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Kaleidoscope patterns : art education in an elementary classroom 1988

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KALEIDOSCOPE PATTERNS: ART EDUCATION IN AN ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM by ELEANOR DALE COSTELLO B.Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Curriculum Studies) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1988 © Eleanor Dale Costello, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date D E - 6 ( 3 / 8 1 ) Abstract In September 1985, a new Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book was introduced in elementary schools throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate a p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s use of the guide within her classroom. Enquiry into the q u a l i t y of the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s l i v i n g within the t e n s i o n a l i t y between t h i s curriculum-as-plan and her curriculum-as-lived experience provided a counterpoint for the researcher's personal r e f l e c t i o n s on her experiences as a school art s p e c i a l i s t and d i s t r i c t resource person. An art education evaluation model based on art c r i t i c i s m concepts provided a f l e x i b l e framework for t h i s study. Classroom observations and r e f l e c t i v e dialogue between teacher and researcher raised these issues: the lack of integration and balance between a r t i s t i c , l i n g u i s t i c , and mathematical modes of learning within the o v e r a l l school curriculum; the nature of school a r t , c h i l d art and art appreciation as each relates to curriculum goals for art education; evaluation in art education; and the "being" of children and the "being" of women teachers within present educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . The study generated r e f l e c t i o n s on possible changes in the roles of learners, teachers, art s p e c i a l i s t s , and educational researchers as they adapt to curriculum change. Table of Contents Page L i s t of Figures v i Chapter 1. Beginnings 1 The Nature of Paradigms 3 A r t i s t i c Paradigm "Kaleidoscope" Patterns 7 S c i e n t i f i c Paradigm "Kaleidoscope" Patterns 11 T r a d i t i o n a l Educational Research 15 O b j e c t i v i t y 17 Reductionism 20 A New S c i e n t i f i c Paradigm 23 A New S c i e n t i f i c / A r t i s t i c Paradigm 28 "Illuminative" Educational Research 32 Notes 37 2. The Research Project 46 Research Problem 46 Methodological Choices 47 Research Model 49 Outline of Study 53 Data C o l l e c t i o n . 56 Data Analysis and Interpretation 59 i i i Chapter * Page Notes 62 3. Halloween .67 Curriculum-as-plan - Rationale 84 Curriculum-as-lived 85 Reflections on an integrated balanced approach to learning 95 Notes 105 4. Animal Cartoons 107 Curriculum-as-plan - Goals 120 Curriculum-as-lived 120 Reflections on school art and c h i l d art 128 Reflections on art appreciation . . . . . 133 Notes 142 5. Winter Fun 145 Curriculum-as-plan - Conceptual Model 167 Curriculum-as-lived 168 Curriculum-as-plan - Evaluation 177 Curriculum-as-lived 178 Reflections on evaluation of educational goals 185 Notes 196 6. Valentine's Day 198 Curriculum-as-plan - Being 209 Curriculum-as-lived 209 Refle tions on children's "being" in classrooms 220 iv Chapter Page Reflections on women teachers' "being" in classrooms 232 Notes 239 7. Conclusions 243 Notes 253 Bibliography 255 v L i s t of Figures Figure Page 1. Model for Art C r i t i c i s m 49 2. Model for Curriculum Evaluation 51 3. Halloween Witches 68 4. Maria's Pumpkin Face 69 5. Halloween Ghosts 70 6. Halloween Magic 73 7. Leah Preparing a Potato Block 76 8. Leah's F i r s t Potato Print 77 9. Jack-0'Lanterns on a Fence 79 10. Potato Print Pumpkin 83 11. Planning Web for Autumn 86 12. October Leaves 87 13. Classroom Focal Point 94 14. Chalkboard Drawing I l l 15. Pat Going to Help Shawn 112 16. Shawn's "Fox Wearing Socks" 113 17. Shawn, Gary, and Richard 115 18. Shawn Drawing with Fe l t s 117 19. Sharing Animal Cartoons 118 20. One of Pat's " L i t t l e Monkeys"! 119 21. "Can You Draw a Bear?" 121 v i Figure Page 22. Pat at Home 125 23. Cross-country Skis 145 24. Winter Words 146 25. Shawn's Picture of Winter Fun 151 26. Sabrina and Leah 152 27. Painting with "Snow" 154 28. Looking at the Horizon 156 29. Leah Using the Graph 160 30. Carie and David 161 31. Pat Consulting with Shawn 164 32. Conceptual Model for Visual Arts 167 33. Suggestions for Valentines 199 34. Jessica, David, Sabrina, Jamie, Chad . . . . 203 35. A Broken Heart! 204 36. Mending a Broken Heart 205 37. Shawn and Leah and "Friend" 208 v i i Acknowledgements The deep joy that I experienced in the process of working on t h i s thesis resulted in large measure from my relationships with some very fine people. I offer my gratitude to Pat V i t t e r y , for her trust in sharing with me her thoughts and feelings on art education - and so much more; Leah, my daughter, for her love and patience with a Type A personality mother; Each c h i l d in each of my classes, for teaching me.; Harry Locke and Ted Aoki, for being superb educators who encouraged me to question my "being-in-the-world" with thoughtfulness and wonder; My rosy mentor, Ulysses, for his f a i t h and in s p i r a t i o n ; My network of r e l a t i v e s , friends, and colleagues who supported and encouraged me in innumerable ways; Ron MacGregor, for patient advice. I thank each one for the understandings that I have gained in undertaking t h i s study. v i i i 1 CHAPTER I Beginnings Research. As I began my graduate studies, I was informed that each candidate for a master's degree, in addition to completing the required coursework, i s expected to undertake an o r i g i n a l research project. But what exactly does research mean? I consulted my dictionary. According to i t s d e f i n i t i o n , research i s "a careful search or inquiry a f t e r , " "a c r i t i c a l investigation."1 I considered the deeper etymological meaning of the word. Re-search. The prefix "re-" means "again, back;" the root "search" means "to look for what may be found or to find something of which presence is suspected, probe." My involvement in research, therefore, would be to undertake an inquiry in which I would "look again" at an aspect of my subject area, in the hope of adding to exist i n g knowledge and increasing understanding. Such an inquiry, i f I examined the dictionary d e f i n i t i o n further, was to be a " s c i e n t i f i c study of a subject." This appeared f a i r l y straightforward. Why, then, the feelings of unease and d i s t r u s t that the word research gave me? Research was associated with a thick undergrowth of s t a t i s t i c s tangled in a confusing jungle of jargon. In an examination of research papers, I could spend hours in painstaking "hacking away" analysis, only to come to a clearing of minute meaning that I often found d i f f i c u l t to relate to my own experiences. 2 Perhaps i t was a lack of tr a i n i n g on my part, I thought. With hopes of sharpening my "machete" s k i l l s , I took a course in Educational Research Methods - and came away only s l i g h t l y less d u l l , but markedly more disturbed. Before beginning my own research, before I could choose a problem or decide the methods I would use to study i t , I f e l t i t necessary to examine why the feelings of unease and di s t r u s t persisted. In my day-to-day experiences such feelings often occur when I encounter inconsistencies, when one thing i s said and another done, when things do not seem to " t i e together." So I began to look for inconsistencies in what I knew of educational research, finding one in the introduction to my textbook on the subject. Walter Borg and Meredith G a l l state that "the f i e l d of education i s a mixture of a r t and science." They go on to say, however, "we f i t educational research into the context of s c i e n t i f i c theory and methodology." 2 Why only scientific theory and methodology? I wondered. I f education i s a mixture of art and science, why not f i t the research of it into the context of artistic theory and methodology as well? As I had only limited understanding of both science and a r t , I f e l t that some preliminary inquiry into the nature of both might provide me with some answers. It might also help me determine i f t h i s inconsistency was connected to my general misgivings about research. It did. And i t was. The knowledge I gained of c l a s s i c a l and new physics theory, s c i e n t i f i c method, art and aesthetic theory, and art c r i t i c i s m led me to further i n q u i r i e s and discoveries about metaphor and meaning. A summary of my 3 readings and experiences may help to show how the understandings I came to in these various f i e l d s were integrated into my choice of research model and methodology, as well as into my interpretations of my research findings. The Nature of a Paradigm "We are one of the many appearances of the thing c a l l e d L i f e , " wrote Loren Eise l e y . ^ And what does i t mean to me to be alive? I thought. In the most basic sense, to be a l i v e i s to be involved in a process, a continuous interactive r e l a t i o n s h i p , "a general stream of experiences" with one's environment.^ Dewey describes the environment as both physical and human; thus, i t includes "the materials of t r a d i t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n s as well as l o c a l surroundings." He explains the interactive q u a l i t y of experiences by re f e r r i n g to the fact that the organism brings with i t through i t s own structure, native and acquired, forces that play a part in the inter a c t i o n . The s e l f acts as well as undergoes, and i t s undergoings are not impressions stamped upon an inert wax but depend upon the way the organism reacts and responds.... Both inner [mental] and outer [physical] factors are so incorporated that each has l o s t i t s spe c i a l character....Things and events belonging to the world, physical and s o c i a l , are transformed through the human context they enter, while the l i v e creature is changed and developed through i t s intercourse with things previously external to i t . But How do human beings make sense of the world they live in? One way i s a d i r e c t physical understanding. Some of the di f f e r e n t ways in which we come to d i r e c t understanding are through knowing ourselves and objects as bounded e n t i t i e s ; recognizing the gestalt, the multidimensional whole, in which we e x i s t , or focusing on pa r t i c u l a r aspects of i t ; and being aware of in t e r a c t i o n a l properties, products of our 4 relationships with objects or events. Direct understanding i s incorporated into, and in turn affected by, ind i r e c t understanding. This is personal or t a c i t knowing. Polanyi says: to know something by r e l y i n g on our awareness of i t for attending to something else i s to have the same kind of knowledge of i t that we have of our body by l i v i n g in i t . It i s a manner of being or e x i s t i n g . This description of in-dwelling i s as circuitous and complex as t h i s type of understanding! Polanyi, however, believes that "we can only point to the existence of t a c i t integration in our experience....This does not come about by means of s p e c i f i a b l e , e x p l i c i t , l o g i c a l l y operative steps."' In ind i r e c t understanding, a l l of the resources previously mentioned for d i r e c t understanding are used, but meaning i s achieved through metaphorical conception which requires an act of imagination. 8 Lakoff and Johnson explain that "the essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another."^ They remind us that "we tend to think we have di r e c t access to our own feelings and ideas and not to anybody else 1 s . . . . But r e a l l y deep understanding of why we do what we do, f e e l what we f e e l , change as we change, and even believe what we believe takes us beyond ourselves."^ u Indirect knowing occurs within an interactive network or system; metaphorical or conceptual systems are s i m i l a r l y systemic, products of "the kind of beings we are and the way we interact with our physical and c u l t u r a l environments. "H "Conceptual frameworks, 1 , 1 2 "cosmological or Gestalt s t r u c t u r e s , 1 , 1 3 "root metaphors," 1^ "world views, and "paradigms"^ are some of 5 the terms used by d i f f e r e n t authors to refer to patterns of metaphorical concepts found within human society. A common thread running through their discussions i s that these frameworks determine r e a l i t y for us: Each culture must provide a more or less successful way of dealing with i t s environment, both adapting to i t and changing i t . Moreover, each culture must define a s o c i a l r e a l i t y within which people have roles that make sense to them and in terms of which they can function socially....The s o c i a l r e a l i t y defined by a culture a f f e c t s i t s conception of physical r e a l i t y . What i s real for an i n d i v i d u a l as a member of a culture i s a product both of his s o c i a l r e a l i t y and the way in which that shapes his experience of the physical world. Since much of our s o c i a l r e a l i t y i s understood in metaphorical terms, and since our conception of the physical world i s p a r t l y metaphorical, metaphor plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role in determining what is re a l for us. ' Lakoff and Johnson emphasize that metaphorical structuring is only p a r t i a l . If i t were not, then "one concept would a c t u a l l y be the other, not merely understood in terms of the other."*® These structures focus on some aspects of r e a l i t y and conceal others. In l i v i n g within a conceptual framework, experiences which f i t in to the framework w i l l be accepted as true; those which do not w i l l be rejected. "The structure, therefore, sets the values, bestows meaning, determines the morals, ethi c s , aims, l i m i t a t i o n s , and purpose of l i f e . It imposes on the external world the contemporary tor c u l t u r a l ] version of r e a l i t y . " ^ Dominant conceptual frameworks or paradigms s h i f t and give way to new ones. Kuhn's discussion of the revolutionary nature of paradigms i s s p e c i f i c a l l y directed to s c i e n t i f i c paradigms, yet much of what he says can be applied to other d i s c i p l i n e s , as well as to larger s o c i e t a l frameworks. Societies are not s t a t i c ; they fluctuate and evolve in 6 response to changing conditions. u Contradictions or anomalies within the e x i s t i n g paradigm are noticed and hidden assumptions are questioned. 2 1- After a long gestation period in which d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n over the f a i l u r e of the old paradigm to deal with anomalies s t e a d i l y expands, the b i r t h of a new one occurs in a flash of i n t u i t i o n . Kuhn outlines the process: No ordinary sense of the term "interpretation" f i t s these flashes of i n t u i t i o n through which a new paradigm is b o r n . Though s u c h i n t u i t i o n s depend upon the experience, both anomalous and congruent, gained with the old paradigm, they are not l o g i c a l l y or piecemeal linked to particular items of that experience as an interpretation would be. Instead, they gather up large portions of that experience and transform them to the rather d i f f e r e n t bundle of experience that w i l l thereafter be linked piecemeal to the new paradigm but not the old. * E a r l i e r in his discussion, Kuhn mentions that "the decision to reject one paradigm is always simultaneously the decision to accept another." 2 3 New paradigms are concerned with the same "bundle of data," but place "them within a new system of relations with one another by giving them a new framework."2^ To emphasize the d r a s t i c , i r r e v e r s i b l e , revolutionary nature of the new way of thinking involved in a paradigm s h i f t , Kuhn i n i t i a l l y likens i t to "a change in v i s u a l gestalt...[without] the gestalt subject's freedom to switch back and forth between ways of s e e i n g . " 2 5 In an attempt at further c l a r i f i c a t i o n , he later compares i t to the point when, in the learning of a foreign language, an individual suddenly finds himself "thinking and working in t i t ] , not simply t r a n s l a t i n g . 1 , 2 6 Briggs and Peat make an analogy between paradigms and spectacles. "Every now and then a 'paradigm s h i f t ' occurs in which these [old] spectacles get smashed and 7 iindividualsJ put on new ones that turn everything upside down, sideways, and a d i f f e r e n t colour....A new generation i s brought up wearing the new glasses and accepting the new vi s i o n as natural and t r u e . " ^ The metaphor of paradigm as a kaleidoscope i s employed by Marilyn Ferguson, who states that by d e f i n i t i o n , revolutions are not l i n e a r , one step at a time, event A leading to event B, and so on. Many causes operate on each other at once. Revolutions s h i f t into place suddenly, l i k e the pattern in a kaleidoscope. They do not so much proceed as c r y s t a l l i z e . ^ 8 Eiseley also uses kaleidoscope imagery when he refers to the ris k s and resistance associated with paradigm change: The great synthesizer who a l t e r s the outlook of a generation, who suddenly produces a kaleidoscope change in our v i s i o n of the world, i s apt to be the most envied, feared, and hated man among his contemporaries. Almost by i n s t i n c t they f e e l in him the seed of a new order; they sense, even as they anathematize him, the passing away of the sane substantial world they have long inhabited. Such a man is a kind of lens or gathering point through which past thought gathers, i s reorganized, and radiates outward again in new forms. ^ What I learned about paradigms and paradigm s h i f t , can be related to my o r i g i n a l problem of "education as art and science." What are the conceptual frameworks, the kaleidoscope patterns, for each of these areas?^" And how do they f i t into the context of the larger c u l t u r a l metaphorical structure? A r t i s t i c Paradigm "Kaleidoscope" Patterns What are the patterns viewed when one looks at the world through an a r t i s t i c kaleidoscope? Dewey believes that art i s a particular kind of experience in which attention i s centred on a work of ar t ; a continuous interplay of perceiving and feeling occurs and contributes to both the s i g n i f i c a n t content of the work and a unifi e d understanding of i t . 3 1 He goes on 8 to say that "d i f f e r e n t acts, episodes, occurrences melt and fuse into unity, and yet do not disappear and lose t h e i r own character as they do so....The existence of t h i s unity is constituted by a single g u a l i t y that pervades the entire experience in spite of the v a r i a t i o n of i t s constituent p a r t s . " 3 2 This q u a l i t y c l a r i f i e s and concentrates meanings "contained in scattered and weakened ways in the materials of other experiences" of our everyday l i v e s . 3 3 Polanyi echoes t h i s idea: The arts are imaginative representations...which produce - a meaning of d i s t i n c t i v e quality....Works of art [stand out] from the shapeless flow of both personal and public l i f e . 3 4 In Polanyi's view, the unif i e d q u a l i t y that characterizes a r t i s t i c experiences results from an integration of important content within a r t i s t i c r e s t r a i n t s or frames. A r t i s t s create works of art in their attempt to understand the world of which they are a part: [They] search for a means of solving a problem - a problem which i s conceived for t h i s very purpose, i . e . , i t s solution; and they pursue th i s quest while continuing to shape the problem so that i t w i l l better f i t the means for solving it....An a r t i s t i c problem i s an imaginative a n t i c i p a t i o n , not of unknown facts that already do ex i s t , in some sense in nature, but of a fact of the imagination - of a poem or a painting that could exist....The a r t i s t ' s work is a continuous invention of means for expressing his aims, coupled wi£h readjustment of his aims in the l i g h t of his means. 3 5 A r t i s t i c creation i s an interactive process flowing back and forth between the a r t i s t and the materials. An individual experiencing a work of art i s involved in an act of creation analogous to what the a r t i s t experiences in ori g i n a t i n g the work of a r t . Against a background of personal experiences, the perceiver attends to and organizes the raw 9 materials of sensory patterns formed by sounds, colours, gestures, textures, or combinations of these;... formal properties or design that give shape or character to the pattern of sensory q u a l i t i e s ; . . . technical properties pertaining to s k i l l s of performance in the medium. 6 The interactive relationship of these properties with expressive metaphors of feelings, insights, and ideas ( i . e . t a c i t knowledge), illuminates the meaning embodied within the gestalt or h o l i s t i c nature of the work of a r t . Just as the a r t i s t selected, s i m p l i f i e d , c l a r i f i e d , abridged, and condensed according to his interest....The beholder must go through these operations according to his point of view and his in t e r e s t . In both, an act of abstraction, that i s , extraction of what i s s i g n i f i c a n t , takes place. In both, there is comprehension in i t s l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n - that i s , a gathering of d e t a i l s and p a r t i c u l a r s p h y s i c a l l y scattered into an experienced whole. There i s work to be done on the part of the percipient as there i s on the part of the a r t i s t . 3 7 This re-creation i s "predominantly an instance of perception O Q rather than discursive reasoning or memory."JO An attempt to explicate or create a discursive equivalent of the experience reinforces t h i s point. Words, in t h e i r l o g i c a l , linear fashion, focus on parts of the experience, but are inadequate to capture the multidimensional, instantaneous whole. "A picture i s worth a thousand words" says i t well. Imagination i s the key element in creating a work of a r t , an e s s e n t i a l factor in the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t i s t and materials; i t i s also the key element in experiencing a work of a r t , the e s s e n t i a l connection between that-which-is-perceived and the perceiver. Tacit knowledge contributes in large measure to the a r r i v a l , seemingly sudden and out of the blue, of both imagination and i t s close companion, i n t u i t i o n . In Dewey's words: 10 In t u i t i o n i s that meeting of the old and new in which the readjustment involved in every form of consciousness i s effected suddenly by means of a quick and unexpected harmony which in i t s abrupt brightness i s l i k e a fla s h of revelation; although in fact i t i s prepared for by long and slow incubation....[The term imagination] designates a q u a l i t y that animates and pervades a l l processes of making and observation. It i s a way of seeing and fe e l i n g things as they compose an integral whole. It is the large and generous blending of interests at the point where the mind comes in contact with the world. When old and f a m i l i a r things are made new in experience, there i s imagination. When the new i s created, the far and the strange become the most natural and inevitable things in the world, There Is always some measure of adventure in the meeting of mind and universe, and t h i s adventure is...imagination. ™ Both metaphors and paradigm s h i f t s Involve i n t u i t i o n and imagination in making the old and f a m i l i a r , new. A work of a r t , as a re s u l t of i t s expressive properties, communicates meaning. This inherent meaning is i n d i v i d u a l l y experienced by both the a r t i s t and the perceiver and can not be generalized. Art c r i t i c s can make judgements of the v a l i d i t y of the work, both in and of i t s e l f and in comparison with other works of i t s kind, but standards are p r i m a r i l y determined by the a r t i s t . 4 * * For, as Polanyi emphasizes: Art has no tests external to a r t . Its making and acceptance must therefore be ultimately grounded on the decision of i t s maker, interacting, i t i s true, with both t r a d i t i o n and the public, but nevertheless interacting by and through the maker's own judgements....[An a r t i s t ] must labour to meet his s e l f - s e t standards.... He may be the f i r s t ever to recognize them, yet he feels himself bound to them, not superior to them. 4* Frequently, the a r t i s t ' s imagination provides such unusual and unexpected solutions to problems that their novelty s t a r t l e s and c h i l l s audiences, snugly blanketed in their tradition-bound expectations. " [ A r t i s t s ' ] perseverance in the teeth of public r e j e c t i o n may often be a better test of s e l f - s e t standards than a ready public acceptance of their 11 work. 4 2 An a r t i s t i c "kaleidoscope" paradigm contains f l u i d patterns of r e a l i t y . Although i t accommodates periodic schematic s h i f t s , i t s esse n t i a l nature i s the dynamic, response of the unique i n d i v i d u a l . For neither in the act of creating nor in perceiving art can there ever be one s t a t i c prescriptive pattern v i s i b l e . S c i e n t i f i c Paradigm "Kaleidoscope" Patterns What are the patterns of reality which cyzstallize in a s c i e n t i f i c "kaleidoscope" paradigm? Science, l i k e a r t , i s a way of knowing the world. Within Western society today, science i s often considered "an unalterable and absolute system." 4 3 But, in fact, s c i e n t i f i c searches for truth have varied in d i f f e r e n t time periods and in d i f f e r e n t cultures and so have the conceptualizations of r e a l i t y entailed in and resul t i n g from them. With each s h i f t of a s c i e n t i f i c "kaleidoscope," a completely d i f f e r e n t new world view c l i c k s into place. "A new paradigm doesn't build on the paradigm i t replaces; i t turns in an e n t i r e l y new d i r e c t i o n . " 4 4 It isn't that we know the universe in a d i f f e r e n t way; instead, "we know a d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s e . " 4 5 Kuhn warns that we should be cautious about abruptly dismissing out-of-date b e l i e f s as myths, not science, for myths can be produced by the same sort of methods and held for the same sort of reasons that now lead to s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. If...they are to be c a l l e d science, then science has included bodies of b e l i e f quite incompatible with the ones we hold today. 4^ Instead of expecting these b e l i e f s to contribute in a way which makes sense to us within the context of our present 12 knowledge and our current conceptual structure, we should judge them on the basis of their coherence within th e i r own time p e r i o d . 4 7 With t h i s in mind, i t i s important to note that the foundation of the s c i e n t i f i c conceptual structure which dominates modern Western society was set in place " i n accordance with the general conception of r e a l i t y prevalent during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth c e n t u r i e s . " 4 8 During t h i s period, people were fascinated with i n t r i c a t e clockworks and mechanical toys; thus, a cosmos-as-machine metaphor was coherent with everyday experience. This metaphor underlies the work of three i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i viduals: Francis Bacon, who promoted the use of what we now c a l l the s c i e n t i f i c method; Isaac Newton, who developed a mathematical theory with which to describe the entire motion of the universe; and Rene Descartes, who provided a philosophical rationale. The source of Newton's ins p i r a t i o n was physics, the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e concerned with the study of matter and the forces a f f e c t i n g i t : Matter was thought to be the basis of a l l existence, and the natural world was seen as a multitude of separate objects assembled into a huge machine. Like human-made machines, the cosmos machinery was thought to consist of elementary p a r t s . 4 ^ Newton incorporated four sets of basic concepts into his mechanical explanation of the universe. F i r s t , were "the concepts of absolute space and time, and of separate objects moving in t h i s space and interacting with one another." 5 0 If the workings of a clock could be explained by reducing i t to 13 i t s basic components and describing the mechanisms by which they interacted, i t was reasonable, then, that anything in the physical world, no matter how complex, could be s i m i l a r l y reduced and understood. If t h i s process of reduction could allow cause-effect relationships to be i d e n t i f i e d , then the a b i l i t y to predict and subsequently control the natural world would follow. For Newton and others who came afte r him, this was the ultimate purpose of science, to explain nature down to the very l a s t d e t a i l in order that man might control her. 5^ Second, was "the concept of fundamental forces, e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from matter" and t h i r d , c l o s e l y t i e d in with t h i s , was "the concept of fundamental laws describing the motion and mutual interactions of the material objects in terms of quantitative r e l a t i o n s . " 5 2 This f i t well with Bacon's proposal for a systematic approach to s c i e n t i f i c study: By f i r s t gathering data, formulating a limited hypothesis , and then using this knowledge to gather more data, the investigator could proceed in a careful and orderly way to uncover nature's laws. 5 3 By the meticulous use of instruments for detailed observation, common standards could be established, allowing for accurate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and description of objects and t h e i r relationships. Such description would provide the basic facts v i t a l for prediction and control, the main purpose of 54 s c i e n c e . J H The fourth concept of Newtonian mechanics was that "of rigorous determinism, and the notion of an objective description of nature based on the Cartesian d i v i s i o n between mind and matter." 5 5 In his conceptualization of nature, 14 Descartes emphasized the dichotomy between res cogitans, the thinking thing (observer), and res extensa...the extended thing (object or phenomena in nature to be observed). 5^ According to him, each existed in i t s own domain and was e s s e n t i a l l y separate from the other: As a consequence...the world was believed to be a mechanical system that could be described objectively without ever mentioning the human observer and such an objective description of nature became the ideal of a l l the s c i e n c e s . 5 ' In contrast then, to inquiry based on an a r t i s t i c or subjective philosophy where the observer is a v i t a l participant in the experience of investigation, a s c i e n t i f i c or p o s i t i v i s t i c approach requires the complete separation of observer and the phenomena being considered. 5 8 O b j e c t i v i t y and reductionism, means to prediction and control, are the two main tenets of the c l a s s i c a l s c i e n t i f i c paradigm. Several s c i e n t i s t s and l i n g u i s t s have described the pervasiveness of th i s paradigm, not only as i t applies to sciences other than physics, but also as i t applies to the o v e r a l l conceptual structure of Western society; how i t i s instrumental in our perception of the nature and function of s o c i a l relationships, law, government, business, the media, and education. Even our language i s shaped by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r metaphorical conceptualization of the universe as seventeenth century machine! 5^ I was developing a clearer understanding of the kaleidoscope patterns for both the a r t i s t i c and s c i e n t i f i c paradigms. The a r t i s t i c kaleidoscope allows individuals personal glimpses of a constantly f l u i d r e a l i t y ; a s c i e n t i f i c 15 kaleidoscope provides one c r y s t a l l i z e d pattern which remains s t a t i c and standardized for a l l to view u n t i l , every so often, i t i s given a sudden turn and a new pattern c l i c k s into place. The influence of each paradigm upon educational research r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r examination, however, to c l a r i f y my misgivings concerning current investigative approaches. Tradi t i o n a l Educational Research The cosmos-as-machine metaphor inherent in the s c i e n t i f i c paradigm was extended throughout society during the Industrial Revolution by adoption of a reductionist, piece-meal approach in factory production. For e f f i c i e n t production, i t was necessary to "make enough goods to meet demand, solve the technical problems of production, maintain high standards of qual i t y , . . . organize the administration, [and] teach the workforce how to handle technology."^ 0 This factory model was later applied to schools; the values i m p l i c i t in i t were incorporated into theories of education - children could be e f f i c i e n t l y "assembly-lined" through twelve years of schooling to emerge at the end as educated products, s k i l l e d workers ready to f u l f i l l the needs of the business world. As Eisner points out: The images that have been s a l i e n t in the educational research community have been largely i n d u s t r i a l and technological. [Researchers] have been primarily concerned with the development and use of techniques for purposes of management and control. When a public i s nervous about the e f f i c a c y of i t s schools, i t tends to tighten up and to seek evidence concerning t h e i r productivity. For the educational research community, by and large, t h i s has meant finding techniques that e f f i c i e n t l y produce what is desired and using 'objective' means for demonstrating the effectiveness of the technique chosen.^ An example of the type of p o s i t i v i s t i c research of which 16 Eisner speaks is the study on B r i t i s h schools, Fifteen Thousand Hours f conducted by Peter Mortimore and others.** 2 Their findings have s t i r r e d considerable interest in the education community and have contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to what is known as the "Effective Schools" movement.63 According to Borg and G a l l , the main purpose of such studies i s to develop new knowledge about teaching and learning and administration....Applied research helps d i r e c t l y to validate the effectiveness of programs, methods, and tests used in the nation's schools...and w i l l eventually lead to the improvement of educational p r a c t i c e . " 4 They subsequently mention, however, that contemporary researchers in education, e s p e c i a l l y applied researchers, tend not to dwell on the philosophic assumptions underlying their methods of inquiry. 5 Operating within a coherent, long-established research framework, they no longer need to ask i f pa r t i c u l a r problems or solutions are l e g i t i m a t e . 6 6 Not to be consciously and continuously aware of the assumptions under which one operates, nor to be questioning them is a d e r e l i c t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Surely educational researchers ought to thoughtfully examine and re-evaluate the assumptions i m p l i c i t in programs and methods before determining i f these are e f f e c t i v e . Gary Zukav's thoughts have some bearing on t h i s issue: Our minds follow d i f f e r e n t rules than the r e a l world does. A r a t i o n a l mind, based on the impressions that i t receives from i t s limited perspectives, forms structures which thereafter determine what i t further w i l l and w i l l not accept f r e e l y . From that point on, regardless of how the r e a l world a c t u a l l y operates, t h i s r a t i o n a l mind following i t s self-imposed rules t r i e s to superimpose on the r e a l world i t s own version of what must be. [Was this what was happening with the effective schools research, I wondered?] This continues u n t i l at long l a s t a beginner's mind c r i e s out, This i s not r i g h t . What "must be" i s not happening. I have t r i e d and t r i e d to discover 17 why t h i s is so. I have stretched my imagination to the l i m i t to preserve my b e l i e f in what "must be." The breaking point has come. Now I have no choice but to admit that the "must" I have believed in does not come from the real world, but from my own head. 7 [Or the 'head' of the current research paradigm!] Zukav says that i t takes someone young or new to the f i e l d to notice that "the emperor has no clothes." Educational research, grounded in t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c thought, i s rather skimpily a t t i r e d . We are encouraged to believe that science provides us with a methodology that allows us to r i s e above our subjective limitations and to achieve understanding from a un i v e r s a l l y v a l i d and unbiased point of view. Science can ultimately give a correct, d e f i n i t i v e , and general account of r e a l i t y , and through i t s methodology, i t is constantly progressing toward that g o a l . 6 8 Our society's dominant conceptual framework, grounded in t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f c thought, has prediction and control as i t s basic p i l l a r s of b e l i e f , propped up by the concepts of o b j e c t i v i t y and reductionism. Any contemporary researcher who i s not content to t a c i t l y accept the philosphical assumptions of the prevailing s c i e n t i f i c paradigm, needs to ask: Just how strong are those two methodological props, objectivity and reductionism? Objectivity Being detached from personal emotions supposedly allows one to conduct s c i e n t i f i c inquiry in a r a t i o n a l rather than i r r a t i o n a l manner; thus, we are t o l d the e s s e n t i a l objective truth about r e a l i t y can be obtained. A survey of s c i e n t i f i c paradigm structures, however, raises doubts that complete imp a r t i a l i t y is ever possible for "the i n i t i a l cosmological structure sets the o v e r a l l pattern of r e a l i t y in which the 18 other structures work." 0 3 From the outset, a paradigm's comprehensive system creates an expectation of r e a l i t y which provides a general guideline for s c i e n t i f i c inquiry. This establishment of boundaries within which research can occur has some interesting consequences: f i r s t , "the structure indicates the best means of solving puzzles which by themselves are designated by the structure as being in need of solution;" 70 second, the idea of a puzzle in i t s e l f implies that there can be a solution; t h i r d , there are rules for puzzle solving, e x p l i c i t statements of concepts, theories, and laws (these had been c l e a r l y l a i d down for me in courses on educational research methods); fourth, "there i s a multitude of commitments to preferred types of instrumentation and to the ways in which accepted instruments may be legitimately employed;" 7 1 and f i n a l l y , the results or solution is judged by other individuals who are part of the structure. Objectivity i s supposed to be a "passive and disinterested process", but in actual fact "every stage of the investigation... has been shaped by the preceding stage." ' * If a researcher t r i e s to go beyond the established boundaries, the work may be considered "unnecessary or counter-productive;" 7 3 i f results do not f a l l within the expected and acceptable solution r e s t r i c t i o n s , they may be dismissed as i n a c c u r a t e . 7 4 Impartiality can hardly be possible within an accepted paradigm's r e s t r i c t i o n s . Confirmation of doubts about impartial o b j e c t i v i t y may be obtained from the realm of modern physics. Physicists have established that in the act of observing, the observer, no 19 matter how s t r i c t the e f f o r t s to be detached, a l t e r s what is seen and thus "observer and observed are interrelated in a r e a l and fundamental sense." 7 5 In a 1927 microscope experiment, for example, Heisenberg t r i e d to determine i f l i g h t was composed of waves or p a r t i c l e s . He demonstrated that, depending upon his choice of instruments, either the position ( p a r t i c l e q u a l i t i e s ) or the momentum (wave q u a l i t i e s ) of a quantum object could be discerned, but not both at once. For "when the values of certain observables are measured, others become uncertain... the actual properties of objects could no longer be separated from the act of measurement and thus from the measurer h i m s e l f . " 7 6 It i s simply not possible to refine and redesign experiments to reduce a l l possible external influences and achieve purely objective r e s u l t s . The s c i e n t i s t cannot be a "spectator to nature." 7 7 A research parameter i s set by the overa l l paradigm; there is a relationship between observer, instruments, and what i s observed. To add a further blow to the already shaky o b j e c t i v i t y prop, personal p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the individual researcher must be acknowledged integral to s c i e n t i f i c inquiry as well. From the i n i t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a problem, to the setting up of the inquiry, to the f i n a l solution i t s e l f , the investigator's i n t u i t i o n and imagination come into play. Intuition integrates previous experience and background; imagination introduces novelty. Polanyi explains the interaction of the two: F i r s t an idea appears, guided by i n t u i t i o n , to be pondered by the imagination. Second, the imagination is l e t loose to f e r r e t out possible clues, guided by i n t u i t i v e feelings. And t h i r d , an idea offers i t s e l f 20 i n t u i t i v e l y as a possible conclusion, to be pondered in i t s turn in the l i g h t of the imagination.... In s c i e n t i f i c inquiry the imagination is heavily engaged in i t s quest for the missing solution, In t h i s i t must be guided by powers of a n t i c i p a t i o n since otherwise i t s chances of h i t t i n g on an appropriate hypothesis would be one in a m i l l i o n . This point is fundamental [my i t a l i c s ] The imagination does not work l i k e a computer, surveying millions of possibly useless al t e r n a t i v e s ; rather i t works by producing ideas that are guided by a fine sense of their p l a u s i b i l i t y , ideas which contain the aspects of the solution from the s t a r t . ' 8 It i s f a l l a c i o u s , therefore, to believe that the elimination of any reference to the observer, along with an almost obsessive reliance on quantified data and mathematical language, w i l l guarantee precision and o b j e c t i v i t y , thereby providing v a l i d i t y for the findings. If i t i s impossible to achieve purely objective conditions in the study of subatomic p a r t i c l e s where matter has been reduced to i t s most simple terms, how much greater the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of achieving o b j e c t i v i t y in investigating more complex phenomena such as classrooms and schools! Reductionism Descartes believed that a l l problems concerning the nature of r e a l i t y could be approached by breaking them into small pieces and, by thinking about them in a l o g i c a l manner, a solution, i . e . the truth, could be reached. Reductionism i s an unwieldy, incomplete tool with which to examine complexity, however: When s c i e n t i s t s reduce an integral whole to fundamental building blocks - whether they are c e l l s , genes, or elementary p a r t i c l e s - and t r y to explain a l l of the phenomena in terms of these elements, they lose the a b i l i t y to understand the co-ordinating a c t i v i t i e s of the whole system.™ This has often been the s i t u a t i o n in education where perhaps 21 the best example of reductionism is the behavioural objectives model of schooling. It was f i r s t developed in the 1930's by Ralph Tyler and has since been adopted and adapted by educational experts throughout North America. With i t s perception of "curriculum development as a technological problem of product s p e c i f i c a t i o n and manufacture," t h i s model f i t s b e a u t i f u l l y into the dominant industrial/technological mode of t h i n k i n g . 8 0 In thi s model, intended performance gains ( i . e . c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d educational objectives expressed in measurable behavioural terms) are organized into s p e c i f i e d learning experiences; proof of pay-off is determined through quantified testing, thus establishing that pre-specified goals have been a t t a i n e d . 8 * But many educators r e a l i z e that not a l l worthwhile educational goals can be reduced to e a s i l y measurable, short-term s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Establishing a love of learning i s an example of this type of goal. And Eisner warns that: It i s too easy , when one focuses on the achievement of particular goals through the use of part i c u l a r techniques, to neglect attending to the a n c i l l a r y consequences of the techniques that one u s e s . 8 2 When learning has come to be equated with small fragments of knowledge isolated from the meaning of r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , one of the a n c i l l a r y consequences might very well be that a student's love of learning is destroyed! 8 3 When educational researchers attempt to reduce their investigations to a study of the simplest variables, the context surrounding these variables gets screened out by their rigorous methodology. Educational practitioners reading the research results can make " l i t t l e sense...about what the 22 experimental treatments meant to the subjects who participated in them." 8 4 and therefore the p r a c t i t i o n e r s have d i f f i c u l t y applying the findings to their own s i t u a t i o n s . Consequently, research i s given very l i t t l e attention or c r e d i b i l i t y by p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Much educational research aims to prove the effectiveness of cer t a i n school programs and techniques in order that they might be held p o l i t i c a l l y accountable. Researchers should be aware of, and acknowledge r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for, t a c i t l y sanctioning the underlying values i m p l i c i t in the idea of such accountability. The main purpose of reductionist s c i e n t i f i c inquiry i s to predict and ultimately control; in educational terms at the present time, t h i s means being able to predict the most e f f e c t i v e methods to control the production of suitable end-products, i . e . students. S u i t a b i l i t y i s to a large extent determined by corporate and business interests whose values are grounded in a b e l i e f in progressive growth. Capra explains what i s entailed in t h i s b e l i e f : Competition, coercion, and exploitation are es s e n t i a l aspects of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , a l l motivated by the desire for i n d e f i n i t e expansion. Continuing growth is b u i l t into the corporate structure...[Its] excessive s e l f - a s s e r t i o n manifests i t s e l f as power, control, and domination of others by force; and these are, indeed, the patterns prevalent in our society. P o l i t i c a l and economic power i s exerted by a dominant corporate class ; s o c i a l hierarchies are maintained along r a c i s t and sexist l i n e s , and rape has become a central metaphor of our culture - rape of women, of minority groups, and of the earth herself. 5 These are not values with which I am comfortable. 23 A New S c i e n t i f i c Paradigm P h y s i c i s t s , in their exploration of the atomic and subatomic world, have become increasingly aware of, and d i s i l l u s i o n e d with, the inadequacies and inconsistencies inherent in the c l a s s i c a l s c i e n t i f i c paradigm. The props of o b j e c t i v i t y and reductionism, which support a t r a d i t i o n a l structure emphasizing predictions and control, are crumbling. It i s relevant to ask whether the theories of the new physics may perhaps contribute to the construction of a new conceptual paradigm within which s c i e n t i f i c research, e s p e c i a l l y educational research, can occur. The new physics, based on theories of r e l a t i v i t y and quantum mechanics, "has necessitated profound changes in concepts of space, time, matter, object, and cause and e f f e c t . " 8 6 Instead of matter's being constructed of basic building blocks, separate and d i s t i n c t from force, as Newton believed, i t now appears that both matter and force have a common o r i g i n in dynamic energy patterns in the subatomic world. While there i s the appearance of material substance on a macroscopic l e v e l ( i . e . nuclear, atomic, and molecular structures), at the most microscopic l e v e l there are only p a r t i c l e s of energy involved in a continuous dance. 8 7 Investigation has shown that these p a r t i c l e s are related to each other in ways which transcend our preconceived notions of r e a l i t y . Niels Bohr, for example, describes the complementary nature of particle/wave relationships. J.S.Bell i l l u s t r a t e s how instantaneous, non-local information transfer l i n k s exist between p a r t i c l e s . 8 8 But i t i s Richard Feynman's theory on 24 quantum electrodynamics that to my mind is most fascinating (and pertinent to my r e f l e c t i o n s on "being" in Chapter VI of t h i s study). By using a technique of space-time mapping, Feynman has demonstrated that p a r t i c l e interactions can stretch in any d i r e c t i o n of four dimensional space-time, moving backward and forward in time just as they move l e f t and right in space....There i s no 'before' or 'after' in the processes and thus no linear r e l a t i o n of cause and e f f e c t . 8 9 Or, as T.S.Eliot says: Time present and time past Are both perhaps present in time future, And time future contained in time past. If a l l time i s e t e r n a l l y present A l l time i s unredeemable. ® There i s in the new physics a recognition of the relat i o n s h i p between observer (and the methods of observation) and observed; " a l l the properties of the p a r t i c l e s are determined by p r i n c i p l e s " which in turn are related to the observation. "Ultimately,... the observed patterns of matter ttheir basic structures] are r e f l e c t i o n s of mind." 9 1 This awareness of the link between mind and matter, opposed as i t is to the long held b e l i e f that the two are separate and d i s t i n c t , necessitates an important detour from the reductionist road onto a path seldom t r a v e l l e d by s c i e n t i f i c inquiry, that of metaphysical and a r t i s t i c ways of knowing. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , these ways have been dismissed by Western society because th e i r n o n - p o s i t i v i s t i c , experiential modes of inquiry were invalidated by th e i r s u b j e c t i v i t y . Modern physics' revelation of the in t e r a c t i v e , dynamic nature of the sub-atomic world joins n i c e l y , though, with ideas long present on the alternative path. Gary Zukav speaks of Buddhist 25 b e l i e f s in which each part of physical r e a l i t y i s constructed of a l l other parts According to The Flower Garden Sutra in the heaven of India, there i s said to be a network of pearls, so arranged that i f you look at one you see a l l the others r e f l e c t e d in i t . In the same way each object in the world i s not merely i t s e l f but involves every other object and in fact i s everything else. 2 Zukav also mentions that the Chinese word for physics i s Wu L i ; i t means patterns of energy ("matter/energy" [Wu] + "universal order/organic patterns" [ L i ] ) 9 3 These are also the two main themes in modern physics. Physicist F r i t j o f Capra describes his experience with the new r e a l i t y of sub-atomic p a r t i c l e s : Interactions between the parts of the whole are more fundamental than the parts themselves. There i s motion but there are, ultimately, no moving objects; there i s a c t i v i t y , but there are no actors; there are no dancers, there i s only the dance. 