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High school students aspirations for post secondary career programs Kithyo, Mattemu 1989

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HIGH SHOOL STUDENTS ASPIRATIONS FOR POST SECONDARY CAREER PROGRAMS By ISAAC MATTEMU KITHYO B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k , 1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Curriculum  We a c c e p t  this  and I n s t r u c t i o n )  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1989 © Isaac  Mattemu K i t h y o ,  1989  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  of  C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t n j r . t i n n S t u d i e s  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  U)LH  / f S"7  Abstract The  purpose  students'  of  this  perceptions  following  factors  making:  in  students'  are  the  expectations;  rewards;  academic  The  and  study  between A p r i l (grade  11)  school o f 35  was  One  and  August  a  students Data  2  mixed  the  administered  analyzed  Some o f 1.  programs  3  of  the  expectations; financial sex  role  information. district, were  different  For  the  decision  mobility;  subjects  an a l l g i r l s  by  the major  were the  each  210  schools  s c h o o l , one  an  school,  by  by  the  by  the  Kenya form in  3  the  a l l boys  two  into  This  The  classes  the  Besides  agriculture,  of  students  the  lines  such  that  of  a  a s s i s t e d by  categories  were  then  reflecting  study.  findings of  boys and  use  questionnaire  data  the  study  were:  Programs i n A g r i c u l t u r e a r e p r i o r i t y the  by  researcher  school.  grouped the  collected  researcher.  school  results  addressed  both 2.  influence  i n Machakos The  what  expectations;  career  out  school.  i n each  the  the q u e s t i o n s  of  from  study  supplied  and  out  e a c h were u s e d .  for  teachers  the  upward  1988.  drawn  questionnaire developed was  find  career  industry's  carried  s c h o o l was  one  students'  ability;  students  district.  to  regarding  availability  and  was  s e l f - e x p e c t a t i o n s ; parents'  teachers'  stereotyping;  study  aspirations for  girls. the  career  followed most  of  the the  program a s p i r a t i o n s traditional boys  gender  aspired  for  technological aspired 3.  for office  T h e r e seemed of  programs  most  of  the  girls  based programs.  t o be  parents  while  no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n  expectations  on  the  boys  the  effects  and  on  the  effects  and  on  the  girls. 4.  T h e r e seemed of  t o be  teachers'  no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n  expectations  on  the  boys  the  girls. 5.  The  boys  abilities girls  that  they  i n Mathematics and  believed  and 6.  believed  they  were  had  good  science  good  academic  subjects  i n business  while  education  languages.  The  boys  seemed  t o be  for  further studies  more  concerned  i n career  with  program than  chances  the  girls  were. 7.  By  the  time  students  Certificate  of  c e r t i f i c a t i o n information 8.  Although  The  the  students.  they  very  The  author and  schools  gives  had  several  concerns  the  (K.C.S.E.)  i s a priority  that  District  recommendations  r a i s e d by  Kenya  career  them.  suggest  i n Machokos  for  l i t t l e  i t i s not a p r i o r i t y  f i n d i n g s of the study  secondary  issues  Education  t e c h n i c a l education  government,  subjects  secondary  available to  the  the  chose  study.  field for  aspiration  career i s not  guidance  for  i n  effective.  f o r addressing  the  iv Table o f Contents Abstract List  i i  of Tables  v i i  Acknowledgement  x  CHAPTERS ONE: INTRODUCTION  TWO:  .  1  I.  BACKGROUND  1  II.  HOW  2  III.  FOCUS OF THE STUDY  3  IV.  SPECIFIC RESEARCH QUESTIONS:  4  V.  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  5  STUDENTS MAKE CAREER DECISIONS  LITERATURE REVIEW  7  I.  INTRODUCTION  7  II.  GENDER SEGREGATION OF JOBS  7  III.  EFFECTS  OF  S U B J E C T S STUDIED  AT  HIGH  SCHOOL  LEVEL  14  IV.  PARENTAL INFLUENCE  16  V.  EFFECTS OF SELF-CONCEPT  VI.  IMPORTANCE OF CAREER GUIDANCE  V I I . OTHER FACTORS THAT MAY CHOICES THREE:  .  18 20  INFLUENCE CAREER 22  METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY  I.  INTRODUCTION  32  II.  SUBJECTS  32  III.  INSTRUMENTATION  33  V VI.  DATA PREPARATION  38  VII.  S T A T I S T I C A L ANALYSIS  39  FOUR:  RESULTS  41  I.  INTRODUCTION  41  II.  DESCRIPTION OF THE SUBJECTS  42  III.  STUDENTS  PERCEPTION  OF  GENDER  APPROPRIATE  CAREERS  43  IV.  PARENTAL INFLUENCE  51  V.  TEACHERS' INFLUENCE  VI.  PERCEPTIONS  VII.  ABOUT  . . . . . . THE  54  INFLUENCE  OF  NON-  INTERPERSONAL FACTORS  57  IMAGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION  65  V I I I . AMOUNT OF CAREER INFORMATION  THE STUDENTS  HAVE  AND THEIR SOURCES FIVE:  DISCUSSION AND  67  IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS  I.  INTRODUCTION  II.  STUDENTS'  . . . .  73 OWN  ASPIRED  CAREER  PREPARATION  PROGRAM  74  III.  STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF THEIR GENDER ROLE  IV.  I N F L U E N C E OF  THE  EXPECTATIONS OF  . . .  76  SIGNIFICANT  OTHER  78  V.  INFLUENCE OF NON-INTERPERSONAL  VI.  SOURCES AND AVAILABILITY OF CAREER INFORMATION  VII.  IMAGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION  V I I I . CONCLUSION  73  .  FACTORS  79 .  83 86 87  vi I X . RECOMMENDATIONS (I)  GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING  88 88  ( I I ) PROVIDING ROLE MODELS  89  X.  SUGGESTIONS  91  XI.  CONCLUDING  FOR FURTHER RESEARCH COMMENTS  92  BIBLIOGRAPHY  95  APPENDIX A  98  APPENDIX B  107  vii  List Table  Table  2.1  2.2  of  Tables  Percentage  of  Nariobi  Kenyatta  and  Percentages  women  in  different  faculties  Universities  of females  9  in different  faculties  i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s Table  2.3  Percentage  Table  2.4  Percentage  10  o f Females i n d i f f e r e n t  i n Canadian Middle  career  (Diploma) C o l l e g e s  of females  in different  in United  States Middle Ages  Students'  Table  4.2  Parents' Occupations  Table  4.3  Students'  Perception of Their Desired  of  P r e p a r a t i o n Program  4.4  Jobs and  Table  Table  4.5  4.6  Seen  By  . . . .  11  programs  (Diploma) C o l l e g e s  4.1  Table  programs  career  Table  Career  . .  4.7  Most  .  43  Students  As  Choices  . . . . . . . . Best  For  44  Boys  For G i r l s  45  Reasons For C l a s s i f y i n g and  for Girls  Are  T h e r e J o b s Boys Can  Are  J o b s as B e s t  f o r Boys 46  Do  B e t t e r Than 47  There  Jobs That  Girls  Can  Do  Better  Than  Boys  48  Table  4.8  Students  Table  4.9  Students' Required  Table  4.10  Agreement  12 42  Girls Table  in  Perception of  the S t r e n g t h Required  Perception  to Perform Between  Perceived Parents  of  Academic  Choice  Choice  49  Ability  T e c h n i c a l Jobs Students'  .  50 And  Their 52  viii  Table  4.11  The D i f f e r e n c e Between Agreement for  Table  4.12  Girls  with Perceived Parents'  Agreement  Between  Perceived Teachers Table  4.13  f o r Boys and  Students  Choice  Choices  4.14  55  D i f f e r e n c e Between B o y s ' Agreement  Agreement  Between  Perception  of  Availabilities Table  4.15  Difference Boys  with  Higher Table  4.16  Girls'  Choice  Choices  Programs  with  . . .  Job  . . . . . . Between  Perception  of  Girls  Career  Perception  58  and With  Job A v a i l a b i l i t y  Students'  57  and T h e i r High  . . .  Their  and  Students'  i n Agreement  54  Their  Choice  Agreement W i t h P e r c e i v e d T e a c h e r s Table  and  . . .  60 of Program  Leading  to  J o b s W i t h a B e t t e r Chance f o r F u r t h e r Studies Table  4.17  61  Difference  Between  Agreement w i t h Programs  with  their  the  Girls  and  Boys  Perception of the Career  Better  Chances  for  Further  Studies Table  4.18  Students  63 P e r c e p t i o n of T h e i r Academic  in Different Table  4.19  Summary on  Table  4.20  of  Student  Students Careers  Ability  Subjects the E f f e c t s  63 of D i f f e r e n t  Factors  Choice  Level of Interest  64 in Technical 65  ix  Table  4.21  Students'  Perceptions  Preference  f o r Employment  of  Industry's  i n the T e c h n i c a l  Fields Table  4.22  66  Enrolment  Patterns  f o r Males  T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e s i n Kenya 1985 Table  Table  Table  4.23  4.24  4.25  Table. 4.26  and  Females  In  Between  and 1988  66  Number o f T i m e s S t u d e n t s  had D i s c u s s e d  Career  Choices  With Their Parents  Number  o f Times  Choices  With Teachers  69  Sources  of Career  69  What  Students  Careers  Students  68 Discussed  Career  Information  Think  People  Do  In  Different 71  X  Acknowledgement  I would  like  significantly I  am  thesis like  grateful  t o thank  whole t h e s i s  that  R o g e r s who  printing  waiting while Canada.  s t e p o f t h e way. took  h i s time  suggestions  my  I would  to read  the  steered  the  that  Logan f o r r e a d i n g  like  o f the study  to thank  i n the study  and f o r g i v i n g  t h e t h e s i s and  me  the heads  for allowing  a l l the a s s i s t a n c e  and P a t D o b i e  me  of the t o use  needed f o r  for typesetting  and  t h e t h e s i s w i t h c a r e and e n t h u s i a s m .  Finally, children  I would  participated  schools  success  every  Erickson,  comments.  addition  schools  the  D r . Todd  my  and make many u s e f u l  making u s e f u l  their  who g u i d e d  contributed  thesis.  p a r t i c u l a r l y t o Dr. G a a l e n  t o c o m p l e t i o n and B i l l  In  o f p e o p l e who  t o the p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s  advisor,  thesis  t o thank a number  I would  Nthautha, i n Kenya  I was  like  t o thank  Kithyo,  Ndanu  and w r i t i n g  working  on  this  my  wife  a n d Nthome  Teresia  my  for patiently  l e t t e r s o f encouragement thesis  and  in British  t o me  Columbia,  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Beginning technical former  i n 1986, t h e Kenya  education  technical  institutions. post  towards  entire  resulting  institutions)  The  small  industries),  problem  white  faced  thus  jobs.  which  education, that,  who do n o t g e t (open  a i r low  self-employed.  by t h e e d u c a t o r s girls,  system  I t i s hoped  industries  becoming  fact,  school, 4 years i n  some o f t h e s t u d e n t s 1  In  are  overhauled,  i n technical  level.  ina l l  courses  has been  in university)  'Jua K a l i  (self-help  education.  i n primary  facilities  especially collar  of their  of education  and 4 years  technical  a r e emerging  technical  (8 y e a r s  education,  students,  existent  system  expanded  by c o n v e r t i n g t h e  o f Technology  The m a j o r i t y  and more  can s t a r t  level  has  post-secondary  at the post-secondary  technical  investment  many  Kenyan  more  especially  into  post—secondary  school,  stresses  jobs  technical  i n t h e 8-4-4  secondary  with  schools  of the country.  geared the  a t post-secondary  Harambee I n s t i t u t e s  secondary  parts  government  i n Kenya  keep  Imulando  now  training  (1984)  i s that  f o r non-  described  situation;  with t h e phenomenal expansion at a l l l e v e l s and the r e s u l t i n g increase i n s c h o o l l e a v e r s , soon t h e j o b s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e P u b l i c s e c t o r , as w e l l a s t h e P r i v a t e sector f o r people with g e n e r a l nonvocational training shrank and t h e  this  2 phenomenon of 'educated unemployed' s t a r t e d t o show i n t h e 1960's . . . t h e q u e s t i o n was: 'What t y p e o f E d u c a t i o n h a s a m o r e d i r e c t e f f e c t on generating employment on a w i d e r s c a l e ? ' , ( p . 15) It  i s the aim  even  of  this  t h e government  small  scale  study  effort  industries  t o examine  this  to support  financially  situation  'Jua K a l i ' does  not  and seem  since other to  be  working. HOW  STUDENTS MAKE CAREER DECISIONS Choosing  necessitates this and this  time on  reason,  making  these  post  making  have  their  a  a  decisions.  long  lasting  lifestyle,  they  i t i s important decisions,  influences  them,  and  influences  are.  Herr  career  secondary  d e c i s i o n making  what  Since  should  much  o u t how  into four  future  care.  For  s t u d e n t s go  about  information  divided  made a t  the person's  be made w i t h  the student's  (1970)  program  the d e c i s i o n s  e f f e c t on  to f i n d  how  educational  they  have,  perception  the f a c t o r s  of  who  those  involved  in  groups:  (a)  Personal v a r i a b l e s s u c h as a p t i t u d e s , g e n d e r , age, p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , and s e l f  (b)  S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s s u c h as s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s , and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  (c)  Interpersonal pressure.  (d)  I m p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s s u c h as f i n a n c e s , payments, and l o c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s .  relation  factors  interests, image.  such  as  rewards  peer and  3 Herr  argued  factors,  students  significance decision. factor at  due  go  t o the c o n f l i c t i n g  through  of each  a  factor  He f u r t h e r  argued  when a s t u d e n t  17 y e a r s  career  that  long  nature  process  before  they  o f age s t u d e n t s  to decide are capable  these  of weighing  make  their  t h a t age becomes a v e r y  attempts  of  the final  important  on a c a r e e r and o f making  that  realistic  decisions.  FOCUS OF THE STUDY The go  on  focus of t h i s  to University  research w i l l  b u t who  program a t a m i d d l e  college  vocational  i n nature.  this  i s because  group  Kenya who to  Eshiwani  high to  fail  universities  entry  27%).  27%  went on t o u n i v e r s i t y .  dropped  o u t i n form o u t i n form  continuing  make t h i s  form  five  students.  four.  g r o u p more  classes This  of students i n  t h e same  a larger  The r e s u l t a n t i s very  who  is a crisis  situation  going  finished that  23%  form  6,  those  who  of those  who  group of students not  large.  the dropout  finishing  ( a t between  number  n o t i c e a b l e because  to delay  According  of students  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  s i x joined  training  colleges are  of students  t h e number  almost  a  f o r c o n c e n t r a t i n g on  i n 1978, o f t h o s e  on t o u n i v e r s i t y  will  reason  t h e number  has r e m a i n e d  and  dropped  These m i d d l e  to the u n i v e r s i t i e s .  increasing,  F o r example  to enter  o f t h e enormous number  while  s c h o o l has been  choose  level.  The main  to gain  (1983),  may  be on s t u d e n t s who do n o t  time  The 8-4-4  system  there w i l l o f some  and t h e s e  be no of the  students  need  4  a  lot  of  attention.  According entered Given  to  that only  1979  to  university  entered  one  in  about  25%  who  the  This  only  1966 of  girls,  made the  and  is  then  of  i t to  form  students  one  worse  0.44%  that only  were w i t h i n t h i s  who  20%  sees  s c h o o l age  for  the  girls.  girls  s i x by  finished  of those  clearly  1979. form  who  that  group l e s s  who  6  went  of a l l  than  0.1%  university.  study  factors  secondary  were  situation  (1983),  went t o u n i v e r s i t y  the g i r l s  the  Eshiwani  standard  in  The  attempts  that  to  examine  influence their  education  students'  choice  to  perception select  a  of  post-  program.  S P E C I F I C RESEARCH QUESTIONS: 1.  What the  are  the  students'  following  factors  perceptions on  their  t e c h n i c a l program a t the p o s t  2.  (a)  Students'  (b)  Parents'  (c)  Teachers'  (d)  Industry's  Does  sex  self  3.  To  students' (a)  to  enter  a  level:  expectations?  expectations? expectations? stereotyping  secondary do  career  financial  i n f l u e n c e of  expectations?  role  what e x t e n t  the  decisions  secondary  influence  p e r c e p t i o n s of f a c t o r s which might of a post  of  education  the  rewards?  students'  influence their  choice  program?  following factors  choice:  the  seem t o i n f l u e n c e  5  4.  (b)  s t u d e n t ' s academic  (c)  a c a d e m i c upward m o b i l i t y ?  Are students different  informed  ability?  as t o t h e academic  requirements  of  c a r e e r s b e f o r e they choose the s u b j e c t s f o r t h e  Kenya C e r t i f i c a t e  o f Secondary  Education?  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The  results  of this  study,  i t i s hoped, w i l l  better  understand  some o f t h e f a c t o r s  career  choices.  This  students their  i n making  academic  shifting  abilities,  i n student  counselling  choose  careers  i s necessary  Education open  their  children  implications have  decisions institutes  the role  like  Science Teachers  and a p t i t u d e s , and  words  the  study  school  before  f o r t h e Kenya  has  level.  the students  Certificate  subjects determine  i n the future.  i n choosing  secondary  (Grady  (according to  The study  of the may  i n e d u c a t i n g p a r e n t s a s t o how t h e y c a n  f o r teacher  stressed  choices  a t secondary  These  students'  i n assisting  especially  pursue  to the students  programs a t p o s t  other  (K.C.S.E.).  a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s help  In  us t o  i s useful  interests  counselling  the s u b j e c t s they  Secondary  influencing  appropriate career  job markets).  implications This  understanding  help  realistic  level. training  of role  K.T.T.C., C o l l e g e may  In a d d i t i o n ,  study has  Researchers  i n influencing  1983).  Kenyatta need  this  institutions.  models  1984, K i l o n z o  career preparation  Teacher  University  to increase t h e i r  student training  and  Kenya  quotas  of  6 trainees increasing science  in  the  the  non  number  subjects.  traditional of  women  career  teachers  areas, in  such  technical  as and  7 CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION This the  chapter  research  grouped  reviews  questions  according  the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e  (see Chapter  to the issues  I).  related  The l i t e r a t u r e  i n the following  to was  general  theme:  The  a)  gender s e g r e g a t i o n  o f jobs  b)  effects  c)  parental influence  d)  effects  e)  importance o f career  f)  other  of subjects studied a t high  school  of self-concept guidance  f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e c a r e e r  information  from  then  a l l the a r t i c l e s  analyzed  and  synthesized  agreement  or disagreement  to  i n their  find  choices.  i n each out  findings.  group  was  i f there  i s  An a t t e m p t i s  t h e n made t o e x p l a i n t h e agreement o r d i s a g r e e m e n t s  found.  GENDER SEGREGATION OF JOBS Research segregated Gage,  h a s shown  and o t h e r s  1983).  Kenkel  "Girls  aspire  choose  from  nurse,  teacher,  to a  a wider  that that  there  a r e male  and Gage small  (1983),  number  variety  a r e jobs  segregated f o r example  of occupations  of jobs  s e c r e t a r y , and s o c i a l  to dominate the o c c u p a t i o n a l  that  ... f o u r worker  choices of g i r l s "  a r e female (Kenkel  and  argue  that  while  boys  occupations,  have  been  (p. 130).  