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Report on the consumer education course : Vancouver School District Garvin, Mary-Jane 1988

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REPORT ON THE CONSUMER EDUCATION COURSE: VANCOUVER SCHOOL DISTRICT By MARY-JANE GARVIN .Ed.  (Elem.), The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 197 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Centre f o r the Study o f Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s ae conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  © T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1988  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  ABSTRAC  The purpose of the study was  to examine the r o u t i n e  e x i s t e n c e of the Consumer Education course w i t h i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t and to understand how  m i c r o , or s c h o o l l e v e l i n f l u e n c e s c o n t r i b u t e to  changes i n s c h o o l s u b j e c t s which have been mandated at the macro, or p r o v i n c i a l level".  A t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of 41 Vancouver Consumer Education teachers was  i d e n t i f i e d , and s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s  were conducted with 23 of these t e a c h e r s .  Conclusions: Information obtained from these i n t e r v i e w s concludes t h a t the c o u r s e - a s - p r a c t i c e d d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y course-as-planned.  from the  T h i s study concluded that the  r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the course i s a r e s u l t of two  1.  factors:  School-based support f o r the course v a r i e s from s c h o o l  to s c h o o l .  G e n e r a l l y , east s i d e s c h o o l s e x h i b i t a h i g h e r  l e v e l of support f o r the course than i n the west s i d e schools.  ii  2.  M i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s f o r the course do not o f f e r  course e x p e c t a t i o n s and  clear  standards.  Recommendations: Two  recommendations were reached about the Consumer  Education course:  1.  R e v i s i o n of M i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s i s needed.  The  c u r r e n t s t a t e of the course i s a f f e c t e d by the lack of direction  given to t h i s c o u r s e .  Province-wide  e x p e c t a t i o n s and standards should be c l e a r l y  expressed,  and methods to assess the degree of compliance  need to be  instituted.  2.  The course would b e n e f i t from school-based s u p p o r t , i n  p a r t i c u l a r , establishment of a subject- c o n s t i t u e n c y which would promote and p r o t e c t the c o u r s e .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  S i n c e r e thanks are owed to a number of p e o p l e , but i n p a r t i c u l a r , to Dr. P. James G a s k e l l f o r h i s encouragement as w e l l as the many hours of time. Without h i s frank and o b j e c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s , t h i s t h e s i s would not have been possible. To Dr. Frank Echols f o r h i s help with the i n t e r v i e w g u i d e , and f o r the time taken from h i s s a b b a t i c a l to comment upon the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . Support from Mr. Bob Peacock of the Vancouver School Board also greatly appreciated. And to C h r i s Bowers and Luck Louis f o r t h e i r computer expertise.  iv  was  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  i i  Acknowledgement Chapter One:  iv  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study  Introduction Organization Background t o the problem H i s t o r y o f the Consumer Education Importance of the Study. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  course  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Study Chapter Two:  1 3 5 9 11 13 ....14  Review of the Related  Literature  Overview. Implementation P e r s p e c t i v e s Curricular Orientations Contributing Factors I n f l u e n c e s inherent i n School Community S t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on Consumer Education Summation Chapter Three: Methodology  16 17 22 25 32 41 47  Introduction R a t i o n a l e f o r using I n t e r v i e w . Development of Interview Guide S e l e c t i o n of Sample Data A n a l y s i s Summary o f Methodology  48 49 52 57 61 64  Chapter Four:  Data A n a l y s i s  Overview 66 Research Question One 67 Who Teaches Consumer Education 68 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Management o f Consumer Education..71 Course O r g a n i s a t i o n 76 Shape of the C o u r s e - a s - p r a c t i c e d ..82 Grading C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 85 Consistency o f Content .87 Teachers' P e r c e p t i o n s o f Course 90 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Support , .92 Resources 9-3 M i n i s t r y o f Education Requirements 98 P e r c e i v e d A t t i t u d e s t o the Course ..103 Suggestions f o r Improvement I l l Summary Statements about the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer Education course 114  v  Chapter F i v e : F a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e t o the Current State of Consumer Education Overview Contributing Factors S t a f f i n g Considerations P e r c e i v e d Status of Image T e r r i t o r i a l Disputes, , Summary Statements Chapter S i x :  •  123 124 125 130 133 136  C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s  Summary of Major F i n d i n g s : Research Question One...140 Conclusions Research Question One .143 Summary of Major F i n d i n g s : Research Question Two...143 Conclusions and I m p l i c a t i o n s 144 Recommendations 151 Summation 154 D i r e c t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Study 156 References  157  Appendices Appendix A: Interview Guide Appendix B: T r a n s c r i b e d Interview Appendix C: Sample of Teacher Unit Plans f o r Consumer Education i  vi  160 167  CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  A course i n consumer e d u c a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d as a compulsory secondary  g r a d u a t i o n requirement s c h o o l s i n 1982.  requirement  in British  Columbia's  From the b e g i n n i n g  and the course developed  this  to f u l f i l l  i t have  created controversy.  The course has been regarded with s u s p i c i o n by some because o f i t s c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l Disagreements  overtones.  between the BCTF and the government d u r i n g  the development phase over a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s c r e a t e d controversy.  The BCTF d i d not support the concept or  development o f the course. g r a d u a t i o n requirement controversy.  Mandating o f the course as a  caused  f u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m and  I n f i g h t i n g between v a r i o u s s u b j e c t  communities such as the Business Educators and Home Economists  f o r c o n t r o l of the course r e s u l t e d i n n e g a t i v e  f e e l i n g s between these groups.  I t i s now the only course  r e q u i r e d f o r g r a d u a t i o n which does not e n t a i l a year-end government f i n a l examination,  although when Consumer  Education was i n t r o d u c e d , P.E. 11 was a l s o a g r a d u a t i o n requirement  which d i d not have a corresponding government  1  examination.  The Consumer Education course i s and  been an anomaly w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n  has  system.  The course has been i n the s c h o o l s f o r a number of years now  and has had to respond to the i n t e r e s t s of students,  teachers, and parents.  The  i n t e r e s t s of these groups  not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as those of the groups c r e a t e d the course i n the f i r s t p l a c e . seek an understanding of how  are  who  T h i s study  will  s c h o o l l e v e l i n f l u e n c e s shape  the courses and c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s which are the r e s u l t of p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s . other words, the study seeks to understand how  In  micro  level  i n f l u e n c e s c o n t r i b u t e to changes i n s c h o o l s u b j e c t s which have been mandated at the macro l e v e l .  The  importance  of  l o o k i n g at these i n f l u e n c e s i s s t a t e d by Goodson, (1987) "To c o n c e n t r a t e a t t e n t i o n at the micro l e v e l of i n d i v i d u a l schools s u b j e c t groups importance  i s not t o deny the c r u c i a l  of macro l e v e l economic changes or changes i n  intellectual  ideas, dominant value or e d u c a t i o n a l systems.  But i t i s a s s e r t e d that such macro l e v e l changes may a c t i v e l y r e i n t e r p r e t e d at the micro l e v e l . "  In 1982,  a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of macro l e v e l  be  (p.47)  influences  c r e a t e d an atmosphere conducive to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a 2  course such as Consumer Education.  The e x p e c t a t i o n s o f  the developers were p u b l i s h e d i n the Curriculum Guides (1982, 1983) and o u t l i n e d s p e c i f i c  t o p i c s which were t o be  taught, weighting f o r these t o p i c s , usage of p r e s c r i b e d textbooks  and other recommended  f o r g r a d i n g and examinations. designed  f o r use throughout  resources, and suggestions The Curriculum Guides were  the p r o v i n c e , i n every  district,  and i n every secondary  school.  In order to  determine  how these p r e s c r i b e d recommendations and  suggestions contained i n the C u r r i c u l u m Guides have been r e i n t e r p r e t e d a t the micro or s c h o o l l e v e l , i t i s necessary t o examine the r o u t i n e o p e r a t i o n of the course as i t e x i s t s  today.  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Study:  Interviews were conducted  with 23 Vancouver  secondary  Consumer Education teachers i n order t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n which would address  1.  these two r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s :  What i s the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer Education  course i n the Vancouver School  District?  In order t o assess the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the course, the 3  i n t e r v i e w s focused on these p o i n t s :  s t a f f i n g and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e management o f the course, who the t e a c h e r s of  the course a r e , what t o p i c s are being taught, what  g r a d i n g procedures  are being used,  and what concerns  these  p a r t i c u l a r teachers have about the course.  The  second  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i s as f o l l o w s :  2.  What f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the  course?  The  study w i l l be of t h e o r e t i c a l importance  because i t may  p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the ongoing a d a p t a t i o n and m o d i f i c a t i o n s or r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ,  which  s c h o o l s u b j e c t s and s c h o o l communities undergo.  The  study w i l l be of p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the School  D i s t r i c t because i t w i l l p r o v i d e an assessment of the course as i t e x i s t s today  i n that d i s t r i c t .  It will  also  be of p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the M i n i s t r y of Education because the Business Education Curriculum, which f r e q u e n t l y i s seen t o encompass Consumer Education, i s c u r r e n t l y undergoing  a process of r e v i s i o n .  The next s e c t i o n w i l l present some macro l e v e l i n f l u e n c e s 4  which c o n t r i b u t e d  to the development and  course i n Consumer  i n t r o d u c t i o n of a  Education.  Background to the Problem:  Some of the more important i n f l u e n c e s on B r i t i s h education and  i n the e a r l y 1980's stemmed from the  economic c l i m a t e of the time.  l o o k i n g at these i n f l u e n c e s was  The  Columbia  political  importance of  s t a t e d by Goodson, (1987)  when he argued t h a t these macro l e v e l changes i n f l u e n c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l educational  systems.  t a k i n g p l a c e during be c a t e g o r i z e d  The the  ideas, dominant values  macro l e v e l changes which were  i n f a n c y of Consumer Education  as the macro background.  For the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l and "Micro" r e f e r s to the s c h o o l are  i n v o l v e d with the  provincial level level,  and  to the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  years of rampant i n f l a t i o n and  personnel  relevel.  confrontational  labour/management p r a c t i c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia's e a r l y were t r o u b l e d  times.  A world-wide economic  impacted h e a v i l y on the p r o v i n c e ' s  and  policies.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the courses o f f e r e d at t h i s  Following  can  purpose  of t h i s study, "macro" r e f e r s to socio-economic trends  who  or  80's  recession  traditionally  "boom or  bust" economy.  The demand f o r B.C.'s resources  s e v e r l y d i m i n i s h e d , c r e a t i n g a massive drop revenues and an i n c r e a s e i n unemployment.  in provincial At the same  time expenditures were s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g , and were becoming apprehensive  taxpayers  about the prospect of higher  taxes i n an a l r e a d y d i f f i c u l t  time.  In t h i s context,  government embarked upon a p o l i c y of f i s c a l  One  was  the  restraint.  s e c t o r of the p r o v i n c e which f e l t the t i g h t e n i n g of  the purse s t r i n g s was  the education system, and  the t e a c h e r s w i t h i n the system.  naturally,  L e g i s l a t i o n such as the  P u b l i c Sector R e s t r a i n t Act, the Education Interim Act and B i l l system.  Finance  89 were s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed at the education  These p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n were designed  to  c o n t r o l the amount of s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s awarded by a r b i t r a t i o n awards (the use of a r b i t r a t i o n awards i s a frequent method f o r determining teacher s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s when n e g o t i a t i o n s with the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t to  produce an agreement), to set spending  school d i s t r i c t s ,  levels for local  to remove the n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l tax base  from the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and have l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e determined government. (Horn,  fail  1986).  l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s was  The cumulative  by  to  the  r e s u l t of these  to s h i f t g r e a t e r c o n t r o l of  education  to the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of  With r e s t r a i n t , increased  concern about g e t t i n g value  demands f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y .  America, t e s t s and Columbia was  Education.  f o r money  Throughout, North  t e s t i n g became the norm.  no exception  and  British  i n the e a r l y 80's  the  government r e i n s t i t u t e d P r o v i n c i a l Examinations.  In response to p u b l i c demand f o r input i n t o the  school  system, the M i n i s t e r of Education of t h a t time (Hon. Smith) h e l d a s e r i e s of meetings i n l a t e 1980. t r a v e l l e d throughout the p r o v i n c e , these meetings were p u b l i s h e d Minister's F a l l  and  Brian  He  the r e s u l t s of  the f o l l o w i n g June as  the  Forum.  Under the heading of Consumer Fundamentals h i s noted t h a t there was  a general  report  lack of understanding of  many p r a c t i c a l consumer s k i l l s needed f o r f u n c t i o n i n g i n s o c i e t y and  t h a t throughout the p r o v i n c e  about t h i s lack of consumer s k i l l s . made at t h i s time:  i t should  Two  p o i n t s should  a new  a l r e a d y been announced; secondly, there  (Horn, 1986)  t h a t the  concern be  be remembered t h a t p r i o r to  the r e l e a s e of t h i s r e p o r t i n June 1981, had  there was  course  i s evidence  "widespread" concern was  based upon  a s o l i t a r y b r i e f presented by a s i n g l e Parent C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee r e p r e s e n t i n g a small-town  The economic and p o l i t i c a l  secondary s c h o o l .  i n f l u e n c e s of the time combined  to a f f e c t other areas of l i f e  in British  Columbia.  Economic d i f f i c u l t i e s being f e l t by many people lead to a dramatic i n c r e a s e i n the d e f a u l t r a t e of p e r s o n a l loans. Small Claims Court experienced a huge i n c r e a s e i n case load.  I n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n from other p r o v i n c e s , and  immigration from other c o u n t r i e s f u r t h e r compounded the unemployment problem.  As w e l l , the B.C.  Commerce and the Canadian  Chamber of  Consumer's A s s o c i a t i o n , and  the  O f f i c e of the Attorney General l o b b i e d the M i n i s t r y of Consumer and Corporate A f f a i r s f o r some s o l u t i o n to the p e r c e i v e d l a c k of g e n e r a l knowledge of c o n t r a c t , f a m i l y and employment law.  (Horn,  1986).  When these macro  i n f l u e n c e s became combined with the s t r o n g neoc o n s e r v a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the F r a s e r I n s t i t u t e , seem more l i k e l y  (as suggested by Horn, 1986)  these macro l e v e l changes of economic and  i t would  t h a t i t was  political  pressure that l e a d to the c r e a t i o n of the Consumer Education course, r a t h e r than the micro l e v e l support of one Parent C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee.  8  The d i f f e r i n g i n t e r e s t s of v a r i o u s s t a k e h o l d e r  groups,  f o r example, the M i n i s t r y , the developers, the BCTF, and the s u b j e c t communities c r e a t e d c o n f l i c t and c o n t r o v e r s y d u r i n g the course's development phase.  The way i n which  t h i s c o n f l i c t and c o n t r o v e r s y was generated presented  i n the next  w i l l be  section.  The H i s t o r y of the Consumer Education  Course:  Schools Department C i r c u l a r #144 s t a t e d t h a t a new compulsory course, a t t h a t time unnamed, was t o be implemented i n September 1982 f o r e i t h e r Grade 9 or 10. ( M i n i s t r y of Education,  1981a).  But, by May of 1981, the  BCTF (B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n ) S p r i n g R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Assembly passed nature of t h i s  a motion which opposed the compulsory "new" course.  the compulsory nature stemmed  P a r t of the concern  about  from the f a c t t h a t the  government had mandated the course without  prior  c o n s u l t a t i o n with the BCTF, and p a r t i a l l y because the F e d e r a t i o n f e l t t h a t the e x i s t i n g Consumer Fundamentals 10 course made t h e new Consumer Education course  The normal procedure  redundant.  f o r development of a course i n v o l v e d  the M i n i s t r y of Education r e q u e s t i n g from the BCTF a l i s t 9  of  teacher's i t proposes f o r course  Controversy  development.  was again c r e a t e d when the M i n i s t r y bypassed  the BCTF s u g g e s t i o n o f names o f teachers who c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y be seconded.  C r e a t i o n o f a new compulsory course meant t h a t a v a r i e t y of  s u b j e c t communities were i n t e r e s t e d  of  the new c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g .  t e r r i t o r i a l c o n f l i c t developed  i n gaining control  A great deal of between groups who wanted  the t e r r i t o r i a l advantage t h i s course would g i v e t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e area.  Business  Education, Home Economics,  I n d u s t r i a l Education and S o c i a l Studies departments were all  interested  territorial  i n a t t a i n i n g c o n t r o l of the course.  The  i n f i g h t i n g and c o n t r o v e r s y was ended when  Schools Department C i r c u l a r #158 s t a t e d , "For a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes,  Consumer Education should be  assigned where departmental  organization e x i s t s to  business education departments." ( M i n i s t r y o f Education, 1982).  However, the i l l f e e l i n g s which r e s u l t e d from  territorial  infighting s t i l l  Another area o f concern  this  a f f e c t the course.  f o r the s c h o o l s d i s t r i c t s and the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s r e v o l v e d around the problems which were c r e a t e d with the a d d i t i o n of another 10  compulsory course and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e p l e t i o n of the e l e c t i v e courses.  Consumer Education was  originally  conceived of as a Grade 9/10 l e v e l course, but p r e s s u r e from the d i s t r i c t  level,  the P r i n c i p a l s ' and V i c e -  P r i n c i p a l s ' A s s o c i a t i o n and the School T r u s t e e ' s  resulted  i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n i n l e v e l of o f f e r i n g so t h a t the course was now o f f e r e d a t the 11/12 l e v e l as w e l l . m o d i f i c a t i o n caused became apparent  This  more c o n f l i c t and c o n t r o v e r s y when i t  to the BCTF t h a t i t had not been  c o n s u l t e d about t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n .  Importance of the Study:  Aside from the t h e o r e t i c a l importance  of understanding the  way i n which macro concerns get r e i n t e r p r e t e d a t the micro or s c h o o l l e v e l ,  t h i s study has p r a c t i c a l  importance.  Consumer Education i s a course mandated f o r the students of the p r o v i n c e , and i s t h e r e f o r e a course taken by every student w i t h i n the system.  Examination  i s compulsory should be undertaken  o f a course which  i n order to p r o v i d e an  accurate assessment o f the course.  The  Consumer Education course i s a l s o a t o p i c a l  issue.  Headlines i n the Vancouver Sun (Dec. 15, 1987)' proclaimed  "Panel t o l d students don't buy consumer-education courses".  T h i s was j u s t one o f the n e g a t i v e comments  about the course made t o the S u l l i v a n Education.  Royal Commission on  The a r t i c l e begins by s t a t i n g t h a t the  m i n i s t r y ' s r e q u i r e d courses on Consumer Education and Family L i f e are " t r e a t e d by students as a joke". i n the same a r t i c l e ,  Commissioner Barry S u l l i v a n  "heard the same complaint  Further s a i d he's  about the consumer-education  program from one end of the p r o v i n c e t o the o t h e r . " student who appeared  The  before the commission a l s o s a i d the  "course was a waste o f time", and t h a t the course was i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Grade 9 or 10 students.  content  His f i n a l  c r i t i c i s m o f the course was t h a t i t was "biased, assuming t h a t at h e a r t , we are a l l eager  l i t t l e consumers j u s t  w a i t i n g t o go out and spend".  Another important  reason f o r doing t h i s study i s t h a t the  e n t i r e Business Education c u r r i c u l u m i s p r e s e n t l y undergoing  a process o f r e v i s i o n .  study may p r o v i d e some guidance  12  Information from  for this  revision.  this  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study  Because i n f o r m a t i o n and comments are the r e s u l t o f i n t e r v i e w s conducted only with teachers o f the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , beyond t h i s  The  the c o n c l u s i o n s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d  district.  data obtained ,for t h i s study  r e s u l t e d from  conducted with the 23 respondents.  interviews  No data was obtained  from the 18 non-respondents, and t h e r e f o r e comments and c o n c l u s i o n s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d t o i n c l u d e t h i s group o f teachers.  Comments r e l a t i n g t o the students',  parents',  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o l l e g i a l a t t i t u d e s towards the course were not gained  first-hand.  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r  a t t i t u d e s are those as i n t e r p r e t e d by the t e a c h e r s .  A n a l y s i s of the data obtained  i n the i n t e r v i e w s and  subsequent c o n c l u s i o n s are the r e s u l t o f the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n . by another  A n a l y s i s o f the data  r e s e a r c h e r may l e a d to a d i f f e r e n t  interpretation. 13  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Study:  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  the study w i l l address the f o l l o w i n g  questions:  1.  What i s the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f the Consumer Education  course i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t ?  In other words,  an assessment w i l l be made of the course's r o u t i n e existence.  2.  What f a c t o r s or i s s u e s c o n t r i b u t e to the c u r r e n t s t a t e  of the course?  The  f i r s t chapter d i s c u s s e d the problem, and the macro  concerns which were r e - i n t e r p r e t e d a t the micro l e v e l as the Consumer Education course.  Chapter Two w i l l the problem  examine the l i t e r a t u r e  related to  area.  An e x p l a n a t i o n o f the methodology w i l l be presented i n Chapter  Three.  14  Chapter Four w i l l present  i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o the  first  What i s the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the  research question:  Consumer Education  The  course?  i n f o r m a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with the second  question:  research  the f a c t o r s or i s s u e s which c o n t r i b u t e t o the  c u r r e n t s t a t e of Consumer Education,  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n  Chapter F i v e .  Chapter S i x w i l l present of  the study.  15  the c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s  CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF THE  RELATED LITERATURE  Overview:  T h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine the r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a curriculum  i n n o v a t i o n as i t has  school system.  been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the  R e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n occurs  i n two  adaptation ways.  of a  I n t r o d u c t i o n of  a c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n a f f e c t s the school system i n t o which i t i s i n t r o d u c e d . or adapts the course system and chapter  as i t i s used w i t h i n the  situation.  will  In t u r n , the s c h o o l system shapes  The  particular  l i t e r a t u r e presented  review v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s on a new  in this course  as  i t moves from the macro l e v e l of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y i n t o the micro or school  The  first  level.  s e c t i o n w i l l present  l i t e r a t u r e which focuses  the d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s which a f f e c t any i n n o v a t i o n , of which Consumer Education The  next s e c t i o n w i l l present  on  curricular  i s an example.  l i t e r a t u r e which focuses  on  the mechanics of a c t u a l l y u s i n g the macro developed i n n o v a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s , and  w i l l d i s c u s s those f a c t o r s  or i s s u e s which seem to promote s u c c e s s f u l c u r r i c u l a r 16  implementations.  The  third section w i l l  l i t e r a t u r e which i s s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i n c e s ' s Consumer Education  present  focused upon t h i s  course.  s t u d i e s were done s e v e r a l years ago,  Many of  and now  macro p o l i t i c a l pressure which i n i t i a l l y course has  subsided,  i t i s important  these  t h a t the  a f f e c t e d the  and u s e f u l to  study  the r o u t i n e e x i s t e n c e of the course as i t e x i s t s today.  S e c t i o n One:  The  Implementation P e r s p e c t i v e s  implementation  and  i n n o v a t i o n r e f l e c t s and  development of any  r e i n t e r p r e t s those macro l e v e l  i n f l u e n c e s which were present d u r i n g the implementation suggested  curricular  and development phases.  innovation's House (1979)  t h a t c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s can be c a t e g o r i z e d  as being c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of one  of three  different  perspectives: technological, p o l i t i c a l ,  or  The  innovation  t e c h n i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of c u r r i c u l a r  contended t h a t macro development was f o r the e x p e r t s . i n t o the micro,  cultural.  a technical exercise  I n c l u s i o n of the i n n o v a t i v e m a t e r i a l s or s c h o o l l e v e l , was  p e r c e i v e d of as a  r a t i o n a l process whereby the i n t e n t s of the experts would become the purposes of the 17  teachers.  The  t e c h n o l o g i c a l phase was  the  l a t e 1960's.  perspective  the prominent p e r s p e c t i v e  House suggests t h a t the  came from the shock and  Sputnik success.  scale curriculum sciences  and  s u r p r i s e of the USSR's dissatisfaction  system, r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e  p r o j e c t s which were undertaken to promote  mathematics.  Technology was  answer f o r c u r i n g the problems of the  The  impetus f o r t h i s  Another macro i n f l u e n c e ,  with the e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l  of  viewed as  school  the  system.  dominant theme of t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l approach to  curriculum  innovation  was  of events with a teacher expected to put  the r a t i o n a l sequence or at the end  chain  of the chain who  i n t o p r a c t i c e these Innovations.  was  This  t e c h n o l o g i c a l approach i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as the RDDA model:  Research, Development, D i f f u s i o n and  C u r r i c u l a r innovations  which r e s u l t from  technological perspective  this  e x h i b i t a top-down approach to  the development and  i n c l u s i o n of new  designed by experts  f o r use  Current  Adoption.  i n the  material.  They  classroom.  examples of t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e  the movement towards competency t e s t i n g and 18  are  the  re-  include  i n s t i t u t i o n of M i n i s t ry  of Education  government  examinations.  The second i n n o v a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e , the p o l i t i c a l ,  stemmed  from the s o c i a l t u r m o i l of the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 70's. Macro l e v e l i n f l u e n c e s such as the Vietnam  War,  environmental i s s u e s and the budding of consumer awareness impacted upon the education process  of c u r r i c u l u m  community  and transformed  the  i n n o v a t i o n from a t e c h n o l o g i c a l  approach i n t o one c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n f l i c t and compromise. no longer  The developers  innovations  were  "experts" but were " i n t e r e s t groups" or  "stakeholders" and  of c u r r i c u l u m  such as teachers,  administrators,  parents,  the government.  C u r r i c u l a r innovations supported groups. Education  succeeded or were adopted when  or espoused by one or more s t r o n g advocacy Horn (1986) s t a t e d t h a t i n c l u s i o n of the Consumer course  i s an example of the p o l i t i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e to i n n o v a t i o n .  The c o n f l i c t s and compromises  i n v o l v e d d u r i n g the i n i t i a l and e a r l y stages  19  of the  course's  h i s t o r y support h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i t i s an  example o f a p o l i t i c a l  innovation.  Specific  i n s t a n c e s of  c o n f l i c t and compromise w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r section.  House (1979) suggested t h a t the t h i r d  innovation  p e r s p e c t i v e , the c u l t u r a l , concentrates how the proposed c u r r i c u l a r i n t o the system.  on the process or  i n n o v a t i o n i s done or enacted  Innovations  which r e f l e c t a c u l t u r a l  p e r s p e c t i v e are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n n o v a t i o n s which develop from a d i a l o g u e between r e s e a r c h e r / d e v e l o p e r s  and the  actual users/teachers.  developer  T h i s d i a l o g u e between  and user w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e a d a p t a t i o n o f the i n n o v a t i o n d u r i n g the usage or p r a c t i c e o f the i n n o v a t i o n .  Some s t u d i e s suggest, however, t h a t change a t the school l e v e l i s not easy because s c h o o l s are s t a b l e s o c i a l systems.  Work of two r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t d i a l o g u e  between developer  and user i s not p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the  context o f s c h o o l s ' s o c i a l systems:  Wolcott (1977) d i d  e t h n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f s c h o o l s and concluded  t h a t they  are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , i n t e g r a t e d and i n e q u i l i b r i u m .  Even  when faced with change, the e q u i l i b r i u m or s t a b i l i t y o f the system w i l l  prevail. 