4 By reducing matter and forces to t h e i r e s s e n t i a l parts, c l a s s i c a l p h y s i cists hoped eventually to explain the functioning of a l l the mechanical relationships in the natural world. Such understanding would enable man, as discussed e a r l i e r , to predict and control his world. But in t h e i r e x plication of r e l a t i v i t y and quantum theories today's physicists have had to learn to l i v e with ambiguity, to r e a l i z e that these theories, l i k e the ones they replace, are limited; they w i l l never be "complete and d e f i n i t i v e . . . . T o put i t bluntly, s c i e n t i s t s do not deal with truth; they deal with limited and approximate descriptions of r e a l i t y . " 9 5 In the minds of these s c i e n t i s t s , the r i g i d c e r t a i n t y i m p l i c i t in c l a s s i c a l Newtonian physics has disappeared, replaced with a respect for the complexity of nature where " r e a l i t y has a way 26 of hiding even from i t s most g i f t e d o b s e r v e r s . T h e y have come to recognize that state-of-the-art quantifications are not enough. The t r a d i t i o n a l metaphor of cosmos-as-machine i s not applicable to the new view of r e a l i t y ; a more appropriate metaphor i s cosmos-as-rhythmic-dance, i . e . patterns of energy within a unif i e d whole. This metaphor creates a vastly d i f f e r e n t conceptual framework, one in which relationships and integration are emphasized; order comes from within, not without. Modern science terms t h i s a systems or ecological structure. In i t , "form is arrived at whenever a stable, even though moving, equilibrium i s reached. Changes interlock and sustain one another." 9 7 The p r i n c i p l e s of organization, more than basic building blocks or basic substances, are of prime importance: Systemic properties are destroyed when a system i s dissected, either p h y s i c a l l y or t h e o r e t i c a l l y , into isolated elements. Although we can discern individual parts in any system, the nature of the whole i s always d i f f e r e n t from the mere sum of i t s parts. 8 The theme of holonomy where the whole i s contained in each of i t s parts is common in a number of proposed new theories in p h y s i c s . 9 9 It i s d i f f i c u l t , however, to put aside Cartesian ideas of objects as separate from ourselves; in our experience of everyday r e a l i t y we usually do not take into account how sensory perception interprets the frequency patterns from the on-going rhythmic dance around us into objects which "exist only in our inner world of symbols-, concepts, and i d e a s . m 1 u u Two revolutionary and imaginative approaches which attempt to provide an ov e r a l l 27 conceptualization of the new universe are Geoffrey Chew's S-matrix theory and David Bohm's theory of explicate and implicate order. Capra comments on the concepts they share: Both...are based on a view of the world as a dynamic web of r e l a t i o n s ; both a t t r i b u t e a central role to the notion of order; both use matrices to represent change and transformation, and topology to c l a s s i f y classes of order. F i n a l l y , both theories recognize that consciousness may well be an essential aspect of the universe that w i l l have to be included in a future theory of physical phenomena. Universe-as-hologram, universe-as-ecological system, universe-as-rhythmic-dance. These cosmological metaphors d i f f e r considerably from the conception of universe-as-clockwork! Eiseley mentions that "with uncanny foresight f o l k l o r e has long toyed symbolically with what...[is now] proclaimed a r e a l i t y . " In many t a l e s , black magic... transmogrifies the true form of things. At the stroke of twelve the princess must flee the banquet or r i s k discovery in the rags of a kitchen wench; coach reverts to pumpkin. I n s t a b i l i t y l i e s at the heart of the world....Form is an i l l u s i o n of the time dimension. Perhaps educational researchers and other s c i e n t i s t s need something of the magician in their make-up in order to study the f l u i d patterns of r e a l i t y which t h i s new type of s c i e n t i f i c kaleidoscope turns into place for us: For only to a magician i s the world forever f l u i d , i n f i n i t e l y mutable and e t e r n a l l y new. Only he knows the secret of change, only he knows that a l l things are crouched in eagerness to become something else, and i t is from th i s universal tension that he draws his power. In a broad sense, magicians are a r t i s t s . The new s c i e n t i f i c kaleidoscope appears very s i m i l a r to the one a r t i s t s have always looked through. Science and art are no longer worlds apart. 28 A Nsw SclenUUc/Art lsUc Paradigm Emerging s c i e n t i f i c thought may be presenting us with a new kaleidoscope pattern of f l u i d r e a l i t y , but the magicians who hold i t up to our gaze have a l o t of work ahead of them. Preparations for t h i s new magic show are in progress, but the performance i s s t i l l a long way o f f . The current s o c i e t a l structure r e f l e c t s a world view which is presently being eroded by new s c i e n t i f i c concepts. A cosmos-as-rhythmic-dance concept f a i l s to f i t the r i g i d compartmentalization of the t r a d i t i o n a l cosmos-as-machine paradigm. And a f a i l u r e to f i t indicates the beginnings of a paradigm s h i f t . Kuhn notes that the period preceding a paradigm s h i f t i s marked by increasing awareness of "anomalies" which can no longer be accommodated by the e x i s t i n g paradigm; these lead to investigations of alternative concepts which can then form the basis of a new framework. 1" 4 In educational research, one major anomaly i s that research "has r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e influence on the day-to-day work of e d u c a t o r s . " 1 0 5 Although advocating the continued use of t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c methodology, Borg and Gal l remark that i f educators were to suddenly lose the body of knowledge gained through educational research... their work would be v i r t u a l l y unphased....It i s hard to imagine a teacher who would refuse to teach students because he lacked research-based knowledge about the learning process and the effectiveness of i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods. 1 0° Something i s dreadfully askew i f those most d i r e c t l y and immediately involved in the education process find so l i t t l e meaning in research r e s u l t s . Attempting to explain t h i s anomaly, Borg and G a l l c i t e reasons ranging from lack of funding, to studies isolated and not r e a d i l y applicable to 29 practice, to teachers' lack of knowledge and t r a i n i n g in research methodology. 1 0 7 Many teachers have not acquired adequate knowledge of research methodology which stress a r a t i o n a l , systematic form of inquiry. But i f there has been a f a i l u r e on the part of teachers, there has also been a f a i l u r e of the research methodology to represent adequately the d a i l y l i v e d complexity of the classroom and to value the i n t u i t i v e knowledge, experientially-based, that teachers already do possess. Materials and methods of t r a d i t i o n a l research have been ef f e c t i v e in areas outside the classroom. P o l i t i c a l and administrative decision-making, for example, has r e l i e d heavily on the results of t h i s research. There has been minimal teacher involvement, however, in t h i s h i e r a r c h i c a l , corporate-style decision-making process. This contributes to the fact that at the present time classroom pra c t i t i o n e r s experience l i t t l e educative q u a l i t y generated by research. Teaching is f i r s t and foremost a human a c t i v i t y . Teachers are people relating to other people. Because t h i s point is so obvious, i t is taken-for-granted; i t receives " l i p - s e r v i c e " only, while those aspects of teaching deemed more important, i . e . , those which lend themselves to the objective reductionism of s c i e n t i f i c investigation, are given the greatest attention. A study of mechanical a c t i v i t i e s , as in the technological examination of the parts of a clock, attends to the Inherent p r o p e r t i e s o£ things; a study of teaching, on the other hand, needs to concern i t s e l f with the inte r a c t i o n a l properties of human beings so v i t a l to i t . l u 8 30 Any research approach emphasizing only r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v i t y and reductionism focuses on the science of teaching; i t ignores the human q u a l i t i e s which constitute the art of teaching. William James, among others, has warned: You make a very great mistake i f you think that psychology, being the science of the mind's laws, i s something from which you can deduce d e f i n i t e programs and schemes and methods of inst r u c t i o n for immediate schoolroom use. Psychology i s a science and teaching is an a r t ; And sciences never generate arts d i r e c t l y out of themselves....A science only lays down the l i n e s within which the rules of art must f a l l , laws which the follower of the art must not transgress, but what p a r t i c u l a r thing he s h a l l do within those l i n e s i s l e f t e x c l u s i v e l y to his own g e n i u s . 1 0 9 With i t s references to mechanical concepts, t r a d i t i o n a l science l a i d down very r i g i d l i n e s for both education and educational research. But what would the "lines" be l i k e which reflect the new scientific thinking? Interactive relationships and dynamic rhythms are i t s two key concepts. Education is primarily human relationships - individuals r e l a t i n g to other individuals in an interactive manner, both children and teacher learning from and growing with each other. If educational research i s going to be humanized, these i n t e r a c t i o n a l relationships require enlightened investigation leading to further understanding. This, of course, means acknowledging that an individual i s a "unique creature beyond the s t a t i s t i c . " 1 1 0 Individuals do not exis t in i s o l a t i o n . An understanding of uniqueness as i t relates to and interacts with the whole of r e a l i t y can only come about through imaginative r a t i o n a l i t y which requires that science be a synthesis of both r a t i o n a l knowing and i n t u i t i v e understanding. 1 1 1 31 The b e l i e f s of modern phy s i c i s t s were foreshadowed by those of the Chinese philosophers who conceived r e a l i t y to be a process of flow and change. Its ultimate essence, Tao, is a dynamic interplay of...archetypal poles [yin and yang]....These opposites do not belong to d i f f e r e n t categories but are extreme poles of a single whole. Nothing is only yin or yang. A l l natural phenomena are manifestations of a continuous o s c i l l a t i o n between the two poles, a l l transactions taking place gradually and in unbroken progression. The natural order i s one of dynamic balance between yin and y a n g . 1 1 2 Yin and yang can be extended into two modes of consciousness: yin corresponds to that which is "feminine, contractive, responsive, co-operative, i n t u i t i v e , synthesizing;" yang to a l l that is "masculine, expansive, demanding, aggressive, competitive, r a t i o n a l , a n a l y t i c . " In Chinese thought, these modes complement each other and neither i s of more moral value than the other. Rather, i t i s t h e i r dynamic balance that i s good; their imbalance, h a r m f u l . 1 1 3 To a greater or lesser extent both Western and Eastern s o c i e t i e s have created an imbalance between the two modes of thought in t h e i r preference for one over the other. Marilyn Ferguson, r e f e r r i n g to the differences between the t r a d i t i o n a l practices of each, comments that "the East contemplated the forest; the West counted the trees." She believes that "the mind that knows the trees and the forests is a new mind." 1 1 4 I mentioned previously that imagination plays an important role in both s c i e n t i f i c investigation and a r t i s t i c experience. Some may assume that once the act of discovery has been performed, imagination walks off stage, i t s role f i n i s h e d . They may also assume: The possession of [the discovery] by others requires / 32 l i t t l e imagination. This i s not the case in the a r t s . The capacity of a creative a r t i s t ' s v i s i o n may be enormous; but i t is only the v i s i o n that he imparts to his public that enable his art to l i v e for others. Thus the meanings he can create for his public are limited by the requirement that they provide a basis for t h e i r re-creation by the imagination of others. 1 4 The assumption that personal, imaginative p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s needed only to understand the complexities of a r t i s t i c experience cannot be sustained; t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s now recognized as es s e n t i a l to the understanding of the complexities revealed by the new physics as well. For improved understanding of educational settings, the idea of imaginative p a r t i c i p a t i o n must also be incorporated into the methodology of education research. "Illuminative" Educational Research D i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t r a d i t i o n a l approaches, some alternatives for educational research are appearing which provide an opportunity for imaginative audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e i r performance. 1 1 6 Although each diverges somewhat on methodological techniques for p u l l i n g the research rabbit out of the hat, they a l l share c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common to an a r t i s t i c or new s c i e n t i f i c conceptual framework. This research i s h o l i s t i c in that the researcher, assuming that a description and understanding of the program's context i s essential for understanding the program, s t r i v e s to understand the g e s t a l t , the t o t a l i t y , and the unifying structure of pa r t i c u l a r settings: [In illuminative research] data are c o l l e c t e d as open-ended narrative without attempting to f i t program a c t i v i t i e s or people's experiences into pre-conceived, standardized categories...in order to find out what people's l i v e s , experiences, and interactions mean to them in their own terms and in t h e i r natural s e t t i n g s . 1 1 7 33 Emphasis i s on the unique and p a r t i c u l a r , as opposed to the standard and general. Description and interpretation, rather than the measurement and prediction of the t r a d i t i o n a l approach, are the prime concern of illuminative s t u d i e s . 1 1 8 In the new s c i e n t i f i c thinking, d e f i n i t i v e proof for every assertion concerning the nature of r e a l i t y cannot be given. Science i t s e l f i s an evolutionary process; as in the evolution of species, s c i e n t i f i c knowledge evolves in d i f f e r e n t stages, each more specia l i z e d and refined. Kuhn c a l l s them "better exemplars." He questions the assumption, influenced by an out-dated conceptual paradigm, that there i s some f i n a l goal for s c i e n t i f i c understanding: But need there be any such goal? Can we not account for both science's existence and i t s success in terms of evolution from the community's state of knowledge at any one time? Does i t r e a l l y help to imagine that there is some one f u l l , objective true account of nature and that the proper measure of s c i e n t i f i c achievement i s the extent to which i t brings us closer to that g o a l ? 1 1 9 Kuhn's questions are, of course, relevant to contemplating the role of educational research as well. If d i v e r s i t y and uniqueness in educational settings are acknowledged and valued, then there cannot be only one "true" prescriptive formula for educational research. Rather than being ruled by fixed certainty, researchers working within an illuminative approach are allowed greater f l e x i b i l i t y . They r e l y on t h e i r own sense of d i r e c t i o n , guided by "a t r u s t in i n t u i t i o n , whole-brain...tacit knowing. "• L £ V Instead of emphasizing quantities, v e r i f i a b l e only through measurements, they concentrate on the q u a l i t i e s of their experiences. This i s a science of consciousness 34 rather than fac t : The patterns of experience constituting the data of such a science cannot be quantified or analyzed into fundamental elements, and they w i l l always be subjective to varying d e g r e e s . 1 2 1 Subjectivity, however, can no longer be considered n o n - s c i e n t i f i c . A l l research is vulnerable in i t s reliance on human judgement. There i s no form of research that i s "immune to prejudice, experimenter bias, and human e r r o r . " 1 2 2 Personal interpretation i s encouraged and s k i l l f u l l y developed in the new research methodology. To achieve coherence within new s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c paradigm, inquiry's aims should be "understanding, extension of experience, and increase in c o n v i c t i o n . , l 1 2 3 Kuhn demonstrates in his analysis of the structure of s c i e n t i f i c revolutions, that day-to-day science a c t i v i t y i s predicated on the assumption that the s c i e n t i f i c community knows what the world is l i k e . Much of the success of the enterprise derives from the community's willingness to defend that assumption, i f necessary, at any c o s t . . . . [ I t ] often suppresses fundamental novelties because they are necessarily subversive of i t s basic commitments. 1 2 4 The b i r t h of new ideas i s strongly r e s i s t e d ; the delivery i s often painful and slow. People are inclined to c l i n g to the security of the familiar rather than ri s k d r i f t i n g in the uncertainty of the new. 1 2 5 And perhaps t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true in the present s i t u a t i o n . The new paradigm patterns flowing into place embody within them the concept of an e s s e n t i a l l y unpredictable, forever ambiguous natural world. Research under t h i s paradigm w i l l not provide r i g h t answers. In educational research, for example, by discarding a spurious, technological s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of 35 r e a l i t y , and by acknowledging the complexity of educational process, the illuminative evaluator i s l i k e l y to increase rather than lessen the sense of u n c e r t a i n t y . 1 2 6 Acceptance of a new paradigm never means, however, just a re-interpretation of observations of a fixed r e a l i t y made under the old paradigm. S c i e n t i f i c revolution involves the community's reject i o n of one time-honoured s c i e n t i f i c theory in favour of another incompatible with it....[There i s ] a consequent s h i f t in the problems available for s c i e n t i f i c scrutiny and in the standards by which the profession determines what should count as an admissable problem or as a legitimate problem-solution....Though the world does not change with a change of paradigm, the s c i e n t i s t afterward works in a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d . 1 2 ' At the beginning of my paper I stated that I needed to thoughtfully reconsider what is meant by research so that I might resolve my misgivings about i t . I have come to r e a l i z e that, for the most part, research in education continues to be conceived of in terms of the t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c paradigm. Modern physics, however, i s providing a v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t conceptual framework whose root metaphor i s cosmos-as-rhythmic-dance. I r e a l i z e that, l i k e a l l metaphorical conceptualizations, i t provides for only limited understanding of r e a l i t y . It may never be able to "explain a l l the facts with which i t may be c o n f r o n t e d . " 1 2 8 But unlike the previous paradigm, f u l l explanation i s not i t s aim. Instead, i t hopes for interpretive understanding of multiple r e a l i t i e s , perhaps regaining a sense of awe about existence in the process. This perspective allows me, as researcher, to focus on the human q u a l i t i e s of the teaching and learning process which are of paramount importance in the r i c h complexity of classroom l i f e . I now recognize that the source 36 o£ my misgivings about t r a d i t i o n a l educational research i s the mismatch between i t s outlook on r e a l i t y and my view of r e a l i t y , arrived at through t a c i t knowing. As a r e s u l t of my preliminary re-searching, I have been brought to a point where I can approach the implementation of a new curriculum, to be described in Chapter I I , with greater understanding and a heightened s e n s i t i v i t y for i t s complexities. 37 Notes 1 F. G. Fowler and H. W. Fowler, eds., The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. 5th. rev. ed. (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. 1057. 2 Walter Borg and Meredith G a l l , Educational Research f 3d. rev. ed. (New York: Longman, 1983), p. 1. 3 Loren Eiseley, The Immense Journey (New York: Random House, Vintage Book, 1959), p. 89. 4 John Dewey, Art as Experience (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, Perigee Book, 1980), p. 35. 5 Dewey, p. 246. 6 Michael Polanyi and Harry Prosch, Meaning (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975), p. 36. 7 Polanyi and Prosch, p. 62. 8 George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live Bv (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), p. 178. 9 Lakoff and Johnson, p. 5. l u Lakoff and Johnson, p. 232. 1 1 Lakoff and Johnson, p. 119. 1 2 Lakoff and Johnson, p. 119. 1 3 James Burke, The Dav the Universe Changed (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, 1985), p. 309. 38 1 4 Harold Pearse, "World Hypotheses, Root Metaphors, and Art Education Rationales" in Readings in Canadian Art Education, ed. R. MacGregor (Vancouver, B.C.: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, WEDGE, 1984), pp. 37-44. 1 5 Pearse, pp. 37-44. 1 6 Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of S c i e n t i f i c Revolutions, 2d. ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), p. 23. 1 7 Lakoff and Johnson, p. 146. Additional discussion of thi s concept is found in Burke, pp. 309-310; Polanyi and Prosch, p.43; and Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy (Los Angeles: J . P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 104. 1 8 Lakoff and Johnson, p. 13. 1 9 Burke, p. 310. 2 0 F r i t j o f Capra, The Turning Point (New York: Simon and Schuster, Bantam Book, 1983), pp. 28-29. Capra discusses Toynbee's theory of fluctuating patterns in c u l t u r a l evolutions. 2 1 Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy (Los Angeles: J . P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 53. 2 2 Kuhn, p. 123. 2 3 Kuhn, p. 77. 2 4 Kuhn, pp. 84-85. 2 5 Kuhn, p. 85. 2 6 Kuhn, p. 204. 2 7 John Briggs and David Peat, The Looking Glass Universe (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), p. 24. A si m i l a r analogy i s made by Polanyi and Prosch, p. 37. 2 8 Ferguson, p. 28. 39 2 9 Loren Eiseley, The Night Country (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971), p. 131. The ri s k s of, and resistance to, paradigm change are also mentioned by Capra, p. 29, and Ferguson, p. 197. 3 0 Since childhood, I have been fascinated by kaleidoscopes and have acquired a vari e t y of d i f f e r e n t types. The most common ones have a container of small glass or p l a s t i c fragments at the end of a mirrored tube. This container i s rotated, r e s u l t i n g in patterns of fragments which remain s t a t i c u n t i l the container is given another turn. A more unusual kaleidoscope i s the type which has layers of multi-coloured l i q u i d s at the end of a mirrored tube. As one looks through i t , the l i q u i d s gradually flow into constantly changing patterns. 3 1 Dewey, p. 42, 44. 3 2 Dewey, pp. 36-37. 3 3 Dewey, p. 84. 3 4 Polanyi and Prosch, p. 101. Polanyi and Prosch, p. 99. 35 3 6 Harry Broudy, "A Common Curriculum in Aesthetics and Fine Arts" in Individual Differences and the Common Curriculum, NSSE Yearbook Part 1 (Chicago: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1983), p. 229. 3 7 Dewey, p. 266-267. 3 8 Harry Broudy, "The Structure of Knowledge in the Arts" in Aesthetics and C r i t i c i s m in Art Education, ed. R. A. Smith (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966), p. 31. 3 9 Dewey, p. 54. Polanyi and Prosch, p. 103. 4 1 Polanyi and Prosch, p. 103. Briggs and Peat, p. 25. 40 42 40 4 3 Loren Eiseley, The Firmament of Time (New York: Atheneum, 1966), p. 5. 4 4 Briggs and Peat, p. 31. 4 5 Briggs and Peat, p. 31. 4 6 Kuhn, p. 2. 4 7 Kuhn, p. 3. 4 8 Capra, pp. 63, 47-48. 4 9 Capra, p. 47. 5 0 Capra, p. 180. 5 1 Borg and G a l l , p. 20. 5 2 Capra, p. 180. 5 3 Briggs and Peat, p. 19. A similar description i s in Borg and G a l l , pp. 24-25. 5 4 Borg and G a l l , p. 20. 5 5 Capra, p. 180. 5 6 Capra, p. 60. Also in Briggs and Peat, p. 20. 5 7 Capra, p. 66. 5 8 Borg and G a l l , pp. 26-27. 5 9 Excellent overviews of these d i f f e r e n t areas are found in Capra, The Turning Point: Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy; and Lakoff and Johnson, Metaphors We Live By. Lakoff and Johnson provide many i l l u s t r a t i o n s from everyday 41 language. They say that our mind is often envisaged as a machine. My mind just i s n ' t operating today/ or Boy, the wheels are turning now. are two examples, (p. 27). 5 9 Burke, p. 193. 6 0 E l l i o t E i s n e r f Cognition and Curriculum (New York: Longman, 1982), p. 6. 6 1 Michael Rutter et a l . , F i f t e e n Thousand Hours (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979). 6 2 Dr. Peter Mortimore was my instructor for a course in advanced Educational Research Methods. He referred extensively to the F i f t e e n Thousand Hours study and the "Effective Schools" movement throughout the course. 6 3 Borg and G a l l , p. 26. 6 4 Borg and G a l l , pp. 4, 19. 6 5 Borg and G a l l , p. 26. 6 6 Gary Zukav, The Dancing Wu L i Masters (New York: William Morrow, Bantam Book, 1980), p. 160. 6.7 68 69 Lakoff and Johnson, p. 187. Burke, p. 331. Burke, p. 310. 7 0 Kuhn, p. 40. Borg and G a l l , state that educational research must have these pre-determined q u a l i t i e s : p o s i t i v i s t i c orientation, g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y , research control, s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, and r e p l i c a b i l i t y . The fact that in their text, Educational Research, only seven of i t s nine hundred pages are related to alt e r n a t i v e research methodologies indicates the value the authors place on re s u l t s obtained by these methods. Burke, p. 309, i l l u s t r a t e s Kuhn's point with th i s humorous observation: "If you believe that the universe i s made of omelette, you design instruments to find traces of i n t e r g a l a c t i c egg. In such a structure, phenomena such as planets or black holes would be rejected." 42 7 1 Burke, p. 326. The i m p o s s i b i l i t y of "pure" o b j e c t i v i t y i s also discussed by Zukav, pp. 91-114. 7 2 Burke, p. 314. 7 3 Burke, pp. 326, 328. The example of Albert Mickelson and Edward Morley's 1887 experiment to measure the e f f e c t of the ether i s given as one i l l u s t r a t i o n of how adherence to paradigmatic concepts r e s t r i c t e d the acceptance of observed data. 7 4 Zukav, p. 92. 7 5 Briggs and Peat, p. 51. 7 6 Briggs and Peat, p. 51. 7 7 Polanyi and Prosch, pp. 96-97. 7 8 Capra, p. 114. This i s also discussed in Polanyi and Prosch, p. 55. 7 9 David Hamilton et a l . , eds., Beyond the Numbers Game (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1977), p. 26. 8 0 Hamilton et a l . , p. 26. 8 1 Eisner, p. 7. 8 2 John Dewey, Experience and Education (New York: Macmillan, C o l l i e r Book, 1963), p. 48. 83 Borg and G a l l , p. 27 8 4 Capra, p. 44. 8 5 Capra, p. 77. I also found similar "layman" explanations of the new physics in Zukav, The Dancing Wu L i Masters and Briggs and Peat, The Looking Glass Universe very he l p f u l . 43 8 6 Capra, p. 91. 8 7 Capra, pp. 79, 95. See also Zukav, pp. 93, 95, 282-305, 88 Capra, p. 89. See also Zukav, pp. 212-222 8 9 T. S. E l i o t , "Burnt Norton," Collected Poems 1909-1935 (London: Faber and Faber, 1936), p. 185. 9 0 Capra, p. 93. 9 1 Zukav, p. 238, c i t i n g S i r Charles E l i o t , Japanese Buddhism (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1969), pp. 109-110. 9 2 Zukav, p. 5. 9 3 Capra, p. 92. This echoes some li n e s from T.S.Eliot's "Burnt Norton": "At the s t i l l point of the turning world. Neither fl e s h nor fleshness; Neither from nor towards; at the s t i l l point, there the dance i s , But neither arrest nor movement. And do not c a l l i t f i x i t y , Where past and future are gathered. Neither movement from nor towards, Neither ascent nor decline. Except for the point, the s t i l l point, There would be no dance, and there i s only the dance." 9 4 Capra, p. 48. 9 5 Loren Eiseley, The Unexpected Universe (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1969), pp. 165-167. 9 6 Capra, p. 267. 9 7 Capra, p. 267. 9 8 Ferguson, pp. 164-165. Ferguson b r i e f l y summarizes 44 Ilya Prigogine's From Being to Becoming (San Francisco: Freeman, 1980). See also Briggs and Peat, pp. 161-178, and Capra, p. 271. 9 9 Capra, p. 301. 1 0 u Capra, p. 96. Further discussions of Bohm's theories are in Briggs and Peat, pp. 98-152; Ferguson, pp. 180-181; and Zukav, pp. 305-310. 1 0 1 Eiseley, The Unexpected Universe,, p. 78. 1 0 2 Peter Beagle, The Last Unicorn (New York: Random House, Ballantine Book, 1969), p. 138. 1 0 3 Kuhn, p. 6. 1 0 4 Borg and G a l l , p. 4. 1 0 5 Borg and G a l l , p. 4. 1 0 6 Borg and G a l l , pp. 14-15. l u 7 Lakoff and Johnson, p. 181. 108 w i n i a m James, Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on L i f e ' s Ideals (London: Longman, 1925), pp. 7-8, ci t e d by Borg and G a l l , p. 16. 1 0 9 Eiseley, The Night Country, p. 141. l l u Lakoff and Johnson, p. 183. 1 1 1 Capra, p. 35. 1 1 2 Capra, p. 36. 1 1 3 Ferguson, p. 82. See also the excellent summary of the differences between Eastern and Western philosophies given by David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, ARK book, 1983), pp. 19-26. 45 1 1 4 Polanyi and Prosch, p. 85. 1 1 5 David Hamilton et a l . , eds., Beyond the Numbers Game (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1977). E l l i o t Eisner, Ernest House, Barry MacDonald, Lawrence Stenhouse, Michael Scriven, Helen Simons, Robert Stake, and Rob Walker are some of those mentioned who advocate alternate educational research approaches. 1 1 6 Michael Patton, Qualitative Evaluation Methods (Beverley H i l l s : SAGE, 1980), p. 22. 1 1 7 Hamilton et a l . , p. 10. 1 1 8 Kuhn, p. 171. 1 1 9 Ferguson, p. 107. Ferguson summarizes the ideas of Michael Polanyi. 1 2 0 Capra, p. 376. •12.1 Hamilton et a l . , p. 18, 1 2 2 Robert Stake, "The Case Study Method in Social Inquiry," Educational Researcher 7, no. 2 (1978): 6. 1 2 3 Kuhn, p. 5. 1 2 4 Zukav, p. 191. 1 2 5 Hamilton et a l . , p. 22. 1 2 6 Kuhn, pp. 6, 121. 1 2 7 Kuhn, p. 17. 46 CHAPTER II The Research Project Research Problem In September 1985, the new Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide was introduced to schools throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. My purposes in conducting t h i s study were to observe a colleague's use of. the guide within her classroom; to discuss and interpret with her the l i v i n g within the tension zone between the "curriculum-as-plan" and "curriculum-as-lived;" 1 and to r e f l e c t on my observations and discussions. Relating them to ray own experiences would enable me to assess c a r e f u l l y the q u a l i t y of my own l i v i n g , as my school's a r t s p e c i a l i s t , between the two worlds of curriculum. As Sarason notes: The fact i s that our primary value concerns our need to help ourselves change and learn, for us to f e e l that we are growing in our understanding of where we have been, where we are, and what we have been about, and that we are enjoying what we are doing. 2 This deeper understanding might also a s s i s t me in my role as resource person involved in the professional development of vis u a l arts teachers within my school d i s t r i c t . I was interested in possible changes that implementation of t h i s curriculum might i n i t i a t e . Change can be multidimensional, a f f e c t i n g materials, teaching approaches, and possibly b e l i e f s . 3 What would be the meaning of the implementation of the new curriculum for my colleague and for 47 me in our classrooms? For i t is in the complexity of classrooms that individuals a c t u a l l y l i v e with the curriculum pian and, in varying degrees, contribute either to i t s growth or to i t s demise. In Fullan's words, the key to school improvement is to recognize that individual meaning is the central issue, and to do things that w i l l enhance t h i s meaning. 4 As an educational researcher, I also wanted to provide an opportunity for other p r a c t i t i o n e r s to parti c i p a t e v i c a r i o u s l y in the experience shared by my colleague and me. In so doing, they would have the chance to form th e i r own personal interpretations, or " n a t u r a l i s t i c generalizations," about the content of t h i s study, and the content of their own teaching s i t u a t i o n s . 5 Methodological Choices Approaches advocating illumination as the main function of educational research seemed more appropriate to my needs than those o f f e r i n g prediction and control. These alternate forms of inquiry share a number of commonalities, including a r e j e c t i o n of qua n t i f i c a t i o n as a necessary ingredient of research, a more c r i t i c a l attitude to the c e r t a i n t i e s or the adequacy of empirical evidence, recognition of the pervasiveness of s u b j e c t i v i t y or consciousness in the accumulation of data, and attention to the e x i s t e n t i a l moment and concreteness of experience. These approaches, as I discovered in my reading of the l i t e r a t u r e , are variously termed ethnographic, 7 case s t u d i e s , 8 n a t u r a l i s t i c case s t u d i e s , 9 responsive, 1 0 a r t i s t i c , 1 1 and phenomenological.^-2 As I would be investigating implementation of an art curriculum, an a r t i s t i c approach had a ce r t a i n aesthetic appeal. The goals of art education are open-ended; they 48 involve art production, an appreciation for the rel a t i o n s h i p of art and culture, an understanding and development of the s k i l l s of art appreciation, and the development of aesthetic a p p r e c i a t i o n . 1 3 These do not allow for adequate t r a n s l a t i o n into quantifiable terms. Therefore, research based on a r t i s t i c c r i t i c i s m , dependent upon description of context and interpretation of emergent issues, seemed an appropriate method for studying the art of t e a c h i n g . 1 4 Such research aims to create a rendering of a s i t u a t i o n , event, or object that w i l l provide pointers to those aspects... that are in some way s i g n i f i c a n t . 1 5 In c r i t i c i s m , there can be no singular, monopolistic version of truth, as in research based on t r a d i t i o n a l science. Truth i s r e l a t i v e , subject to the accumulated background knowledge that the c r i t i c brings to the experience. 1 6 A n a t u r a l i s t i c case study inquiry has two essential aspects; f i r s t , the e n t i t y is studied in i t s own environment, "with a design r e l a t i v e l y free of intervention or c o n t r o l ; " 1 7 second, i t addresses a single case, a bounded system, which has i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t , not merely a sample from which to learn about the population. It is s i m i l a r to others, yet d i s t i n c t , and each...is to be noted for a cer t a i n unity within, a c e r t a i n systemic c h a r a c t e r . 1 8 In my study I wanted to focus on a single case, the a r t curriculum as i t was being implemented in one p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s . The systemic q u a l i t i e s referred to in t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of case study appropriately r e f l e c t the conceptual structure of the new a r t i s t i c / s c i e n t i f i c paradigm. 49 Research Model Boughton's research model for evaluating art education programs provided an f l e x i b l e framework for my study. 1 9 As well as c l a r i f y i n g my understanding of the nature of the a r t i s t i c paradigm, i t s non-linear representation allowed me to form a mental image of the dynamic, multidimensional complexity of classroom l i f e . Feedback Rev is i on Figure 1 Model for Art C r i t i c i s m 50 Boughton developed his model by f i r s t diagramming the processes of the creation of a two-dimensional art work and the act of art c r i t i c i s m (see Figure 1). A two dimensional art work i s produced by the a r t i s t ' s manipulation of a l l or some of the elements of l i n e , shape, value, texture, and colour. In t h i s interactive process, p r i n c i p l e s of design are considered, as well as metaphorical meaning. Art c r i t i c i s m i s s i m i l a r l y i n t e r a c t i v e , for a c r i t i c must go through the process, as did the a r t i s t , of simplifying, c l a r i f y i n g , abridging, and condensing. Decision making during t h i s process, by a r t i s t and c r i t i c , i s influenced by the paradigmatic c r i t e r i a each brings to the experience. The relati o n s h i p of the elements i s not predetermined, but evolves during the creating or the perceiving of the work of a r t . For the a r t i s t , the outcome of his decision making i s a work of art; for the c r i t i c , a q u a l i t a t i v e exposition which i s communicated to an audience. Boughton then created a conceptual model for the evaluation of an art program, depicting i t as analogous to the f i r s t two processes (see Figure 2). Like the a r t i s t and the c r i t i c , the researcher is involved in an experience, in t h i s case, a classroom, "an everchanging system of relationships among people, objects, and events." 2 0 In a similar manner to the act of creating or of perceiving, t h i s experience i s interactive for in a classroom, the participants are engaged in an on-going process with c e r t a i n elements, namely: a. Agents - personnel in the classroom. b. Content - "curriculum-as-plan" (objectives, topics, 51 a c t i v i t i e s ) c. Implementation - t r a n s l a t i o n of curriculum materials into i n s t r u c t i o n . d. Outcomes - results of the program. These could be products or a f f e c t i v e dimensions of experience, both for the children and the teacher. e. Rationale - reasons for following a c e r t a i n course of action which may be e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t . f. Resources - necessary accompaniments ( f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l aids, etc.) Feedback <—> Revision Figure 2 Model for Curriculum Evaluation The researcher must attend to the dynamics of these elements 52 when observing the classroom. Decision making by classroom participants and the researcher i s influenced by the paradigmatic c r i t e r i a each brings to thi s dynamic experience. As with the a r t i s t and c r i t i c , there i s no exact pre-determination of how the elements w i l l interact to produce the outcome. In the classroom, the outcome often results from hundreds of immediate decisions, requiring a r t i s t r y , "a fine, swift, i n t u i t i v e sense of situations, 1 1 on the part of the tea c h e r . 2 1 The outcome of the researcher's decision making, a q u a l i t a t i v e exposition communicated to an audience, is influenced by her t a c i t knowledge or world view. 2 2 It was necessary for my purposes to re-define Boughton's conception of art c r i t i c i s m . According to Boughton, c r i t i c i s m i s the means by which the worth of a program can be judged: The task of the evaluator is to determine the value of the experiences gained by the students. This requires exercise of judgement with respect to selection of outcomes considered to be s i g n i f i c a n t and determination of their worth. 2 3 The e v a l u a t o r / c r i t i c ' s paradigmatic c r i t e r i a includes "a set of pre-dispositions, in the form of highly abstract models of what designs i t would be of value to d i s c o v e r . " 2 4 In my opinion, Boughton views c r i t i c i s m in i t s instrumentalist capacity: Instrumentalist theories conceive of art as a tool for advancing some... purpose....The instrumentalist is concerned with the consequences of the ideas and feelings expressed by a r t , He wishes art to serve an end more important than i t s e l f . 2 5 The purpose of my inquiry, however, was for both my colleague and me to achieve deeper understanding of the curriculum-as-lived; i t was not aimed at a judgement of 53 worth. Therefore, I defined c r i t i c i s m in terms of expressivism: Expressivist c r i t i c i s m sees excellence as the a b i l i t y of art to communicate ideas and feelings intensely and v i v i d l y . . . . E x p r e s s i v i s t c r i t i c i s m offers us the idea of i n t e n s i t y of experience...[and the b e l i e f that] the a r t i s t has taken hold of some truths about l i f e , and through s k i l l and imagination, has found a way to embody those truths....[Art] is the communication of s i g n i f i c a n t i d e a s . 2 6 Art c r i t i c i s m can sometimes involve judging a work of art by giving i t a rank in r e l a t i o n to other works of i t s type. Although t h i s might be Boughton's purpose for research, i t was not mine, for "this aspect of art c r i t i c i s m is much abused and may be unnecessary i f a s a t i s f y i n g interpretation has been carried o u t . " 2 7 My c r i t i c a l interpretation would be a portrayal of my colleague's and my shared understandings of the meaning of s i g n i f i c a n t issues or themes emerging from r e f l e c t i o n s upon our l i v i n g in the tension zone between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as-lived. Outline of Study For my study, I added an overlay of phenomenology to the framework provided by Boughton's art c r i t i c i s m research model. "Phenomenological research," says Max van Manen, " i s a search for what i t means to be human." This type of inquiry is always a project of someone: a r e a l person, who, in the context of p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i a l , and h i s t o r i c a l l i f e circumstances sets out to make sense of a certain aspect of human e x i s t e n c e . 2 8 The bare bones of t h i s someone are: 38 years old, white female, single parent of a 13 year old daughter, 14 years' experience in elementary schools, teaching grade levels 1 to 7, l i v i n g in a small town in the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. 54 The flesh added to this skeleton contributes to the body of my report. Pat V i t t e r y i s the colleague with whom I worked in th i s study. I had been acquainted, s o c i a l l y and professionally, with her for about twelve years and during t h i s time I was impressed with her thoughtful, assured manner. I knew, from our conversations and from her p a r t i c i p a t i o n in d i s t r i c t workshops and displays, of her interest in children's a r t . A meeting at a weekend course in watercolour painting prompted me to ask her for her co-operation on thi s project and, after giving i t some consideration, she agreed. As mutual respect and trust are essential in th i s type of inquiry, i t was very important for me to select someone with whom I f e l t I could work comfortably. In addition, I hoped to establish a recipr o c a l relationship so that my colleague would fe e l she was gaining in understanding from i t as well as I. "Phenomenological experience i s the study of liv e d experience." 2 9 I wanted to obtain detailed information which would allow me to describe the curriculum-as-lived experience; to interpret the experience; and to r e f l e c t upon i t for personal and professional growth. My basic methodology was going to be "watching and wondering," 3 0 i . e . , observing and interviewing. In order that I might have d i r e c t contact with Pat's classroom world, I arranged with the school d i s t r i c t superintendent and the pri n c i p a l s of both our schools to make a series of Friday afternoon v i s i t s to observe her art program in action. Friday afternoon i s not an ideal choice children, teacher, and observer, having put in a f u l l week, 55 are a l l eagerly a n t i c i p a t i n g the weekend - but t h i s was my preparation block and the only time available for me to be released from my own teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . We planned that I would v i s i t every second Friday for a four month period, beginning in December 1985, and would meet once a week between v i s i t s to discuss my observations. "Always be suspicious of data c o l l e c t i o n that goes according to plan!" and "Research subjects have also been known to be people!" 3 1 Michael Patton's two humorous comments could c e r t a i n l y be applied to events that occurred over the next twelve months. Misfortune plagued my research from the s t a r t and my c a r e f u l l y planned timeline quickly disintegrated. A car accident forced delay of my i n i t i a l v i s i t u n t i l the end of January 1986 at which time I was f i n a l l y able to squeeze in two observation sessions and one interview with Pat. Neither of us had our hearts r e a l l y in i t at that time, though, for we were both in the agonizing process of breaking up long term conjugal relationships. To add to the stress, my daughter was extremely i l l for s i x months, an emotionally and physically exhausting period. During t h i s time, Pat had the misfortune to f a l l , break her leg, and almost die due to the unusual circumstances of her accident. Her recovery period required a three month absence from school. Then I came down with pneumonia and was away from my teaching s i t u a t i o n for over a month. Educational research was not a p r i o r i t y during this troubled period (although i t did provide time for reading and r e f l e c t i o n for the two of us) and was r e g r e t f u l l y placed on hold u n t i l the following school year. 56 In October, 1986, our l i v e s in r e l a t i v e order once more, Pat and I started afresh. I observed in her grade 1/2 classroom on seven occasions, approximately every other week, from October to February. Between observations, we met four times for interviews and discussion. In addition, we met two subsequent times, once in A p r i l , once in June, to t i e up the loose ends of data analysis and interpretation. Data Collection My research methods courses had focused on quantitative rather than q u a l i t a t i v e data c o l l e c t i o n . For building up knowledge in observation and interviewing techniques> I found Michael Patton's book, Qualitative Evaluation Methods, an invaluable g u i d e . 3 2 I supplemented his suggestions with those of Adelman and Walker, A Guide to Classroom Observation. 3 3 as well as reading a number of reports of studies which had followed t h i s methodological approach. 3 4 Observations and interviews were the primary data sources for t h i s study. Aware that just being in Pat's classroom was going to have an e f f e c t on what I was observing, I t r i e d to adhere to David Hamilton's advice to be as "unobtrusive, supportive, and non-doctrinaire" as I c o u l d . 3 5 Whenever Pat had the attention of the entire c l a s s , to give instructions or discuss the lesson, I remained seated, somewhat hidden from view, at a small table to one side of her room, close to the outside door. In order to experience the s i t u a t i o n more f u l l y , though, I participated as well as observed. When art a c t i v i t i e s were in progress, I frequently walked about the room taking photographs and occasionally conversing with the 57 children. The camera was a useful research t o o l , for photographs r e a l l y are experience captured....Unlike any other v i s u a l image, a photograph i s not a rendering, an imitation, or interpretation of i t s subject, but a c t u a l l y a trace of i t . 3 6 Photographs re t a i n a "documentary power always denied second-hand r e c o r d s . " 3 7 The photographs were useful in helping me r e c a l l d e t a i l s that I had not set down in writing and they were s t a r t i n g points for discussion for Pat and me during our interviews. Also, at the conclusion of my v i s i t s to Pat's classroom, I l e f t an album of the photographs for the children, as a memento of the time we had spent together. A tape recorder was invaluable at both observation and interpretive stages. Capturing the actual words of individuals increased the accuracy of my data c o l l e c t i o n . Taping classroom a c t i v i t i e s allowed me to photograph extensively and also enabled me to be more attentive to what was happening. During interview sessions, I could l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to what Pat was saying without the necessity of taking copious notes. This allowed me to think ahead to further questions or to seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n on information given. Transcribing tapes, night after night, hour after hour, was a very tedious task which had to be sandwiched between the various r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s of family and professional l i f e . Doing the transcribing myself, however, allowed me to note voice i n f l e c t i o n s , noise l e v e l s , giggles and laughter, that otherwise might have been missed. Transcribing also f a c i l i t a t e d interpretation of the material, 58 for I reflected as I typed, Identifying passages which needed further inquiry or comment, as well as noticing themes. My written notes on the physical environment, s o c i a l interactions, and program a c t i v i t i e s were fa c t u a l , but f a i r l y b r i e f . I considered them supplements to the photographic record and the tape recording made of each classroom session. In addition to descriptive d e t a i l s , they contained quotations of what individuals said (helpful when transcribing tapes), as well as some o£ my own feelings and reactions which later were st a r t i n g points for further r e f l e c t i o n . My interviews with Pat were of an informal conversational nature, i n i t i a l l y with no predetermined set of questions, but with the photographs sharpening our memories and providing a . f l e x i b l e structure for discussion. This was a good way to ease into d i a l o g i c r e f l e c t i o n s of the experience i t s e l f . 3 8 Each interview b u i l t upon previous ones, as quotations from those became additional data for elaboration and r e f l e c t i v e interpretation. In e l i c i t i n g responses from Pat, I attempted to keep my questions as open-ended as possible so as to capture more f u l l y her point-of-view, as she chose to express i t . At the beginning, questions were experience/behaviour ones (what is happening, what has gone before), knowledge ones (eg. f a m i l i a r i t y with the curriculum guide), and background/demographic ones ( i d e n t i f y i n g personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) . These were interspersed with questions about f e e l i n g (emotional responses to experience and thoughts), as well as opinion/value ones (explication of assumptions, biases, b e l i e f s , and values was required. J 59 During the months of observing, interviewing, and transcribing, thoughts of Pat's world became an integral part of my own - at one point, I laughingly told her that I went to sleep with the sound of her voice in my ears! Conversations, observations, and events in my d a i l y l i f e would trigger associations with ideas discussed with Pat. I would catch myself making mental connections a l l the time: To t r u l y question something i s to interrogate something from the heart of our existence, from the centre of our b e i n g . 4 0 I wish now that I had kept a diary, but to squeeze even a few more moments out of each day to write a l i n e or two was asking too much; my energy gave out. Some of those strong connections remain clear in my mind, though, and have been included in t h i s study. In addition to data from observations and interviews with Pat, I also c o l l e c t e d documents (timetables, previews, d i s t r i c t guidelines, d i s t r i c t memos regarding implementation of the new curriculum, etc.) and conducted b r i e f interviews with the p r i n c i p a l s of both schools. This enabled me to triangulate my information with material from other s o u r c e s . 4 1 Data Analysis and Interpretation "Phenomenological research is the study of essence." 4 2 " C r i t i c i s m i s a search for the properties... that may j u s t i f y the d i r e c t r e a c t i o n . " 4 3 Alternative research methodology acknowledges what already exists and instead of presenting a facade of o b j e c t i v i t y , exploits the potential of s e l e c t i v i t y and emphasis to say what needs saying as the investigator sees i t . 