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UBC Theses and Dissertations

English as a second language teachers and culture : an interview study of role perceptions Defoe, Tracy A. 1986

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c ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHERS AND CULTURE: AN INTERVIEW STUDY OF ROLE PERCEPTIONS by TRACY A. DEFOE B. A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA M a r c h , 1986. © T r a c y A. D e f o e , 1986. I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e -q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r -s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a nd I n s t r u c t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e : M a r c h , 1986. A b s t r a c t C u l t u r e - how do ESL i n s t r u c t o r s d e a l w i t h i t ? T h i s document r e p o r t s on an i n t e r v i e w s t u d y i n t o t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s o f a g r o u p o f ESL t e a c h e r s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s . T h i r t y - f i v e ESL i n s t r u c t o r s i n g e n e r a l , v o c a t i o n a l a n d a c a d e m i c p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m s a t a c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e i n V a n c o u v e r , Canada were i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1985. The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o j e c t were 1) t o p r o v i d e an a c c o u n t o f ESL i n s t r u c t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r r o l e a s m e d i a t o r s o f c u l t u r e 2) t o a r r i v e a t an a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e t y p e o f p r o g r a m , t h e c r o s s c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r s , and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e i r r o l e s i n t e a c h i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e t o i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . The r e s e a r c h m e thod f o c u s s e d on e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s a i m e d a t r e c o r d i n g t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ESL t e a c h e r ' s work f r o m h i s o r h e r own p o i n t o f v i e w . A n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s i d e n t i f i e d a r a n g e o f v i e w p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e d i m e n s i o n s o f ' b e i n g an e x a m p l e , ' ' e x p l a i n i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g , ' ' t e a c h i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y , ' a n d ' l i s t e n i n g a n d h e l p i n g - b e i n g a f r i e n d . ' D i f f e r e n c e s on some r o l e d i m e n s i o n s were f o u n d b e tween i n f o r m a n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t p r o g r a m s a n d b e t w e e n i n f o r m a n t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l r e f -e r e n c e g r o u p s . Many i n f o r m a n t s r e p o r t e d an i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o c u l t u r e t e a c h i n g . i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s I . T o w a r d a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l r o l e o f ESL t e a c h e r s 1 A. The P r o b l e m 4 B. B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e P r o b l e m • 5 1. ESL i n E n g l i s h C a n a d a 5 2. T e a c h e r s o f A d u l t ESL L e a r n e r s 9 3. C u l t u r e a n d ESL T e a c h e r s 12 I I . R e v i e w of R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e 14 I I I . The S t u d y 31 A. The M e t h o d 31 B. The P i l o t I n t e r v i e w s 37 C. The S e t t i n g 39 D. The I n f o r m a n t s _ 41 E. The R e s e a r c h E x p e r i e n c e 53 I V . D i m e n s i o n s o f t h e T e a c h e r s ' P e r c e i v e d R o l e 57 1 . C u l t u r e i n ESL 58 A. B e i n g an E x a m p l e 67 B. E x p l a i n i n g a n d I n t e r p r e t i n g 73 C. T e a c h i n g I n t e r c u l t u r a l l y 80 D. L i s t e n i n g a nd H e l p i n g - B e i n g a F r i e n d 102 E. Summary 113 V. C o n c l u s i o n s 117 A. D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e F i n d i n g s 117 1. T h e o r e t i c a l a nd E d u c a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s ...126 2. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 129 B. C o n c l u d i n g Remarks 131 1. A F i n a l Word f r o m t h e R e s e a r c h e r 131 i i i 2. A F i n a l Word f r o m t h e I n f o r m a n t s 132 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 135 APPENDIX A - LETTER ASKING FOR PARTICIPANTS 142 APPENDIX B - CONSENT FORM 143 APPENDIX C - INFORMANTS' L I S T OF THE ELEMENTS OF CULTURE.144 i v L i s t o f T a b l e s I . Number o f I n f o r m a n t s f r o m E a c h P r o g r a m 42 I I . I n f o r m a n t ' s Age and G e n d e r 44 I I I . I n f o r m a n t ' s B a c k g r o u n d and C u l t u r a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . . . 4 6 v A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s F i r s t , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k a l l of t h e ESL i n s t r u c t o r s who g ave o f t h e i r t i m e a n d t h e m s e l v e s t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s t a f f , a n d f a c u l t y i n g e n e r a l f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i e l d w ork. I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e members o f my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , D r . K o g i l a Adam-Moodley, D r . B e r n a r d Mohan and D r . J e r r o l d Coombs, a n d t h a n k them f o r o v e r s e e i n g t h e s t u d y . F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r o j e c t was p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h g r a n t s f r o m t h e E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e o f B. C , a n d t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f B. C. T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h a s an A d d i t i o n a l L a n g u a g e ( T E A L ) . W i t h o u t t h e s e g r a n t s w h i c h f u n d e d t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w t a p e s , t h i s s t u d y w o u l d h a v e been a g r e a t d e a l more d i f f i c u l t , a n d a g r e a t d e a l s m a l l e r . I t h a n k b o t h o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k my f r i e n d , A l i s o n Dewar, who l i s t e n e d t o my d e v e l o p i n g i d e a s , a n d o f f e r e d s u g g e s t i o n s a n d m o r a l s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a s t y e a r . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h a n k my h u s b a n d , Raymond Lam, f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g s u p p o r t a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t . v i C h a p t e r I TOWARD A D E F I N I T I O N OF THE CULTURAL ROLE OF ESL TEACHERS As a t e a c h e r o f E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e ( E S L ) , I h a v e o f t e n s t r u g g l e d w i t h t h e r o l e s i m p o s e d upon me by my e m p l o y e r s , my s t u d e n t s , a n d m y s e l f . E x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t t h e r o l e s o f an ESL t e a c h e r a b o u n d on a l l s i d e s ; t h e y a r e o f t e n c o m p e t i n g a n d c o n t r a d i c t o r y . W h i l e t h e f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f an ESL t e a c h e r i s o b v i o u s l y t o c o n v e y an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l a n g u a g e , t h e manner a n d m o t i v a t i o n o f t h a t t e a c h i n g i s o f t e n c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . The a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e f o r t h e t e a c h e r i s l e f t t o n e g o t i a t i o n b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r c l a s s e s . E a c h ESL i n s t r u c t o r must r e c o n c i l e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t e a c h a d u l t l e a r n e r s t o f i t i n t o a c c e p t e d s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s o f p u b l i c l i f e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a w i t h t h e v i r t u e s o f t o l e r a n c e and t h e v a l u e s of c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m t h a t a r e e m b o d i e d i n t h e i d e a l i z e d image o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r a s she a p p e a r s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . F o r t h e most p a r t , p u b l i s h e d d e s c r i p t i o n s r e s o l v e any c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i t h an a p p e a l t o n e u t r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . Among t h e r o l e s a s c r i b e d t o t h e a r c h e t y p a l ESL i n s t r u c t o r a r e t e a c h e r and model o f t h e l a n g u a g e , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d i n t e r p r e t e r o f h e r c u l t u r e , l e a r n i n g f a c i l i t a t o r , f r i e n d , c o u n s e l l o r a n d a d v o c a t e , t o name a few. By a n d l a r g e , t h e r o l e s t h a t do n o t d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n l a n -guage i n s t r u c t i o n per se have e m e r g e d a s ESL i n s t r u c t i o n h a s become l e s s d o m i n a t e d by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c m o d e l s a n d t h e o r i e s , and more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l a n d 1 2 c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c i e s d e v e l o p e d by t h e l e a r n e r . T h i s was p r e c i p i t a t e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by t h e f a i l u r e o f l i n g u i s t i c s c i e n c e t o p r o v i d e " t h e m e t h o d " t h a t w o u l d e n s u r e e a s y a n d c o m p l e t e a c q u i s i t i o n , a n d by t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e p l a c e i n t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . T o d a y , w h i l e ESL t e a c h e r s a r e s t i l l e x p e c t e d t o u n d e r -s t a n d l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r i e s and t e r m i n o l o g y , a n d t o m a s t e r t h e grammar o f t h e l a n g u a g e i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , a n a l y t i c s e n s e , t h e y a r e a l s o commonly c h a r g e d w i t h t h e j o b o f f o s t e r i n g c o m m u n i c a t i v e a n d , most r e c e n t l y , i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o m p e t e n c i e s i n t h e a d u l t s w i t h whom t h e y w o r k. T h i s i m p l i e s ' t e a c h i n g ' t h e l e a r n e r s t o s h a r e t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d s o c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f i n t e g r a t e d members o f E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , and t o r e c o g n i z e t h o s e c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s f o r what t h e y a r e . C o u r s e s f o r ESL t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y pay l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o p r e p a r i n g t h e ESL t e a c h e r s f o r t h i s r o l e o f " c u l t u r a l a m b a s s a d o r " o r " c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l o r " a l t h o u g h a n e c d o t a l a c c o u n t s o f t h i s f u n c t i o n have a p p e a r e d o v e r t h e y e a r s . 1 F o r t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t o u t l i n e d i n t h i s p a p e r I s p o k e w i t h ESL i n s t r u c t o r s a t a c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e i n V a n c o u v e r i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r a n d r e c o r d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s a n d d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e i r i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e . As "mentioned a b o v e , e x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r a l l e a r n -i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a d u l t t e a c h e r s a n d a d u l t l e a r n e r s 1 See f o r e x a m p l e Y. R a m p a u l , "The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n t h e A d u l t ESL C l a s s i n M a n i t o b a " Manitoba Modern Language Review 1 6 ( 3 , 1982) :5-12. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f o t h e r a c c o u n t s s e e c h a p t e r I I . 3 a l m o s t a l w a y s mask any c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n m o t i v a t i o n s o r p r a c t i c e s w i t h an a s s u m p t i o n of n e u t r a l i t y , and d e s c r i b e t h e ESL t e a c h e r a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l who a c c e p t s and c a r e s f o r l e a r n e r s a s i n d i v i d u a l s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and b e h a v i o u r s . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r o l e o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r a s i n t e r p r e t e r and model of h e r c u l t u r e i s f o r m u l a t e d and d e s c r i b e d from o u t s i d e t h e e x p e r i e n c e as i f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s were i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be l a i d o u t f o r l e a r n e r s l i k e a t a b l e of i r r e g u l a r v e r b s . The dynamic and i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g w i t h a d u l t s o f d i v e r s e b a c k g r o u n d s , t h e c h a l l e n g e s o f l i v i n g up t o w h a t e v e r i d e a l s t h e t e a c h e r may h o l d a b o u t h e r p e r s o n a l c o n d u c t , and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l n e u t r a l i t y may be an i m p o s s i b l e and even q u e s t i o n a b l e i d e a l f o r t h e ESL t e a c h e r t o embrace, a r e a l l t o o o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d i n a c a d e m i c p u b l i c a t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d . Y e t , however i n f o r m a l o r u n s t a t e d t h e c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n f u n c t i o n o f t h e ESL p r o g r a m , t h i s c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g i s a r e a l i t y f o r i m m i g r a n t s t o Canada a s s o c i a t e d v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h 2 a n d one a c k n o w l e d g e d by ESL i n s t r u c t o r s t h e m s e l v e s . 3 2 M. Disman "ESL and a New C u l t u r e . " TESL Talk 13(3, 1981):71-81. 3 F o r example, i n 1974 when Mary A s h w o r t h c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y o f ESL t e a c h e r s , she f o u n d t h a t f o r e v e r y t e a c h e r who f e l t l e a r n i n g t h e l a n g u a g e was t h e g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m f a c e d by ESL l e a r n e r s , f o u r r e s p o n d e d t h a t " a d j u s t i n g t o t h e new c u l t u r e " was t h e b i g g e s t d i f f i c u l t y . M. A s h w o r t h , " R e s u l t s and I s s u e s From a N a t i o n a l S u r v e y of ESL P r o g r a m s " i n A. W o l f g a n g , ed. , E d u c a t i on of Immigrant Students: Issues and Answers Symposium S e r i e s 5 ( T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n ) , 1975 pp. 164-183. 4 A. THE PROBLEM T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t a s k s ESL t e a c h e r s a b o u t t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e i r l e a r n e r s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o l i f e i n V a n c o u v e r . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o j e c t a r e t o p r o v i d e an a c c o u n t o f ESL i n s t r u c t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r r o l e a s m e d i a t o r s o f c u l t u r e a n d t o a r r i v e a t an a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e t y p e of p r o g r a m , t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s , and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e i r r o l e s i n t e a c h i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e t o t h e i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . The p r o j e c t a l s o a i m s t o work t o w a r d a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l r o l e o f ESL t e a c h e r s b a s e d upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f a g r o u p . T h r o u g h e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s w i t h ESL i n s t r u c t o r s drawn f r o m t h e c o l l e g e ' s p r o g r a m s , t h e s t u d y a d d r e s s e s t h e q u e s t i o n : How do t e a c h e r s o f a d u l t s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e a t t h e c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e d e f i n e t h e i r r o l e s a n d p e r c e i v e t h e i r f u n c t i o n s a s t e a c h e r s o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e ? T h i s q u e s t i o n demands an e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on h i s o r h e r w o r k . G u i d i n g q u e s t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i e l d work p e r i o d f o c u s s e d upon r e p o r t e d c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s , i n f o r m a n t s ' a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s t u d e n t s , t h e p e r c e i v e d ways i n w h i c h c u l t u r e f i g u r e d i n ESL t e a c h i n g , a n d t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s a n d i n t e r c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s . As d e s c r i b e d i n ESL c u r r i c u l a a nd commonly u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n C a n a d i a n E S L , t h e t e r m c u l t u r e a s a g o a l f o r u n d e r -s t a n d i n g r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o " a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s a n d 5 b e h a v i o u r t h a t a r e commonly f o u n d i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , " " a s w e l l a s p h y s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , m a t e r i a l g o o d s , a n d s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l i f e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . By r o l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s , I mean t h e p e d a g o g i c a l , s o c i a l a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l ways t h a t ESL t e a c h e r s i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r l e a r n e r s . U n d e r l y i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h e l a r g e r i s s u e o f how i m m i g r a n t s a r e r e c e i v e d by C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l and t h e p u r p o s e s o f ESL i n s t r u c t i o n f o r s o c i e t y a n d f o r t h e l e a r n e r . The b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e s t u d y o u t l i n e s t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f ESL i n E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C a n a d a , e x a m i n e s what l i t t l e i s known a b o u t t e a c h e r s o f a d u l t E S L l e a r n e r s , and i n t r o d u c e s t h e p r o b l e m o f c u l t u r e a n d ESL t e a c h e r s . B. BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM 1. ESL I N ENGLISH CANADA As l o n g a s p e o p l e h a v e been c o m i n g t o s e t t l e i n C a n a d a , s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g h a s been a c o n s t a n t theme i n o u r i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n E n g l i s h C a n a d a , where t h e d o m i n a n t i d e o l o g y o f ' a n g l o ' c o n f o r m i t y h a s l e d g e n e r a t i o n s o f i m m i g r a n t s t o a n g l i c i z e t h e i r names a n d l o s e t o u c h w i t h t h e i r h e r i t a g e l a n g u a g e s , c u l t u r e s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e l e a r n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h h a v e a l w a y s b e e n u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t f l u e n c y i n t h e l a n g u a g e w o u l d a f f e c t * B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , English as a Second Language for Adults - A Curriculum Guide ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. i i i . 6 o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n b o t h employment and e d u c a t i o n . T h i s r e m a i n s t h e c a s e t o d a y , d e s p i t e t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t ' s 1971 m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m p o l i c y w h i c h d e c l a r e d t h a t " a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e two o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e s , t h e r e i s no o f f i c i a l c u l t u r e , n o r does any e t h n i c g r o u p t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r any o t h e r " . 5 T h i s same p o l i c y ' s p l e d g e t o s u p p o r t t h e l e a r n i n g o f E n g l i s h o r F r e n c h t o e n s u r e f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y h as l e d t h e f e d e r a l government t o s p o n s o r and p r o v i d e f u n d s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . As many c r i t i c s o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m have p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h e r e i s an i n h e r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t h i s p o l i c y . I t c l a i m s t o s u p p o r t t h e r e t e n t i o n of a n c e s t r a l o r o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e d i s a l l o w s t h e s t r u c t u r a l s u p p o r t and m u l t i l i n g u a l i s m t h a t s u c h a p l u r a l i s t s t a n d w o u l d demand. 6 T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n r e f l e c t s t o some e x t e n t t h e a m b i g u i t y t o w a r d e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y f o u n d i n B e r r y , K a l i n a nd T a y l o r ' s c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y of e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s i n C a n a d i a n s where t h e y f o u n d t h a t m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m was g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a s a s o c i a l r e a l i t y , b u t a c c e p t a n c e o f c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y was 5 House of Commons, Debates S t a t e m e n t by P.E. T r u d e a u , O c t o b e r 8, 1971. 6 See f o r example J . M a l l e a , " M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m W i t h i n a B i l i n g u a l Framework: A Note on t h e Q u e b e c o i s R e s p o n s e " Multiculturalism 1(2, l 9 7 7 ) : 3 - 5 . K. M o o d l e y , " C a n a d i a n M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m a s I d e o l o g y " Ethnic and Racial Studies 6 ( 3 , 1 983) : 32 1-33 1 . J . P o r t e r , " E t h n i c P l u r a l i s m i n Canada" i n N. G l a z e r and D. Mo y n i h a n , E d s . , Ethnicity: Theory and Experience ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1975. J . Young, " E d u c a t i o n i n a M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y : What S o r t o f E d u c a t i o n ? What S o r t o f S o c i e t y ? Canadian Journal of Education 4 (3, 1979):5-21. 7 l i m i t e d and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n f a v o u r of t h e ' f o u n d i n g ' g r o u p s was e v i d e n t . 7 Such f i n d i n g s have l e d c r i t i c s t o condemn m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m as an i d e o l o g y t h a t masks t h e i n t o l e r a n t a s p e c t s o f C a n a d i a n s o c i a l r e a l i t y a nd t r i v i a l i z e s e t h n i c i t y t o f e s t i v a l s and s p e c i a l f o o d s . W h i l e c h i l d r e n of o t h e r mother t o n g u e s h ave t r a d i t i o n a l l y l e a r n e d E n g l i s h and been a c c u l t u r a t e d or i n t e g r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m , t h e l a n g u a g e e d u c a t i o n o f a d u l t s has n e v e r been u n i v e r s a l n o r u n i f o r m . Today, ESL pr o g r a m s f o r a d u l t s a r e mounted, f u n d e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y by a l l l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t 8 i n a c o n f u s i n g and u n e q u a l manner t h a t has l e d t o d u p l i c a t i o n o f some s e r v i c e s and l a c k o f o t h e r s . S u p p o r t e d by a v a r i e t y o f f u n d i n g a g r e e m e n t s , ESL c l a s s e s f o r a d u l t s a r e o f f e r e d by a l l l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f r o m p u b l i c s c h o o l s t o c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , as w e l l as t h r o u g h community c e n t r e s , i m m i g r a n t s e r v i c e g r o u p s and o t h e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y , t h r o u g h u n i o n s o r e m p l o y e r s . B e c a u s e i m m i g r a t i o n and employment a r e l i n k e d by t h e f e d e r a l government as a m a t t e r o f p o l i c y , many of t h e s e ESL c l a s s e s a r e mandated t o p r o v i d e t h e l a n g u a g e e d u c a t i o n t o e n a b l e n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g a d u l t s t o s u c c e s s f u l l y j o i n t h e l a b o u r 7 J . B e r r y , R. K a l i n and D. T a y l o r , Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada ( O t t a w a : M i n i s t r y of S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s ) 1978. See a l s o R. K a y l i n and D. Rayko " D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n E v a l u a t i v e Judgements A g a i n s t F o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d J o b C a n d i d a t e s " Psychol ogy Reports 4 3 ( 1 9 7 8 ) . 8 G. Newsham and P. A c h e s o n , ESL in Canada ( M o n t r e a l : C o n c o r d i a U n i v e r s i t y TESL C e n t r e ) , 1978. 8 m a r k e t . I n f a c t , some p r o g r a m s t h a t do n o t d i r e c t l y s e r v e a s p r e - e m p l o y m e n t p r o g r a m s r e c e i v e p a r t i a l f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t ; o t h e r s o p e r a t e on a c o s t - r e c o v e r y b a s i s w h e r e t h e s t u d e n t s ' f e e s pay t h e e n t i r e p r o g r a m c o s t s . I n g e n e r a l t h e r e a r e t h r e e k i n d s o f ESL p r o g r a m s : p r e - e m p l o y m e n t o r v o c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t i o n o r a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s f o r t h o s e who w i s h t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , a n d g e n e r a l p r o g r a m s f o r t h o s e who w i s h t o i m p r o v e t h e i r E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e s k i l l s . T h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o g r a m s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y by f u n d i n g s o u r c e s and by e d u c a t o r s . I n a d -d i t i o n , t h e s e p r o g r a m s a i m t o meet t h e d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e g o a l s o f t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r . A t t h e c o l l e g e , a s e l s e w h e r e i n E n g l i s h C a n a d a , t h e v o c a t i o n a l ESL p r o g r a m i s o f t e n t h e s t a r t i n g p l a c e f o r l e a r n e r s . I t p r o v i d e s i n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n e r a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e a b i l i t y l e v e l s t o p e o p l e who a r e u n a b l e t o j o i n t h e work f o r c e a t an e n t r y l e v e l j o b b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e i n E n g l i s h . T u i t i o n f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s i s u s u a l l y p a i d by t h e C a n a d i a n Employment a n d I m m i g r a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n ( C . E . I . C . ) f r o m w h i c h t h e 'Manpower' l a b e l f o r t h e p r o g r a m i s d e r i v e d . T h i s p r o g r a m i s p r e - e m p l o y m e n t l a r g e l y i n i n t e n t i o n ; f o r s t u d e n t s who r e a c h t h e r e q u i r e d l a n g u a g e l e v e l , employment a n d j o b i s s u e s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n t h e f i n a l month o f t h i s f i v e month p r o g r a m . V o c a t i o n a l ESL s t u d e n t s , who a r e o f t e n r e c e n t i m m i g r a n t s , a t t e n d s c h o o l on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s ( t h a t i s s i x h o u r s p e r d a y , f i v e d a y s p e r 9 week). V o c a t i o n a l ESL i s s t i l l ESL; i t i s not job t r a i n i n g . The course of study does not i n c l u d e a work component and i n no way promises a job to students upon completion. There are many kinds of gen e r a l ESL programs. In the case under study, the general ESL program i s f o r p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s . Courses are o f f e r e d at a l l a b i l i t y l e v e l s with some s p e c i a l purpose c l a s s e s f o r improving p r o n u n c i a t i o n , reading and w r i t i n g . The program of study i s d e f i n e d by measured language competencies and prepares students f o r the academic c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t i o n program. The academic program g i v e s students documented equivalence to hig h s c h o o l E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s . T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e i s the u l t i m a t e goal f o r many of the c o l l e g e ' s a d u l t l e a r n e r s , while o t h e r s view i t as a p r e r e q u i s i t e to post-secondary s t u d i e s . 2. TEACHERS OF ADULT ESL LEARNERS In 1978, Newsham and Acheson conducted t h e i r ESL in Canada survey, the only Canada-wide survey of ESL programs that has been done. 9 There are many gaps i n t h e i r data, and even at the time t h e i r numbers were c o n s i d e r e d underestimates. They found 1,051 ESL teachers i n g e n e r a l a d u l t programs and 321 i n u n i v e r s i t y a d u l t programs. Most of the t e a c h e r s had part-time c o n t r a c t s and about h a l f had no t r a i n i n g i n ESL methodology. They c o l l e c t e d no demographic data on these t e a c h e r s , nor on the 1500 people e n r o l l e d i n TESL (Teaching ESL) courses at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s at that 9 Ibid. 10 t i m e . 1 0 The ESL f i e l d t o d a y i s l i k e l y s t i l l d o m i n a t e d by t e a c h e r s on p a r t - t i m e o r s e s s i o n a l c o n t r a c t s ; i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t e a c h e r s a r e u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d by t h e i r e m p l o y e r s t o h a v e c o m p l e t e d ESL t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s c o u r s e s . The number o f a d u l t ESL i n s t r u c t o r s i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e . T o d a y , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C. T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h a s an A d d i t i o n a l L a n g u a g e (TEAL) h a s o v e r 500 members, t h e m a j o r i t y o f whom work w i t h a d u l t s . 1 1 However, n o t a l l ESL t e a c h e r s c h o o s e t o j o i n BCTEAL, a n d i n any c a s e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n d o e s n o t a s k f o r d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m members, n o r h a s t h e mem-b e r s h i p e v e r been s u r v e y e d a s p a r t o f a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t o t h e r t h a n t h e one c i t e d a b o v e . I n l i g h t o f t h i s l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a d u l t ESL t e a c h e r s , I c a n o n l y assume t h a t , w i t h c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , t h e y a r e l i k e most t e a c h e r s ; t h a t i s , t h e y a r e w h i t e , n a t i v e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g , a n d d r a w n f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . 1 2 I w o u l d q u a l i f y t h a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t ESL t e a c h e r s , b e c a u s e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y work, a r e r e q u i r e d t o be t o l e r a n t o f j o b i n s e c u r i t i e s , a n d a b l e t o work w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i m p o s e d s t r u c t u r e o r c u r r i c u l a . S i n c e ESL c l a s s e s a r e a l w a y s a m e e t i n g p l a c e f o r p e o p l e o f v a r i o u s 1 0 Ibid. p p . 105-108. 1 1 T h i s e s t i m a t e i s drawn f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e TEAL d a t a b a s e . 1 2 K. M c L e o d , " M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m a n d M u l t i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n : P o l i c y a n d P r a c t i c e " i n D. D o r o t i c h , e d . , Education and Canadian Multiculturalism: Some Problems and Some Solutions ( S a s k a t o o n , S a s k a t c h e w a n : C S S I ) , 1981, p p. 12-26. 1 1 c u l t u r e s , one may e x p e c t t h a t ESL i n s t r u c t o r s a r e t o l e r a n t o f , and i n t e r e s t e d i n , p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d s . S i n c e many o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r s t h a t I know i n V a n c o u v e r a r e p r o f i c i e n t i n a l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h , a n d many ha v e had e x p e r i e n c e l i v i n g a n d t e a c h i n g i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , i t may be t h a t a s a g r o u p t h e y h a v e more open a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o t h e r s , t h o u g h I know o f no r e s e a r c h t h a t h a s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . ESL t e a c h e r s who work w i t h a d u l t s , t h e n , h a v e n o t been f o r m a l l y s t u d i e d i n C a n a d a . To s k e t c h an o v e r v i e w o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s a s a g r o u p , I w i l l r e l y upon a few o b s e r v a t i o n s b a s e d upon my own e x p e r i e n c e . B e c a u s e a p r o v i n c i a l t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e i s n o t r e q u i r e d t o work w i t h a d u l t s , some ESL t e a c h e r s do n o t h a v e f o r m a l t r a i n i n g a s t e a c h e r s . O t h e r s may h a v e s t a r t e d o u t a s e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ; a t one t i m e , l i t e r a c y p r o g r a m s f o r ESL a d u l t s were d o m i n a t e d by e x - e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s b e c a u s e , a s one p r o g r a m c o o r d i n a t o r t o l d me, " t h e y knew how t o t e a c h r e a d i n g . " T o d a y i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a d u l t s do n o t l e a r n t o r e a d t h e same way t h a t c h i l d r e n d o , a n d a d u l t l i t e r a c y i s a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n i t s e l f . A number o f ESL t e a c h e r s b egan t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h o v e r s e a s , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s i m p l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f b e i n g c o l l e g e e d u c a t e d n a t i v e - s p e a k e r s o f t h e l a n g u a g e . T h i s p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e was o f t e n t u r n e d i n t o a c a r e e r upon r e t u r n t o C a n a d a where e x p e r i e n c e d i n s t r u c t o r s were i n demand. As ESL a n d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n became f o r m a l l y 12 r e c o g n i z e d a r e a s o f s t u d y , c o u r s e s i n m e t h o d o l o g y a n d s p e c i a l i z e d l i n g u i s t i c s , a n d TESL d i p l o m a p r o g r a m s were o r g a n i z e d by u n i v e r s i t i e s . C o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s e c o u r s e s i s now u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r e m p l o y m e n t . G r a d u a t e l e v e l p r o g r a m s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f ESL t e a c h e r s , a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w i t h g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s a r e n o t uncommon. 3. CULTURE AND ESL TEACHERS A l l o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r s ' r o l e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n t r o -d u c t i o n h a v e c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n s a n d c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t e a c h e r s o r g a n i z e t h e i r c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own c u l t u r e - b o u n d i d e a s o f how a c l a s s s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d . S i m i l a r l y , a l l o f t h e l e a r n e r s b r i n g t o t h e ESL c l a s s t h e i r own n o t i o n s o f a s c h o o l , a n d o f o t h e r s , a n d o f C a n a d i a n s . B o t h t e a c h e r s a n d l e a r n e r s h a v e e x p e c t a t i o n s ; i n t h e a v e r a g e a d u l t ESL c l a s s c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e o f c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , a n d s o c i a l c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d s may be r e p r e s e n -t e d . S i n c e most p e o p l e t h e w o r l d o v e r t e n d t o be e t h n o c e n t r i c a n d v i e w t h e i r own c u l t u r e a s " t h e b e s t , " 1 3 i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t ESL t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n s t a n c e s o f g r o u p a n d i n d i v i d u a l c o n f l i c t i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . T h e s e c o n f l i c t s a r e o f t e n a t t r i b u t a b l e t o c l a s h e s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d o f a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e 1 3 W. E. L a m b e r t , " C u l t u r e a n d L a n g u a g e a s F a c t o r s i n L e a r n i n g a n d E d u c a t i o n " i n G. Verma a n d R. B a g l e y , e d s . , Self-concept Achievement and Multicultural Education ( L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n P r e s s L t d . ) , 1982. 13 t e a c h e r , a n d o f t h e o t h e r l e a r n e r s . 1 " The i n f o r m a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y r e p o r t e d t h a t c o n f l i c t s s o m e t i m e s a r i s e f r o m b i g o t r y a nd i n t e r g r o u p t e n s i o n s . S u c h c o n f l i c t s , t h e t e a c h e r s s a i d , a r e e v i d e n c e o f t h e s o m e t i m e s d i f f i c u l t a d j u s t m e n t s t h a t many i m m i g r a n t s make i n m o v i n g f r o m a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous t o a more m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . The ESL c l a s s r o o m i s an i n t e r c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d a l l ESL i n s t r u c t o r s t e a c h i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y a r e aware o f i t . I t i s p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f ESL a r e u s u a l l y v i e w e d a s i n d i v i d u a l i n s t a n c e s o r i s o l a t e d c a s e s , a n d b e c a u s e t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s so o f t e n g l o s s e d o v e r t h a t I f e e l t h i s i s an a r e a t h a t b e g s e x a m i n a t i o n a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n . 1 4 E x a m p l e s o f t h e s e r e p o r t s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r I I . C h a p t e r I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e b e a r i n g on t h e q u e s t i o n o f how ESL t e a c h e r s o f a d u l t s p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e s a s t e a c h e r s o f c u l t u r e f a c e s two p r o b l e m s a t t h e o u t s e t . F i r s t , t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h a n d s p a r s e e nough w r i t i n g i n t h e f i e l d on t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g . S e c o n d , t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n f i e l d s s u c h a s s o c i o l o g y , s o c i o -l i n g u i s t i c s , s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s , l a n -g uage e d u c a t i o n , a n d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l l h a v e p o t e n t i a l t o o f f e r p e r s p e c t i v e s on some a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o b l e m , i f o n l y by e x t e n s i o n o r a n a l o g y . The l i t e r a t u r e t o be d i s c u s s e d h e r e w i l l be t h a t w h i c h r e l a t e s most d i r e c t l y t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n ; work i n ESL a s w e l l a s i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s w i l l be drawn upon f o r b o t h b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t h a t e n h a n c e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m a t h a n d . Among t h e r o l e s a s c r i b e d t o t h e a r c h e t y p a l ESL t e a c h e r a r e t e a c h e r a n d m o d e l o f t h e l a n g u a g e , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d i n t e r p r e t e r o f h e r c u l t u r e , l e a r n i n g f a c i l i t a t o r , f r i e n d , c o u n s e l l o r a n d a d v o c a t e . A l l o f t h e s e r o l e s h a v e c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n s a n d a r e t o some e x t e n t d e f i n e d by t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e ESL l e a r n e r . D e p e n d i n g on t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d , t h e s e r o l e s may be s e e n a s h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - i m a g e a n d a d a p t a t i o n . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s d i s c u s s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e m o n o c u l t u r a l ESL t e a c h e r t o , c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , 14 15 a c t as an a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t f o r c e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . 1 5 T h i s i s p r e s e n t e d as a n e g a t i v e a s p e c t of t h e r o l e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a c u l t u r a l g r o u p , where t h e t h e t e a c h e r a c t s upon unexamined " t r u t h s " w h i c h a r e p e r h a p s e t h n o c e n t r i c , s e x i s t , o r assume s u p e r i o r i t y o f one t y p e o f p e r s o n o v e r a n o t h e r on t h e b a s i s o f e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l c l a s s , o r some o t h e r c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c . The image h e r e i s of t h e t e a c h e r a s i d e o l o g u e whose unexamined agenda may be t o c o n v e r t s t u d e n t s t o h e r way o f t h i n k i n g . In t h i s s c e n a r i o , t h e l e a r n e r i s s e e n a s d e f i c i e n t and t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e dominant E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g community a r e i n t e n d e d t o r e p l a c e r a t h e r t h a n s u p p l e m e n t t h o s e of t h e c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n . I n t h e " A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n " 1 6 o r " C a n a d i a n i z a t i o n " 1 7 o f i m m i g r a n t s t h e s e a t t i t u d e s and o b j e c t i v e s have been made e x p l i c i t a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y . As an 'expert-' i n f o r m a n t on t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s o c i e t y b e i n g e x p l o r e d by h e r s t u d e n t s , t h e t e a c h e r i s c a s t i n t h e r o l e o f e x p l a i n i n g o r i n t e r p r e t i n g 1 5 See f o r example E . L. J u d d , "TESOL as a P o l i t i c a l A c t : A M o r a l Q u e s t i o n " i n J . Handscombe, R. A. Orem and B. P. T a y l o r , e d s . , On TESOL' 83 : The Question of Control (Washington,D.C.: T e a c h e r s of E n g l i s h t o S p e a k e r s o f O t h e r L a n g u a g e s ) , 1984 (pp. 265-273); and T. M c A r t h u r , "Where Do YOU S t a n d i n t h e C l a s s r o o m ? - A C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f R o l e s , R u l e s and P r i o r i t i e s i n t h e Language C l a s s r o o m " Op.cit. pp. 275-283; and a l s o J . W i l l i a m s "Immigrant C h i l d r e n : S c h o o l ' s R o l e i n I n t e g r a t i o n " i n J . Rex and D. Moore, e d s . , Race, Community and Conflict (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1 9 6 6 . 1 6 E.C. Condon, " T e a c h i n g t h e C u l t u r a l C o n t e x t o f t h e ESL C l a s s . " P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e 7 t h A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h t o S p e a k e r s o f O t h e r L a n g u a g e s , San J u a n , P u e r t o R i c o , May 11,1973. ED 086033. 1 7 R. Wardhaugh, "The E d u c a t i o n o f t h e new C a n a d i a n : 1918 and 1981 The P e r s i s t e n c e of C e r t a i n Themes" TESL Talk 14 (2, 1982):141-154. 16 t h a t c u l t u r e f o r ESL s t u d e n t s . B e l l a s s e r t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s r o l e i n a d u l t ESL c l a s s e s where community o r i e n t a t i o n may become t h e v e h i c l e f o r l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n l e a d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o become t h e i n t e r p r e t o r o f t h e 'new' s o c i e t y . 1 8 S i m i l a r l y , C. B r a t t P a u l s t o n w r i t e s of t h e t e a c h e r a s ' c u l t u r a l b r o k e r , ' t h e most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a l l " t h e s e s t r a n g e new ways of d o i n g t h i n g s , " and u r g e s ESL t e a c h e r s t o t a k e t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y v e r y s e r i o u s l y . 