found Also  8 Prediger, graders, that  Roth found  fell  secretarial." more  that  into  services;  and  and North "More  three  nursing  (1984), than  half  categories:  a n d human  Further, g i r l s  available  i n their  study  of the g i r l s education  care;  of eleventh chose and  social  and c l e r i c a l  do n o t go f o r t h e h i g h e r  technological jobs.  jobs  and  paying  As MacCarthy  (1976)  puts i t : Employment needs c u r r e n t l y and i n t h e future are heavily concentrated i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s e r v i c e a r e a s ... Women who continue to choose courses and programs which have no s p e c i f i c technological orientation are apt to f i n d t h e i r employment i n t h e low p a y i n g s e r v i c e a r e a s ... ( p . 6)  S t u d i e s done is  true  gives  f o r Kenya  i n Kenya show t h a t what M a c C a r t h y even  percentages  N a i r o b i and K e n y a t t a  at University  o f women  level.  in different  Universities  says  Eshiwani  faculties  above (1984)  i n both  a s shown i n T a b l e 2.1:  9 T a b l e 2.1 P e r c e n t a g e o f women i n d i f f e r e n t f a c u l t i e s i n N a r i o b i and Kenyatta U n i v e r s i t i e s 20%  (a)  Agriculture  (b)  Building  (c)  Land  (d)  Commerce  28%  (e)  Arts  39%  (f)  Engineering  (g)  Veterinary  (h)  Advanced  (i)  Law  50%  (j)  Science  11%  (k)  Education  Economics  21%  Economics  2.2% Medicine  95%  1. A r t s  50% 8.4%  Science  f o r n u r s i n g , law a n d a r t s  women was q u i t e low, e s p e c i a l l y a background Another results. 1985  13%  Nursing  2. Except  2%  education,  the percentage  of  i n t h e programs which r e q u i r e d  i n science. study  i n Canada,  At university  level,  showed t h e p e r c e n t a g e s  (Gaskel  1 9 8 7 ) shows  the enrolment  o f females  data  similar  for  1984-  t o be a s i n T a b l e 2.2:  10 Table  2.2  Percentages o f females i n d i f f e r e n t f a c u l t i e s i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s Nursing  91%I  Household Health  Science  96..1%  Occupations  85..1%  S o c i a l Work  80..7%  Education  70..3%  Applied  65..2%  Arts  Pharmacy  62..5%  Arts  56..7%  Veterinary  Medicine  52.,2%  Biological  Sciences  47..6%  Agriculture  43..0%  Commerce  38..2%  Medicine  37..8%  Physical Sciences  27..1%  Dentistry  23..2%  Engineering  10,.7% (p.  Also, colleges) females  the enrolment i n Canada  data  f o r middle  f o r 1982/1983  t o be a s i n T a b l e  2.3:  shows  colleges  182)  (diploma  the percentages  of  11  T a b l e 2.3 Percentage o f Females i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r programs i n Canadian Middle (Diploma) C o l l e g e s Medical  88.2%  Education  72.9%  Business  68.9%  Arts  62.6%  Engineering  22.2%  Natural  14.7%  Resources  Technologies  9.5%  Transport  2.8% (p. 184)  The the  same  fact  prohibits  situation  that  the Education  and H i c k e y  1982,  women  traditionally  as  percentages shown  i n the United  Amendment  sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n f e d e r a l l y  Vetter  the  exists  (1985),  continue female  reported to  enrol  programs.  o f women e n r o l e d  i n T a b l e 2.4:  that  They  States  Act passed  despite in  1972,  supported  programs.  t e n years  later, i n  i n great reported  numbers that  in  i n v o c a t i o n a l programs  i n 1982, were  12  Table  2.4  Percentage o f females i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r programs i n U n i t e d S t a t e s M i d d l e (Diploma) c o l l e g e s (A)  In Male Dominated  Careers technology  22 .1%  1.  Architectural  2.  Civil  3.  Electronics  4.  Mechanical  technology  11 .9%  5.  Industrial  technology  15 .6%  6.  Electrical  technology  7 .8%  7.  Automotive  technology  5 .1%  8.  Water  9.  Agricultural  10.  Construction  13 .8%  technology  11 .7%  14 .8%  technology mechanics  In Female Dominated  5 .3% 7 .4%  Careers  1.  Dental  assistants  2.  Nursing  3.  Dental  4.  Care of guidance  5.  Clothing  95 .5% 91 .2% 96 .4%  hygiene of  management  children  92 .4%  and  production  89 .6%  6.  Home f u r n i s h i n g s  80 .7%  7.  Medical  90 .2%  8.  Typing  79 .6%  9.  Stenographer/secretary  93 .5%  assistants  Other Marshall  studies  According  also  t o Towns  seems  t o have  (1985) a r e p o r t  in Australia  released only  i n t h e U.S.A.  back  this  up ( s e e  1987).  Australia  girls  done  termed  entitled  report  "Equal O p p o r t u n i t i e s  similar  results.  F o r example,  Society  concluded  that;  problems.  on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  "Girls,  i n 1975 a n d a s e c o n d  t h e same  School  and  needs o f Society",  forVictorian  i nVictoria  the study  schools  Schools"  on G i r l s ,  showed  School and  g i r l s were n o t s t u d y i n g m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s a t s e n i o r l e v e l s i n the same numbers a s t h e b o y s , g i r l s were n o t experiencing a t e c h n i c a l education i n the same numbers as boys, that g i r l s r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r t e r t i a r y area of study and considered a l i m i t e d range o f j o b options compared to boys, that unemployment was h i g h e r f o r young f e m a l e s c h o o l l e a v e r s t h a n i t was f o r young male s c h o o l l e a v e r s a n d t h a t t h e r e w e r e few p o s i t i v e female r o l e models i n s e n i o r administrative positions i n school. ( p . 5) In f a c t , Towns a r g u e s t h a t was  passed  legislation  f o r gender e q u i t y  i n 1977, h a s a s s i s t e d men t o g e t i n t o what  traditionally  a s women j o b s .  A s she p u t s i t  anti-discrimination l e g i s l a t i o n has e x i s t e d i n some s t a t e s o f A u s t r a l i a s i n c e 1977. I t i s d e s i g n e d t o l e g i s l a t e and c o n c i l i a t e as a s u p p o r t i v e mechanism towards achieving e q u a l i t y of opportunity f o r women i n t h e employment s e c t o r . But i t would appear that the s i t u a t i o n f o r women h a s n o t c h a n g e d v e r y much. Indeed i t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n h a s a s s i s t e d men t o g a i n employment i n n o n traditional areas f o r them s u c h a s  which  i s seen  14 nursing, kindergarten t e a c h i n g and as p r i n c i p a l s o f g i r l s s c h o o l s w h e r e a s i t has not a s s i s t e d g i r l s i n a c h i e v i n g c o m p a r a b l e in-roads i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l areas which are n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l f o r women. ( p . 8)  It  can,  other  therefore,  countries,  others  are  male  legislation job  be  some  concluded careers  segregated.  does  not  seem  to  are  in  Kenya  female  and  in  segregated  while  It  can  also  be  concluded  be  effective  as  a  tool  many  that  against  segregation.  EFFECTS OF  SUBJECTS STUDIED AT  Towns  (1985)  Australian  suggests  women do  not  HIGH SCHOOL L E V E L  that  have  do  or  do  well  i n at high  one  equal  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s t h e to  that  of  access  types  school  the  of  main  to  reasons  why  educational  and  subjects g i r l s  level.  She  argues  prefer  that:  Even though g i r l s remain at s c h o o l f o r a longer p e r i o d than they d i d ten y e a r s ago and t h o u s a n d s more g i r l s t h a n b o y s p a s s the Higher S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e i n V i c t o r i a . . . g i r l s do n o t s t u d y t h e H i g h School C e r t i f i c a t e s u b j e c t s w h i c h w o u l d be the most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e r t i a r y e n t r y o r t h e employment m a r k e t ; the m a t h e m a t i c s and s c i e n c e s ... l e s s t h a n 1/3 o f t h e s t u d e n t s who p a s s p h y s i c s , t h e most u s e f u l s u b j e c t for s t u d i e s i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r e a s , a r e f e m a l e , (p. 9)  Sampson says t h a t schools and  (1985)  there  such  to  echo  i s early segregation  that  needlework,  seems  most  girls  literature,  study  these of  sentiments  subjects  typing,  languages,  and  when  she  in Australian  shorthand,  cookery  h i s t o r y while  boys  15 study  carpentry,  metalwork,  economics,  physics,  segregation  in subjects  where the  when  the  girls  b e t t e r paying A study  the  and  chemistry.  occurs,  leave  drawing,  Consequently  i t t r a n s l a t e s to  school,  maths,  they  are  not  a  situation  able  done i n Canada  (Gaskel  mathematics  technology  and  M c L a r e n 1987)  sex  in filtering  based c a r e e r s .  researchers  schools  subjects career  to  appear  would  the  oriented  and  They  would  courses  only  (1982)  more  attention  more  aggressive  reinforce  suggest  better  assist  secondary  have  get  students  concluded  i s paid and  stereotyping.  to  that  that, boys  that  girls  join  (p.  in  133)  single  non-traditional  (Counsel  1982,  access  Spender suggest  to t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y  co-educational  schools.  i n co-educational  schools,  girls  because  co-educational  schools  This  of  argue:  In c o n t r a s t , o t h e r s  attended  out  taking non-traditional  to  level  greater  i f they  to  them  Stanworth 1983).  girls  Fitzgerald  to  respond  programs a t p o s t  & S a r a h 1980 that  seem  which  to  stresses  M a t h e m a t i c s i s an i m p o r t a n t focus of research because i t i s required for a l l u n i v e r s i t y s c i e n c e programs. High school math c o u r s e s s e r v e as a ' f i l t e r ' i n t h a t students who do n o t t a k e t h e s e courses find i t much more d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e t o e n t e r s c i e n c e and a p p l i e d s c i e n c e p r o g r a m s ...  Some  when  t e c h n i c a l jobs.  effectiveness of  science  and  technical  than  i s s u e needs f u r t h e r  boys tend  research.  are to  16  PARENTAL INFLUENCE It not,  is clear  by  itself,  programs  along  important  to  b e f o r e one  of  identify  so  changing  establish  first  the  causes  to p r e s c r i b e has  shown  identified  that  above  reasons  are  but  of  the  reasons  jobs or  f o r low  the not  mainly  that the  of  polarization  of  to.  this  based  of  on  any  reasons  family  children.  As  gender  biological  that  Gage,  female  of  are  1983).  role  c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs.  income  It i s  polarization  problems  on  lack  is  measures.  ( K e n k e l and  as  legislation  expected  corrective  socialization  non-traditional more  of  i t was  their one  capable  studies  as  physiological  result  above  lines  Research  or  the  gender  tries  segregation  from  Kenkel  as  a  They  models  in  This i s and  Gage  (1983) p u t i t : I f t h e d a u g h t e r s have h i g h e r a s p i r a t i o n s , as t h e y do, t h e y a r e f o r c e d t o c h o o s e j o b s t h a t a r e n o t b e i n g m o d e l l e d by their mothers, the mothers of t h e i r f r i e n d s or e v e n women w i t h i n t h e i r own s u b c u l t u r e . (p. Kenya  is a  rural  peasant  would  f i t the  Eshiwani of  developing  (1983)  country  with  most  Thus,  most  of  farmers.  description found  that  parents  of  Kenyan  distributed  as  follows:  of  low  i n 1982  university  of  the  income  135)  i t s population school  children  family  children.  the e d u c a t i o n a l  background  students  by  percentage  was  17 No  Schooling  Father Mother  22.9% 42.3%  From and  this  as h i g h  4.8% 1.4%  i t c a n be s e e n  and p r i m a r y  that  (Std.  I t should  established  employment  school  74.6% o f t h e f a t h e r s students  8 and below).  that  and s u r v i v e d  level  students.  educated parents  to University.  It  is  tend  also  of the parents o f This  i s because  t o be t h e ones who go  be p o i n t e d  out that the  48.4% o f t h e f a t h e r s as peasant  farmers  had no f o r m  only  and t h a t  o f t h e f a m i l i e s h a d 7 o r more c h i l d r e n . In  the  20.6% 7.2%  t h e p e r c e n t a g e would have b e e n worse had E s h i w a n i  above s t u d y  60%  23.6% 19.0%  or s e m i - i l l i t e r a t e  students o f better  of  University  to e s t a b l i s h the education  secondary  on  Secondary  a s 94.1% o f t h e m o t h e r s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y  that  attempted  S t d 5-8  28.1% 30.1%  table  were i l l i t e r a t e likely  S t d 1-4  the  world,  factor  U.S.A., one o f t h e most  MacCant  i n career  (1984)  choices.  identified This  developed  countries i n  socialization  as a b i g  i s how s h e p u t i t :  As l e g a l and b i o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s have b e e n overcome, a c c e s s t o t h e t e c h n o l o g i e s h a s become an o p t i o n f o r women. The b a r r i e r s t h a t remain a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l a n d t h e s e w i l l n o t be o v e r c o m e u n t i l women t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e t o them. ( p . 5)  The  influence  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n  (1987) a n d T u c k e r parents  respond  and A s s e r  was a l s o  (1980).  p o s i t i v e l y and even  identified  These  authors  use rewards  by O ' B r i e n found  that  t o encourage  18 their  children  gender  their  factor  Eshiwani  t h a t may  (1975)  positive attitude higher  i n f l u e n c e c a r e e r s c h o s e n by women  on  tests  showed  sciences.  that  t o w a r d s math t h a n of  comprehension  of  (1980)'argues  that  mathematical  mathematical  and  setting  also  acquired a and  that  abilities  significantly  perception of t h e i r boys  have  "the  pupils out  abilities"  more  who  had  a  terms.  the  scored and  Maritim  child  does  himself  Gaskel  their  and  highly of  those  maths  in  more  computation  thought  (page 1 ) . in  done  t h a t boys  about  achieved  confidence  study  not  s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , but  characteristics  abilities"  and  scientific  l e a r n what i s p r e s c r i b e d i n t h e of  A  I I boys  reasoning,  " i n a classroom  set  form  girls  only  that  to  ability.  s e l f - c o n c e p t i n math and  by  careers, according  SELF-CONCEPT  Another  Kenya  f i t in traditional  r a t h e r than  EFFECTS OF  is  to  who  he his  their  had  low  (1987) showed ability  than  girls:  ... M a l e s were more c o n f i d e n t t h a n f e m a l e s ; t h o s e c h o o s i n g s c i e n c e were more c o n f i d e n t than those not c h o o s i n g s c i e n c e . In o r d e r t o measure c o n f i d e n c e t h e r e were f i v e i t e m s ... On t h e s c a l e formed by t h e s e i t e m s , b o y s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n g i r l s ... (p. Research  has  dimensional study  Marsh,  shown  that  s e l f - c o n c e p t appears  (Marsh,  Parker,  and  Barnes,  Smith,  Barnes  and  Butler  1985). (1983)  to  be  In an found  139)  multiearlier  that  self  19 concept  in  math  achievement  correlated  to  related  Ohio), found  be  that  as  are  to  noted  that  counsellors  appear  Aptitude  that  in a  i n the to  test  men  academic  be  particular same o r  related  a to  battery  area  highly actual (Canton,  (GATB),  have h i g h m e c h a n i c a l  girl  high and  Frye  (1984)  students the  and/or  i n these  the  &  before  programs  friends  at  not  Grady  formed  close  subjects  with  i t  was  aptitude  1984).  (1984) a r g u e d  traditional  achievement  many women as  According  Frye  one  done a t S t o r k T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e  General  (Grady & F r y e ,  &  to  self-concept  to  i t does  In a study  using  students  while  related  area,  aptitude.  one  i n math.  Interestingly, appears  almost  jobs,  and  girls  are  peers  by W i g f i e l d (1984) who  upon put  The job  who  those  sometimes  i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y good  school.  selection  school. end  with a  was  up  gender, also  nonor who  science parents,  emphasized  way:  s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t s are proposed to be i n d i r e c t mediators of expectancies, including such things as children's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s o u t c o m e s , and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f p a r e n t s ' and t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s a b o u t them. These i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s more g e n e r a l self perceptions. Another of these g e n e r a l s e l f p e r c e p t i o n v a r i a b l e s p o s i t e d to i n d i r e c t l y mediate expectancies and v a l u e s i s the c h i l d ' s sex r o l e i d e n t i t y ( p . 4 ) . -  in  parents  or  of  Grady  counsellor  i n math  i n f l u e n c e of  i t this  self-concept  leave high  only  jobs  the  20  IMPORTANCE OF CAREER GUIDANCE The improve  main the  Kilonzo  career  (1983)  improving and  question  the  now  what  decision-making  points  out  situation  counseling.  is  in  that Kenya  He sums up t h e  steps  can  of  high  one  of  lies  taken  school the  in  situation  be  a as  students?  problems  lack  to  of  in  guidance  follows:  I n f a c t , t h e f u n c t i o n o f the c a r e e r m a s t e r s i s n o t a n y d i f f e r e n t f r o m what i t was t h i r t e e n y e a r s a g o . T h e y c o n t i n u e t o work w i t h form I V s , h e l p i n g them t o f i l l out career f o r m s and g i v i n g out career information. T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f any work on g u i d a n c e b e i n g done w i t h form I ' s , II's or form Ill's. No c a r e e r o r P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g is a v a i l a b l e t o p u p i l s , ( p . 9)  Kilonzo seems system He  does  to  suggest  which  argues  rooms  not  where  prepared  that  make  that  students.  blame  the He  and  there  it  there  the  hard are  feel  constraints  for  the  that  and s o c i o l o g i c a l  is  by t h e  teaching their  loads.  spare  be r e c t i f i e d  time. if:  fact  They,  the  that  therefore,  Kilonzo  to  can  to  are  suggests  have that  to  do  the  the  still  school  private  individual  handle  teachers  He  effective.  like  meet  teachers  the  be  facilities  p r o b l e m , and t h a t these  problem.  within  teachers  incompetent  psychological made worse  this  are  counsellor  argues  therefore  for  no a d e q u a t e  teacher  also  teachers  not the  well purely  situation have  full  counselling situation  in  could  21 1.  career  masters  guidance, prepared 2.  career among  The have  also  McLaren,  are  i n the  provided form  at Kenyatta masters  courses at  a careers  journal.  of  been 1987)  effective  noticed  some m e t h o d  literature (these  of  on  can  be  sharing  ideas  and/or  short  seminars  the U n i v e r s i t i e s ) ,  guidance  in a  where g i r l s  pamphlets  (workshops,  inservice  lack  the  University);  have  themselves  of  with  and  s t u d y done  and  starting  counselling i n Canada  were q u o t e d as  seems  to  ( G a s k e l and  saying:  "To t e l l you t h e t r u t h I t h i n k c o u n s e l l o r s j u s t d o n ' t g e t e n o u g h o f whatever i t t a k e s t o become a c o u n s e l l o r . " " T h e r e i s not enough c o u n s e l l o r s . They a r e h a v i n g t o take c a r e o f a whole grade of people. They're spending t h e i r time r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e p a p e r s and t h e r e ' s n o t much t i m e f o r them t o s i t a r o u n d and r a p . " ( p . 