t i f i c thought. 3 3 11-77 11-9.2 Brooks The poet i s forced to use words i n v a r i o u s , complex, ways i n order to convey his po int , that f inds no s ing l e expression i n the E n g l i s h language. This can be d e s t a b i l i z i n g compared to sc i ence . 3 a 11-77.2 Brooks Analys ing poetry for the purpose of c l a s s i f i c a t i o or knowing, or presupposing what the w r i t e r in ten i s looking for tags , not poetry . a, ded, i i • Category: Above it XXXV Sub-head : Above No. Author Order: Book a n d p a g e j -3 11-133.1 Brooks Wordsworth works with paradoxes - ways of see ing . Por example, a n a l y t i c reason i s opposed to synthes ized imaginat ion , i . e . br ight l i g h t of c o m m o n day v s . shadow of ch i ldhood . The former being b l i n d , preoccupied as he i s with ana lys i s a n d d i s s e c t i o n . J 1 1 i 12-420.3 Orwell - Not everyone has the same des ire for power. We a l l seek i t i n varying degree, but when convinced of a creed and the T i g h t n e s s of i t we are more prepared to b u l l y others into b e l i e v i n g i t too . — 1 16-26.3 de Tocaue-v i l l e Man appropriates the s o i l by a g r i c u l t u r e . Other occupations seem to be j u s t caretaker r o l e s . - 308 -0— Category : PRAGMATISM: EFFECTS OF SCIENCE / / . i l Sub-head Science and Pragmatism XXXV No. Author - Order: D o o k a n d p a g e j ! 2-380.4 James Kven the science of r e l i g i o n is faced with the spectre of the not ion that i n the realms of science there i s no place for r e l i g i o n . J -J I 3-858.4 Freud The taboo disappeared as man progressed to a , s t a t e where he had better c o n t r o l ovex h i s l i f e . i — — J 7-187.2 Lovej oy Nature ex is t s for man's needs, was a thought of the eighteenth century. -1 *- " - o " * J • Above 1 Sub-head: if XXXV No. Author Order: Book and page 9-4G3.1 R u s s e l l "Ocean's razor" ( th ir teenth century) . It i s va in to do with more what can be done with l e s s . I f everything i n a science can be known without going into unnecessary steps then i t i s more f r u i t f u l to do so . 9-521.2 Russe l l Newton's mathematical law of inverse proport ion threatened science with i t s dogma almost as much as — -• had A r i s t o t l e ' s f inal , cause. 14-32.3 Durkheim Analys is and empiricism do not revea l a true theory —Ail of knowledge, for there ex i s t s a complexity that f a l s i f i e s such in format ion . - 309 -L J — 1 - ! Category: Above . / / Sub-head : Above XXXV \ ?o. Author Order: Book and page _] 14-269.4 Durkheim Analys i s provides no more than new f a c t s . Understanding occurs only when two e n t i t i e s are seen to be r e l a t e d by some sort of k i n s h i p . R e l i g i o n has provided a f i r s t step i n expla in ing what these k inshios might be. i 15-185.3 Tol s toy Science attempts to r a t i o n a l i z e the current world by s t a t i n g that what i s i s what should be. - J 18-65.1 Marx The employment of mass labour uses r a t i o to achieve tasks impossible for i n d i v i d u a l l abour . - 310 -1 • REASON it 1 1 Sub-head No. Author Order: R-~W ami m«P X X X V I 2 - 3 4 1 . 2 James Passions and myst ica l i n t u i t i o n s f i x our b e l i e f s that are afterwards def ined by reason . J J j 4 - 1 4 0 . 4 Dostoevsky c | T o t .Van's act ions can be f a u l t e d i f they do not stem a r e f l e c t e d primary cause. from J 7 - 7 . 3 Lovejoy Ways of th ink ing i m p l i c i t i n a soc ie ty do much to inf luence b e l i e f s i n present and future generat ions . Two examples are the world view of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries charac ter i zed by a focus upon simnle answers to questions on the u n i v e r s e . The a l t e r n a t i v e , reached l a t e r , was a more Hamlet-Tike } a t t i t u d e , i e . complex, i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s (RomanticPer.) Category: Above it 1 Sub-head L: Above XT XVI xNo. Author Order: Book and page J J J 1 1 - 1 2 2 . 5 Brooks Gray's "Elegy" demonstrates an instance of not reading too much into a poem, for i t i s an innocent t a l e of people too simple to have a s t o r y . J I 1 2 - 1 1 3 . 5 Orwel l • Walt Whitman and Henry M i l l e r convey an acceptance of s i t u a t i o n s . This allows them to get c lose to the common man who also has to remain passive to the larger events of the world over which he has no c o n t r o l . - ' 1 1 2 - 2 0 7 . 1 Orwell T>on Ouixote and Sancho Panza r e f l e c t the ancient dualism of body and s o u l , f o l l y and wisdom which ex is t s i n a l l of us . - 311 -w o---- • Above it • XXXVI Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page 1 L2-249.3 Orwell Verse can be acceptable where poetry i s not . Poetry i s often not popular because i t i s assoc ia ted with u n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y . 1 _ l . • J J 12-292.1 Orwell » Antisemit ism has i t s roots i n nat iona l i sm which i s also a wide spread d i sease . Only those who know they are not immune from such emotions can carry out the necessary i n v e s t i g a t i o n s into e i t h e r . J J J ~ ~ -• Category: REASON if Sub-heac : Reason: P r a c t i c a l Concerns Y V Y V 1 No. Author. Order: Book and page A A A V X — 1 1 5-35.5 Herodotus The n a t u r a l obstacles land and sea w i l l thwart an expedi t ion i f p r o v i s i o n for food i s not considered or i f i n s u f f i c i e n t harbours are Dlanned. 1 1 7-47.3 Love joy- Western man's object ive has been to allow h i s i n t e l l e c t to grant t h a t he l i v e s i n a r a t i o n a l wor ld . 1 9-35.5 Russe l l C i v i l i z e d man d i f f e r s to the savage i n h i s a b i l i t y to use forethought to Dlan ahead. This d i s t ingu i shes farming from hunt ing . Law, r e l i g i o n and custom are ways c i v i l i z a t i o n s check impulsive a c t s . - 312 -_ - - „ • • Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page XXXVI 9-52.3 R u s s e l l The Greeks revered the contemplative l i f e as the highest i d e a l , f or example, three c lasses came to the Olympic games: 1. to buy and s e l l , 2. to compete, 3. spectators to watch. 9-101.5 Russe l l A s tup id man's report i s quest ionable mainly because he w i l l i n t e r p r e t what he hears into something he can understand. Be t ter to have an enemy versed i n the subject renort than a s tuo id f r i e n d . 