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Kaleidoscope patterns : art education in an elementary classroom Costello, Eleanor Dale 1988

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KALEIDOSCOPE PATTERNS: ART EDUCATION IN AN ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM by ELEANOR DALE COSTELLO B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Curriculum S t u d i e s )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard.  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1988  ©  Eleanor Dale C o s t e l l o , 1988  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department publication  this or of  thesis for by  his  or  her  representatives.  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  Department of  D E - 6 ( 3 / 8 1 )  that the  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  Date  requirements  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  Abstract  In  September  Guide/Resource  1985,  Book  was  a  new  Fine  introduced  throughout B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  investigate a practitioner's  use  classroom.  quality  Enquiry  i n t o the  Arts  in  elementary  schools  purpose of t h i s study was of  the  guide  of  the  l i v i n g w i t h i n the t e n s i o n a l i t y between t h i s and  Curriculum  her c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d experience  within  practitioner's  provided a c o u n t e r p o i n t  as a s c h o o l a r t s p e c i a l i s t and d i s t r i c t  her  resource  experiences person.  a r t education e v a l u a t i o n model based on a r t c r i t i c i s m flexible  observations  and  framework  reflective  r e s e a r c h e r r a i s e d these balance  for  this  dialogue  i s s u e s : the lack  between a r t i s t i c ,  her  curriculum-as-plan  f o r the r e s e a r c h e r ' s personal r e f l e c t i o n s on  provided a  to  study.  between of  l i n g u i s t i c , and  An  concepts Classroom  teacher  and  integration  mathematical  of l e a r n i n g w i t h i n the o v e r a l l s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m ;  and  modes  the  nature  of s c h o o l a r t , c h i l d a r t and a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n as each  relates  to c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s f o r  in  education;  and  the  art  education;  "being" of c h i l d r e n  evaluation and  women teachers w i t h i n present e d u c a t i o n a l study generated of  learners,  the  institutions.  r e f l e c t i o n s on p o s s i b l e changes i n teachers,  art  specialists,  "being"  and  r e s e a r c h e r s as they adapt to c u r r i c u l u m change.  the  art of The  roles  educational  Table of Contents  Page L i s t of F i g u r e s  vi  Chapter 1. Beginnings  1  The Nature of Paradigms  3  A r t i s t i c Paradigm " K a l e i d o s c o p e " Patterns  7  Scientific  Paradigm "Kaleidoscope"  Patterns  11  T r a d i t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l Research  15  Objectivity  17  Reductionism  20  A New  Scientific  Paradigm  A New  S c i e n t i f i c / A r t i s t i c Paradigm  " I l l u m i n a t i v e " E d u c a t i o n a l Research Notes  23 28 32 37  2. The Research P r o j e c t  46  Research Problem  46  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Choices  47  Research Model  49  O u t l i n e of Study  53  Data C o l l e c t i o n Data A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  iii  . 56 59  Chapter  *  Page  Notes  62  3. Halloween  .67  Curriculum-as-plan  - Rationale  84  Curriculum-as-lived R e f l e c t i o n s on an  85  integrated  balanced approach to l e a r n i n g  95  Notes  105  4. Animal Cartoons  107  Curriculum-as-plan  - Goals  120  Curriculum-as-lived  120  R e f l e c t i o n s on school a r t  and  child art  128  R e f l e c t i o n s on a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n  . . . . .  133  Notes  142  5. Winter Fun  145  Curriculum-as-plan  - Conceptual  Model  167  Curriculum-as-lived  168  Curriculum-as-plan  - Evaluation  Curriculum-as-lived  177 178  R e f l e c t i o n s on e v a l u a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l goals  185  Notes 6. V a l e n t i n e ' s  196 Day  198  Curriculum-as-plan Being R e f l e c t i o n s on c h i l d- r e n ' s "being" i n classrooms Curriculum-as-lived iv  209 220 209  Chapter  Page R e f l e c t i o n s on women t e a c h e r s ' "being" i n classrooms Notes  232 239  7. C o n c l u s i o n s  243  Notes Bibliography  253 255  v  List  of F i g u r e s  Figure  Page  1. Model  for Art C r i t i c i s m  49  2. Model  for Curriculum Evaluation  51  3. Halloween Witches  68  4. Maria's Pumpkin Face  69  5. Halloween Ghosts  70  6. Halloween Magic  73  7. Leah P r e p a r i n g a Potato Block  76  8. Leah's F i r s t Potato P r i n t  77  9. Jack-0'Lanterns on a Fence  79  10. Potato P r i n t Pumpkin  83  11. P l a n n i n g Web  86  f o r Autumn  12. October Leaves  87  13. Classroom F o c a l P o i n t  94  14. Chalkboard Drawing  I l l  15. Pat Going to Help Shawn  112  16. Shawn's "Fox Wearing Socks"  113  17. Shawn, Gary, and Richard  115  18. Shawn Drawing with F e l t s  117  19. Sharing Animal Cartoons  118  20. One  119  of Pat's " L i t t l e Monkeys"!  21. "Can You Draw a Bear?"  vi  121  Figure  Page  22. Pat a t Home  125  23. C r o s s - c o u n t r y S k i s  145  24. Winter  146  Words  25. Shawn's P i c t u r e of Winter Fun  151  26. Sabrina and Leah  152  27. P a i n t i n g with "Snow"  154  28. Looking a t the Horizon  156  29. Leah Using the Graph  160  30. C a r i e and David  161  31. Pat C o n s u l t i n g with Shawn  164  32. Conceptual Model f o r V i s u a l A r t s  167  33. Suggestions  199  for Valentines  34. J e s s i c a , David, S a b r i n a , Jamie, Chad  . . . .  203  35. A Broken Heart!  204  36. Mending a Broken Heart  205  37. Shawn and Leah and " F r i e n d "  208  vii  Acknowledgements  The deep j o y t h a t I experienced on t h i s t h e s i s r e s u l t e d  i n the process of working  i n l a r g e measure from my r e l a t i o n s h i p s  with some very f i n e people.  I o f f e r my g r a t i t u d e t o  Pat V i t t e r y , f o r her t r u s t i n s h a r i n g with me her thoughts and f e e l i n g s on a r t education - and so much more; Leah, my daughter, f o r her love and p a t i e n c e with a Type A p e r s o n a l i t y mother; Each c h i l d  i n each of my c l a s s e s , f o r t e a c h i n g me.;  Harry Locke and Ted A o k i , f o r being superb educators who encouraged me t o q u e s t i o n my " b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d " with t h o u g h t f u l n e s s and wonder; My r o s y mentor, U l y s s e s , f o r h i s f a i t h and inspiration; My network of r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , and c o l l e a g u e s who supported and encouraged me i n innumerable ways; Ron MacGregor, f o r p a t i e n t a d v i c e . I thank each one f o r the understandings undertaking t h i s  study.  viii  t h a t I have gained  in  1  CHAPTER I Beginnings  Research.  As I began my graduate s t u d i e s , I was  that each candidate completing  for a  master's  I  consulted  d e f i n i t i o n , research "a  in addition  the r e q u i r e d coursework, i s expected  an o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . mean?  degree,  critical  my  dictionary.  investigation."1 the  " r e - " means "again, back;"  I  word.  probe."  research to  inquiry  considered  deeper  The  the r o o t "search" means  prefix  "to  which  My involvement i n r e s e a r c h ,  of my s u b j e c t area,  e x i s t i n g knowledge and i n c r e a s i n g  in  the  hope  therefore,  of  a  definition  subject."  Why, then, the  unease and d i s t r u s t that the word research  jungle  of  jargon.  In  gave me?  an  This  feelings  was a s s o c i a t e d with a t h i c k undergrowth of s t a t i s t i c s confusing  to  understanding.  f u r t h e r , was t o be a " s c i e n t i f i c study of  in a  again"  adding  Such an i n q u i r y , i f I examined the d i c t i o n a r y  appeared f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d .  look  presence  would be t o undertake an i n q u i r y i n which I would "look at an aspect  its  after,"  the  Re-search.  to  undertake  According  f o r what may be found or to f i n d something of i s suspected,  to  But what e x a c t l y does  i s "a c a r e f u l search or  e t y m o l o g i c a l meaning of  informed  of  Research tangled  examination  of  research papers, I could spend hours i n p a i n s t a k i n g  "hacking  away" a n a l y s i s , o n l y to come to a c l e a r i n g of  meaning  minute  that I o f t e n found d i f f i c u l t t o r e l a t e t o my own  experiences.  2  Perhaps i t was a lack of t r a i n i n g on my p a r t , I thought. hopes of sharpening my "machete" s k i l l s , E d u c a t i o n a l Research Methods - and  I took  came  a  away  With  course  only  in  slightly  l e s s d u l l , but markedly more d i s t u r b e d . Before beginning my own r e s e a r c h , before I c o u l d choose a problem  or decide the methods I would use t o study i t , I  i t necessary distrust  to  examine  persisted.  why  In  the  my  f e e l i n g s o f t e n occur when I  feelings  day-to-day encounter  of  felt  unease  and  experiences  such  inconsistencies,  when  one t h i n g i s s a i d and another done, when t h i n g s do not seem t o "tie  together."  what I knew  of  So I began t o educational  look  for  research,  inconsistencies  finding  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o my textbook on the s u b j e c t . Meredith G a l l s t a t e t h a t "the f i e l d of a r t and s c i e n c e . "  They go on  one  Walter  i n the  Borg  of education i s a  to  in  and  mixture  say, however,  "we f i t  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n t o the context of s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y and methodology."  wondered. not  2  Why only  scientific  theory  and methodology?  I f education i s a mixture o f a r t and  f i t the research  and methodology  of it into  as well?  the context  science,  theory  understanding  of both s c i e n c e and a r t , I f e l t t h a t some p r e l i m i n a r y i n t o the nature of both might provide me I t might a l s o h e l p me connected  determine  i f this  why  of artistic  As I had o n l y l i m i t e d  with  I  some  inquiry answers.  inconsistency  was  t o my g e n e r a l m i s g i v i n g s about r e s e a r c h .  It d i d .  And i t was.  The knowledge I gained of c l a s s i c a l  and new p h y s i c s theory, s c i e n t i f i c method, a r t and theory, and a r t c r i t i c i s m d i s c o v e r i e s about metaphor  l e d me and  to  further  meaning.  A  aesthetic  inquiries summary  of  and my  3  readings  and  experiences  understandings integrated  I  came  to  may  help  in  these  to  show  various  i n t o my c h o i c e of r e s e a r c h model  how  the  fields  and  were  methodology,  as w e l l as i n t o my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of my r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . The Nature of a Paradigm "We a r e one of the many appearances of the L i f e , " wrote Loren E i s e l e y . ^ be alive? to  be  I thought. involved  relationship,  p h y s i c a l and  me  to  In the most b a s i c sense, t o be a l i v e  is  in a  Dewey human;  called  And what does i t mean t o  process,  "a g e n e r a l stream  environment.^  thing  of  describes thus,  a  continuous  interactive  experiences"  the  with  one's  as  both  environment  i t includes  "the m a t e r i a l s  of  t r a d i t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l as l o c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . "  He  e x p l a i n s the i n t e r a c t i v e q u a l i t y of experiences  by  referring  to the f a c t t h a t the organism b r i n g s with i t through i t s own structure, n a t i v e and a c q u i r e d , f o r c e s t h a t p l a y a p a r t i n the interaction. The s e l f a c t s as w e l l as undergoes, and i t s undergoings are not impressions stamped upon an i n e r t wax but depend upon the way the organism reacts and responds.... Both inner [mental] and outer [ p h y s i c a l ] f a c t o r s a r e so i n c o r p o r a t e d t h a t each has l o s t i t s s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r . . . . T h i n g s and events belonging t o the world, p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l , a r e transformed through the human context they e n t e r , while the l i v e creature i s changed and developed through i t s i n t e r c o u r s e with t h i n g s previously external to i t . But How do human beings make sense of the world in?  One way i s a d i r e c t p h y s i c a l understanding.  d i f f e r e n t ways i n which we come t o through knowing o u r s e l v e s and  direct  objects  as  they  live  Some of the  understanding bounded  are  entities;  r e c o g n i z i n g the g e s t a l t , the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l whole, i n  which  we e x i s t , or f o c u s i n g on p a r t i c u l a r aspects of i t ; and  being  aware  of  interactional  properties,  products  of  our  4  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o b j e c t s or events. incorporated  into,  understanding.  and  in  turn  D i r e c t understanding i s affected  T h i s i s p e r s o n a l or  tacit  by,  indirect  knowing.  Polanyi  says: to know something by r e l y i n g on our awareness of i t f o r a t t e n d i n g t o something e l s e i s t o have the same kind of knowledge of i t t h a t we have of our body by l i v i n g i n i t . It i s a manner of being or e x i s t i n g . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of i n - d w e l l i n g i s as c i r c u i t o u s as t h i s type of  understanding!  Polanyi,  and  however,  that "we can o n l y p o i n t t o the e x i s t e n c e of t a c i t in  our e x p e r i e n c e . . . . T h i s does not come  specifiable, indirect  explicit,  logically  understanding,  a l l of  about  operative the  complex  integration by  means  steps."'  resources  mentioned f o r d i r e c t understanding a r e used,  believes  of In  previously  but  meaning  is  achieved through metaphorical c o n c e p t i o n which r e q u i r e s an a c t of i m a g i n a t i o n .  8  L a k o f f and Johnson e x p l a i n t h a t "the essence  of  metaphor  i s understanding and e x p e r i e n c i n g one kind of t h i n g of another."^  They remind  in  terms  we  have  us t h a t "we tend t o t h i n k  d i r e c t access t o our own f e e l i n g s and ideas and not to anybody e l s e s . . . . But r e a l l y deep understanding of why we do  what  1  do, what  f e e l what we f e e l , change as we change, and we  knowing  believe occurs  takes within  us an  m e t a p h o r i c a l or conceptual  beyond  ourselves."^  interactive systems  even  are  network  we  believe Indirect  u  or  similarly  system;  systemic,  products of "the k i n d of beings we a r e and the way we i n t e r a c t with our p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l frameworks,  1,12  "cosmological or G e s t a l t  metaphors," ^ "world views, 1  environments. " H  "Conceptual  structures,  and " p a r a d i g m s " ^ are  1 , 1 3  "root  some  of  5  the terms used by d i f f e r e n t authors to r e f e r metaphorical concepts thread  running  found w i t h i n human  through  frameworks determine  their  to  patterns  society.  discussions  is  of  A  common  that  these  r e a l i t y f o r us:  Each c u l t u r e must provide a more or l e s s s u c c e s s f u l way of d e a l i n g with i t s environment, both adapting t o i t and changing i t . Moreover, each c u l t u r e must d e f i n e a s o c i a l r e a l i t y w i t h i n which people have r o l e s t h a t make sense to them and i n terms of which they can function socially....The social reality d e f i n e d by a culture a f f e c t s i t s c o n c e p t i o n of p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y . What i s r e a l f o r an i n d i v i d u a l as a member of a c u l t u r e i s a product both of h i s s o c i a l r e a l i t y and the way i n which t h a t shapes h i s experience of the p h y s i c a l world. Since much of our social reality i s understood i n metaphorical terms, and s i n c e our c o n c e p t i o n of the p h y s i c a l world is p a r t l y m e t a p h o r i c a l , metaphor p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n determining what i s r e a l f o r us. ' Lakoff  and  structuring  Johnson  i s only  emphasize  partial.  If  it  that were  metaphorical not,  then  "one  concept would a c t u a l l y be the other, not merely understood terms of the other."*®  These s t r u c t u r e s focus on some aspects  of r e a l i t y and c o n c e a l o t h e r s .  In l i v i n g w i t h i n a  conceptual  framework, experiences which f i t i n t o the framework accepted as t r u e ; structure, determines of l i f e .  therefore,  sets  the  values,  bestows  I t imposes on the e x t e r n a l  t o new  ones.  world  or  are  well not  purpose  contemporary  paradigms  specifically  as  static;  to  larger they  to  applied  societal  fluctuate  shift  and  revolutionary  directed  paradigms, yet much of what he says can be as  "The  reality."^  Kuhn's d i s c u s s i o n of the  nature of paradigms i s  disciplines,  the  be  meaning,  the morals, e t h i c s , aims, l i m i t a t i o n s , and  Dominant conceptual frameworks  Societies  will  those which do not w i l l be r e j e c t e d .  tor c u l t u r a l ] v e r s i o n of  g i v e way  in  and  scientific to  other  frameworks. evolve  in  6  response  to  changing  conditions.  Contradictions  u  anomalies w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g paradigm assumptions  are q u e s t i o n e d . -  are n o t i c e d and  A f t e r a long  21  hidden  gestation  period  i n which d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n over the f a i l u r e of the o l d to  d e a l with anomalies s t e a d i l y expands, the b i r t h  one occurs  in  a  flash  of  intuition.  Kuhn  or  paradigm of  a  new  outlines  the  process: No o r d i n a r y sense of the term " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " f i t s these f l a s h e s of i n t u i t i o n through which a new paradigm is born. T h o u g h s u c h i n t u i t i o n s depend upon the experience, both anomalous and congruent, gained with the old paradigm, they are not l o g i c a l l y or piecemeal linked to p a r t i c u l a r items of that experience as an interpretation would be. Instead, they gather up l a r g e p o r t i o n s of t h a t experience and transform them to the r a t h e r different bundle of experience that will thereafter be linked piecemeal to the new paradigm but not the o l d . * Earlier  i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , Kuhn mentions that "the d e c i s i o n to  r e j e c t one paradigm  i s always s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the  accept a n o t h e r . "  New  2 3  paradigms are concerned with the  "bundle of d a t a , " but place  "them  within  a  new  r e l a t i o n s with one another by g i v i n g them a new To emphasize nature of the new shift,  the way  decision  drastic, of  Kuhn i n i t i a l l y  likens  it  involved to  "a  same  system  of  framework." ^ 2  irreversible,  thinking  to  revolutionary in  a  paradigm  change  in  visual  g e s t a l t . . . [ w i t h o u t ] the g e s t a l t s u b j e c t ' s  freedom  to  switch  back and  In  f o r t h between ways of s e e i n g . "  2 5  an  attempt  at  f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , he l a t e r compares i t to the p o i n t when, in the l e a r n i n g of a f o r e i g n language, an i n d i v i d u a l finds himself translating.  1 , 2 6  "thinking  and  B r i g g s and  paradigms and s p e c t a c l e s .  working Peat  in  make  "Every now  an  and  t i t ] , not analogy then  a  suddenly simply between 'paradigm  s h i f t ' occurs i n which these [ o l d ] s p e c t a c l e s get smashed  and  7  iindividualsJ  put on new ones  that  turn  everything  upside  down, sideways, and a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r . . . . A new g e n e r a t i o n brought  up wearing the  new  glasses  v i s i o n as n a t u r a l and t r u e . " ^ kaleidoscope  and  accepting  the  is new  The metaphor of paradigm as  i s employed by M a r i l y n Ferguson,  a  who s t a t e s t h a t  by d e f i n i t i o n , r e v o l u t i o n s a r e not l i n e a r , one s t e p a t a time, event A l e a d i n g t o event B, and so on. Many causes operate on each other a t once. Revolutions shift into place suddenly, l i k e the p a t t e r n i n a k a l e i d o s c o p e . They do not so much proceed as c r y s t a l l i z e . ^ 8  E i s e l e y a l s o uses kaleidoscope  imagery when he r e f e r s  t o the  r i s k s and r e s i s t a n c e a s s o c i a t e d with paradigm change: The great s y n t h e s i z e r who a l t e r s the outlook of a g e n e r a t i o n , who suddenly produces a kaleidoscope change i n our v i s i o n of the world, i s apt t o be the most envied, f e a r e d , and hated man among h i s contemporaries. Almost by i n s t i n c t they f e e l i n him the seed of a new order; they sense, even as they anathematize him, the passing away of the sane s u b s t a n t i a l world they have long inhabited. Such a man i s a kind of l e n s or g a t h e r i n g p o i n t through which past thought gathers, i s r e o r g a n i z e d , and r a d i a t e s outward again i n new forms. ^ What I learned about paradigms and paradigm s h i f t , can be r e l a t e d t o my  original  science."  What  kaleidoscope  patterns,  they  f i t into  problem  are  the for each  the context  of  "education  conceptual  a r t and  frameworks,  of these  of the larger  as  areas?^" cultural  the  And how  do  metaphorical  structure? A r t i s t i c Paradigm "Kaleidoscope" What are the patterns  through  Patterns  viewed when one looks  an a r t i s t i c kaleidoscope?  at the  Dewey b e l i e v e s t h a t a r t i s  a p a r t i c u l a r kind of experience  i n which a t t e n t i o n i s  on a work of a r t ;  interplay  a continuous  world  of  perceiving  f e e l i n g occurs and c o n t r i b u t e s t o both the s i g n i f i c a n t of the work and a u n i f i e d understanding  of i t .  centred  3 1  He  and  content goes  on  8  to say t h a t " d i f f e r e n t a c t s , episodes,  occurrences  fuse i n t o u n i t y , and yet do not disappear and c h a r a c t e r as they do so....The c o n s t i t u t e d by a  single  in  parts."  This q u a l i t y c l a r i f i e s  "contained  of  guality  experience 3 2  spite  existence  the  that  of  this  pervades  variation and  lose  of  melt  and  their  own  unity the  entire  i t s constituent  concentrates  meanings  i n s c a t t e r e d and weakened ways i n the m a t e r i a l s  other e x p e r i e n c e s " of our everyday  lives.  is  3 3  Polanyi  of  echoes  t h i s idea: The a r t s are imaginative r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . . . w h i c h produce - a meaning of d i s t i n c t i v e quality....Works of a r t [stand out] from the shapeless flow of both p e r s o n a l and public life. 3 4  In P o l a n y i ' s view,  the  unified  quality  that  characterizes  a r t i s t i c experiences r e s u l t s from an i n t e g r a t i o n of  important  content w i t h i n a r t i s t i c r e s t r a i n t s or frames. Artists understand  create  works  of  art  in  their  attempt  to  the world of which they are a p a r t :  [They] search f o r a means of s o l v i n g a problem - a problem which i s conceived f o r t h i s v e r y purpose, i . e . , i t s s o l u t i o n ; and they pursue t h i s quest while c o n t i n u i n g to shape the problem so t h a t i t w i l l b e t t e r f i t the means f o r s o l v i n g i t . . . . A n a r t i s t i c problem i s an imaginative a n t i c i p a t i o n , not of unknown f a c t s t h a t a l r e a d y do e x i s t , i n some sense i n nature, but of a f a c t of the imagination - of a poem or a p a i n t i n g t h a t c o u l d exist....The a r t i s t ' s work i s a continuous i n v e n t i o n of means f o r e x p r e s s i n g h i s aims, coupled i£h readjustment of h i s aims i n the l i g h t of h i s means. w  35  A r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n i s an i n t e r a c t i v e process f l o w i n g f o r t h between the a r t i s t and An  back  and  the m a t e r i a l s .  i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c i n g a work of a r t i s  involved  in  an a c t of c r e a t i o n analogous to what the a r t i s t experiences i n o r i g i n a t i n g the work of a r t .  A g a i n s t a background of personal  e x p e r i e n c e s , the p e r c e i v e r attends to and  organizes  the  raw  9  materials  of  sensory p a t t e r n s formed by sounds, c o l o u r s , gestures, t e x t u r e s , or combinations of these;... formal properties or design t h a t give shape or c h a r a c t e r to the p a t t e r n of sensory q u a l i t i e s ; . . . t e c h n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s pertaining to s k i l l s of performance i n the medium. 6  The  interactive  expressive  relationship  of  these  properties  metaphors of f e e l i n g s , i n s i g h t s ,  and  with  ideas  (i.e.  t a c i t knowledge), i l l u m i n a t e s the meaning embodied w i t h i n g e s t a l t or h o l i s t i c nature of the work of a r t .  Just  the  as  the a r t i s t s e l e c t e d , s i m p l i f i e d , c l a r i f i e d , abridged, and condensed a c c o r d i n g to h i s i n t e r e s t . . . . T h e beholder must go through these o p e r a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to h i s p o i n t of view and h i s i n t e r e s t . In both, an a c t of a b s t r a c t i o n , t h a t i s , e x t r a c t i o n of what i s s i g n i f i c a n t , takes place. In both, there is comprehension in its literal s i g n i f i c a t i o n - that i s , a gathering of d e t a i l s and particulars physically scattered i n t o an experienced whole. There i s work to be done on the part of the p e r c i p i e n t as there i s on the part of the a r t i s t . 3 7  T h i s r e - c r e a t i o n i s "predominantly an  instance O  r a t h e r than d i s c u r s i v e reasoning  or memory."  of  Q  An attempt  JO  e x p l i c a t e or c r e a t e a d i s c u r s i v e e q u i v a l e n t of the reinforces  this  point.  Words,  in  their  f a s h i o n , focus on p a r t s of the experience, to capture picture  the  multidimensional,  perception  experience  logical,  but are  instantaneous  to  linear  inadequate whole.  "A  i s worth a thousand words" says i t w e l l .  Imagination i s the key element i n c r e a t i n g a work of a r t , an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the materials; of  relationship  between  artist  i t i s a l s o the key element i n e x p e r i e n c i n g  art,  the  that-which-is-perceived  essential and  the  connection  perceiver.  Tacit  a  out of  the  blue,  companion, i n t u i t i o n .  of  both  imagination  In Dewey's words:  and  work  between knowledge  c o n t r i b u t e s i n l a r g e measure to the a r r i v a l , seemingly and  and  its  sudden close  10  I n t u i t i o n i s t h a t meeting of the o l d and new i n which the readjustment i n v o l v e d i n every form of consciousness is e f f e c t e d suddenly by means of a quick and unexpected harmony which i n i t s abrupt b r i g h t n e s s i s l i k e a f l a s h of revelation; although i n f a c t i t i s prepared f o r by long and slow incubation....[The term imagination] designates a q u a l i t y t h a t animates and pervades a l l processes of making and o b s e r v a t i o n . I t i s a way of s e e i n g and f e e l i n g t h i n g s as they compose an i n t e g r a l whole. I t i s the l a r g e and generous b l e n d i n g of i n t e r e s t s a t the p o i n t where the mind comes i n c o n t a c t with the world. When o l d and f a m i l i a r t h i n g s are made new i n experience, there i s imagination. When the new i s c r e a t e d , the f a r and the strange become the most n a t u r a l and i n e v i t a b l e t h i n g s i n the world, There Is always some measure of adventure in the meeting of mind and u n i v e r s e , and this adventure is...imagination. ™ Both metaphors imagination  and  paradigm  shifts  i n making the o l d and  Involve  familiar,  intuition  new.  A work of a r t , as a r e s u l t of i t s e x p r e s s i v e communicates meaning. experienced  T h i s inherent meaning  by both the a r t i s t and  be g e n e r a l i z e d .  Art  critics  v a l i d i t y of the work, both with other works of i t s  i n and  kind,  determined by the a r t i s t . * *  is  properties, individually  the p e r c e i v e r and  can  make  can  not  of  the  judgements  of i t s e l f and  but  and  standards  in  comparison  are  primarily  For, as P o l a n y i emphasizes:  4  A r t has no tests e x t e r n a l to a r t . I t s making and acceptance must t h e r e f o r e be u l t i m a t e l y grounded on the d e c i s i o n of i t s maker, i n t e r a c t i n g , i t i s t r u e , with both t r a d i t i o n and the p u b l i c , but n e v e r t h e l e s s i n t e r a c t i n g by and through the maker's own judgements....[An artist] must labour to meet h i s s e l f - s e t standards.... He may be the f i r s t ever to recognize them, yet he feels himself bound to them, not s u p e r i o r to them. * 4  F r e q u e n t l y , the a r t i s t ' s  imagination provides such unusual  unexpected s o l u t i o n s to problems t h a t t h e i r and  chills  audiences,  snugly  tradition-bound expectations. t e e t h of p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n s e l f - s e t standards  may  than a ready  novelty  blanketed  startles  in  their  " [ A r t i s t s ' ] perseverance often public  be  a  better  acceptance  and  i n the  test of  of  their  11  work.  42  An  artistic  patterns  of  schematic  "kaleidoscope"  reality.  shifts,  paradigm  Although  contains  i t accommodates  i t s essential  nature  response of the unique i n d i v i d u a l .  fluid periodic  i s the  dynamic,  For n e i t h e r i n the a c t of  c r e a t i n g nor i n p e r c e i v i n g a r t can there ever  be  one  static  prescriptive pattern v i s i b l e . S c i e n t i f i c Paradigm "Kaleidoscope"  Patterns  What a r e the p a t t e r n s of reality  scientific  "kaleidoscope"  way of knowing  the  science i s often system." varied  43  paradigm?  which  cyzstallize  in  a  Science, l i k e a r t , i s a  world.  Within  Western  society  considered  "an  unalterable  and  But, i n f a c t , s c i e n t i f i c searches  today, absolute  for truth  have  i n d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s and i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and  so have the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s resulting  from  them.  With  "kaleidoscope," a completely into place. replaces;  of  reality  each  shift  entailed of  a  i n and  scientific  d i f f e r e n t new world  view  clicks  "A new paradigm doesn't b u i l d on the paradigm i t i t turns i n an e n t i r e l y new d i r e c t i o n . "  that we know the universe  in a different  know a d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s e . " c a u t i o u s about  abruptly  4 5  way;  instead,  Kuhn warns t h a t  dismissing  It isn't  4 4  we  out-of-date  "we  should  be  beliefs  as  myths, not s c i e n c e , f o r myths can be produced by the same s o r t of methods and held f o r the same s o r t of reasons that now lead to scientific knowledge. I f . . . t h e y are to be called s c i e n c e , then s c i e n c e has i n c l u d e d bodies of b e l i e f q u i t e incompatible with the ones we hold t o d a y . ^ 4  Instead of expecting these b e l i e f s which makes sense to us w i t h i n  the  to  contribute  context  of  in a our  way  present  12  knowledge and our  current  conceptual  structure,  judge them on the b a s i s of t h e i r coherence time p e r i o d .  of  the  is  important  scientific  modern  accordance  with the g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n  the  centuries." intricate  Western  cosmos-as-machine experience.  own  that  the  was  note  structure  set of  in  and  which  place  reality  eighteenth,  and  metaphor  This  "in  prevalent nineteenth  coherent  underlies  of  the  t h e o r y with universe;  of  work  a  everyday of  three  promoted the  use  Isaac Newton,  who  which and  with  thus,  with  the  c a l l the s c i e n t i f i c method;  provided a p h i l o s o p h i c a l The source  toys;  F r a n c i s Bacon, who  a mathematical  e n t i r e motion  mechanical was  metaphor  individuals:  of what we now developed  their  During t h i s p e r i o d , people were f a s c i n a t e d  4 8  clockworks  influential  society  seventeenth,  to  conceptual  dominates  during  should  4 7  With t h i s i n mind, i t foundation  within  we  to  Rene  describe  the  Descartes,  who  physics,  the  rationale.  Newton's  s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e concerned  inspiration  was  with the study of  matter  and  the f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g i t : Matter was thought to be the b a s i s of a l l e x i s t e n c e , and the n a t u r a l world was seen as a multitude of separate o b j e c t s assembled i n t o a huge machine. L i k e human-made machines, the cosmos machinery was thought to c o n s i s t of elementary p a r t s . ^ 4  Newton i n c o r p o r a t e d four s e t s mechanical  e x p l a n a t i o n of  the  of  basic  universe.  concepts of a b s o l u t e space and time, and of moving i n t h i s space and  concepts First,  into were  separate  "the  objects  i n t e r a c t i n g with one a n o t h e r . "  the workings of a c l o c k c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by r e d u c i n g  his  5 0  it  If to  13  i t s b a s i c components and they i n t e r a c t e d , i t was  d e s c r i b i n g the  by  which  reasonable, then, t h a t anything  i n the  p h y s i c a l world, no matter reduced and  understood.  allow cause-effect  was  complex,  could  I f t h i s process  r e l a t i o n s h i p s to be  a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t and would f o l l o w .  how  mechanisms  of  be  similarly  reduction  identified,  could  then  subsequently c o n t r o l the n a t u r a l  For Newton and  others  who  the world  came a f t e r him,  this  the u l t i m a t e purpose of s c i e n c e , to e x p l a i n nature down to  the very  last detail  Second,  was  i n order  "the  that man  concept  might c o n t r o l h e r . ^ 5  of  fundamental  e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from matter" and with t h i s , was  third, closely tied  in  "the concept of fundamental laws d e s c r i b i n g  the  motion and  mutual i n t e r a c t i o n s  terms  quantitative  of  forces,  Bacon's proposal  for  of  the  relations." a  material This  5 2  systematic  objects  fit  approach  well  to  in with  scientific  study: By f i r s t g a t h e r i n g data, f o r m u l a t i n g a l i m i t e d hypothesis , and then using t h i s knowledge to gather more data, the i n v e s t i g a t o r could proceed i n a c a r e f u l and orderly way to uncover nature's l a w s . 5 3  By the meticulous use  of instruments f o r d e t a i l e d  common standards c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d , a l l o w i n g identification  and  relationships.  Such d e s c r i p t i o n would provide  vital  for  description  prediction  and  of  control,  observation, for  objects  the  accurate  and  their  the b a s i c f a c t s  main  purpose  of  54 science. The rigorous  J H  f o u r t h concept of Newtonian mechanics determinism,  and  the  notion  of  was  that  "of  an  objective  d e s c r i p t i o n of nature based on the C a r t e s i a n d i v i s i o n  between  mind and  nature,  matter."  5 5  In  his  conceptualization  of  14  Descartes emphasized the dichotomy between r e s thinking thing thing  (object  (observer), or  According to him,  and  phenomena  res  in  each e x i s t e d  e s s e n t i a l l y separate  extensa...the  nature in  cogitans,  its  to  be  own  the  extended  observed). ^ 5  domain  and  was  from the o t h e r :  As a consequence...the world was b e l i e v e d to be a mechanical system that c o u l d be described objectively without ever mentioning the human observer and such an o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of nature became the i d e a l of a l l the s c i e n c e s . ' 5  In c o n t r a s t then, to i n q u i r y subjective  philosophy  where  based  the  p a r t i c i p a n t i n the experience  on  an  observer  is  of i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  the phenomena  being  considered.  a  a  or p o s i t i v i s t i c approach r e q u i r e s the complete observer and  artistic  vital  scientific  separation  s c i e n t i s t s and  classical  scientific  paradigm.  l i n g u i s t s have d e s c r i b e d the  applies  s t r u c t u r e of Western s o c i e t y ; p e r c e p t i o n of the nature and  to  how  the  other  overall  is  shaped  conceptualization  of  by  this  than  in  our  relationships,  law, government, business, the media, and e d u c a t i o n . language  of  conceptual  i t i s instrumental  f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l  two  Several  pervasiveness  t h i s paradigm, not o n l y as i t a p p l i e s to s c i e n c e s p h y s i c s , but a l s o as i t  of  Objectivity  5 8  and r e d u c t i o n i s m , means to p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l , are the main tenets of the  or  particular  Even our  metaphorical  the  universe  as  seventeenth  a  clearer  understanding  century  machine! ^ 5  I was  developing  kaleidoscope p a t t e r n s f o r both paradigms.  The  personal glimpses  artistic  the  artistic  kaleidoscope  and  the  scientific  allows  of a c o n s t a n t l y f l u i d r e a l i t y ;  of  individuals a  scientific  15  kaleidoscope  provides one c r y s t a l l i z e d p a t t e r n  which  remains  s t a t i c and s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r a l l t o view u n t i l , every so o f t e n , it The  i s given a sudden t u r n and a new p a t t e r n c l i c k s influence  required  of  further  each  paradigm  examination,  upon  into place.  educational  however,  to  research  clarify  my  m i s g i v i n g s concerning c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i v e approaches. T r a d i t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l Research The  cosmos-as-machine metaphor inherent i n the s c i e n t i f i c  paradigm was extended throughout s o c i e t y d u r i n g the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n by adoption in factory necessary  of a r e d u c t i o n i s t , piece-meal  production.  For  efficient  t o "make enough goods  to  production,  meet  demand,  t e c h n i c a l problems of p r o d u c t i o n , maintain high q u a l i t y , . . . organize  the  administration,  workforce how t o handle t e c h n o l o g y . " ^ l a t e r a p p l i e d to s c h o o l s ;  the  0  values  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e o r i e s of education e f f i c i e n t l y "assembly-lined" to emerge a t the end as ready to f u l f i l l  [and]  i t was  solve  the  standards teach  of the  T h i s f a c t o r y model was implicit -  i t were could  be  years of s c h o o l i n g  products,  the needs of the business  in  children  through twelve  educated  approach  skilled  workers  world.  As E i s n e r p o i n t s out: The images t h a t have been s a l i e n t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l research community have been l a r g e l y i n d u s t r i a l and technological. [Researchers] have been primarily concerned with the development and use of techniques f o r purposes of management and c o n t r o l . When a p u b l i c i s nervous about the e f f i c a c y of i t s s c h o o l s , i t tends to tighten up and t o seek evidence concerning their productivity. For the e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h community, by and large, this has meant f i n d i n g techniques that e f f i c i e n t l y produce what i s d e s i r e d and u s i n g ' o b j e c t i v e ' means f o r demonstrating the effectiveness of the technique c h o s e n . ^ An example of the type of p o s i t i v i s t i c r e s e a r c h of  which  16  Eisner  speaks  Thousand Hours Their findings  i s the f  study  conducted by have  on  British  Peter  stirred  schools,  Mortimore  considerable  and  Fifteen others.**  interest  2  i n the  education community and have c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o what i s known as the " E f f e c t i v e Schools" movement.  According to  63  Borg and G a l l , the main purpose of such s t u d i e s i s to develop new knowledge about t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g and administration....Applied research helps directly to v a l i d a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of programs, methods, and t e s t s used i n the n a t i o n ' s schools...and w i l l eventually lead to the improvement of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . " 4  They subsequently  mention, however, t h a t  contemporary r e s e a r c h e r s i n education, e s p e c i a l l y a p p l i e d researchers, tend not t o dwell on the philosophic assumptions u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r methods of i n q u i r y . 5  Operating  within  a  coherent,  long-established  research  framework, they no longer need to ask i f p a r t i c u l a r or s o l u t i o n s are l e g i t i m a t e . Not t o be  consciously  problems  6 6  and  continuously  assumptions under which one operates,  nor  them i s a d e r e l i c t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  to  aware  of the  be  questioning  Surely  educational  r e s e a r c h e r s ought to t h o u g h t f u l l y examine and r e - e v a l u a t e assumptions determining  implicit  in  i f these are  programs  effective.  and Gary  methods Zukav's  the  before thoughts  have some bearing on t h i s i s s u e : Our minds f o l l o w d i f f e r e n t r u l e s than the r e a l world does. A r a t i o n a l mind, based on the impressions t h a t i t r e c e i v e s from i t s l i m i t e d p e r s p e c t i v e s , forms s t r u c t u r e s which t h e r e a f t e r determine what i t f u r t h e r w i l l and w i l l not accept f r e e l y . From t h a t p o i n t on, r e g a r d l e s s of how the r e a l world actually operates, this rational mind f o l l o w i n g i t s self-imposed r u l e s t r i e s t o superimpose on the r e a l world i t s own v e r s i o n of what must be. [Was this what was happening  with  the effective  schools  research,  I  wondered?] T h i s continues until at long last a beginner's mind c r i e s out, T h i s i s not r i g h t . What "must be" i s not happening. I have t r i e d and t r i e d t o d i s c o v e r  17  why t h i s i s so. I have s t r e t c h e d my imagination to the l i m i t to preserve my belief i n what "must be." The breaking point has come. Now I have no choice but to admit that the "must" I have b e l i e v e d i n does not come from the r e a l world, but from my own head. [Or the 'head' of the c u r r e n t research paradigm!] 7  Zukav says that i t takes someone young or new n o t i c e that "the emperor has Educational  research,  no  field  to  clothes."  grounded i n t r a d i t i o n a l  thought, i s r a t h e r s k i m p i l y a t t i r e d . believe  to the  We  are  scientific  encouraged  to  that  s c i e n c e provides us with a methodology t h a t allows us to r i s e above our subjective l i m i t a t i o n s and to achieve understanding from a u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d and unbiased p o i n t of view. Science can u l t i m a t e l y give a correct, d e f i n i t i v e , and general account of r e a l i t y , and through i t s methodology, i t i s c o n s t a n t l y p r o g r e s s i n g toward t h a t goal. 6 8  Our  society's  dominant  conceptual  t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f c thought, has  framework,  reductionism.  Any  in  control  as  concepts  of  p r e d i c t i o n and  i t s b a s i c p i l l a r s of b e l i e f , propped up o b j e c t i v i t y and  grounded  by  the  contemporary researcher  i s not content to t a c i t l y accept the p h i l o s p h i c a l  assumptions  of the p r e v a i l i n g s c i e n t i f i c paradigm, needs to ask: strong  are  those  two  methodological  props,  who  Just  how  objectivity  and  supposedly  allows  reductionism?  Objectivity Being detached from personal one  to conduct s c i e n t i f i c  i r r a t i o n a l manner;  emotions  inquiry in a  thus, we  impartiality  rather  are t o l d the e s s e n t i a l  t r u t h about r e a l i t y can be obtained. paradigm s t r u c t u r e s ,  rational  however,  A survey  raises  i s ever p o s s i b l e f o r  "the  s t r u c t u r e s e t s the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of  doubts  of  reality  objective scientific  that  initial  than  complete  cosmological in  which  the  18  other s t r u c t u r e s  work."  From  03  the  outset,  a  comprehensive system c r e a t e s an e x p e c t a t i o n of provides a general g u i d e l i n e establishment has some  of boundaries  interesting  indicates  the  for  scientific  w i t h i n which  consequences:  best  means  of  paradigm's  reality  which  inquiry.  This  research  first,  solving  can  "the  structure  puzzles  which  themselves are designated by the s t r u c t u r e as being of s o l u t i o n ; " 0 7  second,  the  idea  of  implies that there can be a s o l u t i o n ;  a  puzzle  laws (these had been c l e a r l y l a i d down f o r me  on  educational  fourth,  to  the  ways  in  which  l e g i t i m a t e l y employed;" i s judged  by other  71  and  accepted  but  i n d i v i d u a l s who  in  actual  itself rules  in  courses is  a  instrumentation  instruments  may  be  f i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s or s o l u t i o n  O b j e c t i v i t y i s supposed to be process",  in  "there  multitude of commitments to p r e f e r r e d types of and  need  of concepts, t h e o r i e s ,  and  methods);  by  in  t h i r d , there are  for puzzle s o l v i n g , e x p l i c i t statements  research  occur  a  are p a r t of the "passive  fact  "every  and  structure.  disinterested  stage  of  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . has been shaped by the preceding stage." ' * a researcher t r i e s to go beyond the  work  may  counter-productive;" expected dismissed  be 73  the  considered i f results  and acceptable s o l u t i o n as  established  inaccurate.  p o s s i b l e w i t h i n an accepted  do  fall  restrictions,  Impartiality  7 4  boundaries,  "unnecessary not  can  If  or  within they  the  may  be  hardly  be  paradigm's r e s t r i c t i o n s .  C o n f i r m a t i o n of doubts about i m p a r t i a l o b j e c t i v i t y may obtained from the realm of modern e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i n the a c t of  physics.  observing,  Physicists the  observer,  be  have no  19  matter how seen and real  s t r i c t the e f f o r t s to be detached, a l t e r s  thus  and  "observer  and  fundamental  sense."  experiment, f o r example, l i g h t was  observed In  7 5  Heisenberg  composed of waves  or  interrelated a  1927  tried  to  particles.  t h a t , depending upon h i s choice position  are  of  what in  is a  microscope determine  He  if  demonstrated  instruments,  either  the  ( p a r t i c l e q u a l i t i e s ) or the momentum (wave q u a l i t i e s )  of a quantum o b j e c t c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d , but not both a t For "when the values  of  certain  others become u n c e r t a i n . . . the could no longer be separated  actual  redesign  are  properties  from the a c t of  thus from the measurer h i m s e l f . " to r e f i n e and  observables  measured, of  experiments  to  objects  measurement  I t i s simply not  7 6  once.  reduce  all  possible possible  e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s and achieve p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s . s c i e n t i s t cannot be a "spectator to A r e s e a r c h parameter i s there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p what i s observed.  set  nature." by  between  the  paradigm;  instruments,  To add a f u r t h e r blow to the a l r e a d y  o b j e c t i v i t y prop, personal  participation  of  The  7 7  overall  observer,  and  the  and shaky  individual  researcher must be acknowledged i n t e g r a l to s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y as w e l l .  From the  initial  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a problem, to the  s e t t i n g up of the i n q u i r y , to the f i n a l s o l u t i o n investigator's Intuition imagination  intuition  integrates introduces  i n t e r a c t i o n of the  and  previous  imagination experience  novelty.  Polanyi  itself,  the  come  into  and  background; explains  play.  the  two:  First an idea appears, guided by intuition, to be pondered by the imagination. Second, the imagination is let loose to ferret out p o s s i b l e c l u e s , guided by intuitive feelings. And t h i r d , an idea o f f e r s itself  20  i n t u i t i v e l y as a p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n , to be pondered i n i t s t u r n i n the l i g h t of the i m a g i n a t i o n . . . . In s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y the imagination i s h e a v i l y engaged i n i t s quest f o r the m i s s i n g s o l u t i o n , In t h i s i t must be guided by powers of a n t i c i p a t i o n s i n c e otherwise i t s chances of h i t t i n g on an a p p r o p r i a t e hypothesis would be one in a million.  This  point  is  fundamental  [my  italics]  The  imagination does not work l i k e a computer, s u r v e y i n g m i l l i o n s of p o s s i b l y u s e l e s s a l t e r n a t i v e s ; rather i t works by producing ideas t h a t are guided by a f i n e sense of t h e i r p l a u s i b i l i t y , ideas which c o n t a i n the aspects of the s o l u t i o n from the s t a r t . ' 8  It  is  fallacious,  therefore,  to  believe  e l i m i n a t i o n of any r e f e r e n c e to the observer,  along  almost obsessive r e l i a n c e on q u a n t i f i e d data and language,  w i l l guarantee  precision  and  p r o v i d i n g v a l i d i t y f o r the f i n d i n g s .  that with  thereby  impossible  achieve p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s i n the study of p a r t i c l e s where matter has been reduced terms,  how  much  greater  the  to  its  impossibility  o b j e c t i v i t y i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g more complex  an  mathematical  objectivity,  If i t i s  the  to  subatomic  most  of  simple  achieving  phenomena  such  as  classrooms and s c h o o l s ! Reductionism Descartes  believed  that  all  problems  nature of r e a l i t y c o u l d be approached small p i e c e s and, by t h i n k i n g about  by  breaking  them  them i n a l o g i c a l  a s o l u t i o n , i . e . the t r u t h , c o u l d be reached. an unwieldy,  concerning  the into  manner,  Reductionism i s  incomplete t o o l with which t o examine complexity,  however: When s c i e n t i s t s reduce an i n t e g r a l whole t o fundamental b u i l d i n g b l o c k s - whether they are c e l l s , genes, or elementary p a r t i c l e s - and t r y to e x p l a i n a l l of the phenomena i n terms of these elements, they lose the a b i l i t y to understand the c o - o r d i n a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the whole s y s t e m . ™ This has o f t e n been the s i t u a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n  where  perhaps  21  the best example of r e d u c t i o n i s m i s the b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s model of s c h o o l i n g . Ralph  Tyler  educational perception  and  I t was f i r s t developed has  experts of  adopted  North  and  by  adapted  by  America.  development  as  a  With  the dominant  its  technological model  industrial/technological  In t h i s model, intended performance gains  8 0  c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d educational objectives  measurable  1930's  s p e c i f i c a t i o n and manufacture," t h i s  f i t s b e a u t i f u l l y into mode of t h i n k i n g .  been  throughout  "curriculum  problem of product  (i.e.  since  i n the  b e h a v i o u r a l terms)  l e a r n i n g experiences;  are  organized  expressed into  in  specified  proof o f p a y - o f f i s determined  through  q u a n t i f i e d t e s t i n g , thus e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t p r e - s p e c i f i e d  goals  have been a t t a i n e d . * 8  But  many  educational  educators  goals  can  realize be  short-term s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .  that  reduced  not  to  a l l worthwhile  easily  measurable,  E s t a b l i s h i n g a love of l e a r n i n g i s  an example of t h i s type of g o a l .  And E i s n e r warns t h a t :  It i s too easy , when one focuses on the achievement of particular goals through the use of particular techniques, to neglect attending to the ancillary consequences of the techniques t h a t one u s e s . 8 2  When l e a r n i n g has come t o be equated with small knowledge i s o l a t e d  from the meaning of  fragments  real-life  situations,  one of the a n c i l l a r y consequences might v e r y w e l l student's  love of l e a r n i n g i s d e s t r o y e d !  When e d u c a t i o n a l investigations to a context surrounding  researchers study  of  the  attempt simplest  to  that  reduce  variables,  r i g o r o u s methodology.  Educational p r a c t i t i o n e r s  research r e s u l t s  make  "little  be  a  8 3  these v a r i a b l e s gets screened  can  of  their the  out by t h e i r reading  sense...about  what  the the  22  experimental in them."  84  treatments  meant to the s u b j e c t s who  and t h e r e f o r e the  practitioners  a p p l y i n g the f i n d i n g s to t h e i r own r e s e a r c h i s g i v e n very  little  have  situations.  attention  participated  or  difficulty  Consequently, credibility  by  practitioners. Much e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h aims to prove the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c e r t a i n s c h o o l programs and  techniques  might be h e l d p o l i t i c a l l y accountable. aware  of,  and  acknowledge  i n order  Researchers  responsibility  s a n c t i o n i n g the u n d e r l y i n g values i m p l i c i t accountability.  The main purpose of  reductionist  methods  s u i t a b l e end-products, l a r g e extent determined  to  control  i . e . students. by corporate  whose values are grounded i n a b e l i e f Capra e x p l a i n s what i s e n t a i l e d  in able  the  in  in this  such  scientific educational to  predict  production  Suitability and  be  tacitly  i n the idea of  terms a t the present time, t h i s means being effective  they  should  for,  i n q u i r y i s to p r e d i c t and u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l ;  the most  that  business progressive  is  to  of a  interests growth.  belief:  Competition, c o e r c i o n , and exploitation are essential aspects of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , a l l motivated by the d e s i r e for i n d e f i n i t e expansion. Continuing growth is built into the corporate structure...[Its] excessive s e l f - a s s e r t i o n manifests i t s e l f as power, c o n t r o l , and domination of others by f o r c e ; and these are, indeed, the p a t t e r n s p r e v a l e n t i n our society. Political and economic power i s exerted by a dominant c o r p o r a t e class; s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s are maintained along r a c i s t and s e x i s t l i n e s , and rape has become a c e n t r a l metaphor of our c u l t u r e - rape of women, of m i n o r i t y groups, and of the earth h e r s e l f . 5  These are not values with which I am  comfortable.  23  A New  Scientific  Paradigm  Physicists, subatomic  world,  disillusioned inherent  in  their  have  with,  exploration  become  the  of  the  increasingly  inadequacies  aware  and  reductionism,  which  of,  The  support  s t r u c t u r e emphasizing p r e d i c t i o n s and  a  within  which  c o n t r o l , are  scientific  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , can The  new  quantum  crumbling.  concepts  of  effect."  8 6  "has  space, Instead  b e l i e v e d , i t now common o r i g i n world.  of  matter,  of  i n dynamic  being  and d i s t i n c t  energy  reality. nature how  relativity  object,  and  from f o r c e , and  patterns  (i.e.  energy  nuclear,  the  atomic,  microscopic  involved  in  i n ways which transcend  level a  and there  continuous are  and  of  basic  as  Newton have  of p a r t i c l e / w a v e  relationships.  But  i t i s Richard  on  molecular are  only  dance.  notions  8 7  to of  complementary  J.S.Bell  illustrates  non-local information transfer l i n k s 8 8  a  subatomic  related  our preconceived  N i e l s Bohr, f o r example, d e s c r i b e s the  between p a r t i c l e s .  cause  i s the appearance of m a t e r i a l substance  level  instantaneous,  in  force  in  and  changes  constructed  I n v e s t i g a t i o n has shown t h a t these p a r t i c l e s each other  conceptual especially  profound  appears t h a t both matter  s t r u c t u r e s ) , at the most particles  theories  necessitated  of matter's  While there  a macroscopic  on  time,  b u i l d i n g b l o c k s , separate  research,  physics  occur.  p h y s i c s , based  mechanics,  of  traditional  perhaps c o n t r i b u t e to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new  paradigm  and  props  I t i s r e l e v a n t to ask whether the t h e o r i e s of the new may  and  inconsistencies  i n the c l a s s i c a l s c i e n t i f i c paradigm.  o b j e c t i v i t y and  atomic  Feynman's  exist  theory  on  24  quantum e l e c t r o d y n a m i c s that to my mind  is  most  fascinating  (and p e r t i n e n t t o my r e f l e c t i o n s on "being" i n Chapter this study).  By u s i n g  a  Feynman has demonstrated  technique  of  VI  space-time  of  mapping,  that  p a r t i c l e i n t e r a c t i o n s can s t r e t c h i n any direction of four dimensional space-time, moving backward and forward in time just as they move left and right in space....There i s no 'before' or ' a f t e r ' i n the processes and thus no l i n e a r r e l a t i o n of cause and e f f e c t . 8 9  Or, as T . S . E l i o t says: Time present and time past Are both perhaps present i n time f u t u r e , And time f u t u r e c o n t a i n e d i n time p a s t . I f a l l time i s e t e r n a l l y present A l l time i s unredeemable. ® There  is  in  the  new  physics  a  recognition  of  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between observer (and the methods of o b s e r v a t i o n ) and observed; determined  " a l l the  properties  of  by p r i n c i p l e s " which i n turn  observation.  