156) One  realizes  why  s t u d e n t s made t h e c h o i c e s  example, girls  the  effects  i n Gaskel's  themselves  of  study  lack  of  when  t h e y d i d n o t want ( G a s k e l and  looking  t o make.  McLaren,  1987)  at For the  said:  "I l i k e t o do t h e j o b s men a r e more i n t e r e s t i n g . " "I w i s h I had t a k e n w o r k i n g w i t h wood." "It But  guidance  do.  I think  woodwork.  I  they like  w o u l d be e x c i t i n g t o be a t r u c k d r i v e r . I w o u l d n ' t know how t o go a b o u t i t . " (p.  163)  22  To for  confront  girls 1.  Grady  t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l (1984) s u g g e s t e d  Secondary  schools  must  female  seek  that:  and post-secondary role  problem  models  institutions  i n the nontraditional  areas. 2.  Female  counsellors  traditional  who  are knowledgeable  and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r  areas  about  f o r women  must be s o u g h t . 3.  Female  c o u n s e l l i n g must  openly  exploring  become  more  the student's  broadly full  based,  range  of  a p t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s . 4.  Female  instructors  nontraditional  areas  must  be  sought  for  these  o f study.  OTHER FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE CAREER CHOICES E f f e c t s o f School Some institution boys  researchers plays  t o be b o y s  1982).  Organization argued  that  a b i g part  i n molding  girls  so t o speak  (Holcomb  One need o n l y  look  1981, K e l l y  example, women a r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s ,  men.  As K e l l y  an  and N e h l e n  a t t h e power s t r u c t u r e a t s c h o o l t o  for  levels,  as  t o be g i r l s a n d  how  school  this  school  see  primary  i t enforces  have  notion.  those  Although  i n United  States  especially i n  i n positions of authority are  et a l put i t :  The p a t t e r n o f m a l e a u t h o r i t y o v e r f e m a l e s h o l d s i n each s c h o o l i n the U n i t e d States where 67.2% o f a l l t e a c h e r s a r e women, y e t  23 women a r e l e s s t h a n 16% o f a l l p r i n c i p a l s o r assistant principals. T h e s e f i g u r e s mask the status a n d wage h i e r a r c h i e s of educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . Female p r i n c i p a l s are elementary school principals. Twenty percent of elementary school p r i n c i p a l s are women; l e s s t h a n 7 p e r c e n t o f m i d d l e s c h o o l and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a r e f e m a l e , (p. 167) This  being  true  then  the hidden  message  i s that  t h e b o s s e s and t h e women a r e t h e s u b o r d i n a t e s . wonder, the  t h e r e f o r e , when g i r l s  academic  ladder.  They  school  i s t h e same a s what  Kelly  and Nehlen  supervise other female they  teach from  a r e gender  levels  subjects  women  defined,  (1974)  Science  Education  20.6%.  studies.  i n s o c i e t y where, a s i n authority  i n predominantly  may g e t t h e message  that  that  o f t h e women  teachers  quote  i n the United teachers  figures  States at  for different  1.9%, E n g i n e e r i n g  and Computer  that  t o K e l l y and  The a u t h o r s  Business  of school  i s t h e way m a l e s  according  o f women  4.3%, Maths  aspect  t e x t books.  They  i . e . , most  the percentage  Physical  students  i s happening i n  o f t h e women  teach,  a s showing  a r e as f o l l o w s :  Another  what  t o move up  t o a v o i d c o m p e t i n g w i t h men.  languages and s o c i a l  higher  the  (p. 168).  the subjects  Simpson  hard  women r a t h e r t h a n men, m a i n l y  a r e expected  Nehlen  that  i s happening  s a y , "most  occupations"  Even  One s h o u l d n o t  do n o t t r y v e r y  realize  men a r e  sends  and females  Science  hidden  sexes  0.4%, 43.%,  messages t o  are portrayed i n  P i c t u r e s i n t h e t e x t book t y p i c a l l y  show men  24  as  engineers,  are  shown  as  secretaries to  doctors, nurses,  (Holcomb,  say that  scientists  even  and t e c h n i c i a n s  teachers,  1987).  In f a c t ,  the materials  s u p p l e m e n t t h e t e x t books a r e g e n d e r in  health  medical  while  women  a s s i s t a n t s and  Holcomb  supplied  (1987)  goes o n  to students  segregated.  to  F o r example,  the k i t s  sent  t o s u p p l e m e n t t e x t books a r e s u c h t h a t  boys  are supplied  with  doctors  with  nurses k i t s .  This gives  the  medical  are  supposed  the  study  were  field  women  that  while  the students  boys a r e s u p p o s e d  t o be n u r s e s .  shows  kits  girls  t h e message t h a t i n  t o be d o c t o r s  For secondary school  o u t o f 102 i l l u s t r a t i o n s  a n d 2 were  men  while  127 were men a n d o n l y  and  (1976) q u o t e a poem b y Darrow  as  follows:  Boys have t r u c k s G i r l s have d o l l s Boys a r e p i l o t s G i r l s a r e stewardesses Boys f i x t h i n g s G i r l s get things fixed Boys i n v e n t t h i n g s G i r l s u s e what b o y s i n v e n t Boys b u i l d houses G i r l s k e e p houses I'm g l a d y o u a r e a boy I'm g l a d y o u a r e a g i r l We need e a c h o t h e r . (p. H O )  while text  girls books,  of nurses,  f o r doctors,  illustrations Patterson  are supplied  o u t o f 153  26 were f e m a l e s . (1970)  100  Mangano  which  goes  25  E f f e c t s o f t h e Methods o f Grant  and  importance products  of learning  that  implications concerned  Harding  (1987) a r g u e s c i e n c e and  work w e l l , of  with  the  Teaching  they  while  boys  view  the  t e c h n o l o g y as f o r p r o d u c i n g  seem not  products.  social  that  In  to c o n s i d e r the  constrast,  implications.  Grant  girls  and  social  are  Harding  more  (1987)  suggest: If s c h o o l s c i e n c e and technology are presented as abstracted, lawbound, t e c h n i c a l , u n e m o t i o n a l and d i s t a n c e d f r o m the p e r s o n a l , they w i l l s e r v e the needs of a p a r t i c u l a r group of e m o t i o n a l l y r e t i c e n t persons ( u s u a l l y m a l e ) who seek t o e s c a p e f r o m t h e demands o f t h e r e a l w o r l d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y a r e p r e s e n t e d as c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s with r e l e v a n c e t o many o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e human condition, then a wider range of young p e o p l e s e e k i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a l l e n g e , or a v e h i c l e through which they make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e w o r l d , may be a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s t u d y , ( p . 134)  To  support  Harding  their  and  Sutoris  women w o u l d were u s e d  that  get  as  There  done  children gender,  of  into  and  i n Hawaii, 4,  group,  f i n d i n g s were p u t  this  findings  Rajput  by  (1985)  technology  Head  who  (1980),  found  i f social  that  issues  f o r t e a c h i n g them.  some s t u d i e s ,  grades  quote  s c i e n c e and  outperform  ethnic  they  (1984)  the b a s i s  are  girls  study,  claim  boys  though  few  i n maths  i n number, w h i c h  and  science.  c o n s i d e r e d mathematics 6,  8  and  10  grade  and  year  way:  and  One  show such  achievement  i t s relationship  (Brandon,  1981).  for to The  26  c o n t r a s t e d w i t h most s t u d i e s , t h e s t u d y r e p o r t e d h e r e shows g i r l s with higher mathematics achievement l e v e l s than boys. T h a t t h e H a w a i i d a t a show d i f f e r e n c e s i n Mathematics achievement f a v o u r i n g g i r l s i s not surprising: previous Hawaii studies give clues about Hawaii g i r l s ' superiority over boys i n Mathematics' and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r e a s e as t h e g r a d e level i n c r e a s e , ( p . 22)  It  should  be  accounted to  do  This  noted  that  there  f o r the r e s u l t s  with  test  the  broke the s k i l l s computation  study  that  and  states  girls  with  role  models.  Also results.  As  girls  them  desirable"  have  academic  p. 2 8 ) .  ethnicity  have  Hawaii  boys  American  girls  achievement"  may  i s highly  do .  not .  Japanese  female  multi-ethnic  a  acculturate  as  school boys  peer  values  It i s clear values do  not  and  The  has  of  the  School sex  to  high  teachers  role  models  is possible  big part  do  in  and  these  with high composition  (1981)  . and  reasoning,  factor  Public  played  used.  applications  i t "because  Brandon  (p. 28).  American  and  Another  achievement  (Brandon, 1981,  has  application.  i n mathematical  powerful  have  achievement  mathematical  the study puts  may  that  American  clash  and  could  into mathematical  a r e good  Japanese-Americans.  between  tested  which  of these f a c t o r s  of mathematics  of female Japanese-American  Hawaii,  showing  of  One  i n computation problems.  proportion in  boys  factors  obtained.  definition  mathematical  were  argues;  quickly may  here  Japanese  a c c e p t the  as  not  that  "JapaneseJapanese-  favour  the  difference  ethnic  school  high  values  values  but  the  girls  do.  This  value  encourage  a l l Hawaiian  domination  in schools.  Another in  Math and  Sharon  study  (1986).  girls  which  S c i e n c e was These  conflict to  may  compete  seems t o a r g u e conducted  spill  over  and  effectively  for  for g i r l s  superiority  i n Rhode I s l a n d ,  authors found  Sharon  and  that  i n a d d i t i o n t o c h o o s i n g a s many h i g h l e v e l c o u r s e s as t h e i r male c l a s s m a t e s , young women i n t h e sample t e n d e d t o r e c e i v e h i g h e r g r a d e s f o r t h e i r work i n maths and s c i e n c e c l a s s e s t h a n t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . S i x t y p e r c e n t o f a l l A's a w a r d e d i n math and s c i e n c e c l a s s e s were e a r n e d by f e m a l e s . . . F e m a l e s t u d e n t s a l s o r e c e i v e d more B's awarded i n math and s c i e n c e c l a s s e s ( 5 2 % ) . (p. 8) Like  the  Hawaiian  study,  here which  need  t o be  the  says  was  study  parents  involvement  there  noted. very  seems  One  good  to  be  factors  working  o f those i s c o u n s e l i n g which i n the  in education.  schools.  They  quote  Another a  was  counselor  saying:  We a r e l a r g e l y a b l u e c o l l a r s t a t e , you know—with lots of second generation immigrants. A f a t h e r knows h i s s o n can always get a job i n the t r a d e s , but he w o r r i e s about h i s daughter's f u t u r e . So he p u s h e s h e r t o be p r e p a r e d f o r c o l l e g e . Maybe t h a t i s why g i r l s i n t h i s s t a t e t a k e more math and s c i e n c e t h a n b o y s . ( p . 23)  R o l e models a l s o p l a y e d a p a r t , Sharon  and  Sharon  (1986)  found  just  as  that,  i n the Hawaiian i n Rhode  Island,  study. there  28 were more f e m a l e math t e a c h e r s t h a n male ones as r o l e m o d e l s f o r t h e Another  thing  correlate  with  from the f e d e r a l girls.  This  teachers  to  note  possibility state  the  here  is  Sharon  inflate  "Do  acted  study  used  These  and  the  same s t u d e n t s  where t h e b o y s the  outperformed  reliability  Sharon  maths and  grades d i d  (1986)  science  of  saw  teachers i n  difference  (1987) shed some l i g h t  in girls'  grades from s t a n d a r d i z e d  performance  tests.  on  this  in  countries  subject schools.  was  this this  in teacher  They s u g g e s t e d  the i s s u e grades  the  only  like  reason,  Kenya  the d i f f e r e n c e s  where  mathematics  of and  that:  ... when women r e c e i v e l o w e r s c o r e s o n s t a n d a r d i z e d mathematics achievement tests i t may be p r i m a r i l y a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y have t a k e n fewer c o u r s e s . Most s t u d i e s do n o t m a t c h f e m a l e s and m a l e s on number o f c o u r s e s t a k e n . However, t h e o n e s t h a t do u s u a l l y find that sex-related differences i n mathematics achievement become s m a l l e r o r d i s a p p e a r on some o r a l l of the t e s t s t h a t a r e used. (p.  If  the  t h e g r a d e s o f young women?" ( p . 2 3 ) .  G a s k e l and McLaren the  test  the  test.  l e a d s t o q u e s t i o n s about  o f error.  that  s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by  standardized  grades.  and  girls.  t e a c h e r s g r a d e s and n o t a s t a n d a r d i z e d not  which  s h o u l d not is a  f o r a l l t h e s t u d e n t s b o t h i n a l l p r i m a r y and  134)  show  compulsory secondary  29 The  Status of Technical Education Due t o t h e way i n w h i c h  introduced during c o l o n i a l viewed  by b o t h  educators, King  parents  as having  (1977)  argued  African'  was  graduate  who  permanent  could  houses,  that  was  early  expectations difference  status  when  than  technical  t h e main  work  churches  Their  or  goal  main  o f E d u c a t i o n about  the t h e n N a t i v e  Industrial  was  training Training  'for  the  to produce  masters  tasks  were  King  education  the f o l l o w i n g quotation  academics.  education  between  o f the t r a i n e e s themselves. with  straight  and s c h o o l s .  vocational  was  e d u c a t i o n has been  f o r the c o l o n i a l  terms.  i n Kenya  a n d , t o a p o i n t by some  a serious difference  technical  Director  that  education  technical  and s t u d e n t s ,  a lower  employment  there  times,  introduced  plantation  technical  on  t h e aims  shows of the  and t h e  He i l l u s t r a t e d from  of A f r i c a n  the  non  building  (1977)  system  a  this  colonial  apprentices at  Depot.  The employment o f e x - a p p r e n t i c e s on t h e f a r m i s n o t an u n q u a l i f i e d s u c c e s s . The f a r m e r a p p e a r s t o have two n e e d s . The f i r s t i s a h a n d y man .. . The s e c o n d i s a man t o do a p i e c e o f work w h i c h w i l l o c c u p y a month o r so. This i s a real d i f f i c u l t y . The boy who l e a v e s t h e N a t i v e I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g Depot wants and l o o k s f o r permanent work. (p. 25) When  students  realized  planned  was  inferior  to straight  that  leading  the people  where  t o , they academics.  refused  the t e c h n i c a l disputed This  government  and  education rejected  rejection schools  as  i t as  was so s t r o n g which  offered  30  technical which  schools,  the school  system  their  independent when  the t e c h n i c a l  and p u t i n s e p a r a t e  repeated  by m a k i n g  providing  academic l e v e l s  schools  a  later  way  these  f o r the  in life  i f they  wished.  Productive Roles Tetreault education  vs Reproductive  i s brought  processes  economics  processes,  processes  processes, processes If  and like  other  she argues,  the kinds choose  by  society  overvaluing  as p o l i t i c a l ,  undervaluing child  the  the  l e g a l and  reproductive  r e a r i n g , housekeeping  nurturing are just  roles.  and  Reproductive  as i m p o r t a n t  then  as  productive  stereotyped  considered  jobs as  that  t h e need  women  important  t o persuade  as  types of girls  to  b a s e d p r o g r a m s would be u n n e c e s s a r y .  and  Klein  hurts  on B o y s  (1986)  programs h u r t s  segregation  and  i n e q u i t a b l e pay f o r both  perhaps  E f f e c t s o f Job Segregation Sadker  programs  were  resulting  careers,  technology  of career  to pursue  men p u r s u e ,  resultant join  about  equity  of society.  normally those  and  the problem o f gender  o f s o c i e t y , such  of society  management,  Roles  (1986) a r g u e s t h a t  productive  job  was  i . e . , without  graduates to r a i s e  in  Later  t h e same m i s t a k e  terminal  own  academics.  was removed f r o m  schools  so  and s t a r t e d t h e i r  offered straight  aspect trade  programs  argue  boys t o o .  boys  who  do  that  emphasis  These authors n o t f i t what  on  argue  sex that  i s seen  as  31  'real  men',  often  have  outside unfit  athletic,  competitive  psychological  school,  and a g g r e s s i v e .  i n and  e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y a s p i r e t o c a r e e r s  seen as  As Sadker and K l e i n  problems  boys  both  f o r them.  and s o c i a l  These  (1986) p u t i t ,  Sex s t e r e o t y p i n g l i m i t s b o y s c a r e e r options and interests. Boys interested i n b a l l e t , n u r s i n g , teaching kindergarten, or p a r e n t i n g a n d homemaking e n c o u n t e r negative messages i n school and beyond. A comprehensive approach t o e l i m i n a t i n g sex bias from schools would increase the e d u c a t i o n a l , c a r e e r , and f a m i l y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r male a s w e l l as f e m a l e s t u d e n t s , ( p . 22)  This not It  i s a point  o f view  that,  although  important,  seem t o have a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f many looks  like  concerned  t h e main q u e s t i o n  i s how  to get g i r l s  dominated,  science  therefore  deals  increasing priority  career  need  boys  who  can  be e n c o u r a g e d  regardless  now.  both at school  Study  are not suited t o take  of s o c i a l  based  the equity  opportunities  right  how  and t e c h n o l o g y with  careers.  programs  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  into  mainly  from  as  looks  like  a  t o f i n d out 'mans  of their  pressure  male study  needed  i s seen  equity i s  This  as t h i s  i s however  career  a move  question  forgirls  f o r what  and i n s o c i e t y .  researchers.  now a s f a r a s g e n d e r to accept  does  jobs'  choice,  p u t on them  32  CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTION This  chapter  contains  e x p l a i n s how t h e s t u d y was c a r r i e d  information  collection  procedure  o n who  the subjects  out.  It  a r e , the data  f o l l o w e d a n d how t h e d a t a  were  analyzed.  SUBJECTS The May  study  was c a r r i e d  and August  1988.  Kenya were c l u s t e r e d 1.  Government  During  into  teachers  time  Schools  the running  Government A s s i s t e d the  this  the following  Maintained  t e a c h e r s and bears 2.  o u t i n Machakos  Schools  but t h e o t h e r  District  secondary  between  schools i n  four c a t e g o r i e s : - government  supplies  costs.  - government  s u p p l i e s some o f  t e a c h e r s and a l l t h e r u n n i n g  c o s t s a r e p a i d f o r by t h e community. 3.  Unaided  Harambee  Schools  - a l l teachers  and a l l running  c o s t s b o r n e by t h e community. 4.  Private  Secondary  Schools  - schools  i n d i v i d u a l s or groups, as business Within category  Boys O n l y  b)  Girls  Only  c)  Mixed  (girls  schools.  and r u n by  concerns.  1 t h e r e were t h r e e t y p e s o f s c h o o l s :  a)  Schools  owned  schools schools and boys) s c h o o l s .  w i t h i n the other  three  c a t e g o r i e s were  normally  mixed  33 I n Machakos d i s t r i c t , total. only  Category  schools,  schools. schools  1 had  ten  The each:  were  other  39  category  two  four  Three  schools  were  a boys o n l y  s e c o n d s c h o o l was also,  and  the  category  2.  used  because  is  their  The  teachers  Consequently, different The classes that 35 The  (normally  full  The  each  were  m i x e d s c h o o l had  are  of  from  mixed  number three  of  -  70  not and  these  the g i r l s with  used  selected  from  from  were  not and  schools  are  these  of 35  so  quite  categories.  