9-184.1 R u s s e l l The i r r a t i o n a l separates man, but the r a t i o n a l unites u s . A r i s t o t l e f e l t that by partaking of the r a t i o n a l , man partook of the d i v i n e . Category: Above Svb-heat\ No. Above Author Order: Book and page XXXVI 9-557.3 R u s s e l l •Spinoza objects to emotions of passion for these suggest we are c o n t r o l l e d by some outside power. This ceases once we have formed a c l ear idea of i t , 13-14.1 Weber A r c h i t e c t u r e , A r t , Sc i ence , .Mus ic a n d Law i n t h e O c c i d e n t h a v e a l l , f r o m t h e Renaissance, b e e n developed i n a r a t i o n a l , s p e c i a l i z e d w a y t h a t d e f i n e s w e s t e r n f r o m e a s t e r n c u l t u r e . 13-118.2 Weber The P u r i t a n aese t i c^ nature , was fue led by Descartes' "cogito ergo sum" which suggested that nature could be subdued only by constant thought. - 313 -Sub-head: No. Above Above Author Order: Book and page XXXVI 17-14.4 de Tocnue.-v i l l e The advantage of general ideas i s that tney al low man's i n t e l l e c t to make judgements on a number of objects at one t ime. 1 18-316.2 Marx Marx possessed a f a i t h i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l development of the working c l a s s . 21-21.3 C a s s i r e r By looking at language i t i s poss ib le to use induc t ion to f i n d i t s mythical o r i g i n s and formative or construct ive laws. Category: Sub-head: Above No. Author XXXVI Order: 21-88.5 C a s s i r e r Sense impressions are what gives objects t h e i r name, not a r b i t r a r y sound complexes. - 314 -1 1 _J._. . 1:1 Category: CHANGE BY REASON xxxvii-Sub-head : Economic Change Through Reason No. Author Order: Book and page-J 1 18-121.2 Marx The shortening of the hours of labour i n a day was the impulse to the great improvements made i n machines. 1 r - 1 I 18-312.5 Marx Economic d i s e q u i l i b r i u m w i l l a r i s e out of not being' able to f i n d consumers for the excess product ion , but once t h i s i s poss ible the s o c i a l condi t ions sought by Marx and Engels w i l l be achieved. -1 18-333.3 Marx The unemployment created by the bourgeois ie through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new machines i s seen by Marx as the condi t ion that w i l l br ing down t h i s g r o u D and assert the p r o l e t a r i a t . o-- . • Ahnve it XXXVII Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and nage • 18-335.3 Marx A b o l i t i o n of pr ivate property which can be used to buy and s e l l i n order to subordinate the wage labourer would occur under Communism. i l :! 19-35.4 Veblen Veblen , l i k e Marx, looks forward to an overturn i n the present form of s o c i e t y , but Veblen sees i t occuring through a Darwinian evo lu t ion "vaguely s y n d i c a l i s t " , that could do a bet ter j o b . 1 — 19-292.1 Veblen Marx's theory ,o f accumulation r e s u l t i n g i n over-production i s h i s consummate explanat ion of how soc ia l i sm w i l l come into being. .- 315 -~ 1 1 \ . Category: Above /if XXXV11 Sub-head : Above No. Author Order: Book and page - j -J • 19-463.1 Veblen Veblen advocates the expedient of S o v i e t s or syndicates of engineers to applv general s t r i k e s that w i l l , with the approval of the underly ing poou la t ion , force absentee owners to r e l i n q u i s h c o n t r o l . J - J ] -- 1 - J H H A M R R R Y WRASflNi & Sub-head: S o c i a l Change by Use of Reason No. Author Order: Book and page XXXV11 — 5-231.3 Adams Adams doubted Darwinism (as d id Duesch and Bergson) for what r e a l l y a t t r a c t e d was Motion and Change. — 10-589.4 Gibbon AD 590-604, Forty monks succeeded wi th in two years to baptize the King of Kent i n England and 10,000 Anglo-Saxons. A conquest l i k e t h i s the Romans could not p u l l o f f with s i x l e g i o n s . — 14-493.3 Durkheim Eventua l ly we meet with the d i f f i c u l t y of soc ie ty w i th in an i n t e r n a t i o n a l sphere and the adjustments t i i i s demands. - 3 1 6 t I I 1 Category: Above it XXXVll Sub-head : Above No. Author Order: Book and uage — 16-255.3 de Tocque-v i l l e The benef i t s of democracy are l o n g i n coming and a r r i v e o n l y a f t er i n c i d e n t s of c i v i l d i s c o r d , but t h i s i s to be preferred to desDotism t h a t provides immediate b e n e f i t s but l o n g - t e r m d i s q u i e t . — — - 317 -I j 1 |which transmigrates . 1 Category. pra.TRTniis T.nrTTC it XXXV111 Sub-head: r.«n->^ r,r,A B o H o f t •_l No. Author Order: Book and page ,1 . i 2-33.3 James i u e d i c » l m a t e r i a l i s t s a t t r i b u t e base v i s c e r a l ( p h y s i o l o g i c a l ) causes for r e l i g i o u s experiences that by others are c r e d i t e d to supernatural experience, v i s i o n s , hear ings . J J 1 2-34.2 James " The extent by which mankind takes up a b e l i e f i s the f i n a l t e s t of i t s v e r a c i t y . LI LJ 2-2G0.2 Jam e s I f we do not share another's apprec ia t ion for c e r t a i n emotions, our only recourse i s to observe and record what we see. One l o g i c i s not always shared by another, so there i s a need to empathise. Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page KXXV111 2-399.3 James The unseen realm that produces ef fects on our world can be viewed as r e a l for jus t that reason. 14-239.3 Durkheim Society acts upon i n d i v i d u a l s , and mythology attempts to expla in these a c t i o n s . 14-251.2 Durkheim Totems assume t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r form because they attach themselves r e a d i l y to concepts too complex i n form to be mentally c a r r i e d as a meaningful u n i t . For example, the f l a g for a country. 1 1 1 I ! J Category: Ahove xxxvn: 1 Sub-head : M i n v p •, 1 No. Author - Order: Honk anr! n.-icre J 1 , 1 14-364.1 Durkheim The fact that p r i m i t i v e s conferred sacredness onto many heterogeneous.items was due. to t h e i r proximity to the totem idea l s and the contagion they imparted. J J i 14-411.3 Durkheim One i s bet ter able to understand one's fel low man by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n h i s r i t e s and causation ca tegor ies , the l a t t e r emerging out of the fee l ings of r e g u l a r i t y nature provides . _ i 14-459.1 Durkheim Taboos are der ived in the same manner as r i t s s and for a s i m i l a r purpose, i e . to account for the unexplained. Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page XXXYl'll 13-111.3 V. eber By being a s ser t ive i n l i f e ' s d a i l y s truggles one gave evidence of the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and confidence that bore the mark of one i n a s tate of Grace . Lack of confidence and lack of f a i t h euualed lack of Grace . 