20  Another r e s e a r c h e r , L o r t i e  (1975) suggested  that teaching  i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e occupation.  Teachers'  are dominated by conservatism,  i n d i v i d u a l i s m and  presentism. teachers  belief  systems  Such b e l i e f s i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u b c u l t u r e of  i s not c o l l e g i a l and  collegiality will fail.  t h a t e f f o r t s to promote  I t a l s o seems l i k e l y t h a t the-  c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e of c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n would face difficulties  b)  as a r e s u l t of these b e l i e f  systems.  F a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to the S u c c e s s f u l Adoption  a Curricular  Innovation:  Much of the focus of r e s e a r c h on i n n o v a t i o n s has concerned with the mechanics of g e t t i n g a new  been  innovation  i n t o the micro or s c h o o l l e v e l with minimum a l t e r a t i o n a d a p t a t i o n from the o r i g i n a l macro l e v e l p o l i c i e s intents.  The  of  and  and  focus of t h i s r e s e a r c h has been on f a c t o r s  to which managers of i n n o v a t i o n s should attend i n order to have ' s u c c e s s f u l i n n o v a t i o n s ' .  The  l i t e r a t u r e which addresses  presented  in this section.  2 1  these f a c t o r s w i l l  be  CurricuJar  Orientations:  F u l l a n and Pomfret  (1977) suggest that  r e s e a r c h on implementation orientations:  literature  and  tend to d i s p l a y one of two main  a f i d e l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n which determines  the  extent to which the a c t u a l use of the i n n o v a t i o n corresponds to the intended or planned use; or a mutual a d a p t a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n which analyzes the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the change process i t s e l f .  Other r e s e a r c h e r s suggest t h a t and approaches Leithwood  implementation  literature  d i s p l a y somewhat d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s .  and Montgomery (1987) suggest t h a t the two main  orientations  to c u r r i c u l u r i n n o v a t i o n s are the  f a i r e a t t i t u d e and the a d a p t a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n . l a i s s e z - f a i r e attitude i s characterized  laissezThe  by suggesting t h a t  the i n n o v a t i o n i t s e l f need not be developed beyond a rudimentary  l e v e l b e f o r e a c t u a l use  t h i s approach b e l i e v e innovation w i l l  Proponents  of  t h a t the shape (or shapes) of the  develop d u r i n g and as i t i s used: outcomes  cannot be predetermined. t h i s approach  (p.15).  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l premise o f '  i s based on the p r o f e s s i o n a l  teacher-implementor.  Even though 22  autonomy of the  t h e r e i s much to be s a i d  i n defense of t h i s approach, i t approximates what has  been  happening i n s c h o o l s , and as Leithwood and Montgomery (1987) comment, i t s lack o f success i s a l s o w e l l documented.  The second o r i e n t a t i o n , the " a d a p t a t i o n " approach i s any s y s t e m a t i c adoption of new  c u r r i c u l a r materials.  As  Leithwood and Montgomery s t a t e , proponents of t h i s approach "see value i n b e g i n n i n g with a w e l l - d e f i n e d i n n o v a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a c l e a r d e s c r i p t i o n of f u l l adoption (p.  15).  S u c c e s s f u l i n n o v a t i o n depends on the i n n o v a t i o n  being adapted, or molded, or customized to " f i t " the particular  situation.  More recent work from Leithwood and Montgomery (1987) o f f e r s another approach t o the adoption of new the  f i d e l i t y approach which d i s m i s s e s p r a c t i c e s  i n any way (p.15)  material: "deviating  from what i s s p e c i f i e d as f u l l implementation".  They do s t a t e t h a t  " t h i s i s a straw-man  a l t e r n a t i v e , without any s e r i o u s advocates i n p r a c t i c e . C e r t a i n l y , no i n n o v a t i o n developer c o u l d f u l l y those p r a c t i c e s i n which a t e a c h e r a c t u a l l y (P.  16).  23  prescribe  engages..."  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l problem concerning the degree of interpretation: another  how  much i s b e n e f i c i a l or d e s i r a b l e , i s  f a c t o r which e n t e r s the d i s c u s s i o n of c u r r i c u l a r  i n n o v a t i o n s . C u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s are designs f o r change, and are o f t e n very achievement-oriented. and  sequences are f r e q u e n t l y mentioned, and  i n t e n t i o n of the developer  to have the  Goals  i t i s the  teacher-  p r a c t i t i o n e r use the programme as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t o t h i s design:  teachers are expected  The  Consumer Education course  was  s p e c i f i c a l l y designed  up the Resource Guide and assignments.  This  to f o l l o w a p l a n .  i s an example of t h i s .  It  so t h a t any teacher c o u l d p i c k f i n d prepackaged l e s s o n s  ease of r e p l i c a t i o n reduces  and  teachers'  p r e p a r a t i o n time, but i t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to t e a c h e r s ' l o s s of c o n t r o l over what i s done i n the classroom.  If  merely f o l l o w i n g a developer's p l a n , then teachers more c l o s e l y approximate u n t h i n k i n g r o b o t s .  While i t i s recognized t h a t a b s o l u t e f i d e l i t y  i s not  p o s s i b l e nor d e s i r a b l e , there i s a presumption t h a t teachers should be encouraged to i n c o r p o r a t e as much of the new  m a t e r i a l as p o s s i b l e .  Much of the  literature  focuses  on f a c t o r s or s t r a t e g i e s which w i l l  " s u c c e s s f u l " implementation. present should  facilitate a  The next s e c t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e which focuses  will  upon those f a c t o r s which  be taken i n t o account t o encourage s u c c e s s f u l  implementation of a c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n .  Contributing  Factors;  As some t h e o r i s t s s t a t e ,  ( F u l l a n , 1979) because the  problems i n v o l v e d with the i n c l u s i o n s o f c u r r i c u l a r innovations  cannot be e n t i r e l y  r e s o l v e d by f o l l o w i n g a s e t  of procedures, i t may be more d e s i r a b l e to d e r i v e g u i d e l i n e s which would i d e n t i f y those f a c t o r s which be considered i s being  when the adoption o f a c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n  undertaken.  then c o n t r i b u t e curricular  Various  should  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f these f a c t o r s may  to the s u c c e s s f u l adoption o f the  material.  researchers  have addressed t h i s n o t i o n o f f a c t o r s  which c o n t r i b u t e t o the s u c c e s s f u l adoption o f c u r r i c u l a r innovations.  Gross, G i a q u i n t a , barriers:  and B e r n s t e i n  (a) most teachers 25  (1975) i d e n t i f i e d  five  d i d not have a c l e a r image o f  the r o l e performance the i n n o v a t i o n expected,  (b) teachers  often, lacked the s k i l l s or knowledge t o perform the new roles,  (c) shortages  materials,  o f equipment and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  (d) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were  incongruent  with the i n n o v a t i o n , and (e) the negative or  non-supportive  a t t i t u d e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r the  innovation.  Much o f the implementation l i t e r a t u r e premise t h a t teachers  should  i s based on the  change so as t o i n c o r p o r a t e  as many c u r r i c u l a r - i n n o v a t i o n s as p o s s i b l e , because there i s b e n e f i t i n a l l o f the i n n o v a t i o n s . teachers  should not only be a c t i v e l y  I t i s assumed t h a t i n c o r p o r a t i n g new  c u r r i c u l a r material into their particular s i t u a t i o n , but a l s o t h a t once teachers  teaching  understand what the  i n n o v a t i o n i s a l l about, t h a t they w i l l make the necessary changes.  I t should not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t even i f teachers  understand the i n n o v a t i o n , have r e c e i v e d i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , or support still  from the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , they may  choose not t o use the m a t e r i a l .  may r e j e c t the suggestions  I n d i v i d u a l teachers  o f the " o u t s i d e " experts and  choose to r e - i n t e r p r e t the i n n o v a t i o n t o f i t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r micro or s c h o o l l e v e l  26  situation.  Some r e s e a r c h has examined f a c t o r s which are p a r t i c u l a r t o the beginning or i n i t i a l phases o f an  implementation,  while other s t u d i e s have examined f a c t o r s which are p a r t i c u l a r to the subsequent phases of the implementation.  F u l l a n & Pomfret (1977),  i n an e x t e n s i v e review o f  l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e d v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which g e n e r a l l y a f f e c t adoption of c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s d u r i n g the i n i t i a l phases of i t s implementation.  They suggested  that  these c o u l d be organized i n t o f o u r broad c a t e g o r i e s : 1.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n n o v a t i o n :  explicitness -  what? who? when? how?, and complexity. 2.  S t r a t e g i e s and methods ( i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ,  support, 3.  feedback  mechanisms, p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the adopting u n i t  (adoption  process, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e , environmental demographic 4.  resource  support,  factors).  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o u t s i d e the  adopting u n i t s ,  i n c e n t i v e system, r o l e o f e v a l u a t i o n ,  p o l i t i c a l complexity,  (pp. 367-386).  C u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s are a l s o s u b j e c t to problems 27  encountered a f t e r the innovation,  initial  phases of use  of  during the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase of  innovation.  Studies which focused  the  the  on the second phase of  an i n n o v a t i o n are as f o l l o w s .  Fullan  (1979) i d e n t i f i e d  f i v e components which i f put  p r a c t i v e would a s s i s t the a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g  into  or  c o n t i n u a t i o n of an i n n o v a t i o n :  these components w i l l  i n d i c a t e i f a group of teachers  i s a c t u a l l y p r a c t i c i n g and  u s i n g an  innovation.  The  f i v e components are:  1.  Structure/organization  2.  Materials  3.  Role/behaviour  4.  Knowledge/understanding  5.  I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n (Commitment) The  are concerning about the  " t h i n g s " while  the  first  two  components  l a s t three are concerned  "people" dimension.  Component 1 r e f e r s to examination of the s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and  determining  about t h i s s t r u c t u r e .  For example, i s team  o c c u r i n g where t h i s was students  being  i f anything  organized  has  changed  teaching  f o r m e r l y not the case?  Are  the  in a d i f f e r e n t / a l t e r n a t e fashion?  28  Component  2 addresses  the m a t e r i a l s being  used:  Are  they  d i f f e r e n t from the m a t e r i a l s f o r m e r l y used?  Both components 1 and 2 are r e a d i l y measured, whereas the final  three components are much more d i f f i c u l t to  implement or p l a n f o r .  The t h i r d component  r e f e r s to the observable  changes t h a t are i n evidence:  behaviour  e i t h e r behaviour changes  such as a change i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y , or a behaviour change i n an area such as methods of d e a l i n g with other people.  Component  4 i s concerned  knows and understands  with determining i f the teacher  the philosophy, assumptions,  goals  and means of the i n n o v a t i o n .  The f i f t h component attempts l e v e l of commitment  to determine  the teacher's  but o n l y a f t e r the i n n o v a t i o n has been  in use f o r a p e r i o d of time.  Initial  enthusiasm  or  s k e p t i c i s m may have waned, and thus a more a c c u r a t e assessment i s p o s s i b l e .  29  Other r e s e a r c h d i s c u s s e d f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the e n t i r e process of i n n o v a t i o n , not j u s t the i n i t i a l c o n t i n u a t i o n phases.  Fullan  delineated  (1979) nine  f a c t o r s which he suggests are " . . . f a c t o r s universally change."  1.  present i n s i t u a t i o n s  factor  which seem to be  o f attempted e d u c a t i o n a l  (p. 44) These nine f a c t o r s are as  The f i r s t  or  follows:  i s termed " p r e - h i s t o r y " .  Summarized,  t h i s r e f e r s to the tendancy o f teachers to become more c y n i c a l and s k e p t i c a l about c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s i f p r e v i o u s experiences were n e g a t i v e , r e g a r d l e s s of the q u a l i t y of the new  programme.  T h i s theme i s a t t r i b u t e d  Seymour Sarason The C u l t u r e of the School  ( A l l y n and  Bacon, 1971).  2.  This factor states  the need f o r c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of  the  content changes which w i l l occur, and with c l e a r and  s e p a r a t e l y d e f i n e d r o l e changes which w i l l a l s o Too o f t e n  result.  the two, the content changes and the r o l e  changes, are mixed up t o g e t h e r .  These two  e n t i t i t i e s should be d e a l t with as such.  30  distinct  to  3.  F a c t o r 3 emphasizes the need t o c l e a r l y s t a t e the  o b j e c t i v e s o f the i n n o v a t i o n , and not confuse  these  o b j e c t i v e s with the "means" o f the i n n o v a t i o n .  4.  The f o u r t h f a c t o r i s i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , not only  before but more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  a f t e r usage o f the new  material.  5.  The n e c e s s i t y of s m a l l group meetings f o r mutual  i n t e r a c t i o n i s the f i f t h together  6.  factor.  Teachers should get  to d i s c u s s what i s happening.  The s i x t h f a c t o r r e l a t e s t o the importance o f l o c a l  adaptations  of materials.  S t r a t e g i e s which a n t i c i p a t e and  promote f u r t h e r development o f m a t e r i a l s take advantage o f the e x p e r t i s e o f the t e a c h e r / u s e r .  7.  The r o l e o f and need f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support  essence of the seventh f a c t o r . not only p r o v i d e  resources  T h i s support  and approval,  that the other e i g h t f a c t o r s are being  31  i s the  should be t o  but t o ensure  addressed.  The  l a s t two f a c t o r s d e a l with the time frame:  Factor 8  i s concerned with the f a c t t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the changes i n h e r e n t , a teacher  can r e a d i l y become  with a l l o f the e x p e c t a t i o n s . be d e a l t with  This overload  f a c t o r could  i f the time-frame, f a c t o r 9, were more  realistic:  longer.  Influences  inherent  i n the School  Community:  U n t i l r e c e n t l y , the research and l i t e r a t u r e c u r r i c u l a r innovations i n the process  overloaded  focused  surrounding  on the mechanics i n v o l v e d  o f p l a c i n g new c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l i n t o  operation.  More recent  l i t e r a t u r e has changed i t s focus from the  mechanics, t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the i n f l u e n c e s and v a r i e i n t e r e s t s present  i n a s c h o o l community which shape any  piece of c u r r i c u l a r material:  new or o l d .  This  recent  literature  i d e n t i f i e s f a c t o r s such as c o n f l i c t  territory,  c o n f l i c t over s t a t u s , c o n f l i c t over c o n t r o l ,  and  over  the n e c e s s i t y f o r c r e a t i o n o f a s u b j e c t - a r e a  constituency. 32  Goodson (1987) argues t h a t  "much o f the c u r r i c u l u m  debate  can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of c o n f l i c t between s u b j e c t s over s t a t u s , resources  and t e r r i t o r y . " (p.3)  Research and l i t e r a t u r e which i l l u m i n a t e s these  school  c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t s w i l l be addressed i n the f o l l o w i n g section.  a ) C o n f l i c t over T e r r i t o r y :  Goodson (1983) i n d i c a t e s the presence of t e r r i t o r i a l conflict  i n t h i s comment:  "Curriculum  conflict  takes  p l a c e a g a i n s t a changing background both i n terms o f the e d u c a t i o n a l system and the broader f a b r i c o f the n a t i o n a l economy".  (p. 38)  micro l e v e l :  Macro l e v e l changes i n f l u e n c e the  the s c h o o l .  Macro l e v e l i n f l u e n c e s stemming  from the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the e a r l y 1980's i n f l u e n c e d what happened t o the e d u c a t i o n a l system:  r e i n s t i t u t i o n o f an i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f  governmental c o n t r o l , and c r e a t i o n and i n s e r t i o n o f new courses  such as Consumer  Education.  Horn (1986) suggested t h a t the i n s e r t i o n o f Consumer 33  Education i n t o the e x i s t i n g secondary was  a political  d e c i s i o n , and was  school curriculum  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  c o n f l i c t and compromise between v a r i o u s " i n t e r e s t Two  groups".  examples of the c o n f l i c t and compromise were e v i d e n t  i n the case of Consumer Education, the f i r s t concerned  about t e r r i t o r y ,  stakeholder  and the second  about  conflict.  When Consumer Education was course, i t was  mandated as a compulsory  a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t whichever s u b j e c t  group snared Consumer Education was territorial  being  going to have a l a r g e  a d d i t i o n to i t s s u b j e c t - a r e a umbrella.  D i s t r i c t C i r c u l a r #158  assigned the course to the  School Business  Education departments wherever these departments were i n p l a c e , and yet, t e r r i t o r i a l  j o c k e y i n g f o r the  course  continued between the Business Educators, the Home Economists,  S o c i a l S t u d i e s and  departments. (Horn,  Mathematics  1986).  More r e c e n t l y the focus of the l i t e r a t u r e has been understanding and the way  the v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s of the s c h o o l community  i n which these v a r i e d  i n t e r e s t s have  r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n of the innovation.  One  original  f a c t o r which has been i d e n t i f i e d 34  caused  as  i n f l u e n c i n g the shape given to c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l i s the c o n f l i c t or debate over the s t a t u s of the  course.  "Status" r e f e r s to the p e r c e i v e d importance or value of the  course.  b ) C o n f l i c t over  Status:  In h i s book, School Subjects and Curriculum  Change, (1987)  Goodson i d e n t i f i e s - three t r a d i t i o n s or d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n school subjects: Utilitarian  utilitarian,  academic.  knowldge i s " p r a c t i c a l . . . r e l a t e d to non-  p r o f e s s i o n a l vocations commonsense". of  pedagogic, and  ....which i s p e r s o n a l  and  Pedagogic knowledge deals with the  t e a c h i n g and  science  academic knowledge i s "content-focused  t y p i c a l l y s t r e s s e s a b s t r a c t and (Goodson, 1983,  P.27)  and  t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge."  He hypothesizes  t h a t the type  of  knowledge a s c h o o l s u b j e c t r e f l e c t s w i l l g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e i t s s t a t u s and  resource  allocations.  He argues t h a t c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s are high i n s t a t u s while other s c h o o l s u b j e c t s can be c o n s i d e r e d  low  in status.  High s t a t u s s u b j e c t s are those which have formed the powerful  "triple alliance":  examinations and  academic s u b j e c t s , e x t e r n a l  able students" 35  (Goodson, 1987,  p.  192).  His book t r a c e s the e f f o r t s of proponents of s u b j e c t s such as geography, b i o l o g y and  environmental s t u d i e s to e l e v a t e  t h e i r s u b j e c t to h i g h e r s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the system. teachers  E l e v a t i o n to a higher of these  resources  and  school  s t a t u s p o s i t i o n meant t h a t  s u b j e c t s would b e n e f i t i n terms of  career prospects.  B i o l o g y and  Geography  were s u c c e s s f u l i n promoting an academic t r a d i t i o n because of support  from powerful  groups, and  s c h o o l and  university  subject  thus e l e v a t e d the s t a t u s to a h i g h e r  Environmental s t u d i e s was  level.  not s u c c e s s f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  i t s e l f as an examinable s u b j e c t because of r e s i s t a n c e from the b i o l o g y and  geography s u b j e c t communities who  t h e i r s u b j e c t t e r r i t o r y would be threatened  by the  s u b j e c t . Goodson argues t h a t the p a t t e r n s present s c h o o l system are most o f t e n c r e a t e d by  connections" and  Goodson comments  "work and  a l l o c a t i o n and  c a r e e r prospects  these  lives".  subjects  the a s s o c i a t e d  ensure". (1987, p.193)  In other words, t e r r i t o r i a l defense of a high 36  i n the  on the " w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d  which e x i s t between the h i g h - s t a t u s  p a t t e r n s of resource  new  " c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of  t e a c h e r s ' m a t e r i a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r working (1987, p.193)  felt  status  p o s i t i o n w i l l take precedence over i n t e l l e c t u a l  and  p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s about the value of  new  c u r r i c u l a r courses:  Consumer Education.  c) C r e a t i o n of a sub.iect-area c o n s t i t u e n c y :  Other r e s e a r c h e r s have concentrated on the f a c t o r s which promote " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n " ,  a term coined by M i l e s  (1983) to d e f i n e the degree to which an i n n o v a t i o n has become i n g r a i n e d i n t o the system over a p e r i o d of  time.  K i r s t and M e i s t e r (1985) simply r e f e r to c o n t i n u a t i o n of a c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n as  "lasting".  Since i t s i n c e p t i o n , one major area of c o n f l i c t the Consumer Education course was Because the course was requirement,  concerning  s t a f f i n g of the  mandated as a compulsory  graduation  every student would have to take the  and pass i t i n order to graduate.  course.  course  Mandating the course  as  compulsory c r e a t e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r teachers to teach  the  course.  and  i t was  The  Enrollment  i n e l e c t i v e courses was  declining,  from these courses t h a t teachers were r e - a s s i g n e d .  comprehensive secondary  s c h o o l i s comprised  of v a r i o u s  s u b j e c t communities t h a t are " s h i f t i n g s e t s of sub-groups, 37  d e l i c a t e l y h e l d together under a common name a t p a r t i c u l a r periods  i n h i s t o r y ' " . (Goodson, 1987. p. 184)  subject  area communities or c o n s t i t u e n c i e s :  of s e v e r a l groups i n t o one o r g a n i z a t i o n perceived  common i n t e r e s t (Reid,  Educators, S o c i a l Studies  The  amalgamation  to further t h e i r  1985) would be P h y s i c a l  t e a c h e r s or E n g l i s h  importance o f these s u b j e c t  documented by K i r s t and M e i s t e r  Examples o f  teachers.  constituencies i s (1985).  Their  article  "Which reforms l a s t ? " s t a t e s that i n s i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , or l a s t i n g , of a c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n crucial attributes: constituencies  depends upon  c r e a t i o n of new s t r u c t u r e s ,  three powerful  and e a s i l y - a c c e s s i b l e evidence of  compliance.  The  first  a t t r i b u t e r e f e r s t o the necessary c r e a t i o n o f  new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e s and new l e v e l s o f  s p e c i a l i z e d personnel t o oversee and f a c i l i t a t e the a c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f the new m a t e r i a l .  Example o f new l e v e l s of  s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l a r e ESL t e a c h e r s or French Immersion teachers.  The  second c r u c i a l a t t r i b u t e , c r e a t i o n o f s u b j e c t  constituencies,  follows  the f i r s t 38  attribute:  ESL t e a c h e r s  have become a d i s t i n c t p r o f e s s i o n a l power base i n t e r e s t e d in m a i n t a i n i n g  The  their particular  t h i r d c r u c i a l a t t r i b u t e i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r easy  evidence  of compliance so t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  i n n o v a t i o n can be  The  subject-area.  determined.  c o n t i n u a t i o n phase of Consumer Education  experienced  the development of any  of these  has  not  three  attributes.  New  c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s are a f f e c t e d by the c u l t u r e of  s c h o o l s , and by c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d upon the s c h o o l system by o u t s i d e  agencies.  As has been noted maintain  earlier,  the s t a t u s quo.  classified  s c h o o l c u l t u r e s tend to Wolcott  (1977) and  schools as s t a b l e , c o n s e r v a t i v e  Lortie  (1975)  communities  r e s i s t a n t to change; F u l l a n (1982) contends t h a t  teachers  adapt or modify c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s which they use; Common (1983) comments t h a t "teachers choose to the way  The  of l i f e  i n classrooms  maintain  they f i n d d e s i r e a b l e (p..44).  e f f e c t s of e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s upon the 39  and  school  system, and t h e r e f o r e the s u b j e c t s w i t h i n the system, was the focus o f research done by Fleming (1985) and Reid (1983).  Fleming s t a t e s t h a t r e a c t i o n s to mandated  p o l i c i e s a r e as much generated by how the p o l i c i e s are handed down, as by the a c t u a l nature o f the p o l i c i e s themselves.  Reid notes t h a t the e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s  placed by the u n i v e r s i t i e s upon the s c h o o l system cause some s u b j e c t s to be considered a c c e p t a b l e f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance, while other s u b j e c t s are n o t .  He contends t h a t  such pressure may not be i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the school system i f one c o n s i d e r s t h a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , the f u n c t i o n of the school system i s t o educate u n i v e r s a l l y , and not j u s t the g i f t e d few.  This e x t e r n a l pressure upon  the school system i s another example o f how macro l e v e l i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t the micro, or school  level  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l .  E x i s t i n g s t u d i e s which focus s p e c i f i c a l l y upon the Consumer Education  course w i l l be presented  next. Four  r e p o r t s are s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the Consumer course.  Education  These w i l l be d e a l t with i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r .  40  a) Submission  from the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t  t o the  M i n i s t e r o f Education. Hon. B r i a n Smith:  Even before the course was developed, Board was concerned In  about  the Vancouver School  i t s impact on the s c h o o l  June of 1981, a r e p o r t on Consumer Education 9/10  presented by the Board of School T r u s t e e s , School No. 39  was  District  (Vancouver).  The r e p o r t made these 1.  system.  comments:  I n t r o d u c t i o n of the course w i l l  severely l i m i t  e l e c t i v e o p t i o n s f o r students.  2.  The l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be f e l t most h e a v i l y i n the F i n e  A r t s e l e c t i v e area.  3.  Compulsory i n t r o d u c t i o n of the course w i l l be  p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y c o n t r a r y to the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Grades 9 and  10 are e x p l o r a t o r y i n nature.  4.  I n t r o d u c t i o n of the course w i l l r e q u i r e  of  teachers i n t o a f i e l d  necessarily  re-assignments  f o r which they are not  trained. 41  In  order to minimize these a n t i c i p a t e d problems the r e p o r t  made the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Consumer Education be taught i n one of two  ways i n order not to d e s t r o y the  which students now  have access,  (p.2)  electives.to  I t recommended  either assigning appropriate units into  existing  p r e s c r i b e d courses, or t a k i n g p r e s c r i b e d u n i t s of Consumer Education over the p e r i o d of t h e i r secondary  schooling:  students would be r e q u i r e d to show completion u n i t s before graduate  s t a n d i n g would be  N e i t h e r of these suggestions was  b)  ERIBC Report  No.  of these  granted.  accepted by the M i n i s t r y .  82:14  P r i o r to development of a s e n i o r l e v e l course, but the f i r s t year Consumer Education 9/10 the ERIBC conducted  had been completed,  a survey of Lower Mainland  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . be i n t e r p r e t e d with two  The  after  teachers  r e s u l t s of t h i s survey  f a c t o r s i n mind:  should  the course  only been ' i n o p e r a t i o n ' f o r the s i n g l e year, and  had  the  course had been mandated i n an era marked by p o l i t i c a l territorial  skirmishes.  42  and  The  survey r e s u l t s p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g  conclusions:  the respondents,  a random c l u s t e r  p o l l e d a 55.8% n e g a t i v e response  sample,  t o Consumer Education  being a compulsory course; 54.9% favoured an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to t e a c h i n g the course; and there was g e n e r a l support f o r t e a c h i n g Consumer Education i n Grade 12 as opposed t o Grade 10. great many undecided  c) Report  responses.  However, there were a  ( D a l l a s , ERIBC 82:14)  on the Impact of Consumer Education Courses i n  Vancouver Schools During  1982-83:  T h i s r e p o r t by K e t t l e and McCreary, c o l l e c t e d data  from  28 Vancouver Consumer Education 9/10 c l a s s e s i n order t o determine  the number of students by grade e n r o l l e d i n the  Consumer Education 9/10 course, student e x p e c t a t i o n s of the course and whether these were met, teacher  attitudes  to the course, e v a l u a t i o n of the t e x t and other resource m a t e r i a l s and plans f o r the impending i n c l u s i o n of Consumer Education 12.  The survey determined  t h a t most students  (47%) took the  course because i t was compulsory, and 18% of the grade 9 43  students took  i t a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e time so they  would not have to take i t i n Grade 10-12 time  when more 6 t u d y  i s required.  When asked  "Have you been l e a r n i n g the kinds of t h i n g s  you wanted to l e a r n i n the course?", the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of students  (78%)  Students  a l s o p e r c e i v e d the course to be u s e f u l :  said  responded  a f f i r m a t i v e l y to t h i s q u e s t i o n . 85%  i t contained i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l to them as consumers,  while 75% s a i d i t gave them a chance to l e a r n  skills  useful in l i f e .  The  r e p o r t a l s o determined  Education had  d) Report  i n Consumer  r e s u l t e d i n a n o t i c e a b l e d e c l i n e i n the  f o l l o w i n g e l e c t i v e areas: Industrial  t h a t enrollment  Home Economics, A r t , and  Education.  on The  Implementation  of Consumer Education i n  the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia:  In June 1983, by Este was  June  1983  a r e p o r t on Consumer Education and  conducted  i s s u e d which summarized a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  completed  by 57 of 74 p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  determine  c u r r e n t and a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t s of the phased 44  to  i n c l u s i o n o f the Consumer Education course and i n particular, The  i t s a f f e c t on e l e c t i v e course  offerings.  r e p o r t reached a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s .  More than  h a l f o f the d i s t r i c t s c o n s i d e r e d s t a f f i n g o f the course t o be adequate.  About 10% o f the d i s t r i c t s a n t i c i p a t e d  staff  t r a n s f e r s would be n e c e s s i t a t e d .  Over 40% o f the d i s t r i c t s  indicated  professional  development would not be p r o v i d e d .  