the are  particles related  " U l t i m a t e l y , . . . the observed p a t t e r n s  t t h e i r b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s ] are  reflections  of  to  distinct,  necessitates  that an  the  two  important  r e d u c t i o n i s t road onto a path seldom  the  of  matter  mind."  This  91  awareness of the l i n k between mind and matter, opposed i s to the long held b e l i e f  are  are  separate  detour  travelled  as  from  by  it and the  scientific  i n q u i r y , t h a t of metaphysical and a r t i s t i c ways of knowing. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , these ways have been d i s m i s s e d by s o c i e t y because inquiry  were  Western  t h e i r n o n - p o s i t i v i s t i c , e x p e r i e n t i a l modes invalidated  by  their  subjectivity.  Modern  p h y s i c s ' r e v e l a t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i v e , dynamic nature of sub-atomic on the  world j o i n s n i c e l y , though,  alternative  path.  Gary  of  the  with ideas long present  Zukav  speaks  of  Buddhist  25  beliefs  i n which  each part of p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y i s c o n s t r u c t e d of a l l other parts According to The Flower Garden Sutra in the heaven of I n d i a , there i s s a i d to be a network of p e a r l s , so arranged t h a t i f you look at one you see a l l the others r e f l e c t e d i n i t . In the same way each o b j e c t in the world i s not merely i t s e l f but i n v o l v e s every other o b j e c t and i n f a c t i s e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . 2  Zukav a l s o mentions t h a t the Chinese word f o r Li;  i t means  patterns  of  "universal order/organic two  energy  patterns"  is  Wu  [Wu]  +  These are a l s o  the  ("matter/energy" [Li])  main themes i n modern p h y s i c s .  d e s c r i b e s h i s experience  physics  9 3  Physicist  with the new  reality  Fritjof of  Capra  sub-atomic  particles: I n t e r a c t i o n s between the p a r t s of the whole are more fundamental than the p a r t s themselves. There i s motion but there are, u l t i m a t e l y , no moving o b j e c t s ; there is a c t i v i t y , but there are no a c t o r s ; there are no dancers, there i s o n l y the dance. 4  By reducing classical  matter  physicists  and  f o r c e s to t h e i r e s s e n t i a l  hoped  eventually  to  explain  f u n c t i o n i n g of a l l the mechanical r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the world.  Such understanding  e a r l i e r , to p r e d i c t and explication  of  would  control  relativity  p h y s i c i s t s have had  to  his  and  learn  enable  man,  to  as  world.  quantum live  put with  they w i l l never be  "complete  and  approximate d e s c r i p t i o n s of  their today's  ambiguity,  to  replace,  are  definitive....To  i t b l u n t l y , s c i e n t i s t s do not d e a l with t r u t h ; l i m i t e d and  natural  in  theories with  the  discussed  But  r e a l i z e t h a t these t h e o r i e s , l i k e the ones they limited;  parts,  they  reality."  deal  9 5  the minds of these s c i e n t i s t s , the r i g i d c e r t a i n t y i m p l i c i t c l a s s i c a l Newtonian p h y s i c s has disappeared, respect  f o r the complexity  replaced  with  of nature where " r e a l i t y has a  In in a way  26  of h i d i n g even from i t s most g i f t e d o b s e r v e r s . T h e y come to r e c o g n i z e t h a t  state-of-the-art  have  quantifications  are  not enough. The t r a d i t i o n a l  metaphor  a p p l i c a b l e t o the new  view of  of  cosmos-as-machine  reality;  metaphor i s cosmos-as-rhythmic-dance, within a  unified  whole.  This  a  more  is  appropriate  i . e . p a t t e r n s of metaphor  not  creates  energy  a  vastly  d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l framework, one i n which r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n t e g r a t i o n are emphasized; without.  order  comes  Modern s c i e n c e terms t h i s a  structure.  In i t ,  from  systems  within, or  not  ecological  "form i s a r r i v e d a t whenever a s t a b l e , even  though moving, e q u i l i b r i u m i s reached. s u s t a i n one a n o t h e r . "  Changes i n t e r l o c k  and  The p r i n c i p l e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  9 7  than b a s i c b u i l d i n g b l o c k s or b a s i c substances, are  of  more prime  importance: Systemic p r o p e r t i e s are d e s t r o y e d when a system i s dissected, either physically or t h e o r e t i c a l l y , into i s o l a t e d elements. Although we can d i s c e r n individual p a r t s i n any system, the nature of the whole i s always d i f f e r e n t from the mere sum of i t s p a r t s . 8  The theme of holonomy each of i t s p a r t s i s theories in p h y s i c s .  where the  common  in  a  whole  is  contained  in  number  of  proposed  new  I t i s d i f f i c u l t , however, t o put a s i d e  9 9  C a r t e s i a n ideas of o b j e c t s as s e p a r a t e from o u r s e l v e s ; i n experience of everyday r e a l i t y we u s u a l l y account  how  sensory  p a t t e r n s from the  perception  on-going  o b j e c t s which " e x i s t o n l y concepts, and i d e a s . approaches  which  m 1 u u  do  not  interprets  the  rhythmic in  Two  attempt  our  dance  inner  to  provide  into  frequency  around  world  revolutionary  take  our  of  and  us  into  symbols-,  imaginative an  overall  27  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the S-matrix theory and implicate order.  new  David  universe  Bohm's  are  theory  Geoffrey of  Chew's  explicate  Capra comments on the concepts  they  and  share:  Both...are based on a view of the world as a dynamic web of r e l a t i o n s ; both attribute a central role to the n o t i o n of order; both use matrices to r e p r e s e n t change and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and topology to c l a s s i f y c l a s s e s of order. Finally, both theories recognize that consciousness may w e l l be an essential aspect of the u n i v e r s e t h a t w i l l have to be i n c l u d e d i n a f u t u r e theory of p h y s i c a l phenomena. Universe-as-hologram,  universe-as-ecological  universe-as-rhythmic-dance. differ  These  considerably  cosmological  from  the  system, metaphors  conception  of  universe-as-clockwork! E i s e l e y mentions t h a t "with has  uncanny  foresight  long toyed s y m b o l i c a l l y with what...[is now]  reality."  folklore  proclaimed  a  In many t a l e s ,  black magic... t r a n s m o g r i f i e s the true form of t h i n g s . At the s t r o k e of twelve the p r i n c e s s must f l e e the banquet or r i s k d i s c o v e r y i n the rags of a k i t c h e n wench; coach r e v e r t s to pumpkin. I n s t a b i l i t y l i e s a t the heart of the world....Form i s an i l l u s i o n of the time dimension. Perhaps e d u c a t i o n a l  researchers  and  other  scientists  need  something of the magician  i n t h e i r make-up i n order  to  the  reality  type  fluid  patterns  of  which  this  new  study of  s c i e n t i f i c kaleidoscope turns i n t o place f o r us: For o n l y to a magician i s the world forever fluid, i n f i n i t e l y mutable and e t e r n a l l y new. Only he knows the s e c r e t of change, o n l y he knows t h a t a l l t h i n g s are crouched i n eagerness to become something e l s e , and i t i s from t h i s u n i v e r s a l t e n s i o n t h a t he draws h i s power. In a broad  sense, magicians  are a r t i s t s .  k a l e i d o s c o p e appears v e r y s i m i l a r always looked through. apart.  to  the  The one  Science and a r t are no  new  scientific  artists longer  have worlds  28  A Nsw S c l e n U U c / A r t l s U c  Paradigm  Emerging s c i e n t i f i c thought may  be p r e s e n t i n g us  new  k a l e i d o s c o p e p a t t e r n of f l u i d r e a l i t y , but  who  hold i t up to our gaze have a l o t of work ahead  P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h i s new performance  is s t i l l  eroded by new  world  off.  view  which  s c i e n t i f i c concepts.  concept f a i l s to f i t the  rigid  The  of  A  current  is  the  presently  being  cosmos-as-rhythmic-dance  t r a d i t i o n a l cosmos-as-machine paradigm. i n d i c a t e s the beginnings of a paradigm  of  the  And a f a i l u r e t o f i t shift.  Kuhn notes t h a t the p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g a paradigm "anomalies"  shift  is  can  no  which  longer be accommodated by the e x i s t i n g paradigm; to  them.  societal  compartmentalization  marked by i n c r e a s i n g awareness of  a  magicians  magic show are i n p r o g r e s s , but  a long way  structure r e f l e c t s a  the  with  these  lead  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of a l t e r n a t i v e concepts which can then  form  the b a s i s of a new major  anomaly  framework. "  is  1  that  In e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , one  4  research  "has  i n f l u e n c e on the day-to-day  work of  advocating  use  the  continued  relatively  educators."  of  Although  1 0 5  traditional  little  scientific  methodology, Borg and G a l l remark t h a t i f educators were t o suddenly lose the body of knowledge gained through e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . . . t h e i r work would be v i r t u a l l y unphased....It i s hard t o imagine a teacher who would r e f u s e to teach students because he lacked research-based knowledge about the l e a r n i n g process and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e t h o d s . ° 10  Something i s d r e a d f u l l y immediately  involved  meaning i n  research  askew  if  those  most  directly  i n the e d u c a t i o n process f i n d  anomaly, Borg and G a l l  results. cite  Attempting reasons  funding, t o s t u d i e s i s o l a t e d and  not  to  so  and  little  explain  this  ranging  from  lack  of  readily  applicable  to  29  p r a c t i c e , to t e a c h e r s ' research methodology.  lack  of  knowledge  and  training  in  knowledge  of  107  Many teachers have not  acquired  adequate  r e s e a r c h methodology which s t r e s s a r a t i o n a l , s y s t e m a t i c of i n q u i r y .  But  i f there has been a f a i l u r e on  t e a c h e r s , there has  also  been  a  failure  of  form  the  part  of  the  research  methodology t o r e p r e s e n t adequately the d a i l y l i v e d  complexity  of  knowledge,  the  classroom  and  experientially-based, Materials  and  effective in  to that  methods areas  administrative  intuitive already  traditional  outside  the  for  this  teacher involvement,  research  this  process.  the f a c t t h a t at  the  time  experience  educative q u a l i t y generated  little  Teaching Teachers  are  is  first  people  p o i n t i s so obvious,  and  relating  it  is  more important,  i.e.,  those  o b j e c t i v e r e d u c t i o n i s m of s c i e n t i f i c the g r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n .  of  Inherent p r o p e r t i e s  been  human  people.  activity.  Because  of  lend  it  this  receives  teaching  themselves  deemed to  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , are  the o£  i n t e r a c t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s of human beings  of  things;  a  so  the given  activities,  parts  t e a c h i n g , on the other hand, needs to concern  to  by r e s e a r c h .  A study of mechanical  i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l examination attends to the  a  aspects  which  has  practitioners  taken-for-granted;  " l i p - s e r v i c e " only, while those  relied  hierarchical,  classroom  other  and  This contributes  foremost to  has  There  c o r p o r a t e - s t y l e decision-making  been  Political  research. in  possess. have  example,  however,  present  do  classroom.  decision-making, of  the  teachers  of  h e a v i l y on the r e s u l t s minimal  value  a  clock,  study  i t s e l f with vital  as  to  of the  it.  l  u  8  30  Any  r e s e a r c h approach emphasizing  only  and  reductionism  science  ignores the teaching.  focuses  human  on  the  qualities  which  rational of  objectivity  teaching;  constitute  the  it  a r t of  W i l l i a m James, among o t h e r s , has warned:  You make a very great mistake i f you t h i n k that psychology, being the s c i e n c e of the mind's laws, i s something from which you can deduce d e f i n i t e programs and schemes and methods of instruction for immediate schoolroom use. Psychology i s a s c i e n c e and t e a c h i n g i s an a r t ; And s c i e n c e s never generate a r t s d i r e c t l y out of themselves....A s c i e n c e o n l y l a y s down the l i n e s within which the r u l e s of a r t must f a l l , laws which the f o l l o w e r of the a r t must not t r a n s g r e s s , but what p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g he s h a l l do w i t h i n those l i n e s i s l e f t e x c l u s i v e l y t o h i s own g e n i u s . 1 0 9  With i t s r e f e r e n c e s t o mechanical s c i e n c e l a i d down very r i g i d educational research. which  reflect  the  lines  But what new  concepts,  f o r both  would  scientific  the  i s primarily  r e l a t i n g t o other  human  education  "lines"  learning  two  relationships  other.  I f educational research  these  interactional  investigation leading  from  and  key -  relationships to  further  to  concepts.  individuals  manner,  growing  i s going  like  Interactive  i n d i v i d u a l s i n an i n t e r a c t i v e  c h i l d r e n and teacher  and  be  thinking?  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and dynamic rhythms are i t s Education  traditional  be  require  with  each  humanized, enlightened  understanding.  course, means acknowledging t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l  both  This,  is a  "unique  c r e a t u r e beyond the s t a t i s t i c . "  1 1 0  in i s o l a t i o n .  of uniqueness as i t r e l a t e s t o  and  An understanding  I n d i v i d u a l s do  of  i n t e r a c t s with the whole of r e a l i t y can  only  not  come  exist  about  through i m a g i n a t i v e r a t i o n a l i t y which r e q u i r e s t h a t s c i e n c e be a  synthesis  of  understanding.  1 1 1  both  rational  knowing  and  intuitive  31  The  b e l i e f s of modern  physicists  those of the Chinese p h i l o s o p h e r s who a process of flow and change.  were  foreshadowed  conceived  by  r e a l i t y to  I t s u l t i m a t e essence,  Tao,  be is a  dynamic interplay of...archetypal poles [yin and yang]....These opposites do not belong to different c a t e g o r i e s but are extreme poles of a s i n g l e whole. Nothing i s o n l y y i n or yang. A l l n a t u r a l phenomena are m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of a continuous oscillation between the two p o l e s , a l l t r a n s a c t i o n s t a k i n g place g r a d u a l l y and i n unbroken p r o g r e s s i o n . The n a t u r a l order i s one of dynamic balance between y i n and y a n g . 1 1 2  Y i n and yang can be extended i n t o two  modes of  y i n corresponds  "feminine,  to  that  which  is  consciousness: contractive,  responsive, co-operative, i n t u i t i v e , synthesizing;" all  that  is  "masculine,  expansive,  competitive, r a t i o n a l , a n a l y t i c . " modes complement each other and than the o t h e r . good; t h e i r  demanding,  In Chinese  yang  aggressive,  thought,  harmful.  Western  and  s o c i e t i e s have c r e a t e d an imbalance between the two f o r one  over the  p r a c t i c e s of each, comments t h a t "the  East  forest;  She  I  the West counted the t r e e s . "  mentioned  important  role  experience.  that  i n both s c i e n t i f i c  Some may  finished. The  They may  traditional  mind."  imagination  investigation  walks  act  off  of  Marilyn  believes that  assume t h a t once the  has been performed, imagination  Eastern  contemplated  the f o r e s t s i s a new  previously  is  modes  other.  Ferguson, r e f e r r i n g to the d i f f e r e n c e s between the  mind t h a t knows the t r e e s and  that  1 1 3  To a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r extent both  thought i n t h e i r preference  these  n e i t h e r i s of more moral value  Rather, i t i s t h e i r dynamic balance  imbalance,  to  plays and of  stage,  the "the 1 1 4  an  artistic discovery its  role  a l s o assume:  p o s s e s s i o n of  [the  discovery]  by  others  requires  32  /  l i t t l e imagination. This i s not the case i n the arts. The c a p a c i t y of a c r e a t i v e a r t i s t ' s vision may be enormous; but i t i s o n l y the v i s i o n t h a t he imparts to h i s p u b l i c t h a t enable h i s a r t to l i v e f o r o t h e r s . Thus the meanings he can c r e a t e f o r h i s p u b l i c are l i m i t e d by the requirement t h a t they provide a basis for their r e - c r e a t i o n by the imagination of o t h e r s . 1 4  The  assumption t h a t  needed  only  experience  to  personal,  understand  imaginative the  complexities  cannot be s u s t a i n e d ;  recognized  as  complexities  essential revealed  by  improved understanding  this  to  the  the  participation of  participation  physics  as  of e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s ,  imaginative p a r t i c i p a t i o n must a l s o be methodology of education  artistic is  understanding  new  is  now  of  the  well.  For  the  idea  incorporated  of  into  the  research.  " I l l u m i n a t i v e " E d u c a t i o n a l Research D i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t r a d i t i o n a l approaches, some alternatives for  educational  research  are  appearing  provide an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r imaginative audience in their performance. methodological of the hat, artistic  or  Although  1 1 6  techniques  they new  all  d e s c r i p t i o n and  share  each d i v e r g e s  somewhat  characteristics conceptual  common  on  understanding  totality,  of  the  program's  and  the  unifying  an This  that  context  the program, s t r i v e s to  out  to  framework.  i n t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r , assuming  e s s e n t i a l f o r understanding the g e s t a l t , the  participation  f o r p u l l i n g the r e s e a r c h r a b b i t  scientific  research i s h o l i s t i c  which  a is  understand  structure  of  particular settings: [In illuminative research] data are collected as open-ended n a r r a t i v e without attempting to f i t program a c t i v i t i e s or people's experiences into pre-conceived, standardized c a t e g o r i e s . . . i n order to find out what people's l i v e s , e x p e r i e n c e s , and i n t e r a c t i o n s mean to them i n t h e i r own terms and i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s . 1 1 7  33  Emphasis i s on the unique and p a r t i c u l a r , as standard and g e n e r a l . than  the  D e s c r i p t i o n and  measurement  and  In the new  scientific  Science  evolution  of  itself  of  the  thinking,  traditional  definitive of  scientific  reality  d i f f e r e n t stages, each more  specialized  c a l l s them " b e t t e r exemplars." i n f l u e n c e d by an out-dated  knowledge and  1 1 8  proof cannot  i s an e v o l u t i o n a r y process;  species,  the  rather  of i l l u m i n a t i v e s t u d i e s .  every a s s e r t i o n concerning the nature given.  to  interpretation,  prediction  approach, are the prime concern  opposed  the  evolves  in  the  Kuhn  assumption,  conceptual paradigm, t h a t there  some f i n a l g o a l f o r s c i e n t i f i c  be  as i n  refined.  He questions  for  is  understanding:  But need there be any such goal? Can we not account for both s c i e n c e ' s e x i s t e n c e and i t s success i n terms of e v o l u t i o n from the community's s t a t e of knowledge a t any one time? Does i t r e a l l y help to imagine t h a t there i s some one f u l l , o b j e c t i v e t r u e account of nature and that the proper measure of s c i e n t i f i c achievement i s the extent to which i t b r i n g s us c l o s e r to that g o a l ? 1 1 9  Kuhn's q u e s t i o n s a r e , of course, r e l e v a n t to contemplating  the  r o l e of  and  educational  uniqueness  in  research  educational  valued, then there cannot formula  as  well.  settings be  only  If  are  one  acknowledged "true"  and  prescriptive  for educational research.  Rather  than being r u l e d by f i x e d  certainty,  working w i t h i n an i l l u m i n a t i v e approach  are  flexibility.  sense  guided  diversity  by  knowing. " •  They r e l y "a  L£V  only through  on  trust  in  Instead of  their  own  intuition,  emphasizing  allowed  This  is  a  of  quantities,  science  greater  direction,  whole-brain...tacit  measurements, they concentrate on  of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s .  researchers  of  the  verifiable qualities consciousness  34  r a t h e r than  fact:  The p a t t e r n s of experience c o n s t i t u t i n g the data of such a science cannot be q u a n t i f i e d or analyzed into fundamental elements, and they w i l l always be s u b j e c t i v e to v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . 1 2 1  Subjectivity,  however,  non-scientific.  A l l research  human judgement. to  prejudice,  Personal  can  no  longer  be  i s vulnerable  i n i t s r e l i a n c e on  There i s no form of r e s e a r c h experimenter  bias,  and  considered  t h a t i s "immune  human  error."  1 2 2  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s encouraged and s k i l l f u l l y developed  i n the new research  methodology.  new s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c "understanding, conviction.  To achieve coherence  paradigm,  extension  of  inquiry's  experience,  and  should  be  increase  in  structure  of  , l 1 2 3  Kuhn demonstrates i n h i s a n a l y s i s scientific  aims  within  of  the  r e v o l u t i o n s , t h a t day-to-day s c i e n c e  activity  is predicated on the assumption t h a t the s c i e n t i f i c community knows what the world is like. Much of the success of the e n t e r p r i s e d e r i v e s from the community's w i l l i n g n e s s to defend that assumption, i f necessary, a t any c o s t . . . . [ I t ] o f t e n suppresses fundamental novelties because they are n e c e s s a r i l y s u b v e r s i v e of i t s b a s i c commitments. 124  The  b i r t h of new ideas  i s strongly resisted;  o f t e n p a i n f u l and slow.  People a r e i n c l i n e d to c l i n g  s e c u r i t y of the f a m i l i a r r a t h e r  than  u n c e r t a i n t y of the n e w .  perhaps  true i n the present flowing  i n t o place  125  And  situation. embody  e s s e n t i a l l y unpredictable,  within forever  The  risk  new  them  drifting  this  the  ambiguous  research,  is  to the i n the  is especially  paradigm  Research under t h i s paradigm w i l l not provide In e d u c a t i o n a l  the d e l i v e r y  patterns  concept  of  natural  world.  right  an  answers.  f o r example,  by d i s c a r d i n g a s p u r i o u s ,  t e c h n o l o g i c a l s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of  35  reality, and by acknowledging the complexity of e d u c a t i o n a l process, the i l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t o r i s l i k e l y to increase rather than lessen the sense of uncertainty. 1 2 6  Acceptance of a new  paradigm  never  r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of o b s e r v a t i o n s under the o l d paradigm.  means, of  a  however,  fixed  just  reality  a  made  S c i e n t i f i c revolution involves  the community's r e j e c t i o n of one time-honoured s c i e n t i f i c theory in favour of another incompatible with i t . . . . [ T h e r e i s ] a consequent shift i n the problems a v a i l a b l e f o r s c i e n t i f i c s c r u t i n y and i n the standards by which the p r o f e s s i o n determines what should count as an admissable problem or as a legitimate problem-solution....Though the world does not change with a change of paradigm, the s c i e n t i s t a f t e r w a r d works i n a different world. ' 1 2  At the beginning of my  paper I s t a t e d t h a t  t h o u g h t f u l l y r e c o n s i d e r what i s I might r e s o l v e my realize  that,  meant  misgivings  for  the  most  continues to be conceived s c i e n t i f i c paradigm.  of  by it.  part,  research  terms  needed  research  about  in  I  I  of  so  have  education traditional  framework whose r o o t  cosmos-as-rhythmic-dance.  I  realize  metaphor  that,  like  metaphorical c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , i t provides f o r o n l y  all  of r e a l i t y .  I t may  the f a c t s with which i t may  the p r e v i o u s  paradigm,  full  never be  able  be c o n f r o n t e d . " explanation  is  to  r e a l i t i e s , perhaps r e g a i n i n g a sense of awe T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a l l o w s me,  focus on the human q u a l i t i e s process  which  are  of  complexity of classroom  of  the  paramount life.  I now  a is  all limited  "explain But u n l i k e  1 2 8  not  Instead, i t hopes f o r i n t e r p r e t i v e understanding  the process.  to  Modern p h y s i c s , however, i s p r o v i d i n g  v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t conceptual  understanding  that  come  in  the  to  of  its  aim.  multiple  about e x i s t e n c e i n as  teaching  importance  researcher, and in  to  learning the  rich  recognize t h a t the  source  36  o£ my m i s g i v i n g s about t r a d i t i o n a l mismatch between  its  outlook  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s the  on  reality  and  my  view  of  r e a l i t y , a r r i v e d at through t a c i t knowing. As a r e s u l t  of my  preliminary re-searching, I  brought to a p o i n t where I can approach the a new  have  implementation  c u r r i c u l u m , to be d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I , with  understanding complexities.  and  a  heightened  sensitivity  been of  greater for  its  37  Notes  F. G. Fowler and H. W. Fowler, eds., The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y of Current E n g l i s h . 5th. r e v . ed. (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p. 1057. 1  Walter Borg and Meredith G a l l , E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 3d. r e v . ed. (New York: Longman, 1983), p. 1. 2  Loren E i s e l e y , The Immense Journey (New House, Vintage Book, 1959), p. 89. 3  John Dewey, A r t as Experience (New York: Putnam's Sons, Perigee Book, 1980), p. 35. 4  York:  G.  f  Random  P.  Dewey, p. 246.  5  M i c h a e l P o l a n y i and Harry Prosch, Meaning (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1975), p. 36. 6  P o l a n y i and Prosch, p. 62.  7  George L a k o f f and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We L i v e Bv (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1980), p. 178. 8  L a k o f f and Johnson, p. 5.  9  l u  L a k o f f and Johnson, p.  1 1  L a k o f f and Johnson, p. 119.  1  L a k o f f and Johnson, p. 119.  2  1 3  Little,  232.  James Burke, The Dav the Universe Changed (Boston: Brown, 1985), p. 309.  38  Harold Pearse, "World Hypotheses, Root Metaphors, and A r t E d u c a t i o n R a t i o n a l e s " i n Readings i n Canadian A r t E d u c a t i o n , ed. R. MacGregor (Vancouver, B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, WEDGE, 1984), pp. 37-44. 1 4  1  5  Pearse, pp. 37-44.  Thomas Kuhn, The S t r u c t u r e of S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s , 2d. ed. (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1970), p. 23. 1 6  L a k o f f and Johnson, p. 146. A d d i t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s concept i s found i n Burke, pp. 309-310; P o l a n y i and Prosch, p.43; and M a r i l y n Ferguson, The Aquarian C o n s p i r a c y (Los Angeles: J . P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 104. 1  7  1  8  1 9  L a k o f f and Johnson, p. 13. Burke, p. 310.  F r i t j o f Capra, The Turning P o i n t (New York: Simon and Schuster, Bantam Book, 1983), pp. 28-29. Capra d i s c u s s e s Toynbee's t h e o r y of f l u c t u a t i n g p a t t e r n s i n c u l t u r a l evolutions. 2 0  2  1  Angeles: 2  2  M a r i l y n Ferguson, The Aquarian C o n s p i r a c y (Los J . P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 53. Kuhn, p. 123.  2 3  Kuhn, p. 77.  2 4  Kuhn, pp. 84-85.  2  Kuhn, p. 85.  5  2 6  Kuhn, p. 204.  John Briggs and David Peat, The Looking G l a s s Universe (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), p. 24. A s i m i l a r analogy i s made by P o l a n y i and Prosch, p. 37. 2  7  2 8  Ferguson, p. 28.  39  Loren E i s e l e y , The Night Country (New York: Charles S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1971), p. 131. The r i s k s o f , and r e s i s t a n c e t o , paradigm change a r e a l s o mentioned by Capra, p. 29, and Ferguson, p. 197. 2 9  Since c h i l d h o o d , I have been f a s c i n a t e d by k a l e i d o s c o p e s and have a c q u i r e d a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t types. The most common ones have a c o n t a i n e r of s m a l l g l a s s or p l a s t i c fragments a t the end of a m i r r o r e d tube. This c o n t a i n e r i s r o t a t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n p a t t e r n s of fragments which remain s t a t i c u n t i l the c o n t a i n e r i s g i v e n another t u r n . A more unusual kaleidoscope i s the type which has l a y e r s of m u l t i - c o l o u r e d l i q u i d s a t the end of a mirrored tube. As one looks through i t , the l i q u i d s g r a d u a l l y flow i n t o constantly changing p a t t e r n s . 3 0  3 1  Dewey, p. 42, 44.  3 2  Dewey, pp. 36-37.  3 3  Dewey, p. 84.  3 4  P o l a n y i and Prosch,  35 P o l a n y i and Prosch,  p. 101. p. 99.  Harry Broudy, "A Common Curriculum i n A e s t h e t i c s and Fine A r t s " i n I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s and the Common Curriculum, NSSE Yearbook P a r t 1 (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1983), p. 229. 3 6  3 7  Dewey, p. 266-267.  Harry Broudy, "The S t r u c t u r e of Knowledge i n the A r t s " i n A e s t h e t i c s and C r i t i c i s m i n A r t Education, ed. R. A. Smith (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966), p. 31. 3 8  3 9  Dewey, p. 54.  40 P o l a n y i and Prosch,  p. 103.  P o l a n y i and Prosch,  p. 103.  4 1  42 Briggs and Peat, p. 25.  40  Loren E i s e l e y , The Firmament of Time (New Atheneum, 1966), p. 5. 4 3  4 4  B r i g g s and Peat, p. 31.  4  B r i g g s and Peat, p. 31.  5  4 6  Kuhn, p. 2.  4 7  Kuhn, p. 3.  4 8  Capra, pp. 63, 47-48.  4 9  Capra, p. 47.  5 0  Capra, p.  5 1  Borg and G a l l , p. 20.  5 2  Capra, p.  York:  180.  180.  B r i g g s and Peat, p. 19. Borg and G a l l , pp. 24-25. 5 3  A similar description i s in  5 4  Borg and G a l l , p. 20.  5 5  Capra, p.  5 6  Capra, p. 60.  5 7  Capra, p. 66.  5 8  Borg and G a l l , pp. 26-27.  180. A l s o i n B r i g g s and Peat, p. 20.  E x c e l l e n t overviews of these d i f f e r e n t areas are found i n Capra, The T u r n i n g P o i n t : Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy; and L a k o f f and Johnson, Metaphors We L i v e By. Lakoff and Johnson provide many i l l u s t r a t i o n s from everyday 5 9  41  language. They say that our mind i s o f t e n envisaged as a machine. My mind j u s t i s n ' t o p e r a t i n g today/ or Boy, the wheels a r e t u r n i n g now. are two examples, (p. 27). 5 9  Burke, p.  193.  E l l i o t Eisner Longman, 1982), p. 6. 6  0  f  C o g n i t i o n and C u r r i c u l u m (New  M i c h a e l Rutter et a l . , F i f t e e n Thousand (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979). 6 1  York:  Hours  Dr. Peter Mortimore was my i n s t r u c t o r f o r a course i n advanced E d u c a t i o n a l Research Methods. He r e f e r r e d e x t e n s i v e l y t o the F i f t e e n Thousand Hours study and the " E f f e c t i v e S c h o o l s " movement throughout the c o u r s e . 6  2  6  3  Borg and G a l l , p. 26.  6 4  Borg and G a l l , pp. 4,  6  Borg and G a l l , p. 26.  5  19.  Gary Zukav, The Dancing Wu L i Masters (New W i l l i a m Morrow, Bantam Book, 1980), p. 160. 6 6  6.7 L a k o f f and Johnson, p. 68 Burke, p.  331.  69 Burke, p.  310.  York:  187.  Kuhn, p. 40. Borg and G a l l , s t a t e that e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h must have these pre-determined q u a l i t i e s : p o s i t i v i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n , g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y , research c o n t r o l , s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and r e p l i c a b i l i t y . The f a c t that i n t h e i r t e x t , E d u c a t i o n a l Research, o n l y seven of i t s nine hundred pages are r e l a t e d to a l t e r n a t i v e r e s e a r c h methodologies i n d i c a t e s the v a l u e the authors p l a c e on r e s u l t s obtained by these methods. Burke, p. 309, i l l u s t r a t e s Kuhn's p o i n t with t h i s humorous o b s e r v a t i o n : " I f you b e l i e v e t h a t the u n i v e r s e i s made of omelette, you d e s i g n instruments t o f i n d t r a c e s of i n t e r g a l a c t i c egg. In such a s t r u c t u r e , phenomena such as p l a n e t s or black holes would be r e j e c t e d . " 7 0  42  Burke, p. 326. The i m p o s s i b i l i t y of "pure" o b j e c t i v i t y i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d by Zukav, pp. 91-114. 7  1  7  2  Burke, p.  314.  Burke, pp. 326, 328. The example of A l b e r t M i c k e l s o n and Edward Morley's 1887 experiment to measure the e f f e c t of the ether i s g i v e n as one i l l u s t r a t i o n of how adherence t o paradigmatic concepts r e s t r i c t e d the acceptance of observed data. 7 3  7 4  Zukav, p. 92.  7  5  B r i g g s and Peat, p. 51.  7 6  B r i g g s and Peat, p. 51.  7 7  P o l a n y i and Prosch, pp. 96-97.  Capra, p. 114. Prosch, p. 55. 7 8  This i s also discussed  i n P o l a n y i and  David Hamilton et a l . , eds., Beyond the Numbers Game (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1977), p. 26. 7 9  8  0  8 1  Hamilton et a l . , p. 26. E i s n e r , p. 7.  John Dewey, Experience and E d u c a t i o n (New Macmillan, C o l l i e r Book, 1963), p. 48. 8 2  York:  83 Borg and G a l l , p. 27 8 4  Capra, p. 44.  Capra, p. 77. I a l s o found s i m i l a r "layman" e x p l a n a t i o n s of the new p h y s i c s i n Zukav, The Dancing Wu L i Masters and B r i g g s and Peat, The Looking G l a s s Universe v e r y helpful. 8  5  43  8 6  Capra, p. 91.  8 7  Capra, pp. 79, 95.  See a l s o Zukav, pp. 93, 95,  282-305, 88 Capra, p. 89. 8 9  (London: 9  0  See a l s o Zukav, pp. 212-222  T. S. E l i o t , "Burnt Norton," C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935 Faber and Faber, 1936), p. 185. Capra, p. 93.  Zukav, p. 238, c i t i n g S i r C h a r l e s E l i o t , Japanese Buddhism (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1969), pp. 109-110. 9  1  9  2  Zukav, p. 5.  Capra, p. 92. T h i s echoes some l i n e s from T . S . E l i o t ' s "Burnt Norton": "At the s t i l l p o i n t of the t u r n i n g world. Neither f l e s h nor f l e s h n e s s ; Neither from nor towards; a t the s t i l l p o i n t , there the dance i s , But n e i t h e r a r r e s t nor movement. And do not call i t fixity, Where past and f u t u r e are gathered. N e i t h e r movement from nor towards, Neither ascent nor d e c l i n e . Except f o r the p o i n t , the s t i l l p o i n t , There would be no dance, and there i s only the dance." 9  3  9 4  Capra, p. 48.  Loren E i s e l e y , The Unexpected Universe (New Harcourt Brace J o v a n o v i c h , 1969), pp. 165-167. 9  5  9  6  Capra, p.  267.  9  7  Capra, p.  267.  9  8  Ferguson, pp. 164-165.  Ferguson b r i e f l y  York:  summarizes  44  I l y a P r i g o g i n e ' s From Being to Becoming (San F r a n c i s c o : Freeman, 1980). See a l s o B r i g g s and Peat, pp. 161-178, and Capra, p. 271. Capra, p.  9 9  301.  Capra, p. 96. F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s of Bohm's t h e o r i e s are i n B r i g g s and Peat, pp. 98-152; Ferguson, pp. 180-181; and Zukav, pp. 305-310. 1  0  u  1  0  1  E i s e l e y , The Unexpected  Universe,, p. 78.  Peter Beagle, The L a s t U n i c o r n (New House, B a l l a n t i n e Book, 1969), p. 138. 1  0  2  1  0  3  Kuhn, p. 6.  1  0  4  Borg and G a l l , p. 4.  1  0  5  Borg and G a l l , p. 4.  1  0  6  Borg and G a l l , pp. 14-15.  l  u  7  L a k o f f and Johnson, p.  York:  Random  181.  108 w i n i James, T a l k s to Teachers on Psychology and t o Students on L i f e ' s I d e a l s (London: Longman, 1925), pp. 7-8, c i t e d by Borg and G a l l , p. 16. a  m  1  0  9  E i s e l e y , The Night Country, p.  l  l  u  L a k o f f and Johnson, p.  1  1  1  Capra, p. 35.  1  1  2  Capra, p. 36.  141.  183.  Ferguson, p. 82. See a l s o the e x c e l l e n t summary of the d i f f e r e n c e s between E a s t e r n and Western p h i l o s o p h i e s g i v e n by David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , ARK book, 1983), pp. 19-26. 1  1  3  45  1  1  4  P o l a n y i and Prosch, p. 85.  David Hamilton e t a l . , eds., Beyond the Numbers Game (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1977). E l l i o t E i s n e r , E r n e s t House, Barry MacDonald, Lawrence Stenhouse, M i c h a e l S c r i v e n , Helen Simons, Robert Stake, and Rob Walker are some of those mentioned who advocate a l t e r n a t e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h approaches. 1  1  5  M i c h a e l P a t t o n , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n Methods (Beverley H i l l s : SAGE, 1980), p. 22. 1  1  6  1  1  7  Hamilton et a l . ,  1  1  8  Kuhn, p.  171.  Ferguson, p. 107. Michael P o l a n y i . 1  1  9  1  2  0  Capra, p.  p. 10.  Ferguson summarizes the ideas of  376.  •12.1 Hamilton e t a l . ,  p. 18,  Robert Stake, "The Case Study Method i n S o c i a l I n q u i r y , " E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher 7, no. 2 (1978): 6. 1  2  2  1  2  3  Kuhn, p. 5.  1  2  4  Zukav, p.  1  2  5  Hamilton e t a l . , p. 22.  1  2  6  Kuhn, pp. 6,  1  2  7  Kuhn, p. 17.  191.  121.  46  CHAPTER II The  Research P r o j e c t  Research Problem In  September  1985,  the  new  Elementary  Fine  Curriculum Guide was introduced to s c h o o l s throughout Columbia.  My  purposes  i n conducting  this  study  observe a c o l l e a g u e ' s use of. the guide w i t h i n to d i s c u s s and tension  interpret  zone  between  "curriculum-as-lived;" discussions.  with  her  the  the  her  living  Arts British  were  to  classroom; within  "curriculum-as-plan"  the and  and t o r e f l e c t on my o b s e r v a t i o n s and  1  R e l a t i n g them t o ray own experiences  me t o assess c a r e f u l l y the q u a l i t y of my  own  would  living,  enable as  my  s c h o o l ' s a r t s p e c i a l i s t , between the two worlds of c u r r i c u l u m . As Sarason  notes:  The f a c t i s t h a t our primary value concerns our need t o help o u r s e l v e s change and l e a r n , f o r us t o f e e l t h a t we are growing i n our understanding of where we have been, where we a r e , and what we have been about, and t h a t we are e n j o y i n g what we a r e d o i n g . 2  T h i s deeper understanding resource person  might a l s o a s s i s t me i n my  i n v o l v e d i n the  professional  v i s u a l a r t s teachers w i t h i n my s c h o o l  role  as  development  of  district.  I was i n t e r e s t e d i n p o s s i b l e changes that of  this  curriculum  might  multidimensional, a f f e c t i n g and  possibly b e l i e f s .  implementation  3  What  initiate. materials, would  be  implementation  Change teaching the  can  be  approaches,  meaning  of the  of the new c u r r i c u l u m f o r my c o l l e a g u e and f o r  47  me i n  our  classrooms  classrooms?  For  it  is  in  the  complexity  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a c t u a l l y l i v e with the  curriculum  pian and, i n v a r y i n g degrees, c o n t r i b u t e e i t h e r t o i t s or  t o i t s demise.  of  growth  In F u l l a n ' s words,  the key t o s c h o o l improvement i n d i v i d u a l meaning is the central that w i l l enhance t h i s meaning.  i s to r e c o g n i z e that i s s u e , and t o do t h i n g s  4  As an e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r , I a l s o wanted t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r other p r a c t i t i o n e r s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the experience shared by my c o l l e a g u e and me. they  would  have  the  chance  to  form  vicariously In so doing,  their  own  personal  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , or " n a t u r a l i s t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , " about content of t h i s study, and the content of t h e i r situations.  own  teaching  main  function  5  Methodological  Choices  Approaches advocating i l l u m i n a t i o n as the of  the  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h seemed more a p p r o p r i a t e  than those o f f e r i n g p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l .  to  my  These  forms of i n q u i r y share a number of commonalities,  needs  alternate  including  a r e j e c t i o n of q u a n t i f i c a t i o n as a necessary i n g r e d i e n t of r e s e a r c h , a more c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e to the c e r t a i n t i e s or the adequacy of e m p i r i c a l evidence, r e c o g n i t i o n of the pervasiveness of s u b j e c t i v i t y or consciousness i n the accumulation of data, and a t t e n t i o n t o the e x i s t e n t i a l moment and concreteness of e x p e r i e n c e . These approaches,  as  I  discovered  in  my  reading  l i t e r a t u r e , are v a r i o u s l y termed e t h n o g r a p h i c , naturalistic  case  studies,  9  responsive,  1 0  7  of  the  case s t u d i e s ,  artistic,  1 1  8  and  phenomenological.^-  2  As I would be c u r r i c u l u m , an appeal.  investigating  artistic  The goals of  approach  implementation had  a r t education  a  are  certain  of  an a r t aesthetic  open-ended;  they  48  i n v o l v e a r t p r o d u c t i o n , an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r of a r t and skills  c u l t u r e , an understanding  of a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n , and  appreciation. into  and  quantifiable  development of  adequate  the  aesthetic translation on  a r t i s t i c c r i t i c i s m , dependent upon d e s c r i p t i o n of context  and  of  Therefore,  of  based  interpretation  terms.  relationship  the development  These do not allow f o r  1 3  the  emergent  issues,  research  seemed  method f o r s t u d y i n g the a r t of t e a c h i n g .  an  appropriate  Such r e s e a r c h aims  1 4  to c r e a t e a r e n d e r i n g of a s i t u a t i o n , event, or object t h a t w i l l provide p o i n t e r s to those a s p e c t s . . . t h a t are i n some way s i g n i f i c a n t . 1 5  In c r i t i c i s m , there can be no s i n g u l a r ,  monopolistic  version  of t r u t h , as i n r e s e a r c h based on t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n c e . i s r e l a t i v e , s u b j e c t to the accumulated that the c r i t i c b r i n g s to the A naturalistic aspects;  first,  case  background  experience.  study  inquiry  has  two  bounded  essential  environment,  "with a d e s i g n r e l a t i v e l y f r e e of i n t e r v e n t i o n or a s i n g l e case, a  knowledge  1 6  the e n t i t y i s s t u d i e d i n i t s own  second, i t addresses  Truth  control;"  system,  1 7  which  has i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t , not merely a sample from which to l e a r n about the p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s s i m i l a r to o t h e r s , yet d i s t i n c t , and e a c h . . . i s to be noted f o r a c e r t a i n unity w i t h i n , a c e r t a i n systemic c h a r a c t e r . 1 8  In my  study I wanted to  c u r r i c u l u m as class.  The  it  was  focus being  on  a  single  implemented  of the new  the  art  one  particular  systemic q u a l i t i e s r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s  definition  of case study a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e f l e c t the artistic/scientific  paradigm.  in  case,  conceptual  structure  49  Research  Model  Boughton's r e s e a r c h model f o r programs provided an f l e x i b l e w e l l as c l a r i f y i n g my  evaluating  framework  understanding  of  for the  art  my  education  study. nature  1 9  of  As the  a r t i s t i c paradigm, i t s n o n - l i n e a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n allowed me to form  a  mental  image  complexity of classroom  of  the  dynamic,  multidimensional  life.  Feedback Rev i s i on  Figure 1  Model f o r A r t C r i t i c i s m  50  Boughton developed  h i s model  by  first  diagramming  the  a r t work  and  processes of the c r e a t i o n of a two-dimensional the a c t of a r t c r i t i c i s m art  work i s produced  A  two  dimensional  by the a r t i s t ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n  some of the elements colour.  (see F i g u r e 1 ) .  of  line,  shape,  value,  of  a l l or  texture,  and  In t h i s i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s , p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n a r e  c o n s i d e r e d , as w e l l as metaphorical meaning.  Art criticism i s  similarly interactive,  for a  go  process,  artist,  as  abridging, process,  d i d the  and by  condensing.  artist  and  critic of  through  simplifying,  Decision  critic,  is  brings  to  paradigmatic c r i t e r i a each  must  making  clarifying, during  influenced the  the  this  by  the  experience.  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the elements i s not predetermined,  but evolves  d u r i n g the c r e a t i n g or the p e r c e i v i n g of the work of a r t . For the a r t i s t , the outcome of h i s d e c i s i o n making i s a art;  f o r the  critic,  a  qualitative  exposition  work  of  which  is  communicated t o an audience. Boughton  then  created  a  conceptual  e v a l u a t i o n of an a r t program, d e p i c t i n g f i r s t two processes critic,  model  for  i t as analogous  (see F i g u r e 2 ) . L i k e the a r t i s t  the r e s e a r c h e r i s i n v o l v e d i n an e x p e r i e n c e ,  case, a classroom,  "an everchanging  among people, o b j e c t s , and e v e n t s . " the a c t of c r e a t i n g  or  of  system 2 0  of  and the in  this  process with c e r t a i n elements,  this  relationships  experience  i n t e r a c t i v e f o r i n a classroom, the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n an on-going  t o the  In a s i m i l a r manner  perceiving,  the  are  is  engaged  namely:  a. Agents - personnel i n the classroom. b. Content - " c u r r i c u l u m - a s - p l a n " ( o b j e c t i v e s ,  to  topics,  51  activities) c. Implementation - t r a n s l a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m materials into i n s t r u c t i o n . d. Outcomes - r e s u l t s of the program. These c o u l d be products or a f f e c t i v e dimensions of experience, both f o r the c h i l d r e n and the t e a c h e r . e. Rationale - reasons for f o l l o w i n g a c e r t a i n course of a c t i o n which may be e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t . f . Resources - necessary accompaniments ( f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l aids, etc.)  <—>  Figure 2  The  Feedback Revision  Model for Curriculum E v a l u a t i o n  r e s e a r c h e r must attend to the dynamics of  these  elements  52  when observing the classroom. participants  and  the  Decision  researcher  making  is  by  influenced  paradigmatic c r i t e r i a each b r i n g s to t h i s dynamic As  with  the  artist  and  critic,  there  pre-determination of how the elements w i l l the outcome.  classroom by  experience.  is  no  In the classroom, the outcome o f t e n r e s u l t s  s w i f t , i n t u i t i v e sense of s i t u a t i o n s , 2 1  exact  i n t e r a c t t o produce  hundreds of immediate d e c i s i o n s , r e q u i r i n g a r t i s t r y ,  teacher.  the  of the  The outcome of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s d e c i s i o n  making,  exposition  1 1  communicated  to  i n f l u e n c e d by her t a c i t knowledge or world It was necessary f o r my purposes c o n c e p t i o n of a r t c r i t i c i s m .  the  fine,  part  a qualitative  on  "a  from  an  view.  audience,  is  2 2  to re-define  Boughton's  According t o Boughton, c r i t i c i s m  i s the means by which the worth of a program can be judged: The task of the e v a l u a t o r i s to determine the value of the experiences gained by the s t u d e n t s . This requires exercise of judgement with r e s p e c t t o s e l e c t i o n of outcomes c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t and d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e i r w o r t h . 2 3  The e v a l u a t o r / c r i t i c ' s paradigmatic c r i t e r i a of  includes  "a s e t  p r e - d i s p o s i t i o n s , i n the form of h i g h l y a b s t r a c t models  what designs i t would opinion,  Boughton  be  views  of  value  to  discover."  criticism  in  its  2 4  In  of my  instrumentalist  capacity: I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t t h e o r i e s conceive of a r t as a t o o l f o r advancing some... purpose....The instrumentalist is concerned with the consequences of the ideas and f e e l i n g s expressed by a r t , He wishes a r t to serve an end more important than i t s e l f . 2 5  The purpose of my c o l l e a g u e and  me  to  curriculum-as-lived;  inquiry, achieve i t was  however, deeper  not  aimed  was  f o r both  understanding at  a  my  of the  judgement  of  53  worth.  Therefore,  I  defined  criticism  in  terms  of  expressivism: E x p r e s s i v i s t c r i t i c i s m sees e x c e l l e n c e as the a b i l i t y of a r t to communicate ideas and feelings i n t e n s e l y and v i v i d l y . . . . E x p r e s s i v i s t c r i t i c i s m o f f e r s us the idea of i n t e n s i t y of experience...[and the belief that] the a r t i s t has taken hold of some t r u t h s about life, and through s k i l l and imagination, has found a way to embody those t r u t h s . . . . [ A r t ] i s the communication of s i g n i f i c a n t ideas. 2 6  Art  c r i t i c i s m can sometimes i n v o l v e judging a work of  giving  i t a rank i n r e l a t i o n  Although  to  other  works  be unnecessary i f a  carried  its  by  type.  t h i s might be Boughton's purpose f o r r e s e a r c h , i t was  not mine, f o r " t h i s aspect of a r t c r i t i c i s m may  of  art  out."  2 7  My  satisfying critical  r e f l e c t i o n s upon  our  my  issues  living  interpretation  interpretation  p o r t r a y a l of my c o l l e a g u e ' s and the meaning of s i g n i f i c a n t  i s much abused  in  shared or  would  been be  understandings  themes  the  has  zone  a of  emerging  tension  and  from  between  c u r r i c u l u m - a s - p l a n and c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d . O u t l i n e of Study For my  study,  I added an o v e r l a y of phenomenology to  the  framework provided by Boughton's a r t c r i t i c i s m r e s e a r c h model. "Phenomenological r e s e a r c h , " says Max for  what i t means to be human."  van Manen, " i s a  search  T h i s type of i n q u i r y i s  always a p r o j e c t of someone: a r e a l person, who, i n the context of p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i a l , and historical l i f e circumstances s e t s out to make sense of a certain aspect of human e x i s t e n c e . 2 8  The  bare bones of  this  female, s i n g l e parent experience 7, l i v i n g  someone  are:  of a 13 year  old  38  years  old,  white  14  years'  daughter,  i n elementary s c h o o l s , t e a c h i n g grade l e v e l s i n a s m a l l town i n the  i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h  1  to  Columbia.  54  The  f l e s h added to t h i s s k e l e t o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o the body of my  report. Pat V i t t e r y i s the c o l l e a g u e with whom I worked study.  I had been acquainted,  socially  and  with her f o r about twelve years and d u r i n g impressed  and  from  this  meeting a t a weekend course  time I  her p a r t i c i p a t i o n  workshops and d i s p l a y s , of her i n t e r e s t  I was  knew, in  inchildren's art.  i n watercolour  g i v i n g i t some c o n s i d e r a t i o n , she agreed.  important work  painting  As  I  hoped  g a i n i n g i n understanding "Phenomenological  experience."  2 9  respect  from  felt  I  very could  to e s t a b l i s h  r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p so t h a t my c o l l e a g u e was  after  i n t h i s type of i n q u i r y , i t was  In a d d i t i o n ,  A  prompted  mutual  f o r me t o s e l e c t someone with whom I  comfortably.  from  district  me t o ask her f o r her c o - o p e r a t i o n on t h i s p r o j e c t and,  and t r u s t are e s s e n t i a l  this  professionally,  with her t h o u g h t f u l , assured manner.  our c o n v e r s a t i o n s  in  would  feel  a  she  i t as w e l l as I .  experience  i s the study  I wanted t o o b t a i n d e t a i l e d  of  lived  information  which  would a l l o w me t o d e s c r i b e the c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d experience; to i n t e r p r e t the experience;  and  personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. going t o be "watching interviewing.  to My  and w o n d e r i n g , "  reflect basic  30  upon  it  methodology  i.e.,  I arranged  with  was  observing and  In order that I might have d i r e c t c o n t a c t  Pat's classroom world,  for  the s c h o o l  with  district  superintendent and the p r i n c i p a l s of both our s c h o o l s t o make a s e r i e s of F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n v i s i t s t o observe in  action.  Friday  afternoon  i s not an  her a r t program ideal  c h i l d r e n , teacher, and observer, having put i n a  choice full  week,  55  are a l l e a g e r l y a n t i c i p a t i n g the weekend p r e p a r a t i o n block and r e l e a s e d from my  own  t h a t I would v i s i t p e r i o d , beginning  the o n l y time a v a i l a b l e  be  every  second  Friday  i n December 1985,  known to be p e o p l e ! "  3 1  and  of  s t a r t and my  "Research  Misfortune  c a r e f u l l y planned  two of  January 1986  us had  our hearts r e a l l y  were both  extremely  to  fall,  period.  pneumonia and  was  from  goes  also  been  humorous comments  occurred  over  the  research  from  the  u n t i l the  end  f i n a l l y a b l e to squeeze i n  i n t e r v i e w with Pat.  of breaking  up  to the s t r e s s , my  Neither  long  term  daughter  was  and  physically  t h i s time, Pat had  the  misfortune  Her  die  due  to  the  unusual  recovery p e r i o d r e q u i r e d a  school.  Then  I  came  down  teaching s i t u a t i o n f o r  E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h was  r e f l e c t i o n f o r the two  my  that  emotionally  away from my  t r o u b l e d p e r i o d (although  month  i n i t at t h a t time, though, f o r we  of her a c c i d e n t .  three month absence  be  planned  four  have  initial visit  break her l e g , and almost  circumstances  month.  one  To add  During  a  to  timeline quickly disintegrated.  i l l f o r s i x months, an  exhausting  two  that  plagued  i n the a g o n i z i n g process  conjugal r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  for  subjects  at which time I was  o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s and  We  collection  Michael Patton's  A car a c c i d e n t f o r c e d d e l a y of my of  me  my  would meet once a week  data  could c e r t a i n l y be a p p l i e d to events months.  for  was  observations.  suspicious  a c c o r d i n g to p l a n ! " and  next twelve  this  teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  between v i s i t s to d i s c u s s my "Always  but  not a  priority  over  during  i t d i d provide time f o r r e a d i n g  of us) and was  hold u n t i l the f o l l o w i n g s c h o o l  year.  regretfully  with  placed  a  this and on  56  In October, Pat and  I  1986,  started  our l i v e s  afresh.  I  i n r e l a t i v e order once observed  in  her  more,  grade  classroom on seven o c c a s i o n s , approximately every other from October  to February.  Between o b s e r v a t i o n s , we  times f o r i n t e r v i e w s and d i s c u s s i o n .  week,  met  four  In a d d i t i o n , we met  subsequent times, once i n A p r i l , once i n June, to t i e loose ends of data a n a l y s i s and  1/2  two  up  the  interpretation.  Data C o l l e c t i o n My r e s e a r c h methods courses had r a t h e r than q u a l i t a t i v e  data  knowledge i n o b s e r v a t i o n and Michael Patton's  book,  invaluable g u i d e .  focused  collection.  quantitative  For  building  i n t e r v i e w i n g techniques>  Qualitative  Evaluation  I  w e l l as reading a number  of  followed t h i s methodological Observations and  reports  of  Methods,  approach.  Observation. studies  3 3  Hamilton's  advice  as had  34  sources  Aware that j u s t being i n Pat's classroom  adhere t o David  an  those  which  i n t e r v i e w s were the primary data  going to have an e f f e c t on what I was  up  found  I supplemented h i s suggestions with  3 2  of Adelman and Walker, A Guide to Classroom  for t h i s study.  on  observing, to  be  as  s u p p o r t i v e , and n o n - d o c t r i n a i r e " as I c o u l d .  I  tried  was to  "unobtrusive, Whenever  3 5  Pat  had the a t t e n t i o n of the e n t i r e c l a s s , to give i n s t r u c t i o n s or d i s c u s s the l e s s o n , I remained seated,  somewhat  hidden  view, a t a s m a l l t a b l e to one s i d e of her room, c l o s e outside door.  In  order  to  experience  the  situation  f u l l y , though, I p a r t i c i p a t e d as w e l l as observed. a c t i v i t i e s were i n progress, I  frequently  to  walked  room t a k i n g photographs and o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n v e r s i n g  from the more  When  art  about  the  with  the  57  children. The  camera was  a useful research t o o l , for  photographs r e a l l y are experience captured....Unlike any other v i s u a l image, a photograph i s not a r e n d e r i n g , an i m i t a t i o n , or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t s s u b j e c t , but a c t u a l l y a t r a c e of i t . 3 6  Photographs  retain  second-hand  records."  