three  study  2 form 3 c l a s s e s with  1  untrained.  of  each  The  normally  s c h o o l had  i n the  1.  monitored,  of other  heads  the  selected  4 schools  well  of  from c a t e g o r y  school  3 and  One  category  selected  poor) from those  be  boys  were  category  mixed  employed  agreement  c l a s s e s would  students  a  standards very  20  study.  selected  intakes  boys s c h o o l and each.  this  category  privately  the  in  was  why  and  were  following  schools,  only school  reasons  are  used  school  their  the  these  in  schools.  school  a girls  third  - 28  of  schools  had  - 80  secondary schools  Nine  only  categories  category  was  schools.  girls  s c h o o l s and  schools  t h e r e were 218  form  three  schools 2  the  was  classes 2  students  of  schools. each.  INSTRUMENTATION Two used  questionnaires  in  this  students' on  the  research.  questionnaire  students'  were  used  The which  perceptions  to  main was  collect  the  information  questionnaire  used  to  regarding  obtain career  was  the  information preparation  34  programs.  The  second  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was of  students  in  used  the  questionnaire,  to check  middle  background  questionnaire  perceptions  of  reflected  in  the  the  background  the a c t u a l enrolment  colleges. was  secondary  actual  the  to  The  find  school  enrolment  patterns  purpose  out  the  whether  the  tested  were  students  patterns  of  in  the  middle  colleges.  Student  Questionnaires  The one  was  students' used  questionnaire  completion  of  issues  career  form  4.  The  considered  programs  comprising  other  to  7,  8,  in 15  and  various  programs  students  suitable jobs asked  for  they  to  state  boys w h i l e  thought  each student  were  for g i r l s 3  best  i f they  they  boys.  b e l i e v e d there For  were a s k e d  both  t o g i v e an  choices  1.  was  groups  Group  used  to  and  boys. they  8 asked  suited  for  Question thought  them  to  girls.  girls,  15  jobs and  example and  while question  obtain  7  were state  girls 16,  performed i f they  to g i v e the  of  asked more three  Question  16  of  one,  b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e were j o b s  were  questions  formed  of the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  which  question  boys p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n if  jobs  16,  of  following their  questions  question  students' perceptions  career  to enter  Question choices  influence students'  identified  questions  questions.  the s t u d e n t s '  like  i n f o r m a t i o n on  the  19  t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on  c a r e e r programs which they would  around  had  15  which  asked  them  better  than  said reasons  yes,  they  why  they  35 thought said  so.  no,  For  they  Group obtain  2,  which  of  students and  questions  t o g i v e the  included  information  parents  the  were a s k e d  expectations the  each of  on  their  2  students' others.  indicate  and  the  teachers,  16  reasons  questions  the  significant  to  15  if a  student  why.  and  4,  was  used  perceptions  Questions  careers  they  respectively,  of  2 and  the  4  asked  thought  would  want  to  their them  to  train for. Questions which of  was  the  used  job  issue  12,  to  program  chances  technical  in  for  ability,  abilities  in different  used  to  students for  a  had  Kenya  they  through  these  students determined.  and  academic  used  of  to  which be  Question  students'  11  careers,  or  12  the  whether  students'  students'  perceived  subjects. 3,  5,  18  19,  was  of  information  the  choosing  the  subjects  they  Secondary  Education  would,  in part,  determine  able  f i t into  in  the  3 asked  13  issue  the  amount  obtain  3  career  the  question  at  the  to  their  question  the  questions  of  on  group  perception  addressed  on  questions, to  14  formed  factors  below  question  Certificate  would  on  studies,  above,  information  prior  Certification, fields  further  consisting  obtain  together  Question  different  are  academic  4,  14,  information  choices.  programs  Group  and  non-interpersonal  availability of  13  obtain  i n f l u e n c e of  preparation of  11,  sources  their the  of  career students  the  and  would  pursue  (K.C.S.E.) the  career  future.  Also,  information  the  information  was  the  number o f  times  36 they  discussed  number  of  times  Question people to  careers  18  with  they  asked  discussed  the  in different  careers  placed the to  on  programs  out  on  copy  Appendix  used  to  placed  the  student  background The  teachers.  they  thought  asked  information  from.  out  the  weight  weight  on  them  students  above when t h e y The  the  chose  idea here  different  was  factors  theirs. questionnaire  is  provided  in  was  i n form of  different  about  career May  Teacher  questionnaire, technical  The  were t h o s e  was  number  programs  training,  not  of  men  i n each  programs offered  which  colleges  questionnaire  administrations  the  1988.  questionnaire  Questionnaire  information  college  information  and  what  to pursue.  their  their  19  factors considered  which boys p l a c e d of  with  5  A.  The  1987  find  question  question  career  wished  and  explain  did, while their  Background Information  table.  to  got  they  i f girls  from those A  was  each of the  career find  17  parents  careers  students  i n d i c a t e where t h e y Question  their  was  listed  of  and the  identified i n middle included  because  (K.T.T.C.)  were  only  offered  asked  to  fill  in  women  enrolled  years  1985,  i n the colleges in  the  one  of  teacher  this questionnaire  in  1986,  background in  Kenya.  students the  middle  training  programs. A copy of  a  i s i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x  B.  37 QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION The  students'  researcher. students teacher did  questionnaire  In a l l three  was p u t i n t o was a s s i g n e d  schools  i t s own  purely  students  surveyed,  each  classroom.  to supervise  were  f o r research  effect  on  programs.  their  assured  purposes  future  by t h e  class  For each  and make s u r e  They  planning  o f 35  class,  that  a  students  questionnaire,  classes  (within  clarifying The  points  administration colleges  were  after  to provide  from other  time  school)  selected  they  that  moved  career they  they  was  f o r the survey.  t h e two  questions  and  completed  by t h e  surveyed.  Seven  The r e s e a r c h e r  through  review  took  them f r o m t h e  The a i m o f t h i s  f o r comparison with  c o u n t r i e s as o b t a i n e d  worked on  between  t o t h e c o l l e g e s and c o l l e c t e d were c o m p l e t e d .  take i t  to the students.  of the colleges  information  had no  information  answering  questionnaire  o f each  other  the students  that proved confusing  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s colleges  that  important  the researcher  background  responses  to choose  though  t h e whole  each  their  was  by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n f o r  s o i t was  Throughout  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  and t h a t  were made aware  purposes,  seriously.  that  decision  were p r o v i d i n g w o u l d be u s e d  was  administered  not d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n s . The  the  was  exercise  the information of l i t e r a t u r e .  38  PROTOCOL Before  the study  obtained  from  today.  A  was  conducted,  the p r e s i d e n t ' s o f f i c e  certificate  was  issued  permission  school  Arrangements sample  school,  which  was  shown  DATA  headmistress  were  made,  with  the headmaster  collection  to minimize  school  of  each  a t the convenience  of  disruptions.  PREPARATION The  students'  the purpose responses  responses  of data  to  categories:  office,  fifth  were g i v e n  analysis.  to question  profitable  1  cluster  numerical  (mainly  revealed the  that  career  technical,  category  nursing)  other  This category  and  i t would  programs  agriculture  boys  (see question  was m a i n t a i n e d  1  the a n a l y s i s  because  of  the o p t i o n s  to the student.  had b e e n  Therefore  not be u s e d  i t was  g i v e n more  the obtained  (mainly  more four  initially  A  by t h e  under  the  questionnaire).  b u t was n o t i n c l u d e d  I t was would  felt  given that  likely  frequencies i n this  as a true r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  be  and t e a c h i n g .  not s p e c i f i c a l l y  students  of the  into  doctor)  i n student  i n the f i l e s  in  option  codes f o r  Preliminary examination  c a r e e r p r o g r a m , m e d i c a l , was i d e n t i f i e d  girls  it.  to the  surveyed.  f o r the data  the s c h o o l i n o r d e r  been  as i s r e q u i r e d i n Kenya  h e a d m a s t e r s o f t h e boys and m i x e d s c h o o l s a n d t h e of the g i r l s  had  response.  a s one i f this  have  category  chosen could  39  The  coded  data  Identification school, data A  were  codes  f o r each  and the gender  were then entered  10% random  the  transferred to Fortran  sample  computer  questionnaire. Due  coding.  student  student  were  included.  with  of the students'  data  One e r r o r  to the format  background  each  of each  and  compared  information  type  I t was t h e r e f o r e  was  with  of data  questionnaire, analyzed  i n the The  100% v e r i f i c a t i o n . selected  the  ( w r o n g g e n d e r ) was and  forms.  school,  i n t h e computer  f i l e  coding  from  o r i g i n a l  found. collected  by the  i t d i d not  require  by hand.  S T A T I S T I C A L ANALYSIS Student  Questionnaire  For was  the  carried  final  student  questionnaire,  o u t i n two  stages;  the statistical  preliminary  analysis  analysis  and a  analysis.  Preliminary A  Analysis  preliminary  a n a l y s i s was  there  were  differences  girls  from  the mixed  between school.  boys  There  perceptions single  from  or  first  carried  out t o check i f  i n the career  program  choices  school  the mixed  were  school  no p a t t e r n  aspirations  sex schools  and from  and those  girls and  from  differences  of from  the boys the mixed  only  school,  t h e boys  found or  between and only  between the  the g i r l s  school.  from  40  Final  Analysis After  ascertaining  differences, The  analysis  the  Amdahl  Centre.  the schools was  that  were  combined  c a r r i e d out using  5860  computer  The s t a t i s t i c s  there  were  for a  no  pattern  final  analysis.  SPSS:X CROSSTABS p r o g r a m on  maintained  by  U.B.C.  u s e d were f r e q u e n c i e s ,  Computing  p e r c e n t a g e s and  chi-squares. Background The Kenyan table. each  Questionnaire  yearly  enrollments  colleges  surveyed  of enrolment  the  table.  all  the years  seen.  were  totaled  and  and g i r l s entered  i n the  into  one  F o r each program, p e r c e n t a g e s o f males and f e m a l e s i n  year  picture  o f a l l the boys  Then  were  calculated  the o v e r a l l percentages  together  o f gender  were c a l c u l a t e d  representation  and a l s o  entered  into  f o r each program f o r such  i n each  that  the o v e r a l l  program  could  be  41 CHAPTER IV RESULTS INTRODUCTION The  results  student  questionnaire  questionnaire F i r s t ,  o f a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s made t o b o t h t h e  a  (Appendix  (Appendix  description  d e s c r i p t i o n  and the background  B) a r e p r e s e n t e d of subjects  i s followed  corresponding  A)  by  to the four  i n this  i s presented.  presentation  main  chapter.  sections  of  This r e s u l t s  of the  student  questionnaire. a)  Students'  perception  b)  Perception  about  o f gender a p p r o p r i a t e  the expectations  careers  of  significant  others  c)  i)  Parental  ii)  Teacher's  Perception  influence influence  about  the influence of  non-interpersonal  f a c t o r s ; and d)  The amount and  The each aid  chapter  issue  address  were  i n interpretation,  particular  more  that  topics  was t h e n  information  the students  have  sources.  questions  of these  comment  The  their  o f career  the particular  analyzed  the results  separately. were  made a s t o t h e o v e r a l l towards t h e questions  concludes  specifically  with  presentation  to technical  issue  grouped  under  However, t o together.  A  contribution of that  addressed  by t h e study.  of the results  education.  As  related  stated i n  42 Chapter  2,  pursue that  Kenya  government  technical  education.  this  type  of  skills  rural  thus  The  for starting  reducing  rural  presently  b e l i e v e d t h a t most  based  that  and  taken over  by  The 92  girls.  a  THE  encouraging  government have the  students  seems  jobs  based  in  the  Also, i t i s  i n industry are office  giving  industries  urban m i g r a t i o n .  to  to b e l i e v e  advantage of  small scale  l a r g e p o r t i o n of  computers and  DESCRIPTION OF  been  education w i l l  the s t u d e n t s areas,  has  technology  jobs  will  be  dictaphones.  SUBJECTS  group of  students  T h e i r ages  as shown i n T a b l e  surveyed  ranged  from  c o n s i s t e d of 15  118  to over  19  18 y e a r s  19 and above  boys  years  and  of  age  4.1. Table  4.1  Students'  Ages  15 y e a r s  16 y e a r s  17  Boys  1.7%  7.8%  12.1%  29.3%  49.1%  118  Girls  0.0%  14.1%  40.2%  34.8%  10.9%  92  The of  girls  were younger  the g i r l s  the boys. below 17  were o v e r  However, 14% years of Since  older,  i t was  the felt  than  the  years  boys.  18 y e a r s o f age o f the g i r l s  For  example o n l y  as compared  and  n  9.5%  10.9%  t o 49.1%  of  o f t h e boys were  age. m a j o r i t y of that they  the  students  were c a p a b l e  were  17  o f making  years  or  realistic  43 career  choices  i f they  t o do so ( s e e H e r r , The as  occupations  of the s t u d e n t s '  Parents' Father's  Farmer  B.  Teacher  8.6%  were  4.2  Occupations  Engineer  10.5%  Driver  2.9%  Clerk  2.4%  Salesman  2.9%  Other  2.4%  n  1 7 . 6 % 210  Mother's occupation  Farmer  Business  Teacher  Nurse  6.7%  12.4%  1.9%  55.5%  It  parents  occupation  Business  52.6%  guidance  4.2. Table  A.  i n f o r m a t i o n and  1970).  major  shown i n T a b l e  had t h e r i g h t  i s important  the  students  Machakos, income  t o note  reported  most  Housewife 16.3%  here that  low.  their  i n the present  relatively  low incomes.  more  parents  were  1.9%  than  farmers  the majority from  n 210  50% o f  are farmers.  are subsistence  study  Other,  2.9%  slightly  Consequently  students  Clerk  2.4%  that  o f the farmers  i s quite  Secretary  In whose  of the  families  with  STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF GENDER APPROPRIATE CAREERS The students  first  to i d e n t i f y  after  form  Table  4.3  both  question  four  dealt  their  in this  desired career  (see q u e s t i o n  i s a summary  with  t h e boys and t h e g i r l s .  asked  the  preparation-program  no. 1, Appendix  o f the responses  study  A).  to t h i s  Listed i n  question f o r  44 Table  4.3  Students' Perception of T h e i r Desired o f C a r e e r P r e p a r a t i o n Program  Choices  Office  Technical  7.4%  39.8%  43.5%  9.3%  108  Girls  34.4%  2.9%  44.3%  18.6%  70  Overall  18,0%  25.3%  43.8%  12.9%  178  Boys  Chi  s q u a r e = 42.87; d f = 3;  Note:  (b)  T e c h n i c a l includes mechanical, electrical, b u i l d i n g , and a u t o m o t i v e c a r e e r p r o g r a m s .  (c)  T h e r e were 32 m i s s i n g o f s u b j e c t s was 210.  boys  i n Table  verses  2.9%  4.-3, (X  2  they To  7.4%  boys),  girls)  programs. that  (18.0%),  girls  verses  most  there =  boys)  in  t o examine t h e  The  frequently  teaching  (12.9%).  are  significant <  would or  percentages  .05).  by  number  career  technical  However,  programs  programs  wished  of boys and  as  d i f f e r e n c e s between  office  percentage of they  total  W h i l e more g i r l s  select  teaching  clerical  selected  and  a greater  would e n t e r  cases.  and  i n order  42.87; p they  secretarial,  followed  i n d i c a t e d that  Equal  aid  the  (43.8%),  i n d i c a t e d that  girls  2.9%  was  program  office  boys and  0.05  Office includes c a r e e r programs.  preparation (25.3%),  p <  n  (a)  Agriculture  shown  A g r i c u l t u r e Teaching  boys to  girls  (18.6% (39.9%  enter  than (34.3% girls verses  technical  (44%)  indicated  agriculture.  interpreting  these  career  i n f l u e n c e o f gender, t h e  program  students  choices  were a s k e d  and to  45 indicate  which  and  women  for  summarized the  jobs  students  that  a  only  2.6%  The  4.4.  7  in agriculture who  said  a  job  i n the  f o r boys and  girls  and  they  in agriculture,  job  were most  12.9% was  of  best  boys  (Table  ( T a b l e 4.4),  to  the  almost  enter  f o r boys  j o b s seen  as  by  for o f f i c e ,  to  34.3%  men are  44%  of  career  suggested  compared  best the  m i r r o r e d the d i f f e r e n c e s  compared  a  students  was  for  responses  while  in agriculture  remaining  suitable  Their  wished  p r e p a r a t i o n program c h o i c e s , e.g., 6.2%  8).  Interestingly,  indicated  differences  best  thought  (Questions  i n Table  preparation  they  for  to  girls.  students  as  i n the c a r e e r  46.6%  girls  vs.  girls 7.4%  vs. boys  4.3). Table Jobs Office  4.4  Seen By Most S t u d e n t s As F o r Boys and F o r G i r l s Technical  Agricul-  Best  Teaching  Nurse  n  ture As  Boys  6.2%  60.6%  12.9%  6.0%  0.0%  210  As G i r l s  46.6%  0.5%  2.6%  24.7%  17.7%  210  Chi  = 281.6  square  Note:  ; d f = 4; p <  0.05  Each s t u d e n t gave 3 j o b s f o r g i r l s  The  reasons  particular summarized  job  given  by  was  more  i n Table  4.5.  the  students  suitable  as  f o r boys  and  3 for  t o why or  they  for  boys.  felt  girls  a  are  46 Table  4.5  R e a s o n s F o r C l a s s i f y i n g J o b s a s B e s t f o r Boys a n d f o r G i r l s (A)  FOR BOYS Financial Benefits  Boys Better i n Academics  BOYS 21.2* GIRLS 9.8* OVERALL 16.0*  More Physical Strength  24.2* 18.3* 21.5*  Interests Boys Not Girls  39.4* 65.9* 51.4*  Forceful Character Required  4.0* 3.7* 3.9*  Industrial Preference n  8.1* 2.4* 5.5*  1.0* 0.0* 0.6*  99 82 181  (B) FOR GIRLS Less Physical Strength  Less Thinking Ability Required  BOYS 57.0* GIRLS 52.7* OVERALL 55.2* The  major  believe  Interests g i r l s and not boys  5.0* 6.8* 5.7* thing  that  8.0* 9.5* 8.6*  jobs  here  requiring  academic  ability  boys  a r e more c o n c e r n e d  Gives tine for fanily  16.0* 13.5* 14.9*  t o note  high  are  Requires more tolerance  6.0* 10.8* 8.0*  i s that  Girls Better i n Connunication  3.0* 2.7* 2.9*  the students  They  financial  also  rewards  n  5.0* 100 4.1* 74 4.6 174  a l o t of physical  a r e f o r boys. with  Industry Prefers  seem t o  strength indicate  and that  i n a j o b than  girls. To  asked boys girls  further  check  gender  t o i n d i c a t e whether performed performed  better better  stereotyping,  they  than than  believed  the students  there  were  were  jobs  that that  girls  (question  15) and j o b s  boys  (question  16) and i f s o , t o  47 give  an example o f e a c h .  for  their  4.6  and  answers.  