19-489. Veblen The f a l l of Rome permitted a revers ion to s p i r i t u a l savagery i n which C h r i s t i a n i t y exemplif ied the necessary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 19-495.3 Veblen Although much of the impulse of the C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t as o r i g i n a l l y understood has disappeared, such values have not l e f t bus iness , which leads one to suspect that i t i s motivated by an a t t i t u d e of workmanship. - 319 -1 Above J Sub-head: Above - \ T 0 . Author Order: Book and page XXXV111 20-144.4 B u l f i n c h - Fable can lend i t s e l f to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i f not a l l e g o r y . — " and the bat t l e of Achelous with Hercules has been 1 r e l a t e d to the coursing of a r i v e r over land and i i Droducing areas of f e r t i l i t y . 20-241.2 Bu l f inch It i s often simole to apoly a l l e g o r y to legends of fable as i n the case of Saturn who devours h i s c h i l d r e n . The Greeks c a l l t h i s same de i ty Cronos J • (Time) and thus there can be seen some t r u t h i n the 1 - . • i d e a . 1 21-22.4 C a s s i r e r Re l ig ious connotations can be app l i ed to objects that 1 •1 • suggest a ; c r i t i c a l ro l e i n one's l i f e . Category : Above Sub-head: Above XXXV11] — No. Author Order: B o o k i l n d P i l C e • r 21-85.1 C a s s i r e r Many r e l i g i o n s saw Nature as animate - animism -that i t speaks and a c t s . so J i — ! 1 • - 320 -1 1 1 I Category: RELIGIOUS LOGIC it XXXVlLt Sub-head : Physical Manifestat ions of R e l i g i o u s L o - i c No. Author Order: Book and page I J J | 2-263.2 James Re l ig ions that become f u n c t i o n a l l y worthless ^re d i s c r e d i t e d by that populat ion . I J I 2-264.3 James • Judgement of other men's r e l i g i o n s comes from standards der ived out of l i f e common to us and our ancestors . _ 1 9-276.1 R u s s e l l Th« S to ic s proposed laws for equa l i ty and they e f f e c t i v e l y improved condit ions for women and s laves , but t h e i r ideas had the greatest e f fect under C h r i s t i a n i t y . - Above Sub-head: Above No. 9-300.2 Auth or R u s s e l l Order: Book an d o r "age it Kxxvin P l o t i n u s , who wound up the l i n e of inward looking phi losophers , imported a oreat many tenets to Christendom. By then Science was no longer c u l t i v a t e d and the merits of v i r t u e ascended. His ideas were among those that helped assuage the b r u t a l i t y of . the barbarians then marauding. 9-306.3 Russe l l The condit ions of despair i n AD 500-1000 when barbarians were a t tack ing Europe drove people to seek houe i n the a f t e r l i f e . As times improved, t h i s i n t e n s i t y subsided although r e l i g i o u s pract ices were maintained. 14-104.5 Durkheim R e l i g i o n was born to account for phys ica l phenomena; - 321 -Category; Above Sub-head: \ T o , Above Author 0 r c i e r ; Book and page I XXXV11 .3 10-414.2 Gibbon Preservat ion of the temples for a r t ' s sake i n s p i r e d the Pagans to hope for t h e i r o r i g i n a l funct ion to be resotred and forced C h r i s t i a n s to work e n e r g e t i c a l l y against th i s end. (AD'381-389) 10-419.1 Gibbon AD 390. S u p e r s t i t i o u s r i t e s were banned under the ed ic t of Theodosius, for example, s a c r i f i c i n g to inanimate i d o l s g u i l t l e s s v i c t i m s . 10-510.5 Gibbon AD 370. The monks of th i s age worked ass iduously at ge t t ing members for t h e i r order . They would use H u i l e and ins inuate themselves into -famil ies to get the c h i l d r e n . (ci'. Moonies) A b o v e Sub—head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page JCXXVlll 14-62.5 Durkheim Durkheim's d e f i n i t i o n of a r e l i g i o n i s : cons i s t ing of b e l i e f s and pract ices u n i t i n g a moral community into a church. 14-85.1 Durkheim Re l ig ions can be s a i d to nrogress from a s c r i b i n g b e l i e f s to animal or vegetable form to anthropomorphic form. 20-231.2 B u l f i n c h Pythagoras' system of numbers saw 3 as the number of the whole having a beginning, middle and end and 4 as the most D e r f e c t , w h i l e 10 denotes the system of the world . The monad or un i t i s the source of a l l numbers and the Diety the source for n a t u r e and the human soul J Category: Above Suu-h'ead: A b o v e i x x v m .\To. Author Order: Book and page 1 i 21-33.4 C a s s i r e r . Phenomena that provides a f i r t u i t o u s p r o t e c t i o n o r benef i t can be v i e w e d by a. p r i m i t i v e 'us a d i e t y . It is.' not a reasoned judgement. . j • RELIGIOU S LOGIC 1 Sub-head: S p i r i t u a l Examples of R e l i g i o u s Logic if No. Author Order: Book and page XXXV111 2-42.5 James Wil l iam James a r b i t r a r i l y considered R e l i g i o n to be, that r e l a t i o n s h i p with what man considers d iv ine i n terms of h i s a c t s , f ee l ings and experiences . J J 2-54.4 James R e l i g i o n i s an enchantment that comes as a g i f t and i s e i t h e r there or not there and cannot be possessed by another's command. It f i l l s the i n d i v i d u a l who i n t e r n a l l y f ee l s an empty waste. 1 ] 2-74.5 James F a i t h cannot be chal lenged by reason, for " i n s t i n c t l e a d s , i n t e l l i g e n c e does but fo l low." - 323 -I I Category: Above it CXXV111 Sub-heac : Above No. Author Order: Book and page J J 2-269.3 James It i s r e a l i s t i c to d ivorce the r e l i g i o u s component from the unholy aspects that occupy man's mind. ' l I 2-392.2 James R e l i g i o n , says Professor Leuba, i s used and God i s used. He can take the form of f r i e n d , prov ider , ob.iect of l o v e . — J • a 2-393.5 James Por some, r e l i g i o n i s the connection with a higher part of the universe with which they can remain i n contact and use as a s a l v a t i o n l a t e r . 1 0 ~ - j . Above rt . 1 xxxvn: 1 Sub-head: Above No. Author Order : Book and page — 7-84.1 Love.ioy C h r i s t i a n i t y had two ways to go under Neo-Platonic thought. I t could ce lebrate the d i v e r s i t y created by God and spend time i n the ac t ive l i f e , or seek the per fec t i on of d iv ine l i f e i n contemplation. I t chose the l a t t e r of course . J J 9-311.1 Russe l l C h r i s t i a n i t y , as with Judaism and Islam, i s an e c l e c t i c r e l i g i o n borrowing from the Jews, P lato and the Greeks i n c l u d i n g the s t o i c s . 1 J • 9-352.2 R u s s e l l Pantheism i s the b e l i e f that the world i s part of God. - 324 -I 1 Category: Hnvo # 1 XXXV11 Sub-heac .