1 9 T h e s e two examples a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h e many p o r t r a y a l s o f ESL t e a c h e r s a s t h e t e a c h e r s o f r e l e v a n t c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d i n f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g as w e l l . 2 0 C u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n may c o n s t i t u t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f ESL c o u r s e c o n t e n t a n d p r o v i d e t h e t h e m a t i c o r s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t f o r l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n . T o l l e f s o n ' s r e v i e w of r e s e a r c h on t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t o f r e f u g e e s from S o u t h e a s t A s i a e x amined i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r ESL i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 2 1 He r e p o r t e d t h a t a l m o s t h a l f of a l l c l a s s t i m e i n p r o g r a m s f o r r e f u g e e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s s p e n t on c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n w h i c h he c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s " a p p r o p r i a t e f o r b e g i n n i n g s t u d e n t s as l o n g 1 8 J . B e l l , " O r i e n t a t i o n " TESL Tal k 14 (1-2, 1983):130-135. 1 9 C. B r a t t P a u l s t o n , English as a Second Language: What Research Says to the Teacher ( W a h i n g t o n , D . C : N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ) , 1980, p. 25 ED 202010. 2 0 See f o r example, R. C. L a y f a y e t t e " T e a c h i n g C u l t u r e " : S t a t e g i e s and T e c h n i q u e s " i n Language in Education: Theory and Practice ( A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n i a : C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s ) , 1 ( 1 9 7 8 ) : 1 - 2 8 ED 157407. 2 1 J.W. T o l l e f s o n , " R e s e a r c h on R e f u g e e R e s e t t l e m e n t : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o g r a m s " TESOL QuarerIy 19 ( 4,1985):753-764. 1 7 as t a n g i b l e o b j e c t s and r e a l i s t i c c o n t e x t s a r e u s e d t o c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r E n g l i s h u s e . " 2 2 T e a c h e r s of t h e s e ESL c l a s s e s f o r r e f u g e e s t h e n , p r o v i d e c o n s i d e r a b l e c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y and i t s v a l u e s and p r a c t i c e s . The r o l e o f i n t e r p r e t e r of c u l t u r e i s sometimes p o r t r a y e d i n a v e r y p o s i t i v e l i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y where t h e i n t e r p r e t i n g t e a c h e r i s a l s o an a c t i v e l e a r n e r . T h a t i s , where t h e t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e s t o l e a r n n ot o n l y a b o u t c u l t u r e as a g e n e r a l c o n c e p t , but a l s o a b o u t h e r s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r e s and about h e r own c u l t u r e t h r o u g h t h e s t u d e n t s ' e y e s . T h i s e x change o f i n s i g h t depends upon t h e . p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d l i s t e n i n g t o e a c h o t h e r and c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r i n g what t h e y h e a r . The remark made o r q u e s t i o n p o s e d , f o r example, may be f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h t o i t s u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s a n d t o u n c o v e r t h e unspoken q u e s t i o n s t h a t l e a d up t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e i n q u i r y . T h i s s h a r i n g o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s p r e s e n t e d a s a ' d i a l o g u e ' between e q u a l s i n W a l l e r s t e i n ' s book on c u l t u r e i n t h e a d u l t ESL c l a s s r o o m , 2 3 a work t h a t she c a l l s a r e - i n v e n t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f P a u l o F r e i r e . N o t a b l y i n t h i s a p p r o a c h , b o t h t h e ESL l e a r n e r s and t h e i n s t r u c t o r i n t e r p r e t t h e new c u l t u r e t h r o u g h t h e i r d i a l o g u e . W r i t i n g a b o u t t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l , C a r l A. G r a n t f o c u s s e d upon t h e t e a c h e r a s " m e d i a t o r o f c u l t u r e " w h i c h he d e f i n e d a s "a p e r s o n who b o t h t r a n s m i t s knowledge o f t h e 2 2 Ibid. pp. 755. 2 3 N. W a l l e r s t e i n , Language and Culture in Conflict: Probi em-posi ng in the ESL Classroom ( R e a d i n g , M ass.: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y ) , 1983. 18 c u l t u r e and i n t e r p r e t s t h e knowledge b e i n g t r a n s m i t t e d . " 2 " G r a n t , who was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e a c h e r s o f c h i l d r e n , a r g u e d t h a t t h e r o l e o f m e d i a t o r of c u l t u r e i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t r o l e f o r t e a c h e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d i n o r d e r t o p r o p e r l y c a r r y on t h e i r work i n a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y . L i k e a p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r i n a m u l t i e t h n i c c l a s s , t h e ESL i n s t r u c t o r t y p i c a l l y f a c e s s t u d e n t s from a v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . Many r e s p e c t e d ESL p r o f e s s i o n a l s have w r i t t e n t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e i s s u e of t h e c u l t u r a l o r i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e ESL t e a c h e r . T h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s , o f t e n aimed a t s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s or p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s , have a p e r s u a s i v e s i n c e r i t y and seem t o have r e s u l t e d f r o m i n t r o s p e c t i o n on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n l a n g u a g e c l a s s r o o m s . T h e s e w r i t i n g s f o c u s on what ESL t e a c h e r s o u g h t t o do r a t h e r t h a n what t h e y t h i n k t h e y do or a c t u a l l y do. Mary F i n o c c h a r i o ' s a n a l y s i s of t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e s e r v e s a s an example of t h i s k i n d o f w r i t i n g . 2 5 F i n o c c h a r i o l i s t s t h e t w e n t y - f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s whom she c h a r g e s w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o g u i d e s t u d e n t s t o a t t a i n b o t h b i l i n g u a l i s m and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m . In h e r c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e -ment she u r g e s t e a c h e r s t o : ...change t h e d i r e c t i o n of our t e a c h i n g whenever and w h e r e v e r n e c e s s a r y t o e x t i n g u i s h o r r e c h a n n e l 2 4 C A . G r a n t , "The M e d i a t o r of C u l t u r e : A T e a c h e r R o l e R e v i s i t e d " Journal of Research and Development in Education 11 ( 1, 1977):102-117. 2 5 M. F i n o c c h a r i o , The Crucial Variable in TESOLD: the Teacher ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h t o S p e a k e r s of O t h e r L a n g u a g e s ) S p e e c h t o t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of E d u c a t i o n , M a r c h 4, 1974. ED 091 948. 19 a g g r e s s i o n , t o h e l p o u r s t u d e n t s a c c e p t a n o t h e r ' s o p i n i o n s a n d f e e l i n g s , o r t o e r a d i c a t e b i g o t r y a n d r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e . 2 6 W h i l e t h e s e a r e a d m i r a b l e g o a l s f o r any t e a c h e r , s u c h i d e a l i z e d c o d e s o f c o n d u c t a b s t r a c t e d f r o m p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a r e much e a s i e r t o w r i t e a b o u t t h a n t o r e a l i z e i n o n e ' s own a c t i o n s . The l e s s t h a n p e r f e c t i n d i v i d u a l , w o r k i n g a s a ESL t e a c h e r o r a s p i r i n g t o become o n e , w o u l d h a v e d i f f i c u l t y l i v i n g up t o t h e s t a n d a r d s o f F i n o c c h a r i o ' s s t a t e m e n t . H e r s i s by no means a u n i q u e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c u l t u r a l r o l e o f ESL t e a c h e r s . 2 7 The i n t e r v i e w s t u d y r e p o r t e d h e r e i n was u n d e r t a k e n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s k i n d o f i d e a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e c u l t u r a l r o l e o f E SL t e a c h e r s . A n o t h e r k i n d o f a r t i c l e a b o u t t h e c u l t u r a l r o l e o f ESL t e a c h e r s i s w r i t t e n w i t h d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o a c t u a l c l a s s e s a n d p r o g r a m s . T h e s e a r t i c l e s o f t e n t a k e t h e f o r m o f r e p o r t s a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r t e a c h e s 2 8 o r more r a r e l y , a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f an e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m ' s a p p r o a c h t o c u l t u r e t e a c h i n g s u c h a s t h a t d one by G a i l P. K e l l y . 2 9 I n t h e c a s e o f t h e f o r m e r d e s c r i p t i v e r e p o r t s , t h e 2 6 Ibid. p. 31. 2 7 See a l s o H. B. A l t m a n , "What i s L a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g " i n The Second Language Classroom: Directions for the 1980' s J . A l a t i s , H. A l t m a n a n d P. A l a t i s , e d s . , (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1981 p p . 7-19. H. D. Brown " A f f e c t i v e F a c t o r s i n S e c o n d L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g " Op. cl t pp. 113-129. M. S a v i l l e - T r o i k e Foundations for Teaching English as a Second Language: Theory and Method for Multicultural Education ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N e w J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . ) 1 9 7 6 . [ e s p e c i a l l y c h a p t e r 4, pp. 4 5 - 6 7 ] . 2 8 F o r e x a m p l e J . B e l l , " O r i e n t a t i o n " op c i t . pp. 131-140. 2 9 G. P. K e l l y , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n f o r V i e t n a m e s e R e f u g e e s : Commentary on P l u r a l i s m i n A m e r i c a " The Journal of Ethnic 20 p u r p o s e i s t o s h a r e a p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n t o t h e b a l a n c i n g of l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r a l needs of s t u d e n t s . O t h e r w r i t e r s promote a p a r t i c u l a r method or a p p r o a c h t o d e a l i n g w i t h c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t t h a t t h e y have f o u n d t o be s u c c e s s f u l . The s t r e s s h e r e i s o f t e n on i n t e g r a t i n g c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s . B e v e r l y McLeod's c a l l f o r an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g i s an example. She a d v o c a t e s v i e w i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m a s a n e u t r a l p l a c e where c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s and a t t i t u d e s c a n be o p e n l y d i s c u s s e d . 3 0 O t h e r s o f f e r i d e a s and a r a t i o n a l e f o r t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d c u l t u r e i n any f o r e i g n o r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e c l a s s . 3 1 In Canada, t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have t r i e d t o r e c o n c i l e t h e i d e a l s and i s s u e s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m w i t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . S i n c e m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m p r o m o t e s t h e n o t i o n of C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y as a c u l t u r a l m o s a i c a s o p p o s e d t o an a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t m e l t i n g p o t , t h i s l e a d s t h o s e who t e a c h E n g l i s h , e s p e c i a l l y t o i m m i g r a n t s , t o c o n f r o n t t h e b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . A f t e r a l l , t h e i r e f f o r t s a r e l a r g e l y a imed a t f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' f i t w i t h t h e norms and e x p e c t a t i o n s of C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . T h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s r a n g e from t h e a f f i r m a t i o n o f c ommunity-based ESL c l a s s e s as a good p l a c e f o r t h e 2 9 ( c o n t ' d ) Studies 5 (4,1978):55-64. 3 0 B. McLeod, "The R e l e v a n c e o f A n t h r o p o l o g y t o L a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g " TESOL Quarterly 10 (2, 1976). 3 1 G. M o s k o v i t c h , Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Class, A Source Book of Humanistic Techniques (Rowley, Mass: Newbury H o u s e ) , 1978. H. Ned S e e l y e Teaching Culture: Strategies for Foreign Language Educators ( S k o k i e , I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k C o . ) , 1974. 21 p r o m o t i o n o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s i n s t u d e n t s or i n t e a c h e r s 3 2 t o t h e d e n u n c i a t i o n of a d u l t ESL as an example o f p o l i c y t h a t i n p r a c t i c e i s t o o o f t e n an e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l l i m i t i n g f o r c e i n t h e l i v e s of i m m i g r a n t s . 3 3 O t h e r a s p e c t s o f i n t e r g r o u p c o n t a c t i n ESL c l a s s e s s u c h a s r a c i s m and p r e j u d i c e a r e a l s o a d d r e s s e d under t h e b a n n e r of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and E S L . 3 " One o f t h e few f i e l d s t u d i e s t h a t gave some a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s of ESL t e a c h i n g was a s u r v e y o f ESL s c h o o l p rograms c o n d u c t e d by Mary A s h w o r t h i n 1 9 7 4 . 3 5 Response t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e showed a c o n c e r n f o r c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t between home and s c h o o l , and f o r t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n e a s i n g t h e 'new C a n a d i a n ' c h i l d ' s a d j u s t m e n t t o C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . In t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn, t h e t e a c h e r i s i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n t h e p r o g r a m . 3 6 F o r t h i s r e a s o n , A s h w o r t h c a l l e d f o r b e t t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n between ESL t e a c h e r s as w e l l a s f o r s p e c i a l i s t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r ESL t e a c h e r s and r e s p o n s i b l e s u p e r v i s i o n by s c h o o l b o a r d s . A f o l l o w - u p s u r v e y t o t h i s 1974 p r o j e c t i s underway a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s w r i t i n g . 3 2 R. B a k e r , " M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Community-based ESL C l a s s e s " Manitoba Modern Language Review 16 (3, 1 9 8 2 ) : 1 -4 . 3 3 K. V a l l a n c e , "ESL T e a c h e r s as S o c i a l A d v o c a t e " TEAL Ocassional Papers (6, 1982):19-21. G a i l P . K e l l y , O p . c i t . , r e a c h e s s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e o r i e n t a t i o n c o u r s e s f o r V i e t a n a m e s e r e f u g e e s i n t h e USA. 3 8 F o r example, C. S t e c k l e r , " R a c i s m and M u l t i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n " , TEAL Occasi onal Papers ( V a n c o u v e r : A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C.TEAL), (6, 1982):21-32. A l s o , J . B e c h t o l d , "The F i e l d T r i p : L anguage L e a r n i n g O u t s i d e t h e C l a s s r o o m " TESL Talk 14 ( 1 , 1982):202-211 . 3 5 M. A s h w o r t h , Immigrant Children and Canadi an Schools ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t ) , 1975. 3 6 Ibid. p. 189. 22 I n a n o t h e r r e p o r t o f t h i s same p r o j e c t , A s h w o r t h c o n c l u d e s w i t h some b a s i c q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y C a n a d i a n s hope t o b u i l d a n d t o p r e s e r v e , a n d t h e k i n d o f commitment we a r e w i l l i n g t o make t o e d u c a t i o n f o r e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y b o t h f o r n e w l y - a r r i v e d a n d n a t i v e - b o r n . 3 7 The k i n d s o f a n s w e r s t h a t m i g h t be g i v e n t o t h o s e q u e s t i o n s a s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e r a n g e o f p e r s p e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f ESL t e a c h e r s ' p u b l i s h e d comments on t h e i r c u l t u r a l r o l e s f o r e s h a d o w s t h e p o s s i b l e r a n g e o f v i e w p o i n t s t o be f o u n d among t h e t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h i s s t u d y . ESL t e x t b o o k s a n d t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e s t o c u r r i c u l a s o m e t i m e s h a v e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e a p p r o a c h t a k e n t o c u l t u r e i n t h e m a t e r i a l s o r c o u r s e . I n A Conversat i on Book: English in Everyday Life36 f o r e x a m p l e , t h e a u t h o r s a r e v e r y c l e a r a b o u t t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r a s a r e s o u r c e f a c i l i t a t o r who e n c o u r a g e s i n d i v i d u a l s i n a s e l f -d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g g r o u p t o become i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n e r s . T h e s e b o o k s t a k e a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n a p p r o a c h t o c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g , s t r e s s i n g c o m p a r i s o n o f s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s a n d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f p e r s o n a l b i a s a n d v a l u e s . 3 9 U n i t s i n t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n English as a Second 3 7 M. A s h w o r t h " R e s u l t s a n d I s s u e s f r o m a N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f ESL P r o g r a m s " i n A. W o l f g a n g , e d . , Education of Immigrant Students: Issues and Answers ( T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , Symposium S e r i e s 5 ) , 1975 p p . 165-183. 3 8 T .K . C a r v e r a n d S. 0. F o n t i n o s , A Conversation Book -English in Everyday Life (Books I & II) ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . ) , 1977. 3 9 Ibid. p. v i i i . Language for Adults: A Curri eul um Guide*0 c o n t a i n c u l t u r a l n o t e s o u t l i n i n g b e l i e f s a n d v a l u e s t h a t u n d e r l y t h e s h a r e d a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n t c o m m u n i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e g u i d e d o e s n o t d e f i n e t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e e x p l i c i t l y , t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t and t h e c o m m u n i t y r o l e s o f t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r i m p l y a t e a c h e r who i s b o t h f a c i l i t a t i n g c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t s a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d o m i n a n t c u l t u r e t o h e r s t u d e n t s . The g u i d e names m u t u a l a d a p t a t i o n by t h e i m m i g r a n t a n d " t h e a d o p t e d c u l t u r e " " 1 a s t h e p r o c e s s a t h a n d i n t h e s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e i m m i g r a n t . M a r g a r e t B e a t t i e , i n h e r r e v i e w o f m e t h o d o l o g y b o o k s a n d t e x t b o o k s w h i c h make r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f c u l t u r e , comments t h a t more s u r p r i s i n g t h a n what i s w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e t e a c h i n g o f c u l t u r e i n ESL b o o k s i s t h a t s o many of them f a i l t o m e n t i o n i t a t a l l . B e a t t i e i s c r i t i c a l o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m i n b o o k s a i m e d a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t a n d o f s e v e r a l C a n a d i a n p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t t r e a t t e a c h i n g a b o u t c u l t u r e a n d c i t i z e n s h i p a s a n e u t r a l a c t i v i t y . " 2 She p o i n t s o u t t h a t e t h n o c e n t r i s m , s o c i a l c l a s s b i a s a n d p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s may a l l i n f l u e n c e t h e t e a c h e r ' s c o n s c i o u s o r u n c o n s c i o u s g o a l s , a n d t h a t t h e g o a l s o f t h e h i r i n g a g e n c y may i n j e c t a c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r . " 3 T h i s a s s u m p t i o n o f n e u t r a l i t y o f c u l t u r a l a n d s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s one t h a t I *° B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , English as a Second Language for Adults: A Curriculum Guide ( V i c t o r i a : B. C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ) , 1 9 8 1 . " 1 Ibid. p. 2 3 . " 2 M. B e a t t i e , "The T e a c h i n g o f C u l t u r e T h r o u g h L a n g u a g e " TESLTalk 14 ( 1 - 2 , 1 9 8 3 ) : 1 - 1 2 . " 3 Ibid. p. 1 2 . 24 a n t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e c o n f l i c t i n g demands of c o n s c i e n c e and e m p l o y e r and t h e t e a c h e r ' s own a w a r e n e s s o f p e r s o n a l b i a s were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r a s p r o b a b l y r e l e v a n t . The w i d e s p r e a d o m i s s i o n o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g r e s t s upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a b o u t i t . In t h e 1980's, t h e r e has been a s h i f t i n t e r m i n o l o g y among some w r i t e r s on t h e s u b j e c t o f t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e i n ESL p r o g r a m s . As i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e ESL i n s t r u c t i o n was p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e g o a l of c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e , " " so i s t h e r e now a g r o w i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l and i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o m p e t e n c i e s . " 5 The c e n t r a l c l a i m i n E n g l i s h f o r I n t e r c u l t u r a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( E I C ) i s t h a t E n g l i s h i s t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e o f b u s i n e s s and t e c h n o l o g y and d o e s n o t ' b e l o n g ' t o any one c o u n t r y nor t o any one s o c i a l g r o u p , t h o u g h t h e use o f E n g l i s h i s a l w a y s c u l t u r e - b o u n d . " 6 T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g t h a t goes beyond l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c -t i o n . Those i n v o l v e d w i t h E n g l i s h t a u g h t as a f o r e i g n "" C. B r a t t P a u l t s o n , " L i n g u i s t i c and C o m m u n i c a t i v e Competence." TESOL Quart erly 8 (4, 1974):347-362. 4 5 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s s h i f t and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s see H. K r a s n i c k , "From C o m m u n i c a t i v e Competence t o C u l t u r a l Competence" i n J . Handscombe, R. A. Orem, an d B. P. T a y l o r , e d s . , On TESOL' 83: The Question of Control ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h t o S p e a k e r s of O t h e r L a n g u a g e s ) , 1984, pp. 209-221. " 6 J . B a x t e r , "ESL f o r I n t e r c u l t u r a l Competence: An A p p r o a c h t o I n t e r c u l t u r a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n T r a i n i n g " , i n D. L a n d i s a n d R. W. B r i s l i n , e d s . , Handbook of Intercultural Training, Volume II: Issues in Training Methodology (New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s ) , 1983, pp. 290-324. 25 l a n g u a g e a r e q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e i r a i m i s t o d e v e l o p b i l i n g u a l but n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e w h i l e t h e n a t i v e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g t e a c h e r i n a h o s t s o c i e t y ( t h a t i s , one r e c e i v i n g f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s o r i m m i g r a n t s ) i s much more l i k e l y t o a im t o w a r d b o t h b i l i n g u a l i s m and b i c u l t u r a l i s m . 8 7 B a x t e r , 8 8 who a d v o c a t e s E n g l i s h f o r I n t e r c u l t u r a l Competence, p r o p o s e s a model i n w h i c h i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i v e competence i s an i n t e g r a t e d a s p e c t o f E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g . He a s s e r t s t h a t b e c a u s e ESL l o o k e d t o l i n g u i s t i c c ompetence f o r a t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n , i t was b o t h i s o l a t e d f r o m , and i g n o r e d by, t h e f i e l d of i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . W i t h c o n c e r n f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n came a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n l a n -guage l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g . I f B a x t e r ' s a n a l y s i s i s c o r r e c t and i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s a g r o w i n g c o n c e r n of E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n w o r l d - w i d e , t h e n an a w a r e n e s s o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e and p e r h a p s some a d v o c a t e s o f i t may be u n c o v e r e d among t h e t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d . T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e o f t h e c o n t a c t between c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s and ESL ( o r E I C or E F L ) i n , f o r example, t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h p u t f o r w a r d by M c L e o d 8 9 and i n some c l a s r o o m t e x t b o o k s . 5 0 8 7 C. A l p t e k i n and M. A l p t e k i n , "The Q u e s t i o n o f C u l t u r e : E F L t e a c h i n g i n N o n - E n g l i s h S p e a k i n g C o u n t r i e s " ELT Journal 38 ( 1 , 1984):14-20. 8 8 Op. cl t . 8 9 Op. ci t . 5 0 F o r example, D. L e v i n e and M. Adelman, Beyond Language: Intercultural Communication for English as a Second Language ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l ) , 1982. 26 Two c o l l e c t i o n s o f a r t i c l e s e d i t e d by S t e p h e n B o c h n e r examine t h e p r o b l e m f a c e d by an i n d i v i d u a l a c t i n g i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c a p a c i t y from th e p e r s p e c t i v e o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . 5 1 H i s e f f o r t s t o s y n t h e s i z e t h i s r e s e a r c h , p o i n t t h e way f o r one l i n e o f q u e s t i o n i n g p u r s u e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s done f o r t h i s s t u d y . In k e e p i n g w i t h t h e e s t a b -l i s h e d p a t t e r n s o f i n q u i r y i n p s y c h o l o g y , and i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c s t y l e of t h i s s t u d y , B o c h n e r ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s e m p i r i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l . D r a w i n g upon r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s done i n c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n s s u c h a s P eace C o r p s w o r k e r s a b r o a d , f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and i n t e r g r o u p c o n t a c t s i n A u s t r a l i a , B o c h n e r p r o p o s e s a model o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s model s e t s o u t t h r e e t y p e s of c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g , and p r o p o s e s t h e two r o l e s o f t r a n s l a t o r o r s y n t h e s i z e r f o r t h e m e d i a t i n g p e r s o n . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e model i s i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e outcomes of " c u l t u r e s - i n - c o n t a c t " a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , a s i t l i s t s a v a r i e t y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e c o n d c u l t u r e t h a t depend upon t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c u l t u r a l g r o u p s as i n s i d e r s and o u t s i d e r s i n t h e s o c i e t y i n q u e s t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e d e s i g n a t i o n ' i m m i g r a n t s ' i s l i s t e d as an example o f a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t , t h e p o s s i b l e c o n t e n t 5 1 S. B o c h n e r , e d . , Cultures in Contact I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e r i e s i n E x p e r i m e n t a l S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , Volume 1 ( O x f o r d : Pergamom P r e s s ) , 1982. and S. B o c h n e r , e d . , The Mediating Person: Bridges Between Cultures ( B o s t o n , Mass.: G. K. H a l l ) , 1981. 27 and form o f c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n f a c e d by i m m i g r a n t s i s n o t e x p l i c i t l y d e a l t w i t h i n t h e s e c o l l e c t i o n s a n d must be i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e t r e a t m e n t g i v e n o t h e r c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n s s u c h as t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t o r worker a b r o a d , and t h e t o u r i s t o r t r a v e l l i n g b u s i n e s s m a n . 5 2 T e a c h e r s a r e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f young A m e r i c a n s t e a c h i n g f o r t h e Peace C o r p s and F i l i p i n o s t e a c h i n g i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c h o o l . 5 3 N e i t h e r o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s i s a n a l a g o u s t o t h a t o f an i n s t r u c t o r t e a c h i n g t h e l a n g u a g e of t h e m a j o r i t y t o an immig r a n t a d u l t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d i r e c t i o n t a k e n by Bo c h n e r i n e x t r a c t i n g t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e ' m e d i a t i n g p e r s o n ' and h i s o r h e r r e f e r e n c e g r o u p a s t h e two c r i t e r i a o f whether t h e p e r s o n i s a c t i n g o u t o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f one g r o u p ( i e . a s a p a r t i s a n ) or i s a c t i n g n e u t r a l l y , o r i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f b o t h as a b i p a r t i s a n i s r e l e v e n t t o ESL i n -s t r u c t i o n . B o c h n e r ' s model of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n m a i n t a i n s t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l seen i n view of g r o u p membership. He c a t e g o r i z e s a p e r s o n w o r k i n g between two c u l t u r e s a s an e x p l a i n e r , a t r a n s l a t o r , o r as a m e d i a t o r , a s n e c e s s a r i l y i n a c o n f l i c t o f g r o u p i n t e r e s t s . 5 2 T h r o s s e l l d o e s i n c l u d e i m m i g r a n t s i n h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s i n A u s t r a l i a n s o c i e t y . R. P. T h r o s s e l l , "Toward a M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y : The R o l e o f Government D e p a r t m e n t s a n d O f f i c i a l s i n D e v e l o p i n g C r o s s - c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s i n A u s t r a l i a " i n S. B o c h n e r , e d . , The Mediating Person: Bridge Between Cultures ( B o s t o n , Mass :G. K. H a l l ) , 1981, pp. 246-272. 5 3 M. W. S u l l i v a n , "When i n Rome. . . But Who's Roman? The M u t u a l A d a p t a i o n of C u l t u r a l I n s i d e r s and O u t s i d e r s " S. B o c h n e r , e d . , The Mediating Person: Bridge Between Cultures ( B o s t o n , Mass.: G. K. H a l l ) , 1981, pp. 273-298. 28 The p a r t i s a n t e a c h e r c o u l d r e s o l v e t h i s by b e i n g an a s s i m i l a t o r , a p o s i t i o n w hich assumes t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e do m i n a n t c u l t u r e . The b i p a r t i s a n t e a c h e r may be c a u g h t o u t s i d e b o t h g r o u p s as a ' m a r g i n a l , ' w h i l e t h e m e d i a t i n g t e a c h e r s e r v e s a s a l i n k between c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s , a s y n t h e s i z e r o f d i s p a r a t e v a l u e s , e s p e c i a l l y where a c t i o n i s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e c o n t a c t . A l t h o u g h B o c h n e r has not e x p l o r e d t h e c o n t e x t of ESL t e a c h e r s and t h e i r i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s t u d e n t s , h i s model d o e s p r o v i d e an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t a p p l i e s t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , B o c h n e r f o c u s s e s on t h e key i s s u e s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s m o t i v a t i o n and g r o u p r e f e r e n c e , two f a c t o r s t h a t a r e b u i l t i n t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a s c r u c i a l d e f i n e r s o f a t e a c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e t o c u l t u r e t e a c h i n g b e c a u s e I p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d them i n my own r e f l e c t i o n s on t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e r o l e of t h e ESL t e a c h e r of a d u l t s . 5 " In a d d i t i o n , Bochner p r o v i d e s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r g r o u p a n a l y s i s o f p e r s p e c t i v e s . F u r t h e r , he s t r e s s e s t h e i d e a t h a t a m e d i a t o r ( i . e . a n o n - a s s i m i l a t o r ) i s a l s o a c u l t u r e - l e a r n e r , an a t t i t u d e I e x p e c t e d some ESL t e a c h e r s t o r e p o r t . The i n t e r a c t i o n between an ESL t e a c h e r and an a d u l t s t u d e n t w h i c h B o c h n e r would a n a l y s e i n g r o u p membership t e r m s w o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d t h r o u g h what was s a i d a n d how i t was s a i d by s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . A l t h o u g h 5 * T. D e f o e , Some C u l t u r a l A s p e c t s o f t h e R o l e o f t h e ESL T e a c h e r o f A d u l t s , ( u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C . ) , 1984 ( T y p e w r i t t e n ) . 29 s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s t a k e s t h e g r o u p i d e n t i t y g i v e n s o f g e n d e r , e t h n i c i t y , and c l a s s a s p a r a m e t e r s w i t h i n w h i c h p e o p l e c r e a t e and a c t o u t t h e i r s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s , i n t e r p r e t i v e s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s s e e k s t o show how s y m b o l i c meaning and a c t i o n a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . Thus s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s r e j e c t s b e h a v i o u r a l r e p o r t s i n f a v o u r o f c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e . W i t h i n t h i s d i s c i p l i n e , f o r example, Gumperez m a i n t a i n s t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n t e r g r o u p and i n t e r e t h n i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r i s e from a wide v a r i e t y o f m i s u n d e r s t o o d c u e s , c o n v e n t i o n s , and o r g a n i z i n g f e a t u r e s of d i s c o u r s e . 5 5 Ways of s p e a k i n g , c o m p l i c a t e d by s o c i o c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t a r e l i k e l y u n c o n s c i o u s , make c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n q u i t e a complex and even p e r p l e x i n g a c t e v e n between two f l u e n t s p e a k e r s . T h i s l e a d s t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t ESL t e a c h e r s , f a c e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r e s t o "know," w i l l o f t e n m i s u n d e r s t a n d , and be m i s u n d e r s t o o d by, s t u d e n t s , even when t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n message seems c l e a r on t h e s u r f a c e . T h i s h a s been r e p o r t e d by ESL t e a c h e r s , 5 6 and i s a l s o s u p p o r t e d by s t u d i e s o f n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r . 5 7 B e c a u s e ESL t e a c h e r s a r e w o r k i n g 5 5 J . J . Gumperez, Language and Social I denti ty. ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1982. 5 6 See f o r example, L. W. L . Young, " I n s c r u t a b i l i t y R e v i s i t e d " J . J . Gumperez, e d . , Language and Social Identity ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1982. and J . R i c h a r d s , " C o n v e r s a t i o n " TESOL Quart erly 14 (4, 1 9 7 8 ) : 4 l 3 - 4 3 2 . 5 7 See f o r example, E . T. H a l l , The Silent Language ( G r e e n w i c h , C o n n e c t i c u t : F a w c e t t P r e s s ) , 1959. A l s o , P. C o l l e t t " M e e t i n g and M i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s " i n S. B o c h n e r , e d . , Cutures in Contact: Studies in Cross-cultural interaction ( O x f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s ) , 1982, pp. 81-91. 30 t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e t o t e a c h l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e , s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y w o u l d l e a d us t o e x p e c t many m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s and l e a r n e r s . I n d e e d , s u c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n f a i l u r e s may s h a p e ESL t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r r o l e i n t h e v e r y d i f f i c u l t a n d d e l i c a t e t a s k o f t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e . T h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e was i n t e n d e d t o s u r v e y a n d d i s c u s s s c h o l a r l y w r i t i n g and r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m a t h a n d . A l t h o u g h a number o f r e l a t e d f i e l d s w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s o f f e r a p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e p r o b l e m , what l i t t l e h a s been w r i t t e n a b o u t ESL t e a c h e r s a n d c u l t u r e was g e n e r a l l y f o u n d t o f o c u s upon a s i n g l e t e a c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e , o r on s u g g e s t i o n s t o p r o m o t e c u l t u r a l s h a r i n g w i t h i n a d u l t ESL c l a s s e s . ESL t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e i s an u n s t u d i e d d i m e n s i o n o f t h e i r work a n d one t h a t i s g i v -en l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n ESL t e x t s a n d m a t e r i a l s . T h i s s t u d y , w h i c h r e p o r t s on a g r o u p o f t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h a t r o l e , o f f e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e , d o c u m e n t , a n d u n d e r -s t a n d i n t e r c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s s e e n by p r a c t i c i n g E S L t e a c h e r s . C h a p t e r I I I THE STUDY T h i s c h a p t e r d e t a i l s t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . The a p p r o a c h t a k e n i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s a n d t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d a r e e x p l a i n e d . The p i l o t s t u d y a n d i t s f u n c t i o n i n t h e s h a p i n g o f t h e m a i n s t u d y , t h e r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g , a n d t h e i n f o r m a n t s a r e a l l e x a m i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . F i n a l l y , I t r y t o c o n v e y a s e n s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s a n d t h e raw d a t a o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s i n a s h o r t s e c t i o n on t h e r e s e a r c h e x p e r i e n c e . A. THE METHOD T h i s s t u d y i s n o t an e t h n o g r a p h y o f t h e l i f e o f ESL i n s t r u c t o r s ; i t i s an i n t e r v i e w s t u d y t h a t t a k e s an e t h n o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h t o a r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t h a t demands an i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e e k s t o d e s c r i b e a n d u n d e r s t a n d a s p e c t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e s c r i b e a r a n g e o f i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r r o l e a s t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h t o a d u l t s who a r e s p e a k e r s o f o t h e r l a n g u a g e s , a n d members o f o t h e r o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s . The s t u d y d r a w s upon a f o r m o f i n t e r a c t i o n c a l l e d e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s t h a t t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n d i n d i v i d u a l i n f o r m a n t - i n s t r u c t o r s a t t h e c o l l e g e . E t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s do n o t p r e s e n t p e o p l e w i t h p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s p o s e d , n o r do t h e y s e e k t o m e a s u r e a t t i t u d e s a n d r e s p o n s e s w i t h a s t a n d a r d i z e d s u r v e y 31 32 i n s t r u m e n t . In e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s the s o c i a l r e a l i t y of the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n and the i n t e r a c t i o n between the r e s e a r c h e r and the informant are important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the subsequent a n a l y s i s of what the i n f o r m a n t s say . E t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s are termed ' r e f l e x i v e ' as opposed to ' s t a n d a r d i z e d ' because n o n - d i r e c t i v e and open-ended q u e s t i o n s t h a t are not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e - p l a n n e d are p o s e d . The i n t e r v i e w i s s t r u c t u r e d by both the r e s e a r c h e r and the i n f o r m a n t . 5 8 Most i m p o r t a n t l y , the i n t e r v i e w e r takes the p a r t of an a c t i v e , n a i v e l i s t e n e r , f o r m u l a t i n g q u e s t i o n s and comments based upon what the informant has p r e v i o u s l y s a i d . As S p r a d l e y p o i n t s o u t , e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from f r i e n d l y c o n v e r s a t i o n s by t h e i r e x p l i c i t purpose and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e t h n o g r a p h i c e x p l a n a t i o n s and q u e s t i o n s . 5 9 The in formants are t o l d about the purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s , and q u e s t i o n s are e x p l a i n e d as the i n t e r v i e w goes a l o n g , w i th a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r throughout the i n f o r m a n t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r use of language . The assumpt ion here i s t h a t through d e s c r i p t i o n s of a c t i v i t i e s and s t r u c t u r e s and through c o n t r a s t and comparison of e lements d e s c r i b e d , the u n d e r l y i n g meaning t h a t a c t i v i t i e s have i n the c u l t u r e i s expres sed i n the a c t o r ' s own terms to the r e s e a r c h e r who w i l l uncover i t through a n a l y s i s . The i n f o r m a n t s ' e x p l a n a t i o n s of meaning are not i g n o r e d , but n e i t h e r are 5 8 M. Hammersley and P. A t k i n s o n , Ethnography: Principles in Practice (London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s ) , 1983 p . 113. 5 9 J . S p r a d l e y , The Ethnographic Interview (New Y o r k : H o l t , R e i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n ) , 1979 p . 59. 