h e l p i n g me and  a  "documentary The  3 7  power  always  photographs  r e c a l l d e t a i l s that I had  were  useful  not s e t down  in  they were s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n f o r  d u r i n g our  interviews.  to Pat's classroom,  Capturing  i n d i v i d u a l s increased the  activities  a l s o enabled  was  During  t a k i n g copious  notes.  f u r t h e r questions  my  me  visits  or  me  to  my  without me  words  of  collection.  to  photograph  I  what listen  necessity  think  clarification  to  could  the to  and  data  me  sessions,  allowed  seek  observation  to be more a t t e n t i v e  saying  This  of  together.  actual  allowed  interview  c a r e f u l l y to what Pat was  both  the  accuracy  e x t e n s i v e l y and happening.  had spent  i n v a l u a b l e at  stages.  classroom  and  I l e f t an album of the photographs f o r the  A tape r e c o r d e r was  Taping  in  writing  Pat  A l s o , at the c o n c l u s i o n of  c h i l d r e n , as a memento of the time we  interpretive  denied  on  ahead  of to  information  given. T r a n s c r i b i n g tapes, n i g h t a f t e r n i g h t , hour was  a very tedious task which had  various  responsibilities  professional l i f e . allowed and  me  and  transcribing  to note v o i c e i n f l e c t i o n s ,  laughter,  that  otherwise  Transcribing also f a c i l i t a t e d  hour,  to be sandwiched between the  activities  Doing the  after  might  noise have  of  family  myself, levels, been  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  and  however, giggles missed. material,  58  for I r e f l e c t e d as I typed, further  I d e n t i f y i n g passages which  needed  i n q u i r y or comment, as w e l l as n o t i c i n g themes.  My w r i t t e n notes  environment,  social  i n t e r a c t i o n s , and program a c t i v i t i e s were f a c t u a l , but  fairly  brief.  on  I considered  the  them  physical  supplements  to  the  photographic  r e c o r d and the tape r e c o r d i n g made of each classroom In a d d i t i o n to d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s , they contained of what i n d i v i d u a l s s a i d w e l l as some o£ my  own  quotations  ( h e l p f u l when t r a n s c r i b i n g t a p e s ) , as  f e e l i n g s and r e a c t i o n s which l a t e r were  s t a r t i n g points for further My  session.  reflection.  i n t e r v i e w s with Pat were of an i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l  nature, i n i t i a l l y with no predetermined with the photographs sharpening  s e t of q u e s t i o n s ,  our memories and  f l e x i b l e structure for discussion.  T h i s was  ease i n t o d i a l o g i c r e f l e c t i o n s  the  of  Each i n t e r v i e w b u i l t upon previous ones, those became a d d i t i o n a l data f o r interpretation.  as  open-ended  as  providing good  experience as  way  and  from Pat, possible  At the  beginning,  questions  were  to 3 8  from  reflective I  attempted so  as  capture more f u l l y her p o i n t - o f - v i e w , as she chose to it.  a .  itself.  quotations  elaboration  In e l i c i t i n g responses  to keep my questions  a  but  to  express  experience/behaviour  ones (what i s happening, what has gone b e f o r e ) , knowledge ones (eg.  familiarity  with  the  background/demographic  ones  characteristics).  were  about  feeling  thoughts), as assumptions,  These  (emotional well  as  curriculum  guide),  (identifying interspersed  responses  opinion/value  to ones  b i a s e s , b e l i e f s , and values was  with  and personal  questions  experience (explication required.  J  and of  59  During  the  months  of  observing,  t r a n s c r i b i n g , thoughts of Pat's world of my  own  - at one  interviewing,  and  became an i n t e g r a l  part  p o i n t , I l a u g h i n g l y t o l d her t h a t I went to  s l e e p with the sound of her v o i c e i n my o b s e r v a t i o n s , and  events  a s s o c i a t i o n s with myself  in  my  daily  ideas d i s c u s s e d with  making mental connections  ears!  Conversations,  life Pat.  a l l the  would I  trigger  would  catch  time:  To t r u l y q u e s t i o n something i s to i n t e r r o g a t e something from the heart of our e x i s t e n c e , from the c e n t r e of our being. 4 0  I wish now  t h a t I had  kept a d i a r y , but to squeeze even a  more moments out of each day to w r i t e a l i n e or two too  much;  connections  my  energy  remain c l e a r  included i n t h i s  gave  out.  Some  i n my mind,  of  though,  I  also  collected  documents  c u r r i c u l u m , e t c . ) and  with the p r i n c i p a l s of t r i a n g u l a t e my  strong  have  been  study.  d i s t r i c t g u i d e l i n e s , d i s t r i c t memos of the new  asking  those and  In a d d i t i o n to data from o b s e r v a t i o n s and Pat,  was  few  both  i n t e r v i e w s with  (timetables, regarding  conducted  schools.  previews,  implementation  brief  This  interviews  enabled  i n f o r m a t i o n with m a t e r i a l from other  me  to  sources.  4 1  essence."  4 2  Data A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n "Phenomenological r e s e a r c h "Criticism  i s the  study  of  i s a search f o r the p r o p e r t i e s . . . t h a t  the d i r e c t r e a c t i o n . "  4 3  may  justify  A l t e r n a t i v e r e s e a r c h methodology  acknowledges what a l r e a d y exists and instead of presenting a facade of objectivity, exploits the p o t e n t i a l of s e l e c t i v i t y and emphasis to say what needs s a y i n g as the i n v e s t i g a t o r sees i t . 4 4  As the critical  arrows  on  Boughton's  evaluation  model  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d  illustrate, experience  60  i s a continuous  i n t e r a c t i v e process.  discrimination  ( a n a l y s i s ) and  part  investigator.  of  the  This  unification It  process  involves  (synthesis)  differs  from  on  the  traditional  r e d u c t i o n i s t approaches i n t h a t the c r i t i c must use  judgement  to evoke a c l e a r e r consciousness of c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s and to d i s c o v e r how these p a r t s are r e l a t e d to form a whole.... They cannot be separated from each other, because a n a l y s i s i s d i s c l o s u r e of part as parts of a whole; of d e t a i l s and p a r t i c u l a r s belonging to a total situation....No r u l e s can be laid down for the performance of so d e l i c a t e an a c t as d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s of a whole> and of t h e i r respective p l a c e s and weights i n the w h o l e . " 45  I cannot f u l l y e x p l a i n how of the data as essence  of  being  our  I came to h i g h l i g h t  more  significantly  in-dwelling  curriculum-as-plan o f t e n , I found my  and  in  the  some  portions  revealing  tension  of  zone  between  c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d than o t h e r s .  Most in  the  e a r l y morning, i n the " f u z z y " p e r i o d of awakening  before  one  becomes f u l l y c o n s c i o u s .  of  grounded i n my  thought p a t t e r n s f l o w i n g i n t o p l a c e  the  own  My value c h o i c e s  were,  years of t e a c h i n g experience;  other c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s were  my  s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s , as w e l l as my  recent  readings  interest, triggered  second c o n j u g a l breakdown, i n f e m i n i s t w r i t i n g s . there were other Van  I  course, am  sure  of by  new my  Undoubtedly  f a c t o r s as w e l l .  Manen p o e t i c a l l y e x p l a i n s t h a t  themes are the s t a r s t h a t make up the u n i v e r s e of meaning we l i v e through. I t i s by their light t h a t we can navigate and explore such u n i v e r s e s . 4 6  This  starship  seen,...[but] an  journey  is  "not  an  imitation  i m i t a t i o n of t h i n g s f e l t . "  s u r f a c e appearances t h a t are v i t a l ;  of  things  It i s  not  the  i t i s the quality  of  life  4 7  i n the d i a l e c t i c t e n s i o n a l i t y between the complementarities  of  61  the t h e o r e t i c a l practictioner significant.  perspective perspective  of of  curriculum-as-plan  and  the  curriculum-as-lived  that  is  The t e n s i o n a l i t y a r i s i n g  a t t e n d i n g t o both worlds  of  a l i v e n e s s of the pedagogical  from  curriculum  the it."  tensionality  curriculum excerpts  this  study.  guide/resource  Excerpts book  the  but  4 8  P o r t i o n s of four of the a r t lessons t h a t I in  to  Aoki e x p l a i n s that i t  more a matter of d w e l l i n g a r i g h t w i t h i n  presented  simultaneous  contributes  situation.  " i s not so much a matter of overcoming  the  from  the  observed  are  fine  arts  (curriculum-as-plan)  and  from i n t e r v i e w s with Pat ( c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d ) f o l l o w  each l e s s o n segment.  After  these  are  the  reflections  on  i s s u e s or themes which emerged from the l e s s o n and i n t e r v i e w .  62  Notes  Ted A o k i , "Curriculum Implementation as Instrumental A c t i o n and as S i t u a t i o n a l P r a x i s , " i n "Understanding S i t u a t i o n a l Meanings of Curriculum I n s e r v i c e A c t s : Implementing, C o n s u l t i n g , I n s e r v i c i n g , Curriculum P r a x i s Monograph S e r i e s , no. 9 (Edmonton: Department of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1983): 3-17. 1  11  S. Sarason, The C u l t u r e of School and the Problem of Change 2d. ed. (Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1982), p. 122, c i t e d i n F u l l a n , p. 257. 2  Michael F u l l a n , The Meaning of E d u c a t i o n a l Change (Toronto: OISE Press, 1982), p. 30. 3  4  F u l l a n . p. 295.  Robert Stake, "The Case Study Method i n S o c i a l I n q u i r y , " E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher 7, no. 2 (1978): 5-8. 5  H. Sui Shapiro, " E d u c a t i o n a l Research, S o c i a l Change and the Challenge to Methodology: A Study i n the S o c i o l o g y of Knowledge," Phenomenology + Pedagogy 1, no. 2 (1983): 127. 6  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e ethnographic approaches: George S p i n d l e r , ed., Doing the Ethnography of Schooling (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, 1982); R. G. Burgess, ed., F i e l d Methods i n the Study of Education (London: Falmer, 1985); W i l l i a m G e o f f r e y and L o u i s Smith, The C o m p l e x i t i e s of an Urban Classroom (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, 1968) . 7  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e case s t u d y approaches: Stake, "Case Study Method," pp. 5-8; Lawrence Stenhouse, "The Conduct, A n a l y s i s , and Reporting of Case Study i n E d u c a t i o n a l Research and E v a l u a t i o n , " i n C a l l i n g E d u c a t i o n to Account eds. Robert McCormick et a l . (London: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books, 1982), pp. 261-273. 8  r  63  Robert Stake, "Case Study," i n Research, P o l i c y and P r a c t i c e , World Yearbook of Education 1985 (London: Kogan Page, 1985), pp. 277-285. 9  Robert Stake, "To Evaluate an A r t s Program," i n h i s E v a l u a t i n g the A r t s i n Education (Columbus, Ohio: C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l , 1975), pp. 13-38. 1 0  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e a r t i s t i c approaches: E l l i o t E i s n e r , "On the D i f f e r e n c e s Between S c i e n t i f i c and A r t i s t i c Approaches to Q u a l i t a t i v e Research," E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher 10, no. 4 (1981): 5-9; E l l i o t E i s n e r , "The Forms and Functions of E d u c a t i o n a l Connoisseurship and E d u c a t i o n a l C r i t i c i s m , " i n h i s The E d u c a t i o n a l Imagination (New York: Macmillan, 1982), pp. 190-225; Douglas Boughton, Development and V a l i d a t i o n of a Curriculum E v a l u a t i o n Model f o r V i s u a l A r t s Education (Ph.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1976). 1 1  Max van Manen, " P r a c t i s i n g Phenomenological W r i t i n g , " Phenomenology + Pedagogy 2, no. 1 (1984): 36-69. 1 2  M i l b r e y McLaughlin and Margaret Thomas, Comparing the Process of Change Across D i s t r i c t s . V o l . 1., A r t H i s t o r y , A r t C r i t i c i s m , and A r t P r o d u c t i o n (Santa Monica: Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1984), p. i v . 1 3  1 4  see: 137-143;  For a d i s c u s s i o n of the nature  of a r t i s t i c c r i t i c i s m  Boughton, E v a l u a t i o n Model f o r V i s u a l A r t s ,  pp.  E i s n e r , " E d u c a t i o n a l Connoisseurship and E d u c a t i o n a l C r i t i c i s m , " pp. 190-225; Edmund Feldman, V a r i e t i e s of V i s u a l Experience, 2d. ed. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1981), pp. 471-488. E i s n e r , " E d u c a t i o n a l Connoisseurship C r i t i c i s m , " p. 197.  and  Educational  E i s n e r , " E d u c a t i o n a l Connoisseurship C r i t i c i s m , " p. 203.  and  Educational  1 5  1 6  1 7  Stake, "Case Study," p.  279.  1 8  Stake, "Case Study," p.  279.  64  1 9  Boughton, E v a l u a t i o n Model f o r V i s u a l A r t s .  2  Boughton, p. 142.  0  Madeline Hunter, " D i a g n o s t i c Teaching," The Elementary School J o u r n a l 80, September (1979): 41-46, c i t e d by Pat Burke G u i l d and Steven Garger, Marching To D i f f e r e n t Drummers ( A l e x a n d r i a , V i r g i n i a : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), 1985, p. 74. 2  1  2  2  Boughton, pp.  137-139.  2 3  Boughton, p. 143.  2  4  Boughton, p. 141.  2  5  Feldman, p. 466.  2 6  Feldman, pp.  2  Feldman, p. 483.  7  464-465.  2 8  Van Manen, pp. 38, 40.  2 9  Van Manen, p. 37.  Michael Patton, Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n (Beverley H i l l s : SAGE, 1980), p. 193. 3 0  3  1  Patton, p. 119.  3  2  Patton, Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n Methods.  Methods  Clem Adelman and Rob Walker, A Guide to Classroom Observation (London: Methuen, 1975). 3 3  Some s t u d i e s which were " e n l i g h t e n i n g " : Michael Day e t a l . , Case Studies of Seven S e l e c t e d Srtes., V o l . 2., A r t History,. A r t C r i t i c i s m and A r t Production (Santa Monica: Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1984); 3  4  r  65  G e o f f r e y and Smith, Complexities of an Urban Classroom; Rob Walker and Jane Wiedel, "Using Photographs i n a D i s c i p l i n e of Words," i n F i e l d Methods i n the Study of Education, ed. R. G. Burgess (London: Falmer, 1985), pp. 191-216. David Hamilton et a l , eds., Bevond (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1977), p. 19. 3 5  John Berger, About Looking (New Pantheon Book, 1980), pp. 49-50. 3 6  3 7  the Numbers Game  York:  Random House,  Patton, pp. 246-247.  John C o l l i e r , V i s u a l Anthropology (New York: Holt, R i n e h a r t , and Winston, 1967), p. 48. See a l s o Van Manen, p. 63. 3 8  3 9  Patton, pp. 28-29, 198-199.  4 U  Van Manen, p. 45.  4 1  Hamilton et a l . , pp. 13-14. Van Manen, p. 38.  John Dewey, A r t as Experience (New York: Putnam's Sons, Perigee Book, 1980), p. 308. 4 3  G. P.  E i s n e r , " D i f f e r e n c e s Between S c i e n t i f i c and A r t i s t i c Approaches," p. 8. 4 4  Dewey, p. 310. interpretation. 4 5  4 6  See a l s o Feldman, pp. 475-476 on  Van Manen, pp. 59-60.  E l l i o t E i s n e r , C o g n i t i o n and Curriculum Longman, 1982), p. 60. 4 7  (New  York:  Ted A o k i , "Teaching as In-Dwelling Between Two Curriculum Worlds," The B.C. Teacher 65, no. 3 (1986): 4 0  67  CHAPTER III Halloween  Pale cadmium yellow,  rich  ochre,  burnt  sienna,  burnt  artist  would  umber, c e r u l e a n blue - these are the c o l o u r s an  squeeze onto her p a l e t t e to p o r t r a y the s p a r s e l y grassed, rolling hills;  the poplar and  stands of pine and spruce; autumn afternoon i n the This i s  cattle  b i r c h groves  intermingled  the endless c l e a r sky  of  with  a  late  Cariboo.  and  logging  country,  located  in  i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia.  In the centre of the r e g i o n  100 M i l e House, o r i g i n a l l y one  of a c h a i n of  by miners on t h e i r way of the 1860's;  now,  roadhouses  a q u i e t community  of  about  shopping  needs of l o c a l ranchers and year-round  2500.  mall  tourists.  a r r i v e at l o c a l r e s o r t s f o r f i s h i n g and hunting  is  era Gas  serve The  the  used  to B a r k e r v i l l e d u r i n g the goldrush  s t a t i o n s , r e s t a u r a n t s , and a small  fall,  low  the  latter  i n summer  and  c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g and snowmobiling i n w i n t e r . Highway 97 cuts through  miles north, I branch curving east.  Following  o f f onto a s m a l l e r two-lane  it  a  paved  few road  Sunroof back, g l o r y i n g i n the autumn c o l o u r s , I  pass s m a l l hobby farms and houses.  the town.  o c c a s i o n a l c l u s t e r s of wooden frame  In t y p i c a l Cariboo f a s h i o n ,  t h e i r occupants and are i n  various  many stages  A f t e r t r a v e l l i n g about e i g h t or nine miles j u n c t i o n , I round a sharp corner and  are  built  of  construction.  from  there's  around  the  the  highway  elementary  68  school  t o my l e f t ,  library, 2:30  a low-lying building  from  am g r e e t e d broomsticks  and f i v e  the parking by  green-faced  across a bright  i s giving  staff.  directions  3  of  with  bulletin  board,  kinky  8:30  the  classroom  witches  Halloween  classrooms,  Climbing  l o t , I enter Pat's  Figure  Pat  five  and gymnasium a r e home d u r i n g t h e h o u r s  f o r 104 c h i l d r e n  slope  whose  grassy  door  hair  to  and  riding  ( s e e F i g u r e 3)  Witches  t o her c l a s s .  I would l i k e you f i r s t t o draw four pumpkin shapes i n y o u r chalkboard space and make f o u r d i f f e r e n t faces using  the  shapes  that  we talked  about.  C h i l d r e n a r e working a t the chalkboards  which  line  the  front  69  and of  one s i d e board  Figure  o f t h e room.  marked  o f f with  Each c h i l d  h a s h i s o r h e r own  masking tape,  namecard  area  up a b o v e , ( s e e  4)  Yes, you can make them quite big. Maria's got hers about the right size. Make them a l i t t l e b i g g e r s o we can see what kind o f faces you're going to draw. And see if you can make the faces all a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t .  Figure  A smiling ceiling  Maria's  transformed  and haunts t h ecentre  displaying paper  ghost,  4  Halloween a c t i v i t y  ghosts  float  between  Pumpkin  Face  from an o l dsheet, o f t h e room cards, large  above  (seeF i g u r e dried  hangs  from t h e  a round 5)  tumbleweed  table Smaller balls  70  suspended run  from two rows o f f l u o r e s c e n t  the length  5  Halloween  pumpkins a r e e v e r y w h e r e ,  t o p s of s h e l v e s . q u i e t l y chalk  fixtures  which  o f t h e room.  Figure  Tiny  light  Pat  up t h e i r  walks  lining behind  Ghosts  the the  window  ledges  children  s p a c e s , commenting on t h e i r  as  and they  efforts.  I s e e one. Can you make another one to match? Good. Now, make the nose. See i f y o u c a n make me another face, right up h e r e . Now, c a n y o u make the mouths different, Rodney? I wanted to see if you could make them all a l i t t l e bit d i f f e r e n t . Think about how faces look when they feel r e a l l y happy. Or when they feel r e a l l y angry. Or when they feel r e a l l y upset. Or r e a l l y ferocious! And t o a n o t h e r  child,  That's not bad! Try another one down at the bottom. how many do you have? Four. Mrs.  Well,  And  V i t t e r y , c a n y o u do a n y s h a p e ?  how do you mean, Jessica?  Show me what you mean.  71  Like  smiles.  Oh, yes, that's OK. That's a c u r v y l i n e , i s n ' t i t ? . Oh, t h i s one looks scared, doesn't i t ? I love the look, Gary. Jodie, yours a r e a l l s o r t o f the same. Can you make me one that's different? Make me one that's sad. Or upset. Pat has the c h i l d r e n stop t h e i r drawing. c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e the faces  they  have  She  has  different  drawn  and  adds  her  observations as w e l l . Nov, when I'm looking around, I can see that Stephanie has used four d i f f e r e n t shapes on her pumpkin face mouths. She's got a zigzag, a rectangle, a happy face, and a sad face. I t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g that a happy face looks curved up and a sad one looks curved down. I go l i k e  this.  That's  how I do i t .  OK, that's p r e t t y good. Leave them on. Don't off. A l l right. And come on up to the meeting s i t nicely. I've got a quick story for you.  rub them place and  An 8x10' worn brown c a r p e t covers the f l o o r  i n one  corner  the room.  tucked  in  I t marks o f f the meeting  Pat's desk.  place,  of  beside  As the c h i l d r e n leave t h e i r chalkboard spots  and  s c u r r y t o s i t down, one stops t o speak t o P a t . You're going to the bathroom now? We're going to s t a r t the story. How fast can you go? Do you have to go r i g h t away? Hurry up. The c h i l d r e n s i t c r o s s - l e g g e d on the f l o o r before Pat's  chair,  quietly anticipatory. I f you've ever heard t h i s neighbour know.  one  before,  don't  l e t your  Oh, I know t h i s one! (Whispers) Shhh. Don't t e l l . to l i s t e n ? Rodney, are you? Mrs.  OK, is  everybody  sitting  Vittery...?  Shhh, don't t e l l , Jonathon, OK? I t ' s a s e c r e t . This i s a s t o r y called The L i t t l e Orange House. And as I read it, I'd l i k e you to p i c t u r e i n your mind what's happening. There a r e some p i c t u r e s on the paper but  72  they're not pictures that are can't show them to you. So, pictures in your mind. Pat begins  to read  e a s i l y seen far away, so I you'll have to make the  from a d u p l i c a t e d sheet  on her  lap.  Once upon a time, a very small witch was walking in the woods. The c o l d wind was blowing the dry leaves all around her. This l i t t l e witch was f r a n t i c a l l y searching for a house f o r the winter. She couldn't find one. But suddenly, a piece of orange paper, blown by the wind, landed at her f e e t . And she picked it up. The little witch looked c l o s e l y at the paper and then she said, "Hmm. I think I can make a myself a little house from t h i s p i e c e of orange paper." So, she folded the paper in half. Then, she took her s c i s s o r s , the ones she always kept in her pocket, and she cut off the two corners to make a roof." As Pat reads, she stops p e r i o d i c a l l y to cut a piece of c o n s t r u c t i o n paper, f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s i n cuts represent p a r t s of a witch's There's one The  side.  And  the  story.  The  house.  there's the other s i d e .  c h i l d r e n s i t with eyes r i v e t e d on the paper i n her  They're e n t h r a l l e d - and  orange  so am  I!  The  s t o r y continues  hands. for  a  few minutes longer, ending with: Then, she decided that her little house was finished. But, j u s t as the l i t t l e witch s t a r t e d to go inside for the winter, she saw a t i n y ghost f l o a t i n g down. It came to stop by her little house. The little ghost was crying. The witch said, "Why are you crying?". The t i n y ghost stopped and said, "Oh, i t ' s so cold and windy and i t ' s getting dark. And I have no place to spend the winter." "Well," the witch said, "How would you l i k e to spend the winter in my little house?" And the ghost said, "Thank you, thank you so much." And peeked in through the window and s a i d , " I t ' s a very n i c e house." "Well, f i r s t , " s a i d the witch, "I think I ' l l need to make you a l i t t l e door of your very own." So she picked up her s c i s s o r s again and she cut out a very t i n y door. Was  the ghost  tinier  than the  Shhh. Yes, just a l i t t l e for the l i t t l e ghost.  witch?  ghost.  And  that was  Well, the l i t t l e witch went i n s i d e her l i t t l e ghost went i n s i d e h i s door. And spent the winter together in the l i t t l e  the  door. And very happily orange house.  door the they Do  73  you  want to know what it looked  like  inside?  OK. OK. Pat  unfolds  Jack-0•Lantern  A  the  paper,  revealing  i t  transformed  into  a  (see F i g u r e 6 )  face!  Jack-0'Lantern!  Figure  6  Halloween  Magic!  Isn't that cute? There, it is! There's you when you make your J a c k - 0 ' L a n t e r n . the eyes?  some What  ideas shape  for are  Squares! They're pretty l i k e rectangles.  close to being squares, but What shape is the nose?  they're Shawn?  more  Triangle.  Yes. And the mouth is made with you made curvy l i n e s on y o u r s . Mrs.  V i t t e r y , can you fold  straight  it back  up  lines. again?  Lots  of  74  Sure, I ' l l show you how it works. We cut the corners off, r i g h t ? . Then we cut a door, so we had a little p o i n t f o r the hat, r i g h t ? . Then it was too dark, so she had to cut the windows. And then the ghost came along and she had to make the door for the ghost. Yeh, and the l i t t l e ghost door made the t r i a n g l e nose and the reason why you put the l i t t l e things there, i s to make the happy face things go up, l i k e that. Yes. That's r i g h t . That's good to see. Jack-O'Lantern faces There i s laughter  You're r e a l l y clever today, I have a couple of other here, too.  from the  children  sample p i c t u r e s of Jack-O'Lantern  as  she  holds  Carrie. little up  some  faces.  And t h i s one has t r i a n g l e s for eyes and nose. And t h i s one has upside down t r i a n g l e s and has c i r c l e s and a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of nose. OK. Now, here's what we're going to do. We're going to get s t a r t e d and t r y to make our own l i t t l e faces that we print with the potatoes. Yes, Richard? Um, I know why you made a t r i a n g l e for the l i t t l e house. Yes,  ghost's  why did I?  So the nose  w i l l be t r i a n g l e .  Yes. I knew it a l l along, Now you do, though.  didn't  I?  But  you  didn't.  I did! Did  you know, a l l  along?  Yes. Good for you. So d i d I . So I didn't  So d i d I . surprise  you, eh,  Jonathon?  You d i d n ' t s u r p r i s e me e i t h e r . T h i s Jack-O'Lantern  story  "warm-up" a c t i v i t i e s  f o r today's  potato  printmaking  Jack-O'Lantern images.  and  technique  the  chalkboard  a r t lesson will  be  drawing  are  i n which  the  used  to  make  E a r l i e r , as the c h i l d r e n worked a t the  75  chalkboard, necessary  Pat had e x p l a i n e d t o me the p r e p a r a t i o n s that were  for t h i s lesson.  Knives have been brought from home  - i t has taken a week f o r everyone's t o get here - and she has given  a  Materials  demonstration  this  f o r printmaking  morning  on  (potatoes,  a  potato stack  carving. of  d u p l i c a t i n g paper, newspapers, e t c . ) are on a long at the s i d e of the room i n  front  of  the  c h i l d r e n are sent t o get them by teams;  coat  yellow  low  table  racks.  each "team"  of angles  The five  to s i x s i t s together a t four desk groupings  set at  to  the round t a b l e i n the centre of the room.  Knives a r e a l r e a d y  at t h e i r desks and Pat warns: Remember about k n i v e s . They're f o r cutting fingers. We don't want anything red flowing C h i l d r e n are reminded to think of  the  t h e i r potato when s e l e c t i n g t h e i r potato  plans  potatoes, not around here.  they  have f o r  shape.  Just look a t i t . Turn i t i n your hand and see which way looks best for the shape your face is going to be. Take a look at Kristen. This is the one she chose. If I hold it t h i s way, I c o u l d have an oval shape. Eyes here, mouth down here, and so on. And if I hold it that way, i t looks l i k e a long f l a t pumpkin f a c e . Look at yours and decide which way you want your pumpkin face - long or fat - and when you've decided, use your pencil don't cut with the knife yet - use your pencil. Think about a l l the things you drew on the chalkboard, think about the shapes we talked about, and very c a r e f u l l y draw your face on the potato. Now, i t ' s going to make a l i n e , it w i l l s o r t of make a l i t t l e dent i n i t so you can see where you want to c u t . (see F i g u r e 7) Pat demonstrates a safe way t o hold a k n i f e t o one group. OK. Keep your hand over the top. And, it won't hurt to move your f i n g e r s close up to the blade, l i k e that, with t h i s finger on the top of it, not on the bottom! Because the bottom is the sharp side, right? I've got a switch blade one but I'm not allowed it because it's really really sharp.  to  bring  Oh. OK. Very, very c a r e f u l l y . And you don't have to dig hard because the potato i t s e l f is not very hard. Dig  76  out the shape for your eyes and nose and mouth. Very, very c a r e f u l l y . You just need to vork very c a r e f u l l y .  Figure  I can't Pat  Leah P r e p a r i n g  a Potato  Block  cut.  goes t o h e l p some o f t h e  difficulty to  7  with  allow cutting  their of  table  fine  grade l ' s knives.  The  who  are  t i p s are  experiencing too  rounded  details.  OK. A l l r i g h t , Jonathon, I ' l l help you. Do you want the eyes right here? All right. Dig a l i t t l e hole with the knife. Well, you did a r e a l l y good job on that one. Try, try...go slowly, we're not in a r u s h . Mrs. V i t t e r y , Great! straight  I'm  finished.  that's the idea! Try to make so that the f l a t part of the  your face  cuts fairly doesn't get  77  all  raggedy  or mushed.  Ohhh... Nov vhat?. two s i d e s triangle. Mrs.  Well, can you make i t into a triangle? straight on i t and i t will turn  Vittery,  t h e mouth i s  No, I t h i n k i t ' s g o i n g Pat d i s p e n s e s group. their  paint,  Chattering excitedly, potatoes  on y e l l o w s h e e t s  Figure  8  botching.  t o look  orange p o s t e r  Make into a  the  just one  styrofoam  children  of paper,  Leah's F i r s t  fine. tray  experiment  ( s e e F i g u r e 8)  Potato  Print  per with  78  Some c h i l d r e n are d i s a p p o i n t e d with t h e i r r e s u l t s . are  not  as c l e a r as they were e x p e c t i n g .  himself at a near I can't do  A child  faces  mutters  to  table:  this.  This  i s wrecked.  Keep t r y i n g u n t i l you should work out. Pat  The  goes about the  figure  out  exactly  room, commenting on  the  individual  way  it  children's  r e s u l t s , o f f e r i n g encouragement. That's a good one, Gary. Look, Gary's got a great His f i r s t one wasn't so great, but t h i s one i s . Mrs. Oh,  one.  V i t t e r y , I dropped i t . deari  Well,  do you  want to s t a r t  over?  While the c h i l d r e n continue with t h e i r experimenting, Pat out a longer piece of paper on a t a b l e at the the  room.  I t has  She  asks one  the  fence.  window  side  a brown crayon fence p a r t i a l l y drawn on  c h i l d who  has  lays of it.  done a number of p r i n t s to complete  A l l r i g h t , boys and g i r l s . We're going to stick your p r i n t s along the top of the fence and see all the Jack-O'Lanterns. So, paint yours, bring it over, and put it along the top of the fence, (see F i g u r e 9) Those who careful  come up to p r i n t initially.  As  the  a  face  on  fence f i l l s  faces i s added, l e s s care i s taken.  the up and  Some  fence  a second row  children  experiment by t w i s t i n g t h e i r potatoes as they p r i n t , smudgy c i r c l e s . It  didn't  You've got  turn  out  to go  right.  i n on top of mine.  are  begin  very of to  creating  79  Figure  Pat  calls  clean  9  J a c k - 0 L a n t e r n s On A 1  the children  up.  She g i v e s  back  to their  directions  places  papers on t h e a r t t a b l e ,  and  i n  accompanied orange 1  boy.  the  garbage.  b y some c h e e r f u l  fingered  young  Others l i n e  lady  playfully at  brushes  This  singing  up q u i e t l y  as i t i s  time  to  t o p u t p o t a t o e s on t h e c o r n e r s  of d e s k s , sample newspapers  Fence  i nthe sink,  i s quickly  done,  from a few c h i l d r e n .  One  teases and chases a grade the  sink  to  wash  their  hands.  Mrs. Vittery.' face! He's orange  Look a t Chad!  everywhere.'  OK.  He's  got  Kristen,  orange  hurry  on  his  i t up, dear.  80  Pat c a l l s the c h i l d r e n to the meeting p l a c e , with some f u r t h e r reminders  to "slowpokes" at the s i n k .  Now, I want to know how you f e l t about the t r y i n g to carve the potato. Did you find it d i f f i c u l t to do? Raise your hand to t e l l me about i t . Was it an easy job to do or not? think, Rodney? I thought Can you Cause And It  it was tell  hard.  me why you  of the eyes  and  what made it was hard  thought  i t was  hard?  that.  difficult?  to do i t .  What would have made i t e a s i e r , do you Just choose  business of was a l i t t l e how you f e l t What did you  the  think?  shape.  Do you mean that if you had chosen a d i f f e r e n t shape, it might have been easier? OK, so Rodney found it was a d i f f i c u l t job to cut the eyes out. How did you feel about the whole job that we did, Maria? It  was  Did your Uh  easy. p r i n t turn out to be what you wanted i t to  be?  huh.  How d i d you f e e l about i t ?  Carrie?  Kind of hard. Can you explain  why you  Cause i t ' s a small a big thing. Right. OK. having quite it, Leah?  felt  little  that  way about i t ?  t h i n g that you can't carve  That's what I was noticing, a l o t of trouble. How did  that you you feel  with were about  Um, I thought i t was quite hard because it was, um, sort of l i t t l e parts and you can't carve it very well. And I d i d n ' t want i t to turn out the way i t was turned out. So, you out?  were...how  did you  feel  about  the way  it did  turn  81  Hmmm. I d i d n ' t l i k e the way OK. How many f e l t Jack-O'Lantern face? they wanted it to?  i t turned  out.  that way about It d i d n ' t turn out  their little quite the way  A show of hands r e v e a l s that about h a l f of the c h i l d r e n dissatisfied  with  the  activity  and  summarizes t h e i r comments concerning and  the smallness of the  carve.  She  features  asks f o r p r e d i c t i o n s  their  the s i z e they  about  were the  were  results. of  the  Pat knives  attempting pumpkin  to  carving  planned f o r the upcoming week. Can you t e l l me what might be d i f f e r e n t about c a r v i n g the potato face compared to c a r v i n g the Jack-O'Lantern face? What might be d i f f e r e n t , Jessica? I t ' s a l o t bigger and it would be a l o t easier knives would be a b i t small for the big pumpkin.  if  the  Oh, I think you're r i g h t about that. How many would agree with Jessica, it probably w i l l be an easier job. And was anyone else going to say something different to what she said? I know. Rodney, come here, suggest, David?  by  me.  what  were  you  going  to  Well, i t ' s going to be harder to get through because i t ' s t h i c k e r and i t ' s r e a l l y bigger and i t ' s going to be. L i k e , you're going to have a harder part. Like, where to put the eyes and that. We'll f i g u r e out what to do about the face and the shapes f i r s t , but David's r i g h t . I think what he's t r y i n g to say is that the potato was f a i r l y soft, easy to cut. Yeh. And the pumpkin w i l l be much tougher. And y e t the fact that the potato was so small and the pumpkin will be bigger should make the pumpkin job easier. What did you think about i t , Shawn? And  if you  On the Yup.  get  pumpkin.  it open, you  can  draw  the  triangle  eyes.  82  That's  probably  what we'll  do.  Pat holds up the pumpkins on the fence sheet. OK, I'd l i k e to just show you what happened here. (Laughs) I thought i t would look r e a l l y neat because we'd have one from everybody and they'd a l l look really different. But I d i d n ' t s t a y beside the fence because I was busy looking around and helping other people. And some pumpkins d i d n ' t r e a l l y get put in the r i g h t place. A couple of children got carried away. They were supposed t o put one pumpkin s i t t i n g on the fence. I think tomorrow we'll try t h i s again and see if we can get those p r i n t s to work and make a l i t t l e row of pumpkins on our fence. And then the grade l's can use it in math when they're doing c o u n t i n g . However, some of them d i d n ' t look bad at a l l . This one turned out very nicely. And t h i s one looks r e a l l y scary. And there's another one. You got some r e a l l y quite interesting faces, the ones that had success with i t . We'll try t h i s again tomorrow. The one at the very going to see? Oh, that's Pat  explains  geometric  end there  no  eyes.  How's  he  mine! to  the  children  shapes i n s t e a d  of  e a s i e r way t o make potato Mrs.  has  that  cutting  attempting  faces  very  simple  might  be  an  prints.  Vittery...?  Yes. I c o u l d b r i n g another potato i n t o make a c i r c l e . yes, I was just going to ask that, Shawn. Thanks for bringing it up. If you would l i k e t o t r y another potato p r i n t - the k n i v e s w i l l be here anyway because we're going to do the pumpkins next week - and so, Monday, I keep thinking tomorrow's Friday, but today's Friday. Monday, ask mom if she w i l l l e t you bring a potato and we'll try some easier things. That was probably too d i f f i c u l t for the f i r s t time a t potato p r i n t i n g . The c h i l d r e n a r e q u i e t l y l i s t e n i n g , one or two are sprawled  out.  calm.  Some  yawn;  I t i s time f o r the pumpkin song,  sung to the tune of "I'm a L i t t l e read o f f the song c h a r t f i r s t ,  very  Teapot."  Children  (see F i g u r e 10)  choral  83  10  Figure  Potato P r i n t  Pumpkins  A l l right, l e t ' s s e e i f we c a n s i n g i t . come on up. OK, r e a d y ? One, two t h r e e :  Adam  and  Chad,  I'm a l i t t l e pumpkin, S h o r t and s t o u t , Packed f u l l o f seeds That y o u c a n s c r a p e o u t .  When I'm a l l Then I ' l l be,  finished,  The c u t e s t Jack-0'Lantern That you e v e r d i d s e e . As I l e f t about  the c h i l d r e n  the  afternoon  sense  i n Pat's  discussion,  I felt  of  p r e p a r i n g f o r "home unity  I had  classroom. i t important  time,"  noticed  During  our  t h a t P a t and  I  thought  throughout first I  the  follow-up  consider  how  84  she, as  teacher  "artwork,"  "artist,"  creates  this  unity  within  her  her c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d .  Curricu,lum-a^-Prlan; R a t i o n a l e The  new  B.C.  Elementary  Fine  Arts  Curriculum  Guide/Resource Book s t a t e s : Education i n the a r t s i s an essential p a r t of the development of every c h i l d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r t , drama, and music provides a unique mode of experience that stimulates creative and intuitive thought while developing the i n t e l l e c t . A r t s education a s s i s t s the c h i l d to p e r c e i v e and respond to the environment through the senses. It also helps the c h i l d to achieve s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , to experience success, and to realize personal p o t e n t i a l . Learning through the a r t s provides a f u l l e r understanding and enjoyment of l i f e . 1  These p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f s are given f u r t h e r the guide's recommendations f o r a thematic  elaboration  planning  in  approach  in arts education: A l l experience i s r e l a t e d and t h e r e f o r e a l l l e a r n i n g i s related, since learning is an ordering of experience....Using a theme to present experiences a s s i s t s c h i l d r e n to make connections and to understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a r t s and between the arts and other s u b j e c t s , and, i n a d d i t i o n , i t helps teachers to plan an integrated learning experience for c h i l d r e n . . . . I t w i l l be more meaningful and exciting...if the c h i l d r e n are i n v o l v e d i n some p a r t of the p l a n n i n g . To f a c i l i t a t e from the  social  throughout book. through  f a m i l i a r i t y with a thematic studies  curriculum  approach,  guide  the v i s u a l a r t s s e c t i o n of the f i n e  These i l l u s t r a t e how  the goals of a r t can  i n t e g r a t i o n with other s u b j e c t s .  1 2 3 4 5  -  been  used  arts  resource  be  achieved  These s o c i a l s t u d i e s  themes a r e : Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade  have  examples  Myself Families Communiities Native Peoples and E x p l o r e r s Canada - Our C u l t u r e  85  Grade 6 - World Neighbours Grade 7 - People and Places The  resource  be considered  book i n d i c a t e s some of the many f a c t o r s that when choosing  themes.  The  suggestions  can given  are: -  a p a r t i c u l a r concept regional factors s p e c i a l seasons and occasions resource people a v a i l a b l e f e a t u r e s of the environment  Curriculum-as-lived My personal b e l i e f about t h i s whole business of teaching art to children is that I'd l i k e to increase their awareness and t h e i r observation of the world around them. And, as well, give them an appreciation of how others have observed and interpreted the world. I feel that to be s u c c e s s f u l with c h i l d r e n , i t doesn't matter whether you're t e a c h i n g a r t or r e a d i n g or what, your whole brain has to be working. You can't just be t o t a l l y on the l e f t or t o t a l l y on the r i g h t ; you've got to have a nice happy mix. A balanced person uses some from each. I really think that you have t o be a well-rounded sort of a person - you've done a l o t of things and you're willing to experiment with something that's new. If you're whole, yourself, in terms of your thinking, then i t ' s more l i k e l y that you're going to be able to give that to kids. Pat expressed these thoughts as we sipped c o f f e e i n her l i v i n g room one wintry Saturday  afternoon.  I f e e l you have to be aware of the a l t e r n a t i v e s and you have to be a b l e to show children that they can expand an idea and the ways i t ' s possible to go. For me there's a l l kinds of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t ' s not j u s t one s e t . By t h i s , d i d she mean that the l e a r n i n g could be v i s u a l  possibilities  (through  for children's  a r t ) or  verbal  (through  w r i t t e n forms, f o r example)? Yes. Music, drama, creative dance, everything. Involved. And the new c u r r i c u l u m t r i e s to do t h a t . Pat e x p l a i n e d teaching.  how she plans  for a  balanced  approach  She spoke of the "webbing" s e s s i o n s  she  t o her has  with  86  her  class  at different  times throughout  the year,  (see  Figure  11)  Figure  11  P l a n n i n g Web  f o r Autumn  What I was d o i n g was t r y i n g to get the k i d s thinking a b o u t t h e c h a n g i n g seasons and then what I was going to do i n math and i n s c i e n c e . T h a t a l l ties in with what I would be d o i n g i n a r t lessons. So the webbing here started off with autumn as the centre point and we broke off from there. What came out of it were the things that I was hoping would. F i r s t o f a l l , the leaves change. And I was planning an art a c t i v i t y . . .  I mentioned had  t a k e n on  activity  that  t h e r e were some p i c t u r e s  this  she was  Yes, that's out of i t .  visit.  referring  right.  (see  Figure  of t r e e s 12)  Was  that I this  the  to?  So leaves  were  one  thing  that  came  87  And, then the pumpkins. We d i d Jack-o'Lanterns, of c o u r s e , i n a r t work. In math, we weighed them; we counted seeds; we c o o k e d w i t h them; we d i d a l l that k i n d o f s t u f f w i t h them. So that was something I was hoping would come o u t . And then about the animals preparing f o r winter. T h a t worked into the animal unit, later on. And the web I p u t on a chart, after i t was on the chalkboard. It was left in the classroom and we referred to i t f o r topics. So t h e webbing that I do with the children has a l o t t o do w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g of what actually goes on in the classroom because I feel it's important that I work with the ideas that come from them. I always feel that if the i d e a comes f r o m them, i t ' s more i m p o r t a n t t o them, more meaningful to them. A l l the ideas there were expanded. Oh, I know, there was something about how people p r e p a r e f o r w i n t e r . And, we d i d a l o t of w r i t i n g about h e l p i n g t h i n g s get organized a t home, chopping wood, piling wood, freezing veggies, canning f r u i t , t r y i n g on winter clothes. And they're always so cute. They all say "Well, I just did that and those boots from last year don't f i t . Neither does my coat." I commented their  that  growth.  that  leads  into  another  discussion,  about  88  Sure. It goes on and on. And I r e a l l y , r e a l l y l i k e doing t h i s because the kids find out that they aleady know a l o t of things. I t ' s so much better than just opening up a l i t t l e book and saying read page 12 and here's a family p r e p a r i n g f o r winter. I was  c u r i o u s about the amount of time given  elements of the theme. next and  how  she can  Pat e x p l a i n e d how  to  the  each flows  various into  the  i n t u i t i v e l y sense when i t i s time to move  on. That web took us through October and November and right into Christmas. In November, we d i d g u i t e a l o t with animals. I t ' s such a neat theme which came out of animals preparing for winter, but then we, of course, expanded it and went on to all animals and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and the whole thing. That's the fun part about working an Integrated program. Because i t ' s so broad, it s p i l l s over into every s i n g l e area. We "web" whenever we need some fresh ideas. I remember here we did food, too. We did a l i t t l e quick thing, about a week long on n u t r i t i o n . And then t h i s wore out and the animal t h i n g was finished up. You know, l o t s of times, I never look at a guide book for weeks on end because there's so many things going on in the classroom that I haven't got time to look at i t . (Laughs) Don't ever l e t anybody hear t h i s , please! Keep it secret! At t h i s , we  both laughed.  I mentioned t h a t the concepts  the guide wants her to get a c r o s s , though, are a c t u a l l y  that being  covered. Well, because I've been at the job for so many years, I know the guides o f f by h e a r t , so then I can tell you r i g h t away, OK, n u t r i t i o n is in chapter 2 of the grade 1 s c i e n c e guide. Maybe i t ' s 4, who knows, but what ever, something l i k e that. I know i t ' s there. (Laughs) Right? And I also know that animals and t h e i r habits is in grade 2 science. I know that f a m i l i e s p r e p a r i n g f o r winter is in the grade 2 social studies. You know, because I've been around a while, I can spot these things and say, sure, t h a t ' s f i n e , t h a t ' s l e g a l , I can e a s i l y use these lessons because they are written down someplace. And by the end of the year, if I look at the guide, I've covered everything that's in it, plus more. So I don't tie myself to the guide at a l l . And if that's i l l e g a l that's too bad. Pat  i n v o l v e s c h i l d r e n i n the webbing p r o c e s s .  however,  that  she  provides  some  guidance  I t i s apparent, according  to  89  p a r t i c u l a r concepts that might be o u t l i n e d i n the guide book. f a c t , an u n d e r l y i n g  i n the back of her  mind  or  is,  in  I wanted to know i f there  s t r u c t u r e to t h i s webbing a c t i v i t y .  Yes, that's r i g h t . When I do the webbing, I know what I want them to t e l l me. And so by my questioning I get them to give me the ideas and then they become their ideas. Instead of me, drawing a web or making a l i s t or doing something l i k e that f o r them to look at, which they wouldn't look at or wouldn't understand anyway, I draw it out of them and therefore i t ' s t h e i r own and i t ' s more meaningful. That's my reason for doing that. And whether or not i t works, I don't know. I haven't used any other system for so long that to me it does work. I think that i t ' s reasonable to assume it does. And by the end of the unit we w i l l have discussed and talked about every s i n g l e thing that's on that web. Now it came from the children. Some of it was not necessarily in my plan, but it was i n t e r e s t i n g to them so we included it. I guess I do have a master plan for the webbing. It just kind of serves as a vehicle to make sure that all the things that I want to cover in a u n i t are covered and yet the k i d s think that they f i g u r e d out what they want to learn about. I asked why  Pat  had  chosen  approach t h i s year than i n the  to  emphasize  a  more  thematic  past.  Well, I've always felt that it made more sense, e s p e c i a l l y in the younger grades. Now t h i s year I have 1's and 2's. Normally, in the l a s t few years, a part of my group has always been grade 3's. And they're a little different. They're o l d e r and i t ' s not as easy to do a theme approach with them. They've got a hefty math program that just absolutely must be covered, according to the powers that be. And there's a l o t in the handwriting program, for instance, that is specifically grade 3. Oh, and the Canada study, i n social studies, is v e r y d e f i n i t e , that that's what you must study, Canada t h i s , t h i s , and t h i s - the whole year is spent on our country. I observed t h a t she  seemed to be  implying  t h a t the  curriculum  guide l i n e s f o r those grades are much more r i g i d . Yes, that's a good way to put it, for grade 3. And from then on, too. But in 1 and 2 you have a little more leeway as to how you i n t e r p r e t what i s w r i t t e n down, i n a l l these guides. I choose to think of it that way. So I think that's been one freeing thing for me, having just the l's and 2's, rather than having 2's and 3's. That was one reason why I decided I would like to try the  90  theme t h i n g . And I have always f e l t i t ' s so much e a s i e r , f o r me, as well as it must be e a s i e r f o r the kids. I j u s t think i t ' s more meaningful f o r c h i l d r e n i f they can see a r e l a t i o n s h i p between what they're doing r i g h t now, as compared to what they d i d an hour ago, or what they're going to be doing in the afternoon. It f e e l s better, to me, to work that way. And it seems to f e e l b e t t e r to the kids. They're doing an a r t project in the afternoon that i s r e l a t e d to a s t o r y that they were r e a d i n g that morning, or a poem that they'd s t u d i e d , or a lesson in science, or in social s t u d i e s , whatever i t i s . You can hear them c h a t t e r i n g about i t . I can tell that i t ' s comfortable for them to work that way. This  approach  teacher.  One  contrasts aspect  with  of my  The  work  as  an  teachers,  i n v o l v e s teaching  the a r t s p e c i a l i s t  in  80 minute p e r i o d per week.  and  my  to two  grades  school.  This  I t r y to i n t e g r a t e my  studied  time i s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r teachers  i n our  presenting  a r t to each c l a s s i n grades 3 to 7  t o p i c s c u r r e n t l y being  in  in  other  both  my  subject planning  i n t e r a c t i n g with the c h i l d r e n .  much b e t t e r  i t would be  curricular  requirements  studies  f e e l i n g o b l i g a t e d to adhere c l o s e l y  the s p e c i f i c content o u t l i n e d f o r these s u b j e c t s A l s o , I am  in s p l i t  grade f o r e i t h e r s o c i a l  to d i s t r i c t g u i d e l i n e s , encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s  at once.  unassigned  job i s to r e l i e v e teachers  grade s i t u a t i o n s by t a k i n g one or s c i e n c e .  my  for  my  were  I mentioned to Pat t h a t i n my  students, not  present  quite  for  one  lessons  with  areas,  but  with I  as  think  well, so  other how  if  the  structured.  s i t u a t i o n , there was  not  much flow between s u b j e c t s . I agree. I agree. But I'm afraid that the teachers involved feel too much pressure to do, or to cover, the work. I added t h a t  i n t h i s pressure  to cover the work, the  students'  meaningful understanding ceases to be of primary importance. Exactly! Because administration and  they're under pressure from they've got t h i s big c u r r i c u l u m  their guide  91  in f r o n t of them, that says you must do t h i s , t h i s , t h i s , and t h i s . And heaven h e l p you, have i t f i n i s h e d by spring break, so that you can spend the rest of the time "reviewing." Lots of teachers work that way. You know them as well as I do. It doesn't r e a l l y matter whether i t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r the k i d s or n o t ; you've got t o get through the "program".' I laughed s a d l y , n o t i c i n g the i r o n y .  Who  i s schooling  for  anyhow? Well, i t i s n ' t f o r the k i d s . Pat and I examined  the  chart  in  the  resource  book  which  i n d i c a t e s some of the many f a c t o r s t h a t can be considered choosing  when  themes.  The suggestions a r e r e a l l y wide open, so yes, I would say there's something there for everyone. Anyone who has an idea of how theme teaching works wouldn't have any d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s at a l l , even i f they d i d n ' t use the theme the way a theme should be used, in a l l d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t areas, For example, you could pick up n a t i v e peoples of BC. Well, how many art lessons c o u l d you get out o f that? That's a whole year of study. And more. And here's another one, the sea. Well, you and I know we could j u s t go f o r days on t h a t . I thought about what Pat was s a y i n g , experienced in  about  inexperienced  able  to  do  i t .  i n theme teaching?  But  workshops with teachers  had  l e v e l where t e a c h e r s ,  d e f i n e d s u b j e c t areas.  the word guide when s t u d y i n g  i n charge  of  conducting science  were  finding  noticeable  a t the  minute  time  by t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n  of  They seemed t o l o s e s i g h t  of  curriculum  the word p r e s c r i p t i o n i n s t e a d .  person  some  l i m i t e d t o 40  p e r i o d s , were a d d i t i o n a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d  a  been  And those people  This was e s p e c i a l l y  of us,  backgrounds  of  on my s t a f f , developing  u n i t s on a thematic approach. it really difficult.  what  As the teacher  the enrichment program a t our s c h o o l , I  strictly  two  i n t e a c h i n g with themes and with good  a r t , being  intermediate  the  outlines, substituting  Imaginative f l e x i b i l i t y  i n the  92  use  of these guides was s a d l y l a c k i n g .  concerned, there  And as f a r as a r t was  seemed t o be kind of a groping from l e s s o n to  l e s s o n , each one conducted i n i s o l a t i o n .  Pat commented on  my  observations: You know, one of the worst t h i n g s that teachers ever d i d , as f a r as I'm concerned, is come out with those idea books that you could pick up at teachers' conferences. "A thousand and one ideas for art lessons." And that's exactly what it is, a thousand and one sheets of paper, each with a l i t t l e lesson on it, which would be f i n e , except that i t ' s not r e l a t e d t o a n y t h i n g e l s e . I t ' s j u s t - spatter painting. And that's done one week. And the next week, jump to something else, something totally unrelated to the s p a t t e r p a i n t i n g . You know, there's no cohesiveness to it a t a l l . And I f i n d those teachers that I've worked with in the intermediate grades will base an a r t program f o r t h e i r class on a book l i k e that. Or s e v e r a l . And they think that they're doing wonderful things with t h e i r k i d s , because they're doing different things. And every kid in the class turns out the s p a t t e r p a i n t i n g that's exactly the same way. And the next week, they a l l do the...oh, whatever it is, a s i l h o u e t t e of a t r e e and a duck f l y i n g overhead. And the next week they do something else. Who knows. But nothing is tied together. But the kids are busy. And every other day, whenever they have a planned art lesson, the process is carried through. The product is pleasing to the kid and the teacher. Everybody's happy. But... there's more to it, as far as I'm concerned. Pat's reference  to  a  textbook s e r i e s which the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n suggests as  a  possible  to the ideas books might be  teacher  resource.  completely c o n t r a d i c t  to  Discover A r t , by Laura Chapman, o f f e r s many e x c e l l e n t  ideas i n  individual  lessons.  approach.  appear  series,  planned,  thematic  textbooks  The  well  the  These  applicable  3  techniques, a r t h i s t o r y , a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s i x grade l e v e l t e x t s contains year, with the s e q u e n t i a l thoughtfully outlined.  Vocabulary are  lessons  covered. f o r an  development of s k i l l s and  Yet, i t i s d i s j o i n t e d .  c o n t i n u i t y from one l e s s o n to the next.  terms, Each entire  knowledge  There  i s no  In order t o use these  93  t e x t s w i t h i n a thematic approach, all  the books to pick  activities  which  relate  the  That's the only use I've made of those thousand and idea hooks, to go through for ideas, or for things you can i n c l u d e w i t h i n a given theme.  one that  theme.  I expressed  f e a r s of a  textbook  series  in  art  e x a c t l y as i t i s presented, i n the same manner idea books are used. fits  through to  chosen  out  a teacher has to go  A thematic  approach  being  in  quite  which  with i t .  I  also  mentioned  that  it  the  comfortably  our s t y l e , but a great many others would have  working  used  difficulty  requires  some  e f f o r t and c r e a t i v i t y t o take a theme and expand upon i t . Yes. We've talked often about the fact that to be r e a l l y successful as an art teacher you have to be a creative person yourself. Otherwise, there's not a creativeness to your thinking. If you're a creative kind of teacher, then you can expand and build on themes and use a l l the techniques that you know of, within the framework of a theme. I f you're not p a r t i c u l a r l y c r e a t i v e , then you may have to s t i c k to lessons that are just dealing with techniques. On two  occasions d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s s p r i n g , I had observed i n  Pat's classroom. this  fall,  what  As I entered her room struck  me  arrangement of her classroom.  