Most d i s t r i c t s  (73%) f e l t  the a d d i t i o n o f Consumer  Education was not a p o s i t i v e a d d i t i o n t o the secondaryschool curriculum.  The e l e c t i v e courses being a f f e c t e d by the a d d i t i o n o f Consumer Education i n order o f r e d u c t i o n s were A r t , Drama, Music  and I n d u s t r i a l  Summary o f Reports  Education.  on Consumer Education;  These f o u r r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e there was i n i t i a l the impact  concern  the course would have on the e x i s t i n g  secondary  c u r r i c u l u m , i n p a r t i c u l a r upon the e l e c t i v e areas. order t o l e s s e n the n e g a t i v e impact 45  over  In  Consumer Education  would have upon e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s , content  i t was suggested t h a t  areas be p r e s c r i b e d as u n i t s which c o u l d be  incorporated  i n t o e x i s t i n g s u b j e c t s , or as u n i t s which  could be taken whenever convenient d u r i n g secondary s c h o o l  The  the s t u d e n t s '  curriculum.  survey conducted i n 1982 i n d i c a t e d more than 50% o f  respondents d i d not favour compulsory  Consumer Education  as being a  course.  K e t t l e and McCreary's 1983 r e p o r t which showed 78% of students  responded p o s i t i v e l y about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  the course i n d i c a t e s the course r e c e i v e d favourable  feedback from the students.  initial This report also  i n d i c a t e d t h a t e l e c t i v e areas were e x p e r i e n c i n g enrollment  which c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n c l u s i o n o f  the Consumer Education  Este's  a drop i n  course as a graduation  requirement.  r e p o r t i n 1983 concluded t h a t throughout the  province,  district  l e v e l support  f o r the course was not  strong.  Over 40% o f the 74 p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i c t s d i d not  provide  p r o f e s s i o n a l development and 73% o f the d i s t r i c t s  f e l t the a d d i t i o n o f Consumer Education a d d i t i o n to the secondary s c h o o l 46  was not a p o s i t i v e  curriculum.  It  can be concluded  from these r e p o r t s t h a t the Consumer  Education course was was  i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a s c h o o l system  not f a v o u r a b l y disposed to the a d d i t i o n of t h i s  which new  course.  Summation: Although s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have examined B r i t i s h  Columbia's  Consumer Education course, a l l of these were conducted d u r i n g the i n i t i a l  stages of the courses's o p e r a t i o n .  The course has now  been i n o p e r a t i o n s i n c e 1982,  have been no recent s t u d i e s d i r e c t e d towards of  but there  examination  t h i s course.  T h i s study w i l l continue the examination  of the course,  but w i l l focus on the r o u t i n e , or day-to-day the course as i t e x i s t s today. understanding of how initially  o p e r a t i o n of  I t w i l l seek an  the macro e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s which  c r e a t e d the course-as-planned  have been r e -  i n t e r p r e t e d i n t o the a c t u a l c o u r s e - a s - p r a c t i c e d at the micro, or s c h o o l l e v e l .  47  CHAPTER 3:  METHODOLOGY  I n t r o d u c t i o n : The primary aim of t h i s study was t o answer two q u e s t i o n s :  what i s the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer  Education c o u r s e - a s - p r a c t i c e d i n the Vancouver  secondary  system, and secondly, to e x p l o r e f a c t o r s f e l t by the respondents  which i n f l u e n c e t h i s c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n .  Examination  of what has happened with the course o f f e r s an  example o f how  i n n o v a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from macro l e v e l  i n f l u e n c e s can be r e i n t e r p r e t e d level.  i n schools a t the micro  An a n a l y s i s of the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the  Consumer Education course was f e l t necessary t o o f f e r suggestions t o the M i n i s t r y of Education and i n p a r t i c u l a r to  the e n t i r e Business Education c u r r i c u l u m which i s now  undergoing  In  a process of review and r e v i s i o n .  order t o i n v e s t i g a t e these two problems, i n t e r v i e w s  were conducted  with 23 Vancouver secondary  Consumer  Education teachers i n order to gather p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n which would attempt  to present a comprehensive  p i c t u r e of the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer Education course.  48  T h i s chapter  will  d i s c u s s the reasons f o r employing  i n t e r v i e w s f o r data c o l l e c t i o n , d e s c r i b e the development of the i n t e r v i e w guide and  i t s subsequent p i l o t i n g  r e v i s i o n , d i s c u s s s e l e c t i o n of the sample, and techniques  used f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the  R a t i o n a l e f o r Using  Using  an  and  the  data.  Interview:  an i n t e r v i e w permitted  probing  questions  to be  i n s e r t e d when respondents h i n t e d or mentioned an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t or whenever another " s i d e " i s s u e raised.  Such a degree of f l e x i b i l i t y  was  or a d a p t a b i l i t y  would not have been p o s s i b l e with a q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The  main advantage of the i n t e r v i e w i s i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y  and  flexibility.  depth probing  Because of t h i s a d a p t a b i l i t y , more i n -  can a l s o be made to o b t a i n c o n t r o v e r s i a l  responses.  Whereas q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are s u b j e c t to respondents' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of what they t h i n k the q u e s t i o n 49  i s asking,  with the f l e x i b i l i t y o f the i n t e r v i e w , any  misinterpreted  or misunderstood q u e s t i o n s can be e a s i l y c l a r i f i e d .  There  i s l e s s answer d i s t o r t i o n with use of the i n t e r v i e w .  Use  of an i n t e r v i e w makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r the i n t e r v i e w e r to clarify  and q u e s t i o n u n c l e a r comments made by the  respondent.  (Borg and G a l l ,  1983)  Another major advantage of an i n t e r v i e w i s t h a t the human interaction the  i n h e r e n t with t h i s technique tends to i n c r e a s e  r a t e of response.  to p a r t i c i p a t e situation  Many respondents are more w i l l i n g  i n a face-to-face situation  where they are simply r e p l y i n g  regarded as  to what i s o f t e n  ' j u s t another q u e s t i o n n a i r e " .  i n t o n a t i o n and the nuances.of  than i n a  Body  language,  the spoken language come  a l i v e and become apparent i n an i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n .  Much  of t h i s important "hidden" i n f o r m a t i o n would be l o s t i f an alternative  data c o l l e c t i o n method had been used.  Perhaps the main disadvantage of u s i n g an i n t e r v i e w f o r c o l l e c t i n g data i s the amount of time t h a t can be involved.  An i n t e r v i e w guide or format was  provide d i r e c t i o n  developed to  and focus to the i n t e r v i e w and  unnecessary expenditure o f time.  50  reduce  Types of Interviews: Interviews range i n type from being e n t i r e l y s t r u c t u r e d , through  being s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d or to  being e n t i r e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d .  S t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s are  those which do not permit any d e v i a t i o n from q u e s t i o n s g i v e n to and  those  used by the i n t e r v i e w e r .  An  example of t h i s type of i n t e r v i e w would be those done by census t a k e r s .  Unstructured  used i n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s :  i n t e r v i e w s are those commonly  the i n t e r v i e w or therapy s e s s i o n  ranges i n t o whatever i s s u e or thought person  r e c e i v i n g therapy.  Semi-structured  somewhere i n between these two  Semi-structured  i s r a i s e d by  the  interviews  fall  extremes.  i n t e r v i e w s encourage more in-depth answers  and probing of u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s than q u e s t i o n n a i r e s or structured and  i n t e r v i e w s while not becoming o v e r l y  seemingly  disjointed:  there i s a d e f i n i t e  but i t i s not r e s t r i c t e d unduly  rambling direction,  by the q u e s t i o n s s e l e c t e d  f o r the i n t e r v i e w guide.  For the purpose of t h i s study, techniques  semi-structured interview  were employed.  51  Development of the Interview Guide  a)Reducing Response E f f e c t s : possible results,  In order to a t t a i n the best  i t i s necessary f o r the r e s e a r c h e r to  reduce response e f f e c t s , d e f i n e d by Borg and G a l l as "the tendency of the respondent to g i v e i n a c c u r a t e or i n c o r r e c t responses, or more p r e c i s e l y i s the d i f f e r e n c e between the answer g i v e n by the respondent and the t r u e answer." (1983, p.  438)  In t r y i n g to reduce the e r r o r s caused by the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s of the respondent,  i n other words, the  respondent b i a s , the i n t e r v i e w guide was  designed to  l e s s e n p o t e n t i a l sources of e r r o r such as being s u s p i c i o u s or h o s t i l e , being i n d i f f e r e n t , being unable to answer the q u e s t i o n , or d e s i r i n g to present h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f f a v o u r a b l y to the i n t e r v i e w e r .  A second source of  p o t e n t i a l b i a s emanates from the r e s e a r c h e r or interviewer.  Problems such as being uncomfortable,  a l l o w i n g one's own  o p i n i o n s to i n f l u e n c e what i s being  s a i d or heard, i n a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h a r a p p o r t with the respondent, or a l l o w i n g s t e r e o t y p e s of people to  52  p r e d i s p o s e the r e s e a r c h e r to a c t i n a way i n f l u e n c e the i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s .  which  will  A l l of these f a c t o r s a c t  as d e t e r r e n t s to a t t a i n i n g the roost a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . (Borg and G a l l ,  1983)  The q u e s t i o n s to be asked  d u r i n g the course of the  i n t e r v i e w began with p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n an attempt p l a c e the respondent o p i n i o n s and  at ease,  and concluded  f e e l i n g s of the respondents.  i n f o r m a t i o n asked  f o r was  with the A l l of the  t h a t which a l l teachers of  Consumer Education would have knowledge.  In other words,  no s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge was  r e q u i r e d as a l l q u e s t i o n s  d e a l t with the respondents'  personal teaching s i t u a t i o n .  b) The  The  Interview  to  Guide:  i n t e r v i e w guide was  developed  to determine  Consumer  Education's c u r r e n t or present s t a t e w i t h i n the Vancouver Secondary School system, and  to the reasons  f o r the  current s i t u a t i o n .  Questions  were designed t o allow  t e a c h e r s to respond  e a s i l y and completely to the  probe.  Other than the q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t i n g demographic i n f o r m a t i o n , or those q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t i n g a numerical 53  r a t i n g , most were designed to be as open-ended as possible.  I t was  the i n t e n t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r  to  c r e a t e an atmosphere which would be conducive to having the respondent answer as completely and possible.  In other words, the i n t e r v i e w guide  developed f o r use  i n the s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d  i n order to provide  consistency  i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w while clarification was  honestly  still  where n e c e s s a r y .  developed and  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  as was  interview  i n the d i r e c t i o n of  the  p e r m i t t i n g probing  and  The  i n t e r v i e w guide which  used i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix  the i n t e r v i e w guide was  A.  designed to  enable the respondents to r e p l y to each q u e s t i o n much i n f o r m a t i o n as d e s i r e d .  I t was  with  a l s o designed so  each i n t e r v i e w would have a c o n s i s t e n t d i r e c t i o n intention.  Question-probes were organised  as to f a c i l i t a t e data c o l l e c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s e c t i o n s was  S e c t i o n One  questions  and  and  The  as f o l l o w s :  e l i c i t e d demographic and  personal  provided  a  comfortable s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the i n t e r v i e w . S e c t i o n d e a l t with the respondent's p a r t i c u l a r 54  that  numbered so  analysis.  i n f o r m a t i o n about each respondent, and  questions  as  two  teaching  situation.  S e c t i o n 3 q u e s t i o n s were concerned  with the  resources and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n which the t e a c h e r p r a c t i t i o n e r s were u s i n g . textbook  and reasons  A r a t i n g of the p r e s c r i b e d  f o r t h i s r a t i n g were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n  t h i s s e c t i o n . The f o u r t h s e c t i o n c e n t r e d on the a c t u a l c u r r i c u l u m u n i t s each person were being covered, emphases, reasons  was t e a c h i n g ; i e . what u n i t s  the o r d e r i n g of the u n i t s , the  f o r these p a r t i c u l a r emphases, non-  i n c l u s i o n of p r e s c r i b e d u n i t s ,  reasons  for non-inclusion.  Where p o s s i b l e the teacher's u n i t p l a n ( y e a r l y plan) was requested,  and these have been i n c l u d e d as Appendix C.  S e c t i o n 5 q u e s t i o n s were concerned  with g r a d i n g  procedures  - how grades are assigned, year end exams, c o n s i s t e n c y of grading between the v a r i o u s teachers of the course w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l . S e c t i o n 6 q u e s t i o n probes were designed  to e l i c i t  t e a c h e r ' s viewpoints  about whether the  Consumer Education course should continue as a compulsory graduation viewpoint  requirement.  Reasons s u p p o r t i n g each  person's  were probed. The q u e s t i o n s i n s e c t i o n seven were  i n c l u d e d t o d i s c e r n s t a k e h o l d e r s ' a t t i t u d e s about the course,  as w e l l as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s of support f o r  the course. The f i n a l s e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w was designed  to g a i n t e a c h e r s ' ideas about how the course  55  could i n g e n e r a l be improved.  Piloting  the Interview Guide: In order t o reduce r e s e a r c h e r  b i a s and determine areas of p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y , s e v e r a l pilot  i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d t o "dry run" the q u e s t i o n s .  Three p i l o t  i n t e r v i e w s were done with teachers of Consumer  Education who were from another During the p i l o t specifically  i n t e r v i e w s , these respondents  apparent  needing  r e p h r a s i n g or  For example, d u r i n g the p i l o t  s e s s i o n s i t was  t h a t the q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the t o p i c s  being taught were o r i g i n a l l y rephrased  were  i n s t r u c t e d to i d e n t i f y any q u e s t i o n s or areas  which appeared to be "fuzzy": redrafting.  school d i s t r i c t .  too g e n e r a l , and needed t o be  so t h a t more s p e c i f i c  i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be  obtained.  When the f i n a l form of the i n t e r v i e w guide had evolved, these q u e s t i o n s were then p a r t i a l l y  memorized t o  f a c i l i t a t e ease of d e l i v e r y and e s t a b l i s h an aura of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and c o n t i n u i t y t o the q u e s t i o n i n g and interviewing.  56  Selection  o f the  Sample:  a ) I d e n t i f y i n g the Target P o p u l a t i o n : The e x p e r i m e n t a l l y a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s study would have i n c l u d e d all  secondary  purposes  teachers i n the Vancouver School system. For  of t h i s study, the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n was  defined  as those teachers t e a c h i n g i n the " r e g u l a r " s c h o o l system who  had taught Consumer Education at the 9/10  l e v e l , the  12 l e v e l or both, d u r i n g the s c h o o l year 1987-88. amounted to a t o t a l a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n of 41  This  teachers  who  were i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g a Department Head meeting June  13,  1988.  At t h i s meeting, the D i s t r i c t P r i n c i p a l f o r  Business Education, Mr. Department Head l i s t  Bob  Peacock requested t h a t each  a l l c u r r e n t teachers of Consumer  Education.  Each Department Head a l s o i d e n t i f i e d those teachers  who  taught the g r e a t e s t load of Consumer Education at t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l , those who  had taught the course f o r at  l e a s t t h r e e years, and those t e a c h e r s who Consumer Education f o r the f i r s t 1987-88.  57  were t e a c h i n g  time d u r i n g s c h o o l year  From the l i s t s  compiled  d u r i n g the meeting June 13, 1988,  a t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n o f 32 t e a c h e r s was i d e n t i f i e d .  From  the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 41 t e a c h e r s , the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n was chosen based  on the respondent  following c r i t e r i a :  f u l f i l l i n g one o f the  a) 3 or more years  experience  t e a c h i n g CE courses; or b) t e a c h e r s i n i n i t i a l t e a c h i n g year with CE course; or c) teacher with g r e a t e s t number of t e a c h i n g block of CE i n a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l community; d) at l e a s t one respondent  per secondary  school.  p o p u l a t i o n o f 32 teachers was i d e n t i f i e d .  A target  Each of these  t e a c h e r s was sent a p e r s o n a l l y signed l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g the i n t e n t of the study and r e q u e s t i n g approximately of t h e i r time at t h e i r convenience, Consumer Education  an hour  t o d i s c u s s the  course.  S e v e r a l days a f t e r the d e l i v e r y o f these l e t t e r s o f transmittal,  an attempt  was made t o p e r s o n a l l y c o n t a c t  each p r o s p e c t i v e respondent arrange  for a suitable  a d d i t i o n a l attempts respondent,  by telephone  i n t e r v i e w time.  i n order t o Where necessary,  were made t o reach the p r o s p e c t i v e  and telephone messages were l e f t  not c o n t a c t e d .  58  f o r those  b) The Sample P o p u l a t i o n  From the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of 32 teachers, were w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  In t o t a l ,  24  teachers  23 i n t e r v i e w s were  h e l d because one person withdrew f o r h e a l t h reasons. l e a s t one teacher was i n t e r v i e w e d Vancouver s c h o o l s .  Two teachers  programmes were i n t e r v i e w e d  At  from each of the 18 from M i n i  School  over the telephone.  Their  comments have been i n c l u d e d , but i t should be noted t h a t these  teachers  population.  were not from the o r i g i n a l t a r g e t  Teachers from the numerous a l t e r n a t i v e  programmes, e.g. Bridge,  were not i n c l u d e d i n the t a r g e t  population.  Procedure f o r I n t e r v i e w i n g :  The  i n t e r v i e w s were conducted during the f i n a l two weeks  of the 1987-88 school year.  T h i s year-end time was  s e l e c t e d as the optimum time f o r two main a v a i l a b i l i t y of time, and recent completion Consumer Education  course.  reasons: of the  In the f i r s t p l a c e , there  was  time a v a i l a b l e both f o r the respondents and f o r the r e s e a r c h e r because r e g u l a r t e a c h i n g 59  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were  finished  and exam s u p e r v i s i o n had become the major  activity.  The second f a c t o r which made the year end the  most a p p r o p r i a t e time f o r conducting t h i s r e s e a r c h was that because  the t e a c h i n g year had been r e c e n t l y  concluded, the i s s u e s and o p i n i o n s were s t i l l the  "fresh" i n  respondents' minds.  A l l of the i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d at the respondents' s c h o o l , i n a p l a c e chosen by the respondent. i n s t a n c e s t h i s was cases i t was  the t e a c h e r ' s own  the s t a f f room.  In most  room, but i n a few  The respondents s e l e c t e d the  l o c a t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w so as to promote t h e i r  comfort  and ease.  usually  The time chosen  f o r the i n t e r v i e w was  suggested by the respondent and wherever p o s s i b l e and convenient, t h i s was researcher.  the time agreed upon by the  Most of the i n t e r v i e w s took approximately one  hour, although s e v e r a l exceeded  t h i s time frame.  On  average, t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s were conducted each day so as t o allow f o r t r a v e l l i n g time, and to permit longer i n t e r v i e w s whenever these occured.  A l l o f the i n t e r v i e w s were tape recorded with the knowledge and consent of the respondent having been g i v e n . 60  An i n t e r v i e w began when the respondent was  ready to b e g i n .  i n d i c a t e d he or she  In none of the s i t u a t i o n s was  i n t e r v i e w terminated at the respondent's  request.  the In every  s i t u a t i o n , the respondents answered a l l q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t e d to  them.  Data  All  Analysis--  of the i n t e r v i e w s were tape recorded and  transcribed verbatim.  then  Both the tape r e c o r d i n g s and  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e f o r c o r r o b o r a t i o n , but have not a l l been i n c l u d e d i n the Appendices  due to the amount  of  Immediately  m a t e r i a l which has been generated.  f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v i e w guide i s one of the t r a n s c r i b e d i n t e r v i e w s which i s i n c l u d e d with the permi  respondent's  i o n as Appendix B.  At the end of each day's i n t e r v i e w s , the tapes were l i s t e n e d to f o r two reasons. determine  The f i r s t reason was  i f t h e r e were any d i f f i c u l t i e s  or " f l a t "  to spots  d e v e l o p i n g i n the i n t e r v i e w so t h a t these c o u l d be c o r r e c t e d wherever p o s s i b l e p r i o r to the next day.  The  second reason f o r l i s t e n i n g to these taped i n t e r v i e w s 61  was  to "key i n " on those areas which the respondents emphasized:  where t h e i r v o i c e s and i n t o n a t i o n  indicated  t h i s or t h a t was of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t or importance, or where they i d e n t i f i e d those f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s t a t e of the Consumer Education course. Those i s s u e s and comments which the respondents emphasized and l a t e r  were noted  collated.  S e v e r a l weeks l a t e r , a f t e r a l l of the i n t e r v i e w s were concluded, a l l of the tapes were again played f o r a second time.  Those i s s u e s and themes which teachers i d e n t i f i e d  as being important c o n t r i b u t o r s t o the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n of Consumer Education were again noted and c o l l a t e d t o double-check  that important i s s u e s and themes had been  identified.  All  tapes were then sent f o r verbatim t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  In  order t o ensure the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the respondents, the teacher/respondent was not i d e n t i f i e d on tape, nor was the p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l .  A l l of the i n t e r v i e w s were  assigned a number, and the i d e n t i f y i n g key was kept s e p a r a t e l y from the audio tapes.  62  A f t e r the t r a n s c r i p t i o n , a l l of the t r a n s c r i p t s were examined and the comments and numerical i n f o r m a t i o n were organized  according  to the q u e s t i o n  from the i n t e r v i e w  guide, or c o l l a t e d with those i s s u e s or matters of i n t e r e s t which had been i d e n t i f i e d from l i s t e n i n g to the taped  interviews.  With some of the i n t e r v i e w s , the order o f the q u e s t i o n i n g d i d not e x a c t l y f o l l o w the i n t e r v i e w guide:  when a  respondent r a i s e d a p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t or a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t , t h i s new d i r e c t i o n was pursued and when exhausted, the i n t e r v i e w then recommenced i n the i n t e r v i e w g u i d e . A l l comments were l i s t e d and subsequent s i m i l a r ' comments were t a b u l a t e d to show the frequency of the comment.  For  example, i f one respondent commented on the lack o f up-todate a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , and another respondent commented upon u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of the a u d i o - v i s u a l resources,  these two comments were grouped together  as A/V  problems.  Respondent C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y :  In order to p r o t e c t  respondents" i d e n t i t y , the f o l l o w i n g system o f numbering 63  was  used.  Using Main S t r e e t , where the c i t y ' s s t r e e t s  change t h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n from East to West, nine secondary schools f a l l West s i d e .  The  i n the East Side, and  remaining  seven on  the  secondary s c h o o l i s Vancouver's  only "downtown" s c h o o l , which g e o g r a p h i c a l l y does not f i t i n t o e i t h e r group, but  i s more a k i n to the East s i d e  schools when student p o p u l a t i o n makeup and taken group.  i n t o account.  organization i s  I t has been i n c l u d e d i n the east  Of the 23 respondents,  area  12 were from the west s i d e  and have been numbered W1-W12, 11 were from the east s i d e and downtown (one  l e s s due  to the i l l n e s s of one  person)  to be r e f e r r e d to as E l - 1 1 .  Summary of Methodology:  A semi-structured Consumer Education questions:  i n t e r v i e w was  h e l d with 23 teachers  i n order to answer the f o l l o w i n g  what i s the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the course,  what f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s c u r r e n t  Comments and to be  of  and  situation.  i s s u e s r a i s e d by the respondents or p e r c e i v e d  important  by the respondents were, as mentioned 64  p r e v i o u s l y , i d e n t i f i e d and c a t e g o r i z e d . permitted  This  information  an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f those f a c t o r s which have  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer Education c o u r s e . The i n f o r m a t i o n  presented a p i c t u r e from which  p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i n g themes or u n d e r l y i n g to emerge.  The reasons which have given  i s s u e s appeared  r i s e t o the  c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n t h e r e f o r e became apparent and provided some p o s s i b l e answers f o r the second r e s e a r c h  When these c o n t r i b u t i n g themes or u n d e r l y i n g emerged from the i n f o r m a t i o n  obtained  question.  larger issues  from the i n t e r v i e w ,  t r a n s c r i p t i o n and l i s t e n i n g notes were then re-examined and  analyzed t o determine i f these themes were widespread  throughout the system, or l o c a l i z e d a t a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l , or w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r  classroom.  Some widespread themes d i d emerge and appear t o be reasons which have d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c u r r e n t  s t a t e of  Consumer E d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the Vancouver s c h o o l  system.  65  CHAPTER 4:  DATA ANALYSIS  Overview:  The b a s i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s being addressed were f i r s t l y ,  t o determine  in this  study  the s t a t e of the Consumer  Education course, and secondly, t o i d e n t i f y  those  which have d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s c u r r e n t  factors  situation.  To o b t a i n the i n f o r m a t i o n and the comments of t e a c h e r s p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d with t h i s course,  i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d  with a sample of 23 t e a c h e r s of the Consumer Education course.  The next two chapters w i l l present the i n f o r m a t i o n  obtained from these i n t e r v i e w s .  Chapter  Four  i s o r g a n i z e d around the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o an assessment of the c u r r e n t s t a t e of Consumer Education i n the Vancouver s c h o o l system. question: or  Chapter  F i v e w i l l address  the second  research  which i s s u e s and f a c t o r s d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o  i n f l u e n c e the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f Consumer Education i n  the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t .  In both of these c h a p t e r s , whenever p o s s i b l e , 66  excerpts  from  i n t e r v i e w s have been quoted  and used to exemplify-  some of the i s s u e s r a i s e d d u r i n g the  investigation.  Excerpts w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g the system as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter  3, so t h a t comments or i s s u e s r a i s e d  by  t e a c h e r s on Vancouver's west s i d e w i l l be designated  W_,  and s i m i l a r l y , e x c e r p t s a t t r i b u t a b l e to east s i d e teachers w i l l be designated E_.  In t h i s way  micro  level  r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the course can be examined to determine  i f there are any east side/west  s i d e trends or  patterns.  RESEARCH QUESTION ONE:  The Current State of the Consumer  E d u c a t i o n Course •  Demographic  Information  The gender breakdown of the sample p o p u l a t i o n was females  and  i n responses  12 males.  There appeared  by gender.  over 35 years of age,  differences  F i f t e e n of the respondents  and only one person had  f i v e years of t e a c h i n g experience. respondents  to be no  11  less  were than  Most of the  (15) had been t e a c h i n g more than 10 y e a r s . 67  Who Teaches Consumer  Education?  When the data was analyzed t o a s c e r t a i n the department or s u b j e c t area s p e c i a l t y i n which each respondent  was  c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was revealed.  Two respondents  taught only Consumer Education and are  c o n s i d e r e d to be members of the Business  Education  Departments of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l s . respondents  Both of these  teach on the e a s t - s i d e of Vancouver.  Ten of the other respondents  t e a c h i n g Consumer Education  teach the r e s t of t h e i r a d d i t i o n a l courses t o t a l l y w i t h i n the Business Education Departments; s i x of these respondents  teach on the west s i d e and f o u r on the east  side.  By combining  these two groups of t e a c h e r s :  those  who  teach only Consumer Education, and those others who completely with the Business Education Subject twelve respondents Educators.  teach  specialty,  w i l l be c a t e g o r i z e d as Business  The east/west 68  breakdown f o r Business  Educators  i s an even 6-6 s p l i t .  The remaining 11 respondents have what s h a l l be r e f e r r e d to as a "mixed l o a d " : area s p e c i a l t y .  they teach i n more than one s u b j e c t  In a d d i t i o n t o Consumer Education, w i t h i n  t h i s group o f respondents, s i x taught some S o c i a l S t u d i e s , three some P h y s i c a l Education, two taught some b l o c k s o f Home Economics, E n g l i s h was taught by two people, one person taught some German, and one person taught some Math and some Computer Science.  The Home Economists  were both  from the west s i d e , as were a l l the P h y s i c a l Educators. The German teacher and the Math/Computer Science person were both from the e a s t s i d e .  On both s i d e s o f the c i t y  there a r e some S o c i a l S t u d i e s and E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g Consumer Education.  Was Teaching Consumer E d u c a t i o n Requested o r Assigned?  The f i r s t q u e s t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n asked how the respondent became a t e a c h e r o f Consumer Education. methods o f a t t a i n i n g the course became apparent:  Two those  who had been a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y assigned t o the course, and those who had expressed a d e s i r e t o teach the course.  69  An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e assignment means t h a t , i n essence, the teacher has not asked t o teach the c o u r s e , but has been assigned or g i v e n the course t o teach because no one e l s e i s , f o r whatever the reason.  