^ Above No. Author • Order: Book and page J J 1 12-418.2 Orwell C h r i s t i a n view is. hedonis t i c because i t seeks a release from the p a i n f u l s truggles on e a r t h . Humanists see the need to experience s u f f e r i n g . -.1 1 13-103.3 Weber • C a l v i n saw i n the New Testament a Father whose grace decreed that some would be saved and some not , an extreme inhumanity. —. I 14-44.1 Durkheim A d e f i n i t i o n of r e l i g i o n places the i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the d iv ine or s p i r i t u a l . - 325 -7-16.1 Category: Rh:L IGIOUS THOUGHT ANU IDEAS Sub-head: Re l ig ious No. Author Lovej oy P r i n c i p l e s and Views of God Order: Rook and pa .re it XXXIX E n g l i s h gardens i.n the Romantic period r e f l e c t e d the genera l ly accepted view of God at that t ime, that there was presented a r i c h d i v e r s i t y of untrimmed natural shapes. 7-152.2 L ov e j oy Spinoza's p r i n c i p l e of s u f f i c i e n t reason t i e s i u with Plato 's c o n t i n u i t y and o lent i tude so that a l l that ex is t s does so because i t can be assigned a good cause or reason for so doing; necessary ex is tence . 7-156.4 Lovej oy A thes is of God's c rea t ion holds that He had no need to create an imperfect world and therefore our existence is comnletely a r b i t r a r y . -Ga-tQg-ory: Above Sub-head: Above .\To. Auth or Order: Book and page XXXIX 7-157.3 7-158.3 Love.i oy A u g u s t u s a n d Descartes be l ieved i n A b s o l u t e W i l l ; I ' e s c a r t e s f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f " e t e r n a l t r u t h s " , a n d both c e r t a i n l y , by r e a s o n of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f our universe . 7-181.3 Love.i oy Le ibn iz could conceive of no leap i n nature (cf . Bergson. for God's choice would not be a r b i t r a r y . 7-198.1 Lovejoy The Creat Chain of Being generated, wel l before Darwin, an in t ere s t i n evo lut ion through i t s p o l i c y of c o n t i n u i t y . - 326 -1 l l j . ... •1 . Category: Above it XXXIX Sub-head: idnvp NTo. Author Order: Rnnl,- „TU) ,>>,>f> J ! 7-32a.3 Lovejoy The Great Chain o.f Being was .i'ound to have no basis but i t exerted great inf luence and was a necessary pathway to today's accepted not ions . J J 1 8-153.2 Emus on' Pantheism which views God i n nature , demands a determinism and predes t ina t ion . _ I 21-18.3 C a s s i r e r Objects that command our undivided i n t e r e s t can become subjects of r e l i g i o u s thought. Category: Above 1 _ub-head: Above XXXIX No. Author Order: Book and page j 3 21-74.1 C a s s i r e r The d iv ine i s something set apart from a t t r i b u t e s which would tend to l i m i t i t s essence. 1 21-80.3 Cass i r e r The Polynesian ."liana", or i n f i n i t e i s grounded i n sense, and sensual des ires that possess a p r a c t i c a l in t ere s t for the i n d i v i d u a l . r 1 I - 327 -Category: SCIENCE Sub-head: Ancient Thought and Science No. 3-875.2 7-143.2 Author Freud Love.i oy J r d e r ; Hook and uupe XL The power of man's mind, "Omnipotence of Thought", engendered magic and an imis t i c thought, which was succeeded by r e l i g i o u s and s c i e n t i f i c thought. It was once man ceased to f igure at the center of the universe that they took i n t e r e s t in t h e i r own achievements, but advances occured spasmodical ly . Being at the center had a negative connotation as i t was far thes t from the heavens. 9-84.3 Russe l l 440 CC. The Atomists asked mechanistic questions as opposed to (Socrates , P l a t o , A r i s t o t l e ) f i n a l cause (or ouruose). Only a f t er the Renaissance d id th i s approach r e t u r n . 'Category: Above I S u b - h e a d : A b o v e No. Author Order: Book and page XL 9-428.2 R u s s e l l The s c h o l a s t i c method of the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y was d e f i c i e n t i n t h a t i t 1_. . wanted:•tOorea_Qu..;i_.-.ia_iters better g i v e n to e x a m i n a t i o n of the evidence ( o b s e r v a t i o n ) , 2. i n d i f f e r e n c e to f a c t s and sc ience , 3. and an undue s t r e s s on d i a l e c t i c s e m a n t i c s . 9-529.3 R u s s e l l Bacon's error i n induct ion was to suggest that the hypothesis should emerge from the facts whereas th i s i s a . f a l l a c y and would simply present a mass of diverse f a c t s . 13-249.3 Weber The favour i te science of P u r i t a n s , B a o t i s t s , or P i e t i s t s was phys ics , for God could only be known by His works. - ' • ; ; ' i - 328 -C a t e g o r y j _ _ S C T £ X C J j . : : [ Sub-head: The Forms of Modern Science  Xo. Author Order: Book and page  7-20.3 Lovejoy - Lovejoy approaches Thomas Kuhn's work of the cause for the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new ideas . 9-514.3 R u s s e l l Renaissance s c i e n t i s t s , for example Copernicus , based t h e i r hyootheses on evidence. This allowed Copernicus to istate how and why he bel ieves rather than what he be l i eves . Hence his proposals r i g h t l y remained hyootheses. 9-522.2 R u s s e l l By the end of the seventeenth century the magic and sorcery that had e a r l i e r Droduced the witch hunts and rendered the portents of comets c r e d i b l e , were seen as i n c r e d i b l e . .The hand of God too was seen to apply l e ss to mater ia l causes, for example the s o l a r j system. — — - Category: Above :L XL 1 Sub-heac L: Above .Vo. Author Order: Book and page 1 j 9-560.2 R u s s e l l Spinoza's philosophy i s one science cannot accept , h i s world of substance being based on reasoning, not observat ion . 14-43.1 Durkheim The'supernatural took form only a f t er the pos i t ive sciences es tab l i shed laws that were deemed n a t u r a l . Previous to t h i s a l l uhenomena must have appeared exp la inable , f o r example by r e l i g i o u s f o r c e s . 14-477.4 Durkheim Science and R e l i g i o n share much i n cu.unon although s c i e n t i f i c r e f l e c t i o n i s given more weight than r e l i g i o u s speculat ion today. - 329 -Category : Above Sub-head: A h o v e XL — .\To. Author Order: Book and pace 15-181.2 To l s toy • As A r t conveys s c i e n t i f i c t ruths to emotions, ar t w i l l be as fa l se as the notions held by sc i ence . 1 • J ,1 0 u- Ca.tegory: 'COLLECTIVE SELF-INTEREST Sub-hoac. No , Auth or Order: Book and page XL1 :3-12.2 Freud Id; the g r a t i f i c a t i o n of a l l i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l needs. 