right  for  away  the was  first the  Before, the c h i l d r e n  time  physical had  been  i n rows, i n groups of t h r e e , but t h i s year i t was c o n s i d e r a b l y different. Oh, I did change it, yes. F i r s t of a l l , I have grade l's t h i s year. L a s t year I had 2's and 3's. I wanted to have an arrangement where the 1's had as much freedom to move around as p o s s i b l e . I d i d n ' t want to have to many r e s t r i c t i o n s on them. I wanted to have them grouped so that there was easy access for me to deal with them when I needed to, and for them to get at reading materials, pictures, in the reading corner. I wanted them near that meeting p l a c e . And I also wanted to have a focal point in the very c e n t r e of the room where I p l a c e d that round table. I wanted t o have i t easy f o r every one to get at mater i a l s dealing with whatever theme I was working  94  on.(see F i g u r e  animal  unit  13)  because  And  were u s i n g c o n s t a n t l y ,  Figure  13  i t worked  really  I had a l l those  veil  pictures  for  that  the  they  f o r one t h i n g o r a n o t h e r .  Classroom Focal  Point  And  t h e n h a v i n g t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e room more f o r centre kinds of a c t i v i t i e s . There's the art table, down a t t h e end, by the sink vith the a r t s u p p l i e s ' shelving. And t h e n I ' v e g o t science and social studies reference books along the vindov ledge there, and the table in the math corner vith a l l our m a n i p u l a t i v e s t u f f on t h e shelf behind i t . And t h e n t h e m e e t i n g place or the reading corner, v i t h a l l the d i f f e r e n t kinds of books that they use, extended things, not readers. They're a very cohesive group; I think that the actual physical arrangement has something to do v i t h i t . Pat's  classroom  planning.  i s a graphic  The c o n n e c t i o n  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  between h e r  thematic  her  style  planning  of and  95  the  p h y s i c a l arrangement  of  her  obvious t o me on my f i r s t v i s i t  classroom  was  immediately  t h i s year when I  noticed  autumn web on the chalkboard and saw the c i r c u l a r of  t a b l e and desks.  subsequent  visits;  And  the  connection  was  the  arrangement  reinforced  the m a t e r i a l s on the c e n t r e  table  on  -  her  thematic f o c a l p o i n t - always brought together the d i s p l a y s a t other c e n t r e s around the classroom.  On my  first  visit,  t a b l e featured teddy bears and CARE bear s t o r i e s . theme was  expanded  upon  drawing a c t i v i t i e s and  a  throughout "Three  the  The  classroom  Bears"  mural  her i n the w r i t i n g c e n t r e , and f a c t u a l  bears i n the s c i e n c e c e n t r e .  As  t a b l e d i s p l a y changed t o Halloween V i s u a l m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s  board, and Halloween  on  real  approached,  the  s t o r i e s and a c t i v i t y c a r d s .  at  the  other  interwoven i n t o t h i s theme - pumpkin seed graphs area, witches on broomsticks  stories  i n f o r m a t i o n on  Halloween  bear  the a r t  c e n t r e , p o r t r a i t s of G o l d i l o c k s and c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s i s of  "BEAR" -  in  the  the  art  centres  were  in  math  centre's  the  bulletin  songs on c h a r t s i n the r e a d i n g a r e a .  other times i n the year,  I noticed  the  themes  of  At  animals,  winter, v a l e n t i n e s , and space handled i n a s i m i l a r manner. shared my o b s e r v a t i o n on the c o n n e c t i o n between  planning  I and  classroom o r g a n i z a t i o n with P a t . I never even thought of i t l i k e that. Oh, isn't that funny? No, I d i d n ' t think of that at a l l . But I can see, I can see...yes. That's how i t ' s working. Reflections "In  on an integrated a work of  f  balanced  a r t , " says  approach  Heidegger,  to  learning  "there  occurs  d i s c l o s u r e of a p a r t i c u l a r being,...a happening work."  4  He c o n t i n u e s :  of  truth  a at  96  Truth does not e x i s t in i t s e l f beforehand, somewhere among the stars....The e s t a b l i s h i n g of t r u t h i n a work i s the b r i n g i n g f o r t h of a being such as never was before and w i l l never come to be a g a i n . 5  Heidegger b e l i e v e s t h a t the work "makes p u b l i c something other than  itself;...it  i s an a l l e g o r y . "  The g r e a t e r the sense  6  u n i t y w i t h i n a work of a r t , the g r e a t e r  the  opportunity  of for  the d i s c l o s u r e of t r u t h t o occur. In a v i s u a l work of a r t , u n i t y , the being seen as a whole, i s achieved  through the a r t i s t ' s r e l a t i n g t o the  physical materials - l i n e ,  shape,  form,  elements  colour,  w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r medium, a c c o r d i n g t o p a t t e r n s together.  These p a t t e r n s  are  coherence, balance, and rhythm.  the  principles my  texture of  of  working design of  the  Halloween l e s s o n and my subsequent d i s c u s s i o n with Pat, I  was  7  In  of  a b l e to come to a deeper understanding  observation  of the  patterns  which  c o n t r i b u t e t o the u n i t y so d i s c e r n i b l e w i t h i n her artwork, her c u r r iculum-as-1ived. Pat's personal philosophy r e g a r d i n g the t e a c h i n g i s cohesive with t h a t expressed  i n the  A r t s Curriculum Guide/Resource Book. that i f we are a t t e n d i n g to the growth  B.C.  Elementary  She shares of  then the development of m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y  of a r t  the  Fine  the  opinion  whole  child,  skills  -  l i n g u i s t i c , m a t h e m a t i c a l / l o g i c a l - must be c o n s i d e r e d .  visual, It i s  imperative t h a t we keep i n mind the f a c t that the q u a l i t i e s of the environment are m u l t i p l e [which] means t h a t the ways i n which these q u a l i t i e s are known can a l s o be p o t e n t i a l l y m u l t i p l e . The ability to experience the multiplicity of environmental q u a l i t i e s i s one of the aims educational programs should attempt t o a c h i e v e . 8  E i s n e r remarks t h a t today's e d u c a t i o n a l system undermines  97  the concept of a balanced c u r r i c u l u m that o n l y through  certain  knowledge be a c q u i r e d .  academic  Language  subjects arts,  s t u d i e s , and s c i e n c e are considered A l l emphasize through  acquisition  linguistic  representation.  9  by maintaining  of  can  cognitive  social  subject  almost  mathematical  myth  important  mathematics,  knowledge  and/or  the  areas.  exclusively forms  of  When v i s u a l forms, such as i l l u s t r a t i o n s  textbooks, are i n c l u d e d , they a r e  usually  ancillary  in  to the  w r i t t e n t e x t , not i n t e g r a l aspects of the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The  arts,  subjects the  in  turn,  are  frequently  to b a s i c education. rational,  Basic  linear  linguistic/mathematical  of  as  ancillary  traditionally  meant  embodied  in  representation.  These  only l i m i t e d d e s c r i p t i o n s  of the  world and can never f u l l y represent Eisner  has  thinking  forms  languages, however, provide  regarded  our experiences i n i t . As  explains:  We are able t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e thousands of q u a l i t i e s f o r which we have no vocabulary....Thinking exceeds the l i m i t s of d i s c o u r s e . 1 0  A r t i s t s and musicians are w e l l aware of t h i s . unnecessary to " t h i n k " The  present  assumption, rooted  They  find  i n words while c r e a t i n g works of a r t .  educational  imbalance  supports  i n the C a r t e s i a n dichotomy s e p a r a t i n g  ( c o g n i t i o n ) from f e e l i n g ( a f f e c t ) , t h a t the s u b j e c t i v e of the a r t s does not i n v o l v e t h i n k i n g . faulty  it  Eisner  refutes  the mind nature this  distinction:  If t o cognize i s t o know, then t o have a f e e l i n g and not to know i t i s not to have it....In order t o have a f e e l i n g , one must be able to d i s t i n g u i s h between one state of being and another. The making of this d i s t i n c t i o n i s the product of t h i n k i n g , a product that i t s e l f represents a s t a t e of knowing. S i m i l a r l y , there  98  can be no cognitive activity that a f f e c t i v e . . . . A f f e c t and c o g n i t i o n are processes; nor are they processes separated.  is not also not independent that can be  1 1  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two  has  been  quantum p h y s i c i s t s working w i t h i n the new In education, v e r b a l and  t h i n k i n g cannot be construed  mathematical languages.  demonstrated  scientific only  in  by  paradigm. terms  Dewey s t r e s s e s t h i s  of  point:  Because p e r c e p t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p between what i s done and what is undergone constitutes the work of i n t e l l i g e n c e , and because the a r t i s t i s c o n t r o l l e d i n the process of h i s work by h i s grasp of the connection between what he has a l r e a d y done and what he i s to do next, the idea that the a r t i s t does not think as i n t e n t l y and as p e n e t r a t i n g l y as a s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r e r i s absurd. A p a i n t e r must c o n s c i o u s l y undergo the e f f e c t of his every brushstroke or he w i l l not be aware of what he is doing and where he i s going. To apprehend such r e l a t i o n s i s to t h i n k , and i s one of the most e x a c t i n g modes of thought. 1 2  In the experiences faces,  Pat's  of  drawing  children  were  and  printing  involved  in  decision-making - i n t e l l i g e n t t h i n k i n g was c o n s i s t e n t l y emphasized d u r i n g whole  c h i l d a balanced  educational  our  synthesis  going on.  approach  is  and  As  i n i t i a l discussion,  curriculum  system weighted i n  Jack-0'Lantern  Pat  for  needed.  linguistic/mathematical  a An  modes  of knowing i s l o p s i d e d . The  thematic planning  curriculum  recommended i n the  guide/resource  h o l i s t i c philosophy.  book  Exercising  judgement i n t h i s matter  permits  w i t h i n the t e n s i o n a l i t y zone curriculum-as become  lived.  increasingly  compartmentalizing  is  congruent  professional her  between  to  live  fine with  with  autonomy  learning into i s o l a t e d subject  and  harmoniously  however, the  arts Pat's  curriculum-as-plan  Like many educators, dissatisfied  new  and  she  had  practice  of  disciplines  99  and,  w i t h i n each d i s c i p l i n e , f u r t h e r  i s o l a t e d lessons.  As  examples  mentioned the type of lessons idea books f o r a r t " . a t the by  She  of  fragmenting l e a r n i n g this  found i n the  strongly  fragmentation,  Pat  "thousand  one  indicated  her  lack of c o n t i n u i t y i n these m a t e r i a l s .  "relentlessly  petals,  history  continuity."  1 3  turning into  wholes  events,  In a dynamic  nature e x i s t w i t h i n  into without  view  of  and  displeasure  Meaning i s l o s t  parts,  flowers  ever  restoring  reality,  elements  i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , not as  static disciplines.  into  into the in  isolated  In our d a i l y l i v e s  meaningful a c t i n g , that i s , a c t i n g which changes reality according to the needs of people, must constantly transgress the limits of school subjects. Discipline-centred schooling destroys relations which e x i s t i n r e a l i t y and which are important for the action of c h i l d r e n . In so doing, school e f f e c t i v e l y endangers t h e i r a b i l i t y to a c t e f f e c t i v e l y . 1 4  There are dangers inherent often  find  in school,  in isolated learning.  it difficult  to remember and  for f a c t u a l  information  Individuals  a p p l y what i s  learned  segregated when...acquired,... i s so d i s c o n n e c t e d from the r e s t of experience t h a t i t i s not available under the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s of life....What a v a i l i s i t to win p r e s c r i b e d amounts of i n f o r m a t i o n i f i n the process the i n d i v i d u a l l o s e s h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of things worthwhile, of the values to which these t h i n g s are r e l a t i v e ; i f he loses h i s d e s i r e to a p p l y what he has learned, and above a l l , loses the a b i l i t y to e x t r a c t meaning from h i s f u t u r e experiences as they o c c u r ? 1 5  B a l a n c i n g and Pat  does  is  i n t e g r a t i n g content areas w i t h i n a theme as  her  way  experience f o r c h i l d r e n ; further  increases  of  establishing  a  more  i n v o l v i n g them i n thematic  t h e i r sense of ownership i n the  Some might consider e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the  the  meaningful  fact  webbing  that process  she a  has  planning  activities.  pre-determined  slightly  dishonest  100  manipulation of c h i l d r e n ,  but  the g r e a t e r m a t u r i t y of experience which should belong to the a d u l t as educator puts ther] i n a p o s i t i o n to evaluate each experience of the young i n a way i n which the one having the experience cannot do. I t i s then the business of the educator to see i n what d i r e c t i o n an experience i s h e a d i n g . 1 6  One  may  have a sense  remaining  flexible.  ideas c o n t r i b u t e d  of d i r e c t i o n i n u n i t planning while Pat acknowledges the value of  by  the  children  s u g g e s t i o n s , along with her own, Thematic  planning  s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c paradigm. one  of i t s key concepts.  consistent  metaphor  of  Interactive  cohesive u n i t y i s the sense  a continuous  their  activities. with  the  the  new  relationships  Between Pat and her c h i l d r e n ,  i s , as she says, "a n i c e c l o s e f e e l i n g . "  teacher a r t i s t .  unexpected  incorporates  i n t o the l e a r n i n g  is  cosmos-as-rhythmic-dance  and  still  of rhythm  there  C o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s  she  establishes  Rhythm i n a work of a r t can be thought  flow, analogous  are  as of  a as  to the motion of waves:  the r e c u r r e n c e of c u r v i l i n e a r shapes; emphasis at the c r e s t s and pause i n the troughs; and smooth transitions from one wave to the n e x t . 1 7  Through the webbing process, Pat i l l u s t r a t e s f o r c h i l d r e n dynamic connections between d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s . and expanding  When d e v e l o p i n g  upon these t o p i c s i n subsequent l e s s o n s , she  s e n s i t i v e to the c h i l d r e n ' s  level  of  knowing when i t i s time to move on.  the  interest, Rhythm,  in  is  intuitively the  smooth  t r a n s i t i o n s from drawing to s t o r y t e l l i n g , to printmaking,  and  i n t o s i n g i n g c o n t r i b u t e s to the u n i t y of the Halloween l e s s o n . Encountering a "trough" i n the  printmaking  activity  c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t i e s with b l u n t knives and shapes -  Pat "paused," d i s c u s s e d the  situation  -  many  o v e r l y complex calmly  with  101  them, then picked up the pace again by c o n s i d e r i n g for  a second  physical  lesson.  Rhythm i s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d  arrangement  of  Pat's  room,  for  c h i l d r e n to i n t e r a c t with m a t e r i a l s i n the  variations  through  she  the  encourages  different  subject  c e n t r e s and with each other a t t h e i r desk groupings. Rhythm, balance, coherence necessary to achieve u n i t y  -  the a  work  evident i n Pat's c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d .  And  present.  within  principles  What of Heidegger's  establish i t s e l f within this Heidegger,  is  concealing.  artwork?  simultaneously  art  unity  d i s c l o s u r e of  a  coats outgrown, leaves changing c o l o u r ,  is  1  indeed it  according  to  and  animals  all  Does  lighting  grades  design are  truth?  Truth,  both  For the c h i l d r e n i n  1 8  of  of  and 2,  a  winter  hibernating,  and pumpkins producing seeds are t a n g i b l e evidence t h a t t h i n g s change.  T h i s i s the major s t r a n d i n Pat's autumn p l a n n i n g  and t h i s concept subject areas.  i s integrated As  the  new  into physics  however, p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y i s a transformation.  Pat,  and  fluid  through  her  reinforced  has  now  process use  in a l l  acknowledged, of  of  web  myth  continuous and  art,  i n t e r a c t e d with her c h i l d r e n to i l l u m i n a t e the more i n t a n g i b l e e s s e n t i a l essence  of change.  the f a c t t h a t appearances them a sense of awe know i t . face?) world  (How  example, was was  focused t h e i r  house  be momentary;  rational,  attention  become  not a  be  we  i t i s o f t e n downplayed i n  logical  But he was  as  Jack-O'Lantern  thought.  (Jonathon,  t r a n s f i x e d while the magic of Pat's paper  being presented.  on  be d e c e i v i n g and awakened w i t h i n  that the " r e a l " world may  can a witch's  Wonder may valuing  may  She  quick to p o i n t  out  a  for  cutting that  he  102  "knew a l l along" Art  the  f i n a l outcome  and  was  not  surprised.)  reminds us t h a t complete c e r t a i n t y can never be ours.  Pat's c h i l d r e n had  the o p p o r t u n i t y  drew v a r i a t i o n s of Jack  And  to experience t h i s as  0'Lantern  faces  on  the  they  board  and  experimented with t h e i r potato p r i n t s . After  experiencing  curriculum-as-lived, own  situation.  curriculum the  My  I  I am  personal  was  opportunities  the  cohesive  I am  discouraged  fortunate  to  have  for appreciation  years.  the  b a s i c s at age of  a  was  r e s u l t i n g from t h i s  on  my  life.  both As  a  training  and  which continue to i n f l u e n c e L a s t i n g e f f e c t s from  of  8 my  art  teacher,  artistic  self-confidence  re-awakened.  New  a  however,  course in  and  i l l u m i n a t o r y experience now  for  in  visual  skills  my  very  abilities  I took a night s c h o o l  t h i r t y that my  expression  own  musical  grade  development  I t wasn't u n t i l  Pat's  aware of the e f f e c t s of  lack of the a r t s i n my  experience with  of  commitment to a c h i e v i n g a balanced  enjoyment of music as an a d u l t . negative  unity  f o r c e d to r e f l e c t c r i t i c a l l y  i s very s t r o n g .  i n c l u s i o n and  child,  the  art  modes  insights  e n r i c h my  life  immeasurably. In my  z e a l to c o r r e c t the e d u c a t i o n a l  t h i s i n t e g r a l aspect specialist of  f o r my  classroom  of l e a r n i n g , I  school.  teachers,  became  replacing  their  language.  disciplines  visual art  of  arts  lessons  materials-based,  which emphasized t h a t a r t i s a  d i s c i p l i n e , as r i g o r o u s l y demanding i n a traditional  the  I took over the ad hoc  l a i s s e z - f a i r e approach with one  the  system's n e g l e c t  of  cognitive  science,  As a d i s c i p l i n e , a r t i n s t r u c t i o n  sense  as  mathematics,  and  is  and  rational  103  systematic.  I t aims to develop v i s u a l  a e s t h e t i c understanding  encouraging  of beauty i n the n a t u r a l and  environment, by extending criticism  l i t e r a c y by  knowledge of  art  man-made  history  and  ( d e s c r i b i n g , a n a l y z i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g works of  and by p r o v i d i n g  opportunities  for  children  to  art art),  experience  d i f f e r e n t techniques and m a t e r i a l s i n the p r o d u c t i o n of  art.  I have made an e f f o r t to i n t e g r a t e my  a r t lessons i n t o  themes  from other s u b j e c t areas, but  school,  this  alternative  education.  way  Although  of  in  my  knowing  some  remains  teachers  development limited  acknowledge  pressures of time and t e s t i n g mean t h a t a r t i s not i n t o r e g u l a r classroom  practice  taking their  for  classes  integrated  i n the other d i s c i p l i n e s .  specialized  instruction,  have  such  class  i n one meeting  week, I do not achieve the  degree  groups t h a t Pat does with her  with  of  cohesiveness  its  previous  condition  non-existent - but as a d i s c i p l i n e , emphasizing  -  i n my  body,  disorganized,  specialist  I think I am.  More  who  separating  and  with  presents  more  aware  thinking of  art  as  between from  the  beliefs  and  tensionality  my  The  actions between  lack  makes  of my  mind  feeling?  value  congruency dwelling  a  I indirectly  of  i n t e g r a t e d approach to l e a r n i n g , I am no longer s a t i s f i e d my s p e c i a l i s t p o s i t i o n .  my  practically  i t s c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s , am  artificially  per  s c h o o l to r e t u r n  r e i n f o r c i n g our c u l t u r e ' s t r a d i t i o n a l dichotomy and  pursue  children.  I have no d e s i r e f o r a r t education to  each  By  I  to  And,  art  value,  r e l i e v e d teachers of t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y integration.  of  to  its  1 9  between within  curriculum-as-plan  an with my the and  104  c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d d i f f i c u l t at t h i s time.  105  Notes  Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book 1985 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , Curriculum Development Branch, 1985), p. 3. 1  Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book 1985 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: M i n i s t r y of Education, Curriculum Development Branch, 1985), p. 13. 2  3  Laura Chapman, Discover A r t (Worcester, Mass.:  Davis,  1985) Martin Heidegger, P o e t r y Harper Colophon, 1971), p. 36. 4  5  Heidegger,  pp. 61-62.  6  Heidegger,  p. 19.  f  Language, Thought (New York:  Edmund Feldman, V a r i e t i e s of V i s u a l E x p r e s s i o n . 2d. ed, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1981), p. 252-253. 7  E l l i o t E i s n e r , C o g n i t i o n and Curriculum Longman, 1982), p. 40. 8  (New York:  E i s n e r , Chapter 3 "Forms of R e p r e s e n t a t i o n " , pp.47 70. E i s n e r d e f i n e s forms of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as "devices that humans use t o make p u b l i c conceptions t h a t are p r i v a t e l y h e l d . " (p.47). Forms of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can be expressed through d i f f e r e n t media and given d i f f e r e n t modes of treatment. 9  1 0  E i s n e r , pp. 35-36.  1 1  E i s n e r , p. 28  John Dewey, A r t as Experience (New York: Putnam's Sons, Perigee Book, 1980), p. 45. 1 2  G. P  106  1 3  Angeles:  M a r i l y n Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy (Los J . P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 282.  Hans G i f f h o r n , " I d e o l o g i e s of A r t E d u c a t i o n , " S t u d i e s i n A r t Education 19, no. 2 (1978): 54. 1 4  John Dewey, Experience and Education Macmillan, C o l l i e r Book, 1963), pp. 48-49. 1 5  1 6  Dewey, p. 38.  1 7  Feldman, p. 259.  1 8  Heidegger,  (New York:  p. 62  M i l b r e y McLaughlin and Margaret Thomas, Comparing the Process of Change Across D i s t r i c t s , V o l . 1., A r t H i s t o r y , A r t C r i t i c i s m , and A r t P r o d u c t i o n (Santa Monica: Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1984), p. i v . 1 9  107  CHAPTER IV Animal Cartoons  As I enter Pat's classroom afternoon,  overcast  November  the c h i l d r e n are seated q u i e t l y a t t h e i r desks.  spelling test but  on a grey,  i s i n progress.  ("Not r e a l l y part  we do i t . " ) A few minutes l a t e r , when  s e t t l e d a t the meeting p l a c e , Pat begins  of the  the  A  works,  c h i l d r e n are  today's  art  lesson  with some background f o r me. Mrs. Costello, yesterday we learned a new song about animals, Down by the Bay. We sang it j u s t as the children went home from school. And we made up some rhymes. A c h i l d begins  s i n g i n g the song.  Chad, shhh. Just l e t ' s get started. Then w e ' l l do t h a t . Some of the children decided that they'd l i k e to do some homework. And so they were going t o b r i n g some rhymes back with them today. Now, 1 can hear that l o t s and l o t s of you have f i g u r e d out some rhymes for the bear. Raise your hand if you have one that rhymes with bear. We'll make a l i t t l e row of them. Try to keep your papers nice and s t i l l . Cindy, which one did you have that rhymes with bear? Did you ever  see a bear,  combing  his  OK. The word hair rhymes with bear. one? Which one did you find, Adam? Did  you ever  see a bear,  in his  hair? Is  there  another  underwear?  Laughter from everyone, Pat i n c l u d e d . I knew you'd get that one! Her  comment b r i n g s more laughter OK.  The  That's  a good one.  c h i l d r e n continue  to  give  from the c h i l d r e n .  What else their  rhymes  with  responses.  bear? Pat  lists  108  d i f f e r e n t animals on the board and asks f o r rhyming words f o r each.  There f o l l o w s much e x c i t e d t a l k i n g  eager to c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r  ideas.  everyone  And  f o r behaviour  ("Don't moan and groan, j u s t get your hand  have a word.")  ( C h i l d - "Have you ever seen a bear, -"Now  up i f you  Not a l l get the idea of "rhymes w i t h " but she  p a t i e n t l y c o r r e c t s those who don't and p r a i s e s those  Pat  is  As the answers come i n , Pat  reminds them about the r u l e s f o r rhyming. in groups  out;  think,  think  before  wearing  you  handle  a  who  do.  tie...no..." that.")  This  a c t i v i t y l a s t s f o r about t e n minutes. »e can make l o t s and l o t s of s i l l y rhymes with the names for animals. In fact, if you r e a l l y wanted to be o r i g i n a l , with a l l sorts of strange animals, there's lots of pictures of strange and wonderful things on the centre table. Now, t h i s afternoon we are going to have some fun thinking up something that could not be. Like the one we t a l k e d about, "See a bear, i n a r o c k i n g c h a i r ? " or "Did you ever see a whale, swimming in a p a i l ? " "Did you ever see a moose, k i s s i n g a goose?" Did  you ever  see a whale, with a polka  Did  you ever  see a deer,  drinking  dot t a i l ?  beer?  Fine! There you are! And when you have absolutely the one you l i k e the best in your head, we're going to go to our chalkboard place and see if you can draw a quick p i c t u r e of your s i l l y rhyme. "The bear in the rocking chair" or "The moose, k i s s i n g the goose" or "The dog... "Out for a jog." Pat  laughs. Does  it have  to be on the  board?  How do you mean? Oh, no, no! That's what I said. It can be anything in your head, not just what we've shown on the chalkboard. Does anyone else have a favourite that they'd l i k e to t e l l us about f i r s t ? What's yours, Richard? "A rat OK.  kissing a  brat!"  What were you thinking  of,  Sabrina?  109  "Did you ever see some bread,  nodding i t s head?"  Now, we're t a l k i n g about animals, though, right? OK. Strictly animals have to be involved. All right. Let's see what happens. I'm going t o time you. I'm going to g i v e you only five short minutes. And that means you're going t o use e v e r y l i t t l e bit of time carefully and quietly to draw your funny thing on the board. Now, it has to rhyme. And it has to have your animal in it and whatever it is that's being funny. I remember yesterday, someone said, "Did you ever see a fly, wearing a tie?" That was me! OK.  Maybe that's  what you can draw!  Yes. And "Did you ever see a f l e a , k i c k i n g a t r e e ? " No! There i s laughter a l l around. All right. I've got my watch ready. And nobody said,"Go." Adam. Chad. Sit down. It's not necessary to race. Let's j u s t be normal and walk over as we should. Her reminder b r i n g s about a reasonable degree of  self-control  and with a minimum amount of pushing and shoving, the c h i l d r e n take t h e i r p l a c e s a t the chalkboard and begin drawing. Mrs. Vittery, Sure,  that's  can I put a whale, wearing fine.  a  pail?  Yes, that would be great.'  Mom, how do you, I mean, M r s . V i t t e r y , how whale? Pat s m i l e s and r u f f l e s the boy's  do  you  hair.  I don't need you to spell i t . I mean, draw a whale? Well, you just  make it up.  Mrs.  Vittery,  Tell  me what you've got.  "A f l y ,  I'm  finished.  wearing a t i e . "  It's a big, big  animal.  spell  110  Pat  laughs. OK. Let's see how wide you can make that t i e . Cause a tie would be a l o t bigger than a f l y ! Wouldn't i t ? . OK, if you're done, r a i s e your hand and I ' l l come and see.  "ANIMALS" i s i n s i x inch l e t t e r s on the d i s p l a y board  between  the windows.  smaller  And  animals there a r e !  Large  posters,  p i c t u r e s , a c t i v i t y c a r d s , math games, s t o r y c h a r t s , books - animals everywhere.  Lots of ideas t h a t  refer to.  laminated  And  they do.  The  centre t a b l e get p l e n t y of use. goes around, commenting on (see F i g u r e OK,  For  picture  reference  children cards  f i v e minutes or  can  on  the  so,  Pat  i n d i v i d u a l work i n the board spaces  14).  what is it you've got  "A whale,  in a  here?  pail."  Do you have a p a i l ? Is he swimming in a p a i l ? Now can you make a bucket that's a bit more of a bucket shape? Do you have animals at your house? No. Does your mom have a bucket washing the car with? I think What does and think Mrs.  or your  dad  have  a bucket  for  if you  can  close  your  eyes  so... it look of that  like? See bucket.  Vittery...?  what's happening? "A deer d r i n k i n g beer.'" What's the beer i n ? A  mug.  A big beer mug? OK, now how about...Now, Adam, t h i s l i k e a cartoon. I t ' s just for fun. It is not real. you think you can s i t your deer - excuse me, while t a l k i n g - Do you think you could s i t your deer, on rear?  is Do I'm his  Ill  The  children And  close  t o Adam b u r s t  one o f h i s f r o n t  legs  into  laughter  holding  a t h e r remark.  the b e e r ?  Yes! Try i t . A  Make i t r e a l l y  few moments l a t e r ,  obvious.  P a t has a l l t h e c h i l d r e n  down and d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n  put t h e i r  chalk  to her.  All right. Everyone freeze and look at me. A good cartoon always is exaggerated which means things are g r e a t e r than t h e y r e a l l y are. Larger than they really are. And in the case of Kristen's drawing right here step  aside,  dear  - s h e has a b e a u t i f u l  bear  with  lots  of  hair and she's given him a great big comb to comb his hair. In fact, her comb c o u l d be even more exaggerated or be even bigger, so that i t ' s obvious and we can see what she's t r y i n g to do. And the same for Stephanie's somebody over there's not watching - Stephanie has a f l y wearing a tie. The tie could be absolutely huge! Because in fact if the f l y was wearing a t i e , the t i e would look big! OK. Now back to your work.  Figure  14  Chalkboard  Mrs. V i t t e r y , I got one.' "Have w e a r i n g socks?" (see F i g u r e 15)  Drawing  you  ever  seen  a fox,  112  Oh, that's  terrific/  put...I'll  show you v h a t .  That's  a  really  Put the b i g  y o u r socks look when we can see the coming out? That would be a good one.  Figure  The c h i l d r e n more m i n u t e s .  15  one! knov  feet?  The  OK, how toes  P a t G o i n g To H e l p Shawn  continue with t h e i r Then  good socks,  chalkboard  P a t has them pause  for  drawing f o r a a  brief  few  sharing  period.  OK, everybody, stop. Time is up. Crouch down under y o u r space. OK. We're going to go one at a time and when it's your turn, then you crouch down so the others can see. Stephanie, you go first. Tell what you have there. Say, "Did you ever see..."  113  "Did  you  Each  child  (see  Figure  meeting  ever  has  see  a  f l y , wearing  a turn to stand  16).  Pat  then  as  is a  the  and  the  tie?"  explain his/her children  drawing  return  to  the  Q u i c k l y come b a c k  to  the  place.  All right. Don't rub meeting place. There  has  up  a  l o t of  children  wriggling settle  i t off.  and  into  squirming places.  about  on  Excitement  the  carpet  today  is  tangible. Come o n . Our t i m e ' s g o i n g , g o i n g , g o i n g . you can be. Very s t i l l . Hardly moving. t o l e t y o u h a v e a t r e a t t h i s afternoon.  S e e how Now, I'm So many  still going times  114  you love to use f e l t pens so I borrowed some from the office. What I'm going to do is to give a set of felt pens to every group. I ' l l put them on a little paper dish. And you have to take turns. Now, when you use f e l t pens, as some of you already know, they go through and onto the desk. We're going to put a big piece of black paper on the desk to protect i t . And then I have yellow drawing paper on the back art table for you to work with, with the f e l t pens. What I'd l i k e you to try is to make your cartoon of your animal, the bear in the rocking chair, whatever it happens to be, almost as big as the paper. And when the p i c t u r e s are finished, I'll have each one of you p r i n t a t the bottom "Did you ever see..." whatever i t i s . And we'll put them up here where we've got an empty spot on our board right now. Now, before we begin, are there any questions? What is your question? Um, what if we get  it a l l mixed  up and  I'm g l a d you asxed that, Carrie. worried about the fact that you cannot Is that what you meant, Carrie?  stuff? Because C a r r i e ' s erase a f e l t pen.  No, but if you can't draw something and you r e a l l y good, do you have to use your pencil then copy i t ? I'd rather it, OK? But  you  just  use the  f e l t pen.  if we get mixed up, what w i l l  Think of a way to f i x it, but erase a f e l t pen. Think before What's your question? Pat answers q u e s t i o n  after  p r o t e c t i v e paper, g e t t i n g mixed up. beginning to get r e p e t i t i v e and wondering, "How  much p a t i e n c e  Friday afternoon, a f t e r a l l ! " ,  All  we have  there's you put  question  want to do it around and  to  right? do?  no way you can it on the paper.  about  the  felts,  the  Some of the q u e s t i o n s are  j u s t a t the p o i n t where can  Try  this  lady  I  am  It  is  focus  by  have?  she b r i n g s them i n t o  c r i s p l y saying: OK, these have l o s i n g time. Chad?  to be sensible Have you got  questions. a real  Come on, we're serious question,  Um, what happens if you don't want to do i t ' s too hard. Can you do another one?  the  one  cause  115  O f c o u r s e y o u can. In fact, I was just going to s a y that i f y o u would l i k e to you can do more than one. They have to be funny and they have to be rhymes like we've been t a l k i n g about. Yes? Do you  have  to do  one  that's  No, you don't. If you have t h e n t h a t ' s OK. All right, A n d y o u n e e d a yellow paper the desk. The  children  felt  pens  crumple  by groups  i n styrofoam  up t h e i r  indication their  are sent  trays  initial  Lots  the  board?  a b e t t e r one in these people will and a black paper to pick each  and they  of paper  table.  continue  i s being  but  The  noise  level  rises  17  Shawn, G a r y ,  to  new  head, first. protect  Pat  Many  puts  children  there  i s  cheerfully  no  with  used.  I'm g l a d t o s e e s o m e o f y o u making big yours isn't very big, trade i t in. Go get It's got to be big, big, big.  Figure  your go to  up p a p e r s .  cartoon drawings,  of f r u s t r a t i o n  efforts.  on  on  pictures. a new  If paper.  and R i c h a r d  heights  as  children  comment  116  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to each other, s h a r i n g F i g u r e 17). A f t e r overhead  about f i v e  minutes,  their Pat  drawings turns  (see  o f f the  lights.  C h i l d r e n , i f you have to r e p o r t t o your f r i e n d , go it quietly. The  d e c i b e l l e v e l lessens s l i g h t l y .  classroom  from  child  to  child,  P a t , moving does  not  about  appear  concerned t h a t her words have not had much impact. i s contagious  about the  overly Enjoyment  and there are l o t s of smiles and l a u g h t e r .  Pat  g i v e s some a s s i s t a n c e t o Shawn, a grade 1 boy. Hold i t , hold i t , hold i t . Don't colour it a l l the same. What would be a b r i g h t colour for his socks, Shawn? What colour for his socks? Ummm, maybe....I want them to be t h i s green, but it won't work, Mrs. V i t t e r y , this green won't work. It doesn't work? OK, take t h i s one. I ' l l go and see i f Mrs. Webb has one. I don't know why we haven't very many greens. I can use that  green  right  there.  No, t h a t one doesn't work, j u s t leave i t t h e r e . Some f e l t s are running  dry.  Pat makes a quick t r i p a c r o s s the  h a l l t o Mrs. Webb's classroom  to borrow some more f e l t s .  For  about t e n minutes a f t e r her r e t u r n the c h i l d r e n continue  with  t h e i r drawing  the  (see F i g u r e 18).  words "Did you ever see..." board beside  the carpeted  Pat makes a  and puts  i t up  banner on  with  the  display  area.  OK, boys and g i r l s , we have about two more minutes. Stephanie i s a l l finished and she has w r i t t e n on it what it i s . It was a f l y , wearing a t i e . And watch where I'm going to put i t . Way over here, r i g h t beside the p a r t of the sentence that says, "Did you ever see..." And now we can say, "Did you ever see a f l y , wearing a t i e ? " You can b r i n g yours to me when you have words on i t . What I'd l i k e you to do is put your words on a scrap paper f i r s t , so that the s p e l l i n g is r i g h t . Come to me or Mrs. Costello and we'll f i x it for you. We have to try to  117  finish Time  up s o we  can s i n g  i s r u n n i n g out q u i c k l y  words t o go a l o n g w i t h t h e i r Pat  and  the  song.  today.  The  pictures  I h e l p with the s p e l l i n g ,  and  children  on so do  the  write  scrap  some o f t h e  out  papers. grade  2's.  Figure  18  Shawn D r a w i n g W i t h  Felts  Rodney, do you think you could help Kristen to print out, "Bear combing h i s h a i r ? " Combing has a "B" in i t , C-O-M-B-I-N-G. And "A fox, wearing socks." I'll print it on here for you, Shawn. There  are  fifteen  minutes  left  b e f o r e home t i m e .  118  All right, p e o p l e who are finished t i d y , f l o o r i s clean, everything Cleanup voiced  goes q u i c k l y . through  body  The c h i l d r e n ' s  language  There  i s some p u s h i n g .  other  around.  drawings.  Two  as well boys  P a t stays calm,  When e v e r y o n e  different  best  ( s e e F i g u r e s 19 a n d 2 0 ) .  "Did I In  you.  you ever  like  turn,  children  that  t o read  continuing excitement i s a s v e r y a u d i b l e comments.  take  quietly  i ss e t t l e d  asks  OK, thank out.  make s u r e y o u r d e s k i s straightened up.  out  discussing  like?  Figure  19  Sharing Animal  How many enjoyed using  felt  place,  she  they  like  Just  read  a rug?"  give their  pens?  the  responses.  Cartoons  each  individual  t h e drawings  one too. What one did you l i k e  s i xor so c h i l d r e n  carrying  a t t h emeeting  Which one d i d y o u  see a bug eating  turns  best?  i t  119  Immediately,  e v e r y hand s h o o t s  up!  I t was f u n . I'm happy to see that you remembered t o p u t the tops on t i g h t . Well now, l e t ' s see i f we can sing a l l these rhymes into the song. You m i g h t g e t tired by d o i n g all o f them, b u t we'll do some. And I need a helper. L e t me choose a helper here.  Figure  20  One  OK, L e t ' s t r y i t .  of P a t ' s  Here  we go,  "Little  Monkeys"!  it goes  Down by the bay, Where the watermelons Back to my home, I dare not go. For i f I do,  like  this...  grow,  My mother w i l l s a y , D i d you e v e r s e e a b e a r ,  120  Although i t takes some Interest  Combing his Down by the  haiz? bay.  time,  picture  remains s t r o n g  as  each each  verse  is  is  pointed  to.  enthusiastically  sung.  C u r r i c u l u m - a s - p l a n - Goals Listed  in  the  B.C.  Guide/Resource Book are  Elementary  these  goals  Fine for  Arts  arts  Curriculum  education  in  schools: 1. to f o s t e r the c h i l d ' s enthusiasm f o r the a r t s involvement i n a r t , drama, and music; 2 . to develop the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to communicate, i n t e r p r e t , and c r e a t e ; 3. to develop the the a r t s ;  child's s k i l l  and  explore,  express,  technical a b i l i t y  4. to nurture the child's capacity s e n s i t i v e response to the a r t s ; 5. to encourage the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of the  through  for  critical  child's appreciation a r t s ; and  of  in and the  6 . to advance the c h i l d ' s knowledge of the ways i n which the a r t s i n f l u e n c e , and are i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i e t y and the environment. 1  Curriculum-as-lived Pat's p h i l o s o h i c a l r a t i o n a l e  for including  the  in  e d u c a t i o n , her  h o l i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n , was  with  that  u n d e r l y i n g the  f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m guide/resource book.  With  its  consistent  arts  s p e c i f i c goals for a r t education i n mind, I wanted Pat  comment f u r t h e r  on how  enacted.  In  fostered  enthusiastic  children's  the  delight  her  lesson  curriculum-as-lived on  drawing  interest  i n the  silly  in  cartoon art  rhymes  by and  to  experience  is  animals,  Pat  combining fanciful  her images  121  generated for  by t h e song,  the usually  interacted attention their  Down b y t h e B a y  inaccessible  with the children to details  initial  drawing as  attempts.  This  one  occasion I n o t i c e d drawing  the  a r t centre  i nPat's  "Can y o u d r a w a b e a r ? " were  two such  coupled  them  directing  to  me t h a t  shown  a n d "Can y o u draw  She their  elaborate on  e x e r c i s e samples as  pens.  in  upon  more  than  displayed Figure  different  i n  21).  animals?"  exercises.  Figure  These,  drew,  reminded  classroom  fascination  medium o f f e l t  they  and encouraging  with their  f  21  w i t h the  "Can You Draw A B e a r ? "  book,  Drawing  w i t h C h i l d r e n ^ which  Pat  122  had  lent  approach in  me,  made me c u r i o u s  to developing  drawing.  opposing  mentioned  views  on w h e t h e r  done by o t h e r  have  children's  I  draw, or even whether  to  to  skill  her  children  they should  children  and a d u l t  Pat  elaborate  and t e c h n i c a l  that  art  should  be  be  on  shown  her  ability  educators taught  hold  how  samples  of  to work  artists.  I u s e d t o b e o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y that you just gave the k i d s a b o x o f crayons and a bunch o f p a p e r a n d let them go ahead and express themselves. And I never, ever, offered any direction to kids as to how t o d r a w anything I ' d been taught at university that it was n o t t h e t h i n g t o d o . Over the years, I discovered that the kids were really frustrated when they wanted to be able to draw something. They just d i d n ' t k n o w how to do it. And they'd say, "I can't do it. I can't do it." And I'd say,"Oh, yes you can, blah, blah, blah." And then suddenly one day, I decided that I was not going to do this any more, that these kids were genuinely frustrated and t h e y wanted to be able to draw something, let's say it's a bear. She  went on t o e x p l a i n  how h e r p r e s e n t  method  evolved.  So then I started directing their attention to pictures and this i s when I got into this business of really b e l i e v i n g t h a t I h a d t o teach them to observe and to be aware. Then, I started using the chalkboard first for drawing. I found that by giving the children some direction and by encouraging them to copy, either by having them copy my drawing on the board or by having them copy a "how-to" drawing, their frustration was lessened. Pat  described  for  bears,  does  how s h e u s e s b a s i c  as a s t a r t i n g  commented t h a t she  t o me  point  shapes,  such  f o r drawing with  s h e was p r o v i d i n g  a tool  to help  as  pears  children. the child  I when  this.  Sure i t i s . they get  past  Yes. that  And  then  initial  they  can  go  frustration  with  stage  it,  once  of saying  "I  can't. A bear? I can't draw a bear." And then you show them that they can draw a bear. Then they're over the hurdle  and then  they can take  off.  B u t , up t o t h a t  point  t h e r e ' s n o way. A n d so, I've come to believe that teaching them isn't just g i v i n g them a box of crayons and a bunch of paper. There's got to be some showing how.  123  I asked her The  greater  creativity  reasoning behind not showing c h i l d r e n how  that her  i f , from showing how,  i t r e s u l t s i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l images. experiences i n t h i s  results.  to draw has  been  I wanted to know  of  regard.  Well, I can see that that would be a problem i f you s a i d , "OK, t h i s is how to draw a bear". Bango. And that's the way you draw a bear and t h i s l i t t l e shape is i t . But by extending that, making them aware of the fact that that is not the only way to do it, this problem could be avoided. On the idea sheets I think there were several suggested positions and sizes, and shapes, so there wasn't j u s t one k i n d of scheme f o r a bear. They could take what they wanted and k i n d of do t h e i r own t h i n g with it. And no two were a l i k e , even though I had shown them how to do i t . And they d i d n ' t always draw a bear the same way themselves so it wasn't as though they were imprinted with the bear drawing and t h a t ' s how i t came out every time. I have t a l k e d to Pat's daughter, Susie, at d i f f e r e n t times I know that Pat's c h i l d r e n have a very deep i n t e r e s t i n d i f f e r e n t forms. their  I wondered how  i n t e r e s t as they were growing  Pat might have  in  and art,  influenced  up.  OK. Both of the g i r l s , Linda and Susie, were interested in the a r t s d u r i n g t h e i r schooling. Robert hated school, period. I don't r e c a l l him l i k i n g anything about school. And so his story is a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . A l l of the kids loved drawing and as a parent I made sure that they had l o t s of arty type s u p p l i e s a t home to work with. I used to buy those big r o l l s of white paper. We had p a i n t and d i f f e r e n t kinds of crayons and chalks. I always made sure that they had i t . And they loved i t . They used i t lots. Their rooms were just always gigantic, horrid-looking messes of s t u f f . To o u t s i d e r s . I thought they looked OK. They were just papered with a l l kinds of i n t e r e s t i n g work that the kids had done themselves, as were the kitchen and every place else that had a flat surface. So they were encouraged. I d i d not  have the o p p o r t u n i t y  when they were younger, but before.  Being  teenager, i t was stuff."  the no  Every inch  room  of  I had of  longer  to view Pat's c h i l d r e n ' s  an  seen older,  Susie's  the  rooms spring  about-to-leave-home  a " g i g a n t i c , h o r r i d - l o o k i n g mess of  it,  though,  was  papered  with  her  124  talented  artwork!  S u s i e , of course, i s s t u d y i n g a r t , now. She hopes to get into commercial art. Television is her goal. And Linda is p u r s u i n g a r t i n another avenue. She is very into c r a f t s , being a young homemaker mother. She does a lot of work with her new sewing machine. And does knitting, and crocheting, and needlework - you name i t , she does it. So then her art is coming out in that way. And Robert is in his music. [Robert i s road manager of a rock band]. They're each i n v o l v e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. I don't remember ever teaching them anything at home, but they used to watch me and I painted and then they'd paint too. Her c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t of osmosis. immediately  That a r t i s  i n a r t may  result  daily  life  is  e v i d e n t when one v i s i t s her home.  These  were  my  f o r my  to  as a  Pat's  impressions as I a r r i v e d  integral  have developed  i n t e r v i e w with her:  I t ' s a Saturday a f t e r n o o n , o v e r c a s t with l o w - l y i n g clouds t h r e a t e n i n g snow. T y p i c a l e a r l y January weather i n the Cariboo. Pat has asked t h a t the i n t e r v i e w be at her home, as she l i k e s to open her Valley Gallery shop on weekend a f t e r n o o n s . As I r i n g the huge cowbell hanging beside the f r o n t door, a duck n e s t l e d i n a basket of evergreen boughs and pine cones catches my eye; I have one a t home exactly like it! I'm amazed! I really d i d n ' t t h i n k another duck l i k e t h i s duck e x i s t e d sky blue papier mache, decorated with y e l l o w polka d o t s , a cow g r a z i n g on one of i t s s i d e s and two sheep frolicking on the o t h e r . I t has a c e r t a i n l i m i t e d a p p e a l . I enter the g a l l e r y which i s i n the lower p o r t i o n of Pat's log home. P o t t e r y jugs, cups, bowls, and p l a n t e r s are d i s p l a y e d on s h e l v e s and t a b l e s about a l a r g e room made cozy by a c a s t - i r o n woodstove. Watercolour p a i n t i n g s by Pat's f r i e n d l i n e the w a l l s . The room i s separated from the entrance way by an open s t a i r c a s e . We climb i t to reach the main l i v i n g area above. Pat makes c o f f e e and, while i t i s d r i p p i n g , f i n i s h e s trimming a s i n k f u l of b r u s s e l s p r o u t s , g e t t i n g them ready to f r e e z e (see F i g u r e 22). A f r i e n d got "a special deal on the sprouts, bought a huge quantity of them, realized she had way too many, and dropped some off for me this morning." Through the l a r g e p i c t u r e windows which form one w a l l of her l i v i n g room, a panoramic view of the Walker V a l l e y below her home can be seen. There's another woodstove to the s i d e of t h i s room, g i v i n g o f f more welcome warmth. A low, cushiony s e c t i o n a l couch i s a g a i n s t one w a l l , i t s creamy white c o n t r a s t i n g with the logs. On the c o f f e e t a b l e i n f r o n t of i t r e s t s a massive p o t t e r y f i s h s c u l p t u r e . "People e i t h e r hate i t or love it." As one who shares a common t a s t e i n ducks, I love  125  i t s g l a z e d s c a l e s and g r e a t b u l g y e y e s . A few C h r i s t m a s y touches remain poinsettia plants, red/green tartan c l o t h s on r o u n d e n d t a b l e s and on t h e d i n i n g room chairs. T a k i n g up t h e end of t h e room o p p o s i t e t h e woodstove are an a n t i q u e oak b u f f e t and s q u a r e d i n i n g t a b l e . The log w a l l s are covered with a variety of paintings, wall h a n g i n g s , and f o l k a r t o b j e c t s . Mexican yarn paintings, bark paintings, Mola cloth appliques vivid reds, y e l l o w s , b l u e s , and g r e e n s . T h e r e a r e a number o f wooden A f r i c a n c a r v i n g s on a low t a b l e b e s i d e me as I s e t t l e on the c o u c h w i t h my c o f f e e . I asked Pat  to t e l l  me  a b o u t her  Figure  22  collection.  Pat  At  Home  M e x i c o has alvays fascinated me because it's a Third World country. Primitive civilization. I've always been fascinated by their artwork, for one thing, and have enjoyed the folk art aspect of their life. It's there, everywhere. It's not...in Canada, there isn't anything that can really parallel it. I needed  further c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  r e a l l y a part  of  the  daily  life  Was  i t the  there,  that  fact it  that is  art not  is set  126  a p a r t , t h a t she was  referring  to?  Well, I'm j u s t s a y i n g i t ' s very, very obvious. It's obvious i n the people's clothing, it's obvious in their homes, i t ' s obvious... good heavens! Some of them even paint designs on their cars! You know, junky old cars! And there's the l i t t l e roadside markers they're like grave markers, where somebody dies i n a highway accident. It would be fascinating to do a photographic collection of these l i t t l e r o a d s i d e markers. They're all unique in their own way. It's really interesting. They're a folk art themselves! I was always fascinated with the colours - the foliage, the flowers and the leafiness. And the fact that all of this is represented in t h e i r day-to-day a r t work. It's there. I mean, they are colourful people. And I just found that really attracted me. I first went to Mexico when I was about twenty, I guess, and have returned many times over the years.  Responding to a r t i s c o n s i d e r e d a r t - a s - d i s c i p l i n e approach curriculum.  an  integral  entailed  aspect  i n the new  In a l e s s o n on the sun t h a t I  B.C.  had  How  the  fine  arts  observed  previous s p r i n g , I had n o t i c e d a f a b r i c w a l l hanging had made on d i s p l a y i n the classroom.  of  the  that  Pat  much importance  did  she place on d i s c u s s i n g works of a r t with c h i l d r e n ? The  great  art  of  the  world  sort  of  thing?  When it  seems  other  people  to f i t , I do, but I don't use i t as much as I think I should. I t ' s something that I'd l i k e to improve on cause I really  have  think  it's  important  i n t e r p r e t e d and observed.  to  see  to use them j u s t as the basis for have used design, colour, shape.  Did  she  think  it  necessary  to  how  I would l i k e to showing  discuss  s i g n i f i c a n c e of these works, or provide any i n f o r m a t i o n about No,  I don't  the the  be  how  able  artists  historical biographical  the a r t i s t ? think  that's  that's  how  important  for  little  kids  at  all  art  in  because, f i r s t of a l l , they'd never remember i t , even i f I d i d t e l l them. I might r e f e r to an a r t i s t by name, but I certainly wouldn't go any farther than that with p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n . But that's my own personal feeling on it. I don't know how that fits with the theory of others,  but  I feel  about  it.  Pat went on to e x p l a i n her i n f r e q u e n t use of works of the classroom.  127  I don't have the resources. I don't have the p r i n t s of work that I would l i k e to show and so I find that quite limiting. There i s n ' t an easy source f o r me to go t o . There's nothing in our school l i b r a r y and I don't know what they've got at the resource centre. I don't think there's any f i l e s . Having  scrounged  around  f o r many  sympathetic to her d i f f i c u l t i e s  years  myself,  I  was  i n t r y i n g to f i n d something of  s u i t a b l e s i z e and format. Yes. I go through my own art books and s t u f f and I often w i l l find a little tiny 3" by 2" or a f u l l page sometimes, but I don't have enough s t u f f t o be a b l e t o use i t as much as I'd l i k e to. Her words reminded me of the q u e s t i o n s I r a i s e d  the p r e v i o u s  summer d u r i n g the Fine A r t s I n s t i t u t e , a t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n the new c u r r i c u l u m sponsored by  the  Ministry  C o n s i d e r i n g the new c u r r i c u l u m ' s emphasis  of  for  Education.  on a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n ,  I had asked, "What do t e a c h e r s do i f they don't have t h e i r own personal f i l e s  of  resources?"  The  answer,  from  workshop  l e a d e r s who were predominantly from the l a r g e urban c e n t r e s of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, sources a v a i l a b l e . . . " t h a t ' s t r u e , but difficult.  was "Well, you know, there I f you are i n a  for rural  folk  large  materials?"  In  urban  our  the  school,  r e p r o d u c t i o n s was purchased by the PTA and one squeezed  from my a r t budget.  these  centre,  i t i s considerably  I had a l s o i n q u i r e d , "Where does  from to purchase  are  more  money one  with  come  s e t of funds  I  Does Pat have access t o funds i n  her s c h o o l t o purchase such r e s o u r c e s ? I doubt i t . But we might be a b l e to know, I haven't even pursued i t . In speaking with Pat's p r i n c i p a l  scrounge...!  I ascertained that  don't  resources  such as l a r g e p i c t u r e s e t s could be purchased from the g e n e r a l o p e r a t i n g funds i f the s t a f f decided they were a p r i o r i t y .  I  128  know from experience  with my  s t a f f t h a t a r t i s not  usually  a  priority.  R e f l e c t i o n s on s c h o o l a r t and Two Schools,"  years ago, there was  during  child art  a  staff  workshop  on  some b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n on the  a v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e s c h o o l environment.  The  was  women s t a n d i n g  i n f r o n t of a  hung with numerous small p a i n t i n g s .  to the o t h e r : "We It s t r u c k me  l e t him decorate at the  time  One  whose  cage saying  cage."  this  curriculum,  the which  woman was  might  a  very  Rather  than  i s i t not the  role  a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of s c h o o l a r t programs. t r u l y being p a r t of a balanced  of  cartoon  parrot  h i s own  that  importance of  leader  workshop d i s p l a y e d on the overhead p r o j e c t o r a d e p i c t e d two  "Effective  be  of school a r t to a c t as a d e c o r a t i v e sugar c o a t i n g ,  prettying  up an a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n s t i t u t i o n biased towards o n l y a  certain  form of c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g ?  cartoons  reminded me  of  awareness of t h i s  an  in  incident  that  grade 5 c l a s s had  their  current  c a p i t a l i z e on t h i s i n t e r e s t and be a r i c h source  of  images,  game i s a form of contour  these  had  animal  sparked  my  initial  been very i n t e r e s t e d  reading  unit.  Wishing  r e a l i z i n g t h a t these  I  had  drawing game e x e r c i s e d u r i n g one The  l e s s o n on  possibility.  C h i l d r e n i n my the f o l k t a l e s  Pat's  them  of our  line  participate  weekly  drawing  tales  art  and  rules: - a b a l l p o i n t pen i s used - i t cannot be l i f t e d and must be kept i n even f l o w i n g motion at a l l times - an image i s to be developed  it  in  in to can a  periods. follows  129  - t h i s i s a p r i v a t e e x e r c i s e - no t a l k i n g no comparing during the drawing. We  spent some time warming up,  and  h e r o i n e s , quests and  then they s t a r t e d .  thinking  adventures,  to share, d i d so;  while s t i l l using  the  lessons  others  explore,  one  of the  communicate,  are  put  these  with the work Efland's art with  themselves?"  therefore,  on  display.  he was  images art were "to  create,"  His  bright  look.  4  board?  