Assignment t o teach a  c o u r s e , r a t h e r than r e q u e s t , i s a common p r a c t i c e used f o r beginning teachers who have l i m i t e d s e n i o r i t y , when departments have a drop i n e n r o l l m e n t , o r where a "new" person  i s coming to a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l .  U s u a l l y the  assignment i s done i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the t e a c h e r concerned,  but i t i s a r a r e occurence  f o r a teacher to  refuse an assignment!  When the respondents  were asked how they became t e a c h e r s  of Consumer E d u c a t i o n , 12 of the 23 respondents assigned t o teach the c o u r s e . had expressed  had been  None o f these 12 t e a c h e r s  any i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h i n g the course p r i o r t o  being assigned t o teach the c o u r s e .  Examination  o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n u s i n g the east/west  shows t h a t only three o f the respondents  split  who had been  assigned t o teach the course teach i n the East Side o f the City.  The obvious  trend which becomes apparent i s t h a t  s c h o o l s on the West Side a s s i g n t e a c h e r s , while the 70  opposite i s the case on the East Side of the c i t y . first  The  i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t can be drawn from t h i s would seem  to be t h a t east s i d e s c h o o l s do not a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y a s s i g n the course, p r e f e r r i n g t o s t a f f the course teachers who d e s i r e t o teach the course. i m p l i c a t i o n seems to be t h a t West-side  with  A second  teachers choose t o  teach Consumer Education l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than c o l l e a g u e s on the East s i d e choose to teach the course.  Of the remaining  11 t e a c h e r s , f o u r had asked  course, a l l from the east area (E7,E3,E2,E9).  t o teach the Seven other  t e a c h e r s had been t e a c h i n g the p r e v i o u s e l e c t i v e General Business  course,  12, and i t seemed a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n  f o r them t o move i n t o Consumer Education and these t e a c h e r s were c o n s i d e r e d t o have requested t o teach the course.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Management of Consumer Education:  The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w were i n c l u d e d t o determine managerial  some of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  elements which impact upon the t e a c h i n g of the  Consumer Education  course. 71  ^District  O f f i c e Management:  When asked to comment about the d i s t r i c t respondents  l e v e l support, 6  commented on the lack o f support  f o r the  Consumer Education course which seems t o emanate from the Board O f f i c e .  They f e e l t h a t with the revamping o f the  Business Education c u r r i c u l u m , new course o f f e r i n g s a r e going t o make Consumer Education an unnecessary i n Business Education departments.  component  These new courses  will  serve as a f u t u r e p r o t e c t i o n f o r the v i a b i l i t y and c o n t i n u a t i o n o f s t r o n g Business Education  departments.  Consumer Education w i l l no longer be needed f o r p r o t e c t i o n of  the Business Education t e r r i t o r y .  stated  As t e a c h e r E10  " P o l i t i c a l l y , i t hurt us because t h e r e were two  other courses we c o u l d have o f f e r e d we had an enrollment for,  but because we kept the Consumer Ed we c o u l d n ' t  the other c o u r s e s .  offer  We've got IDP ( I n t r o d u c t o r y Data  P r o c e s s i n g ) , OM ( O f f i c e Management), Marketing cut o u t . . . t o keep the Consumer Ed. again because we're growing.  12 and we  But we can't do t h a t  . . . I t ' s e a s i e r t o have  someone e l s e take Consumer Ed because t h a t ' s the way i t seems t o be going anyways..."  72  Another the new  respondent (Wl) commented on the f a c t t h a t one  of  Business Education c o u r s e s , I n t r o d u c t o r y Data  P r o c e s s i n g , has a " t o t a l resource person...he does a l l the i n - s e r v i c e need. a few  training.  That s o r t of support  i s what you  That course i s going to be an i n c r e d i b l e years from now.  course i n  I t ' s going to have e v e r y t h i n g .  have somebody there at the Board who j u s t don't have the time to do.  can do the job  ( s i c ) . . T h i s course  You  we was  j u s t thrown out t h e r e . "  b)Role of A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and Department Heads:  The main i n - s c h o o l management r o l e f o r any course dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and department head c l a i m i n g the c o u r s e .  Two  i s the  the  s t y l e s of course  management f o r Consumer Education appear to be i n o p e r a t i o n i n the Vancouver school system, those which are s u p p o r t i v e and those which are  non-supportive.  In those s c h o o l s where the management i s s u p p o r t i v e , Consumer Education i s c o n s i d e r e d to be an important i n t e g r a l p a r t of a student's e d u c a t i o n .  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these schools tends to allow the 73  and  Business Education department head to s t a f f the course, and tends to o f f e r the course at the s e n i o r (11/12) l e v e l . Most of the teachers t e a c h i n g Consumer Education are doing so by t h e i r own  request, and t h e r e f o r e there i s a  c o n t i n u i t y from year to year i n the Consumer Education s t a f f of these s c h o o l s .  As has been shown i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n , most west s i d e schools s t a f f the course by assignment,  whereas on the  east s i d e , the course i s l a r g e l y s t a f f e d by request, or by teachers who  The  d e s i r e to teach the course.  r o l e of the Business Education department head becomes  of prime importance course by assignment  i n those s c h o o l s which s t a f f  this  - mainly on the c i t y ' s west s i d e .  In  these west s i d e s c h o o l s i f there i s a s t r o n g Business Education department head who  maintains c o n t r o l over the  s t a f f i n g of the course, the course f a r e s b e t t e r .  Where  the Business Education department head does not e x e r c i s e d i r e c t c o n t r o l over who  teaches the course because the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has assumed t h i s r o l e , the course i s s t a f f e d not only by people who  d i d not request i t ,  but i t  i s s t a f f e d a f t e r a l l other courses and the l e f t o v e r s handed out o f t e n as s i n g l e t o n courses: 74  one  to t h i s  are  person,  and one t o t h a t person.  timetable f i l l e r block t o f i l l  The course becomes a  f o r those teachers r e q u i r i n g an e x t r a  t h e i r load.  Because many o f these teachers who are a s s i g n e d course don't  want to teach i t and teach i t o n l y t o f i l l  t h e i r t e a c h i n g l o a d , they a l s o attempt t e a c h i n g i t as soon as p o s s i b l e . is  this  a g r e a t annual  t o get out of  The r e s u l t  i s t h a t there  turnover of Consumer E d u c a t i o n  teachers  i n these s c h o o l s .  c) Department Head Claim: In a l l 18 Vancouver Secondary Schools the course i s claimed, or under the department head umbrella o f Business Education. respondents,  Of the 23  20 were o f the o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s was where  the course should be c a t e g o r i z e d l a r g e l y due t o the content o f the course being " h e a v i l y b u s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d " .  The course was assigned t o the Business  Education  departments when i t was mandated as a compulsory course i n 1982,  but there i s s t i l l  some l i n g e r i n g resentment t o t h i s  course being a s s i g n e d t o Business Education.  The s t r o n g  t e r r i t o r i a l views o f some teachers were evidenced 75  by the  two  Home Economists who  d e f i n i t e l y f e e l the course  be i n c l u d e d under t h e i r departmental  should  o r g a n i z a t i o n because  "part of the t r a i n i n g of a home economist i s i n consumer areas so t h a t we d e a l with a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s being taught felt  i n the course".(W5)  Yet another  respondent  the course should be c o n s i d e r e d a S o c i a l  course due issues.  Studies  to the content r e l a t i n g to Economics and  In September 1988  i n f a c t , one  Social  department w i l l claim, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  No other course c u r r e n t l y i n the p r o v i n c i a l  departments are not attempting courses.  secondary claims:  other  to g a i n c o n t r o l of E n g l i s h  E n g l i s h courses are c o n s i d e r e d to be  t e r r i t o r y of the E n g l i s h department. for  Studies  course.  s c h o o l system i s being s u b j e c t e d to t e r r i t o r i a l E n g l i s h i s taught by E n g l i s h teachers and  legal  the  Such i s not the  case  Consumer Education.  Course O r g a n i z a t i o n :  a~)Level of O f f e r i n g : In 1982  when the Consumer Education course was  officially  earmarked f o r i n c l u s i o n as a g r a d u a t i o n requirement every student  for  i n B r i t i s h Columbia's s c h o o l system, the 76  course had  initially  been conceived of f o r i n c l u s i o n as a  Grade 9 or 10 course.  (Ministry  D i s t r i c t C i r c u l a r #144,  1981).  (1982-1984), i t became obvious i n t o the j u n i o r years was  students, and  Grade 9/10  the next two  t h a t i n s e r t i o n of the  course  i r r e l e v a n t f o r most of the  l e v e l meant the r e d u c t i o n by one  even by one  years,  the i n c l u s i o n of the course at the  c h o i c e s f o r these students.  Arts,  During  Schools  not the most b e n e f i c i a l c h o i c e :  the content of the course was junior  of E d u c a t i o n ,  Reduction  of e l e c t i v e  of e l e c t i v e  a f f e c t s a l l e l e c t i v e t e a c h i n g areas:  choices Fine  I n d u s t r i a l Education, Home Economics, Modern  Languages, P h y s i c a l Education, Business Reduction  Education.  of the j u n i o r e l e c t i v e c h o i c e a f f e c t s the s e n i o r  e l e c t i v e s because s e n i o r e l e c t i v e s cannot be taken students  i f they have not taken the j u n i o r  by  prerequisite.  Therefore, d i m i n i s h e d j u n i o r e l e c t i v e c h o i c e s mean an even more r e s t r i c t e d c h o i c e of s e n i o r e l e c t i v e s .  What seemed s e n s i b l e was of the course and  to modify the o r i g i n a l  allow i t to be a l s o o f f e r e d  s e n i o r l e v e l , Grade 11 or 12.  intention  at the  In f a c t by September  1984,  schools were g i v e n the o p t i o n of o f f e r i n g the course at e i t h e r the j u n i o r  level,  77  the s e n i o r l e v e l ,  or both  levels.  Vancouver's 18 Secondary Schools o f f e r Consumer Education i n any one  of these three p o s s i b l e ways:  as a j u n i o r  course o n l y , as a s e n i o r course o n l y , or at both C u r r e n t l y i n Vancouver, only one e x c l u s i v e l y at the j u n i o r l e v e l . course at both  j u n i o r and  levels.  s c h o o l o f f e r s the  course  Six s c h o o l s o f f e r  s e n i o r l e v e l s , and  o f f e r the course at the Grade 11/12  level.  the  the other Of  11  those  eleven s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g the s e n i o r c o u r s e , Consumer Education students.  12, only 3 keep the course open f o r Grade 11 The  other 8 schools allow only Grade  students to take the c o u r s e .  Plans f o r September  w i l l see one more of the schools which c u r r e n t l y the course to e i t h e r  12  11 or 12"s  1988 offers  l i m i t i n g i t to Grade  12's  only.  I f the l e v e l at which a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l o f f e r s Consumer Education  i s looked at with r e f e r e n c e to the  school's  g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the c i t y , some i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n s appear.  Only 2 e a s t s i d e s c h o o l s (E2, E3) o f f e r the course at the j u n i o r l e v e l , and  at both of these s c h o o l s , the  preponderance of Consumer Education b l o c k s are at the s e n i o r 78  level.  Seven of the ten e a s t s i d e schools  course e x c l u s i v e l y at the s e n i o r l e v e l . west s i d e schools the  junior level.  7 schools  Four of the  o f f e r the course at both l e v e l s ,  remaining four, one  at the  o f f e r the  To summarize these p a t t e r n s ,  (out of a t o t a l of 8) and  s i d e ( p o s s i b l e of  10).  the  of  2 are  the  5 are East  j u n i o r course o v e r a l l , these were a c t u a l  teachers'  comments: (W2)  (Wl)  r e l e v a n t at the 9/10  "taken to get  i t out of the  level",  wanted a l o t of hands-on t h i n g s " .  f o r t h i s school  (W5)  "the  and  way",  kids  Respondent (W12)  " I t ' s too much, too soon f o r Grade 10's" population  of  of these o f f e r s the course s o l e l y  West s i d e schools  "not  and  o f f e r i n g the course at the j u n i o r l e v e l ,  Considering  eight  says  the  i s perhaps the w e a l t h i e s t  and  most advantaged i n Vancouver.  In s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t i n c l u s i o n of Consumer i n the eyes of the teachers  teaching  the course, i s  p r e f e r a b l e at the s e n i o r l e v e l , most West s i d e continue to o f f e r Consumer Education to the students.  79  Education,  schools  junior  b ) C u r r i c u l a r Hours: The  three semestered schools o f f e r 85-90 hours of time f o r  the course, and 13 of the non-semestered schools t e c h n i c a l l y a l l o t the p r e s c r i b e d 120 hours t o the course. One non-semestered s c h o o l (W12) o f f e r s only 90 c u r r i c u l a r hours f o r the course. T h i s s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s because Consumer Education  i s taught a t the Grade 10 l e v e l only,  as i t i s c o n s i d e r e d a J u n i o r E l e c t i v e :  t h e r e f o r e , the  teacher has the p u p i l s f o r 3/4 of the p r e s c r i b e d time. All  j u n i o r e l e c t i v e s i n t h i s s c h o o l are t r e a t e d i n t h i s  manner. choices.  T h i s allows the j u n i o r students more  elective  Senior e l e c t i v e courses do r e c e i v e 4/4  allocated  hours at t h i s s c h o o l .  At none of the other s c h o o l s were teachers f i n d i n g i t a problem to f i l l course.  the number of hours a l l o c a t e d t o the  S e v e r a l respondents  commented  t h a t there was  enough m a t e r i a l i n the course t o take 2 years t o teach i t . (Wl, E9, E8).  Many s c h o o l s do, however, remove or "borrow" time  from  Consumer Education t o o f f e r and i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y of Guidance sponsored  mini-courses: 80  AIDS education;  D r i n k i n g / D r i v i n g programs; 4 s c h o o l s l o s t up to 12 hours for  Family L i f e ,  ( i n one s c h o o l , E9, i t i s the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the Consumer Education teachers to teach t h i s Family L i f e c o u r s e ) ; Choices; Resume's; Job Search skills;  and a t one s c h o o l o f f e r i n g  12 b l o c k s of Consumer  Education, everyone t a k i n g the course had Consumer Education f o r 5/6 b l o c k s , and Guidance f o r the other  1/6.  (E8)  T h i s borrowing another  of time from Consumer Education  offers  i n s i g h t i n t o the c u r r i c u l a r p o s i t i o n which  Consumer Education o c c u p i e s .  Even though i t has a high  s t a t u s p o s i t i o n , p r o t e c t e d because i t i s a compulsory course, i t i s t r e a t e d as a s e c o n d - c l a s s s u b j e c t .  When the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and/or c o u n s e l l i n g departments need for  these mini-courses, time i s not taken from  courses c o n s i d e r e d t o be f i r s t  class:  articulated  "There's  and departments."  those  the academics.  none of the s c h o o l s was the time taken from courses f o r these i n c l u s i o n s !  time  At  academic  As one respondent  clearly  very much a pecking order of people  (W2)  81  Shape of the C o u r s e - a s - P r a c t i c e d :  Using the t i t l e s as i n d i c a t e d i n the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s , the f o l l o w i n g were the t o p i c s most h e a v i l y emphasized f o r the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of the  course.  A t o t a l of 17 of the respondents teach the Grade 12 course. for  Of t h e s e , 6 f e l t t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n and  the v a r i o u s t o p i c s was  fairly  equal.  emphases  They d i d not  i d e n t i f y any p a r t i c u l a r areas which r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r c u r r i c u l a r time.  The  other 11 respondents a l l p i n p o i n t e d  T a x a t i o n as an area of emphasis, f o l l o w e d by Management i n 9 c a s e s .  The  t o p i c of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  ( d e a l i n g with the purchase and an emphasis from 6 t e a c h e r s .  Financial  i n s u r i n g or a car) received, Topics concerning  Contract  (Consumer) law and C r e d i t r e c e i v e d the next h i g h e s t number •of  emphases, next Accommodation, and  Employer/Employee Rights and  The  i n two  cases,  Responsibilities.  t o p i c s most commonly ommitted, or not c o v e r e d , were  Family Law  i n 5 s c h o o l s , i n f o u r i n s t a n c e s Career  (done by Guidance t e a c h e r s ) , Accommodation i n two and  Employer/Employee Rights i n two 82  situations.  Planning schools A l l of  these t o p i c s are content areas which are p r e s c r i b e d i n the Curriculum Guides,  but i t i s apparent  t h a t teachers r e -  i n t e r p r e t the M i n i s t r y G u i d e l i n e s t o f i t t h e i r micro  l e v e l teaching  particular  situation.  Some i n t e r e s t i n g East/West content area emphases and r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s came to l i g h t .  On the east s i d e ,  Accommodation focused on r e n t i n g , whereas west s i d e teachers focused on buying  real estate.  Many teachers  focused on F i n a n c i a l Management, but on the East s i d e t h a t meant p e r s o n a l budgetting and p l a n n i n g f o r the next few years, whereas on the West Side, teachers found  students  not i n t e r e s t e d i n budgetting, but i n t e r e s t e d i n Investments.  When asked  the reasons  f o r the v a r i a t i o n i n emphases, the  f o l l o w i n g comments were made.  One teacher who has  taught the course on both s i d e s of the c i t y s a i d , i t ' s j u s t the Westside;  "Maybe  I found t h a t on the E a s t s i d e , the  k i d s were j u s t a l i t t l e b i t more i n t e r e s t e d . " ( W 1 0 ) ..Further comments were "Here on the Westside,  a l o t of  k i d s t h i n k t h a t e v e r y t h i n g w i l l take i t s n a t u r a l course and e v e r y t h i n g w i l l be looked a f t e r f o r them when they get through  school.  They f e e l t h e i r parents are going t o 83  guide them through teacher s t a t e s it's  (W5)  not something  life  and t h e r e ' s no problem."  Another  . . I t ' s j u s t t h a t the k i d s here  feel  they a l l know, but i s so l o g i c a l  and  b a s i c t h a t t h e i r parents spend a f a i r amount of time e x p l a i n i n g to them.  They have p o r t f o l i o s a l r e a d y  e s t a b l i s h e d f o r them.. Most of them have bank accounts, bank c a r d s .  T h e i r parents are accountants."  W3  commented  t h a t "much of the m a t e r i a l i s taught at home, but there are always gaps".  From statements  such as these, i t seems  that much of the micro l e v e l r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the course p l a n i s shaped when teachers c o n s i d e r t h e i r  student  clientele.  With the j u n i o r l e v e l course, the seven t e a c h e r respondents  gave three t o p i c s e q u a l l y high emphases:  Taxation, Money Management, and D e c i s i o n Making.  Topics  not covered were C l o t h i n g and Food i n two i n s t a n c e s , Comparison Shopping  once, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n once, and  T a x a t i o n once.  When asked to i d e n t i f y a theme or u n d e r l y i n g concept  that  they as t e a c h e r s t r y to "get a c r o s s " , the two most common themes were: skills  (4).  d e c i s i o n making (5), and s u r v i v a l Other themes suggested 84  were:  life  r o l e as an  a d u l t i n s o c i e t y , awareness, r o l e as teen consumer, becoming r e s p o n s i b l e consumers, p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Course o u t l i n e s or u n i t plans were d i s c u s s e d wherever p o s s i b l e , and have been i n c l u d e d as Appendix C.  Not a l l  respondents  had made course o u t l i n e s or u n i t p l a n s .  respondents  who had developed  t h e i r own course plans can  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as teachers who requested  t o teach the  course, and/or teachers who have taught the course number o f y e a r s .  Teachers  Those  for a  who had been a s s i g n e d to teach  the course adapted or m o d i f i e d c o l l e a g u e s ' u n i t p l a n s , i f i n f a c t one was being used a t a l l .  Grading  Considerations:  A l l o f the respondents g u i d e l i n e s as suggested  used the standard  percentage  by the M i n i s t r y o f Education.  However, v a r i a t i o n s occured between the schools and teachers w i t h i n the s c h o o l s because the m a j o r i t y of s c h o o l s do not have any common standards grades. Education  f o r issuing  In the s c h o o l s where a l l of the Consumer i s taught by one person,  and g r a d i n g i s not a f a c t o r . 85  c o n s i s t e n c y o f content  (W12, E 1 1 ) .  At the s c h o o l s  where people teach a l a r g e load o f Consumer Education, p r i m a r i l y the s i t u a t i o n on the East Side, c o n s i s t e n c y of g r a d i n g i s somewhat s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h i n the s c h o o l .  Two  of  the east s i d e teachers (E8, E7) teach a complete load  of  Consumer Education, and grade a l l o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  classes  consistently.  Only f o u r s c h o o l s use any s o r t o f common f i n a l exam. (W3,5,8,E10) The west s i d e s c h o o l s have a common exam a t the request of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and parents, while the East s i d e school has a common exam because of a concern for  maintenance o f standards.  In each of these schools the  f i n a l exam counts f o r approximately  20% of the student's  mark f o r the course.  One s c h o o l has a l l students w r i t e a common exam once a year, not n e c e s s a r i l y  i n June.(E2)  Many o f the other s c h o o l s w i t h i n the system o f f e r e d some s o r t o f f i n a l examination,  w r i t t e n by the teacher f o r  students f o r students g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d as being i n "mortal danger" o f f a i l i n g :  86  a last  chance exam.  In  s e v e r a l west s i d e s i t u a t i o n s , no l a s t chance exam was offered. mind.  As one  person  Maybe next  even  remarked (Wll) "...nobody seems to  year."  Teacher's f e e l i n g s about the c o n s i s t e n c y of marks werer e f l e c t e d when one  respondent commented t h a t  common f i n a l exams, one  teacher's  resemblance to what another  "A"  may  without  bear no  teacher c o n s i d e r s to be  an  "A".(E8)  Because there i s no c r o s s - c i t y examination, c o n s i s t e n t standards Consumer Education requirement  there are  between the s c h o o l s i n the system.  i s the only mandatory  graduation  which does not i n v o l v e a school-based  or  wide examination.  Courses such as Home Economics or  P h y s i c a l Education  which are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d  or p r i o r i t y standard,  do r e q u i r e students  low  city-  i n status  to a t t a i n some c o n s i s t e n t  at l e a s t w i t h i n the s c h o o l .  Consistency  of Content: As f a r as c o n s i s t e n c y of  w i t h i n the s c h o o l , there was  a wide range of  In the s c h o o l s where there i s only one Education,  no  and 87  content.  situations.  teacher of Consumer  o b v i o u s l y there i s no d i f f i c u l t y  c o n s i s t e n t standards  content  maintaining  The  s i t u a t i o n i n schools with a number o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s of  the course  ranged from l i m i t e d c o n s i s t e n c y ,  deal of c o n s i s t e n c y .  The schools with a l i m i t e d amount of  c o n s i s t e n c y had no common course the s t a f f  to a great  o u t l i n e , no meetings o f  i n v o l v e d , c u r s o r y comments made i n p a s s i n g  who's t e a c h i n g what: t e a c h i n g the course common course  about  b a s i c a l l y , a group o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n i s o l a t i o n , bound together  only by a  name, and sometimes, a common textbook.  Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s type o f s i t u a t i o n were lack of strong department head l e a d e r s h i p , many teachers  from  d i f f e r e n t course  c o n s t i t u e n c i e s teaching singelton  to f i l l  loads, and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s who viewed the  course  teaching  as a "throwaway",(W6) as a temporary  blocks  irritation  which would not be around f o r e v e r or i n cases where the course  i s used as a "dumping ground" ( E 6 ) f o r students the  s c h o o l was t r y i n g t o keep " o f f the s t r e e t s " as long as possible.  The  s c h o o l s with the g r e a t e s t amount o f c o n s i s t e n c y of  content  were the three who,used a common o u t l i n e f o r the  88  course t h a t the teachers i n the p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l had w r i t t e n with c o l l e g i a l c o n s u l t a t i o n . a l s o have a common f i n a l examination predetermined  p o r t i o n of the f i n a l  In a d d i t i o n , one  These same schools which counts  for a  grade.  of these s c h o o l s a l s o has a c e n t r a l  resource room which c o n t a i n s f i l e s of i n f o r m a t i o n and handouts which are a v a i l a b l e to a l l teachers of the w i t h i n the s c h o o l . at  The  two  teachers who  course  were i n t e r v i e w e d  the s c h o o l commented on what a "bonus" t h i s was,  not  only f o r themselves but f o r the other teachers of the course who  were from other departments.  resource room was  s e t up at the i n s t i g a t i o n of a teacher  formerly at t h i s s c h o o l who developers  This c e n t r a l  of the course.  was  one  of the  Even though she  original i s no longer at  the s c h o o l , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l foundations  s e t up  bear  Unfortunately,  r e s u l t s i n the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .  still  next year Consumer Education w i l l no longer be s t a f f e d anyone at the s c h o o l who leader due  w i l l be a c t i n g as a resource  to the f a c t t h a t the Business  Education  personnel are going to be i n v o l v e d i n the a d d i t i o n a l  new  course o f f e r i n g s such as IDP which are coming under the Business Education c u r r i c u l u m .  89  by  Sharing o f f i l e s and resources seemed t o be the case i n two o f the s c h o o l s where there was a person on s t a f f was very f a m i l i a r  who  with the course, or who taught a f u l l  load of Consumer Education.  These people were used as " i n  house" resources by other l e s s experienced t e a c h e r s .  Two other s c h o o l s had meetings throughout  the year, i n one  case twice a year, and i n the other, four times a year.  In the balance o f the s c h o o l s , i n f o r m a l meetings and discussions  " i n the h a l l "  seem to be the way the teachers  keep i n touch with each other.  For whatever reason, i t would appear t h a t the management of c o n s i s t e n t g r a d i n g standards and content coverage f o r t h i s course have not been adequately  addressed.  Teachers" P e r c e p t i o n s o f the Course:  P e r s o n a l Energy  devoted  When the respondents and energy  t o Consumer E d u c a t i o n :  were asked to r a t e the amount o f time  they p e r s o n a l l y devoted t o t h i s course, with 1 90  being lower l i m i t ,  7 being upper  limit,  and 3 . 5 being the 5.8.  same amount as spent on other courses, the mean was  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t Consumer Education r e q u i r e s more time and energy than other courses.  Said respondent W7, a t e n -  year veteran of the course "I spend most of my time on that.  Changing  things.  commented t h a t because  Always."  Many  respondents  o f the wide-range o f t o p i c s i n the  course, i t was very d i f f i c u l t t o keep up-to-date idoing a g r e a t d e a l o f p r e p a r a t i o n .  without  Many t o p i c s i n the  course are s u b j e c t to change, e s p e c i a l l y those areas r e l a t i n g to l e g a l aspects and t a x a t i o n , and thus, the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r these u n i t s was never  static.  S e v e r a l others commented on the p e r s i s t e n t marking  load  a s s o c i a t e d with the course and i t s v a r i a t i o n o f content topics. I'm a 6.  Another person commented t h a t  People warned me i t was going t o be a l o t of  work and i t was a l o t o f work. hobbled  " I f 7 i s burnout,  I was bagged by March.  into Spring Break."(E5)  I  Comments from y e t another  person were "In terms o f a l l the other courses I've taught -I've taught a l l the S o c i a l s S t u d i e s and E n g l i s h courses more than any other course."  91  (E7)  Administrative  Support:  Most t e a c h e r s f e l t supportive  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were i n most  i n their  attempts  to teach the course.  However, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t defined  entity.  administration that  lack  i s a rather  A number o f t e a c h e r s s a i d  openly  by  referring  of the course  the haphazard  the  that  while the  to the course  as " t h e crumbs"  on some f o r m a l  w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r  method 'that t h e c o u r s e  frequent incursions  into  the time  school,  i s staffed,  allocated (W7)  One e x p e r i e n c e d west s i d e  teacher  directed  by h e r p r i n c i p a l  i t because your  is  t a k i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' time  This non-supportive feeling  that  they  behaviour  from  their  was course  academics."  leaves the teachers with the  are teaching a course  class.  taught  any o l d p l a c e be i t a Band Room o r a Home E c o n o m i c s  and a g e n e r a l l a c k  resources their  further  the p r a c t i c e  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  second  lab,  As w e l l ,  and by  t o the  course.  t o "Cool  basis,  was e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e  o r as a "throwaway", by n o t i n s i s t i n g organization  vaguely  was s u p p o r t i v e t o them on a p e r s o n a l  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support  following:  cases  o f money t o p u r c h a s e  frustrates  best.  92  of having  those  the course  needed  teachers trying  t o do  In those s c h o o l s where the course  i s only o f f e r e d at the  Grade 11/12 l e v e l , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have been r e c e p t i v e to the change from o f f e r i n g the course at e i t h e r l e v e l .  In  a l l c a s e s , the i n s i s t e n c e f o r o f f e r i n g the course at the s e n i o r l e v e l was  initiated  by the teachers  i n v o l v e d i n the t e a c h i n g of the  actually  course.  Resources: Of i n t e r e s t to any  teacher of a s c h o o l s u b j e c t are  the  j  resources and a i d s a v a i l a b l e to f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g of the c o u r s e . responses  The  f o l l o w i n g are a few  of the  g i v e n about the resources connected to Consumer  Education.  a) T e x t b o o k s : The  p r e s c r i b e d textbooks  were the f i r s t  resource examined.  Respondents were asked to r a t e whichever textbook  they  p e r s o n a l l y used with t h e i r c l a s s e s , with 1 being the lower l i m i t and two  7 the upper l i m i t .  textbooks  The  r a t i n g s teachers gave the  provided a normal p r o b a b i l i t y curve because  most respondents d i d not r a t e the textbook or a 7 .  9 3  as e i t h e r a 1  The mean score f o r the Grade 9/10 Consumer" was was  3.16.  textbook  "Looking at the  Users commented i t "lacked depth",  " s k e l e t a l i n c o n t e n t " , or " v i r t u a l l y u s e l e s s " .  the teachers (W9).of the j u n i o r l e v e l book was  One  still  of  using the  o l d textbook w r i t t e n i n the e a r l y 1960's "General Business and Consumer Fundamentals". Hill,  ( T r e l i v i n g , J.T., McGraw-  1978). In order to augment the p o o r l y r a t e d  textbook, two s c h o o l s ( W l l , W5)  junior  r e q u i r e t h e i r students to  purchase a workbook which d o v e t a i l s with the course content:  "Guide to Wise Consuming", ( J . Kwekkeboom.  McGraw-Hill, 1974)  They f e l t i t was  o r i e n t e d , s p e c i f i c i n i n t e n t , and was  Canadianvery a c t i v i t y -  o r i e n t e d - a n e c e s s i t y f o r t e a c h i n g the j u n i o r c o u r s e .  