4 4 As the arrows on Boughton's evaluation model i l l u s t r a t e , c r i t i c a l interpretation of the curriculum-as-lived experience 60 is a continuous interactive process. This process involves discrimination (analysis) and u n i f i c a t i o n (synthesis) on the part of the investigator. It d i f f e r s from t r a d i t i o n a l reductionist approaches in that the c r i t i c must use judgement to evoke a clearer consciousness of constituent parts and to discover how these parts are related to form a whole.... They cannot be separated from each other, because analysis i s disclosure of part as parts of a whole; of d e t a i l s and p a r t i c u l a r s belonging to a t o t a l situation....No rules can be l a i d down for the performance of so d e l i c a t e an act as determination of the s i g n i f i c a n t parts of a whole> and of t h e i r respective places and weights in the whole." 4 5 I cannot f u l l y explain how I came to highlight some portions of the data as being more s i g n i f i c a n t l y revealing of the essence of our in-dwelling in the tension zone between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as-lived than others. Most often, I found my thought patterns flowing into place in the early morning, in the "fuzzy" period of awakening before one becomes f u l l y conscious. My value choices were, of course, grounded in my own years of teaching experience; I am sure other contributing factors were my recent readings of new s c i e n t i f i c theories, as well as my interest, triggered by my second conjugal breakdown, in feminist writings. Undoubtedly there were other factors as well. Van Manen p o e t i c a l l y explains that themes are the stars that make up the universe of meaning we l i v e through. It i s by t h e i r l i g h t that we can navigate and explore such u n i v e r s e s . 4 6 This starship journey i s "not an imitation of things seen,...[but] an imitation of things f e l t . " 4 7 It i s not the surface appearances that are v i t a l ; i t is the quality of l i f e in the d i a l e c t i c t e n s i o n a l i t y between the complementarities of 61 the theore t i c a l perspective of curriculum-as-plan and the practictioner perspective of curriculum-as-lived that i s s i g n i f i c a n t . The te n s i o n a l i t y a r i s i n g from the simultaneous attending to both worlds of curriculum contributes to the aliveness of the pedagogical s i t u a t i o n . Aoki explains that i t " i s not so much a matter of overcoming the t e n s i o n a l i t y but more a matter of dwelling aright within i t . " 4 8 Portions of four of the art lessons that I observed are presented in th i s study. Excerpts from the fine arts curriculum guide/resource book (curriculum-as-plan) and excerpts from interviews with Pat (curriculum-as-lived) follow each lesson segment. After these are the r e f l e c t i o n s on issues or themes which emerged from the lesson and interview. 62 Notes 1 Ted Aoki, "Curriculum Implementation as Instrumental Action and as Situational Praxis," in "Understanding Situational Meanings of Curriculum Inservice Acts: Implementing, Consulting, Inservicing, 1 1 Curriculum Praxis Monograph Series, no. 9 (Edmonton: Department of Education, University of Alberta, 1983): 3-17. 2 S. Sarason, The Culture of School and the Problem of Change 2d. ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1982), p. 122, c i t e d in Fullan, p. 257. 3 Michael Fullan, The Meaning of Educational Change (Toronto: OISE Press, 1982), p. 30. 4 Fullan. p. 295. 5 Robert Stake, "The Case Study Method in Social Inquiry," Educational Researcher 7, no. 2 (1978): 5-8. 6 H. Sui Shapiro, "Educational Research, Social Change and the Challenge to Methodology: A Study in the Sociology of Knowledge," Phenomenology + Pedagogy 1, no. 2 (1983): 127. 7 The following describe ethnographic approaches: George Spindler, ed., Doing the Ethnography of Schooling (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1982); R. G. Burgess, ed., F i e l d Methods in the Study of Education (London: Falmer, 1985); William Geoffrey and Louis Smith, The Complexities of an Urban Classroom (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1968) . 8 The following describe case study approaches: Stake, "Case Study Method," pp. 5-8; Lawrence Stenhouse, "The Conduct, Analysis, and Reporting of Case Study in Educational Research and Evaluation," in C a l l i n g Education to Account r eds. Robert McCormick et a l . (London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1982), pp. 261-273. 63 9 Robert Stake, "Case Study," in Research, Po l i c y and Practice , World Yearbook of Education 1985 (London: Kogan Page, 1985), pp. 277-285. 1 0 Robert Stake, "To Evaluate an Arts Program," in his Evaluating the Arts in Education (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l , 1975), pp. 13-38. 1 1 The following describe a r t i s t i c approaches: E l l i o t Eisner, "On the Differences Between S c i e n t i f i c and A r t i s t i c Approaches to Qualitative Research," Educational Researcher 10, no. 4 (1981): 5-9; E l l i o t Eisner, "The Forms and Functions of Educational Connoisseurship and Educational C r i t i c i s m , " in his The Educational Imagination (New York: Macmillan, 1982), pp. 190-225; Douglas Boughton, Development and Validation of a Curriculum Evaluation Model for Visual Arts Education (Ph.D. di s s . , University of Alberta, 1976). 1 2 Max van Manen, "Practising Phenomenological Writing," Phenomenology + Pedagogy 2, no. 1 (1984): 36-69. 1 3 Milbrey McLaughlin and Margaret Thomas, Comparing the Process of Change Across D i s t r i c t s . Vol. 1., Art History, Art C r i t i c i s m , and Art Production (Santa Monica: Rand Corporation, 1984), p. i v . 1 4 For a discussion of the nature of a r t i s t i c c r i t i c i s m see: Boughton, Evaluation Model for Visual Arts, pp. 137-143; Eisner, "Educational Connoisseurship and Educational C r i t i c i s m , " pp. 190-225; Edmund Feldman, Varie t i e s of Visual Experience, 2d. ed. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1981), pp. 471-488. 1 5 Eisner, "Educational Connoisseurship and Educational C r i t i c i s m , " p. 197. 1 6 Eisner, "Educational Connoisseurship and Educational C r i t i c i s m , " p. 203. 1 7 Stake, "Case Study," p. 279. 1 8 Stake, "Case Study," p. 279. 64 1 9 Boughton, Evaluation Model for Visual Arts. 2 0 Boughton, p. 142. 2 1 Madeline Hunter, "Diagnostic Teaching," The Elementary School Journal 80, September (1979): 41-46, cited by Pat Burke Guild and Steven Garger, Marching To Different Drummers (Alexandria, V i r g i n i a : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), 1985, p. 74. 2 2 Boughton, pp. 137-139. 2 3 Boughton, p. 143. 2 4 Boughton, p. 141. 2 5 Feldman, p. 466. 2 6 Feldman, pp. 464-465. 2 7 Feldman, p. 483. 2 8 Van Manen, pp. 38, 40. 2 9 Van Manen, p. 37. 3 0 Michael Patton, Qualitative Evaluation Methods (Beverley H i l l s : SAGE, 1980), p. 193. 3 1 Patton, p. 119. 3 2 Patton, Qualitative Evaluation Methods. 3 3 Clem Adelman and Rob Walker, A Guide to Classroom Observation (London: Methuen, 1975). 3 4 Some studies which were "enlightening": Michael Day et a l . , Case Studies of Seven Selected Srtes., Vol. 2., Art History,. Art C r i t i c i s m r and Art Production (Santa Monica: Rand Corporation, 1984); 65 Geoffrey and Smith, Complexities of an Urban Classroom; Rob Walker and Jane Wiedel, "Using Photographs in a Di s c i p l i n e of Words," in F i e l d Methods in the Study of Education, ed. R. G. Burgess (London: Falmer, 1985), pp. 191-216. 3 5 David Hamilton et a l , eds., Bevond the Numbers Game (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1977), p. 19. 3 6 John Berger, About Looking (New York: Random House, Pantheon Book, 1980), pp. 49-50. 3 7 Patton, pp. 246-247. 3 8 John C o l l i e r , Visual Anthropology (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1967), p. 48. See also Van Manen, p. 63. 3 9 Patton, pp. 28-29, 198-199. 4 U Van Manen, p. 45. 4 1 Hamilton et a l . , pp. 13-14. Van Manen, p. 38. 4 3 John Dewey, Art as Experience (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, Perigee Book, 1980), p. 308. 4 4 Eisner, "Differences Between S c i e n t i f i c and A r t i s t i c Approaches," p. 8. 4 5 Dewey, p. 310. See also Feldman, pp. 475-476 on interpretation. 4 6 Van Manen, pp. 59-60. 4 7 E l l i o t Eisner, Cognition and Curriculum (New York: Longman, 1982), p. 60. 4 0 Ted Aoki, "Teaching as In-Dwelling Between Two Curriculum Worlds," The B.C. Teacher 65, no. 3 (1986): 67 CHAPTER III Halloween Pale cadmium yellow, r i c h ochre, burnt sienna, burnt umber, cerulean blue - these are the colours an a r t i s t would squeeze onto her palette to portray the sparsely grassed, low r o l l i n g h i l l s ; the poplar and birch groves intermingled with stands of pine and spruce; the endless clear sky of a late autumn afternoon in the Cariboo. This is c a t t l e and logging country, located in the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. In the centre of the region i s 100 Mile House, o r i g i n a l l y one of a chain of roadhouses used by miners on th e i r way to Bar k e r v i l l e during the goldrush era of the 1860's; now, a quiet community of about 2500. Gas stations, restaurants, and a small shopping mall serve the needs of l o c a l ranchers and year-round t o u r i s t s . The l a t t e r arrive at l o c a l resorts for f i s h i n g and hunting in summer and f a l l , cross-country s k i i n g and snowmobiling in winter. Highway 97 cuts through the town. Following i t a few miles north, I branch off onto a smaller two-lane paved road curving east. Sunroof back, glorying in the autumn colours, I pass small hobby farms and occasional clusters of wooden frame houses. In t y p i c a l Cariboo fashion, many are b u i l t around their occupants and are in various stages of construction. After t r a v e l l i n g about eight or nine miles from the highway junction, I round a sharp corner and there's the elementary 68 sch o o l to my l e f t , a l o w - l y i n g b u i l d i n g whose f i v e classrooms, l i b r a r y , and gymnasium are home d u r i n g the hours of 8:30 to 2:30 f o r 104 c h i l d r e n and f i v e s t a f f . Climbing the grassy slope from the parking l o t , I enter Pat's classroom door and am greeted by green-faced witches with kinky h a i r r i d i n g broomsticks a c r o s s a b r i g h t b u l l e t i n board, (see F i g u r e 3) Figu r e 3 Halloween Witches Pat i s g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s to her c l a s s . I would l i k e you f i r s t to draw four pumpkin shapes i n your chalkboard space and make four d i f f e r e n t faces using the shapes that we talked about. C h i l d r e n are working at the chalkboards which l i n e the f r o n t 69 and one s i d e o f t h e room. E a c h c h i l d h as h i s o r h e r own a r e a o f b o a r d marked o f f w i t h m a s k i n g t a p e , n a m e c a r d up a b o v e , ( s e e F i g u r e 4) Yes, you can make them quite big. Maria's got hers about the right size. Make them a l i t t l e b i g g e r s o we can see what kind o f faces you're going to draw. And see if you can make the faces all a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t . F i g u r e 4 M a r i a ' s P u m p k i n F a c e A s m i l i n g g h o s t , t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m an o l d s h e e t , h a n g s f r o m t h e c e i l i n g a n d h a u n t s t h e c e n t r e o f t h e room a b o v e a r o u n d t a b l e d i s p l a y i n g H a l l o w e e n a c t i v i t y c a r d s , ( s e e F i g u r e 5) S m a l l e r p a p e r g h o s t s f l o a t b e t w e e n l a r g e d r i e d t u m b l e w e e d b a l l s 70 suspended from two rows of f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t f i x t u r e s which run the l e n g t h of the room. Figu r e 5 Halloween Ghosts Tiny pumpkins are everywhere, l i n i n g the window ledges and tops of s h e l v e s . Pat walks behind the c h i l d r e n as they q u i e t l y chalk up t h e i r spaces, commenting on t h e i r e f f o r t s . I see one. Can you make another one to match? Good. Now, make the nose. See i f you can make me another face, right up here. Now, can you make the mouths d i f f e r e n t , Rodney? I wanted to see if you could make them a l l a l i t t l e bit d i f f e r e n t . Think about how faces look when they feel r e a l l y happy. Or when they feel r e a l l y angry. Or when they feel r e a l l y upset. Or r e a l l y - ferocious! And to another c h i l d , That's not bad! Try another one down at the bottom. And how many do you have? Four. Mrs. V i t t e r y , can you do any shape? Well, how do you mean, Jessica? Show me what you mean. 71 Like smiles. Oh, yes, that's OK. That's a curvy l i n e , i s n ' t i t ? . Oh, t h i s one looks scared, doesn't i t ? I love the look, Gary. Jodie, yours are a l l sort of the same. Can you make me one that's d i f f e r e n t ? Make me one that's sad. Or upset. Pat has the children stop their drawing. She has d i f f e r e n t children describe the faces they have drawn and adds her observations as well. Nov, when I'm looking around, I can see that Stephanie has used four d i f f e r e n t shapes on her pumpkin face mouths. She's got a zigzag, a rectangle, a happy face, and a sad face. I t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g that a happy face looks curved up and a sad one looks curved down. I go l i k e t h i s . That's how I do i t . OK, that's pretty good. Leave them on. Don't rub them off. A l l r i g h t . And come on up to the meeting place and s i t nicely. I've got a quick story for you. An 8x10' worn brown carpet covers the floor in one corner of the room. It marks off the meeting place, tucked in beside Pat's desk. As the children leave their chalkboard spots and scurry to s i t down, one stops to speak to Pat. You're going to the bathroom now? We're going to s t a r t the story. How fast can you go? Do you have to go right away? Hurry up. The children s i t cross-legged on the floor before Pat's chair, q u i e t l y anticipatory. If you've ever heard t h i s one before, don't l e t your neighbour know. Oh, I know t h i s one! (Whispers) Shhh. Don't t e l l . OK, is everybody s i t t i n g to l i s t e n ? Rodney, are you? Mrs. V i t t e r y . . . ? Shhh, don't t e l l , Jonathon, OK? I t ' s a secret. This i s a story called The L i t t l e Orange House. And as I read it, I'd l i k e you to picture in your mind what's happening. There are some pictures on the paper but 72 they're not pictures that are e a s i l y seen far away, so I can't show them to you. So, you'll have to make the pictures in your mind. Pat begins to read from a duplicated sheet on her lap. Once upon a time, a very small witch was walking in the woods. The cold wind was blowing the dry leaves a l l around her. This l i t t l e witch was f r a n t i c a l l y searching for a house for the winter. She couldn't find one. But suddenly, a piece of orange paper, blown by the wind, landed at her feet. And she picked it up. The l i t t l e witch looked c l o s e l y at the paper and then she said, "Hmm. I think I can make a myself a l i t t l e house from this piece of orange paper." So, she folded the paper in half. Then, she took her s c i s s o r s , the ones she always kept in her pocket, and she cut off the two corners to make a roof." As Pat reads, she stops p e r i o d i c a l l y to cut a piece of orange construction paper, following directions in the story. The cuts represent parts of a witch's house. There's one side. And there's the other side. The children s i t with eyes riveted on the paper in her hands. They're enthralled - and so am I! The story continues for a few minutes longer, ending with: Then, she decided that her l i t t l e house was finished. But, just as the l i t t l e witch started to go inside for the winter, she saw a t i n y ghost f l o a t i n g down. It came to stop by her l i t t l e house. The l i t t l e ghost was crying. The witch said, "Why are you crying?". The t i n y ghost stopped and said, "Oh, i t ' s so cold and windy and i t ' s getting dark. And I have no place to spend the winter." "Well," the witch said, "How would you l i k e to spend the winter in my l i t t l e house?" And the ghost said, "Thank you, thank you so much." And peeked in through the window and said, "It's a very nice house." "Well, f i r s t , " said the witch, "I think I ' l l need to make you a l i t t l e door of your very own." So she picked up her s c i s s o r s again and she cut out a very t i n y door. Was the ghost t i n i e r than the witch? Shhh. Yes, just a l i t t l e ghost. And that was the door for the l i t t l e ghost. Well, the l i t t l e witch went inside her door. And the l i t t l e ghost went inside his door. And very happily they spent the winter together in the l i t t l e orange house. Do 73 you want to know what it looked l i k e inside? OK. OK. Pat u n f o l d s the paper, r e v e a l i n g i t transformed i n t o a J a c k - 0 • L a n t e r n f a c e ! (see F i g u r e 6 ) A Jack-0'Lantern! F i g u r e 6 Halloween Magic! Isn't that cute? There, it is! There's some ideas for you when you make your J a c k - 0 ' L a n t e r n . What shape are the eyes? Squares! They're pretty close to being squares, but they're more l i k e rectangles. What shape is the nose? Shawn? T r i a n g l e . Yes. And the mouth is made with straight l i n e s . Lots of you made curvy l i n e s on yours. Mrs. V i t t e r y , can you fold it back up again? 74 Sure, I ' l l show you how it works. We cut the corners off, r i g h t ? . Then we cut a door, so we had a l i t t l e point for the hat, r i g h t ? . Then it was too dark, so she had to cut the windows. And then the ghost came along and she had to make the door for the ghost. Yeh, and the l i t t l e ghost door made the t r i a n g l e nose and the reason why you put the l i t t l e things there, i s to make the happy face things go up, l i k e that. Yes. That's r i g h t . You're r e a l l y clever today, Carrie. That's good to see. I have a couple of other l i t t l e Jack-O'Lantern faces here, too. There is laughter from the children as she holds up some sample pictures of Jack-O'Lantern faces. And t h i s one has t r i a n g l e s for eyes and nose. And t h i s one has upside down t r i a n g l e s and has c i r c l e s and a d i f f e r e n t kind of nose. OK. Now, here's what we're going to do. We're going to get started and t r y to make our own l i t t l e faces that we print with the potatoes. Yes, Richard? Um, I know why you made a t r i a n g l e for the l i t t l e ghost's house. Yes, why did I? So the nose w i l l be t r i a n g l e . Yes. I knew it a l l along, didn't I? But you didn't. Now you do, though. I did! Did you know, a l l along? Yes. Good for you. So did I. So did I. So I didn't surprise you, eh, Jonathon? You didn't surprise me either. This Jack-O'Lantern story and the chalkboard drawing are "warm-up" a c t i v i t i e s for today's art lesson in which the potato printmaking technique w i l l be used to make Jack-O'Lantern images. E a r l i e r , as the children worked at the 75 chalkboard, Pat had explained to me the preparations that were necessary for t h i s lesson. Knives have been brought from home - i t has taken a week for everyone's to get here - and she has given a demonstration t h i s morning on potato carving. Materials for printmaking (potatoes, a stack of yellow duplicating paper, newspapers, etc.) are on a long low table at the side of the room in front of the coat racks. The children are sent to get them by teams; each "team" of five to s i x s i t s together at four desk groupings set at angles to the round table in the centre of the room. Knives are already at their desks and Pat warns: Remember about knives. They're for cutting potatoes, not fingers. We don't want anything red flowing around here. Children are reminded to think of the plans they have for their potato when selecting their potato shape. Just look at i t . Turn i t in your hand and see which way looks best for the shape your face is going to be. Take a look at Kristen. This is the one she chose. If I hold it this way, I could have an oval shape. Eyes here, mouth down here, and so on. And if I hold it that way, i t looks l i k e a long f l a t pumpkin face. Look at yours and decide which way you want your pumpkin face - long or fat - and when you've decided, use your pencil - don't cut with the knife yet - use your pencil. Think about a l l the things you drew on the chalkboard, think about the shapes we talked about, and very c a r e f u l l y draw your face on the potato. Now, i t ' s going to make a l i n e , it w i l l sort of make a l i t t l e dent in i t so you can see where you want to cut. (see Figure 7) Pat demonstrates a safe way to hold a knife to one group. OK. Keep your hand over the top. And, it won't hurt to move your fingers close up to the blade, l i k e that, with t h i s finger on the top of it, not on the bottom! Because the bottom is the sharp side, right? I've got a switch blade one but I'm not allowed to bring it because i t ' s r e a l l y r e a l l y sharp. Oh. OK. Very, very c a r e f u l l y . And you don't have to dig hard because the potato i t s e l f is not very hard. Dig 76 out the shape for your eyes and nose and mouth. Very, very c a r e f u l l y . You just need to vork very c a r e f u l l y . F i g u r e 7 Leah P r e p a r i n g a Potato Block I can't c u t . Pat goes to help some of the grade l ' s who are e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y with t h e i r t a b l e k n i v e s . The t i p s are too rounded to allow c u t t i n g of f i n e d e t a i l s . OK. A l l r i g h t , Jonathon, I ' l l help you. Do you want the eyes right here? A l l r i g h t . Dig a l i t t l e hole with the knife. Well, you did a r e a l l y good job on that one. Try, try...go slowly, we're not in a rush. Mrs. V i t t e r y , I'm finished. Great! that's the idea! Try to make your cuts f a i r l y straight so that the f l a t part of the face doesn't get 77 a l l raggedy or mushed. Ohhh... Nov vhat?. Well, can you make i t into a triangle? Make two s i d e s s t r a i g h t on i t and i t w i l l turn i n t o a t r i a n g l e . Mrs. V i t t e r y , the mouth i s botching. No, I think i t ' s going to look just fine. Pat dispenses orange poster p a i n t , one styrofoam t r a y per group. C h a t t e r i n g e x c i t e d l y , the c h i l d r e n experiment with t h e i r potatoes on yellow sheets of paper, (see F i g u r e 8) Figure 8 Leah's F i r s t Potato P r i n t 78 Some children are disappointed with their r e s u l t s . The faces are not as clear as they were expecting. A c h i l d mutters to himself at a near table: I can't do t h i s . This i s wrecked. Keep trying u n t i l you figure out exactly the way it should work out. Pat goes about the room, commenting on individual children's r e s u l t s , o f f e r i n g encouragement. That's a good one, Gary. Look, Gary's got a great one. His f i r s t one wasn't so great, but t h i s one i s . Mrs. Vittery, I dropped i t . Oh, deari Well, do you want to s t a r t over? While the children continue with t h e i r experimenting, Pat lays out a longer piece of paper on a table at the window side of the room. It has a brown crayon fence p a r t i a l l y drawn on i t . She asks one c h i l d who has done a number of prints to complete the fence. A l l r i g h t , boys and g i r l s . We're going to s t i c k your p r i n t s along the top of the fence and see a l l the Jack-O'Lanterns. So, paint yours, bring it over, and put it along the top of the fence, (see Figure 9) Those who come up to print a face on the fence are very careful i n i t i a l l y . As the fence f i l l s up and a second row of faces is added, less care i s taken. Some children begin to experiment by twisting their potatoes as they p r i n t , creating smudgy c i r c l e s . It didn't turn out r i g h t . You've got to go in on top of mine. 79 F i g u r e 9 J a c k - 0 1 L a n t e r n s On A F e n c e P a t c a l l s t h e c h i l d r e n back t o t h e i r p l a c e s a s i t i s t i m e t o c l e a n up. She g i v e s d i r e c t i o n s t o p u t p o t a t o e s on t h e c o r n e r s o f d e s k s , s a m p l e p a p e r s on t h e a r t t a b l e , b r u s h e s i n t h e s i n k , and n e w s p a p e r s i n t h e g a r b a g e . T h i s i s q u i c k l y d o n e , a c c o m p a n i e d b y some c h e e r f u l s i n g i n g f r o m a few c h i l d r e n . One o r a n g e f i n g e r e d y o u n g l a d y p l a y f u l l y t e a s e s and c h a s e s a g r a d e 1 b oy. O t h e r s l i n e up q u i e t l y a t t h e s i n k t o wash t h e i r h a n d s . M r s . V i t t e r y . ' Look a t Chad! He's got orange on his face! He's orange everywhere.' OK. K r i s t e n , h u r r y i t up, d e a r . 80 Pat c a l l s the children to the meeting place, with some further reminders to "slowpokes" at the sink. Now, I want to know how you f e l t about the business of t r y i n g to carve the potato. Did you find it was a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t to do? Raise your hand to t e l l me how you f e l t about i t . Was it an easy job to do or not? What did you think, Rodney? I thought it was hard. Can you t e l l me why you thought i t was hard? Cause of the eyes and that. And what made it d i f f i c u l t ? It was hard to do i t . What would have made i t easier, do you think? Just choose the shape. Do you mean that if you had chosen a d i f f e r e n t shape, it might have been easier? OK, so Rodney found it was a d i f f i c u l t job to cut the eyes out. How did you feel about the whole job that we did, Maria? It was easy. Did your p r i n t turn out to be what you wanted i t to be? Uh huh. How did you f e e l about i t ? Carrie? Kind of hard. Can you explain why you f e l t that way about i t ? Cause i t ' s a small l i t t l e thing that you can't carve with a big thing. Right. OK. That's what I was noticing, that you were having quite a l o t of trouble. How did you feel about it, Leah? Um, I thought i t was quite hard because it was, um, sort of l i t t l e parts and you can't carve it very well. And I didn't want i t to turn out the way i t was turned out. So, you were...how did you feel about the way it did turn out? 81 Hmmm. I didn't l i k e the way i t turned out. OK. How many f e l t that way about their l i t t l e Jack-O'Lantern face? It didn't turn out quite the way they wanted it to? A show of hands reveals that about half of the children were d i s s a t i s f i e d with the a c t i v i t y and their r e s u l t s . Pat summarizes the i r comments concerning the size of the knives and the smallness of the features they were attempting to carve. She asks for predictions about the pumpkin carving planned for the upcoming week. Can you t e l l me what might be d i f f e r e n t about carving the potato face compared to carving the Jack-O'Lantern face? What might be d i f f e r e n t , Jessica? I t ' s a l o t bigger and it would be a l o t easier i f the knives would be a b i t small for the big pumpkin. Oh, I think you're right about that. How many would agree with Jessica, it probably w i l l be an easier job. And was anyone else going to say something d i f f e r e n t to what she said? I know. Rodney, come here, by me. what were you going to suggest, David? Well, i t ' s going to be harder to get through because i t ' s thicker and i t ' s r e a l l y bigger and i t ' s going to be. Like, you're going to have a harder part. Like, where to put the eyes and that. We'll figure out what to do about the face and the shapes f i r s t , but David's r i g h t . I think what he's trying to say is that the potato was f a i r l y soft, easy to cut. Yeh. And the pumpkin w i l l be much tougher. And yet the fact that the potato was so small and the pumpkin w i l l be bigger should make the pumpkin job easier. What did you think about i t , Shawn? And if you get it open, you can draw the t r i a n g l e eyes. On the pumpkin. Yup. 82 That's probably what we'll do. Pat holds up the pumpkins on the fence sheet. OK, I'd l i k e to just show you what happened here. (Laughs) I thought i t would look r e a l l y neat because we'd have one from everybody and they'd a l l look r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t . But I didn't stay beside the fence because I was busy looking around and helping other people. And some pumpkins didn't r e a l l y get put in the r i g h t place. A couple of children got carried away. They were supposed to put one pumpkin s i t t i n g on the fence. I think tomorrow we'll try t h i s again and see if we can get those p r i n t s to work and make a l i t t l e row of pumpkins on our fence. And then the grade l's can use it in math when they're doing counting. However, some of them didn't look bad at a l l . This one turned out very nicely. And t h i s one looks r e a l l y scary. And there's another one. You got some r e a l l y quite i n t e r e s t i n g faces, the ones that had success with i t . We'll try t h i s again tomorrow. The one at the very end there has no eyes. How's he going to see? Oh, that's mine! Pat explains to the children that cutting very simple geometric shapes instead of attempting faces might be an easier way to make potato p r i n t s . Mrs. Vittery...? Yes. I could bring another potato in to make a c i r c l e . yes, I was just going to ask that, Shawn. Thanks for bringing it up. If you would l i k e to t r y another potato print - the knives w i l l be here anyway because we're going to do the pumpkins next week - and so, Monday, I keep thinking tomorrow's Friday, but today's Friday. Monday, ask mom if she w i l l l e t you bring a potato and we'll try some easier things. That was probably too d i f f i c u l t for the f i r s t time at potato p r i n t i n g . The children are qu i e t l y l i s t e n i n g , very calm. Some yawn; one or two are sprawled out. It i s time for the pumpkin song, sung to the tune of "I'm a L i t t l e Teapot." Children choral read off the song chart f i r s t , (see Figure 10) 83 F i g u r e 10 Potato P r i n t Pumpkins A l l right, l e t ' s see i f we can s i n g i t . Adam and Chad, come on up. OK, ready? One, two t h r e e : I'm a l i t t l e pumpkin, Short and s t o u t , Packed f u l l of seeds That you can scrape out. When I'm a l l finished, Then I ' l l be, The c u t e s t Jack-0'Lantern That you ever d i d see. As I l e f t the c h i l d r e n p r e p a r i n g f o r "home time," I thought about the sense of u n i t y I had n o t i c e d throughout the afte r n o o n i n Pat's classroom. During our f i r s t follow-up d i s c u s s i o n , I f e l t i t important that Pat and I c o n s i d e r how 84 she, as teacher " a r t i s t , " creates t h i s unity within her "artwork," her curriculum-as-lived. Curricu,lum-a^-Prlan; Rationale The new B.C. Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book states: Education in the arts i s an essential part of the development of every c h i l d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n in a r t , drama, and music provides a unique mode of experience that stimulates creative and i n t u i t i v e thought while developing the i n t e l l e c t . Arts education a s s i s t s the c h i l d to perceive and respond to the environment through the senses. It also helps the c h i l d to achieve s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , to experience success, and to r e a l i z e personal p o t e n t i a l . Learning through the arts provides a f u l l e r understanding and enjoyment of l i f e . 1 These philosophical b e l i e f s are given further elaboration in the guide's recommendations for a thematic planning approach in arts education: A l l experience i s related and therefore a l l learning i s related, since learning is an ordering of experience....Using a theme to present experiences a s s i s t s children to make connections and to understand the relationships between the arts and between the arts and other subjects, and, in addition, i t helps teachers to plan an integrated learning experience for children.... It w i l l be more meaningful and e x c i t i n g . . . i f the children are involved in some part of the planning. To f a c i l i t a t e f a m i l i a r i t y with a thematic approach, examples from the s o c i a l studies curriculum guide have been used throughout the v i s u a l arts section of the fine arts resource book. These i l l u s t r a t e how the goals of art can be achieved through integration with other subjects. These s o c i a l studies themes are: Grade 1 - Myself Grade 2 - Families Grade 3 - Communiities Grade 4 - Native Peoples and Explorers Grade 5 - Canada - Our Culture 85 Grade 6 - World Neighbours Grade 7 - People and Places The resource book indicates some of the many factors that can be considered when choosing themes. The suggestions given are: - a pa r t i c u l a r concept - regional factors - special seasons and occasions - resource people available - features of the environment Curriculum-as-lived My personal b e l i e f about t h i s whole business of teaching art to children is that I'd l i k e to increase t h e i r awareness and t h e i r observation of the world around them. And, as well, give them an appreciation of how others have observed and interpreted the world. I feel that to be successful with children, i t doesn't matter whether you're teaching art or reading or what, your whole brain has to be working. You can't just be t o t a l l y on the l e f t or t o t a l l y on the r i g h t ; you've got to have a nice happy mix. A balanced person uses some from each. I r e a l l y think that you have to be a well-rounded sort of a person - you've done a l o t of things and you're w i l l i n g to experiment with something that's new. If you're whole, yourself, in terms of your thinking, then i t ' s more l i k e l y that you're going to be able to give that to kids. Pat expressed these thoughts as we sipped coffee in her l i v i n g room one wintry Saturday afternoon. I feel you have to be aware of the a l t e r n a t i v e s and you have to be able to show children that they can expand an idea and the ways i t ' s possible to go. For me there's a l l kinds of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t ' s not just one set. By t h i s , did she mean that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for children's learning could be v i s u a l (through art) or verbal (through written forms, for example)? Yes. Music, drama, creative dance, everything. Involved. And the new curriculum t r i e s to do that. Pat explained how she plans for a balanced approach to her teaching. She spoke of the "webbing" sessions she has with 86 her c l a s s a t d i f f e r e n t times throughout the year, (see F i g u r e 11) Fig u r e 11 P l a n n i n g Web f o r Autumn What I was doing was t r y i n g to get the k i d s t h i n k i n g about the changing seasons and then what I was going to do i n math and i n s c i e n c e . That a l l ties in with what I would be doing i n a r t lessons. So the webbing here started off with autumn as the centre point and we broke off from there. What came out of it were the things that I was hoping would. F i r s t of a l l , the leaves change. And I was planning an art a c t i v i t y . . . I mentioned t h a t there were some p i c t u r e s of t r e e s that I had taken on t h i s v i s i t . (see F i g u r e 12) Was t h i s the a c t i v i t y she was r e f e r r i n g to? Yes, that's r i g h t . So leaves were one thing that came out of i t . 87 And, then the pumpkins. We d i d Jack-o'Lanterns, of course, i n a r t work. In math, we weighed them; we counted seeds; we cooked with them; we d i d a l l that kind of s t u f f with them. So that was something I was hoping would come out. And then about the animals p r e p a r i n g f o r winter. That worked into the animal unit, later on. And the web I put on a chart, after i t was on the chalkboard. It was left in the classroom and we r e f e r r e d to i t f o r t o p i c s . So the webbing that I do with the children has a l o t to do with the p l a n n i n g of what actually goes on in the classroom because I feel it's important that I work with the ideas that come from them. I always feel that if the idea comes from them, i t ' s more important to them, more meaningful to them. A l l the ideas there were expanded. Oh, I know, there was something about how people prepare f o r winter. And, we d i d a l o t of w r i t i n g about h e l p i n g t h i n g s get organized at home, chopping wood, piling wood, freezing veggies, canning f r u i t , t r y i n g on winter clothes. And they're always so cute. They all say "Well, I just did that and those boots from last year don't f i t . Neither does my coat." I commented t h a t t h a t leads i n t o another d i s c u s s i o n , about t h e i r growth. 88 Sure. It goes on and on. And I r e a l l y , r e a l l y l i k e doing t h i s because the kids find out that they aleady know a l o t of things. I t ' s so much better than just opening up a l i t t l e book and saying read page 12 and here's a family preparing for winter. I was curious about the amount of time given to the various elements of the theme. Pat explained how each flows into the next and how she can i n t u i t i v e l y sense when i t i s time to move on. That web took us through October and November and right into Christmas. In November, we did guite a l o t with animals. I t ' s such a neat theme which came out of animals preparing for winter, but then we, of course, expanded it and went on to a l l animals and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and the whole thing. That's the fun part about working an Integrated program. Because i t ' s so broad, it s p i l l s over into every s i n g l e area. We "web" whenever we need some fresh ideas. I remember here we did food, too. We did a l i t t l e quick thing, about a week long on n u t r i t i o n . And then t h i s wore out and the animal thing was finished up. You know, l o t s of times, I never look at a guide book for weeks on end because there's so many things going on in the classroom that I haven't got time to look at i t . (Laughs) Don't ever l e t anybody hear t h i s , please! Keep it secret! At t h i s , we both laughed. I mentioned that the concepts that the guide wants her to get across, though, are a c t u a l l y being covered. Well, because I've been at the job for so many years, I know the guides off by heart, so then I can t e l l you right away, OK, n u t r i t i o n is in chapter 2 of the grade 1 science guide. Maybe i t ' s 4, who knows, but what ever, something l i k e that. I know i t ' s there. (Laughs) Right? And I also know that animals and t h e i r habits is in grade 2 science. I know that f a m i l i e s preparing for winter i s in the grade 2 social studies. You know, because I've been around a while, I can spot these things and say, sure, that's f i n e , that's l e g a l , I can e a s i l y use these lessons because they are written down someplace. And by the end of the year, if I look at the guide, I've covered everything that's in it, plus more. So I don't t i e myself to the guide at a l l . And if that's i l l e g a l that's too bad. Pat involves children in the webbing process. It i s apparent, however, that she provides some guidance according to 89 p a r t i c u l a r concepts that might be in the back of her mind or outlined in the guide book. I wanted to know i f there i s , in fact, an underlying structure to t h i s webbing a c t i v i t y . Yes, that's r i g h t . When I do the webbing, I know what I want them to t e l l me. And so by my questioning I get them to give me the ideas and then they become t h e i r ideas. Instead of me, drawing a web or making a l i s t or doing something l i k e that for them to look at, which they wouldn't look at or wouldn't understand anyway, I draw it out of them and therefore i t ' s t h e i r own and i t ' s more meaningful. That's my reason for doing that. And whether or not i t works, I don't know. I haven't used any other system for so long that to me it does work. I think that i t ' s reasonable to assume it does. And by the end of the unit we w i l l have discussed and talked about every s i n g l e thing that's on that web. Now it came from the children. Some of it was not necessarily in my plan, but it was i n t e r e s t i n g to them so we included i t . I guess I do have a master plan for the webbing. It just kind of serves as a vehicle to make sure that a l l the things that I want to cover in a unit are covered and yet the kids think that they figured out what they want to learn about. I asked why Pat had chosen to emphasize a more thematic approach th i s year than in the past. Well, I've always f e l t that it made more sense, e s p e c i a l l y in the younger grades. Now t h i s year I have 1's and 2's. Normally, in the l a s t few years, a part of my group has always been grade 3's. And they're a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . They're older and i t ' s not as easy to do a theme approach with them. They've got a hefty math program that just absolutely must be covered, according to the powers that be. And there's a l o t in the handwriting program, for instance, that is s p e c i f i c a l l y grade 3. Oh, and the Canada study, in social studies, i s very d e f i n i t e , that that's what you must study, Canada t h i s , t h i s , and t h i s - the whole year is spent on our country. I observed that she seemed to be implying that the curriculum guide lines for those grades are much more r i g i d . Yes, that's a good way to put it, for grade 3. And from then on, too. But in 1 and 2 you have a l i t t l e more leeway as to how you interpret what i s written down, in a l l these guides. I choose to think of it that way. So I think that's been one freeing thing for me, having just the l's and 2's, rather than having 2's and 3's. That was one reason why I decided I would l i k e to t r y the 90 theme thing. And I have always f e l t i t ' s so much easier, for me, as well as it must be easier for the kids. I just think i t ' s more meaningful for children i f they can see a r e l a t i o n s h i p between what they're doing r i g h t now, as compared to what they did an hour ago, or what they're going to be doing in the afternoon. It f e e l s better, to me, to work that way. And it seems to f e e l better to the kids. They're doing an art project in the afternoon that i s related to a story that they were reading that morning, or a poem that they'd studied, or a lesson in science, or in social studies, whatever i t i s . You can hear them chattering about i t . I can t e l l that i t ' s comfortable for them to work that way. This approach contrasts with my work as an unassigned teacher. One aspect of my job is to r e l i e v e teachers in s p l i t grade situations by taking one grade for either s o c i a l studies or science. The teachers, f e e l i n g obligated to adhere c l o s e l y to d i s t r i c t guidelines, encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s in presenting the s p e c i f i c content outlined for these subjects to two grades at once. Also, I am the art s p e c i a l i s t in our school. This involves teaching art to each class in grades 3 to 7 for one 80 minute period per week. I t r y to integrate my lessons with topics currently being studied in other subject areas, but time i s a l i m i t i n g factor in both my planning with other teachers and my interacting with the children. I think how much better i t would be for my students, as well, i f the c u r r i c u l a r requirements were not quite so structured. I mentioned to Pat that in my present s i t u a t i o n , there was not much flow between subjects. I agree. I agree. But I'm a f r a i d that the teachers involved feel too much pressure to do, or to cover, the work. I added that in t h i s pressure to cover the work, the students' meaningful understanding ceases to be of primary importance. Exactly! Because they're under pressure from t h e i r administration and they've got t h i s big curriculum guide 91 in front of them, that says you must do t h i s , t h i s , t h i s , and t h i s . And heaven help you, have i t fin i s h e d by spring break, so that you can spend the rest of the time "reviewing." Lots of teachers work that way. You know them as well as I do. It doesn't r e a l l y matter whether i t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g for the kids or not; you've got to get through the "program".' I laughed sadly, noticing the irony. Who i s schooling for anyhow? Well, i t i s n ' t for the kids. Pat and I examined the chart in the resource book which indicates some of the many factors that can be considered when choosing themes. The suggestions are r e a l l y wide open, so yes, I would say there's something there for everyone. Anyone who has an idea of how theme teaching works wouldn't have any d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s at a l l , even i f they didn't use the theme the way a theme should be used, in a l l d i f f e r e n t subject areas, For example, you could pick up native peoples of BC. Well, how many art lessons could you get out of that? That's a whole year of study. And more. And here's another one, the sea. Well, you and I know we could just go for days on that. I thought about what Pat was saying, about the two of us, experienced in teaching with themes and with good backgrounds in a r t , being able to do i t . But what of a person inexperienced in theme teaching? As the teacher in charge of the enrichment program at our school, I had been conducting workshops with teachers on my s t a f f , developing some science units on a thematic approach. And those people were finding i t r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t . This was e s p e c i a l l y noticeable at the intermediate l e v e l where teachers, limited to 40 minute time periods, were a d d i t i o n a l l y constrained by their perception of s t r i c t l y defined subject areas. They seemed to lose sight of the word guide when studying curriculum outlines, substituting the word prescription instead. Imaginative f l e x i b i l i t y in the 92 use of these guides was sadly lacking. And as far as art was concerned, there seemed to be kind of a groping from lesson to lesson, each one conducted in i s o l a t i o n . Pat commented on my observations: You know, one of the worst things that teachers ever did, as far as I'm concerned, is come out with those idea books that you could pick up at teachers' conferences. "A thousand and one ideas for art lessons." And that's exactly what it is, a thousand and one sheets of paper, each with a l i t t l e lesson on it, which would be fin e , except that i t ' s not related to anything else. It's just - spatter painting. And that's done one week. And the next week, jump to something else, something t o t a l l y unrelated to the spatter painting. You know, there's no cohesiveness to it at a l l . And I f i n d those teachers that I've worked with in the intermediate grades w i l l base an art program for the i r class on a book l i k e that. Or several. And they think that they're doing wonderful things with their kids, because they're doing d i f f e r e n t things. And every kid in the class turns out the spatter painting that's exactly the same way. And the next week, they a l l do the...oh, whatever it is, a silhouette of a tree and a duck f l y i n g overhead. And the next week they do something else. Who knows. But nothing is tied together. But the kids are busy. And every other day, whenever they have a planned art lesson, the process is carried through. The product is pleasing to the kid and the teacher. Everybody's happy. But... there's more to it, as far as I'm concerned. Pat's reference to the ideas books might be applicable to a textbook series which the Ministry of Education suggests as a possible teacher resource. These textbooks appear to completely contradict the thematic approach. The series, Discover Art, by Laura Chapman, offers many excellent ideas in well planned, individual lessons. 3 Vocabulary terms, techniques, art history, art appreciation are covered. Each of the six grade l e v e l texts contains lessons for an entire year, with the sequential development of s k i l l s and knowledge thoughtfully outlined. Yet, i t is d i s j o i n t e d . There i s no continuity from one lesson to the next. In order to use these 93 texts within a thematic approach, a teacher has to go through a l l the books to pick out a c t i v i t i e s which relate to the chosen theme. That's the only use I've made of those thousand and one idea hooks, to go through for ideas, or for things that you can include within a given theme. I expressed fears of a textbook series in art being used exactly as i t i s presented, in the same manner in which the idea books are used. A thematic approach quite comfortably f i t s our s t y l e , but a great many others would have d i f f i c u l t y working with i t . I also mentioned that i t requires some e f f o r t and c r e a t i v i t y to take a theme and expand upon i t . Yes. We've talked often about the fact that to be r e a l l y successful as an art teacher you have to be a creative person yourself. Otherwise, there's not a creativeness to your thinking. If you're a creative kind of teacher, then you can expand and build on themes and use a l l the techniques that you know of, within the framework of a theme. If you're not p a r t i c u l a r l y creative, then you may have to s t i c k to lessons that are just dealing with techniques. On two occasions during the previous spring, I had observed in Pat's classroom. As I entered her room for the f i r s t time t h i s f a l l , what struck me right away was the physical arrangement of her classroom. Before, the children had been in rows, in groups of three, but t h i s year i t was considerably d i f f e r e n t . Oh, I did change it, yes. F i r s t of a l l , I have grade l's this year. Last year I had 2's and 3's. I wanted to have an arrangement where the 1's had as much freedom to move around as possible. I didn't want to have to many r e s t r i c t i o n s on them. I wanted to have them grouped so that there was easy access for me to deal with them when I needed to, and for them to get at reading materials, pictures, in the reading corner. I wanted them near that meeting place. And I also wanted to have a focal point in the very centre of the room where I placed that round table. I wanted to have i t easy for every one to get at mater i a l s dealing with whatever theme I was working 94 on.(see F i g u r e 13) And i t worked really veil for the animal unit because I had a l l those pictures that they were u s i n g c o n s t a n t l y , f o r one t h i n g or another. F i g u r e 13 Classroom F o c a l P o i n t And then having the f r i n g e s of the room more f o r c e n t r e kinds of a c t i v i t i e s . There's the art table, down a t the end, by the sink vith the a r t s u p p l i e s ' s h e l v i n g . And then I've got science and social s t u d i e s r e f e r e n c e books along the vindov ledge there, and the table in the math corner vith a l l our m a n i p u l a t i v e s t u f f on the shelf behind i t . And then the meeting p l a c e or the r e a d i n g corner, v i t h a l l the d i f f e r e n t kinds of books that they use, extended things, not readers. They're a very cohesive group; I think that the actual physical arrangement has something to do v i t h i t . Pat's classroom i s a graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of her s t y l e of plan n i n g . The connection between her thematic p l a n n i n g and 95 the physical arrangement of her classroom was immediately obvious to me on my f i r s t v i s i t t h i s year when I noticed the autumn web on the chalkboard and saw the c i r c u l a r arrangement of table and desks. And the connection was reinforced on subsequent v i s i t s ; the materials on the centre table - her thematic focal point - always brought together the displays at other centres around the classroom. On my f i r s t v i s i t , the table featured teddy bears and CARE bear s t o r i e s . The "BEAR" theme was expanded upon throughout the classroom - bear drawing a c t i v i t i e s and a "Three Bears" mural in the art centre, p o r t r a i t s of Goldilocks and character analysis s t o r i e s of her in the writing centre, and factual information on r e a l bears in the science centre. As Halloween approached, the table display changed to Halloween s t o r i e s and a c t i v i t y cards. Visual materials and a c t i v i t i e s at the other centres were interwoven into t h i s theme - pumpkin seed graphs in the math area, witches on broomsticks on the art centre's b u l l e t i n board, and Halloween songs on charts in the reading area. At other times in the year, I noticed the themes of animals, winter, valentines, and space handled in a similar manner. I shared my observation on the connection between planning and classroom organization with Pat. I never even thought of i t l i k e that. Oh, isn ' t that funny? No, I didn't think of that at a l l . But I can see, I can see...yes. That's how i t ' s working. Reflections on an integrated f balanced approach to learning "In a work of a r t , " says Heidegger, "there occurs a disclosure of a par t i c u l a r being,...a happening of truth at work."4 He continues: 96 Truth does not exist in i t s e l f beforehand, somewhere among the stars....The establishing of truth in a work is the bringing forth of a being such as never was before and w i l l never come to be again. 