They were a l s o a s k e d  These  responses  a r e summarized  Are  i n Tables  4.6  T h e r e J o b s Boys Can Do B e t t e r  (A)  Yes  Boys Girls Overall  94.4% 88.0% 91.9%  Than  Girls  No  n  5.1% 12.0% 8.4%  118 92 210  C h i - s q u a r e = 2.42247 ; d f = l  n. s,  Examples  Secretarial 1.3* 0.0* 0.7*  Boys Girls  Overal1 (C)  reasons  4.7. Table  (B)  to give  Technical 94.8* 98.7* 96.7*  Reasons F o r S a y i n g  Boys are Boys brave better in academics Boys 13.3* Girls 2.7* Overall 8.5*  Agriculture  10.0* 6.8* 8.5*  Catering 1.3* 0.0* 0.7*  2.6* 1.2* 2.0*  n 77 74 151  Yes  Requires Girls Girls like a lot of prefer neatness strength safer work 59.9* 83.8* 70.1*  11.1* 2.7* 7.3*  1.1* 2.7* 1.8*  No time for family 5.6* 1.4* 3.7*  90 74 164  NOTE: 1. The f i v e boys who r e s p o n d e d no i n d i c a t e d t h a t anybody can do any j o b as l o n g as they a r e t r a i n e d i n i t ; 10 out o f 11 o f t h e g i r l s who r e s p o n d e d no s u g g e s t e d t h e same. 2. T h e r e i s no d i s a g r e e m e n t between b o y s and g i r l s i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e j o b s w h i c h a r e more s u i t a b l e f o r g i r l s than f o r boys.  48 Table (A)  4.7  A r e T h e r e J o b s T h a t G i r l s Can Do B e t t e r Yes  Than  No  Boys n  Boys  72.2%  27.8%  115  Girls  75.8%  24.2%  91  Overall  73.8%  26.2%  206  Chi-square (B)  = 0.11668; d f = l ; n . s .  Examples Secretarial  Clerical  Teaching  Nursing  n  Boys  42.6%  6.6%  0%  50.8%  61  Girls  47.4%  8.8%  5. 3%  38.6%  57  Overall  73.8%  7.6%  2. 5%  44.9%  118  (C)  Boys Girls Overal1 (D)  R e a s o n s F o r S a y i n g Yes  Girls have Less better phsyical attitude strength required •41.7* 10.0* 38.3* 17.0* 40.2* 13.1*  Girls Girls better in like communi- neatness cation 0* 5.0* 2.1* 8.5* 6.5* .9*  Girls are merciful 33.3* 29.8* 31.8*  Job is simple 10.0* 4.3* 7.5*  n 60 47 107  R e a s o n s F o r S a y i n g NO  Boys can do Boys and girls Physical strength any job have same aptitude is no deterrent 0* 4.5*  Anybody trained can do anyjob n  Boys Girls Overall  73.3* 54.*5 65.4*  NOTE:  73.3% (30) o f the boys and 54. 5% (22) o f t h e g i r l s who r e s p o n d e d no i n d i c a t e d t h a t boys c a n do any j o b w h i l e 23.3% o f t h e s e b o y s and 40% o f t h e s e g i r l s i n d i c a t e d anybody t r a i n e d can do any j o b .  1.9*  3.3* 0* 1.9*  23.3* 40.9* 30.8*  30 22 52  49 One Table that as  very  important  aspect  4.7 i s t h a t a l t h o u g h  t o note  from  than  that  4.6  o n l y 8.4% o f t h e s t u d e n t s  t h e r e a r e no j o b s boys c a n do b e t t e r t h a n  25.6% s u g g e s t e d  Table  t h e r e a r e no j o b s  suggested  girls,  girls  and  as h i g h  c a n do b e t t e r  boys. The  reasoning  physical  strength  would  expected.  What  including  the g i r l s  certain  jobs  that  was  jobs be  seen  as  requiring  classified  a s men's  not expected  themselves,  better  than  i s that  suggested  girls  because  l o t of  jobs  the  that boys  a  was  students,  boys  could  do  are better i n  academics. To  further  students  were  strength The  clarify asked  required  results  to  the issue indicate  to perform  a r e summarized  of p h y s i c a l t h e amount  technical  i n Table  jobs  strength,  of  physical  (question 10).  4.8.  TABLE 4.8 STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE STRENGTH REQUIRED IN PERFORMING TECHNICAL JOBS R e q u i r e s more s t r e n g t h than I have Boys Girls Chi-square  9.5% 25.0%  Requires strength t h a t would l e a v e me t i r e d  Requires strength that I can handle  15.5%  75%  18.5%  56.5%  = 10.45; d f = 2; p < 0.05  50 The of  girls  strength  f a c t o r may  have an e f f e c t  t o get i n t o t e c h n i c a l jobs  seem t o t h i n k  that t e c h n i c a l jobs  since  on t h e 43.5%  reluctance  of the  girls  require a l o t of strength  to  do. Also,  to  requirements, technical level  further  and  their  careers,  clarify  Table  13).  the students  The  issue  i n f l u e n c e upon  o f academic a b i l i t y  (question  the  were  required  responses  asked  Students'  technical  summarized  as  jobs  shown i n  4.9  A t my Ability  Required  Below my Ability  Boys  20.5  76.9  2.6  Girls  41.3  53.3  5.4  Overall  29.7  66.5  3.8  S q u a r e = 12.95;  The r e s u l t s better 41.3%  can  enter  to i n d i c a t e the  P e r c e p t i o n o f Academic A b i l i t y to Perform T e c h n i c a l Jobs  Above my Ability  that  to  4.9. Table  Chi  academic  the d e c i s i o n  to perform  were  of  seem t o s u p p o r t  academically of the g i r l s  t e c h n i c a l jobs achieve.  girls'  d f = 2; p <  This  reluctance  than  the students'  girls  compared  0.05  (see T a b l e  t o 20.5%  require higher perception  belief 4.6  o f boys  t h a t boys a r e Part  seem t o  academic a b i l i t y  might  to get i n t o t e c h n i c a l  have  an  C);  believe  than  effect  education.  since  on  they the  51 Summary Comparing the  results  exception  f o r question  of a g r i c u l t u r e  between what and  the r e s u l t s  the students  what t h e y c h o s e .  f o r questions 1,  7, 8, 15 and 16 t o  i t can seen  there  that  i s a direct  with  relationship  saw a s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r  A l s o , both  boys and g i r l s  the  agree  gender  on w h i c h  j o b s t h e y p e r c e i v e d as women j o b s ' and t h e y p e r c e i v e d a s 'mens jobs'.  Thirdly,  classifying  they  seem  the jobs as e i t h e r  to agree suitable  on  the reasons f o r  f o r women o r f o r men.  PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE EXPECTATIONS OF SIGNIFICANT OTHERS The  students  preparation  programs  and  teachers  and  teachers  the  people  choice.  were they  The together the  were  perceived are  indicate  believed their  identified,  i n the best  These  the  parents  through  position  perceptions  were  ( q u e s t i o n 2) Both  literature  compared  parents  review,  to influence a  then  career  as  student's  with  what t h e  t h e y would choose f o r t h e m s e l v e s .  Influence responses i n Table  extent  programs  to  ( q u e s t i o n 3) would c h o o s e f o r them.  s t u d e n t s had i n d i c a t e d  Parental  asked  to questions  4.10.  The t a b l e  o f agreement  students their  chose  parents  between  1 and 2 a r e provides what  f o r themselves would choose  summarized  an i n d i c a t i o n o f  career  preparation  and what  the students  f o r them.  r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r boys and g i r l s .  The summaries  52 Table  4.10  Agreement Between S t u d e n t s ' Their Perceived Parents (A)  C h o i c e And Choice  Boys Ql Office  Technical  Agriculture  Teacher  Q2 Office  2  3  1  0  Technical  1  18  5  2  Agriculture  1  8  23  1  Teaching  1  5  7  5  TOTAL  5  34  36  8  Note:  Ql = Q2 =  (B)  Students' choices of career preparation programs perceived parents' choices of careers f o r t h e i r sons  Girls Ql Office  Technical  Agriculture  Teacher  Q2 11  1  2  5  Technical  0  1  0  0  Agriculture  3  0  16  2  Teaching  5  0  8  6  19  2  26  Office  TOTAL Note:  Ql Q2  S t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e s o f c a r e e r programs Perceived parents' choices of careers daughters  13  for their  53 The 83  results  boys  that  who  agreed  i n Table  responded with  choose  f o r them.  57.8%.  Of t h e s e  noted  choice  students  The  results  of  a  choose  choices  I t should  also  office  are concentrated  and 26 p a r e n t s )  33 p a r e n t s )  4.10(B)  to questions career  and t h a t  programs.  1 and  would  office  programs  and  only  This  5  makes  by t h e s t u d e n t s  popular  o n l y one  both  programs  choice  girl).  o f t h e 60  34 m a t c h e d with  f o r them.  girls  their what  they  This  works  For the g i r l s , office  - 11,  I t should  own  the  technical  be n o t e d  here  c h o i c e and h e r p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l choices  (19 s t u d e n t s  boys a g r i c u l t u r a l  choose  - 6.  that  program  as f o l l o w s :  even when t h e s t u d e n t ' s not agree,  2,  56.7% agreement.  was d i s t r i b u t e d  do  show  preparation  parents'  overall  choice  least  agreement o f  c h o i c e and h i s p e r c e i v e d  c h o i c e f o r boys b o t h  1 , a g r i c u l t u r e - 16, t e a c h i n g  that  by  and  i n Table  their  t o an  agreement -  popular  both  would  parents.  perceived out  parents  18 i n t e c h n i c a l ,  training.  (34 s t u d e n t s  (36- s t u d e n t s  responded  choice  programs  and 6 parents  their  who  do n o t a g r e e ,  the l e a s t  their  in office,  and 5 i n t e a c h e r  technical  agriculture  and  2 were  t h a t even when t h e s t u d e n t ' s  parental  1 and 2 had c h o i c e s  works o u t t o an o v e r a l l  48 boys,  be  questions  p e r c e p t i o n o f what  This  in agriculture,  office  to both  their  23  around  4.10(A) show t h a t 48 boys o u t o f t h e  are concentrated  and 19 p a r e n t s )  (26 s t u d e n t s  for girls  around  and a s w i t h t h e  and 21 p a r e n t s ) .  i s technical  programs  The  (chosen  54 A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e agreement for  girls  i s shown i n T a b l e  f o r boys and  the  agreement  4.11.  Table  4.11  The D i f f e r e n c e Between Agreement f o r Boys and f o r G i r l s with Perceived Parents' Choice Office Boys Girls Chi  5  48  11  1  16  6  34  percentages  there  of  is a  and  choices.  o f 48) w h i l e  and  office  4.10(A) and  difference  boys  whose  However,  and  f o r boys.  for g i r l s  4.10(B),  between  choices Table  i n the programs  are a g r i c u l t u r e  out  the  For boys,  they a r e a g r i c u l t u r e  that  there  t h e main  and  their  shows  f o r which  (23 o u t o f 48)  overall  matched  4.11  one  was  fields  technical  (18  (16 o u t o f  34)  (11 o u t o f 3 4 ) . Influence  The  the  girls  0.05  of Table  i s no  difference  agreement  together  there  for g i r l s  Teachers'  d f = 3; p <  a t the r e s u l t s  parents  agreement  Total  23  that  perceived  Teacher  18  S q u a r e = 20.99;  realizes  Agriculture  2  Looking  of  Technical  responses i n Table  extent  of  to  questions  4.12.  This  agreement  and  3  table provides  between  students  chose  f o r t h e m s e l v e s and  teachers  would  choose  separately  1  f o r them.  are  an i n d i c a t i o n  what  career  what  they  The  programs  perceived  summaries  f o r boys 4.12(A) and f o r g i r l s  summarized  are  4.12(B).  of the  their  reported  55 Table  4.12  Agreement Between S t u d e n t s  Choices  Perceived Teachers (A)  and T h e i r  Choice  Boys Ql Office  Technical  Agriculture  Teacher  __ Office  1  2  4  0  Technical  3  22  5  2  Agriculture  1  10  23  2  Teaching  3  7  12  5  TOTAL  8  41  44  9  Note:  (B)  Q l = Students'  choices of career p r e p a r a t i o n  Q3 = p e r c e i v e d  teachers'  programs  choices  Girls Ql Office  Technical  Agriculture  Teacher  Q3 Office  13  1  9  6  Technical  2  1  0  1  Agriculture  2  0  12  1  Teaching  6  0  8  3  23  2  29  TOTAL Note:  Ql  Students'  choices of career preparation  Q3  perceived  teachers'  choices  11 program  56 As what  shown  the  i n Table  boys  chose  4.12(A) the  for  overall  themselves  and  their  t e a c h e r s would choose f o r them was  50%.  Of  these  51  boys,  i n a g r i c u l t u r e and not  agree  both  with  their  and  to o f f i c e  students  and  Table girls'  27  in  choices  what  they  technical the  what  (20  out  12  there  was  they of  perceived  65  who  students  girls'  are  own  (29 and  o f 102  or  in technical,  23  teachers' (41  choice,  students  and  36  and  parents)  and  32 as  teaching  seen  A comparison  as  as  their  to both  and  3  (9  between  (23 and  parents). suitable or  13  the  would  questions in office,  in teaching. their  would c h o o s e  2)  teachers  follows:  office  (only  agreement between  responded  students 17  choices  teachers' choices  shown i n T a b l e  not  parents  around  agriculture  jobs  their  overall  disagreement  their  concentrate  (11  boys  7 parents)  in agriculture,  perceived  parents), teaching  and  These 20 a r e d i s t r i b u t e d  where  choices  (8 s t u d e n t s  and  technical,  girls,  of  students  4.12(B) shows a 44.6%  4).  22  perceived  parents).  c h o o s e f o r them 1 and  51 o u t  around t e c h n i c a l (44  they  between  Where t h e b o y s ' c h o i c e s d i d  perceptions  agriculture  compared  what  in office,  5 i n teaching.  choices concentrated  parents)  1  1 was  agreement  choice  f o r them,  students 15  This  For and both  and  29  parents), indicates  and that  for g i r l s  judging  by  perceived  their  by  (only 4). f o r the  4.13.  agreement  f o r boys and  for g i r l s  is  57 T a b l e 4.13 D i f f e r e n c e Between Boys' Agreement and G i r l s ' With P e r c e i v e d Teachers Choice Office 1  Boys Girls Chi  Agriculture  Technical  13  s q u a r e 33.32;  Agreement  Teaching  Total  22  23  5  65  1  12  3  29  d f = 3; p < 0.05  Summary Comparing Table  4.12  influence compared agreement than  the r e s u l t s  i t seems  on  like  i n Table parents  the boys' c h o i c e s  t o 50% a g r e e m e n t with  parents  4.10 t o t h o s e  with  verses  have  a  slightly  (58% a g r e e m e n t teachers)  reported i n  with  higher parents  and t h e g i r l s ( 5 7 %  44.6% agreement  with  teachers)  t h e t e a c h e r s have.  PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF NON-INTERPERSONAL FACTORS The to  have  non-interpersonal factors i n f l u e n c e on s t u d e n t s  preparation study for  t h a t were  when  programs and which were  included job a v a i l a b i l i t y ,  seen  selecting  considered  potentially  their  career  i n the present  academic a b i l i t y  and c h a n c e s  further studies. The  career  extent  programs  different  fields  o f agreement and t h e i r  between  perceptions  students'  choices  of  of job a v a i l a b i l i t y  in  ( Q u e s t i o n 11) i s summarized  i n T a b l e 4.14.  58 TABLE  4.14  Agreement Between S t u d e n t s ' C h o i c e s and T h e i r P e r c e p t i o n o f Programs w i t h H i g h J o b A v a i l a b i l i t i e s (A)  Boys Ql Office  Technical  Agriculture  Teacher  Q4 Office  1  0  0  0  Technical  4  27  13  4  Agriculture  1  7  19  1  Teaching  2  7  13  4  TOTAL  8  41  45  Note: (B)  Q l = Students' choices of career preparation Q4 = p e r c e i v e d j o b a v a i l a b i l i t y  9 program  Girls Ql Office  Technical  Agriculture  Teache  Q4 Office  13  1  3  4  Technical  3  1  5  2  Agriculture  2  0  12  0  Teaching  5  0  10  6  TOTAL  23  2  30  12  Note:  Q l = Students' choices of career Q4 = p e r c e i v e d j o b a v a i l a b i l i t y  preparation  program  59 The  results  between 4.3)  what  and  chance This  of  office,  27  teacher.  a  rather  results  out  o f 67 g i r l s )  saw  as having  agreement  j o b was  that  students  (51 b u t  evenly  of  job a v a i l a b i l i t y ,  for girls between  i s distributed For  i n d i c a t e an agreement  what  they  c h o s e and  possibility differently girls,  shows t h a t  t e c h n i c a l as a f i e l d  2 girls with  the  4.15.  i n each  4 for saw  office  the  o f 47.8%  (32  of g e t t i n g a job. to that  f o r boys  distribution  they This  careers  i s 13  for  6 for  teacher  t e c h n i c a l i s not a p o p u l a r  choice  chose  higher  i t ) though  11  of  them  see  job a v a i l a b i l i t y .  A c o m p a r i s o n f o r t h e agreement shown i n T a b l e  boys).  the program  1 f o r t e c h n i c a l , 12 f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and  (only  103  i.e., 1 for  making  office,  the g i r l s  highest  1 male s t u d e n t  4.14(A)).  by  the  f o r boys.  the h i g h e s t  This  (Table  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and  (Table  training.  chose  c e r t a i n programs, 19  agreement  distributed  a l s o be n o t e d t h a t o n l y high  the  as p r o v i d i n g  49.5%  i s not  favors  p r e f e r r e d career The  t h e male  for technical,  having  show  perceived  however,  I t should as  they  obtaining  but  4.14(A)  program  t h e program  program  least  Table  career  agreement,  office  of  f o r boys and  for girls  is  60 Table  4.15  D i f f e r e n c e i n Agreement Between G i r l s and Boys w i t h T h e i r P e r c e p t i o n of Career With Higher Job A v a i l a b i l i t y Office Boys Girls Chi-square  4  51  13  1  12  6  52  of  the  4.15,  boys  chances  careers.  their  0.05 it is  and  girls  that  agreements  as  there  is a  concerns  c a r e e r s and  there  agreement  f o r job a v a i l a b i l i t y However,  in technical  seen  with  no  their  in  agriculture  big  difference  chances  office  is  based  for  job  careers.  r e s u l t s o f the agreement between s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n careers  (question Table  Table  the  teaching  The of  at  d f = 3; p <  between  availability  Total  19  difference  between  Teacher  27  = 36 . 6;  perception  Agriculture  1  Looking  and  Technical  12)  4.16.  with  and  the  higher  chances  students  own  for  choices  further are  as  studies shown  in  61 Table  4.16  S t u d e n t s ' P e r c e p t i o n o f Program L e a d i n g t o J o b s W i t h a B e t t e r Chance f o r F u r t h e r S t u d i e s (A)  Boys Ql Office  Technical  Agriculture  Teacher  Q5 Office  3  1  1  1  Technical Agriculture  2 2  28 8  17 21  3 1  Teaching  1  4  4  5  TOTAL  8  41  43  Note: (B)  Q l = Students' choices of career p r e p a r a t i o n Q5 = p e r c e i v e d c h a n c e s o f f u r t h e r s t u d i e s  12 programs  Girls Ql Office  Technical  Agriculture  Teacher  Q5 Office  7  0  2  3  Technical Agriculture  6 5  2 0  10 13  3 2  Teaching  6  3  6  TOTAL  24  Note:  Q l = Students' Q5 = P e r c e i v e d  2  28  choices of career p r e p a r a t i o n chances of f u r t h e r s t u d i e s  13 programs  The r e s u l t s o f t a b l e 4.16(A) shows an agreement o f between program  t h e male they  students'  see -as h a v i n g  career  higher  program  choice  chances f o r f u r t h e r  55.9%,  and  the  studies  62 (57 o f 102 who agreement fields; and  answered b o t h  however  was  not  3 were i n o f f i c e ,  5 i n teacher The  chances  evenly  28  in technical,  choices  shown  and  i n Table  for further studies by  different  programs  follows:  as  as  in.agriculture although  and  Looking  at  Tables  that there  (42.8%)  and  further A choice for  boys  own that  having  higher  (28 o u t o f 6 7 ) .  The  28  are d i s t r i b u t e d  in  7 in office,  i n teacher  2  in  training.  chose t e c h n i c a l ,  4.16(A)  (55.9%)  lead  comparison  girls  as  the female  technical,  I t was  21 o f them  noted rate i t  and  4.16(B)  together  i s an a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between  choice  their  see  agreement  and  as  regards  their  the agreement  perceptions  to f u r t h e r s t u d i e s .  s t u d i e s i s not a p r i o r i t y  and  in agriculture,  the h i g h e s t chances f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s .  realizes  programs  this  only 2 g i r l s  the f i e l d with  students'  6  they  i s 42.8%  represented  that  21  The  i n a l l the  4.16(B) between  the programs  students  13  distributed  11).  training.  agreement  students  q u e s t i o n 1 and q u e s t i o n  f o r the  perception  i s shown i n T a b l e  4.17.  I t seems  as  girls  between career though  for g i r l s .  