33 t h e y t a k e n a t f a c e v a l u e . The common-sense e x p l a n a t i o n f o r an d m e a n i n g o f , c u l t u r a l e l e m e n t s i s p a r t o f t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a n t s l i v e , a n d t h e o v e r a l l a c c o u n t r e l a t e d by an i n f o r m a n t i s s e e n a s more t h a n s i m p l y one p e r s p e c t i v e on t h a t c o n t e x t . E a c h a c c o u n t i s a p a r t o f t h e c o n t e x t a n d i s a t t h e same t i m e s h a p e d by i t . I n e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r f u n c t i o n s i n some ways a s t h e r e s e a r c h ' i n s t r u m e n t . ' R e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s o f t e n d i s c l o s e t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m s o t h a t r e a d e r s may e v a l u a t e t h e f i n d i n g s i n v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s s t a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e . I n my c a s e , I e x p e c t e d t o f i n d d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s . I a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t some i n f o r m a n t s w o u l d c l a i m t h e n e u t r a l , i n f o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o c u l t u r a l t e a c h i n g s o o f t e n d e s c r i b e d i n t e x t b o o k s , w h i l e o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s w o u l d l i k e l y s e e t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r work a s more i n t e r -a c t i v e o r p o t e n t i a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c . As an ESL t e a c h e r o f a d u l t s m y s e l f , I b e n e f i t t e d f r o m e a s y a c c e s s t o t h e s e t t i n g , a n d r e a d y a c c e p t a n c e by t h e " i n f o r m a n t s . S t i l l , S p r a d l e y n o t e s t h a t he w o u l d u s u a l l y c a u t i o n a g a i n s t u n d e r t a k i n g t h e s t u d y o f a f a m i l i a r c u l t u r e f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , f a m i l i a r i t y makes b o t h t h e g a t h e r i n g a n d a n a l y s i s o f f i e l d d a t a p o t e n t i a l l y more d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f t h e way we t a k e o u r own c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e f o r g r a n t e d . S e c o n d , i f i n f o r m a n t s b e l i e v e t h a t a r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d a l r e a d y know t h e a n s w e r s t o h e r q u e s t i o n s , t h e y a r e 34 l i k e l y t o become u n c o o p e r a t i v e o r s u s p i c i o u s . 6 0 T h e r e were however, c e r t a i n f a c t o r s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y t h a t r e d u c e d t h e d a n g e r s of r e s e a r c h e r e n c u l t u r a t i o n . The v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m a l l o w e d t h e i n f o r m a n t s , a s u n i q u e and i n d i v i d u a l ESL t e a c h e r s , t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and d e s c r i b e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o u t f e e l i n g t h a t anyone e l s e s h o u l d know t h e i r i n s i d e r ' s v i e w . Many o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s work w i t h a s p e c i a l i z e d c l i e n t e l e , o r i n o n l y one k i n d of p r o g r a m , so t h a t t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f o u t s i d e r was hoped t o be q u i t e b r o a d . Some of t h e i n f o r m a n t s knew of me t h r o u g h my o c c a s i o n a l work as p r a c t i c u m s u p e r v i s o r f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s . My p u b l i c a t i o n s , a l s o known t o some o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s , a r e i n t h e a r e a s of n e e d s a n a l y s i s and f u n c t i o n a l l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g and c u r r i c u l a , a l l of w h i c h a r e n o t e x p l i c i t l y r e l a t e d t o i n t e r c u l t u r a l l e a r n -i n g . T h i s f o r a y i n t o a "new i n t e r e s t " would, I h o p e d , l e s s e n i n f o r m a n t s u s p i c i o n s a b o u t my knowledge of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e t h i r t y - f i v e i n t e r v i e w s were by no means s t a n d a r d i z e d , t h e r e were some common e l e m e n t s i n a l l o f them. I a s k e d t h e i n f o r m a n t s a b o u t t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s , a b o u t t h e c o u r s e s t h e y a r e t e a c h i n g , a n d a b o u t t h e l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g g o a l s of t h o s e c o u r s e s . K e e p i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s open-ended and b a s e d upon what I had been t o l d by i n s t r u c t o r s i n p r e v i o u s i n t e r v i e w s , I a s k e d t h e i n f o r m a n t s t o t e l l me a b o u t t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f what t h e y do, and t o g i v e me examples from t h e i r c u r r e n t c l a s s e s . 6 0 J . S p r a d l e y , The Ethnographic Interview (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n ) , 1979 pp. 50-51. 35 I a l s o a s k e d a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s a b o u t t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d i n t e a c h i n g , a n d t h e i r k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l a n g u a g e s o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h a n d p l a c e s o t h e r t h a n C a n a d a . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e r e f l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s o f e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s , I s o m e t i m e s v o i c e d my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o r i n f e r e n c e s f o r t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' r e a c t i o n s . The a n t i c i p a t i o n o f d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e among t h e i n f o r m a n t s a n d t h e e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e ESL p r o g r a m s a t t h e c o l l e g e l e d t o t h e i n c l u s i o n i n t h e d e s i g n o f a s a m p l i n g a p p r o a c h t h a t w o u l d t a k e t h e s e e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s i n t o a c c o u n t . S u c h a s a m p l i n g s t r a t e g y by c a t e g o r y o r t y p e r a t h e r t h a n by random s e l e c t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h an a p p r o a c h t o s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e o r y l a i d o u t i n G l a s e r a n d S t r a u s s ' work on " g r o u n d e d t h e o r y . " 6 1 T h e i r c o n c e p t o f " t h e o r e t i c a l s a m p l i n g " a l l o w s f o r i n f o r m a n t s t o be s e l e c t e d a s t h e r e s e a r c h p r o g r e s s e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f t h e s t u d y , a n d h i s o r h e r ju d g e m e n t on how b e s t t o d e v e l o p i t f u r t h e r . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r m o d e l , t h i s s t u d y w o u l d be d e s c r i b e d a s one m o v i n g t o w a r d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u b s t a n t i v e t h e o r y g r o u n d e d i n r e s e a r c h on ESL t e a c h e r s o f a d u l t s . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s a p p r o a c h t o s a m p l i n g , among t h e o t h e r n o t e s a n d i m p r e s s i o n s r e c o r d e d i n my f i e l d d i a r y , I k e p t t r a c k o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s . The c a t e g o r i e s u s e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e 6 1 B. G l a s e r a n d A. S t r a u s s , The Discovery of Grounded Theory ( C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g C o . ) , 1956. 36 i n f o r m a n t s a n d i n t h e t h e m a t i c a n a l y s i s e merged i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y a n d were u s e d t o m o n i t o r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e f i e l d w o r k . I n t h i s way, I k e p t a r u n n i n g t a l l y o f t h e number o f i n f o r m a n t s f r o m e a c h p r o g r a m , t h e i r g e n d e r , and t h e i r s e l f - d e f i n e d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . I a l s o k e p t a r e c o r d o f t h e r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s e x p r e s s e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n f o r m a n t s f o r u s e a s a s u p p l e m e n t t o t h e t r a n s c r i b e d a c c o u n t s . P r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y i n c l u d e d r e c r u i t i n g i n f o r m a n t s , r e c o r d i n g and c o l l e c t i n g d a t a , and t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . F o r t h i s s t u d y , n o r m a l p r o c e d u r e a t t h e c o l l e g e was f o l l o w e d . A f t e r a l l n e c e s s a r y p e r m i s s i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m d i r e c t o r s a n d c o o r d i n a t o r s , i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r s were i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e s t u d y a n d i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e by l e t t e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . T h i s was t h e n f o l l o w e d by p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e r e s e a c h e r i n most c a s e s a t a r e g u l a r s t a f f m e e t i n g where t h e p r o j e c t was e x -p l a i n e d a n d p o t e n t i a l i n f o r m a n t s were a b l e t o a s k q u e s t i o n s . I n f o r m a n t s were t o l d a b o u t t h e s t u d y and i t s f o c u s on t h e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f ESL t e a c h e r s and t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e i r w o r k . A n o n y m i t y a n d c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f s t a t e m e n t s were p r o m i s e d when t h e i n f o r m a n t s s i g n e d t h e w r i t t e n c o n s e n t f o r m ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) , a s r e q u i r e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t y e t h i c s c o m m i t t e e . I n t h i s k i n d o f r e s e a r c h , t h e i n f o r m a n t s a r e b e i n g a s k e d t o t r u s t i n t h e i n t e g r i t y a n d good i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . R a p p o r t , m u t u a l s y m p a t h y and t r u s t n e e d t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f c o n t a c t . The r e s e a r c h e r 37 made an e f f o r t t o a p p e a r n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g t h r o u g h c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n . A l l i n s t r u c t o r s a t t h e c o l l e g e h a v e an o f f i c e a nd a t l e a s t one ' f r e e ' h o u r d u r i n g t h e i r work d a y ; by h o l d i n g i n t e r v i e w s i n t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' o f f i c e s a t t i m e s o f t h e i r c h o o s i n g , I h o p e d t o h e i g h t e n t h e i r s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y a n d f a c i l i t a t e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r a p p o r t . As i t h a p p e n e d , t e n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s t o o k p l a c e i n t h e f a c u l t y l o u n g e s e c t i o n o f t h e c a f e t e r i a , two w e re h e l d i n i n s t r u c t o r s ' homes, and t h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t e e n i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' o f f i c e s . A l l b u t t h r e e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s were a u d i o - t a p e r e c o r d e d . T h i s f r e e d o m f r o m t a k i n g v e r b a t i m n o t e s a l l o w e d me t o c o n c e n t r a t e on a c t i v e l y l i s t e n i n g t o t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s a c c o u n t , a l l t h e b e t t e r t o f o l l o w t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s t h i n k i n g a nd p o s e t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n a t t h e most a p p r o p r i -a t e t i m e . N o t e - t a k i n g was n o t e l i m i n a t e d , b u t c e n t r e d on c a p t u r i n g o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , a n d on r e c o r d i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s i m p r e s s i o n s . T h r e e o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s d i d n o t want t o be t a p e r e c o r d e d . The a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s were w r i t t e n up f r o m n o t e s t a k e n d u r i n g a n d imme-d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e s e s s i o n s . B. THE P I L O T INTERVIEWS T h e s e i n t e r v i e w s s e r v e d t h r e e s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s i n r e g a r d t o t h e s h a p i n g o f t h e m a j o r s t u d y . F i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t , t h e p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s were a t e s t i n g g r o u n d f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w e r and t h e i n t e r v i e w . The f a c u l t y members' r e a c t i o n 38 t o t h e s t u d y , t h e e a s e o f o b t a i n i n g c o o p e r a t i o n , t h e c o n t e n t and c o u r s e of t h e i n t e r v i e w s , and t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f f i e l d work were a l l on t r i a l . S e c ond, t h e i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d t h e d a t a f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an i n i t i a l a n a l y t i c framework o f c a t e g o r i e s and c o n c e p t s t o be p u r s u e d i n t h e m a j o r f i e l d work p e r i o d . T h i r d , t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s and i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m l e s s f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h i n s t r u c t o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were t h e b a s i s f o r a d e c i s i o n as t o whether o r not t h e f a c u l t y and c u l t u r e l e a r n -i n g g o a l s of t h e on-campus ESL p r o g r a m were s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l p u r p o s e ESL a t t h e c o l l e g e t o j u s t i f y l i m i t i n g t h e g e n e r a l ESL i n s t r u c t o r s t o be i n t e r v i e w e d t o t h o s e from t h i s p a r t - t i m e p r o g r a m . The p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d between M a r c h 22 and A p r i l 3, 1985. One i n s t r u c t o r was i n t e r v i e w e d f r o m e a c h of f i v e o f t h e c o l l e g e ' s ESL p r o g r a m s ; t h e s e i n c l u d e d a c a d e m i c E n g l i s h , v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h , p a r t - t i m e ESL, community E n g l i s h , and e v e n i n g p r o g r a m s . The t h r e e l a t t e r p r o g r a m s a r e a l l g e n e r a l p u r p o s e ESL programs t a r g e t e d a t d i f f e r e n t m a r k e t s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s ; one i s c o n d u c t e d on campus, t h e o t h e r two a r e o f f - s i t e p r o g r a m s . The p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s were l o n g e r t h a n t h e i n t e r v i e w s f o r t h e main s t u d y . I was n o t r e a l l y s u r e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g what t h e i n f o r m a n t s would be w i l l i n g t o t a l k a b o u t , o r how t h e y would t a l k a b o u t t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . D u r i n g t h e p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s t h e s e c o n c e r n s were a n s w e r e d by t h e i n f o r m a n t s . T h e i r 3 9 e x p l a n a t i o n s and t h e i r a c c o u n t s of t h e i r work w i t h ESL l e a r n e r s l e d t o t h e components of t h e a n a l y s i s of r o l e d i m e n s i o n s t h a t f o l l o w s i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . The p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d by hand, a slow and d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e l e d t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e p r o j e c t would be i m p r a c t i c a l u n l e s s t h e i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d i n a f a s t e r , more e f f i c e n t way. The p i l o t s t u d y s e r v e d i t s p u r p o s e w e l l . As a r e s u l t o f t h e p i l o t , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e t h r e e o n - s i t e ESL p r o g r a m s would be t h e r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g s i n c e t h e r e were a g r e a t number o f i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e p r o g r a m , and t h e c u l t u r e l e a r n i n g g o a l s of t h e t h r e e p rograms d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be g r e a t l y d i f f e r e n t . From a p r a c t i c a l v i e w p o i n t , c o n f i n i n g t h e p r o j e c t t o t h e s i n g l e s e t t i n g of t h e campus p r o p e r made t h e f i e l d work l e s s e x p e n s i v e and more c o n v e n i e n t . C. THE SETTING The community c o l l e g e i s a busy i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h modern p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n a u r b a n s e t t i n g . The s t u d e n t s r a n g e i n age f r om t h e l a t e t e e n s t o s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . The b u i l d i n g i s q u i t e new and w e l l - c a r e d f o r ; t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f v a n d a l i s m o r g r a f f i t i . S t u d e n t s g a t h e r i n t h e h a l l w a y s w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s , i n t h e s m o k e - f i l l e d l o u n g e a r e a s , and i n t h e c a f e t e r i a . As f o r t h e t e a c h e r s , when t h e y a r e n o t i n c l a s s t h e y a r e o f t e n f o u n d i n t h e i r p r o gram's g e n e r a l r e s o u r c e a r e a , i n t h e i r o f f i c e s , o r i n t h e f a c u l t y s e c t i o n o f t h e c a f e t e r i a w h i c h a l s o s e r v e s a s t h e f a c u l t y l o u n g e . The l i b r a r y a n d c o u n s e l l i n g a r e a a r e b o t h b u s y c e n t r e s o f a c t i v i t y . A l o n g w i t h o t h e r t y p e s o f c o u r s e s , E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e c l a s s e s f o r a d u l t s a r e o f f e r e d by t h e c o l l e g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , on a n d o f f campus a t v a r i o u s t i m e s d u r i n g t h e d a y . L i k e many i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t o f f e r ESL i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e c o l l e g e h a s s e v e r a l s e p a r a t e p r o g r a m s a i m e d a t d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f l e a r n e r s . As n o t e d a b o v e , i n s t r u c t o r s f r o m t h r e e ESL p r o g r a m s t h a t h o l d c l a s s e s on t h e campus p r o p e r were i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s p r o j e c t . The t h r e e p r o g r a m s s e l e c t e d a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t h r e e m a i n t y p e s of ESL p r o g r a m m i n g f o r a d u l t s . T h a t i s , g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t E S L , a c a d e m i c p r e p a r a t i o n ESL f o r t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , a n d v o c a t i o n a l ESL f o r t h o s e r e q u i r i n g l a n g u a g e e d u c a t i o n i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w o r k . As d e s c r i b e d i n t h e c o l l e g e c a l e n d a r , t h e g e n e r a l ESL p r o g r a m i s f o r p a r t - t i m e l e a r n e r s who w i s h t o u p - g r a d e t h e i r E n g l i s h c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d l i t e r a c y s k i l l s s o t h a t t h e y c a n f u n c t i o n mdre e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o m m u n i t y , o r e n t e r v o c a t i o n a l , a c a d e m i c o r t e c h n i c a l p o s t - s e c o n d a r y p r o g r a m s . 6 2 The v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m ' s d e c l a r e d p u r p o s e i s t o " g i v e s t u d e n t s enough E n g l i s h t o e n a b l e them t o f i n d e m p l o y m e n t . " 6 3 The a c a d e m i c E n g l i s h p r o g r a m i s f o r s t u d e n t s " a t t h e p o s t - a d v a n c e d l e v e l o f f l u e n c y " who a r e s e e k i n g h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n o r p r e p a r i n g t o e n t e r a p o s t - s e c o n d a r y p r o g r a m where E n g l i s h i s t h e medium o f 6 2 Community C o l l e g e 1985-1986 Calendar p. 62. 6 3 Ibid. 4 1 i n s t r u c t i o n . 6 * A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c a l e n d a r , a l l o f t h e c o u r s e s . . . g i v e p r a c t i c e i n l i s t e n i n g , s p e a k i n g , r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g E n g l i s h . A l l p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e o r i e n t a t i o n t o C a n a d i a n l i f e a n d c u l t u r e , a n d p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s h i p . T h i s c u l t u r a l m a ndate o f t h e p r o g r a m s i s l e s s e x p l i c i t l y a c k n o w l e d g e d i n t h e c o u r s e c u r r i c u l a , a n d i n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e c o u r s e i n c o l l e g e b r o c h u r e s . D. THE INFORMANTS I f o r m a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d t h i r t y - f i v e i n s t r u c t o r s : f i v e f o r t h e p i l o t s t u d y a n d t h i r t y f o r t h e m a i n s t u d y . A l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s v o l u n t e e r e d , a n d a l l v o l u n t e e r s who f i t t h e s a m p l e c r i t e r i a o f r e g u l a r employment i n one o f t h e t h r e e p r o g r a m s u n d e r s t u d y were i n t e r v i e w e d . O v e r a l l , t h e l e v e l o f c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m t h e c o l l e g e ' s ESL f a c u l t y was v e r y h i g h . The p r o j e c t ' s f o c u s on t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n t e r e s t e d t h e i n s t r u c t o r s who came f o r w a r d a s i n f o r m a n t s . I a s k e d s e v e r a l o f t h e t e a c h e r s who d i d n o t a g r e e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h e i r r e a s o n s , a n d most o f t e n t h e h o u r o r s o n e e d e d was g i v -en a s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e . I n a few c a s e s , when I s a i d I was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e b e c a u s e o f a u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h e t e a c h e r t h e n a g r e e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . The l o n e m a l e v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y member i n f o r m a n t was r e c r u i t e d i n t h i s way. T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l y o t h e r r e a s o n s , b e s i d e s a l a c k o f t i m e , t h a t made t e a c h e r s d i s i n c l i n e d t o become i n f o r m a n t s . I 6 f t Ibid. pp. 6 2 - 6 3 . 42 n o t i c e d t h a t a s t h e s t u d y p r o g r e s s e d , a n d a f t e r I h a d been on campus e v e r y day f o r a b o u t s i x weeks, a number o f p r e v i o u s l y r e t i c e n t t e a c h e r s came f o r w a r d a n d o f f e r e d t o s p e a k w i t h me. T h i s was d u e , I t h i n k , t o my a c c e p t a n c e by t h e f a c u l t y i n g e n e r a l . Had I had t i m e a n d e n e r g y t o s p e n d many months i n t h e f i e l d I m i g h t h a v e h ad an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r v i e w t h e e n t i r e campus ESL f a c u l t y . The l a s t i n f o r m a n t s were l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e i r work a n d l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s , b u t t h e y h a d no l e s s t o s a y a b o u t how c u l t u r e a f f e c t e d t h e i r t e a c h i n g . I f o l l o w e d t h e c o l l e g e ' s p r o g r a m g r o u p i n g s i n r e c r u i t i n g t h e i n f o r m a n t s . T h i s meant t h a t I t r i e d t o o b t a i n c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e t h r e e p r o g r a m s more o r l e s s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e t o t a l number f o r t h a t p r o g r a m , a l -t h o u g h t h i s was n o t c r u c i a l b e c a u s e t h e s t u d y d o e s n o t n e e d n o r c l a i m t o h a v e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e . T a b l e I shows t h e number of i n f o r m a n t s f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p r o g r a m s . TABLE I Number o f I n f o r m a n t s f r o m E a c h P r o g r a m A c a d e m i c ESL V o c a t i o n a l ESL G e n e r a l ESL I n f o r m a n t s = 4 I n f o r m a n t s = 11 I n f o r m a n t s = 1 5 43 The a c a d e m i c ESL p r o gram i n c l u d e d t w e l v e i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e A p r i l , 1985 f i g u r e s f o r t h e p r o g r a m , a l t h o u g h v a c a t i o n s r e d u c e d t h e number o f p o t e n t i a l i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e p r o g r a m t o t e n . Of t h e s e t e n , f o u r had c o m p l e t e i n t e r v i e w s w h i l e one i n s t r u c t o r ' s i n t e r v i e w was i n t e r r u p t e d and n e v e r c o m p l e t e d . The d a t a from t h i s i n s t r u c t o r ' s i n t e r v i e w i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . The v o c a t i o n a l ESL p r o g r a m h a s t h i r t y - f o u r i n s t r u c t o r s on t h e A p r i l , 1985 f a c u l t y l i s t f o r t h e c o l l e g e , b u t o n l y t w e n t y - s i x o f t h o s e i n s t r u c t o r s were t e a c h i n g a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y . Of t h e s e t w e n t y - s i x p o t e n t i a l i n f o r m a n t s , e l e v e n were i n t e r v i e w e d . F o r t h e g e n e r a l ESL p r o g r a m t h e f i g u r e s a r e f o r t y - n i n e i n s t r u c t o r s on t h e f a c u l t y l i s t a s c o l l e g e e m p l o y e e s , f o r t y - f o u r on t h e t e a c h i n g s c h e d u e l e , and f i f t e e n i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h e s t u d y . In t o t a l f o r t h e main s t u d y , t h i r t y i n s t r u c t o r s a c t e d as i n f o r m a n t s o u t of a p o t e n t i a l t e a c h i n g f a c u l t y o f e i g h t y i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e t h r e e p r o g r a m s on t h e campus. T a b l e I I shows t h e i n f o r m a n t s numbered i n o r d e r o f t h e i r i n t e r v i e w c a t e g o r i z e d by age and g e n d e r . 6 5 E x a c t l y h a l f o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s a r e i n t h e i r t h i r t i e s . The i n f o r m a n t s under t h i r t y y e a r s o l d , T#9 and T#22, were t w e n t y - n i n e and t w e n t y - s e v e n r e s p e c t i v e l y , so o v e r h a l f o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s a r e of t h e g e n e r a t i o n sometimes c a l l e d 'baby boomers.' The c o l l e g e ' s ESL p rograms went t h r o u g h a p e r i o d of e x p a n s i o n i n t h e 1970's and so i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t 6 5 T e a c h e r s 1-5 r e p r e s e n t t h e f i v e t e a c h e r s i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y . They a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e t a b l e s . 44 TABLE II I n f o r m a n t ' s Age and Gender T# 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-65 MALE FEMALE 6 X X 7 X X 8 X X 9 X X 10 X X 1 1 X X 12 X X 13 X X 14 X X 1 5 X X 16 X X 17 X X 18 X X 19 X X 20 X X 21 X X 22 X X 23 X X 24 X X 25 X X 26 X X 27 X X 28 X X 29 X X 30 X X 31 X X 32 X X 33 X X 34 X X 35 X X 30 2 15 6 4 3 8 22 45 most o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s were h i r e d d u r i n g t h a t t i m e a n d a r e now i n t h e i r t h i r t i e s . U n t i l t h a t e r a , ESL i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a d u l t s was n o t o r g a n i z e d i n s u c h a way a s t o p r o v i d e p e r m a n e n t f u l l - t i m e employment f o r t e a c h e r s . A l l o f t h e t e a c h e r s o v e r f i f t y y e a r s o l d s t a r t e d t h e i r c a r e e r s i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . When t h e a d u l t ESL c o u r s e s w e re f i r s t o r g a n i z e d , t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s were h i r e d t o l a u n c h t h e p r o g r a m s . T w e n t y - t w o o f t h e t h i r t y i n f o r m a n t s w e re f e m a l e . A l t h o u g h , a s s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e s a m p l i n g was n o t i n t e n d e d t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t h i s p r o p o r t i o n o f a l i t t l e more t h a n one t h i r d o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s b e i n g m a l e i s g e n e r a l l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e m a l e / f e m a l e r a t i o o f t h e o v e r -a l l f a c u l t y . T a b l e I I I p r e s e n t s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' b a c k g r o u n d s a n d r e l a t e s t h e i r s e l f -c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . T h i s i n f o r m a -t i o n i s o f i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g r o l e . T h i r t e e n o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d do n o t h a v e E n g l i s h a s t h e i r m o t h e r t o n g u e . Among t h i s t h i r t e e n a r e t h e f i v e v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y member i n f o r m a n t s who s a i d t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s a l w a y s a s k where t h e y a r e f r o m , a n d what l a n g u a g e s t h e y s p e a k . Two o f t h e f i v e v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y member i n f o r m a n t s were b o r n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a o f i m m i g r a n t p a r e n t s a n d l e a r n e d E n g l i s h a s y o u n g c h i l d r e n . T h e i r s t u d e n t s , t h e y TABLE I I I I n f o r m a n t ' s B a c k g r o u n d a nd C u l t u r a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n T# E n g l i s h B o r n V i s i b l e CANADIAN* I n t e r -L i /L2+ i n M i n o r i t y Mono- B i c u l t - n a t i o n -C a n a d a Member c u l t u r a l t u r a l a l i s t 6 X X X 7 X X X 8 X X X 9 X X X 10 X X X X 1 1 X X 12 X X X 13 X X X 1 4 X X X 15 X X X 16 X X 1 7 X X 18 X X X 19 X X X 20 X X X 21 X X 22 X X X 23 X X X 24 X X X 25 X X X 26 X X X 27 X X X 28 X X 29 X X X 30 X X X? 31 X X X X 32 X X X 33 X X X 34 X X X 35 X X 30 17 13 20 5 11 8 11 * S e l f - d e f i n e d members o f t h e C a n a d i a n m a i n s t r e a m . 47 a g r e e d , assumed t h a t t h e s e non-white t e a c h e r s have had e x p e r i e n c e as ESL l e a r n e r s . Three o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s among the t h i r t e e n f o r whom E n g l i s h was an a d d i t i o n a l language s a i d t h ey u s u a l l y t o l d s t u d e n t s about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s as c h i l d r e n i n immigrant homes; two of the t h r e e p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e i r l a s t names were o b v i o u s l y not 'anglo' and t h a t s t u d e n t s u s u a l l y asked them about t h e i r f a m i l y backgrounds. These e i g h t i n f o r m a n t s a l l s a i d t h a t t h e i r f a m i l y background and second language e x p e r i e n c e as c h i l d r e n was a sour c e of t h e i r empathy f o r t h e i r a d u l t s t u d e n t s . For example, when I asked T#32 what a t t r a c t e d her t o t e a c h i n g ESL t o a d u l t s , she s a i d : I t ' s j u s t t h a t I unde r s t o o d what i t would be l i k e not t o know the language i n the w o r l d y o u ' r e l i v i n g i n , because my p a r e n t s never spoke the language and i n p a r t i c u l a r my mcither. And I knew how much a c t u a l n o n - l i v i n g was g o i n g on. And I would c e r t a i n l y h a t e t o see anyone l i v i n g t h a t k i n d of l i f e . (T#32 p.30) The o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s i n t h i s group s i m p l y s a i d t h a t they u n d e r s t o o d the problems and perhaps even the m e n t a l i t y of t h e i r s t u d e n t s because of t h e i r f a m i l y background. The r e m a i n i n g f i v e i n f o r m a n t s of n o n - E n g l i s h mother tongue s a i d they do not t e l l t h e i r s t u d e n t s t h a t E n g l i s h i s not t h e i r f i r s t language. Born i n Canada, t h e y a l l l e a r n e d E n g l i s h as c h i l d r e n , and most s a i d they seldom use or have l i m i t e d f a c i l i t y i n t h e i r p a r e n t s ' language. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h ey do t e l l t h e i r s t u d e n t s about t h e i r e f f o r t s , s u c c e s s f u l or n o t , t o l e a r n languages as a d u l t s . S i m i l a r l y , t hey r e c o u n t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s t r a v e l l i n g or w o r k i n g abroad and 48 t h e l a n g u a g e o r c u l t u r a l dilemmas t h e y f a c e d t h e r e . The l a s t t h r e e c o l u m n s of t a b l e I I I i n d i c a t e t h e t e a c h e r s ' s e l f - d e c l a r e d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . N i n e t e e n of t h e t h i r t y i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y t h i n k o f t h e m s e l v e s a s m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n s . Of t h o s e i n f o r m a n t s , e i g h t s a i d t h a t t h e y were b i c u l t u r a l and a l s o b i l i n g u a l , w h i l e t h e o t h e r e l e v e n were m o n o c u l t u r a l . T h e s e a r e e x amples of some o f t h e comments t h a t l e d t o i n f o r m a n t s b e i n g p l a c e d i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m c a t e g o r y : T#7: I ' d say I'm d e f i n i t e l y m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n . T#8: I'm n o t b i c u l t u r a l , t h a t ' s a new i d e a . When I was g r o w i n g up, we d i d n ' t have ' b i c u l t u r a l . ' I l o o k on my b a c k g r o u n d a s where I come from, b u t where I am i s C a n a d i a n . ( M a i n s t r e a m ? ) Y e s , I t h i n k s o . T#9: Y e s , e x a c t l y . I'm m a i n s t r e a m , a v e r a g e . T#10: I'm C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n . H a l f - h a l f . Some C h i n e s e f a m i l y v a l u e s , but b a s i c a l l y C a n a d i a n . T h e r e a r e no c o n f l i c t s i n t h a t . I t h i n k i t ' s a g a i n . T#24: I s u p p o s e I'm a v e r a g e f o r my g r o u p . M a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n , y e s . T#26: Yeah, I ' d have t o say I'm m a i n s t r e a m , but I d o n ' t r e a l l y l i k e t h e l a b e l . T#27: I'm b i c u l t u r a l - y e s . M a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n , b u t i n a way I'm between two c u l t u r e s . T#32: M a i n s t r e a m ? Yeah, I g u e s s s o . . . I'm b e g i n -n i n g t o t h i n k I'm a banana. Sometimes I d o n ' t want t o , and sometimes I do want t o . I t d o e s n ' t make much d i f f e r e n c e ; i t d o e s n ' t b o t h e r me any more. The banana T#32 r e f e r s t o i s a metaphor t h a t e x p r e s s e s t h e a m b i v a l e n c e of a y e l l o w - s k i n n e d p e r s o n who l i v e s among an d i d e n t i f i e s w i t h a p r e d o m i n a t e l y w h i t e s o c i e t y . 49 L i k e f o u r o f t h e f i v e v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y member i n f o r m a n t s , T#32 c h a r a c t e r i z e d h e r s e l f a s a b i c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n . T h e s e i n s t r u c t o r s , t h e n , a l s o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y , and see a p l a c e f o r t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i n i t . T#32's remark r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t s o c i e t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y i f t h e 'banana' i s a i n e v i t a b l e outcome o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . T#32 s a i d s h e ' d l e a r n e d t h e t e r m f r o m h e r c h i l d r e n . The o t h e r v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y mem-b e r s m e n t i o n e d a f e e l i n g of h a v i n g a d u a l i d e n t i t y ; T#34 s a i d t h a t he was n o t " r a c i a l l y " C a n a d i a n . The f i f t h v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y member i n f o r m a n t , an i n s t r u c t o r who h a s l i v e d i n Canada f o r t e n y e a r s and i s m a r r i e d t o a C a n a d i a n , s a i d she s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d h e r s e l f a c i t i z e n o f h e r home c o u n t r y , a n d he r p r i m a r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was w i t h h e r c u l t u r e of o r i g i n . T e a c h e r s #19 a n d #29 l i k e T#26, r e l u c t a n t l y a d m i t t e d t o b e i n g m a i n s t r e a m b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n ' t l i k e t h e l a b e l . T#19 s a i d she was " m a i n s t r e a m b u t not a v e r a g e , " w h i l e T#29 s a i d she was m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n and b i c u l t u r a l , b u t l i k e d t o t h i n k she had a l i t t l e b i t of a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e . "I'm n o t r a h - r a h C a n a d i a n , " she s a i d . I t i s t h e ' g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e ' t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s " who, u n l i k e T#29, r e j e c t a l t o g e t h e r t h e i d e a t h a t t h e y a r e m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n s . T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n of a f o r e i g n a l l e g i a n c e makes T#30 an anomaly i n t h e l a s t column and t h a t i s why a q u e s t i o n mark i s p l a c e d b e s i d e h e r marker i n t a b l e I I I . The l a s t column o f t h e t a b l e w i t h t h e h e a d i n g " I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t " i s f o r t h o s e 50 i n f o r m a n t s who s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r w o r l d v i e w was l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n s . They f e l t t h a t t h e y w ere " c i t i z e n s o f t h e w o r l d " d e s p i t e t h e i r C a n a d i a n p a s s p o r t s , a n d t h e y r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a t h a t t h e y were p a r t o f t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . H e r e a r e some e x a m p l e s o f s t a t e m e n t s by t e a c h e r s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t c a t e g o r y : T#13: I s e e m y s e l f a s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e r s o n . I d o n ' t t h i n k I'm a t y p i c a l C a n a d i a n . I s e e m y s e l f v e r y much a s a p e r s o n w i t h many v i e w s , w i t h many d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s t h a t come f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , a n d w i t h many homes. T#14: I'm s o r t o f a c h a m e l e o n . . . I a d j u s t e a s i l y t o o t h e r c u l t u r e s a n d r e a l l y g e t i n t o them. I f e e l p e r s o n a l l y t h a t I'm v e r y t o l e r a n t o f p e o p l e f r o m o t h e r c u l t u r e s , a n d i t a l w a y s s u r p r i s e s me when I se e ot.her C a n a d i a n s m a k i n g r a c i s t r e m a r k s a b o u t p e o p l e . I w o u l d n ' t s a y t h a t I was m a i n s t r e a m . T#16: I'm s o r t o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t . I s e e y o u r c i t i z e n s h i p a s a k i n d o f p r o p e r t y y o u h a v e ; i t ' s no b i g d e a l . T#17: I ' v e a l w a y s been a r o u n d o t h e r c u l t u r e s . I'm no t n a t i o n a l i s t i c a b o u t C a n a d a . . . I'm a c i t i z e n o f t h e w o r l d f i r s t . T#18: Y e a h , I'm C a n a d i a n , b u t I'm n o t m a i n s t r e a m . I ' d l i k e t o l i v e a b r o a d , b u t I l i k e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r me h e r e , s o I'm s o r t o f s t u c k . T#21: I ' d s a y I'm m u l t i c u l t u r a l . I h a v e a more r o u n d e d p e r s p e c t i v e t h a n most C a n a d i a n s . Many C a n a d i a n s t a k e C anada f o r g r a n t e d a n d n e v e r e x a m i n e i t a t a l l . T#25: I t h i n k most p e o p l e i n t h e w o r l d a r e v e r y s i m -i l a r . . . I t h i n k C a n a d i a n s a r e r e a l l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l . B e c a u s e , what i s i t ? O v e r h a l f o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Canada i s new. T h i s g r o u p i n c l u d e s f o u r i n s t r u c t o r s b o r n i n C a n a d a , two who h o l d d u a l c i t i z e n s h i p b e c a u s e t h e y were b o r n o u t s i d e C a nada t o C a n a d i a n p a r e n t s , two who i m m i g r a t e d t o C a n a d a a s 51 c h i l d r e n , and T#30 whose c a s e was m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s b o r n o u t s i d e Canada may f e e l t h e y have a more i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and a r e l e s s i n c l i n e d t o u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y a c c e p t C a n a d i a n s o c i e t a l v a l u e s t h a n i s t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n . One o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s i n t h i s g r o u p o f f e r e d h i s i d e a s on why t h e i n s t r u c t o r s a t t h e c o l l e g e w o u l d deny b e i n g p a r t of t h e m a i n s t r e a m of C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . T#6: Y o u ' r e n o t g o i n g t o f i n d ( m a i n s t r e a m p e o p l e ) . . . I t h i n k t h e p r o b l e m w i t h p e o p l e t h a t t r a v e l , y o u know, t h e r e a s o n why p e o p l e t r a v e l a n d l e a v e t h e i r c o u n t r y and go e l s e w h e r e i s t h a t t h e y ' r e n o t m a i n s t r e a m . And t h e y ' r e i n s e a r c h o f o t h e r t h i n g s and o t h e r c u l t u r e s and t h e y d o n ' t want t o be m a i n s t r e a m b e c a u s e m a i n s t r e a m means m i d d l e c l a s s a n d m i d d l e c l a s s means, c o n t e n t . L i t t l e homes, you know, l i t t l e b o x e s , l i t t l e p l a t e a u s a n d I t h i n k p e o p l e o f my g e n e r a t i o n w i l l do a n y t h i n g t o r e j e c t t h a t . I t ' s s o r t o f p r e - h i p p i e o r p o s t o r b o t h , w i t h o u t e v e r b e i n g a h i p p i e , we j u s t a r e . And I t h i n k t h a t ' s why. You may f a l l r i g h t i n t h e m i d d l e o f a m i d d l e c l a s s j o b , and t h e m o r t g a g e and a l l t h a t b u l l s h i t . TD: T h i s i s a r e a s o n a b l y m i d d l e c l a s s j o b . 6 6 T#6: Y e s . Y e s , t h e j o b . But you may a p p r o a c h i t d i f f e r e n t l y . (T#6 p.35-36) What T#6 i s s a y i n g h e r e i s t h a t t h e ESL i n s t r u c t o r s , a s a g e n e r a t i o n , c h a l l e n g e C a n a d i a n m a i n s t r e a m m i d d l e c l a s s 6 6 T w e n t y - t h r e e o f t h e s e t h i r t y i n f o r m a n t s have r e g u l a r permanent c o n t r a c t s w h i c h have a s a l a r y r a n g e o f between $26,000 and $42,000 a n n u a l l y . W h i l e t h e c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a -t o r i n d i c a t e d i n s u p p l y i n g t h e s e f i g u r e s t h a t most r e g u l a r c o n t r a c t i n s t r u c t o r s e a r n , " a r o u n d $30,000," f i f t e e n o f t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s have more t h a n t e n y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e c o l l e g e and a r e l i k e l y i n t h e h i g h e s t s a l a r y r a n g e . The s e v e n i n f o r m a n t s who work f u l l - t i m e s e s s i o n a l c o n t r a c t s a r e p a i d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f t e a c h i n g d a y s c o v e r e d by t h e c o n t r a c t a t t h e r a t e of $126 t o $205 p e r s i x h o u r t e a c h i n g day. 52 v a l u e s b o t h t h r o u g h t h e i r work and t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s . He r a i s e s t h e s t e r e o t y p i c image of a m a i n s t r e a m p e r s o n a s some-one who has s o l d o u t h i s dreams and i d e a l i s m f o r m i d d l e c l a s s m a t e r i a l i s m and s i m i l a r s o c i e t a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f s u c c e s s . F o r T#8, and f o r h i s p e e r s i f he i s c o r r e c t , t h i s i s a n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e , and i t s r e j e c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o the ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s ' r e j e c t i o n o f t h e m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n l a b e l . T#6 i s c e r t a i n l y c o r r e c t t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s w i t h t h e ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t ' p e r s p e c t i v e a r e v e r y w e l l t r a v e l l e d . T h i s g r o u p i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a n t s who s p e n t y e a r s l i v i n g , a nd sometimes t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h i n A s i a , A f r i c a , E u r o p e , S o u t h A m e r i c a , t h e M i d d l e E a s t o r I n d i a . They a l s o s p eak one o r more l a n g u a g e s t h a t t h e y l e a r n e d i n t h e i r t r a v e l s : J a p a n e s e , A r a b i c , I n d o n e s i a n , D a n i s h , D u t c h , H i n d i , and T h a i a r e exam-p l e s o f some o f t h e l a n g u a g e s t h e y named. Compared t o t h e i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e ' m a i n s t r e a m ' c a t e g o r y , t h e ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t ' p e r s p e c t i v e i n f o r m a n t s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e by t h e i r t i m e s p e n t a c t u a l l y l i v i n g o u t s i d e Canada. A l l of t h e i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e m o n o c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m g r o u p s a i d t h a t t h e y have t r a v e l l e d o n l y on v a c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s g r o u p i n c l u d e s p e o p l e who have l e a r n e d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s as a d u l t s , t h e y most o f t e n l e a r n e d F r e n c h a t u n i v e r s i t y . T#35 i s t h e e x c e p t i o n among t h o s e who c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s m o n o c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n s . T#35 s t u d i e d o r i e n t a l l a n g u a g e s a t u n i v e r s i t y and t a u g h t E n g l i s h i n J a p a n . 