11-40.3 Brooks We tend to admire one who has the courage to , not only f i g h t on i n defeat , but f i g h t against the unreasonable odds of one's fate*, for example f i g h t i n g a c lass d i s t i n c t i o n i n England. 12-179.3 Orwell A true soc ia l i sm would not be adopted by the Engl i sh Labour party because the working people .would have a great deal to l o s e , and there i s more un i ty i n Great B r i t a i n than f i r s t appears. Category: Above Sub-head: No. Author 0 r d e r : Book and page XL1 14-460.5 Durkheim Re l ig ious p r a c t i c e s , r i t e s and suf fer ings are a l l done for the same purpose and that i s to improve the i n d i v i d u a l to a point above where he would be i f he fol lowed his i n c l i n a t i o n s . 16-140.2 de Tocaue-v i l l e E l e c t i o n of a president elates that party , not so much as for the triumph of t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s but for the fac t that supporters of those p r i n c i p l e s now form the major i ty . - 331 -I 1 Category: S £L F-INT KRE ST Sub-heac No. 10-181.3 The I n d i v i d u a l ' s S e l f - i n t e r e s t Author Order: Book and page XL11 Gibbon - jLove of the supernatural and polytheism died slowly due to the ease with which such b e l i e f s consoled the i n d i v i d u a l . J 10-434.2 Gibbon AD 408. The behaviour of the nobles i s deplored. Many grew soft and lacked i n t e g r i t y , v i r t u e and prudence. 12-17.2 Orwell More than being hungry or s o c i a l l y d i sgraced , boredom i s the worst of a trouo's e v i l s . Category: cjub-head: A b o v e A b o v e No. Author Order: Bo-okiand ^age XL 11 15-139.2 Tols toy A r t p l a y s a v i t a l D a r t i n m a n ' s l i f e f o r i t e n g a g e s t h e e l e m e n t o f f e e l i n g , t h a t i m p o r t a n t h a l f o f m a n ' s d u a l i t y . 17-226.1 de Tocuue-v i l l e A m e r i c a n s w i l l c h o s e t o m e e t s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h o s e p l a c e s w h e r e t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o g a t h e r b y l a w , f o r e x a m p l e g o v e r n m e n t , j u s t i c e s y s t e m s , i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e i r p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s a n d i n t e r e s t s . 17-311.2 de.Tocaue-v i l l e The tendency towards s e l f - i n t e r e s t i n a democracy prevents an easy excursion of the i n d i v i d u a l into publ ic l i f e . - 332 -r- - 1 ; 1 ; _ _ • : ; — ; — — . Category: A h o v o it . XL 11 Sub-head: Above \ ro. Author Order : Book and page J 1 . . . 1 17-33G.1 de Tocuue-v i l l e The base problem . in a democracy i n i t s ear ly stages i s that i n s t i t u t i o n s created run the l i v e s of the people too e f f i c i e n t l y ; to the point where i t i s necessary for people to make an e f for t to p a r t i c i p a t e so that t h e i r l i v e s w i l l not be enervated or d iminished . j J 1 _ 1 • | i - 333 -. 1 Category Sub-head : DIVERSITY AND SUFFERING '• G n r i • S n f f p r i n - a n d D i v e r s i t v . 1 - \ T 0 . Author Order: R o - k ; i m l n n ( I - XL111 5-289.1 Adams By the s u f f e r i n g witnesses God i s deemed a substance -• but not a person. 9-20.1 Russe l l The Reformation and protestantism brought the idea that there should be no intermediary between the soul and God, whereas the Roman Catho l i c Church was the v e h i c l e of r e v e l a t i o n and every i n d i v i d u a l could submit h i s private o p i n i o n . The Reformation terminated i n England t h i s s o c i a l cohesiveness and advanced personal i s o l a t i o n with many sects and a s o c i a l d i v e r s i t v and subiect ivenes j 1 0 - 3 1 5 . £ Gibbon By adopting creeds w i t h i n a r e l i g i o n we have e f f e c t i v e l y created d i v i s i o n s between ourse lves , and even caused 1 "each other 's r u i n . " J Category: Above it 1 Sub-head : Ab ov e XLI 11 1 No. Author Order: Book and page 10-538.5 Gibbon A!) 524. Even the ed ic t of Theodoric could not convince the populace to accept r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n . 10-554.4 Gibbon AD 532. The fact ions of the Green and the Blue d id •J much to rend Constantinoole by freciuent c o n f l i c t s — - 334 -O t e g o r v ; D I V E R S I T Y A.\~D SL F F E R I X G Sub-head: V ! g i r , a r l f 1 s „ f f p r i n n r Xo. Auth or Order: Book and page XL111 1-89.5 Darwin S o c i a l l y man has far to go i n l i v i n g harmoniously with his fe l low beings and environment. 4-152.3 Dostoevsky The basis or source of consciousness is s u f f e r i n g , but t h i s i s preferable to c a l c u l a t e d c e r t a i n t y which leaves us with nothing to understand. 9-684.3 R u s s e l l Kant's "reason denies war" does not t i e i n with the need for d i v e r s i t y . Category: Above Sub-head: Above 0 Ho. Author Order: Book and page XL111 10-585.4 Gibbon j The loss of persons to the plague i n Constantinople was from f ive to ten thousand per day during a three month per iod . 10-756.1 Gibbon The Moslems and Greeks conspired , with t h e i r people, against the Franks. The d i f ferences i n dress and language contr ibuted to t h e i r " i l l f e e l i n g . 12-328.1 Orwell When supported by nat iona l i sm, sports do nothing to fos ter good w i l l : more l i k e l y i t fos ters the i l l •wi l l of the b a t t l e f i e l d . - 335 -Category: UNITY Ll 1 Sub-head: Unity XL1V No. Author Order: Book and page '•1 i 5-398.1 Adams As elements of unity are exposed so are the inc idents of d i v e r s i t y and complexity making .the world , and sc ience , more puzzl ing than ever. LJ Lis 6-67.3 Herodotus The Greeks achieved unitv i n t h e i r ranks and avoided souabbles over l eadersh io . 9-59.4 R u s s e l l Unitv i s a combination of opposi tes: one dying to give b i r t h to the other . L l — Category f: itinvp Sub-head: . h ™ XL1V j No. Author Order: n„ ni,- , 1 : l f r -1 1 9-658.2 R u s s e l l •• - A, T L < Nationalisin once .assumed a common ances try , a b lood l ine that accorded a greatuess on the ueople. 1 1 -1 10-313.1 Gibbon C h r i s t i a n i t y uni ted under the banner of the Homosusion b e l i e f i n c o u s u b s t a n t i a l i t y . This helped the/churches of the west remain i n t a c t . AD 324. 2\ 1 10-717.2 Gibbon Greece and Europe r e j o i c e d i n the use of union and independence. - 336 -1 — i 1 1 : ; 1 Category: A h n v p it XLIV Sub-head: i h w o \To. Author Order: R n n ' i , -.,,,A ,^„o i 1 9-653.2 Russe l l • National ism once .assumed a common ances try , a b lood l ine that accorded a greatness on the people. 