agreement of  regarding  one  of  the  students'  further studies  f o r boys  own and  63 Table  4.17  D i f f e r e n c e Between t h e G i r l s and Boys Agreement w i t h t h e i r P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e C a r e e r Programs w i t h B e t t e r C h a n c e s for Further Studies Office Boys Girls Chi  3 7  perception subjects. their  of  tabulated  the  students  overall  that  their  The s t u d e n t s  are  best  best  this  (B) Boys Girls  5 6  own  best  four  considered  academic  were a s k e d  subjects  57 28  in  t o rank what  4.18.  and p a r t  was  different  they  14). First  B  students  perceived  The  results  i n part A for  f o r the  student's  subject.  4.18  p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r academic a b i l i t y in different subjects  As one o f t h e s t u d e n t s  best  four subjects:  Business  English  Geography  History  41% 63%  59% 77%  62% 61%  38% 38%  As t h e s t u d e n t s 13.6% 22.8%  ability  (see question  subjects  Total  0.05  i n two ways i n T a b l e  Students'  Boys Girls  21 13  study  TABLE  (A)  Teacher  ; df = 3 ; p <  factor  four  Agriculture  28 2  s q u a r e = 59.43 Another  as  Technical  19.4% 28.3%  best  Maths  68% 58%  Science  Swahili  58% 37%  30% 54%  18.6% 7.6%  11.9% 15.2%  subject: 17.8% 17.4%  12.7% 13.0%  29.7% 18.5%  64 It boys in  i s seen  and g i r l s  Geography  that  i n their  along  themselves  as good  seem  Science. office  jobs  over  good g r o u n d i n g have  of t h e i r  but the r e s t lines.  i n Business,  as good  seem  to  perceive  Swahili  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n , while  while  i n Mathematics  reasons  Technical  ability  the s u b j e c t s are  E n g l i s h , and  themselves  technical.  academic  of  Girls  be one o f t h e major  good a b i l i t y  have p o s i t i v e  a r e no d i f f e r e n c e s between  the g i r l s  and  chose  jobs g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e  i n s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s f o r which t h e g i r l s  negative  require  gender  to perceive  T h i s may  there  perception  and H i s t o r y  polarized  boys  while  office  i n languages f o r which  jobs  seem t o seem  the g i r l s  to  seem t o  academic s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n .  Summary Looking Table  4.19  a t a l l t h e major was  produced  factors  as a summary,  show t h e f a c t o r s w i t h h i g h o v e r a l l  examined which  i n the  was  study,  expected  to  i n f l u e n c e s on t h e s t u d e n t s '  choices. Table  4.19  Summary o f t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t  f a c t o r s on s t u d e n t  choice  Parent Expectations  Teacher Expectations  Job A v a i l ability  Further Studies  Boys  57.8%  50.0%  49.5%  55.9%  Girls  56.7%  44.6%  47.8%  42.8%  65 IMAGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION As  pointed  devoted  itself  country.  The  projects the  i n Chapter  to increasing issues  related  were  asked  are (question  I I , t h e Kenya the t e c h n i c a l  t o t h e image  t o t h e s t u d e n t s were  students  careers  out  examined  to indicate  9).  Government capacity  technical  of  the  education  i n t h i s study.  how  has  interesting  First,  technical  The r e s u l t s a r e summarized  i n Table  4.20. TABLE  4.20  Students l e v e l of i n t e r e s t i n t e c h n i c a l Very i n t e r e s t i n g  Interesting  careers  enough  Dull  Boys  65.8%  32.5%  1.7%  Girls  50.0%  44.6%  5.4%  C h i - s q u a r e = 6.31; It  i s surprising  of  the boys  education  and  is dull  c h o s e some o t h e r Question the  industry  gender, the  d f = 3; p <  t o note that 5.4%  of  Table  4.20  the g i r l s  shows t h a t  indicate  that  only  1.7%  technical  y e t 60.2% o f t h e boys and 97.1% o f t h e  girls  career.  6 was would  i f they  0.05  used be  were  to f i n d  willing trained  responses to t h i s question  out  i f the students  t o employ  as  them,  technicians.  thought  regardless The  i s shown i n T a b l e  summary  4.21.  of of  66 Table Students' Preference  4.21  Perceptions of  f o r Employment  Industry willing  Industry's  i n the T e c h n i c a l  Industry hesitant  Fields  Industry not willing  n  Boys  68.1%  25.9%  6.0%  116  Girls  58.9%  32.2%  8.9%  90  Overall  64.1%  28.6%  7.3%  206  Chi-square The was  =  perceived  essentially  be t a k e n  1.9544; d f = 2; N.S. industrial  t h e same  as a reason  preference  (x =1.95; p < 2  for girls  o f boys and o f .38)  not c h o o s i n g  girls  t h e r e f o r e cannot technical  training  programs. Lastly, compared in  the  the  with  students'  intended  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  technical  shown i n T a b l e  colleges  program  of students  i n Kenya.  choices  were  currently enrolled  This  distribution  is  4.22.  T a b l e 4.22 E n r o l m e n t P a t t e r n s f o r M a l e s and F e m a l e s I n T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e s i n Kenya Between 1985 and 1988  Boys Girls  n Chi  Office  Technical  Agriculture  Home Economics  0.8%  88.0%  10.3%  0.9%  2519  51.9%  11.2%  10.7%  26.2%  599  331  2283  323  180  3118  s q u a r e = 2117.3; d f = 3; p < 0.05  n  67 Comparing the  students'  agriculture for  43.8%  i s the the  females  agriculture, girls boys  than  more  a  Table  4.22  technical  than  shows  and  that  career  that  work to  programs  4.3  the  greater  vs.  that  observed  INFORMATION  student  STUDENTS  HAVE  about  students  the  subjects  career they  examination, First  the  discussed of  information  would  take  K.C.S.E.,  students  the r e s u l t s  and  were  careers with  to  had  prepare where  asked  their  they  they  to  the  got  4.23.  more  THEIR career  different  also  asked  choosing  form  this  indicate  parents  i s shown i n T a b l e  were  before  for  and  AND  factors about  where  2.9%).  perceptions  d e c i s i o n s , the  results  7.4%)  the i n f l u e n c e of  their  of  while  4.3  programs t h e y p r e f e r r e d t o e n t e r and upon  from  0.8%)  i n Table vs.  the  noted  Apart  These  (29.8% v s .  THE  be  percentage  11.2%).  (34.3%  in  percentages  (51.9% v s .  (88%  preferred technical  assessing  a  work  boys p r e f e r o f f i c e  program students  It should  Table  with  although  preparation  10.1%.  in office  pattern  CAREER  Besides  4.22  4.22  p r e p a r a t i o n of  in agricultural  Table  boys t h a n g i r l s  AMOUNT OF SOURCES  realizes  the  i s only  i n Table  males i n a g r i c u l t u r e a r e e q u i v a l e n t .  similar  girls  one  students,  boys e n r o l l e d  prefer  follow  sampled  i n both  and  4.3  preferred career  c o l l e g e s sampled  that  d a t a summarized  i n Table  most  enrolled  technical however  choices  of  currently  of  the e n r o l m e n t  4  the  national  information.  the  (question 3).  times A  they  summary  68 TABLE  4.23  Number o f t i m e s s t u d e n t s had d i s c u s s e d c a r e e r choices with t h e i r parents D i s c u s s e d more t h a n once  Once  Boys  40.4%  20.2%  39.5%  116  Girls  37.4%  22.0%  40.7%  92  Overall  39.0%  21.0%  40.0%  208  Chi-square  = 0.21;  These remember  results  only  discussed  career  were  show  about  These students they  d f = 2;  40%  choices  being  pursuing  Never discussed  n.s. that  of  the  with  i n form  as  far  girls their  3 had  f o r K.C.S.E.  said  students  how  much d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e might  and  the  is their  teachers  4.24.  and  the 40%  parents  which  would  teachers,  (question 5).  students of  so  the  more  i t was  had  once.  subjects  determine  who  which  logical  are c l o s e to to  have been between t h e The  boys  than  the  could  f o r i n the f u t u r e .  b e f o r e , the o t h e r g r o u p o f p e o p l e  the  Table  as  a l r e a d y chosen  c a r e e r programs t h e y would be e l i g i b l e As  n  results  are  find  out  students  tabulated in  69 TABLE Number o f  times students  4.24  discussed  career  choices  with  teachers  More t h a n once  Once  Never Discussed  Boys  26.3%  12.7%  61.0%  118  Girls  17.8%  31.1%  51.1%  90  Overall  22.6%  20.7%  56.7%  198  Chi  s q u a r e = 10.51; d f = 2; p <  These  results  girls,  as  far  with  their  high  as  any  51%  careers  they  show t h a t they  teachers of  the  with  were g o i n g Question  career  as  only  more girls  their  of  once.  61%  teachers  number  19 The  asked  of  Parents  Chi-square  Also  before  the  of  discussed they  boys had they  17.8%  show not  chose  the  careers that  as  discussed  the  subjects  students  their  shown i n T a b l e  source 4.25.  4.25  Sources of career  Overall  had  the  r e s u l t s are TABLE  Girls  boys and  t o p u r s u e f o r K.C.S.E.  information.  Boys  the  remember,  than and  0.05  26%  could  n  information  Peers  Teachers  5.4%  43.2%  23.4%  27.9%  111  12.0%  25.3%  42.2%  20.5%  83  8.2%  35.6%  31.4%  24.7%  194  = 13.21; d f = 3;  p <  0.05  Books  n  of  70 From t h e s e their  main  their  peers.  One  source  should  girls was  results  i t seems t h a t 71% o f t h e boys f e e l  of career  For the g i r l s  note  that  only  indicated  that  their  their  parents,  socializers, though  should  teachers  the percentage 5.4% main  source  although  have  had  have  more  their  major  more  them as t h e i r major s o u r c e ) .  different to  people  point  expected  out  in different  here  that  was  4.26,  occupation knowledge  taken  showed and  as  than  on  an  elaborate  also  levels  knowledge.  showed  according  boys  I t may  t e c h n i c i a n where  have  knowledge.  seemed  office,  a  gender  t o whether  For  students, clerical,  an  almost  of  t h e company o r  to giving  institution.  as  (42.2%  (only  23.4%  knew what  be  necessary  explanation  was  not  the o c c u p a t i o n  results,  tabulated i n occupation  difference  in  to  these  the job i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y  female  o r male  both  female  t o have a l l s o r t s o f i d e a s o f what  in  the  i t seems  E x c e p t i o n s o f t h i s a r e masonry,  electrical fair  The  of  primary  out i f the s t u d e n t s  c a r e e r s do.  45.8%.  choices  mixed l e v e l s o f knowledge from  gender a p p r o p r i a t e .  students  girls'  or  information  the  and any i n d i c a t i o n o f some i d e a o f what  involved Table  source)  to f i n d  of career  Also,  on  at  12.0%  input.  regarded  used  and  as  effect  books  i s lower  parents,  them  18 was  either  o f the boys  regarded  Question  as  i n f o r m a t i o n was  that  him or her  typist  and  seemed and  a clerk  the o v e r a l l  to  male does  running  71 TABLE 4.26 What s t u d e n t s t h i n k p e o p l e do i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r s Mechanical Technician  Electrical Technician  Secretary  Cleric  Accounts Mason Person  Typist  (A) BOYS  Know Don't Know (B)  63.6*  78.0*  53.4*  44.9*  70.3* 92.4* 86.4*  36.4*  22.0*  46.6*  55.1*  29.7*  43.5*  79.3*  64.1*  42.4*  65.2* 91.3* 88.0*  56.5*  20.7*  35.9*  57.6*  34.8*  7.6* 13.6*  GIRLS  Know Don't Know  8.7* 12.0*  (C) OVERALL  Know Don't Know n  54.8*  78.6*  58.1*  43.8*  68.1* 91.9* 87.1*  45.2* 210  21.4* 210  41.9* 210  56.2* 210  31.9* 8.1* 12.9* 210 210 210  Special like  attention  Mechanical  w h i c h a r e gender both  girls  involve, girls, for  here  s h o u l d be drawn t o key o c c u p a t i o n s  Technician, Secretarial polarized  occupations.  and C l e r i c a l Large  and boys do n o t seem t o know what i . e ,f o r mechanical  work,  percentages  these  of  occupations  36.4% o f boys and 35.9% o f t h e  f o r s e c r e t a r i a l 46.6% o f boys and 35.9% o f t h e g i r l s ,  clerical  5 5 . 1 % o f b o y s and 56.2% o f t h e g i r l s .  It i s  72  therefore  unrealistic  to expect  these  students  reasonable, c h o i c e s o f c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs. to  s a y many o f t h e s t u d e n t s  programs they  have  which  would  mysterious  careers involve.  are faced  prepare ideas  them  with  t o make  It i s fair  having  t o choose  for future careers  o r no i d e a a t a l l a b o u t  while  what t h e  73  CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND  IMPLICATIONS OF  THE  RESULTS  INTRODUCTION This the  chapter  first  results  section,  reported  discussion  the  program  question) . perception  teachers'  made  by  question  of  of  (see  technical why  six  sections.  In  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  the  are  provided.  subsections.  (part the  main  to  (a)  In  of  results  the  related  third  subsection  The  d e s c r i b i n g the upon  (question  the  1).  The  interpersonal factors, three  and  ability  sources  education,  t e c h n i c a l i s not  of  of  and  career  relates  Finally, attempts  of to the to  p r e f e r r e d by  such  fourth deals  fourth  parents'  subsection, with  upward  to  subjects  research financial mobility.  addresses the  for  K.C.S.E.  subsection,  the m a j o r i t y  question image  possible of  the  students  research  e x p l a i n the  a  decisions  f a c t o r s as  information  sixth  contains  program  information,  the  (research  i n f l u e n c e of  academic  career  choices  This 1).  addresses  students  discussed  career  of  research  to  two).  first  choice  first  are  This  the  students'  gender  making  chapter  chapter  pertaining  expectations  non  five  i n f l u e n c e of  availability  certification.  into  results  five,  to  last  second,  academic  Subsection  prior  the  number  rewards,  issue  the  students  influence  the  presented  the  into  d i s c u s s i o n and  results  number  d i s c u s s i o n of and  in  are  In of  question  the  is divided  subsection, career  i s organized  the  of  reasons students  74  although of  t h e government has  a priority  field  education. The  second  study. from  This  the d i f f e r e n t  the  The  providing  study  fifth  as  agriculture 44%  to  section  information  study.  is  divided the  into  two  availability secondary  deals  issue  with  related  clarify of  the  chapter  comments, the  topics  of  needing  i s s u e s addressed  this  deals  mainly  i s s u e of  of high school  gender  f o r the  on  by with  how  the  other  inequity  gender  this  which  segregated  students.  ASPIRED CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAM  f o r both  1984) , a n d  the  the  counselling in  suggests  of  this  were a p r i o r i t y  results  by  of  the  students.  a p o s s i b l e cause  results  of  level  study  previous  which t o be  showed  aspiration  boys and  elsewhere  a l l of  secondary  and  subsection  dealing with  aspiration  The  1985) ,  guidance  concluding  sees  STUDENTS * OWN  (about  of  i n order  are  synthesis  c o n c l u s i o n of  subsection deals with  research  countries  career  first  section  The  the  recommendations,  second  researcher's  this  provides  fourth  study.  outlines  r o l e models f o r the  The further  The  quality  school.  section  issues addressed  three,  subsections. and  main  section  Section  the  e s t a b l i s h e d i t as  girls).  research  f o r both  male  programs girls  and  in boys  This i s i n contrast with done  ( M a r s h a l l , 1987; showed  that  in  Velford  agricultural  segregated.  Kenya  For  (Eshiwani, and  Hickey  careers  at  post  example,  Eshiwani  75  (1984) shows o n l y not  clear  career that  why  20%  females  agriculture  f o r the  established  levels  curriculum.  The  each  school  seems t o  students.  t h e change t o t h e  new of  8-4-4  level  and  6)  for  pure Chemistry,  and  Swahili.  following  Biology,  and  Since  cost of  the  community, most o f t h e is  quite  subject  low, as  offer  i t is  e q u i p m e n t . A l s o due the  government  sufficiency  has  i n food  facilities  to  therefore  for  be  Home  the  favourite  rural  school  needed  facilities Science  contains  one  Agriculture,  school which i n s t e a d of of  these  i n school  offers  Physics, subjects.  i s borne  as  their  optional  in  terms  of  experience  production, a l l over to  which the see  the  Building Construction, Any  r e c e n t l y launched  2)  Government,  by  s c h o o l s , whose c o m m u n i t i e s  to previous  that  Science  Physical  level  is has  English,  have  Science,  offer  cheapest  students  which  subjects 1)  not  Science  agriculture  built  the  second  Design.  must  facilities  are  do  Mechanics,  and  core  Biology offer  Biological  Chemistry  It is  secondary  H i s t o r y and  which  The  Power  and  the  B i o l o g y or B i o l o g i c a l  schools  Drawing  Science  subjects  subjects;  Woodwork, M e t a l w o r k ,  Physical  the  and  Science.  and  contains  P h y s i c s and  optional  Electricity,  the  4) Geography, 5)  Poorer  Biological  in  These  M a t h s , 3) P h y s i c s , C h e m i s t r y P h y s i c a l Science,  become  system of e d u c a t i o n  subjects  offer.  and  have  programs.  What i s s e e n a s a p o s s i b l e r e a s o n  first  must  in agriculture  a has  with  campaign caused  country.  income  practical  facilities food  agriculture  and  shortage, for  food  It  the  selfstorage  is possible as  a  high  76  priority since  field  over  i n the country.  50% o f t h e p a r e n t s  influenced  by t h e l i f e  Another  factor  are i n farming,  style  may  be  that  t h e k i d s may be  w i t h i n the communities they  grew  up i n . Apart  from  agriculture,  career  aspiration  lines,  i . e . boys  while  the g i r l s  should  This  aspired  here  greater  that  comes  education  which  resulted  shows  however  there a r e f a c t o r s campaign  this  study  from  expected  to find  career  t h e government's  has not o c c u r r e d  t h a t t h e government  It  changes  programs.  emphasis i n  f o r self-employment  t o 8-4-4 e d u c a t i o n  change  programs  and t e a c h i n g programs.  and i n e d u c a t i o n  this  that the  followed the t r a d i t i o n a l  i n technical  i n t h e change that  showed  f o r technological career  enrollments  expectation  technology  its  f o r boys a n d g i r l s  aspired f o r office  be n o t e d  towards  the results  system. yet.  has n o t a d d r e s s e d  It  Maybe yet i n  f o r change.  STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF THEIR GENDER ROLE When  the questions  perception and  1 6 ) , i t was c l e a r  between  the students  appropriate example, girls for  o f gender  career  addressing  role  were  that career  analyzed  there  aspirations  career  enough  programs  students  (Questions  7, 8, 15  a n d what  for their  gender  saw o f f i c e  34.3% o f t h e g i r l s in office  of  was a p o s i t i v e  aspirations  46.6% o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s  and s u r e  the issue  work.  relationship they  roles.  For  jobs as b e s t f o r  i n the study  Also  saw a s  aspired  60.6% o f a l l  the  77  students  saw  technical careers  t h e b o y s i n the s t u d y Since  studies  have  factors  difference  in ability  Mangano  1987), must  then  reasons  they  particular  f o r boys a r e  strength  and  the  and  the  students  girl  as  assumptions get  tired,  are  very  to  bear  types  careers  ability  as  gender  MacLaren, the  of  student  careers  and  giving  appropriate  indicated  while  that  their for  a  careers  commanding  and  are  certain  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  girls  that  they  are  a  boy.  are  For  either  high  on  the  mercy,  pay  other  academically  m e r c i f u l and  girls  less  they of  role  assumptions a r e  that they  are  abilities the do  will  driving  of  like  that  be  raising  that a  underlying not  strong both  is their  at  family.  