not  comments  colours,  a  a  my  drawings Did  of  the  the  overly lend  kids lesson  impressed support  distinctive  perceptually  large My  overhear  hallway  still  possess t h i s proper, c h i l d - l i k e  p r i n c i p a l was  and  explanation  s t y l e whose c r e a t i v e appearance i s of  pictures,  children  to  the  that there e x i s t s  characteristic c h i l d - l i k e not  My  somewhat, but  observation  lots  transform  satisfying  The  these s c r i b b l e s on t h i s display  m o l l i f i e d him  put  been developed by t h i s a c t i v i t y .  enlightening,  up  wished  additional  most  some  and  pastel  interpret,  p r i n c i p a l ' s r e a c t i o n when he n o t i c e d "Why  and  judging from the r e s u l t s , t h e i r a b i l i t y  express,  was  I t was  developing  experienced to t h a t p o i n t .  c u r r i c u l a r g o a l , had It  who  Other c h i l d r e n chose to  continued  game p l a n .  e n t h u s i a s t i c and,  -  created  Those c h i l d r e n  drawings i n t o much l a r g e r o i l  I had  heroes  moments  t h e i r drawings were l a t e r trimmed  i n the hallway.  initial  magical  passed, they had  h i g h l y d e t a i l e d , o r i g i n a l images.  their  favourite  There wasn't a sound as the c h i l d r e n drew.  By the time f i f t e e n minutes had  on d i s p l a y  of  and  shapes,  to  school inviting and  grade 5's  scribbles  quality.  No  wonder  a did my  upset!  Efland asserts  that school  a r t r e f l e c t s the  "structure  of  130  b e l i e f s that operate w i t h i n the s c h o o l . " embedded i n the  functions that a school  These  3  beliefs  are  fulfills:  Most people think that a s c h o o l ' s manifest function is the c o g n i t i v e development of the students.... Its l a t e n t function involves socializing the individual into a c c e p t i n g the a u t h o r i t y of the s c h o o l as a prelude for a c c e p t i n g the a u t h o r i t y of other i n s t i t u t i o n s . He d e f i n e s manifest stated  and  functions  perceived  administrators,  and  to  as  be  those  right  teachers.  which  by  These  are  overtly  society,  school  can  be  the  general  p h i l o s o p h i c aims of the s c h o o l which, i n a d d i t i o n to c o g n i t i v e development,  often  i n d i v i d u a l and Latent and  include  a belief  mention  i n a democratic  f u n c t i o n s , on the other  unrecognized.  Art  of  as  the  of  the  process.  hand, are  therapy  worth  or  often  time  out  unstated for  good  behaviour from the more r i g o r o u s demands of the academic areas is  one  such  function;  authority i s another. character  7  of t h i s l a t t e r  training  to  unconditionally  Efland believes  that  the  repressive  f u n c t i o n can subvert  the  humanizing  aspects of an a r t program's manifest f u n c t i o n s . that s c h o o l a r t p r o d u c t i o n  provides  which are c r e a t i v e i n appearance "can My  say that l i f e  f e e l i n g that  coating  i n school  school  accept  art  in  i s not is  behaviours order  that  He  suggests  and  products  individuals  just a cognitive matter."  simply  i s r e i n f o r c e d by h i s o b s e r v a t i o n  a  decorative  8  sugar  that  the self-same c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s may not be as free as they look. C h i l d r e n are a f t e r a l l r e q u i r e d to take a r t . They cannot copy or i m i t a t e , which i s an option that a free i n d i v i d u a l may wish to e x e r c i s e ; they must use the media provided f o r them, and they must experiment with i t in c e r t a i n ways to produce a look that their teachers w i l l r e i n f o r c e . . . . T h e a r t t h a t i s produced i s suggested by the teacher who commissions i t and motivates the students to accept the commission. The teacher i s also the patron f o r whom the products are produced and i s the  131  dispenser of rewards f o r commissions completed s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . . . . A r t teachers, l i k e a l l teachers, the a u t h o r i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n .  within assert  9  In her home, Pat's c h i l d r e n could choose in a r t a c t i v i t i e s and on  their  own,  to  to  participate  were f r e e to i m i t a t e her or create,  as  Pat  " h o r r i d - l o o k i n g messes of s t u f f . "  to  laughingly  described,  T h e i r work was  not  by o u t s i d e r s ' standards or e x p e c t a t i o n s .  And  them by  surface."  displaying  it  "on  every  flat  explore  Pat  limited supported In  classroom, Pat attempts to break away from the  "everyone  e x a c t l y the same t h i n g " t h a t she  other  She  promotes i m i t a t i o n and  perceptual  and  c h i l d r e n the  as a  did  not experience  you  f i v e s h o r t minutes");  means  the  very  many  to be  only  3  don't  home.)  goals of s c h o o l a r t , but s t i l l  continue  to  its  there  children  going  to  know  why  give we  restraints numbers  aims  latent  for  (24 the  functions  intrude.  Marjorie  and  spontaneous p l a y a r t  Brent in  c e r t a i n needs.  The  Wilson.  which  s c h o o l , both f o r t h e i r own  (the  and Pat  E f l a n d d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between school  is v i t a l l y  allowing But  curricular  manifest  do  only  involved"); at  time  t h a t her own  ("I  greens")}  have  c h i l d r e n at s c h o o l ,  materials  developing  images.  i n her home - time ("I'm  doing  classes.  of  same  f o r c h i l d r e n i n the classroom  ( " S t r i c t l y animals  as  in  freedom to c r e a t e t h e i r own  limits  have  copying  t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , at  are  don't  observes  her  and  Child  1 1  children  satisfaction  art  engage and  in  art  of  something  in  order  to  art,  is  l u  the  outside  of  response  to  Wilsons i d e n t i f y four reasons why  important to c h i l d r e n : f o r i n v e n t i n g  construction  child  the come  such a r t familiar to  an  132  understanding of i t through what i s process); deeper  actually  f o r d e l i n e a t i n g a concept of s e l f  layers);  a  re-inventing  (both s u r f a c e and  f o r experimenting with good and bad  (without  f e a r of the consequences r e a l - l i f e experimenting might b r i n g ) ; and  for  drawing  the  future  (past  re-lived,  re-presented and re-newed, f u t u r e a n t i c i p a t e d ) . My grade  5 drawings had  c h i l d a r t than s c h o o l  art.  been As  closer I  had  in  present  1 2  appearance  discovered  from  to my  experience, s c h o o l a r t i s viewed by a d u l t s as an important creative and learning a c t i v i t y , whereas the tiny, sometimes raggedy, spontaneous drawings are d i s m i s s e d by many of the same a d u l t s as mere p l a y . School a r t i s seen as educational; i t meets a d u l t conceptions of what child a r t should be.... Spontaneous a r t , which i s seen as less c o l o u r f u l and l e s s v i s u a l l y c o m p e l l i n g , meets few adult expectations. 1 3  The cartoons drawn by Pat's grades  1 and  f i t c l o s e l y with the  style  quietly displayed for  school her  art  children's  2  children either.  did They  enjoyment  within  not were her  classroom, r a t h e r than f o r p u b l i c viewing i n the hallway. In these two b r i n g about a  a c t i v i t i e s she  closer  and  relationship  c h i l d r e n ' s spontaneous drawing,  I  were  between  i n the hope  attempting school  that  to  art  and  school  art  can become richer in drawing and ideas and less s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y concerned with media and p r o c e s s e s , and thus, u l t i m a t e l y be of g r e a t e r b e n e f i t to the child's reality building a b i l i t i e s . 1 4  If the g o a l s of the a r t program are valued  w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n system,  encouraged  truly  then c h i l d a r t  as a means of a t t a i n i n g these g o a l s .  three c h i l d r e n  i n my s c h o o l , two  accepted  i n grade  7, one  and  would  be  I  think  of  in  grade  4,  133  who  have not  yet  lost their  Each absorbs the translating on the into  interest  spontaneous  essence of t h i n g s i n the  world  t h i s essence i n t o unique v i s u a l  back of notebook pages! the  in  manner  experiences,  in  These  which  frequently  each  in  -  him,  usually  offer  child  painful,  around  images  images  drawing.  insights  interprets school.  his  In  the  l i n g u i s t i c / m a t h e m a t i c a l academic a r e a s , a l l three c h i l d r e n l a b e l l e d f a i l u r e s or low which has  achievers,  so-termed  long viewed success i n these s u b j e c t s  true i n d i c a t o r  of  intelligence.  of these c h i l d r e n ' s  I  have  intelligence.  t h e i r spontaneous a r t by s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s q u e s t i o n how  deep the  a  as  society the  When I have g r a p h i c  deep understanding,  such a l i m i t e d d e f i n i t i o n of  of the  by  are  only  evidence  to  question  The  rejection  of  also  leads  to  me  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s commitment to the  goals  fine arts curriculum r e a l l y i s .  Reflections  on a r t  Pat's v a r i e d  appreciation: c o l l e c t i o n of a r t , her  fascination  f o l k a r t aspect of day-to-day Mexican l i f e , i n c r a f t s such  as  pottery,  batik,  and  and  her  knitting  responsive chord i n me.  I have always been a t t r a c t e d  quality  have  craftwork  and  had  difficulty  folk art/useful  established  Dewey  distinction  our  culture.  i s " e x t r i n s i c to the  based simply on acceptance of  certain  He  explanations  p r o v i d e s some  interesting  compartmental c o n c e p t i o n of a r t has  to  a  fine the  that  is  that  such  a  itself....It  is  social  occurred.  struck  art  states  work of a r t  the  interest  accepting  d i s t i n c t i o n between f i n e a r t and in  with  as  conditions." to  why  1 5  this  134  First, collections  of  fine  a r t are  often  housed  in  museums which can be considered memorials of the rise of nationalism and i m p e r i a l i s m . . . e x h i b i t i n g the greatness of [the n a t i o n ' s ] a r t i s t i c past a n d . . . e x h i b i t i n g the l o o t . . . g a t h e r e d i n the conquest of other n a t i o n s . 1 6  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m are n a t u r a l outgrowths of a t r a d i t i o n a l conceptual b e l i e v e s i n a t t a i n i n g control  over one's  movements  to  are  promotes mutual  antithetical co-operation,  a  paradigm  that  surroundings.  holistic  essential  in  Such  outlook  which  today's  global  society. Dewey a l s o suggests t h a t  capitalism  is a  contributing  f a c t o r to the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two types of a r t , f o r the t y p i c a l c o l l e c t o r i s the t y p i c a l capitalist. For evidence of good standing i n the realm of higher c u l t u r e , he amasses p a i n t i n g s , s t a t u a r y , and a r t i s t i c b i j o u x . 1 7  These c o l l e c t i o n s are analogous t o the stocks and bonds " c e r t i f y . . . h i s standing  i n the  economic  world."  1 8  which  To P a t ,  however, i t i s the personal meaning, r a t h e r than the  monetary  value  to h e r .  She  of her e c l e c t i c c o l l e c t i o n t h a t  i s a contrast to  two  a r t teachers  u n i v e r s i t y pub one hot afternoon They spoke proudly  is  important I met  i n the  d u r i n g summer s c h o o l  session.  of t h e i r p e r s o n a l  whom  a r t c o l l e c t i o n s , works by  p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t s purchased f o r investment was no mention of any p e r s o n a l  purposes.  There  meaning these works might  f o r them, even when I attempted to s t e e r the  hold  conversation  in  that d i r e c t i o n .  T h e i r a t t i t u d e was q u i t e f o r e i g n t o my way of  thinking.  me,  For  as  f o r P a t , personal  enhanced by p e r s o n a l  knowledge of  the  artist,  t h i n g t h a t matters.  T h i s intimate s o c i a l  meaning,  often  i s the  connection  only  i s too  135  f r e q u e n t l y removed when works of a r t are "produced, l i k e articles,  for sale  i n the m a r k e t . "  other  19  Although not mentioned by Dewey, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t  the  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the a r t s i s yet another example of the i n f l u e n c e of C a r t e s i a n thought. i s considered  Somewhat i r o n i c a l l y ,  "work of the head" whereas f o l k  i s "work of the h a n d . " s t a t u s of c r a f t ,  art/useful  Most o f t e n designated t o the  20  i s that a r t which i n v o l v e s t e x t i l e  and which employs such techniques as weaving Most c r a f t s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been very a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n f o r women.  p r i m a r i l y a male d o m a i n .  exhibit  in  lowest  needlework. modes  Judy Chicago a t t r i b u t e s fine  art  of  their  has  been  21  to  Vancouver  and  art  materials  important  low s t a t u s to the f a c t that the world of  I was f o r t u n a t e  fine a r t  view  in  Chicago's  1985.  One  The  image,  Birth The  Project Crowning,  generated i n me the most overwhelming response I have ever had i n r e l a t i o n to a work of a r t .  My  daughter's  most joyous experience of my l i f e ; a momentous o c c a s i o n i n the l i v e s  birth  was  the  g i v i n g b i r t h to a c h i l d i s of  many  women.  And  yet  images of t h i s experience, so d e e p l y meaningful f o r women, are l a c k i n g i n the world of men's a r t . the f i r s t time, I viewed a with m a t e r i a l s and satisfying.  The  by  There, i n that  distinctly  techniques  inclusion  of  female  which  love.  on  the  These p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e s , evidence  image, find  photographs,  rough s k e t c h e s , and sample works i n t i m a t e l y the women a r t i s t s who had worked  I  work,  formed  personally  correspondence,  connected exhibit of  for  the  with  me  to such  exhibit's  c o - o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t , were r e l e v a n t to me because of the  great  136  importance life.  I a t t a c h t o the network  of  women  friends  i n my  The n a r r a t i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o  the coherent meaning I experienced thoughts  i n the work.  With  these  i n mind, Chicago's words are germane:  I r e a l i z e t h a t I'm a d d r e s s i n g the whole r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r t and community, a r t i s t s and s o c i e t y , in this work; I'm convinced that women stand no chance to r e a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r e u n l e s s the nature of c u l t u r e and the d e f i n i t i o n of a r t and what c o n s t i t u t e s being an a r t i s t changes along with i t . 2  Chicago  has  participatory interactive, underlying  emphasized  art-making dynamic  the new  the c o - o p e r a t i v e  in  nature  2  The fits  Birth well  the  Its  concepts  paradigm.  of f o l k a r t , r e f e r s t o these  dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l .  of  Project.  with  scientific/artistic  d e f i n i n g the essence  aspect  Dewey,  interactive,  In h i s o p i n i o n ,  works of a r t that a r e not remote from common l i f e , that are widely enjoyed i n a community, a r e s i g n s of a u n i f i e d collective l i f e . But they are a l s o marvellous aids i n the c r e a t i o n of such a life. The remaking of the m a t e r i a l of experience i n the a c t of e x p r e s s i o n i s not an i s o l a t e d event c o n f i n e d t o the a r t i s t and t o a person here and there who happens t o enjoy the work. In the degree i n which a r t e x e r c i s e s i t s o f f i c e , i t i s a l s o a remaking of the experience of the community i n the d i r e c t i o n of g r e a t e r order and u n i t y . 2 3  Pat f i n d s p l e a s u r e i n the a r t / l i f e work of Judy Chicago, pottery.  Drawings,  of Mexico, I d e l i g h t  we both enjoy papier paintings,  and  mache  sculpture  i n the  ducks also  and bring  s a t i s f a c t i o n , but a r e not r e a l l y c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y as f i n e art. daily  A l l a r e a r t and a l l a r e lives.  In  intimately  our classrooms,  we  experience t h i s same i n t i m a c y with a r t , i n t e g r a l a p a r t of  their  connected want  t o our  children  t o have i t become  to as  l i v e s as i t i s i n ours.  The B.C. Elementary F i n e A r t s  Curriculum  Guide/Resource  Book i s premised on the b e l i e f t h a t a r t education a dual  focus - c r e a t i o n and  appreciation.  should  have  I t s authors suggest  that a d i v e r s i t y of a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n experiences  be  provided  for c h i l d r e n : Examples of h i s t o r i c a l a r t , or commercial a r t understanding of t h e i r the e v o l u t i o n of man's The  question  24  can be asked, "Does Pat's and  classroom  art  the same meaningful i n t i m a c y with  works  appreciation  establish  of a r t which  we experience  i t does not.  and contemporary fine art, folk can be used to motivate student's own work and their place within involvement with i m a g e s .  Pat  in our  own  my  lives?"  The  o c c a s i o n a l l y b r i n g s personal  share with her c l a s s , but,  lacking resources,  answer  art  is,  items  to  f e e l s remiss  in  not p r o v i d i n g more exposure to "the great a r t of  the  In my  appreciation  school, reproductions  a c t i v i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e . t h e i r use,  of p a i n t i n g s f o r a r t I am  not e n t i r e l y comfortable  however, f o r r e p r o d u c t i o n s  an o r i g i n a l work of a r t .  world."  According  transform  with  the meaning of  to Berger,  meaning becomes t r a n s m i t t a b l e : t h a t i s to say i t becomes i n f o r m a t i o n of a s o r t , and l i k e a l l i n f o r m a t i o n , i t is e i t h e r put to use or ignored; information carries no special authority within i t s e l f . 2 5  No matter how  f a i t h f u l the r e p r o d u c t i o n ,  o r i g i n a l work cannot be  the a u t h o r i t y of  the  captured:  O r i g i n a l p a i n t i n g s are s i l e n t and s t i l l i n a sense that i n f o r m a t i o n never i s . Even a r e p r o d u c t i o n hung on a w a l l i s not comparable i n t h i s r e s p e c t f o r i n the o r i g i n a l the s i l e n c e and s t i l l n e s s permeates the a c t u a l m a t e r i a l , the p a i n t , i n which one f o l l o w s the t r a c e s of the painter's immediate g e s t u r e s . T h i s has the e f f e c t of closing the d i s t a n c e i n time between the p a i n t i n g of the p i c t u r e and one's own a c t of l o o k i n g at i t . ° 2  Reproductions  may  p r i n c i p l e s of design  facilitate  recognition  of  elements  i n the works of c e r t a i n a r t i s t s .  understanding of meaning i s a l s o p o s s i b l e .  Achieving  and  Limited personal  138  intimacy with works of a r t through r e p r o d u c t i o n s , however, problematic  due t o t h e i r lack of a u t h o r i t y .  In my use of r e p r o d u c t i o n s , art  as i t e x i s t s i n  functions. the  schools  I must again  has  both  be  aware  manifest  and  The f i n e a r t s are e x a l t e d i n our s o c i e t y as  highest  of  human  achievements.  advocates the c o n s i d e r a b l e value c h e r i s h i n g " of  carefully  r e c e n t l y , I accepted  Broudy  that latent among  eloquently  i n d e v e l o p i n g an " e n l i g h t e n e d  selected  works  h i s view, but,  of  art.  influenced  f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , I must now r e c o n s i d e r . of  f i n e a r t are u s u a l l y remote, surrounded  by  Until  2 7  Chicago's  Original by  a  works  process  m y s t i f i c a t i o n which precludes any meaningful i n t e r a c t i o n them i n the day-to-day l i f e  of my s t u d e n t s .  of  rarity."  2 8  of with  In our c u l t u r e , a  work of a r t i s "defined as an o b j e c t whose value depends its  is  I t s market p r i c e i s viewed as  an  upon  affirmation  i t s s p i r i t u a l value f o r works of a r t are d i s c u s s e d and presented as though they were h o l y r e l i c s : r e l i c s which are f i r s t and foremost evidence of t h e i r own s u r v i v a l . The past i n which they o r i g i n a t e d i s s t u d i e d i n order to prove t h e i r survival genuine. They are d e c l a r e d a r t when t h e i r l i n e of descent can be c e r t i f i e d . 2 9  Berger  d i s c u s s e s how the t r a d i t i o n a l  museums and the  homes  restriction  a  to  of  the  cultural  maintain an a e s t h e t i c  power  " r i g h t " s o c i e t a l standards.  i s o l a t i o n of f i n e a r t i n  wealthy,  elite, with  allowed which  i t s implicit this  sets  purchase,  the  publisher's  c e r t a i n works of a r t as exemplars  may  implicitly  for school  elite  i t could  the  available  In  with  of  to  s e t the  reproductions choice  of  attempt  to  influence aesthetic taste, based on the premise  that...there  exists  a  valid  and  139  objective idea of the beautiful and aesthetically valuable and that some people are better able to recognize t h i s value than o t h e r s . 3 0  If not encouraged to develop child  critical  "becomes accustomed to the  have the r i g h t to decide what he enjoy."  idea or  that she  skills,  the  must  authorities not  like  f o r c h i l d r e n to  not n e c e s s a r i l y to r e j e c t the values  develop  or  these  of o t h e r s , but  determine i f these values are the r i g h t f i t f o r them, Berger  a  3 1  I b e l i e v e i t i s important skills,  reflective  for  to as  observes:  The r e a l q u e s t i o n i s : to whom does the meaning of the a r t of the past belong? To those who can apply i t to their own lives, or to a c u l t u r a l hierarchy of relic specialists? 3 2  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the a u t h o r i t y of the f i n e a r t s has, due  to  its  i s o l a t i o n , been i n s e p a r a b l e from the a u t h o r i t y of the  wealthy  elite: What the modern means of r e p r o d u c t i o n have done i s to d e s t r o y the a u t h o r i t y of a r t and to remove i t - or, rather to remove its images... , from any p r e s e r v e . . . . Images of art have become ephemeral, ubiquitous, i n s u b s t a n t i a l , a v a i l a b l e , valueless, free. They surround us i n the same way as a language surrounds us. They have entered the mainstream of l i f e over which they no longer, i n themselves, have power....The a r t of the past no longer e x i s t s as i t once d i d . I t s a u t h o r i t y is lost. In i t s place there i s the language of images. What matters now i s who uses the language and f o r what purpose. 3 3  With  curriculum  reproductions  goals  in  mind,  I  use  set  of  e x t e n s i v e l y to nurture c h i l d r e n ' s " c a p a c i t y  for  c r i t i c a l and  s e n s i t i v e response to the a r t s , " but  my  these  use  of  exemplars  really  by,  society  and  the  I wonder  advances  "knowledge of the ways i n which the a r t s influenced  my  children's  influence,  environment."  if  and  are  Nadaner  140  expresses  similar  doubts:  The traditional a r t curriculum i s not the Kind of c u r r i c u l u m that helps l e a r n e r s d e a l with contemporary v i s u a l c u l t u r e . N e i t h e r a survey of t r a d i t i o n a l fine a r t s , nor a s e n s i t i v i t y to l i n e and shape w i l l help a l e a r n e r make sense o f , say the rock video phenomenon. 34  According to the f i n e  arts  curriculum  guide/resource  book,  c h i l d r e n should be encouraged to i n t e r p r e t works of a r t v a r i e t y of ways and of  each example.  useful  means  directing  -  elements and  p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n ,  f a c t and  neutral  or  objective  and/or symbols;  opinion;  intensity  that  to  art  to  a  describe processes,  -  criteria of  as  involves:  and  Interpretation  responsive  world, Nadaner suggests  This  materials  effectiveness in achieving a purpose. be  suggested  language  Judgement - based on  sense of beauty, depth and  In order to  is  discussion.  Description  s u b j e c t matter,  a  to give t h e i r p e r s o n a l judgements of worth  Formalist art c r i t i c i s m  of  in  combining such  as  communication,  a and  3 5  the  contemporary  education  should  image involve  c h i l d r e n i n a c r i t i c a l / m o r a l d i a l o g u e as they a t t e n d to  three  kinds of images:  North  the p e r v a s i v e (those of  American c u l t u r e ) ;  the i n v i s i b l e  (those  t h i s c u l t u r e , such as images of women portrayed by women); students  and  the  " f r e e d from conventions  contemporary  possible and  often  and  left  out  by  lives  as  created  by  women's (those  stereotypes")  3 6  Rather  than f o c u s i n g on f o r m a l i s t c r i t i c i s m which "de-emphasizes content of the work and Nadaner recommends developed,  f o r these  its  socially  historical/semiotic  constructed critical  meaning," methods  f o r c e us to a t t e n d to the c u l t u r a l  w i t h i n a v i s u a l work, and ask us "to explore  why  the  we  be  codes respond  141  the way  we  do."  In Nadaner's view,  3 7  C r i t i c i s m . . . b e g i n s with an a n a l y s i s of the ends with an understanding of personal v a l u e s , and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . "  object but experiences,  3 8  Caught up felt  that we,  the resources  i n the s c h o o l a r t t r a d i t i o n ,  Pat  as t e a c h e r s , must be r e s p o n s i b l e  and for  I  providing  f o r a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n i n our classrooms.  Despite  our awareness t h a t a wide v a r i e t y of a r t work i s important our p e r s o n a l  l i v e s , our s e l e c t i o n of resources  use tends to be  l i m i t e d to  views of f i n e a r t .  In  tensionality  i n the  this  process  appreciation.  By  our  are  in  with  p r o v i d i n g items f o r classroom  i n our  the  them  in  meaning of  daily  the  i n the lives.  the and  uncertain,  for of  images,  art by our  responsibility  for  intimate  lives  we  of  d i a l o g u e , perhaps  c h i l d r e n share  of a r t t h a t i s so v i t a l  traditional  dwelling  the  in  classroom  curriculum-as-plan  re-considering  which  by s h a r i n g  c l o s e r to having  reflect  i s somewhat shaky and of  for  i n c o r p o r a t i n g a wider range  u t i l i z i n g resources c h i l d r e n , and  which  respect,  between  curriculum-as-lived are  items  have  we  can  come  experiencing  142  Notes  Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book 1985 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, 1985), p. 3. 1  Mona Brookes, P. Tarcher, 1986). 2  Drawing with C h i l d r e n (Los Angeles:  ^ Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource  J.  Book, p.  3. Arthur E f l a n d , "The School A r t S t y l e : a F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s , " S t u d i e s i n A r t Education 17, no.2 (1976), pp. 41-42. 4  5  E f l a n d , p. 39.  6  E f l a n d , p. 40.  7  E f l a n d , p. 40.  8  E f l a n d , p. 41.  9  E f l a n d , p. 41.  1 0  E f l a n d , p. 38.  Brent Wilson and M a r j o r i e Wilson, Teaching C h i l d r e n t o Draw (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1982), p. xv. 1 1  1 2  Wilson and Wilson, pp. 19-37.  1 3  Wilson and Wilson, p. xv.  1 4  Wilson and Wilson, p. x v i .  143  John Dewey, A r t as Experience (New York: Putnam's Sons, 1980), p. 26. 1 5  1 6  Dewey, p. 8.  1 7  Dewey, p. 8.  J . P.  18 Dewey, p. 8. 1 9  Dewey, p. 9.  E l l i o t E i s n e r , C o g n i t i o n and Curriculum Longman, 1982), p. 30. 2 0  Judy Chicago, The B i r t h P r o j e c t Doubleday, 1985) 2 1  2 2  (New York:  (Garden C i t y , N.Y  Chicago, p. 61.  23 Dewey, p. 81 2 4  Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book,  p. 33. John Berger, Ways of Seeing (London: British Broadcasting System, Penguin Book, 1972), p. 24. 2  5  2 6  Berger, p. 31.  Harry Broudy, "A Common Curriculum i n A e s t h e t i c s and Fine A r t s " i n I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s and the Common Curriculum, NSSE Yearbook P a r t 1 (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1983). 2 7  2 8  Berger, p. 21.  2 9  Berger, p. 21.  Hans G i f f h o r n , " I d e o l o g i e s of A r t E d u c a t i o n , " Studies in A r t E d u c a t i o n 19. no. 2 (1978): 56. 3 0  144  3 1  G i f f h o r n , p. 57.  3  Berger, p. 32.  2  3 3  Berger, p. 32-33.  Dan Nadaner, "Responding to the Image World: A Proposal f o r A r t C u r r i c u l a , " A r t Education 38, no. 1 (1985): 11. 3  4  3  5  Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book,  p. 33.  3 6  Nadaner, p. 11  3  Nadaner, p. 11.  7  3 8  Nadaner, p. 12  145  CHAPTER V Winter Fun  The  January day i s c o o l and o v e r c a s t with a f i n e mist  f r e e z i n g r a i n forming an i c y c o a t i n g on not going driveway.  the  road.  f a s t , I g e n t l y s k i d past the entrance  to the  C l a s s e s are a l r e a d y i n s e s s i o n , the hallway  as I remove my boots by the f r o n t door and place them rack a l o n g s i d e rows of smaller ones n e a t l y l i n e d up i n On a b u l l e t i n board  are b r i g h t c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i  m u l t i c o l o u r e d badges, evidence h e l d d u r i n g noon hours  at  of the J a c k r a b b i t  many  elementary  district.  F i g u r e 23  Cross-country  Skis  of  Although school empty, on the pairs.  posters  and  s k i program  schools  i n our  146  Stepping i n t o a puddle of melted snow with my nyloned f e e t , have some momentary second thoughts  about  the  pleasures  I of  winter i n the Cariboo.  F i g u r e 24  Winter Words  In Pat's room the c h i l d r e n are seated a t  the  meeting  They are f i n i s h i n g a s o c i a l s t u d i e s d i s c u s s i o n on r u l e s and allowances, and f a m i l y problems a lack of communication.  families  that can a r i s e  Pat makes a smooth  place.  from  transition  from  We haven't talked very much about families having together, f a m i l i e s playing together. Think about family, for instance, and e s p e c i a l l y think of some  fun your things  these t o p i c s to today's a r t l e s s o n .  147  you l i k e to do together i n the winter snow o u t s i d e . I'm t h i n k i n g  time,  when  there's  that my f e e t a r e s t i l l wet.  We'll make a l i s t on the board and see how many d i f f e r e n t things happen at the d i f f e r e n t homes. What's happened at your house? What do you l i k e to do best? Sabrina? My f a m i l y  goes s k i d o o i n g i n the winter.  OK. So some f a m i l i e s l i k e to go skidooing. at your house, Carrie Ann? I always like make snowballs doing that. Dogs love  What  happens  to go out to walk in my backyard and I can and throw them at my puppy dog. I like  chasing  snowballs,  don't  they?  I know. Isn't  that  funny?  When they  can't  catch  them?  E s p e c i a l l y Moonzock, Danielle's dog. OK, t h i s and make a snowball t h i s perfect and t h i s - zoom - he goes and catches i t . And it. He d r i n k s the water from the s p r i n k l e r All  the c h i l d r e n  laugh  you go you go then he too.  delightedly.  So at Carrie's house, d i f f e r e n t things with house, Kristen?  playing in the snow, doing her dog. What happens  When a l l the chores are done, we a l l go outside a ride on my brother's Easyslide racer. And  is it l i k e  a  like like eats  l o t s of at your and  take  sled?  Yeh. OK. A l l r i g h t , we'll put "sledding". And that includes a l l the kinds of things you ride on to go s l i d i n g down hills. I've  got one, Mrs. V i t t e r y !  OK, what else  happens?  When a l l the chores Right! We skate  are done,  Where do you with  Jamie? we a l l go  skating.  skate?  our family.  And we go s k i i n g too.  148  I'm wanting to know more about there i c e at your house?  the  skating.  There's a great b i g . . . t h e r e ' s a l i t t l e h i l l ice on i t . And we go skating down there. Do you And  wear  On a  wondering was frozen  we don't have a  So Jamie skiing. Lots of  it  has  outside.  i f there was a pond near your house.  or  part  of  a  creek.  By means of t h i s d i a l o g u e , Pat  u n i t was  rink  mentioned skating. How many f a m i l i e s l i k e you!  ideas and v o c a b u l a r y  and  is  hill?  we made a b i g huge skating  OK. I was creek that No,  ice skates?  where  And to  she go  reinforces  also skiing?  many  mentioned Great!  of  the  introduced when the p l a n n i n g web  i n i t i a l l y discussed  (see F i g u r e 24).  key  for t h i s  It i s  also  an  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h i l d r e n to r e l a t e p e r s o n a l s t o r i e s of  winter  experiences.  school  for  Pat has been t e a c h i n g at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  four y e a r s .  stable  She d e s c r i b e s the c h i l d r e n ' s homes as  middle-class".  The  rural  setting  of  this  means t h a t most of the c h i l d r e n l i v e  on  hobby farms.  - "milk cows,  of goats,  Almost a l l have animals  rabbits,  chickens,  These c h i l d r e n are  usually  besides from  the  small  "fairly  community  acreages a  and couple  usual dogs and c a t s . "  "three,  four,  five  kid"  hands  down  now,  families. OK. That please.  sounds  like  fun.  Put  your  Awwhhh... I'm glad you have l o t s of ideas because we're going to see if you can draw your ideas on a b i g , b i g paper with a black wax crayon. You don't have to Include everyone in your f a m i l y , but put y o u r s e l f i n the p i c t u r e , of course, and maybe a friend. Think about what it looks like, where you're having a l l t h i s fun. Chad, will you turn t h i s way and look at me so I know you're listening? Same with you, Shawn.  149  Shawn and  Chad are s p r a w l i n g  the w a l l .  on t h e i r backs with t h e i r  Pat pauses u n t i l they have s a t up and  she  f e e t on  has  their  attention. Are you on a f l a t p a r t of your p r o p e r t y ? Are you on a h i l l y p a r t of your p r o p e r t y ? Are there lots of trees around? Are you near the creek? Are you near the pond? Think about your surroundings and t r y to i n c l u d e them i n your p i c t u r e . Pat e x p l a i n s t h a t the shapes are to be o u t l i n e d with black  wax  crayon  the  and  then f i l l e d  i n with b r i g h t c o l o u r s , e s p e c i a l l y  clothing. I f you look down at the g i r l s ' p a r t of the coat you can see a l l kinds of bright colours snowsuits and jackets. But  the boys  have r e a l l y d u l l ,  r e a l l y dull  cupboard, in their  colours.  The boys have brovn and blue and green, don't they? Well, that's a l l right. Then, maybe you might include animals in your p i c t u r e , l i k e your dog. Or your c a t may be o u t s i d e . The  "snowy" p a r t s of the p i c t u r e won't need to be c o l o u r e d  they w i l l be p a i n t e d . are  Examples of what might be  snowy  as  parts  given. I f there's a snowman in your p i c t u r e , don't colour him cause h e ' l l be p a i n t e d l a t e r . I mixed the white p a i n t up and I put s a l t i n i t . The salt doesn't dissolve. It stays a l i t t l e g r a i n y when the paint dries and it looks a l o t l i k e real snow. I t ' s kind of fun to do. But first you have to have your i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e of winter fun with your f a m i l y . Now, we haven't done any winter snow p i c t u r e s t h i s year i n t h i s class. We have done snowmen. And we've done snowflakes...  Looking  up,  I see a b l i z z a r d of paper snowflakes caught i n the  branches of the ceiling. and  well  patterned  versatile  tumbleweeds  that  hang  In between dangle l a r g e paper snowmen, protected wallpaper  against scarves.  winter  winds  from  the  carrot-nosed  with  brightly.  150  ...but we haven't p a i n t e d a p i c t u r e y e t , good chance to do i t . Yes,  on the  this  is a  to  clean  them  windows.  Oh, we d i d the windows.' And then we had off, d i d n ' t we? That was too bad. Yes.  so  Can we do i t again?  Mrs. Costello, we had b e a u t i f u l window paintings and furnace exploded over the holidays. Our e n t i r e room covered in soot and had to be washed with hot water. And so your p a i n t i n g s were washed  the was  off!  Looks of mixed d e l i g h t and dismay are on c h i l d r e n ' s  faces  as  they spontaneously g i v e me t h e i r o p i n i o n s of the d i s a s t e r . E v e r y t h i n g tooken down.' They j u s t should have taken and dusted i t o f f .  one of those  dusting  things  Well, it was too d i r t y . So we l o s t our paintings. Anyway, that was going to s t a r t January's theme. We d i d n ' t put them back on again, but we w i l l do snow p i c t u r e s on blue paper. Now, the f i r s t t h i n g f o r you to do i s t o show me how very q u i e t l y you can take out your wax crayons. You'll have to borrow if you don't have any. The blue paper  i s d i s t r i b u t e d by  Pat  to  each  c h i l d r e n , on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e , go t o t h e i r board t o p r a c t i s e before they s t a r t t o draw Shawn, a grade  on  group. space their  Some at  the  paper.  1 c h i l d , draws a t the board, then comes back t o  h i s desk t o draw b r i e f l y a t h i s paper. he made arms with two l i n e s ;  on  In h i s board  h i s paper, he  draws  drawing, sticks  (see F i g u r e 25). OK. I have two dozen people coming to t e l l me something - Please s i t down - Everyone listening. Some people just came t o t e l l me that they don't have wax crayons anymore. You r e a l l y need them for other things. Please ask mom if she can send them to school with you. If you're one of the children who don't have wax crayons, please try to borrow some from your friends a t your same t a b l e . Those of you who do have them, I hope you'll be w i l l i n g to share.  151  There i s much s h a r i n g of children.  crayons  already  going  on  between  In January, however, many are missing c o l o u r s .  Pat  walks from group to group o f f e r i n g comments. Children who don't have a black wax, use your pencil, but r e a l l y draw big, big because you'll have to o u t l i n e it later. Jessica, we're going to be colouring big shapes and painting, so you can't get away with drawing tiny. Where's your black wax? OK, use it, please. Wax crayon helps you draw bigger. Now, Rodney, make sure i t ' s going to be big, big. Are you going to put l o t s of things in your picture? I t ' s not bad, could be b i g g e r . yes, you can use colours.  F i g u r e 25  Shawn's P i c t u r e of "Winter Fun"  At one group of desks, Gary and Richard s i t t h i n k i n g s i d e by s i d e . it,"  "I see the p i c t u r e i n my head, and then  I overhear Gary say.  I  draw  A few minutes l a t e r , I n o t i c e  them  drawing i n a l e i s u r e l y manner, forth.  quietly,  comparing  pictures  Sabrina comes over to ask Leah about her  back  and  picture  and  152  o f f e r s suggestions (see F i g u r e 26).  F i g u r e 26  That's  supposed  I don't  have  a  to be  Sabrina and Leah  brown.  brown.  Sabrina goes to her own desk and r e t u r n s with a f o r Leah.  Pat asks one c h i l d i f she can show  brown the  crayon  class  how  she made her t r e e s . Yes. That you made i t t h i s way? Do they go t h i s way? Yes.  Or, do you want i t t h i s  way?  153  OK. Kristen drew an interesting tree. She's got branches that look l i k e t r i a n g l e s and they're going up the c e n t r e l i k e the shapes in a pine tree. We usually draw them t h i s way but she's decided to go that way. And that's just i n t e r e s t i n g and d i f f e r e n t ! You might put two or three d i f f e r e n t kinds of trees in the background of your picture. Now, Stephanie has started to use her wax crayons to colour her picture. And because she pressed so nice and hard l i k e I suggested, you can't see any blue through her person's red jacket. Nice bright red cause she pressed r e a l l y , r e a l l y hard. Don't l e t the blue peek through when you're colour ing your shapes. Press hard with your wax. Mrs. Oh, for you  Vittery,  how's  this?  it looks super! Maybe you could put something them to s i t on. How do you change your shoes? s i t on something?  here Do  Yes. Like  an old  log  I s i t on a f l a t  or bench  or  something?  plank.  I see. Well, maybe you could f i g u r e out how to draw i t . That's good, David! That's a nice evergreen tree. Everybody stop and look one more time. David has chosen d i f f e r e n t colours of green to colour the trees in his forest, to make it look r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . Have you got another green, too, David? Yep!  I've  got a l l kinds of greeni  Now, remember to think a l l pretty dark. I'm making Wow!  gold  of winter  trees,  David,  they're  mittens.  Fan-cy!  F i v e minutes l a t e r , Pat c a l l s the c h i l d r e n over to t a b l e i n the c e n t r e of the room to demonstrate how  the to  round put  on  I t o l d you I mixed s a l t i n the p a i n t . You can't see well from a distance but you can feel. It f e e l s kind rough. Just put your finger on the top of mine.  too of  the white p a i n t .  Ohhhh.. .yuck!.. .rough.' I t has a l i t t l e rough g r a i n y f e e l to i t . When the  light  154  shines  from  onto  it,  the table,  I can ' t  looks Shawn.  it  like  little  crystals.  Back  away  feel...  Ohhh, i t ' s shiny ! Yes,  it'll  shine  in the sunshine.  Figure 27  Pat  Painting  A l l r i g h t , now.  With "Snow"  has made a quick drawing t o show how  the  "snow"  can  be  applied. Think about what parts of your picture are going snow. Now, obviously the snowman needs to be right? I'm going to paint him very c a r e f u l l y . Ooooohhh...snow!  to be white,  155  You may f i n d that i f you go over some of your parts, you'll have to do i t again l a t e r . But the wax crayon repels the p a i n t . That i s , that water paint won't cover wax crayon. That's the reason why we l i k e to use it in t h i s kind of a c t i v i t y . - Please don't touch the table Obviously, the ground is going to be covered in snow. I won't take the time to finish it a l l , but I'll just quickly show you...OK? Now, think about t h i s . When the snow f a l l s down from the clouds, it hits the tops of things, doesn't i t ? It h i t s a l l the tops of the houses. And you have a n i c e l i t t l e row of snow on the top of your house. Are you watching me, Shawn? Unless  the  houses  have  parts  on  the  roof.  Wherever anything is open to the sky, the snow w i l l fall on i t . Now, which part of the tree do you suppose I should put the snow on? What do you think? Just raise your hand i f you can t e l l me. Carrie? I think there...  you  should  just  put  it  right  On the edges? OK. I can do that. something interesting, Jessie. Like put it on the top, that doesn't bother the  looks  Yes,  Now  you  there...and just  i t ' s a l l s t i c k i n g up here. tree branches.  OK. So I should put some on here branches are coming out t h i s way. It  on  too. I like  Some of that.  said Stuff these  pretty.  it does.  Many more c h i l d r e n add  t h e i r comments.  Yeh!..Wow!...Looks neat, l i k e that!...It snow!...Such a good painting! It  r e a l l y looks  It  is a  l i k e snow, doesn't  looks  like  real  it?  painting/  I f i t ' s a grey snowy day, Right? So I can use just make tiny, t i n y snowflakes.  some flakes might be falling. the edge of my brush and I can Lots and l o t s of them.  Oooohhhh! One  c h i l d contributes Y o u ' l l see different  this  that every shape.  information. s i n g l e snowflake  in the  world  is  a  156  OK. Work hard on the c o l o u r i n g p a r t and we maybe will have time to do a b i t of your snow. Just maybe...The ones who are working hardest w i l l get f i n i s h e d f a s t e s t . T h i s comment gets them back to t h e i r desks i n v e r y s h o r t order and c o l o u r i n g i s s e r i o u s l y attended t o .  One g i r l  is  finished  and ready to add "snow. Look at mine,  Mrs.  Vittery  L e t ' s have a look. A l i n e can show where the land and the sky begins. So we better put a l i n e in picture. Where would you l i k e i t t o be?  ends your  As the c h i l d h e s i t a t e s , Pat leads her over to the window  (see  F i g u r e 28). Come on and look out the window and I ' l l show Now you see? There's the ground. And then sudden t h e r e ' s t r e e s . And then there's sky. there's a l i n e , going along the top of that there? And below the one is ground. And above is sky. See that? A l l right. Now, l e t ' s see f i g u r e out where to put i t i n your p i c t u r e .  Figure 28  Looking At The Horizon  you. OK. a l l of a See where hill over the line if we can  157  They go back to the drawing on her  desk.  Use your crayon. Do you want i t up there, some place? OK. Nov, i t can't go i n f r o n t of your t r e e s , can i t ? I t has to go behind. So show me how you're going to do i t . Draw from here. Stop when you get to the trees. Now pretend you're going behind t h i s tree. OK. Stop when you get to there. Now pick i t up again over here. OK, stop. That's the g i r l ! OK, great! Now, l e t ' s show the kids what you did. Pat  interrupts  the  industrious  a t t e n t i o n to the use  of a h o r i z o n  colourers  to  draw  their  l i n e on C a r r i e ' s p i c t u r e .  A l l r i g h t , here's one more thing to learn. Carrie was ready to s t a r t p u t t i n g snow on, but she didn't have a l i n e to t e l l where the ground ended and the sky started. So we went over and looked out the window - some of you and I have done t h i s before - and we discovered that the sky came down so far and then there's a line where the h i l l is and the trees are. And the rest of it's all ground. So she went back and and got her crayon and she drew i n a l i n e that showed t h i s p a r t i s ground and the p a r t above i t i s a l l sky. Now she knows where to paint her white snow - Shawn, are you watching? - and where to p a i n t her snowflakes. If you don't have - they call it horizon l i n e - if you don't have one i n your p i c t u r e , you might think about looking out the window. If you need some help, l e t me know. Pat a s s i s t s another c h i l d with her h o r i z o n  line.  A  few  kids  are s i n g i n g s o f t l y to themselves as they c o l o u r . OK,  that's  Mrs.  super!  Vittery,  I dj& i t !  A l l r i g h t , boys and g i r l s . Time's gone too quickly afternoon. I'm afraid i t ' s almost time to t i d y up. i s time to t i d y up.  this It  Awwhhh... The buses w i l l soon be here. Listen carefully to what you must do. Very c a r e f u l l y . The brushes go in the sink; there's a container of water there. Sabrina, listen. The paintings hang on your peg. And your desk gets c l e a r e d off, your crayons away. You'll have to do it quickly and q u i e t l y . Only a few The  have reached the stage where they  " s n o w f a l l " w i l l be delayed u n t i l Monday.  can  add  paint.  Buses keep to  a  158  tight  schedule  and  d i s t a n c e s on winter  parents  aren't  happy  travelling  roads t o p i c k up c h i l d r e n who  long  miss  their  ride.  The  following F r i d a y afternoon,  I watch Pat and  p u t t i n g the f i n i s h i n g touches t o t h e i r The  winter  c h i l d r e n seated  mounted onto  with  i n f r o n t of her  at  the  black  construction  meeting  already paper  children pictures.  the  sky v i s i b l e through the windows.  e x p l a i n s t o me t h a t some p i c t u r e s have and  "Winter Fun"  v i v i d c o l o u r s of t h e i r drawings c o n t r a s t  watercolour  the  muted  With  the  place,  Pat  been  trimmed  backgrounds f o r  display. We framed and chose the best p a r t of our p i c t u r e . I have some to do, but I l i k e t o do i t one a t a time and so I f e l t that I would get s t a r t e d on it yesterday. We talked a l o t about it yesterday but I ' l l go over i t and you can see what we d i d . And because we're not having everyone doing an art lesson t h i s afternoon, we're going on with our measuring a c t i v i t i e s that we've been doing t h i s week. There i s spontaneous c l a p p i n g from many of the c h i l d r e n . And, so Mrs. Costello kind of knows what's been happening in here, I would l i k e some of you to volunteer some information and t e l l her what we've done so f a r . J u s t choose one of the a c t i v i t i e s and t a l k about i t . Adam, can you t e l l Mrs. Costello what we've done with measuring? We've measured a l l sorts measured each other.  of things  in our class  OK. And could you explain, Terry, how we measuring of each other? What was i t we d i d ? L i k e we measured our hand spans measured things in the room. Pat holds  and  up a paper with a s i m p l i f i e d  L i n e s r a d i a t e out from i t s navel t o  our  human  various  feet  figure  and we've did and  the we  on i t .  extremities  and  159  appendages. Come and e x p l a i n t o Mrs. Costello Leah. Who was your p a r t n e r ?  hov  this  one  Sabrina. Well, we took a l o n g tape and then we l i k e from our b e l l y buttons a l l the way t o our i t ' s alvays from the b e l l y button. We did from button t o our nose, from our b e l l y button to from our b e l l y button to our... Leah  and  Sabrina  give  measuring procedure.  me  a  quick  measured, toes and our b e l l y our e a r ,  demonstration  S m i l i n g , I comment t h a t a  worked,  of the  belly  button  i s a good p l a c e t o s t a r t . Cause i t ' s i n the middle o f your tummy. A l l r i g h t , t h i s a f t e r n o o n , while I'm working with those of you who haven't done the framing job on your paintings, I have another job for you to do with measuring. I t ' s a l i t t l e comparison chart and i t ' s to do with my friend and me. And you need a p a r t n e r a g a i n . Pat goes over the d i r e c t i o n s f o r today's making c e r t a i n t h a t they understand and  measuring  how t o  record  activity, their  own  t h e i r p a r t n e r ' s measurements. We can copy. Yes, get together on the f l o o r someplace And compare and see what is the difference. head is bigger or whose arm is longer. Or who's chubbier, OK.  Right.  and copy Like,  it in. whose  (giggles)  Whatever.  We'll  make a  the terms t h a t a r e used on  comparison.  She  clarifies  the a c t i v i t y  and  has the c h i l d r e n l o c a t e w r i s t s , a n k l e s , w a i s t s . Oh, and here's one that asks to measure your h e i g h t . we d i d t h i s - s i t down, please.  sheet  Now  I'm a hundred and nineteen/ We d i d t h i s and we graphed i t . When you get t o the p a r t about the h e i g h t , how c o u l d you f i n d o u t , without a c t u a l l y u s i n g a tape today? How would you f i n d out your height without a c t u a l l y g e t t i n g the tape and measuring? Terry?  160  Um, you Yes. Um, 29)  c o u l d check  the calendar  What is it called? the chart.  No,  Figure  29  the  that  I t ' s not graph,  a  tall  Leah Using  we put  up.  calendar. graph.  (see  Figure  the Graph  We could check the graph. OK, that would be a good thing to do. And, if you r e a l l y want to do it over again, the tape is s t i l l here on the chalkboard. But I think your best bet is to check the graph. Now, there's three empty spaces, so you might decide you want to measure something else. Maybe you want to see how long your nose i s . Yeahhhl Maybe you Giggles  would  from the  Or your  baby  like  to measure  your  big  toe!  group. finger!  T h i s r e a l l y gets them  laughing!  All right. Here's what to do. I see people are ready, ready, ready.  that  some of  these  161  P a r t n e r s are chosen by Pat. with those i n grade 2 so independently.  She p a i r s the  that  they  will  grade be  1  able  children to  work  There i s c h a t t i n g and laughter as c h i l d r e n s i t  next t o each o t h e r .  Before having  them about a p p r o p r i a t e classroom And when you t a l k to each please. The measuring begins.  them  begin,  reminds  a  whisper,  behaviour. other,  just  use  The c h i l d r e n are t o t a l l y  n o i s i l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about the a c t i v i t y  F i g u r e 30  Pat  involved  and  (see F i g u r e 30).  C a r i e and David  Pat c a l l s the f i r s t c h i l d , Rodney, over to  the  centre  round  162  t a b l e f o r p i c t u r e trimming. him,  to observe and add  frame of black matting  His p a r t n e r ,  Shawn,  comes  with  h i s comments d u r i n g the procedure.  A  i s moved around the p i c t u r e to f i n d  the  "most i n t e r e s t i n g " p a r t . Now, w i l l you the best?  t e l l me  which p a r t of your p i c t u r e you  like  I want the p a r t with a l l the k i d s . Put i t on the p i c t u r e . OK, now t h a t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g , with a l l the people In It. And do you know what could happen?. Look at t h i s . What do you think about t h a t ? Pat moves the frame to another p a r t of d e t a i l e d snowmobile i s f e a t u r e d . Would you Rodney, That'd Mrs.  Rodney  picture  where  laughs.  do that.' funi  V i t t e r y , can  I have two?  Well, w e ' l l see what happens has  twoi  when we frame  yours.  (Gleefully)  A l l r i g h t , Rodney, l e t ' s have a look and see what we do then. F i r s t of a l l , we've got to make sure we can your snowmobile. That's  your  snowmobile,  Right here,  right  Snowmobile.  I have  L e t ' s see, Rodney. There i s an  a  l i k e to have to have two?  be  Rodney  the  Rodney?  can see  (Very i n t e r e s t e d ) .  there. a snowmobile.  (Very e n t h u s i a s t i c ! )  Take your background, your frame.  interruption  at  this  point  from  one  of  the  c h i l d r e n measuring. Mine's s i x t y - f o u r . the same thumb! I wondered if that the same, J e s s i e ? Pat  Hey, was  Mrs. going  V i t t e r y , we've got to happen.  Are  i s concerned t h a t I might f i n d the noise l e v e l  they too  exactly exactly much,  163  but  I assure her that i t ' s  fine.  I  v i t h a group of grade 2 c h i l d r e n  mention  and  my  magnets  T h e i r noise l e v e l was comparable to t h i s .  I  experiences  that feel  morning. right  home and i t i s a pleasure t o watch and hear these busy ones.  at  little  There i s l o t s of l a u g h t e r , but no " g o o f i n g " o f f .  They  remain independently committed t o t h e i r measurement t a s k . Back t o the p i c t u r e trimming. Well,  l e t ' s have  This  piece.  What?  Like  Rodney,  a  look.  that?  I like  t h i s one.  When Rodney i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s d e c i s i o n , Pat chosen p o r t i o n with a p e n c i l . scissors,  then  mounts  outlines  She t r i m s the excess with  the  trimmed  c o n s t r u c t i o n paper background.  picture  During  her  onto  a  the large black  discussion  with  Rodney, Shawn has been t r y i n g out the frame on h i s p i c t u r e  by  himself. Mrs. Vittezy,  what part  should  Come round here, Shawn. best, (see F i g u r e 31)  Let's  I  save?  see what part  you l i k e the  OK. OK, now. Looks great. Would you l i k e to save down any other way? Mrs.  Vittezy,  You l i k e  I like  Nov what do you think about this? t h i s part? Do you want to trim it  it.  I like  that  part.  the dog. OK.  Mrs. Vittezy, I can keep the part I want to show you. want, I want, Mrs. Vittezy, I want t h i s one here. OK, l e t ' s Shawn? No.  take  a look.  Did  you  try  it  anothez  I  way,  164 I  Oh, there's I ' l l save  a p a r t where you are.' these  two parts.  F i g u r e 31  What's the problem  I'm going  to take  that  part.  Pat C o n s u l t i n g With Shawn  if you do it this  way?  I c u t o f f the snowman. OK, so if you turn i t . Yeh.  That  That  would  I can keep Is there  would be  probably  be  better.  better.  t h i s part  too.  a way you could get i t so  you  could  show  the  165  person i n with the p i c t u r e ? little  bit?.  How  about  Can  that?.  you  move  Move it a  it  so that you can get the snowman's head too. think about t h a t ? Well, You  Pat  I'd  like  want to do  l e a v e s him f o r  to go  on  it.  a  speaks q u i e t l y to me,  to  this.  over  little  a  higher  What do  you  I want to do i t .  OK.  moment,  pondering  his  picture.  She  before r e t u r n i n g to Shavn.  Did you see what he did there? hoping would happen, that he would he's decided t h a t ' s what he liked  She goes back to Shavn who  That  was  start best.  moving  what I was i t and so  has reached a d e c i s i o n .  I agree with you. I t h i n k t h a t looks great. Shawn, get this black paper and we'll see what it looks like. We'll just cut i t across here and you can save those two pieces. You can put them i n your desk. Oh, it looks great, Shawn! There. What do you think? Yes! Great!  All  right,  we'll  hang  it  up  on  the  wall.  Each p i c t u r e c o n s u l t a t i o n takes about f i v e minutes. six  and  then  calls  for  clean  up.  As  they  measurement tapes to the bucket, some c h i l d r e n phrases of songs.  Then  they  w a i t i n g to d i s c u s s with Pat the  sit  quietly  results  of  Pat return  hum  at  does the  and  their  their  sing desks,  measuring  activity. I would l i k e t o hear some of the t h i n g s  that  you  found  out. Now, when you are ready to tell, g i v e not only your own measurement but also that of your friend. And tell me which was more which was bigger, or longer, or wider, or whatever it was you were measuring. You should  have the two s e t s of numbers on your paper. choose what you'd like to tell OK, Rodney, what did you find Our  First Chad.  about out?  what you  ear. of all,  tell  us  who  your  partner  was.  You  get  found  to  out.  166  OK.  And t e l l me what you found  Chad's And  ear is longer  what were  Chad's There  than mine  the  out. by one  centimetre.  measurements?  was f i v e centimetres  and mine  was  four.  i s some subdued l a u g h t e r from the c h i l d r e n They measured tickle? No.  ears.  That  was  listening.  interesting.  Did  (Laughs).  Pat laughs t o o .  She asks v a r i o u s c h i l d r e n f o r the  data  have c o l l e c t e d .  Sharing t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  nearly  i n v o l v i n g as c o l l e c t i n g  it;  a few,  Tell  us something  else  you  i s not  letting  wander, f i d d l e with p e n c i l s and whisper OK.  it  their  to their  they as  attention  neighbours.  measured.  