The s e n i o r p r e s c r i b e d textbook Canadian was  "Economic D e c i s i o n s f o r  Consumers" (Leet and D r i g g e r s , Wadsworth,  1984)  more p o s i t i v e l y r e c e i v e d although i t showed the same  normal p r o b a b i l i t y curve with no r a t i n g s of 1 or 7. mean r a t i n g f o r t h i s book was  5.  The  Comments made about t h i s  textbook ranged from very p o s i t i v e comments such a s , "comprehensive coverage or m a t e r i a l " , " p r o v i d i n g a s o l i d background",  to one person's n e g a t i v e comments about  "urban b i a s " , " l i m i t e d view of r o l e of women", "outdated", 94  "pro-business  and a n t i - l a b o u r " . ( E 6 )  Several  commented on the lack of Canadian content  teachers  i n the book.  Teachers a l s o commented on the "poor" or " l i m i t e d " treatment  given to c e r t a i n t o p i c s , such as Contract  Insurance  and Employer/Employee Rights and  Law,  Responsibilities.  Two s c h o o l s t e a c h i n g the s e n i o r course textbook resources  d i d not use the  a t a l l , p r e f e r r i n g t o use more p a r t i c u l a r i s e d a v a i l a b l e from a l t e r n a t e sources:  business  magazines, i n d u s t r y handouts, pamphlets from governments to name a few. (W1,W8)  Three e a s t - s i d e s c h o o l s i n d i c a t e d  that the v o c a b u l a r y - l e v e l was too d i f f i c u l t student p o p u l a t i o n a t t h e i r s c h o o l . (El,6,8)  f o r the One  respondent commented t h a t the resource m a t e r i a l f o r the course  would be b e t t e r organized as a s e r i e s of Modules,  r a t h e r than having  the core i n f o r m a t i o n organized  in a  s i n g l e textbook. ( E l )  b)Audio-Visual The  Resources:  area t h a t generated  the g r e a t e s t number o f responses  concerned the A u d i o - V i s u a l Resources.  When asked about  the a u d i o - v i s u a l resources, ten o f the respondents s p e c i f i c a l l y commented on the desperate 95  need f o r some up-  to-date m a t e r i a l s .  They u n i v e r s a l l y f e l t  t h a t what was  a v a i l a b l e was so dated t h a t the p u p i l s found i t "hilarious",  and then  "you've l o s t them".  c) A d d i t i o n a l Resources a v a i l a b l e f o r the Course: A number of respondents  s a i d t h a t a c q u i r i n g the resources  and m a t e r i a l s f o r t h i s course was no problem because there are "thousands of them".  Other h e l p f u l  mentioned were the School Board  resources  sponsored  in-service  meetings h e l d a f t e r s c h o o l and d e a l i n g with a range of content areas:  l e g a l i s s u e s , t a x a t i o n , Family Law e t c .  (W12.W7)  S e v e r a l o f the experienced t e a c h e r s would p r e f e r to have the i n - s e r v i c e focus on the changes t h a t have occured i n the content area, f e e l i n g t h a t i n - s e r v i c e which focuses on teaching s k i l l s  f o r beginning t e a c h e r s o f Consumer  Education were not o f i n t e r e s t or value f o r them. (W7, E8, E7)  Another o f the widely-used  resources f o r t h i s course were  the b i n d e r s o f background i n f o r m a t i o n and the m a t e r i a l s  96  contained i n the r e c e n t l y i s s u e d Curriculum Resource Book. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , not a l l t e a c h e r s o f course were aware t h a t such a resource book was a v a i l a b l e !  Newspapers a l s o p r o v i d e d many teachers with ready of t o p i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  sources  One s e n i o r l e v e l course p u b l i s h e d  t h e i r own "Consumer Education Newspaper" as a c l a s s p r o j e c t . (E5)  Beginning teachers were g r a t e f u l f o r the f i l e s and m a t e r i a l s provided by experienced teachers of the course. A l l of the beginning teachers had access to c o l l e a g u e s ' m a t e r i a l , and a l l o f them used at l e a s t some o f the material.  One s c h o o l had a designated classroom  contains f i l e available.  which  o f a l l p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and resources  Everyone t e a c h i n g the course i n the s c h o o l , 6  of them, use the room as a c e n t r a l resouce  area.(E10,4)  Another f r e q u e n t l y used resource i s the J u n i o r Achievement sponsored P r o j e c t Business t e a c h i n g packages and Teacher/Consultants.  The t e a c h e r / c o n s u l t a n t s are business  people who v o l u n t e e r t o work with high s c h o o l students on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Every year, the t e a c h e r / c o n s u l t a n t s and t e a c h i n g packages are made a v a i l a b l e f r e e o f charge t o any  97  t e a c h e r s w i l l i n g to have t h i s program i n c l u d e d as p a r t of the Consumer Education c u r r i c u l u m . Respondents gave the use of the P r o j e c t Business packages and C o n s u l t a n t s mixed reviews:  i t seemed very dependent upon the  Consultant whether or not the experience was Three t e a c h e r s commented, i n essence, never allow P r o j e c t Business Two  Business of value.  t h a t they would  i n t o t h e i r classroom  again.  teachers of the s e n i o r l e v e l course i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  content of the P r o j e c t Business package was f o r Grade 11 and course.  12,  i t was  not  acceptable  b e t t e r t a r g e t e d f o r the  junior  (W1,E6)  M i n i s t r y of Education Requirements:  a)  Compulsory Nature of the course:  Of the 23 people  i n t e r v i e w e d , 15 were i n favour of  Consumer Education being a g r a d u a t i o n requirement, were not.  Two  had  "no o p i n i o n " :  both were f i r s t  teachers of the course and had not thought issue.  98  while 6 year  about the  Those not i n favour o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g reasons:  2  c i t e d the amount of content o v e r l a p between Consumer Education and other courses the compulsory  (E6,W12); 3 respondents  nature of the course as producing a  negative a t t i t u d e towards the course. compulsory  cited  Because i t i s a  course, a number of students d i d not want to be  i n the c l a s s i n the f i r s t p l a c e and they p r o j e c t e d an a t t i t u d e d e t e r i m e n t a l t o the teachers and to the course (W6, W10.E6).  The s i x t h respondent  Consumer Education as a compulsory  (E9) not f a v o u r i n g course f e l t s i n c e the  course had o r i g i n a l l y been intended f o r Grades 9 and 10, i t was m i s s i n g i t s intended audience  Of the 15 who responded nature of the course,  anyway.  f a v o u r a b l y to the compulsory (Ell,10,8,7,5,3,2,1,  Wl,2,3,7,8,9,11) more than h a l f of them commented  t h a t the  students were not l e a r n i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n anywhere e l s e : e i t h e r they were not g e t t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n from home, or were from a c u l t u r a l background q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the t r a d i t i o n a l background of B r i t i s h Columbia. respondents  Several  s t a t e d t h a t a powerful reason f o r having a  course such as t h i s was the g e n e r a l lack of knowledge or n a i v e t y of the students about  99  "the r e a l  world".  One  teacher, while not suggesting i t as a reason f o r  r e t a i n i n g the course as a g r a d u a t i o n commented t h a t without "low  requirement,  i t she and a l o t o f others who were  on the s e n i o r i t y s c a l e " would have been without a  job.  b)Government F i n a l Exam? The debate about the value o f a government or p r o v i n c i a l final  examination  centred around the u s u a l i s s u e of  whether i t i s more b e n e f i c i a l t o maintain standards and t h e r e f o r e impose a p r o v i n c i a l exam on the course, or whether i t i s more b e n e f i c i a l t o allow f o r f l e x i b i l i t y and d i v e r s i t y and leave the course f r e e o f a p r o v i n c i a l examination.  When asked  t o g i v e an o p i n i o n about government  exams, 4 respondents One  person  d i d not wish t o o f f e r an o p i n i o n .  f e l t t h a t because her s c h o o l a l r e a d y had a  common f i n a l one.  final  exam (W5), there would be no n e c e s s i t y f o r  The other three who had no o p i n i o n about a f i n a l  exam were e i t h e r f i r s t year t e a c h e r s o f the course, or t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g the Grade 9/10 l e v e l  100  course.  E i g h t respondents exam f e e l i n g  were opposed to the idea of a government  the value of f l e x i b i l i t y  and  diversity  outweighed the value of common standards. (E10,E6,E5,W3,W8,Wll,W9,W10)  These were t h e i r comments:  would have to be "too watered  down" to cover the  of t o p i c s i n the course "project-oriented,  diversity  (W10); because the course i s  i t would be extremely d i f f i c u l t  to get  an a c c e p t a b l e exam" (E5); "would d e t r a c t from what should be a comprehensive course favour a f i n a l  (W3);  respondent  W8  would not  exam because he teaches only 6 t o p i c s ,  f e e l s the f l e x i b i l i t y  but  of doing t h i s i s p r e f e r a b l e to the  c o n s t r a i n t s of a f i n a l  exam; W l l , W9  and W 10 teach the  j u n i o r course, or have taught the j u n i o r course, and  feel  government exams are i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r j u n i o r courses.  F i v e respondents  "sat on the fence".  For t h i s group  there were pros and cons to having a government Respondent W7  final.  t y p i f i e d t h i s group by commenting t h a t a  government exam would "defeat the purpose,  as the  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the course i s c o n s t a n t l y changing,  but i n  some ways a government exam would be a good i d e a i n order to maintain standards".  Other people i n t h i s group  felt  because of the d i v e r s i t y of t o p i c s and teachers i n v o l v e d 101  with the course,  i t would be almost impossible  to write a  common f i n a l exam. (E4,E6, W4)  Six  respondents were f a v o u r a b l y disposed  government f i n a l exam. teachers time.  t o the idea o f a  A l l s i x o f the respondents are  who have taught  the course  f o r a long p e r i o d o f  F i v e teach a t the s e n i o r l e v e l , and the one j u n i o r  l e v e l teacher  f e e l s t h a t some s o r t o f "norming exam every  so o f t e n would be good" (W5).  Of ^the f i v e t e a c h i n g the s e n i o r course, on the east s i d e and two o f these full-time. favourably  The s o l e west-side  f o u r of them  f o u r teach the course  respondent who r e a c t e d  to the idea o f a f i n a l exam i s a department  head who i s s t r o n g l y i n c o n t r o l of the course: s t a f f i n g , course these to  content,  and c o n s i s t e n c y .  the  Comments from  f i v e were: "I've been w a i t i n g f o r a government exam  come out every y e a r " ; ( E 9 ) ;  "I t h i n k i f teachers  understand as p r o f e s s i o n a l s we a l l have t o cover curricula, "I'd  teach  then a government exam would be f i n e . "  be very comfortable  greater legitimacy.  with t h a t .  the same (Ell);  I t would g i v e i t  The government seems to w a f f l e on the  course."  (E8); "I would not l i k e t o see a government  counting  f o r 50% but I would welcome one c o u n t i n g 102  final  f o r less  that 50%.  I t h i n k i f you're going t o have a  compulsory  course, you might do that t o ensure t h a t the t o p i c s are being taught.  I have a f e e l i n g g i v e n the scope o f the  course t h a t some of the t o p i c s may not be taught and that would be c h e a t i n g the students o f l e a r n i n g  something  t h a t ' s v a l u a b l e . " (E7); "I'm s u r p r i s e d t h a t they  haven't  come out with some s o r t of government exam f o r t h i s because i t ' s a compulsory  course  course a t the s e n i o r l e v e l .  I  think t h a t would do a l o t f o r the course because t h e r e ' s so much f l e x i b i l i t y it  i n what you can teach and who teaches  that I t h i n k i t would at l e a s t g i v e some guidance  as t o  what the government would l i k e . " (Wl).  P e r c e i v e d A t t i t u d e s to the course:  The only a t t i t u d e s about  the course which are f i r s t - h a n d  are those o f the v a r i o u s respondents.  Any p a r e n t a l ,  student or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s suggested which the teachers p e r c e i v e :  are those  they are not f i r s t - h a n d .  a) P e r c e p t i o n o f P a r e n t a l A t t i t u d e s : I t was not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s study t o access the o p i n i o n s o f the parents or students d i r e c t l y .  When asked  the q u e s t i o n "What s o r t of r e a c t i o n s or comments do you 103  get from the parents about t h i s course?"  19 r e p o r t e d t h a t  the p a r e n t a l comment most o f t e n heard was "I wish  there  was some course around l i k e t h i s when I went t o s c h o o l " or some such comment. asked  Two t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d parents had  i f they c o u l d come to c l a s s too!  I t should be r e a l i z e d t h a t these comments the o p i n i o n s of a very s m a l l spectrum  r e p r e s e n t only  of parents:  those  who attend p a r e n t - t e a c h e r n i g h t s , or who have had d i r e c t c o n t a c t with the Consumer Education teacher.  b) Student  attitudes:  When asked  the q u e s t i o n "What s o r t of r e a c t i o n s or  comments  do you get from your students about t h i s  course?", t e a c h e r s p e r c e p t i o n s of student  attitudes  showed a range from those who f e l t most students that the course as a " f a c t of l i f e "  and went about i t i n a  " b u s i n e s s l i k e " manner, t o those who commented negative, asked  accepted  on the  " l a c k l u s t r e " a t t i t u d e of t h e i r students.  When  i f these negative a t t i t u d e s were towards Consumer  Education s p e c i f i c a l l y or j u s t s c h o o l i n g e n e r a l , the t e a c h e r s were of the o p i n i o n t h a t i t was n e g a t i v e towards anything r e l a t e d to s c h o o l or work.  Negative r e a c t i o n s  from the students were p e r c e i v e d to stem, i n p a r t , from 104  not l i k i n g anything to do with s c h o o l , and/or d i s l i k e of anything compulsory or " l a i d  on".  Some t e a c h e r s mentioned t h e i r b r i g h t e r students  had  commented on the pro-business b i a s of the course, requested  Teachers  and  less biased information.  of the Grade 9/10  course u n i v e r s a l l y found t h a t  the most s u c c e s s f u l u n i t s were those which o f f e r e d  "hands  on" a c t i v i t i e s :  Younger  banking  forms,  taxation returns.  students were a l s o r e c e p t i v e to t o p i c s which might a c t u a l l y happen i n the near f u t u r e : c a r s being an example.  Anything  buying and  insuring  t h e o r e t i c a l or d e a l i n g  with too f a r i n the f u t u r e l i k e buying a house, or  life  insurance, were " s l e e p e r s " .  Whereas o l d e r students a l s o enjoyed  the a c t i v i t i e s ,  they  could a l s o see value i n the more t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s : i n v e s t i n g , economic theory, l e g a l i s s u e s . students who  Teachers  of  had a l r e a d y been out of the system and were  r e t u r n i n g to g a i n high s c h o o l g r a d a u t i o n found when these o l d e r students to  (19 or 20) r e l a t e d  "real l i f e "  situations  the other students, the course became much more  "believeable". 105  West s i d e teachers a l s o f e l t  there was s t i l l  some  resentment towards the course because Consumer had  reduced, by one, the number of e l e c t i v e  Education  choices.  One  teacher commented t h a t the students would r a t h e r take an e x t r a Math or Science course because there was "very much a pecking  order" about the s t a t u s of courses.(W5)  particular courses  s c h o o l , any of the p r a c t i c a l  were not high s t a t u s courses.  took them when r e q u i r e d t o . Anything towards t h e i r importance.  or Fine A r t s Many students  only  which would not h e l p  f u t u r e a s p i r a t i o n s was of l i m i t e d E x t r a academic courses might help, t h e r e f o r e  these students (W6, W5,  At her  p e r c e i v e "value" i n t h e i r academic s t u d i e s .  W3)  c) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s : A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s c o u l d not be d i r e c t l y because p e r m i s s i o n not granted  obtained  to interview administrative s t a f f i s  f o r end of s c h o o l terms due t o the heavy  administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  When asked the q u e s t i o n  a t those  times.  "How s u p p o r t i v e i s the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o t h i s course?",  most teachers  felt  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s u p p o r t i v e t o them as t e a c h e r s , but 106  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they f e l t  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had i n i t i a l l y  handled the course as a p o l i t i c a l  "football"  (E6, E4, W4).  Two other teachers commented t h a t support f o r the course had been e i t h e r non-committal  or n o n - e x i s t e n t u n t i l the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had seen and heard from the students the content o f the course.  When asked  about  (Wl, E7)  the q u e s t i o n "Do you t h i n k they (the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) view i t as an important course i n the s c h o o l ? " , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained. 15 respondents  perceived negative a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s  towards t h i s course e x i s t w i t h i n the Vancouver s c h o o l system.  Respondents commented on these as examples:  s t a f f i n g procedures  which prove d e t r i m e n t a l t o the course;  o f f e r i n g of the course a t the j u n i o r l e v e l ;  frequent  i n c u r s i o n s i n t o the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l a r time; and lack of p o l i c y about procedures.  i s s u e s of c o n s i s t e n t content and g r a d i n g  Repondents c i t e d these n e g a t i v e comments,  "the course i s a crumb", or a "throwaway",  or "make i t  l e s s c h a l l e n g i n g so time c o u l d be spent on the academic courses", as f u r t h e r examples o f n e g a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e attitudes to this  course.  107  The comments from  respondents  i n d i c a t e that negative  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e management o f the course i s much more apparent  i n west s i d e s c h o o l s than i n east s i d e s c h o o l s .  d ) A t t i t u d e s of C o l l e a g u e s : Teachers  o f Consumer Education n o t i c e d comments from  their  c o l l e a g u e s about the course were now much more f a v o u r a b l e than when the course was i n s t i t u t e d i n 1982.  I t seems as  i f much o f the c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding the mandating of Consumer Education has d i e d a n a t u r a l death.  Negative comments which come from teachers seem t o o r i g i n a t e from two sources: and  from c o u n s e l l o r s .  teachers o f e l e c t i v e  Teachers  areas,  of e l e c t i v e subjects  "blame" Consumer Education f o r the demise o f t h e i r areas: I n d u s t r i a l Education, Home Economics, and F i n e A r t s departments have complained  l o u d e s t and l o n g e s t .  A d d i t i o n o f Consumer Education i n t o the j u n i o r  grades  means students take one l e s s e l e c t i v e course d u r i n g the grades  9 and 10.  T h i s then impacts  upon the s e n i o r  e l e c t i v e s because there are fewer students who can q u a l i f y to take the s e n i o r e l e c t i v e courses. 108  Consumer Education  teachers who are from some of these d e p l e t e d  elective  areas would r a t h e r be t e a c h i n g i n t h e i r e l e c t i v e area, and are the f i r s t  t o admit i t . Respondent Wll o f f e r e d t h i s  s u c c i n c t comment "I'm much more comfortable  t e a c h i n g what  I've been t r a i n e d to do, but what the heck, with Consumer Ed.  I've a t l e a s t got a f u l l  time j o b . " Respondent W6  a l s o s t a t e d t h a t she would never wish t o teach the course again:  she f e l t extremely  classroom,  having  uncomfortable  teaching i n a  spent a l l of her p r e v i o u s t e a c h i n g  c a r e e r i n the gym.  The  second source of n e g a t i v e comments about Consumer  Education come from the C o u n s e l l i n g Departments. C o u n s e l l o r s are r e s p o n s i b l e , i n p a r t , f o r e n s u r i n g students formulate a course o f s t u d i e s which w i l l permit a g r a d u a t i o n from high s c h o o l , and one which w i l l not l i m i t students' future choices.  In the seven s c h o o l s which continue to o f f e r Consumer Education a t both  l e v e l s or a t the j u n i o r l e v e l only,  students t o l d the respondents take the course out o f the way".  they had been advised t o  i n order to "get i t over with", or "get i t Even though Consumer Education  teachers  unanimously f e e l t h a t the c o r r e c t or b e t t e r l e v e l f o r 109  t e a c h i n g the course i s d u r i n g the s e n i o r grades when i t i s more r e l e v a n t , the i n f l u e n c e o f the c o u n s e l l o r s ' can s t i l l be seen.  Research r e p o r t s conducted  on t h i s course  support the comments o f Consumer Education teachers t h a t it  i s p r e f e r a b l e to o f f e r the course a t the s e n i o r  level.  (ERIBC 82:14)  The respondent's interesting.  own a t t i t u d e s about the course were  P o s i t i v e comments i n c l u d e d "my most  enjoyable course", "...my.being so e n t h u s i a t i c about the course", t o l i s t a few. of  Others focused on the u s e f u l l n e s s  the course, upon the r e l e v a n c y , and the d i v e r s i t y of  the content.  Negative comments c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o these three areas: the compulsory  nature of the course means there are  students who d i d not want t o be i n c l a s s ; the n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s generated over the seemingly p o l i t i c a l of  inclusion  the course - as one person commented "I t h i n k i t came  out with such a p o l i t i c a l c l o u d over i t t h a t I t h i n k a l o t of people looked a t i t as being a S o c i a l C r e d i t  110  vehicle  and some people s t i l l  do" (Wl); and i n some s c h o o l s , the  aftermath o f the t e r r i t o r i a l  i n f i g h t i n g which r e s u l t e d  when the course was i n c l u d e d i n the Secondary School c u r r i c u l u m i n 1982 as a compulsory g r a d u a t i o n requirement.  Suggestions f o r Improvement:  Improving or making a course b e t t e r can be a l s o c o n s i d e r e d to  be removing the problems a s s o c i a t e d with the course.  Some respondents c i t e d problems while the others o f f e r e d suggestions f o r improving the course. viewpoints:  The two d i f f e r i n g  problems and/or improvements,  have been  combined because the i n t e n t of e i t h e r i s aimed towards overall  For  improvement.  ease of o r g a n i z a t i o n , the improvements/problems  be d i s c u s s e d i n two s e c t i o n s :  those r e l a t i n g t o m a t e r i a l s  and equipment, and those r e l a t i n g t o the t e a c h i n g atmosphere a t a p a r t i c u l a r  Ill  will  school.  M a t e r i a l s and Equipment  E i g h t respondents p o i n t e d out the need  for a serious  updating of the A u d i o - V i s u a l r e s o u r c e s .  As noted  earlier,  dated or unsnappy p r e s e n t a t i o n s meant the students were "lost".  Copies of r e l e v a n t a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s need to be i n every s c h o o l f o r ready a c c e s s .  As one person commented  "The s c h o o l board i s w e l l aware of what we need."  (Wl)  The next most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d problem/improvement i s the need  f o r an updated,  unbiased Canadian textbook.  Care and  a t t e n t i o n need to be g i v e n to vocabulary and r e a d i n g l e v e l s due to the i n c r e a s e d numbers of E n g l i s h as  Second  Language (ESL) students are i n Vancouver s c h o o l s . Improved end of chapter q u e s t i o n s are needed: ones which r e q u i r e r e g u r g i t a t i o n of s t r a i g h t Content areas such as labour, c o n t r a c t law, i n d u s t r y , and labour/management need  not j u s t facts.  banking  expansion.  In the area of p r o f e s s i o n a l developement,  several  respondents commended as e x c e l l e n t the a f t e r - s c h o o l Board 112  sponsored  workshops which were h e l d l a s t f a l l  with a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s .  and d e a l t  One long time teacher o f the  course would p r e f e r p r o f e s s i o n a l development which d i d not focus on i n i t i a l  teaching material:  she would  like  s e s s i o n s with p r o f e s s i o n a l groups, f o r i n s t a n c e lawyers, to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l background i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than those which focus on b a s i c how-to-teach  techniques.  Appointment o f a person knowledgeable about and experienced with the t e a c h i n g o f Consumer Education who would a c t as a D i s t r i c t H e l p i n g teacher was i d e n t i f i e d as a need by many o f the respondents.  With the c r e a t i o n and  i n c l u s i o n o f new Business Education course o f f e r i n g s , many respondents  f e l t Consumer Education was being s h i f t e d t o a  l e s s h i g h - p r o f i l e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the Business heirarchy.  Continued  district  l e v e l support was  i d e n t i f i e d as a need f o r t h i s course. W4, W6,  W10)  113  Education  (E6, E7, E8, Wl,  Summary Statements concerning Consumer  the Current  s t a t e of  Education:  The focus of t h i s chapter has been p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l assess the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer Education  course w i t h i n the Vancouver secondary  s c h o o l system.  The eighteen secondary schools were d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s depending upon t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l w i t h i n the c i t y .  location  Using Main S t r e e t as the d i v i d i n g  the schools were c a t e g o r i z e d as East or West.  line,  Vancouver's  s o l e "downtown" s c h o o l has been i n c l u d e d i n the East category because of s i m i l a r i t y of student p o p u l a t i o n and socio-economic contained  background.  Ten of the schools are  i n the East s i d e group and e i g h t i n the West  s i d e group.  114  The  i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from the i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d the  following :  1.  Teachers  of Consumer Education have a v a r i e t y of  e d u c a t i o n a l and t e a c h i n g backgrounds.  2.  In a l l 18 secondary  s c h o o l s , Consumer Education i s  claimed by the Business Education Department.  3.  More than h a l f of the teachers i n t e r v i e w e d had not  requested to teach the course: them.  the course was assigned t o  The p r a c t i c e of a s s i g n i n g the course was p r e v a l e n t  on the West s i d e of the c i t y .  From these f a c t s , the f o l l o w i n g themes appear:  Teachers  who requested t o teach the course were more i n t e r e s t e d i n r e t a i n i n g the course as a compulsory course, and were g e n e r a l l y more i n favour of i n s t i g a t i o n of a government examination  f o r the course.  were a l s o more concerned  115  T h i s group of  respondents  with c o n s i s t e n c y of content, and  c o n t i n u i t y of teaching s t a f f :  a l l o f t h i s group wished to  continue  T h i s group o f respondents  t e a c h i n g the course.  had designed developed  4.  t h e i r own u n i t plans f o r the course,  or had  one i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h . c o l l e a g u e s .  The r e s p o n b i l i t y f o r , and management  show two d i f f e r e n t management  styles.  o f , the course  With one, the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e x e r c i s e s c o n t r o l over s t a f f i n g and timetabling; person  i n the other, the Department Head becomes the  p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the course.  The former  i s p r e v a l e n t on the west s i d e and the l a t t e r on the east s i d e o f the c i t y .  5.  A l l s c h o o l s a l l o c a t e the p r e s c r i b e d number o f  c u r r i c u l a r hours.  The only v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t i n the  semestered s c h o o l s where the number of hours i s 85-90 hours,  and a t a s m a l l west s i d e secondary s c h o o l which  c o n s i d e r s Consumer Education course  a junior elective:  meets 3 out o f 4 c l a s s  the  hours.  However, Consumer Education  c u r r i c u l a r time i s "borrowed"  f o r a v a r i e t y o f programs.  C u r r i c u l a r time i s g e n e r a l l y  not borrowed from academic s u b j e c t s such as E n g l i s h or Algebra. 116  6.  On  the east s i d e of Vancouver, Consumer Education i s  o f f e r e d at the Grade 11/12 On  l e v e l i n 8 of the  the west s i d e of Vancouver, the opposite  5 of the 8 schools  o f f e r the course at the  10  schools.  i s the junior  case: 9/10  level.  7.  Course content shows v a r i a t i o n s between the east  west s i d e of the c i t y . prescribed  curriculum  R e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of may  the  be the r e s u l t of the  Respondents from the east s i d e u n i v e r s a l l y f e l t information had  i n the course was  new  not been taught at home, and  They a l s o f e l t  more r e l e v a n t .  Because the course was  s e n i o r students,  it  the  and generally  the s u b j e c t matter  was  A l i m i t e d number of east s i d e students  continue on to post-secondary education. prime importance i s i n f o r m a t i o n soon a f t e r  the  many of the students were  students approached the course i n a s e r i o u s  o f f e r e d to the  following.  to t h e i r students:  from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds.  b u s i n e s s l i k e manner.  and  graduation.  117  What becomes of  which w i l l become u s e f u l  West s i d e respondents  commented on a number of f a c t o r s  which occured i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g circumstance: much of the m a t e r i a l was  a l r e a d y taught at home by the  parents; because the course i s o f f e r e d to younger students, the emphasis of the j u n i o r course was to  modified  focus on being a teen consumer.  The h i g h e r socio-economic  background of the west s i d e a l s o  lead teachers to comment i t seemed many students took course only because i t was students d i d not approach courses:  G e n e r a l l y the  i t as s e r i o u s l y as academic  only courses which count f o r u n i v e r s i t y  are c o n s i d e r e d  8.  compulsory.  the  entrance  "important".  In many schools., both e a s t s i d e and west s i d e , there  are no c o n s i s t e n t g r a d i n g standards.  9.  Of the 23 respondents,  15 supported r e t e n t i o n of the  course as a g r a d u a t i o n requirement.  These 15  respondents  were evenly s p l i t between East s i d e and West, s i d e s c h o o l s .  10.  A d d i t i o n of a government f i n a l  following result:  4 had 118  exam gave the  "no o p i n i o n " ; 8 were opposed to  the i d e a ; 5 c o u l d argue both s i d e s - seeing pros and cons to  the i d e a ; and 6 were s t r o n g l y f a v o u r a b l e .  Those i n favour o f a f i n a l  examination  f e l t maintenance of  standards was o f g r e a t e r b e n e f i t than maintenance of flexibility. experienced  A l l f i v e respondents  i n t h i s group are  teachers of the course, and a l l but one teach  on the East s i d e .  11.  Concerning  the day-to-day o p e r a t i o n o f the course,  teachers commented on these  a)  The high l e v e l o f energy  issues:  r e q u i r e d to teach  this  course.  b)  Respondent's a t t i t u d e s about the Consumer Education  course r e f l e c t e d whether t e a c h i n g the course was a p e r s o n a l request or an assignment.  Those who had  requested the course were much more p o s i t i v e about the course.  119  c)  When asked  the q u e s t i o n "What s o r t of r e a c t i o n s or  comments do you get from parents about t h i s  course?"  19 teachers p e r c e i v e d parents t o be s u p p o r t i v e about the i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s course w i t h i n the secondary  school  curriculum.  d)  When asked  the q u e s t i o n "What s o r t of r e a c t i o n s or  comments do you get from your students about t h i s course?"  t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d student a t t i t u d e s t o range  from p o s i t i v e : approaching negative:  r e a l i s i n g the value o f the content,  assignments i n a b u s i n e s s l i k e manner; to d i s l i k e o f anything a s s o c i a t e d with s c h o o l , o r  anything compulsory, c o n s i d e r i n g Consumer Education of secondary  importance  t o academic s u b j e c t s because i t i s  not c o n s i d e r e d f o r u n i v e r s i t y  e)  entrance.  D i s t r i c t o f f i c e support was commended i n the realm o f  p r o f e s s i o n a l development. the need f o r a d i s t r i c t  Two recommendations were made:  c o n s u l t a n t or h e l p i n g teacher f o r  t h i s course; the need f o r up-dated a u d i o - v i s u a l resources with c o p i e s f o r every s c h o o l i n the system.  