53 The b i c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m g r o u p of e i g h t i n f o r m a n t s i s more c o m p l e x t o a n a l y s e on t h i s p o i n t , b e c a u s e i t c o n t a i n s p e o p l e who a r e i m m i g r a n t s t o C a n a d a . Two o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s i n t h i s g r o u p h a v e l i v e d o u t s i d e Canada f o r a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , much l i k e t h o s e i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t ' g r o u p . They a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e ' m a i n s t r e a m ' g r o u p b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t r e j e c t t h a t l a b e l a s t h e ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t ' d i d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , one o f t h e s e two m a i n s t r e a m i n f o r m a n t s who h a s l i v e d a b r o a d , T#31, i s i n h e r l a t e f o r t i e s a n d o u t s i d e t h e ' s i x t i e s g e n e r a t i o n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e by T#6 a s r e j e c t i n g t h e m a i n s t r e a m l a b e l . T#29, t h e o t h e r b i c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m e r , d i d s a y t h a t s h e h a d a "more g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e " t h a n t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n , b u t she d i d n o t d i s a s s o c i a t e h e r s e l f f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m . T#29 d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f a s b i c u l t u r a l , J e w i s h C a n a d i a n ; she l i v e d i n I s r a e l f o r two y e a r s where she l e a r n e d Hebrew. A l t h o u g h t h i s i n f o r m a n t f i t s i n w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s i n some ways , t h e f a c t t h a t she d i d n o t r e j e c t t h e m a i n s t r e a m l a b e l l e a v e s h e r i n t h a t c a t e g o r y , a l t h o u g h I s e e h e r a s a s o r t o f a l i n k b e t w e e n t h a t g r o u p and t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s . E. THE RESEARCH EXPERIENCE I n t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e i n f o r m a n t s d i d n o t u s u a l l y s e p a r a t e t h e i r c u l t u r a l r o l e i n t o t h e d i m e n s i o n s t h a t I h a v e u s e d f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . They d i d n o t t h i n k o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s i n t h a t way. F o r t h e t e a c h e r s , t h i s i s t h e i r e v e r y d a y u n e x a m i n e d l i f e ; t h e y s e e t h e i r r o l e 54 i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s as i t i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i r a c t i o n s and t h r o u g h t h e i r r e a c t i o n s . I t has a dynamic and immediate r e a l i t y f o r them. When a s k e d how c u l t u r e f i g u r e s i n t h e i r work w i t h ESL l e a r n e r s , t h e i n f o r m a n t s spoke a b o u t what t h e l e a r n e r s n e e d -ed t o know, or how a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s or g r o u p of s t u d e n t s had r e a c t e d t o a s i t u a t i o n o r t o p i c . They d i d n o t u s u a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a n d o f t e n s a i d t h a t t h e y had n e v e r t h o u g h t a b o u t t h e s e i s s u e s b e f o r e . They h a n d l e d them ' n a t u r a l l y ' a c c o r d i n g t o what seemed a p p r o p r i a t e t o them a t t h e t i m e . As an example o f raw d a t a and a more e x t e n d e d t r a i n o f t h o u g h t t h a n t h e s h o r t q u o t a t i o n s c o n v e y I o f f e r t h i s page from T#8's i n t e r v i e w . She t e a c h e s b e g i n n i n g and i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m . TD: And so do you e x p l a i n t h o s e s o r t s o f t h i n g s ? T#8: What y o u have t o do i s s a y t h a t t h e r e i s a s y s -tem. T h i s i s how i t works and t h i s i s why i t ' s t h a t way. But w i t h i n t h a t we have t o have a d e g r e e o f f l e x i b i l i t y . . . TD: But I'm s t a r t i n g t o f e e l i n a way t h a t t h i s i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t ESL t e a c h e r s s o r t of know t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e d o n ' t know. B e c a u s e you don't t h i n k a b o u t y o u r c u l t u r e and how i t r u n s and how y o u r s o c i e t y ' s o r g a n i z e d u n l e s s y o u have t o e x p l a i n i t t o somebody. T#8: No. L i k e I ' v e been d o i n g t h i s s i n c e 1968 and I'm s t i l l t a k e n a back by how many t h i n g s a r e c u l t u r a l . I d o n ' t t h i n k we e v e r r e a l i z e t h e d e p t h of i t . I ' l l n e v e r f o r g e t h a v i n g a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s f r o m A f g h a n i s t a n and we g o t t o t a l k i n g a b o u t c o l o u r s and t h e s e were a l l men s o I a s k e d them what t h e i r f a v o r i t e c o l o u r was. And t h e i r f a v o r i t e c o l o u r was p i n k . So, you know, c o l o u r s a r e c u l t u r a l . TD: And do t h e y a s s o c i a t e t h a t w i t h s o m e t h i n g ? T#8: No ,no. T h a t ' s t h e i r f a v o r i t e , y o u know. The s e c o n d one t h e y l i k e d was o r a n g e . 55 TD: Which a r e q u i t e f e m i n i n e c h o i c e s i n our c u l t u r e . T#8 T h a t ' s r i g h t . T h a t ' s r i g h t . I mean c u l t u r e i s j u s t e v e r y t h i n g . I t ' s e v e r y t h i n g . T h e r e i s j u s t no way you can s e p a r a t e l a n g u a g e from c u l t u r e . TD: So even i n e v e r y t h i n g t h a t y o u ' r e p l a n n i n g you would t h i n k o f i t as b e i n g c u l t u r a l ? T#8: Yeah. I t h i n k maybe now I do t h a t s o r t of u n c o n s c i o u s l y but I t h i n k t h a t maybe a t f i r s t I m i ght have t h o u g h t , OK t h i s i s c u l t u r a l . But t h e whole q u e s t i o n of what's p o l i t e . And y o u know, b u r p i n g . We sometimes have a r e a l p r o b l e m i n t h e c l a s s and we have t o speak t o some s t u d e n t s and s a y , "We're f u n n y p e o p l e , but t h a t ' s one o f t h e t h i n g s we d o n ' t do." (T#8 pp. 12-13) In t h i s one page, T#8 o f f e r s h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f c u l t u r e w i t h h e r s t a t e m e n t a b o u t r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a s y s t e m , and s i m i l a r l y summarizes h e r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e q u e s t i o n w i t h h e r b l a n k e t s t a t e m e n t t h a t " c u l t u r e i s e v e r y t h i n g . " F o l l o w i n g my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n s p i r e d by h e r r e m a r k s , she g i v e s an example f r o m h e r e x p e r i e n c e o f c u l t u r e i n h e r ESL c l a s s r o o m . T h i s i n c i d e n t i s r e l a t e d b e c a u s e i t was one by w h i c h she f o r m e d h e r b e l i e f t h a t l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e a r e i n s e p a r a b l e . When a s k e d i f t h i s a f f e c t s h e r p l a n n i n g , she g i v e s t h e most common r e s p o n s e t h a t a l t h o u g h she i s aware of c u l t u r e , t h i s i s o n l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y b r o u g h t t o b e a r upon h e r p l a n n i n g . T h i s s l i c e o f T#8's i n t e r v i e w ends w i t h an i n s i g h t i n t o how she i n t e r p r e t s C a n a d i a n p r a c t i c e s t o h e r s t u d e n t s , a n d shows t h e t o n e and t a c t w i t h w h i c h she b r o a c h e s a p o t e n t i a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o p i c . A l l o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s have t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e d i m e n s i o n s i n t e r w o v e n i n t h i s way. T h i s d o e s not mean t o say 56 t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n s a r e i m p o s e d o r f a b r i c a t e d by t h e a n a l y s i s b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h e y a r e i s o l a t e d by t h e a n a l y t i c p r o c e s s . The r e a l c h a l l e n g e o f t h e f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e was n o t t o o b t a i n t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f i n f o r m a n t s n o r t o g e t t h o s e i n f o r m a n t s t o s p e a k a b o u t t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e i r i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e s , b u t r a t h e r t o a l l o w t h e i n f o r m a n t s t o t a l k a b o u t t h e i r work i n t h e i r own way a n d i n t h e i r own w o r d s . To s t r u c t u r e t h e i n t e r v i e w s o t h a t i t t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n t h e p r o m i s e d t i m e , a n d y e t n o t w i t h i n p r e - e x i s t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s o f r e s p o n s e , t o l i s t e n t o t h e i n f o r m a n t s a n d t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d them, t h a t was t h e c h a l l e n g e o f t h e f i e l d work e x p e r i e n c e . C h a p t e r I V DIMENSIONS OF THE TEACHERS' PERCEIVED ROLE T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a . The t h i r t y i n f o r m a n t s ' a c c o u n t s were e x a m i n e d f o r t h e i r p e r c e i v e d r o l e s , a n d t h e i r p e r c e i v e d f u n c t i o n s a s ESL t e a c h e r s drawn by t h e i r work i n t o c u l t u r a l a n d i n t e r c u l t u r a l t e a c h i n g . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e s t u d y ' s c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n a n d my i n t e n t i o n t o e x p l o r e t h e r a n g e o f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s d e s c r i b e d by t h e i n f o r m a n t s a t t h e c o l l e g e , t h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s on f o u r c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e a d u l t ESL t e a c h e r ' s r o l e . T h r e e o f t h e s e r o l e d i m e n s i o n s , ' b e i n g an e x a m p l e , ' ' e x p l a i n i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g , 1 and ' t e a c h i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y , ' c o n c e r n p u b l i c a s p e c t s o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s work w h e t h e r i n f r o n t o f t h e e n t i r e c l a s s o r w i t h a g r o u p o f • l e a r n e r s . The f o u r t h r o l e d i m e n s i o n , ' l i s t e n i n g a n d h e l p i n g - b e i n g a f r i e n d , ' i s n e g o t i a t e d b e t w e e n t h e i n s t r u c t o r a n d i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s , u s u a l l y i n p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h no a t t e m p t i s made t o d e f i n e c u l t u r e , t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' n o t i o n s o f what i s c u l t u r a l i n t h e i r w o r k , a n d t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s of l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h e x a m p l e s . To p r o v i d e t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r o l e d i m e n s i o n s , t h e c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f what t h e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d a b o u t c u l t u r e i n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g . 57 58 1. CULTURE IN ESL The b i g p r o b l e m i s what d o e s c u l t u r e mean? And t o a l a r g e e x t e n t I t h i n k l a n g u a g e i s c u l t u r e . (T#18 p.4) O v e r w h e l m i n g l y , t h e i n s t r u c t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e a r e i n s e p a r a b l e . L a n g u a g e , h o w e v e r , i s t h e i r f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : t h e y o r g a n i z e t h e i r l e s s o n s a n d c o u r s e s a r o u n d l a n g u a g e e l e m e n t s . T#16 v o i c e d a t y p i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f how he t h i n k s a b o u t c u l t u r e when p l a n n i n g f o r h i s c l a s s e s : TD: So, when y o u p l a n o u t what y o u do w i t h them, do y o u e v e r p l a n t h i n g s t h a t y o u t h i n k o f a s c u l t u r a l t h i n g s ? T#16: Not r e a l l y . I d o n ' t s p e c i f i c a l l y s i t down a n d s a y , "Hmm, t h i s i s c u l t u r a l . " I d o n ' t s e e i t a s c u l t u r a l . L i k e I m i g h t do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t c o m p l a i n i n g . Today we s t a r t e d t o g e t i n t o t h a t . You know, I c o u l d s a y t h a t ' s a c u l t u r a l t h i n g b e c a u s e a l o t o f c u l t u r e s maybe d o n ' t c o m p l a i n t h e same way we do a n d maybe, i f y o u were t o a s k me t o I c o u l d r a t i o n a l i z e t h i s . I c o u l d make i t s o u n d r e a l l y g o o d , t h a t t h i s was a c u l t u r a l a s p e c t i n my l e s s o n i f I'm s u p p o s e d t o h a v e t h a t i n t h e r e , b u t I d o n ' t s e e i t a s t h a t when I'm s t a r t i n g i t . (T#16 p. 5) F o r t h e i n s t r u c t o r s , t h e c u l t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d - w i t h E n g l i s h a r e s o embedded a n d r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t t h e y h a d d i f f i c u l t y s e p a r a t i n g t h e two f o r d i s c u s s i o n . T#8, q u o t e d a t t h e e nd o f c h a p t e r I I I , makes t h i s same p o i n t , a s do s e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s q u o t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . E ven s o , c u l t u r a l u n d e r -s t a n d i n g was b r o u g h t up a g a i n a n d a g a i n a s n e c e s s a r y f o r un-d e r s t a n d i n g t h e l a n g u a g e a t more t h a n a s u r f a c e l e v e l . T#30 f o r e x a m p l e s a i d : W e l l , o b v i o u s l y I t h i n k t h e y ' r e v e r y c l o s e a n d w i t h -o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t o f t h e l a n -guage I t h i n k i t ' s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e f o r one t o s a y , 59 w e l l , I u n d e r s t a n d t h e l a n g u a g e . (T#30 p. 1 1 ) T h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a n t s p e a k s f r o m p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n c e she l e a r n e d E n g l i s h as a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e and f o u n d t h e l i t e r a t u r e d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d u n t i l she l e a r n e d more a b o u t t h e r e l a t e d c u l t u r e s . T e a c h e r s o f more a d v a n c e d l e a r n e r s most o f t e n r a i s e d t h e p o i n t t h a t s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e who saw E n g l i s h as an a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t , c o u l d l e a r n E n g l i s h words a n d E n g l i s h grammar w i t h o u t r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g E n g l i s h m e a n i n g s . T#35 a s s e r t e d t h a t he t h o u g h t E n g l i s h was a " l i v i n g , v i t a l f o r c e w h i c h i s v e r y h e a v i l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c u l t u r e s u r r o u n d i n g i t " and s a i d t h a t a f a i l u r e t o a c c e p t t h a t l i m i t e d t h e d e p t h o f l e a r n i n g f o r some s t u d e n t s (T#35 pp. 1 7 - 1 8 ) . He t e a c h e s i n t h e g e n e r a l ESL c o u r s e a t t h e a d v a n c e d l e v e l where s u c h s t u d e n t s a r e l i k e l y t o r u n i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s when grammar a l o n e w i l l n o t c a r r y them t h r o u g h t h e c o u r s e . T # 1 8 ' S comments, q u o t e d above, were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e t h o u g h t s e x p r e s s e d by most of t h e i n f o r m a n t s . He was v e r y s t r o n g i n h i s view t h a t y ou c o u l d n o t r e a l l y l e a r n a l a n g u a g e w i t h o u t t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p e o p l e and l e a r n a b o u t t h e i r way o f l i f e . At t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , he was s t u d y i n g a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e , and i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s c l a s s e s he was g o i n g o u t of h i s way t o l i s t e n t o t h e m u s i c and e a t t h e f o o d o f t h e p e o p l e who speak t h a t l a n g u a g e . He added t h e s e t h o u g h t s a b o u t c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s a n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g : 60 I t h i n k y o u c a n ' t e s c a p e c u l t u r e , t h o u g h t h e r e a r e a few t e a c h e r s who t r y , who a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p e o p l e h i g h e s t i n my e s t i m a t i o n . They a r e i n f a c t t e a c h e r s who t h e m s e l v e s I d o n ' t t h i n k s h o u l d be t e a c h i n g t h e l a n g u a g e b e c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t h a v e any c l u e o t h e r t h a n j u s t t h e w o r d s . No, I t h i n k l i t e r a l l y e v e r y t h i n g we do i s c u l t u r a l f r o m p e r s o n a l i t y , humour, e v e r y t h i n g . (T#18 p. 4) T h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s e n s u s a b o u t what was c u l t u r a l , a n d what made up ' c u l t u r e ' i n t h e s e t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s . T h e r e was a l s o a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t t h a t when t h e y were ' t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e ' i t was g e n e r a l l y i n f o r m a l , u n p l a n n e d , a n d i n r e s p o n s e t o s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a p p e n e d o r was s a i d i n c l a s s . " I t j u s t comes up," was a s t a t e m e n t I h e a r d many t i m e s . A p p e n d i x C l i s t s t h e e l e m e n t s o f c u l t u r e named by t h e i n f o r m a n t s . Many s a i d t h a t c u l t u r e a n d l a n g u a g e were t h e same, a n d t h e y named " e v e r y t h i n g " a s c u l t u r a l f o r ESL l e a r n e r s . O t h e r i n f o r m a n t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t l i f e i n Canada a n d s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s , a n d u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s make up t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t o f ESL c l a s s e s . Not e v e r y t e a c h e r s p e c i f i e d t h e same e l e m e n t s , b u t t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f o v e r l a p i n t h e t h i n g s t h e y m e n t i o n e d . F o r a l m o s t a l l o f t h e t e a c h e r s , c u l t u r a l d i s c u s s i o n s o r q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e c u l t u r a l m e a n i n g o f s o m e t h i n g a r e d a i l y o c c u r r e n c e s . As T#16 e x p l a i n e d , t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f a l a n g u a g e e l e m e n t o r o f a s i t u a t i o n a r e n o t u s u a l l y c o n s i d -e r e d by t h e i n s t r u c t o r s b e f o r e t h e l e s s o n b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t t h i n k o f t h e i r work i n t h a t way. T#24 u s e d a l m o s t e x a c t -l y t h e same w o r d s a n d went on t o e x p l a i n how c u l t u r e f i g u r e s 6 1 i n c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s . I was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' use o f t h e t e r m " d i s c u s s i o n " t o d e s c r i b e some o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . As T#24 d e s c r i b e s h e r e , many d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t c u l t u r e f e a t u r e t h e i n s t r u c t o r s p e a k i n g w i t h t h e c l a s s , where a few s t u d e n t s o f f e r comments a n d make i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I n t h i s q u o t e T#24 i s t a l k i n g a b o u t what h a p p e n e d when h e r c l a s s w o r k e d a r o u n d a h o u s i n g theme. T#24: The c u l t u r a l t h i n g s w o u l d come o u t . L i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s w o u l d come o u t . The i d e a o f s t u d e n t s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , maybe t e n i n a h o u s e , o r t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g . I t j u s t r e a l l y f l o o r s a l o t o f s t u d e n t s . The i d e a o f l i v i n g t o g e t h e r a n d n o t b e i n g m a r r i e d i s , y o u know, h a r d f o r some o f them t o a c c e p t . TD: How w o u l d t h a t come up? T#24: I w o u l d b r i n g i t up. And i t d e p e n d s how s t r e e t w i s e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e , s o m e t i m e s t h e y w i l l make a comment, b e c a u s e t h e y l i k e t o show what t h e y know. So t h e y ' l l s a y , "Oh y e s i n C anada t h i s h a p p e n s . " And t h e w h o l e c l a s s , i f i t ' s s o m e t h i n g f u n n y , t h e y w i l l a l l g i g g l e a b o u t i t . . . . Anyway, t h e n I p i c k i t up a n d s a y , " y e a h , i n C a n a d a , do y o u t h i n k t h a t h a p p e n s ? " And someone m i g h t s a y , "oh no" o r "oh y e s , " o r w h a t e v e r . And w e ' l l t a l k a b o u t maybe an age g r o u p , o r how o f t e n o r what p e r c e n t a g e o r who t h e y t h i n k w o u l d do t h a t . And w e ' l l g e t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n a n d t h e n t h e y ' l l a s k f o r m i n e . (T#24 pp. 3-4) T h i s e x t r a c t f r o m T#24's i n t e r v i e w i l l u s t r a t e s one way t h a t c u l t u r e "comes up" i n t h e c l a s s . T h i s q u o t a t i o n o n c e a g a i n shows t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e , a n d how l a n g u a g e i s c o n s c i o u s l y p l a n n e d a n d t a u g h t w h i l e c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e i s d e a l t w i t h a s seems n e c e s s a r y . I n h e r e x a m p l e , T#24 t o u c h e s upon t h e common o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e o f l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e s p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n a t h e m a t i c u n i t , i n t h i s c a s e h o u s i n g . A s i d e f r o m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t e n t o f t h e 62 u n i t w h i c h w o u l d i n c l u d e s u c h t h i n g s a s t h e names f o r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of d w e l l i n g s , how t o r e a d a h o u s i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t , ways t o ask f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h o u s i n g , t h e d i s c u s s i o n of h o u s i n g i n Canada l e d t h e c l a s s i n t o t h e v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s . 6 7 T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of h o u s i n g , a l t h o u g h n o t c o n s c i o u s l y p l a n n e d by T#24, t o o k p l a c e b e c a u s e of h e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o l i s t e n t o t h e s t u d e n t s . She even went so f a r as t o p r o v o k e a r e a c t i o n i n t h e s t u d e n t s by p o s i n g q u e s t i o n s o r b r i n g i n g up s u b j e c t s w h i c h m i g h t have made t h e s t u d e n t s u n c o m f o r t a b l e . T h i s i s a t e a c h i n g s t y l e sometimes f o u n d i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s where a t e a c h e r may ask q u e s t i o n s o r p u s h s t u d e n t s t o e x t e n d t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e on a p r o b l e m o r o t h e r -w i s e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c h a l l e n g e t h e s t u d e n t s . The o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e h e r e i s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s i n v o l v e d a r e o v e r t l y c u l t u r a l ones and as s u c h may be p a r t o f d e e p l y h e l d b e l i e f s . T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i s t a k e n up f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e ' e x p l a i n i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g ' s e c -t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . When s i m i l a r l y a s k e d i f she c o n s i d e r e d c u l t u r a l u n d e r -s t a n d i n g when p l a n n i n g f o r h e r b e g i n n e r s ' l e v e l g e n e r a l ESL c l a s s , T#32 s a i d t h a t she d i d n o t . " T h a t w o u l d be t o o c o n t r i v e d , " she s a i d , w h i l e she p r e f e r r e d t o be s p o n t a n e o u s 6 7 T h i s u n i t on h o u s i n g d e s c r i b e d by T#24 f o l l o w s t h e framework s e t o u t by B.A. Mohan i n Language and Content ( R e a d i n g : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y ) 1986; see f o r example F i g u r e 2.5, p. 35. T h i s way o f s t r u c t u r i n g t h e t o p i c i n f o r m a t i o n on h o u s i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e c o n c e p t s and c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s , and e v a l u a t i o n of t h e b a c k g r o u n d i n -f o r m a t i o n a l l o w s f o r t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e a s p e c t s o f h o u s i n g . 63 and t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f q u e s t i o n s as t h e y a r o s e . She c o n c e d e d t h a t she d o e s a n t i c i p a t e t h a t a t o p i c m i g h t be of i n t e r e s t f r o m her s t u d e n t s ' v a r i e d c u l t u r a l v i e w p o i n t s and went on t o s a y : T#32: No, I d o n ' t t h i n k I would d e l i b e r a t e l y s a y t h a t t o d a y I'm g o i n g t o t e a c h t h i s [ s o m e t h i n g c u l t u r a l ] . TD: In t h e same way t h a t you would s a y , " t o d a y I'm g o i n g t o t e a c h p a s t p e r f e c t . " [Yeah] Cause y o u do say t h a t , r i g h t ? T#32: Yes, I would s a y , " t o d a y d e f i n i t e l y w e ' l l be d o i n g t h i s , " as f a r as t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e a c a d e m i c s i d e i s . . . But on t h e o t h e r hand, "Today I w i l l t e a c h them not t o s p i t ? Today I w i l l t e a c h them t o use a K l e e n e x ? Today I w i l l t e a c h them n o t t o speak so l o u d on t h e b u s e s ? " I d on't t h i n k I w o u l d s i t down and do i t l i k e t h a t . TD: But you do m e n t i o n t h o s e t h i n g s ? T#32: Yes, d e f i n i t e l y . L i k e i n my e x e r c i s e s and s i t -u a t i o n s f o r t h e m o dals I c r e a t e t h i n g s l i k e what do you do when someone i s s p e a k i n g i n a v e r y l o u d f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e on t h e bus. You know, t h a t i s c u l t u r a l , b ut y e t I'm not t r y i n g t o t e a c h c u l t u r e . (T#32 pp. 8-9) T#32 i s " n o t t r y i n g t o t e a c h c u l t u r e " b e c a u s e she s e e s t h a t j o b as o u t s i d e h e r r o l e . She d e f i n e d h e r j o b a s t h a t of a l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r and d e c l a r e d t h a t l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . Her d e n i a l of h a v i n g any i n t e n t i o n o f t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n , f o r T#32 and p e r h a p s o t h e r s , t h a t t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e may be e q u a t e d w i t h e f f o r t s t o w a r d a s s i m i l a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s . I n s t e a d she seems t o a l l o w f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n new b e h a v i o u r s a n d e v e n e x p e c t s them t o change as a r e s u l t of h e r t a l k s . She j u s t d o e s n o t c a l l t h i s t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e . 64 A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n on c u l t u r e and E S L , T#18 p o s e d t h e q u e s t i o n , "What d o e s c u l t u r e mean?", and went on t o s a y t h a t f o r h i m , c u l t u r e and l a n g u a g e a r e i n s e p a r -a b l e . Many i n f o r m a n t s s p o k e o f c u l t u r e a s p a r t o f t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e l e s s o n s , much i n t h e way T#24 abov e s e e s c u l t u r a l e x a m i n a t i o n c o m i n g o u t o f h e r u n i t on h o u s i n g . Some t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t c u l t u r e came i n t o t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s most o b v i o u s l y t h r o u g h t h e i r c l a s s e s ' o n - g o i n g i n t e r e s t i n c u r r e n t e v e n t s . Some c l a s s e s l i s t e n t o t h e r a d i o news t o g e t h e r o r t a k e t u r n s p r e s e n t i n g a news s t o r y . T h e s e r e p o r t s o f t e n l e a d t o q u e s t i o n s a b o u t a C a n a d i a n p r a c t i c e , o r C a n a d a ' s p a r t i n an e v e n t , o r p e o p l e ' s r e a c t i o n s t o a s t o r y . By t a k i n g a news s t o r y a s t h e c o n t e n t o f a l a n g u a g e l e s s o n , a n d b e i n g open t o q u e s t i o n s o r r e m a r k s t h a t a r e n o t s t r i c t l y a b o u t t h e l a n g u a g e i n v o l v e d , t e a c h e r s a l l o w f o r c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t s t o be a i r e d a l o n g w i t h news f a c t s a n d o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h o s e f a c t s . From t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r may come t o s e e ' c u l t u r e ' i n h e r ESL c l a s s a s c o m i n g f r o m t h e news, a l t h o u g h i t w o u l d more a c c u r a t e l y be d e s c r i b e d a s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s ' a n d f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s r e a c t i o n s t o , and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f , t h e news. T e a c h e r s o f c o u r s e s t h a t i n v o l v e w r i t i n g o r r e a d i n g s e e t h e c u l t u r a l d i s c u s s i o n s o r i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r c l a s s e s a s c o m i n g o u t o f t h e r e a d i n g s o r s h o w i n g up i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' c o m p o s i t i o n s . L i k e t h e news b r o a d c a s t s , t h e r e a d i n g s o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s a r e n o t t h e s o u r c e o f c u l t u r e b u t r a t h e r t h e c o n d u i t . W h i l e t h e t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t t h e c u l t u r e 65 i s i n t h e r e a d i n g s , o r c o v e r e d i n w r i t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s , t h e y mean t h a t t h e c l a s s comes t o t a l k a b o u t c u l t u r a l i s s u e s a s a r e s u l t o f t h o s e o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . C u l t u r e may come up i n r e a d i n g s , b u t i t i s a g ood d e a l more t h a n t h e r e a d i n g s . T#7 s p o k e o f a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o u r f o r y a w n i n g , n o s e b l o w i n g , e a t i n g , s p i t t i n g a n d t h e l i k e a s c u l t u r a l , a n d a s an a r e a where s t u d e n t s o f t e n d i f f e r f r o m t h e i r C a n a d i a n t e a c h e r s . I a s k e d h e r i f p o l i t e b e h a v i o u r s a r e a d d r e s s e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m : T#7: No, i t ' s j u s t one o f t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t a r e i n f e r r e d . They c a n see s o m e t i m e s t h a t some t h i n g s b o t h e r me. They c a n s e e i t a n d t h e y u n d e r s t a n d t h a t I r e p r e s e n t C a n a d i a n s , a n d t h a t t h i s b o t h e r s C a n a d i a n s , b u t what t h e y c a n ' t f i g u r e o u t i s why i t s h o u l d b o t h e r u s . T h e r e ' s no p a r t i c u l a r m o t i v a t i o n t o c h a n g e i t b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e u s e d t o d o i n g t h a t p a r -t i c u l a r t h i n g , w h a t e v e r i t i s . T h e r e a r e a number o f t h i n g s a l o n g t h a t l i n e [ l i k e s p i t t i n g ] , a n d when I s e e s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t I t e n d t o f r o w n j u s t t o l e t them know w i t h o u t s a y i n g a n y t h i n g t h a t i t b o t h e r s me. And I c a n j u s t h e a r them t h i n k i n g , " T h a t b o t h e r s h e r . I wonder why i t b o t h e r s h e r , i s n ' t i t s t r a n g e t h a t i t b o t h e r s h e r . O n l y s h e ' s l i k e a l l o t h e r C a n a d i a n s , i t b o t h e r s them. I t c e r t a i n l y d o e s n ' t b o t h e r u s . I t ' s w e i r d . " TD: Does a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t e v e r g e t v o i c e d ? T#7: W e l l s o m e t i m e s t h e y ' l l s a y , " I know C a n a d i a n s d o n ' t l i k e t h a t . " T h a t ' s a b o u t t h e o n l y t h i n g . They j u s t n o t i c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e . (T#7 p. 14) T#7 s a i d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s i n f e r t h a t C a n a d i a n s a r e b o t h e r e d by some b e h a v i o u r s , b u t t h a t t h e y do n o t r e a l l y seem t o a l t e r t h e b e h a v i o u r . So w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s draw i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t C a n a d i a n s f r o m h e r u n s p o k e n r e a c t i o n t o t h e m , she d o e s n o t t r y t o c h a n g e t h e s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o u r d i r e c t l y t o make i t c o n f o r m t o t h a t o f C a n a d i a n s , n o r d o e s she e x p l i c i t l y 66 t e l l t h e s t u d e n t s what i n f a c t C a n a d i a n s do i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n . She s a i d she d o e s n o t t e a c h p o l i t e b e h a v i o u r a l -t h o u g h by h e r own a c c o u n t i t w o u l d seem t h a t she d o e s t e a c h i t t h r o u g h n o n - v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r w h i c h c a n c a r r y a p o w e r f u l m e s s a g e . What t h e n i s ' c u l t u r e ' f o r t h e s e ESL t e a c h e r s ? They u s e t h e t e r m i n t h e o r d i n a r y way t o r e f e r t o a way o f l i f e f o r a g r o u p o f p e o p l e , w i t h e m p h a s i s on s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s a n d p r a c t i c e s . C e r t a i n l y t h i s i s what t h e y mean when t h e y r e f e r t o C a n a d i a n o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e . B e c a u s e c u l t u r e becomes an i s s u e when c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s draw s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n o r i n t e r f e r e w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e t e a c h e r s t e n d t o f o c u s on c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . When t h e y s a y , " I t was c u l t u r a l , " t h e y mean t h a t a c o n f l i c t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r o s e i n r e g a r d t o a c u l t u r a l c o n c e p t . P r a c t i c e s t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y C a n a d i a n o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n o r e v e n W e s t e r n a r e a l s o p a r t o f what i s c u l t u r a l f o r t h e t e a c h e r s , a s i s a p p a r -e n t f r o m t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n o f what b e l o n g s t o t h e r e a l m o f c u l t u r e . The r e s t o f t h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e f o u r r o l e d i m e n s i o n s d e s c r i b e d t o me by t h e i n f o r m a n t s . T h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e t e a c h i n g o f c u l t u r e , a n d on what i s a p -p r o p r i a t e f o r an ESL t e a c h e r o f a d u l t s t u d e n t s t o do t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s a r o u n d f o u r r o l e d i m e n s i o n s . I have c a l l e d t h e s e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s ' b e i n g an e x a m p l e , ' ' e x p l a i n i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g , ' ' t e a c h i n g 67 i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y , ' a n d ' l i s t e n i n g a n d h e l p i n g - b e i n g a f r i e n d . ' T h e s e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r c e i v e d r o l e a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h a t o r d e r , m o v i n g f r o m t h e r o l e d i m e n s i o n w i t h t h e l e a s t p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h s t u d e n t s t o t h e one w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . A. BEING AN EXAMPLE I t h i n k t h e y ' r e n o t l o o k i n g s o much a t me a s a t t h e p i c t u r e I'm r e p r e s e n t i n g . . . So t h a t ' s why I w o u l d a n s w e r more t h i n g s t h a n I w o u l d o t h e r w i s e , b e c a u s e I t h i n k t h e y h a v e l i m i t e d c o n t a c t s . (T#7 pp. 4-5) O v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n , t h e i n f o r m a n t s t o l d me t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s know few, i f a n y , p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c c o m m u n i t y . T h i s means t h a t t h e ESL t e a c h e r , e s p e c i a l l y f o r b e g i n n e r s o r newcomers, comes t o r e p r e s e n t C a n a d i a n s i n g e n e r a l . T h i s n o t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r a s a m o d e l o r e x a m p l e o f a C a n a d i a n p e r s o n was a r o l e d i m e n s i o n r e p o r t e d on by a l l b u t two o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e s t u d y . I n t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n new t o V a n c o u v e r a n d j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o l e a r n E n g l i s h . As T#8 e x p l a i n s : T#8: I'm t h e i r f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h Canada on a , s o r t o f on an e x t e n d e d b a s i s . TD: Oh, b e c a u s e t h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e s o new? T#8: T h a t ' s r i g h t . L i k e we've o f t e n h a d p e o p l e who h a v e been h e r e two months a n d a n y c o n t a c t s t h e y ' v e h a d w i t h C a n a d i a n s b e f o r e h a v e p r o b a b l y b een i n an o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y . TD: Ah, l i k e t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f f i c e r o r . . . T#8: T h a t ' s r i g h t . So I'm t h e i r f i r s t c o n t a c t t h e n w i t h an o r d i n a r y C a n a d i a n , i f t h e y t h i n k o f me t h a t 68 way. <T#8 pp. 18-19) I n t h e a b o v e q u o t a t i o n , i t seems T#8 i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h o s e C a n a d i a n s o u t s i d e t h e s t u d e n t ' s e t h n i c c o m m u n i t y . Newcomers a r e o f t e n h e l p e d i n s e t t l e m e n t by e x - c o u n t r y m e n o r r e l a t i v e s f a m i l i a r w i t h Canada and l i k e l y w i t h some command o f E n g l i s h . T h e s e p e o p l e may, o f c o u r s e , be n a t i v e o r n a t u r a l i z e d C a n a d i a n s . F o r most t e a c h e r s , b e i n g a m o d e l o r e x a m p l e j u s t came w i t h t h e j o b ; i t was n o t s o m e t h i n g t h e y h a d s e t o u t t o d o : TD: W e l l t h e n , do y o u t h i n k o f y o u r s e l f a s , l i k e a r o l e m o d e l o f a C a n a d i a n p e r s o n ? T#14: I n some ways. Y e s , I t h i n k s o . B u t I d o n ' t t r y t o do a n y t h i n g e i t h e r . I j u s t be m y s e l f . I know I n e v e r - b u t I d e f i n i t e l y t h i n k I am, b e c a u s e I go t o a n o t h e r c o u n t r y and s t u d y s o m e t h i n g - I ' v e been i n a c l a s s . You l o o k , I mean t h a t p e r s o n i s t h e r e . Y o u ' r e w a t c h i n g them a l l t h e t i m e a n d y o u ' r e t a k i n g i n a l l k i n d s o f t h i n g s . Y e a h , I t h i n k y o u a r e , b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k y o u do a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t b e c a u s e o f t h a t . (T#14 p. 26) T e a c h e r #7 was one o f many who f e l t b e i n g an e x a m p l e d i d b r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Her comments a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n were p r o m p t e d by some r e c e n t q u e s t i o n s a b o u t h e r f a m i l y f i n a n c e s . O t h e r s a l s o s a i d t h e y were c o n s c i o u s o f b e i n g a r o l e m o d e l a n d t r i e d t o s e t an e x a m p l e t h r o u g h t h e i r a c t i o n s . One v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t o r j o k e d t h a t b e c a u s e she knows s t u d e n t s a r e g o i n g t o a s k p e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n s a n d she c o u l d n e v e r l i e t o them, she i s f o r c e d t o l e a d a s c l e a n a l i f e a s p o s s i b l e . Two c o n t r a s t i n g r e m a r k s r e g a r d i n g t h e t e a c h e r a s exam-p l e i l l u s t r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s i d e n t i t y t o 69 h e r p e r s p e c t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t e s a r e f r o m a p a i r o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e g e n e r a l ESL p r o g r a m where t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s was a b o u t 7 0 % e t h n i c C h i n e s e . T#26, a w h i t e , C a n a d i a n - b o r n woman i n h e r t h i r t i e s who f i r s t s a i d t h a t she t h o u g h t s t u d e n t s d i d s e e h e r a s a r o l e m o d e l o r a s an e x a m p l e , l a t e r q u a l i f i e d h e r comment s a y i n g : W e l l , I t h i n k , I s h o u l d n ' t p u t p e o p l e i n g r o u p s , b u t most o f t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s , I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e y want t o , t h e y d o n ' t n e e d a r o l e , o r t h e y d o n ' t want a r o l e m o d e l . They a r e g o i n g t o k e e p t h e i r own c u l t u r e a n d j u s t l e a r n E n g l i s h a s s o r t o f a s i d e l i n e , b u t k e e p on d o i n g a l l t h e t h i n g s t h a t t h e y ' v e b e e n d o i n g a l l a l o n g . They d o n ' t seem t o want t o c h a n g e . I ' v e s e e n more, j u s t some s t u d e n t s want t o become more C a n a d i a n i z e d , W e s t e r n i z e d , o r w h a t e v e r y o u want t o c a l l i t . (T#26, p. 28) T#26 t r a c e d t h i s i m p r e s s i o n t o h e r s t u d e n t s ' r e a c t i o n t o h e r l i f e s t y l e . She i s a s i n g l e s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g woman who l i v e s a l o n e and she f e l t t h a t t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s saw t h a t a s a c u r i o s i t y r a t h e r t h a n a s s o m e t h i n g t o e m u l a t e o r e v e n a c c e p t . T#32 i s e t h n i c a l l y C h i n e s e . B o r n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , she c h a r a c t e r i z e d h e r s e l f a s b i l i n g u a l a n d b i c u l t u r a l , w i t h a f o o t i n b o t h t h e w o r l d o f u n i l i n g u a l C a n t o n e s e s p e a k i n g i m m i g r a n t s l i k e h e r p a r e n t s , a n d i n m a i n s t r e a m N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e . H e r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s , she s a i d , a l w a y s e r r o n e o u s l y assume t h a t she i s f r o m Hong Kong. She b r o u g h t up t h e image o f r o l e m o d e l a s a c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e . I a s k e d h e r t o e l a b o r a t e on h e r r e m a r k . TD: When y o u s a i d y o u t h o u g h t y o u were a r o l e m o d e l , what were y o u t h i n k i n g o f ? 