Oh...um...Our heads. Like, T e r r y ' s was j u s t eight c e n t i m e t r e s more than my head. Cause mine was f i f t y and h i s was f i f t y - e i g h t . Centimetres. you two boys come up here f o r a minute and stand by me so everyone can see you. It's interesting, because when you look a t these two boys - shhh, l i s t e n when you look at these two boys, you can that Terry is a much b i g g e r person than Chad and so it stands to reason that when you measure around t h e i r head there would be a difference. D i d you f i n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g when you were comparing? T e r r y ? No, not that much. Not  too t h r i l l e d ,  huh?  Pat and I share glances and a s m i l e . more minutes,  ending with t h e i r  about today's  activity.  She c o n t i n u e s f o r a  opinions  on  how  they  few felt  I wanted to know how you f e l t about doing that activity. What was the best part about i t ? What wasn't fun about It? Just a comment about how you f e l t about doing the measuring t h i s afternoon. OK, l e t ' s hear from C a r i e Ann about t h i s . I l i k e d i t when we were measuring i t , but sometimes me and David got mixed up too. He said t h i s is his paper  167  and and  I s a i d that t h i s was my paper and that he s a i d no, t h i s was h i s .  How c o u l d you have s o l v e d that  was h i s  paper  problem?  I checked on "My Friend" and i t was mine and then David checked on his, on "My Friend," and he found that i t was his. Does anyone e l s e have a way that Cazie Ann and c o u l d have s o l v e d their problem about getting papers mixed up? What d i d you do, Rodney? Well, OK. After  David their  um, he put our names on. That  sounds  l i k e a good  idea.  another few minutes of comments,  mostly  positive,  the  measuring sheets go i n t o the desks u n t i l Monday.  Currlculum-as-Dlan  - Conceptual  TO  F i g u r e 32  The  that  ART  Conceptual Model For V i s u a l  B.C. E l e m e n t a r y F i n e  Book s t a t e s  Model  the f i n e a r t s  Arts  Curriculum  Arts  Guide/Resource  - v i s u a l a r t s , drama,  music  168  share i n t e r r e l a t e d and common  goals,  unique c h a r a c t e r with regards t o  skills  resource book, t h e r e f o r e , i s d i v i d e d f o r each d i s c i p l i n e .  but  each  and  possesses  concepts.  i n t o three s e c t i o n s ,  A model d e p i c t i n g the  interrelation  the two key concepts, c r e a t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n , section.  begins  a The one of  each  The c o n c e p t u a l model f o r the v i s u a l a r t s i s shown i n  F i g u r e 32.  When p l a n n i n g a l e s s o n , any aspect of any  four content areas - image making,  materials  and  of the  processes,  elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n , and responding t o a r t - can be a v a l i d p o i n t of e n t r y .  Curriculum-as-lived I n t e r a c t i o n , the key concept approach,  i s reflected  classroom. concept  by  i n the  physical  Pat's  planning  arrangement  of her  The c i r c u l a r c o n c e p t u a l model a l s o r e i n f o r c e s emphasizing  that  the  i n t e r - r e l a t e d and a r e a l l e q u a l l y education.  underlying  four  content  essential  areas  in visual  this are arts  Bach of these content areas was present i n a l l a r t  l e s s o n s I observed  A f t e r d e c i d i n g upon  i n Pat's  a  classroom.  theme  process t o i n t e g r a t e d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e her  planning  and  conducting  subject  areas,  f o r a r t , i n terms  the  "webbing"  how  d i d Pat  of  these  four  categories? At the f i r s t of the year I make a l i s t o f the processes and m a t e r i a l s that I want t o c o n c e n t r a t e on i n the a r t lessons. And then, I look at the theme and develop lessons around it using the techniques that I have not yet covered or I see vhich ones are the most natural to use w i t h i n that theme. An examination  of Pat's y e a r l y overview,  indicated  that  the  169  e n t i r e spectrum  of m a t e r i a l s and processes suggested  primary grades  was  children  were  "pumpkins"),  covered.  In  introduced  drawing  to  (Animal  lessons  I  observed,  printmaking Cartoons),  (Animals), drawing and p a i n t i n g (Valentines).  the  f o r the  (Halloween  paper  collage  (Winter Fun), and mixed  media  To my mind, each process was a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n  the c o n t e x t of the p a r t i c u l a r theme i n which i t was used. But I do not take a process l i k e printmaking and say, OK, t h i s i s February and we a r e going to do printmaking. I don't do i t that way at a l l . I t ' s n o t , OK, now i t ' s printmaking, now we're going t o do a u n i t on drawing, now we're going to do a u n i t on painting. It doesn't work that way. I don't find that's useful. I know some people work that way but I don't feel comfortable with that. In t e a c h i n g a r t t o c h i l d r e n i n grades eight  years,  I  have  not  found  3  a  to  7  process-based  s a t i s f a c t o r y e i t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e s the four content a r e a s , image  f o r the  making.  As  to a  approach  another  A major drawback, I  the g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y c h i l d r e n images. 5  had  soon  children,  f o r example,  having  "experienced" eyes and l o t s about i n t h e i r minds. m a t e r i a l s and  of  ideas  L i k e Pat, I  processes  within  b e n e f i t s image development.  a  are  believe  ideas f o r  a  "hands-on"  functions  d i s s e c t i o n s d u r i n g a s c i e n c e u n i t , t o develop i n drawings or imaginary p a i n t i n g s i n a r t .  was  i t i s f o r my grade  acquired  s c i e n t i f i c knowledge of eye p a r t s and t h e i r  very  discovered,  i n generating  I e x p l a i n e d t o Pat how much e a s i e r  of  beginning a r t  teacher I c o n c e n t r a t e d on processes because they appeared straight-forward.  past  images  They  have  already that  particular  through of  eyes really  stirring  integrating theme  really  170  What of the other responding  to  content  areas  of  a r t , f o r example?  the I  conceptual  asked  d e l i b e r a t e l y plans f o r p a r t i c u l a r experiences  Pat  model: if  she  i n t h i s area.  I f i t seems t o f i t , I do. I f e e l r e a l l y remiss in that area because I don't have the resources on hand. When I do, I i n c l u d e them as much as i s p o s s i b l e . But I don't always have access to s t u f f t h a t I'd r e a l l y l i k e . And so I feel r e s t r i c t e d in that regard. There's nothing in our school. Anything I do use in my lessons is my own personal stuff. I don't feel that is as well covered as I'd l i k e it to be. Responding t o a r t , however, need not be r e s t r i c t e d t o works of art  created  critical children.  by  adults.  involvement  in  It  their  can  also  include  own  a r t and  children's  that  T h i s type of responding was e v i d e n t i n  the  on Winter Fun, f o r example, when Sabrina suggested use of a brown crayon. her  children  A r t c r i t i c i s m occurred  individually  examine  and  of  difficult to  when  select  Pat had the  group  on the  a t the end of the l e s s o n  quality  on  Animal  were i n v i t e d t o s e l e c t t h e i r f a v o u r i t e  The  of  In the  evaluate in  their  the  addition products.  Cartoons,  children  model  is  elements  Pat f r e q u e n t l y uses terms r e f e r r i n g  the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n i n  was c u r i o u s i f t h i s v o c a b u l a r y  use  is  her  a g a i n , i f i t i s c a r e f u l l y planned a s p e c i f i c time and p l a c e .  lessons.  I  "spur-of-the-moment,"  r e s u l t i n g from her e x t e n s i v e background experience  at  most  drawings.  f o u r t h content area of the c o n c e p t u a l  and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . to  to  new process of p r i n t i n g with potatoes,  commenting c r i t i c a l l y  And,  the  lesson  t o Leah the  i n t e r e s t i n g p o r t i o n of t h e i r p a i n t i n g s f o r framing. Halloween printmaking, she asked  other  i n advance t o be  i n a r t , or, introduced  171  Sometimes I d o . I t r y to keep it f a i r l y simple vith the age group I'm working w i t h , but I d o n ' t h e s i t a t e to use the term and then e x p l a i n to them what it means. Not expecting or r e q u i r i n g them to remember, just kind of throwing i t i n incidentally, when it's throvn in often enough, some children will understand. Some of them von't.  I  commented t h a t at  the  younger  age  level,  then,  it  was  exposure, more than a n y t h i n g e l s e . Right. So I would suggest t h a t it's incidental. And yes, I do think about i t , but sometimes i t j u s t comes out in conversation. I  n o t i c e d , f o r example, t h a t she drew c h i l d r e n ' s a t t e n t i o n  to  geometric shapes d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of J a c k - O ' L a n t e r n faces a t Halloween.  And, when the o p p o r t u n i t y arose i n  the  Animal  Cartoons l e s s o n , she mentioned exaggerated p r o p o r t i o n .  The  c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e / r e s o u r c e book p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d scope and  sequence c h a r t s for a l l concern f o r c o n t i n u i t y ?  four content a r e a s . Did she f e e l  it  Did  important  Pat  have  a  that s k i l l s  i n these areas be s e q u e n t i a l l y developed? I h a v e n ' t looked at the scope and sequence seriously. I d i d glance at i t , but I d i d n ' t really pay it very much attention. I tend not to look at t h i n g s as t e a c h i n g a sequence of s k i l l s . And my reason is that, f i r s t of all, I don't vant to restrict a child. If somebody is ready to go on by expanding the skill...Let's talk about painting. The kids in grade 1 can identify the colours and they can begin to use p a i n t . And they love these s i l l y l i t t l e p a i n t boxes which I don't particularly like a t a l l , but they think are w o n d e r f u l . They can't vait to get to school and the f i r s t t h i n g they vant to do is paint vith their paint boxes! And so, at the beginning of the year, because they're so keen, I teach them how to use these l i t t l e p a i n t boxes and how to handle their brush and so on. I f i n d out i f they can i d e n t i f y the colours. Nov for some kids, just using the brush, getting the right amount of water on i t , t a k i n g the paint from the l i t t l e cake and p u t t i n g it on the paper, is wonderful. They j u s t think that's great. And they very carefully vash their brush - they've put red on now t h e y ' r e g o i n g to try blue. And then green. It's alvays red f i r s t . And so you might s a y , OK, that's the first  172  s k i l l , in this l i t t l e lesson. And then there are other kids who accidentally don't clean their brush off properly when they finish using their red. They dip it into the blue and they end up with purple. And they're so excited! They can't understand what happens "Look at this, I wanted blue but it's purple! And how did that happen?" So they get right into colour mixing, right off the bat! And maybe it says somewhere in the scope and sequence that colour mixing does not come until lesson 18, or something like that. Well, if it happens right then, then that's the time, as far as I'm concerned, to let the kids experiment. It doesn't have to be at a certain time that they learn to mix colours.  In t h i s  l e s s o n on Winter  Fun,  Pat  felt  it  appropriate  demonstrate to some grade two c h i l d r e n the use l i n e to d e l i n e a t e to the scope introduced judgement  a  areas of space w i t h i n a p a i n t i n g .  and at  of  sequence  grade  chart,  five.  this  Pat  concept  exercised  i n t h i s m a t t e r , as she does  with  to  horizon  According should  be  professional  curriculum  guide  suggestions i n other s u b j e c t a r e a s . It's what I feel comfortable doing. And as far as I'm concerned, if I don't feel comfortable teaching, then I shouldn't be teaching. It's like u s i n g the math workbook that's provided in grade 1 and 2. There are teachers who simply work from page 1 r i g h t through to page 172, one a f t e r the o t h e r . To me, i t doesn't make sense to do it that way, but people do because it says so i n the book. So in unit 3, it's telling time. And so I can't teach my kids to tell the time today, even though there's five children who really want to know, because that's not done u n t i l March, you know. I mean, that obviously sounds ridiculous and I hope there really aren't people who do  but (whispers)  it,  It  i§_ r i d i c u l o u s .  true.  I,  I  think  there  are.  B u t , from my knowledge  like Pat,  prefer  of  many  to do t h i n g s a c c o r d i n g  sense of order and t i m i n g which f r e q u e n t l y d i f f e r s of  textbook  or  curriculum  guide  authors.  sequence does not always mesh v i t h the way my the  needs  comfortable  of fit.  my  children.  Again,  it  is  The mind a  teachers, to  my  from  own that  suggested vorks matter  or of  173  Being a c o n s t a n t r e v i s e r at h e a r t ,  I  find  it  accept t h a t some t e a c h e r s continue to use the year a f t e r  year.  same  to and taught at the same t i m e , and s t y l e of  i n the same  presentation  binder, way,  are  not  to  materials  They d e v i s e , l e t ' s s a y , a s e t of l e s s o n s  grade 7 s o c i a l s t u d i e s , which are p l a c e d i n a  Information  difficult  for  turned  each  year.  modified  to  match the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs of c h i l d r e n i n  a  particular  I  context.  I mentioned to Pat t h a t  have never been able to take l e s s o n s g i v e n me and use them as w r i t t e n ,  that  I  find  someone  that else  nor have I ever been able  take l e s s o n s t h a t I have prepared and use them a g a i n a time.  has to  second  Of c o u r s e , my assignments have r a r e l y been the same two  years i n a row, so t h a t has not been a problem too o f t e n ! W e l l , that, I would s u g g e s t , i s because you're a creative person. I can't do that either. To me, the lesson that you're going to teach depends on the group of children you're teaching. And they're never the same, so therefore the lesson is never going to be the same. You  do adapt to your group. And I c a n ' t see how you can be an interested teacher and teach from somebody else's lessons. I really can't do that because there's alvays something I would add, or delete. It's the same for every year. I really find i t b o r i n g to think that I have to teach the same thing every year. I try my best not to. I'll pick and choose between the science units, for instance. It I taught animals this year, next fall I may not. I may go off on rocks or soil or magnets or something d i f f e r e n t . For my own sake. You too. Because If I'm going to give the best I can to the kids, I sure don't want to be working with boring material. I find I have to be really interested in what I'm doing. If I am, then I'll be striving to do the best I can. And I am v e r y s e l f - c r i t i c a l , so I change, change, change, change. I don't think that the perfection is attainable, for me, the perfection that I'm after. That's probably what keeps me g o i n g . But along the way, somehow, hopefully, i t gets c l o s e now and then (Laughs) and the k i d s get a decent lesson I  Did Pat know when  that  occurs?  Could  she  feel  it?  For  174  m y s e l f , there are some moments vhen e v e r y t h i n g seems together, real  or vhen one c h i l d v i l l  to  say one t h i n g , and I  come  have  a  glow. Oh you can f e e l it, feeling. And i t ' s light's  shining  sure. Yes, i t ' s a really worth i t . You realize that  in there...Little  does that to me a l l  Kristen's  the time.  She's  neat the that  the one  little  a neat  kid.  At first - she's one of the grade l's, with the long dark hair - at first, you think, Oh this is quite a bright l i t t l e child. She's very neat, very tidy, well-behaved, the whole thing. But not, totally, you know, with it? And, I have to present things to her in many ways  sometimes.  big  brown  eyes just flash open, and you know she understands. And it's worth every minute t h a t you just to see her f a c e . And realize, hey, she finally itl She does know what I'm talking aboutt  And t h e n , a l l  of a sudden,  finally spend, got  Pat and I d i s c u s s e d another aspect of and  daybooks.  A comfortable f i t  those  teaching  i s important  here  but too o f t e n such schedules p i n c h vhen one i s integrate fine  arts  timetables as  attempting  curriculum  guide/resource  per s u b j e c t per veek are a l l o c a t e d . 715 f o r  language  studies/science, district,  to  areas v i t h i n a thematic approach as suggested by the book.  According  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s , a c e r t a i n number of  is  veil,  140  arts, for  170 PE,  180  math, for  these g u i d e l i n e s are r i g i d l y  minutes s h o r t i n a p a r t i c u l a r  minutes  At the primary l e v e l ,  for  from p e r s o n a l experience t h a t i f  to  a  for  social  art/music. adhered  daily  In  our  to.  I  knov  timetable  is  five  then  revisions  must be made so t h a t the exact number of minutes i s  accounted  for.  subject  120  it  Pat had g i v e n me a copy of her  area,  timetable,  but  in  l e s s o n s I o b s e r v e d , s c i e n c e and s o c i a l  studies  floved  and  music.  Pat  vere an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f , a r t  and  appear concerned about the s p e c i f i c amount of each.  I  asked  her  hov  accurately  she  time  follows  the into,  did given the  not to time  175  allotments. It's  a l l covered.  And i t ' s a l l covered i n your  timetable.  Right t o the minute. it i s .  Yes,  Right t o the minutei  I noticed that, P a t .  Did you go and add i t a l l up? (Laughing) No, (Laughter  I  didn't.  from Pat)  I'm j u s t g i v i n g you a rough t i m e . I thought, y e s , that looks about  I glanced right,  at  all  it of  and those  blocks. Yes,  all  covered.  (Laughing) Nov, (Laughing) Why I  are  knov,  you  hov  closely  Dale, you asking?  but  I  have  to  first  The  follov  the  answer  get  this  dovn  today.  it,  to on  I  that  questionJ  tape.  had  this  marvelous  and  I  got That  9:00.  half  hour.  h a l f hour was r i g h t o n .  You mean you got  it  through you!  first  Good  Yes,  A c t u a l l y , I even went a l i t t l e  yes.  for  the  schedule?  half  hour  on  farther.  T h i n k i n g of the days when I h a v e n ' t even made i t first  Pat?  It was j u s t w o n d e r f u l . was j u s t right on track.  was the f i r s t  That  you  know  You should have seen it daybook a l l written out. as f a r a s , the PE lesson was at 8:30, between 8:30 Right.  do  through  the  f i v e minutes of what i s planned i n my daybook, I enjoyed  P a t ' s s t o r y of hov her day u n f o l d e d . I t ' s Open House on Thursday and I have a space to f i l l in the gymnasium. I h a d n ' t saved a l o t o f t h e i r writing. So  I  got  an  idea  about  halfvay  through  the  morning  meeting. I was a s k i n g them to t e l l me what they were going t o w r i t e about i n t h e i r vriting workshop and I thought, h e y , these s t o r i e s are going to be great today. And  then  I  just  flipped  on  the  light  svitch  in  my  head  176  and s a i d , OK, that's it I We're going to do the vhole t h i n g with w r i t i n g process today. Write, edit, proof, and we're g o i n g to p u b l i s h . Then we'll illustrate with drawings and paintings. And we'll hang these up in the  gym. I f i g u r e d that would take me most of the Of course, by lunchtime they weren't nearly I just  it  had  a l l dayi  to  chuck  They  the rest  moved  of my daybook I  a l l the  desks  morning. finished.  And  did  we  back,  as  far  them  one  towards the p e r i m e t e r of the room as they could. This cleared a large area around the centre table where they could work on their drawings and paintings on the floor. And kids who were s t i l l writing didn't have to be working next to somebody who had paint and water on their desk. It was really neat I There were children at different  stages  of t h e i r  w r i t i n g and I  was working with  at a time with the proofreading. And there were other kids, all over the floor, with their art activity. Every single kid in that classroom was involved, totally, in what they were d o i n g . And I was involved in what I was doing. So it was beautiful. There was a lot of learning going on. And yet it was not in the daybook.  I  e x p l a i n e d t o Pat  that  it  has  been  s p e c i a l i s t teacher a t the intermediate and s e p a r a t i n g  art  and  other  my  l e v e l , that  subjects  into  p e r i o d s d i s r u p t s , h i n d e r s , and f r u s t r a t e s quest f o r e x c e l l e n c e and p e r i o d s of time Often, time week.  for  quality  in  their  something  limited  extremely d i f f i c u l t .  interest  under  A l l too soon  children  a  time their  Extended  not  available.  interesting,  these  l e a r n t o put f o r t h o n l y the minimum e f f o r t  in  work.  i s up and the p r o j e c t must be put away t i l l Maintaining  as  segmenting  children  intense c o n c e n t r a t i o n are  j u s t as we get s t a r t e d on  experience  the  following  conditions give  up;  needed to  our  is they  complete  what i s a s s i g n e d . As an a r t i s t / t e a c h e r ,  Pat f e e l s most comfortable when she  can be f l e x i b l e  i n her i n t e r a c t i o n s with  r e l i e s on t a c i t  knowledge to attune  s p e c i f i c learning s i t u a t i o n s . this  conversation,  Pat  her  children.  h e r s e l f to the rhythms  Later,  expressed  She of  though, i n r e f l e c t i n g on concerns  about  how  177  accountable she should be f o r writing/art  l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s such as the  session.  I'm rattling away here saying, Oh sure, I don't believe in daybooks. I know what I'm supposed to do and so o n . . . a n d then i n the back of my mind, I'm thinking, gee, that doesn't sound as though it's very responsible. You know, I'm earning a good salary and I've got to be accountable and I really shouldn't even be saying these things.  In  her  mind,  this  issue  of  versus  accountability  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s very troublesome, e s p e c i a l l y as  it  to  experience,  another  aspect  of  the  curriculum-as-lived  relates  evaluation.  Curriculum-as-plan -  Evaluation  The new f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m attempts to i s s u e of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . three column c h a r t , f o r each d i s c i p l i n e .  On pp. 4-6  deal  vith  of the r e s o u r c e book i s a  l i s t i n g sequential behavioural These l e a r n i n g  the  outcomes  each of the s i x g o a l s for the elementary  objectives  are  fine  keyed  arts  to  program.  Suggestions are g i v e n f o r procedures t o p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e  data  v h i c h can be used to support teacher e v a l u a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n ' s progress evaluation  and in  achievement the  arts  in is  development and mastery i n each e q u a l l y important A variety on  p.  art.  The  dual  emphasized content  area  to p e r s o n a l development and  nature  concept/skill is  responsiveness.  resource  book.  These  include:  p o r t f o l i o s or c o l l e c t i o n s of student v o r k , a n e c d o t a l paper and p e n c i l (or a r t prepared  considered  of instruments to a s s e s s student progress i s  35 of the  learning  material) t e s t s ,  outcomes.  Tvo  sample  and  of  listed  individual records,  checklists checklists  of are  178  p r o v i d e d , one for a grade 2 l e s s o n , the other unit.  Symbols  and  anecdotal  comments  for  can  a  be  grade used  6 for  reporting purposes.  Currlculum-as-lived I  have some d i f f i c u l t y with these s u g g e s t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y  when I c o n s i d e r the open-ended nature of arts  in education outlined e a r l i e r .  appear worthwhile. I  interpret  the  goals  To my mind,  There i s an emphasis on  the  each c h i l d ' s work and even the r e c o r d i n g comments.  However,  the  use  of  completely unacceptable to me. g o a l s of a r t  these  goals  child  which  I  education, in their  of  portfolios brief  evaluation do  not  of  a  s t u d e n t s , and when I see the work t h a t they  do,  quality  no  going to c a p t u r e .  that  art  that  which  lesson  when I am i n P a t ' s c l a s s o b s e r v i n g , when I  e x p e r i e n c i n g of  of  is the  deepest s e n s e , are measurable  on a c h e c k l i s t at the end  in their  I  anecdotal  checklists  believe  by s e t t i n g out d e t a i l e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s  And,  the  as an acknowledgement of i n d i v i d u a l u n i q u e n e s s .  can accept the g u i d e ' s s u g g e s t i o n s for keeping  ticked off  for  can or  talk there  be  unit. to  her is  checklist  a is  I e x p l a i n e d to Pat t h a t I was d i s p l a y i n g my  b i a s i n s a y i n g I d i d not t h i n k  I c o u l d work with t h i s kind  of  evaluation. Nor c o u l d I. I used to have great l o n g arguments against t h i s business of keeping r e c o r d s of marks and making sure e v e r y l i t t l e anecdote is written down because I have to be "accountable"I I have always had a l o t of trouble with t h a t . I hjajtfi. keeping a record of marks, just absolutely hate it, but I know I have to do it, so I do it. I don't even l i k e w r i t i n g things down because I find that's a waste of time. I have a v e r y good little computer, r i g h t here ( p o i n t s to her head) and I can s p i t out and t e l l you a n y t h i n g you want to know about "X" kid.  179  But t h e r e i s that l i t t l e t h i n g i n the back of me that says, You've got to be "accountable", you've got to be "accountable"t And I'm i n c o n f l i c t v i t h that a lot of the t i m e . I  asked her t o e x p l a i n her e v a l u a t i o n methods as  to c h i l d r e n ' s  they  relate  art.  OK, I can tell you quite quickly how I would determine the quality of a child's work. I'm going to take little Shawn as an example. He's just hyper, hyper all the time. He loves g e t t i n g i n t o the p a i n t - ends up v i t h it a l l over h i m , and he l o v e s g e t t i n g i n t o the crayons, but he chews them. And he's just, he's a messy, little...bugger, that's all he ist (Laughs). But he's delightful/ I found t h a t when he s t a r t e d o f f the year, his drawings and his pieces of art were really of very poor quality. And he was not happy with them, either. He didn't like anything that he did. And so I started having him talk about it, looking at what he'd done. If he said, I don't like it, then I'd ask, What don't you like about it? What do you suppose you could have done differently? Could you add something to it? And he'd reply, Oh, I could do this, this, and this. The point is that I get him thinking, taking a critical look at his own work, j u d g i n g i t , how could it be improved? And what would make him feel better about it? And so eventually, it comes to the stage now, half way through the year, where he can take a look at a piece of work as he's producing it. And he's beginning to use the s e l f - q u e s t i o n i n g , a d d i n g t o i t , changing i t . His vork has improved tremendously over the year because he's been looking at it himself. His work might not look excellent to anybody else, but to him it's beginning to look pretty good. And that's the criteria that I would use in judging. How does he feel about it? Now, if he's feeling good about what he's doing, then I think that's vonderful. That's what I would hope for every kid - to experience that feeling of pride in what he's doing. In his mind, he really thinks that he has created something wonderful. I  remarked t h a t she appeared t o be s e t t i n g  for  each c h i l d  rather  against vhich a l l  than  employing  a  individual norm  or  criteria standard  c h i l d r e n are measured.  I have to think that way because we all know that children are not alike. Let's face it, they're different l i t t l e kids. They d o n ' t all read the same way, they don't all compute the same way in mathematics, they don't all think the same way, they don't all produce artwork in the same way. And they never will. And thank God that they won't I And so hov can you have a c h e c k l i s t and s a y ,  180  in grade 2, tick, tick, tick, X, X, X...Forget itl c h i l d may never get through the grade 2 checklist! To my o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t  such  a  list  is  very  That Ever!  specific,  Pat  replied: Well, sure it i s . B u t who cares? Who am I g o i n g t o s h o v i t t o ? Exactly.  This  i s where s u c h e v a l u a t i o n methods f a l l  accountability paper of of  work  t r a p , as f a r as  i s produced,  is  being  measured,  knowledge o f a p a r t i c u l a r  child.  A  of  much  the  I use  an  piece  of  a  claim  importance  doubt in  care.  into  evidence supporting  however.  be  I  concerned.  I have t o q u e s t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d would  Well, to me, because even anyvay. I'd report card  I'm  tangible  a q u a l i t y a r t program. what  I mean, £ d o n ' t  i f  extending  the my  i t would be a t o t a l c o m p l e t e waste of time if I did it, I ' d n e v e r look at it again certainly wouldn't use it as the basis for a mark.  q u e s t i o n e d P a t a s t o how s h e a r r i v e s a t a r e p o r t  card  mark.  For art? Well, most kids will start off in my class with an "S" for satisfactory, meaning that they're trying hard and they're interested. And by the end of the year, all of them will probably end up with a "6" because I've seen the growth that I was explaining with Shawn - they have really come into their own and a r e enjoying art activities. As well, there a r e several "VG's." I don't start off w i t h h i g h marks in art because I like to see what happens to the children. I like to see this business of growth. That's really what I'm reaching for. I  pulled  a  bell  her l e g a l i t t l e curve.  guidelines, the  by a s k i n g how s h e j u s t i f i e s  According  only five  to  our  district's  percent of a c l a s s  group  that  on  evaluation  should  attain  top grade. (Mock s t e r n e s s ) Who's this Mr. Bell and his curve anyway. Dale? You know that Mr. Bell and I have never met, ( L a u g h s ) I'm probably going to get into trouble if you publish this, you know!  Pat  l a u g h e d a t h e r " s u b v e r s i v e " comments, b u t a t t h e same  time  181  she  was v e r y much aware of how d i s t r i c t e v a l u a t i o n  interfere reading,  procedures  with rhythms between teacher and c h i l d . f o r example, we are  checklists.  The  inundated with  influence  movement of the 1970s,  of  the  devices  behavioural  founded on the b e l i e f  learning  activity  could  be  measured,  is s t i l l  strongly  subdivided felt.  In math and  An  such  objectives  t h a t every s i n g l e  and  atomized  increasingly  and  complex  breakdown of the elements of an experience may ensure t h a t essence of the whole experience i s That's exactly right. the business of whole  break  the whole  into  little  antithesis anything:  of to  t i n y fragments that are  meaningless i n l o t s of ways. In most ways, for me. rather take a look at the whole package. You know, reminds me of something...  Pat t o l d me  of  a  friend's  six  the  lost.  That's the complete learning, of whole  thing  as  month  p r e p a r a t i o n p r i o r to a European t r i p .  period His  of  efforts  I'd this  detailed were  in  marked c o n t r a s t t o her l a c k of p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y . ...and I experience  interesting,  said, I'm going to go and it. Then, if I find something  I will  pursue i t  after  I  get  I'm going to that's really  home.  If  I  want to read about the Parthenon or whatever, I will read about it later. But I want to go and j u s t get a f e e l f o r  t h i n g s , j u s t be t h e r e .  I d o n ' t want to read  ten  thousand  books before I go. You see, that's not the way I think. Now, t h a t reminded me of what we were just talking about, of breaking things down into little bits, but really what's important is the whole thing. To me, in education, that's really true. Over the years I've seen it become more and more and more specific. We're expected to break it down a l i t t l e f a r t h e r , break it down  a l i t t l e f a r t h e r , break it down a l i t t l e farther. b e f o r e you know i t , t h e r e ' s j u s t n o t h i n g t h e r e . It's little  I  thought  moments. Winter  tiny  about  pieces.  Pat's  Dust.  Blow  capitalizing  it away.  on  opportune  learning  Some of the t h i n g s I saw happening i n the l e s s o n Fun  were  not  specified  And all  beforehand  behavioural objectives for t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  as  lesson.  on  detailed  182  Veil, what I try to do i s i n c o r p o r a t e the s e t t i n g as much as I can i n t o the artwork they d o . For instance, I was trying to show that little girl yesterday about the horizon line. Pat was a b l e t o take her t o the window  and  say  look,  right  here... Find out for yourself. You cannot tell a person anything, really. They have to experience It themselves before the understanding is there. And it's so easy working in that setting, to either go outside or just simply look out the window. In a l l  lessons  evaluate the  I  o b s e r v e d , Pat made a p o i n t  the nature  of the p r o c e s s they e x p e r i e n c e d as w e l l as  product r e s u l t i n g  t h i s a s p e c t of  of having c h i l d r e n  from i t .  I asked her  to  elaborate  on  self-evaluation.  Oh, I think It's especially Important after an art lesson that children get a chance to explain how they felt about things. I remember t h a t p o t a t o p r i n t m a k i n g e p i s o d e . For one thing. It was just too difficult for them. I think it's important for them to have the opportunity to say that. Not just to me, but to their friends, to let themselves know, hey, I wasn't the only one who felt this way about it. I'm not really stupid just because I d i d n ' t l i k e t h i s , or because I couldn't do it. These other kids felt the same way about i t as I d i d . They get a chance to check their perceptions. That's the reason I do that sort of thing with them. Self-evaluation Is far more Important than having me tell them, hey, that's not so good. They know when it's not so good. They don't really need me t o t e l l them t h a t . Did  exercising their  meaningful  own judgement  involvement  give c h i l d r e n  i n the e d u c a t i o n a l  a  sense  of  process?  Hopefully. I think i t h e l p s them t o realize that It's not, OK, Mrs. Vittery said, we're going to draw such and such, so, there, I did it. OK, she's happy or she's not happy, one or the other. There's more to it than the just the a c t u a l drawing. Let's expand on it, as I always say. Well, How'd you feel about that? Did you feel comfortable about it? Did you like it? Didn't you like It? So that it becomes a bigger, fatter, chubbier package. It's not j u s t a flat drawing. An important part of teaching is to try and have children build an awareness that there is a reason to everything they do and t h a t t h e y ' r e not there i n school just to be kept busy.  183  I was reminded of E f l a n d ' s c r i t i c i s m of functions. important  Pat's for  particular  words  children  activity  echoed to  his  realize  school thoughts  they  are  j u s t t o please an a u t h o r i t y  art's  latent  that not  it  is  doing  a  figure.  Exactly. There's questions to be raised and answered like that. Sometimes I feel it's really hard to get into that philosophical kind of a mindset with little children. Yet i t ' s amazing, once you s t a r t building on things, how perceptive they are. Very often we don't give them the chance to talk about it, to try and conceptualize some of these theoretical ideas.  From my d i s c u s s i o n s with Pat I  thought  it  likely  that  she  " p r a c t i s e s what she p r e a c h e s , " a p p l y i n g s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n to her p r a c t i c e of t e a c h i n g . Ohhhhh...well, I'm very c r i t i c a l of myself. Most of the time I don't think I do a good job. I have this perfectionist thing in me that I don't suppose I'll ever shake. It's pretty hard to l i v e as a perfectionist; you have to have a l i t t l e feedback. I know at times in my life, I have felt that this is it. (Laughs) I'm nothing, I'm worthless, so on, so forth. Anyway, I am very self-critical. And because of that, I'm always striving to improve whatever it i s that I'm doing. I find that I self-check a l l day. If something i s n ' t going the way I think it should, then the first thing I do i s take a look at myself. Check the calendar the week before my period I do tend to get a little "bitchy"! And adjust accordingly. That doesn't always work, e i t h e r , you know. Sometimes it i s n ' t me, there's an outside influence. A kid that's off the track that day. Or a couple of them. Or whatever. But I always look at myself first. Did I forget something here? Why don't they understand what I'm talking about? Did I explain this carefully?  In both  her  classroom  important t o P a t .  and her  What was her  home  opinion  life, of  the their  arts value  are to  parents? the grade 1 and 2 l e v e l , i t ' s been my e x p e r i e n c e that parents m o s t l y have two concerns: How is he doing in  At  reading? And, How i s he doing in math? They're not so much concerned whether the child is able to write a story in an interesting, imaginative way. Or whether the child is producing i n t e r e s t i n g artwork. Or whether the c h i l d i s a b l e t o carry a tune and enjoys singing a song. Or  184  whether a c h i l d is a t h l e t i c a l l y capable in the gym. They r e a l l y only want to know about r e a d i n g and math. That's what I have found. However, I t e l l them about everything else, anyway1 A l o t of parents are r e a l l y nervous about coming to school, to meet the teacher. Very, very uptight. 1 guess a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r own experiences of school being a negative place for them, perhaps? At f i r s t you have to sort of feel them out, try and make them feel comfortable. Eventually, maybe by the second or t h i r d time that you see the parents, they're willing to t a l k to you. They say, you know, school was not a good place for me, I hated school, but I sure hope that Janey doesn't hate it the way I did. I continually  wonder about  coming through the  school  the  children  system.  d i f f e r e n t t o make t h e i r experiences they s t i l l  going to come out  with the  Are more kind  who  are  currently  we  doing  anything  positive? of  Or  attitude  are that  t h e i r parents have? Some of the parents have always said that t h e i r kids like coming to school. I can't remember ever having anyone who did not l i k e coming to school. And that to me was a measure of s u c c e s s . As l o n g as a c h i l d l i k e s to come to my classroom, then I can teach that c h i l d something. I can't teach the c h i l d if the c h i l d is forced to come, pushed through the door. F o r g e t i t i But as long as he l i k e s coming to school, then I f i g u r e , OK, that's good. Perhaps t h a t  i s a better  t e s t of what  is  worthwhile  than  a  checklist i That's usually the only feedback from parents I get. You get v e r y l i t t l e , I f i n d , as a teacher. Very little feedback. Very l i t t l e in the way of positive strokes. Sometimes, if you're lucky, you'll get it from your administration. I t ' s not as common as it should be. Pat  had  formed o p i n i o n s of the  drama, and  the  v i s u a l a r t s - to  importance of the a r t s - music, administrators.  I think I've probably been very fortunate. I've always worked with administrators who, if not t o t a l l y committed to the a r t s , a t l e a s t understand that the arts have a b e n e f i t to the c u r r i c u l u m . I've never worked with anyone who is t o t a l l y against creative endeavour. I've worked with people who are " i f f y " about i t , who t o l e r a t e i t , but then I have had the extreme f o r t u n e to have worked with people who are involved in the a r t s and v e r y a p p r e c i a t i v e of any e f f o r t s t h e i r teachers make i n that regard. And  185  they'll just praise you to the hilt for work that's on display, or work that they see around your classroom, or that the children are taking home, or whatever. I do t h i n k , though, as a whole, the administration does not always give enough weight to the importance of the arts. And I suppose it's just the old story, like what the  parents are interested in. How's the kid d o i n g r e a d i n g and math? The p r i n c i p a l s have to answer d i s t r i c t s t a f f about t e s t scores. We're a l l r e q u i r e d do the  In l i g h t with  CTBS.  of P a t ' s comments, which  parents  and  mirror  administrators,  I  my  own  experience  wonder  p o s s i b i l i t y of e d u c a t i o n through the a r t s  about  i n which  the  the  focus  of a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l i n g i s on v i s u a l a r t s , drama, and music primary l e a r n i n g v e h i c l e s .  I have never seen a n y t h i n g  c l o s e to a b a l a n c e , l e t alone an emphasis i n Had she seen i t Not  in to to  the  as  coming  fine  arts.  anywhere i n her experience?  It sounds  like  it  would be great fun to t r y  it,  but  I w o u l d n ' t say it came anywhere near to being balanced. Unfortunately. The closest I've come is in what I try to do in my own classroom in terms of integrating all the subjects and trying to make sure that there is an equal weighting. But there isn't really. Language arts still  takes over. And I've managed to push math down the s c a l e a l i t t l e bit. (Laughs) R e f l e c t i o n s on e v a l u a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s The nature of a work open-ended.  a  In c r e a t i n g a r t ,  to combine elements" i s art,  one must  perceived,  art  is  dynamic,  The a r t s are n o n - p r e s c r i p t i v e ;  one " r i g h t " answer t o artist.  of  look  or  there  problem  is  perceived  never by  "an i n v i t a t i o n to invent novel always  deeply,  returning  understanding.  task  interactive,  extended.  seeking  for  to  In  2  Ambiguity i s ever present i n t h i s  E d u c a t i o n through the a r t s c h i l d r e n t o become comfortable  offers with  the  ways  experiencing  interpret  re-interpretation  to  what  is  extend  interaction.  opportunity  ambiguity.  an  The  for  larger  186  educational p i c t u r e ,  of which a r t s e d u c a t i o n  is  p u r p o r t e d l y aims t o develop s k i l l s t h a t w i l l to cope  with  the  situations.  Current  (language a r t s , educational  greater  ambiguity  B.C.  of  espousing  the  element,  enable  children  complex  elementary  real-life  curriculum  social studies, science,  rhetoric  an  fine  need  guides  arts)  for  contain  children  to  acquire higher order c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s (decision-making, problem s o l v i n g , i n q u i r y l e a r n i n g ) and p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s k i l l s (communication s k i l l s , a b i l i t y to work i n g r o u p s ) 3  Flexibility ambiguity,  and c r e a t i v i t y , are e n t a i l e d  desirable  qualities  i n these types of  in  skill  development.  The f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m , i t s body c l o t h e d i n the of f l e x i b i l i t y  and c r e a t i v i t y ,  modern e d u c a t i o n a l t h e a t r e . under  its  guise  d i r e c t i o n present  of  fine  Why i s i t  that  open-endedness,  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  h i s t o r i c a l l y has been "our i n a b i l i t y  rooted  as a p o s i t i v e  fabric  should be a lead a c t o r  the  I  in  sense,  same  the then,  controlled  educational productions?  Michael Apple b e l i e v e s t h a t a major problem i n  to see i t  handling  to d e a l  characteristic."  4  with This  education ambiguity, problem  is  in  a fundamental e t h i c t h a t a l l important modes of human a c t i o n can be known i n advance by educators and s o c i a l scientists; t h a t c e r t a i n t y among people is of primary import; a n d , u n d e r l y i n g a l l of t h e s e , t h a t the primary a s p e c t s of thought and sentiment of students should be brought under i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c o n t r o l . E d u c a t o r s , attempting t o reduce objectively outcomes, education. there  measurable, have  adopted  In t h i s mode of is  a  complex  understandings  behaviourally-defined a  process-product  into  learning  approach  to  thinking,  definition  of  a  program's  educational  187  objectives (preferably i n measurable terms); proper e x p e r i e n c e s are developed and organized to bring the student from p o i n t A to point B (from not meeting o b j e c t i v e s to meeting them); e v a l u a t i o n occurs a l o n g the way and at the completion, comparing r e s u l t s . . . t o the d i s c r e p a n c y between g o a l s and performance; and this d i s c r e p a n c y g i v e s feedback to make the system function more smoothly and e f f i c i e n t l y . The new f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w s t h i s As the German p h i l o s o p h e r there  are  pitfalls  in  a  format.  Heidegger  model  explains,  emphasizing  a  however, means/ends  approach: U s u a l l y we take p r o d u c t i o n to be an a c t i v i t y whose performance has a r e s u l t , the f i n i s h e d s t r u c t u r e , as its consequence. It i s p o s s i b l e to conceive of making in that way; we thereby grasp something which is correct, and yet never touch i t s e s s e n c e , which i s a producing t h a t b r i n g s something f o r t h . ' On a d a i l y b a s i s , Pat and I and other elementary our d i s t r i c t are c o n s t a n t l y p r e s s u r e d to technicians rather artist/teachers.  than  actively  timetables,  as  educational  encouraged  to  respond  our  to  conform  intuitive  to  a t t e n d to the minute, arithmetic,  checklists,  often t r i v i a l ,  and other  school  subjects,  share p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n t i a l  narratives  reflective  dialogue  children  frustrating  existence.  On  the  scope  with  and  sequence  the  by is  c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , each l e a r n i n g outcome  lost.  Learning in a r t  the  of  to  relaxed,  This  is  in  very  is oversimplified,  to  reading,  sub-divided  b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s , g r a d u a l l y sequenced from to more complex.  of  provided is  tests  opportunity  means  chart  of  When we are  and  components  as  rigidly  sense  rhythmic dynamics of our classrooms i s d e s t r o y e d . f o r c e d to use numerous workbooks,  in  act  When we are f o r c e d  compartmentalized  teachers  a  this into simple  however,  188  vhen o u t l i n e d of  i n t h i s vay.  Robert Stake, speaking on the  use  such o b j e c t i v e s i n a l l areas of e d u c a t i o n , says the h i e r a r c h y i s a f i c t i o n , perhaps f o r e v e r y t h i n g except long d i v i s i o n . Everyone l e a r n s complex learnings from b i r t h t o death...without atomized p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l .  Arthur E f l a n d muses on what a c u r r i c u l u m would look  like  "if  as w e l l as the c o g n i t i v e elements."  He  g r a d u a l increments i n the l e v e l of c o m p l e x i t y have a of r e d u c i n g the element of s u r p r i s e , novelty, puzzlement, leaving these variables only to encountered a t the l a t e r stages of the sequence.  way and be  a f f e c t were sequenced mentions  that  "Surprise, novelty, essence of a r t ?  and  puzzlement"  -  are  not  Pat's c h i l d r e n experience these  they e x p l o r e t h e i r p a i n t boxes.  Pat notes t h a t  c h i l d r e n are p e r c e p t i v e i n d e a l i n g with complex o f t e n we don't g i v e them the chance and c o n c e p t u a l i z e some  of  to t a l k about  these...theoretical  comment supports the statements by Stake and  these  the  elements her  grade  issues it,  as 1  "Very to  ideas."  try Her  Efland.  Often, what i s m i s s i n g from e v a l u a t i o n c h e c k l i s t s are the most v i t a l a s p e c t s of the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  Interest  enthusiasm,  f o r example, are not l i s t e d on the sample grade  checklist.  I f these two q u a l i t i e s are m i s s i n g ,  outcomes of meaning.  the  five  curricular  goals  i s not always apparent, and  the s h o r t term.  E f l a n d observes t h a t  hence "most  2  learning  have  There i s a long-range a s p e c t t o these two  however, which in  other  the  and  little  qualities, measurable,  art  teachers  would r e j e c t . . . e v a l u a t i o n attempts" such as the ones suggested by the g u i d e / r e s o u r c e book not because they are a g a i n s t behaviour objectives, but because these behaviours, per se, are not what they hold to be most c e n t r a l to t h e i r teaching. Most t e a c h e r s  189  would c l a i m i t ' s the development of a r t i s t i c v i s i o n or the a c q u i s i t i o n of a r t i s t i c values and a t t i t u d e s that l i e s a t the heart of t h e i r m i s s i o n . 1 0  Both Pat and I would concur with h i s statement, from p e r s o n a l  f o r we  experience that " a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s ,  take time t o develop, and sometimes a f t e r a c t u a l teaching  ceases."  come  to  and  know tastes  fruition  years  1 1  James Popham i s of the b e l i e f  that  the overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s pursued by our teachers a r e unmeasurable, hence o f l i t t l e utility [my italics]. I t may w e l l be t h a t the c h i e f d e t e r r e n t t o improved e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i t y i s t h a t our teachers have no way of t e l l i n g how w e l l they're d o i n g . Measurable goals permit d e f e n s i b l e q u a l i t y judgements. Non-measurable goals d o n ' t . 1 2  As an a r t i s t / t e a c h e r Pat i s i n a  position  encourage  little  quality.  administrative she  Despite  or p a r e n t a l  in  the  way that  and of what  C l o s e l y attuned t o her c h i l d r e n ' s  classroom,  she  can  ascertain  a c t i o n s and comments i f they a r e e n j o y i n g , their  recognize  feedback, she can sense  i s doing i s worthwhile.  being w i t h i n her  to  from  their  and l e a r n i n g  from,  experiences. " E v a l u a t i o n " says Michael Apple, " a c t u a l l y  p l a c i n g o f value on a s p e c i f i c Popham*s  use  technological world view. place value  of  the  term  orientation Educational  s e t of utility  within  a  acts  connotes  or  clearly  objects."  reveals  traditional  p r a c t i c e s grounded  in  1 4  1 3  his  scientific  this  outlook  on e f f i c i e n c y - the a b i l i t y t o get a student  p o i n t A t o p o i n t B q u i c k l y and i n e x p e n s i v e l y . "  the  If i t  from falls  i n t o the " a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t r a p , " d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d a r t education may come t o view e f f i c i e n c y as i t s primary value as w e l l . According  to  John  Dewey,  the  main  purpose  of  the  190  traditional  e d u c a t i o n system i s  to prepare the young f o r f u t u r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and for success i n l i f e by means of a c q u i s i t i o n of the organized bodies of information and prepared forms of skills....Since the subject-matter as w e l l as the standards of proper conduct are handed down from the p a s t , the a t t i t u d e of p u p i l s must, upon the v h o l e , be one of d o c i l i t y , r e c e p t i v i t y , and o b e d i e n c e . 5  E f f i c i e n t u t i l i t y makes sense v i t h i n such a system. observations  of  Dewey's 1932  assessment  today.  children's  Therefore,  different  I  direction,  obedience,  towards  experiences  is  unfortunately  find away  within  Pat's from  docility,  responsible  activity  my  still  attempts  From  to  school,  applicable move  in  receptivity, and  Fun l e s s o n ,  and  for example, she  with. accepts  a c h i l d ' s o p i n i o n on the measuring and comparing a c t i v i t y a smile and the  comment,  "Not  approach i s c o n s i s t e n t with that r e a l i t y  is f l u i d ,  a  thrilled,  perspective  constantly  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c r e a t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e s  too  are the  paradigm  made me more s e n s i t i v e to the n o t i o n of rhythm, the  overall stable, artist/teacher  establish order.  continuously  c r e a t e s i n her work of a r t ,  system.  q u a l i t i e s and the  methods  idea  which  that  the  which  as are  traditional value  "uniqueness of the human c o n d i t i o n "  be more attuned to the dynamics of classroom  yet  Pat  her c l a s s r o o m ,  u t i l i t y valued by  Evaluation  have  fluctuating,  The harmonious rhythms  d i s r u p t e d by the e f f i c i e n t education  a  skills  it.  My r e a d i n g s on the new s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c  flowing patterns  emphasizes  Self-awareness  and f l e x i b i l i t y  needed to f u n c t i o n w i t h i n  with Pat's  huh?"  which  changing.  a  reflective  s e l f - c r i t i c i s m i n marked c o n t r a s t to what I am f a m i l i a r At the end of the Winter  my  human 1 6  situations.  would To  191  t h i s end, e v a l u a t i o n i n a r t e d u c a t i o n might be  based  on  the  pedagogical c r i t i c i s m d e s c r i b e d by Edmund Burke Feldman: The important task of the teacher of a r t . . . i s the s e n s i t i v e a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a student's work to the student. From t h i s c r i t i c i s m , the student learns hov t o analyze and i n t e r p r e t and gains i n s i g h t into the d i r e c t i o n of h i s ovn work....[The teacher] not so much renders judgements upon student work as enables them t o make judgements t h e m s e l v e s . ' 1  Feldman's  stages  of  art  criticism  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and  judgement -  evaluation section  of  the  i n t e r a c t i o n betveen as a  focus  for  dialogue, a c h i l d  provide  nev  emphasized i s h i s b e l i e f t h a t  -  fine  description,  the arts  evaluation  basis  for  the  curriculum.  Not  becomes  a  dynamic  teacher and student v i t h the c h i l d ' s  dialogue  betveen  becomes  formal q u a l i t i e s of a r t ;  the  familiar from  it,  tvo.  vith  she  Through  the  vill  gain  expression  understanding  I am  and  impressed  greater by  l i m i t e d by  time  Pat's It  is  i n t e g r a t e d approach.  In my s p e c i a l i s t p o s i t i o n , veek, I am  and  confidence  e f f o r t tovards t h i s mutual d i a l o g u e v i t h her c h i l d r e n . c o n s i s t e n t v i t h her h o l i s t i c ,  this  elements  and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n her ovn a r t i s t i c of the vork of o t h e r s .  vork  and  visiting  classrooms  numbers  once  (approximately  a 180  c h i l d r e n i n t o t a l ) t o o c c a s i o n a l comments on vork  i n progress;  there i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r conferences  can  in vhich I  v i t h an i n d i v i d u a l an o v e r v i e v of h i s / h e r s e r i o u s shortcoming. have  used  primarily  Of n e c e s s i t y , the measures  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n to the process v h i c h t o me each time  i s more important.  I feel  I a s s i g n a l e t t e r grade f o r  vork.  This  evaluation product, of my  discuss is  a  method  I  but  little  individual  grovth,  integrity  suffers  report  card  purposes.  192  This practice  is  inconsistent time  value  statistical  measurements, as the s c i e n c e a c t i v i t y in  place  I  There  involved  and  what  education.  c h i l d r e n were  isa  with  for checklists  illustrates.  In  that  measuring one  Comparing  figures  a  personal  growth  i s appropriate  in  Pat's  different  toes and noses, but inadequate and unnecessary  i s promoting  and  c o n t r a s t , the  a r t i s t i c c r i t i c i s m they were engaged i n r e q u i r e d type of e v a l u a t i o n .  in art  critical  when when  artistic  thinking. P u t t i n g the r h e t o r i c  about  a s i d e , academic achievement i n of and  personal/social  l i n g u i s t i c / m a t h e m a t i c a l modes  thought and e x p r e s s i o n remains administrators.  subjects. district  Parent  Administrative  development  the prime concern of parents  interviews  promotion  centre  sheets  on  used  a t the end of the year a l s o focus on these  On these s h e e t s , beside each c h i l d ' s  name,  are  these in  our  subjects.  three  major  columns - one f o r CTBS (Canadian T e s t of B a s i c S k i l l s ) s c o r e s ; one f o r r e a d i n g achievement  (based  on  the  r e a d i n g program), and one f o r mathematical  Ginn  for  these s u b j e c t s i s another language  arts/math,  basal  achievement.  The a l l o c a t i o n of time, both the "when and to  720  how  much,"  18  i n d i c a t o r of value - 1005 minutes  180 minutes f o r the f i n e a r t s ;  first  t h i n g i n the morning versus l a s t t h i n g i n the a f t e r n o o n . D e c i s i o n s . . . a b o u t the use of time...not o n l y a f f e c t the student's access t o p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e n t , they a l s o convey to the students what i s regarded as important and what i s not. 1 9  An a d d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r , and an extremely important one i n our society,  i s the amount of money a l l o c a t e d t o each a r e a .  innovative  efforts  have  suffered  from  the  lack  of  "Many high  193  quality,  practical,  usable  mentions hov d i f f i c u l t art my  resources."'"  i t i s to implement  aspect of the c u r r i c u l u m due s c h o o l , the  $7600;  library/language  textbooks,  provided  v h i c h run  f o r i n a separate  vas $1400;  one  fund.  on  valued  time and  balanced  my  school  arts  operating  The  of  also?  vas  dollars,  are  money ($200) a f t e r  Rational  to  vas  thinking  become  is  esteemed,  rational  W i l l t h i s lead tovards  to  a  more  tvo  buzz  curriculum?  " E f f e c t i v e n e s s " and  "accountability"  vords c u r r e n t l y on educators'  are  are being a c h i e v e d .  