120  f)  Resources f o r t e a c h i n g the course are widely  available.  The p r e s c r i b e d textbooks were r a t e d on a s c a l e  of 1 to 7, with 1 being the low end of the s c a l e . textbook p r e s c r i b e d f o r the Grade 9/10  level,  the Consumer" r e c e i v e d a mean score of 3.16. l e v e l textbook, Consumers" was  The  "Looking f o r The  senior  "Economic D e c i s i o n s f o r Canadian more p o s i t i v e l y rated at 5.  Ratings of  both textbooks showed a normal p r o b a b i l i t y curve.  g)  The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' r o l e was  p e r c e i v e d as being e i t h e r  s u p p o r t i v e or non-supportive to the course.  Support f o r the course i s much more e v i d e n t i n East Side schools:  management of the course i s more the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Department Head than the administration,  s t a f f i n g of the course i s "by r e q u e s t " -  from year to year t h e r e are more repeat teachers of the course, the course i s regarded as important and not used as a t i m e t a b l e f i l l e r . senior  h)  G e n e r a l l y i t i s o f f e r e d at the  level.  Consumer Education teachers r e c e i v e d mixed  about the course from other t e a c h e r s : 121  responses  p o s i t i v e from  those  who  had taken time to f a m i l i a r i z e themselves  course, and n e g a t i v e from those who  with the  regard Consumer  Education as a product of the S o c i a l C r e d i t government, and from those e l e c t i v e areas ( I n d u s t r i a l Education, Fine A r t s , Home Economics) who  a t t r i b u t e the d e p l e t i o n of these  areas to the i n c l u s i o n of Consumer Education.  Negative f e e l i n g s are a l s o c r e a t e d i n s c h o o l s where C o u n s e l l i n g Departments a d v i s e students to "get i t over with" and who  f r e q u e n t l y borrow time from Consumer  Education.  Summation of F i n d i n g s : Examination of the i n f o r m a t i o n o f f e r s t h i s assessment the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n :  of  the treatment and p e r c e p t i o n of  the course w i t h i n the Vancouver secondary  s c h o o l system  can be c a t e g o r i z e d as e i t h e r s u p p o r t i v e or non-supportive.  In g e n e r a l , the treatment and support f o r the course i s more p o s i t i v e i n East Side s c h o o l s than i n West Side schools.  The f a c t o r s and i n f l u e n c e s which have  c o n t r i b u t e d to the " p o s i t i v e " east s i d e  re-interpretation  of the course w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  122  Five.  CHAPTER FIVE  RESEARCH QUESTION  TWO:  F a c t o r s which C o n t r i b u t e t o  the Current S t a t e o f Consumer  Education.  Overview: Information Question  presented  One:  Education. Education  i n Chapter Four addressed  Research  what i s the c u r r e n t s t a t e of Consumer  The i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t Consumer operates  non-supportive  i n two d i f f e r e n t atmospheres:  in a  atmosphere, or i n a s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere.  In g e n e r a l , the atmosphere of East s i d e schools i s c u r r e n t l y more s u p p o r t i v e o f the t e a c h i n g o f Consumer Education.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s from a number o f f a c t o r s and u n d e r l y i n g themes.  The second Research Question  addresses  these c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s which c r e a t e the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n o f the course.  These f a c t o r s and u n d e r l y i n g  themes w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s  123  chapter.  Research Question  Two:  F a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to the  c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer Education  Teachers of Consumer Education  course:  i d e n t i f i e d three  areas  which they f e l t s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r t e a c h i n g of the course.  A l l three areas are r e l a t e d to the atmosphere i n  t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l which can e i t h e r be c o n s i d e r e d be a " s u p p o r t i v e " atmosphere, or i s found  to be  to  "non-  supportive" .  The  i n f o r m a t i o n r e v e a l e d by Consumer Education  teachers i s  t h a t the atmosphere f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g of t h i s  course  i s g e n e r a l l y more s u p p o r t i v e on the east s i d e of the  city  than on the west s i d e .  The  f o l l o w i n g comments and  view.  i n f o r m a t i o n support  Teachers i d e n t i f i e d three f a c t o r s which  i n f l u e n c e the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the course. c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s are as f o l l o w s : a s s o c i a t e d with the course; of the course;  and  These  the p e r c e i v e d s t a t u s or image  l i n g e r i n g from the c o u r s e s s i n c e p t i o n .  124  directly  staffing practices  the t e r r i t o r i a l d i s p u t e s r  this  still  These three f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to the c u r r e n t s t a t e of Consumer Education w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h a t order.  a)Staffing Considerations:  In terms of t h e i r responses to the open-ended q u e s t i o n about  the ways i n which the course c o u l d be  eleven of the respondents  improved,  i d e n t i f i e d the prime  problem  with the course as being the the method i n which i t was staffed.  (£9,10,11,8,7,6,5,(41,2,7,8,).  people s h a r p l y c r i t i c i z e d  the p r a c t i c e of "farming out"  the course year a f t e r year as a f i l l e r to complete  a teaching load.  t e a c h i n g the course who again. I hated i t ! " evidenced e a r l i e r ,  Most of these  f o r anyone needing  Too many people end  up  do not r e a l l y wish t o : "Never  (W5)  was  one person's  comment.  As  of the 23 people i n t e r v i e w e d , 12 people  have been a s s i g n e d the course, and only 11 have i t by choice.  The comments from the respondents  were: "Over the past  years I have seen i t farmed out to d i f f e r e n t teachers need a l o a d .  That's the way  s c h o o l i n every d i c t r i c t . 125  few who  they d e a l with i t i n every  I have seen i t taught with an  automotive bent, different person  inclinations  because o f the  o f the t e a c h e r s . " ( E 9 ) . This same  f u r t h e r commented "Right now everybody's doing a  different  job and I don't think they're doing j u s t i c e t o  the course. admirable and  or a Home Ec. bent,  Some people  who p i c k i t up as a f i l l e r  do an  j o b , but I a l s o know other teachers p i c k i t up  spend a minimum o f time on i t s because i t ' s not a  priority."  Another person take a l i t t l e  s t a t e d "I think the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s should b i t more concern  i n making sure t h a t  Consumer Ed i s taught by Business t e a c h e r s . hard t o k i l l  a course by g i v i n g i t t o someone who  have the e x p e r t i s e or the d e s i r e . " ( E l l ) . longtime  I t ' s not very doesn't  Another  teacher o f the course o f f e r e d t h i s comment " I t ' s  being used as a course t o g i v e t o people whose t i m e t a b l e s aren't t o t a l l y complete so t h e r e ' s f r e q u e n t l y 7 or 8 teachers t e a c h i n g 1 block each o f i t as opposed t o a few people g e t t i n g together and developing a program. good course;  It's a  i t ought t o have j u s t as much weight as any  other course."  (W2)  Because t h i s course  i s f r e q u e n t l y used as a f i l l e r , or  " l e f t o v e r " ' there i s uneven coverage: 126  there are people  t e a c h i n g the course who do not want to and then do not bother to keep c u r r e n t , or people who make a token to  teach the course.  By t h i s continued and s t i l l  attempt frequent  p r a c t i c e of "farming out" the course from year t o year, there i s not as much c o n t i n u i t y of t e a c h i n g and teachers from year to year as i s the case i n other s u b j e c t areas. Only two o f the s c h o o l s on the East s i d e (E6, E4) s t i l l hand out the course to f i l l one  blocks:  a t E6, three people,  from S o c i a l S t u d i e s , one from S p e c i a l Education, and a  t h i r d one from block each.  I n d u s t r i a l Education are a l l t e a c h i n g one  However, the s i t u a t i o n a t t h i s  particular  s c h o o l w i l l change i n 1988-89 because the Business Education department w i l l  t o t a l l y s t a f f a l l the proposed  b l o c k s o f Consumer Education. be somewhat d i f f e r e n t :  At E4, the s i t u a t i o n  will  because enrollment i n other  Business Education courses i s i n c r e a s i n g , more course c h o i c e s are being added and Consumer Education w i l l be " l e t go". politically  As respondent  E10 s t a t e d ( a l s o on s t a f f at E4),  i t h u r t the Business Education department t o  keep the course d u r i n g t h i s l a s t s c h o o l year.  The p r a c t i c e o f handing  out the course to anyone i s not  the e x c e p t i o n , as i t i s on the East s i d e , but the r u l e on the West Side.  Only two west s i d e schools a l s o 127  exhibit  some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are i n evidence  i n the  more s u p p o r t i v e East Side schools where the course at  the s e n i o r l e v e l only.  Or the course  i s s t a f f e d by  people who want t o teach the course, and these express it  i s taught  people  an i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g the course by t e a c h i n g  f o r some l e n g t h o f time - i n other words there i s some  c o n t i n u i t y from year t o year i n the s t a f f i n g , s t r o n g support  and there i s  f o r the course, e i t h e r from the Business  Education department head o r from the person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h i n g the t o t a l  who i s  load o f Consumer  Education.  The  West s i d e schools g e n e r a l l y do not support the course  as the East Side s c h o o l s do:  the course  both  Because o f t h i s , the  j u n i o r or s e n i o r l e v e l .  i s offered at  students are i n e f f e c t t a k i n g two completely courses  f o r high s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n .  i s s t a f f e d p r i m a r i l y by people administration.  Teachers  different  As w e l l , the course  chosen o r s l o t t e d  are those needing  whether they have e x p e r t i s e o r d e s i r e .  i n by the  an e x t r a block,  There a r e many  more teachers t e a c h i n g Consumer Education f o r the f i r s t time on the West Side.  And the p r a c t i c e c o n t i n u e s !  At  W2,W6,W7,W9, W10, W12 there w i l l be t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g the course f o r the f i r s t  time t h i s f a l l . 128  At s c h o o l W6, a  teacher of German was  t o l d she would have to teach  blocks of Consumer Education: t e a c h i n g i t and German was  complained.  double-blocked  two  she has no i n t e r e s t i n Instead, one  to make up one  s e n i o r c l a s s of block and  she  wa  given a block of j u n i o r E n g l i s h , her second t e a c h i n g specialty. two  Upon e n q u i r i n g who  was  b l o c k s of Consumer Education,  worry, w e ' l l f i n e someone to s t i c k  In most of these west-side  going to p i c k up the r e p l y was,  s c h o o l s , there i s n e i t h e r  s t r o n g l y supports or advocates  course, and no one course  who  course:  should teach th  seems to care what happens to the  from year to year.  exception:  "Don't  i t with."  s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p nor c l a i m of ownership f o r the no one  the  Only Wl and W3 are the  a t both of these schools there i s strong  l e a d e r s h i p f o r the course coming from the Education department.  Business  I t can be s p e c u l a t e d from  this  t h a t r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a course a l s o i n dependent upon the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the teachers i n v o l v e d . west s i d e s c h o o l s , there i s l i t t l e and even where almost  full  At the other  c o n t i n u i t y of  teachers  loads of Consumer Education  e x i s t , the load i s s p l i t up among many.  The  s i t u a t i o n i s exactly, the o p p o s i t e on the East Side. 129  At two  of the ten s c h o o l s , there are teachers who  only Consumer Education.  teach  Only one East s i d e s c h o o l  still  c o n t i n u e s the p r a c t i c e of having no c o n t i n u i n g t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g Consumer Education.  Teachers  of Consumer  Education on the East Side g e n e r a l l y teach  substantial  loads of the course, have taught and wish to continue t e a c h i n g the course.  They have made an ownership c l a i m  f o r the course, and have a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support to teach the course at the s e n i o r l e v e l only, with s t a f f i n g done l a r g e l y on recommendations from the s t r o n g e r Business Education department heads.  Because there i s g r e a t e r  c o n t i n u i t y of teachers and t h e r e f o r e t e a c h i n g , there i s a l s o g r e a t e r c o n s i s t e n c y of content and g r e a t e r sense of ownership and p r i d e i n doing a good job with the course.  b) P e r c e i v e d S t a t u s or  Image:  Wherever the course i s not supported or s t a f f e d indiscriminately,  the image of the course becomes t h a t  of a " f r e e b i e " , or "Mickey Mouse" or any number of derogatory comments.  Those teachers who  have been  t e a c h i n g the course f o r a number of years and have some s o r t of ownership a s s o c i a t e d with i t are the t e a c h e r s are most upset with the s i t u a t i o n . 130  The  beginning  who  teachers, or ones who wishes, who  or who  are t e a c h i n g i t a g a i n s t t h e i r  real  do not wish to teach i t again, are the ones  g e n e r a l l y c o u l d not care about what happens to the  course or who  teaches i t i n the f u t u r e .  said d e r i s i v e l y  "There is. s t a t u s to t h i s  As one of them course??"  A number of people commented upon the i n i t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s of the course:  how  the t i m i n g of the course, the  b i a s of the course, and the l a t e a r r i v a l of the had c r e a t e d the conception that the  "course was  there", d e f i n i t e l y an unfavourable f i r s t  apparent  textbook, k i n d of  impression of the  course.  The course i s seen to s t i l l problem.  be s u f f e r i n g from t h i s image  Other teachers make these comments about  p e r c e p t i o n of the course:  " I t j u s t doesn't have the k i n d  of s t a t u s t h a t P h y s i c s and Chemistry courses do.  There's  and departments." it's  something  attractive  and a l l those other  very much a pecking order of people  (W2).  Another  person comments "I t h i n k  they don't want to teach.  I t ' s not an  course i n the sense t h a t the k i d s don't  it  l i k e i t ' s a s t a t u s course.  if  I put a p r o j e c t on.  get  the  treat  They r e s e n t i t at exam time  They want to have i t i n advance,  i t over with so they can take care of more s e r i o u s 131  things.  (W5)  Respondent W6  comments "..yet they don't  put the same importance on i t because they know i t doesn't count as f a r as government exams, entrance Another teacher  (W7)  to u n i v e r s i t y . "  s t a t e s t h a t " I t ' s not looked on as a  p r o v i n c i a l or s c h o l a r s h i p here,  so t h a t would lower i t s  s t a t u s i n r e l a t i o n to Algebra or B i o l o g y . "  I t would  appear t h a t on the west s i d e , those courses which are p r o v i n c i a l l y examined are the high s t a t u s courses. was  There  only one negative comments about s t a t u s from east s i d e  teachers: asked  she d i d not want to teach the course,  to never teach i t again.  and  has  I t i s her o p i n i o n t h a t  t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n should be taught  i n the home. (E4)  Every  other teacher t e a c h i n g the course  i n the East s i d e f e l t  t h e i r students spent the same amount of time on Consumer Education as other courses, and  felt  t h a t the only  n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s towards the course were generated those students who  by  d i d not l i k e anything a s s o c i a t e d with  school.  Comments from East s i d e teachers r e g a r d i n g the s t a t u s or image were somewhat d i f f e r e n t : t h a t the "Socred" the eyes of some; f r e e l y was  E5 commented  conception of the course was E2 f e l t  what had caused 132  course's  damaging i n  t h a t handing the course  out  a good number of the image  problems "The r e a c t i o n around the s c h o o l was t h a t many people who d i d n ' t want to teach the course were t e a c h i n g i t and doing a r e a l hashed-up j o b of i t . "  c)Territorial  The  Disputes:  territorial  d i s p u t e s which were o r i g i n a l l y c r e a t e d  with the i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s course s c h o o l s , d i e d a n a t u r a l death.  i n 1982, have i n most  The course has been around  long enought now f o r i t t o be accepted  as a f a i t  accompli.  None of the students c u r r e n t l y i n high s c h o o l have never been i n the s i t u a t i o n of not needing for  high s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n  Consumer Education  - i t i s something which, f o r  them, has always been t h e r e .  Some l i n g e r i n g h i n t s and n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s surround  still  the course and do not add t o a p o s i t i v e image f o r  the course.  F i v e of the respondents  l i n g e r i n g negative t e r r i t o r i a l  commented on these  feelings.  Some of the  n e g a t i v e comments have come from teachers i n e l e c t i v e course areas and some from teachers i n the "academic areas".  For example, respondent 133  W6 s t a t e d t h a t "..the m a j o r i t y o f  s t a f f would not l i k e to see i t as a r e q u i r e d course.  They  f e e l i t i n t e r f e r e s with the a v a i l a b l e e l e c t i v e s f o r students.  When the course f i r s t came i n , the comments  were t h a t Business Ed shouldn't have t h i s r e q u i r e d course and a l o t of what we teach i s a l s o taught i n Home Ec. i n Law  and Economics and Consumer Math."  The  and  opinions  from Wll were "..the I n d u s t r i a l Education Departments  has  the f e e l i n g t h a t i t s enrollment d e c l i n i n g as a r e s u l t of t h i s course."  Another person commented on the n e g a t i v e  f e e l i n g s emanating from other e l e c t i v e areas, always f i n d some who  don't  "You'll  t h i n k i t should be a compulsory  course because i t prevents them from t a k i n g other courses.  I.E. don't  same t h i n g .  elective  t h i n k i t ' s a good i d e a ; F i n e A r t s ,  I t takes a k i d out of c i r c u l a t i o n f o r a year  where they c o u l d be t a k i n g other e l e c t i v e s so those of teachers have more d i f f i c u l t y . "  type  (E2).  Negative comments about Consumer Education a l s o come from the academic areas.  Respondent E5 made t h i s comment about  the viewpoint of the "..academic everyone's  subjects..where  f i g h t i n g f o r space on the c u r r i c u l u m .  I think  they f e e l there should be more space f o r c u l t u r a l t h i n g s i f you're  i n the E n g l i s h Department.  Some of the Science  people say there should be more emphasis on 134  new  developments i n s c i e n c e .  Everyone i s v y i n g f o r t h e i r room  on the c u r r i c u l u m f o r the changes t h a t are happening.  I  t h i n k they f i n d t h a t Consumer Education, which i s the most recent compulsory course, At two  i s the one  t h a t ' s impeded them."  of the West Side s c h o o l s which have M i n i Schools or  s p e c i a l programmes f o r the s c h o l a s t i c a l l y able students, the-students are not t i m e t a b l e d f o r Consumer Education i n with other students of the s c h o o l , but have the taught by someone from an "academic" area who from Consumer Education when i t i s needed. West Side s c h o o l which has a s p e c i a l i z e d  course  borrows time  At yet  Language  programme, Consumer Education i s taught i n French, without French  another  but  language m a t e r i a l s , and by teachers who  only t e a c h i n g i t to f i l l  are  t h e i r load.  In the two West Side schools where Consumer Education does f a r e b e t t e r than most, teachers at these schools  readily  admit to t e a c h i n g the course as "an academic".(W3) another  s c h o o l , plans f o r the 1988-89 s c h o o l year  mean t h a t everyone t a k i n g the course w i l l exam.  At will  "take a f i n a l  I j u s t want to push the k i d s a l i t t l e b i t here  g i v e them more prep f o r  135  post-secondary."(Wl)  and  Summary Statements about F a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e t o the c u r r e n t State o f Consumer  Education.  Respondents i d e n t i f i e d three f a c t o r s which d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o or c r e a t e d the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f the Consumer Education  course:  s t a f f i n g p o l i c i e s o f the  v a r i o u s s c h o o l s , the course's territorial  The  image, and the s u b j e c t - a r e a  disputes.  f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of s t a f f i n g p r a c t i c e s which  prove d e t r i m e n t a l to the.course:  1.  Assignment r a t h e r than r e c r u i t m e n t o f i n t e r e s t e d and  qualified  2.  personnel;  Use of the course  as a t i m e t a b l e f i l l e r  singleton teaching blocks. exist, and  c r e a t e s many  Where a number of blocks  these should be handled  as a d e f i n i t e  t e a c h i n g load  taught by one teacher.  Detrimental  s t a f f i n g p o l i c i e s produce a l a r g e segment of  Consumer Education disinterested.  teachers who are d i s s a t i s f i e d and  I n c o n s i s t e n t standards 136  and content  coverage are the end r e s u l t of these d e t r i m e n t a l p o l i c i e s .  The second f a c t o r i d e n t i f i e d by Consumer Education teachers was  the image of the course.  T h e i r comments  i n d i c a t e the course s u f f e r s from a low s t a t u s f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons:  1.  I t i s not an academic course and i s t h e r e f o r e  p e r c e i v e d to be of l e s s v a l u e , not only by students but by c o l l e a g u e s as w e l l ;  2.  Because i t does not have a p r o v i n c i a l examination, i t  i s not used f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ;  3.  I n c o n s i s t e n t standards, at both the macro and  l e v e l s , g i v e 'mixed' messages to students about importance  micro  the  of the course;  L i n g e r i n g remnants of the t e r r i t o r i a l peaked i n 1982  are s t i l l  present and c o n t r i b u t i n g to non-  supportive teaching s i t u a t i o n s . can be summarized as f o l l o w s :  137  i n f i g h t i n g which  These n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s  1.  Some e l e c t i v e course areas regard Consumer  Education  as the c u l p r i t f o r the demise of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  elective  area.  2.  Many teachers of academic s u b j e c t s regard Consumer  Education as an encroachment i n t o c u r r i c u l a r time: which c o u l d be devoted  3.  to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  time  s u b j e c t area.  F a i l u r e o f Consumer Education teachers t o c r e a t e t h e i r  own s u b j e c t area i n t e r e s t group which would f u n c t i o n to p r o t e c t and defend  The  the course a g a i n s t i t s c r i t i c s .  c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s w i l l be  d i s c u s s e d i n the next  chapter.  138  CHAPTER SIX; CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  The purpose  o f t h i s f i n a l chapter i s t o present a  summary o f the major f i n d i n g s f o l l o w e d by the c o n c l u s i o n s and  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the study.  Directions f o r further  study w i l l be presented a t the end o f the chapter.  The  summary o f the m a j o r , f i n d i n g s i s a condensation of  the f i n d i n g s as presented i n Chapters Four and F i v e . The major f i n d i n g s are o r g a n i s e d around  the g e n e r a l  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s presented i n Chapter  1 and are  d i s c u s s e d under the headings  c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the two  research questions.  Major f i n d i n g s w i l l be presented f i r s t ,  and then the  c o n c l u s i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of these w i l l be presented and d i s c u s s e d .  139  findings  Summary  o f Major F i n d i n g s :  Research Question One: What i s the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer Education course i n the Vancouver s c h o o l district?  The i n t e r v i e w s conducted  with 23 p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the  course p r o v i d e d the i n f o r m a t i o n which when compiled and c a t e g o r i z e d p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l major f i n d i n g s about the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f the course.  The major f i n d i n g s were as  follows:  1.  In a l l 18 s c h o o l s , the course operates w i t h i n the  Business Education Department.  Many o f the teachers  c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g the course had not asked t o teach the course, but were assigned t o teach the course. respondents  sampled i n t h i s study,  Of the 23  12 had been assigned to  teach the course.  2.  Because o f the high numbers o f teachers who have been  assigned to teach the course, there are two d i s t i n c t groups o f t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the t e a c h i n g o f the course:  those who have requested t o teach the course and  wish t o continue t o teach the course; and those who 140  have been assigned to teach the course and,  i n many  cases, would p r e f e r not to continue t e a c h i n g the course.  3.  The  course i t s e l f r e q u i r e s a high l e v e l of energy  teacher input because of the d i v e r s i t y of content. i s a c o n t i n u a l need to keep informed legislation,  and  There  about changes i n  and other i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the  course.  4.  A u d i o - v i s u a l resources need e x t e n s i v e updating.  Copies of a u d i o - v i s u a l resources which r e l a t e to the p r e s c r i b e d content areas, f o r example T a x a t i o n and Money Management,' should be i n every s c h o o l .  Respondents i n d i c a t e the need f o r a d i f f e r e n t f o r the j u n i o r course, Consumer Education  5.  District  textbook  9/10.  l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l development seminars  are  e x c e l l e n t , but there i s a need f o r continued support f o r the course.  Appointment.of a d i s t r i c t  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s course was the  6.  " h e l p i n g teacher"  i d e n t i f i e d as a need by  respondents.  Macro l e v e l p o l i c i e s o r i g i n a t i n g from the M i n i s t r y of 141  Education have c r e a t e d a c u r r i c u l a r p o s i t i o n f o r t h i s course which i s unique. course,  Because i t i s a compulsory  i t i s i n a p r o t e c t e d p o s i t i o n and  r e q u i r e d to a l l o t c u r r i c u l a r time and  s c h o o l s are  space f o r i t .  Even though M i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s have p r e s c r i b e d content areas, at present there i s no mechanism i n p l a c e to ensure the M i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s are being f o l l o w e d . Throughout the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t ,  t h e r e i s only  l i m i t e d evidence  of adherence to M i n i s t r y G u i d e l i n e s .  7.  support  School-based  f o r the course, emanating from  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s c h o o l and/or from the  teachers  w i t h i n the s c h o o l v a r i e s from being very s u p p o r t i v e , to being very unsupportive. support  In g e n e r a l , g r e a t e r  school-based  f o r the course e x i s t s i n east s i d e s c h o o l s than i n  west s i d e s c h o o l s .  8.  Both the Consumer Education 9/10  Consumer Education  course and  12 course have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y  m o d i f i e d , or r e i n t e r p r e t e d , i n the Vancouver District.  There i s l i t t l e evidence  School  of c i t y - w i d e  c o n s i s t e n c y of course content, and of o v e r a l l requirements  the  or standards.  Every secondary  a d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n of the course, 142  and  course  school  teaches  i n many s c h o o l s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y on the west s i d e of the c i t y ,  there i s l i t t l e  c o n s i s t e n c y of content or standards even between the teachers of the same s c h o o l .  Conclusions:  Research  Question  One:  From the f i n d i n g s presented above, two reached about  the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer Education  course w i t h i n the Vancouver School  1.  c o n c l u s i o n s were  District:  The course has been s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e i n t e r p r e t e d at  the s c h o o l l e v e l f o r a number of reasons.  2.  Macro l e v e l p o l i c i e s p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s course need  a t t e n t i o n and  revision.  Summary of Major Research  Findings:  q u e s t i o n Two:  F a c t o r s or i s s u e s which c o n t r i b u t e  to the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the Consumer Education course:  Teachers  of the course i d e n t i f i e d three f a c t o r s which  s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the course and c o n t r i b u t e t o the s u b s t a n t i a l r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which the course undergoes. 143  A l l three f a c t o r s r e l a t e to the atmosphere or  school-based  support at t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l , and  are as f o l l o w s :  1.  "supportive"  S t a f f i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were e i t h e r  or  "non-supportive".  2.  The  p e r c e i v e d image of the course has c o n t r i b u t e d to  i t s current status.  3.  The  remnants of t e r r i t o r i a l  f e e l i n g s about the  Conclusions  and  d i s p u t e s produce  course.  I m p l i c a t i o n s of these  to  Research Question  The  c o n c l u s i o n s and  negative  f i n d i n g s as  Two:  e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s that are  reached from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these f a c t o r s w i l l presented  1.  be  next.  Schools  t r e a t e d the course i n e i t h e r  "non-supportive"  manners.  f o l l o w i n g p i c t u r e emerges:  "supportive"  From the i n t e r v i e w s  a n a l y s i s of the data contained  Education  related  i n these  and  i n t e r v i e w s , the  i n some s c h o o l s , Consumer  has become an accepted r e a l i t y and 144  or  i s promoted  or supported as a c t i v e l y as the other courses, and i n some s c h o o l s , Consumer Education i s not supported and i s t r e a t e d as a "second  class" subject.  Schools on Vancouver's east s i d e e x h i b i t ,  i n general,  much more school-based support f o r the course than of the west s i d e .  those  I t may be the i n f l u e n c e s emanating from  the community surrounding the p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l which shape the Consumer Education course o f f e r e d w i t h i n the micro context o f the s c h o o l .  I n f l u e n c e s such as the socio-economic  l e v e l o f the  immediate s c h o o l a f f e c t what happens w i t h i n the s c h o o l and to the courses o f f e r e d a t the s c h o o l .  I t can be  s p e c u l a t e d that the lower socio-economic  l e v e l s of  Vancouver's east s i d e c o n t r i b u t e to the Consumer Education course being p e r c e i v e d with g r e a t e r r e l e v a n c e by students from such a home background.  Perhaps because fewer o f  these same students continue t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a t p o s t secondary  institutions,  i t i s of g r e a t e r importance to  prepare them f o r the r e a l i t y of the l i f e which w i l l soon a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l .  145  begin  Perhaps the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of  these same s c h o o l s r e a l i z e the r e l e v a n c e of the course, and thus become more s u p p o r t i v e i n t h e i r management of the course.  The east-west  s p l i t between s u p p o r t i v e and  non-supportive  management of the course i s not c l e a n l y d i v i d e d upon geographic and socio-economic  lines.  The  a f f e c t of  i n d i v i d u a l teachers p e r s o n a l i t i e s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to what happens with the course.  The  importance  of teacher  p e r s o n a l i t y i s i n evidence i n two west s i d e  situations  where the course f a r e s w e l l , even though the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n does not p e r c e i v e the course to be as important as the academic o f f e r i n g s of the s c h o o l . Teacher  p e r s o n a l i t y can a l s o n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t the course:  one e a s t s i d e teacher r e a d i l y admitted having no d e s i r e to teach the course, and prepared f o r i t a c c o r d i n g l y .  