70 T#32: What was I t h i n k i n g o f , r o l e m o d e l ? I t h i n k i n a way, a h , i t s u r p r i s e s them t h a t t o a l l o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e s I'm one of them s o r t o f t h i n g , a n d y e t I'm h e r e b e i n g a b l e t o t e a c h them t h e l a n g u a g e t h e y want t o l e a r n . And I t h i n k j u s t by my b e i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , I t h i n k , I hope t h a t i t w o u l d j u s t r u b o f f on them t h a t some day t h e y c o u l d do t h e same t h i n g . [Uhm hum] And t h a t I'm a c c e p t e d y o u know, by e v e r y one o f my c o l l e a g u e s . (T#32 pp.16-17) T h i s s e n t i m e n t was v o i c e d by t h e f o u r o t h e r v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y member t e a c h e r s , a l t h o u g h t h e y o u n g e s t , T#10 s a i d she was n o t r e a l l y c o m f o r t a b l e a s an e t h n i c r o l e m o d e l . Many i n s t r u c t o r s f e l t t h e r o l e o f e x a m p l e C a n a d i a n b r o u g h t f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e d o w n - p l a y i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s a u t h o r i t y , m a k i n g t h e s t u d e n t s a w a r e o f t h e r a n g e o f b e h a v i o u r s , o p i n i o n s and c u s t o m s r e f l e c t e d i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y so t h a t t h e y do n o t t h i n k one t e a c h e r ' s way i s t h e o n l y way, a n d g e n e r a l l y t r y i n g n o t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e s t u d e n t s . The r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h i s need t o m o d e r a t e t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e was r e p e a t e d by many i n f o r m a n t s . They s a i d t h a t e a c h i n s t r u c t o r i s an i n d i v i d u a l a n d l i k e l y n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of C a n a d i a n s i n g e n e r a l . T#24: I t h i n k w i t h any c l a s s , t h e r e a r e t h i n g s t h a t come up where t h e t e a c h e r i s t h e i r h a n d l e on t h e c u l t u r e , a n d t h e i r i n t e r p r e t e r . Uhm, t h e t r o u b l e i s i f y o u g i v e them a p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t i s an e x t r e m e m i n o r i t y p o i n t o f v i e w a n d g i v e them a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h a t i s t h e way e v e r y t h i n g i s . TD: Do y o u t h i n k t h a t h a p p e n s ? T#24: S u r e i t h a p p e n s . I t h a s t o h a p p e n . You know, b e c a u s e we, w e l l e s p e c i a l l y t h e g r o u p , t h e p e o p l e t h a t y o u ' v e met h e r e . I d o n ' t know how n o r m a l a b u n c h we a r e , r e a l l y ? (T#24 p. 8) W i t h t h e r a n g e o f g e n e r a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , 71 a n d y e s , c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e C a n a d i a n 'norms' o f b e h a v i o u r , t h e t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t r e a l l y want t o be e x a m p l e C a n a d i a n s a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d n o t e n t i r e l y be a v o i d e d . As T#21 p u t i t , " W e h a v e a f r i g h t e n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o n o t i n f l u e n c e t h e s t u d e n t s . " T#13 s u g g e s t e d t h a t one o f t h e r e a s o n s she i n v i t e d n a t i v e s p e a k e r s t o h e r c l a s s was t o e x p a n d t h e s t u d e n t s ' a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h o r d i n a r y C a n a d i a n s o u t s i d e t h e i r own g r o u p s , t o e x p o s e them t o o t h e r p e o p l e . T#12 r e p o r t e d t h a t she c a u t i o n s s t u d e n t s t o be a w a r e o f c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y : And so I ' d s a y , j u s t b e c a u s e t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d y o u a r e d o i n g s o m e t h i n g , a n d t h e y a r e C a n a d i a n s , d o e s n ' t mean t o s a y t h a t i t ' s n e c e s s a r i l y E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n , and i t d o e s n ' t h a v e t o be. (T#12 p. 21) S e v e r a l t e a c h e r s c i t e d e x a c t l y why t h e y were n o t t y p i c a l C a n a d i a n s . B e i n g s i n g l e , o r b e i n g more a w a r e , more t o l e r a n t t h a n t h e norm was o f t e n g i v e n a s a d i s q u a l i f y i n g f a c t o r , e s p e c i a l l y among t h o s e who r e j e c t e d t h e m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n l a b e l . T#6 i s one o f t h o s e who s a i d he i s n o t a g o o d ' y a r d s t i c k ' f o r s t u d e n t s t o use t o t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d C a n a d i a n s . I t h i n k t h e y q u i c k l y l e a r n t h a t I am n o t t h e i r norm. I t h i n k t h e y q u i c k l y l e a r n t h a t n o t a l l C a n a d i a n s a r e l i k e me a n d t h a t I'm n o t t h a t s a t i s f i e d w i t h o u r s y s t e m a n d o u r s t r u c t u r e s , t h a t I t h i n k t h e r e a r e some t h i n g s t h a t h ave t o be c h a n g e d . And I t h i n k I make t h a t r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t t o them when we t a l k a b o u t t h i n g s l i k e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . ...So I g u e s s i n t h e end t h e y may s e e me a s s l i g h t l y r a d i c a l a n d t h a t , y o u know, t h e y ' r e n o t u s e d t o t h a t . (T#6 p. 18) Two t e a c h e r s were a m b i v a l e n t o r unaware o f t h e m o d e l d i m e n s i o n t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e a n d s a i d t h e y h a d no 7 2 i m p r e s s i o n a b o u t w h e t h e r o r n o t s t u d e n t s saw them a s exam-p l e s o f C a n a d i a n s . T # 2 4 s a i d : I n e v e r t h o u g h t a b o u t t h a t . I q u e s s I d o n ' t know how r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h e y t h i n k I am o f t h e c u l t u r e . And i f I am a r o l e m o d e l , I d o n ' t f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y g u i l t y o r i n n o c e n t one way o r t h e o t h e r . ( T # 2 4 p. 2 1 ) She l a t e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s was an u n f a i r q u e s t i o n s i n c e a t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f how t h e s t u d e n t s s e e h e r m i g h t be o f f - t a r g e t . F o r t h e s t u d y h o w e v e r , o f f - t a r g e t o r n o t , i t i s t h e t e a c h e r ' s n o t i o n t h a t i s o f i n t e r e s t . The o t h e r t e a c h e r who r e j e c t e d t h e m o d e l l i n g d i m e n s i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e , T # 1 5 , c o n s i d e r s c u l t u r e t o be a n o n - i s s u e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . She s a i d t h a t she h a d p r o b a b l y d i s c o u r a g e d s t u d e n t s f r o m s e e i n g h e r t h a t way by r e m a i n i n g i m p e r s o n a l a n d k e e p i n g h e r d i s t a n c e . She a l s o r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e r e was l i k e l y more o f t h i s p e r c e p t i o n w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s t u d e n t s , w h i l e she u s u a l l y w o r k e d w i t h a d v a n c e d l e a r n e r s . I t seems f a i r t o comment t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s , a s a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , a r e r o l e m o d e l s . From t h e a c c o u n t s o f t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s , i t w o u l d seem t h a t e a c h ESL t e a c h e r f u n c -t i o n s a s an e x a m p l e o f h i s o r h e r c u l t u r e . I n t h e s i t u a t i o n u n d e r s t u d y , t h e s e t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s l o o k t o them a s e x a m p l e C a n a d i a n s , a n d t h a t s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l i z e f r o m t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s t o f o r m e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t o t h e r C a n a d i a n s . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e t e a c h e r s , a n d seems t o be one t o w h i c h t h e y a t t a c h i m p o r t a n c e . 73 B. E X PLAINING AND INTERPRETING I f t h e r e ' s s u c h t h i n g a s t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e , t h a t ' l l p r o b a b l y be t h e most o f i t , t h e l a r g e s t p a r t o f i t . (T#34 p. 11) As an e x p e r t s p e a k e r o f t h e l a n g u a g e a n d someone w i t h a t e c h n i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s w o r k i n g s , t h e t e a c h e r i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o g u i d e t h e l e a r n e r s t h r o u g h t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f E n g l i s h grammar an d v o c a b u l a r y . S i m i l a r l y , a s a member o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d c u l t u r e , t h e t e a c h e r t a k e s t h e l e a d i n d e m y s t i f y i n g E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s i n h e r c l a s s e s . T h i s e x p e r t i s e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g o r e x p l a i n i n g a s p e c t s o f E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e i s a f e a t u r e t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s be-t w een an ESL t e a c h e r and a r e g u l a r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r o r a t r a d i t i o n a l g r a m m a r i a n . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , a l l o f t h e t e a c h e r s e x p l a i n a n d i n t e r p r e t c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d p r a c t i c e s t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . E v e n T#15, who f e l t c u l t u r e was n o t an i s s u e a n d who was u n a w a r e o f t h e l e a r n e r s ' c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a s a f a c t o r i n h e r c l a s s r o o m , s a i d t h a t she h a s t o e x p l a i n a n d g i v e r e a s o n s f o r some C a n a d i a n p r a c t i c e s . She s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o u r , s t a n d a r d s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r homework (T#15 p. 7 ) . O t h e r t e a c h e r s o f t h e a d v a n c e d l e v e l c o u r s e s i n t h e g e n e r a l ESL p r o g r a m a l s o s p e -c i f i e d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f u n f a m i l i a r v o c a b u l a r y a s an a r e a t h a t o f t e n l e a d s them i n t o ' c u l t u r a l ' d i s c u s s i o n s . T h i s f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t i n g E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y a n d i t s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t - t o - c h a r a c t e r i z e c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s r e q u i r e s t h e ESL i n s t r u c t o r t o be more aware o f t h e i r own 74 c u l t u r e t h a n most p e o p l e . I n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o e x p l a i n a c u l t u r a l v a l u e o r p r a c t i c e w h i c h i s a l m o s t by d e f i n i t i o n u n d e r s t o o d o n l y t a c i t l y by a c u l t u r a l g r o u p , t h e ESL t e a c h e r must know h e r c u l t u r e f r o m t h e i n s i d e a n d f r o m t h e o u t s i d e . T h a t i s , she must h a v e b o t h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s k n o w l e d g e o f a g r o u p member and t h e c o n s c i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f one who h a s a n a l y s e d o r a t l e a s t c o n s i d e r e d t h e c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e f r o m an o u t s i d e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w . I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e n b e i n g an ESL t e a c h e r who e n g a g e s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f h e r c u l t u r e , o r e v e n t r i e s t o e x p l a i n t h e most b a n a l o f c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t o s t u d e n t s , may l e a d t o n e c e s s a r y s e l f - q u e s t i o n i n g i n t h e t e a c h e r s . C e r t a i n l y a d u l t ESL s t u d e n t s a r e w e l l s u i t e d t o q u e s -t i o n C a n a d i a n m a i n s t r e a m c u l t u r e a n d t o p r o v i d e t h e t e a c h e r s w i t h o u t s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e s . As r e p o r t e d i n c h a p t e r 3, some i n f o r m a n t s f e l t t h e y were l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c t h a n o t h e r p e o p l e . M o s t i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y h a d l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t t h e o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Many s a i d t h e y t h o u g h t t h e y h a d c h a n g e d , o r grown w i t h t h e j o b . I n t e r p r e t i n g C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s f o r ESL l e a r n e r s a n d t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r e s may be a p a r t o f t h e s o u r c e o f t h a t g r o w t h . The i n s t a n c e s when t h e t e a c h e r s s t e p i n t o t h e r o l e o f i n t e r p r e t i n g o r e x p l a i n i n g a s p e c t s o f C a n a d i a n l i f e a r i s e s p o n t a n e o u s l y f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s t o a n d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e t o p i c , l i n g u i s t i c o r s i t u a t i o n a l , u n d e r c o n s i d e r a -t i o n . They t o l d me t h a t i t " j u s t comes up" o r t h a t t h e y 75 r e s p o n d t o t h e l o o k s o f s u r p r i s e . T#28 d e s c r i b e s how t h i s w o r k s i n h e r c u r r e n t i n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g c l a s s : I t h a p p e n s a l l t h e t i m e . T h e y ' l l p i c k up on some-t h i n g , I ' l l see t h e q u e s t i o n m a r k s o v e r t h e i r h e a d s , y o u know? Sometimes i t t a k e s me a w h i l e t o u n d e r -s t a n d t h a t t h e r e ' s t h e c u l t u r a l i m p a c t h e r e . I p r o c e e d t o e x p l a i n t o them what i t i s , y o u know? And I ' l l o f t e n a s k them i f t h e y h a v e some k i n d o f c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e i r c u l t u r e . I a l w a y s a s k them a c -t u a l l y b e c a u s e I'm i n t e r e s t e d a l s o i n t h e i r c u l t u r e . And t h e y l o v e t e a c h i n g . They l o v e t h e i n t e r c h a n g e and so we do t h a t . (T#28 p. 6) L i k e a l l b u t one o t h e r i n s t r u c t o r , T#28 c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s e o c c a s i o n s when c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t s a r e e x c h a n g e d a s s p o n t a n e o u s a n d u n p l a n n e d . H o w e v e r , she a l s o s a i d t h a t she knows f r o m e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h r e a d i n g s o r w h i c h c o n c e p t s w i l l p r o v o k e t h e most d i s c u s s i o n a n d w i l l t h e r e f o r e n e e d more c l a s s t i m e (T#28 pp. 9 - 1 0 ) . So, w h i l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n s t a n c e s and s t u d e n t s ' comments a r e s p o n t a n e o u s , t h e n e e d f o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be a n t i c i p a t e d . The t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e i s a l s o u n p l a n n e d a n d s p o n t a n e o u s , a l t h o u g h l i k e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y a n d s t y l e . T#28 c o n f e s s e d she i s a " " b i t o f a ham," a n d s a i d she u s u a l l y a c t s o u t t h i n g s h u m o u r o u s l y t o make h e r p o i n t . T#35, t h e e x c e p t i o n t o t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g a s s e r t i o n t h a t c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f l a n g u a g e a r e n o t p l a n n e d i n t o l e s s o n s , s a y s t h a t c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s p a r t o f h i s p l a n n i n g . T#35 h a s d e v e l o p e d m a t e r i a l s a n d p l a n n e d l e s s o n s a r o u n d v a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s common t o l i f e i n Canada i n w h i c h c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d a h e a d o f t h e l a n -guage e l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d . 76 T#31 h a d e x p e r i e n c e l i v i n g i n an A s i a n c o u n t r y b e f o r e t a k i n g up h e r j o b a t t h e c o l l e g e . H e r e i s a p o r t i o n o f h e r a c c o u n t o f t h e e x p l a i n i n g t h a t s he d o e s i n h e r c l a s s : TD: What w o u l d y o u s a y a r e some o f t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f what y o u ' r e d o i n g w i t h y o u r s t u d e n t s ? T#31: T h e r e ' s a l o t o f e x p l a i n i n g how t h i n g s f i t i n c u l t u r a l l y a n d t r y i n g t o f i g u r e t h a t o u t . And o f c o u r s e a l o t o f t h e t i m e I know how i t l o o k s f r o m t h e o t h e r , f r o m t h e O r i e n t a l s i d e . Urn, oh t h e r e ' s a l l k i n d s , l e t me see i f I c a n t h i n k o f some exam-p l e s . The o t h e r d ay we had a t h i n g a b o u t , i t was one o f t h e s e e x e r c i s e s where i t s a y s t h i s a n d t h i s h a p p e n e d , why do y o u t h i n k i t h a p p e n e d ? And i t j u s t s a i d , a h , when she saw t h e f i s h h e a d a nd t h e e y e s i n t h e s o u p , s he t u r n e d g r e e n a n d r a n o u t o f t h e room. And some o f them o f c o u r s e , I knew v e r y w e l l t h a t t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e j u s t w o u l d t h i n k , w o u l d n ' t know why. . . . L i k e I s a y , i t h a p p e n s a l m o s t e v e r y d a y t h a t we r u n i n t o s o m e t h i n g . Where, e s p e c i a l l y when i t i n v o l v e s p e o p l e ' s r e a c t i o n s , where i t ' s c u l t u r a l a n d p o s s i b l y i t ' s d i f f e r e n t . They c a n ' t e v e n r e a d a n y t h i n g i n t o i t b e c a u s e i t d o e s n ' t make s e n s e . Why d i d - she t u r n s i c k a t t h a t ? They c a n ' t make a n y t h i n g o f i t u n t i l y o u t e l l them, t h i s i s how t h i n g s a r e h e r e . (T#31 p p . 4-6) T#31 went on t o s a y t h a t t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g i s v e r y much up t o t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r , a n d t h a t e v e n t h o u g h she knows t h e c o u r s e m a t e r i a l w e l l a n d a n d c o u l d a n t i c i p a t e r e a c t i o n s , s h e t r i e s n o t t o do t h a t . "The c l a s s i s n ' t homogeneous, b u t e v e n i f y o u know t h a t t h e y ' r e a l l C h i n e s e , t h e y ' r e n o t a l l g o i n g t o r e a c t t h e same anyways"(T#31 p. 8 ) . L i k e some o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s , T#31 f e e l s a c e r t a i n p r e s s u r e t o c o v e r t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t a n d r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . E x c h a n g e s a n d i n c i d e n t s s u c h a s r e c o u n t e d a b o v e a r e p l e a s u r a b l e f o r t h e t e a c h e r a n d were o f t e n r e t o l d t o me a s humourous a n d f u n p a r t s o f t h e j o b . 77 The l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y o f t h e c l a s s was m e n t i o n e d by T#10 a s a f a c t o r i n how much e x p l a i n i n g t h e t e a c h e r w o u l d be a b l e t o d o . C e r t a i n l y f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b e y o n d t h e c o n c r e t e l e v e l a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l a n g u a g e a b l i t y w o u l d be r e -q u i r e d . W i t h t h e h i g h e r c l a s s e s , y o u c a n e x p l a i n more, a n d y o u c a n go i n t o t h e t o p i c i n d e p t h . They c a n t a l k a b o u t how t h e y w o u l d do t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e i r c o u n t r y o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . W i t h l o w e r c l a s s e s , I d o n ' t t h i n k y o u c a n e x p l a i n a s much b e c a u s e i t ' s s o m e t i m e s t o o much. The l a n g u a g e y o u go i n t o i s way abo v e them, a n d i t ' s v e r y d i f f i c u l t . (T#10 p p . 12-13) D e s p i t e t h e l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y b a r r i e r , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t e a c h e r s a t a l l l e v e l s do e x p l a i n t h i n g s a n d e v e n o f f e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The a p p r o p r i a t e u s e o f t i t l e s a n d f i r s t o r l a s t names was b r o u g h t up c o n s t a n t l y a s an e x a m p l e o f s o m e t h i n g c u l t u r a l t h a t r e q u i r e s e x p l a n a t i o n . I t i s t a c k l e d , w i t h r e a s o n s , f r o m t h e b e g i n n e r s ' c l a s s e s on t h r o u g h t h e o t h e r l e v e l s . E v e n t e a c h e r s o f t h e a d v a n c e d l e v e l s s a i d t h e y s o m e t i m e s h a v e t o i n s i s t on t h e i n f o r m a l u se o f f i r s t names. The t e a c h e r s u se f i r s t names t o e s t a b l i s h a f r i e n d l y , i n f o r m a l t o n e i n t h e c l a s s a n d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e i r a d u l t s t u d e n t s a r e a l s o t h e i r p e e r s . The s t u d e n t s , who may w i s h t o a c c o r d t h e t e a c h e r t h e s p e c i a l r e s p e c t o f u s i n g a t i t l e , o r may be u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i d e a o f u s i n g f i r s t names o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y , o f t e n r e s i s t t h i s . The i n s t r u c t o r s t o l d me t h a t t h e y u s u a l l y s t i c k t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n , o c c a s i o n a l l y m a k i n g an e x c e p t i o n f o r e l d e r l y s t u d e n t s . They s a i d t h e y w o u l d u s e humour o r e x p l a n a t i o n s 78 a b o u t how f o r m a l i t y a n d i n f o r m a l i t y a r e s i g n a l l e d among E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e a n d w h a t . t h a t may i n d i c a t e a b o u t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n o r d e r t o c o n v i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s t o u s e o n l y f i r s t names w i t h i n t h e c l a s s . O n l y T#32 h a s h e r s t u d e n t s c a l l h e r 'Mrs. XXXX.' She c o n s i d e r s t h i s a s i g n o f r e s p e c t a n d d o e s i t t o " e s t a b l i s h t h e d i f f e r e n c e " b e t w e e n h e r s e l f a n d t h e s t u d e n t s whom she c a l l s by t h e i r f i r s t names. T#32 i s a f o r m e r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r n e a r i n g r e t i r e m e n t a g e . T#25 s a i d he f e l t i n t e r p r e t i n g C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e f o r s t u d e n t s h e l p e d t o " d i s p e l some o f t h e m y t h s " t h e s t u d e n t s may have h e a r d a b o u t how C a n a d i a n s l i v e . T a k i n g an e x a m p l e . f r o m t h e theme o f f a m i l y l i f e , he s a i d many s t u d e n t s t h i n k C a n a d i a n s m i s t r e a t t h e i r e l d e r s : They b e l i e v e a l l o l d p e o p l e w i n d up i n o l d p e o p l e ' s homes b e c a u s e t h e c h i l d r e n h a t e t h e i r g r a n d p a r e n t s o r h a v e no r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d d o n ' t want t o s e e them a f t e r t h e y g e t t o be s i x t y - f i v e . So I e x p l a i n t o them t h a t t h a t ' s n o t a l w a y s t r u e , a n d t h a t ' s n o t u s u a l l y t r u e a n d t h a t c h i l d r e n d o n ' t l i v e w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s f o r s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s . C a n a d a ' s a l a r g e c o u n t r y . I l i v e h e r e a n d my m o t h e r l i v e s i n ( a n o t h e r c i t y ) a n d she d o e s n ' t want t o l i v e w i t h me i n my a p a r t m e n t . I go t o v i s i t h e r . S h e ' s h e a l t h y and happy b e i n g t h e r e , a l l h e r f r i e n d s a r e t h e r e , a n d t h a t ' s why she d o e s n ' t l i v e w i t h me. (T#25 p. 40) L i k e o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s , T#25 d r a w s on h i s f a m i l y a n d h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e t o i n t e r p r e t C a n a d i a n v a l u e s w i t h r e a l exam-p l e s . The ESL t e a c h e r i s s o m e t i m e s d e s c r i b e d a s a l i n k o r a b r i d g e b e t w e e n t h e l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s w i t h whom t h e l e a r n e r p r e s u m a b l y w i s h e s t o 79 i n t e r a c t . T h i s c l i c h e d image f o r t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s p o s i t i o n was s o m e t i m e s m e n t i o n e d w i t h a p o l o g i e s , and t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t e a c h ESL p r o g r a m i s i n many ways 'a b r i d g e p r o g r a m . ' I n e s s e n c e , t h e l i n k i n g f u n c t i o n i s where t h e e x a m p l e o r m o d e l a s p e c t o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e c o m b i n e s w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t i n g f u n c t i o n . A s T#29 e x p l a i n s : I t h i n k t h e y p r o b a b l y l o o k t o me a s a l i n k , a n d a l l t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r s a s w e l l a s a l i n k . B e c a u s e t h e y o f t e n s a y , " y e a h b u t XXXX s a i d t h i s , o r y e a h , b u t she d o e s n ' t do t h a t , y o u know. So t h e y ' r e a l r e a d y b e g i n -n i n g t o s e e t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s , b u t t h e y do s e e y o u d e f i n i t e l y a s a l i n k , t h e i r l i n k t o w a r d t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y . (T#29 p. 32) B e i n g t h e l i n k means b e i n g t h e i n f o r m a n t , b e i n g t h e p e r s o n who g i v e s t h e l e a r n e r 'good, r e a l i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . ' T h i s i s a t r u s t t h a t seems t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s a n d l e a r n e r s , a t r u s t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s w i l l g i v e them t h e i r b e s t r e a d i n g o f a s i t u a t i o n . T#13 q u e s t i o n e d t h e t e a c h e r s ' c l a i m t o w o r k i n g a s a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e l e a r n e r a n d t h e m a i n s t r e a m E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g c u l t u r e o f V a n c o u v e r : How much l i n k i n g do we a l l do? Uhm, I t h i n k t h a t ' s p r o b a b l y t h e g o a l t h a t we a l l a s t e a c h e r s want t o s t r i v e t o w a r d s o r we f a v o u r d o i n g , b u t I t h i n k e a c h one o f us h a s t o q u e s t i o n , a r e we d o i n g i t ? And i f s o , a r e we d o i n g i t w e l l ? (T#13 p. 19) T#13 d i d n o t p u r s u e t h i s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n , "And how w o u l d we know?" b u t i t i s a q u e s t i o n s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s i m p l i e d i n t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s . They s a i d t h e y knew t h e y w e r e r o l e m o d e l s o r e x a m p l e C a n a d i a n s , a n d t h a t t h e y d i d e x p l a i n C a n a d i a n p r a c t i c e s , o r i n t e r p r e t t h e v a l u e o r m e a n i n g o f c u l t u r a l s y m b o l s , b u t i n t h e e n d some s a i d t h e y c o u l d n o t r e a l l y be 80 s u r e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s were m a k i n g c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e a n d l i f e i n t h e g r e a t e r c o m m u n i t y . T#20 went so f a r a s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s were m a k i n g a m i s t a k e i n a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a d c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g r e i n f o r c e d by i n t e r a c t i o n o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l . B e c a u s e E n g l i s h d i d n o t t o u c h t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , he s a i d E n g l i s h was r e a l l y a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e f o r many l e a r n e r s (T#20 p. 1 8 ) . From t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e i n s t r u c t o r w o u l d i n d e e d s e r v e a s a l i n k , a n d p e r h a p s a u n i q u e o n e , b e t w e e n t h e l e a r n e r a n d t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o m m u n i t y , a n d t h a t r o l e w o u l d become an i m p o r t a n t one f o r t h e a d u l t s t u d e n t s ' d e v e l o p i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b o t h t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a n d E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . C. TEACHING INTERCULTURALLY I d o n ' t t h i n k y o u c a n t e a c h c u l t u r e a s much a s y o u p r e p a r e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t g e t them t o t h i n k a b o u t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I t ' s g o t t o come f r o m c o m p a r i n g t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e a n d b a c k g r o u n d w i t h what t h e y ' r e g r o w i n g i n t o o r what t h e y ' r e f a c i n g a t t h i s moment. (T#13 p. 15) I n E n g l i s h C a n a d a , ESL c l a s s e s l i k e t h e o n e s t a u g h t by t h e i n f o r m a n t s a r e a l w a y s i n t e r c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . E v e n i f a g a i n s t a l l l i k e l i h o o d t h e s t u d e n t s were t o s h a r e a c u l t u r a l a n d s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d , t h e t e a c h e r w o u l d r e p r e s e n t t h e a d d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f an E n g l i s h s p e a k e r w i t h an u n -d e r s t a n d i n g o f E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . The e x c h a n g e o f v i e w p o i n t s a n d t h e m i x o f c u l t u r e s i n t h e ESL c l a s s i s s e e n a s a p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e o f ESL w o r k , a l t h o u g h a s t h i s s e c t i o n 81 w i l l e x a m i n e , i t s o m e t i m e s r e s u l t s i n c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s a n d r a i s e s d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e t e a c h e r s . C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s p r o v i d e t h e ESL c l a s s e s w i t h a n a t u r a l h i g h - i n t e r e s t t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n . S i n c e l e a r n e r s a r e a l r e a d y e x p e r t s on t h e i r own c u l t u r e s , t a l k i n g a b o u t c u l t u r e t a x e s E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a b i l i t i e s w i t h o u t c h a l l e n g i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' k n o w l e d g e b a s e . I n c l a s s e s where e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s may v a r y w i d e l y , t h i s i s an e q u a l i z i n g f a c t o r t h a t e n c o u r a g e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n s . V e r y o f t e n c o m p a r i s o n s o f c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e u n d e r t a k e n "as a v e h i c l e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e l a n g u a g e r a t h e r t h a n u s i n g t h e l a n -guage a s a v e h i c l e f o r l o o k i n g a t c u l t u r e " (T#18 p. 7 ) . C u l t u r a l d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s may be u s e d a s t h e c o n t e x t t h r o u g h w h i c h grammar e l e m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d o r p r a c t i s e d , may a r i s e f r o m a r e a d i n g p a s s a g e o r f r o m t h e news, o r may be s t r u c t u r e d i n t o an a s s i g n e d c o m p o s i t i o n . I n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h e y s o m e t i m e s h a v e s t u d e n t s s p e a k i n f r o n t o f t h e w h o l e c l a s s , a s T#27 e x p l a i n s : . . . I ' l l g e t them t o p r e p a r e s o m e t h i n g on t h e i r own c o u n t r y where t h e y ' l l be d o i n g a l i t t l e t a l k a b o u t t h e f o o d , a b o u t t h e c l o t h e s , a b o u t t h e c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l , a b o u t t h e f a m i l i e s , how t h e y t r e a t d i f f e r e n t members o f t h e f a m i l y . . . t h e way o f l i f e . V e r y o f t e n i t b r i n g s t h i n g s o u t . What I ' l l do i s I ' l l g i v e one day t o e a c h n a t i o n a l i t y . . . And t h a t makes them f e e l a l i t t l e p r o u d o f t h e i r own h e r i t a g e a s w e l l a s a t t h e same t i m e t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s g e t an o p p o r t u n i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r . And y o u know, t h e y ' r e u s i n g E n g l i s h a l l t h e t i m e . (T#27 pp. 13-14) T#27 has many r e a s o n s f o r h a v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s l e a r n a b o u t e a c h o t h e r s ' c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n . She t a k e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o 82 e x p l a i n h e r own S o u t h A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d , a nd why she i s s o m e t i m e s more c o m f o r t a b l e i n h e r s a r i t h a n i n o t h e r c l o t h e s . T h i s i n f o r m a n t was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e s t u d e n t s ' l a c k o f s y m p a t h y a nd t o l e r a n c e f o r e a c h o t h e r , a n d she d o e s what she c a n t o b r i n g them t o g e t h e r . She a l s o s a i d s h e u s u a l l y o r g a n i z e s p o t l u c k m e a l s so t h e s t u d e n t s c a n t a s t e e a c h o t h e r s ' n a t i v e d i s h e s . To e n s u r e a s u c c e s s f u l m e a l , she recommends t h a t s t u d e n t s p r e p a r e c e r t a i n s p e c i a l t i e s t h a t she h a s f o u n d t o be u n i v e r s a l l y w e l l - r e c e i v e d . T#13, q u o t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e h a s t o come f r o m t h e i r own r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e c o m p a r e d t o t h e i r p r e s e n t e x p e r i e n c e . The t e a c h e r may e n c o u r a g e t h i s by q u e s t i o n i n g , b u t she d o e s n o t c a l l t h i s " t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e " b e c a u s e she b e l i e v e s t h a t c u l t u r e c a n n o t be t a u g h t . T#34 i m m i g r a t e d t o Canada a s an a d u l t ; he r e p o r t e d t h a t he r e c e n t l y a s k e d s t u d e n t s t o s p e a k i n f r o n t o f t h e i r c l a s s a b o u t t h e i r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s o f C a n a d a . H i s r e a s o n s f o r t h i s , o t h e r t h a n t o p r a c t i c e E n g l i s h , were e x p l a i n e d a s f o l -l o w s : I t h o u g h t i t w o u l d be e a s y f o r them t o do and a l s o , t o make them aware o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , i n s t e a d o f t e a c h i n g them c u l t u r e . (T#34 p. 5) I n t h e s e c a s e s t h e n , t h e c o m p a r i s o n s a n d t h e c u l t u r e t e a c h i n g come f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . T#34 s a i d he s o m e t i m e s d o e s " t e a c h c u l t u r e " b e c a u s e he l i k e s t h e s t u d e n t s " t o do [some t h i n g s ] i n C a n a d i a n w a y s." He t a k e s a v e r y p r a g m a t i c v i e w o f t h i s , a n d s i m p l y e q u a t e s 83 c h a n g i n g c e r t a i n p u b l i c b e h a v i o u r s t o f i t i n t o C a n a d i a n norms w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n s t r u m e n t a l n e e d t o go t o work and g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e h e r e . I f t h e y do n o t f i t i n , he s a i d , " t h e y ' l l be t r e a t e d a s a d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n o r a d i f f e r e n t g r o u p f o r e v e r " a n d he d o e s n o t b e l i e v e t h e y w o u l d want t h a t ( p . 1 2 ) . He g ave t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e o f a s t u d e n t who u s e d t o t a k e h i s s h o e s o f f i n c l a s s : I s a i d , " I d o n ' t know w h e t h e r y o u c o u l d do i t i n y o u r c o u n t r y o r n o t , b u t i t ' s n o t a c c e p t e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y . " And he a s k e d me why. I s a i d , w e l l j u s t s i m p l y i n a p u b l i c p l a c e y o u d o n ' t t a k e o f f y o u r s h o e s . "You may be t h i n k i n g t h a t y o u ' r e h a v i n g a g o od t i m e , b u t what w o u l d o t h e r p e o p l e t h i n k ? " And he s a i d he d i d n ' t know t h a t i t was n o t a c c e p t e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y . A n o t h e r t h i n g i s I e n c o u r a g e them t o r a i s e t h e i r h a n d s w h e n e v e r t h e y h a v e s o m e t h i n g t o s a y . And t h a t i s , when I was a t s c h o o l i n ( n a t i v e c o u n t r y ) , we were s o r t o f a f r a i d t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s a n d t o a s k them. E v e n t h o u g h we knew what t o s a y ' . . . now h e r e I t e l l them w h a t e v e r y o u h a v e t o s a y , s a y i t . B e c a u s e t h a t ' s y o u r r i g h t t o s a y i t . (T#34 p. 5) He s a i d he a p p l i e d t h e s t r a t e g y o f d o i n g t h i n g s i n C a n a d i a n ways i n h i s own l i f e and he t h o u g h t i t h a d been a s u c c e s s f u l one f o r h i m . A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t w i t h an O r i e n t a l f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d t o o k a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n i n t h a t she v e r y f o r m a l l y , a n d f i r m l y , t e l l s s t u d e n t s a b o u t a c c e p t e d p u b l i c b e h a v i o u r . She c a l l s t h i s t e a c h i n g p o l i t e b e h a v i o u r and r e a s o n s t h a t : . . . I t h i n k a l o t o f t h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e come f r o m s i t u a t i o n s where s u r v i v a l .was s o i m p o r t a n t , a n d ( c o u r t e s y ) d i d n ' t m a t t e r . And so p o s s i b l y t h a t k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r s t u c k a n d now I t h i n k t h a t t h e y ' r e i n a s i t u a t i o n where t h e y n e e d n o t be t h a t a s s e r t i v e , t h e y m i g h t l i k e t o l e a r n some, o h , g e n t l e m a n n e r s . . . . I t h i n k , o u t s i d e t h i s room, t h a t i f t h e y a r e i n t h e C a n a d i a n s i t u a t i o n , i f t h e y a r e r u d e , b o o r i s h o r a s s e r t i v e , i t w o u l d a f f e c t t h e p e o p l e t h e y ' r e w i t h 84 an d t h e y m i g h t f o r m i l l o p i n i o n s o f them so I t h i n k l e a r n i n g t h e s e n i c e t i e s m i g h t p r o b a b l y s t a n d them i n good s t e a d l a t e r o n . . . And I t h i n k t h a t ' s v e r y n e c e s s a r y . So I do a l o t o f t h a t , i f y o u c a l l t h a t c u l t u r e , I d o n ' t know. (T#32 pp. 19-20) W h i l e most o f t h e w h i t e C a n a d i a n t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t t h e y m i g h t t e l l s t u d e n t s i f some a s p e c t o f t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i s o f f e n s i v e o r s u r p r i s i n g , t h e t e a c h e r s w i t h p e r s o n a l i m m i g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e were most w i l l i n g t o t a l k a b o u t t h i s p r a c t i c e . They gave many e x a m p l e s o f r e c e n t i n c i d e n t s . T#32 s u g g e s t e d t h a t o t h e r ' i n s t r u c t o r s w o u l d be more c a u t i o u s a b o u t r i s k i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f b e i n g an a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t a n d i n d e e d most o t h e r t e a c h e r s q u a l i f i e d t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e when t h a t i m p l i e d an i n t e n t i o n t o make t h e ESL a d u l t more a c c e p t a b l e t o m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y . As a member of a r a c i a l m i n o r i t y a n d an i m m i g r a n t h i m s e l f , T#34 f e l t he was u n l i k e l y t o be a c c u s e d o f t r y i n g t o a s s i m i l a t e ESL a d u l t s t o t h e C a n a d i a n m a i n s t r e a m . I n c o n t r a s t , T#30, who s h a r e s a s i m i l a r r a c i a l b a c k g r o u n d a n d i m m i g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h T#34, h a s a d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t on t h e c u l t u r a l i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e ESL p r o g r a m s a n d t h e l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r . She s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h she f e e l s i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o know a b o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e t o r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e l a n g u a g e a n d a p p r e c i a t e t h e l i t e r a t u r e , she f i n d s some o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d c o u r s e m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n by h e r f e l l o w i n s t r u c t o r s makes h e r u n c o m f o r t a b l e : I t h i n k so many o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e book a r e c u l t u r a l , a n d I d o n ' t h a v e a n y t r o u b l e d o i n g them, b u t a t t i m e s I w o u l d s a y , w e l l I r e a l l y d o n ' t want 85 t o t e a c h t h i s b e c a u s e i t ' s s o , a h , I mean y o u a r e s o r t o f p u s h i n g one c u l t u r e i n t o a n o t h e r . I n a way, y o u ' r e s o r t o f p u s h i n g one way o f t h i n k i n g i n t o a n -o t h e r a n d I r e a l l y d o n ' t know i f I want t o do t h a t . (T#30 p. 13) T h i s i n s t r u c t o r o b j e c t s t o t h e t o n e , i n a d d i t i o n t o some o f t h e c o n t e n t , o f t h e c o u r s e r e a d i n g s . She s u g g e s t e d t h a t s he p r o b a b l y t a k e s a more i n t e l l e c t u a l o r more a b s t r a c t a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , a l t h o u g h she a d d e d t h a t a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s " I t ' s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e a n d y o u may h a v e t o t e a c h c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l t h i n g s b l i n d l y " ( p . 1 4 ) . T#30 i s t h e o n l y i n f o r m a n t o u t o f t h e t h i r t y - f i v e i n t e r v i e w e d who f e l t t h a t t h e c o u r s e m a t e r i a l , a n d some o f h e r f e l l o w t e a c h e r s , were t o o c o n c e r n e d a b o u t C a n a d i a n c u l . t u r e a n d p u s h e d i t o n t o t h e s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h many i n f o r m a n t s s p o k e o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a s b e i n g o f i n t e r e s t , t h e y were a l s o c l e a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . S e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e y a i m e d t o b r i n g o u t t h e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f e a c h l e a r n e r ' s c u l t u r e , t o v a l i d a t e a n d a p p r e c i a t e i t . T#8 c a l l e d t h i s " s h a r i n g i n a p o s i t i v e way, w o r k i n g on t h e u n i v e r s a l s " ( p . 2 3 ) , a n d s a i d t h a t s he h a s w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s f o r a s e r i e s o f d i s c u s s i o n s s t r u c t u r e d a r o u n d c o m p a r i s o n s o f common e x p e r i e n c e s . S i n c e t h e i n s t r u c t o r s a r e w e l l t r a v e l l e d , i t s o m e t i m e s h a p p e n s t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o s a y s o m e t h i n g a b o u t a g i v e n c o u n t r y f r o m f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e . T#24 s a i d s t u d e n t s f r o m C h i n a a s k h e r f o r h e r i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h a t c o u n t r y : T h e y ' r e a l w a y s s u r p r i s e d when I t e l l them t h a t I t h i n k C h i n a i s j u s t an a m a z i n g l y b e a u t i f u l c o u n t r y 86 a n d i t i s . I g u e s s maybe t h e y ' r e s u r p r i s e d I f i n d p o s i t i v e t h i n g s t o s a y a b o u t i t b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e c h o s e n t o l e a v e . (T#24 p. 3 1 ) T h i s i n f o r m a n t s a i d t h a t she a l w a y s t r i e s t o be "more p o s i t i v e t h a n n e g a t i v e " a b o u t h e r i m p r e s s i o n s o f a s t u d e n t ' s h o m e l a n d , e v e n f o r c o u n t r i e s s h e i s n o t r e a l l y k e e n o n , a n d u s u a l l y t h a t i s n o t t o o d i f f i c u l t t o do. C u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n s a r e n o t a l w a y s p o s i t i v e , n o r a r e t h e y a l w a y s f a i r . I n f o r m a n t s s p o k e a b o u t i n t e r g r o u p p r o b l e m s among s t u d e n t s who a r e o f t e n n o t a c c u s t o m e d t o a m u l t i -c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . One o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t h a p p e n s w i t h p r o n u n c i a t i o n f o r e x a m p l e , when y o u h a v e a c l a s s t h a t h a s E u r o p e a n s a n d C e n t r a l A m e r i c a n s w i t h t h e A s i a n s , t h e r e ' s t h e t e n d e n c y f o r t h e o nes whose p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s b e t t e r t o t h i n k t h a t p r o n u n c i a t i o n t h e n i s a m a t t e r o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . So one o f t h e t h i n g s I ' v e b e e n d o i n g i s t o t r y a n d g i v e them an i n s i g h t i n t o why t h e A s i a n s h a v e a l l t h e s e p r o n u n c i a t i o n p r o b l e m s . I w o u l d u s e m y s e l f a s t h e r o l e m o d e l a n d how I w o u l d h a v e r e a l d i f f i c u l t y p r o n o u n c i n g some o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t a r e i n t h e i r l a n g u a g e , w h e t h e r i t ' s V i e t n a m e s e o r S p a n i s h o r P o l i s h . And t h e n t r y t o draw t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t d i f f i c u l t y w i t h p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s n ' t a q u e s t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d e d u c a t i o n . (T#8 p. 2) T#8 t r i e s t o l e a r n t o p r o n o u n c e h e r s t u d e n t s ' names a u t h e n t i c a l l y , a n d h a s t h e s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e s ' w r i t i n g s y s t e m f o r t h e c l a s s ; h e r a i m she s a i d i s " t o s t a r t them t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t i n t e l l e c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s " ( p . 4 ) . The k i n d o f p r e j u d i c e t h e i n f o r m a n t s t a l k e d a b o u t i s s e e n by them a s an a r t i f a c t o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n w h i c h was o f t e n a more homogeneous s o c i e t y t h a n t h e . 