5 Heidegger believes that the work "makes public something other than i t s e l f ; . . . i t i s an a l l e g o r y . " 6 The greater the sense of unity within a work of a r t , the greater the opportunity for the disclosure of truth to occur. In a visu a l work of a r t , unity, the being seen as a whole, is achieved through the a r t i s t ' s r e l a t i n g to the elements of physical materials - l i n e , shape, form, colour, texture within a par t i c u l a r medium, according to patterns of working together. These patterns are the p r i n c i p l e s of design coherence, balance, and rhythm. 7 In my observation of the Halloween lesson and my subsequent discussion with Pat, I was able to come to a deeper understanding of the patterns which contribute to the unity so discernible within her artwork, her curr iculum-as-1ived. Pat's personal philosophy regarding the teaching of art is cohesive with that expressed in the B.C. Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book. She shares the opinion that i f we are attending to the growth of the whole c h i l d , then the development of m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y s k i l l s - v i s u a l , l i n g u i s t i c , mathematical/logical - must be considered. It is imperative that we keep in mind the fact that the q u a l i t i e s of the environment are multiple [which] means that the ways in which these q u a l i t i e s are known can also be p o t e n t i a l l y multiple. The a b i l i t y to experience the m u l t i p l i c i t y of environmental q u a l i t i e s is one of the aims educational programs should attempt to achieve. 8 Eisner remarks that today's educational system undermines 97 the concept of a balanced curriculum by maintaining the myth that only through certain academic subjects can important knowledge be acquired. Language a r t s , mathematics, s o c i a l studies, and science are considered cognitive subject areas. A l l emphasize a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge almost exclusively through l i n g u i s t i c and/or mathematical forms of representation. 9 When vi s u a l forms, such as i l l u s t r a t i o n s in textbooks, are included, they are usually a n c i l l a r y to the written text, not integral aspects of the learning experience. The arts, in turn, are frequently regarded as a n c i l l a r y subjects to basic education. Basic has t r a d i t i o n a l l y meant the r a t i o n a l , linear thinking embodied in linguistic/mathematical forms of representation. These languages, however, provide only limited descriptions of the world and can never f u l l y represent our experiences in i t . As Eisner explains: We are able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e thousands of q u a l i t i e s for which we have no vocabulary....Thinking exceeds the li m i t s of d i s c o u r s e . 1 0 A r t i s t s and musicians are well aware of t h i s . They find i t unnecessary to "think" in words while creating works of a r t . The present educational imbalance supports the assumption, rooted in the Cartesian dichotomy separating mind (cognition) from f e e l i n g ( a f f e c t ) , that the subjective nature of the arts does not involve thinking. Eisner refutes t h i s faulty d i s t i n c t i o n : If to cognize i s to know, then to have a f e e l i n g and not to know i t is not to have i t . . . . I n order to have a feeling, one must be able to distinguish between one state of being and another. The making of thi s d i s t i n c t i o n i s the product of thinking, a product that i t s e l f represents a state of knowing. S i m i l a r l y , there 98 can be no cognitive a c t i v i t y that is not also a f f e c t i v e . . . . A f f e c t and cognition are not independent processes; nor are they processes that can be separated. 1 1 This relationship between the two has been demonstrated by quantum physicists working within the new s c i e n t i f i c paradigm. In education, thinking cannot be construed only in terms of verbal and mathematical languages. Dewey stresses t h i s point: Because perception of r e l a t i o n s h i p between what i s done and what is undergone constitutes the work of i n t e l l i g e n c e , and because the a r t i s t i s controlled in the process of his work by his grasp of the connection between what he has already done and what he i s to do next, the idea that the a r t i s t does not think as i n t e n t l y and as penetratingly as a s c i e n t i f i c inquirer i s absurd. A painter must consciously undergo the e f f e c t of his every brushstroke or he w i l l not be aware of what he i s doing and where he is going. To apprehend such relations is to think, and i s one of the most exacting modes of thought. 1 2 In the experiences of drawing and p r i n t i n g Jack-0'Lantern faces, Pat's children were involved in synthesis and decision-making - i n t e l l i g e n t thinking was going on. As Pat consistently emphasized during our i n i t i a l discussion, for a whole c h i l d a balanced curriculum approach i s needed. An educational system weighted in linguistic/mathematical modes of knowing i s lopsided. The thematic planning recommended in the new fine arts curriculum guide/resource book is congruent with Pat's h o l i s t i c philosophy. Exercising professional autonomy and judgement in t h i s matter permits her to l i v e harmoniously within the t e n s i o n a l i t y zone between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as l i v e d . Like many educators, however, she had become increasingly d i s s a t i s f i e d with the practice of compartmentalizing learning into isolated subject d i s c i p l i n e s 99 and, within each d i s c i p l i n e , further fragmenting learning into isolated lessons. As examples of t h i s fragmentation, Pat mentioned the type of lessons found in the "thousand and one idea books for a r t " . She strongly indicated her displeasure at the lack of continuity in these materials. Meaning is l o s t by " r e l e n t l e s s l y turning wholes into parts, flowers into petals, history into events, without ever restoring the c o n t i n u i t y . " 1 3 In a dynamic view of r e a l i t y , elements in nature exist within interactive relationships, not as isolated s t a t i c d i s c i p l i n e s . In our d a i l y l i v e s meaningful acting, that i s , acting which changes r e a l i t y according to the needs of people, must constantly transgress the l i m i t s of school subjects. Discipline-centred schooling destroys relations which exist in r e a l i t y and which are important for the action of children. In so doing, school e f f e c t i v e l y endangers their a b i l i t y to act e f f e c t i v e l y . 1 4 There are dangers inherent in isolated learning. Individuals often find i t d i f f i c u l t to remember and apply what is learned in school, for factual information segregated when...acquired,... is so disconnected from the rest of experience that i t i s not available under the actual conditions of life....What a v a i l is i t to win prescribed amounts of information i f in the process the individual loses his appreciation of things worthwhile, of the values to which these things are r e l a t i v e ; i f he loses his desire to apply what he has learned, and above a l l , loses the a b i l i t y to extract meaning from his future experiences as they o c c u r ? 1 5 Balancing and integrating content areas within a theme as Pat does is her way of establishing a more meaningful experience for children; involving them in thematic planning further increases their sense of ownership in the a c t i v i t i e s . Some might consider the fact that she has pre-determined expectations for the webbing process a s l i g h t l y dishonest 100 manipulation of children, but the greater maturity of experience which should belong to the adult as educator puts ther] in a position to evaluate each experience of the young in a way in which the one having the experience cannot do. It is then the business of the educator to see in what d i r e c t i o n an experience is heading. 1 6 One may have a sense of d i r e c t i o n in unit planning while s t i l l remaining f l e x i b l e . Pat acknowledges the value of unexpected ideas contributed by the children and incorporates their suggestions, along with her own, into the learning a c t i v i t i e s . Thematic planning is consistent with the cosmos-as-rhythmic-dance metaphor of the new s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c paradigm. Interactive relationships are one of i t s key concepts. Between Pat and her children, there i s , as she says, "a nice close f e e l i n g . " Contributing to t h i s cohesive unity i s the sense of rhythm she establishes as a teacher a r t i s t . Rhythm in a work of art can be thought of as a continuous flow, analogous to the motion of waves: the recurrence of c u r v i l i n e a r shapes; emphasis at the crests and pause in the troughs; and smooth tra n s i t i o n s from one wave to the n e x t . 1 7 Through the webbing process, Pat i l l u s t r a t e s for children the dynamic connections between d i f f e r e n t topics. When developing and expanding upon these topics in subsequent lessons, she i s sensitive to the children's l e v e l of interest, i n t u i t i v e l y knowing when i t i s time to move on. Rhythm, in the smooth transitions from drawing to s t o r y t e l l i n g , to printmaking, and into singing contributes to the unity of the Halloween lesson. Encountering a "trough" in the printmaking a c t i v i t y - many children had d i f f i c u l t i e s with blunt knives and overly complex shapes - Pat "paused," discussed the s i t u a t i o n calmly with 101 them, then picked up the pace again by considering variations for a second lesson. Rhythm i s also established through the physical arrangement of Pat's room, for she encourages children to interact with materials in the d i f f e r e n t subject centres and with each other at their desk groupings. Rhythm, balance, coherence - the p r i n c i p l e s of design necessary to achieve unity within a work of art are a l l evident in Pat's curriculum-as-lived. And unity i s indeed present. What of Heidegger's disclosure of truth? Does i t establish i t s e l f within t h i s artwork? Truth, according to Heidegger, is simultaneously both a l i g h t i n g and a c o n c e a l i n g . 1 8 For the children in grades 1 and 2, winter coats outgrown, leaves changing colour, animals hibernating, and pumpkins producing seeds are tangible evidence that things change. This is the major strand in Pat's autumn planning web and t h i s concept i s integrated into and reinforced in a l l subject areas. As the new physics has now acknowledged, however, physical r e a l i t y i s a f l u i d process of continuous transformation. Pat, through her use of myth and a r t , interacted with her children to illuminate the more intangible essential essence of change. She focused their attention on the fact that appearances may be deceiving and awakened within them a sense of awe that the " r e a l " world may not be as we know i t . (How can a witch's house become a Jack-O'Lantern face?) Wonder may be momentary; i t is often downplayed in a world valuing r a t i o n a l , l o g i c a l thought. (Jonathon, for example, was transfixed while the magic of Pat's paper cutting was being presented. But he was quick to point out that he 102 "knew a l l along" the f i n a l outcome and was not surprised.) Art reminds us that complete ce r t a i n t y can never be ours. And Pat's children had the opportunity to experience t h i s as they drew variations of Jack 0'Lantern faces on the board and experimented with their potato p r i n t s . After experiencing the cohesive unity of Pat's curriculum-as-lived, I am forced to r e f l e c t c r i t i c a l l y on my own s i t u a t i o n . My personal commitment to achieving a balanced curriculum is very strong. I am aware of the effects of both the inclusion and the lack of the arts in my own l i f e . As a c h i l d , I was fortunate to have musical t r a i n i n g and opportunities for appreciation which continue to influence my enjoyment of music as an adult. Lasting effects from a very negative experience with a grade 8 art teacher, however, discouraged the development of my a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s for years. It wasn't u n t i l I took a night school course in art basics at age t h i r t y that my self-confidence in v i s u a l modes of expression was re-awakened. New s k i l l s and insights res u l t i n g from this illuminatory experience now enrich my l i f e immeasurably. In my zeal to correct the educational system's neglect of t h i s integral aspect of learning, I became the v i s u a l arts s p e c i a l i s t for my school. I took over the ad hoc art lessons of classroom teachers, replacing their materials-based, l a i s s e z - f a i r e approach with one which emphasized that art is a d i s c i p l i n e , as rigorously demanding in a cognitive sense as the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s of science, mathematics, and language. As a d i s c i p l i n e , art instruction is r a t i o n a l and 103 systematic. It aims to develop v i s u a l l i t e r a c y by encouraging aesthetic understanding of beauty in the natural and man-made environment, by extending knowledge of art history and art c r i t i c i s m (describing, analyzing, interpreting works of a r t ) , and by providing opportunities for children to experience d i f f e r e n t techniques and materials in the production of a r t . 1 9 I have made an e f f o r t to integrate my art lessons into themes from other subject areas, but in my school, development of t h i s alternative way of knowing remains limited to art education. Although some teachers acknowledge i t s value, pressures of time and testing mean that art is not integrated into regular classroom practice in the other d i s c i p l i n e s . By taking their classes for specialized instruction, I have relieved teachers of their personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to pursue such integration. And, in one meeting with each class per week, I do not achieve the degree of cohesiveness with my groups that Pat does with her children. I have no desire for art education in my school to return to i t s previous condition - disorganized, p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent - but as a s p e c i a l i s t who presents art as a d i s c i p l i n e , emphasizing i t s cognitive aspects, am I i n d i r e c t l y reinforcing our culture's t r a d i t i o n a l dichotomy between mind and body, a r t i f i c i a l l y separating thinking from feeling? I think I am. More and more aware of the value of an integrated approach to learning, I am no longer s a t i s f i e d with my s p e c i a l i s t position. The lack of congruency between my b e l i e f s and my actions makes my dwelling within the t e n s i o n a l i t y between curriculum-as-plan and 104 curriculum-as-lived d i f f i c u l t at t h i s time. 105 Notes 1 Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book 1985 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Branch, 1985), p. 3. 2 Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book 1985 (V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Branch, 1985), p. 13. 3 Laura Chapman, Discover Art (Worcester, Mass.: Davis, 1985) 4 Martin Heidegger, Poetry f Language, Thought (New York: Harper Colophon, 1971), p. 36. 5 Heidegger, pp. 61-62. 6 Heidegger, p. 19. 7 Edmund Feldman, Variet i e s of Visual Expression. 2d. ed, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1981), p. 252-253. 8 E l l i o t Eisner, Cognition and Curriculum (New York: Longman, 1982), p. 40. 9 Eisner, Chapter 3 "Forms of Representation", pp.47 - 70. Eisner defines forms of representation as "devices that humans use to make public conceptions that are p r i v a t e l y held." (p.47). Forms of representation can be expressed through d i f f e r e n t media and given d i f f e r e n t modes of treatment. 1 0 Eisner, pp. 35-36. 1 1 Eisner, p. 28 1 2 John Dewey, Art as Experience (New York: G. P Putnam's Sons, Perigee Book, 1980), p. 45. 106 1 3 Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy (Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 282. 1 4 Hans Giffhorn, "Ideologies of Art Education," Studies in Art Education 19, no. 2 (1978): 54. 1 5 John Dewey, Experience and Education (New York: Macmillan, C o l l i e r Book, 1963), pp. 48-49. 1 6 Dewey, p. 38. 1 7 Feldman, p. 259. 1 8 Heidegger, p. 62 1 9 Milbrey McLaughlin and Margaret Thomas, Comparing the Process of Change Across D i s t r i c t s , Vol. 1., Art History, Art Cr i t i c i s m , and Art Production (Santa Monica: Rand Corporation, 1984), p. i v . 107 CHAPTER IV Animal Cartoons As I enter Pat's classroom on a grey, overcast November afternoon, the children are seated q u i e t l y at their desks. A s p e l l i n g test is in progress. ("Not r e a l l y part of the works, but we do i t . " ) A few minutes l a t e r , when the children are set t l e d at the meeting place, Pat begins today's art lesson with some background for me. Mrs. Costello, yesterday we learned a new song about animals, Down by the Bay. We sang it just as the children went home from school. And we made up some rhymes. A c h i l d begins singing the song. Chad, shhh. Just l e t ' s get started. Then we'll do that. Some of the children decided that they'd l i k e to do some homework. And so they were going to bring some rhymes back with them today. Now, 1 can hear that l o t s and l o t s of you have figured out some rhymes for the bear. Raise your hand if you have one that rhymes with bear. We'll make a l i t t l e row of them. Try to keep your papers nice and s t i l l . Cindy, which one did you have that rhymes with bear? Did you ever see a bear, combing his hair? OK. The word hair rhymes with bear. Is there another one? Which one did you find, Adam? Did you ever see a bear, in his underwear? Laughter from everyone, Pat included. I knew you'd get that one! Her comment brings more laughter from the children. OK. That's a good one. What else rhymes with bear? The children continue to give their responses. Pat l i s t s 108 d i f f e r e n t animals on the board and asks for rhyming words for each. There follows much excited t a l k i n g out; everyone i s eager to contribute their ideas. As the answers come i n , Pat reminds them about the rules for rhyming. And for behaviour in groups ("Don't moan and groan, just get your hand up i f you have a word.") Not a l l get the idea of "rhymes with" but she patien t l y corrects those who don't and praises those who do. (Child - "Have you ever seen a bear, wearing a tie...no..." Pat -"Now think, think before you handle that.") This a c t i v i t y l a s t s for about ten minutes. »e can make l o t s and lo t s of s i l l y rhymes with the names for animals. In fact, if you r e a l l y wanted to be o r i g i n a l , with a l l sorts of strange animals, there's l o t s of pictures of strange and wonderful things on the centre table. Now, t h i s afternoon we are going to have some fun thinking up something that could not be. Like the one we talked about, "See a bear, in a rocking chair?" or "Did you ever see a whale, swimming in a p a i l ? " "Did you ever see a moose, k i s s i n g a goose?" Did you ever see a whale, with a polka dot t a i l ? Did you ever see a deer, drinking beer? Fine! There you are! And when you have absolutely the one you l i k e the best in your head, we're going to go to our chalkboard place and see if you can draw a quick picture of your s i l l y rhyme. "The bear in the rocking chair" or "The moose, k i s s i n g the goose" or "The dog... "Out for a jog." Pat laughs. Does it have to be on the board? How do you mean? Oh, no, no! That's what I said. It can be anything in your head, not just what we've shown on the chalkboard. Does anyone else have a favourite that they'd l i k e to t e l l us about f i r s t ? What's yours, Richard? "A rat k i s s i n g a brat!" OK. What were you thinking of, Sabrina? 109 "Did you ever see some bread, nodding i t s head?" Now, we're t a l k i n g about animals, though, right? OK. Strictly animals have to be involved. All right. Let's see what happens. I'm going to time you. I'm going to give you only five short minutes. And that means you're going to use every l i t t l e bit of time carefully and quietly to draw your funny thing on the board. Now, it has to rhyme. And it has to have your animal in it and whatever it is that's being funny. I remember yesterday, someone said, "Did you ever see a fly, wearing a tie?" That was me! OK. Maybe that's what you can draw! Yes. And "Did you ever see a f l e a , kicking a tree?" No! There i s laughter a l l around. A l l r i g h t . I've got my watch ready. And nobody said,"Go." Adam. Chad. Sit down. It's not necessary to race. Let's just be normal and walk over as we should. Her reminder brings about a reasonable degree of s e l f - c o n t r o l and with a minimum amount of pushing and shoving, the children take th e i r places at the chalkboard and begin drawing. Mrs. Vittery, can I put a whale, wearing a pail? Sure, that's fine. Yes, that would be great.' Mom, how do you, I mean, Mrs.Vittery, how do you s p e l l whale? Pat smiles and r u f f l e s the boy's hair. I don't need you to spell i t . I mean, draw a whale? Well, you just make it up. It's a big, big animal. Mrs. Vittery, I'm finished. Tell me what you've got. "A f l y , wearing a t i e . " 110 Pat laughs. OK. Let's see how wide you can make that t i e . Cause a tie would be a l o t bigger than a f l y ! Wouldn't i t ? . OK, if you're done, r a i s e your hand and I ' l l come and see. "ANIMALS" is in s i x inch l e t t e r s on the display board between the windows. And animals there are! Large posters, smaller pictures, a c t i v i t y cards, math games, story charts, reference books - animals everywhere. Lots of ideas that children can refer to. And they do. The laminated picture cards on the centre table get plenty of use. For f i v e minutes or so, Pat goes around, commenting on individual work in the board spaces (see Figure 14). OK, what is it you've got here? "A whale, in a p a i l . " Do you have a p a i l ? Is he swimming in a p a i l ? Now can you make a bucket that's a bit more of a bucket shape? Do you have animals at your house? No. Does your mom have a bucket or your dad have a bucket for washing the car with? I think so... What does it look l i k e ? See if you can close your eyes and think of that bucket. Mrs. Vittery...? what's happening? "A deer drinking beer.'" What's the beer in? A mug. A big beer mug? OK, now how about...Now, Adam, t h i s is l i k e a cartoon. I t ' s just for fun. It is not real. Do you think you can s i t your deer - excuse me, while I'm t a l k i n g - Do you think you could s i t your deer, on his rear? I l l The c h i l d r e n c l o s e to Adam burs t i n t o laughter a t her remark. And one of h i s f r o n t l e g s holding the beer? Yes! Try i t . Make i t r e a l l y obvious. A few moments l a t e r , Pat has a l l the c h i l d r e n put t h e i r chalk down and d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to her. A l l r i g h t . Everyone freeze and look at me. A good cartoon always is exaggerated which means things are g r e a t e r than they r e a l l y are. Larger than they r e a l l y are. And in the case of Kristen's drawing right here step a s i d e , dear - she has a b e a u t i f u l bear with lots of hair and she's given him a great big comb to comb his hair. In fact, her comb c o u l d be even more exaggerated or be even bigger, so that i t ' s obvious and we can see what she's t r y i n g to do. And the same for Stephanie's somebody over there's not watching - Stephanie has a f l y wearing a t i e . The tie could be absolutely huge! Because in fact if the f l y was wearing a t i e , the t i e would look big! OK. Now back to your work. F i g u r e 14 Chalkboard Drawing Mrs. V i t t e r y , I got one.' "Have you ever seen a fox, wearing socks?" (see Figure 15) 112 Oh, that's t e r r i f i c / That's a really good one! OK, p u t . . . I ' l l show you vhat. Put the b i g socks, knov how your socks look when we can see the f e e t ? The toes coming out? That would be a good one. F i g u r e 15 Pat Going To Help Shawn The c h i l d r e n continue with t h e i r chalkboard drawing f o r a few more minutes. Then Pat has them pause f o r a b r i e f s h a r i n g p e r i o d . OK, everybody, stop. Time is up. Crouch down under your space. OK. We're going to go one at a time and when it's your turn, then you crouch down so the others can see. Stephanie, you go first. Tell what you have there. Say, "Did you ever see..." 113 " D i d y o u e v e r s e e a f l y , w e a r i n g a t i e ? " E a c h c h i l d has a t u r n t o s t a n d up and e x p l a i n h i s / h e r d r a w i n g ( s e e F i g u r e 1 6 ) . P a t t h e n has t h e c h i l d r e n r e t u r n t o t h e m e e t i n g p l a c e . A l l r i g h t . D on't r u b i t o f f . Q u i c k l y come b a c k t o t h e m e e t i n g p l a c e . T h e r e i s a l o t o f w r i g g l i n g and s q u i r m i n g a b o u t on t h e c a r p e t a s t h e c h i l d r e n s e t t l e i n t o p l a c e s . E x c i t e m e n t t o d a y i s t a n g i b l e . Come on. Our t i m e ' s g o i n g , g o i n g , g o i n g . See how s t i l l y o u c a n b e . V e r y s t i l l . Hardly m o v i n g . Now, I'm g o i n g t o l e t y o u h a v e a t r e a t t h i s afternoon. So many times 114 you love to use f e l t pens so I borrowed some from the o f f i c e . What I'm going to do is to give a set of f e l t pens to every group. I ' l l put them on a l i t t l e paper dish. And you have to take turns. Now, when you use f e l t pens, as some of you already know, they go through and onto the desk. We're going to put a big piece of black paper on the desk to protect i t . And then I have yellow drawing paper on the back art table for you to work with, with the f e l t pens. What I'd l i k e you to try is to make your cartoon of your animal, the bear in the rocking chair, whatever it happens to be, almost as big as the paper. And when the pictures are finished, I ' l l have each one of you p r i n t at the bottom "Did you ever see..." whatever i t i s . And we'll put them up here where we've got an empty spot on our board right now. Now, before we begin, are there any questions? What is your question? Um, what if we get it a l l mixed up and s t u f f ? I'm glad you asxed that, Carrie. Because Carrie's worried about the fact that you cannot erase a f e l t pen. Is that what you meant, Carrie? No, but if you can't draw something and you want to do it r e a l l y good, do you have to use your pencil around and then copy i t ? I'd rather you just use the f e l t pen. A l l right? Try it, OK? But if we get mixed up, what w i l l we have to do? Think of a way to f i x it, but there's no way you can erase a f e l t pen. Think before you put it on the paper. What's your question? Pat answers question after question about the f e l t s , the protective paper, getting mixed up. Some of the questions are beginning to get r e p e t i t i v e and just at the point where I am wondering, "How much patience can this lady have? It i s Friday afternoon, after a l l ! " , she brings them into focus by c r i s p l y saying: OK, these have to be sensible questions. Come on, we're l o s i n g time. Have you got a real serious question, Chad? Um, what happens if you don't want to do the one cause i t ' s too hard. Can you do another one? 115 Of c o u r s e y o u can. In fact, I was just g o i n g t o s a y t h a t i f y o u would l i k e to you can do more than one. They have to be funny and they have to be rhymes l i k e we've been t a l k i n g a b o u t . Yes? Do you have to do one that's on the board? No, you don't. If you have a b e t t e r one i n y o u r h e a d , t h e n t h a t ' s OK. All right, these people will go f i r s t . And y o u n e e d a yellow paper and a black paper to protect the desk. The c h i l d r e n a r e s e n t by g r o u p s t o p i c k up p a p e r s . P a t p u t s f e l t pens i n s t y r o f o a m t r a y s on e a c h t a b l e . Many c h i l d r e n c r u m p l e up t h e i r i n i t i a l c a r t o o n d r a w i n g s , b u t t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f f r u s t r a t i o n a n d t h e y c o n t i n u e c h e e r f u l l y w i t h t h e i r e f f o r t s . L o t s o f p a p e r i s b e i n g u s e d . I'm g l a d t o s e e some o f y o u making big pictures. If yours isn't very big, trade i t in. Go get a new paper. It's got to be big, big, big. F i g u r e 17 Shawn, G a r y , a n d R i c h a r d The n o i s e l e v e l r i s e s t o new h e i g h t s a s c h i l d r e n comment 116 e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to each other, sharing their drawings (see Figure 17). After about five minutes, Pat turns off the overhead l i g h t s . Children, i f you have to report to your f r i e n d , go about i t q u i etly. The decibel l e v e l lessens s l i g h t l y . Pat, moving about the classroom from c h i l d to c h i l d , does not appear overly concerned that her words have not had much impact. Enjoyment is contagious and there are lots of smiles and laughter. Pat gives some assistance to Shawn, a grade 1 boy. Hold i t , hold i t , hold i t . Don't colour it a l l the same. What would be a bright colour for his socks, Shawn? What colour for his socks? Ummm, maybe....I want them to be t h i s green, but it won't work, Mrs. V i t t e r y , t h i s green won't work. It doesn't work? OK, take this one. I ' l l go and see i f Mrs. Webb has one. I don't know why we haven't very many greens. I can use that green right there. No, that one doesn't work, just leave i t there. Some f e l t s are running dry. Pat makes a quick t r i p across the h a l l to Mrs. Webb's classroom to borrow some more f e l t s . For about ten minutes after her return the children continue with their drawing (see Figure 18). Pat makes a banner with the words "Did you ever see..." and puts i t up on the display board beside the carpeted area. OK, boys and g i r l s , we have about two more minutes. Stephanie i s a l l finished and she has written on it what it i s . It was a f l y , wearing a t i e . And watch where I'm going to put i t . Way over here, r i g h t beside the part of the sentence that says, "Did you ever see..." And now we can say, "Did you ever see a f l y , wearing a t i e ? " You can bring yours to me when you have words on i t . What I'd l i k e you to do is put your words on a scrap paper f i r s t , so that the s p e l l i n g is r i g h t . Come to me or Mrs. Costello and we'll f i x it for you. We have to try to 117 f i n i s h up so we can s i n g the song. Time i s running out q u i c k l y today. The c h i l d r e n w r i t e out words to go along with t h e i r p i c t u r e s on the s c r a p papers. Pat and I help with the s p e l l i n g , and so do some of the grade 2's. F i g u r e 18 Shawn Drawing With F e l t s Rodney, do you think you could help Kristen to print out, "Bear combing h i s h a i r ? " Combing has a "B" i n i t , C-O-M-B-I-N-G. And "A fox, wearing socks." I'll print it on here for you, Shawn. There are f i f t e e n minutes l e f t before home time. 118 All right, p e o p l e who are finished make s u r e y o u r d e s k i s t i d y , f l o o r i s clean, everything straightened up. C l e a n u p g o e s q u i c k l y . The c h i l d r e n ' s c o n t i n u i n g e x c i t e m e n t i s v o i c e d t h r o u g h b o d y l a n g u a g e a s w e l l a s v e r y a u d i b l e comments. T h e r e i s some p u s h i n g . Two b o y s t a k e t u r n s c a r r y i n g e a c h o t h e r a r o u n d . P a t s t a y s c a l m , q u i e t l y d i s c u s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l d r a w i n g s . When e v e r y o n e i s s e t t l e d a t t h e m e e t i n g p l a c e , s h e a s k s d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n t o r e a d o u t t h e d r a w i n g s t h e y l i k e b e s t ( s e e F i g u r e s 19 and 2 0 ) . OK, thank y o u . Which one d i d y o u l i k e ? J u s t r e a d i t o u t . " D i d y o u e v e r s e e a b u g e a t i n g a r u g ? " I l i k e t h a t one too. What one did you l i k e the best? I n t u r n , s i x o r s o c h i l d r e n g i v e t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . F i g u r e 19 S h a r i n g A n i m a l C a r t o o n s How many enjoyed using felt pens? 119 Immediately, every hand shoots up! I t was fun. I'm happy to see that you remembered to put the tops on t i g h t . Well now, l e t ' s see i f we can sing a l l these rhymes into the song. You might get t i r e d by doing all of them, but we'll do some. And I need a h e l p e r . L e t me choose a helper here. F i g u r e 2 0 One of Pat's " L i t t l e Monkeys"! OK, L e t ' s t r y i t . Here we go, it goes l i k e t h i s . . . Down by the bay, Where the watermelons grow, Back to my home, I dare not go. For i f I do, My mother w i l l say, Did you ever see a bear, 120 Combing his haiz? Down by the bay. Although i t takes some time, each picture i s pointed to. Interest remains strong as each verse i s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y sung. Curriculum-as-plan - Goals Listed in the B.C. Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book are these goals for arts education in schools: 1. to foster the c h i l d ' s enthusiasm for the arts through involvement in a r t , drama, and music; 2 . to develop the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to explore, express, communicate, interpret, and create; 3. to develop the c h i l d ' s s k i l l and technical a b i l i t y in the a r t s ; 4. to nurture the c h i l d ' s capacity for c r i t i c a l and s e n s i t i v e response to the a r t s ; 5. to encourage the c h i l d ' s appreciation of the interrelatedness of the a r t s ; and 6 . to advance the c h i l d ' s knowledge of the ways in which the arts influence, and are influenced by society and the environment. 1 Curriculum-as-lived Pat's ph i l o s o h i c a l rationale for including the arts in education, her h o l i s t i c orientation, was consistent with that underlying the fine arts curriculum guide/resource book. With i t s s p e c i f i c goals for art education in mind, I wanted Pat to comment further on how her curriculum-as-lived experience is enacted. In the lesson on drawing cartoon animals, Pat fostered enthusiastic interest in art by combining her children's delight in the s i l l y rhymes and f a n c i f u l images 121 g e n e r a t e d by t h e s o n g , Down b y t h e B a y f w i t h t h e i r f a s c i n a t i o n f o r t h e u s u a l l y i n a c c e s s i b l e d r a w i n g medium o f f e l t p e n s . She i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n a s t h e y d r e w , d i r e c t i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l s a n d e n c o u r a g i n g them t o e l a b o r a t e upon t h e i r i n i t i a l a t t e m p t s . T h i s r e m i n d e d me t h a t on more t h a n one o c c a s i o n I n o t i c e d d r a w i n g e x e r c i s e s a m p l e s d i s p l a y e d i n t h e a r t c e n t r e i n P a t ' s c l a s s r o o m a s shown i n F i g u r e 21). "Can y o u draw a b e a r ? " a n d "Can y o u draw d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l s ? " were two s u c h e x e r c i s e s . F i g u r e 21 "Can You Draw A Bear?" T h e s e , c o u p l e d w i th the book, Drawing wi th C h i l d r e n ^ which Pat 122 had l e n t me, made me c u r i o u s t o have P a t e l a b o r a t e on h e r a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s k i l l and t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y i n d r a w i n g . I m e n t i o n e d t o h e r t h a t a r t e d u c a t o r s h o l d o p p o s i n g v i e w s on w h e t h e r c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be t a u g h t how t o d r a w , o r e v e n w h e t h e r t h e y s h o u l d be shown s a m p l e s o f work done b y o t h e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t a r t i s t s . I u s e d t o be o f t h e philosophy that you just gave the k i d s a b o x o f crayons and a bunch o f p a p e r a n d let them go ahead and express themselves. And I never, ever, offered any direction to kids as to how t o d r a w a n y t h i n g I ' d been taught at university that it was n o t t h e t h i n g t o do. Over the years, I discovered that the kids were really frustrated when they wanted to be able to draw something. They just d i d n ' t know how to do it. And they'd say, "I can't do it. I can't do it." And I'd say,"Oh, yes you can, blah, blah, blah." And then suddenly one day, I decided that I was not going to do this any more, that these kids were genuinely f r u s t r a t e d and t h e y wanted to be able to draw something, let's say it's a bear. She went on t o e x p l a i n how h e r p r e s e n t method e v o l v e d . So then I started directing their attention to pictures and this i s when I got into this business of really b e l i e v i n g t h a t I had t o teach them to observe and to be aware. Then, I started using the chalkboard first for drawing. I found that by giving the children some direction and by encouraging them to copy, either by having them copy my drawing on the board or by having them copy a "how-to" drawing, their f r u s t r a t i o n was lessened. P a t d e s c r i b e d t o me how she u s e s b a s i c s h a p e s , s u c h a s p e a r s f o r b e a r s , a s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r d r a w i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n . I commented t h a t s he was p r o v i d i n g a t o o l t o h e l p t h e c h i l d when she d o e s t h i s . S u r e i t i s . Yes. And then they can go with it, once they get past that i n i t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n s t a g e o f s a y i n g "I can't. A bear? I can't draw a bear." And then you show them that they can draw a bear. Then they're over the h u r d l e a n d t h e n t h e y c a n t a k e o f f . B u t , up t o t h a t p o i n t t h e r e ' s no way. And so, I've come to believe that teaching them isn't just g i v i n g them a box of crayons and a bunch of paper. There's got to be some showing how. 123 I asked her i f , from showing how, greater c r e a t i v i t y r e s u l t s . The reasoning behind not showing children how to draw has been that i t results in stereotypical images. I wanted to know of her experiences in t h i s regard. Well, I can see that that would be a problem i f you said, "OK, t h i s is how to draw a bear". Bango. And that's the way you draw a bear and t h i s l i t t l e shape is i t . But by extending that, making them aware of the fact that that is not the only way to do it, t h i s problem could be avoided. On the idea sheets I think there were several suggested positions and sizes, and shapes, so there wasn't just one kind of scheme for a bear. They could take what they wanted and kind of do their own thing with i t . And no two were a l i k e , even though I had shown them how to do i t . And they didn't always draw a bear the same way themselves so it wasn't as though they were imprinted with the bear drawing and that's how i t came out every time. I have talked to Pat's daughter, Susie, at d i f f e r e n t times and I know that Pat's children have a very deep interest in a r t , in d i f f e r e n t forms. I wondered how Pat might have influenced their interest as they were growing up. OK. Both of the g i r l s , Linda and Susie, were interested in the arts during their schooling. Robert hated school, period. I don't r e c a l l him l i k i n g anything about school. And so his story is a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . A l l of the kids loved drawing and as a parent I made sure that they had l o t s of arty type supplies at home to work with. I used to buy those big r o l l s of white paper. We had paint and d i f f e r e n t kinds of crayons and chalks. I always made sure that they had i t . And they loved i t . They used i t l o t s . Their rooms were just always gigantic, horrid-looking messes of s t u f f . To outsiders. I thought they looked OK. They were just papered with a l l kinds of i n t e r e s t i n g work that the kids had done themselves, as were the kitchen and every place else that had a f l a t surface. So they were encouraged. I did not have the opportunity to view Pat's children's rooms when they were younger, but I had seen Susie's the spring before. Being the room of an older, about-to-leave-home teenager, i t was no longer a "gigantic, horrid-looking mess of s t u f f . " Every inch of i t , though, was papered with her 124 talented artwork! Susie, of course, i s studying a r t , now. She hopes to get into commercial art. Television is her goal. And Linda is pursuing art in another avenue. She is very into c r a f t s , being a young homemaker mother. She does a l o t of work with her new sewing machine. And does k n i t t i n g , and crocheting, and needlework - you name i t , she does i t . So then her art is coming out in that way. And Robert is in his music. [Robert is road manager of a rock band]. They're each involved in d i f f e r e n t ways. I don't remember ever teaching them anything at home, but they used to watch me and I painted and then they'd paint too. Her children's interest in art may have developed as a r e s u l t of osmosis. That art is integral to Pat's d a i l y l i f e is immediately evident when one v i s i t s her home. These were my impressions as I arrived for my interview with her: It's a Saturday afternoon, overcast with low-lying clouds threatening snow. Typical early January weather in the Cariboo. Pat has asked that the interview be at her home, as she l i k e s to open her Valley Gallery shop on weekend afternoons. As I ring the huge cowbell hanging beside the front door, a duck nestled in a basket of evergreen boughs and pine cones catches my eye; I have one at home exactly l i k e i t ! I'm amazed! I r e a l l y didn't think another duck l i k e t h i s duck existed - sky blue papier mache, decorated with yellow polka dots, a cow grazing on one of i t s sides and two sheep f r o l i c k i n g on the other. It has a cert a i n limited appeal. I enter the g a l l e r y which i s in the lower portion of Pat's log home. Pottery jugs, cups, bowls, and planters are displayed on shelves and tables about a large room made cozy by a cast-iron woodstove. Watercolour paintings by Pat's friend l i n e the walls. The room is separated from the entrance way by an open st a i r c a s e . We climb i t to reach the main l i v i n g area above. Pat makes coffee and, while i t is dripping, finishes trimming a s i n k f u l of brussel sprouts, getting them ready to freeze (see Figure 22). A friend got "a special deal on the sprouts, bought a huge quantity of them, r e a l i z e d she had way too many, and dropped some off for me t h i s morning." Through the large picture windows which form one wall of her l i v i n g room, a panoramic view of the Walker Valley below her home can be seen. There's another woodstove to the side of t h i s room, giving off more welcome warmth. A low, cushiony sectional couch is against one wall, i t s creamy white contrasting with the logs. On the coffee table in front of i t rests a massive pottery f i s h sculpture. "People either hate i t or love i t . " As one who shares a common taste in ducks, I love 125 i t s g l a z e d s c a l e s and great bulgy eyes. A few Christmasy touches remain - p o i n s e t t i a p l a n t s , red/green t a r t a n c l o t h s on round endtables and on the d i n i n g room c h a i r s . Taking up the end of the room opposite the woodstove are an antique oak b u f f e t and square d i n i n g t a b l e . The l o g w a l l s are covered with a v a r i e t y of p a i n t i n g s , w a l l hangings, and f o l k a r t o b j e c t s . Mexican yarn p a i n t i n g s , bark p a i n t i n g s , Mola c l o t h a p p l i q u e s - v i v i d reds, y e l l o w s , b l u e s , and greens. There are a number of wooden A f r i c a n c a r v i n g s on a low t a b l e beside me as I s e t t l e on the couch with my c o f f e e . I asked Pat to t e l l me about her c o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 22 Pat At Home Mexico has alvays fascinated me because i t ' s a Third World country. Primitive c i v i l i z a t i o n . I've always been fascinated by their artwork, for one thing, and have enjoyed the folk art aspect of their l i f e . It's there, everywhere. It's not...in Canada, there isn't anything that can really parallel i t . I needed f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Was i t the f a c t t h a t a r t i s r e a l l y a part of the d a i l y l i f e t h e r e , that i t i s not set 126 apart, that she was r e f e r r i n g to? Well, I'm just saying i t ' s very, very obvious. It's obvious in the people's clothing, it's obvious in their homes, i t ' s obvious... good heavens! Some of them even paint designs on their cars! You know, junky old cars! And there's the l i t t l e roadside markers - they're like grave markers, where somebody dies in a highway accident. It would be fascinating to do a photographic collection of these l i t t l e roadside markers. They're all unique in their own way. It's really interesting. They're a folk art themselves! I was always fascinated with the colours - the foliage, the flowers and the leafiness. And the fact that all of this is represented in t h e i r day-to-day art work. It's there. I mean, they are colourful people. And I just found that really attracted me. I first went to Mexico when I was about twenty, I guess, and have returned many times over the years. Responding to art i s considered an integral aspect of the a r t - a s - d i s c i p l i n e approach entailed in the new B.C. fine arts curriculum. In a lesson on the sun that I had observed the previous spring, I had noticed a fab r i c wall hanging that Pat had made on display in the classroom. How much importance did she place on discussing works of art with children? The great art of the world sort of thing? When it seems to f i t , I do, but I don't use i t as much as I think I should. It's something that I'd l i k e to improve on cause I really think it's important to see how other people have interpreted and observed. I would l i k e to be able to use them just as the basis for showing how artists have used design, colour, shape. Did she think i t necessary to discuss the h i s t o r i c a l s ignificance of these works, or provide any the biographical information about the a r t i s t ? No, I don't think that's important for l i t t l e kids at all because, f i r s t of a l l , they'd never remember i t , even i f I did t e l l them. I might refer to an a r t i s t by name, but I certainly wouldn't go any farther than that with primary children. But that's my own personal f e e l i n g on i t . I don't know how that f i t s with the theory of others, but that's how I feel about it. Pat went on to explain her infrequent use of works of art in the classroom. 127 I don't have the resources. I don't have the prints of work that I would l i k e to show and so I find that quite l i m i t i n g . There isn't an easy source for me to go to. There's nothing in our school l i b r a r y and I don't know what they've got at the resource centre. I don't think there's any f i l e s . Having scrounged around for many years myself, I was sympathetic to her d i f f i c u l t i e s in trying to find something of suitable size and format. Yes. I go through my own art books and s t u f f and I often w i l l find a l i t t l e t i n y 3" by 2" or a f u l l page sometimes, but I don't have enough s t u f f to be able to use i t as much as I'd l i k e to. Her words reminded me of the questions I raised the previous summer during the Fine Arts I n s t i t u t e , a t r a i n i n g session for the new curriculum sponsored by the Ministry of Education. Considering the new curriculum's emphasis on art appreciation, I had asked, "What do teachers do i f they don't have the i r own personal f i l e s of resources?" The answer, from workshop leaders who were predominantly from the large urban centres of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, was "Well, you know, there are these sources a v a i l a b l e . . . " If you are in a large urban centre, that's true, but for ru r a l folk i t is considerably more d i f f i c u l t . I had also inquired, "Where does the money come from to purchase materials?" In our school, one set of reproductions was purchased by the PTA and one with funds I squeezed from my art budget. Does Pat have access to funds in her school to purchase such resources? I doubt i t . But we might be able to scrounge...! don't know, I haven't even pursued i t . In speaking with Pat's p r i n c i p a l I ascertained that resources such as large picture sets could be purchased from the general operating funds i f the s t a f f decided they were a p r i o r i t y . I 128 know from experience with my s t a f f that art is not usually a p r i o r i t y . Reflections on school art and c h i l d art Two years ago, during a s t a f f workshop on "Effective Schools," there was some br i e f discussion on the importance of a v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e school environment. The leader of the workshop displayed on the overhead projector a cartoon which depicted two women standing in front of a parrot whose cage was hung with numerous small paintings. One woman was saying to the other: "We l e t him decorate his own cage." It struck me at the time that t h i s might be a very appropriate description of school art programs. Rather than t r u l y being part of a balanced curriculum, i s i t not the role of school art to act as a decorative sugar coating, prettying up an authoritarian i n s t i t u t i o n biased towards only a certain form of cognitive learning? Pat's lesson on animal cartoons reminded me of an incident that had sparked my i n i t i a l awareness of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . Children in my grade 5 class had been very interested in the f o l k t a l e s in their current reading unit. Wishing to c a p i t a l i z e on t h i s interest and r e a l i z i n g that these tales can be a r i c h source of images, I had them pa r t i c i p a t e in a drawing game exercise during one of our weekly art periods. The game i s a form of contour li n e drawing and i t follows these rules: - a b a l l p o i n t pen is used - i t cannot be l i f t e d and must be kept in even flowing motion at a l l times - an image i s to be developed 129 - t h i s is a private exercise - no t a l k i n g and no comparing during the drawing. We spent some time warming up, thinking of favourite heroes and heroines, quests and adventures, magical moments - and then they started. There wasn't a sound as the children drew. By the time f i f t e e n minutes had passed, they had created some highly d e t a i l e d , o r i g i n a l images. Those children who wished to share, did so; their drawings were later trimmed and put on display in the hallway. Other children chose to transform their i n i t i a l drawings into much larger o i l pastel pictures, while s t i l l others continued developing additional images using the game plan. It was one of the most s a t i s f y i n g art lessons I had experienced to that point. The children were enthusiastic and, judging from the r e s u l t s , their a b i l i t y "to explore, express, communicate, interpret, and create," a c u r r i c u l a r goal, had been developed by t h i s a c t i v i t y . It was enlightening, therefore, to overhear my p r i n c i p a l ' s reaction when he noticed the hallway drawings "Why are these s c r i b b l e s on this display board? Did the kids put these up themselves?" My explanation of the lesson m o l l i f i e d him somewhat, but he was s t i l l not overly impressed with the work on display. His comments lend support to Efland's observation that there exists a d i s t i n c t i v e school art s t y l e whose creative appearance i s perceptually i n v i t i n g with lots of bright colours, large shapes, and a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h i l d - l i k e look. 4 My grade 5's scribbles did not possess t h i s proper, c h i l d - l i k e q u a l i t y . No wonder my p r i n c i p a l was upset! Efland asserts that school art r e f l e c t s the "structure of 130 b e l i e f s that operate within the s c h o o l . " 3 These b e l i e f s are embedded in the functions that a school f u l f i l l s : Most people think that a school's manifest function is the cognitive development of the students.... Its latent function involves s o c i a l i z i n g the individual into accepting the authority of the school as a prelude for accepting the authority of other i n s t i t u t i o n s . He defines manifest functions as those which are overtly stated and perceived to be right by society, school administrators, and teachers. These can be the general philosophic aims of the school which, in addition to cognitive development, often include mention of the worth of the individual and a b e l i e f in a democratic process. Latent functions, on the other hand, are often unstated and unrecognized. Art as therapy or time out for good behaviour from the more rigorous demands of the academic areas is one such function; t r a i n i n g to unconditionally accept authority i s another. 