1 1 i 10-318.1 Gibbon C h r i s t i a n i t y uni ted under the banner of the Hpmosusion b e l i e f i n c o u s u b s t a n t i a l i t y . This helped the/churches of the west remain i n t a c t . AD 324. 1 j I 10-717.2 GibDon Greece and Europe r e j o i c e d i n the use of union and independence. Category: Above 1 Sub-head: - , h n v f > XLIV No. Auth or Order: R n r , k : . n , i ™ , P O 10-751. 'c Gibbon Acre , near Jerusalem, became the scene of much crime and vio lence for i t possessed r u l e r s but no government and rece ived streams of p i lgr ims and f u g i t i v e s . — 13-180.4 V. e b e r Goethe's Faust featured a renunc ia t ion from b e a u t i f u l harmony (of un iversa l man) for an age of s p e c i a l i s a t i o n . _ 1 21-10.1 C a s s i r e r Man fuses himsel f with his environment by his s p i r i t u a l intimacy with i t . - 337 -i Category: Above 6ub-iiead: Above XL1Y No. Author Order: Book and nape L i 21-83.2 C a s s i r e r Language and Myth provide the opportunity to observe his u n i t y . J 21-90.1 C a s s i r e r No matter how much e n t i t i e s in ter twine , r e l a t e , and synthes ize , they are s t i l l independent bodies . Ll J 1 . - 338 -1 I I LJ Category: p m u v V A T .ITRR :,KT\ T H R W A T ' T O R OP VA»J it XLV Sub-head: General No. Author Order: Book and page L.J i 5 - 1 1 3 . 5 Adams Nothing i s harder, to accompl ish , or admired more, than holding one's tongue. _ J LJ 6 - 8 2 . 1 Herodotus An example i s given of ostracism -uhancing the a t t r a c t i o n of the oerson sent away. L 1 9 - 1 9 1 . 4 Russe l l F r i e n d s h i p : i t i s impossible to be fr iends with many people. In r e l a t i o n s h i p s the superior should be loved the more. ( A r i s t o t l e ) Category: Above i Sub-head: Above XLV No. Author Order: Book and page ; 1 9 - 5 5 9 . 5 Russe l l A l l things of value are as d i f f i c u l t to obtain as they are r a r e . (Spinoza) • 4 1 0 - 1 8 1 . 2 Gibbon The doubt cast by those of high rank on paganism increased the apprehensions of those who s t i l l he ld such b e l i e f s . 1 1 1 - 9 5 . 1 Brooks Pope's poem "The Rape of the Lock" shows how a woman's honour was preserved. - 339 -Category _ V . Above ;/ Sub-head . Above XLV i ! No. Author Order: Book and Dage 12-417.3 Orvr e l l " The ooint i s made that to become vulnerable i s j admirable , but do not be surpr i sed i f someone takes .__ ..J advantage of you. And i f you wish to be u l t r u i s t i c 1 do not expect "any return for y o u r s e l f . L_"- J ! 1 17-111.4 de Tocque-v i l l e The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r i c h and the poor is more harmonious when the r i c h have an a i r of s i m o i i c i t y ; i t h i s more than confering b e n e f i t . L 1 18-68.3 Marx The employment of a manager who orchestrates the actions of the employees, as a conductor does for an o r c h e s t r a , L J i s seen by K a r l Aiarx as despot i c . Category: Above . 1 H Sub-head: Above XLV No. Author Order: Book and page ; • 19-67.2 Veblen . Workmanship that demonstrates e f f i c i e n c y i s man's method of e x h i b i t i n g a f o r c e f u l behaviour capable of producing esteem. 19-69.5 Veblen At times when strength and v i o l e n t acts are esteemed, industry (work) i s perceived as irksome. 19-114.3 Veblen In a p a t r i a r c h i c a l soc ie ty the consumption by wives of st imulants i s discouraged for i t i s seen that they, as a cha t t e l of the man, should not consume anything that does not contr ibute to the man's w e l l - b e i n g . - 340 -. . . . . . , Cateoorv: Values , human li SLY Sub-head L l - \ 7 0 . Author Order: Book & page J • • 1 19-177,1 Veblen Pets are kept for t h e i r h o n o r i f i c value rather than any func t iona l one. In fac t the l a t t e r can detract from the animal's appeal . (Honour vs . U t i l i t y ) -•1 J -J • -1 1 - 341 - . . • • : • » 1 • : 1 Category: PRACTICAL HUMAN VALUES if XLV1 Sub-head: •Pragmatic Values No. Author Order: Book and page 1 1 1 5-358.3 Adams Si lence is praised for i t s sagac i ty . — i 5-418.2 Adams "Power i s poison", says Henry Adams and i t contaminates f r i e n d s h i p s . 1 1 6-78.4 Category Sub-head Herodotus : Above • Above It was a woman who gave the best advice to Xerxes • XLV1 No. Author Order: B o o k a n f l , ) i l f r R 9-114.2 Russe l l Eugenics was nractieed by the Greeks, rewards were given to those who fathered three to four c h i l d r e n and mothers were encouraged to exhib i t only emotions favourable to the s ta te , regarding the c h i l d . 12-95.4 Orwell B i l l y Bunter and G r e y f r i a r s exh ib i ted an a i r of s e c u r i t y , s o l i d a r i t y and safety in i t s unquestionable routines and behaviour. . 1 J > 13-52.3 Weber Vir tues are only v i r t u e s i n as much as they are useful to the i n d i v i d u a l and commplish des ired ends. 11 - 342 Category: Above Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and oage KLV1 17-224.1 de Tocuue-v i l l e Man's true respect for a woman is seen to be more r e a l i n A i i ierica- than Europe where s u p e r f i c i a l courtesy masks an underly ing cutitemut. LJ L9-170.2 Veblen The establishment of taste in nreoaring grounds (land) « a s not unaffected by t h r i f t and a sense of exnense. If inexnensiveness was evident i t was probably generated by a c o u n t e r v a i l i n g sense of workmanship. Category: PRACTICAL IIlWuX VALUES Sub-head: P r a c t i c a l , Economic Values No. Author Order: Book and page XLV1 10-454.! Gibbon A''' 410. The des truc t ion of an enemy's precious works of ar t heightens rapaciousness as much as i t does the value of the remaining a r t . 13-49.1 Weber Punctua l i ty i n re turning borrowed money ensures easy borrowing i n the f u t u r e . 13-193.: Weber Honesty and i n t e g r i t y i n deal ings with other men i s of utmost importance. - 343 -1 i ••- • j • • " -•" ""• ' ' d Category: Above // i Sub-head: A h n v p XLV1 il • No. Author Order: R n n k a n d n ; i c r e LJ LI 1.9-314.2 Veblen ' The i n c l i n a t i o n to workmanship with i t s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to economy is sustained by a n;irental r bent that imbues s o c i e t y . LI • LJ 1 19-348.2 Veblen The machine has generated, most severely i n the i n d u s t r i a l c la s se s , a sense of behaviour, workday idea l s and accented r e a l i t y , so that i-t i s creat ing a set of values that d i f f e r to older i n s t i t u t i o n s . -\ ',• i-'i — ..I • - 344 -j 1 Category:- THE FORMED B _ THE WHOLE Sub-head: Economic Examples of Whole D ic ta t ing to Part XLVII No. Author Order: Book and nafre . Ll 1 3 - 8 0 . 