capable,  that  t h e major  t h a t money  and  less  while  assumptions  weak o r  play  and  a  and  When  patience  perceptions  that  academically  inherent  (MacCant,  s u i t a b l e f o r the g i r l s  are  c h i l d r e n and  are  gender.  l o t of  those  t o l e r a n t and  boys, the and  these  to  no  jobs  them f r e e t i m e t o b r i n g up  h o l d about  opposed  of  requiring less physical strength, a  t h e same t i m e a l l o w i n g Underlying  39.8%  t h e ones w h i c h r e q u i r e a l o t o f p h y s i c a l  those  ability,  and  is  upbringing,  students  Careers  hand were s e e n as  there  Gaskell  their  each  academic  same t i m e .  academic  the  that  are  in different  there  to  there  1976;  certain  gender,  suitable  at  perform  that  saw  high  indicate  during  appropriate  why  f o r boys,  that  Patterson,  learned  knowledge  to  somewhere  have  shown  that  and  best  aspired for t e c h n i c a l jobs.  biological  1984;  as  to they  required  them.  For  physically  force.  This  78  may  not  be  society,  surprising  the  women a r e  work  even  that  the  jobs  which  are  they  are  where  when kinds  supervisors these One  jobs  that jobs  they of  have  jobs  the  boring to  students  8.4%  of  that  girls  drastically  there  do.  This  capable  are  no  jobs  confirms  compared  to  The  between  would  57%.  difference study  26.2%  and  what  can  in parental shows  a  50%  no  s e r i o u s d i f f e r e n c e was  1987)  4.7  say  do  to  the  (see Table  no  who  boys seen  say  cannot as  less  i n the  study  SIGNIFICANT OTHER show  that  and  what  For  between  found.  are  4.7).  boys  f o r boys teachers' Other  there they  girls  therefore  their  is  percentage  the  girls  keep  message.  there  are  their  results  This  that  levels  by  the  i n the  and  service  given  gotten  do.  of  f o r them.  agreement  w i t h what t h e y p e r c e i v e as  domestic  subordinate  workers,  choose  effect  (O'Brien  students  24.2%  conclude  have  can  study  boys  the  have p a t i e n c e  and  as  the n o t i o n  have c h o s e n  One  girls  this  patriarchal  when c o n s i d e r i n g t h o s e  boys  of  of  orders  cannot  EXPECTATIONS OF  results  agreement parents  THE  most  at  to  to  4.6  girls,  seem t o have a c c e p t e d  INFLUENCE OF  has  that  to  are  a l l the  the  in a  job  out  seem  only do  and  One  although can  time  carry  men).  do  that  i n i n d u s t r y are mainly  from T a b l e s  that  the  do  note  boys  to  full  to  increases  is  a  they  supposed  (mainly  realizes  expected  normally  and  aspect  when one  is  think  this  there  and  girls.  44.6%  choices.  s t u d i e s have  58% their  agreement  that  and  a  is  for Also  no  Also, girls here  concluded  79 that  students  learn  them i s , and t h e y though  such  interests  from  tend  s o c i e t y what an a c c e p t a b l e c a r e e r f o r  t o conform w i t h  conforming (O'Brien,  might  go a g a i n s t  1987).  Also  argued  that  variety  o f rewards and responded  decisions" the  (p. 53).  students  would  "parents  have  came  liked  fair  t o assume  they  see t h e i r  school, either  students  parents  and a t work.  t o be.  would  then  rules  be  Blaming 'blaming  the society  and A s s e r  their  and  (1980)  roles  parents  traditional their  cues  from  playing  o f t h e mothers  under  or  male  f o r choosing  the v i c t i m s '  and  careers,  with  a  on how teachers  i t seems the roles  a t home, a t they  nurses  know a r e f o r male  headmasters,  to believe that  them  abilities  not o b t a i n e d  managers,  teachers  f o r the students  ought  were  and t e a c h e r s  t o male  even  negatively to non-traditional  took  I f most  or classroom  possible  the  that  ones  Tucker  data  to enter  expectations  traditional  t o b e l i e v e why  secretaries  doctors  encouraged  Although  them  those  that  i s how  along  because  gender  they  i t  is  things lines  d i d n o t make  seems t o p l a y b y .  INFLUENCE OF NON-INTERPERSONAL FACTORS The were  non-interpersonal  academic  availability.  ability,  i s concerned,  Business  Education  good  academic  As f a r a s s t u d e n t s  ability  as  factors  the g i r l s  considered upward  mobility,  study  and j o b  self-perception  i n academic  saw  as good i n  a n d Languages w h i l e  i n Maths a n d S c i e n c e  i n this  subjects.  themselves t h e b o y s saw Since  there  themselves is little  80 biological is  evidence  distributed  can  be p r o v i d e d  explanations  that  along  may  shared  such  is  studies  and s o c i a l  this  subjects  a t work  place,  jobs  r e q u i r e maths and s c i e n c e s . the students  stereotyped  and b u s i n e s s  have  jobs,  i n subjects  a girl  who knows o r assumes  secretary  whether other  typing t o note  boys  that,  have  sentence  although  shown  that  might  this  where  were n o t g e n d e r b i a s e d ,  Office  while  technical  they  aspire to i n putting  jobs.  Why  trying  be b e t t e r  structure.  girls  type  women a r e  end up b e i n g  study  some  the subjects  s e e no n e e d t o those  By  another  match.  mainly  she w i l l  Her time  or studying  teach  1982).  of jobs  a l o t o f time  a c t u a l l y out perform  studies  expectations  that  spend  of physics?  practicing  may  do n o t l e a d  or a clerk  principles  necessary  that  compare  studies  shown t h a t  they  effort  a  men m a i n l y  see a c l e a r  require  gender  languages  they  secretarial  may g e t t h e message t h a t  and the types  In  subjects are  and N o l r l e n  the students  jobs  Since  school  while  (see Kelly  when  are teaching  performing  patterns.  i s l e g i t i m a t e f o r males w h i l e  Also  One o f t h e  languages,  studies  fields  of speculations  staffing  teach  pattern, students  o f knowledge  women  in different  a number  of the world,  women m a i n l y  f o r females.  the  parts  that  maths a n d s c i e n c e  types  lines,  l i e i n the school  as i n o t h e r  observing  gender  ability  as t o t h e cause o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n .  Kenya,  (business)  academic  would either  t o master spent  in  I t may be  d i d not e s t a b l i s h  i n maths and s c i e n c e ,  the teachers  and  parents  the academic r e s u l t s  also  81  were not  gender  1986).  biased  Changing  appropriate  in  regard  these  to  biases  suggested:  with  to  behaviours  as  is  there,  always  the  (56%)  their  of  marriage, they be  expected  therefore  (43%)  be  can  be  do  doing  these  jobs  may  other  hand  seem  be to  effort  the p a r e n t s should  be  and  the  to  may  hold  noted  that  but  also  Asser  by  (1980)  renegotiated.  needs,  partners  role  an  discussion  Therefore  they'try will  As  out  new  accept  those  p o t e n t i a l for  change  expectations  4.16  used  a  see  a  of  family  to  may  Also,  which  two  jobs much  relate  the  not  support  They  for their  may  girls  raising  domestic and to  career  studies I t may  a  job  be  are  a  big  on  the  be  to  that  further and  then  seeing  that  f i t i n very  i f the  them  is  aspire  obtaining  already  there  study.  not  that besides of  that  further  do  family.  most  too  show  in this  looking  timewise.  to  need  constantly  role  by  may  Tucker  students  raise  raising  studies  gender  by  influence  female  to  of  and  their  Table  the  may  down  job  further  of  They  settling  in  girls  majority  perceptions  51).  between and  studies.  meet  tempered  results  Sharon,  It  passed  i f their  (p.  and  careers.  however,  to  Sharon  teachers  appropriate.  s t a t u s quo"  difference  the  only  are,  see  1981;  therefore  students.  strive  behaviours  boys  not  "Roles  individuals  The  i n Kenya  biases  are  Brandon,  students'  appropriate  interactions  the  the  careers  change t h e g e n d e r  (see  well  with  thinking  of  a f a m i l y they  will  work.  will  adding  handle.  They  studies Boys  a s p i r a t i o n s and  on  to the  their  82 chances this  for  further  relationship is  boys e i t h e r  do  marry,  they  during  their  work and  the  seize  of  supposed their  to  have  years.  still  work  are  to support  intend still  we  live  positively.  marry  to  or  to  that  that  further  This  i s not  in  society  a  that  i s made  soon  time  Assuming think  even  left  This to  studies  the  enough money, o u t s i d e  opportunities  is  where  to  children.  they  s u r p r i s i n g when  children  earn  if  their  raising  w i v e s and  a l l possible  more  i n t e n t i o n a l , one  working  that  men  not  will  realizes  the  studies  to  improve  domestic  women  requires  one  the the  their  while home, men  to  earning  potential. Another further  studies  successful women. idea  r e a s o n why  relates  career  Although  of  a  women this  socially  indicated  that  successful  man  family,  and  playing  head o f  the  family  Nehlen  they  can  choose  forsaking s i n g l e and be  to as  study  how  are  did  this and  success  raising supportive  (see  a  r o l e s to the  work  marriage  and  for  may  successful  wages,  children  ...  to  but  stronger"  (p.  168).  studies by a  career  remind that  have  marrying  is  the  Kelly  and  women, s a i d  a l l that  choice  women  involves  i f women i n a u t h o r i t y  If  then  the  not  a  patriarchal  1987).  women i n s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n s a r e  even  students'  h u s b a n d who  O'Brien,  serve  successful  the  other  within  for  academically  for  measured  K e l l y 1982,  this  test  family  want t o go  socially  woman, is  not  picture  to  not  successful  single to  they  opposed  (1982) when t a l k i n g a b o u t  "If  may  f e m a l e s t u d e n t s may  the  are  messages  students  see  a  83 successful  career  childless that an  woman a s b e i n g  and a b r a s i v e  situation.  association  t o men, t h e y  An i m p l i c a t i o n of equals  woman and u n l e s s  their  the society  clear  that  and  and  women.  the  children  gender and  domestic  taken  over  little their a  parents  negative  encourage students  suggest  their  there  careers  t h e women  husbands.  role  i s no r e a s o n  according  It  in child  be c a r e f u l  is  birth  why f a m i l y by b o t h  men  not t o lead  to  traditional  a r e aware t h a t most o f t h e s e c r e t a r i a l girls  of this  traditionally  study  aspire  for  are  side.  Some  4.23).  choices  them  (Tucker  their  while  have  they  and Asser  parents.  there  the students  argued  traditional  the students  with  that  T h i s has both  studies  t o pursue  INFORMATION  showed  d i s c u s s i o n between  f o r pursuing  discussions  not  the pressure to  t h e r e f o r e should  (see T a b l e  that  feel  be s h a r e d  that  students  traditional  is  by c o m p u t e r s and d i c t a p h o n e s .  results career  situation  t h e dominant  SOURCES AND A V A I L A B I L I T Y OF CAREER The  t o end up i n  cannot  they  jobs  this  below  work,  to choosing  l i n e s while  mainly  i s that marriage  families w i l l  plays  Educators  clerical  being  changes  n u r t u r i n g , however,  including  may n o t want  here  to a level  the female  early  roles,  success  or d i v o r c e d ,  b u t o f a s u p e r i o r man t o a n i n f e r i o r  who want t o marry a n d r a i s e limit  single  surveyed  that  and  parents  and reward  discouraged 1980).  very  a p o s i t i v e and  careers  had l i m i t e d This  was  The  serious  any nonfindings career  c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d t o  84  indicate to  that  guide  these  according  ability,  are normally  be v e r y  students  discussions  school,  parents similar type  The show t h a t surveyed  there  were  seems t o s u p p o r t that  career  them  to f i l l  3.  I t may  that  parents,  system  career  be e x c h a n g e  by  some  (see Mortimore  i n place,  teachers  and  interests  a t home and  careers.  i n their  achievement  The  the student  be s i m i l a r  and Mortimore  educational  be  information  would  parents  only  of  different  This  they  i n getting  would  program  than  since the  agents,  This  good  careers,  rather  t h e r e f o r e w o u l d be g i v i n g  t h e above s u g g e s t i o n  was v e r y  also.  a  chance  to the  children's 1984) o n l y i t w o u l d be  preparation.  problem with there  was  towards  instead of addressing career  argue  socializing  performance,  on c a r e e r s .  i n England  and a p t i t u d e  choices.  mainly  school  of involvement  addressing  that  between  and a p t i t u d e  messages  education that  i f there  and t h e t e a c h e r s  appropriate  u s e d by t h e s c h o o l  The a i m would  the student's  have a b e t t e r  one c o u l d  t o make a p p r o p r i a t e  involving  at  side,  effectively  however,  about  interest  the primary  possible,  students.  should  to choosing  On t h e n e g a t i v e  parents  the  teachers  students  to their  gender.  could  the career  In f a c t  little  the claims  career n o t be  only  teachers  work w i t h  t o blame  form  the r e s u l t s  i n the schools  seemed t o b e l i e v e  i n their  made by K i l o n z o  f o r m s ) and g i v e fair  guidance  some o f t h e s t u d e n t s  no c a r e e r  teachers  career  i s that  school.  (1983) who  4 students,  no g u i d a n c e the teachers  This claimed  (helping  t o forms  1 to  because the  85  education  system i s  are  available,  are  expected  own t i m e . if  the  are  to  is  (to  in  to  job  for  guidance  to  They  on  their  attention  student's  career  self-employment  market)  timetable  they  teachers.  immediate  change  of  where  counselling  w h i c h needs  relieved  related  and  education  the  teachers,  classroom  guidance  to  be  career  time  intention  accept  within  psychological  full  a situation  should  time  up t h a t  out  relation  Counsellors  and  is  expected  to  their  teaching  load  to  give  both  students  at  work.  career  all  levels  and and in  school. Besides  to  also  government's  education  the  set  carry  This  aspirations  given  so  make  gender career  giving  the  that  the  career  that  they  sure biased  and  information at  courses  from  teacher  time  training  University,  where  information  and  strategies. should  be  shifting to c a r e e r  career  their  to  time  Also,  a  career  i n the  based  where  new c a n be  field.  is  important are  appropriate  This  and  it  themselves  suggests  share  guidance career  and  inservice  research  career  techniques  and  magazine  information  p u b l i s h e d and  at  Kenyatta  relevant  guidance  not  current  provided,possibly  K.T.T.C.  appropriate  opportunities  teachers  the  like  obtain  Kenyan  established  have  and workshops  can  develop  time,  teachers  disposal.  colleges they  teachers  on  circulated  86  IMAGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION The image both and  results  of  technical  female 2.9%  and  of  field,  situation  students  indicate  of  possible  that  having  lower  a the  suggest  i n the  minds  of  t o have  the  the  students  in  do  not  technical status  these  choose  than  On  the  as  requiring  brute  these  jobs.  government message may  not  be  getting  This  i s emphasized  the  results  that  the  i n any  of  by  d i d not  same  p e r c e p t i o n of  their  e.g.  mechanical  t e c h n i c i a n does,  showed  do  that  not 70%  the  55.0%  know of  the  of  what boys  the while  to  a  the  s t u d i e s and  job  as  programs to  do  of  unnecessary  to the 18  which  the major not  know  The  the  that  girls  in the  students.  s e c r e t a r y does. of  view,  technology  hand  45%  with  physical  other  and  even  jobs  indicates  some o f  the  considered  l o t of  question  girls  be  point  through  the  may  lead  a  why  It  advanced  This  on  that  jobs.  girls'  of  fact  wonders  strength  know what  involved,  boys  this  academic  likely  makes  the  in  still  are  i s seen  which  students  aspirations  one  is  straight  rewards.  education  performing  boys  these  education  academics  financial  available  of  The  s t r e n g t h even t h o u g h nowadays m a c h i n e s and are  39.8%  Given  jobs  the  students,  campaign.  students'  expectations.  that  the  Only  their  government  by  more  straight  technical  study  t h a t the chances f o r f u r t h e r  are  majority  lower  of  teachers  availability  where  seem  is reflected  and  this  i s not a g l o s s y one.  girls  spite  from  education  male,  the  in  parents  obtained  shows  careers what 46.6%  a of  results  mainly  got  87 their  career  which  are very  biased  information  from  their  u n r e l i a b l e sources  (O'Brien,  peers  and b o o k s ,  and o f t e n  both o f  are highly  gender  1987).  CONCLUSION One career by  parent  expectations  aspirations  further  and c o u n s e l l o r  effective  i n bringing  implication  drawn  achieve  some d e g r e e  in  o f awards  form  of such  eventually education. get  girls  Other  these  to train  I t i s the stance  addressing  the factors  change  will  using  for nontraditional  success.  not occur.  that  this  sustain  study  relationships  give  students  hidden  that  of serving  between  messages  that  and  technical  legislation without that  to any  without  differences  a r e seen  and females  the p o s i t i o n  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s  to  The  incentives  t h e gender  males  An  discrimination,  careers  Some o f t h e f a c t o r s  interpersonal  men.  of  i n order  to pursue  tried  be more  be n e c e s s a r y .  to provide  have  Another  would  i s that  may  for girls  countries  availability  aspirations.  reverse  and s c h o l a r s h i p s ,  models  However,  and c o u n s e l l i n g f o r  i n career  equity  be  influenced  f o r the g i r l s .  conclusions  would  by  f o r teachers  change  o f gender  action  role  influenced  guidance  training  about  from  i s that the  expectations.  i s the case  extensive  students,  study  a n d o f boys a r e e q u a l l y  t o be more  than  i s that  by t h i s  and t e a c h e r  seem  studies  conclusion  goal  reached  aspirations of g i r l s  boys' of  of the conclusions  i n the which  o f woman i s  i n their  homes a r e  88 also  such  work  to the satisfaction  also,  that  most  mainly  i n most  instances, of their  women a r e e x p e c t e d  i n s e r v i c e jobs,  abilities  t h e women do a l l t h e h o u s e husband.  t o be i n s u b o r d i n a t e  irrespective  and a p t i t u d e  At place  which  o f whether  should  enable  o f work  positions,  they  them  have t h e to attain  higher p o s i t i o n s . RECOMMENDATIONS Guidance and C o u n s e l l i n g Career literature teachers  teachers should  should  be p o s t e d have  removed a l t o g e t h e r . existing  i n the career  addition  they  exploring  journal,  well  careers.  which  counselors as  market.  should  provide  like  up  t o date  courses  can share  give  should  their  and seminars  new  as s h i f t s i n include In  i n t e r e s t s and students  about  and c o u n s e l l i n g  be s t a r t e d s o t h a t  ideas.  might  not  and methods o f  a guidance  t o Kenya  with  counselling.  abilities,  Furthermore,  i f  should  information  they  These  be d e v e l o p e d f o r  i n career  academic  i s specific  as workshops  institutions  These  to the advice  and educators  minimized  should  them  o f gender b i a s e s  i n relation  prospective  load  the l a t e s t  school.  