7 Efland believes that the repressive character of t h i s l a t t e r function can subvert the humanizing aspects of an art program's manifest functions. He suggests that school art production provides behaviours and products which are creative in appearance in order that individuals "can say that l i f e in school is not just a cognitive matter." 8 My f e e l i n g that school art i s simply a decorative sugar coating is reinforced by his observation that the self-same creative a c t i v i t i e s may not be as free as they look. Children are after a l l required to take a r t . They cannot copy or imitate, which i s an option that a free individual may wish to exercise; they must use the media provided for them, and they must experiment with i t in c e r t a i n ways to produce a look that t h e i r teachers w i l l reinforce....The art that i s produced i s suggested by the teacher who commissions i t and motivates the students to accept the commission. The teacher i s also the patron for whom the products are produced and is the 131 dispenser of rewards for commissions completed within s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . . . . A r t teachers, l i k e a l l teachers, assert the authority of the i n s t i t u t i o n . 9 In her home, Pat's children could choose to p a r t i c i p a t e in art a c t i v i t i e s and were free to imitate her or to explore on their own, to create, as Pat laughingly described, "horrid-looking messes of s t u f f . " Their work was not limited by outsiders' standards or expectations. And Pat supported them by displaying i t "on every f l a t surface." In her classroom, Pat attempts to break away from the "everyone doing exactly the same thing" that she observes in other classes. She promotes imitation and copying as a means of developing perceptual and technical s k i l l s , at the same time allowing children the freedom to create t h e i r own images. But there are l i m i t s for children in the classroom that her own children did not experience in her home - time ("I'm only going to give you f i v e short minutes"); materials ("I don't know why we don't have very many greens")} c u r r i c u l a r r e s t r a i n t s ( " S t r i c t l y animals have to be involved"); and numbers (24 children at school, only 3 at home.) Pat aims for the manifest goals of school a r t , but s t i l l i t s latent functions continue to intrude. Efland d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between school art and c h i l d a r t , l u as do Marjorie and Brent W i l s o n . 1 1 Child art i s the spontaneous play art in which children engage outside of school, both for their own s a t i s f a c t i o n and in response to certain needs. The Wilsons i d e n t i f y four reasons why such art is v i t a l l y important to children: for inventing the familiar (the construction of something in order to come to an 132 understanding of i t through what is a c t u a l l y a re-inventing process); for delineating a concept of s e l f (both surface and deeper layers); for experimenting with good and bad (without fear of the consequences r e a l - l i f e experimenting might bring); and for drawing the future (past r e - l i v e d , present re-presented and re-newed, future a n t i c i p a t e d ) . 1 2 My grade 5 drawings had been closer in appearance to c h i l d art than school a r t . As I had discovered from my experience, school art i s viewed by adults as an important creative and learning a c t i v i t y , whereas the t i n y , sometimes raggedy, spontaneous drawings are dismissed by many of the same adults as mere play. School art is seen as educational; i t meets adult conceptions of what c h i l d art should be.... Spontaneous a r t , which is seen as less c o l o u r f u l and less v i s u a l l y compelling, meets few adult e x pectations. 1 3 The cartoons drawn by Pat's grades 1 and 2 children did not f i t c l o s e l y with the school art s t y l e either. They were quie t l y displayed for her children's enjoyment within her classroom, rather than for public viewing in the hallway. In these two a c t i v i t i e s she and I were attempting to bring about a closer r e l a t i o n s h i p between school art and children's spontaneous drawing, in the hope that school art can become richer in drawing and ideas and less self-consciously concerned with media and processes, and thus, ultimately be of greater benefit to the c h i l d ' s r e a l i t y building a b i l i t i e s . 1 4 If the goals of the art program are t r u l y accepted and valued within the education system, then c h i l d a rt would be encouraged as a means of attai n i n g these goals. I think of three children in my school, two in grade 7, one in grade 4, 133 who have not yet l o s t their interest in spontaneous drawing. Each absorbs the essence of things in the world around him, t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s essence into unique v i s u a l images - usually on the back of notebook pages! These images offer insights into the manner in which each c h i l d interprets his experiences, frequently p a i n f u l , in school. In the linguistic/mathematical academic areas, a l l three children are labelled f a i l u r e s or low achievers, so-termed by a society which has long viewed success in these subjects as the only true indicator of i n t e l l i g e n c e . When I have graphic evidence of these children's deep understanding, I have to question such a limited d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e . The r e j e c t i o n of their spontaneous art by school authorities also leads me to question how deep the administration's commitment to the goals of the fine arts curriculum r e a l l y i s . Reflections on art appreciation: Pat's varied c o l l e c t i o n of a r t , her fascination with the folk art aspect of day-to-day Mexican l i f e , and her interest in c r a f t s such as pottery, batik, and k n i t t i n g struck a responsive chord in me. I have always been attracted to fine q u a l i t y craftwork and have had d i f f i c u l t y accepting the d i s t i n c t i o n between fine art and f o l k art/useful art that i s established in our culture. Dewey states that such a d i s t i n c t i o n i s " e x t r i n s i c to the work of art i t s e l f . . . . I t i s based simply on acceptance of c e r t a i n s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . " 1 5 He provides some interesting explanations as to why t h i s compartmental conception of art has occurred. 134 F i r s t , c o l l e c t i o n s of fine art are often housed in museums which can be considered memorials of the r i s e of nationalism and imperialism...exhibiting the greatness of [the nation's] a r t i s t i c past and...exhibiting the loot...gathered in the conquest of other n a t i o n s . 1 6 It i s interesting to note that nationalism and imperialism are natural outgrowths of a t r a d i t i o n a l conceptual paradigm that believes in attain i n g control over one's surroundings. Such movements are a n t i t h e t i c a l to a h o l i s t i c outlook which promotes mutual co-operation, essential in today's global society. Dewey also suggests that capitalism i s a contributing factor to the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two types of a r t , for the t y p i c a l c o l l e c t o r i s the t y p i c a l c a p i t a l i s t . For evidence of good standing in the realm of higher culture, he amasses paintings, statuary, and a r t i s t i c b i j o u x . 1 7 These c o l l e c t i o n s are analogous to the stocks and bonds which " c e r t i f y . . . h i s standing in the economic world." 1 8 To Pat, however, i t i s the personal meaning, rather than the monetary value of her e c l e c t i c c o l l e c t i o n that is important to her. She i s a contrast to two art teachers whom I met in the univers i t y pub one hot afternoon during summer school session. They spoke proudly of their personal art c o l l e c t i o n s , works by parti c u l a r a r t i s t s purchased for investment purposes. There was no mention of any personal meaning these works might hold for them, even when I attempted to steer the conversation in that d i r e c t i o n . Their attitude was quite foreign to my way of thinking. For me, as for Pat, personal meaning, often enhanced by personal knowledge of the a r t i s t , i s the only thing that matters. This intimate s o c i a l connection is too 135 frequently removed when works of art are "produced, l i k e other a r t i c l e s , for sale in the market." 1 9 Although not mentioned by Dewey, i t i s possible that the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the arts is yet another example of the influence of Cartesian thought. Somewhat i r o n i c a l l y , fine a r t is considered "work of the head" whereas folk art/useful a r t is "work of the hand." 2 0 Most often designated to the lowest status of c r a f t , i s that art which involves t e x t i l e materials and which employs such techniques as weaving and needlework. Most c r a f t s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been very important modes of a r t i s t i c expression for women. Judy Chicago att r i b u t e s their low status to the fact that the world of fine a r t has been primarily a male domain. 2 1 I was fortunate to view Chicago's The B i r t h Project exhibit in Vancouver in 1985. One image, The Crowning, generated in me the most overwhelming response I have ever had in r e l a t i o n to a work of a r t . My daughter's b i r t h was the most joyous experience of my l i f e ; giving b i r t h to a c h i l d i s a momentous occasion in the l i v e s of many women. And yet images of t h i s experience, so deeply meaningful for women, are lacking in the world of men's a r t . There, in that work, for the f i r s t time, I viewed a d i s t i n c t l y female image, formed with materials and by techniques which I find personally s a t i s f y i n g . The inclusion of photographs, correspondence, rough sketches, and sample works intimately connected me to the women a r t i s t s who had worked on the exhibit with such love. These personal narratives, evidence of the exhibit's co-operative s p i r i t , were relevant to me because of the great 136 importance I attach to the network of women friends in my l i f e . The narratives, therefore, contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the coherent meaning I experienced in the work. With these thoughts in mind, Chicago's words are germane: I r e a l i z e that I'm addressing the whole relat i o n s h i p of art and community, a r t i s t s and society, in t h i s work; I'm convinced that women stand no chance to r e a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e in culture unless the nature of culture and the d e f i n i t i o n of art and what constitutes being an a r t i s t changes along with i t . 2 2 Chicago has emphasized the co-operative aspect of part i c i p a t o r y art-making in The Bir t h Project. Its inte r a c t i v e , dynamic nature f i t s well with the concepts underlying the new s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c paradigm. Dewey, defining the essence of folk a r t , refers to these i n t e r a c t i v e , dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as well. In his opinion, works of art that are not remote from common l i f e , that are widely enjoyed in a community, are signs of a unifie d c o l l e c t i v e l i f e . But they are also marvellous aids in the creation of such a l i f e . The remaking of the material of experience in the act of expression i s not an isolated event confined to the a r t i s t and to a person here and there who happens to enjoy the work. In the degree in which art exercises i t s o f f i c e , i t i s also a remaking of the experience of the community in the di r e c t i o n of greater order and u n i t y . 2 3 Pat finds pleasure in the a r t / l i f e of Mexico, I delight in the work of Judy Chicago, we both enjoy papier mache ducks and pottery. Drawings, paintings, and sculpture also bring s a t i s f a c t i o n , but are not r e a l l y considered separately as fine a r t . A l l are art and a l l are intimately connected to our d a i l y l i v e s . In our classrooms, we want children to experience t h i s same intimacy with a r t , to have i t become as integral a part of their l i v e s as i t is in ours. The B.C. Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book is premised on the b e l i e f that art education should have a dual focus - creation and appreciation. Its authors suggest that a d i v e r s i t y of art appreciation experiences be provided for children: Examples of h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary fine a r t , folk a r t , or commercial art can be used to motivate student's understanding of their own work and t h e i r place within the evolution of man's involvement with images. 2 4 The question can be asked, "Does Pat's and my classroom art appreciation establish the same meaningful intimacy with works of art which we experience in our own l i v e s ? " The answer i s , i t does not. Pat occasionally brings personal a r t items to share with her c l a s s , but, lacking resources, feels remiss in not providing more exposure to "the great art of the world." In my school, reproductions of paintings for art appreciation a c t i v i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e . I am not e n t i r e l y comfortable with their use, however, for reproductions transform the meaning of an o r i g i n a l work of a r t . According to Berger, meaning becomes transmittable: that i s to say i t becomes information of a sort, and l i k e a l l information, i t is either put to use or ignored; information c a r r i e s no special authority within i t s e l f . 2 5 No matter how f a i t h f u l the reproduction, the authority of the o r i g i n a l work cannot be captured: Ori g i n a l paintings are s i l e n t and s t i l l in a sense that information never i s . Even a reproduction hung on a wall is not comparable in t h i s respect for in the o r i g i n a l the silence and s t i l l n e s s permeates the actual material, the paint, in which one follows the traces of the painter's immediate gestures. This has the e f f e c t of closing the distance in time between the painting of the picture and one's own act of looking at it. 2° Reproductions may f a c i l i t a t e recognition of elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design in the works of certain a r t i s t s . Limited understanding of meaning i s also possible. Achieving personal 138 intimacy with works of art through reproductions, however, is problematic due to their lack of authority. In my use of reproductions, I must again be aware that art as i t exists in schools has both manifest and latent functions. The fine arts are exalted in our society as among the highest of human achievements. Broudy eloquently advocates the considerable value in developing an "enlightened cherishing" of c a r e f u l l y selected works of a r t . 2 7 U n t i l recently, I accepted his view, but, influenced by Chicago's feminist perspective, I must now reconsider. Ori g i n a l works of fine art are usually remote, surrounded by a process of mystification which precludes any meaningful interaction with them in the day-to-day l i f e of my students. In our culture, a work of art is "defined as an object whose value depends upon i t s r a r i t y . " 2 8 Its market price i s viewed as an affirmation of i t s s p i r i t u a l value for works of art are discussed and presented as though they were holy r e l i c s : r e l i c s which are f i r s t and foremost evidence of the i r own s u r v i v a l . The past in which they originated is studied in order to prove th e i r s u r v i v a l genuine. They are declared art when th e i r l i n e of descent can be c e r t i f i e d . 2 9 Berger discusses how the t r a d i t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n of fine art in museums and the homes of the wealthy, with i t s i m p l i c i t r e s t r i c t i o n to a c u l t u r a l e l i t e , allowed t h i s e l i t e to maintain an aesthetic power with which i t could set the "right " s o c i e t a l standards. In the sets of reproductions available for school purchase, the publisher's choice of certain works of art as exemplars may i m p l i c i t l y attempt to influence aesthetic taste, based on the premise that...there exists a v a l i d and 139 objective idea of the beautiful and a e s t h e t i c a l l y valuable and that some people are better able to recognize this value than o t h e r s . 3 0 If not encouraged to develop c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i v e s k i l l s , a c h i l d "becomes accustomed to the idea that the a u t h o r i t i e s have the right to decide what he or she must not l i k e or enjoy." 3 1 I believe i t i s important for children to develop these s k i l l s , not necessarily to r e j e c t the values of others, but to determine i f these values are the right f i t for them, for as Berger observes: The r e a l question i s : to whom does the meaning of the art of the past belong? To those who can apply i t to their own l i v e s , or to a c u l t u r a l hierarchy of r e l i c s p e c i a l i s t s ? 3 2 T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the authority of the fine arts has, due to i t s i s o l a t i o n , been inseparable from the authority of the wealthy e l i t e : What the modern means of reproduction have done i s to destroy the authority of art and to remove i t - or, rather to remove i t s images... - , from any preserve.... Images of art have become ephemeral, ubiquitous, insubstantial, available, valueless, free. They surround us in the same way as a language surrounds us. They have entered the mainstream of l i f e over which they no longer, in themselves, have power....The art of the past no longer exists as i t once did. Its authority is l o s t . In i t s place there is the language of images. What matters now i s who uses the language and for what purpose. 3 3 With curriculum goals in mind, I use my set of reproductions extensively to nurture children's "capacity for c r i t i c a l and sensitive response to the a r t s , " but I wonder i f my use of these exemplars r e a l l y advances children's "knowledge of the ways in which the arts influence, and are influenced by, society and the environment." Nadaner 140 expresses s i m i l a r doubts: The t r a d i t i o n a l art curriculum i s not the Kind of curriculum that helps learners deal with contemporary v i s u a l culture. Neither a survey of t r a d i t i o n a l fine a r t s , nor a s e n s i t i v i t y to li n e and shape w i l l help a learner make sense of, say the rock video phenomenon.34 According to the fine arts curriculum guide/resource book, children should be encouraged to interpret works of art in a variety of ways and to give t h e i r personal judgements of worth of each example. Formalist art c r i t i c i s m is suggested as a useful means of d i r e c t i n g discussion. This involves: Description - neutral or objective language to describe elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design, materials and processes, subject matter, and/or symbols; Interpretation - combining fact and opinion; Judgement - based on c r i t e r i a such as a sense of beauty, depth and i n t e n s i t y of communication, and effectiveness in achieving a purpose. 3 5 In order to be responsive to the contemporary image world, Nadaner suggests that art education should involve children in a c r i t i c a l / m o r a l dialogue as they attend to three kinds of images: the pervasive (those of contemporary North American cu l t u r e ) ; the i n v i s i b l e (those often l e f t out by th i s culture, such as images of women and women's l i v e s as portrayed by women); and the possible (those created by students "freed from conventions and s t e r e o t y p e s " ) 3 6 Rather than focusing on formalist c r i t i c i s m which "de-emphasizes the content of the work and i t s s o c i a l l y constructed meaning," Nadaner recommends h i s t o r i c a l / s e m i o t i c c r i t i c a l methods be developed, for these force us to attend to the c u l t u r a l codes within a v i s u a l work, and ask us "to explore why we respond 141 the way we do." 3 7 In Nadaner's view, Criticism...begins with an analysis of the object but ends with an understanding of personal experiences, values, and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . " 3 8 Caught up in the school art t r a d i t i o n , Pat and I have f e l t that we, as teachers, must be responsible for providing the resources for art appreciation in our classrooms. Despite our awareness that a wide var i e t y of art work is important in our personal l i v e s , our s e l e c t i o n of resources for classroom use tends to be limited to items which r e f l e c t t r a d i t i o n a l views of fine a r t . In t h i s respect, our dwelling in the t e n s i o n a l i t y between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as-lived i s somewhat shaky and uncertain, for we are in the process of re-considering the meaning of art appreciation. By incorporating a wider range of images, by u t i l i z i n g resources which are in the d a i l y l i v e s of our children, and by sharing with them the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for providing items for classroom dialogue, perhaps we can come closer to having children share in the intimate experiencing of art that i s so v i t a l in our l i v e s . 142 Notes 1 Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book 1985 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Branch, 1985), p. 3. 2 Mona Brookes, Drawing with Children (Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1986). ^ Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, p. 3. 4 Arthur Efland, "The School Art Style: a Functional Analysis," Studies in Art Education 17, no.2 (1976), pp. 41-42. 5 Efland, p. 39. 6 Efland, p. 40. 7 Efland, p. 40. 8 Efland, p. 41. 9 Efland, p. 41. 1 0 Efland, p. 38. 1 1 Brent Wilson and Marjorie Wilson, Teaching Children to Draw (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1982), p. xv. 1 2 Wilson and Wilson, pp. 19-37. 1 3 Wilson and Wilson, p. xv. 1 4 Wilson and Wilson, p. x v i . 143 1 5 John Dewey, Art as Experience (New York: J. P. Putnam's Sons, 1980), p. 26. 1 6 Dewey, p. 8. 1 7 Dewey, p. 8. 18 Dewey, p. 8. 1 9 Dewey, p. 9. 2 0 E l l i o t Eisner, Cognition and Curriculum (New York: Longman, 1982), p. 30. 2 1 Judy Chicago, The Bir t h Project (Garden C i t y , N.Y Doubleday, 1985) 2 2 Chicago, p. 61. 23 Dewey, p. 81 2 4 Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, p. 33. 2 5 John Berger, Ways of Seeing (London: B r i t i s h Broadcasting System, Penguin Book, 1972), p. 24. 2 6 Berger, p. 31. 2 7 Harry Broudy, "A Common Curriculum in Aesthetics and Fine Arts" in Individual Differences and the Common Curriculum, NSSE Yearbook Part 1 (Chicago: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1983). 2 8 Berger, p. 21. 2 9 Berger, p. 21. 3 0 Hans Giffhorn, "Ideologies of Art Education," Studies in Art Education 19. no. 2 (1978): 56. 144 3 1 Giffhorn, p. 57. 3 2 Berger, p. 32. 3 3 Berger, p. 32-33. 3 4 Dan Nadaner, "Responding to the Image World: A Proposal for Art Cu r r i c u l a , " Art Education 38, no. 1 (1985): 11. 3 5 Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, p. 33. 3 6 Nadaner, p. 11 3 7 Nadaner, p. 11. 3 8 Nadaner, p. 12 145 CHAPTER V Winter Fun The January day is cool and overcast with a fine mist of freezing r a i n forming an icy coating on the road. Although not going fast, I gently skid past the entrance to the school driveway. Classes are already in session, the hallway empty, as I remove my boots by the front door and place them on the rack alongside rows of smaller ones neatly lined up in pair s . On a b u l l e t i n board are bright cross-country ski posters and multicoloured badges, evidence of the Jackrabbit s k i program held during noon hours at many elementary schools in our d i s t r i c t . Figure 23 Cross-country Skis 146 Stepping into a puddle of melted snow with my nyloned feet, I have some momentary second thoughts about the pleasures of winter in the Cariboo. Figure 24 Winter Words In Pat's room the children are seated at the meeting place. They are f i n i s h i n g a s o c i a l studies discussion on families rules and allowances, and family problems that can arise from a lack of communication. Pat makes a smooth t r a n s i t i o n from these topics to today's art lesson. We haven't talked very much about f a m i l i e s having fun together, f a m i l i e s playing together. Think about your family, for instance, and e s p e c i a l l y think of some things 147 you l i k e to do together in the winter time, when there's snow outside. I'm thinking that my feet are s t i l l wet. We'll make a l i s t on the board and see how many d i f f e r e n t things happen at the d i f f e r e n t homes. What's happened at your house? What do you l i k e to do best? Sabrina? My family goes skidooing in the winter. OK. So some f a m i l i e s l i k e to go skidooing. What happens at your house, Carrie Ann? I always l i k e to go out to walk in my backyard and I can make snowballs and throw them at my puppy dog. I l i k e doing that. Dogs love chasing snowballs, don't they? I know. Isn't that funny? When they can't catch them? E s p e c i a l l y Moonzock, Danielle's dog. OK, you go l i k e t h i s and make a snowball t h i s perfect and you go l i k e this - zoom - he goes and catches i t . And then he eats i t . He drinks the water from the sprinkler too. A l l the children laugh delightedly. So at Carrie's house, playing in the snow, doing l o t s of d i f f e r e n t things with her dog. What happens at your house, Kristen? When a l l the chores are done, we a l l go outside and take a ride on my brother's Easyslide racer. And is it l i k e a sled? Yeh. OK. A l l r i g h t , we'll put "sledding". And that includes a l l the kinds of things you ride on to go s l i d i n g down h i l l s . I've got one, Mrs. V i t t e r y ! OK, what else happens? Jamie? When a l l the chores are done, we a l l go skating. Right! Where do you skate? We skate with our family. And we go s k i i n g too. 148 I'm wanting to know more about the skating. where i s there ice at your house? There's a great big...there's a l i t t l e h i l l and i t has ice on i t . And we go skating down there. Do you wear ice skates? On a h i l l ? And we made a big huge skating rink outside. OK. I was wondering i f there was a pond or part of a creek that was frozen near your house. No, we don't have a creek. So Jamie mentioned skating. And she also mentioned s k i i n g . How many f a m i l i e s l i k e to go skiing? Great! Lots of you! By means of t h i s dialogue, Pat reinforces many of the key ideas and vocabulary introduced when the planning web for t h i s unit was i n i t i a l l y discussed (see Figure 24). It i s also an opportunity for children to relate personal s t o r i e s of winter experiences. Pat has been teaching at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r school for four years. She describes the children's homes as " f a i r l y stable middle-class". The r u r a l s e t t i n g of t h i s community means that most of the children l i v e on small acreages and hobby farms. Almost a l l have animals - "milk cows, a couple of goats, rabbits, chickens, besides the usual dogs and cats." These children are usually from "three, four, f i v e k i d " fa m i l i e s . OK. That sounds l i k e fun. Put your hands down now, please. Awwhhh... I'm glad you have l o t s of ideas because we're going to see if you can draw your ideas on a big, big paper with a black wax crayon. You don't have to Include everyone in your family, but put yourself in the picture, of course, and maybe a friend. Think about what it looks l i k e , where you're having a l l t h i s fun. Chad, w i l l you turn t h i s way and look at me so I know you're l i s t e n i n g ? Same with you, Shawn. 149 Shawn and Chad are sprawling on t h e i r backs with t h e i r feet on the wall. Pat pauses u n t i l they have sat up and she has t h e i r attention. Are you on a f l a t part of your property? Are you on a h i l l y part of your property? Are there l o t s of trees around? Are you near the creek? Are you near the pond? Think about your surroundings and t r y to include them in your picture. Pat explains that the shapes are to be outlined with black wax crayon and then f i l l e d in with bright colours, e s p e c i a l l y the clothing. If you look down at the g i r l s ' part of the coat cupboard, you can see a l l kinds of bright colours in t h e i r snowsuits and jackets. But the boys have r e a l l y d u l l , r e a l l y dull colours. The boys have brovn and blue and green, don't they? Well, that's a l l r i g h t . Then, maybe you might include animals in your picture, l i k e your dog. Or your cat may be outside. The "snowy" parts of the picture won't need to be coloured as they w i l l be painted. Examples of what might be snowy parts are given. If there's a snowman in your picture, don't colour him cause h e ' l l be painted l a t e r . I mixed the white paint up and I put s a l t in i t . The s a l t doesn't dissolve. It stays a l i t t l e grainy when the paint dries and it looks a l o t l i k e real snow. I t ' s kind of fun to do. But f i r s t you have to have your i n t e r e s t i n g picture of winter fun with your family. Now, we haven't done any winter snow pictures t h i s year in t h i s class. We have done snowmen. And we've done snowflakes... Looking up, I see a b l i z z a r d of paper snowflakes caught in the branches of the v e r s a t i l e tumbleweeds that hang from the c e i l i n g . In between dangle large paper snowmen, carrot-nosed and well protected against winter winds with brightly. patterned wallpaper scarves. 150 ...but we haven't painted a picture yet, so t h i s i s a good chance to do i t . Yes, on the windows. Oh, we did the windows.' And then we had to clean them off, didn't we? That was too bad. Yes. Can we do i t again? Mrs. Costello, we had beautiful window paintings and the furnace exploded over the holidays. Our e n t i r e room was covered in soot and had to be washed with hot water. And so your paintings were washed off! Looks of mixed delight and dismay are on children's faces as they spontaneously give me t h e i r opinions of the di s a s t e r . Everything tooken down.' They just should have taken one of those dusting things and dusted i t o f f . Well, it was too d i r t y . So we l o s t our paintings. Anyway, that was going to s t a r t January's theme. We didn't put them back on again, but we w i l l do snow pictures on blue paper. Now, the f i r s t thing for you to do i s to show me how very q u i e t l y you can take out your wax crayons. You'll have to borrow if you don't have any. The blue paper i s dis t r i b u t e d by Pat to each group. Some children, on the i r own i n i t i a t i v e , go to their space at the board to practise before they s t a r t to draw on t h e i r paper. Shawn, a grade 1 c h i l d , draws at the board, then comes back to his desk to draw b r i e f l y at his paper. In his board drawing, he made arms with two l i n e s ; on his paper, he draws s t i c k s (see Figure 25). OK. I have two dozen people coming to t e l l me something - Please s i t down - Everyone l i s t e n i n g . Some people just came to t e l l me that they don't have wax crayons anymore. You r e a l l y need them for other things. Please ask mom if she can send them to school with you. If you're one of the children who don't have wax crayons, please try to borrow some from your friends at your same table. Those of you who do have them, I hope you'll be w i l l i n g to share. 151 There is much sharing of crayons already going on between children. In January, however, many are missing colours. Pat walks from group to group o f f e r i n g comments. Children who don't have a black wax, use your pencil, but r e a l l y draw big, big because you'll have to o u t l i n e it l a t e r . Jessica, we're going to be colouring big shapes and painting, so you can't get away with drawing tiny. Where's your black wax? OK, use it, please. Wax crayon helps you draw bigger. Now, Rodney, make sure i t ' s going to be big, big. Are you going to put l o t s of things in your picture? I t ' s not bad, could be bigger. yes, you can use colours. Figure 25 Shawn's Picture of "Winter Fun" At one group of desks, Gary and Richard s i t thinking quietly, side by side. "I see the picture in my head, and then I draw it," I overhear Gary say. A few minutes l a t e r , I notice them drawing in a l e i s u r e l y manner, comparing pictures back and forth. Sabrina comes over to ask Leah about her picture and 152 offers suggestions (see Figure 26). Figure 26 Sabrina and Leah That's supposed to be brown. I don't have a brown. Sabrina goes to her own desk and returns with a brown crayon for Leah. Pat asks one c h i l d i f she can show the class how she made her trees. Yes. That you made i t thi s way? Or, do you want i t t h i s way? Do they go this way? Yes. 153 OK. Kristen drew an i n t e r e s t i n g tree. She's got branches that look l i k e t r i a n g l e s and they're going up the centre l i k e the shapes in a pine tree. We usually draw them t h i s way but she's decided to go that way. And that's just i n t e r e s t i n g and d i f f e r e n t ! You might put two or three d i f f e r e n t kinds of trees in the background of your picture. Now, Stephanie has started to use her wax crayons to colour her picture. And because she pressed so nice and hard l i k e I suggested, you can't see any blue through her person's red jacket. Nice bright red cause she pressed r e a l l y , r e a l l y hard. Don't l e t the blue peek through when you're colour ing your shapes. Press hard with your wax. Mrs. V i t t e r y , how's this? Oh, it looks super! Maybe you could put something here for them to s i t on. How do you change your shoes? Do you s i t on something? Yes. Like an old log or bench or something? I s i t on a f l a t plank. I see. Well, maybe you could figure out how to draw i t . That's good, David! That's a nice evergreen tree. Everybody stop and look one more time. David has chosen d i f f e r e n t colours of green to colour the trees in his forest, to make it look r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . Have you got another green, too, David? Yep! I've got a l l kinds of greeni Now, remember to think of winter trees, David, they're a l l pretty dark. I'm making gold mittens. Wow! Fan-cy! Five minutes l a t e r , Pat c a l l s the children over to the round table in the centre of the room to demonstrate how to put on the white paint. I told you I mixed s a l t i n the paint. You can't see too well from a distance but you can feel. It f e e l s kind of rough. Just put your finger on the top of mine. Ohhhh.. .yuck!.. .rough.' It has a l i t t l e rough grainy f e e l to i t . When the l i g h t 154 s h i n e s o n t o i t , i t looks l i k e l i t t l e c r y s t a l s . Back away from the table, Shawn. I can ' t f e e l . . . Ohhh, i t ' s shiny ! Yes, i t ' l l shine in the sunshine. A l l r i g h t , now. Figure 27 Painting With "Snow" Pat has made a quick drawing to show how the "snow" can be applied. Think about what parts of your picture are going to be snow. Now, obviously the snowman needs to be white, right? I'm going to paint him very c a r e f u l l y . Ooooohhh...snow! 155 You may find that i f you go over some of your parts, you'll have to do i t again l a t e r . But the wax crayon repels the paint. That i s , that water paint won't cover wax crayon. That's the reason why we l i k e to use it in t h i s kind of a c t i v i t y . - Please don't touch the table Obviously, the ground is going to be covered in snow. I won't take the time to f i n i s h it a l l , but I ' l l just quickly show you...OK? Now, think about t h i s . When the snow f a l l s down from the clouds, it h i t s the tops of things, doesn't i t ? It h i t s a l l the tops of the houses. And you have a nice l i t t l e row of snow on the top of your house. Are you watching me, Shawn? Unless the houses have parts on the roof. Wherever anything is open to the sky, the snow w i l l f a l l on i t . Now, which part of the tree do you suppose I should put the snow on? What do you think? Just r a i s e your hand i f you can t e l l me. Carrie? I think you should just put it right on there...and there... On the edges? OK. I can do that. Now you just said something i n t e r e s t i n g , Jessie. Like put it on the top, i t ' s a l l s t i c k i n g up here. Stuff that doesn't bother the tree branches. OK. So I should put some on here too. Some of these branches are coming out t h i s way. I l i k e that. It looks pretty. Yes, it does. Many more children add their comments. Yeh!..Wow!...Looks neat, l i k e that!...It looks l i k e real snow!...Such a good painting! It r e a l l y looks l i k e snow, doesn't i t ? It i s a painting/ If i t ' s a grey snowy day, some flakes might be f a l l i n g . Right? So I can use just the edge of my brush and I can make tiny, t i n y snowflakes. Lots and l o t s of them. Oooohhhh! One c h i l d contributes t h i s information. You'll see that every s i n g l e snowflake in the world is a d i f f e r e n t shape. 156 OK. Work hard on the colouring part and we maybe w i l l have time to do a b i t of your snow. Just maybe...The ones who are working hardest w i l l get finished fastest. This comment gets them back to their desks in very short order and colouring i s serio u s l y attended to. One g i r l i s finished and ready to add "snow. Look at mine, Mrs. V i t t e r y Let's have a look. A l i n e can show where the land ends and the sky begins. So we better put a l i n e in your picture. Where would you l i k e i t to be? As the c h i l d hesitates, Pat leads her over to the window (see Figure 28). Come on and look out the window and I ' l l show you. OK. Now you see? There's the ground. And then a l l of a sudden there's trees. And then there's sky. See where there's a l i n e , going along the top of that h i l l over there? And below the one is ground. And above the l i n e is sky. See that? A l l r i g h t . Now, l e t ' s see if we can figure out where to put i t in your picture. Figure 28 Looking At The Horizon 157 They go back to the drawing on her desk. Use your crayon. Do you want i t up there, some place? OK. Nov, i t can't go in front of your trees, can i t ? It has to go behind. So show me how you're going to do i t . Draw from here. Stop when you get to the trees. Now pretend you're going behind t h i s tree. OK. Stop when you get to there. Now pick i t up again over here. OK, stop. That's the g i r l ! OK, great! Now, l e t ' s show the kids what you did. Pat interrupts the industrious colourers to draw the i r attention to the use of a horizon l i n e on Carrie's picture. A l l r i g h t , here's one more thing to learn. Carrie was ready to s t a r t putting snow on, but she didn't have a l i n e to t e l l where the ground ended and the sky started. So we went over and looked out the window - some of you and I have done t h i s before - and we discovered that the sky came down so far and then there's a l i n e where the h i l l is and the trees are. And the rest of i t ' s a l l ground. So she went back and and got her crayon and she drew in a l i n e that showed t h i s part i s ground and the part above i t i s a l l sky. Now she knows where to paint her white snow - Shawn, are you watching? - and where to paint her snowflakes. If you don't have - they c a l l it horizon l i n e - if you don't have one in your picture, you might think about looking out the window. If you need some help, l e t me know. Pat a s s i s t s another c h i l d with her horizon l i n e . A few kids are singing s o f t l y to themselves as they colour. OK, that's super! Mrs. V i t t e r y , I dj& i t ! A l l r i g h t , boys and g i r l s . Time's gone too quickly t h i s afternoon. I'm afraid i t ' s almost time to t i d y up. It i s time to t i d y up. Awwhhh... The buses w i l l soon be here. Listen c a r e f u l l y to what you must do. Very c a r e f u l l y . The brushes go in the sink; there's a container of water there. Sabrina, l i s t e n . The paintings hang on your peg. And your desk gets cleared off, your crayons away. You'll have to do it quickly and q u i e t l y . Only a few have reached the stage where they can add paint. The "snowfall" w i l l be delayed u n t i l Monday. Buses keep to a 158 tight schedule and parents aren't happy t r a v e l l i n g long distances on winter roads to pick up children who miss th e i r r i d e . The following Friday afternoon, I watch Pat and the children putting the f i n i s h i n g touches to the i r "Winter Fun" pictures. The v i v i d colours of the i r drawings contrast with the muted watercolour winter sky v i s i b l e through the windows. With the children seated in front of her at the meeting place, Pat explains to me that some pictures have already been trimmed and mounted onto black construction paper backgrounds for display. We framed and chose the best part of our pic t u r e . I have some to do, but I l i k e to do i t one at a time and so I f e l t that I would get started on it yesterday. We talked a l o t about it yesterday but I ' l l go over i t and you can see what we did. And because we're not having everyone doing an art lesson t h i s afternoon, we're going on with our measuring a c t i v i t i e s that we've been doing t h i s week. There is spontaneous clapping from many of the chi l d r e n . And, so Mrs. Costello kind of knows what's been happening in here, I would l i k e some of you to volunteer some information and t e l l her what we've done so f a r . Just choose one of the a c t i v i t i e s and talk about i t . Adam, can you t e l l Mrs. Costello what we've done with measuring? We've measured a l l sorts of things in our class and we've measured each other. OK. And could you explain, Terry, how we did the measuring of each other? What was i t we did? Like we measured our hand spans and our feet and we measured things in the room. Pat holds up a paper with a s i m p l i f i e d human figure on i t . Lines radiate out from i t s navel to various extremities and 159 appendages. Come and explain to Mrs. Costello hov this one worked, Leah. Who was your partner? Sabrina. Well, we took a long tape and then we measured, l i k e from our b e l l y buttons a l l the way to our toes and i t ' s alvays from the b e l l y button. We did from our b e l l y button to our nose, from our b e l l y button to our ear, from our b e l l y button to our... Leah and Sabrina give me a quick demonstration of the measuring procedure. Smiling, I comment that a b e l l y button is a good place to s t a r t . Cause i t ' s i n the middle of your tummy. A l l r i g h t , this afternoon, while I'm working with those of you who haven't done the framing job on your paintings, I have another job for you to do with measuring. I t ' s a l i t t l e comparison chart and i t ' s to do with my friend and me. And you need a partner again. Pat goes over the directions for today's measuring a c t i v i t y , making c e r t a i n that they understand how to record t h e i r own and their partner's measurements. We can copy. Yes, get together on the f l o o r someplace and copy i t i n . And compare and see what is the difference. Like, whose head is bigger or whose arm is longer. Or who's chubbier, (giggles) OK. Right. Whatever. We'll make a comparison. She c l a r i f i e s the terms that are used on the a c t i v i t y sheet and has the children locate wrists, ankles, waists. Oh, and here's one that asks to measure your height. Now we did t h i s - s i t down, please. I'm a hundred and nineteen/ We did t h i s and we graphed i t . When you get to the part about the height, how could you find out, without a c t u a l l y using a tape today? How would you f i n d out your height without a c t u a l l y getting the tape and measuring? Terry? 160 Um, you could check the calendar that we put up. Yes. What is it called? I t ' s not a calendar. Um, the chart. No, the graph, t a l l graph. (see Figure 29) Figure 29 Leah Using the Graph We could check the graph. OK, that would be a good thing to do. And, if you r e a l l y want to do it over again, the tape is s t i l l here on the chalkboard. But I think your best bet is to check the graph. Now, there's three empty spaces, so you might decide you want to measure something else. Maybe you want to see how long your nose i s . Yeahhhl Maybe you would l i k e to measure your big toe! Giggles from the group. Or your baby finger! This r e a l l y gets them laughing! A l l r i g h t . Here's what to do. I see that some of these people are ready, ready, ready. 161 Partners are chosen by Pat. She pairs the grade 1 children with those in grade 2 so that they w i l l be able to work independently. There is chatting and laughter as children s i t next to each other. Before having them begin, Pat reminds them about appropriate classroom behaviour. And when you talk to each other, just use a whisper, please. The measuring begins. The children are t o t a l l y involved and n o i s i l y enthusiastic about the a c t i v i t y (see Figure 30). Figure 30 Carie and David Pat c a l l s the f i r s t c h i l d , Rodney, over to the centre round 162 table for picture trimming. His partner, Shawn, comes with him, to observe and add his comments during the procedure. A frame of black matting i s moved around the picture to find the "most in t e r e s t i n g " part. Now, w i l l you t e l l me which part of your picture you l i k e the best? I want the part with a l l the kids. Put i t on the picture. OK, now that's i n t e r e s t i n g , with a l l the people In It. And do you know what could happen?. Look at t h i s . What do you think about that? Pat moves the frame to another part of the picture where a detailed snowmobile is featured. Rodney laughs. Would you l i k e to have to have two? Rodney, do that.' That'd be funi Mrs. V i t t e r y , can I have two? Well, we'll see what happens when we frame yours. Rodney has twoi (Gleefully) A l l r i g h t , Rodney, l e t ' s have a look and see what we can do then. F i r s t of a l l , we've got to make sure we can see your snowmobile. That's your snowmobile, Rodney? (Very interested). Right here, right there. Snowmobile. I have a snowmobile. (Very enthusiastic!) Let's see, Rodney. Take your background, your frame. There i s an interruption at t h i s point from one of the children measuring. Mine's s i x t y - f o u r . Hey, Mrs. V i t t e r y , we've got exactly the same thumb! I wondered if that was going to happen. Are they exactly the same, Jessie? Pat i s concerned that I might find the noise l e v e l too much, 163 but I assure her that i t ' s f i n e . I mention my experiences v i t h a group of grade 2 children and magnets that morning. Their noise l e v e l was comparable to t h i s . I f e e l r ight at home and i t i s a pleasure to watch and hear these busy l i t t l e ones. There i s lots of laughter, but no "goofing" o f f . They remain independently committed to the i r measurement task. Back to the picture trimming. Well, l e t ' s have a look. This piece. What? Like that? Rodney, I l i k e t h i s one. When Rodney i s s a t i s f i e d with his decision, Pat outlines the chosen portion with a p e n c i l . She trims the excess with large s c i s s o r s , then mounts the trimmed picture onto a black construction paper background. During her discussion with Rodney, Shawn has been t r y i n g out the frame on his picture by himself. Mrs. Vittezy, what part should I save? Come round here, Shawn. Let's see what part you l i k e the best, (see Figure 31) OK. OK, now. Looks great. Nov what do you think about this? Would you l i k e to save t h i s part? Do you want to trim it down any other way? Mrs. Vittezy, I l i k e i t . I l i k e that part. You l i k e the dog. OK. Mrs. Vittezy, I can keep the part I want to show you. I want, I want, Mrs. Vittezy, I want this one here. OK, l e t ' s take a look. Did you try it anothez way, Shawn? No. I 164 Oh, there's a part where you are.' I ' l l save these two parts. I'm going to take that part. Figure 31 Pat Consulting With Shawn What's the problem if you do it this way? I cut o f f the snowman. OK, so if you turn i t . Yeh. That would probably be better. That would be better. I can keep t h i s part too. Is there a way you could get i t so you could show the 165 person in with the picture? Can you move i t over a l i t t l e b i t ? . How about that?. Move it a l i t t l e higher so that you can get the snowman's head too. What do you think about that? Well, I'd l i k e to go on to this. I want to do i t . You want to do it. OK. Pat leaves him for a moment, pondering his picture. She speaks q u i e t l y to me, before returning to Shavn. Did you see what he did there? That was what I was hoping would happen, that he would start moving i t and so he's decided that's what he liked best. She goes back to Shavn who has reached a decision. I agree with you. I think that looks great. Shawn, get this black paper and we'll see what it looks like. We'll just cut i t across here and you can save those two pieces. You can put them in your desk. Oh, i t looks great, Shawn! There. What do you think? Yes! Great! All right, we'll hang it up on the wall. Each picture consultation takes about five minutes. Pat does si x and then c a l l s for clean up. As they return the measurement tapes to the bucket, some children hum and sing phrases of songs. Then they s i t q u i e t l y at th e i r desks, waiting to discuss with Pat the results of th e i r measuring a c t i v i t y . I would l i k e to hear some of the things that you found out. Now, when you are ready to tell, give not only your own measurement but also that of your friend. And tell me which was more - which was bigger, or longer, or wider, or whatever it was you were measuring. You should have the two sets of numbers on your paper. You get to choose what you'd like to tell about what you found out. OK, Rodney, what did you find out? Our ear. First of all, tell us who your partner was. Chad. 166 OK. And t e l l me what you found out. Chad's ear is longer than mine by one centimetre. And what were the measurements? Chad's was f i v e centimetres and mine was four. There is some subdued laughter from the children l i s t e n i n g . They measured ears. That was i n t e r e s t i n g . Did it t i c k l e ? No. (Laughs). Pat laughs too. She asks various children for the data they have c o l l e c t e d . Sharing t h i s information i s not nearly as involving as c o l l e c t i n g i t ; a few, l e t t i n g t h e i r attention wander, f i d d l e with pencils and whisper to their neighbours. OK. Tell us something else you measured. Oh...um...Our heads. Like, Terry's was just eight centimetres more than my head. Cause mine was f i f t y and his was f i f t y - e i g h t . Centimetres. you two boys come up here for a minute and stand by me so everyone can see you. It's int e r e s t i n g , because when you look at these two boys - shhh, l i s t e n when you look at these two boys, you can that Terry is a much bigger person than Chad and so it stands to reason that when you measure around their head there would be a difference. Did you f i n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g when you were comparing? Terry? No, not that much. Not too t h r i l l e d , huh? Pat and I share glances and a smile. She continues for a few more minutes, ending with th e i r opinions on how they f e l t about today's a c t i v i t y . I wanted to know how you f e l t about doing that a c t i v i t y . What was the best part about i t ? What wasn't fun about It? Just a comment about how you f e l t about doing the measuring t h i s afternoon. OK, l e t ' s hear from Carie Ann about t h i s . I l i k e d i t when we were measuring i t , but sometimes me and David got mixed up too. He said t h i s is his paper 167 and I said that this was my paper and that was his paper and he said no, t h i s was h i s . How could you have solved that problem? I checked on "My Friend" and i t was mine and then David checked on his, on "My Friend," and he found that i t was hi s . Does anyone else have a way that Cazie Ann and David could have solved their problem about getting their papers mixed up? What did you do, Rodney? Well, um, he put our names on. OK. That sounds l i k e a good idea. After another few minutes of comments, mostly p o s i t i v e , the measuring sheets go into the desks u n t i l Monday. Currlculum-as-Dlan - Conceptual Model TO ART Figure 32 Conceptual Model For Visual Arts The B.C. Elementary Fine A r t s C urriculum Guide/Resource Book s t a t e s t h a t the f i n e a r t s - v i s u a l a r t s , drama, music 168 share in t e r r e l a t e d and common goals, but each possesses a unique character with regards to s k i l l s and concepts. The resource book, therefore, is divided into three sections, one for each d i s c i p l i n e . A model depicting the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the two key concepts, creation and appreciation, begins each section. The conceptual model for the v i s u a l arts i s shown in Figure 32. When planning a lesson, any aspect of any of the four content areas - image making, materials and processes, elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design, and responding to art - can be a v a l i d point of entry. Curriculum-as-lived Interaction, the key concept underlying Pat's planning approach, i s re f l e c t e d in the physical arrangement of her classroom. The c i r c u l a r conceptual model also reinforces t h i s concept by emphasizing that the four content areas are inter - r e l a t e d and are a l l equally es s e n t i a l in v i s u a l arts education. Bach of these content areas was present in a l l art lessons I observed i n Pat's classroom. After deciding upon a theme and conducting the "webbing" process to integrate d i f f e r e n t subject areas, how did Pat structure her planning for a r t , in terms of these four categories? At the f i r s t of the year I make a l i s t of the processes and materials that I want to concentrate on in the art lessons. And then, I look at the theme and develop lessons around it using the techniques that I have not yet covered or I see vhich ones are the most natural to use within that theme. An examination of Pat's yearly overview, indicated that the 169 entire spectrum of materials and processes suggested for the primary grades was covered. In the lessons I observed, children were introduced to printmaking (Halloween "pumpkins"), drawing (Animal Cartoons), paper collage (Animals), drawing and painting (Winter Fun), and mixed media (Valentines). To my mind, each process was appropriate within the context of the part i c u l a r theme in which i t was used. But I do not take a process l i k e printmaking and say, OK, this i s February and we are going to do printmaking. I don't do i t that way at a l l . I t ' s not, OK, now i t ' s printmaking, now we're going to do a unit on drawing, now we're going to do a unit on painting. It doesn't work that way. I don't f i n d that's useful. I know some people work that way but I don't feel comfortable with that. In teaching a r t to children in grades 3 to 7 for the past eight years, I have not found a process-based approach s a t i s f a c t o r y e i t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y as i t relates to another of the four content areas, image making. As a beginning a r t teacher I concentrated on processes because they appeared very straight-forward. A major drawback, I soon discovered, was the great d i f f i c u l t y children had in generating ideas for images. I explained to Pat how much easier i t i s for my grade 5 children, for example, having acquired a "hands-on" s c i e n t i f i c knowledge of eye parts and their functions through dissections during a science unit, to develop images of eyes in drawings or imaginary paintings in a r t . They have r e a l l y "experienced" eyes and lo t s of ideas are already s t i r r i n g about in the i r minds. Like Pat, I believe that integrating materials and processes within a p a r t i c u l a r theme r e a l l y benefits image development. 