the  tongues as they respond  p u b l i c ' s demand to prove t h a t the g o a l s of Systematic  quality  instruction  and  e v a l u a t i o n o f f e r proof t h a t the s e r i o u s business i s not being conducted i n a As E i s n e r p o i n t s  In  budget  money, a l s o h i g h l y have  to  o p e r a t i n g budget f o r a r t  part.  Does a r t education resources  responding  to inadequate r e s o u r c e s .  v i t h "hot dog"  four years of l o b b y i n g  r e c e i v e these  frequently  the textbook of v i s u a l a r t s ,  f i n a l l y purchased by the PTA  back i t up.  the  i n t o thousands  picture set,  i n our s o c i e t y ;  Pat  haphazard,  to  the  education systematic  of  spendthrift  education fashion.  out:  The r e d u c t i o n of ambiguity and the s e c u r i t y of knoving that one can a l v a y s knov vhen one i s r i g h t or vrong i s a seductive comfort in a vorld characterized by a m b i g u i t i e s , t r a d e - o f f s , and d i l e m m a s t 21  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a r t has been p e r c e i v e d as According  a  "frill"  subject.  to the d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d approach e n t a i l e d i n the  f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m , a r t must be made as "accountable" other academic d i s c i p l i n e s ,  i f t h i s stigma i s to  be  can  be  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y measured)  receive  the  removed.  T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t the c o n t r o l l e d c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s (vhich  as  nev  of a r t greater  194  emphasis  than  cannot).  Based on our experience i n other  and  the  more  open-ended  I fear t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  adherence to scope "evidence," t h a t we  and  education f a b l e , The  w i l l now  sequence  (which  s u b j e c t areas,  and  the  job i n a r t e d u c a t i o n .  We in  Pat close  paperwork  t e s t s , which w i l l  might become l i k e the c r o c o d i l e Crocodile  ones  expect the same  charts  i . e . the c h e c k l i s t s and  are doing our  affective  "prove"  sense t h a t a r t Arnold  Lobel's  i n the Bedroom:  A C r o c o d i l e became i n c r e a s i n g l y fond of the wallpaper in h i s bedroom. He s t a r e d at i t f o r hours and hours. "Just look a t a l l those neat and tidy rows of flowers and l e a v e s , " s a i d the C r o c o d i l e . "They are like soldiers. There i s not a s i n g l e one that i s out of place." "My dear," s a i d the Crocodile's wife, "you are spending too much time i n bed. Come out i n t o my garden where the a i r i s f r e s h and the sun i s b r i g h t and warm." "Well, i f you i n s i s t , f o r j u s t a few minutes," s a i d the C r o c o d i l e . He put on a p a i r of dark glasses to p r o t e c t h i s eyes from the g l a r e and went o u t s i d e . Mrs. C r o c o d i l e was proud of her garden. "Look a t the hollyhocks and the marigolds," she said. "Smell the roses and the l i l i e s of the v a l l e y . " "Great heavens!" c r i e d the C r o c o d i l e . "The flowers and leaves i n t h i s garden are growing in a terrible tangle! They are a l l s c a t t e r e d ! They are messy and entwined!" The C r o c o d i l e rushed back to h i s bedroom i n a state of great d i s t r e s s . He was a t once comforted by the s i g h t of h i s w a l l p a p e r . "Ah," s a i d the C r o c o d i l e . "Here i s a garden t h a t i s ever so much b e t t e r . How happy and secure these flowers make me f e e l ! " A f t e r t h a t the C r o c o d i l e seldom l e f t h i s bed. He l a y t h e r e , s m i l i n g a t the w a l l s . He turned a very pale and s i c k l y shade of g r e e n . 2 2  The  unique q u a l i t i e s of a r t ,  u n c e r t a i n t y , may the  fine  arts  be  lost.  curriculum  its  essence  of  ambiguity  Hence, our s t r o n g r e a c t i o n guide/resource  book's  and  against  evaluation  suggestions. Viewed under dim fine  i l l u s i o n t h a t new  l i g h t i n g , t h i s new  curriculum  scientific/artistic  creates  concepts  are  a on  195  stage.  But  traditional system  when  the  thinking  i s revealed.  practising? one which  lights  that  are  presently  Which  script  turned  up,  imbalances are  the the  art  same entire  educators  That d i c t a t e d by the o l d s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n o l o g y or  i s individually  c r a f t e d f o r each performer?  196  Notes  Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book 1985 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: M i n i s t r y of Education, C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, 1985), p. 23. 1  E l l i o t E i s n e r , C o g n i t i o n and Curriculum Longman, 1982), p. 64. 2  ( New York:  Michael F u l l a n , The Meaning of Edwcational Change (Toronto: OISE, 1982), p. 116. 3  Michael Apple, " S c i e n t i f i c I n t e r e s t s and the Nature of E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , " i n Curriculum T h e o r i z i n g : the R e c o n c e p t u a l i s t s . ed. W i l l i a m P i n a r (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1975), p. 127. 4  5  Apple, " S c i e n t i f i c I n t e r e s t s , " p. 120.  Michael Apple, "The Process and Ideology of V a l u i n g i n E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g s , " i n E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n : A n a l y s i s and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , eds. M. W. Apple, M. J . Subkoviak, and H. S. L u f t e r , J r . (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974), p. 9. 6  M a r t i n Heidegger, Poetry, language, Thought, t r a n s . A l b e r t H o f s t a d t e r (New York: Harper and Row, Harper Colophon Book, 1975), p. 159. 7  Robert Stake, "The Teacher At the Front of the Room," (Paper i n response t o p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t the Conference on Teacher Shortage i n Science and Mathematics: Myths, R e a l i t i e s , and Research, Washington, D . C , 9-10 February 1983), p. 3. 8  Arthur E f l a n d , "Changing Conceptions of Human Development and I t s Role i n Teaching the V i s u a l A r t s , " V i s u a l A r t s Research 11, no. 1, i s s u e 21 (1985): 118-119. 9  Arthur E f l a n d , " E v a l u a t i n g Goals f o r A r t E d u c a t i o n , " A r t Education 27, no. 2 (1974): 8. 1 0  1 1  E f l a n d , " E v a l u a t i n g Goals,"  p. 8.  197  James Popham, "Must A l l E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s Be B e h a v i o u r a l ? , " E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p 29, no. 7 (1972) r e p r i n t e d i n Beyond the Numbers Game, eds. David Hamilton e t a l . ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan, 1977), p. 58. 1 2  1 3  Apple, "The Process and Ideology of V a l u i n g , " p.  8.  1 4  Apple, "The Process and Ideology of V a l u i n g , " p.  8.  John Dewey, Experience and E d u c a t i o n (New Macmillan, C o l l i e r Book, 1963), p. 18. 1  5  York:  1 6  Apple, "The Process and Ideology of V a l u i n g , " p.  1 7  Edmund Feldman, V a r i e t i e s of V i s u a l E x p e r i e n c e . 2d. York: Harry N. Abrams, 1981), p. 460.  ed. (New  18 E i s n e r , p.  28.  1 9  E i s n e r , p.  28.  2 0  F u l l a n , p.  62.  2 1  E i s n e r , p.  12.  8.  A r n o l d L o b e l , "The C r o c o d i l e i n the Bedroom," i n F a b l e s (New York: Harper and Row, 1980), p. 2. R e p r i n t e d by kind p e r m i s s i o n of the p u b l i s h e r . 2 2  198  CHAPTER VI V a l e n t i n e ' s Day  I d i d this onei: "I love you l i t t l e , I love you l o t s , My love f o r you would f i l l t e n p o t s . F i f t e e n buckets, s i x t e e n cans, Seventeen t e a - k e t t l e s and eighteen pans." And  you've got a pan.'  It's  a p i z z a and i t says  "You have a p i z z a my h e a r t i "  Laughter. And  t h a t ' s the chef.  "Pizza Yes.  my heart 1"  Ooohhh,  And t h i s i s called  that's  a good pun, i s n ' t i t ?  "Hearts":  "Red h e a r t s , pink h e a r t s , Purple and b l u e . Chocolate h e a r t s , cookie h e a r t s , Paper h e a r t s , t o o . " Hearts a r e on the menu before V a l e n t i n e ' s Day. poems  from  laminated  for this  Friday  The c h i l d r e n cards  into  are  their  i l l u s t r a t i n g them with d e c o r a t i v e borders.  afternoon, copying  a  valentine  printing There  week  books, are  many  v o l u n t e e r s eager t o read the poems i n t o my tape r e c o r d e r .  Pat  c a l l s the c h i l d r e n t o the long a r t t a b l e a t the  back  room t o demonstrate " o l d - f a s h i o n e d " v a l e n t i n e making. t a b l e a r e neat p i l e s of pink, white,  and  red  tissue  l a r g e paper d o i l i e s , t i n y f l o r a l and p a s t e l wallpaper b i t s of c o l o u r e d  of the On  the  paper, samples,  ribbon.  Boys and g i r l s , I'd l i k e you t o come back and make a big c i r c l e around the art table so you can watch me. Would  199  you a l l stand back from the t a b l e please? Stand right back. A l l r i g h t , t h i s afternoon, we're going to s t a r t u s i n g our v a l e n t i n e m a t e r i a l s that we've been c o l l e c t i n g . Yesterday, some of the g i r l s went through the wallpaper books and took out some p r e t t y papers. When we went through the wallpaper book, Jessie, what were we looking for? We were looking for pages that had valentine them. Like pink, and white, and red. colours.  F i g u r e 33  colours on And silvery  Suggestions For V a l e n t i n e s  They found l o t s of p r e t t y ones. When i t ' s your turn, you'll be able to come and choose a p r e t t y paper if you would l i k e to use one to make a valentine. But first, l e t ' s have a look at how one lady made a p r e t t y v a l e n t i n e card. There's some card tracers. And there's red paper, one for everyone. Because remember what I told you, t h i s is it, out of paper. Pat and I look a t each other  and  smile.  In  February, a r t  s u p p l i e s a r e running low. These p r e t t y lacy things are called r e a l l y funny; they s t i c k together. They're  like  glue.  doilies.  They're  200  They've been punched out on b i g machines. And so you have t o p u l l them apart g e n t l y . There's one o f these f o r everyone. The  c h i l d r e n watch i n q u i e t  f a s c i n a t i o n as she s e p a r a t e s a few  d o i l i e s from the p i l e . They're  snovflakes!  I've c u t some l i t t l e b i t s pink paper, white paper. use. I t ' s funny, but i f b e t t e r than i f you stand Pat  of crepe paper up. There's OK. There's l o t s of s t u f f to you stand back you can see close.  pauses u n t i l the c h i l d r e n have moved back from the  Their  i n t e r e s t soon has them pressed forward a g a i n , but  i s no pushing or shoving, j u s t r a p t  table. there  attention.  OK. Now we talked the other day about ideas f o r making valentines. The kind I'd l i k e you to try t h i s afternoon is sort of l i k e an old-fashioned lacey kind of valentine. And the way to s t a r t is with one big heart. If you fold the paper in half, you can use one of the tracers to make a big heart. And you have to remember about p u t t i n g the f l a t s i d e of the t r a c e r on the f o l d . Then you can t r a c e around i t . Remember how the heart shape is the beginning of a number two. OK? And so there it i s . You  go  ooom...oooom.  I'm going to make sure I save my scraps big enough for making l i t t l e t i n y hearts. a nice big heart shape.  because they're Now, I've got  Oooohhh! Prettyi Now, I think what I'd l i k e to do is choose a pretty paper and make a smaller heart to glue on top of my big one. What I'm going t o t r y t o do i s t o make a heart shape so that t h i s p r e t t y l i t t l e flower i s r i g h t in the middle of it. So look what I'm going to do. Mrs. V i t t e r y ? Why don't you j u s t f o l d d i d with the other p a r t ?  i t and do what you  Well, OK, I think that's a good idea. Thanks idea. I t ' s not as big as the red one, is i t ? No,  i t ' s not supposed  Oh dear.  It looks  to be.  like  it might  not...  for the  201  A smaller Oh, Her  lucky  second  wallpaper Oh,  one... me! heart  is  just  barely  "squeezed"  out  of  the  scrap. lucky  you!  OK. Thanks to R i c h a r d I have a b o t t l e of glue here. I'm going to put just a squiggle around the edge. very much. A l i t t l e b i t works. Right? And I'm going glue t h i s one r i g h t i n the middle of the b i g one. That looks  And Not to  cute.  As she glues the flowered wallpaper heart onto the l a r g e r  red  one,  her  Pat keeps up the d i a l o g u e with the c h i l d r e n ,  sharing  thoughts: I have t o think. valentine? Put  one  What else  maybe you  Pat holds up a l a c y  this  one.  should  use a smaller  Ohhh... goody, I was  one.  doily.  I can see t h a t t h i s looks  Yeh,  to do with  of those.  Yes, I c o u l d use a lacy I think  would I l i k e  goody!  thinking  really,  I like of that,  A number of other heads nod  really  pretty.  thati tool  i n agreement and Pat  laughs.  Were you r e a d i n g my mind? Yes! She  smiles  at  their  delight  and  gives  compliment. You are so I knew i t . '  clever.' I knew i t i  You're going t o make i t l i k e t h i s .  them  a  teasing  202  Some more s m i l e s and another You're a r e a l c l e v e r  compliment.  bunch!  There are g i g g l e s from a l l the c h i l d r e n  as  they  spread  the  warm remark amongst themselves. W e ' r e so c l e v e r ! Yepi You  Pretty sure  We're such a c l e v e r k i d i  clever!  are!  As she c o n s t r u c t s her v a l e n t i n e , Pat volunteered  by d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n .  i s not the o n l y way  way  you  got a d i f f e r e n t way,  too.  You can have some fun vith Having demonstrated how wallpaper  She  suggestions  reminds them t h a t t h i s  v a l e n t i n e s can be made.  Yep. Now, t h a t ' s one d i s c o v e r a new way. I've  incorporates  can  do  it.  to use the heart t r a c e r s , how  f a s t e n the d o i l y to make a l a c e t r i m , Pat now  begin  tracing,  valentines.  cutting,  and  What i s i t l i k e  Valentine production  from a c h i l d ' s p o i n t  I r e c e i v e permission  boys, three g i r l s ) to leave my midst  adding  of t h e i r  cut  l e t s each his  and child  or  her  go to t h e i r p l a c e s to "goodies"  There i s o n l y a low buzz of  t h i s afternoon.  valentines?  c h i l d r e n immediately  to get a  to  take a l a r g e p i e c e of red c o n s t r u c t i o n paper f o r The  might  those.  flower i n t o the c e n t r e of a h e a r t , how  "basic" heart.  You  sound  to in  their  the  room  i s s e r i o u s business 1  of  view  to  be  from a group  of  five  making  tape recorder on a desk i n  (two the  activity.  I don't knov you choose?  vhich  one  I should  choose.  Which  one  would  203  I'm j u s t going to draw one. Draw a heart. Just kind a heart. We're going to see if t h i s w i l l be a h e a r t . d i d it! This  better  Yeh!  be a heart.  Look at my  I don't  knov  how to make  hearts.  heart.  Well, at l e a s t t h i s one is a real heart. Who wants l i t t l e h e a r t ? Who wants a valentine's exchange?  F i g u r e 34  gradually  a  J e s s i c a , David, S a b r i n a , Jamie, Chad  Someone i s humming snatches of a tune, u n f a m i l i a r humming  of I  increases  in  volume,  until  t o me. one  The child  comments: Sabrina,  do you mind?  At t h i s p o i n t ,  Say "Yes I do".  the humming becomes a song.  (Singing) "Bad, bad, bad, good. " Another c h i l d j o i n s i n . with a q u i e t  They  bad sing  boy...makes together.  humming of the same l i n e .  me And  feel  so  continue  204  I'm g l u e i n g my h e a r t , r i g h t  there.  Where does t h i s go? I've  got l o t s of h e a r t s .  More humming of "Bad, had, had, had boy. good"  Work on the v a l e n t i n e s continues  t o p i c s of c o n v e r s a t i o n cover have a satellite know what?  We  dish got  million  only  a t a steady  feel  so  pace.  The  1  allowances ("I'm broke!...The twenty bucks!...That's  me  VCR s ("I'm g e t t i n g a VCR.  already."), a  Makes  household  dollars,  only  because  or  finances  I work so hard.")  Heart!  ("You  whatever...!"),  type of allowance  Figure 3 5 A Broken  And I  I get  is  205  There i s a r e t u r n to v a l e n t i n e t a l k when Pat grade 1 boy help  The  i s having  (see F i g u r e s  notices  d i f f i c u l t y with the t r a c e r s and says to  him:  He keeps g e t t i n g broken hearts. Your it?. We should have a look at i t .  heart  children  35 and  at  36).  the  group  spontaneously i n c o r p o r a t e He has a broken heart!  36  J e s s i e , I need my not  using  it.  She  pick  up  on  her  a  goes  to  i s broken,  is  phrase  and  i t into their singing.  heart.  Figure  I'm  that  (Sings) Oooohhh,  I got  a  Mending A Broken Heart  glue. You can  use t h i s paper,  you  know.  broken  206  A s l i g h t l y bored, m a t t e r - o f - f a c t v o i c e glue borrowing has you use can Yeh,  reached i t s l i m i t s . you you  Jess.  I'm  going to put  Way  past  t h i s on r i g h t here.  the stage.  children bring  to  Way  use  past  the  their valentines  them up and  explain  to the  it.  glue up  without  Chad, one  of the  hindrance.  to show her,  class  what  Some c h i l d r e n pause to look, others continue projects.  Jessie's  passed the s t a g e , J e s s i e . I'm not going to let any more g l u e . Cause you got past the stage that get your own.  Jessie continues  hold  announces t h a t  Pat  they  has have  with  "group of f i v e , " has  As them done.  their  h i s ready  own to  display. Oh, that's neat, Chadl them. Explain what you  That's did.  really  different.  Show  Like, I took a tracer and then traced one heart. Then I took another, the same tracer and traced the heart. Then I put a bit of scrap on. Then I put that heart there and then I put another heart. I'm going to put one of those, um, pink things on. And at the bottom, there's a heart in which there's going to be some f l u f f y s t u f f . While the  c h i l d r e n work, Pat  i n f o r m a t i o n on v a l e n t i n e  provides  brief  historical  symbols.  A l o n g , l o n g time ago, people f e l l in love with somebody, Cupid's arrow... Oh,  some  used you  to think that if had been shot  you with  yehI  (Laughter) ...an imaginary arrow...  little  ...and i t went through ... i n your h e a r t i  being the  that head.  flew  around  and  shot  an  207  Oh, the  heart!  If you got hit v i t h i t , then you were in love, forever...And sometimes, vhen people make valentines, they shov a heart v i t h a l i t t l e arrov through i t . And  sometimes  they  make a l i t t l e s t i c k ,  And  sometimes  they  make a c u p i d  With Her  an arrov  information  that's  is  gone  like  that.  on the top.  in and out.  assimilated  by  the  "group"  into  their  discussion. I f someone h i t me i n the head, loved. I would be l o v e d .  for  sure,  I  would  be  By whom a r e you i n l o v e with? Avvvh,  I don't  An arrov I knov Did  yet.  that  Adam loves  who i t i s .  in his  nearing  activities slip  Maria?  And i t ' s probably  home into  please.  Thank  and  thoughts  time the  conversation  touches are being added t o v a l e n t i n e s . I have t o go t o Rick?  Rick  I don't  What's  Rick's.  who?  knov.  Does he have Yep!  head!  not me, no more,  Yeh, you dumped me.'  (Whisper) Glue again, is  (giggles)  Adam got an arrov  you knov  Nov I knov I knov.  It  But...  hit Adam i n the head, that!  No way!  knov,  He l i v e s i n the... a son named  I l i k e playing Josh's  vith  Josh? Josh.  l a s t name?  I f o r g e t t h e i r l a s t name, but...  you. of  while  after the  school finishing  208  Does t h e i r truck have a r o o f l i k e t h i s ? house?  That's  sort  of a  And they have a dog. And they have a b i g green house. That's my dad's best f r i e n d , R i c k . They go out and have beers, too. OK, I need j u s t a b i t more. I j u s t need put t h i s one on. That's a l l I need.  one  black,  to  I mention to  Pat  Doing, doing, doing, doing. The  "doing" has been going very w e l l today.  how  absorbed They  they are i n t h i s a c t i v i t y .  love  t h i s k i n d of s t i c k y , gooey s t u f f i  F i g u r e 37  B r i g h t sunshine pours  Shawn and Leah and  i n t o the room and  it  "friend"  is  getting  quite  209  warm.  Pat opens the windows, as  outside.  well  as  the  At few moments l a t e r , Shawn and  g r e e t i n g a canine  door  Carrie  " v i s i t o r " with a f f e c t i o n  (see  leading  are  there,  Figure  37).  There has been l o t s of warmth and  l o t s of a f f e c t i o n shared  t h i s c l a s s today!  "Seventeen  Enough to f i l l  tea-kettles  in and  eighteen pans" and then some!  Currlculum-as-plan In  the  - Being  B.C.  guide/resource  Elementary  book, I was  able  Fine to  Arts  find  only  which might r e l a t e to the nature of a c h i l d ' s the  educational  statement  of  structure.  These  are  curriculum two  comments  "being"  contained  within in  the  philosophy:  "Arts e d u c a t i o n a s s i s t s the c h i l d to p e r c e i v e and to the environment through the senses. L e a r n i n g through the a r t s p r o v i d e s a f u l l e r and enjoyment of l i f e . "  respond  understanding  Curriculum-as-lived Warm f e e l i n g s , sparked  by mutual l i k i n g and r e s p e c t , were  e v i d e n t i n a l l the l e s s o n s I observed they were  especially  radiant  activity.  Viewing  l i s t e n i n g to  and  i n Pat's classroom,  during  this  the  Pat and the c h i l d r e n i n her classroom was experience.  Valentine's  interaction a  very  Day  between  pleasurable  In c o n v e r s a t i o n with Pat, I i n q u i r e d  t h i s closeness i s e s t a b l i s h e d .  but  as  to  how  Pat e x p l a i n e d t h a t i n the  fall  and s p r i n g of each year, she b r i n g s the group on a f i e l d  trip  to  acre  her home a t the 108 Ranch, a s e m i - r u r a l (one and  l o t s ) s u b d i v i s i o n j u s t north of 100 t r i p s serve a double  purpose.  M i l e House.  two  These  field  210  I t ' s such a neat place to observe the seasonal changes. And I think i t ' s a r e a l l y nice way to s t a r t a year off with a class. By going on an outing early, you r e a l l y get to knov your kids, r i g h t avay. You can see the ones that are potential problems, the ones that are potential leaders. You just learn a l o t about them, spending a day l i k e that. And of course they're so i n t r i g u e d about coming t o mx house. You mean, you l i v e in a house? You don't s l e e p i n the school? (Laughs) You have a separate i d e n t i t y avay from school? So that's neat because you get to share that v i t h them. I do spend a l o t of time v i t h them at school, too. I t a l k to them a l o t , at noon hour, for example. I almost always eat my lunch v i t h them. They don't have to s i t at t h e i r desks; they can s i t wherever they want, usually on the carpet. In good veather, we'll s i t o u t s i d e the door on the grass and have p i c n i c s . Lots of things come up in conversations that you wouldn't normally hear or give them a chance to t a l k about. Eating and t a l k i n g go together. I'm not questioning them or anything; I'm just kind of there. I think i t ' s r e a l l y important, too, to be there when they a r r i v e i n the morning. I do go down to the s t a f f room f o r a coffee, of course, and some mornings I'm on duty, but I alvays check in v i t h them and pick up i f there's somebody vho's not r e a l l y f e e l i n g very v e i l , or vho's looking a l i t t l e t e a r f u l . M o s t l y I ' l l look for the upset k i d and j u s t catch it right then and there. I find that if a kid s t a r t s the day in a negative vay, then forget itt They're not going to be able to do very much that day and i t ' s obvious. They're a l l bus children, except a handful. Some of them have problems on the buses, a f i g h t with a f r i e n d , or whatever. So, I check my babies (Laughs), see i f they're a l l r i g h t . I always f e e l l i k e a mother hen, but t h a t ' s p a r t o f me, I am l i k e that. And the other t h i n g I l i k e t o do - i t a l l s o r t of r o l l s together - ve have d a i l y PE classes and I schedule my gym class f i r s t thing in the morning. I find that's a r e a l l y nice vay to s t a r t the day cause if there's anything that's been bothering children or if they're j u s t not f e e l i n g tops about t h i n g s , they work i t out i n the gym. They love gym class and so do I. By the time we're f i n i s h e d i n the gym, the tone i s s e t . They're a l l bubbly, bubbly, bubbly, l e t ' s go! They've worked o f f any f r u s t r a t i o n s that they might have a r r i v e d with. And then we s e t i n t o a g u i e t morning. Believe i t , they are guiet in the morning, even though they're noisy in the afternoons, sometimes 1 (Laughs) I found the mention of the morning been my experience t h a t r e a l l y important that  many  PE  primary  interesting. teachers  the f i r s t p e r i o d of the day  I t has  feel  i t is  has  t o be  211  devoted to reading are most a l e r t . t h i n g i n the  or math because t h i s  Gym  classes  are  often  i s vhen  the  children  scheduled  for  last  afternoon.  (Quietly) Got to be r e a d i n g or math/ I don't believe t h a t . (Laughs) I've found that i t ' s much b e t t e r to do it i n the morning. In an e a r l i e r c o n v e r s a t i o n ,  Pat had  described  a BEAR theme to e s t a b l i s h a c o m f o r t a b l e , v i t h i n the  hov  she  respectful  had  used  attitude  classroom.  I had the grade l's t h i s year. I wanted to try to create a n i c e comfortable f e e l i n g f o r them r i g h t away. The f i r s t week, everyone had at least one teddy bear of t h e i r own at school. It kind of was a nice t r a n s i t i o n , home to school thing. The teddy was there, a familiar toy, comforting. And then, of course, the bear theme took o f f and the bears were the basis for a l l kinds of lessons. I did q u i t e a b i t v i t h the l i t t l e Care Bears' stories. It was kind of a fun way to get into talks about feelings and caring and sharing and how we were going to live in t h i s space which was our classroom. So it was a very natural sort of preamble to the way we were going to behave i n the classroom. We did work on making class rules, which I hate, but are necessary. Sort of setting boundaries is another way of p u t t i n g i t , I guess. They came up ways of behaviour that were acceptable and that everyone could l i v e with. These i n c l u d e d g u i d e l i n e s co-operation property  and  f o r s a f e movement  consideration  rights.  of  From the s t o r y ,  others' Goldilocks  about  the  rights, and  room,  such the  as  Three  Bears came an o f f - s h o o t d i s c u s s i o n of e t h i c s . At the end of the story, I asked them to describe Goldilocks. What kind of a person was she? And so they got into a l i t t l e character analysis. I was hoping that somebody vould say that she really had done something very wrong. And of course, one of them did. Oh, some of them were astounded! They a l l know of Goldilocks, from when they're babies, but they'd never thought of her as being a naughty girl. And so we got into t h i s great long conversation. Pat r e l a t e d hov and  the d i f f e r e n t misdeeds v i t h p o r r i d g e ,  beds vere d i s c u s s e d  i n terms of  a  lack  of  chairs,  respect  for  212  other  people's  previously  property,  which  was  one  of  the  topics  c o n s i d e r e d while e s t a b l i s h i n g c l a s s r u l e s .  we got a l l these big words. I asked what do you call a person who destroys someone else's property? And somebody knew that that was called a vandal. So we decided that G o l d i l o c k s had v a n d a l i z e d the three bears' house. They loved t h a t b i g wordl So, they had t h e i r opinion of G o l d i l o c k s t o t a l l y a l t e r e d by t h i s d i s c u s s i o n about a l l the naughty t h i n g s that she had done. Often, the basics  i n e d u c a t i o n are c o n s i d e r e d to be  the  R's  'riting,  fine  arts  suggests that the a r t s need to be regarded as  basic  -  reading,  curriculum as w e l l .  I asked Pat  'rithmetic.  what she  believes  The  new  to be basic  three  education.  I think probably most important would be that the child learns to be confident, to have a r e a l l y high degree of self-respect - a good self-image. If a c h i l d has that, he can do pretty well anything. This just comes from observation over the years. Children who have a degree of confidence aren't afraid to try something new; kids who are r e a l l y lacking in that regard, are afraid. They come out with "can't, can't, can't, oh, I can't, too hard, I can't." And "I don't want t o " s i m p l y means "I'm afraid." I believe that in the times that we're living in right now, r i s k - t a k i n g is r e a l l y a thing that has to happen. People can't s i t back in a corner. They're not going to go anywhere, learn anything, be happy with themselves, or anything else. So, confidence is really up near the top. And I think you can teach a c h i l d to be confident. Why are people confident? They have been taught by t h e i r environment, the people they deal with, to believe in themselves. And so, as a teacher, if I can teach those l i t t l e kids to feel good about themselves, then I think t h a t ' s a r e a l l y important lesson for them to learn. And t h e y ' l l never be tested on it or anything else, but hopefully, t h e y ' l l go away with that feeling. If kids are c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to do anything, there are no l i m i t a t i o n s at a l l on t h e i r learning. If they feel good about themselves, I can teach them how to read, I can teach them how to do math, I can teach them how to write, I can teach them how to sing, I can teach them how to dance, I can teach them how to tumble and do f l i p s , I can teach them how to paint - I can teach them how to do anything, as long as they believe that they can do i t . In  addition  surroundings  to that  establishing we  had  the  discussed  comfortable earlier,  classroom was  there  213  anything,  I  asked  self-confidence  Pat,  that  she  so e s s e n t i a l to  did  to  encourage  the  risk-taking?  I t r y to find something good to say to each kid. Sometimes i t ' s hard to f i n d something r e a l l y good about a l i t t l e c h i l d whose behaving in an obnoxious manner, but I try to find the positive in whatever's going on. I remember, years ago, when I f i r s t started realizing that t h i s was an important part of my teaching, I really did have to work on it because it was so much easier for me to say "Don't do that!" instead of turning the whole t h i n g around by finding one little part of whatever happened p o s i t i v e . I t ' s not quite so hard for me now, although I s t i l l catch myself with negative kinds of comments. But I think p o s i t i v e overtakes more than the negative. Well, gosh, you know, it's like parenting. And it was the same thing at home, I had to l e t up. Letting  up i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to l e t t i n g go.  humorous i n c i d e n t t h a t daughter, S u s i e ,  decorate her  been made, e v e r y t h i n g f e l t that the  occurred  when  she  Pat  Pat,  of a  helping  her  Purchases  had  was  f i r s t apartment.  moved i n , and  t o l d me  who  loves  plants,  f i n i s h i n g touch would be some greenery.  And she s a i d , No, that's i t , I don't want any more help, forget i t . I'm not having any plants. I've been living with those green things for a l l these years and now that I've got my own place, I'm not having one s i n g l e plant in here. OK, so I said, Fine... (Laughs) So far, no plants. I t ' s the stark, "arty" look. Pat's own  self-confidence  of three daughters i n class, up  actually.  Not  a very  stems from middle  her  class  childhood. home,  much money in our  i n Vancouver as part of l a r g e extended  Eldest  "Lower  home,"  middle  she,  grew  family.  Both s e t s of grandparents and aunts and uncles and cousins were a l l close by and we visited regularly. I had a r e a l l y very, very happy childhood and school life. I was popular, got to be the May queen when I was in grade six, and got to be t h i s and that, was always sort of "chosen c h i l d " sort of thing. I always wanted badly to be the best. I had that inner drive, whatever it i s , for perfection. This  self-critical  curiosity.  The  striving  confidence  for  that  perfection Pat  has  in  is  fueled  being  by  curious  214  enables her when she she  to be a r i s k - t a k e r  exercise  integrates d i f f e r e n t curriculum  been a r i s k - t a k e r i n her  personal  and  l i f e as  well.  areas.  professional  I  asked  Pat  her  only  has  but  in  her  reflect  on  the  life, to  creativity  Not  i n f l u e n c e of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Independent t h i n k i n g , c u r i o s i t y , r i s k taking. I keep thinking as I get o l d e r now, oh gee, maybe I ' l l l o s e them. I don't think I ever w i l l . I have always, as far back as I can remember, wanted to "find out". If I d i d n ' t know about something, I d i d the best I could, in every case, to f i n d out. And I think t h a t , in lots of ways, it got me into trouble over the years (Laughs). It was a l s o v e r y rewarding i n l o t s of cases. It certainly has not been a dull life! I'm not necessarily searching. I don't feel that that's a word that I p a r t i c u l a r l y like to use because searching seems to me that you're not contented with the way t h i n g s are so therefore you're looking for a better way. Sometimes that might be true. But I don't f e e l that that's necessarily true. I would rather think of i t as broadening - hey, there's more out there I And MORE is in capital letters, for me. C u r i o s i t y is what keeps l i f e going. It's c e r t a i n l y what keeps me going. I'm t h i n k i n g about the t r a v e l l i n g right now. And how the firsthand experience of t r a v e l l i n g and l i v i n g in a f o r e i g n country is s_o_ e x c i t i n g f o r me. I enjoy meeting people, I enjoy t a s t i n g a l l the d i f f e r e n t food. I enjoy just the experience of being in this different place. Finding out! What's it r e a l l y l i k e ? I've never been one to stay s a t i s f i e d with one thing for very long. With her for  first  husband and  a year i n Mexico.  She  has  young c h i l d r e n Pat  a l s o been to  two  worked on the  Ivory Coast with a teacher development  shared  some  of  her  experience i n A f r i c a v i t h  previous  thoughts  to  this  about  travelled  various  c o u n t r i e s and  She  summers  three  her  European  interview  most  she  program. recent  me.  I had had t h i s growing concern for Third World peoples for many, many years. I suppose it springs back to my early interest i n Mexican people. And lots of my teaching has involved comparisons of our lifestyle with that of others. In the social studies curriculum at the primary grades, there's a l o t of comparisons done, similarities, differences, a l l that sort of thing. Anyhow, I read about Project Overseas and I thought, gee.  215  I'd r e a l l y l i k e to do something firsthand, if I could, and see if I can make a l i t t l e t i n y speck o f d i f f e r e n c e . And I vas fortunate enough t o he able to go. It vas a highlight for me, up to t h i s p o i n t i n my l i f e . And there vas so much to learn! I mean, it vas more of a learning experience for me than it vas for my students, I'm sure. One of the things I remember most vas the fact that I had no idea vhat it vas l i k e to be the minority group. Completely overvhelming at f i r s t because there I vas white. And everybody else vas very black. The first thing that hit me, of course, vas oh my God! That's vhat they feel l i k e ! And hov do you knov that unless you experience i t ? You r e a l l y don't. Every sense vas being bombarded v i t h nevness. For me, it was j u s t total excitement because of my l i k i n g for nevness! It was j u s t great! The colours, the f l o v e r s , the climate. L i f e vas completely d i f f e r e n t to vhat it is here. New tastes in the foods. New customs to be concerned vith. I observed t h a t she needed t o be extremely f l e x i b l e  in  order  to cope with t h a t completely d i f f e r e n t worldview. Yes. In fact, f l e x i b i l i t y was one of the vords that vas used in the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n . They said, basically, don't bother to apply unless you can exhibit flexibility adaptability. Please, don't even consider us if you're r i g i d i n any way i n your thinking. Well, I'm not, I never have been. And so, when I read t h a t , I s a i d , OK, that's fine! I can do that! I was c u r i o u s t o d i s c o v e r had  other  on Pat and I asked her t o  possible effects consider  that  that  aspect  Africa of her  Beaches and water have alvays fascinated me because I grew up i n Vancouver. In my t r a v e l s , I have alvays gone swimming i n whatever body of vater there vas to svim i n . I was swimming along, in the A t l a n t i c , off the coast of Africa. And I vas comparing it to svimming in the P a c i f i c , off Hawaii. And swimming i n the Aegean. And svimming in the A d r i a t i c . And svimming in the Mediterranean. And I vas just svimming along, and because I vas plopped dovn in the middle of t h i s totally foreign culture, I did a l o t of soul-searching. I really took a very long, hard, close look at myself and my life and the people and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s in i t . I have alvays been appreciative of my l i f e - s t y l e and my fortunate position of being a Canadian, for one thing. And I think it vas a humbling experience vhen I r e a l i z e d hov much I have and hov much my c h i l d r e n have. And hov much they over there don't have. I t adjusted my value system. I had been upwardly mobile, materialistic, although I don't consider myself to be that sort of a  216  person. But i n fact, I d i d harbour those thoughts. The t r i p d i d something f o r me that I didn't realize until maybe a year a f t e r I'd been back - my p o s i t i o n in life was no longer connected to money. [Money] had nothing whatever to do with being happy or loving somebody. Also, u n t i l I started taking a look at myself, I d i d n ' t think I had any t r o u b l e r e l a t i n g to my children. And then I started realizing that in lots of ways I hadn't r e a l l y given them as much of me as I would like to have. I spent a l o t of my life, give, give, give, give, give to others, but i n many ways I've sort of short changed my own children. I think that's a trap that lots of teachers get i n t o . They end up giving so much to t h e i r work that they l e t t h e i r f a m i l i e s s l i d e . Anyhow, I took a good close look at that one and I did some mending when I got home. And a l l of these things sort of came r o l l i n g in on me, as I was swimming along in the A t l a n t i c Ocean...(Laughs) Laughing with her, strange moments!  I remarked t h a t And  self-revelation  comes  at  i n strange p l a c e s !  Exactly! And I got run over by a school of f i s h ! I just about d i e d I I was j u s t swimming along, I could touch the bottom, I was going p a r a l l e l to the shore, and I could see them coming. They were sort of jumpimg...And they h i t mei They j u s t bumped r i g h t into me. And I just screamed my head off. My friends on the beach all thought I'd been hit by a shark. I thought maybe that's what was chasing the f i s h . I panicked and got out of there in a hurry. That was the end of my s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n that day! In l i g h t of what we  had  r e l a t i n g to c h i l d r e n t h e way  been s a y i n g e a r l i e r about  i n the  classroom, and  how  it  t h a t t h e teacher i s f e e l i n g , i t appeared  Pat's e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a b e t t e r monetary v a l u e s and would have had  her  successfully stems to  me  understanding of h e r s e l f  relationships  carry-over e f f e c t s  with men,  i n her  her  from that -  children  her -  teaching.  Oh yes, I'm sure of t h a t . I've always believed that the me. has e v e r y t h i n g to do v i t h vhat happens in the room. And i t ' s g u i t e obvious, you know, that with me feeling better about myself that kids respond in a d i f f e r e n t way. That's for sure. That's a big plus, for sure. Pat  has  had  experiences as an a r t i s t h e r s e l f .  v a r i e t y of c r a f t s , as  well  as  drawing  and  She  has  painting  tried a using  217  d i f f e r e n t media.  One  evening  as  k n i t t i n g a deep blue sweater, she the summer included  ve  t o l d me  and  t h a t her  she  vas  plans  for  t a k i n g a veek long course i n b a t i k  something I've  never t r i e d b e f o r e . " )  had  her  influenced  talked,  I vanted  to  ("It's  knov  vhat  interest in a r t .  Actually, I think I was i n s p i r e d by one of my early teachers, probably at about grade 3 or 4. I never forgot her name. It was Miss E l l i o t t and she was a great big woman. I mean big, l i k e almost 300 pounds, I'm sure. Maybe she wasn't, but to us she just looked huge! Absolutely huge! And she always wore a navy blue dress with a white c o l l a r of sorts, l i k e a big V thing, or a Peter Pan, with lace around i t and a little bow. That was her o u t f i t . I'm sure she had more than one navy blue dress, but it was always navy blue. Anyhow, she was just sweet and f r i e n d l y and she did a l l kinds of neat art things with her classes. I thought she was wonderful. I always enjoyed art lessons from then on. I don't remember not enjoying them i n grade 1 and 2, but I do remember t h i s one teacher that just l e t us go at it and have a r e a l l y good time with a l l those paints and s t u f f . I asked her  to speculate  upon the  possible  c l a s s e s might have on the c h i l d r e n she  effects  her  art  teaches.  I f I had my wish, then I would hope that some of the kids that have been through my classes would go away feeling as I did about my Miss E l l i o t t in grade 3. I remember her and I remember enjoying art classes. And I don't remember much more about a r t , i n any other a r t classes, u n t i l I got to j u n i o r high school. But I do remember that I was always interested in art from Miss Elliott days, on. So if some of them remember me for that, whatever e l s e happens to them over the next few years won't r e a l l y matter, as long as they feel good about what they did in my class. What made Pat go  i n t o teaching?  (Laughs) Why d i d I do i t ? Because there was an emergency in the province of B r i t i s h Columbia at that point. There were not enough teachers. The year that I went to UBC was the f i r s t year that UBC had a college of education. Before that it had been the provincial Normal School. I went in, with grade twelve. F i r s t , I had worked f o r a year cause I d i d n ' t have enough money to go to s c h o o l and my parents couldn't a f f o r d i t . Anyway, I went to school for one year and the next year I was out teaching grade one to 37 l i t t l e k i d s , having signed a contract of sorts saying that I would go to summer school for "X" number of  218  summers to And then I absolutely that was i  complete c o u l d get absurd! t . There  What, I e n q u i r e d , was that  first  my two years of u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . a permanent EB c e r t i f i c a t e . I t was When I came out, I was nineteen.' So I was. Bango! I was a teacher.  her  style like  when  she  was  teaching  year?  Well, f i r s t of a l l , I had 37 d a r l i n g l i t t l e children and we had those l i t t l e wooden desks on runners. They came in sets, f i v e rows of eight, so I had one l e f t over. The whole room was just packed f u l l of these desks and the runners that pencils would get lost under. It was a pain. And I had windows a l l along one side of the classroom. Way, way up. I had room for about 10 little wooden chairs at the front of the classroom that I had in a l i t t l e row. That was my r e a d i n g group. I put a copy on the chalkboard every day for the kids to copy from. And in those f i r s t few years that I taught, the kids had to share. They d i d n ' t have a space for everyone to have t h e i r own spots. So one group would go, and then the next group would go. You t a l k about your three group system, well that was d e f i n i t e l y i t . And I d i d a l o t of chalkboard reading work. Vancouver schoolboard was doing a series on education for the local television station and they used my classroom as an example of a reading lesson. How to teach children to read. Right 1 (Laughs) And a t that p o i n t , I think I'd been in there a long time. I was 21 years old. Wow! So the TV cameras came in and they taped me teaching a reading lesson. Pat  agreed t h a t  i t would be  i n t e r e s t i n g to see  The  image of r i g i d rows of s e a t i n g  stands i n sharp c o n t r a s t  to the  of  Each  her  present  one.  e d u c a t i o n a l approach. the  How  i n her  the  beginning  c i r c u l a r grouping embodies  d i d the  a  very  f i l m again. classroom arrangement different  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from one  to  other come about? I taught f o r s i x years, in Vancouver, at that one school, and then I was pregnant with Linda and I decided I'd q u i t t e a c h i n g . And then, of course, a couple of years later, decided that I missed it and so I started substitute teaching. I d i d n ' t go back to f u l l time u n t i l I moved up here, 14 years ago. In-between times, I subbed a l o t . I took a long term one year and taught for six months. I was never r e a l l y out of teaching, but I didn't have my own class a l l those years. The years that I spent in and out of everyone else's classrooms were j u s t wonderful as f a r as learning experiences went for me because I picked up a l l kinds of ideas. A l o t of people have said they  219  hated subbing, but because I'm so snoopy (Laughs) I had reams of notes. I'd poke around i n a new school and I thought i t was j u s t great fun. I j u s t loved i t i B e t t e r than a year a t the  university,  Since  her  f i r s t year t e a c h i n g , there have been many waves wash over  the  e d u c a t i o n a l scene - open classrooms,  added.  i n t e g r a t e d day,  s c h o o l s , whole language, to name a few. they had  I  What  effective  influence  have  on Pat's t e a c h i n g s t y l e ?  I always get r e a l l y e x c i t e d a t first when I hear of something new, but I never jump i n with both feet. I always f i g u r e , well, i t ' s worth giving it a shot, j u s t to see what these people are t a l k i n g about. Let's see how it works. And then what I tend to do is to hold on to the parts of it that seem to work best for me. Or, maybe I ' l l d i s c a r d i t t o t a l l y , depending on how I feel about it. And over the years, my p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e has evolved as a conglomeration of l i t t l e b i t s and pieces that I have p i c k e d up along the way as a result of my classroom experiences. I f i t the little pieces together into something that f e e l s comfortable for me. I don't purport to teach an "integrated day", or an "open classroom" s i t u a t i o n , or a "whole language", r i g h t now, i f t h i s is the thing. I can't put a label on it and say this is what I do. I don't do any one of those things. It's j u s t my way. I  suggested  determined  that  to a  her  large  teaching extent  approach  by  the  might  also  be  group  of  having  to  particular  c h i l d r e n t h a t she gets to work with. Yes,  itis.  As an independent t h i n k e r , how  d i d Pat f e e l  work w i t h i n the s t r i c t u r e s of the  present  about  education  system?  Were there accommodations she has had to make? I sometimes resent l i t t l e accommodations that I have to make. I think o r i g i n a l l y I had said that I d i d n ' t r e s e n t them and then as I was t a l k i n g I r e a l i z e d that in fact I probably do. Sometimes I feel g u i l t y about taking the time to do things the way I think they should be done. However, I feel that in order for me to be really comfortable with what I'm doing, I p r e f e r to do it my way. And i n the end, f o r me i t seems to work OK. I asked  whether  she  felt  that  she  had  enough  autonomy,  220  influence,  input,  into  the  decisions  which  affect  her  classroom? Yes, I do, I really do. And particularly in the s i t u a t i o n I f i n d myself in r i g h t now because J is a very accommodating, understanding principal. He's not in the least bit d i c t a t o r i a l . He respects the wishes and judgement of every one of the people on his s t a f f and is very open to us t r y i n g something new, within reason. I mean, he c e r t a i n l y wouldn't put his job on the l i n e if we wanted to do something t o t a l l y crazy. He r e a l l y doesn't t e l l us to do anything. I  had  the  impression  s i t u a t i o n t h a t she  was  that  Pat  felt  i n , t h a t she  leeway to do t h i n g s her  own  felt  comfortable t h a t she  in  had  the  enough  way.  Well, I think I said that I take the leeway. In fact, if I were to look at a l l the outlines for every subject in the primary grades that I'm expected to teach, there wouldn't be much room left for my own creativity. I probably couldn't squeak it a l l into a day, or a year, or two years. There's reams and reams of materials that a teacher can choose from. And heaven forbid, the poor person who thought they had to cover every single item. They'd go nuts t r y i n g . I don't think you c o u l d possibly do it and obviously that's not the intent. It's presented to us so that we can take from it what we r e a l l y need to, to do the thing we need to do. R e f l e c t i o n s on c h i l d r e n ' s "being"  i n classrooms  I f i n d myself t h i n k i n g of a very b r i e f Stake, On  Being and  Becoming.  b i r t h of h i s f i r s t g r a n d c h i l d , hope:  "Would that my  becoming!"  them as human becomings."  fine  As  educational  after  thinking  inclined  evaluation it  of  to  indeed focused  methods  appears on the  to  the this  excessive school  think  I examine the r a t i o n a l e ,  curriculum-as-plan,  p r i o r i t i e s are  of  are more  l e a r n i n g outcomes, and arts  shortly  Robert  Stake f e r v e n t l y expresses  Stake says t h a t " i n s t e a d  sequential  by  grandson be spared the rod of  c h i l d r e n as human beings, we  new  Writing  2  paper  of  goals, of  the  me  that  tomorrow  and  221  not much c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n to  the  today.  Like  Orphan Annie,  the c u r r i c u l u m developers are s i n g i n g  of "Tomorrow,  tomorrow,  step  away!"*  As  I love  Stake  you,  tomorrow,  observes,  the  little  the  You're  tune  only  a  question  "Are  our  i s the  nature  of  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w e l l ? " i s seldom asked. At the heart of the matter,  of course,  two d i f f e r i n g conceptual s t r u c t u r e s . choose  to  look  As  through  the  s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n o l o g i c a l kaleidoscope "what matters  most i s g e t t i n g where  c h a r a c t e r of the journey mechanistic,  one  are  of  p r e d i c t e d , and manipulated,  as  objects  i s accomplished."  classroom  line,  assembly  go;  the to  5  containing  e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r o b j e c t s , embodies t h i s  the  extent  be  The row  the  perspective that  controlled,  t e a c h i n g must be conceived  the process whereby t h i s as  to  this  "to  can  patterns  At p r e s e n t ,  4  i n d u s t r i a l metaphor u n d e r l y i n g  conceived  whose  wants  i s less important."  we  traditional  within  dominates the e d u c a t i o n a l system, and, children  educators,  of  image of upon  row  as the of  metaphor.  Within  such an arrangement, the dynamics of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  teacher and c h i l d ,  becomes  one  of  domination.  As  Grumet  explains: T h i s program of c o n t r o l was promoted by the science of s u p e r v i s i o n , an arrangement of persons in collective units that permitted constant surveillance of individuals. By a r r a n g i n g students i n rows, a l l eyes f a c i n g f r o n t , d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t i n g the back of a f e l l o w ' s head, meeting the gaze only of the teacher, the d i s c i p l i n e of the contemporary classroom deploys the look [of pedagogy] as s t r a t e g y of domination. The  student's r e a l i t y , or "being," i s not searched  s e t t i n g , f o r the teacher's  for in this  look  does not r e c e i v e images but  only  examines  the  student  222  before i t t o note the resemblance between the c h i l d and the image e s t a b l i s h e d f o r i t s development. The e x e r c i s e d i s p l a c e s the d i a l o g u e as s o c i a l i d e n t i t y i s formed, not through symbiosis and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , but by mimesis and convention. 7  A c h i l d ' s "being" i n t h i s primary  situation  i s not  can  choose  kaleidoscope matter  of  importance.  An a l t e r n a t i v e view of e d u c a t i o n We  considered  to  within  less....Means  destination."  8  i s available,  look  through  a  whose  fluidity  "goals  are  ends.  scientific/artistic  The  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , a  "the meaning, sense,  and  significance  however.  and  end-points  journey teacher  of  is  the  orients  features  of the  c h i l d ' s c u r r i c u l u m [which] emerge out of the c h i l d ' s sense the ongoing n a r r a t i v e of the classroom,... the  living  of the c l a s s , the l i v i n g h i s t o r y of the c l a s s . "  9  attending  to  the  science  the  supervision,  artistically  attuned  individuals.  The q u a l i t y of a c h i l d ' s  priority.  to  of  specific  a  "being"  Through the teacher's a r t i s t r y , the  classroom as a home i s formed,  and  an  attempt  than  teacher of  is  unique  has  foremost  image  of the  i s made  e s t a b l i s h w i t h i n the "look of pedagogy" the r e c i p r o c i t y exists within a parent/child r e l a t i o n s h i p .  of  context  Rather  needs  to  to  which  1 0  Pat, faced with choosing between these two v e r y d i f f e r e n t educational perspectives,  favours  the  latter.  Of  primary  importance t o her i s the "being" of c h i l d r e n i n her classroom. "As l o n g as a c h i l d teach  that  l i k e s to come to my classroom,  c h i l d something."  F u l l a n observes  then  I  can  that:  T r e a t i n g students as people comes very c l o s e to " l i v i n g " some of the p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l goals which are s t a t e d as o b j e c t i v e s i n much of the c u r r i c u l u m . It i s i n t h i s sense t h a t s c h o o l i s not j u s t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r  223  life; i t i s l i f e for a l i v e s of young p e o p l e .  significant  proportion  of  the  1 1  Dewey shares t h i s view: We always l i v e at the time we l i v e and not a t some other time, and o n l y by e x t r a c t i n g a t each present time the f u l l meaning of each present experience are we prepared for doing the same t h i n g i n the f u t u r e . T h i s i s the o n l y p r e p a r a t i o n which i n the long run amounts to a n y t h i n g . 1 2  C r e a t i n g an environment i n which c h i l d r e n can f u l l y a learning s i t u a t i o n  i s important  to  Pat.  As  experience  the  children  worked on t h e i r v a l e n t i n e s , they were immersed i n the delight  of  glue,  delicate tissue. she commented.  textured  doilies,  Her  own  delight  in  total  r e a l l y don't.  Every  newness.'  was  excitement..."  you  sense  was  just  great.'  For  me,  I t was  this  same  art,  experience  experience being it  trip,  it?  You  bombarded  with  was  immersion  and stuff,"  of her A f r i c a n  just  in  q u a l i t i e s of a r t m a t e r i a l s , v i v i d l y r e c a l l e d art  gooey  sensory  Speaking  "How do you know...unless  It  wallpaper,  "They j u s t l o v e t h i s s t i c k y ,  grounds her classroom p r a c t i c e . she s a i d ,  shiny  sensory  total  the  sensory  from her grade  experience, t h a t i n i t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d to her i n t e r e s t an  i n t e r e s t t h a t she hopes w i l l develop  i n her  There are moral and emotional dimensions classroom as home which a l s o are grounded experiences.  The  i n t e r a c t and  co-operate,...can  i fbr."-  image  is  "of  a  place  feel  in  in  children.  to the image Pat's  where  3  personal  people  comfortable  of  and  can cared  "3 L J  Drawn from Pat's own  up i n the warm f a m i l y are  supportive  the  "closeness  c h i l d h o o d experience of  atmosphere and  the  of  a  large  relational  i n t e r a c t i n g and c o - o p e r a t i n g " t h a t she encourages classroom.  1 4  The r e f l e c t i v e  growing extended  aspects within  of her  " s o u l - s e a r c h i n g " t h a t she engaged  224  i n d u r i n g , and subsequent t o , her T h i r d World country importance  reinforced  experience  i n her  of  mind  life  the  in a  paramount  of these two aspects of "being."  As a r t i s t / t e a c h e r Pat employs a number of shape the image of classroom as home with the beginning of the year, d e v i c e used t o  transfer  teddy  her  bears  the comfort  techniques  to  children.  At  are a and  transitional  security  c h i l d r e n ' s r e a l homes t o the u n f a m i l i a r environment new classroom.  Her presence  i n the classroom  of the of  before  their school  and a t lunchtime enables c h i l d r e n t o share p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e s with her and p r o v i d e s Pat with v a l u a b l e lives.  Having  them  visit  knowledge she has of them;  her  home  insights expands  i t a l s o adds another  t h e i r p e r s o n a l knowledge of her.  into the  personal  dimension  And, the p h y s i c a l  of her room - the grouping of desks and t a b l e s ,  their  to  character  the  personal  touch of c a r p e t and tumbleweeds - c o n t r i b u t e s t o a comfortable "home-like"  atmosphere.  I return to becoming, e x i s t  Stake's  point  i n one c h i l d ,  that  "the two,  being  i n one world, each p a r t  and  of the  15 other."  He suggests t h a t the two are i n c o n f l i c t ,  X J  i n t e r p r e t as the c o n t i n u a l g i v e  and  take,  that e x i s t s between two d i a l e c t i c p o l e s . derive  from  the  recognition  f l u c t u a t i o n s between the two. and  child,  this  in-dwelling i n a worlds  of  of  between  curriculum-as-plan  curriculum-as-lived  experiences  "emerges,  Order and  stability  constant  two  in  curriculum [the [the  I  tensionality  rhythmic  In the shared world of  tensionality zone  the  the  which  teacher  part,  from  worlds:  the  "becoming"] "being"]."  