87 one t h e y f i n d i n C a n a d a . The l e a r n e r s ' p r e j u d i c e s may be b a s e d on h i s t o r i c a l a n i m o s i t e s o r myths a b o u t f o r e i g n e r s l e a r n e d i n t h e h o m e l a n d . I n t h i s way, t h e n , t h e s e b e l i e f s a r e p a r t o f t h e ' c u l t u r a l b a g g a g e ' o f t h e a d u l t E S L l e a r n e r . The i n f o r m a n t s f r o m t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m w e r e , a s a g r o u p , most a w a r e a n d most c o n c e r n e d a b o u t p r e j u d i c e among t h e s t u d e n t s . T#12 p h r a s e d h e r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e i s s u e t h i s way: T#12: One o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t ' s k i n d o f o f f - p u t t i n g . f r o m t i m e t o t i m e i s t h e l a c k o f t o l e r a n c e t h a t some o f o u r s t u d e n t s h a v e f o r o t h e r s o f o u r s t u d e n t s . T h e r e ' s b i g o t r y among t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h a t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o h a n d l e . How do y o u t o l e r a t e somebody e l s e ' s i n t o l e r a n c e ? And do y o u t o l e r a t e i t ? TD: Do y o u t o l e r a t e i t ? T#12: No. No, b u t y o u h a v e t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h e y ' r e i n t o l e r a n t a n d t h e n t r y t o h e l p them t o b r e a k down t h a t b a r r i e r . (T#12 p. 27) T h i s i n f o r m a n t went on t o s a y t h a t s he c o n s i d e r s t h i s a p a r t o f h e r j o b . The i n f o r m a n t s f r o m t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m gave e x a m p l e s o f i n c i d e n t s f r o m t h e i r c l a s s e s where s t u d e n t s n o t g e t t i n g a l o n g t o g e t h e r c a u s e d them c o n c e r n . T h e s e r a n g e d f r o m s t u d e n t s r e f u s i n g t o work w i t h o t h e r s , t o i n c i d e n t s s u c h a s comments o r l a u g h t e r a t t h e e x p e n s e o f i n d i v i d u a l s . The i n f o r m a n t s b e l i e v e d t h e s e i n c i d e n t s t o be b a s e d on v a l -u e s c a r r i e d o v e r f r o m t h e c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n . T#14: W e l l , i n t h e c l a s s t h e y ' r e b a s i c a l l y w e l l -b e h a v e d a n d p r e t t y s u b t l e . B u t y o u know w h a t ' s g o i n g o n . Or o f t e n what t h e y ' l l do i s t h e y ' l l be v e r y n i c e i n t h e c l a s s a n d i f t h e y h a p p e n t o s e e y o u a l o n e , l i k e i f y o u ' r e on a f i e l d t r i p a n d t h e r e ' s some P o l i s h p e r s o n , t h e y ' l l p u l l y o u a s i d e - t h i s h a p p e n s 88 t o e v e r y b o d y - and s a y l i k e , "Don't y o u t h i n k t h e r e ' s t o o many C h i n e s e p e o p l e h e r e ? V a n c o u v e r h a s t o o many C h i n e s e p e o p l e . " Or " t h e p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s c l a s s i s t h a t t h e r e a r e t o o many C h i n e s e p e o p l e . " I ' v e h a d t h a t h a p p e n . TD: And do y o u s a y . . . ? T#14: I s a y , "No I d o n ' t t h i n k i t ' s a p r o b l e m f o r me. You know, C a n a d a , V a n c o u v e r , h a s a l o t o f C h i n e s e p e o p l e . Y o u ' l l be w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s e p e o p l e when y o u g e t a j o b . " (T#14 pp. 16) She s a i d t h a t s h e u n d e r s t o o d some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t , t h a t t h e P o l i s h s t u d e n t s were f r o m a s o c i e t y where t h e p e o p l e m o s t l y l o o k e d t h e same a n d l i v e d i n t h e same way. T#14 s a i d t h e r e was o n c e a w o r k s h o p f o r t h e t e a c h e r s a b o u t t h e P o l i s h c o m m u n i t y a n d t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . D i s c u s s i n g t h i s same p r o b l e m T#17 s a i d s he f o u n d i t h a r d t o d e a l w i t h " r a c i s t s " a n d e v e n q u e s t i o n e d t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t some " r i g h t - w i n g e d E u r o p e a n s " may h a v e on C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . The o t h e r f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d e x a m p l e o f an i n t e r g r o u p s i t u a t i o n t h a t i n f o r m a n t s were d i s t r e s s e d a b o u t h a d t o do w i t h s t u d e n t s o f C h i n e s e o r i g i n s p e a k i n g d i s p a r a g i n g l y a b b u t C a n a d i a n N a t i v e I n d i a n s . I n t h i s l o n g q u o t e , T#27 e x p l a i n s how she h a n d l e s t h a t s i t u a t i o n : T#27: They b r i n g t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n i n t o t h e p i c t u r e o f t e n . "Up on H a s t i n g s , t c a n ' t s t a n d t h e s e d r u n k I n d i a n s " a n d s t u f f l i k e t h a t . So t h e r e I come o u t w i t h b o t h b a r r e l s a c t u a l l y on t h a t i s s u e . TD: Uh huh. And what do y o u s a y ? T#27: W e l l , I ' l l s a y "what do y o u mean? I s t h a t a l l I n d i a n s ? " a n d y o u know. T r y i n g t o make s u r e , y o u know, "who i s i t t h a t y o u saw? How many d i d y o u s e e ? And why a r e t h e y l i k e t h a t ? " T r y t o g e t t h e s t u d e n t s t o s e e t h a t i t ' s n o t j u s t , t h a t i t ' s t h e r e s u l t o f 89 s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t t h e i r f a u l t a n d t h a t ' s what I t r y t o b r i n g up. So t h e y c a n l o o k a t why, t h e r e a s o n s f o r i t . I f o l l o w up on t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . L i k e I w o u l d h a v e t o l d some s t o r i e s , o r had them r e a d l i k e C h i e f Dan G e o r g e ' s book, My Heart Soars. T h i n g s s o t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e r e ' s a s o u l a n d a h e a r t a n d a m i n d b e h i n d i t , n o t j u s t y o u r b a s i c d e r e l i c t . I f i n d t h a t c u t t i n g down t h e w a l l s o f p r e j u d i c e i s e x -t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o me. (T#27 p. 16) The t e a c h e r s who gave t h i s e x a m p l e s a i d t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f C h i n a t o w n t o t h e ' s k i d row' a r e a meant t h a t some C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s h a d v e r y n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n s f r o m t h e i r e n c o u n t e r s w i t h C a n a d i a n N a t i v e s . The i n f o r m a n t s t o l d me a b o u t o t h e r k i n d s o f c o n f l i c t s a n d t h e i r e f f o r t s t o e a s e them. The o n l y i n f o r m a n t o u t s i d e t h e v o c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m who s a i d he t o o k n o t i c e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' comments and f e l t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o them p u t i t t h i s way: When y o u ha v e a s i t u a t i o n w h ere a K o r e a n g i r l s a y s , "Oh, I c a n ' t s t a n d E a s t I n d i a n s " a n d t h e r e ' s an I n d i a n s i t t i n g a t t h e same t a b l e , t o s o r t o f a s k h e r i f s h e ' d s t a y a f t e r a n d s a y " L o o k , y o u know t h i s r e a l l y i s n o t t o o d i p l o m a t i c . " I wonder i f t h a t ' s j u s t common s e n s e o r i f t h a t ' s c u l t u r a l t e a c h i n g . I d o n ' t know. (T#18 p. 8) W h i l e T#18 was t h e o n l y i n f o r m a n t o u t s i d e t h e v o c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m who g a v e a s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e a n d e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a b o u t i n t e r c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s , t h e i n f o r m a n t s f r o m t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m a l l saw r e a c t i n g n e g a t i v e l y t o b i g o t r y a n d c h a l l e n g i n g p r e j u d i c e s a s a p p r o p r i a t e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e . S e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s f r o m t h i s p r o g r a m s a i d t h e y w o u l d be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t e a c h e r s who d i d n o t c h a l l e n g e s t u d e n t s ' p r e j u d i c e s , 90 and some a d d e d t h a t t h e y t r y t o c h a l l e n g e t h e i r own. A f t e r some t h o u g h t , T#17 s a i d t h i s a b o u t h e r e f f o r t s t o "br e a k down" p r e j u d i c e among s t u d e n t s : Yeah, I d o n ' t know i f t h a t ' s my r o l e a s t e a c h e r [ t o widen s t u d e n t s ' v i e w s or b r o a d e n t h e i r t h o u g h t s a b o u t o t h e r p e o p l e ] . I would s a y t h a t ' s my r o l e a s a p e r s o n , and y e a h , as a t e a c h e r i n t h i s p r o g r a m . (T#17 p. 23) T h i s s e n t i m e n t was e x p r e s s e d by s e v e r a l o t h e r v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h i n f o r m a n t s who f e l t i t was a s i m p l e human d u t y t o be c o n c e r n e d f o r e q u a l t r e a t m e n t and m u t u a l r e s p e c t among p e o p l e . In t h e q u o t a t i o n a b o v e , T#17 q u a l i f i e s h e r r e a s o n i n g on t h e i s s u e w i t h an e m p h a t i c s t r e s s on " t h i s p r o g r a m , " r e f e r r i n g t o t h e 'Manpower' s p o n s o r e d v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h c o u r s e f o r a d u l t s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h t o g a i n e n t r y - l e v e l employment. I t became a p p a r e n t e a r l y i n t h e f i e l d work p e r i o d t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m were most c o n c e r n e d and a c t i v e i n t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e t h a t i n v o l v e i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s . In t h e c o u r s e of t h e p i l o t s t u d y , I came t o t h i n k o f t h e a c t i v e p u r s u i t o f b e t t e r i n t e r s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s a s ' m u l t i - ' c u l t u r a l i z i n g ' t h e s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e t h e g o a l o f t h i s a c t i v i t y was t o make t h e s t u d e n t s more t o l e r a n t o f e a c h o t h e r and o f p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c community. U l t i m a t e l y t h e i n f o r m a n t s b e l i e v e d i t wo u l d b e t t e r p r e p a r e t h e s t u d e n t s t o l i v e and work i n Canada's e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s e s o c i e t y . When I had t h e c h a n c e t o i n t e r v i e w some o f t h e s e n i o r f a c u l t y members o f t h i s 91 p r o g r a m , I a s k e d them a b o u t t h i s a t t i t u d e among t h e i n s t r u c t o r s , i t s e v o l u t i o n , a n d a l s o a b o u t t h e i r p e r s o n a l n o t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m ' s g o a l s . T#23, f o r e x a m p l e , h a s been a t t h e c o l l e g e s i n c e t h e e a r l y d a y s o f ESL and h a s c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e 'Manpower' p r o g r a m , a s i t i s commonly known. I a s k e d t h i s i n f o r m a n t i f t h e p r o g r a m w o r k s t o ' m u l t i c u l t u r a l i z e ' t h e s t u d e n t s : T#23: We do. I t ' s done u n c o n s c i o u s l y , r i g h t now. I mean i t ' s now t o t h e s t a g e t h a t i t ' s become [ p a r t o f t h e ] n a t u r e o f most o f t h e t e a c h e r s . They v a r y t h o u g h , I mean e a c h t e a c h e r h a s t h e i r own c o m f o r t l e v e l , how t o d e a l w i t h t h a t . (T#23 p. 14) The i s s u e o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s among t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s p r o g r a m h a s been i n f o r m a l l y d i s c u s s e d f o r a l o n g t i m e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i n f o r m a n t . O f t e n , i n t h e c o f f e e room o r o v e r t h e p h o t o c o p i e r an i n s t r u c t o r w i l l m e n t i o n a s p e c i f i c s t u d e n t o r an i n c i d e n t a n d t h e t e a c h e r s w i l l c o mpare i d e a s o f how t o h a n d l e t h e p r o b l e m . The f a c t t h a t t h e s e i n s t r u c t o r s seem more l i k e l y t o s e e an i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t a s a p r o b l e m f o r them, h o w e v e r , d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s g r o u p . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n ' m u l t i -c u l t u r a l i z i n g ' l e a r n e r s i n t h i s p r o g r a m g o e s b a c k t o t h e 'Manpower' p r o g r a m ' s mandate t o t e a c h E n g l i s h t o i m m i g r a n t s whose l a c k o f E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y p r e v e n t s them f r o m o b t a i n i n g e v e n e n t r y - l e v e l e m p l o y m e n t . The f a c t t h a t a l m o s t a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s e c l a s s e s h a v e v e r y l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h C a n a d i a n s a n d C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y and 92 r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d E n g l i s h a b i l i t y seems t o j u s t i f y t h e i n s t r u c t o r s ' i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o u r . T#23 p u t i t t h i s way: We h a v e t o be v e r y c a r e f u l how we t r e a t t h e s t u d e n t s . We're one o f t h e f i r s t p e o p l e who open a d o o r . Our r e a c t i o n i n many s i t u a t i o n s w i l l s e t t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f how t h e c u l t u r e w i l l t r e a t them. (T#23 pp. 7-8) The v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h c l a s s t h e n , i s where t h e i m m i g r a n t s ' f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y a r e f o r m e d t h r o u g h i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y . S i n c e a new i m m i g r a n t i s o f t e n a s s i s t e d i n o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t by f a m i l y members o r p e o p l e who s p e a k t h e same l a n g u a g e , t h e ESL c l a s s may be t h e s t u d e n t ' s f i r s t i n d e p e n d e n t v e n t u r e i n t o E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . When a s k e d a b o u t t h e g o a l s o f t h e p r o g r a m , T#23 s a i d t h a t t h e p r o g r a m was a b r i d g e , t h e f i r s t p o s t f o r t h e new i m m i g r a n t who, a l o n g w i t h a l l h i s o t h e r a d j u s t m e n t s t o l i f e i n C a n a d a , h a s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n a minimum l e v e l o f E n g l i s h i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f f i v e m o n t h s . The t e a c h e r s i n e v i t a b l y h e l p t h e i r s t u d e n t s w i t h a l l o f t h e i r v a r i o u s q u e s t i o n s a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s ; he s a i d : You h a v e t o h e l p them, so t h e r e ' s t h i s w h o l e f o r m o f a c c u l t u r a l i z a t i o n t h a t ' s a h i d d e n a g e n d a a s p e o p l e a r e g o i n g t h r o u g h o u r f i v e m o n t h s , b u t o u r o b j e c t i v e i s t o g i v e them e n o u g h E n g l i s h t o s u r v i v e o u t t h e r e . (T#23 pp. 20-21) W h e t h e r t h i s ' h i d d e n a g e n d a ' i s s h a r e d among t h e t e a c h e r s i s d i f f i c u l t t o s a y w i t h c e r t a i n t y , b u t when T#17 e m p h a s i z e d t h a t i t was h e r r o l e t o combat p r e j u d i c e i n " t h i s p r o g r a m , " she i m p l i e d t h a t i n a n o t h e r p r o g r a m , w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s , 93 she m i g h t n o t f e e l so r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n c o u r a g i n g t h e d e v e l -opment o f t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e s i n h e r s t u d e n t s . I n d e e d , i n f o r m a n t s f r o m t h e two o t h e r p r o g r a m s d i d have a d i f f e r e n t v i e w o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e way t o h a n d l e i n t e r g r o u p c o n f l i c t . O n l y a b o u t one q u a r t e r o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s f r o m t h e g e n e r a l ESL and t h e a c a d e m i c ESL p r o g r a m s s a i d t h a t t h e y were a w a r e o f any p r o b l e m s i n s t u d e n t s g e t t i n g a l o n g t o g e t h e r i n c l a s s . T h e s e i n f o r m a n t s who were a w a r e o f a n i m o s i t i e s o r i n c i d e n t s s a i d t h e y t o o k no a c t i o n a n d t r i e d n o t t o r e a c t t o comments o r i n c i d e n t s i n c l a s s . The r e m a i n i n g i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e r e w e re no r e a l p r o b l e m s w i t h s t u d e n t s g e t t i n g a l o n g i n t h e i r c l a s s e s ; t h e y a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e y a l l o w e d s t u d e n t s t o s i t w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e g r o u p , a n d d i d n o t t r y t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r c h o i c e o f p a r t n e r s . T#19, one o f t h o s e who s a i d t h e r e were no p r o b l e m s , s a i d t h a t i t i s up t o t h e t e a c h e r t o s e t t h e t o n e f o r t h e c l a s s a n d t h a t i f t h e t e a c h e r h a d a " c h i p on h e r s h o u l d e r , " t h e n t h a t w o u l d be t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s . An i n f o r m a n t f r o m t h e g e n e r a l ESL p r o g r a m r e l a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t t h a t h a p p e n e d i n t h e c l a s s she h a d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e f i e l d r e s e a r c h . One p a r t i c u l a r y o u n g man f r o m I n d i a , t h e most a b l e s t u d e n t i n t h e c l a s s a n d a b i t o f a f a v o r i t e w i t h t h e t e a c h e r , was r i d i c u l e d by h i s c l a s s m a t e s d u r i n g a r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e . The I n d i a n s t u d e n t wore h i s h a i r i n a t o p k n o t c o v e r e d by a p i e c e o f c l o t h r a t h e r t h a n i n a t u r b a n . T#28 r e t o l d t h e i n c i d e n t t h i s way: 94 I n t h i s c o n t e x t e x e r c i s e where t h e y must f i n d t h e r e f e r e n c e , t h e s e n t e n c e we had was, "He w e a r s h i s r a t h e r l o n g " and y o u a n d I w o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y t h i n k h a i r . They d o n ' t . I a l w a y s t a k e t h i n g s a l i t t l e f u r t h e r , s o I s a i d , "Who i n h e r e w e a r s t h e i r h a i r l o n g ? " And [one s t u d e n t ] who's o u t r a g e o u s , p o i n t s t o [ t h e s t u d e n t f r o m I n d i a ] a n d s a y s "Him!" The c l a s s c r a c k e d up. J u s t c r a c k e d up. I know t h a t t h e r e ' s a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e C h i n e s e a n d t h e E a s t I n d i a n s , t e n s i o n . And I t h o u g h t t h e o n l y way t o d e a l w i t h t h i s i s t o go q u i c k l y on t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e , so I s a i d , "Who w e a r s t h e i r h a i r s h o r t ? " W e l l , t h e y ' r e n o t l i s t e n i n g . T h e y ' r e j u s t c r a c k i n g up o v e r t h e f a c t t h a t XXXX has h i s h a i r l i k e t h a t . The b e s t t h i n g I f e l t was t o i g n o r e them a n d go on t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e . I j u s t k e p t t a l k i n g u n t i l t h e y c a l m e d down. I d i d n ' t l a u g h . Now, I r e a l l y d o n ' t know how t o d e a l w i t h t h a t . And I s t i l l t h i n k a b o u t i t . (T#28 p. 37) T#28 s a i d she h o p e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t she d i d n o t j o i n t h e i r l a u g h t e r b e c a u s e she d i d n o t s h a r e t h e i r a t t i t u d e , a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t o t h e r C a n a d i a n s m i g h t f e e l t h a t way t o o . A n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t f r o m t h e g e n e r a l ESL p r o g r a m , T#22, s a i d t h a t s h e h a d n e v e r r e a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t d y n a m i c i n h e r c l a s s . Then one day a s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r m e n t i o n e d t h a t she t h o u g h t a p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t was h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w o r k i n g w i t h t h e C h i n e s e a n d V i e t n a m e s e s t u d e n t s . The i n f o r m a n t , who h a d n o t i c e d t h a t t h i s s t u d e n t c a u s e d a l o t o f d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e l e s s o n s by i n s i s t i n g t h a t o n l y t h e t e a c h e r s p e a k t o h e r , r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r ' s j u d g m e n t was p r o b a b l y c o r r e c t . T#22 s a i d she t h e n went o u t o f h e r way t o c h a n g e t h e ways i n 95 w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s were p a i r e d , t o make s u p p o r t i v e comments a b o u t a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' w o r k , a n d t o a r r a n g e s u c c e s s f u l g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e s f o r t h e c l a s s members. A t t h e t i m e o f o u r i n t e r v i e w , a b o u t f o u r weeks a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n t o do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e c l a s s a t m o s p h e r e a n d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t , T#22 s a i d she c o u l d s e e a c h a n g e i n t h i s s t u d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e A s i a n members o f t h e c l a s s . The i n s t r u c t o r f e l t p l e a s e d a b o u t t h i s outcome (T#22 p . 4 ) . T#22's s t r a t e g y t o c h a n g e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t h e o n l y s u c h t r e a t m e n t r e l a t e d t o me by an i n f o r m a n t f r o m t h e g e n e r a l ESL o r a c a d e m i c ESL p r o g r a m s . M o s t o f t h e s e o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h e y were n o t a w a r e o f any p r o b l e m , o r l i k e T#28, t h e y c h o s e t o a p p e a r u n a w a r e a n d n o t r e a c t a t a l l t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' comments. T#20 i s one o f t h e l a t t e r g r o u p . He s a i d t h a t he i s c o n c e r n e d , f o r e x a m p l e , a b o u t some C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s l o o k i n g down on N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e . Then he a d d e d : T#20: B u t I w o u l d n ' t do v e r y much. The t h i n g i s I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t I h a v e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r t h e power to' a c t u a l l y go i n a n d t r y a n d s a y , y o u know, y o u s h o u l d do t h i s , y o u s h o u l d t h i n k t h i s . TD: W o u l d y o u s a y a n y t h i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , i f somebody s a i d s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u t h o u g h t was r e a l l y r a c i s t ? T#20: W e l l , t h a t h a s h a p p e n e d o n c e o r t w i c e . When t h e y do t h a t I u s u a l l y j u s t l e a v e i t go. I j u s t l e a v e i t go, b e c a u s e I t h i n k t h e f a c t o f p u t t i n g t h i s i n t o w o r d s c a u s e s t h e p e o p l e who s a y i t t o t h i n k a b o u t i t . S o m e t i m e s t h e y do i t t o t e s t my r e a c t i o n t o t h i n g s . They know t h a t C a nada i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . . (T#20 p. 4) T h e r e w o u l d seem t o be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n T#20's s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e s e e k i n g h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r 96 statements, yet he only r e a c t s by not r e a c t i n g . The students c o u l d l i k e l y i n t e r p r e t that as t a c i t approval f o r t h e i r comments. I f t h i s i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y reasoning, i t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n that T#20 has r e c o n c i l e d i n h i s own mind. Even i f students are l o o k i n g to him f o r an i n d i c a t i o n of h i s po-s i t i o n i n regard to t h e i r i n t e r g r o u p p r e j u d i c e s , he f e e l s he cannot pr o v i d e any i n d i c a t i o n of what that p o s i t i o n may be and he t r i e s not to judge the students by t h e i r comments. He el a b o r a t e d upon t h i s as f o l l o w s : T#20: . . . But then you know the t h i n g i s that you have to keep i n mind that these people must be respe c t e d as human beings. Many times over my ca r e e r I have heard students complain about other t e a c h e r s , n o t - d i r e c t l y about me, that they are angry or unhappy with teachers because they have t r i e d to push t h i n g s on them. You know, they come out and t e l l them what they should t h i n k . You've got teachers who are i n there c a r r y i n g the white man's burden. TD: Uh huh. So you think that even though i t ' s too bad that [students] are pre j u d i c e d ' that i t ' s c e r t a i n l y not your business to s t r a i g h t e n them out? T#20: We l l , i t ' s not. Almost a l l Canadians are f i l l e d with p r e j u d i c e s . I myself have a l l s o r t s of p r e j u d i c e s . People do, you know. And grab a c o l l e c t i o n of Canadians o f f a bus stop and you w i l l f i n d the same l e v e l of i n t o l e r a n c e or a roughly e q u i v a l e n t l e v e l , to what the students have. (T#20 p. 18) Th i s the l i n e of reasoning was o f f e r e d by a l l of the informants i n these two programs who were aware o f , but chose to ignor e , b i g o t r y among the students. T h i s i n c l u d e d two of the informants from the academic program, and s e v e r a l more from the general program. During the p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s f o r t h i s study, the informant from the academic E n g l i s h pro-gram s a i d t h at many of the students' o p i n i o n s on d i f f e r e n t 97 i s s u e s b o t h e r e d h e r d e e p l y but she j u s t c o u l d n o t ' p r o p a g a n d i z e ' t h e s t u d e n t s by a l l o w i n g them t o know how she f e l t a b o u t i t . T h i s p o s i t i o n i s l i k e t h a t o f i n f o r m a n t s who f e l t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r a s an example needed t o be k e p t under c o n t r o l . S i m i l a r l y t h e n , i n t h e r o l e d i m e n s i o n o f t e a c h i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s f e e l t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d r e m a i n n e u t r a l , above and o u t s i d e t h e s t u d e n t s ' b e l i e f s f o r f e a r o f a b u s i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e . I p u t i t t o T#28 t h a t some o f h e r c o l l e a g u e s had t o l d me t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e e n t i t l e d t o t h e i r p r e j u d i c e s . She r e p l i e d : Yes, b u t I d o n ' t l i k e t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y d i s p l a y them sometimes. I o b j e c t t o t h a t . They c a n have them p r i v a t e l y , b u t t o d i s p l a y them o p e n l y l i k e t h a t , I do o b j e c t . (T#28 p. 40) T h i s i s by f a r t h e s t r o n g e s t s t a t e m e n t f r o m an i n s t r u c t o r o u t s i d e t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m . D e s p i t e h e r s t r o n g f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e i n c i d e n t she r e l a t e d , T#28 d i d not change h e r t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h o r m e n t i o n h e r f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t t o any members o f t h e c l a s s . Y e t , from t h e f o r c e o f t h e d e c l a -r a t i o n , i t wo u l d seem t h a t T#28 would o b j e c t t o t h i s k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r , n o t o n l y f r o m h e r ESL s t u d e n t s , b u t from anyone. How c a n we a c c o u n t f o r t h i s marked d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p e r c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e f o r t h e ESL i n s t r u c t o r on t h i s d i m e n s i o n o f t e a c h i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y ? W h i l e t h e i n f o r m a n t s i n one program, t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m , r e p o r t e d t h a t i m p r o v i n g i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s by b r o a d e n i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f o t h e r s , p r o m o t i n g t o l e r a n c e , and 98 o v e r c o m i n g p r e j u d i c e were v a l i d a n d i m p o r t a n t p a r t s o f t h e i r w o r k , t h e i n f o r m a n t s f r o m t h e o t h e r two p r o g r a m s n e i t h e r r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d f o r t h i s , o r i f t h e y d i d p e r c e i v e t h e p r o b l e m t h e n t h e y d i d n o t s e e i t a s t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a c t on i t . The i n f o r m a n t s h a v e c o n t r a s t i n g v i e w s n o t o n l y on t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e f o r t h e ESL t e a c h e r b u t a l s o on t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e r e l e v a n c e o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The k ey t o t h i s c o n t r a s t i n g p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e i s i n t h e i n s t r u c t o r s ' v i e w o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . I n t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m , a s s e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s have s a i d , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e new i m m i g r a n t s t o . C a n a d a , w i t h l i t t l e o r no command o f E n g l i s h . I t i s assumed by t h e i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h i s p r o g r a m a n d by t h e p r o g r a m ' s c u r r i c u l a t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s a l s o h a v e l i t t l e o r no k n o w l e g e o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n l i f e , n o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s , a s s u m p t i o n s a nd v a l u e s o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . The s t u d e n t s a r e i n ' c u l t u r e s h o c k ' a nd a r e t h o u g h t t o be m a k i n g i n n u m e r a b l e a d j u s t m e n t s i n t h e i r new l i v e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e p r o g r a m ' s f u n c t i o n a s an i n - t a k e a n d o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m , t h e i n s t r u c t o r s a l r e a d y f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e s e s t u d e n t s a b o u t l i f e i n C a n a d a . F o r t h e s e t e a c h e r s , m a i n t a i n i n g t o l e r a n t r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s i s a p a r t o f t h a t l i f e , so an a t t e m p t i s made t o f o s t e r a t l e a s t an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h a t v a l u e , i f n o t a c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e . V o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y p o w e r l e s s , a n d g e n e r a l l y l e a s t a b l e t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s ; a s p e o p l e i n t h e 99 p r o c e s s o f c h a n g e , t h e y a r e v i e w e d as a b l e t o c hange i n many ways. The s t u d e n t s i n t h e g e n e r a l and a c a d e m i c ESL p r o g r a m s a r e u s u a l l y a l r e a d y s e t t l e d i n t h e community. Many have ob-t a i n e d C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s h i p 6 8 , have f a m i l i e s and e s t a b l i s h e d c a r e e r s . T h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e s e e n by t h e i r t e a c h e r s as more autonomous, l e s s l i k e l y t o c h a n ge, and a v a l i d segment of C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . The t e a c h e r s a r e much l e s s l i k e l y t o t r y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e s e s t u d e n t s who, f a r from t h e n e o p h y t e s o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l ESL program, a r e e x p e r i e n c e d and a c t i v e mem-b e r s o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s e two p r ograms a r e s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f c o m p l e t i n g o r u p g r a d i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n ; t h e y a r e a l o n g way from t h e s u r v i v a l l e v e l of t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s . ' T e a c h i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y ' i s a d i m e n s i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e i v e d r o l e t h a t would seem t o d i v i d e t h e i n f o r m a n t s q u i t e c l e a r l y a l o n g p r o g r a m l i n e s i n so f a r as i t c o n c e r n s i n t e r c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s between s t u d e n t s . I n f o r m a n t s f r o m e a c h o f t h e p r o g r a m s , however, o f f e r e d s i m i -l a r v i e w s on t h e i r i d e a s of t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s i n r e g a r d s t o t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y o f t e a c h i n g . As summaries of t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g w o r k i n g w i t h p e o p l e from a v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s , t h e s e e n c a p s u l a t e d s t a t e m e n t s o f i d e a l s r e f l e c t 6 8 Department s t a t i s t i c s f o r A p r i l , 1985 show t h a t 43.5% o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e g e n e r a l p r o g ram and 44.9% o f t h o s e i n t h e a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m have been i n Canada f o r more t h a n t h e t h r e e y e a r s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c i t i z e n s h i p . In c o n t r a s t , t h e m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s i n v o c a t i o n a l ESL have r e f u g e e s t a t u s . 100 a b a s i c r e s p e c t f o r t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r a s an e q u a l a n d autonomous i n d i v i d u a l . T#10, f o r e x a m p l e , s p o k e o f l e a r n i n g a s n o t c h a n g i n g t h e s t u d e n t s , b u t e x p a n d i n g t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e o f a c c e p t e d l a n g u a g e a n d b e h a v i o u r ( p . 2 3 ) . S i m i l a r l y T#12 a n d T#24 s a i d t h a t l e a r n e r s do n o t n e e d t o g i v e t h i n g s up t o l e a r n E n g l i s h , b u t i n s t e a d t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d a l w a y s be a g a i n ; t h e home c u l t u r e a n d f i r s t l a n g u a g e w i l l r e m a i n p r i m a r y a n d nee d t o be r e s p e c t e d . An i n f o r m a n t f r o m t h e a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m , T#21, s a i d s h e t r i e s t o e x p r e s s t o h e r s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e r e i s no j u d g e m e n t made by h e r o f t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e , a n d t h a t t h e y do n o t h a v e t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n t h e i r f a m i l i a r ways a n d C a n a d i a n ways. The v e r y a c t o f l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h c a n be a t h r e a t , s h e s a i d , so h e r a t t i t u d e i s n o t t h a t t h i s i s t h e way, b u t t h a t t h i s i s what w o r k s h e r e , i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a n d t h e a s s o c i a t e d c u l t u r e . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s e x p r e s s t h e i r r e s p e c t f o r t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r e s o f o r i g i n a n d f i r s t l a n g u a g e s by r e m a i n i n g g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n them an d l e a r n i n g a b o u t them. A l m o s t a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t ' t h e c u l t u r a l m i x ' o f w o r k i n g w i t h p e o p l e f r o m a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d was one o f t h e m a i n t h i n g s t h e y e n j o y e d a b o u t t h e i r work a s ESL t e a c h e r s . Once a g a i n , t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s i s a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n . By a n d l a r g e t h e i n f o r m a n t s a t t r i b u t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e 101 t o p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n l i v i n g o u t s i d e Canada o r i n t r a v e l l i n g a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . T h o s e w i t h i m m i g r a t i o n m e m o r i e s , o r i m m i g r a n t p a r e n t s , p o i n t e d t o t h a t s o u r c e . T#23 o p e n e d h i s i n t e r v i e w by a s k i n g i f t h e s t u d y w o u l d l o o k i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d i s an a s s e t o r a l i a b i l i t y t o t h e ESL t e a c h e r . Who, t h e n , he w o n d e r e d , w o u l d be t h e b e t t e r ESL i n s t r u c t o r s , m o n o c u l t u r a l C a n a d i a n s o r p e o p l e w i t h f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e a s f o r e i g n e r s a n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s . I t i s a q u e s t i o n t h e i n f o r m a n t s a i d h a d two a n s w e r s ; t h e l a t t e r t e a c h e r s w o u l d no d o u b t h a v e g r e a t empathy f o r t h e l e a r n e r s ' s i t u a t i o n s , b u t t h e f o r m e r w o u l d l i k e l y be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , t h e ' t a r g e t ' c o m m u n i t y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . T#23 s a i d he was c o n c e r n e d t h a t "some o f t h e u n i l i n g u a l y o u n g e r t e a c h e r s " were n o t r e a l l y a w a r e o f t h e i r own c u l t u r e , a n d were i n s e n s i t i v e t o t h a t o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s who were h u r t a s a r e s u l t . The s t u d y d i d n o t , o f c o u r s e , t r y t o make an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s u i t a b i l i l t y o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s f o r t h e i r w o r k . T#16, h o w e v e r , p r o v i d e d h i s o p i n i o n on t h e n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l ESL t e a c h e r : I t h i n k i t ' s i m p o s s i b l e t o t e a c h ESL w e l l u n l e s s y o u h a v e a w i d e l i n g u i s t i c b a c k g r o u n d . ^ . . I t ' s n o t enough t o h a v e s t u d i e d l i n g u i s t i c s o r be f a m i l i a r w i t h s e v e r a l l a n g u a g e s t h o u g h , [ b e c a u s e ] t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e i s a l s o a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l . Y o u 've g o t t o l i v e i n a n o t h e r l a n g u a g e , i n a n o t h e r c o u n t r y . Some e x p e r i e n c e o f c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m o r w h a t e v e r i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l a s f a r a s I'm c o n c e r n e d . (T#16 p. 34) A l t h o u g h t h e r e were some s e c o n d o r t h i r d hand r e p o r t s o f 1 02 i n t o l e r a n c e among i n s t r u c t o r s , some form of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m i s a p r e v a l e n t view among the i n f o r m a n t s . Even those l i k e T#7 and T#15, who were l e s s aware of c u l t u r a l dynamics and l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n them g e n e r a l l y , had sought out these k inds of e x p e r i e n c e s through t r a v e l and s tudy out of i n t e r e s t k i n d l e d in t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . D . LISTENING AND HELPING - BEING A FRIEND If the s tudent s get to t r u s t y o u , the t eacher becomes, I t h i n k , q u i t e i m p o r t a n t . Of ten you wind up be ing a c o u n s e l l o r . Sometimes you wind up be ing a p s y c h o l o g i s t . Not tha t you g i v e any k i n d of a d v i c e on s e r i o u s prob lems , but you become a l i s t e n e r . And they t h i n k you have the answers to a l o t of problems that you d o n ' t r e a l l y have the answers t o . (T#25 p . 22) The s t u d e n t s i n a d u l t ESL c l a s s e s seem to face a g r e a t many prob lems , accord ing ' to t h e i r t e a c h e r s . The in formants t o l d me about some of t h e i r s tudent s who appeared to have innumerable b u r e a u c r a t i c , f a m i l y , or h e a l t h d i f f i c u l t i e s . Time and a g a i n in formants have s a i d tha t they f u n c t i o n as a k i n d of a l i n k or a r e s o u r c e , r e f e r r i n g s tudents to the a p -p r o p r i a t e person or p l a c e to seek h e l p . T h i s a c t i o n was a l s o d i s c u s s e d under the r o l e d imens ion d e s c r i b e d as ' e x p l a i n i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g ' where the i n s t r u c t o r i s working w i t h l e a r n e r s as a group to enhance t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Canadian s o c i e t y and the assumptions that u n d e r l y i t . In t h i s , the f o u r t h d imens ion of the i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r c e i v e d r o l e as t e a c h e r s of c u l t u r e , the i n t e r a c t i o n i s p e r s o n a l and u s u a l l y p r i v a t e . 103 A l m o s t a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s were a b l e t o t h i n k o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t c l a s s e s , o r s t u d e n t s t h e y h a d known w i t h i n t h e l a s t few m o n t h s , who came t o them t o t a l k a b o u t s o m e t h i n g t h a t was w o r r y i n g them. I t was by no means an uncommon o c c u r r e n c e , a n d y e t i t seemed t o be l i m i t e d t o a few s t u d e n t s p e r t e r m . T h i s means t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' s t u d e n t l o a d may demand t h i s k i n d o f a t t e n t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e i n f o r m a n t s s p o k e a s t h o u g h many, o r ev e n t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s , were p r o b a b l y e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d were w o r r i e d a b o u t some a s p e c t s o f t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s , i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s who open up t o t h e i r t e a c h e r s a r e a m i n o r i t y . I a s k e d t h e i n f o r m a n t s who s a i d t h a t t h e y knew a b o u t s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s how t h e y became a w a r e o f them. The i n f o r m a n t s a l l a g r e e d t h a t t h e a p p r o a c h i s u s u a l l y i n d i r e c t . The s t u d e n t may be i n a t t e n t i v e o r m i s s c l a s s , o r a s T#33 h a s f o u n d : O f t e n t h e y ' l l r e f l e c t some s o r t o f p r o b l e m i n t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n so y o u a s k them a b o u t i t , y o u know. They won't come t o y o u d i r e c t l y , b u t t h e y ' l l s i g n a l y o u i n some way l i k e t h a t . (T#33 p. 15) S i n c e w r i t t e n work i s u s u a l l y p r i v a t e b e t w e e n t h e t e a c h e r and t h e w r i t e r , d i s c l o s u r e t h r o u g h w r i t i n g was a common r e s p o n s e , e s p e c i a l l y when s t u d e n t s k e e p p e r s o n a l j o u r n a l s . I n c l a s s e s where l i t t l e w r i t i n g i s d o n e , t h e s t u d e n t s a p p r o a c h e d t h e t e a c h e r a f t e r c l a s s o r o u t s i d e c l a s s h o u r s . T h e r e was a c o m p l e t e r a n g e o f p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n among t h e i n f o r m a n t s . A few were v e r y i n v o l v e d 104 w i t h what one o f them c a l l e d t h e ' s o c i a l w o r k e r s t u f f , ' w h i l e a t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e s p e c t r u m , two s a i d t h a t t h e y h a d n e v e r had a s t u d e n t w i t h a p r o b l e m , and had n e v e r been a p p r o a c h e d . I n b e t w e e n t h e s e two e x t r e m e s , a b o u t h a l f t h e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h e y r e g u l a r l y l i s t e n t o s t u d e n t s a n d o f f e r t h e i r s u p p o r t and s u g g e s t i o n s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r h a l f s a i d t h e y h a d n e i t h e r t h e e x p e r t i s e , t h e t i m e , n o r t h e e m o t i o n a l e n e r g y t o f u l f i l l t h i s n e e d . T h o s e who d i d a c t a s c o n f i d a n t e s s e a r c h e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f m e t a p h o r s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The most p o p u l a r e x p l a n a t i o n was t h a t t h e y were l i k e a f r i e n d t o t h e s t u d e n t , and l i s t e n e d s u p p o r t i v e l y . Two i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y e x t e n d e d t h i s t o r e a l f r i e n d s h i p , s o m e t i m e s s o c i a l i z i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s ; t h r e e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h e y a l w a y s g i v e o u t t h e i r home t e l e p h o n e number so t h e y a r e a v a i l a b l e a t a l l t i m e s t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Two i n f o r m a n t s c a l l e d upon f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s . T#10 saw h e r s e l f a s "a b i g s i s t e r " who o f f e r e d s u p p o r t b u t no a d v i c e , w h i l e T#32 s a i d she was more l i k e a p a r e n t who d i d g i v e h e r i d e a o f t h e o p t i o n s open a n d t h e b e s t t h i n g t o do. T#33 t h o u g h t a b o u t w h i c h image f i t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s who want t o t a l k t o h i m . He f i r s t m e n t i o n e d and r e j e c t e d t h e p a r e n t a l , a n d t h e n t h e f r i e n d , m e t a p h o r s b e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g : [ T h o s e ] d o n ' t work ' c a u s e t h e y ' r e n o t r e a l l y t r u e . J u s t a s somebody who's l i k e a b a r t e n d e r , y o u know? They c a n come a n d t a l k a b o u t t h i n g s . I f I c a n g i v e them some i n s i g h t , I w i l l . T h a t ' s t h e s o r t o f t h i n g . I t h i n k t h a t ' s b e t t e r t h a n [ t h i n k i n g o f i t ] a s some s o r t o f l e a d e r o r p a r e n t . (T#33 p.25) 105 The b a r t e n d e r i s an image i n some ways t r u e r t o t h e a c c o u n t s o f some i n f o r m a n t s t h a n t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r a s f r i e n d . I t c o n v e y s t h e d e t a c h m e n t a n d t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e e n c o u n t e r s f r o m some o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s . A b o u t h a l f made comments c l o s e t o T#25's " I f y o u ' r e a c c e s s i b l e [some s t u d e n t s ] w i l l t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h a t b e c a u s e t h e y n e e d somebody t o t a l k t o " ( p . 