Schools which are " s u p p o r t i v e " to Consumer Education e x h i b i t the f o l l o w i n g school-based c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :  first,  support from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the Business Education department; and second,  c r e a t i o n of a s u b j e c t area  i n t e r e s t group or c o n s t i t u e n c y . w i l l be examined i n that order.  146  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and "supportive" Business  Department Head Support: At  s c h o o l s , both the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  Department support  each other  i n areas  the o v e r a l l r o u t i n e management of the course. mutually  s u p p o r t i v e arrangement manifests  number of ways: teachers  the  concerning This  itself  the s t a f f i n g of the course  the  in a  - where the  come from, t h e i r e x p e r t i s e , the amount of  continuity  i n s t a f f from year to year;  timetabled  - as a f i l l e r ,  how  the course  or g i v e n out as a s u b s t a n t i a l  load to a q u a l i f i e d person;  and  at which l e v e l the  i s o f f e r e d - j u n i o r or s e n i o r . The  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are i n f l u e n c e d by  communities which t h e i r schools  The  Giaquinta,  and  non-supportive to  support  a f i n d i n g of Gross,  (1975) i d e n t i f i e d negative  c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l and  (1979) s t a t e d t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support  critical  the  or  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s as a major b a r r i e r  e f f e c t i v e use of new  Fullan  was  into c u r r i c u l a r innovations. Bernstein  perhaps  serve.  importance of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support  much r e s e a r c h  course  atmosphere of east s i d e  schools tends to be more, s u p p o r t i v e to the course, because these  is  f a c t o r f o r a c h i e v i n g success. should not j u s t be to provide 147  courses. was  a  Administrative resources  and  material, was  but should  occurring,  that  adapt m a t e r i a l s ,  a l s o ensure p r o f e s s i o n a l development teachers  that  teachers  philosophically  committed  2.  Development  of a  The  second c o n c l u s i o n  practices  function  Kirst  was  constituency  attributes  that  supportive  would  assist  associated  (1985)  innovation.  o f new with  were  innovation.  administrative  creation of a  or " i n t e r e s t  group" which  t h e image o f t h e  identified  which c o n t r i b u t e d  a curricular  and  to the c u r r i c u l a r  t o p r o t e c t and promote  and M e i s t e r  creation  understood  and  Constituency:  f o r the course  subject-area  were e n c o u r a g e d t o use  three  would  course.  crucial  to the " i n s i t u t i o n a l i z i n g "  These t h r e e  organizations  o r new  the i n n o v a t i o n ,  attributes specialized  the subsequent  were t h e personnel  formation  of a s u b j e c t - a r e a  constituency  w h i c h would  promote  and  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  the area,  innovation  should  Unfortunately, have  any one  finally,  be e a s i l y  three  148  protect  and  t e s t e d or monitored.  t h e Consumer E d u c a t i o n  of these  of  innovation  does n o t  a t t i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d with i t .  3. Course Image or S t a t u s : C r e a t i o n of a s u b j e c t c o n s t i t u e n c y would improve the image of the course. p a r t due  The  low  s t a t u s of the course  to what Goodson (1983) l a b e l s i t s u t i l i t a r i a n  tradition.  U t i l i t a r i a n knowledge deals with  commonsense, or world  of work.  o u t l i n e s the r e a l i t y of courses "utilitarian". resources, who  which are  the l e s s able students  advancement. from the  the  Goodson's r e s e a r c h  U t i l i t a r i a n courses  teach these courses  those  is in  considered  r e c e i v e fewer  and o f f e r the  teachers  fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c a r e e r  Courses which have h i g h - s t a t u s knowledge are "academic" t r a d i t i o n .  that teachers of h i g h - s t a t u s courses  Goodson contends c o n s p i r e to  retain  t h e i r advantageous p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the s c h o o l system by c r e a t i n g formidable  a l l i a n c e s between t h e i r high s t a t u s  s u b j e c t communities and o u t s i d e agencies examinations and u n i v e r s i t y entrance serve to v a l i d a t e and perpetuate  such as e x t e r n a l  requirements  which  these high s t a t u s  positions.  4.  Because u n i v e r s i t i e s do not c o n s i d e r Consumer  Education  and many other courses  with a  knowledge t r a d i t i o n as a c c e p t a b l e f o r 149  "utilitarian"  determining  u n i v e r s i t y entrance,  many students  as l a c k i n g importance o r s t a t u s .  p e r c e i v e such Reid  (1983) commented  that s c h o o l s were not able to withstand  or c o u n t e r a c t the  r e s t r a i n t s p l a c e d by these o u t s i d e agencies. s i d e s c h o o l s admit t h e i r treatment "academic".  courses  S e v e r a l west  o f the course i s  A number of the respondents see i n s t i g a t i o n  of a f i n a l examination  as a p o s s i b l e method f o r r a i s i n g  the s t a t u s of the course.  5.  The c u l t u r e o f schools i n g e n e r a l promotes the s t a t u s  quo  and i s t h e r e f o r e r e s i s t a n t t o change.-  T h i s i s not t o  say t h a t change does not happen i n s c h o o l s . been and continue  to be many c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s which  are i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l realm, Education  There have  being an example.  Consumer  Whether the c u r r i c u l a r  i n n o v a t i o n s become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ,  or fade  into  o b l i v i o n i s of i n t e r e s t .  Both Wolcott  (1977) and L o r t i e  (1975) s t a t e d t h a t the  c u l t u r e o f s c h o o l s was i n e q u i l i b r i u m and t h e r e f o r e s t a b i l i t y of the system i s maintained e f f o r t s t o change.  Conservative  even when there are  teacher b e l i e f systems  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s which are not open t o c o l l e g i a l t e a c h i n g methods. 150  Common (1983)  stated  t h a t teachers "choose to maintain the  i n classrooms they f i n d d e s i r a b l e " .  The  way  of  implication  life of  such l i t e r a t u r e i s that a number of c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s w i l l not school  be  successful,  community.  the c l i m a t e changes.  Many w i l l be  of the  The  i n p a r t due  school  successful,  world i s not  personality  evidenced i n two  the  even though  conducive to  of i n d i v i d u a l teachers,  the  as  west s i d e s i t u a t i o n s where Consumer  Education f a r e s w e l l , or i n east the course does not this  to the nature of  fare well,  s i d e s i t u a t i o n s where  i n d i c a t e the  importance of  factor.  Recommendations:  This s e c t i o n w i l l d i s c u s s p e r t a i n to the  future  two  recommendations which  of the Consumer Education course:  the need f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a constituency; pertaining  1.  and  r e v i s i o n ,of M i n i s t r y p o l i c i e s  to t h i s course.  A vacuum f o r l e a d e r s h i p  course.  The  c u r r e n t l y surrounds t h i s  course s u f f e r s wherever there i s weak  department head l e a d e r s h i p , the  subject-area  s t a f f teaching  or frequent turnover of  the course, and 151  an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  which  1  a s s i g n s the course without c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r d e s i r e or expertise.  The course would b e n e f i t from  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s u b j e c t - a r e a c o n s t i t u e n c y . Establishment of a s u b j e c t c o n s t i t u e n c y would a s s i s t micro  l e v e l course r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  Rather  than  with  having  the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n continue with every s c h o o l r e i n t e r p r e t i n g the course i n many d i f f e r e n t ways, e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s u b j e c t c o n s t i t u e n c y would serve to promote and p r o t e c t the course.  2.  The Business Education Curriculum r e v i s i o n i s  underway, with September 1990 implementation  as the d e a d l i n e f o r  of the r e v i s e d c u r r i c u l u m .  The f o l l o w i n g  excerpt from the Statement of I n t e n t s (January,  1988)  mentioned the f u t u r e f o r Consumer Education:  "Consumer  Education 9/10  based  w i l l be r e p l a c e d by a broader  Business Education 10 course and Consumer Education will of  remain i n the c u r r i c u l u m as an e l e c t i v e .  Consumer Education 9/10  The  12 content  w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the  new  course and other c u r r i c u l u m areas where a p p r o p r i a t e .  The  implementation  of Business Eduation 10 - compulsory or  e l e c t i v e - w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a f t e r the f i n d i n g s of the Royal Commission on Education have been r e l e a s e d and e n t i r e j u n i o r secondary 152  programs have been s t u d i e d .  the  Consumer Education at the 9/10 or 12 l e v e l w i l l compulsory u n t i l the implementation  remain  of the new Business  Education c u r r i c u l u m i n 1990."  The  i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t Consumer Education w i l l no longer  be a compulsory course.  The Business  Education  departments have been o f f e r i n g many new courses i n the l a s t few years due t o growing acceptance microcomputer i n homes and i n o f f i c e s .  and use o f the With the advent of  new courses such as I n t r o d u c t o r y Data P r o c e s s i n g , and J  Keyboarding,  the Business Education departments are no  longer v i c t i m s of d e c l i n i n g enrollments or decreased status.  T h e r e f o r e , p r o t e c t i o n and c o n t r o l o f Consumer  Education i s no longer o f v i t a l Education departments. ensure  importance  t o the Business  The new course o f f e r i n g s  the f u t u r e p o s i t i o n o f the Business  will  Education  Departments.  Macro l e v e l p o l i c i e s o r i g i n a t i n g from the M i n i s t r y o f Education should be r e v i s e d so t h a t i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the course are being met.  I f the course i s going t o  continue as a compulsory g r a d u a t i o n requirement, the i s s u e o f province-wide addressed.  then  standards needs t o be  F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) i d e n t i f i e d the 153  importance of the p o l i t i c a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s upon the  implmentation  innovations.  Meister of  of c u r r i c u l a r  (1985) suggested  compliance  was  Kirst  and  that e a s i l y - a c c e s s i b l e  evidence  one of three a t t r i b u t e s necessary f o r  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n .  In the  case of Consumer Education, mechanisms f o r determining evidence of compliance  are not i n o p e r a t i o n .  o f f e r i n g the course as i t e x i s t s today w i l l problems of r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  lack of  compound the  province-wide  standards and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the course. of  To continue  The  Education needs to formulate a c l e a r p o l i c y  Ministry with  r e s p e c t to d e s i r e d standards and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h i s course.  Summation:  T h i s study i n d i c a t e s that the Consumer Education course has been s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e i n t e r p r e t e d from the course-asplanned  i n t o the c o u r s e - a s - p r a c t i c e d f o r a v a r i e t y of  reasons.  Macro p o l i c i e s which f a i l  to address  i s s u e s such  as  c o n s i s t e n c y of content and standards f o r g r a d i n g have c o n t r i b u t e d to the s i t u a t i o n c u r r e n t l y a f f e c t i n g 154  the  course.  The  course has a l s o undergone s u b s t a n t i a l  r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the i n f l u e n c e s from l o c a l communities which the s c h o o l s serve, from  the  the  i n d i v i d u a l teachers i n v o l v e d i n the t e a c h i n g of the course, and  from the p o l i c i e s of the d i f f e r e n t  schools  which a f f e c t s t a f f i n g of the course and the grade l e v e l at which the course i s o f f e r e d .  T h i s study a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t school-based critical  to the f u t u r e of t h i s course.  b e n e f i t from  the presence  support i s  The course would  of a " s u p p o r t i v e " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  atmosphere and the development of a s u b j e c t area c o n s t i t u e n c y of teachers who course.  would promote and p r o t e c t the  Lack of a s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere or f a i l u r e to  c r e a t e a s u b j e c t community may demise of the course.  155  c o n t r i b u t e to the e v e n t u a l  Directions f o r Further  Study:  The  f o l l o w i n g are suggestions  1.  The  f o r f u r t h e r study:  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e the importance of  a number of f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to the r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l and  innovations.  Studies which examine the i n t e r a c t i v e i n f l u e n c e s of teachers,  students,  upon c u r r i c u l a r  department heads and  i n n o v a t i o n s and  administrators  implementations could  be  the s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  2.  Assessments should  be made of the  i n other p r o v i n c i a l school  156  districts.  course-as-practiced  REFERENCES Borg, W.R. York:  and G a l l , M.D. Longman, 1983.  E d u c a t i o n a l Research.  New  Common, D., Who should have the power to change s c h o o l s : Teachers or policy-makers? Education Canada. 23(2). 41-45, 1983. Este, W. The implementation of Consumer Education i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia: an i n t e r i m theme analysis. Vancouver School Board: Program S e r v i c e s . 1983. Fleming, T. R e s t r a i n t , reform, and Education Canada, 25m. 5-11.  reallocation. 1985.  F u l l a n , M. and Pomfret, A. Research on c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n implementation. Review of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . Winter, 1977, V o l . 77, No. 1, 3 3 5 - 3 3 7 . F u l l a n , M. The Meaning of E d u c a t i o n a l Change. Toronto: OISE P r e s s / The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1982. Goodson, I. London:  School Sub.iects and Croon Helm, 1983.  Curriculum  Goodson, I. London:  School Sub.iects and Curriculum The Falmer Press, 1987.  Change.  Change  Gross, N., G i a q u i n t a , J . and B e r n s t e i n , M. Implementing organizational innovations: a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of planned e d u c a t i o n a l change. New York: B a s i c Books, 1971. Horn, G. Consumer Education: a c r i t i c i s m from the P o l i t i c a l Perspective. Vancouver: Center f o r Study of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986. House, E.R. Technology versus c r a f t : a ten.year p e r s p e c t i v e on i n n o v a t i o n . J o u r n a l of Curriculum Studies, 1 ( 1 ) , 1-5. 1979.  157  K e t t l e , H. and McCreary, E., Report on the impact o f Consumer Education courses i n Vancouver schools d u r i n g 1982-1983. Vancouver School Board: Program S e r v i c e s . 1983. K i r s t , M. and M e i s t e r , G. Turbulence, i n American Secondary Schools: What Reforms Last? Curriculum I n q u i r y . 15(2), 169-186. 1985. Leithwood, K.A. and Montgomery, D.J. Improving classroom p r a c t i c e : using innovation p r o f i l e s . Toronto: OISE Press, 1987. L o r t i e , D., School teacher: a s o c i o l o g i c a l study. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, .1975. M i l e s , M. U n r a v e l l i n g the mystery of institutionalization. E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership. 14-19. 1983.  41(3).  M i n i s t r y o f Education, P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, The M i n i s t e r ' s F a l l Forum. 1980. M i n i s t r y of Education, Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Education: A Report from the M i n i s t e r . 1981a. M i n i s t r y o f Education, Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia. M i n i s t r y P o l i c y C i r c u l a r #144. V i c t o r i a : Curriculum Development Branch. 1981. M i n i s t r y o f Education, Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia. M i n i s t r y P o l i c y C i r c u l a r #158. V i c t o r i a : Curriculum Development Branch. 1982. M i n i s t r y o f Education, P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Business Education Curriculum update. Curriculum Development Branch. 1988.  Columbia. Victoria:  Reid, W. Curriculum change and the e v o l u t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s : The E n g l i s h s i x t h form i n the n i n e t e e n t h century. In I. Goodson, (Ed.). S o c i a l h i s t o r i e s o f the secondary c u r r i c u l u m : Subjects f o r study. (pp289-311). London: Falmer Press, 1985.  158  Sudman, S. and Bradburn, N. Asking Questions. Franciso: Jossey-Bass, 1983.  San  Wolcott, H. Teachers vs t e c h n o c r a t s . Eugene: Center f o r E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y and Management, U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1977.  159  A p p e n d i x A_j  Interview  Guide  "Today I would l i k e to ask you some q u e s t i o n s about your experience t e a c h i n g the Consumer Education course."  S e c t i o n 1:  Demographic Information:  1.  For how  long have you been teaching?  And  how  long with the Vancouver s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ?  Your experience at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l community has been f o r how  long?  Have you taught i n any other d i s t r i c t s or at any l e v e l s and  2.  i f so, f o r how  3.  long or at what l e v e l s ?  From which U n i v e r s i t y d i d you graduate?  what f a c u l t y ?  And  other  And  your area of s p e c i a l t y was  from  what?  I f you were to c a t e g o r i z e y o u r s e l f as a s p e c i a l i s t  teacher i n any p a r t i c u l a r area, f o r example Sciences or P h y s i c a l Education, how  would you c a t e g o r i z e y o u r s e l f ?  160  4.  Into which age group would you f a l l :  25-35, 36-45,  46-55, 55+?  S e c t i o n 2: Socio-Context: 5.  particular  s c h o o l community:  I would l i k e to know how you became a Consumer  Education teacher.  Was i t a course you wanted t o teach  or was i t assigned to you?  Why d i d you want t o teach  the  course?  6.  In your t o t a l t e a c h i n g load, you teach how many  blocks?  How does the t i m e t a b l e operate?  How many of  those t e a c h i n g b l o c k s are Consumer Education? l e v e l or l e v e l s you teach  7.  And the  are?  At your s c h o o l , how many b l o c k s o f Consumer  Education were taught  l a s t year?  Does a department  head c l a i m r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s course? Should  the course f a l l  p a r t i c u l a r department?  Which one?  under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a Which one would seem t o be the  161  most a p p r o p r i a t e ?  8.  During  t h i s l a s t year,  c l a s s ( e s ) or were you  d i d you  team-teach your  s o l e l y responsible for teaching  your c l a s s e s of Consumer Education?  How  did this  a l t e r n a t i v e arrangement a r i s e ?  S e c t i o n 3: 9.  When you  Resources f o r  teaching:  s t a r t e d p r e p a r i n g f o r the course,  d i d you do to get the i n f o r m a t i o n and you  10.  O v e r a l l , which of the resources proved to be Why  was  this?  Which of the resources proved to be of  value?  12.  resources  needed?  e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e f o r you?  11.  And  little  why?  I f you were asked to r a t e the p r e s c r i b e d  on a s c a l e of 1 to 7 where 1 i s the low end, you  what  r a t e the  textbook?  162  textbook how  would  13.  Using the same s c a l e of 1 through 7, how would you  r a t e the amount o f time and energy you devoted to t h i s course t h i s year?  S e c t i o n 4: 14.  Shape of the Curriculum taught:  I'm c u r i o u s to know which t o p i c s you taught d u r i n g the  year, and a l s o the order and approximate amount of time spent on each.  Do you have a copy o f your course  o u t l i n e which c o u l d be used f o r r e f e r e n c e ?  I f not, I  have a copy of the C u r r i c u l u m guide that we can use f o r reference.  Is t h i s your own p e r s o n a l o u t l i n e or  something you have adapted from another source? What d i d you teach t h i s year?  15.  I n o t i c e you have emphasized  these t o p i c s :  .  Why was t h i s ?  16.  Were t h e r e any t o p i c s which you j u s t d i d n ' t cover  t h i s year, f o r whatever  reason? Was i t j u s t a matter or'  163  time, or was i t f o r some other reason?  17.  Do you f e e l the amount of time a l l o t t e d  for this  course i s a p p r o p r i a t e , or i s i t too much time?  18.  Next year, i f you're t e a c h i n g the course again,  would you make any changes from what you d i d t h i s  For  year?  what reasons would you make these changes?  Section  5:  Grading C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : 19.  At t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l , how i s the grading done f o r the course?  How i s c o n s i s t e n c y o f g r a d i n g ensured  between the v a r i o u s teachers t e a c h i n g t h i s  20.  Are t h e r e any year-end or cross-grade exams  f o r t h i s course?  21.  course?  Who makes up these exams?  How does your s c h o o l ensure there i s some  164  s o r t o f content c o n s i s t e n c y taught i n t h i s course?  S e c t i o n 6: M i n i s t r y of Education requirements; 22.  Do you think t h i s course should continue as a  compulsory g r a d u a t i o n requirement?  23.  Would a P r o v i n c i a l Exam f o r t h i s course be  appropriate?  S e c t i o n 7: 24.  Why or why not?  Why or why not?  A t t i t u d e s towards the course:  T e l l me what s o r t of r e a c t i o n s or comments  you get from your students about t h i s c o u r s e .  And from  the parents?  25.  How s u p p o r t i v e i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to t h i s  course?  Do you think they view i t as an important  course i n the s c h o o l ?  Why do you  think t h i s i s the  case?  26.  What comments do you get about t h i s course  165  from your c o l l e a g u e s ?  27.  What s o r t of comments do you make about the  course?  S e c t i o n ?: Suggestions f o r course improvement; 28.  During the time you have taught t h i s c o u r s e ,  there have probably been ideas or thoughts you have had about how the course c o u l d be improved. I f you c o u l d make any s u g g e s t i o n s , done to improve t h i s  what do you t h i n k needs to be course?  Thank you f o r your time and comments.  166  A P P E N D I X  1.  B :  I n t e r v i e w  N o t e s  Q . A .  H o w 1 2  l o n g y e a r s  t e a c h i n g ?  Q . A .  A l l A l l  w i t h w i t h  V a n c o u v e r ? V a n c o u v e r  Q . A .  H o w 1 2  l o n g w i t h y e a r s  Q . A .  F r o m w h i c h U B C w i t h a  3 .  Q . A .  A g e g r o u p ? 2 5 - 3 5  2 .  Q . A .  H o w w o u l d B u s i n e s s  4 .  Q'. A .  H o w d i d y o u B y c h o i c e .  b e c o m e a C o n s u m e r I a s k e d t o t e a c h  E d i t .  Q . A .  D i d N o ,  t o  f r o m  Q . A .  W h a t p e r k e d y o u r i n t e r e s t ? I t h o u g h t i t w a s a w o r t h w h i l e k i d s c o u l d r e l a t e t o a n d u s e .  Q . A .  D o y o u t e a c h t h e 1 1 0 h o u r s / y e a r ? Y e s  Q . A .  D o e s a n y b o d y t a k e t i m e o u t F a m i l y L i f e t h i s y e a r t o o k  Q .  W h e n y o u d i d y o u r t e a c h i n g f o r t h i s c l a s s , d o e v e r y t h i n g y o u r s e l f o r d i d y o u t e a m i t B a s i c a l l y . N o ( d i d n ' t t e a m i t u p ) .  5 .  A .  t h i s  s c h o o l ?  u n i v e r s i t y d i d y o u B . E d , i n G e o g r a p h y  y o u E d  y o u a s k 1 9 8 5  c a t e g o r i z e  t e a c h  i t  g r a d u a t e ? a n d E c o n o m i c s  y o u r s e l f  r i g h t  c l a s s e s  3  t o  t y p e  c o u r s e .  a  S o m e t h i n g '  w e e k ?  y o u r c o u r s e ? c l a s s e s . d i d u p ?  Q . A .  S o y o u r Y e s , b y  Q . A .  H o w m a n y 8 o r 9 .  Q . A .  D o e s a n y b o d y N o t a t t h i s  b l o c k s o f P r o b a b l y  C E 9 .  a r e  d o 9 / 1 0 ? s c h o o l .  167  i s  t h e  A p p r o x i m a t e l y  H o w m a n y b l o c k s o f t h i s d o y o u t e a c h ? 6 o u t o f 8 b l o c k s . I h a v e 2 p r e p s . I g e t a n o n e b e c a u s e I ' m t h e a u d i o - v i s u a l c o o r d i n a t o r . t h e n  t e a c h e r ?  1 9 8 2 ?  Q . A.  w h o l e l o a d c h o i c e .  o f  t e a c h e r ?  t i m e s  o f 4  a s  C E ?  t h e r e  a t  t h i s  s c h o o l ?  y o u  e x t r a  5 .  Q . A .  F o r C E 1 2 , M o s t l y 1 2 ' s t o t a k e i t  Q . A .  W h o T h e  Q . A .  A n d t h e C o u n s e l l i n g A s f a r a s I k n o w .  Q . A .  H R f w t  o a e e h  w d i d t h e r t l t t h a r e g o i e 1 2 .  Q .  A t I i i l t 9 r  n r ' t t e h / e  d a s a t i o n v e c o s h o u w o u l v e l . a t t h 1 0 a n p e a t .  W y w I a b A m  h e n o u h a t t o n d u t l o a t e  C l D I C t w I c f d W a p  a n y a c k i e f i n f o u o n t r e r m s a s a f o c a r a o u n d i d n ' i l l s n d O o o r .  A .  6 .  Q .  A .  7 .  Q . A .  Q . A.  H o w a n d 4  c a n 1 1 ' s a n d 1 2 s b u t a f e w 1 1 s . i n G r a d e 1 2 .  g o i n t o T h e 1 2 ' s  1  1  i t ? a r e  e n c o u r a g e d  e n c o u r a g e s t h e m ? a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  y u s d o k I I t r i o n i n a  t h i s c o m e a b o u t t h a t h a n o f f e r i n g b o t h , I t t h e y h a d t o m a k e a n g t o o f f e r i t a n d t h  f a ' s m m l d d A e d  o u e  f o y t h l o o f o u o f a l  u g t d c o l l u s n d t t b l  D e p a r t m e n t  r e b l k t  s t a r t o r r e o u s t e C u r k e d a n d I i t w a s o I  r e ? e l y t h t L f a r i e d s o h e t h i n o i g a T a x  w o u l d 7 a s  a s y d e c i n t e d b e a t e a s s o , y i d s t h e n t  e s i r t h s l  o u k n s i o n ? t o t h t h e m u c h o u h a a k e t o o k 1  d p o u r l l i c u l t h a d d a o o k  m e m b e r  e a g o m b n t t a  t h C w l o h t n e o o k g i o t i  e  o n o n t r i s v t o f b u t p u r c o f t k w a w a s o o d n s o n -  r e c e u s u m e t o t e e d  o w ,  a c e r t I h a h e s v e e n l f  y o u r a t e h i g h ?  w a s  e  a d m i n G r a d e 1 o f a b e v e t o l h a t a r e 2 , t h e y  p a r s ? e a G t e x s u d ; e  w h i c h e  i t  i s d e  t o o ?  t w a u p p o e c i s y - c h  s j u s t t s e t h e i o n w h e r o s e t o d  l a r g e l y  i s t r a 1 / 1 2 n e f i t i m i t s i m i ' r e g  t i o l e v a t t h e l a r o i n  n t e l . t h n u . g t  i n g f o r t h e c W h a t d i d y o u l o t ? u i d e a n d l o o k t b o o k a n d I u p p l e m e n t a l o I d i d n ' t l i k e l s e w h e r e . c h a p t e r s  m e r L a w t h e r e t a n t i n t t o p i c s . o t o f s u s e d c a r i e s o f i t h e r e . d o n e . L E m p l o y e e / d i n t h e b o a b o u t i t .  e m I o  e a t 1 2 ? i n i s t r a t i o n t h e y t a t  a d m i n i s -  h a t  I b e I d o n ' t G r a d e b e r o f f a k i d g e t a l  l i e t 9 / 1 c o u t o o t  v h 0 r o  e i n k s e s k o f  o u r s e , w h a t d i d e n d u p u s i n g a n d e d a t t h e t o p i c s s e d i t a s a g u i d e t o f m a t e r i a l . a l o t o f t h e  f o u n d  o n C o t L a w y i m p h e o t d i d s i n g l e g a l a c k i r y w e o u g h . i m i t e o r g e t  n s i o r h e a a l i n g l l  t h i s  t e x t b o o k : g e n e r a l l y ,  1 6 8  u n t r l u t  y o u  t h e  o b a d m e o i  r e a l l y  a n d C o n t r a c t L a w . o b e v e r y p o o r . h e c o u r s e i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p p l e m e n t i n g t h e r e . a s w e l l a s a n e w t i n B . C . a n d I F a m i l y L a w I i f e I n s u r a n c e , E m p l o y e r R i g h t s o k . C a r e e r P l a n n i n g  1  a s  l o w  -  8 .  Q . A .  Q . A . 9 .  o f f h o o  w  m u y o u I h e o t c i a l u r s e  c h t i m h a d t a d t o h e r c o s S t u d .  e a o r r a t u r s i e s  W h y i s t h a t ? T o k e e p u p t o T o k e e p u o t o W I u a o  h a t n d n d f  t d h i n e r l c o t h e  o y k u y i n n t r s  o n g a e  Q . A .  S I t k u u b a F b y w  o h e n n u n i e o h  d e e d d t d n c u o  d o o n ' b a p r e r l e r l i t t h a n c a u s ' r e l e  y t s e y y  d o a n p e n d 1 s o f a r r i n g g t h e m g t h e m e p s c o u n d e r s M a n a g t c o m e l k i n g m e n t o  A Y w F B t  n e h a u h  d s . e t m i d g e m  e i e e  o u s i c f e i n i n k e y a l i t a l e  d o h l e e  y o B u t e r i y L a t i n g s t h  n d e n a t e e i t e s I ' a n d  u e m p h a s i z d e r l y i n g t t h e m e s w o c t s i n g e n c t i o n s .  u  d B u t b w w . a t  e r g i t ? n o w v e E n g  y ,  d o  t h e  e x t e n s i v e s e p e r i o d s o n c o n t r a c t a n d t o i t i n a l l e . S u p p l y a n e . I d o n ' t t m i n g u p . I k t a n d t h e c o n c e m e n t i n g e n e s b a c k w i t h m a b o u t C r e d i t f B u d g e t i n g .  o S a v i n g s d g e t i n g c o e C r e d i t o h e n y o u d o I w o u l d t h I s t r e s s .  C a r e e r P l a n n i n g ? I d o i t b u t a t t h 4 l e s s o n s w h e n n o t h a t I a p p r o a c h i t h a n d o t h e c o u n  Q . A .  W h a t a b o u t F o o d s a n d D o n ' t t o u c h t h a t .  e t t s e  s p e n d  o n  r e s o u r c e s  e i n y o u r c o u r s e ? h e m e s a r e i m p o r t a n t . u l d b e e l e m e n t s o f a e r a l b e c a u s e t h e y f i t  0  Q . A .  y o u  a n d I m e s b a r T r a n M a r r i i n k t h  e n d o f a l l m y f r o m a l l o r s .  c t i o c o n t c o n t h e d D e e a c h e e p e p t s r a l a n y o r T  c o u r s e ,  n r t t m r i o r  a r o a i e b s f a  o c a p n t f y  a r e  p o o r ?  O n e o f t h e c o n t r a c t , i n t o m o s t  n c o n t r a c t s ? t s . I g i v e t c t l a w a n d t h i c s . I t ' s a n d - t h a t ' s a n a s a l e s s o n e r r i n g t o i t t h e t i m e I f a n u n d e r l y i n g t h e t o p i c s w h n s p o r t a t i o n .  h e m e n  i n i s h . t h e m e e t h e r T h e  n v e s t i n g ? c k i n m a n y o f t h e t o p i c s , s p o r t a t i o n . E v e n i n a g e , i t c o m e s b a c k t o a t t h o s e a r e t h e u n d e r l y i n g  t h e y e a r w h e n I h a v e 3 o r s t u d e n t s a r e h e r e . I f e e l l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e  N u t r i t i o n ?  1 6 9  t h i s  p r o b a b l y 6 . I n t e r m s o f a l l t a u g h t I ' v e t a u g h t a l l t h e l i s h - m o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r  I s i t b e c a u s e d a t e ? d a t e .  Q . A .  Q . A .  1 0 .  H i I t S c  1 0 .  Q . A .  9 .  1 2 .  s t o y h s o e e h u a  t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h e t e x t b o o k . ) d o n ' t d o t h e u n i t s p e c i f i c a l l y a s t e m , a n d s u p p l y a t ' s a n o t h e r u n d a u n i t ; I t e a c h p i c s . I d o n o t l a r g e n u m b e r o f l l a s 1 2 . I t ' s a c h e r s . S o I t h e y ' r e a w a r e o f t t t h a t ' s i t . C o u n i t b u t i t ' s d o k i n g . T h a t ' s w h  Q . A .  W h o m a d e u p t h i s I d i d . F r o m t h e  Q . A .  D T o n t o  o h t o h u  e e h t a t  Q .  H t I n t l  o h f o h i  w i s y t i n k e  A .  1 3 .  I a I n s t a t A w t T b a M  Q . A .  s  t h o t h e r t . H n I l i n e d o  o u i u u h  u r d a ' a  f i s e ? e v t e . d w v e  n d  y o u  t s  o n B a s a u n i t a n d d e m e r l y i n g i t a s I d o A d v e r o u r s t u d a l s o d o n o u g h t i t h e l a w s m p a r i s o n n e t h r o u a t I d o n  d o n ' t i c b a n t h g t i e n e w a s S g h ' t  u d e o s t w o s h o  o u t l i n e ? C u r r i c u l u m  e o t h e r t e e r t e a c h e r e a c h e r s e h a s t a u g h a v e , a n d I ' m u s i n  y c o o u d a d e q k y o t o  e l s e  a c h e r u s e d o n e u s h t i t h e d o e g .  t h e  u t e f s  s h d o n  e e  E c o n o t I t . D e m e . a l o n i n g . s t a k i t h m u l d b o c i a t o p p i n u t d o .  ( H e ' s  m i c P a l k a c i s i o I d o n g w i t I t ' s e M a r a n y o e j u s e d w i g i s i t ' s  l o o k i n g  r b n ' h  i n c i p l e s o u t t h e - M a k i n g t t e a c h a l l t h e d o n e i n k e t i n g 1 1 f t h e E n t t o o r e t h a d v e r n o t d o n e p a r t o f  m a r i t o t M a r a s g l i s p e t i t i s i a s D e c i  t h e o u t l i n e ? o u t l i n e . T h e t h e o u t l i n e ; t r a n u m b e r o f y ' t w a n t t o u s e  o f  i n  t h e t o p i t h a n a r a m o n  e  I n o t i c e y o u r g r a d i n g s c a l e s t a n d a r d ? Y e s , g o v e r n m e n t s t a n d a r d .  t i m e  y o u  r h e t  h a v e  t o  C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e , c k a n d c h o o s e . I y e a r o f t h i s b u t I t h s .  l o o k s  l i k e  g o v e r n m e n t  A .  