3 Vi e b e r A man's D o s i t i o n i n the world defined how he l i v e d , according to God, was Protestant dogma. c 11 1 3 - 2 8 1 . 3 Weber The ooor were allowed so to be bv God as they would urobably not withstand the temptations of wealth. L p 1... 1 8 - 4 5 . 4 ~ ~'•" 1 Marx "i Surolus-value exceeds ordinary value to the degree by which the c a p i t a l i s t has used the labour of the employee beyond the l a t t e r ' s need to earn his subs is tence . u • • - .. t - • . -• • •• •— — —•-Category: A b ( J v e it XLVII Sub-head: Above No. Author Order: Book and page u -J 1 8 - 7 0 . 1 Marx The h o l i s t i c e f fect of labour amassing to produce for the c a p i t a l i s t i s seen as something innate and natural i n c a p i t a l . 1 8 - 1 6 2 . 3 Marx The labourer lias needs t h a t shot.Id be r e l i e v e d but not cured i f the in t ere s t s of c a p i t a l are to be continued. li 1 1 8 - 1 6 4 . 1 Marx The forces of supply and demand t h a t e f f ec t labour are derived from such forces applying to c a p i t a l and the indus tr i e s i n which they have inves ted . 345 -Category: _ub-head: Above Above .\To. 18-181 . i i 19-75.3 Author Marx Veblen Order: Book and--page XLV11 As the labourer ' s needs increase with the prosper i ty of c a p i t a l , misery of the labourer w i l l always correspond to the accumulation of c a o i t a l for he i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l inked with i t . Ownership and the a c q u i s i t i o n of goods is done p r i m a r i l y for the purpose of emulation, or i n order to appear super ior to other i n d i v i d u a l s . 19-392. Veblen The respect given to the o ld captains of industry was der ived from man's need to defer or look up to persons of achievement or q u a l i t y . Category: Above Sub-head: A b o v e 1 No, Author Order : Book and page if XL VII 19-512.1 Veblen Our highest i n t e r e s t s are often put i n the hands of those who have shown themselves f i t for academic pursuits by possessing wealth a lone . 21-92.1 C a s s i r e r The part and the whole are i d e n t i c a l . - 346 -Category: THE PARTS FORMED BY THE WHOLE Sub-head: Society and the Ind iv idua l as the Whole THctnting to the Pfjrt No, 1-389.3 Author Da rwi n Order: n 0 0 k and page XT,VI I. "Characters do not g ive , the genus", rather "Genus gives the characters" , suggests a ' h o l i s t i c approach of whole d i c t a t i n g to p a r t . 4-177.3 Dostoevsky It i s a dream to expect to subjugate human vani ty by i n t e l l i g e n c e , for Veblen appears correc t that man constructs i t s own heros and l eaders . 11 6-133.5 Herodotus The environment determines the nature of man developed there . Category: Above S u b - h e a d : A b o v e No. Author Order: Book and page XLVII 7-346.3 Love.i oy Casanus, f i f t e e n t h centurv, s a i d , " . . .none can be known unless a l l are known." J 11-153.2 Brooks Re Keats ' "Ode", only the whole poem has meaning. 11-16G.1 Brooks D i s t r u s t i n any oaraohrasing of a noem is healthv i n that i t f a i l s to represent the noem as a whole.. - 347 -i 1 Category: Above _ub-head: Above •» __ 1 No. Author Order : Book and page XLV11 _ 11-197.] Brooks It i s impossible i n poetry to take a nurt i n order to l earn of the whole. 1 1 14-30.5 Durkheim iMaile Durkheim's h o l i s t i c outlook aff irms that ind iv idua l behaviour is d ic ta ted by the l arger s o c i e t y . J -i 14-41.5 Durkheim Determinism suggests soc ie ty i s a state w i t h i n , ra ther . than oart of , nature , and i s subject to na tura l laws suoer ior to i t . -t • 3 Category: Above * 1 Sub—heat L: Ahove XLV11 ;1 No. Author Order: Book and M « P J. ' J 1 14-207.3 Durkheim Durkheim argues that i n d i v i d u a l totems can be assumed only a f t e r the c o l l e c t i v e tote,;, has come into e f f e c t . The same appl ies to c u l t s . J 14-240.2 Durkheim There i s something of the c o l l e c t i v e force i n each i n d i v i d u a l , wherei consciousness makes i t manifest . 14-30G.2 Durkheim L e i b n i z ' s monads express something of Durkheim's ideas i n that each contains and expresses un iversa l consciousness or , tiie world . - 348 -Category: Above Sub-head: Above XLVII .Yo. Auth or Order: Book and r>a«e .: .1 1 •••1 i 14-307.3 Durivhe im • •Society contr ibutes to the i n d i v i d u a l those a t t r i b u t e s and condit ions that are i n t a n g i b l e . Our senses cannot contr ibute to persona l i z ing aore than t h i s s o c i a l eleiaent. I 1 17-245.4 de Tocuie— v i l l e Love of one's country, "patriotism, i s a r e l a t i v e l y recent phenomenon which found no a p p l i c a t i o n when i n d i v i d u a l s looked up only to the person next above them i n tne h i e r a r c h y , for example the vassa l l o r d . The ul t imate government was unknown to the vassa l of the l a n d . Ll u 19-28.4 Veblen Much of what emerges i n Veblen's work is how the i n s t i t u t i o n negat ive ly e f fects man's development as an i n d i v i d u a l . Category Above it XLVl 1 1 Sub-head [. Above NTo. Author Order: Book and page 19-33.5'. Veblen Veblen could not bel ieve i n the nat iona l c a l c u l a t i o n of the p r o l e t a r i a t as Marx had done fo l lowing Bertham's theorv of ac t ing to produce the most happiness. Instead he saw man as ac t ing as he was inf luenced by i n s t i t u t i o n s which often ran counter to h is i n t e r e s t s . -1 1 1 i 1 .. 1 19-73*3 Veblen P r i m i t i v e ownership (even of a wife) gave evidence of i n d i v i d u a l prepotence. — 1 19-234.2 Veblen ..hen one i s connected to the ocouomics of a community one is unacoidablv connected to a t e l e o l o g i c a l process, for there are aims to which the economics a s p i r e , that a f fec ts one's l i f e . - 349 -Beauty _ub-aead X L V l l l i \'o. Auth or Order: Book and DU^ O ! ' j 11-164.: Brooks The sylvan or r u r a l h i s t o r i a n (eg. Keats ' Ode) L_ 1 is a more perfect example of h i s t o r y because i t ignores the wealth of facts and approaches a LI c f Unity natural t r u t h . , - 19^171.2 Veblen It appears d i f f i c u l t for those of the l e i s u r e c lasses to avoid supplementing aes the t i c L i ! • beauty with pecuniary beauty. 