170 What of the other content areas of the conceptual model: responding to a r t , for example? I asked Pat i f she de l i b e r a t e l y plans for pa r t i c u l a r experiences in thi s area. I f i t seems to f i t , I do. I f e e l r e a l l y remiss in that area because I don't have the resources on hand. When I do, I include them as much as i s possible. But I don't always have access to s t u f f that I'd r e a l l y l i k e . And so I feel r e s t r i c t e d in that regard. There's nothing in our school. Anything I do use in my lessons is my own personal stuff. I don't feel that is as well covered as I'd l i k e it to be. Responding to a r t , however, need not be r e s t r i c t e d to works of art created by adults. It can also include children's c r i t i c a l involvement in the i r own a r t and that of other ch i l d r e n . This type of responding was evident in the lesson on Winter Fun, for example, when Sabrina suggested to Leah the use of a brown crayon. Art c r i t i c i s m occurred when Pat had her childr e n i n d i v i d u a l l y examine and sel e c t the most interesting portion of the i r paintings for framing. In the Halloween printmaking, she asked the group to evaluate the d i f f i c u l t new process of p r i n t i n g with potatoes, in addition to commenting c r i t i c a l l y on the q u a l i t y of the i r products. And, at the end of the lesson on Animal Cartoons, children were invited to sel e c t t h e i r favourite drawings. The fourth content area of the conceptual model i s elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design. Pat frequently uses terms r e f e r r i n g to the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design in her lessons. I was curious i f t h i s vocabulary use i s "spur-of-the-moment," re s u l t i n g from her extensive background experience in a r t , or, again, i f i t i s c a r e f u l l y planned in advance to be introduced at a s p e c i f i c time and place. 171 Sometimes I do. I t r y to keep it f a i r l y simple vith the age group I'm working with, but I don ' t hes i ta te to use the term and then expla in to them what i t means. Not expecting or r e q u i r i n g them to remember, just kind of throwing i t in incidentally, when it's throvn in often enough, some children w i l l understand. Some of them von't. I commented that at the younger age l e v e l , then, i t was exposure, more than anything e l s e . R ight . So I would suggest that i t ' s i n c i d e n t a l . And yes, I do think about i t , but sometimes i t just comes out in conversation. I no t i ced , for example, that she drew c h i l d r e n ' s a t tent ion to geometric shapes during the d iscuss ion of Jack-O'Lantern faces at Halloween. And, when the opportunity arose in the Animal Cartoons l e s s o n , she mentioned exaggerated propor t ion . The curr iculum guide/resource book provides de ta i l ed scope and sequence charts for a l l four content areas. Did Pat have a concern for cont inu i ty? Did she f e e l i t important that s k i l l s in these areas be sequent ia l l y developed? I haven't looked at the scope and sequence seriously. I did glance at i t , but I d i d n ' t really pay it very much attention. I tend not to look at things as teaching a sequence of s k i l l s . And my reason is that, f i r s t of all, I don't vant to restrict a child. If somebody is ready to go on by expanding the skill...Let's talk about p a i n t i n g . The kids in grade 1 can identify the colours and they can begin to use pa in t . And they love these s i l l y l i t t l e paint boxes which I don't particularly like at a l l , but they think are wonderful. They can't vait to get to school and the f i r s t th ing they vant to do is paint vith their paint boxes! And so, at the beginning of the year, because they're so keen, I teach them how to use these l i t t l e paint boxes and how to handle their brush and so on. I f i n d out i f they can i d e n t i f y the colours. Nov for some kids, just using the brush, getting the right amount of water on i t , taking the paint from the l i t t l e cake and put t ing i t on the paper, is wonderful. They just think that's great. And they very carefully vash their brush - they've put red on - now they ' re going to try blue. And then green. It's alvays red f i r s t . And so you might say, OK, that's the f i r s t 172 s k i l l , in this l i t t l e lesson. And then there are other kids who accidentally don't clean their brush off properly when they finish using their red. They dip it into the blue and they end up with purple. And they're so excited! They can't understand what happens - "Look at this, I wanted blue but it's purple! And how did that happen?" So they get right into colour mixing, right off the bat! And maybe it says somewhere in the scope and sequence that colour mixing does not come u n t i l lesson 18, or something like that. Well, if it happens right then, then that's the time, as far as I'm concerned, to let the kids experiment. It doesn't have to be at a certain time that they learn to mix colours. In t h i s lesson on Winter Fun, Pat f e l t i t appropriate to demonstrate to some grade two c h i l d r e n the use of a horizon l i n e to de l ineate areas of space wi th in a p a i n t i n g . According to the scope and sequence c h a r t , t h i s concept should be introduced at grade f i v e . Pat exercised pro fess iona l judgement in t h i s matter, as she does with curr iculum guide suggestions in other subject areas . I t ' s what I feel comfortable doing. And as far as I'm concerned, if I don't feel comfortable teaching, then I shouldn't be teaching. It's like using the math workbook that's provided in grade 1 and 2. There are teachers who simply work from page 1 r igh t through to page 172, one a f te r the other . To me, i t doesn't make sense to do it that way, but people do because it says so in the book. So in unit 3, it's telling time. And so I can't teach my kids to tell the time today, even though there's five children who really want to know, because that's not done u n t i l March, you know. I mean, that obviously sounds ridiculous and I hope there really aren't people who do it, but (whispers) I think there a re . It i§_ r i d i c u l o u s . But, from my knowledge of many teachers , t rue . I, l i k e Pat , prefer to do things according to my own sense of order and timing which f requent ly d i f f e r s from that of textbook or curr iculum guide authors. The suggested sequence does not always mesh v i t h the way my mind vorks or the needs of my c h i l d r e n . Again, i t is a matter of comfortable f i t . 173 Being a constant rev iser at hear t , I f ind i t d i f f i c u l t to accept that some teachers continue to use the same mater ia ls year a f te r year . They d e v i s e , l e t ' s say , a set of lessons for grade 7 s o c i a l s t u d i e s , which are placed in a b inder , turned to and taught at the same t ime, in the same way, each year . Information and s t y l e of presentat ion are not modif ied to match the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs of c h i l d r e n in a p a r t i c u l a r context . I mentioned to Pat that I f ind that I have never been able to take lessons that someone e lse has given me and use them as wr i t ten , nor have I ever been able to take lessons that I have prepared and use them again a second time. Of course, my assignments have r a r e l y been the same two years in a row, so that has not been a problem too o f ten! Well , that, I would suggest, i s because you're a creative person. I can't do that either. To me, the lesson that you're going to teach depends on the group of children you're teaching. And they're never the same, so therefore the lesson is never going to be the same. You do adapt to your group. And I can ' t see how you can be an interested teacher and teach from somebody else's lessons. I really can't do that because there's alvays something I would add, or de le te . I t ' s the same for every year. I really find i t bor ing to think that I have to teach the same thing every year . I t r y my best not to. I'll pick and choose between the science units, for instance. It I taught animals this year, next fall I may not. I may go off on rocks or s o i l or magnets or something d i f f e r e n t . For my own sake. You too. Because If I'm going to give the best I can to the kids, I sure don't want to be working with boring material. I find I have to be really interested in what I'm doing. If I am, then I'll be striving to do the best I can. And I am very s e l f - c r i t i c a l , so I change, change, change, change. I don't think that the perfection is attainable, for me, the perfection that I'm after. That's probably what keeps me going. But along the way, somehow, hopefully, i t gets c lose now and then (Laughs) and the k ids get a decent lesson I Did Pat know when that occurs? Could she f e e l i t ? For 174 myself , there are some moments vhen everything seems to come together, or vhen one c h i l d v i l l say one t h i n g , and I have a rea l glow. Oh you can f e e l i t , sure . Yes, i t ' s a r e a l l y neat f e e l i n g . And i t ' s worth i t . You realize that the light's shining in there...Little Kristen's the one that does that to me a l l the time. She's a neat l i t t l e k i d . At first - she's one of the grade l's, with the long dark hair - at first, you think, Oh this is qui te a br ight l i t t l e child. She's very neat, very tidy, well-behaved, the whole thing. But not, totally, you know, with it? And, I have to present things to her in many ways sometimes. And then, a l l of a sudden, those b ig brown eyes just flash open, and you know she finally understands. And it's worth every minute that you spend, just to see her face . And realize, hey, she finally got i t l She does know what I'm talking aboutt Pat and I d iscussed another aspect of teaching - t imetables and daybooks. A comfortable f i t is important here as v e i l , but too often such schedules pinch vhen one i s attempting to integrate areas v i t h i n a thematic approach as suggested by the f ine ar ts curr iculum guide/resource book. According to Min is t ry of Education g u i d e l i n e s , a c e r t a i n number of minutes per subject per veek are a l l o c a t e d . At the primary l e v e l , i t is 715 for language a r t s , 170 for math, 120 for s o c i a l s t u d i e s / s c i e n c e , 140 for PE, 180 for a r t / m u s i c . In our d i s t r i c t , these gu ide l ines are r i g i d l y adhered t o . I knov from personal experience that i f a d a i l y t imetable i s f i ve minutes short in a p a r t i c u l a r subject a rea , then r e v i s i o n s must be made so that the exact number of minutes i s accounted f o r . Pat had given me a copy of her t imetable , but in the lessons I observed, science and s o c i a l s tudies f loved i n t o , and vere an in tegra l part o f , a r t and music. Pat d id not appear concerned about the s p e c i f i c amount of time given to each. I asked her hov accurate ly she fol lows the time 175 al lo tments . I t ' s a l l covered. And i t ' s a l l covered in your t imetable. Right to the minute. Yes, i t i s . Right to the minutei I not iced that , Pat . Did you go and add i t a l l up? (Laughing) No, I didn't. (Laughter from Pat) I'm just g iv ing you a rough time. I glanced at i t and I thought, yes , that looks about right, a l l of those blocks. Yes, a l l covered. (Laughing) Nov, hov closely do you follov it, Pat? (Laughing) Dale, you know the answer to that questionJ Why are you asking? I knov, but I have to get this dovn on tape. You should have seen it today. I had this marvelous daybook a l l writ ten out. It was just wonderful. I got as fa r a s , the PE lesson was just right on track. That was at 8:30, between 8:30 and 9:00. Right. That was the f i r s t half hour. The f i r s t ha l f hour was r igh t on. You mean you got i t through the f i r s t half hour on schedule? Good for you! Yes, yes. A c t u a l l y , I even went a l i t t l e f a r t h e r . Thinking of the days when I haven't even made i t through the f i r s t f i v e minutes of what i s planned in my daybook, I enjoyed P a t ' s s tory of hov her day unfolded. I t ' s Open House on Thursday and I have a space to f i l l in the gymnasium. I hadn't saved a lo t of the i r wr i t ing . So I got an idea about halfvay through the morning meeting. I was asking them to t e l l me what they were going to write about in the i r vriting workshop and I thought, hey, these s t o r i e s are going to be great today. And then I just flipped on the light s v i t c h in my head 176 and s a i d , OK, that's it I We're going to do the vhole th ing with wr i t ing process today. Write, edit, proof, and we're going to p u b l i s h . Then we'll illustrate with drawings and paintings. And we'll hang these up in the gym. I f igured that would take me most of the morning. Of course, by lunchtime they weren't nearly finished. I just had to chuck the rest of my daybook I And we d id i t a l l dayi They moved a l l the desks back, as far towards the perimeter of the room as they could. This cleared a large area around the centre table where they could work on their drawings and paintings on the floor. And kids who were s t i l l writing didn't have to be working next to somebody who had paint and water on their desk. It was really neat I There were children at different stages of the i r wr i t ing and I was working with them one at a time with the proofreading. And there were other kids, all over the floor, with their art activity. Every single kid in that classroom was involved, totally, in what they were doing. And I was involved in what I was doing. So it was beautiful. There was a lot of learning going on. And yet it was not in the daybook. I explained to Pat that i t has been my experience as a s p e c i a l i s t teacher at the intermediate l e v e l , that segmenting and separat ing a r t and other subjects into l im i ted time periods d i s r u p t s , h inders , and f rus t ra tes c h i l d r e n in the i r quest for excel lence and q u a l i t y in the i r work. Extended periods of time for intense concentrat ion are not a v a i l a b l e . Often, just as we get s tar ted on something i n t e r e s t i n g , our time is up and the project must be put away t i l l the fol lowing week. Maintaining in teres t under these condi t ions i s extremely d i f f i c u l t . A l l too soon ch i ld ren give up; they learn to put for th only the minimum e f f o r t needed to complete what is ass igned. As an a r t i s t / t e a c h e r , Pat f e e l s most comfortable when she can be f l e x i b l e in her in terac t ions with her c h i l d r e n . She r e l i e s on t a c i t knowledge to attune herse l f to the rhythms of s p e c i f i c learning s i t u a t i o n s . La te r , though, in r e f l e c t i n g on t h i s conversat ion , Pat expressed concerns about how 177 accountable she should be for learning experiences such as the w r i t i n g / a r t s e s s i o n . I'm rattling away here saying, Oh sure, I don't believe in daybooks. I know what I'm supposed to do and so o n . . . a n d then in the back of my mind, I'm thinking, gee, that doesn't sound as though it's very responsible. You know, I'm earning a good salary and I've got to be accountable and I really shouldn't even be saying these things. In her mind, t h i s issue of accountability versus r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s very troublesome, e s p e c i a l l y as i t re la tes to another aspect of the c u r r i c u l u m - a s - l i v e d experience, eva lua t ion . Curr icu lum-as-p lan - Evaluat ion The new f ine a r ts curr iculum attempts to deal v i t h the issue of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . On pp. 4-6 of the resource book i s a three column c h a r t , l i s t i n g sequent ia l behavioural object ives for each d i s c i p l i n e . These learning outcomes are keyed to each of the s i x goals for the elementary f ine a r ts program. Suggestions are given for procedures to provide accurate data vhich can be used to support teacher evaluat ions of c h i l d r e n ' s progress and achievement in a r t . The dual nature of evaluat ion in the a r ts is emphasized - c o n c e p t / s k i l l development and mastery in each content area i s considered equal ly important to personal development and responsiveness. A va r i e ty of instruments to assess student progress i s l i s t e d on p. 35 of the resource book. These inc lude: i n d i v i d u a l p o r t f o l i o s or c o l l e c t i o n s of student vork, anecdotal records , paper and p e n c i l (or a r t material ) t e s t s , and c h e c k l i s t s of prepared learn ing outcomes. Tvo sample c h e c k l i s t s are 178 provided, one for a grade 2 l e s s o n , the other for a grade 6 u n i t . Symbols and anecdotal comments can be used for report ing purposes. Cur r lcu lum-as - l i ved I have some d i f f i c u l t y with these suggest ions, e s p e c i a l l y when I consider the open-ended nature of the goals for the ar ts in education out l ined e a r l i e r . To my mind, these goals appear worthwhile. There is an emphasis on the c h i l d which I in terpre t as an acknowledgement of i n d i v i d u a l uniqueness. I can accept the gu ide 's suggestions for keeping p o r t f o l i o s of each c h i l d ' s work and even the recording of b r i e f anecdotal comments. However, the use of evaluat ion c h e c k l i s t s is completely unacceptable to me. I do not bel ieve that the goals of a r t educat ion, in the i r deepest sense, are measurable by s e t t i n g out de ta i l ed behavioural object ives which can be t icked of f on a c h e c k l i s t at the end of a lesson or u n i t . And, when I am in Pa t ' s c l a s s observ ing, when I ta lk to her students , and when I see the work that they do, there is a q u a l i t y in the i r experiencing of ar t that no c h e c k l i s t i s going to capture . I explained to Pat that I was d i s p l a y i n g my bias in saying I d id not think I could work with t h i s kind of eva lua t ion . Nor could I. I used to have great long arguments against th is business of keeping records of marks and making sure every l i t t l e anecdote is written down because I have to be "accountable"I I have always had a l o t of trouble with that . I hjajtfi. keeping a record of marks, just absolutely hate it, but I know I have to do it, so I do i t . I don't even l i k e w r i t i n g things down because I find that's a waste of time. I have a very good l i t t l e computer, r i g h t here (points to her head) and I can s p i t out and t e l l you anything you want to know about "X" kid. 179 But there i s that l i t t l e th ing in the back of me that says, You've got to be "accountable", you've got to be "accountable"t And I'm in c o n f l i c t v i t h that a lot of the t ime. I asked her to expla in her evaluat ion methods as they re la te to c h i l d r e n ' s a r t . OK, I can tell you quite quickly how I would determine the quality of a child's work. I'm going to take l i t t l e Shawn as an example. He's just hyper, hyper all the time. He loves ge t t ing into the paint - ends up v i t h i t a l l over him, and he loves get t ing in to the crayons, but he chews them. And he's just, he's a messy, little...bugger, that's all he ist (Laughs). But he 's d e l i g h t f u l / I found that when he s tar ted o f f the year, his drawings and his pieces of art were really of very poor quality. And he was not happy with them, either. He didn't like anything that he did. And so I started having him talk about it, looking at what he'd done. If he said, I don't like it, then I'd ask, What don't you like about it? What do you suppose you could have done differently? Could you add something to it? And he'd reply, Oh, I could do this, this, and this. The point is that I get him thinking, taking a critical look at his own work, judging i t , how could it be improved? And what would make him feel better about it? And so eventually, it comes to the stage now, half way through the year, where he can take a look at a piece of work as he's producing i t . And he 's beginning to use the s e l f - q u e s t i o n i n g , adding to i t , changing i t . His vork has improved tremendously over the year because he's been looking at it himself. His work might not look excellent to anybody else, but to him it's beginning to look pretty good. And that's the criteria that I would use in judging. How does he feel about it? Now, if he's feeling good about what he's doing, then I think t h a t ' s vonder fu l . That's what I would hope for every kid - to experience that feeling of pride in what he's doing. In his mind, he really thinks that he has created something wonderful. I remarked that she appeared to be s e t t i n g i n d i v i d u a l c r i t e r i a for each c h i l d rather than employing a norm or standard against vhich a l l ch i ld ren are measured. I have to think that way because we all know that children are not alike. Let's face it, they're different l i t t l e k i d s . They don' t all read the same way, they don't all compute the same way in mathematics, they don't all think the same way, they don't all produce artwork in the same way. And they never will. And thank God that they won't I And so hov can you have a c h e c k l i s t and say, 180 in grade 2, tick, tick, tick, X, X, X...Forget i t l That c h i l d may never get through the grade 2 checklist! Ever! To my o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t such a l i s t i s v e r y s p e c i f i c , Pat r e p l i e d : Well, sure it i s . But who cares? I mean, £ don't c a r e . Who am I going to shov i t to? E x a c t l y . T h i s i s where such e v a l u a t i o n methods f a l l i n t o an a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t r a p , as f a r as I'm concerned. A piece of paper work i s produced, t a n g i b l e evidence s u p p o r t i n g a c l a i m of a q u a l i t y a r t program. I have to q u e s t i o n the importance of what i s being measured, however. I doubt i f the i n f o r m a t i o n gained would be of much use i n extending my knowledge of a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d . Well, to me, i t would be a t o t a l complete waste of time because even if I did it, I'd never look at it again anyvay. I'd certainly wouldn't use it as the basis for a report card mark. I q uestioned Pat as to how she a r r i v e s a t a r e p o r t c a r d mark. For a r t ? Well, most kids will start off in my class with an "S" for satisfactory, meaning that they're trying hard and they're interested. And by the end of the year, all of them will probably end up with a "6" because I've seen the growth that I was explaining with Shawn - they have really come i n t o t h e i r own and are enjoying art activities. As well, there a r e several "VG's." I don't start off with high marks in art because I like to see what happens to the children. I like to see this business of growth. That's really what I'm reaching for. I p u l l e d her l e g a l i t t l e by a s k i n g how she j u s t i f i e s t h a t on a b e l l c u rve. A c c o r d i n g t o our d i s t r i c t ' s e v a l u a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s , o n l y f i v e percent of a c l a s s group should a t t a i n the top grade. (Mock s t e r n e s s ) Who's this Mr. Bell and his curve anyway. Dale? You know that Mr. Bell and I have never met, (Laughs) I'm probably going to get into trouble if you publish this, you know! Pat laughed a t her " s u b v e r s i v e " comments, but a t the same time 181 she was very much aware of how d i s t r i c t evaluat ion procedures in te r fe re with rhythms between teacher and c h i l d . In math and reading, for example, we are inundated with devices such as c h e c k l i s t s . The inf luence of the behavioural ob ject ives movement of the 1970s, founded on the b e l i e f that every s ing le learn ing a c t i v i t y could be subdivided and atomized and measured, i s s t i l l s t rong ly f e l t . An i n c r e a s i n g l y complex breakdown of the elements of an experience may ensure that the essence of the whole experience is l o s t . That's exactly r i g h t . That's the complete antithesis of the business of whole learning, of whole anything: to break the whole thing into l i t t l e t i n y fragments that are meaningless in l o t s of ways. In most ways, for me. I'd rather take a look at the whole package. You know, this reminds me of something... Pat to ld me of a f r i e n d ' s s i x month period of de ta i l ed preparat ion pr io r to a European t r i p . His e f f o r t s were in marked contrast to her lack of pre l iminary study. . . . a n d I said, I'm going to go and I'm going to experience it. Then, if I find something that's really interesting, I will pursue i t a f t e r I get home. If I want to read about the Parthenon or whatever, I will read about it later. But I want to go and just get a f ee l for th ings , jus t be there. I don ' t want to read ten thousand books before I go. You see, that's not the way I th ink. Now, that reminded me of what we were just talking about, of breaking things down into l i t t l e b i t s , but really what's important is the whole thing. To me, in education, that's really t rue . Over the years I've seen it become more and more and more specific. We're expected to break it down a l i t t l e f a r t h e r , break it down a l i t t l e f a r t h e r , break it down a l i t t l e f a r t h e r . And before you know i t , there 's just nothing there. I t ' s a l l l i t t l e tiny pieces. Dust. Blow it away. I thought about Pa t ' s c a p i t a l i z i n g on opportune learning moments. Some of the things I saw happening in the lesson on Winter Fun were not s p e c i f i e d beforehand as de ta i l ed behavioural object ives for t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l esson . 182 Veil, what I try to do i s incorporate the s e t t i n g as much as I can into the artwork they do. For instance, I was trying to show that l i t t l e girl yesterday about the horizon line. Pat was able to take her to the window and say look, r i g h t h e r e . . . F ind out for y o u r s e l f . You cannot tell a person anything, really. They have to experience It themselves before the understanding is there. And it's so easy working in that setting, to either go outside or just simply look out the window. In a l l lessons I observed, Pat made a point of having c h i l d r e n evaluate the nature of the process they experienced as well as the product r e s u l t i n g from i t . I asked her to elaborate on t h i s aspect of s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . Oh, I think It's especially Important after an art lesson that children get a chance to explain how they felt about things. I remember that potato printmaking episode. For one thing. It was just too difficult for them. I think it's important for them to have the opportunity to say that . Not just to me, but to their friends, to let themselves know, hey, I wasn't the only one who felt this way about it. I'm not really stupid just because I d i d n ' t l i k e t h i s , or because I couldn't do it. These other kids felt the same way about i t as I d i d . They get a chance to check their perceptions. That's the reason I do that sort of thing with them. Self-evaluation Is far more Important than having me tell them, hey, that's not so good. They know when it's not so good. They don't really need me to t e l l them that . Did exerc is ing t h e i r own judgement give c h i l d r e n a sense of meaningful involvement in the educat ional process? Hopefully. I think i t helps them to realize that It's not, OK, Mrs. Vittery said, we're going to draw such and such, so, there, I did it. OK, she's happy or she's not happy, one or the other. There's more to it than the just the ac tua l drawing. Let's expand on it, as I always say. Well, How'd you feel about that? Did you feel comfortable about it? Did you like it? Didn't you like It? So that i t becomes a bigger, f a t t e r , chubbier package. It's not just a f l a t drawing. An important part of teaching is to try and have children b u i l d an awareness that there is a reason to everything they do and that they ' re not there in school just to be kept busy. 183 I was reminded of E f l a n d ' s c r i t i c i s m of school a r t ' s la tent func t ions . P a t ' s words echoed h is thoughts that i t i s important for c h i l d r e n to r e a l i z e they are not doing a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y just to please an author i ty f i g u r e . Exactly. There's questions to be raised and answered like t h a t . Sometimes I feel i t ' s really hard to get into that philosophical kind of a mindset with l i t t l e c h i l d r e n . Yet i t ' s amazing, once you s t a r t building on things, how perceptive they are. Very often we don't give them the chance to talk about it, to try and conceptualize some of these theoretical ideas. From my d iscuss ions with Pat I thought i t l i k e l y that she "prac t ises what she preaches," applying s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n to her prac t ice of teaching. Ohhhhh...well, I'm very c r i t i c a l of myself. Most of the time I don't think I do a good job. I have this perfectionist thing in me that I don't suppose I ' l l ever shake. It's pretty hard to l i v e as a perfectionist; you have to have a l i t t l e feedback. I know at times in my life, I have felt that this is it. (Laughs) I'm nothing, I'm worthless, so on, so forth. Anyway, I am very s e l f - c r i t i c a l . And because of that, I'm always s t r i v i n g to improve whatever it i s that I'm doing. I find that I self-check a l l day. If something i s n ' t going the way I think it should, then the f i r s t thing I do i s take a look at myself. Check the calendar - the week before my period I do tend to get a l i t t l e "bitchy"! And adjust accordingly. That doesn't always work, e i t h e r , you know. Sometimes it i s n ' t me, there's an outside influence. A kid that's off the track that day. Or a couple of them. Or whatever. But I always look at myself f i r s t . Did I forget something here? Why don't they understand what I'm talking about? Did I explain this carefully? In both her classroom and her home l i f e , the ar ts are important to Pat . What was her opinion of the i r value to parents? At the grade 1 and 2 l e v e l , i t ' s been my experience that parents mostly have two concerns: How is he doing in reading? And, How i s he doing in math? They're not so much concerned whether the child is able to write a story in an interesting, imaginative way. Or whether the child is producing i n t e r e s t i n g artwork. Or whether the c h i l d i s able to carry a tune and enjoys singing a song. Or 184 whether a c h i l d is a t h l e t i c a l l y capable in the gym. They r e a l l y only want to know about reading and math. That's what I have found. However, I t e l l them about everything else, anyway1 A l o t of parents are r e a l l y nervous about coming to school, to meet the teacher. Very, very uptight. 1 guess a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r own experiences of school being a negative place for them, perhaps? At f i r s t you have to sort of feel them out, try and make them feel comfortable. Eventually, maybe by the second or t h i r d time that you see the parents, they're w i l l i n g to t a l k to you. They say, you know, school was not a good place for me, I hated school, but I sure hope that Janey doesn't hate it the way I did. I continually wonder about the children who are currently coming through the school system. Are we doing anything d i f f e r e n t to make th e i r experiences more positive? Or are they s t i l l going to come out with the kind of attitude that t h e i r parents have? Some of the parents have always said that t h e i r kids l i k e coming to school. I can't remember ever having anyone who did not l i k e coming to school. And that to me was a measure of success. As long as a c h i l d l i k e s to come to my classroom, then I can teach that c h i l d something. I can't teach the c h i l d if the c h i l d is forced to come, pushed through the door. Forget i t i But as long as he l i k e s coming to school, then I figure, OK, that's good. Perhaps that i s a better test of what i s worthwhile than a c h e c k l i s t i That's usually the only feedback from parents I get. You get very l i t t l e , I f i n d , as a teacher. Very l i t t l e feedback. Very l i t t l e in the way of p o s i t i v e strokes. Sometimes, if you're lucky, you'll get it from your administration. I t ' s not as common as it should be. Pat had formed opinions of the importance of the a r t s - music, drama, and the v i s u a l arts - to administrators. I think I've probably been very fortunate. I've always worked with administrators who, if not t o t a l l y committed to the a r t s , at least understand that the a r t s have a benefit to the curriculum. I've never worked with anyone who is t o t a l l y against creative endeavour. I've worked with people who are " i f f y " about i t , who t o l e r a t e i t , but then I have had the extreme fortune to have worked with people who are involved in the arts and very appreciative of any e f f o r t s their teachers make in that regard. And 185 they'll just praise you to the hilt for work that's on display, or work that they see around your classroom, or that the children are taking home, or whatever. I do th ink , though, as a whole, the administration does not always give enough weight to the importance of the arts. And I suppose it's just the old story, like what the parents are in terested i n . How's the kid doing in reading and math? The p r i n c i p a l s have to answer to d i s t r i c t s t a f f about test scores. We're a l l required to do the CTBS. In l i g h t of P a t ' s comments, which mirror my own experience with parents and admin is t ra tors , I wonder about the p o s s i b i l i t y of education through the ar ts in which the focus of a c h i l d ' s school ing is on v i s u a l a r t s , drama, and music as primary learning v e h i c l e s . I have never seen anything coming c lose to a balance, l e t alone an emphasis in the f ine a r t s . Had she seen i t anywhere in her experience? Not It sounds l i k e i t would be great fun to t r y i t , but I wouldn't say it came anywhere near to being balanced. Unfortunately. The closest I've come is in what I try to do in my own classroom in terms of integrating all the subjects and trying to make sure that there is an equal weighting. But there isn't really. Language arts s t i l l takes over. And I've managed to push math down the sca le a l i t t l e bit. (Laughs) Ref lec t ions on evaluat ion of educat ional goals The nature of a work of a r t i s dynamic, i n t e r a c t i v e , open-ended. The a r ts are n o n - p r e s c r i p t i v e ; there is never one "r ight" answer to a task or problem perceived by an a r t i s t . In c rea t ing a r t , "an i n v i t a t i o n to invent novel ways to combine elements" is always extended. 2 In experiencing a r t , one must look deeply, seeking to in terpre t what i s perce ived, returning for r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to extend understanding. Ambiguity i s ever present in t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . Education through the a r ts o f fe rs the opportunity for ch i ld ren to become comfortable with ambiguity. The larger 186 educat ional p i c t u r e , of which a r ts education is an element, purportedly aims to develop s k i l l s that w i l l enable ch i ld ren to cope with the greater ambiguity of complex r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Current B .C . elementary curr iculum guides (language a r t s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , s c i e n c e , f ine a r ts ) contain educat ional rhe to r ic espousing the need for c h i l d r e n to acquire higher order cogni t ive s k i l l s (decision-making, problem s o l v i n g , inqui ry learning) and personal and s o c i a l s k i l l s (communication s k i l l s , a b i l i t y to work in groups) 3 F l e x i b i l i t y and c r e a t i v i t y , des i rab le q u a l i t i e s in handling ambiguity, are en ta i led in these types of s k i l l development. The f ine a r ts curr icu lum, i t s body clothed in the f ine f a b r i c of f l e x i b i l i t y and c r e a t i v i t y , should be a lead actor in the modern educat ional theatre . Why i s i t that I sense, then, under i t s guise of open-endedness, the same c o n t r o l l e d d i r e c t i o n present in the t r a d i t i o n a l educat ional productions? Michael Apple bel ieves that a major problem in education h i s t o r i c a l l y has been "our i n a b i l i t y to deal with ambiguity, to see i t as a pos i t i ve c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . " 4 This problem is rooted in a fundamental e t h i c that a l l important modes of human ac t ion can be known in advance by educators and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s ; that c e r t a i n t y among people i s of primary import; and, underlying a l l of these, that the primary aspects of thought and sentiment of students should be brought under i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c o n t r o l . Educators, attempting to reduce complex understandings into o b j e c t i v e l y measurable, behavioura l ly -def ined learning outcomes, have adopted a process-product approach to educat ion. In t h i s mode of t h i n k i n g , there i s a d e f i n i t i o n of a program's educat ional 187 object ives (preferably in measurable terms); proper experiences are developed and organized to br ing the student from point A to point B (from not meeting object ives to meeting them); evaluat ion occurs along the way and at the complet ion, comparing r e s u l t s . . . t o the discrepancy between goals and performance; and t h i s discrepancy gives feedback to make the system funct ion more smoothly and e f f i c i e n t l y . The new f ine a r ts curr iculum fol lows t h i s format. As the German philosopher Heidegger e x p l a i n s , however, there are p i t f a l l s in a model emphasizing a means/ends approach: Usual ly we take production to be an a c t i v i t y whose performance has a r e s u l t , the f in ished s t r u c t u r e , as i t s consequence. It i s poss ib le to conceive of making in that way; we thereby grasp something which is c o r r e c t , and yet never touch i t s essence, which i s a producing that brings something f o r t h . ' On a d a i l y b a s i s , Pat and I and other elementary teachers in our d i s t r i c t are constant ly pressured to act as educat ional technic ians rather than a c t i v e l y encouraged to respond as a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s . When we are forced to conform to r i g i d l y compartmentalized t imetables , our i n t u i t i v e sense of the rhythmic dynamics of our classrooms is destroyed. When we are forced to use numerous workbooks, c h e c k l i s t s , and tes ts to attend to the minute, often t r i v i a l , components of reading, a r i thmet ic , and other school sub jec ts , the opportunity to share personal exper ien t i a l narra t ives by means of re laxed , r e f l e c t i v e dialogue with c h i l d r e n i s l o s t . This i s a f r u s t r a t i n g ex is tence . On the scope and sequence chart provided in t h i s curr iculum guide, each learning outcome is sub-d iv ided into behavioural o b j e c t i v e s , gradual ly sequenced from very simple to more complex. Learning in ar t is o v e r s i m p l i f i e d , however, 188 vhen outlined in t h i s vay. Robert Stake, speaking on the use of such objectives in a l l areas of education, says the hierarchy i s a f i c t i o n , perhaps for everything except long d i v i s i o n . Everyone learns complex learnings from b i r t h to death...without atomized prerequisite s k i l l . Arthur Efland muses on what a curriculum would look l i k e " i f a f f e c t were sequenced as well as the cognitive elements." He mentions that gradual increments in the l e v e l of complexity have a way of reducing the element of surprise, novelty, and puzzlement, leaving these variables only to be encountered at the later stages of the sequence. "Surprise, novelty, and puzzlement" - are not these the essence of art? Pat's children experience these elements as they explore t h e i r paint boxes. Pat notes that her grade 1 children are perceptive in dealing with complex issues "Very often we don't give them the chance to t a l k about i t , to t r y and conceptualize some of t h e s e . . . t h e o r e t i c a l ideas." Her comment supports the statements by Stake and Efland. Often, what is missing from evaluation c h e c k l i s t s are the most v i t a l aspects of the learning experience. Interest and enthusiasm, for example, are not l i s t e d on the sample grade 2 c h e c k l i s t . If these two q u a l i t i e s are missing, the learning outcomes of the other five c u r r i c u l a r goals have l i t t l e meaning. There i s a long-range aspect to these two q u a l i t i e s , however, which i s not always apparent, and hence measurable, in the short term. Efland observes that "most art teachers would reject...evaluation attempts" such as the ones suggested by the guide/resource book not because they are against behaviour objectives, but because these behaviours, per se, are not what they hold to be most central to t h e i r teaching. Most teachers 189 would claim i t ' s the development of a r t i s t i c v i s i o n or the a c q u i s i t i o n of a r t i s t i c values and attitudes that l i e s at the heart of the i r m i s s i o n . 1 0 Both Pat and I would concur with his statement, for we know from personal experience that "attitudes, values, and tastes take time to develop, and sometimes come to f r u i t i o n years afte r actual teaching c e ases." 1 1 James Popham i s of the b e l i e f that the overwhelming proportion of objectives pursued by our teachers are unmeasurable, hence of l i t t l e u t i l i t y [my i t a l i c s ] . It may well be that the chief deterrent to improved educational q u a l i t y i s that our teachers have no way of t e l l i n g how well they're doing. Measurable goals permit defensible q u a l i t y judgements. Non-measurable goals don't. 1 2 As an artist/teacher Pat i s in a position to recognize and encourage q u a l i t y . Despite l i t t l e in the way of administrative or parental feedback, she can sense that what she i s doing i s worthwhile. Closely attuned to her children's being within her classroom, she can ascertain from t h e i r actions and comments i f they are enjoying, and learning from, the i r experiences. "Evaluation" says Michael Apple, "actually connotes the placing of value on a s p e c i f i c set of acts or o b j e c t s . " 1 3 Popham*s use of the term u t i l i t y c l e a r l y reveals his technological orientation within a t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c world view. Educational practices grounded in t h i s outlook place value on e f f i c i e n c y - the a b i l i t y to get a student from point A to point B quickly and inexpensively." 1 4 If i t f a l l s into the "accountability trap," discipline-based a r t education may come to view e f f i c i e n c y as i t s primary value as well. According to John Dewey, the main purpose of the 190 t r a d i t i o n a l education system is to prepare the young for future r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and for success in l i f e by means of a c q u i s i t i o n of the organized bodies of information and prepared forms of s k i l l s . . . . S i n c e the subject-matter as wel l as the standards of proper conduct are handed down from the past , the a t t i tude of pupi ls must, upon the vhole , be one of d o c i l i t y , r e c e p t i v i t y , and obedience. 5 E f f i c i e n t u t i l i t y makes sense v i t h i n such a system. From my observations of c h i l d r e n ' s experiences within my s c h o o l , Dewey's 1932 assessment i s unfortunately s t i l l app l icab le today. Therefore , I f ind P a t ' s attempts to move in a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n , away from d o c i l i t y , r e c e p t i v i t y , and obedience, towards responsible a c t i v i t y and r e f l e c t i v e s e l f - c r i t i c i s m in marked contrast to what I am fami l i a r wi th . At the end of the Winter Fun lesson , for example, she accepts a c h i l d ' s opinion on the measuring and comparing a c t i v i t y with a smile and the comment, "Not too t h r i l l e d , huh?" P a t ' s approach i s consis tent with a perspect ive which emphasizes that r e a l i t y i s f l u i d , constant ly changing. Self-awareness and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c r e a t i v i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y are the s k i l l s and a t t i tudes needed to funct ion within i t . My readings on the new s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c paradigm have made me more s e n s i t i v e to the notion of rhythm, the idea that f lowing patterns e s t a b l i s h a cont inuously f l u c t u a t i n g , yet o v e r a l l s t a b l e , order . The harmonious rhythms which Pat as a r t i s t / t e a c h e r creates in her work of a r t , her c lassroom, are d isrupted by the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i t y valued by the t r a d i t i o n a l education system. Evaluat ion methods which value human q u a l i t i e s and the "uniqueness of the human c o n d i t i o n " 1 6 would be more attuned to the dynamics of classroom s i t u a t i o n s . To 191 t h i s end, evaluation in art education might be based on the pedagogical c r i t i c i s m described by Edmund Burke Feldman: The important task of the teacher of a r t . . . i s the sens i t i v e analysis and interpretation of a student's work to the student. From t h i s c r i t i c i s m , the student learns hov to analyze and interpret and gains insight into the d i r e c t i o n of his ovn work....[The teacher] not so much renders judgements upon student work as enables them to make judgements themselves. 1' Feldman's stages of art c r i t i c i s m - description, interpretation, and judgement - provide the basis for the evaluation section of the nev fine arts curriculum. Not emphasized i s his b e l i e f that evaluation becomes a dynamic interaction betveen teacher and student v i t h the c h i l d ' s vork as a focus for dialogue betveen the tvo. Through t h i s dialogue, a c h i l d becomes fam i l i a r v i t h the elements and formal q u a l i t i e s of a r t ; from i t , she v i l l gain confidence and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n her ovn a r t i s t i c expression and greater understanding of the vork of others. I am impressed by Pat's e f f o r t tovards t h i s mutual dialogue v i t h her c h i l d r e n . It i s consistent v i t h her h o l i s t i c , integrated approach. In my s p e c i a l i s t p osition, v i s i t i n g classrooms once a veek, I am limited by time and numbers (approximately 180 children i n t o t a l ) to occasional comments on vork in progress; there i s no provision for conferences in vhich I can discuss v i t h an i n d i v i d u a l an overviev of his/her vork. This i s a serious shortcoming. Of necessity, the evaluation method I have used primarily measures the product, but l i t t l e consideration is given to the process of in d i v i d u a l grovth, vhich to me i s more important. I f e e l my i n t e g r i t y suffers each time I assign a l e t t e r grade for report card purposes. 192 This practice i s inconsistent with what I value in a r t education. There i s a time and place for ch e c k l i s t s and s t a t i s t i c a l measurements, as the science a c t i v i t y that Pat's children were involved i n i l l u s t r a t e s . In contrast, the a r t i s t i c c r i t i c i s m they were engaged in required a d i f f e r e n t type of evaluation. Comparing figures i s appropriate when measuring toes and noses, but inadequate and unnecessary when one i s promoting personal growth in c r i t i c a l a r t i s t i c thinking. Putting the rhetoric about personal/social development aside, academic achievement in linguistic/mathematical modes of thought and expression remains the prime concern of parents and administrators. Parent interviews centre on these subjects. Administrative promotion sheets used in our d i s t r i c t at the end of the year also focus on these subjects. On these sheets, beside each c h i l d ' s name, are three major columns - one for CTBS (Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s ) scores; one for reading achievement (based on the Ginn 720 basal reading program), and one for mathematical achievement. The a l l o c a t i o n of time, both the "when and how much," 1 8 to these subjects i s another indicator of value - 1005 minutes for language arts/math, 180 minutes for the fine a r t s ; f i r s t thing in the morning versus l a s t thing in the afternoon. Decisions...about the use of time...not only a f f e c t the student's access to p a r t i c u l a r content, they also convey to the students what i s regarded as important and what is n o t . 