H o w m u c h o f t h e i r m a r k , f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? A b o u t 2 0 % .  Q . A .  D o y o u d i n g F o r t u r n i n g  Q . A .  I f t h e y ' r e N o t m a r k s ,  Q .  D o e s e v e r y b o d y w r i t e a c r o s s - g r a d e e x a m o f t h e y e a r ? N o , o n l y s t u d e n t s w h o h a v e n o t a t t a i n e d  A .  p e r c e n t a g e - w i s e ,  t h e m i f t h e y ' r e a s s i g n m e n t s i n ,  1 7 0  s i o n -  i t ' s d o n ' t w o u l d  Q .  c l a s s  h t i v e . n g  t e a c h  H o w d o y o u g r a d e y o u r k i d s ? T h e y g e t i t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l a s s , h o m e w o r k a s s i g n m e n t s , q u i z z e s , e x a m s , p r o j e c t s , g r o u p w o r k .  t o  h e r k e t i n g .  e a r e t w o e o t h e r d i d a r s , l o n g e r h e p a r t i c u l a r  Q . A .  l a t e n o .  k e t  G u i d e .  l e n g t h  e r y t h i n g Y o u h a v a n t m o r e a f e w e x t  d o ?  d o  y o u  g i v e  l a t e ? d e f i n i t e l y .  r e p e a t e d l y ?  a t a  t h e 6 0 %  e n d a v e r a g e .  1 2 .  Q . A .  1 4 .  Q . A .  Q . A .  Q . A .  1 5 .  Q . A .  D o T f t  o y f t h e r o r h e m  o h e t .  u f e h ' s h o s N  W t T o T  h a t s h e c h e y l n e o f h e y e  W W T o a f w o i Y t a a d  h h h f t o i v f e h  ' s t s h e n i t v t o u s o k o b o u h e  I t w i i o c H p h t  P a a h e e r t s t h h a e i c a v h r  e n t t e n s p i n a s e r y r c l e n e l t i t t o u g h  O o I l t u a d a m  t f ' u h p n e t o  h e t m g e . d p e m n e  r h s a m p n y y  h e m a , e h m t l g  t h e i e y f e t h a r e n d A t h e r y l e y e t r y . e o f h e E e m ; h t h c o u s ? d e d o k e f a a w c r h a l g i n t h u p b e .  s t a c u r e r o u n a t e r I t h e o p l d s o c o u ' s w e  u m l j o  ' v b e e n u s n '  e  m o o f g e i t w a t t h r  o r t o f r e a c t i o o u r s e ? i k e i t . T h e y t h e m o s t u s e f n j o y i t i n g e  a t e n e y t i o r t h e r y t i n p r l t h o t r t y e w v e l f k e o  i n d y o i g h n u a c h a l e w h o o , I d  f o t d i i e n r o  v o i l g a  f u h ; a n  r i n i t i a l i r s t c o m e e t o p i c s a p p e a l i n c c o m m o d a t y t h i n k i i t t l e w o r a r s . T h e I t ' s v e t h e m c a n S L p o p u l a g e n e r a l l y e i r E n g l i r s e .  t a o r t e  h b u t i n f  e o r h c g o i  P u t o w h a l i n r t t o n t h t a u g h  m e m r s e ? e y l t h e l t h k i t l o o k w h o ' s e , t r t h a  a r C f i l o g h i w a e i t  d i i n n t i n  n s  f i e d t h e c o u r s e a t a m m i g r a n t k i d s i n t h i i t f o r t h o s e w h o w a n t h e b a s i c s , i t ' s a v k I ' v e m o d i f i e d i t .  l l b e c a u s e s s c h o o l ? t i t a n d a i l a b l e t o  d o  k i d s  g e t  f r o m  t h e  c o m e b a c k a n d t e l l u l c o u r s e s t h e y ' v e n e r a l . r e i n , t h a t g s u i o n . t ' s k i n y t e r y l ' t d t i o n t h e s h i  e n t s o n s u i t e e c o f t h c o u r s s o s c o r o w a w h  ' m x u e s n m n o  D o  o i a '  t b v t a i  a t o t e g i r e a i t a c h s e e t ' s  a c t i o n ? I g i v e w i l l b c h a s F P r o b a g o i n g t i t . T l l m e i o g i c a l e a l w i t i n t e r E S L k i s l i m i t  C o n e r E c e p t r s e ; s y s e s s a n d m o n o v e l e y  b e r s ? o k r n t I s t a t s t e h e y n d i  y o u  h o e e s n t a  s u l d a o n t h t e m h o u d a s e n r t e a r  t h e y e o k t d a g h e w  1 7 1  n o t e s a r h e m p o s i g o o i t a s t u o r t h  e a b o h t a h m d e  t h l m i l y b a t ' s n d t s s d ,  t a t n d e . e p a n l d u g h s e ; h e o n  i v a l H a r d b e t e s y e t  h a v e b e a t d s d w  o o v n d i v c w e n h i  e m o o k l y w h e a ' s a s h a t o f t r y t h  e l e t i h e i r t u a r h e  a n  k s e r y t h e l y o u r e l l t s l e  m e t h a t i t ' s e v e r t a k e n .  a e L e n b v  n o u t l i n e . d a t a n d s o m e a w a n d T r a n s p n t h e y s i g n u e a s y c o u r s e e e n m y i m p r e s e r y e a s y c o u r t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d l o g i c . I d o n a c h i e v e m e n t i s v e r y h a r d a n d e y ' r e a b l e t o  C t d c  o h i u t  m m i t t e e p a r e n t d n o t t h l a r g e n t h o u g h t p n t h e r e i n p a r t i c u d e n t s w o u l s a n d t h e y t o p i c s w e e  a c c u r a t e  t h a v s i n s e . . a r e c o , e  a b o u t  t t h e e r y l t u f f t h i s I t W h e n g e t t u r s e .  s a r g t h e s h i n t h e i n g  w s i l e  o r t p s i o n s e . ' t  h e r e n k e m a n r h a p s  l a r . d d i d n ' t g o  p e r c e p t i o n t u d e n e w i y p i c h o o l k i t y l o t h e  t s t h c k  o k i r  1 3 .  Q . A .  I s t h a t S c h o o l  a  Q .  I f t h e y e x a m ? Y e s  h a d  A .  1 2 .  D o e a c h o f t h e t e a c h e r s T h e f i n a l e x a m w a s u s e d b u t n o t t h e t e a c h e r w h o  Q . A .  W I t c p i a a n k a  Q .  A .  t h s s k t e  d i n s u m u h e s o t e e b o t a o u r  h l l 0 % n e t h k e  o y k i c h o e r i p i v e u r c l l o k t t s e  i s t h a y , 5 0 % a n d t d i n a e y c o u t h a t .  o u t o l s m n f r y e ; m e t h h e t h  t h i s h o u a r e , a n o r m a n e a t h e t h a a t t G r a e y h  t  w e o f t h e y h s s i g n l d b e  d o  Q . A .  h a t h i o n i c n r n d o t e p c  c a 6 r  3 0 % ,  H O a n m f  A .  w m u f i c i o v e t t u n t s , w l i  s a y  s t a n d a r d ?  Q . A .  Q .  o f b o e e  s c h o o l - w i d e  n k l d v d t i r y t h e d e a v  D o y o u f i n d h o m e ? D e f i n i t e l y  n o t .  W g y I t w 5 I y t t b v t h a s d u s  f e e i n a l a n d a e r t c a n k e t u l d o u ' r t h a a v e t h e t h e b e l h a v t h e a t i p a s e f f f r o m s o  h a t o v e r o u t c a n h e c o u l d 0 % b t h i o u m a u g h h a t e c h a l u a o o m a r m o n a l y t u d e e p e n p s t t u d e  i n h ' i  s m i t t n u t n k i g t . s o e a b l u c n y s i n t d i u d n t  y e n n k a y . o t I i h t m t e h  e i . . w  s , s n g e n s  o u r f s t n s w I l i w o f y d o I h o f n g I I i t h t h w h o o n t s a r e t  a b b e e r y I t o n f u t w a n t h e y k 1 1 e t  t h e y ' r e  l i n g e x a r d s h a t o n l o s e w e l c e g o t t o a f e t o p s t u d i e v e e t h g o v s n o s w i o r t . a w w e a k  i g h e a v m e a  o u b n h i t h u r t y e e a o  t h e y  h t i r e n t s k  e d ? t o p o o s o e d  e i e e e t t i  t a l y r a t t r r a r t o w r  t o  e a e n e l i t  w r i t e  r . I f t d a n c e , o y d i d t h e . T h e r  t h e  f i n a l  h e y h a v e r t h e y h a v e e i r a s s i g n e a r e v e r y  w r i t e t h e i r o w n f i n a l b y m y s e l f a n d a n o t h e r i s d o i n g a d i f f e r e n t  t e a n a e t u p n  c i k t . o s . d t  i t b a u s e v e ; t h a t h e T h k e e e t h S o 1 2 a k e .  n o t  m a w y e o i  g e t  e i n I t h e t m y w e i r p t e m I l e v  g e t t i n g  a b o u t O r r e p r e h e t h e r a n s w e a g o v m e o n e n g t o e n s u r e l i n g g c s m a y n t s o f 5 0 % f o 5 0 % p r n m e n t a d h e r h a l o T h a t ' d e r a n t h e y w  ?  1 7 2  w h e a c t t y s t r w e r n c o h a v t h i v e n o l e r f o l i e x e d t l s b g e o u l  g  a f i n y k o s t i l l n o h e m a t e t h i e l ,  c d n o o u t e  m p u h e v e t h e i o o k . T h e r i a l . n k i t a n d i  t h e  t h e i t y m u a n d i t h m e n u n t e a a t n t t b a r n i n a c y a m s t o e s s e c a o f d n  r  o t w f s b  l s r e m  s o r y t u d e y l i s t m e d i i s d y c o m I t ' s s h o u l t s h o  e x a m ? t e a c h e r o u t l i n e . u b j e i n e a n t s l y a s a c k e o d b e u l d b e  n t u a o e  s s l e e e b t h  t t d t n  i n f o r m a t i o n  t h e r e f i n a l c h t h e a r d s a r i n t h e t f i n a l i n g f o r c o m p u l t h e t o p h e s c o p e t a u g h i n g s o m l e x a m s i n C E j . B u t s t r i c t l t h a n a u s e y o u b a c k g r o e v e r a t  s h o e x a m s a m e t h s c h o c o u l e s s o r y i c s e o f t a n e t h i i n u s t i n t y . 5 0 % ' r e u n d s t a i n  u l o e ? e o l n t s  d r  c t ? b o u t o r " n e  f r o m  b e d o  s a m e .  i n g t h a n c o u r a r e b t h e d t h a t n g t h g e n e r a t o s t a h e f i T h e r e a v e r p i c k i . S o 5 0 % .  a  i n I  s e c  f o 5 e , i n o u w t '  r 0 % . g r o s i i  s e , u l d  a l s y n n a l a r e a g e n g m e  1 5 .  Q . A .  o s  y n t h b o u n d h e n e e a l k o u r c h o  o o i t t  u t n k t h a t h t h e a b s e o l .  f e e b e i s o h e t t e o e n o u t l i k  g e o e h h i  e  i t h o u r n e r u s t . t h  h a s a n d e f i t s e a g e t s t e a i a s m M a a t h  A n y N o ,  Q . A .  H o w s u p p o r t i v e V e r y  Q . A .  A I i t a  n d t h a n t e r m n t e r m h e y c o n d m o  Q .  Y a t T s s s o t t  o r h h c e o n h a  Q . A .  W I g i a  h a d e n n n  Q . A .  A n y c h a n g e s y o u ' d I d o n ' t t h i n k I ' d k e e p i t a s i t i s .  Q .  W e o I a r o c  A .  h a f f r e f o  s n i d e n o t a t  l n m c h t t  Q . A .  A .  1 8 .  D i I a a w s t c s  u e a t e h o s s y T a t l k t o e i e  a t s i a w e s o i u r  a  b e o f f s t a r d t h t o t h e r s I h a y o f d b e  d n c n a  t t e t o t s a t h e t a v e t h e n  r w r o l f e t  h i u t k o m a  i e t b h  a g e , m o r o r t h h a v u g h t  t s s  w o u o f o f u l d g n e y .  l w t i  i s  d m a h o t h i n g v e m  t h e  e f t m e e  b t h b f e a e c s w h  e e e o c a o a e  c r i n h b u i n  a u s e e , a n g s t h e e r s . o u t r s e . d t h t h e  t h e c o u n d e v e r y o e n t h u s s t u d e n t A s w e l i t , t h e y W e d o e y w i s h y w e n t t  r s e w h e r e ? i a s t i c s l  a o  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ?  n i f e s t e a c h e s s I n e e e i n t e  i t s e l f h o w ? i t , w h a t l e v e l i t s t a y s a t , d f o r t h e c o u r s e a n d h e l p r m s o f a r r a n g i n g f i e l d t r i p s  h e e t h e y a l o t i c u s e s d a y l y e r i d a r e s  o f s f l y n . e c t o y i  t h a t b e c p e n w e e s k e u n t i a n ' t d a y k t h a b o  a t t a u s e w i t h k p a r p t i n l F r i r e a l a n d F e y w e u t .  d o n ' t r a l t t o x c e l  y o u t h i n o t h e t e a l e n t  t h i n k i s w r o n g w i k a n y t h i n g i s w r o r t h a n t h e r e b e i n c h i n a y e a r . T h o n e .  u l d S t h e e t d ; e b I I  e  c o m m e n t s ? a l l .  s a y g o n e h a p l a s t o l i i o n o u c h u r s w e e i n g  w o e r ? l l e ' r g o o u r c t . s e .  m r h s e t  y o m g a l s o o o t h t  o e o k m k i h  u l i o n e v e r n i n g e o f n o w n k i i n k  n d ' r e t o l a r s i o a n d x p e y t t u d  t h e t u d y i c o u r . I t T h i x a m s y o u r b e i n n g .  y e a r , n g f o s e s ? d e p e s y e a h a d s k i d s c l a s T h a t '  t h t n g w g a e c o  l i k e t o s e e ? c h a n g e i t v e r y  k m m a  e e e b t w t ' t h  n n o h e s o  t o s e t i o n e t h a u t t h e m a r c a n g o o d u g h y  1 7 3  e t h d t h n d o u e F a e v e f a l l i f o u h  a t e y ' t s . s t r y b a y o u a v e  h i b u  a r  l o t o f e x a m s .  n d s r s c t a r t w r i s . s t h  o h e t A e  s t u d e n t s D o e s  n h o w l o n o o l w a s i d o n W e d n i n g e x a m s l s o , d u r i w e e k I ' m  I ' d  n g  p r o b a b l y  w o u l d m a k e y o u r d l i k e t o s e e a a o k v t  e s d a y  e c o u r s e ? t h t h e c o u r s e i n i t t o o m u c h i n f o r m a t i o n r s e i n g e n e r a l i s  m u c h .  F p c '  g n  c t s o r . o n e n o b  ,  j o b p a m p h l e t  s o m e o f t h e m W e h a v e a . I u s e a b o u t 2 0 % e v e r t a u g h t t h e e v e r y s e l e c t i v e .  1 8 .  Q . A .  Q .  u h p e t e l h i e e u u e h h e  r t h p a a c h h e r e p o c k e y d s i n a c h t i n d a r h a o s e o d o f  e  o w m p r t h h i n o s i o m e t ' s  d o i k t  o y v i n n k i n i v e a n d w o r  o u g ? i t o i t t h  f e e l  u m h w  a b o u t  t h e  c o u l d s t i l l d r s c h o o l a n d a g e . W h e n t h e p a r e n t s s e e h i l e a n d u p -  i m a g e  o w i t i n o u e s t u w h a t t o - d a  e a s k e d t o t e a c h t h e f e e l a b o u t t h a t ? i n g i t n e x t y e a r 4 u n t i n g .  Q . A .  H A i f t s o  o g n e h o u  a t c o m e a b h o i c e . T h e i o n , w i l l d 4 b l o c k s . t l i n e i s t h s t e n c y . O u l l o w e d ; s h e  Q . A .  I I c E  s C E t ' s c l a i m e d c o  e r C r o b l t e a c t h e t h i u p t o r d o n ' e n d t h e i n g s s t m e n t p s s t h i o n o f e r i  o m m e e m s h e r ' c o u n g t o d a t w o , t b o u p c i r s t h e i l l a l s o m e n g s t f a n g a  w d i a i n m y l l o w a t m m e c t l i n  n w s r h t t h e c t c s t v n  d t b y o p i h a y o o n s e f  h c n s u i o  o u o o H e r w  t ? t h a e b e d e a n  e v w s p t  t h e  h s r c d e n ' s t e .  I f y o u w e r w o u l d y o u I a m t e a c h s o m e A c c o  A .  F t u t o k b t k b t b F p t w b  H I I t p h i  r p e r e r y g i l l f t o u t a r t m e s c o  o o t i  c o u r s e  m e i m p r o v m m u n i t y , s t a k e t h n i t , t h e  h a s  i n g . I i t h a s a e i r n o t e b o o k s y s e e t h a t  c o u r s e  a g a i n ,  b l o c k s  a n d  s o o l n n  o o l i t  n w d j l o w n e , h e s i s t  g o t ?  h o w  I ' m  h o ' s t e o b . T h m y o u t b u t i t a d w a n t e n c y .  t a k i n g  a c h e l i n g s  i o e i t  c l a i m e d b y B u s i n e s s E d . ? l a i m e d b y B u s i n e s s E d a n d n e x t y e a r i t ' l l d b y S o c i a l s S t u d i e s a s w e l l b u t i t ' s a u r s e .  t s - O i t h t h l o a d , s e a n d a t ' s a e w i t h t h e y d h e r k e a l l e n g c t i o n . o u r s e e a c h i n o u r s e o r t o f o l i g h o u r t h y c o u r  n e e w t b i o n e p i n i s g  c h h i t ' i g T , t d i  o o a e g . t n h  h u n e d s t . i s c s e s  f t h u r s e t h a y d o p r o H e b o t g u p t h e m e o l i n f e o l r t h t r i c H e f o u r s t h a t  e  c o m m s t h p e n s n t p r b e m w a i d h r k e i t h n d t d r p e a t , n d G e n e e g u i s t - w i d e e e l s t e b e c a a r e n ' i p ' l s e w a e c  1 7 4  e a i e i i e t h r o r e  n t s p t f p h e s t a  t s  h e i f i t h e a r e f h t h e t h e y i n g u e t r e k i d s o n o n t e a c l B u s o f C o e x a m m h e r e a r u s e t h e t t r u e  m a t ' s p e o o r c o ' r e p w n d s d o t h h i n i n e n s u i g h e s y f a c a  d e a p l i t u r o i t  i s t h a s s i g n e d e d o n ' t p r o p e r s e i s t n l y t e a h t h e . T h e r e f n ' t e v e n e s t a f f w g t h e n e w s s a n d C m e r E d . t b r i n g s o m e p a r e n e e l s c h o o d e m i c c o  t  l r c l o w h  t w y y h e r a o  n t , v h  g i t , h e r n o t e s e  b e B u s i n e s s  o o a . i i g e n  n e n t  n g n g i s , t i c o u o n s u m H e s o m e t s t l s s u r s e s .  o f i l t T h t a l a t t h t o s r s e e r a i d o f o o h o u  f l o e o i o n ; e  l d n ' t  APPENDIX C:  TEACHERS' UNIT PLANS  CONSUMER EDUCATION 9/10 COURSE OUTLINE TEXT: LOOKING AT THE CONSUMER (B.C. E d i t i o n ) , John C. Wood (other reference materials w i l l also be used) OBJECTIVES: This course w i l l help students t o : - gain an a b i l i t y to estimate, evaluate, and make consumer decisions based on individual goals and values - understand law as i t relates to the consumer - manage t h e i r resources to provide s a t i s f a c t i o n - apply knowledge of shopping s k i l l s i n the marketplace - define and apply terms used i n the marketplace GENERAL OUTLINE: 1.  Needs and Wants  2.  Decision-making  3.  Getting a Job: - job hunt - resume, cover l e t t e r - a p p l i c a t i o n forms - interview  4. Entrepreneurship / Jobs i n Industry - owning your own business - working f o r others - unions/management - forms of business organization - marketing systems - supply and demand 5.  Money and Banking - personal budgets - personal f i n a n c i a l accounts - completing forms - credit: - establishing a c r e d i t rating - types of consumer c r e d i t - sources of credit - the cost of credit  6.  Dealing with the Marketplace - law of contract - rights and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o^ the consumer - consumer l e g i s l a t i o n - advertising  175  7.  Stock Market - history - types of transactions - types of investments  8. Food - labels, shopping, additives, food needs 9.  Clothing - inventory - f i b r e , fabric finish and care (labels)  10.  Housing choices - obligations, rights and responsibilities of tenants and landlords - housing choices - insurance  11. Transportation - choices - insurance - maintenance costs  PROJECTS OUTLINE Term 1: CREDIT REPORT - Interview, 3-page report, chart and presentation Term 2: BUDGETING PROJECT - keeping family budget for a period of time Term 3: COMPARISON SHOPPING ASSIGNMENT - Using Consumer Reports Suggested products:  -  appliances Home care supplies insurance food  - sports equipment - personal care products - automobiles  COURSE EVALUATION Each term:  Major Assignments  25%  Exams, quizzes, assignments  70%  Class participation  PROJECT BUSINESS:  5%  A consultant w i l l be with us for part of the term to share his/her experiences i n the business world.  CONSUMER EDUCATION I.  9/10  COURSE  THE DECISION-MAKING  OUTLINE  PROCESS  (OR L e t ' s  make a d e c i s i o n  here!)  An i n t r o d u c t o r y u n i t , y o u w i l l l e a r n t o a p p l y a f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e to your d e c i s i o n s , a s t r u c t u r e which w i l l help you, a s c o n s u m e r s , t o make i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x decisions. The 5 - s t e p d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g m o d e l w i l l p r o v i d e a common thread throughout the course. II.  CONSUMER NEEDS  (OR L e t ' s  go  shopping!)  What a r e y o u r n e e d s a n d w a n t s ? I n t h i s u n i t , we w i l l take an i n - d e p t h l o o k a t i t e m s o f m o s t i n t e r e s t t o s t u d e n t s a s c o n s u m e r s ; we w i l l t r y t o p r o v i d e t h e g u i d e l i n e s for planning, selecting, p u r c h a s i n g , and u t i l i z i n g effectively such items o r s e r v i c e s as: A. B. C. D. E. III.  clothing food transportation recreation accommodation  MANAGING MONEY  (OR L e t ' s  pay  for  it!)  What a r e y o u r f i n a n c i a l o p t i o n s , a s a t e e n a g e c o n s u m e r ? t h i s u n i t , y o u w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d t o a s y s t e m o f k e e p i n g t r a c k o f y o u r money, o f b u d g e t i n g , and o f p l a n n i n g f o r t h e f u t u r e ; y o u w i l l become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e v a r i o u s financial institutions and t h e i r s e r v i c e s and w i t h the principles of c r e d i t . A. B. C. IV.  P e r s o n a l Money M a n a g e m e n t Financial Institutions Credit  T H E MARKETPLACE  (OR L e t ' s  Knowing what y o u r n e e d s a r e , you w i l l then need p l a c e w h e r e y o u w i l l be s a l e s programs d e s i g n e d A. B. C. D. V.  In  be  aware!)  and wants a r e and what y o u r finances t o be p r e p a r e d t o f a c e t h e m a r k e t bombarded by a d v e r t i s i n g and by t o p a r t y o u w i t h y o u r money.  Economic and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the Marketplace O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Marketplace Consumer D e c i s i o n s Source o f Consumer I n f o r m a t i o n and A s s i s t a n c e  GOVERNMENT S E R V I C E S  AND T A X E S  (OR L e t ' s  share  the  wealth!)  F i n a l l y , as c o n s u m e r s , y o u have r i g h t s and responsibilities; y o u must l i v e w i t h i n g o v e r n m e n t g u i d e l i n e s , support government s e r v i c e s d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t a x a t i o n , and you w i l l s o m e t i m e s h a v e t o t u r n t o t h a t same g o v e r n m e n t t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e and services.  177  CE.  12 COURSE OUTLINE  A p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o r as a consumer i n the m a r k e t p l a c e may be governed by l e g a l r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l as p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The purpose of C . E . 12 i s to a s s i s t s t u d e n t s with t h e i r c o n t i n u e d growth toward a t t a i n i n g consumer competence and c o n f i d e n c e . Individuals voluntarily assume o b l i g a t i o n s and C . E . 12 s h o u l d d e v e l o p i n s t u d e n t s the a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e the i n f l u e n c e s on t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and to respond a p p r o p r i a t e l y . You w i l l be e v a l u a t e d on i n - c l a s s a s s i g n m e n t s , homework a s s i g n m e n t s , o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , q u i z z e s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n class discussions. Your notebook w i l l be a v a l u a b l e study and r e f e r e n c e guide now and h o p e f u l l y l a t e r . You w i l l be u s i n g s u p p l e m e n t a r y b o o k s , pamphlets, and h a n d o u t s . each  We w i l l be spending anywhere from 6-12 p e r i o d s of the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s d u r i n g the s e m e s t e r : Our L e g a l  discussing  System  The Consumer and the Economy You,  the Consumer  Money Management Taxation Savings  and  Investment  Credit Family Law Transportation Accommodation Employer and Employee R i g h t s and O b l i g a t i o n s Travel GRADING Term i  & 2  A B C C  86-100? 73-85 67-72 60-66  p N  I n - c l a s s assignments, orals Quizzes This  is  Term 3 same same same same  Term 1 & 2  Final  C D  Pas s Fail Fail  M  E  homework a s s i g n m e n t s ,  a rough guide as  50-59 35-49 0-31  and 35? 65?  to  the way marks w i l l  178  be  allocated,  CONSUMER  COURSE OUTLINE:  1.  Personal Money Management Decision-making process Credit Savings Budgeting  2. Employment Labour Law Enforcement of Labour Law B.C. Labour Acts Union/errployer relations Workers' compensation Unemployment Insurance 3. Car Ownership Motor Vehicle Acts Car costs Car insurance Buying a used car 4. Real Estate Renting vs. owning Mortgages Landlord/tenant relationship 5. Employment Resumes Interviews 6. Income Tax History Individual Tax Returns 7 . Marriage Legal Requirements Ceremony and Party.  12  8. Contract Law - formation discharge. breach chattels conditional sales 9. Insurance - life property 10. Starting a Business Business structures Market Research 11. Economics Product Analysis Supply and Demand 12 Marketing Product strategy Advertising 13. Company Analysis Annual Reports Ratios 14. Rights and Responsibilities Criminal Tort Court Procedures  CONSUMER EDUCATION - COURSE OUTLINE  A p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o r as a consumer i n the m a r k e t p l a c e i s g o v e r n e d by l e g a l r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l as p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . As the m a r k e t p l a c e i s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g , consumers a r e f a c e d w i t h a m u l t i t u d e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p u r c h a s i n g , j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s and l i f e s t y l e s . A c i t i z e n who makes e d u c a t e d c h o i c e s and f u l f i l l s p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y and f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s i s a p o s i t i v e force in society. A l s o , consumers need t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r i m p o r t a n t r o l e as c i t i z e n s i n the economic s y s t e m . T h i s course focuses on p r o v i d i n g YOU, the consumer, w i t h the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y as c i t i z e n s and on a c h i e v i n g a g r e a t e r awareness o f YOUR l e g a l r i g h t s and responsibilities. COURSE CONTENT T h i s c o u r s e i s based on an 8 x 5 t i m e t a b l e (105 - 10 w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s ) . 1. 2. 3.  4.  D e c i s i o n making Economics and Environment Money Management Budgeting F i n a n c i a l Services S a v i n g s and I n v e s t i n g  (Counsellors  Credit Consumer Law  7'. 8. 9.  Advertising Comparison Shopping Taxes  (Counsellors  instruction  Chapter 2 Chapter 1 Chapter 5  Chapter 6  4 hours 5 hours 4 hours 9 hours -8 h o u r s  5 hours)  5. 6.  10. 11. 12. 13.  w i t h 95 h o u r s o f  Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter  7 3 4 8 11  -11 -8 5 5 12  hours hours hours hours hours  Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter  12 9 10 13  - 4 7 8 6  hours hours hours hours  5 hours)  Employee R i g h t s and O b l i g a t i o n s Transportation Accommodation .. F a m i l y Law  As we w i l l be moving a t a f a i r pace i n t h i s c l a s s , i t i s y o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o keep up. I f you m i s s a c l a s s f o r any r e a s o n , i t i s y o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f i n d o u t what m a t e r i a l was c o v e r e d . EVALUATION G r a d i n g w i l l be based on a s s i g n m e n t s , participation. Q u i z z e s and t e s t s A l l o t h e r work  quizzes,  chapter  tests,  projects  and  class  40Z 60Z  S t u d e n t s who f a i l t o a c h i e v e a C+ s t a n d i n g w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e a f i n a l The f i n a l exam, i f w r i t t e n , w i l l account f o r 20Z o f the f i n a l g r a d e .  180  exam.  C O N S U M E R  E D U C A T I O N  12  OUTLINE - BLOCKS H - A - B  A.  FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  B.  SAVINGS AND INVESTMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  C.  Our l e g a l system Consumer r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s The c o m p l a i n t p r o c e s s S a l e o f Goods A c t Small Claim Court Elements o f a c o n t r a c t Door-to-door contracts  CREDIT  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. E.  Investment terms E q u i t y Investments - r e a l e s t a t e , c o l l e c t i n g , c o m m o d i t i e s , s t o c k s S t o c k market ( V . S . E . ) Debt i n v e s t m e n t s - s a v i n g s a c c o u n t s , term d e p o s i t s , b o n d s , debentures, insurance p o l i c i e s , mutual funds, mortgages, T - b i l l s Comparing v a r i o u s i n v e s t m e n t s Registered Retirement Savings Plans  CONSUMER LAW 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  D.  Financial institutions Types o f a c c o u n t s Cheques and c h e q u i n g a c c o u n t s R e c o n c i l i a t i o n statement C a l c u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t Budgeting process Net worth  Advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s Types o f c r e d i t C r e d i t cards The C o n d i t i o n a l S a l e c o n t r a c t -- B . C . S a l e o f Goods on C o n d i t i o n A c t Consumer l o a n s - c o - s i g n i n g o r g u a r a n t e e i n g a l o a n Applying for c r e d i t Credit Reporting Act C r e d i t bureaus Sources of c r e d i t Credit counselling  TRANSPORTATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  A l t e r n a t i v e s +o the c a r F i n a n c i a l c o s t s o f an a u t o m o b i l e B u y i n g a new c a r Motor v e h i c l e p u r c h a s e agreement B u y i n g a used c a r Motor D e a l e r A c t and T r a d e P r a c t i c e A c t Automobile r e p a i r s A u t o m o b i l e i n s u r a n c e - ICBC  TAXATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Types o f t a x e s Taxpayer o b l i g a t i o n s Tax forms - TD1, T 4 , T5 T l G e n e r a l and the Tax Guide Completing a T l G e n e r a l  ACCOMMODATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  T y p e s o f accommodation Types o f occupancy Accommodation c h o i c e Renting - R e s i d e n t i a l T t n i f t c y A c t R e a l e s t a t e agents F i n a n c i n g t h e p u r c h a s e o f one's accommodation Mechanics o f a p u r c h a s e  FAMILY LAW 1. 2. 3. 4.  Marriage - Marriage A c t Divorce - Divorce Act Wills - Wills Act L i f e Insurance  EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Employment c o n t r a c t Employment S t a n d a r d s A c t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s A c t and U n i o n s Unemployment I n s u r a n c e W o r k e r s ' Compensation Canada P e n s i o n P l a n  CAREER PLANNING 1. 2. 3. 4.  P r e s e n t and f u t u r e demands f o r o c c u p a t i o n s R e s e a r c h i n g t h e j o b market The resume S t a r t i n g y o u r own b u s i n e s s  182  I.  COURSE CONTENT Consumer E d u c a t i o n 9/10 offers students a concentrated look at t h e i r economic e n v i r o n m e n t . It I s designed to a s s i s t students to e x p l o r e t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t h a t have a n i m p a c t on t h e economy a n d t o h e l p them g a i n a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h e i r d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t s o c i e t y and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . The c o u r s e 6hould a l s o d e v e l o p i n s t u d e n t s a n a w a r e n e s s t h a t w i l l e n a b l e them t o f u n c t i o n effectively a s a c t i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s i n o u r m a r k e t p l a c e .  II.  OUTLINE The  course  content T.  IT.  III.  JV~.  III.  consists  of  the  follosring:  I N T H E MARKETPLACE A.  D e a l i n g w i t h the  B.  The m a r k e t p l a c e  FINANCIAL  marketplace -  f o r y o u and a g a i n s t  MANAGEMENT  A.  Managing your  B.  Savlng6  C.  Consumer C r e d i t  D.  Government S e r v i c e s  CONSUMER  you  and  money  Investments  and  Taxes  NEEDS  A.  Food  B.  Clothing  C.  Transportation  D.  Accommodation  E.  Recreation  '  EMPLOYMENT A.  Career  Planning  B.  E m p l o y e r / E m p l o y e e R i g h t s and  C.  Labour/Management O r g a n i z a t i o n s  Obligations  EVALUATION L e t t e r grades f o r each o f the t h r e e r e p o r t s t o t a l o f marks r e c e i v e d on t h e following: quizzes,  paragraphs,  are determined  and v a r i o u s  the  a)  Exams, t e s t s , assignments.  b)  Your n o t e b o o k w i l l be c h e c k e d p e r i o d i c a l l y and g r a d e d o n n e a t n e s s and c o m p l e t e n e s s . A l l c l a s 6 m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d go i n t h e n o t e b o o k i n the p r o p e r o r d e r . A l l t i t l e s must be u n d e r l i n e d .  183  projects,  by  other  c)  Homework w i l l be c h e c k e d a n d marked o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s a n d w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g a s t u d e n t ' s mark f o r e a c h t e r m . It i s your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o have homework a s s i g n m e n t s c o m p l e t e d o n t i m e .  d)  E f f o r t a n d R e s p o n s i b i l i t y u s u a l l y o u t o f 25 marks f o r e a c h t e r m . This/" mark i s b a s e d on g e n e r a l e f f o r t and o r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , ^ m a r k s w i l l be d e d u c t e d f o r t h e ' DOTS • y o u a c c u m u l a t e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g  f)  TV. a)  2 dots  -  late  to  class,  equipment not brought t o  3 dots  -  homework n o t c o m p l e t e d ( i f y o u have a l e g i t i m a t e 6ee y o u r t e a c h e r a t t h e s t a r t o f c l a s s )  5 dots  -  f o r j^gcjL, u n e x c u s e d a b s e n c e each absence)  ( a note  class.  is  required  excuse for  I t i s y o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o hand i n a l l a s s i g n m e n t s on t i m e . 25% w i l l be d e d u c t e d f r o m y o u r mark i f t h e a s s i g n m e n t i 6 l a t e . ' A ^ f u r t h e r 25% w i l l be d e d u c t e d i f h a n d e d i n a f t e r t h e marked a s s i g n m e n t s h a v e b e e n returned to s t u d e n t s . MTSC^T,T,AN?orrS S t u d e n t s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a n y a n d a l l work m i s s e d e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g an a b s e n c e . It i s therefore YOUR R^SPONSTBTT.TTY t o g e t t h e w o r k missed from the t e a c h e r and complete i t . MAKE USE OF y RT.OCK. v  b)  G e n e r a l l y , r e s u l t s o n t e s t s a r e l e s s r e l i a b l e when w r i t t e n a t a d i f f e r e n t time t h a n the r e s t o f the c l a s s . T h e r e f o r e , i f you are a b s e n t f o r a t e s t , y o u s h o u l d e x p e c t a d e d u c t i o n o f 25% f r o m y o u r test score.  c)  I f y o u have b e e n a b s e n t , a r e c o n f u s e d o r d i s m a y e d d o n ' t be a f r a i d ask f o r a s s i s t a n c e , f o r a d d i t i o n a l help i s a v a i l a b l e a f t e r s c h o o l during X block.  d)  Attendance i s  e)  very important i n t h i s  15  o r more c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h e f i n a l exam.  20  o r more c l a s s e s y o u w i l l made up d u r i n g X b l o c k .  ftLSO  -  Final  Exam  i. i i .  a skipped c l a s s at y o u must w r i t e t h e -  course.  I f you a r e  y e a r you w i l l  fall  the  course  any time d u r i n g f i n a l exam.  y o u ^ o j j j ^ be r e q u i r e d  the  to w r i t e  have  to  unless  absent write  the  final  time  exam  for  the  y e a r c o u l d mean  the  to and  is that  if  y o u have one o r more D o r E l e t t e r g r a d e s y o u p a s s t e r m s one and two b u t f a i l t e r m t h r e e  Consumer E d u c a t i o n 9/10 c a n be a n i n t e r e s t i n g , e n j o y a b l e a n d most w o r t h w h i l e c o u r s e d e p e n d i n g on how much work y o u a r e w i l l i n g t o do a n d how much e f f o r t y o u make i n c l a s s . T h e r e f o r e the v a l u e to y o u , as a s o o n - t o - b e C a n a d i a n a d u l t and c o n s u m e r , o f t h i s c o u r s e c a n be most w o r t h w h i l e . B a s i c a l l y i t i s up t o y o u ! I  hope y o u w i l l  184  have a s u c c e s s f u l  year.  r  

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