1 6  and As  225  discussed  in  the  introduction  t h i n k i n g i s undergoing physics.  radical  A s i m i l a r process  to  this  study,  re-vision  in  scientific  the  is occurring in biology  Applying t h i s r e - v i s i o n to e d u c a t i o n , I f i n d  field as  of  well.  i t i n t e r e s t i n g to  s u b s t i t u t e the terms e v o l u t i o n f o r "becoming" and c o - e v o l u t i o n for "being" i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: The classical theory sees e v o l u t i o n as moving towards an e q u i l i b r i u m s t a t e , with organisms adapting themselves ever more p e r f e c t l y to t h e i r environment. According to the systems [new b i o l o g y ] view, e v o l u t i o n operates f a r from e q u i l i b r i u m and unfolds through an i n t e r p l a y of a d a p t a t i o n and creation. Moreover, the systems theory takes i n t o account that the environment i s , i t s e l f , a l i v i n g system capable of a d a p t a t i o n and evolution. Thus the focus s h i f t s from the e v o l u t i o n of an organism to the c o - e v o l u t i o n of an organism plus environment. The c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such mutual a d a p t a t i o n and c o - e v o l u t i o n was neglected i n the classical view which has tended to concentrate on linear, sequential processes and to ignore t r a n s a c t i o n a l phenomena t h a t are mutually c o n d i t i o n i n g and ongoing s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . . . . Detailed study of ecosystems... has shown quite c l e a r l y t h a t most r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l i v i n g organisms are essentially co-operative ones, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o - e x i s t e n c e and interdependence and s y m b i o t i c i n v a r i o u s degrees. Although there i s c o m p e t i t i o n , i t is usually placed w i t h i n a wider context of c o - o p e r a t i o n , so that the l a r g e r system i s kept i n b a l a n c e . ' 1  A c u r r i c u l u m - a s - p l a n , i n " p r o s a i c , a b s t r a c t language,"  focuses  on the t r a n s m i s s i o n of a g e n e r a l i z e d body of knowledge  through  "linear, sequential processes." children  and  teachers  curriculum-as-plan,  for  disembodied knowing  that  people."  1 9  1 8  are  The  unique  not  present  "generalized disavows  qualities  knowing  the  These unique q u a l i t i e s are  in is  living present,  of the  likely  a  presence  of  however,  in  the t r a n s a c t i o n a l phenomena of the c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d . A  clearer  understanding  of  the  t r a n s a c t i o n a l phenomena can be gained learner  if  nature one  of thinks  classroom of  the  226  as an open system - a d i s s i p a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . . . i n t e r a c t i n g with the environment, t a k i n g i n i n f o r m a t i o n , integrating i t , using i t . The l e a r n e r i s transforming the input, ordering and re-ordering, creating coherence. His worldview i s c o n t i n u a l l y enlarged to incorporate the new. 20  Jardine  and  Clandinin  coherent meaning i s personal  suggest  that  established  narratives,  for  which  information  presented  by  p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t , and  a  they  S t o r y t e l l i n g transforms, o r d e r s , the  and  within  a  child term  so  by  means  the  that  it  becomes The  connections by which c h i l d r e n e s t a b l i s h personal  relevance  the t o p i c at hand may  to  oblique  2 1  generalized  hence, meaningful, to the c h i l d .  sometimes appear  of  storytelling.  re-orders  teacher  classroom,  an  to  adult  observer: C h i l d r e n never get to the point. They surround i t . The importance of the p o i n t Is the landscape of i t . 2 3  J a r d i n e and  Clandinin explain  that  Meaningfulness i s relevance .... Both the teacher and the c h i l d are not simply g e t t i n g to the p o i n t but surrounding it, encapsulating i t in a p a r t i c u l a r landscape, a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y i n which i t can count as something meaningful to pursue at a l l . 2 4  In the  valentine  lesson,  c h i l d r e n of Cupid and context,  this  for  example,  h i s arrows.  information  was  From  Pat  spoke  within  relevant  to  to  her the  the  personal valentine  a c t i v i t y at hand, i t s coherent meaning having been e s t a b l i s h e d for  her  on  experiences.  the The  basis  of  c h i l d r e n at  integrated t h i s information Having learned  her the  cultural group  and  re-interpreted  i n t o the context  that valentines  biographical  of  i n our c u l t u r e are  their  and  lives.  symbols  of  l o v e , they s e r i o u s l y attended to the making of them, f o r these  227  were s p e c i a l t r e a s u r e s home. (and  which would be given  T h e i r a c t i v i t y was  surrounded and  finances,  was  established  the experience had sharing  dialogical  of  rather  go."  The  than  monological." understanding  Both teacher  evident  is  and  during  is  others' suggestions.  A  l e s s o n on Winter Fun  when  about,  the c h i l d r e n e s t a b l i s h e d  Pat  teacher  and  it  and  can  classroom  l e a r n with and  from  developed  in  acted  exchange  introduced  e a t i n g snowballs, relevance  of t h e i r own their  of lives.  discussion  Pat's  she  and  upon  occurred the  each  each  in  concept of  for the  that  personal example  family  The  the  Winter  thus  fun Fun  became  meaningful to them.  Learning  Risk-taking  followed  relevant  the  Through the s h a r i n g  the  concept w i t h i n the context  is  where  e v o l v i n g of  child  similar  n a r r a t i v e s - a f r i e n d ' s dog  elements  valentines  the v a l e n t i n e making as  f a m i l i e s have fun together.  coherently  covered).  "essentially  "between  c h i l d r e n c o m f o r t a b l y exchanged ideas and  which  teased  (possessions,  What  2 5  mutual understanding t h a t had  classroom was  painting  gently  family -  narratives,  T h i s i s a symbiotic  2 6  environment.  her  love  i n the making of the  personal  c h i l d r e n about what the c l a s s  other.  of important  coherent meaning f o r the c h i l d r e n .  develops through mutual  should  talk  f a m i l y f r i e n d s h i p s were some of the t o p i c s  Thus relevance  The  and  at  by  l i v e s - f r i e n d s (Adam was  about h i s love a f f a i r with M a r i a ) ,  ones  landscaped  song) t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s  relationships in their  and  to loved  of  is  a  fear,  risk-taking surprise,  endeavour, and  overlaid  ultimately,  with joy.  r e q u i r e s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , i d e n t i f i e d by Pat as  2 7  the  228  most basic  element i n e d u c a t i o n .  Self-confidence  is bolstered  by a s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e t h a t c o n s i d e r s  finding  to be  no  an  Ferguson  experiment  in  which  there  can  be  out  failure.  notes:  An experiment has r e s u l t s : We l e a r n from i t . Since i t adds to our understanding and e x p e r t i s e , however i t comes out we have not l o s t . 2 8  In the v a l e n t i n e a c t i v i t y , I was  initially  c h i l d r e n u s i n g heart t r a c e r s , seemingly creative  art  lesson.  But  then  d i s c u s s i o n of Animal Cartoons and I then recognized  the use  of  c h i l d , having  a s s i s t e d by Pat  as  for  a  back  to  try  see in  to  on  copying.  to  his  tool  emulate.  heart,  again.  a the  supportive  everyone out  to  place  Pat's comments  in cutting  encouraged  of  thought  tracers  difficulty and  out  I  r a t h e r than a p r e s c r i p t i v e method One  surprised  The  was other  c h i l d r e n , working d i l i g e n t l y on t h e i r v a l e n t i n e s , demonstrated t h e i r empathy f o r h i s e f f o r t s  by  incorporating  the  episode  i n t o t h e i r on-going song. The  image of classroom  as home  is  influenced  b e l i e f t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - e s t e e m can best  Pat's  enhanced  and  t h e i r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e more f u l l y developed i n a n u r t u r i n g  and  caring  environment.  experiences  are  To  this  incorporated  As Pat e x p l a i n s i t , she a c t s difficulties  f o r her babies  end,  i n t o her as  be  by  her  own  parenting  pedagogical  practices.  "mother  hen,"  before the s c h o o l day  sorting  out  begins  and  f o s t e r i n g a bubbly mood by i n v o l v i n g them i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y first  t h i n g i n the morning.  negative do very  way,  "If a  kid  then f o r g e t i t . They're  much that  day."  starts not  going  a  day  in  to be able  a to  A c t i n g on p e r s o n a l knowledge a c q u i r e d  229  in the  r a i s i n g her own c h i l d r e n , she t r i e s to focus and comment on positive  -  "You're  such  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with c h i l d r e n If  clever  learning"  2 9  must  be  the  teacher.  in  her  be  r a t h e r than "an agent and  with  its  Knowing  imposed,  a catalyst, a facilitator  s k i l l s are communicated  -  system...interacting  l e a r n i n g comes from w i t h i n and cannot must be "a steersman,  hunch"  i n her c l a s s .  a l e a r n e r i s "an open  environment," then so  a  a  that  teacher  - an agent  of  through which knowledge  rules  of  conduct  and  enforced."  3 0  J a r d i n e and C l a n d i n i n comment on t h i s aspect of t e a c h i n g : The teacher i s not an independent purveyor or manipulator of what c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e . He or she i s p a r t of t h a t experience, p a r t of the s t o r y of the classroom....This does not mean t h a t the teacher must forfeit altogether responsibility f o r the classroom, t h a t the teacher becomes e q u i v a l e n t to the c h i l d . As p a r t of the- s t o r y , the teacher has experienced more and has r e f l e c t e d upon these experiences more o f t e n than have the c h i l d r e n . 3 1  Pat i l l u s t r a t e s behaviour class.  this  point  were d i s c u s s e d  when  and  she  mutually  Expanding upon her image of  added a moral dimension the c h a r a c t e r of  the  tells  how  agreed  rules  upon  classroom  as  of  i n her  home,  she  by having the c h i l d r e n c l o s e l y analyse familiar  Goldilocks  and  examine  the  consequences of her a c t i o n s . In  t h i s approach t o t e a c h i n g , an i n d i v i d u a l  must have a h e a l t h y level of self-esteem, little d e f e n s i v e n e s s , few ego needs. The t r u e teacher must be . w i l l i n g to l e t go, t o be wrong, t o a l l o w the l e a r n e r another r e a l i t y . 3 2  Flexibility  i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of P a t .  she accepts her daughter's decor, although  In her  t a s t e i n the  matter  i t d i f f e r s from her own.  was viewed as "more of a learning  personal  experience  of  Her t r i p  life,  apartment to  Africa  for me t h a n . . . f o r  230  my students!"  I t was  not seen as an o p p o r t u n i t y to impart  pedagogical knowledge.  In her  classroom,  an  atmosphere  mutual r a p p o r t and t r u s t e x i s t s , much i n evidence valentine lesson. an e s s e n t i a l These  S e c u r i t y and comfort are w e l l  factor  dialogues  during  her of the  established,  i f teacher/student d i a l o g u e s are to occur.  "just  might  be  abrasive,  r e v e a l i n g , and e s t r a n g i n g , f o r teacher and  challenging,  student  alike. "  J J  Pat's teddy bears, f o r example, were a n i c e touch p r i o r to her leading  her  examining Winter  children  into  the  unfamiliar  G o l d i l o c k s " flawed c h a r a c t e r .  Fun  territory  of  In the Halloween  and  l e s s o n s , her c h i l d r e n f e l t comfortable  in  offering  c r i t i c a l comments i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s . in t u r n , was The  qualities  ambiguity, change"  comfortable  conflict  i n a c c e p t i n g them. "awe  and  the  and  mystery,  dialectic  c o n t r i b u t e to the essence  34  human.  of  They  are  Pat,  given  form  acknowledged by p h y s i c i s t s , and  of  of what  by  uncertainty  and  stability  and  it  poets  means  and  to  be  painters,  o v e r t l y esteemed by c u r r i c u l u m  authors.  F r e q u e n t l y , however, too r i g i d adherence to s p e c i f i c  goals and  l e a r n i n g outcomes a l l o w s f o r mastery of  misses  the  vital  essence  of  the  Consider f o r a moment the essence  subjects of  change  being in  humour i n c a r t o o n s , of fun i n winter a c t i v i t i e s , sending v a l e n t i n e s . Elliot  conveyed  to  Consider the essence Pat  p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement, or c l o s e , now  which leeway,  inspires in  and a g a i n , to being the master  whom Gary Zukav  speaks:  of  Wu  hope Li  but  studied.  autumn, of  art her  the  facts,  love that  to  of in Miss  exercise of  coming  teacher  of  231  He begins from the c e n t r e and not from the f r i n g e . He imparts an understanding of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of the a r t before going on to the meticulous d e t a i l s . . . . T h e t r a d i t i o n a l way...is t o teach by r o t e , and to g i v e the impression that long p e r i o d s of boredom are the most e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the t r a i n i n g . In t h a t way a student may go f o r years without ever g e t t i n g the f e e l of what he is d o i n g . 3 5  Zukav goes on t o say t h a t a master teaches student has p e r c e i v e d the  essence,  the  essence; master  once  goes  on  expand the p e r c e p t i o n f u r t h e r , not i n a d i d a c t i c manner, as one who r h y t h m i c a l l y dances  with the student.  c u r i o u s and f r e s h l y i n t e r e s t e d  i n the  subjects  a to  but  By remaining she  teaches,  Pat shares these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a master: Every l e s s o n i s the f i r s t l e s s o n . . . every time we dance, we do i t f o r the f i r s t t i m e . . . . I t does not mean t h a t we f o r g e t what we a l r e a d y know. I t means t h a t what we are doing i s always new, because we are always doing i t for the first t i m e . . . . I t i s always new, p e r s o n a l , and alive. 3 6  The  light  i n a c h i l d ' s eyes or the f e e l of a good  difficult tests.  l e s s o n are  t o s t a n d a r d i z e f o r measurement on teacher competency  And y e t the a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e and t o sense  the essence The  of the a r t of t e a c h i n g .  teacher's  speaking of concerns  role  subject  "anomalous educators  and with  to  I t i s h i s view  change,  exposed two  paradoxical.  Pat, i n  parents have f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ,  rapid  a  position."  opposing  are  ,  i s always  an i s s u e r a i s e d by Loren E i s e l e y . society  these  that  teacher  3 7  in a  occupies  Society  obligations.  touches  presents  First,  "the  i n c u l c a t i o n of custom, t r a d i t i o n , and a l l t h a t s o c i a l i z e s child  i n t o a good c i t i z e n ; "  learning, individual.  simultaneously The teacher  3 8  second,  beneficial  the a b s o r p t i o n to  society  an  of and  the new the  232  i s expected to both be the guardian of s t a b i l i t y and the exponent of s o c i e t a l change. Since a l l persons do not accept new ideas a t the same r a t e , i t i s impossible f o r the educator t o please the e n t i r e society even i f he remains a b j e c t l y s e r v i l e . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n a dynamic and r a p i d l y changing e r a l i k e the p r e s e n t . 3 9  Essentially, this  i s another  of  between  tensionality  dimension  "being"  of d w e l l i n g i n the zone  and  "becoming"  addressed  earlier. If  concern  i s f o r the q u a l i t y  w i t h i n the classroom,  then,  as  of  Aoki  life  a  notes,  child  inevitably i t  "depends much upon the q u a l i t y of the pedagogic the teacher i s .  4 0  This  symbiotic  present i n Pat's classroom.  being"  relationship  Re-phrasing  lives  is  that  clearly  Aoki's words s l i g h t l y  permits me t o c o n s i d e r the q u a l i t y of the pedagogic  "being" of  women t e a c h e r s as they dwell w i t h i n the t e n s i o n a l i t y  between  c u r r i c u l u m - a s - p l a n and c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d .  R e f l e c t i o n s on women t e a c h e r s ' "being" i n classrooms Pat e n v i s i o n s her classroom nurturing,  caring  mother  c h i l d r e n , l e a d i n g them doing,  she  embodies  who  out t o  as  a  home,  responsibly new  the y i n or  herself e-ducates  possibilites. feminine  elementary  qualities -  that  i n the p h i l o s o p h i c r a t i o n a l e s of  many  c u r r i c u l u m guides,  e x c e l l e n t example.  the  fine  Within the l a r g e r  motherhood i s accorded  her In so  4 1  "responsive, c o - o p e r a t i v e , i n t u i t i v e , s y n t h e s i z i n g " are e x p l i c i t l y e n t a i l e d  as a  arts  society,  4 2  one  being  an  the c u l t  of  high p r a i s e , but i s g i v e n none  monetary r e c o g n i t i o n , such  as  salaries  denotes " t r u e " worth i n our s o c i e t y .  and  As noted  of the  pensions,  that  in Reflections  on s c h o o l a r t and c h i l d a r t , a r t i s t i c v a l u e s , which share many  233  of the feminine  characteristics  esteemed  covertly  but  institutions. "simultaneous  Within  listed  above,  rejected  the  are  within  school  overtly  educational  system  there  is  a s s e r t i o n and d e n i a l of f e m i n i t y " which r e f l e c t s  societal values.  C u r r i c u l a r a s p i r a t i o n s and the " n u r t u r i n g "  4 3  hopes of women teachers a r e p r e s e n t l y given l i p - s e r v i c e  only,  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l atmosphere t h a t p l a c e s i n o r d i n a t e weight yang  or  a  masculine  virtues  competitive, r a t i o n a l ,  -  analytic."  "demanding,  on  aggressive,  4 4  T h i s ambivalence can have c o n s i d e r a b l e negative e f f e c t on the "being" of women i n classrooms,  and, as a consequence,  the immediate "being" of c h i l d r e n ,  boys  as  well  as  A n c i l l a r y meanings are a c q u i r e d which a r e c a r r i e d adult l i v e s .  on  girls.  forth  into  Apple comments p e r c e p t i v e l y on t h i s i s s u e :  Many of the d i s p o s i t i o n s , p r o p e n s i t i e s , and achievements that may make a c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e i n a person's life are i n t e r m i n g l e d by students i n the very a c t of l i v i n g w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework f o r a number of y e a r s . The institutional structure itself mirrors and redundantly communicates t o students l a s t i n g norms, b a s i c ideological assumptions, and models of human interaction. 4 5  Pat  and  I  discussed  confidence,  r i s k - t a k i n g as f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the both c h i l d r e n and  teachers.  She  curiosity,  learning  spoke  at  c a p a c i t i e s of length  of her  s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n s on t e a c h i n g , f a m i l y , and r e l a t i o n s with some p o r t i o n s of which a r e i n c l u d e d  in this  document.  p e r s o n a l r e v e l a t i o n s occurred w i t h i n the context experience  of l i v i n g  w i t h i n an  analogous  "foreign  country"  relationship.  i n a f o r e i g n country. context following  of  novelty,  the break-up  Pat shared with me  her  and  of the  men, Her novel  Mine have o c c u r r e d experiencing of  a  recollections  the  long-term of her  2 3 4  f i r s t year t e a c h i n g , the h i g h l y  structured  nature  of  which  c o n t r a s t s n o t i c e a b l y with her present approach.  The shock  my i n i t i a l  extreme  than  probably, the experiences of other women t e a c h e r s  fall  hers;  t e a c h i n g experience was perhaps more  somewhere on a continuum between our two s i t u a t i o n s . Pat, c u r i o s i t y  has always  following that  first  been  part  assignment,  many  of  As  few  months  relationship teaching  of  make-up b u t ,  years  of r e g a i n i n g more  a  In a j o u r n a l e n t r y w r i t t e n d u r i n g the f i r s t my  "foreign"  between  experience.  undergoes  an  teaching assignment.  these A  D.H.Lawrence's n o v e l , Ursula,  with  my  confidence were necessary before r i s k - t a k i n g was once p a r t of my being.  of  46  The  travels, two  qualities  catalyst  for  Rainbow,  emotional  I reflected  my  wherein  trauma  and  on the  my  thoughts a  during  initial was  young  girl,  her  first  My o r d e a l c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l l e d h e r s .  o f f e r some e x c e r p t s from my j o u r n a l  I  here:  I'm t h i n k i n g of my f i r s t year teaching. As now, jobs were s c a r c e i n B.C. I and my husband of two months accepted p o s i t i o n s a t a three room s c h o o l on an i s o l a t e d Indian r e s e r v e i n northern A l b e r t a . At twenty-one, I was a shy debutante, j u s t out of the arms of a n i c e , upper m i d d l e - c l a s s West Vancouver f a m i l y . The c u l t u r e shock c o u l d not have been g r e a t e r i f I had gone t o a T h i r d World c o u n t r y . I t was a T h i r d World c o u n t r y . So many images and emotions remain v i v i d after a l l these years. My c o n f u s i o n , almost panic, almost overwhelming. J u s t where d i d I begin? A grade 1/2 c l a s s ; 27 c h i l d r e n , o n l y a few of whom spoke E n g l i s h ; a narrow, cramped t r a i l e r f o r a classroom, c l a u s t r o p h o b i c with i t s two t i n y windows. My year of " t r a i n i n g " , f o l l o w i n g three years of g e n e r a l a r t s a t u n i v e r s i t y , had been with o l d e r c h i l d r e n . How d i d one teach a c h i l d t o read? My husband and I had $5.00 t o l a s t us u n t i l our f i r s t paycheck - not enough t o buy a t r a i n t i c k e t out. But I had never " f a i l e d " i n my l i f e . I was determined t o stay. My p r i n c i p a l was a young Englishman, o n l y a few years o l d e r than I, t w e n t y - f i v e , but going on s i x t y . His sense of s u p e r i o r i t y was c o n s t a n t l y t h r u s t upon me; I was c o n t i n u a l l y defending my country's economic system,  235  e d u c a t i o n system,and my p e r s o n a l life style (i.e. the equal s h a r i n g of household t a s k s i n my m a r r i a g e ) . A c o l o n i a l mouse up a g a i n s t the i m p e r i a l c a t . He enjoyed h i s power immensely and h e l d on to it tightly. Formal s t a f f meetings ( f o r t h r e e ! ) were held each week; the key to the s u p p l y cupboard had to be f o r m a l l y r e q u e s t e d ; the d u p l i c a t i n g machine was i n the back bedroom of h i s house and my formal request to use i t each morning was commented on as an i n t r u s i o n . The c h i l d r e n , however, were d e l i g h t f u l . They were children! Very g u i e t at f i r s t , b i g brown eyes taking e v e r y t h i n g i n , but soon g i g g l i n g and t o u c h i n g me. Not being a b l e to f i n d a c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , I had no idea what I was "supposed" to be d o i n g , so each morning we sang songs I scrounged up from c h i l d h o o d memories; I had p u z z l e s and p l a s t i c e n e and crayons they played and drew; we went o u t s i d e , s e t snares for r a b b i t s , they the t e a c h e r , I the s t u d e n t ; we looked at p i c t u r e s i n books, o b j e c t s i n the classroom, things i n the community c o n s t a n t l y s h a r i n g Chipewyan and E n g l i s h names f o r them back and forth, each smiling at the other's pronunciations. And I worried t h a t I wasn't t e a c h i n g the "right" things. My attempts at formal r e a d i n g and a r i t h m e t i c l e s s o n s were r a t h e r p a i n f u l . I wasn't doing the " r i g h t " t h i n g . In October came a v i s i t from the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , another Englishman, very blunt, very b r i e f , very s e v e r e . His r e p o r t on my t e a c h i n g o f f i c i a l l y s t a t e d t h a t I wasn't doing my j o b . 'Mrs. Costello l e t s the children play when they have f i n i s h e d t h e i r work. T h i s p l a y i s not directed to any purpose. Her control of the classroom is very loose.' He was not impressed with our snared r a b b i t . I needed my j o b ; I p u l l e d up my s o c k s ; I tightened my c o n t r o l . D u p l i c a t e d phonics e x e r c i s e s r e p l a c e d the plasticene. A c h i l d jumped when s h a r p l y ordered back to his s e a t . One l i t t l e girl disappeared from my c l a s s before Christmas and d i d n ' t r e t u r n f o r the remainder of the y e a r . She would melt i n t o the bush i f visits were made by the p r i n c i p a l to get h e r . In J u n e , I was complimented by t h i s man. I was t o l d that he was most impressed by the improvement I had shown, t h a t I was an exemplary teacher and should be proud of the achievements my c l a s s had made. His words gave me a f e e l i n g of p r i d e , on the s u r f a c e . I had done it! Had s u r v i v e d the y e a r . Passed with honours. Not a failure. But I kept thinking of the c h i l d who wouldn't return. It took me a long time before I c o u l d l i s t e n to an E n g l i s h accent without a sense of l o a t h i n g . Looking back, I get the impression of a v i o l a t i o n t o my s o u l . The f e e l i n g i s so t a n g i b l e , it's almost physical. I f e e l t h a t my v e r y being was r a p e d . She of  converts the joy, expressiveness, and sensuality her youth Into the r u l e , recitations, and  236  r e p r e s s i o n s of the p a t r i a r c h a l s y s t e m . ' 4  R i g h t o n ! There had been shyness and g u i e t d e l i g h t as my c h i l d r e n and I d i s c o v e r e d each o t h e r . The k i n d l i n g of a s m a l l b l a z e of shared l e a r n i n g was f l o o d e d o u t ; only a few embers g l o v e d , b r i e f l y , o c c a s i o n a l l y , as the year vent o n . The c r u e l e s t aspect of oppression which i t forces its objects to  return, to do the d i r t y vork severa1 senses. 4  is be  in  the logic oppressive  their  society  by in  in  8  Oh y e s , I o p p r e s s e d . Those n a t i v e c h i l d r e n were going to get the " r i g h t " s c h o o l i n g or e l s e ! My job was on the line. And I needed t h a t job to break out of my ovn o p p r e s s i o n i n a male dominated v o r l d . Society's dirty vork vas f o r me t o get them t o f i t i n t o the white man's superior vay of life, to enable them to hold a n i n e - t o - f i v e job, regular hours, regular pay, regular home, regular vife, regular kids. Very much " s t a n d a r d i z e d " assembly l i n e production. I certainly t i g h t e n e d up the c o n t r o l s . Tightly scheduled lessons, tightly enforced r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . Too tight sometimes to b a r e l y be a b l e to squeeze i n a s m i l e . B e a r i n g the promise of maternal  nurturance,  enters  there  the school  degree that control.  and succeeds  she  suspends  nurturance  Ursula,  only  and  the  to  adopts  4 9  U r s u l a and I had much i n common. So hov do some e d u c a t o r s , ve v i t h our h e a d s - l n - t h e - c l o u d s of c u r r i c u l a r hopes and  our  institutional  attempt to reach the h i g h  quality  realities,  "being"  tensionality  and  zone  feet-in-the-mire  quality  between  education?  what  ought  of  day-to-day ground  of  in  a  If,  5 0  to  be  dialectic  c o m p l e m e n t a r i t i e s , one view o v e r v h e l m i n g l y p r e v a i l s , then l i v i n g f o r those i n the m i n o r i t y o f t e n mere  survival.  accommodations  5 1  that  Pat  says,  I have  "I  becomes  sometimes  to make....Sometimes  about t a k i n g the time t o do t h i n g s the vay I be done."  Max van Manen makes an  betveen hope and expectation  interesting  a  matter  resent I think  the  feel they  of  little guilty should  differentiation  t h a t h e l p s to i d e n t i f y the source  237  of her d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n : The language of o b j e c t i v e s , a i m s , teacher expectations, intended l e a r n i n g outcomes, g o a l s , or ends i n view is a language of hope out of v h i c h hope i t s e l f has been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p u r g e d . . . . l i t i s ) a language of doing - i t lacks being....Teacher expectations and anticipations a s s o c i a t e d v i t h c e r t a i n aims and o b j e c t i v e s differ from having hope f o r our c h i l d r e n , i n t h a t expectations and anticipations e a s i l y degenerate into desires, vants, certainties, predictions. T h i s a l s o means t h a t as teachers ve c l o s e o u r s e l v e s o f f from p o s s i b i l i t i e s that l i e o u t s i d e the d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t f i e l d of v i s i o n of the expectations. To hope i s to believe in p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Therefore hope strengthens and builds....The phenomenology of s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s or broad g o a l s i s t o be i n v o l v e d v i t h the f u t u r e of children in such a vay t h a t ve a l v a y s see past the present and the present as p a s t . And inherent i n such l i v i n g is the danger of a l v a y s t r e a t i n g the present as burden, as something t h a t must be overcome. There is little d v e l l i n g i n such l i v i n g . 5 2  Teacher b u r n - o u t o f t e n r e s u l t s from a  sense  of  hopelessness  "vhen as t e a c h e r s ve no longer knov vhat ve are d o i n g . " recalls,  "There are t i m e s . . . I have  nothing.  it  doers,  If  I'm worthless."  "may be a t the expense  a l i v e n e s s of the After  years  it.  survive  as  of  attunement  the  of  trying  to  survive  mere  I'm technical  to  for  the  sake  - either  leave the system, or s u b v e r t  relying  to  greater  in  an  the  oppressive  I vas at the stage of s a y i n g ,  c h i l d r e n v i t h vhom I vas i n c o n t a c t ,  a  is  5  At t h a t p o i n t ,  use?  this  situation." *  e d u c a t i o n a l environment, the  ve  felt,  Pat  5 3  extent  on  of  myself  I had to make a it. my  What's and  decision  Subversion personal  the  meant  practical  knovledge, i n a s i m i l a r manner t o the approach I had taken a beginner.  The o p p o r t u n i t y to vork as an unasslgned  provided an escape from the r e g u l a r s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e "frill"  area of a r t .  no s t r i c t  No value i n i t ,  therefore  s u p e r v i s i o n - a n d , no o p p r e s s i o n .  The  as  teacher into  the  no g u i d e l i n e s , job  of  art  238  specialist,  however,  rhythms, so v i t a l  is  fragmented  one,  and  the  establish.  h a r d , as has P a t , t o  move  Nevertheless,  from  l n my r e l a t i o n s v i t h  a  negative  children  I to  and  once  have a  move  along  self-confidence returned as w e l l .  an  educational  and  an  assembly  inclination  think  first  have  objects Personal  risk-taking  have  As Helen Reddy s i n g s i n j Am Woman:  "Oh y e s , I am v i s e . But i t ' s visdom born of p a i n , Oh y e s , I've p a i d the p r i c e , But look hov much I've g a i n e d . " I  tried  more  line.  for  if  positive  regained my sense of enjoyment of them as p e o p l e , not to  daily  i n working v i t h c h i l d r e n , are d i f f i c u l t ,  not i m p o s s i b l e , to  attitude  a  of the p r i c e paid by  the  5 5  children,  too,  during  my  fev years of t e a c h i n g and can o n l y hope t h a t the ones  vork v i t h now b e n e f i t  I  from t h a t h i g h c o s t .  The o n l y vay to overcome teacher burnout  is  by r e c a p t u r i n g w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s the knowledge that life i s bearable - not i n the sense t h a t we can bear i t , as we bear a burden which v e i g h s us d o v n , but i n the sense t h a t ve knov l i f e i s there to bear us - as i n the l i v i n g vith hope. We can do t h i s , once a g a i n , by g i v i n g b i r t h and b e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , r a t h e r than a b o r t i n g the c h i l d in the middle of a b s t r a c t e d r h e t o r i c of our t h e o r i z i n g . 5 6  As p a r e n t s , Pat and I l i v e  in  hope  vith  our  t e a c h e r s , ve t r y to d o , as Pat expresses i t , done."  Aoki i n t e r p r e t s  of  teaching  centres  p o s s i b i l i t i e s , " to the "not  We share h i s understanding t h a t on  "a  yet."  5 7  leading  As  "what needs to be  t h i s as "a s t r u g g l e t o be t r u e t o  teaching e s s e n t i a l l y i s . " art  children.  out  to  vhat the nev  239  Notes  Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book 1985 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, 1985), p. 3. 1  2  Robert Stake, "On  Being and Becoming," Xerox,  "Tomorrow," Annie, c a s s e t t e Records, 1982). 3  (Don M i l l s , Ont.:  E l l i o t E i s n e r , C o g n i t i o n and C u r r i c u l u m (New Longman, 1982), p. 7. 4  1981. CBS  York:  David J a r d i n e and Jean C l a n d i n i n , "Does I t Rain on Vancouver I s l a n d ? : Teaching as S t o r y t e l l i n g , " C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y 17. no. 4 (1987): 476. 5  Madeline Grumet, "My Face i s Thine Eye, Thine i n Mine Appeares: The Look of P a r e n t i n g and Pedagogy," Phenomenology + Pedagogy 1, no. 1 (1983): 55. 6  7  Grumet, "Look of Pedagogy," p.  55.  M a r i l y n Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy (Los Angeles: J . P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 101. 8  9  1 0  J a r d i n e and C l a n d i n i n , p.  477.  Grumet, "Look of Pedagogy," p.  56.  Michael F u l l a n , The Meaning of E d u c a t i o n a l Change (Toronto: OISE, 1982), p. 156. 1 1  John Dewey, Experience and E d u c a t i o n (New Macmillan, C o l l i e r Book, 1963), p. 48. 1 2  York:  240  Michael C o n n e l l y and Jean C l a n d i n i n , "Personal P r a c t i c a l Knowledge and the Modes of Knowing: Relevance f o r Teaching and L e a r n i n g , " i n NSSE YEARBOOK 84, no. 2 (1985): 188. 1 3  1 4  C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n , p. 188.  1 5  Stake, "On Being and Becoming," Xerox, 1981.  Ted A o k i , "Teaching as In-Dwelling Between Two Curriculum Worlds," The B.C. Teacher 65. no. 3 (1986): 8. 1 6  F r i t j o f Capra, The Turning P o i n t (New York: Schuster, Bantam Book, 1983), p. 287, 279. 1 7  Simon and  1 8  Aoki, p. 9.  1 9  A o k i , p. 9.  2 0  M a r i l y n Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy (Los J . P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 291.  Angeles: 2 1  J a r d i n e and C l a n d i n i n , p. 477.  2 2  J a r d i n e and C l a n d i n i n , p. 477.  J a r d i n e and C l a n d i n i n , p. 477, c i t i n g Barry Stevens, "Grade F i v e Geography Lesson," i n Going f o r C o f f e e : Poetry on the J o b ed. Tom Wayman (Mediera Park: Harbour P u b l i s h i n g , 1981), pp. 140-141. 2 3  f  2 4  J a r d i n e and C l a n d i n i n , p. 478.  2 5  J a r d i n e and C l a n d i n i n , p. 478.  2 6  J a r d i n e and C l a n d i n i n , p. 478,  2 7  Ferguson, p. 291,  2 8  Ferguson, p. 118,  241  2 9  Ferguson, p. 292-293.  3 0  Dewey, p. 18.  3 1  J a r d i n e , p.  3 2  Ferguson, p.  478. 293.  Madeleine Grumet, "The L i n e i s Drawn," E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p / January (1983): 36. 3 3  Michael Apple, Educational Settings," R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , eds. M. L u f t e r , J r . (Berkeley: 3 4  "The Process and Ideology of V a l u i n g i n i n E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n : A n a l y s i s and W. Apple, M. J . Subkoviak, and H. S. McCutchan, 1974), p. 9-10.  Gary Zukav, The Dancing Wu L i Masters (New W i l l i a m Morrow, Bantam Books, 1980), p. 7-8. 3 5  36 Zukav, p.  York:  8-9.  Loren E i s e l e y , The Night Country (New S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1971), p. 210. 3 7  3 8  E i s e l e y , p.  210.  3 9  E i s e l e y , p.  210.  4 0  A o k i , p. 9.  York:  Charles  A o k i , p. 10. I am indebted to Dr. Aoki f o r drawing a t t e n t i o n t o the e t y m o l o g i c a l sources of i n - s t r u c t - i n t o s t r u c t u r e , and e ( o u t ) - d u c e r e ( l e a d ) - lead out to new possibilities. 4 1  4 2  Capra, p. 35.  Madeleine Grumet, "Pedagogy f o r P a t r i a r c h y : F e m i n i z a t i o n of Teaching," Interchange 12, nos. 2-3 181. 4 3  The (1981):  my  4  4 5  Capra, p. 35. Apple, "The Process and Ideology of V a l u i n g , " p. 27  D. H. Lawrence, The Rainbow (Harmondsworth, England Penguin Book, 1968), c i t e d i n Grumet, "Pedagogy f o r P a t r i a r c h y , " pp. 165-184. 4 6  4 7  Grumet, "Pedagogy f o r P a t r i a r c h y , " p. 169.  4 8  Grumet, "Pedagogy f o r P a t r i a r c h y , " p. 174.  4 9  Grumet, "Pedagogy f o r P a t r i a r c h y , " p. 178.  Robert P i r s i g , Zen and the A r t of Motorcycle Maintenance (New York: W i l l i a m Morrow, Bantam Book, 1975), 120. 5 0  5  1  A o k i , p. 9.  Max van Manen, " P r a c t i s i n g Phenomenological Phenomenology + Pedagogy 2, no. 1 (1984): 65. 5 2  Writing  5 3  Van Manen, p. 66.  5 4  A o k i , p. 9.  5 5  Helen Reddy, "I Am Woman," No Way t o Treat a Lady, (New York: C a p i t o l Records, 1975).  cassette 5 6  Van Manen, p. 66.  5 7  A o k i , p. 9.  243  CHAPTER VII Conclusions  The coherence, artist  within  a  balance, work  of  Boughton's a r t program experience  of  decision-making  and art  established  contribute  evaluation  model,  to  by  its to  shows  how  curriculum-as-lived,  she  i s engaged i n i s analogous  Pat's  to t h a t  the of  In her classroom work of  to  be  a  warm,  s u b j e c t matter "concern "the  taught."  i s with how  child's  As  1  revealed  a  the c h i l d copes with  happiness,  career  "sensitive  carrier  in  goals,  for  the  study,  her  learning"  and  this  his  Her  supportive  environment i n which she, as a r t i s t / t e a c h e r , can be to the c h i l d as a person and not o n l y as  an  art,  i s the image of classroom as home which Pat e n v i s i o n s .  paradigmatic c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e i t  an  unity.  applied  the  a r t i s t c r e a t i n g a work of a r t . it  rhythm  ambitions,  s o c i a l i t y " are the evidence she r e l i e s upon to continue  and i n her  endeavours.* Pat's  paradigmatic  assessment of her own experiences as a practice.  criteria  are  grounded  u p b r i n g i n g as secure,  parent,  They t a c i t l y  and  in  many  in  years  personal  of  classroom  i n f l u e n c e her decision-making  e v i d e n t when she adapts classroom the needs of her c h i l d r e n ;  facilities  when she  areas;  and  to  she  as  she  This  is  better  thematically when  her  her  i n t e r a c t s with elements of the c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d .  a r t with other s u b j e c t  in  has  suit  integrates children  244  participate  i n planning  grounded i n personal  and  evaluation.  practical  These  knowledge.  actions  This  3  leads her to r e j e c t c u r r i c u l u m guide suggestions e v a l u a t i o n procedures and regarding rhythms children. she  subject of  time  daily  to subvert allotments,  living  mutually  These e x p e c t a t i o n s  knowledge  for c h e c k l i s t  administrative d i r e c t i v e s for  these  disrupt  the  with  her  established  are not coherent with the  image  wishes to c r e a t e . When she  intuitive  takes the  manner  i n i t i a t i v e to a c t i n  in  an  her  interpretation  g u i d e l i n e s , Pat's words and  a c t i o n s show t h a t  r e l a t i v e l y comfortable  w i t h i n the  t h e o r e t i c a l expectations personal There are  knowledge and occasions,  of  tension  the  imaginative,  of  curriculum  her  living  zone  between  curriculum-as-plan  and  agents, content, balanced and  sometimes  momentary,  implementation are  a g r e a t e r degree of u n i t y occurs. -  the  p o s s i b i l i t i e s - is illuminated. i s aware  when  extended,  observe  and  experiences. very s i m i l a r .  to  provided  discuss  with  me Pat  I t soon became e v i d e n t  with her  dynamically  of  and  attuned  instances she  is  the  happen  constantly encouraged.  opportunity  to  curriculum-as-lived  t h a t our worldviews  R e f l e c t i n g upon her d w e l l i n g w i t h i n the  zone between c u r r i c u l u m - a s - p l a n  times,  children  Sensitively  s t r i v i n g to p e r f e c t the means by which they can be has  resources,  At such  leading  these  true to s e l f - s e t a r t i s t i c standards,  T h i s study  the  often  outcomes, and  to her s i t u a t i o n , Pat  the  curriculum-as-lived.  the t r u t h of the a r t of t e a c h i n g i n t o new  is  a s p i r a t i o n s of the  w i t h i n her artwork when the elements of r a t i o n a l e ,  and,  are  were  tension  curriculum-as-lived  has  245  enabled me  to r e f l e c t upon and assess the q u a l i t y of my  Before beginning the study i t was examine my  p e r s o n a l paradigmatic c r i t e r i a .  d i s t a s t e f o r the science and was  necessary My  that  most  male  authority  industrial/technological  approach.  figures  my  the  qualities  art of  of  teaching,  human  existence,  is  Ferguson  an  practice, my  belief  the  unique  to  vitally  important,  work to e s t a b l i s h a balanced  by  to  attends  frequently neglected i n educational s e t t i n g s . those who  teaching  oriented  Pedagogical  which  and  perceived  r e i n f o r c e d by p a r e n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e , c o n t r i b u t e d to that  to  own s c h o o l i n g  of  experience has been i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s me as dominated by  me  distrust  of t e a c h i n g began i n my  strengthened by the f a c t  for  own.  but  In speaking  conceptual  of  structure,  observes:  They have seen change i n themselves, t h e i r f r i e n d s , t h e i r work. They are p a t i e n t and pragmatic, treasuring small v i c t o r i e s t h a t add up to a l a r g e cultural awakening; they know that o p p o r t u n i t y appears i n many g u i s e s , that d i s s o l u t i o n and pain are necessary stages i n renewal, and that ' f a i l u r e s * can be powerfully i n s t r u c t i v e . Aware t h a t deep change i n a person or an i n s t i t u t i o n can only come from within, they are gentle in their confrontation. 4  These comments are germane i n l i g h t of conducted  this  my  in myself:  My  I  i n q u i r y i n t o the nature  of s c i e n c e and a r t made me aware of the T h i s understanding  from the  as  study.  I have seen change  each.  experiences  dominant  metaphors  i n i t i a t e d a p e r s o n a l paradigm  conceptual  framework  to  s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c one v h i c h f o r me  has more  a l s o provided  to  me  with  underlying  the  means  an  shift  alternative  relevance.  articulate  knowledge gained from p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e .  It  intuitive And  this  246  has g i v e n me  the confidence to q u e s t i o n c u r r i c u l a r content and  methods, and to ask  i f my  research i s " t r u l y  contributing  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are more j u s t and r e s p o n s i v e . " I have seen change  i n my  so  that  friends:  Readings which I found They, i n t u r n ,  shared t h o u g h t f u l comments with me a f t e r r e a d i n g rough study.  initiated  by  And this  they  have  exchange  told  have  have  seen  change  in  my  me  that  drafts  reflections  contributed  e x p e r i e n c i n g a p e r s o n a l paradigm s h i f t I  they  5  i n s i g h t f u l were shared with two c l o s e f r i e n d s .  of t h i s  to  to  their  also.  work:  Reflecting  on  i n - d w e l l i n g between the two worlds of c u r r i c u l u m , and  thinking  i n terms of Boughton's model, I f i n d my  work  l a c k i n g coherence,  As a r t s p e c i a l i s t ,  balance, and rhythm.  of  my  art  to  work w i t h i n classroom spaces designed by o t h e r s , c u r t a i l e d my decision-making through schedules.  forced  adherence  Within these circumstances,  is d i f f i c u l t  f o r me.  Art i s isolated  evaluated by impersonal methods.  to  rigid  thematic into  units  of  study,  manipulation  between,  for  predominates.  art I now  Moments of t r u t h are  instruction  rather  giving  practical  simultaneous  knowledge  than  few art  but  of this  which and  I, far  education  r e a l i z e t h a t I have attended p r i m a r i l y t o  the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the than  program,  with the image of classroom as home  l i k e Pat, wish to c r e a t e .  in time  of c h i l d r e n and m a t e r i a l s I achieve the s u r f a c e appearance  does not equate  I  integration  Through s k i l l e d  a highly successful, discipline-based art  be  of  curriculum-as-plan  consideration  to  curriculum-as-lived  my  rather  personal  experiences.  247  Dynamic t e n s i o n between the two complementarities and  the  imbalance  pedagogical In  has  created  f o r me  an  is  lacking  uncomfortable  situation.  the  course  of  this  study  the  most  significant  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t I have come to i s t h a t maybe we have been f o o l i n g o u r s e l v e s a l l a l o n g . We have been t r y i n g t o change s c h o o l a r t when we should have been t r y i n g to change the s c h o o l . 6  I am not e n t i r e l y s u r p r i s e d . for  a good w h i l e .  Intuitively I  have  known  this  Leaving my s p e c i a l i s t p o s i t i o n to r e t u r n to  l i f e w i t h i n my own classroom  i s an i n i t i a l step f o r me t o take  towards e s t a b l i s h i n g a more adequately  tensioned  pedagogical  existence. Pat and I have proved  o u r s e l v e s i n the system  the e x c e p t i o n of c u r s o r y i n s p e c t i o n s every l e f t alone t o do as we wish. comfort,  three  with  years,  are  But there can be a danger i n the  s e c u r i t y , and i s o l a t i o n of a classroom  we downplay the r a t i o n a l  and,  schemes  of  " s t u d i o " where  curriculum-as-plan " i n  favour of a more c o n t e x t u a l i d i o s y n c r a t i c c u r r i c u l u m of [our] own."  7  A s t u d i o can become  a place where we q u i e t l y sabotage...without r e l e a s i n g the methods and meaning t h a t we have d e v i s e d so t h a t they may attract attention, s t i r comment, u l t i m a t e l y i n f l u e n c e textbook s e l e c t i o n , s t a t e requirements, and the i n s e r v i c e program. T e r r i b l e vulnerability accompanies a e s t h e t i c practice. Where do we f i n d the courage to r e v e a l our work? 8  From personal experience,  I can t e s t i f y  courage a r e indeed needed t o  move  that  from  the  confidence studios,  places...where teachers can c o n c e n t r a t e , can a t t e n d experience  of c h i l d r e n " to the  where the forms t h a t express  galleries,  that  to  "community  experience  are  and "safe their  spaces  shared."  9  248  The motives f o r such s h a r i n g are  open  One  seeking  a d m i n i s t r a t o r accused  through I was  the  professional  of  development  puzzled and hurt by t h i s u n t i l  speaking  from  a  perspective  c o - o p e r a t i v e support and and  me  s k i l l s are  to m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . self-aggrandizement workshops  I offered.  I recognized t h a t he  different  extension  from  of  one  in  pedagogical  was which  knowledge  valued.  B e l i e v i n g t h a t teachers must e x e r c i s e autonomy i n the a r t of t e a c h i n g , Pat and  I take  i t as our p e r s o n a l  to a c t , each i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ways. t e a c h e r - a s - a r t 1 s t analogy:  To  extend  Pat's classroom,  a s t u d i o / g a l l e r y where v i s i t o r s are always the a r t i s t - i n - r e s i d e n c e a t work.  our  through  local  welcome  Teachers  teachers have classroom.  association  jointly taken  One  to  contribute.  substitute  the  and A  opportunity  number to  of  observe very  Pat's  classroom.  Initially,  as  c l a s s , I have chosen  district  workshop route - a s e r i e s science,  computer,  and  resource of  one  person, stop  enrichment  to I  primary in  i s beginning to i n c o r p o r a t e  own  go  I was  t a k i n g too d i r e c t and  teachers what was  the r i g h t way  some  on  "showings"  the  of  art,  suggestions.  and  act.  Large for  1 0  of  tour.  followed  r a t i o n a l a route by  to think  Pat's  impressed  workshops, however, were not p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f y i n g I felt  which  district  with t h i s experience and  Not having my  are  costs  to  the  grade 1 teacher on my s t a f f was  ideas i n t o her own  watch  i n our d i s t r i c t  a p r o f e s s i o n a l development fund  teachers'  administration  Grumet's  l i k e her home, i s  encouraged to v i s i t c o l l e a g u e s ' classrooms; are covered  responsibility  me.  telling If  we  249  t r y , as t e a c h e r s , to be  " s e n s i t i v e to where c h i l d r e n a r e , what  they t h i n k , and why,"  then as resource  these same p r i n c i p l e s  i n t o p r a c t i c e and  a learning learners more  process ."^  i n which [we]  and  T h i s past year, my  intimate.  particular  Small  school  presentations.  group  have  T h i s new  persons, "see  the  replaced  must  implementation  adult  have  become  much  sessions  the  within  previous to  styles,  characteristics,  custom  suggestions  to  o p p o r t u n i t y to  their share  needs. and  e s s e n t i a l to maintain  the  and  Personal  reflect  knowledge, i s a l l important.  -  upon  Brief  momentum  to  the  learner fit  my  contact,  with  personal  practical  follow-up and  a  formal  attend  s p e c i f i c s of t e a c h e r s ' s i t u a t i o n s - p e r s o n a l facilities  as  are  format allows me  school  put  teachers  showings planning  we  the  meetings  expand  the  are  initial  l e a r n i n g , but time i s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r t h a t r e q u i r e s c r e a t i v e consideration. and  Teachers are busy people!  b r i e f moments  after  school  have  So f a r , lunch hours  been  a v a i l a b l e , but these are somewhat rushed. need to be  to be patient  i t i s slow; and  a t t e n d i n g an  introductory  times  A l t e r n a t i v e options  pragmatic:  session  on  it  A few  process  months  integrating  i s pleased  t r i e d that webbing and  The  i n small s p u r t s , with  implemented at a time.  s c i e n c e , a f i r s t year teacher I've  and  growth occurs  idea accepted  Dale,  only  developed.  I have learned i s long;  the  to  tell  works!"  after  art  me,  Such  one  and "Hey,  remarks  keep the hope a l i v e . Grumet speaks of the d i f f i c u l t  choice  a r t i s t s , t e a c h e r s , and e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s  faced when  by  female  confronted  250  by a r t i s t i c , e d u c a t i o n a l , and  academic  establishments  where 1 9  the c o n d i t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s of Does one choose t o continue  to  work  are a l i e n  accept  the  p a t t e r n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c  to  rigid  paradigm  them. *•  conceptual kaleidoscope  or does one opt f o r the d y n a m i c , i n t e r a c t i v e  concepts  new f l u i d s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c kaleidoscope?  Does  of the  one  choose  to t a l k about r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r a t h e r than a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , . . . r e p r o d u c t i o n r a t h e r than p r o d u c t i o n , . . . the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between those who bear and nurture c h i l d r e n and t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g , r a t h e r than the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the s c h o o l to the f a c t o r y , or the c o r p o r a t i o n . ? 1 3  As an e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r , about t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c as a teacher,  I have  assumptions  i n q u i r y and re-viewed i t s  roots;  I have s u r v i v e d w i t h i n a system which f r e q u e n t l y  has been harsh and p a i n - i n f l i c t i n g ; to l i v e my  questioned  life  fully,  reflecting  as a woman, I have on  my  tried  experiences  and  growing i n my understanding  of the meaning of my r e l a t i o n s h i p s  with  the  others.  It  is  fluid  patterns  of  the  s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c paradigm t h a t are meaningful t o me. The v a l i d i t y of i l l u m i n a t i v e audience's their  own  view of i t s backgrounds,  credibility. and  r e - i n t e r p r e t i n g the experiences understanding  that  i n q u i r y i s determined by the they,  imaginatively  grounded  r e - c r e a t i n g and  and  believable?  i t provides an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s of  1 4  The  of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study l i m i t the  extent t o which g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made from i t .  w i t h i n the f i e l d  in  d e s c r i b e d , d e r i v e from them an  i s persuasive  purpose and s p e c i f i c nature  Do  a r t education,  to  and  make  Instead,  researchers "naturalistic  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s " r e g a r d i n g the r o l e s of l e a r n e r , t e a c h e r ,  and  251  educational  researcher.  Stake  believes  naturalistic  generalizations develop i n a person as a product of e x p e r i e n c e . They d e r i v e from t a c i t knowledge of how t h i n g s a r e , why they are, how people f e e l about them, and how t h i n g s are l i k e l y to be i n other p l a c e s with which t h i s person i s familiar. They seldom take the form of p r e d i c t i o n s but lead r e g u l a r l y to e x p e c t a t i o n s . They guide a c t i o n , in f a c t they are i n s e p a r a b l e from a c t i o n . 5  In a  vicarious  manner,  individuals  can  experiences of o t h e r s , g a i n i n g g r e a t e r  live  through  personal  insights  the in  the p r o c e s s . Stake  i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s , of  aspect to s t u d i e s such as t h i s  course,  a  political  one:  Research aimed at generating grand generalization increases the a u t h o r i t y and dependence upon the specialist....Research aimed a t enabling users to increase understanding through naturalistic generalization offers a greater possibility of f a c i l i t a t i n g the autonomy and sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r a c t i t i o n e r . 6  From t h i s study I have l e a r n e d t h a t autonomy and  a  personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  and  which  in  turn  establish  t e a c h e r / a r t i s t ' s work. practitioner's  contribute  If  dwelling  the this in  to  balance  cohesive unity  the  is  sense  unity present,  tensionality  of  rhythm, in  a  then  a  between  c u r r i c u l u m - a s - p l a n and c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d can be  challenging  and s t i m u l a t i n g ;  the  in-dwelling  always  understood  may  i f i t i s not p r e s e n t , then  be o p p r e s s i v e and I  recognize  lacking in hope.  that  situations  17  are  a c c o r d i n g to one's conceptual viewpoint always r e l a t i v e to i t . t h e r e f o r e , the whole  Understanding  and  is  hence  never  complete  t r u t h or a d e f i n i t i v e account of  can never be a t t a i n e d .  1 8  For the moment,  then,  truth  I  is and  reality pause  on  252  t h i s thought of Loren  Eiseley's:  But [people] see d i f f e r e n t l y . I can a t best r e p o r t from my own w i l d e r n e s s . The important thing is each...possess such a w i l d e r n e s s and...consider marvels are to be observed t h e r e i n . 1 9  only that what  253  Notes  Michael C o n n e l l y and Jean C l a n d i n i n , "Personal P r a c t i c a l Knowledge and the Modes of Knowing: Relevance f o r Teaching and L e a r n i n g , " i n NSSE Yearbook 84, no. 2 (1985): 179. 1  2  C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n , p. 179.  3  C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n , p. 183.  M a r i l y n Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy, (Los Angeles: J . P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 37. 4  Michael Apple, "The Process and Ideology of V a l u i n g i n E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g s , " i n E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n : A n a l y s i s and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , eds. M. W. Apple, M. J . Subkoviak, and H. S. L u f t e r , J r . (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974), p. 28-29. 5  Arthur E f l a n d , "The School A r t S t y l e : a F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s , " Studies i n A r t Education 17, no. 2 (1976): 43. 6  Madeleine Grumet, "Conception, C o n t r a d i c t i o n , and C u r r i c u l u m , " The J o u r n a l of C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g (1981): 7  ® Madeleine Grumet, "The L i n e i s Drawn," E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, January (1983): 37. 9  Grumet, "The L i n e i s Drawn," p. 36-37.  Michael F u l l a n , The Meaning of E d u c a t i o n a l Change (Toronto: OISE, 1982), p. 119. 1 0  1 1  F u l l a n , p. 119.  1 2  Grumet, "The L i n e i s Drawn," p. 35.  1 3  Grumet, "The L i n e i s Drawn," p. 35.  294.  254  E l l i o t E i s n e r , C o g n i t i o n and Curriculum Longman, 1982), p. 61. 1  4  (New York:  Robert Stake, "The Case Study Method i n S o c i a l I n q u i r y , " E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher 7, no. 2 (1978): 6. 1  5  Robert Stake, "Case Study," i n Research, P o l i c y , and P r a c t i c e , World Yearbook of E d u c a t i o n 1985 (London: Kogan Page, 1985), p. 280. 1 6  Ted A o k i , "Teaching as In-Dwelling Between Two Curriculum Worlds," The B.C. 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