1 9 An additional indicator, and an extremely important one in our society, is the amount of money allocated to each area. "Many innovative e f f o r t s have suffered from the lack of high 193 qualit y , p r a c t i c a l , usable resources."'" Pat frequently mentions hov d i f f i c u l t i t i s to implement the responding to art aspect of the curriculum due to inadequate resources. In my school, the library/language arts operating budget vas $7600; textbooks, vhich run into thousands of d o l l a r s , are provided for in a separate fund. The operating budget for a r t vas $1400; one picture set, the textbook of v i s u a l a r t s , vas f i n a l l y purchased by the PTA v i t h "hot dog" money ($200) afte r four years of lobbying on my part. Rational thinking i s valued i n our society; time and money, also highly esteemed, back i t up. Does a r t education have to become r a t i o n a l to receive these resources also? W i l l t h i s lead tovards a more balanced school curriculum? "Effectiveness" and "accountability" are the tvo buzz vords curren t l y on educators' tongues as they respond to the public's demand to prove that the goals of q u a l i t y education are being achieved. Systematic i n s t r u c t i o n and systematic evaluation offer proof that the serious business of education i s not being conducted in a haphazard, spendthrift fashion. As Eisner points out: The reduction of ambiguity and the s e c u r i t y of knoving that one can alvays knov vhen one i s right or vrong i s a seductive comfort in a vorld characterized by ambiguities, trade-offs, and dilemmast 2 1 T r a d i t i o n a l l y , art has been perceived as a " f r i l l " subject. According to the discipline-based approach entailed in the nev fine arts curriculum, art must be made as "accountable" as the other academic d i s c i p l i n e s , i f t h i s stigma i s to be removed. This necessitates that the controlled cognitive aspects of art (vhich can be q u a n t i t a t i v e l y measured) receive greater 194 emphasis than the more open-ended a f f e c t i v e ones (which cannot). Based on our experience in other subject areas, Pat and I fear that administrators w i l l now expect the same close adherence to scope and sequence charts and the paperwork "evidence," i . e . the c h e c k l i s t s and t e s t s , which w i l l "prove" that we are doing our job in art education. We sense that art education might become l i k e the crocodile in Arnold Lobel's fable, The Crocodile in the Bedroom: A Crocodile became increasingly fond of the wallpaper in his bedroom. He stared at i t for hours and hours. "Just look at a l l those neat and t i d y rows of flowers and leaves," said the Crocodile. "They are l i k e s o l d i e r s . There is not a single one that i s out of place." "My dear," said the Crocodile's wife, "you are spending too much time in bed. Come out into my garden where the a i r i s fresh and the sun i s bright and warm." "Well, i f you i n s i s t , for just a few minutes," said the Crocodile. He put on a pair of dark glasses to protect his eyes from the glare and went outside. Mrs. Crocodile was proud of her garden. "Look at the hollyhocks and the marigolds," she said. "Smell the roses and the l i l i e s of the v a l l e y . " "Great heavens!" c r i e d the Crocodile. "The flowers and leaves in t h i s garden are growing i n a t e r r i b l e tangle! They are a l l scattered! They are messy and entwined!" The Crocodile rushed back to his bedroom in a state of great d i s t r e s s . He was at once comforted by the sight of his wallpaper. "Ah," said the Crocodile. "Here i s a garden that i s ever so much better. How happy and secure these flowers make me f e e l ! " After that the Crocodile seldom l e f t his bed. He lay there, smiling at the walls. He turned a very pale and s i c k l y shade of g r e e n . 2 2 The unique q u a l i t i e s of a r t , i t s essence of ambiguity and uncertainty, may be l o s t . Hence, our strong reaction against the fine arts curriculum guide/resource book's evaluation suggestions. Viewed under dim l i g h t i n g , t h i s new curriculum creates a fine i l l u s i o n that new s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c concepts are on 195 stage. But when the l i g h t s are turned up, the same t r a d i t i o n a l thinking that presently imbalances the entire system i s revealed. Which s c r i p t are art educators practising? That dictated by the old s c i e n t i f i c technology or one which i s i n d i v i d u a l l y crafted for each performer? 196 Notes 1 Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book 1985 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Branch, 1985), p. 23. 2 E l l i o t Eisner, Cognition and Curriculum ( New York: Longman, 1982), p. 64. 3 Michael Fullan, The Meaning of Edwcational Change (Toronto: OISE, 1982), p. 116. 4 Michael Apple, " S c i e n t i f i c Interests and the Nature of Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s , " in Curriculum Theorizing: the Reconceptualists. ed. William Pinar (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1975), p. 127. 5 Apple, " S c i e n t i f i c Interests," p. 120. 6 Michael Apple, "The Process and Ideology of Valuing i n Educational Settings," in Educational Evaluation: Analysis and Responsibility, eds. M. W. Apple, M. J . Subkoviak, and H. S. Lufter, J r . (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974), p. 9. 7 Martin Heidegger, Poetry, language, Thought, trans. Albert Hofstadter (New York: Harper and Row, Harper Colophon Book, 1975), p. 159. 8 Robert Stake, "The Teacher At the Front of the Room," (Paper in response to presentations at the Conference on Teacher Shortage i n Science and Mathematics: Myths, R e a l i t i e s , and Research, Washington, D.C, 9-10 February 1983), p. 3. 9 Arthur Efland, "Changing Conceptions of Human Development and Its Role in Teaching the Visual Arts," Visual Arts Research 11, no. 1, issue 21 (1985): 118-119. 1 0 Arthur Efland, "Evaluating Goals for Art Education," Art Education 27, no. 2 (1974): 8. 1 1 Efland, "Evaluating Goals," p. 8. 197 1 2 James Popham, "Must A l l Educational Objectives Be Behavioural?," Educational Leadership 29, no. 7 (1972) reprinted in Beyond the Numbers Game, eds. David Hamilton et a l . (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1977), p. 58. 1 3 Apple, "The Process and Ideology of Valuing," p. 8. 1 4 Apple, "The Process and Ideology of Valuing," p. 8. 1 5 John Dewey, Experience and Education (New York: Macmillan, C o l l i e r Book, 1963), p. 18. 1 6 Apple, "The Process and Ideology of Valuing," p. 8. 1 7 Edmund Feldman, Va r i e t i e s of Visual Experience. 2d. ed. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1981), p. 460. 18 Eisner, p. 28. 1 9 Eisner, p. 28. 2 0 Fullan, p. 62. 2 1 Eisner, p. 12. 2 2 Arnold Lobel, "The Crocodile in the Bedroom," in Fables (New York: Harper and Row, 1980), p. 2. Reprinted by kind permission of the publisher. 198 CHAPTER VI Valentine's Day I did thi s onei: "I love you l i t t l e , I love you l o t s , My love for you would f i l l ten pots. F i f t e e n buckets, sixteen cans, Seventeen tea-kettles and eighteen pans." And you've got a pan.' It's a pizza and i t says "You have a pizza my h e a r t i " Laughter. And that's the chef. "Pizza my heart 1" Ooohhh, that's a good pun, i s n ' t i t ? Yes. And thi s i s called "Hearts": "Red hearts, pink hearts, Purple and blue. Chocolate hearts, cookie hearts, Paper hearts, too." Hearts are on the menu for t h i s Friday afternoon, a week before Valentine's Day. The children are copying valentine poems from laminated cards into t h e i r p r i n t i n g books, i l l u s t r a t i n g them with decorative borders. There are many volunteers eager to read the poems into my tape recorder. Pat c a l l s the children to the long a r t table at the back of the room to demonstrate "old-fashioned" valentine making. On the table are neat p i l e s of pink, white, and red tissue paper, large paper d o i l i e s , t i n y f l o r a l and pastel wallpaper samples, b i t s of coloured ribbon. Boys and g i r l s , I'd l i k e you to come back and make a big c i r c l e around the art table so you can watch me. Would 199 you a l l stand back from the table please? Stand right back. A l l r i g h t , t h i s afternoon, we're going to s t a r t using our valentine materials that we've been c o l l e c t i n g . Yesterday, some of the g i r l s went through the wallpaper books and took out some pretty papers. When we went through the wallpaper book, Jessie, what were we looking for? We were looking for pages that had valentine colours on them. Like pink, and white, and red. And s i l v e r y colours. Figure 33 Suggestions For Valentines They found l o t s of pretty ones. When i t ' s your turn, you'll be able to come and choose a pretty paper if you would l i k e to use one to make a valentine. But f i r s t , l e t ' s have a look at how one lady made a pretty valentine card. There's some card tracers. And there's red paper, one for everyone. Because remember what I told you, t h i s is it, out of paper. Pat and I look at each other and smile. In February, art supplies are running low. These pretty lacy things are called d o i l i e s . They're r e a l l y funny; they s t i c k together. They're l i k e glue. 200 They've been punched out on big machines. And so you have to p u l l them apart gently. There's one of these for everyone. The children watch i n quiet fascination as she separates a few d o i l i e s from the p i l e . They're snovflakes! I've cut some l i t t l e b i t s of crepe paper up. There's pink paper, white paper. OK. There's l o t s of s t u f f to use. It's funny, but i f you stand back you can see better than i f you stand close. Pat pauses u n t i l the children have moved back from the table. Their interest soon has them pressed forward again, but there i s no pushing or shoving, just rapt attention. OK. Now we talked the other day about ideas for making valentines. The kind I'd l i k e you to try t h i s afternoon is sort of l i k e an old-fashioned lacey kind of valentine. And the way to s t a r t is with one big heart. If you fold the paper in half, you can use one of the tracers to make a big heart. And you have to remember about putting the f l a t side of the tracer on the f o l d . Then you can trace around i t . Remember how the heart shape is the beginning of a number two. OK? And so there it i s . You go ooom...oooom. I'm going to make sure I save my scraps because they're big enough for making l i t t l e t i n y hearts. Now, I've got a nice big heart shape. Oooohhh! P r e t t y i Now, I think what I'd l i k e to do is choose a pretty paper and make a smaller heart to glue on top of my big one. What I'm going to t r y to do i s to make a heart shape so that t h i s pretty l i t t l e flower i s ri g h t in the middle of i t . So look what I'm going to do. Mrs. Vittery? Why don't you just f o l d i t and do what you did with the other part? Well, OK, I think that's a good idea. Thanks for the idea. I t ' s not as big as the red one, is i t ? No, i t ' s not supposed to be. Oh dear. It looks l i k e it might not... 201 A smaller one... Oh, lucky me! Her second heart i s just barely "squeezed" out of the wallpaper scrap. Oh, lucky you! OK. Thanks to Richard I have a bottle of glue here. And I'm going to put just a squiggle around the edge. Not very much. A l i t t l e b i t works. Right? And I'm going to glue t h i s one right in the middle of the big one. That looks cute. As she glues the flowered wallpaper heart onto the larger red one, Pat keeps up the dialogue with the children, sharing her thoughts: I have to think. What else would I l i k e to do with t h i s valentine? Put one of those. Yes, I could use a lacy one. I think maybe you should use a smaller one. Pat holds up a lacy d o i l y . I can see that t h i s looks r e a l l y , r e a l l y pretty. Ohhh... goody, goody! I l i k e thati Yeh, I was thinking of that, tool A number of other heads nod in agreement and Pat laughs. Were you reading my mind? Yes! She smiles at th e i r delight and gives them a teasing compliment. You are so clever.' I knew it.' I knew i t i You're going to make i t l i k e t h i s . 202 Some more smiles and another compliment. You're a r e a l clever bunch! There are giggles from a l l the children as they spread the warm remark amongst themselves. We're so clever! We're such a clever k i d i Yepi Pretty clever! You sure are! As she constructs her valentine, Pat incorporates suggestions volunteered by d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n . She reminds them that t h i s i s not the only way valentines can be made. Yep. Now, that's one way you can do i t . You might discover a new way. I've got a d i f f e r e n t way, too. You can have some fun vith those. Having demonstrated how to use the heart tracers, how to get a wallpaper flower into the centre of a heart, how to cut and fasten the d o i l y to make a lace trim, Pat now l e t s each c h i l d take a large piece of red construction paper for his or her "basic" heart. The children immediately go to t h e i r places to begin trac i n g , cutting, and adding "goodies" to t h e i r valentines. There i s only a low buzz of sound in the room th i s afternoon. Valentine production i s serious business 1 What i s i t l i k e from a c h i l d ' s point of view to be making valentines? I receive permission from a group of f i v e (two boys, three g i r l s ) to leave my tape recorder on a desk in the midst of t h e i r a c t i v i t y . I don't knov vhich one I should choose. Which one would you choose? 203 I'm just going to draw one. Draw a heart. Just kind of a heart. We're going to see if t h i s w i l l be a heart. I did it! This better be a heart. I don't knov how to make hearts. Yeh! Look at my heart. Well, at least this one is a real heart. Who wants a l i t t l e heart? Who wants a valentine's exchange? Figure 34 Jessica, David, Sabrina, Jamie, Chad Someone i s humming snatches of a tune, unfamiliar to me. The humming gradually increases in volume, u n t i l one c h i l d comments: Sabrina, do you mind? Say "Yes I do". At t h i s point, the humming becomes a song. (Singing) "Bad, bad, bad, bad boy...makes me feel so good. " Another c h i l d joins i n . They sing together. And continue with a quiet humming of the same l i n e . 204 I'm glueing my heart, right there. Where does th i s go? I've got lots of hearts. More humming of "Bad, had, had, had boy. Makes me feel so good" Work on the valentines continues at a steady pace. The topics of conversation cover VCR1s ("I'm getting a VCR. And I have a satellite dish already."), household finances ("You know what? We got a m i l l i o n dollars, or whatever...!"), allowances ("I'm broke!...The only type of allowance I get is twenty bucks!...That's only because I work so hard.") Figure 35 A Broken Heart! 205 There is a return to valentine talk when Pat notices that a grade 1 boy i s having d i f f i c u l t y with the tracers and goes to help (see Figures 35 and 36). She says to him: He keeps getting broken hearts. Your heart i s broken, i s i t ? . We should have a look at i t . The children at the group pick up on her phrase and spontaneously incorporate i t into their singing. He has a broken heart. (Sings) Oooohhh, I got a broken heart! Figure 36 Mending A Broken Heart Jessie, I need my glue. I'm not using i t . You can use t h i s paper, you know. 206 A s l i g h t l y bored, matter-of-fact voice announces that Jessie's glue borrowing has reached i t s l i m i t s . you passed the stage, Jessie. I'm not going to l e t you use any more glue. Cause you got past the stage that you can get your own. Yeh, Jess. I'm going to put t h i s on r i g h t here. Way past the stage. Way past i t . Jessie continues to use the glue without hindrance. As children bring their valentines up to show her, Pat has them hold them up and explain to the class what they have done. Some children pause to look, others continue with t h e i r own projects. Chad, one of the "group of f i v e , " has his ready to display. Oh, that's neat, Chadl That's r e a l l y different. Show them. Explain what you did. Like, I took a tracer and then traced one heart. Then I took another, the same tracer and traced the heart. Then I put a bit of scrap on. Then I put that heart there and then I put another heart. I'm going to put one of those, um, pink things on. And at the bottom, there's a heart in which there's going to be some f l u f f y s t u f f . While the children work, Pat provides some br i e f h i s t o r i c a l information on valentine symbols. A long, long time ago, people used to think that if you f e l l in love with somebody, you had been shot with Cupid's arrow... Oh, yehI (Laughter) ...an imaginary l i t t l e being that flew around and shot an arrow... ...and i t went through the head. ... in your hearti 207 Oh, the heart! If you got hit v i t h i t , then you were in love, forever...And sometimes, vhen people make valentines, they shov a heart v i t h a l i t t l e arrov through i t . And sometimes they make a l i t t l e s t i c k , l i k e that. And sometimes they make a cupid on the top. With an arrov that's gone in and out. Her information i s assimilated by the "group" into t h e i r discussion. If someone h i t me i n the head, for sure, I would be loved. I would be loved. By whom are you i n love with? Avvvh, I don't knov, yet. But... An arrov hit Adam in the head, (giggles) I knov that! Adam got an arrov in his head! Did you knov that Adam loves Maria? Nov I knov who i t i s . And i t ' s probably not me, no more, I knov. No way! Yeh, you dumped me.' (Whisper) Glue again, please. Thank you. It i s nearing home time and thoughts of after school a c t i v i t i e s s l i p into the conversation while the f i n i s h i n g touches are being added to valentines. I have to go to Rick's. Rick? Rick who? I don't knov. He l i v e s in the... Does he have a son named Josh? Yep! I l i k e playing v i t h Josh. What's Josh's l a s t name? I forget their l a s t name, but... 208 Does their truck have a roof l i k e this? That's sort of a house? And they have a dog. And they have a big green house. That's my dad's best fri e n d , Rick. They go out and have beers, too. OK, I need just a b i t more. I just need one black, to put this one on. That's a l l I need. Doing, doing, doing, doing. The "doing" has been going very well today. I mention to Pat how absorbed they are in t h i s a c t i v i t y . They love this kind of s t i c k y , gooey s t u f f i Figure 37 Shawn and Leah and " f r i e n d " Bright sunshine pours into the room and i t is getting quite 209 warm. Pat opens the windows, as well as the door leading outside. At few moments l a t e r , Shawn and Carrie are there, greeting a canine " v i s i t o r " with a f f e c t i o n (see Figure 37). There has been l o t s of warmth and l o t s of a f f e c t i o n shared in th i s class today! Enough to f i l l "Seventeen tea-kettles and eighteen pans" and then some! Currlculum-as-plan - Being In the B.C. Elementary Fine Arts curriculum guide/resource book, I was able to find only two comments which might relate to the nature of a c h i l d ' s "being" within the educational structure. These are contained in the statement of philosophy: "Arts education a s s i s t s the c h i l d to perceive and respond to the environment through the senses. Learning through the arts provides a f u l l e r understanding and enjoyment of l i f e . " Curriculum-as-lived Warm feelings, sparked by mutual l i k i n g and respect, were evident in a l l the lessons I observed in Pat's classroom, but they were e s p e c i a l l y radiant during t h i s Valentine's Day a c t i v i t y . Viewing and l i s t e n i n g to the interaction between Pat and the children in her classroom was a very pleasurable experience. In conversation with Pat, I inquired as to how th i s closeness i s established. Pat explained that i n the f a l l and spring of each year, she brings the group on a f i e l d t r i p to her home at the 108 Ranch, a semi-rural (one and two acre lots) subdivision just north of 100 Mile House. These f i e l d t r i p s serve a double purpose. 210 It's such a neat place to observe the seasonal changes. And I think i t ' s a r e a l l y nice way to s t a r t a year off with a class. By going on an outing early, you r e a l l y get to knov your kids, r i g h t avay. You can see the ones that are potential problems, the ones that are potential leaders. You just learn a l o t about them, spending a day l i k e that. And of course they're so intrigued about coming to mx house. You mean, you l i v e in a house? You don't sleep in the school? (Laughs) You have a separate i d e n t i t y avay from school? So that's neat because you get to share that v i t h them. I do spend a l o t of time v i t h them at school, too. I t a l k to them a l o t , at noon hour, for example. I almost always eat my lunch v i t h them. They don't have to s i t at t h e i r desks; they can s i t wherever they want, usually on the carpet. In good veather, we'll s i t outside the door on the grass and have p i c n i c s . Lots of things come up in conversations that you wouldn't normally hear or give them a chance to t a l k about. Eating and t a l k i n g go together. I'm not questioning them or anything; I'm just kind of there. I think i t ' s r e a l l y important, too, to be there when they a r r i v e in the morning. I do go down to the s t a f f room for a coffee, of course, and some mornings I'm on duty, but I alvays check in v i t h them and pick up i f there's somebody vho's not r e a l l y f e e l i n g very v e i l , or vho's looking a l i t t l e t e a r f u l . Mostly I ' l l look for the upset kid and just catch it right then and there. I find that if a kid s t a r t s the day in a negative vay, then forget itt They're not going to be able to do very much that day and i t ' s obvious. They're a l l bus children, except a handful. Some of them have problems on the buses, a f i g h t with a fr i e n d , or whatever. So, I check my babies (Laughs), see i f they're a l l r i g h t . I always fee l l i k e a mother hen, but that's part of me, I am l i k e that. And the other thing I l i k e to do - i t a l l sort of r o l l s together - ve have d a i l y PE classes and I schedule my gym class f i r s t thing in the morning. I find that's a r e a l l y nice vay to s t a r t the day cause if there's anything that's been bothering children or if they're just not f e e l i n g tops about things, they work i t out in the gym. They love gym class and so do I. By the time we're finished in the gym, the tone i s set. They're a l l bubbly, bubbly, bubbly, l e t ' s go! They've worked of f any frustrations that they might have arrived with. And then we set into a guiet morning. Believe i t , they are guiet in the morning, even though they're noisy in the afternoons, sometimes 1 (Laughs) I found the mention of the morning PE int e r e s t i n g . It has been my experience that many primary teachers f e e l i t i s r e a l l y important that the f i r s t period of the day has to be 211 devoted to reading or math because t h i s is vhen the children are most a l e r t . Gym classes are often scheduled for l a s t thing in the afternoon. (Quietly) Got to be reading or math/ I don't believe that. (Laughs) I've found that i t ' s much better to do i t in the morning. In an e a r l i e r conversation, Pat had described hov she had used a BEAR theme to e s t a b l i s h a comfortable, respectful attitude v i t h i n the classroom. I had the grade l's t h i s year. I wanted to try to create a nice comfortable f e e l i n g for them r i g h t away. The f i r s t week, everyone had at least one teddy bear of t h e i r own at school. It kind of was a nice t r a n s i t i o n , home to school thing. The teddy was there, a f a m i l i a r toy, comforting. And then, of course, the bear theme took off and the bears were the basis for a l l kinds of lessons. I did quite a b i t v i t h the l i t t l e Care Bears' s t o r i e s . It was kind of a fun way to get into t a l k s about f e e l i n g s and caring and sharing and how we were going to l i v e in t h i s space which was our classroom. So it was a very natural sort of preamble to the way we were going to behave in the classroom. We did work on making class rules, which I hate, but are necessary. Sort of s e t t i n g boundaries is another way of putting i t , I guess. They came up ways of behaviour that were acceptable and that everyone could l i v e with. These included guidelines for safe movement about the room, co-operation and consideration of others' r i g h t s , such as property r i g h t s . From the story, Goldilocks and the Three Bears came an off-shoot discussion of e t h i c s . At the end of the story, I asked them to describe Goldilocks. What kind of a person was she? And so they got into a l i t t l e character analysis. I was hoping that somebody vould say that she r e a l l y had done something very wrong. And of course, one of them did. Oh, some of them were astounded! They a l l know of Goldilocks, from when they're babies, but they'd never thought of her as being a naughty g i r l . And so we got into t h i s great long conversation. Pat related hov the d i f f e r e n t misdeeds v i t h porridge, chairs, and beds vere discussed in terms of a lack of respect for 212 other people's property, which was one of the topics previously considered while establishing class rules. we got a l l these big words. I asked what do you c a l l a person who destroys someone else's property? And somebody knew that that was called a vandal. So we decided that Goldilocks had vandalized the three bears' house. They loved that big wordl So, they had t h e i r opinion of Goldilocks t o t a l l y altered by t h i s discussion about a l l the naughty things that she had done. Often, the basics in education are considered to be the three R's - reading, ' r i t i n g , 'rithmetic. The new fine arts curriculum suggests that the arts need to be regarded as basic as well. I asked Pat what she believes to be basic education. I think probably most important would be that the c h i l d learns to be confident, to have a r e a l l y high degree of self-respect - a good self-image. If a c h i l d has that, he can do pretty well anything. This just comes from observation over the years. Children who have a degree of confidence aren't afraid to try something new; kids who are r e a l l y lacking in that regard, are afraid. They come out with "can't, can't, can't, oh, I can't, too hard, I can't." And "I don't want to" simply means "I'm afraid." I believe that in the times that we're l i v i n g in right now, r i s k - t a k i n g is r e a l l y a thing that has to happen. People can't s i t back in a corner. They're not going to go anywhere, learn anything, be happy with themselves, or anything else. So, confidence is r e a l l y up near the top. And I think you can teach a c h i l d to be confident. Why are people confident? They have been taught by their environment, the people they deal with, to believe in themselves. And so, as a teacher, if I can teach those l i t t l e kids to feel good about themselves, then I think that's a r e a l l y important lesson for them to learn. And t h e y ' l l never be tested on it or anything else, but hopefully, t h e y ' l l go away with that f e e l i n g . If kids are confident in t h e i r a b i l i t y to do anything, there are no l i m i t a t i o n s at a l l on t h e i r learning. If they feel good about themselves, I can teach them how to read, I can teach them how to do math, I can teach them how to write, I can teach them how to sing, I can teach them how to dance, I can teach them how to tumble and do f l i p s , I can teach them how to paint - I can teach them how to do anything, as long as they believe that they can do i t . In addition to establishing the comfortable classroom surroundings that we had discussed e a r l i e r , was there 213 anything, I asked Pat, that she did to encourage the self-confidence so e s s e n t i a l to risk-taking? I t r y to find something good to say to each kid. Sometimes i t ' s hard to f i n d something r e a l l y good about a l i t t l e c h i l d whose behaving in an obnoxious manner, but I try to find the p o s i t i v e in whatever's going on. I remember, years ago, when I f i r s t started r e a l i z i n g that t h i s was an important part of my teaching, I r e a l l y did have to work on it because it was so much easier for me to say "Don't do that!" instead of turning the whole thing around by f i n d i n g one l i t t l e part of whatever happened p o s i t i v e . I t ' s not quite so hard for me now, although I s t i l l catch myself with negative kinds of comments. But I think p o s i t i v e overtakes more than the negative. Well, gosh, you know, i t ' s l i k e parenting. And it was the same thing at home, I had to l e t up. Letting up i s c l o s e l y related to l e t t i n g go. Pat t o l d me of a humorous incident that occurred when she was helping her daughter, Susie, decorate her f i r s t apartment. Purchases had been made, everything moved i n , and Pat, who loves plants, f e l t that the f i n i s h i n g touch would be some greenery. And she s a i d , No, that's i t , I don't want any more help, forget i t . I'm not having any plants. I've been l i v i n g with those green things for a l l these years and now that I've got my own place, I'm not having one s i n g l e plant in here. OK, so I said, Fine... (Laughs) So far, no plants. I t ' s the stark, "arty" look. Pat's own self-confidence stems from her childhood. Eldest of three daughters in a middle class home, "Lower middle class, a c t u a l l y . Not very much money in our home," she, grew up in Vancouver as part of large extended family. Both sets of grandparents and aunts and uncles and cousins were a l l close by and we v i s i t e d regularly. I had a r e a l l y very, very happy childhood and school l i f e . I was popular, got to be the May queen when I was in grade six, and got to be t h i s and that, was always sort of "chosen c h i l d " sort of thing. I always wanted badly to be the best. I had that inner drive, whatever it i s , for perfection. This s e l f - c r i t i c a l s t r i v i n g for perfection i s fueled by c u r i o s i t y . The confidence that Pat has in being curious 214 enables her to be a risk-taker and exercise her c r e a t i v i t y when she integrates d i f f e r e n t curriculum areas. Not only has she been a risk-taker in her professional l i f e , but in her personal l i f e as well. I asked Pat to r e f l e c t on the influence of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Independent thinking, c u r i o s i t y , r i s k taking. I keep thinking as I get older now, oh gee, maybe I ' l l lose them. I don't think I ever w i l l . I have always, as far back as I can remember, wanted to "find out". If I didn't know about something, I did the best I could, in every case, to find out. And I think that, in l o t s of ways, it got me into trouble over the years (Laughs). It was also very rewarding in l o t s of cases. It c e r t a i n l y has not been a dull l i f e ! I'm not necessarily searching. I don't feel that that's a word that I p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e to use because searching seems to me that you're not contented with the way things are so therefore you're looking for a better way. Sometimes that might be true. But I don't f e e l that that's necessarily true. I would rather think of i t as broadening - hey, there's more out there I And MORE is in c a p i t a l l e t t e r s , for me. C u r i o s i t y is what keeps l i f e going. It's c e r t a i n l y what keeps me going. I'm thinking about the t r a v e l l i n g right now. And how the firsthand experience of t r a v e l l i n g and l i v i n g in a foreign country is s_o_ e x c i t i n g for me. I enjoy meeting people, I enjoy t a s t i n g a l l the d i f f e r e n t food. I enjoy just the experience of being in t h i s d i f f e r e n t place. Finding out! What's it r e a l l y l i k e ? I've never been one to stay s a t i s f i e d with one thing for very long. With her f i r s t husband and three young children Pat t r a v e l l e d for a year in Mexico. She has also been to various European countries and two summers previous to t h i s interview she worked on the Ivory Coast with a teacher development program. She shared some of her thoughts about her most recent experience in A f r i c a v i t h me. I had had t h i s growing concern for Third World peoples for many, many years. I suppose it springs back to my early i n t e r e s t in Mexican people. And l o t s of my teaching has involved comparisons of our l i f e s t y l e with that of others. In the social studies curriculum at the primary grades, there's a l o t of comparisons done, s i m i l a r i t i e s , differences, a l l that sort of thing. Anyhow, I read about Project Overseas and I thought, gee. 215 I'd r e a l l y l i k e to do something firsthand, if I could, and see if I can make a l i t t l e t i n y speck of difference. And I vas fortunate enough to he able to go. It vas a highlight for me, up to thi s point in my l i f e . And there vas so much to learn! I mean, it vas more of a learning experience for me than it vas for my students, I'm sure. One of the things I remember most vas the fact that I had no idea vhat it vas l i k e to be the minority group. Completely overvhelming at f i r s t because there I vas white. And everybody else vas very black. The f i r s t thing that hit me, of course, vas oh my God! That's vhat they feel l i k e ! And hov do you knov that unless you experience i t ? You r e a l l y don't. Every sense vas being bombarded v i t h nevness. For me, it was just t o t a l excitement because of my l i k i n g for nevness! It was just great! The colours, the f l o v e r s , the climate. L i f e vas completely d i f f e r e n t to vhat it is here. New tastes in the foods. New customs to be concerned v i t h . I observed that she needed to be extremely f l e x i b l e in order to cope with that completely d i f f e r e n t worldview. Yes. In fact, f l e x i b i l i t y was one of the vords that vas used in the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n . They said, b a s i c a l l y , don't bother to apply unless you can exhibit f l e x i b i l i t y a d a p t a b i l i t y . Please, don't even consider us if you're r i g i d in any way in your thinking. Well, I'm not, I never have been. And so, when I read that, I said, OK, that's f i n e ! I can do that! I was curious to discover other possible e f f e c t s that A f r i c a had on Pat and I asked her to consider that aspect of her Beaches and water have alvays fascinated me because I grew up in Vancouver. In my t r a v e l s , I have alvays gone swimming in whatever body of vater there vas to svim i n . I was swimming along, in the A t l a n t i c , off the coast of A f r i c a . And I vas comparing it to svimming in the P a c i f i c , off Hawaii. And swimming in the Aegean. And svimming in the A d r i a t i c . And svimming in the Mediterranean. And I vas just svimming along, and because I vas plopped dovn in the middle of t h i s t o t a l l y foreign culture, I did a l o t of soul-searching. I r e a l l y took a very long, hard, close look at myself and my l i f e and the people and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s in i t . I have alvays been appreciative of my l i f e - s t y l e and my fortunate position of being a Canadian, for one thing. And I think it vas a humbling experience vhen I r e a l i z e d hov much I have and hov much my children have. And hov much they over there don't have. It adjusted my value system. I had been upwardly mobile, m a t e r i a l i s t i c , although I don't consider myself to be that sort of a 216 person. But in fact, I did harbour those thoughts. The t r i p did something for me that I didn't r e a l i z e u n t i l maybe a year a f t e r I'd been back - my position in l i f e was no longer connected to money. [Money] had nothing whatever to do with being happy or loving somebody. Also, u n t i l I started taking a look at myself, I didn't think I had any trouble r e l a t i n g to my children. And then I started r e a l i z i n g that in l o t s of ways I hadn't r e a l l y given them as much of me as I would l i k e to have. I spent a l o t of my l i f e , give, give, give, give, give to others, but in many ways I've sort of short changed my own children. I think that's a trap that l o t s of teachers get i n t o . They end up giving so much to their work that they l e t t h e i r families s l i d e . Anyhow, I took a good close look at that one and I did some mending when I got home. And a l l of these things sort of came r o l l i n g in on me, as I was swimming along in the A t l a n t i c Ocean...(Laughs) Laughing with her, I remarked that s e l f - r e v e l a t i o n comes at strange moments! And in strange places! Exactly! And I got run over by a school of f i s h ! I just about died I I was just swimming along, I could touch the bottom, I was going p a r a l l e l to the shore, and I could see them coming. They were sort of jumpimg...And they h i t mei They just bumped r i g h t into me. And I just screamed my head o f f . My friends on the beach a l l thought I'd been hit by a shark. I thought maybe that's what was chasing the f i s h . I panicked and got out of there in a hurry. That was the end of my s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n that day! In l i g h t of what we had been saying e a r l i e r about successfully r e l a t i n g to children in the classroom, and how i t stems from the way t h a t the teacher i s f e e l i n g , i t appeared to me that Pat's establishment of a better understanding of herself - her monetary values and her relationships with men, her children - would have had carry-over e f f e c t s in her teaching. Oh yes, I'm sure of that. I've always believed that the me. has everything to do v i t h vhat happens in the room. And i t ' s guite obvious, you know, that with me f e e l i n g better about myself that kids respond in a d i f f e r e n t way. That's for sure. That's a big plus, for sure. Pat has had experiences as an a r t i s t herself. She has t r i e d a v a r i e t y of c r a f t s , as well as drawing and painting using 217 d i f f e r e n t media. One evening as ve talked, and she vas k n i t t i n g a deep blue sweater, she t o l d me that her plans for the summer included taking a veek long course in batik ("It's something I've never t r i e d before.") I vanted to knov vhat had influenced her interest in a r t . Actually, I think I was inspired by one of my early teachers, probably at about grade 3 or 4. I never forgot her name. It was Miss E l l i o t t and she was a great big woman. I mean big, l i k e almost 300 pounds, I'm sure. Maybe she wasn't, but to us she just looked huge! Absolutely huge! And she always wore a navy blue dress with a white c o l l a r of sorts, l i k e a big V thing, or a Peter Pan, with lace around i t and a l i t t l e bow. That was her o u t f i t . I'm sure she had more than one navy blue dress, but it was always navy blue. Anyhow, she was just sweet and f r i e n d l y and she did a l l kinds of neat art things with her classes. I thought she was wonderful. I always enjoyed art lessons from then on. I don't remember not enjoying them in grade 1 and 2, but I do remember t h i s one teacher that just l e t us go at it and have a r e a l l y good time with a l l those paints and s t u f f . I asked her to speculate upon the possible e f f e c t s her art classes might have on the children she teaches. If I had my wish, then I would hope that some of the kids that have been through my classes would go away f e e l i n g as I did about my Miss E l l i o t t in grade 3. I remember her and I remember enjoying art classes. And I don't remember much more about a r t , in any other art classes, u n t i l I got to junior high school. But I do remember that I was always interested in art from Miss E l l i o t t days, on. So if some of them remember me for that, whatever else happens to them over the next few years won't r e a l l y matter, as long as they feel good about what they did in my class. What made Pat go into teaching? (Laughs) Why did I do i t ? Because there was an emergency in the province of B r i t i s h Columbia at that point. There were not enough teachers. The year that I went to UBC was the f i r s t year that UBC had a college of education. Before that it had been the p r o v i n c i a l Normal School. I went in, with grade twelve. F i r s t , I had worked for a year cause I didn't have enough money to go to school and my parents couldn't afford i t . Anyway, I went to school for one year and the next year I was out teaching grade one to 37 l i t t l e kids, having signed a contract of sorts saying that I would go to summer school for "X" number of 218 summers to complete my two years of u n i v e r s i t y education. And then I could get a permanent EB c e r t i f i c a t e . It was absolutely absurd! When I came out, I was nineteen.' So that was i t . There I was. Bango! I was a teacher. What, I enquired, was her s t y l e l i k e when she was teaching that f i r s t year? Well, f i r s t of a l l , I had 37 d a r l i n g l i t t l e children and we had those l i t t l e wooden desks on runners. They came in sets, f i v e rows of eight, so I had one l e f t over. The whole room was just packed f u l l of these desks and the runners that pencils would get l o s t under. It was a pain. And I had windows a l l along one side of the classroom. Way, way up. I had room for about 10 l i t t l e wooden chairs at the front of the classroom that I had in a l i t t l e row. That was my reading group. I put a copy on the chalkboard every day for the kids to copy from. And in those f i r s t few years that I taught, the kids had to share. They didn't have a space for everyone to have t h e i r own spots. So one group would go, and then the next group would go. You talk about your three group system, well that was d e f i n i t e l y i t . And I did a l o t of chalkboard reading work. Vancouver schoolboard was doing a series on education for the local t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n and they used my classroom as an example of a reading lesson. How to teach children to read. Right 1 (Laughs) And at that point, I think I'd been in there a long time. I was 21 years old. Wow! So the TV cameras came in and they taped me teaching a reading lesson. Pat agreed that i t would be in t e r e s t i n g to see the f i l m again. The image of r i g i d rows of seating in her beginning classroom stands in sharp contrast to the c i r c u l a r grouping arrangement of her present one. Each embodies a very d i f f e r e n t educational approach. How did the transformation from one to the other come about? I taught for s i x years, in Vancouver, at that one school, and then I was pregnant with Linda and I decided I'd quit teaching. And then, of course, a couple of years l a t e r , decided that I missed it and so I started substitute teaching. I didn't go back to f u l l time u n t i l I moved up here, 14 years ago. In-between times, I subbed a l o t . I took a long term one year and taught for six months. I was never r e a l l y out of teaching, but I didn't have my own class a l l those years. The years that I spent in and out of everyone else's classrooms were just wonderful as far as learning experiences went for me because I picked up a l l kinds of ideas. A l o t of people have said they 219 hated subbing, but because I'm so snoopy (Laughs) I had reams of notes. I'd poke around in a new school and I thought i t was just great fun. I just loved i t i Better than a year at the university, I added. Since her f i r s t year teaching, there have been many waves wash over the educational scene - open classrooms, integrated day, e f f e c t i v e schools, whole language, to name a few. What influence have they had on Pat's teaching style? I always get r e a l l y excited at f i r s t when I hear of something new, but I never jump in with both feet. I always f i g u r e , well, i t ' s worth giving it a shot, just to see what these people are t a l k i n g about. Let's see how it works. And then what I tend to do is to hold on to the parts of it that seem to work best for me. Or, maybe I ' l l discard i t t o t a l l y , depending on how I feel about i t . And over the years, my p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e has evolved as a conglomeration of l i t t l e b i t s and pieces that I have picked up along the way as a r e s u l t of my classroom experiences. I f i t the l i t t l e pieces together into something that f e e l s comfortable for me. I don't purport to teach an "integrated day", or an "open classroom" s i t u a t i o n , or a "whole language", r i g h t now, i f t h i s i s the thing. I can't put a label on it and say t h i s is what I do. I don't do any one of those things. I t ' s just my way. I suggested that her teaching approach might also be determined to a large extent by the p a r t i c u l a r group of children that she gets to work with. Yes, i t i s . As an independent thinker, how did Pat f e e l about having to work within the s t r i c t u r e s of the present education system? Were there accommodations she has had to make? I sometimes resent l i t t l e accommodations that I have to make. I think o r i g i n a l l y I had said that I didn't resent them and then as I was t a l k i n g I r e a l i z e d that in fact I probably do. Sometimes I feel g u i l t y about taking the time to do things the way I think they should be done. However, I feel that in order for me to be r e a l l y comfortable with what I'm doing, I prefer to do i t my way. And in the end, for me i t seems to work OK. I asked whether she f e l t that she had enough autonomy, 220 influence, input, into the decisions which a f f e c t her classroom? Yes, I do, I r e a l l y do. And p a r t i c u l a r l y in the s i t u a t i o n I find myself in right now because J i s a very accommodating, understanding p r i n c i p a l . He's not in the least bit d i c t a t o r i a l . He respects the wishes and judgement of every one of the people on his s t a f f and is very open to us t r y i n g something new, within reason. I mean, he c e r t a i n l y wouldn't put his job on the l i n e if we wanted to do something t o t a l l y crazy. He r e a l l y doesn't t e l l us to do anything. I had the impression that Pat f e l t comfortable in the s i t u a t i o n that she was i n , that she f e l t that she had enough leeway to do things her own way. Well, I think I said that I take the leeway. In fact, if I were to look at a l l the outlines for every subject in the primary grades that I'm expected to teach, there wouldn't be much room l e f t for my own c r e a t i v i t y . I probably couldn't squeak it a l l into a day, or a year, or two years. There's reams and reams of materials that a teacher can choose from. And heaven forbid, the poor person who thought they had to cover every s i n g l e item. They'd go nuts trying. I don't think you could possibly do it and obviously that's not the intent. I t ' s presented to us so that we can take from it what we r e a l l y need to, to do the thing we need to do. Reflections on children's "being" in classrooms I find myself thinking of a very brief paper by Robert Stake, On Being and Becoming. 2 Writing s h o r t l y a f t e r the b i r t h of his f i r s t grandchild, Stake fervently expresses t h i s hope: "Would that my grandson be spared the rod of excessive becoming!" Stake says that "instead of thinking of school children as human beings, we are more inclined to think of them as human becomings." As I examine the rationale, goals, sequential learning outcomes, and evaluation methods of the new fine arts curriculum-as-plan, i t appears to me that educational p r i o r i t i e s are indeed focused on the tomorrow and 221 not much consideration is given to the today. Like l i t t l e Orphan Annie, the curriculum developers are singing the tune of "Tomorrow, tomorrow, I love you, tomorrow, You're only a step away!"* As Stake observes, the question "Are our children l i v i n g well?" i s seldom asked. At the heart of the matter, of course, i s the nature of two d i f f e r i n g conceptual structures. As educators, we can choose to look through the t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n o l o g i c a l kaleidoscope within whose patterns "what matters most i s getting where one wants to go; the character of the journey is less important." 4 At present, the mechanistic, i n d u s t r i a l metaphor underlying t h i s perspective dominates the educational system, and, "to the extent that children are conceived of as objects to be controlled, predicted, and manipulated, teaching must be conceived of as the process whereby this i s accomplished." 5 The image of the classroom as assembly l i n e , containing row upon row of e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r objects, embodies t h i s metaphor. Within such an arrangement, the dynamics of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher and c h i l d , becomes one of domination. As Grumet explains: This program of control was promoted by the science of supervision, an arrangement of persons in c o l l e c t i v e units that permitted constant surveillance of individuals. By arranging students in rows, a l l eyes facing front, d i r e c t l y confronting the back of a fellow's head, meeting the gaze only of the teacher, the d i s c i p l i n e of the contemporary classroom deploys the look [of pedagogy] as strategy of domination. The student's r e a l i t y , or "being," i s not searched for in t h i s s e t t i n g , for the teacher's look does not receive images but only examines the student 222 before i t to note the resemblance between the c h i l d and the image established for i t s development. The exercise displaces the dialogue as s o c i a l i d e n t i t y i s formed, not through symbiosis and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , but by mimesis and convention. 7 A c h i l d ' s "being" in t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s not considered of primary importance. An alternative view of education i s avail a b l e , however. We can choose to look through a s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c kaleidoscope within whose f l u i d i t y "goals and end-points matter less....Means are ends. The journey is the de s t i n a t i o n . " 8 From t h i s perspective, a teacher orients to "the meaning, sense, and sign i f i c a n c e of features of the chi l d ' s curriculum [which] emerge out of the ch i l d ' s sense of the ongoing narrative of the classroom,... the l i v i n g context of the c l a s s , the l i v i n g history of the c l a s s . " 9 Rather than attending to the science of supervision, a teacher i s a r t i s t i c a l l y attuned to the s p e c i f i c needs of unique individuals. The qual i t y of a ch i l d ' s "being" has foremost p r i o r i t y . Through the teacher's a r t i s t r y , the image of the classroom as a home i s formed, and an attempt i s made to estab l i s h within the "look of pedagogy" the r e c i p r o c i t y which exists within a parent/child r e l a t i o n s h i p . 1 0 Pat, faced with choosing between these two very d i f f e r e n t educational perspectives, favours the l a t t e r . Of primary importance to her i s the "being" of children in her classroom. "As long as a c h i l d l i k e s to come to my classroom, then I can teach that c h i l d something." Fullan observes that: Treating students as people comes very close to " l i v i n g " some of the personal and s o c i a l educational goals which are stated as objectives in much of the curriculum. It is in t h i s sense that school i s not just preparation for 223 l i f e ; i t i s l i f e for a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of the l i v e s of young people. 1 1 Dewey shares t h i s view: We always l i v e at the time we l i v e and not at some other time, and only by extracting at each present time the f u l l meaning of each present experience are we prepared for doing the same thing in the future. This i s the only preparation which in the long run amounts to a n y t h i n g . 1 2 Creating an environment in which children can f u l l y experience a learning s i t u a t i o n is important to Pat. As the children worked on t h e i r valentines, they were immersed in the sensory delight of glue, textured d o i l i e s , shiny wallpaper, and delicate t i s s u e . "They just love t h i s s t i c k y , gooey stuff," she commented. Her own delight in t o t a l sensory experience grounds her classroom practice. Speaking of her African t r i p , she said, "How do you know...unless you experience it? You r e a l l y don't. Every sense was just being bombarded with newness.' It was great.' For me, i t was just t o t a l excitement..." It was t h i s same immersion in the sensory q u a l i t i e s of art materials, v i v i d l y r e c a l l e d from her grade 3 art experience, that i n i t i a l l y contributed to her interest in a r t , an interest that she hopes w i l l develop in her children. There are moral and emotional dimensions to the image of classroom as home which also are grounded in Pat's personal experiences. The image i s "of a place where people can interact and co-operate,...can f e e l comfortable and cared i "3 fbr."- L J Drawn from Pat's own childhood experience of growing up in the warm supportive atmosphere of a large extended family are the "closeness and the r e l a t i o n a l aspects of interacting and co-operating" that she encourages within her classroom. 