2 4 ) , i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e s e e n c o u n t e r s a r e n o t r e a l l y an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u c t o r s a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h T#25 seems t o mean t h a t a l m o s t a n y b o d y c o u l d f u l f i l l t h e l i s t e n e r f u n c t i o n , i t w o u l d seem t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e a p p r o a c h e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t r u s t e d , a p p e a r t o be s y m p a t h e t i c , a n d a r e t h o u g h t t o h a v e a t l e a s t some o f t h e a n s w e r s . T h e r e were a few common m o t i v a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d by i n s t r u c t o r s who do s p e n d t i m e l i s t e n i n g t o a n d h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s who s e e k them o u t . T#23 s a i d t h a t o f f e r i n g h e l p t o someone t h a t y o u know i s i n n e e d i s j u s t " b e i n g a c i t i z e n . " He c a u t i o n e d t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d n o t d i s m i s s t h e s t u d e n t s ' w o r r i e s , a n d s h o u l d n o t be f l i p p a n t o r i m p a t i e n t when a p p r o a c h e d by a s t u d e n t w i t h a p r o b l e m t o d i s c u s s . I n f o r m a n t T#34 s a i d t h a t he h a d a l o t o f h e l p f r o m p e o p l e when he i m m i g r a t e d a n d he knows how much i t i s n e e d e d by t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e r e were t h r e e i n f o r m a n t s who seemed t o e s p e c i a l l y e n j o y a n d become i n v o l v e d i n ' c o u n s e l l i n g . ' Two o f them h a v e gone so f a r a s t o t a k e c o u n s e l l i n g c o u r s e s on 1 06 t h e i r own t i m e t o be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d f o r t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s ; t h e o t h e r one s a i d t h a t i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h s t u d e n t s e x t e n d e d t o h e r s o c i a l l i f e a n d f r e e t i m e on week e n d s . I n s t r u c t o r s who were a v a i l a b l e a s s y m p a t h e t i c l i s t e n e r s a n d r e s o u r c e p e o p l e f o r s t u d e n t s gave a v a r i e t y o f e x a m p l e s o f what t h o s e c o n v e r s a t i o n s m i g h t t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e . One o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s who was more i n v o l v e d a n d q u i t e c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h i s r o l e s a i d t h a t t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d h e r p a r t i n i t w o u l d d e p e n d on t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t , b u t s h e o f f e r e d t h i s : W e l l , I u s u a l l y l i s t e n . I f t h e y n e e d some i n f o r m a -t i o n , I ' l l o f t e n t e l l them where t h e y c a n go. One t i m e f o r e x a m p l e , one o f my s t u d e n t s l e f t s o m e t h i n g on t h e b u s . She d i d n ' t know what t o d o , a n d she d i d n ' t r e a l l y h a v e e n o u g h E n g l i s h t o make t h e c a l l s s o I c a l l e d up t h e v a r i o u s p l a c e s f o r h e r . You know, t h e l o s t a n d f o u n d , t h e p o l i c e t o t e l l them what s h e ' d l o s t , h e r c r e d i t c a r d c o m p a n i e s a n d a l l t h a t . (T#27 p. 6) T#27 gave s e v e r a l o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f r e c e n t p r o b l e m s b r o u g h t t o h e r by s t u d e n t s . T h e s e i n c l u d e d d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s , s e r i o u s f a m i l y p r o b l e m s i n v o l v i n g a l c o h o l i s m a n d v i o l e n c e , a n d t h e c a s e o f a s t u d e n t who f e l t he was f a c i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h i s w o r k p l a c e . T h i s i n f o r m a n t , l i k e some o t h e r s , h a s been t e l e p h o n e d a t home by s t u d e n t s i n c r i s i s , a n d she h a s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e b e s t o f h e r a b i l i t y . T h e r e were some d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e i n s t r u c t o r s who l i s t e n a n d h e l p a s t o t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s w i t h w h i c h t h e y f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e . Some s a i d t h e y a l w a y s r e f e r l e g a l o r m e d i c a l 1 07 p r o b l e m s i m m e d i a t e l y , w h i l e o t h e r s were r e l u c t a n t t o h e a r a b o u t f a m i l y p r o b l e m s . M o s t , h o w e v e r , a t l e a s t h e a r d t h e s t u d e n t o u t b e f o r e r e f e r r a l : I f I c a n , I f i r s t t r y a n d t a l k i t t h r o u g h by m y s e l f and t h e n i f I c a n ' t , i f I d o n ' t know a n y o n e who c a n h e l p o r i f I c a n ' t do i t m y s e l f t h e n I w i l l r e f e r them f i n a l l y t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r h e r e . (T#17 p. 16) I n f o r m a n t s s u c h a s T#27 who a c t i v e l y h e l p s t u d e n t s c a u t i o n e d t h a t i t i s o c c a s i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o j u d g e how f a r t o become i n v o l v e d . S e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h e y - h a d p e r s o n a l l y been t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f by s t u d e n t s who became o v e r d e p e n d a n t o r e x p l o i t e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o a s s i s t them. O t h e r i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h e y knew o f i n s t a n c e s where t h i s h a p p e n e d a n d t h e s t u d e n t s became " l e e c h e s " o r t r e a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a s a " c r u t c h " t o a v o i d t a k i n g c h a r g e o f t h e i r own a f f a i r s . The o t h e r d a n g e r c i t e d was t h e e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h s t u d e n t s , w h i c h c a n be a b u r d e n on t h e i n s t r u c t o r . I'm n o t a c o u n s e l l o r . I'm a l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r . I t r y n o t t o t a k e t o o many o f t h e p r o b l e m s home, b u t i t ' s somewhat u n a v o i d a b l e . . . on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s I ' v e become i n v o l v e d where I p r o b a b l y s h o u l d n ' t h a v e . I n most c a s e s i t ' s p u r e l y a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o r t o f t h i n g , b u t I'm a l s o t h e i r f r i e n d . (T#18 p. 9) T h i s i n f o r m a n t went on t o s a y t h a t he r e l a t e d t o h i s s t u d e n t s on a human l e v e l ; f o r h i m t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i s u n a v o i d a b l e . A l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s who r e s p o n d e m o t i o n a l l y t o s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s s a i d t h a t t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l . 108 A t t h e o t h e r e n d o f t h e s p e c t r u m o f p e r c e i v e d a p p r o p r i -a t e b e h a v i o u r f o r a t e a c h e r a p p r o a c h e d by s t u d e n t s w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s a r e a few i n f o r m a n t s who s a i d t h e y a r e n o t r e a l l y a w are o f s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s . T h e s e i n f o r m a n t s h a v e s e l d o m i f e v e r been a p p r o a c h e d , a n d t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t welcome s u c h a c o n v e r s a t i o n . T#15 s a i d f o r exam-p l e : I h a v e n ' t r e a l l y g o t i n t o s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s . I f t h e y come a n d a s k me, t h e n I ' l l t a l k t o them b u t I h a v e n ' t had t h a t o f t e n . No, h a r d l y e v e r . And t h e n , i t ' s u s u a l l y more a b o u t t r o u b l e w i t h l e a r n i n g o r a t t e n d i n g r e g u l a r l y b e c a u s e o f a j o b , o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . (T#15 pp. 23-24) S i m i l a r l y T#7 s a i d i t r a r e l y h a p p e n e d t h a t a s t u d e n t came t o h e r p r i v a t e l y f o r any r e a s o n , w h i l e T#30 s a i d t h a t i t was n o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y t o e n c o u r a g e d i s c l o s u r e o f t h a t k i n d . The o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s were aware t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s n e e d e d someone t o t a l k t o , and s a i d t h a t t h e y were a p p r o a c h e d . They s i m p l y r e f e r s t u d e n t s on t o t h e c o u n s e l l i n g d e p a r t m e n t , o r a n o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e s e r v i c e a g e n c y when t h e n e e d a r i s e s . Two o f t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y j u s t d i d n o t h a v e t i m e t o d e v o t e t o i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s , w h i l e t h e r e s t g e n e r a l l y s a i d t h a t t h e y f e l t i l l - e q u i p p e d t o h a n d l e p r o b l e m s . They f e l t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r w o u l d be a b e t t e r p e r s o n f o r t h e s t u d e n t t o c o n f i d e i n . Some o f t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s who r e f e r on a l l s t u d e n t s s e e k i n g a s y m p a t h e t i c e a r o r some a d v i c e s a i d t h a t t h e y f e l t i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s w o u l d be e m o t i o n a l l y d r a i n i n g . T#29 p u t i t b e s t : 109 T#29: I'm n o t t r a i n e d f o r one t h i n g , a n d f o r a n o t h e r t h i n g i t w o u l d k i l l me i f I knew what was g o i n g on i n a l l t h e i r l i v e s . I c o u l d n ' t s t a n d i t . . . TD: Do y o u have t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y h a v e a f a i r amount o f p r o b l e m s ? T#29: Oh y e s , e v e r y t h i n g y o u c a n i m a g i n e . B u t I f e e l i t ' s , I s e n d them t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r s . B e c a u s e t h e y w i l l b l e e d me t o d e a t h . I c a n ' t do i t . My j o b i s t o t e a c h them. I t ' s a s u r v i v a l t h i n g . (T#29 pp. 34-35) I n c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s who f e l t t h a t l i s t e n i n g t o s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s a n d h e l p i n g them a s b e s t t h e y c a n was a p a r t o f t h e i r r o l e , t h e s e t e a c h e r s f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n a b s o l v i n g t h e m s e l v e s o f s u c h i n v o l v e m e n t b e c a u s e i t l i e s o u t s i d e t h e i r v i e w o f t h e i r r o l e a s t e a c h e r s . T#13 was c r i t i c a l o f h e r c o l l e a g u e s i n t h i s r e g a r d . As one of t h e t e a c h e r s who a c t i v e l y l i s t e n e d , s he a r g u e d a g a i n s t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h o s e who do n o t . She s a i d t h a t t o o many t e a c h e r s do n o t want t o know a b o u t t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' b a c k g r o u n d s , and f a i l e d t o t a k e t h e t i m e t o r e a l l y u n d e r -s t a n d them a n d t h e i r p r o b l e m s . T#13 a s s e r t e d t h a t u n l e s s t h e r e was good r a p p o r t b e t w e e n t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e s t u d e n t , a n d u n l e s s t h e s t u d e n t f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e a nd s e c u r e , t h e n t h e i n s t r u c t o r was r e a l l y p u s h i n g them away f r o m e f f e c t i v e l a n -guage l e a r n i n g ( p p . 8 - 9 ) . S u p p o r t i n g t h e s t u d e n t e m o t i o n a l l y t h e n , was f o r h e r a p a r t o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s r o l e . One o f t h e s e n i o r f a c u l t y members who p r a c t i s e s s u p p o r t i v e l i s t e n i n g , a n d r e f e r s on a l l p r o b l e m s t h a t seem t o r e q u i r e more h e l p o r e x p e r t i s e t h a n he c a n o f f e r , s p o k e a b o u t a " r a n g e o f c o m f o r t l e v e l s " among t h e t e a c h e r s . He 110 f e l t t h a t a t e i t h e r e n d o f t h e s p e c t r u m o f b e h a v i o u r s , e x -t r e m e p o s i t i o n s were u n t e n a b l e : I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d be p u t i n t o t h e p o -s i t i o n where p e o p l e j u s t a t t a c h t h e m s e l v e s l i k e l e e c h e s . A t t h e o t h e r e n d , I d o n ' t t h i n k a n y o n e s h o u l d be a t t h e p o i n t where t h e y ' r e c o m p l e t e l y c a l c u l a t i n g a n d s a y no a l l t h e t i m e . . . b e c a u s e t h a t ' s c l o s i n g a g a t e , t h a t ' s n o t h e l p i n g a n y b o d y . (T#23 p. 26) T h i s same i n f o r m a n t e x p r e s s e d s u r p r i s e when I s u g g e s t e d t h a t some t e a c h e r s w e r e n ' t r e a l l y a w a r e o f s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t was a g o o d i n d i c a t o r o f t h e c o m f o r t o f t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n d s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h o s e i n s t r u c t o r s " s e n d o f f s i g n a l s t h a t t h e y ' r e n o t a p p r o a c h a b l e " ( p . 2 6 ) . T#18, who l i k e T#13 f e e l s t h a t b e i n g an a p p r o a c h a b l e , h e l p i n g i n s t r u c t o r makes h i m a m o r e * e f f e c t i v e o ne, h a d a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n . He j u s t i f i e d h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n ' c o u n s e l l i n g ' w i t h a r e m a r k t h a t l e a d t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p i n g s : I'm p r o b a b l y much more s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e i r c u l t u r e s t h a n a l o t o f p e o p l e b e c a u s e I ' v e l i v e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n a l o t o f t h e s e c u l t u r e s , a n d t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y . And I t h i n k t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n some t e a c h e r s , I c a n i d e n t i f y w i t h some p e o p l e . (T#18 p.9) I f T#18 i s c o r r e c t a n d a m a j o r f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t an ESL t e a c h e r becomes i n v o l v e d i n ' c o u n s e l l i n g ' s t u d e n t s i s t h e t e a c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e s , t h e n t h e ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t ' i n f o r m a n t s w o u l d be t h e most l i k e l y t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n . R e t u r n i n g t h e n t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n c h a p t e r I I I , a n d c o m p a r i n g 1 1 1 s e l f - d e f i n e d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h e a c h i n f o r m a n t ' s a c c o u n t o f how s t u d e n t s ' r e q u e s t s f o r p e r s o n a l a d v i c e o r h e l p a r e d e a l t w i t h , t h e f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s a r e f o u n d . A l l o f t h e ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t ' i n f o r m a n t s meet w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s f o r s u p p o r t i v e l i s t e n i n g s e s s i o n s , a n d many of them a r e a l s o a c t i v e h e l p e r s . T h r e e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s s a i d t h e y do much l e s s o f t h i s t h a n t h e y o n c e d i d a n d a r e now more l i k e l y t o r e f e r s t u d e n t s t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r s o r a c o m m u n i t y a g e n c y f o r h e l p . They s a i d t h a t t h e y l i m i t t h e i r t i m e s p e n t i n p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d due t o o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p a s t , e m o t i o n a l d r a i n , o r f a m i l y c o m m i t m e n t s . T h i s i s t h e o n l y g r o u p i n w h i c h n o t one i n f o r m a n t s a i d t h a t t h e y f e e l i t i s someone e l s e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e n t i r e l y a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e y do no ' c o u n s e l l i n g ' a t a l l . The i n f o r m a n t s who d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s a s b i c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n s were s p l i t on t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n . F o u r o f t h e e i g h t i n t h i s g r o u p s a i d t h e y a l w a y s r e f e r s t u d e n t s t o t h o s e b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r p r o b l e m s a n d t h o s e who a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o be a b l e t o h e l p . T h r e e o f t h e s e f o u r a r e s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n C a n a d i a n s , t h e c h i l d r e n o f i m m i g r a n t s . I n c o n t r a s t , a l l t h o s e i n t h i s g r o u p w i t h p e r s o n a l i m m i g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e do l i s t e n t o a n d h e l p t h e i r s t u d e n t s w i t h p r o b l e m s . A much s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m o n o c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m i n f o r m a n t s a r e a c t i v e i n t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n . O n l y t h r e e o f t h e e l e v e n i n t h i s g r o u p s a i d t h e y t r i e d t o 1 1 2 d e a l w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s when a p p r o a c h e d by s t u d e n t s w i t h p r o b l e m s , i f o n l y by b e i n g a s u p p o r t i v e l i s t e n e r . O n l y one o f t h e t h r e e went b e y o n d l i s t e n i n g t o p e r s o n a l l y t r y t o h e l p s t u d e n t s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y t h i s i n f o r m a n t , T#35, c o u l d m a t c h t h e p r o f i l e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s i n age a n d e x p e r i e n c e l i v i n g a b r o a d , b u t b e c a u s e he c a l l e d h i m s e l f a m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n he i s i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m c a t e g o r y . I t w o u l d seem t h a t empathy w i t h s t u d e n t s , what T # 1 8 c a l l e d t h e a b i l i t y t o " i d e n t i f y w i t h some p e o p l e , " i s a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c among t h e t e a c h e r s who go o u t o f t h e i r way t o meet t h e s t u d e n t s ' n e e d f o r someone t o t a l k t o a n d g i v e them d i r e c t i o n o r a d v i c e . F o r t h e i n f o r m a n t s who a r e more e m p a t h e t i c , r e f e r r i n g t h e s t u d e n t s s e e k i n g h e l p on t o someone e l s e t a k e s p l a c e o n l y a f t e r t h e y h a v e l i s t e n e d t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s p r o b l e m a n d p e r h a p s o f f e r e d t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e . A few o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h e y d i d t h i s b e c a u s e o f t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f p a s t k i n d n e s s t h e y h a d known a s s t r a n g e r s t h e m s e l v e s ; m o s t , however d i d i t o u t o f c a r i n g a n d empathy f o r t h e s t u d e n t s ' n e e d s . T h o s e who f e l t no o b l i g a t i o n o r i n t e r e s t i n h e l p i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s w i t h n o n - s c h o o l p r o b l e m s were j u s t i f i e d i n r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c o u n s e l l i n g d e p a r t m e n t o r e l s e w h e r e s i n c e t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s e x i s t t o meet e x -a c t l y t h o s e n e e d s . B o t h i n f o r m a n t s who do h a n d l e p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s a n d t h o s e who do n o t saw t h e i r c h o i c e a s r e s p o n s i b l e a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l ; t h e y a l l made t h e i r d e c i s i o n i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s 1 1 3 a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e i n w o r k i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s f r o m o t h e r c u l t u r e s . E. SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r h a s e x a m i n e d t h e r a n g e o f v i e w p o i n t s e x p r e s s e d by t h e i n f o r m a n t s on t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s r o l e a s a t e a c h e r o f c u l t u r e . As we have s e e n , t h e ESL t e a c h e r , i n a d -d i t i o n t o b e i n g a l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r , i s a t e a c h e r o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e who w o r k s b e t w e e n t h a t c u l t u r e a n d t h e c u l t u r e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . F o r a n a l y s i s a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e s were d e s c r i b e d u n d e r f o u r r o l e d i m e n s i o n s . I n t h e t e a c h e r s ' m i n d s , a n d i n r e a l i t y , t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s a r e n o t e n t i r e l y d i s t i n c t , b u t r a t h e r a r e i n t e r w o v e n a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h e y h a d n e v e r t h o u g h t a b o u t t h e i r i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e ; t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s t u d e n t s i s l a r g e l y u n e x a m i n e d . T h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s e n s u s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f i r s t i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e d i m e n s i o n e x a m i n e d w h i c h I h a v e c a l l e d ' b e i n g an e x a m p l e . ' A l l b u t two o f t h e t h i r t y i n f o r m a n t s a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s l o o k e d t o them a s e x a m p l e s o f C a n a d i a n p e o p l e , a l t h o u g h some were u n c o m f o r t a b l e o r a m b i v i l a n t a b o u t b e i n g a r o l e m o d e l . I n f o r m a n t s f e l t t h a t s t u d e n t s drew i n f e r e n c e s f r o m t h e i r t e a c h e r s ' b e h a v i o u r a n d i n e v i t a b l y g e n e r a l i z e d f r o m t h o s e i n f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e b e h a v i o u r o f o t h e r C a n a d i a n p e o p l e . W h i l e some i n f o r m a n t s f e a r e d s t u d e n t s w o u l d be m i s l e d 1 1 4 b e c a u s e t h e i r t e a c h e r s were n o t i n f a c t t y p i c a l C a n a d i a n s , o t h e r s c a u t i o n e d t e a c h e r s t o u n d e r m i n e t h e i r own i n f l u e n c e w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e . V i s i b l e m i n o r i t y member i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h e i r p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y made them good r o l e m o d e l s f o r s t u d e n t s o f s i m i l a r r a c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s . The s e c o n d r o l e d i m e n s i o n , ' e x p l a i n i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g ' was d e s c r i b e d by a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s a s one p a r t o f t h e i r work where t h e y a r e o v e r t l y t e a c h i n g a b o u t C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . S i n c e so much o f l a n g u a g e u s e d e p e n d s upon c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , e x p l a n a t i o n s o f w o r d m e a n i n g s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e s o c i e t y c o u l d h a r d l y be a v o i d e d . A l t h o u g h l i m i t e d l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y c o u l d be a b a r r i e r t o d i s c u s s i o n , e x p l a n a t i o n s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e o f f e r e d by t h e t e a c h e r s t o s t u d e n t s a t a l l l e v e l s , a s t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e u s e o f names and t i t l e s i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y showed. M o s t i n f o r m a n t s saw s u c h u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a s an i n s t r u m e n t a l n e e d ; t h e s t u d e n t s have t o know t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s s o t h e y c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y o p e r a t e i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . The i n f o r m a n t s f e l t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h g o o d r e a l i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t l i f e i n C a n a d a , a l t h o u g h one i n f o r m a n t f e l t t h a t s o m e t i m e s t h e i n s t r u c t o r s p u s h e d C a n a d i a n ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s o n t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . F i n a l l y , t h e q u e s t i o n was r a i s e d a s t o w h e t h e r t h e ESL i n s t r u c t o r , i n m a k i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , f u n c t i o n s a s a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e g r e a t e r s o c i e t y ; t h i s i s a c l i c h e d image t o 1 1 5 d e s c r i b e t h e ESL t e a c h e r . I f a s many i n f o r m a n t s b e l i e v e , t h e ESL i n s t r u c t o r i s some s t u d e n t s ' o n l y e x t e n d e d c o n t a c t w i t h an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p e r s o n , t h e n t h e l i n k w o u l d seem t o be an a p t i m a g e . ' T e a c h i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y , ' t h e t h i r d r o l e d i m e n s i o n , was e x a m i n e d i n g r e a t e s t d e t a i l . I n f o r m a n t s ' a c c o u n t s o f d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l t e a c h i n g , f r o m s h a r i n g common e x p e r i e n c e s a n d c o m p a r i n g c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s t o c o p i n g w i t h b i g o t r y a n d i n t e r g r o u p c o n f l i c t were p r e s e n t e d . A m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d a l o n g p r o g r a m l i n e s c o n c e r n i n g i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n s . W h i l e v o c a t i o n a l p r o -gram i n s t r u c t o r s e x p r e s s e d g r e a t c o n c e r n a b o u t i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s a n d r e p o r t e d s t r a t e g i e s t o p r o m o t e t o l e r a n c e among s t u d e n t s , o n l y two i n f o r m a n t s f r o m t h e o t h e r two p r o g r a m s s p o k e o f e v e r t a k i n g a n y s u c h a c t i o n . O u t s i d e t h e v o c a t i o n a l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m , i n f o r m a n t s were m o s t l y u n a w a r e o f c o n f l i c t s o r d i d n o t f e e l a r e s p o n s i b l i t y t o d e a l w i t h them. A c o n t r a s t i n g v i e w o f t h e autonomy o f t h e s t u d e n t s was s u g g e s t e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n r o l e p e r c e p t i o n . I n s u m m a r i z i n g t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s on i n t e r c u l t u r a l t e a c h i n g , t h e i n f o r m a n t s s t r e s s e d t h e n e e d t o r e s p e c t t h e s t u d e n t s ' f i r s t l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n . The f o u r t h a n d f i n a l r o l e d i m e n s i o n c e n t r e s upon t h e t e a c h e r ' s r e s p o n s e t o i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p r o b l e m s ; i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h a t r e s p o n s e a s d e s c r i b e d by t h e i n f o r m a n t s , t h i s d i m e n s i o n i s c a l l e d ' l i s t e n i n g a n d h e l p i n g - b e i n g a 1 16 f r i e n d . ' T h e r e was a c o m p l e t e r a n g e o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n and a w a r e n e s s o f t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n , a s w e l l a s a r a n g e o f p e r s p e c t i v e s a s t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e f o r t h e ESL t e a c h e r . W h i l e many t e a c h e r s r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t t o s u p p o r t i v e l i s t e n i n g , o t h e r s gave a d v i c e o r a c t i v e l y t r i e d t o h e l p t h e p e o p l e who came t o them. A t one end o f t h e s p e c t r u m t h e r e were i n f o r m a n t s who s a i d t h e y h ad a l m o s t n e v e r been a p p r o a c h e d by a s t u d e n t w i t h p r o b l e m s , w h i l e a t t h e o t h e r t h e r e were i n f o r m a n t s f o r whom s u c h c o n v e r s a t i o n s were common o c c u r e n c e s . The i n f o r m a n t s ' ways of h a n d l i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h p r o b l e m s a r e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r s e l f - d e f i n e d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p i n g s a s s e t o u t i n c h a p t e r I I I . The m o n o c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m i n s t r u c t o r s were l e a s t i n v o l v e d i n l i s t e n i n g a n d h e l p i n g . H a l f t h e b i c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m i n f o r m a n t s a n d a l l o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t i n f o r m a n t s d i d f u l f i l l t h i s r o l e , a n d saw i t a s a p p r o p r i a t e a n d n a t u r a l b e h a v i o u r f o r someone i n a p o s i t i o n t o be o f h e l p . Empathy w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s ' s i t -u a t i o n s was t h e most common r e a s o n f o r i n v o l v e m e n t , w h i l e t h o s e who a l w a y s r e f e r r e d s t u d e n t s t o t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r d i d so b e c a u s e o f t h e demands p l a c e d upon them a s l i s t e n e r s o r a b e l i e f t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r s were b e s t a b l e t o d e a l w i t h s t u d e n t p r o b l e m s . C h a p t e r V CONCLUSIONS A. DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS I g u e s s [ r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s ] w o u l d be v e r y p e r s o n a l , b e c a u s e [ t h e y ] d e p e n d on t h e t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e o f what he o r she s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I t h i n k we do t e a c h c u l t u r e a n d maybe p e o p l e who s a y t h a t t h e y a r e n e u t r a l a b o u t i t , o r t h a t t h e y d o n ' t , maybe t h e y h a v e n ' t t h o u g h t a b o u t what c u l t u r e i s . (T#24 p. 35) T h i s s t u d y r e c o r d s a n d e x a m i n e s t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r s . As T#24 p o i n t s o u t i n t h e q u o t a t i o n a b o v e , r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s a r e h i g h l y p e r s o n a l a n d r e f l e c t t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s i d e a s o f what a p e r s o n i n t h e i r p o s t i o n s h o u l d d o. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r .of a d u l t s i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e , a s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f r e p o r t e d r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s . On t h i s s u b j e c t i v e t o p i c , t h e t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s a r e t h e o n l y a u t h o r i t y a n d t h e e x a m p l e s t h e y p r o v i d e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r v i e w o f t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e t h e i r ESL c l a s s e s a r e t h e o n l y s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e . A l t h o u g h e a c h i n f o r m a n t o f f e r e d u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e a s an ESL t e a c h e r , common r e s p o n s e s a n d common p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s c u l t u r a l r o l e were r e p o r t e d . As a n t i c i p a t e d , a r a n g e o f v i e w p o i n t s was f o u n d r e g a r d i n g t h e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s e x a m i n e d . The q u o t a t i o n s s u p p o r t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r I V ; i n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e r a n g e o f p e r s p e c t i v e s i s d i s c u s s e d . 1 1 7 1 1 8 On t h e d i m e n s i o n o f ' b e i n g an e x a m p l e , ' v i e w p o i n t s r a n g e d f r o m w i l l i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e r o l e o f e x a m p l e C a n a d i a n a n d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t accompany t h a t r o l e , t o d e n i a l by two i n f o r m a n t s t h a t t h e y f u l f i l l t h e e x a m p l e f u n c t i o n . By f a r t h e m a j o r i t y o f i n f o r m a n t s were b e t w e e n t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . M o s t i n f o r m a n t s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n s t r u c t o r s f u n c t i o n a s e x a m p l e s o f C a n a d i a n s a n d t h e y s o u g h t t o c o n t r o l w h a t e v e r i n f l u e n c e t h e i r a u t h o r i t y may h o l d o v e r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h o s e who m i g h t be c a l l e d t h e ' r e l u c t a n t e x a m p l e s ' i s f o u n d e d on a b e l i e f t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f C a n a d i a n s i n g e n e r a l . T h e r e i s a l s o a c o m p l e m e n t a r y a w a r e n e s s t h a t t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s do n o t e x p e c t t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o be l i k e them. Most o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s who h e l d t h i s v i e w p o i n t were s e l f -c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s ' ; t h e y w e r e , a s a g r o u p , v e r y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f newcomers a n d w a r y o f any i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t ESL p r o g r a m s , a n d by e x t e n s i o n t h e i r w o r k , s e r v e t o a s s i m i l a t e i m m i g r a n t s . ' E x p l a i n i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g ' c o n s t i t u e s t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l i c i t l y t e a c h t h e i r s t u d e n t s a b o u t C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . A l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d t h i s t o some e x t e n t ; many r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y d i d i t a g r e a t d e a l . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t e a c h e r s a d d r e s s e d b o t h c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t h e v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r a c t i c e s , s y m b o l s a n d s t r u c t u r e s seemed t o d e p e n d upon a t l e a s t t h r e e f a c t o r s . T h e s e w e r e t h e l a n g u a g e l e v e l o f t h e 1 1 9 s t u d e n t s , t h e t e a c h e r ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o s t r a y f r o m t h e p l a n n e d l e s s o n , ( s u c h c o n v e r s a t i o n s were s e l d o m a n t i c i p a t e d ) , and t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n a t t h e t i m e . E x p l a n a t i o n s r e l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t l i f e i n E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g C a n a d a ; t h i s seems t o be t h e l e a s t c o n t r o v e r s i a l a s p e c t o f c u l t u r e l e a r n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g . U n d e n i a b l y , p e o p l e new t o t h e s o c i e t y n e e d t o know a b o u t how i t i s o r g a n i z e d . M o s t ESL t e x t b o o k s f e a t u r e t h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a l -t h o u g h u s u a l l y i n t e x t s e x p l a n a t i o n i s r a t h e r l i m i t e d a nd r e f l e c t s p o s i t i v e l y on N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e . S i n c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o u c h upon s o c i e t a l v a l u e s a n d may i n v o l v e p e r s o n a l d i s c l o s u r e on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an open and t r u s t i n g c l a s s r a p p o r t . I n g e n e r a l t h o u g h , e x p l a i n i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g i s u n d e r t a k e n by a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s b e c a u s e i t d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e s g a p s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a f f e c t l a n -guage c o m p r e h e n s i o n . A l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s were c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n a n d r e c o g n i z e d i t a s an a p p r o p r i a t e u n d e r t a k i n g f o r ESL t e a c h e r s . M o s t i n f o r m a n t s were c a r e f u l t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s n e e d b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e l a n g u a g e a n d e x p l o i t s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e g r e a t e r c o m m u n i t y . They w e r e , o n c e a g a i n , wary o f a p p e a r i n g t o p r e s s u r e s t u d e n t s t o c h a n g e t h e i r b e h a v i o u r s t o c o n f o r m t o C a n a d i a n n o r m s . One i n f o r m a n t f e l t t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t o f some m a t e r i a l s d i d j u s t t h a t . O t h e r i n f o r m a n t s , most w i t h p e r s o n a l i m m i g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , t o o k t h e p r a g m a t i c v i e w 1 2 0 t h a t c h a n g e was u n a v o i d a b l e a n d w o u l d b e n e f i t t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e s e l a t t e r i n f o r m a n t s a n d t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , t h e o t h e r s a s w e l l , c l a i m an i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o c u l t u r a l t e a c h i n g s i n c e i t s e r v e s t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s t u d e n t who i s t h e n f r e e t o a p p l y h i s c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e a s he w i s h e s . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s o f i n f o r m a n t s i s t h a t t h o s e w i t h i m m i g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e o p e n l y s a i d t h e y t h o u g h t i t was t o t h e l e a r n e r ' s u l t i m a t e a d v a n t a g e t o u s e h i s g r o w i n g k n o w l e d g e o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e i n o r d e r t o c o n f o r m t o C a n a d i a n e x p e c t a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o u r . They d i d n o t s e e a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d a s a n e g a t i v e r e s u l t o f l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h . I t was i n t h e i r v i e w , an u n a v o i d a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e t h a t f o l l o w e d i m m i g r a t i o n . ' T e a c h i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y ' a l s o e n c o m p a s s e s t h e o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f w o r k i n g w i t h c u l t u r a l l y m i x e d g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s . T h i s i n c l u d e s b o t h t h e r e w a r d s o f s h a r i n g c r o s s -c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t s and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i n t e r g r o u p i n t o l e r a n c e . The way i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r s c h o o s e t o r e s p b n d t o t h e l a t t e r was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r v i e w o f t h e s t u d e n t s , a n d w i t h t h e i r p r o g r a m . I t was s u g g e s t e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i e l d d a t a t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s who w o r k e d i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m w i t h t h e most r e c e n t a r r i v a l s a n d t h e l e a s t f l u e n t s t u d e n t s , seemed more l i k e l y t o t a k e on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o n f r o n t i n g b i g o t r y i n s t u d e n t s . I n f o r m a n t s i n t h e o t h e r p r o g r a m s were e i t h e r u n a w a r e o f c o n f l i c t s o r c h o s e t o i g n o r e them. T h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n t h e n , w h i l e r e c o g n i z e d by a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s a s an a p p r o p r i a t e 1 2 1 and p o t e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e a s p e c t o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g , u n c o v e r e d some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p e r c e i v e d m o t i v a t i o n f o r c u l t u r a l t e a c h i n g o f t h i s k i n d , a n d some a m b i g u i t y a b o u t i t s o u t c o m e s . T h e r e was l i t t l e a m b i g u i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e f o u r t h d i m e n s i o n o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e . ' L i s t e n i n g a n d h e l p i n g - b e i n g a f r i e n d ' c o n c e r n s t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s r e s p o n s e t o i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s who come t o t h e t e a c h e r w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . A f u l l r a n g e o f p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n was f o u n d , w i t h a few i n f o r m a n t s v e r y i n v o l v e d i n s t u d e n t p r o b l e m s , a few unaware o f them, and t h e m a j o r i t y a t l e a s t a p p r o a c h e d by t h e i r s t u d e n t s . A l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s j u s t i f y t h e i r v i e w p o i n t on t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n and t h e i r c h o i c e o f r e s p o n s e t o p r o b l e m s i n l i g h t o f t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i t i e s , t h e i r b e l i e f s , o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l c o p i n g s k i l l s . I n v o l v e m e n t i n t h i s r o l e d i m e n s i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h empathy f o r s t u d e n t p r o b l e m s a n d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o know t h e s t u d e n t s more p e r s o n a l l y o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h e r e a r e a number of o t h e r f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s t h a t h a v e n o t b een r e p o r t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s d o c u m e n t . A few o f them a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m a n d w i l l be b r i e f l y p r e s e n t e d h e r e . I a s k e d t h e i n f o r m a n t s a b o u t t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n l i n g u i s t i c s b e c a u s e t e c h n i c a l " k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l a n g u a g e h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y d o m i n a t e d ESL t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g a n d ESL c l a s s r o o m m a t e r i a l . O n l y f o u r o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s r e p o r t e d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t o r an a c a d e m i c m a j o r i n l i n g u i s t i c s , w h i l e 1 2 2 a n o t h e r two h a d c o m p l e t e d more t h a n one u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e i n t h i s s u b j e c t . T h e s e s i x i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t f e e l t h e y h a d a more t e c h n i c a l a p p r o a c h t o l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g , b u t s e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s w i t h o u t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d c o n f e s s e d t h a t t h e y e s p e c i a l l y e n j o y e d t e a c h i n g grammar t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . A b a c k g r o u n d i n l i n g u i s t i c s , t h e n , was n o t an i n f o r m a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r t h i s g r o u p o f i n s t r u c t o r s . O t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s were a l s o u n r e m a r k a b l e . A l m o s t a l l h a d c o m p l e t e d some s p e c i a l c o u r s e s i n ESL m e t h o d o l o g y a n d t h e o r y . Ten had done some g r a d u a t e l e v e l w o r k , a l t h o u g h n o t a l l o f t h e s e t e n had c o m p l e t e d g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s . T w e n t y - t w o h a d t a u g h t e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l b e f o r e m o v i n g i n t o a d u l t E S L ; s i x o f t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s g a i n e d t h i s e x p e r i e n c e o u t s i d e C a n a d a . The e i g h t i n f o r m a n t s who h a d t a u g h t o n l y a d u l t s were n o t members o f any one age g r o u p o r c u l t u r a l r e f e r e n c e g r o u p , n o r were t h e y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a ny p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m . How do t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s f i e l d s t u d y c o m p a r e w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r I I ? To b e g i n w i t h , t h e f i n d i n g s o f f e r t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a g r o u p o f ESL t e a c h e r s t o many o f t h e i d e a s p u t f o r w a r d by i n d i v i d u a l s r e f l e c t i n g upon t h e i r own w o r k . Where R a m p a u l , f o r e x a m p l e , w r o t e o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r a s a " c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l o r , " 6 9 a n d B e l l d i s c u s s e d t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r a s t h e i n t e r p r e t e r o f t h e "new" s o c i e t y , 7 0 t h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t on 6 9 Y. R a m p a u l , "The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n t h e A d u l t ESL C l a s s i n M a n i t o b a " Manitoba Modern Language Review 1 6 ( 3 , 1 9 8 2 ) : 5 - l 2 . 