1" - 350 -Appendix 11 In the f o l l o w i n g examples the. f low from passage to idea to summary can be fo.uhd. Our f i r s t look i s a t de T o c q u e v i l l e , book number 17, page 154 .4 . M a t e r i a l i s m , among a l l n a t i o n s , i s a dangerous d i sease o f the human mind; but i t i s more e s p e c i a l l y to be dreaded among a democrat ic people because i t r e a d i l y amalgamates wi th t h a t v i c e which i s most f a m i l i a r to the hear t under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Democracy encourages a t a s t e f o r p h y s i c a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; th i s t a s t e , i f i t becomes e x c e s s i v e , soon d i sposes men to b e l i e v e that a l l i s matter o n l y ; and m a t e r i a l i s m , i n i t s t u r n , h u r r i e s then: on wi th mad impat ience to these same d e l i g h t s ; such i s the f a t a l c i r c l e w i t h i n which democrat ic n a t i o n s are d r i v e n round . I t were"well t h a t they should see the danger and ho ld back . Most r e l i g i o n s are on ly g e n e r a l , s i m p l e , and p r a c t i c a l means of t each ing men the d o c t r i n e of the i m m o r t a l i t y of the s o u l . That i s the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t which a democrat ic people d e r i v e s from i t s b e l i e f , . a n d hence b e l i e f i s more necessary to such a people than to a l l o t h e r s . When, t h e r e f o r e , any r e l i g i o n has s t r u c k i t s r o o t s deep i n t o a democracy, beware t h a t you do not d i s t u r b i t ; but r a t h e r watch i t c a r e f u l l y , as the most p r e c i o u s bequest of a r i s t o c r a t i c ages . Do not seek to supersede the old. r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s of men by new ones, l e s t i n the passage from one f a i t h to a n o t h e r , the sou l being l e f t f o r a whi le s t r i p p e d of a l l b e l i e f , the love of p h y s i c a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n s should grow upon i t and f i l l i t w h o l l y . Idea - The s p i r i t dominated by the m a t e r i a l . Summary - " M a t e r i a l i s m possesses t h e , d a n g e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a democrat ic c o u n t r y , of suggest ing to the people that a l l i s mat ter , thus f o r e s a k i n g the s p r i t u a l . " Category XXV111 M a t e r i a l i s m and the S p i r i t . The next passage , a g a i n from de T o c q u e v i l l e , ho lds ideas such as the los s o f p o t e n t i a l , and p r e j u d i c e , but the t o p i c of r e s p e c t i s the one chosen f o r development. The book i s //17, page 224.1 I t has of ten been remarked t h a t i n Europe a c e r t a i n degree of contempt l u r k s i n the f l a t t e r y which men l a v i s h upon women; - 351 -a l though a European f r e q u e n t l y a f f e c t s to be the s l ave o f women, i t may be seen tha t he never s i n c e r e l y t h i n k s her h i s e q u a l . In the U n i t e d S ta tes men seldom compliment women, but they d a i l y show how much they esteem them. They c o n s t a n t l y d i s p l a y an e n t i r e conf idence i n the unders tanding of a wife , and a profound r e s p e c t for her freedom; they have d e c i d e d t h a t her mind i s j u s t as f i t t e d as that of a man to d i s c o v e r the p l a i n t r u t h , and her hear t as f i r m to embrace i t ; and they have never sought to p lace her v i r t u e , any more than h i s , under the s h e l t e r of p r e j u d i c e , i g n o r a n c e , and f e a r . I t would seem i n Europe , where man so e a s i l y submits to the d e s p o t i c sway of women, t h a t they are n e v e r t h e l e s s d e p r i v e d of some of the g r e a t e s t a t t r i b u t e s o f the human spec i e s and c o n s i d e r e d as s e d u c t i v e but i m p e r f e c t b e i n g s , and (what may w e l l provoke as tonishment) women u l t i m a t e l y l o o k upon themselves i n the same l i g h t and almost cons ider i t as a p r i v i l e g e t h a t they are e n t i t l e d to show themselves f u t i l e , f e e b l e , and t i m i d . The women o f America c l a i m no such p r i v i l e g e s . A g a i n , i t may be s a i d that i n / o u r morals we have r e s e r v e d s trange immunit ies to man, so that there i s , as i t were, one v i r t u e f o r h i s use and another for the guidance of h i s p a r t n e r , and t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to the o p i n i o n of the p u b l i c , the v e r y same a c t may be punished a l t e r n a t e l y as a crime or only as a f a u l t . The Americans do not know t h i s i n i q u i t o u s d i v i s i o n of d u t i e s and r i g h t s ; among them the seducer i s as much d i s h o n o r e d as h i s v i c t i m . I t i s t rue that the Americans r a r e l y l a v i s h upon women those eager a t t e n t i o n s which are commonly p a i d them i n E u r o p e , but t h e i r conduct to women always i m p l i e s t h a t they suppose them to be v i r t u o u s and r e f i n e d ; and such i s the r e s p e c t e n t e r t a i n e d f o r the moral freedom of the sex t h a t i n the presence of a woman the most guarded language i s used l e s t her ear s h o u l d be offended by an e x p r e s s i o n . In America a young-unmarr ied woman may alone and without f ear undertake a long j .ourhey. Idea - Democracy re spec t s women. Summary - "Man's t r u e r e s p e c t f o r a woman i s seen to be more r e a l i n America than Europe where s u p e r f i c i a l courtesy masks an u n d e r l y i n g contempt.". - 352 -Category - #XLV1 V a l u e s , human p r a c t i c a l . A more c h a l l e n g i n g source of ideas i s found i n The B a s i c W r i t i n g s  of Sigmund F r e u d , E d i t e d by D r . A . A . B r i l l , our book number 3 . In a chapter d e a l i n g w i th Determinism Chance & B e l i e f s , Freud sums up by r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t o f t en d i s t r e s s i n g phenomena or behav iour occurs due to r e p r e s s e d thoughts becoming mani fes t and f i n d i n g e x p r e s s i o n . The passage appears on page 1 7 8 . 3 , and summarizes a complex account of neuroses . But the common c h a r a c t e r of the m i l d e s t , as w e l l as the s e v e r e s t cases , to which the f a u l t y and chance a c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e , l i e s i n the a b i l i t y to r e f e r the phenomena to unwelcome, r e p r e s s e d , p sych ic m a t e r i a l , which though pushed away from c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i s n e v e r t h e l e s s not robbed of a l l c a p a c i t y to express i t s e l f . Idea - N e u r o t i c behaviour expresses t h o u g h t s . Summary - " P s y c h o s i s , n e u r o s i s , a n x i e t y , e t c e t e r a are a l l expres s ions of our s u b - c o n s c i o u s . " Category #XXV Man's nees and d r i v e s . 


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