1 4 The r e f l e c t i v e "soul-searching" that she engaged 2 2 4 in during, and subsequent to, her experience of l i f e in a Third World country reinforced in her mind the paramount importance of these two aspects of "being." As artist/teacher Pat employs a number of techniques to shape the image of classroom as home with her children. At the beginning of the year, teddy bears are a t r a n s i t i o n a l device used to transfer the comfort and se c u r i t y of the children's r e a l homes to the unfamiliar environment of their new classroom. Her presence in the classroom before school and at lunchtime enables children to share personal narratives with her and provides Pat with valuable insights into their l i v e s . Having them v i s i t her home expands the personal knowledge she has of them; i t also adds another dimension to their personal knowledge of her. And, the physical character of her room - the grouping of desks and tables, the personal touch of carpet and tumbleweeds - contributes to a comfortable "home-like" atmosphere. I return to Stake's point that "the two, being and becoming, exi s t in one c h i l d , in one world, each part of the 1 5 o t h e r . " X J He suggests that the two are in c o n f l i c t , which I interpret as the continual give and take, the t e n s i o n a l i t y that exists between two d i a l e c t i c poles. Order and s t a b i l i t y derive from the recognition of the constant rhythmic fluctuations between the two. In the shared world of teacher and c h i l d , t h i s t e n s i o n a l i t y "emerges, in part, from in-dwelling in a zone between two curriculum worlds: the worlds of curriculum-as-plan [the "becoming"] and curriculum-as-lived experiences [the " b e i n g " ] . " 1 6 As 225 discussed in the introduction to t h i s study, s c i e n t i f i c thinking i s undergoing r a d i c a l r e - v i s i o n in the f i e l d of physics. A similar process is occurring in biology as well. Applying t h i s r e - v i s i o n to education, I find i t int e r e s t i n g to substitute the terms evolution for "becoming" and co-evolution for "being" in the following passage: The c l a s s i c a l theory sees evolution as moving towards an equilibrium state, with organisms adapting themselves ever more pe r f e c t l y to their environment. According to the systems [new biology] view, evolution operates far from equilibrium and unfolds through an interplay of adaptation and creation. Moreover, the systems theory takes into account that the environment i s , i t s e l f , a l i v i n g system capable of adaptation and evolution. Thus the focus s h i f t s from the evolution of an organism to the co-evolution of an organism plus environment. The consideration of such mutual adaptation and co-evolution was neglected in the c l a s s i c a l view which has tended to concentrate on l i n e a r , sequential processes and to ignore transactional phenomena that are mutually conditioning and ongoing simultaneously.... Detailed study of ecosystems... has shown quite c l e a r l y that most relationships between l i v i n g organisms are e s s e n t i a l l y co-operative ones, characterized by co-existence and interdependence and symbiotic in various degrees. Although there i s competition, i t i s usually placed within a wider context of co-operation, so that the larger system is kept in balance. 1' A curriculum-as-plan, in "prosaic, abstract language," focuses on the transmission of a generalized body of knowledge through " l i n e a r , sequential processes." 1 8 The unique q u a l i t i e s of children and teachers are not present in the curriculum-as-plan, for "generalized knowing is l i k e l y a disembodied knowing that disavows the l i v i n g presence of people." 1 9 These unique q u a l i t i e s are present, however, in the transactional phenomena of the curriculum-as-lived. A clearer understanding of the nature of classroom transactional phenomena can be gained i f one thinks of the learner 226 as an open system - a d i s s i p a t i v e structure... interacting with the environment, taking in information, integrating i t , using i t . The learner is transforming the input, ordering and re-ordering, creating coherence. His worldview is continually enlarged to incorporate the new. 2 0 Jardine and Clandinin suggest that within a classroom, coherent meaning is established for a c h i l d by means of personal narratives, which they term s t o r y t e l l i n g . 2 1 S t o r y t e l l i n g transforms, orders, and re-orders the generalized information presented by the teacher so that i t becomes personally relevant, and hence, meaningful, to the c h i l d . The connections by which children e s t a b l i s h personal relevance to the topic at hand may sometimes appear oblique to an adult observer: Children never get to the point. They surround i t . The importance of the point Is the landscape of i t . 2 3 Jardine and Clandinin explain that Meaningfulness i s relevance .... Both the teacher and the c h i l d are not simply getting to the point but surrounding i t , encapsulating i t in a p a r t i c u l a r landscape, a p a r t i c u l a r story in which i t can count as something meaningful to pursue at a l l . 2 4 In the valentine lesson, for example, Pat spoke to the children of Cupid and his arrows. From within her personal context, t h i s information was relevant to the valentine a c t i v i t y at hand, i t s coherent meaning having been established for her on the basis of her c u l t u r a l and biographical experiences. The children at the group re-interpreted and integrated t h i s information into the context of t h e i r l i v e s . Having learned that valentines in our culture are symbols of love, they seri o u s l y attended to the making of them, for these 227 were special treasures which would be given to loved ones at home. Their a c t i v i t y was surrounded and landscaped by talk (and song) that r e f l e c t e d their perceptions of important love relationships in their l i v e s - friends (Adam was gently teased about his love a f f a i r with Maria), and family - (possessions, finances, family friendships were some of the topics covered). Thus relevance was established in the making of the valentines and the experience had coherent meaning for the children. The sharing of personal narratives, is " e s s e n t i a l l y d i a l o g i c a l rather than monological." 2 5 What is relevant develops through mutual understanding "between teacher and children about what the class is about, where i t can and should go." 2 6 This i s a symbiotic evolving of the classroom environment. Both teacher and c h i l d learn with and from each other. The mutual understanding that had developed in Pat's classroom was evident during the valentine making as she and her children comfortably exchanged ideas and acted upon each others' suggestions. A similar exchange occurred in the lesson on Winter Fun when Pat introduced the concept that families have fun together. Through the sharing of personal narratives - a friend's dog eating snowballs, for example the children established the relevance of the family fun concept within the context of their own l i v e s . The Winter Fun painting which followed their discussion thus became coherently meaningful to them. Learning is a risk-taking endeavour, overlaid with elements of fear, surprise, and ultimately, j o y . 2 7 Risk-taking requires self-confidence, i d e n t i f i e d by Pat as the 228 most basic element in education. Self-confidence is bolstered by a s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c attitude that considers finding out to be an experiment in which there can be no f a i l u r e . Ferguson notes: An experiment has r e s u l t s : We learn from i t . Since i t adds to our understanding and expertise, however i t comes out we have not l o s t . 2 8 In the valentine a c t i v i t y , I was i n i t i a l l y surprised to see children using heart tracers, seemingly out of place in a creative art lesson. But then I thought back to the discussion of Animal Cartoons and Pat's comments on copying. I then recognized the use of tracers as a supportive tool rather than a prescriptive method for everyone to emulate. One c h i l d , having d i f f i c u l t y in cutting out his heart, was assisted by Pat and encouraged to t r y again. The other children, working d i l i g e n t l y on t h e i r valentines, demonstrated their empathy for his e f f o r t s by incorporating the episode into their on-going song. The image of classroom as home i s influenced by Pat's b e l i e f that children's self-esteem can best be enhanced and their self-confidence more f u l l y developed in a nurturing and caring environment. To t h i s end, her own parenting experiences are incorporated into her pedagogical practices. As Pat explains i t , she acts as "mother hen," sorting out d i f f i c u l t i e s for her babies before the school day begins and fostering a bubbly mood by involving them in physical a c t i v i t y f i r s t thing in the morning. "If a kid s t a r t s a day in a negative way, then forget i t . They're not going to be able to do very much that day." Acting on personal knowledge acquired 229 in r a i s i n g her own children, she t r i e s to focus and comment on the positive - "You're such a clever hunch" - in her relationships with children in her c l a s s . If a learner i s "an open system...interacting with i t s environment," then so must be the teacher. Knowing that learning comes from within and cannot be imposed, a teacher must be "a steersman, a ca t a l y s t , a f a c i l i t a t o r - an agent of l e a r n i n g " 2 9 rather than "an agent through which knowledge and s k i l l s are communicated and rules of conduct enforced." 3 0 Jardine and Clandinin comment on t h i s aspect of teaching: The teacher is not an independent purveyor or manipulator of what children experience. He or she is part of that experience, part of the story of the classroom....This does not mean that the teacher must f o r f e i t altogether r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the classroom, that the teacher becomes equivalent to the c h i l d . As part of the- story, the teacher has experienced more and has re f l e c t e d upon these experiences more often than have the c h i l d r e n . 3 1 Pat i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point when she t e l l s how rules of behaviour were discussed and mutually agreed upon in her cla s s . Expanding upon her image of classroom as home, she added a moral dimension by having the children c l o s e l y analyse the character of the familiar Goldilocks and examine the consequences of her actions. In t h i s approach to teaching, an individual must have a healthy l e v e l of self-esteem, l i t t l e defensiveness, few ego needs. The true teacher must be . w i l l i n g to l e t go, to be wrong, to allow the learner another r e a l i t y . 3 2 F l e x i b i l i t y i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Pat. In her personal l i f e , she accepts her daughter's taste in the matter of apartment decor, although i t d i f f e r s from her own. Her t r i p to A f r i c a was viewed as "more of a learning experience for me than...for 230 my students!" It was not seen as an opportunity to impart her pedagogical knowledge. In her classroom, an atmosphere of mutual rapport and trust e x i s t s , much in evidence during the valentine lesson. Security and comfort are well established, an essential factor i f teacher/student dialogues are to occur. These dialogues "just might be abrasive, challenging, revealing, and estranging, for teacher and student a l i k e . " J J Pat's teddy bears, for example, were a nice touch prior to her leading her children into the unfamiliar t e r r i t o r y of examining Goldilocks" flawed character. In the Halloween and Winter Fun lessons, her children f e l t comfortable in of f e r i n g c r i t i c a l comments in th e i r evaluation of the a c t i v i t i e s . Pat, in turn, was comfortable in accepting them. The q u a l i t i e s of "awe and mystery, uncertainty and ambiguity, c o n f l i c t and the d i a l e c t i c of s t a b i l i t y and change" 3 4 contribute to the essence of what i t means to be human. They are given form by poets and painters, acknowledged by p h y s i c i s t s , and overtly esteemed by curriculum authors. Frequently, however, too r i g i d adherence to s p e c i f i c goals and learning outcomes allows for mastery of facts, but misses the v i t a l essence of the subjects being studied. Consider for a moment the essence of change in autumn, of humour in cartoons, of fun in winter a c t i v i t i e s , of love in sending valentines. Consider the essence of art that Miss E l l i o t conveyed to Pat which inspires her to exercise professional judgement, or leeway, in the hope of coming close, now and again, to being the master Wu L i teacher of whom Gary Zukav speaks: 231 He begins from the centre and not from the fringe. He imparts an understanding of the basic p r i n c i p l e s of the art before going on to the meticulous details....The t r a d i t i o n a l way...is to teach by rote, and to give the impression that long periods of boredom are the most essen t i a l part of the t r a i n i n g . In that way a student may go for years without ever getting the f e e l of what he is d o i n g . 3 5 Zukav goes on to say that a master teaches essence; once a student has perceived the essence, the master goes on to expand the perception further, not in a di d a c t i c manner, but as one who rhythmically dances with the student. By remaining curious and freshly interested in the subjects she teaches, Pat shares these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a master: Every lesson i s the f i r s t lesson... every time we dance, we do i t for the f i r s t time....It does not mean that we forget what we already know. It means that what we are doing is always new, because we are always doing i t for the f i r s t time....It i s always new, personal, and a l i v e . 3 6 The l i g h t in a child' s eyes or the f e e l of a good lesson are d i f f i c u l t to standardize for measurement on teacher competency tes t s . And yet the a b i l i t y to create and to sense these are the essence of the art of teaching. , The teacher's role i s always paradoxical. Pat, in speaking of concerns parents have for their children, touches an issue raised by Loren Eiseley. It i s his view that in a society subject to rapid change, a teacher occupies an "anomalous and exposed p o s i t i o n . " 3 7 Society presents educators with two opposing obligations. F i r s t , "the inculcation of custom, t r a d i t i o n , and a l l that s o c i a l i z e s the c h i l d into a good c i t i z e n ; " 3 8 second, the absorption of new learning, simultaneously b e n e f i c i a l to society and the in d i v i d u a l . The teacher 232 is expected to both be the guardian of s t a b i l i t y and the exponent of s o c i e t a l change. Since a l l persons do not accept new ideas at the same rate, i t is impossible for the educator to please the entire society even i f he remains ab j e c t l y s e r v i l e . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true in a dynamic and rapidly changing era l i k e the pre s e n t . 3 9 E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s i s another dimension of dwelling in the zone of t e n s i o n a l i t y between "being" and "becoming" addressed e a r l i e r . If concern i s for the qua l i t y of l i f e a c h i l d l i v e s within the classroom, then, as Aoki notes, in e v i t a b l y i t "depends much upon the qual i t y of the pedagogic being" that the teacher i s . 4 0 This symbiotic relationship i s c l e a r l y present in Pat's classroom. Re-phrasing Aoki's words s l i g h t l y permits me to consider the qu a l i t y of the pedagogic "being" of women teachers as they dwell within the t e n s i o n a l i t y between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as-lived. Reflections on women teachers' "being" in classrooms Pat envisions her classroom as a home, herself as a nurturing, caring mother who responsibly e-ducates her children, leading them out to new p o s s i b i l i t e s . 4 1 In so doing, she embodies the yin or feminine q u a l i t i e s "responsive, co-operative, i n t u i t i v e , s y n t h e s i z i n g " 4 2 - that are e x p l i c i t l y entailed in the philosophic rationales of many elementary curriculum guides, the fine arts one being an excellent example. Within the larger society, the c u l t of motherhood i s accorded high praise, but is given none of the monetary recognition, such as s a l a r i e s and pensions, that denotes "true" worth in our society. As noted in Reflections on school a r t and c h i l d a r t , a r t i s t i c values, which share many 233 of the feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i s t e d above, are overtly esteemed but covertly rejected within educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . Within the school system there i s a "simultaneous assertion and denial of feminity" which r e f l e c t s s o c i e t a l v a l u e s . 4 3 Curricular aspirations and the "nurturing" hopes of women teachers are presently given l i p - s e r v i c e only, in an educational atmosphere that places inordinate weight on yang or masculine virtues - "demanding, aggressive, competitive, r a t i o n a l , a n a l y t i c . " 4 4 This ambivalence can have considerable negative e f f e c t on the "being" of women in classrooms, and, as a consequence, on the immediate "being" of children, boys as well as g i r l s . A n c i l l a r y meanings are acquired which are carried forth into adult l i v e s . Apple comments perceptively on t h i s issue: Many of the disp o s i t i o n s , propensities, and achievements that may make a c r i t i c a l difference in a person's l i f e are intermingled by students in the very act of l i v i n g within an i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework for a number of years. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l structure i t s e l f mirrors and redundantly communicates to students l a s t i n g norms, basic ideological assumptions, and models of human i n t e r a c t i o n . 4 5 Pat and I discussed confidence, c u r i o s i t y , and risk-taking as factors a f f e c t i n g the learning capacities of both children and teachers. She spoke at length of her s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n s on teaching, family, and rela t i o n s with men, some portions of which are included in t h i s document. Her personal revelations occurred within the context of the novel experience of l i v i n g in a foreign country. Mine have occurred within an analogous context of novelty, experiencing the "foreign country" following the break-up of a long-term r e l a t i o n s h i p . Pat shared with me her re c o l l e c t i o n s of her 2 3 4 f i r s t year teaching, the highly structured nature of which contrasts noticeably with her present approach. The shock of my i n i t i a l teaching experience was perhaps more extreme than hers; probably, the experiences of other women teachers f a l l somewhere on a continuum between our two si t u a t i o n s . As with Pat, c u r i o s i t y has always been part of my make-up but, following that f i r s t assignment, many years of regaining confidence were necessary before risk-taking was once more a part of my being. In a journal entry written during the f i r s t few months of my "foreign" t r a v e l s , I re f l e c t e d on the relatio n s h i p between these two q u a l i t i e s and my i n i t i a l teaching experience. A catalyst for my thoughts was D.H.Lawrence's novel, The Rainbow, wherein a young g i r l , Ursula, undergoes an emotional trauma during her f i r s t teaching assignment. 4 6 My ordeal c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l l e d hers. I offer some excerpts from my journal here: I'm thinking of my f i r s t year teaching. As now, jobs were scarce in B.C. I and my husband of two months accepted positions at a three room school on an isolated Indian reserve in northern Alberta. At twenty-one, I was a shy debutante, just out of the arms of a nice, upper middle-class West Vancouver family. The culture shock could not have been greater i f I had gone to a Third World country. It was a Third World country. So many images and emotions remain v i v i d after a l l these years. My confusion, almost panic, almost overwhelming. Just where did I begin? A grade 1/2 cla s s ; 27 children, only a few of whom spoke English; a narrow, cramped t r a i l e r for a classroom, claustrophobic with i t s two t i n y windows. My year of "t r a i n i n g " , following three years of general arts at university, had been with older children. How did one teach a c h i l d to read? My husband and I had $5.00 to l a s t us u n t i l our f i r s t paycheck - not enough to buy a t r a i n t i c k e t out. But I had never " f a i l e d " in my l i f e . I was determined to stay. My p r i n c i p a l was a young Englishman, only a few years older than I, twenty-five, but going on s i x t y . His sense of su p e r i o r i t y was constantly thrust upon me; I was continually defending my country's economic system, 235 education system,and my personal l i f e s t y l e ( i . e . the equal sharing of household tasks in my marr iage) . A c o l o n i a l mouse up against the imperial c a t . He enjoyed h is power immensely and held on to i t t i g h t l y . Formal s t a f f meetings (for three!) were held each week; the key to the supply cupboard had to be formal ly requested; the d u p l i c a t i n g machine was in the back bedroom of h is house and my formal request to use i t each morning was commented on as an i n t r u s i o n . The c h i l d r e n , however, were d e l i g h t f u l . They were c h i l d r e n ! Very guiet at f i r s t , b ig brown eyes taking everything i n , but soon g i g g l i n g and touching me. Not being able to f ind a curr iculum guide, I had no idea what I was "supposed" to be do ing , so each morning we sang songs I scrounged up from childhood memories; I had puzzles and p las t icene and crayons - they played and drew; we went outs ide , set snares for r a b b i t s , they the teacher , I the student; we looked at p ic tures in books, objects in the classroom, things in the community constant ly sharing Chipewyan and Eng l ish names for them back and f o r t h , each smi l ing at the o ther 's pronunciat ions. And I worried that I wasn't teaching the " r ight" th ings . My attempts at formal reading and ar i thmet ic lessons were rather p a i n f u l . I wasn't doing the " r ight" t h i n g . In October came a v i s i t from the superintendent, another Englishman, very b lunt , very b r i e f , very severe. His report on my teaching o f f i c i a l l y stated that I wasn't doing my job. 'Mrs. Costello l e t s the children play when they have f i n i s h e d the i r work. This p lay i s not d i rec ted to any purpose. Her control of the classroom is very loose.' He was not impressed with our snared r a b b i t . I needed my job; I pu l led up my socks; I t ightened my c o n t r o l . Duplicated phonics exerc ises replaced the p l a s t i c e n e . A c h i l d jumped when sharply ordered back to h is sea t . One l i t t l e g i r l disappeared from my c l a s s before Christmas and d i d n ' t return for the remainder of the year . She would melt into the bush i f v i s i t s were made by the p r i n c i p a l to get her . In June, I was complimented by t h i s man. I was to ld that he was most impressed by the improvement I had shown, that I was an exemplary teacher and should be proud of the achievements my c l a s s had made. His words gave me a f e e l i n g of p r i d e , on the sur face . I had done i t ! Had survived the year . Passed with honours. Not a f a i l u r e . But I kept th ink ing of the c h i l d who wouldn't re turn . It took me a long time before I could l i s t e n to an Eng l ish accent without a sense of loa th ing . Looking back, I get the impression of a v i o l a t i o n to my s o u l . The fee l ing i s so t a n g i b l e , i t ' s almost p h y s i c a l . I f e e l that my very being was raped. She converts the joy, expressiveness, and sensuality of her youth Into the r u l e , r e c i t a t i o n s , and 236 repressions of the pa t r i a rcha l s y s t e m . 4 ' Right on! There had been shyness and guiet de l igh t as my c h i l d r e n and I d iscovered each other . The k i n d l i n g of a small blaze of shared learning was f looded out; only a few embers g loved, b r i e f l y , o c c a s i o n a l l y , as the year vent on. The c rue les t aspect of oppression is the logic by which i t forces its objects to be oppressive in return, to do the d i r t y vork in the i r s o c i e t y in severa1 senses.4 8 Oh yes , I oppressed. Those native ch i ld ren were going to get the " r ight" school ing or e l s e ! My job was on the l i n e . And I needed that job to break out of my ovn oppression in a male dominated v o r l d . S o c i e t y ' s d i r t y vork vas for me to get them to f i t in to the white man's super ior vay of l i f e , to enable them to hold a n i n e - t o - f i v e job, regular hours, regular pay, regular home, regular v i f e , regular k i d s . Very much "standardized" assembly l i n e product ion. I c e r t a i n l y t ightened up the c o n t r o l s . T i g h t l y scheduled lessons , t i g h t l y enforced ru les and regu la t ions . Too t igh t sometimes to barely be able to squeeze in a s m i l e . Bearing the promise of maternal nurturance, Ursula, enters the school and succeeds there only to the degree that she suspends nurturance and adopts c o n t r o l . 4 9 Ursula and I had much in common. So hov do some educators, ve v i t h our heads- ln - the-c louds of c u r r i c u l a r hopes and our fee t - in - the -mi re of day- to-day i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e a l i t i e s , attempt to reach the high ground of q u a l i t y "being" and q u a l i t y e d u c a t i o n ? 5 0 I f , in a t e n s i o n a l i t y zone between what ought to be d i a l e c t i c complementari t ies, one view overvhelmingly p r e v a i l s , then the l i v i n g for those in the minor i ty often becomes a matter of mere s u r v i v a l . 5 1 Pat says , "I sometimes resent l i t t l e accommodations that I have to make....Sometimes I f e e l g u i l t y about taking the time to do things the vay I think they should be done." Max van Manen makes an in te res t ing d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n betveen hope and expectation that helps to i d e n t i f y the source 237 of her d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n : The language of o b j e c t i v e s , aims, teacher expectat ions , intended learning outcomes, g o a l s , or ends in view is a language of hope out of vhich hope i t s e l f has been sys temat ica l ly p u r g e d . . . . l i t i s ) a language of doing - i t lacks b e i n g . . . . T e a c h e r expectat ions and a n t i c i p a t i o n s associated v i t h c e r t a i n aims and object ives d i f f e r from having hope for our c h i l d r e n , in that expectat ions and a n t i c i p a t i o n s e a s i l y degenerate into d e s i r e s , vants , c e r t a i n t i e s , p r e d i c t i o n s . This a lso means that as teachers ve c lose ourselves of f from p o s s i b i l i t i e s that l i e outside the d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t f i e l d of v i s i o n of the expectat ions. To hope is to bel ieve in p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Therefore hope strengthens and b u i l d s . . . . T h e phenomenology of s p e c i f i c educat ional ob ject ives or broad goals i s to be involved v i t h the future of c h i l d r e n in such a vay that ve alvays see past the present and the present as past . And inherent in such l i v i n g i s the danger of alvays t rea t ing the present as burden, as something that must be overcome. There i s l i t t l e d v e l l i n g in such l i v i n g . 5 2 Teacher burn-out often r e s u l t s from a sense of hopelessness "vhen as teachers ve no longer knov vhat ve are d o i n g . " 5 3 Pat r e c a l l s , "There are t i m e s . . . I have f e l t , t h i s i s i t . I'm nothing. I'm worthless." If ve survive as mere technical doers, i t "may be at the expense of the attunement to the a l iveness of the s i t u a t i o n . " 5 * Af ter years of t r y ing to survive in an oppressive educat ional environment, I vas at the stage of s a y i n g , What's the use? At that p o i n t , for the sake of myself and the c h i l d r e n v i t h vhom I vas in contact , I had to make a dec is ion - e i ther leave the system, or subvert i t . Subversion meant r e l y i n g to a greater extent on my personal p r a c t i c a l knovledge, in a s i m i l a r manner to the approach I had taken as a beginner. The opportunity to vork as an unasslgned teacher provided an escape from the regular school s t ructure in to the " f r i l l " area of a r t . No value in i t , therefore no g u i d e l i n e s , no s t r i c t superv is ion - and, no oppression. The job of ar t 238 s p e c i a l i s t , however, i s a fragmented one, and the d a i l y rhythms, so v i t a l in working v i t h c h i l d r e n , are d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossib le , to e s t a b l i s h . Nevertheless, I have t r i e d hard, as has Pat , to move from a negative to a p o s i t i v e a t t i tude ln my re la t ions v i t h c h i l d r e n and once more have regained my sense of enjoyment of them as people, not objects to move along an educat ional assembly l i n e . Personal se l f - con f i de nc e and an i n c l i n a t i o n for r i s k - t a k i n g have returned as w e l l . As Helen Reddy s ings in j Am Woman: "Oh yes , I am v i s e . But i t ' s visdom born of p a i n , Oh yes , I 've paid the p r i c e , But look hov much I've g a i n e d . " 5 5 I think of the pr ice paid by the c h i l d r e n , too , during my f i r s t fev years of teaching and can only hope that the ones I vork v i t h now benef i t from that high c o s t . The only vay to overcome teacher burnout is by recaptur ing within ourselves the knowledge that l i f e is bearable - not in the sense that we can bear i t , as we bear a burden which veighs us dovn, but in the sense that ve knov l i f e is there to bear us - as in the l i v i n g v i t h hope. We can do t h i s , once aga in , by g iv ing b i r t h and bearing c h i l d r e n , rather than abort ing the c h i l d in the middle of abstracted r h e t o r i c of our t h e o r i z i n g . 5 6 As parents , Pat and I l i v e in hope v i t h our c h i l d r e n . As teachers, ve t r y to do, as Pat expresses i t , "what needs to be done." Aoki in te rpre ts t h i s as "a st ruggle to be true to vhat teaching e s s e n t i a l l y i s . " We share h is understanding that the a r t of teaching centres on "a leading out to nev p o s s i b i l i t i e s , " to the "not y e t . " 5 7 239 Notes 1 Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource Book 1985 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Branch, 1985), p. 3. 2 Robert Stake, "On Being and Becoming," Xerox, 1981. 3 "Tomorrow," Annie, cassette (Don M i l l s , Ont.: CBS Records, 1982). 4 E l l i o t Eisner, Cognition and Curriculum (New York: Longman, 1982), p. 7. 5 David Jardine and Jean Clandinin, "Does It Rain on Vancouver Island?: Teaching as S t o r y t e l l i n g , " Curriculum Inquiry 17. no. 4 (1987): 476. 6 Madeline Grumet, "My Face i s Thine Eye, Thine in Mine Appeares: The Look of Parenting and Pedagogy," Phenomenology + Pedagogy 1, no. 1 (1983): 55. 7 Grumet, "Look of Pedagogy," p. 55. 8 Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy (Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 101. 9 Jardine and Clandinin, p. 477. 1 0 Grumet, "Look of Pedagogy," p. 56. 1 1 Michael Fullan, The Meaning of Educational Change (Toronto: OISE, 1982), p. 156. 1 2 John Dewey, Experience and Education (New York: Macmillan, C o l l i e r Book, 1963), p. 48. 240 1 3 Michael Connelly and Jean Clandinin, "Personal P r a c t i c a l Knowledge and the Modes of Knowing: Relevance for Teaching and Learning," in NSSE YEARBOOK 84, no. 2 (1985): 188. 1 4 Connelly and Clandinin, p. 188. 1 5 Stake, "On Being and Becoming," Xerox, 1981. 1 6 Ted Aoki, "Teaching as In-Dwelling Between Two Curriculum Worlds," The B.C. Teacher 65. no. 3 (1986): 8. 1 7 F r i t j o f Capra, The Turning Point (New York: Simon and Schuster, Bantam Book, 1983), p. 287, 279. 1 8 Aoki, p. 9. 1 9 Aoki, p. 9. 2 0 Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy (Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 291. 2 1 Jardine and Clandinin, p. 477. 2 2 Jardine and Clandinin, p. 477. 2 3 Jardine and Clandinin, p. 477, c i t i n g Barry Stevens, "Grade Five Geography Lesson," in Going for Coffee: Poetry on the Job f ed. Tom Wayman (Mediera Park: Harbour Publishing, 1981), pp. 140-141. 2 4 Jardine and Clandinin, p. 478. 2 5 Jardine and Clandinin, p. 478. 2 6 Jardine and Clandinin, p. 478, 2 7 Ferguson, p. 291, 2 8 Ferguson, p. 118, 241 2 9 Ferguson, p. 292-293. 3 0 Dewey, p. 18. 3 1 Jardine, p. 478. 3 2 Ferguson, p. 293. 3 3 Madeleine Grumet, "The Line i s Drawn," Educational Leadership/ January (1983): 36. 3 4 Michael Apple, "The Process and Ideology of Valuing in Educational Settings," in Educational Evaluation: Analysis and Responsibility, eds. M. W. Apple, M. J. Subkoviak, and H. S. Lufter, J r . (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974), p. 9-10. 3 5 Gary Zukav, The Dancing Wu L i Masters (New York: William Morrow, Bantam Books, 1980), p. 7-8. 36 Zukav, p. 8-9. 3 7 Loren Eiseley, The Night Country (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971), p. 210. 3 8 Eiseley, p. 210. 3 9 Eiseley, p. 210. 4 0 Aoki, p. 9. 4 1 Aoki, p. 10. I am indebted to Dr. Aoki for drawing my attention to the etymological sources of in- s t r u c t - into structure, and e(out)-ducere(lead) - lead out to new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 4 2 Capra, p. 35. 4 3 Madeleine Grumet, "Pedagogy for Patriarchy: The Feminization of Teaching," Interchange 12, nos. 2-3 (1981): 181. 4 Capra, p. 35. 4 5 Apple, "The Process and Ideology of Valuing," p. 27 4 6 D. H. Lawrence, The Rainbow (Harmondsworth, England Penguin Book, 1968), c i t e d in Grumet, "Pedagogy for Patriarchy," pp. 165-184. 4 7 Grumet, "Pedagogy for Patriarchy," p. 169. 4 8 Grumet, "Pedagogy for Patriarchy," p. 174. 4 9 Grumet, "Pedagogy for Patriarchy," p. 178. 5 0 Robert P i r s i g , Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (New York: William Morrow, Bantam Book, 1975), 120. 5 1 Aoki, p. 9. 5 2 Max van Manen, "Practising Phenomenological Writing Phenomenology + Pedagogy 2, no. 1 (1984): 65. 5 3 Van Manen, p. 66. 5 4 Aoki, p. 9. 5 5 Helen Reddy, "I Am Woman," No Way to Treat a Lady, cassette (New York: Capitol Records, 1975). 5 6 Van Manen, p. 66. 5 7 Aoki, p. 9. 243 CHAPTER VII Conclusions The coherence, balance, and rhythm established by an a r t i s t within a work of art contribute to i t s unity. Boughton's art program evaluation model, applied to Pat's experience of the curriculum-as-lived, shows how the decision-making she is engaged in is analogous to that of an a r t i s t creating a work of a r t . In her classroom work of a r t , i t i s the image of classroom as home which Pat envisions. Her paradigmatic c r i t e r i a require i t to be a warm, supportive environment in which she, as a r t i s t / t e a c h e r , can be "sensitive to the c h i l d as a person and not only as a c a r r i e r for the subject matter taught." 1 As revealed in t h i s study, her "concern is with how the c h i l d copes with his learning" and "the c h i l d ' s happiness, career goals, ambitions, and s o c i a l i t y " are the evidence she r e l i e s upon to continue in her endeavours.* Pat's paradigmatic c r i t e r i a are grounded in her assessment of her own upbringing as secure, in her personal experiences as a parent, and in many years of classroom practice. They t a c i t l y influence her decision-making as she interacts with elements of the curriculum-as-lived. This i s evident when she adapts classroom f a c i l i t i e s to better s u i t the needs of her children; when she thematically integrates art with other subject areas; and when she has children 244 participate in planning and evaluation. These actions are grounded in personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge. 3 This knowledge leads her to r e j e c t curriculum guide suggestions for c h e c k l i s t evaluation procedures and to subvert administrative d i r e c t i v e s regarding subject time allotments, for these disrupt the rhythms of d a i l y l i v i n g mutually established with her children. These expectations are not coherent with the image she wishes to create. When she takes the i n i t i a t i v e to act in an imaginative, i n t u i t i v e manner in her interpretation of curriculum guidelines, Pat's words and actions show that her l i v i n g i s r e l a t i v e l y comfortable within the tension zone between the t h e o r e t i c a l expectations of the curriculum-as-plan and the personal knowledge and aspirations of the curriculum-as-lived. There are occasions, often momentary, sometimes extended, within her artwork when the elements of rationale, resources, agents, content, outcomes, and implementation are dynamically balanced and a greater degree of unity occurs. At such times, the truth of the art of teaching - the leading of children into new p o s s i b i l i t i e s - is illuminated. S e n s i t i v e l y attuned to her s i t u a t i o n , Pat i s aware when these instances happen and, true to s e l f - s e t a r t i s t i c standards, she is constantly s t r i v i n g to perfect the means by which they can be encouraged. This study has provided me with the opportunity to observe and to discuss with Pat her curriculum-as-lived experiences. It soon became evident that our worldviews were very s i m i l a r . Reflecting upon her dwelling within the tension zone between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as-lived has 245 enabled me to r e f l e c t upon and assess the q u a l i t y of my own. Before beginning the study i t was necessary for me to examine my personal paradigmatic c r i t e r i a . My d i s t r u s t and distaste for the science of teaching began in my own schooling and was strengthened by the fact that most of my teaching experience has been in educational i n s t i t u t i o n s perceived by me as dominated by male authority figures oriented to an industrial/technological approach. Pedagogical practice, reinforced by parenting experience, contributed to my b e l i e f that the art of teaching, which attends to the unique q u a l i t i e s of human existence, is v i t a l l y important, but frequently neglected in educational settings. In speaking of those who work to establish a balanced conceptual structure, Ferguson observes: They have seen change in themselves, their friends, t h e i r work. They are patient and pragmatic, treasuring small v i c t o r i e s that add up to a large c u l t u r a l awakening; they know that opportunity appears in many guises, that d i s s o l u t i o n and pain are necessary stages in renewal, and that ' f a i l u r e s * can be powerfully i n s t r u c t i v e . Aware that deep change in a person or an i n s t i t u t i o n can only come from within, they are gentle in their confrontation. 4 These comments are germane in l i g h t of my experiences as I conducted t h i s study. I have seen change in myself: My inquiry into the nature of science and art made me aware of the metaphors underlying each. This understanding i n i t i a t e d a personal paradigm s h i f t from the dominant conceptual framework to an al t e r n a t i v e s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c one vhich for me has more relevance. It also provided me with the means to a r t i c u l a t e i n t u i t i v e knowledge gained from personal p r a c t i c a l experience. And t h i s 246 has given me the confidence to question c u r r i c u l a r content and methods, and to ask i f my research i s " t r u l y contributing to the reconstruction of educational i n s t i t u t i o n s so that they are more just and responsive." 5 I have seen change in my friends: Readings which I found i n s i g h t f u l were shared with two close friends. They, in turn, shared thoughtful comments with me after reading rough drafts of t h i s study. And they have told me that r e f l e c t i o n s i n i t i a t e d by t h i s exchange have contributed to their experiencing a personal paradigm s h i f t also. I have seen change in my work: Reflecting on my in-dwelling between the two worlds of curriculum, and thinking in terms of Boughton's model, I find my work of art to be lacking coherence, balance, and rhythm. As art s p e c i a l i s t , I work within classroom spaces designed by others, c u r t a i l e d in my decision-making through forced adherence to r i g i d time schedules. Within these circumstances, thematic integration is d i f f i c u l t for me. Art is isolated into units of study, evaluated by impersonal methods. Through s k i l l e d manipulation of children and materials I achieve the surface appearance of a highly successful, discipline-based art program, but t h i s does not equate with the image of classroom as home which I, l i k e Pat, wish to create. Moments of truth are few and far between, for art instruction rather than art education predominates. I now r e a l i z e that I have attended primarily to the t h e o r e t i c a l perspective of the curriculum-as-plan rather than giving simultaneous consideration to my personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge of curriculum-as-lived experiences. 247 Dynamic tension between the two complementarities is lacking and the imbalance has created for me an uncomfortable pedagogical s i t u a t i o n . In the course of thi s study the most s i g n i f i c a n t r e a l i z a t i o n that I have come to is that maybe we have been fooling ourselves a l l along. We have been trying to change school a r t when we should have been trying to change the school. 6 I am not e n t i r e l y surprised. I n t u i t i v e l y I have known thi s for a good while. Leaving my s p e c i a l i s t position to return to l i f e within my own classroom i s an i n i t i a l step for me to take towards establishing a more adequately tensioned pedagogical existence. Pat and I have proved ourselves in the system and, with the exception of cursory inspections every three years, are l e f t alone to do as we wish. But there can be a danger in the comfort, security, and i s o l a t i o n of a classroom "studio" where we downplay the ra t i o n a l schemes of curriculum-as-plan " i n favour of a more contextual idiosyncratic curriculum of [our] own."7 A studio can become a place where we qu i e t l y sabotage...without releasing the methods and meaning that we have devised so that they may at t r a c t attention, s t i r comment, ultimately influence textbook se l e c t i o n , state requirements, and the inservice program. T e r r i b l e v u l n e r a b i l i t y accompanies aesthetic practice. Where do we find the courage to reveal our work? 8 From personal experience, I can t e s t i f y that confidence and courage are indeed needed to move from the studios, "safe places...where teachers can concentrate, can attend to the i r experience of children" to the g a l l e r i e s , "community spaces where the forms that express that experience are shared." 9 2 4 8 The motives for such sharing are open to misinterpretation. One administrator accused me of seeking self-aggrandizement through the professional development workshops I offered. I was puzzled and hurt by t h i s u n t i l I recognized that he was speaking from a perspective d i f f e r e n t from one in which co-operative support and extension of pedagogical knowledge and s k i l l s are valued. Believing that teachers must exercise autonomy in the art of teaching, Pat and I take i t as our personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to act, each in s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ways. To extend Grumet's teacher-as-art1st analogy: Pat's classroom, l i k e her home, is a studio/gallery where v i s i t o r s are always welcome to watch the a r t i s t - i n - r e s i d e n c e at work. Teachers in our d i s t r i c t are encouraged to v i s i t colleagues' classrooms; substitute costs are covered through a professional development fund to which our l o c a l teachers' association and the d i s t r i c t administration j o i n t l y contribute. A number of primary teachers have taken the opportunity to observe in Pat's classroom. One grade 1 teacher on my s t a f f was very impressed with t h i s experience and i s beginning to incorporate some of Pat's ideas into her own classroom. Not having my own cl a s s , I have chosen to go on tour. I n i t i a l l y , as d i s t r i c t resource person, I followed the workshop route - a series of one stop "showings" of a r t , science, computer, and enrichment suggestions. Large workshops, however, were not p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f y i n g for me. I f e l t I was taking too d i r e c t and r a t i o n a l a route by t e l l i n g teachers what was the right way to think and a c t . 1 0 If we 249 t r y , as teachers, to be "sensitive to where children are, what they think, and why," then as resource persons, we must put these same pr i n c i p l e s into practice and "see implementation as a learning process in which [we] and the teachers are adult learners ."^ This past year, my showings have become much more intimate. Small group planning sessions within a p a r t i c u l a r school have replaced the previous formal presentations. This new format allows me to attend to the s p e c i f i c s of teachers' situations - personal s t y l e s , learner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , school f a c i l i t i e s - and custom f i t my suggestions to t h e i r needs. Personal contact, with the opportunity to share and r e f l e c t upon personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge, i s a l l important. Brief follow-up meetings are ess e n t i a l to maintain the momentum and expand the i n i t i a l learning, but time i s a l i m i t i n g factor that requires creative consideration. Teachers are busy people! So far, lunch hours and brief moments after school have been the only times av a i l a b l e , but these are somewhat rushed. Alternative options need to be developed. I have learned to be patient and pragmatic: The process is long; i t is slow; growth occurs in small spurts, with one idea accepted and implemented at a time. A few months after attending an introductory session on integrating art and science, a f i r s t year teacher is pleased to t e l l me, "Hey, Dale, I've t r i e d that webbing and i t works!" Such remarks keep the hope a l i v e . Grumet speaks of the d i f f i c u l t choice faced by female a r t i s t s , teachers, and educational theorists when confronted 250 by a r t i s t i c , educational, and academic establishments where 1 9 the conditions and relations of work are a l i e n to them. *• Does one choose to continue to accept the r i g i d conceptual patterns of the t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c paradigm kaleidoscope or does one opt for the dynamic,interactive concepts of the new f l u i d s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c kaleidoscope? Does one choose to talk about r e s p o n s i b i l i t y rather than accountability,...reproduction rather than production,... the relationships between those who bear and nurture children and teaching and learning, rather than the relationships of the school to the factory, or the c o r p o r a t i o n . ? 1 3 As an educational researcher, I have questioned assumptions about t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c inquiry and re-viewed i t s roots; as a teacher, I have survived within a system which frequently has been harsh and p a i n - i n f l i c t i n g ; as a woman, I have t r i e d to l i v e my l i f e f u l l y , r e f l e c t i n g on my experiences and growing in my understanding of the meaning of my relationships with others. It i s the f l u i d patterns of the s c i e n t i f i c / a r t i s t i c paradigm that are meaningful to me. The v a l i d i t y of illuminative inquiry i s determined by the audience's view of i t s c r e d i b i l i t y . Do they, grounded in their own backgrounds, and imaginatively re-creating and re-interpreting the experiences described, derive from them an understanding that is persuasive and b e l i e v a b l e ? 1 4 The purpose and s p e c i f i c nature of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study l i m i t the extent to which generalizations can be made from i t . Instead, i t provides an opportunity for p r a c t i t i o n e r s and researchers within the f i e l d of art education, to make " n a t u r a l i s t i c generalizations" regarding the roles of learner, teacher, and 251 educational researcher. Stake believes n a t u r a l i s t i c generalizations develop in a person as a product of experience. They derive from t a c i t knowledge of how things are, why they are, how people f e e l about them, and how things are l i k e l y to be in other places with which t h i s person is f a m i l i a r . They seldom take the form of predictions but lead regularly to expectations. They guide action, in fact they are inseparable from action. 5 In a vicarious manner, individuals can l i v e through the experiences of others, gaining greater personal insights in the process. Stake indicates that there i s , of course, a p o l i t i c a l aspect to studies such as t h i s one: Research aimed at generating grand generalization increases the authority and dependence upon the specialist....Research aimed at enabling users to increase understanding through n a t u r a l i s t i c generalization offers a greater p o s s i b i l i t y of f a c i l i t a t i n g the autonomy and sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r a c t i t i o n e r . 6 From t h i s study I have learned that autonomy and a sense of personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y contribute to balance and rhythm, which in turn establish the cohesive unity in a teacher/artist's work. If t h i s unity is present, then a prac t i t i o n e r ' s dwelling in the t e n s i o n a l i t y between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as-lived can be challenging and stimulating; i f i t i s not present, then the in-dwelling may be oppressive and lacking in hope. 1 7 I recognize that situations are always understood according to one's conceptual viewpoint and hence truth is always r e l a t i v e to i t . Understanding i s never complete and therefore, the whole truth or a d e f i n i t i v e account of r e a l i t y can never be a t t a i n e d . 1 8 For the moment, then, I pause on 252 t h i s thought of Loren Eiseley's: But [people] see d i f f e r e n t l y . I can at best report only from my own wilderness. The important thing is that each...possess such a wilderness and...consider what marvels are to be observed t h e r e i n . 1 9 253 Notes 1 Michael Connelly and Jean Clandinin, "Personal P r a c t i c a l Knowledge and the Modes of Knowing: Relevance for Teaching and Learning," in NSSE Yearbook 84, no. 2 (1985): 179. 2 Connelly and Clandinin, p. 179. 3 Connelly and Clandinin, p. 183. 4 Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy, (Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1980), p. 37. 5 Michael Apple, "The Process and Ideology of Valuing in Educational Settings," in Educational Evaluation: Analysis and Responsibility, eds. M. W. Apple, M. J . Subkoviak, and H. S. Lufter, J r . (Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974), p. 28-29. 6 Arthur Efland, "The School Art Style: a Functional Analysis," Studies in Art Education 17, no. 2 (1976): 43. 7 Madeleine Grumet, "Conception, Contradiction, and Curriculum," The Journal of Curriculum Theorizing (1981): 294. ® Madeleine Grumet, "The Line i s Drawn," Educational Leadership, January (1983): 37. 9 Grumet, "The Line is Drawn," p. 36-37. 1 0 Michael Fullan, The Meaning of Educational Change (Toronto: OISE, 1982), p. 119. 1 1 Fullan, p. 119. 1 2 Grumet, "The Line is Drawn," p. 35. 1 3 Grumet, "The Line i s Drawn," p. 35. 254 1 4 E l l i o t Eisner, Cognition and Curriculum (New York: Longman, 1982), p. 61. 1 5 Robert Stake, "The Case Study Method in Social Inquiry," Educational Researcher 7, no. 2 (1978): 6. 1 6 Robert Stake, "Case Study," in Research, Policy, and Practice, World Yearbook of Education 1985 (London: Kogan Page, 1985), p. 280. 1 7 Ted Aoki, "Teaching as In-Dwelling Between Two Curriculum Worlds," The B.C. Teacher 65, no. 3 (1986): 9. 1 8 George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), p. 180. 1 9 Loren Eiseley, The Immense Journey (New York: Random House, Vintage Book, 1959), p. 13. 255 Bibliography Adelman, Clem, and Walker, Rob. A Guide to Classroom Observation. London: Methuen, 1975. Apple, Michael. "The Process and Ideology of Valuing in Educational Settings." In Educational Evaluation: Analysis and Responsibility. Eds. M. W. Apple; M. J. Subkoviak; and H. S. Lufter, J r . Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974. . " S c i e n t i f i c Interests and the Nature of Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s . " In Curriculum Theorizing: The Reconceptualists. Ed. William Pinar. Berkeley: McCutchan, 1975. Aoki, Ted. "Curriculum Implementation as Instrumental Action and as Situational Praxis." In Understanding Situational Meanings of Curriculum In-Service Acts: Implementing, Consulting, Inservicinq. Eds. Ted Aoki et a l . 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