7 0 J . B e l l , " O r i e n t a t i o n " TESLTalk 1 4 ( 1 - 2 , 1 9 8 3 ) : 1 3 0 - 1 3 5 . 1 23 ' e x p l a i n i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g ' a s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r c e i v e d r o l e . The i n f o r m a n t s p r o v i d e e x a m p l e s o f how, when a n d why, e x p l a n a t i o n s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e made. S e v e r a l w r i t e r s c a u t i o n e d t h a t t h e m o n o c u l t u r a l ESL t e a c h e r may u n c o n s c i o u s l y a c t a s an a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t f o r c e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . 7 1 The i n f o r m a n t s a t t h e c o l l e g e h a d an a w a r e -n e s s o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l a n d f o r t h e most p a r t were wary o f t h a t l a b e l . S e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t o t h e r i n s t r u c t o r s were s o m e t i m e s i n t o l e r a n t o r e t h n o c e n t r i c . -W h i l e B e a t t i e a s s o c i a t e d e t h n o c e n t r i c i t y w i t h a c l a i m t o n e u t r a l i t y i n p u b l i s h e d c l a s s r o o m m a t e r i a l s , 7 2 none o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s c l a i m e d a n e u t r a l a p p r o a c h t o C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e , a l t h o u g h one o r two i n f o r m a n t s were q u i t e unaware o f a n y c u l t u r a l d y n a m i c i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . Many s t a t e m e n t s , h o w e v e r , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s a s a g r o u p h a d g i v e n l i t t l e t h o u g h t t o t h e i r r o l e a s t e a c h e r s o f c u l t u r e , an a d m i s s i o n i n k e e p i n g w i t h B e a t t i e ' s c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g p u b l i s h e d ESL m a t e r i a l a n d c u r r i c u l a . Some o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d d e a l t s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e t e a c h e r i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l a s s r o o m . W a l l e r s t e i n , f o r 7 1 E.L. J u d d , "TESOL as a P o l i t i c a l A c t : A M o r a l Q u e s t i o n . " i n J . Handscombe, R.A. Orem, a n d B.P. T a y l o r , e d s . , On TESOL' 83: The Question of Control ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h t o S p e a k e r s o f O t h e r L a n g u a g e s ) , 1984, pp. 2 6 5 - 2 7 3 ; a n d T. A r t h u r , "Where do YOU s t a n d i n t h e C l a s s r o o m ? - A C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f R o l e s , R u l e s a n d P r i o r i t i e s i n t h e L a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m . " Op. c i t . pp. 2 7 5 - 2 8 3 ; a n d a l s o J . W i l l i a m s , " I m m i g r a n t C h i l d r e n : S c h o o l ' s R o l e i n I n t e g r a t i o n . " i n J . Rex a n d D. M o o r e , e d s . , Race, Community and C o n f l i c t ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1966. 7 2 M. B e a t t i e , "The T e a c h i n g o f C u l t u r e T h r o u g h L a n g u a g e " TESL Talk 14 ( 1 - 2 , 1983) 124 e x a m p l e , a s s e r t e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r e s o f o r i g i n , a n d made t h i s i n t e r e s t an a s -sumed c o n d i t i o n a n d b a s i s o f h e r ESL p r o g r a m . 7 3 I n f o r m a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y s a i d t h a t t h e e x c h a n g e o f c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t s , a n d a g r o w i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u l t u r e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r e n j o y m e n t o f t h e i r w o r k . S e v e r a l C a n a d i a n s h a v e w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , r a c e r e l a t i o n s , a n d E S L . 7 " As d i s c u s s e d u n d e r t h e r o l e d i m e n s i o n of ' t e a c h i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y , ' some i n f o r m a n t s were f o u n d t o p e r c e i v e t h e b r o a d e n i n g o f a t t i t u d e s a n d t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t o l e r a n c e a s a p a r t o f t h e i r w o r k . G r a n t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t e a c h e r s i n a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y n e e d t o a c t a s m e d i a t o r s o f c u l t u r e 7 5 w h i c h i n t h i s a n a l y s i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o ' e x p l a i n i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g ' m a i n s t r e a m c u l t u r e , a n d ' t e a c h i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y ' t o p r o m o t e p l u r a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e was some s u p p o r t f o u n d f o r G r a n t ' s i d e a s , e s p e c i a l l y among t e a c h e r s o f l o w e r l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y l e v e l s t u d e n t s a n d n e w l y - a r r i v e d s t u d e n t s i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . 7 3 N. W a l l e r s t e i n , Language and Culture in Conflict: Probi em-posi ng in the ESL Classroom ( R e a d i n g , M a s s . : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y ) , 1983. 7 " R. B a k e r , " M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n C o m m u n i t y - b a s e d ESL C l a s s e s " Manitoba Modern Language Review 16 ( 3 , 1 9 8 2 ) : 1 - 4 . C. S t e c k l e r , " R a c i s m a n d M u l t i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n . " TEAL Occasional Papers ( V a n c o u v e r : A s s o c i a t i o n o f B . C . T E A L ) , 6 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 2 1 - 3 2 . J . B e c h t o l d , "The F i e l d T r i p : L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g O u t s i d e t h e C l a s s r o o m " TESLTalk 14 ( 1 , 1 9 8 2 ) : 2 0 2 - 2 1 1 . 7 5 C.A. G r a n t , "The M e d i a t o r o f C u l t u r e : A T e a c h e r R o l e R e v i s i t e d " Journal of Re s ear ch and Development In Education 11 ( 1 , 1 9 7 7 ) : 1 0 2 - 1 1 7 . 125 I n t e r m s o f B o c h n e r ' s m o d e l , h o w e v e r , no r e a l " m e d i a t o r s " were f o u n d . 7 6 An i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h i s i s t h a t B o c h n e r e x a m i n e d o n l y c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s where t h e members o f two c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s were i n c o n t a c t w h i l e a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s work i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l s i t u a -t i o n s , w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f many o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s . A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t e n t i r e l y c l e a r , i t may be t h a t t h e s e l f -d e s c r i b e d b i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a n t s s o m e t i m e s f u n c t i o n a s what B o c h n e r c a l l s " c u l t u r a l t r a n s l a t o r s " f o r s t u d e n t s who s h a r e t h e i r c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a s u p p o r t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m o t i v a t i o n a n d c u l t u r a l g r o u p r e f e r e n c e t o , i n t h i s c a s e , t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' a p p r o a c h t o i n t e r c u l t u a l t e a c h i n g . F i n a l l y , t h e l i t e r a t u r e r a i s e s t h e d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t ESL t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y m o n o c u l t u r a l ESL t e a c h e r s , a r e a s s i m i l a t o r s . B o c h n e r ' s t h e o r y l e a d s t o t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h i s outcome w h i c h n e v e r t h e l e s s seems t o be u n s u p p o r t e d by t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' a c c o u n t s . The u n c o v e r i n g o f t h e s i z e a b l e g r o u p o f i n f o r m a n t s who d i d n o t ha v e m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y a s t h e i r c u l t u r a l r e f e r e n c e g r o u p i s c e r t a i n l y a f a c t o r i n t h e o v e r a l l g r o u p a n a l y s i s t h a t w o u l d p o i n t away f r o m t h e s e ESL t e a c h e r s a t t e m p t i n g t o t r a n s f o r m t h e i r s t u d e n t s i n t o a s s i m i l a t e d , a s o p p o s e d t o a c c u l t u r a t e d , C a n a d i a n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s ' r e p o r t e d r e s p e c t f o r , a n d i n t e r e s t i n , t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' home c u l t u r e s i s n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e assumed c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y t h a t 7 6 S. B o c h n e r , e d . , The Mediating Person: Bridges Between Cultures ( B o s t o n , M a s s . : G. K. H a l l ) , 1981. 1 2 6 d e f i n e s a s s i m i l a t o r s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e f i n d i n g s do n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s were m e d i a t o r s , n o r c a n we be c e r t a i n t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s were i n harmony w i t h t h e i r a c c o u n t s , a l t h o u g h I ha v e no r e a s o n t o d i s b e l i e v e t h e m . 7 7 T e a c h i n g a l a n g u a g e t o a g r o u p o f a d u l t s i s a c o m p l i c a t e d u n d e r t a k i n g a t any t i m e ; t e a c h i n g them w h i l e t h e y a r e i n t r a n s i t i o n , " c u l t u r e s h o c k , " o r e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e k i n d s o f p r o b l e m s d e t a i l e d by t h e i n f o r m a n t s , i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a l l e n g e . T h e r e were c u r r e n t s o f i d e a l i s m i n t h e f i e l d d a t a t h a t a r e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t e x p r e s s e d f o r e x -a m p l e , by F i n o c c h a r i o , 7 8 b u t i n sum t h e i n f o r m a n t s p r e s e n t e d t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e ESL t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n a s a d i l e m m a t h a t e a c h i n s t r u c t o r r e s o l v e d , c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , i n h i s o r h e r own way. 1. THEORETICAL AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS ESL t h e o r y , r e s e a r c h a n d i n s t r u c t i o n h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e p a r a t e d l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e . W i t h t h e g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n c u l t u r a l c o m p e t e n c e a s a c o m p l e m e n t a r y a t t r i b u t e t o c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e , t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g n e e d f o r an u n -d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f c u l t u r e a n d l a n -g uage i n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . An i n c r e a s i n g number o f c l a s s r o o m - b a s e d ESL s t u d i e s a r e b e i n g c o n d u c t e d w h i c h must 7 7 As a s t u d y u s i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s , t h i s p r o j e c t makes no c l a i m s t o p r o v e o r d i s p r o v e a n y t h i n g ; i t s i m p l y r e p o r t s on t h e r a n g e o f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s d e s c r i b e d . 7 8 M. F i n o c c h a r i o , The Crucial Variable in TESOLD: the Teacher ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h t o S p e a k e r s o f O t h e r L a n g u a g e s ) S p e e c h t o t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n , M a r c h 4, 1974. ED 091 948 1 27 s i m i l a r l y t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l a n d i n t e r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . ESL m e t h o d o l o g y a n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s n e e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l d y n a m i c t o t h e t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . T h e r e a r e t h e o r i e s o f l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g w h i c h do r e c o g -n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l i n k b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e n c u l t u r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n . 7 9 I n a d u l t ESL h o w e v e r , l i n g u i s t i c c o m p e t e n c i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s d e v e l o p i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y f r o m c u l t u r a l c o m p e t e n c i e s . N o t e a b l e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s t e n d e n c y were f o u n d among t h e i n f o r m a n t s who saw l a n g u a g e a n d • c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g a s i n s e p a r a b l e . The ESL t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n t e a c h i n g a b o u t t h e c u l t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o m m u n i t y was u n e x a m i n e d by t h e i n f o r m a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y , a n d i s l a r g l e y i g n o r e d by t h e f i e l d i n g e n e r a l . Y e t t h e t e a c h e r i s t h e m a i n c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a n t f o r many l e a r n e r s , j u s t a s he o r she i s t h e p r i m a r y l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a n t . T h i s s t u d y p u t s f o r w a r d a b e g i n n i n g e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s r o l e a s a t e a c h e r o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . P r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s , c u r r i c u l u m a n d m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p e r s , a n d t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s a l l h a v e a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o c o n s i d e r , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e , t h e t e a c h e r ' s p l a c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l e a r n e r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f 7 9 F o r e x a m p l e , J . S . B r u n e r , Child's Talk - Learning to Use Language (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n ) 1983. A l s o M.A.K. H a l l i d a y , Language as Social Semi otic: The Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning ( L o n d o n : E. A r n o l d ) 1978. 1 2 8 m a i n s t r e a m E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c u l t u r e . The f i n d i n g s a l s o r a i s e s o c i e t a l i s s u e s . C a n a d a has a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y w i t h a g r o w i n g number o f c i t i z e n s f r o m t h e s o - c a l l e d e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s . I n t e r c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s a r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o ESL c l a s s r o o m s . T h e o r i e s a n d g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l n e e d t o a c c o u n t f o r m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s w i t h i n m a i n s t r e a m ' s c h o o l c u l t u r e . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s work w i t h s t u d e n t s who a r e i n some ways d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e m s e l v e s . The a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s among p e o p l e w i t h i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i s an i s s u e t h a t e d u c a t o r s , a s i n d i v i d u a l s and a s members o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , h ave a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e x a m i n e . The f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' c u l t u r a l r e f e r -e n c e g r o u p a l s o h ave s o c i e t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . One g r o u p o f i n f o r m a n t s r e p o r t e d a m i n i m a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n m a i n s t r e a m . T h e s e ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s ' may r e p r e s e n t a segment o f C a n a d i a n m i d d l e c l a s s s o c i e t y t h a t i s more open t o d i v e r s i t y a n d l e s s a n g l o - c o n f o r m i s t t h a n E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . T h e s e i n f o r m a n t s were more i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s , s u g g e s t i n g p e r h a p s a p r e - d i s p o s i t i o n f o r c o m m u n i t y w o r k . I n any c a s e , many i n f o r m a n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t ESL t e a c h e r s n e e d t o be c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y a n d open t o c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n s . ' P e r h a p s t h i s i s a l s o t r u e o f o t h e r s whose work i n g o v e r n m e n t o r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s b r i n g s them i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h r e c e n t i m m i g r a n t s and a d u l t s w i t h l i m i t e d f l u e n c y i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e d o m i n a n t c o m m u n i t y . 1 29 What t h e n c a n be s a i d a b o u t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s s t u d y i n l i g h t of t h e f i n d i n g s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o u t l i n e d a bove? R e s e a r c h g r o u n d e d i n f i e l d work s u p p o r t s t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f g r o u n d e d t h e o r y and e n h a n c e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a p a r -t i c u l a r k i n d of human i n t e r a c t i o n . 8 0 T h i s s t u d y , i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e ran g e of v i e w p o i n t s on t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e , documents t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l dynamic i n t h e ESL c l a s s r o o m . The i n f o r m a n t s a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i m p l i c i t n a t u r e of c u l t u r e a nd l a n g u a g e t o a f a r g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n i s e v i d e n t i n most ESL l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s and most ESL m a t e r i a l s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e i n t e r v i e w s a f f o r d e d a g r o u p o f ESL t e a c h e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t upon t h e ways t h e y t h i n k a b o u t t h i s i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e i r work. The a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i e l d d a t a p r o v i d e s a framework f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e and a t t h e same t i m e p r e s e n t s a c c o u n t s o f i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e of t h i s complex r o l e . T h e s e a c c o u n t s w i l l no doubt be o f i n t e r e s t t o p r a c t i o n e r s , t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s , and o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d . 2. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y d e s c r i b e t h e ra n g e o f p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s of t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s r o l e a s u n c o v e r e d i n e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h i r t y - f i v e i n s t r u c t o r s a t a community c o l l e g e . The f i n d i n g s c a n n o t be g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r ESL t e a c h e r s i n o t h e r 8 0 M. Hammersley and P. A t k i n s o n Ethnography: Principles in Practice. ( L o n d o n : T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s ) , 1983. 130 s e t t i n g s , n o r do t h e y p r e s e n t c a u s a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n s r e p o r t e d . As a f i r s t e f f o r t a t d e s c r i p t i o n f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s , t h e s t u d y i s a p a r t i c u l a r p o r t r a y a l o f a s e l e c t e d s l i c e o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e . I t s u s e f u l n e s s may be i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t p r o m o t e s d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e f i e l d , a n d i n i t s c a p a c i t y t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f ESL t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . The f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s e x t e n d t h e i n t e n t i o n s a n d b u i l d on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y : . 1. L o n g t e r m o b s e r v a t i o n s i n one ESL c l a s s , o r i n a num-b e r o f c l a s s e s t o document a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e t e a c h i n g , ' e x p l a i n i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g ' f o r e x a m p l e , a n d t o c o mpare t e a c h e r s ' r e p o r t s w i t h o b s e r v e d i n t e r a c t i o n s . 2. A s u r v e y o f a l a r g e number o f ESL t e a c h e r s c o u l d u s e t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e d i m e n s i o n s i n o r d e r t o c o l l e c t t h e t e a c h e r s ' v i e w s on t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f E S L , p e r h a p s f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e i r d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a -t i o n . 3. A s u r v e y o r i n t e r v i e w s t u d y o f ESL l e a r n e r s t o d o c u -ment t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f e n c u l t u r a t i o n o r t h e i r g r o w i n g f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , a n d t h e i r i d e a s on t h e i r t e a c h e r s ' r o l e i n t h a t p r o c e s s . 131 4. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f ESL m a t e r i a l s a n d c u r r i c u l a t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v i e w o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y p o r t r a y e d t h e r e i n , a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s made a b o u t s t u d e n t s ' k n o w l e d g e o r nee d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . 5. An i n t e r v i e w s t u d y s i m i l a r t o t h i s o n e , i n a d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g , w i t h t e a c h e r s o f c h i l d r e n f o r exam-p l e . Or p e r h a p s a s t u d y o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c y w o r k e r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r p e r c e i v e d r o l e i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f i m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s . B. CONCLUDING REMARKS 1. A F I N A L WORD FROM THE RESEARCHER I w o u l d l i k e t o t h i n k t h a t t h e ESL t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y d i d s o b e c a u s e t h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e f i e l d o f ESL h a s i g n o r e d a n d u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l d y n a m i c f o r t o o l o n g . W h i l e most o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y f o u n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c u l t u r e a n d l a n g u a g e an i n t e r e s t i n g o n e , a g r e a t many s a i d t h e y h a d n e v e r r e a l l y c o n s i d e r e d how c u l t u r e e n t e r e d i n t o t h e i r own w o r k . Some i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y h a d l i t t l e c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l t y t o h a n d l e t h e i n t e r c u l t u r a l r o l e t h a t comes a l o n g w i t h ESL work. What i s t h e c u l t u r a l r o l e o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ? The ESL t e a c h e r i s b o t h l i n g u i s t i c a n d c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a n t f o r t h e l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r . As t h e n e e d a r i s e s , a n d d e p e n d i n g upon 132 s e v e r a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , t h e ESL t e a c h e r i s s o m e t i m e s l i k e a r o l e m o d e l , a f r i e n d , a c o u n s e l l o r , o r an a d v o c a t e . The i n t e r c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r a d u l t s t u d e n t s was i n some ways a l w a y s c h a n g i n g , r e - n e g o c i a t e d d a i l y by t h e p e o p l e i n v o l e d . C u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e a nd c u l t u r e t e a c h i n g a r e u s u a l l y t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d i n ESL a n d e l s e w h e r e ; t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e t h r o u g h t h e p e r c e p t i o n s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s o f a g r o u p o f t e a c h e r s . I t a i m s t o s e r v e a s a c a t a l y s t f o r d i s c u s s i o n a n d a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n . 2. A F I N A L WORD FROM THE INFORMANTS I l e a v e t h e f i n a l w ord i n t h i s r e p o r t t o t h e i n f o r m a n t s . The f i r s t f i v e q u o t a t i o n s b e l o w a r e i n r e s p o n s e t o a h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n , "What w o u l d y o u t e l l a s t u d e n t t e a c h e r who a s k e d y o u how t o h a n d l e c u l t u r e i n h e r ESL c l a s s ? " The i n s t r u c t o r s ' a d v i c e p r o v i d e s a summary o f t h e i r a p p r o a c h e s , t h e i r c a u t i o n s , a n d t h e i r c o n c e r n s . The l a s t t h r e e q u o t e s a r e f r o m i n f o r m a n t s who were a s k e d i f t h e y l i k e d t h e i r work a s a d u l t ESL t e a c h e r s . I w o u l d s a y t o t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h e r t o make i t a s much a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e m s e l v e s a s i t i s g o i n g t o be f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . I f t h e y ' l l open up t o t h e s t u d e n t s a n d a s k them q u e s t i o n s a n d want t o know a b o u t t h e i r c u l t u r e s , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e g o i n g t o g e t s o m e t h i n g f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s c u l t u r e t o o . I t h a s t o be a two way s t r e e t . And i f t h a t i n t e r e s t i s n ' t t h e r e , I d o n ' t know what t h e y ' r e d o i n g i n t h e j o b . (T#17 p. 46) 1 33 I g u e s s my f i r s t t h o u g h t i s t o be y o u r s e l f i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . And i f y o u ' r e b e i n g y o u r s e l f , y o u ' r e n o t g o i n g t o h i d e y o u r c u l t u r e . Y o u ' r e n o t g o i n g t o be a b l e t o h i d e i t a n d t h e r e ' s no r e a s o n t o h i d e i t e i t h e r . I d o n ' t s e e how y o u c a n a v o i d c u l t u r e a n d t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f l a n g u a g e . I t g o e s a l o n g t o g e t h e r . (T#24 p. 34) I ' d s a y , f i r s t o f a l l , j u s t h a n d l e them a s p e o p l e , a s i n d i v i d u a l s i n a c l a s s . You c a n ' t p o s s i b l y know, o r e x p e c t t o know e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e v e r y b o d y comes f r o m , b e c a u s e y o u n e v e r w i l l . You c a n ' t r e a l l y a n t i c i p a t e t h e i r p r o b l e m s o r how t h e y ' l l r e a c t t o e a c h o t h e r . I t h i n k a l o t o f i t h a s t o do w i t h t r y i n g t o be open t o t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d w h a t ' s g o i n g o n , a n d c r e a t i n g a f r i e n d l y a t m o s p h e r e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Get e v e r y b o d y t o know e a c h o t h e r , a n d do t h i n g s t o g e t h e r . I t h i n k t h a t d o e s work. (T#14 p. 47) Be v e r y c a r e f u l , b e c a u s e y o u d o n ' t want t o o f f e n d y o u r s t u d e n t s . You d o n ' t want them t o t h i n k t h a t y o u ' r e t r y i n g t o t e l l them t h a t C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e i s s u p e r i o r . Or t h a t t h e i r c u l t u r e i s s u b s t a n d a r d o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . You d o n ' t want them t o h a v e t h a t k i n d o f i m p r e s s i o n o f y o u . What y o u want t o do i s t o make them r e a l i z e t h a t C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e p r o b a -b l y i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i r own c u l t u r e a n d i f t h e y want t o s t a y h e r e f o r g o o d , t h e n t h a t ' s t h e c u l t u r e t h e y h a v e t o a d a p t t o , t h e y h a v e t o r e s p e c t , t h e y h a v e t o f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n . (T#34 p.27) I t r y t o a c c e p t them a s t h e y a r e a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e ones.who c o u l d be t r o u b l e m a k e r s . I t r y t o l i s t e n t o them a n d t h e n i f t h e y ' r e n o t r e a d y t o be i n v o l v e d i n w h a t ' s C a n a d i a n t h e n t h e y ' r e n o t g o i n g t o , I mean t h e y won't h a v e t o . I mean t h e y won't h a v e t o a c c e p t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y ' r e i n C a n a d a , a n d t h e y d o n ' t h a v e t o a c c e p t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a v e t o a c c e p t t h i n g s C a n a d i a n i f t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o l i v e h e r e . They them-s e l v e s h a v e t o come t o t h a t . I t ' s n o t f o r me t o t e l l t hem, so i f t h e y s t i c k t o t h e i r own c u l t u r e , t h a t ' s f i n e . I f t h e y come up w i t h t h e i r own c u l t u r a l t h i n g s t h e n I t r y t o l i s t e n t o them, a n d u s u a l l y I t r y t o a c c e p t them. B u t a t t h e same t i m e I do s a y t h a t t h i n g s a r e d i f f e r e n t i n C a n a d a . C e r t a i n C a n a d i a n s a c t t h i s way, c e r t a i n t h i n g s a r e done t h i s way and y o u j u s t c a n n o t c h a n g e t h o s e f a c t s . And i t ' s v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r them i f t h e y c a n n o t a c c e p t t h i n g s C a n a d i a n . I do s a y t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , b u t I t r y n o t t o e n c o u r a g e them t o be C a n a d i a n . I d o n ' t t h i n k I do t h a t . (T#30 p. 28) B a s i c a l l y I l i k e m e e t i n g p e o p l e , t a l k i n g t o them. I r e a l l y e n j o y d o i n g c o m m u n i t y work and I t h i n k I s o r t o f e n j o y t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g b e c a u s e v e r y o f t e n y o u e n d up d o i n g t h a t , a l t h o u g h s o m e t i m e s i t g e t s t o be t o o much. And a l s o p r e p a r a t i o n and e v e r y t h i n g a n d t h e more y o u g e t i n v o l v e d , t h e more i t t a k e s o u t o f y o u . B u t I r e a l l y e n j o y i t . (T#27 p. 22) I r e a l l y l i k e t h i s j o b . You know, I t h i n k p a r t o f i t comes f r o m my b a c k g r o u n d b e c a u s e I grew up i n an i m m i g r a n t g r o u p . B u t , t h e r e a r e n ' t a l o t o f t h i n g s y o u c a n do where y o u c a n s e e t h a t y o u d i r e c t l y h e l p somebody. I mean t h e y ' r e so e a g e r , and s o r e s p e c t f u l . I t c o u l d be a r e a l ego t r i p i f y o u a l l o w e d i t , y o u know. Ah, y e a h , I r e a l l y e n j o y i t . (T#8 p. 15) I l i k e m e e t i n g p e o p l e who a r e s t r u g g l i n g t o s u r v i v e . T h e r e i s s u c h a t r e m e n d o u s amount o f e n e r g y t h e r e t h a t t h i s c o u n t r y n e e d s so b a d l y and t h a t t h e w h o l e w o r l d n e e d s . T h e y ' v e l e f t e v e r y t h i n g b e h i n d . T h e r e ' s no t u r n i n g b a c k . T h e y ' v e been t h r o u g h h e l l a n d y e t t h e y ' r e t r y i n g , t h e y ' r e s t r u g g l i n g t o somehow s u r v i v e a n d t o somehow make t h e i r k i d s a d a p t a n d t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . I f i n d i t e x t r e m e l y , w e l l , i t ' s v e r y m e a n i n g f u l t o me. (T#29 p. 29) SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l w r i g h t , R. , " C l a s s r o o m - C e n t e r e d R e s e a r c h on L a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g a n d L e a r n i n g . " TESOL Quarterly 17 ( 2 , 1 9 8 3 ) : 1 9 1 - 2 0 3 . A l p e t k i n , C. a n d A l p e t k i n , M., The Q u e s t i o n o f C u l t u r e : T e a c h i n g E F L i n N o n - E n g l i s h S p e a k i n g C o u n t r i e s . " ELT Journal 38 ( 1 , 1 9 8 4 ) : 1 4 ~ 2 0 . A l t m a n , H.B., "What i s S e c o n d L a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g ? " i n A l a t i s , J . E . , A l t m a n , H.B., and A l a t i s , P.M., The Second Language Classroom: Directions for the 1980' s. 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R i c h a r d s , J . , " C o n v e r s a t i o n . " TESOL Quarterly 14 ( 4 , 1 9 7 8 ) : 4 1 3 - 4 3 2 . R i v e r s , W.M. a n d T e m p e r l e y , M.S., A Practical Guide to the Teaching of English as a Second Language. New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978. S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , M., Foundations for Teaching English as a Second Language: Theory and Method for Multicultural Education. E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , . I n c . , 1976. S e e l y e , H.N. , Teaching Culture: Strategies for Foreign Language Educators. S k o k i e , I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k Co., 1974. S i n g e r i s , M., C u l t u r e i n a d u l t E S L . A p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e S e c o n d C o n f e r e n c e on M u l t i c u l t u r a l a n d I n t e r c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n , T o r o n t o , November 7-10, 1984. S j o b e r g , G., e d . , Ethics P o l i t i c s and Social Research. C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , 1967. S p r a d l e y , J . , The Ethnographic Interview. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , 1979. S u l l i v a n , M.W., "When i n Rome . . . B u t Who's Roman? The M u t u a l A d a p t a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l I n s i d e r s a n d O u t s i d e r s . " i n B o c h n e r , S., e d . , The Mediating Person: Bridges Between Cultures. B o s t o n , M a s s . : G.K. H a l l , 1 981, pp. 273- 2 9 8 . S t e c k l e r , C , " R a c i s m a n d M u l t i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n . " TEAL Occasional Papers V a n c o u v e r : A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C. TEAL ( 6 , 1 9 8 2 ) : 2 1 - 3 2 . T h r o s s e l l , R.P., "Toward a M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y : The R o l e o f G o v e r n m e n t D e p a r t m e n t s a n d O f f i c i a l s i n D e v e l o p i n g C r o s s - c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s i n A u s t r a l i a . " i n B o c h n e r , S., e d . , The Mediating Person: Bridges Between Culture B o s t o n , M a s s . : G.K. H a l l , 1981, 246-27 2 . T o l l e f s o n , J.W., " R e s e a r c h on R e f u g e e R e s e t t l e m e n t : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o g r a m s . " TESOL Quarterly 19 ( 4 , 1 9 8 5 ) : 7 5 3 - 7 6 4 . V a l l a n c e , K., "ESL T e a c h e r s a s S o c i a l A d v o c a t e . " TEAL Occasional Papers ( 6 , 1 9 8 2 ) : 1 9 - 2 1 . Wardhaugh, R., " E d u c a t i o n o f t h e New C a n a d i a n : 1918 a n d 1981 141 The P e r s i s t e n c e o f C e r t a i n Themes." TESL Talk 13 ( 2 , 1 9 8 1 ) : 1 4 1 - 1 5 4 . W i l s o n , S., "The Use o f E t h n o g r a p h i c T e c h n i q u e s i n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . " Review of Educational Research 47 ( 1 , 1 9 7 7 ) : 2 4 5 - 2 6 5 . W i l l i a m s , J . , " I m m i g r a n t C h i l d r e n : S c h o o l ' s R o l e i n I n t e g r a t i o n . " i n Rex, J . , M o o r e , D., e d s . , Race, Community and C o n f l i c t . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966, pp. 5 9 - 7 1 . Y o u n g , J . , " E d u c a t i o n i n a M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y : What S o r t o f E d u c a t i o n ? What S o r t o f S o c i e t y ? " Canadian Journal of Education 4 ( 3 , 1 9 7 9 ) : 5 - 2 1 . Y o u n g , L.W.L., " I n s c r u t i b i l i t y R e v i s i t e d . " i n Gumperez, J . J . , e d . , Language and Social Identity. C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982, pp. 5-21. APPENDIX A - LETTER ASKING FOR PARTICIPANTS An open l e t t e r t o ESL i n s t r u c t o r s a t t h e c o l l e g e Re: ESL Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching Canadi an Culture A r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t by T r a c y D e f o e (M.A. s t u d e n t , C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n D e p t . , UBC) u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f D r . K o g i l a Adam-Moodley ( A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , S o c i a l a n d E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , UBC) a n d D r . B e r n a r d Mohan ( A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n , U B C ) . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o d e s c r i b e ESL t e a c h e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h t o a d u l t s . I n o r d e r t o g i v e v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f v i e w r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , ESL t e a c h e r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p r o g r a m s w i l l be i n t e r v i e w e d . The i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s a r e i n f o r m a l , a n d w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by t h e i n s t r u c t o r - a s t a n d -a r d q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s n o t u s e d . The f o c u s i s on how t h e i n s t r u c t o r d e a l s w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e . I f y o u a g r e e t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e s t u d y , an i n t e r v i e w w i l l be a r r a n g e d a t a t i m e and p l a c e o f c o n v e n i e n c e t o y o u . The i n t e r v i e w w i l l t a k e a b o u t one h o u r o f y o u r t i m e . To e n s u r e a c c u r a c y , I w o u l d l i k e t o a u d i o - t a p e r e c o r d t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and a n o n y m i t y w i l l be e n s u r e d t h r o u g h o u t . No names o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be u s e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t . As a p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s t r u c t o r , y o u w o u l d h a v e t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o a n s w e r any q u e s t i o n s o r t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . I know t h a t y o u r p e r s p e c t i v e w o u l d be a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s p r o j e c t w h i c h a i m s t o i n c r e a s e o u r un-d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f ESL t e a c h i n g a s e x p e r i e n c e d by i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I w o u l d be happy t o a n s w e r an y q u e s t i o n s y o u may h a v e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t . Thank y o u f o r t a k i n g t h e t i m e t o r e a d t h i s . I hope y o u w i l l c o n s i d e r o f f e r i n g y o u r p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h e s t u d y . T r a c y D e f o e C e n t e r f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n 1 42 APPENDIX B - CONSENT FORM Re: ESL Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching Canadi an Culture A r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t by T r a c y D e f o e (M.A. s t u d e n t , C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n D e p t . , UBC) u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f D r . K o g i l a Adam-Moodley ( A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , S o c i a l a n d E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , UBC) a n d D r . B e r n a r d Mohan ( A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n , U B C ) . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o d e s c r i b e ESL t e a c h e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h t o a d u l t s . I n o r d e r t o g i v e v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f v i e w r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n , ESL t e a c h e r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p r o g r a m s w i l l be i n t e r v i e w e d . The i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s a r e i n f o r m a l , a n d w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by t h e i n s t r u c t o r - a s t a n d -a r d q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s n o t u s e d . The f o c u s i s on how t h e i n s t r u c t o r d e a l s w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e . I f y o u a g r e e . t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e s t u d y , an i n t e r v i e w w i l l be a r r a n g e d a t a t i m e a n d p l a c e o f c o n v e n i e n c e t o y o u . The i n t e r v i e w w i l l t a k e a b o u t one h o u r o f y o u r t i m e . To e n s u r e a c c u r a c y , I w o u l d l i k e t o a u d i o - t a p e r e c o r d t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y a n d a n o n y m i t y w i l l be e n s u r e d t h r o u g h o u t . No names o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be u s e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t . As a p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s t r u c t o r , y o u w o u l d h a v e t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n s o r t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . I w o u l d be happy t o a n s w e r any q u e s t i o n s y o u may h a v e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t . Thank y o u f o r t a k i n g t h e t i m e t o r e a d t h i s . I hope y o u w i l l c o n s i d e r o f f e r i n g y o u r p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h e s t u d y . T r a c y D e f o e C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n I h a v e r e a d a n d u n d e r s t o o d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o v e , a n d u n d e r -s t a n d t h a t I have t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e o r t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . I o f f e r my i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p r o j e c t . D a t e : S i g n a t u r e : 1 4 3 APPENDIX C - INFORMANTS' L I S T OF THE ELEMENTS OF CULTURE The f o l l o w i n g i s a s h o r t l i s t o f what t h e i n f o r m a n t s named a s t h e e l e m e n t s o f c u l t u r e i n t h e i r c l a s s e s : - " E v e r y t h i n g . " - S u r v i v a l s k i l l s , ( i . e . t a k i n g t h e b u s , g o i n g t o t h e ban k , e m e r g e n c i e s ) . - B a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t C a n a d a , ( o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d t o p i c s ) . - L a n g u a g e u s e . A p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l , r e g i s t e r , a n d word u s e f o r a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . - G e s t u r e s a n d body l a n g u a g e . - F i t t i n g i n t o t h e s y s t e m a n d u s i n g i t , ( r e : h e a l t h , g o v e r n m e n t , e m p l o y m e n t ) . - A t t i t u d e s ( t o w a r d women, t h e l a w , w o r k i n g , e t c . ) . - G e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h p e o p l e who a r e d i f f e r e n t . - U n d e r s t a n d i n g s o c i e t a l v a l u e s ( o f t i m e , o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e t c . ) . - A s s u m p t i o n s t h a t u n d e r l y C a n a d i a n s o c i a l s y s t e m s . - S t y l e s , o p t i o n s , r a n g e o f ways t o l i v e . - K i n d s o f m u s i c , p o p u l a r s p o r t s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t a n d r e c r e a t i o n . 144 

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