and c o u n s e l l i n g as w e l l  the students'  aptitude  teaching  to bring  with  secondary  I n s e r v i c e courses  guidance  work on t h e n a t u r e  and p r o v i d e d  i n each  their  counsellors  knowledge a b o u t demands  trained  This  journal,  be s p o n s o r e d  by  K . I . E . , K.T.T.C., a n d K e n y a t t a U n i v e r s i t y .  89  Providing Role The  issue  secondary  would  mathematics  in  and s c i e n c e  some  are given  female  students  females enter  t h e y w o u l d be a s s u r e d  of  l e g i s l a t i o n  on  gender  into  careers  University certain regional  and  positions  To  and  The s t a f f i n g  of authority  from  teachers  may  of schools  more  deputy  there  heads,  given the more  females  the Ministry  K.S.T.C., to  to  teaching of  Kenyatta enrol  a  t o t h e d i r e c t i v e s on also  should  are distributed equitably  see that  i n  require  to train  colleges  (similar  the  require  technical  K.T.T.C.,  of students  headmasters,  encourage  take  follow  also  i t  rewards  trained  This to  i f  are willing  might  training levy  d i r e c t i v e s like  I f the g i r l s  of jobs.  I t may  science,  the diploma  ratio  ratios).  female  require  f o r colleges  gender  sexes.  industries.  mathematics,  i t may  Education  balance.  that  men.  places  even  i f they  f o r industry  t o use the i n d u s t r i a l  f o r these  initiative  that  of  by opening  t o f e m a l e s who  that  science  domains  such  At  girls  f o r females  discrimination  of promising  government  of  reverse  and  to the school  careers  Another  guidelines  the  based  careers.  type  seriously.  mathematics  be a c c o m p a n i e d  i n these  these careers  taken  a r e not the p r i v a t e  special scholarships  form  be  female  must however  introducing  train  that  more  must  to demonstrate  the technological  like  models  level,  help  initiative  means  to  of role  school  teachers  This  Models  are equitable  and education  be  such  between ratios officers  90 for  example,  they w i l l  g e t t h e message  open t o them i f t h e y work h a r d The females the  drawback  see themselves  future,  still This  i n this  are a l t e r n a t i v e s  Such  an  awareness  counseling, studies.  regarding  the issue  reasonable strategy t o share  be  work  t h e home f o r wages.  program  would  also  t h e bond  t o show  between c a r e e r if  that  standard between  spouses  arrangement to share  w o r k i n g f o r wages.  aware  they  a r e made  domestic  structure,  guidance  and  family  that  i t i s a  f o r b o t h husband and both  o f such  o f them  living  as  have  they  when  they  as  Itis  t o choose  can have  them  would  well  members.  don't  work  an a w a r e n e s s  arrangement  between  work  that  and s i m u l a t e d  the family  that  career.  social  this of  may  and n u r t u r i n g .  a r e shown  The i n t e n t  the g i r l s  they  in  or through  s u c c e s s and h a v i n g a f a m i l y ;  appropriate  future  studies  a t home w h i l e  be t o i l l u s t r a t e  the family's  care  through  a n d a good e x p e r i e n c e  outside  likely  done  the students  domestic  strengthening  students  of c h i l d  the  responsibility,  by m a k i n g  home e c o n o m i c s  where  i f  t o g e t i n t o a demanding  I t c a n be done by r o l e p l a y i n g  organizations  improve  a primary  that  to the p a t r i a r c h a l family  might  through  i s the fact  up c h i l d r e n s i n g l e h a n d e d l y ,  s i t u a t i o n c a n be a d d r e s s e d  particularly  wife  strategy  n o t want o r e v e n be a b l e  there  a l l positions are  enough.  as having  of bringing  that  and  both their  a r e both  91  SUGGESTIONS FOR The system  FURTHER RESEARCH  Kenyan with  practical students  Education  the  type  aim of  their  towards  technology  therefore  is  students, these  especially  technical  requiring outlined 1.  A  head  masters  different  see  their more  that  to  keep  train  for  the  researcher  as  these  i s s u e s are  as  initiated  to  document  the  to  show  gender  system  the  Officers,  classroom the  teachers.  ratios  of  female  staffing ratios  principals primary  Also  school  this  to male  of  study  teachers  subjects.  the  illustrations they  teachers,  students  careers A  by  with  assist  research  factor  seen  more  the  Further  h i g h s c h o o l head m a s t e r s ,  and  whether  workers,  3.  to  for  choosing  deal  a  t o gear  them  the  8-4-4  with  and  from  i . e . , Education  establish  A n a l y s i s of  the  to  school  colleges,  should  to  be  i n the  a l l levels,  middle  2.  away areas  research  should  patterns  for  The  out  an  below:  study  at  prepare  find  to  important  careers.  females,  jobs.  further  that  to  is  aspirations  based  required  changed  a l l students  It  career  programs  available  has  providing  education.  t o change  education  of  system  hidden  still  i n commonly  depict  secretaries messages  used  females  and that  as  nurses, these  textbooks domestic  thus are  giving  the  only  f o r women.  study  trainees  should  document  preparing  to  the  teach  gender  ratios  Mathematics,  of  teacher  Science  and  92  technical and  subjects  the diploma  trends,  ( f o r i n s t a n c e , a t K.T.T.C.,  teachers  and  K.S.T.C.  colleges) to i d e n t i f y  provide  baseline  data  existing  for  future  interventions. 4.  Teacher/student examined  to determine  in different 5.  a)  A  study  should  students  and  i s a gender  actual  school  vs. single  assist  educators  A  study  to explore  parents  to a s s i s t  choices  and  parents  of  differently  aspirations  students Such  from  more  i n mixed  a study  mixed  methods  i n making  about  sex s c h o o l i s  out i f s i n g l e  appropriate  to bring  subjects for  i n career  sex s c h o o l s .  students  whether  males,  choices  to find  students  girls.  vs. single  versus  be  more o r  out t o determine  difference  career  should  interact  in different  schools  f o r females  schools  teachers  be c a r r i e d  i n mixed  socialize 6.  whether  achievement  different There  i n mixed  ways w i t h b o y s t h a n w i t h  academic  b)  interactions  sex  would school  schools.  of  educating  appropriate  career  interactions  between  and s c h o o l s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a s s i s t i n g  students  i n making wise c a r e e r c h o i c e s .  CONCLUDING COMMENTS The issues  researcher  in this  technical  area  education  sees  that  one  of establishing i s how  t o break  o f the major a more  underlying  gender  the p a t r i a r c h a l  equitable hegemony  93 existing about  i n the s o c i e t y today.  with  a well  changes w i l l especially campaign  institution  of  different  government campaign  the  action  regard  to r e a l i z e by  their  successful  not o n l y  at  i n the workplace, i n parents  political The  these  are i n society,  taken  ( f o r educating  established  whole  should  that  other and  educational  be  their  and  forums  in and  geared  towards  success  i n any  abilities,  Education  interests  countries  and  with  also  gender  come up  has  Project  A l l these of  Jersey  organizations  various  programs i l l u s t r a t e  how  problems a r e  Commission, T e c h n i c a l  and  (TVEI),  and  issues.  programs  Girls  and  and  formulate  Many A m e r i c a n  to address  these  has e s t a b l i s h e d P r o j e c t HEAR,  BORN FREE w h i l e  t h e sex b i a s e d  through  similar  has  equity  with  obtaining  For example, B r i t a i n  Initiative  F o r e x a m p l e , New  Minnesota  with  and  (GATE) t o c a r r y o u t s t u d i e s  to deal  have  'issues.  research  Equal O p p o r t u n i t i e s  Education  strategies  of  n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . The  Vocational Technical  importance  on what o t h e r  should  receive  seeking  come  r a t h e r t h a n by g e n d e r .  information  effects  allies  l e v e l s but a l s o  in this  a l l students  Also,  EVE.  require  ministries.  i s determined  states  Those  their  society), in various  legislative  doing  will  organizations  aptitudes  can o n l y  t h o s e i n p o s i t i o n s o f p o w e r , b e c a u s e any  community  getting  agenda.  h a v e t o i d e n t i f y who  educational  career  established  f o r change  members  Such a change  have  messages forms  of  California  the aim of that  has  Project  reducing  the school  children  socialization.  s e r i o u s l y other  the  c o u n t r i e s of the  These world  94 are  taking  writing  on  b e c a u s e we the  rest  this the  issue. wall'  do n o t l i v e  of the world  We and  i n Kenya prepare  our  i n isolation. will  should  undoubtedly  also  students  Whatever happen  'read for  change  i s happening to us.  the  to  95  BIBLIOGRAPHY B r a n d o n , P.R. a n d o t h e r s . 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W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: National I n s t i t u t e of Education. Mangano, R.M. a n d P a t t e r s o n , D. (1976). Sugar and S p i c e s won't s u f f i c e : D e s e x i n g I n d u s t r i a l A r t s and T e c h n o l o g y . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r , November 100-114.  97 Maritim, E. (1980). The s e l f - c o n c e p t and teacher's perception: Their relationship to pupil's grade a t t a i n m e n t i n r u r a l Kenya. S e m i n a r p a p e r no. 2031 T h e Bureau of Educational Research; Kenyatta University College. N a i r o b i , Kenya. M a r s h a l l , K. Canadian  (1987). Women i n M a l e d o m i n a t e d S o c i a l T r e n d s , W i n t e r , 7-11.  McCants, L. (1985). Breaking the B a r r i e r s : Technologies, Vocational Education Journal, Ministry of Education. I n f o r m a t i o n Handbook. Kenya.  professions. Women i n t h e O c t o b e r , 4-9.  (1987). E d u c a t i o n i n Kenya: Jomo K e n y a t t a F o u n d a t i o n , N a i r o b i ,  O ' B r i e n , M. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Sexism i n Education. I n Gosh, R., a n d Ray, D. , ( E d s ) , S o c i a l C h a n g e a n d E d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a . Toronto, Harcourt Brace J o v a n o v i c h . .Omulando, S . J . (1984). Prospects and Problems of T e c h n o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Kenya: An o v e r v i e w o f t h e r o l e o f Harambee I n s t i t u t e s o f S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n o l o g y . Paper p r e s e n t e d t o an e d u c a t i o n a l seminar, Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, Kenyatta U n i v e r s i t y , Nairobi, Kenya. R a l l i s , S.F. (1986). Math and S c i e n c e School: A q u e s t i o n o f Sex E q u i t y ? 631). Rhode I s l a n d C o l l e g e , C e n t e r Research. ( E r i c Document R e p r o d u c t i o n 326) .  Education i n High ( R e p o r t no. SE 046 f o r E v a l u a t i o n and S e r v i c e no. ED 278  T o h i d i , N. (1984). Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t / c a r e e r m o t i v a t i o n o f I r a n i a n Boys and G i r l s . Sex R o l e s , V o l . 11, 467-483. Towns, D. (1985). The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e d u c a t e technologically oriented society. Deakin Victoria, Australia. V e l t e r , L . , a n d H i c k e y , D.R. J o u r n a l , O c t o b e r , 26-29.  (1985).  girls for a University,  Vocational  Education  W i g f i e l d , A. (1984). Relationship between ability, perceptions, other related beliefs, and s c h o o l performances. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f the American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n . New Orleans.  98 APPENDIX A ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THEIR CHOICE OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAMS STUDENTS'  QUESTIONNAIRE  contained  i n this  PURPOSE The for your  questions  research  purposes  present  notice identify  that  or  and have  future  your  name  yourself.  ANY  questionnaire  no e f f e c t  educational  or consequence i n  aspirations.  i s not asked INFORMATION  are purely  f o r , so you  YOU  GIVE WILL  You  will  need  not  BE KEPT IN  STRICT CONFIDENCE. Thanks i n advance f o r your  HOW 1.  TO RESPOND For the general response  2.  assistance.  information  i n the space  For the career the  questions  you  to give  particular  the i n s t r u c t i o n s  a n d , i n most  response.  please  write  your  provided.  questions  a brief  section  cases  explanation Please  a space as  be b r i e f  are given  in  i s provided f o r  t o why  you chose  and t o t h e p o i n t .  a  99  GENERAL  INFORMATION  Name o f Your S c h o o l Your  Class  (Form 1, 2, 3, 4  etc.) Gender:  (a) Male  Date of B i r t h : Father's  (b) Female  Day  ( c i r c l e one) Month  Year  Occupation:  Mother's Occupation: Number o f b r o t h e r s  and s i s t e r s :  Number o f b r o t h e r s  and s i s t e r s  working:  Number o f b r o t h e r s  and s i s t e r s  i n school:  Number o f b r o t h e r s  and s i s t e r s  o u t o f s c h o o l and n o t w o r k i n g :  100  CAREER QUESTIONS 1.  I f you were without  to select  consulting  you c h o o s e ?  (c) t e a c h e r  anybody,  training  (f) a g r i c u l t u r a l  officer  (g) o t h e r (name) explain  why:  provided)  |~|  training  (e) e l e c t r i c a l  for yourself  |~|  training  technician  program  which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  training  (d) m e c h a n i c a l  Please  training  ( t i c k one o f t h e boxes  (a) s e c r e t a r i a l (b) c l e r i c a l  a  | ~ l training  | ~ l |~|  training  |_|  would  101  2.  I f I do like  me  to u n i v e r s i t y , I think  to: (tick  one o f t h e boxes  (a  train  as a c l e r i c a l  (b  train  as a m e c h a n i c a l  (c  train  as a s e c r e t a r y  (d  train  as an a g r i c u l t u r a l  (e  train  as a  (f  train  as a b u i l d e r  (g  go s t r a i g h t  (h  other  Please  3.  n o t go  parents  would  provided)  officer technician  officer  teacher  t o look  f o r a job  (name)  e x p l a i n why y o u t h i n k so:  I have (tick  my  discussed  my  career  one o f t h e b o x e s  provided)  (a) more t h a n o n c e  | ~ l  (b)  | ~ l  once  (c) n e v e r  a s p i r a t i o n s with  | | -  my  parents:  102  4.  I f I do  not  would l i k e me (a)  go  to u n i v e r s i t y , I think  to: (tick  train  my  one o f t h e boxes  as a c l e r i c a l  career provided)  officer  (b)  train  as a m e c h a n i c a l  (c)  train  as an a g r i c u l t u r a l  (d)  train  as a t e a c h e r  |_|  (e)  train  as a b u i l d e r  |_|  (f)  other  (name)  Please  e x p l a i n why  you  think  technician  |_|  so  |_|  officer | ~ l  teacher  103 5.  I have d i s c u s s e d (tick  6.  career  one o f t h e boxes  choice  with  my  career  more t h a n o n c e  | ~ l  (b)  once  | ~ l  (c)  never  If I train  teacher:  provided)  (a)  boxes  7.  my  |~|  as a t e c h n i c i a n , i n d u s t r y i s : ( t i c k  one o f t h e  provided)  (a)  likely  t o employ me  without  (b)  likely  t o employ me  with  (c)  not l i k e l y  Please  e x p l a i n why  Please  write  down  careers  for girls  reservations  t o employ me you  what  think  you  1. 2. 3. E x p l a i n why  reservation  you t h i n k  so  |_| |_| |_|  so  think  are  the  best  three  104  8.  Please  write  down  careers  f o r boys:  what  you  think  are  the  best  three  1. 2. 3. E x p l a i n why  9.  10.  Technical  jobs  you t h i n k  are: (tick  (a)  very  (b)  interesting  (c)  very  Technical  jobs  so:  one o f t h e b o x e s  interesting  |~|  enough  |~|  dull require:  | ~ l (tick  one o f t h e boxes  (a)  more p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h  (b)  physical strength very t i r e d  (c)  physical strength problem a t a l l  E x p l a i n why  provided)  you t h i n k  than  t h a t would  so:  that  provided)  I have  |_  l e a v e me  I can handle  _ |_ with  no |_  105 It  would  be e a s i e s t  a:  (tick  one o f t h e boxes  to get a job i f  a  (b)  a mechanical technician  |~|  (c)  a  | |  (d)  an a g r i c u l t u r a l  (e)  a  teacher  | ~ l  (f)  a builder  |~~|  (g)  other  (tick  I  trained  clerical officer  | ~ l  secretary officer  |~~|  (name)  further  studies  one o f t h e b o x e s clerical  would be good i f  I  trained  provided)  (a)  a  (b)  a mechanical technician  HI  (c)  a  HI  (d)  an a g r i c u l t u r a l  (e)  a  teacher  HI  (f)  a  builder  HI  (g)  other  In g e n e r a l a  as  provided)  (a)  My c h a n c e s f o r as:  f o r me  officer  HI  secretary  1—1  officer  (name)  t e c h n i c a l program  i s : (tick  one o f  t h e boxes  provided) (a)  a b o v e my a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y  HI  (b)  a t my a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y  CI  (c)  b e l o w my a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y  CI  106 14.  Please  rank  academic  the  ability  where 1 s t a n d s  15.  following i n them:  f o r best  (a)  Business  (b)  English  (c)  Geography  (d)  History  (e)  Maths  (f)  Science  (g)  Swahili  (h)  Technology  and  and  yes,  and  no  give  g i v e an  | ~ l  example  reasons  please give  rank  t h a t boys c a n  girls:  If  terms  of  your  your  best  4  4 the l e a s t . )  jobs  yes  If  (Select  in  Studies  I b e l i e v e that there are than  subjects  for believing  reasons  so  handle  better  107  16.  I  believe  better  than  If  17.  g i v e an  give  no p l e a s e  The  most  (tick  one  there  are  jobs  that  girls  can  handle  boys:  yes,  and  If  that  HI-  no  III  example  reasons  give  yes  for believing  so  reasons  important o f boxes  factor  when  choosing  my  career i s :  provided)  (a)  advice  f r o m my  teachers  (b)  advice  f r o m my  parents  (c)  my  own  feelings  (d)  my  academic a b i l i t y  (e)  whether t h e j o b i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y f o r a boy o r a g i r l  (f)  other  (name)  about  |_| | ~ l  the  job  |_| |~| _ |_|  108  18.  Please people  explain  briefly  what  you  do:  (a)  mechanical  technician  (b)  electrical  technician  (c)  secretary  (d)  clerical  officer  (e)  accounts  person  (f)  mason  (g)  typist  think  the  following  109 19.  I  received  jobs  most  of  i n v o l v e from:  the (tick  (a)  my  parents  (b)  my  peers  (c)  my  teachers  (d)  books  (e)  other  Explain  how  information one  of  the  about boxes  what  provided)  | ~ l  (friends)  |~| |~| |~|  (name) you  got  the  information  different  110  APPENDIX B ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THEIR CHOICE OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAMS BACKGROUND INFORMATION  QUESTIONNAIRE  PURPOSE The ratios  purpose  of  questionnaire  o f m a l e and f e m a l e s t u d e n t s  education  programs.  background students'  perception  obtained  i n research  of the factors  program  post will  which  the  secondary be u s e d a s  examines  affecting  their  the post  choices.  TO RESPOND A  table  i s provided  the  programs g i v e n ,  for  females.  second  year  there  These and t h i r d  i n the questionnaire.  spaces year  the program  For each o f  a r e s p a c e s marked M f o r m a l e s and F a r e repeated  f o r the f i r s t  o f the program.  number o f m a l e and t h e number o f f e m a l e of  i s t o examine  in different  The i n f o r m a t i o n  information  secondary e d u c a t i o n  HOW  this  i n the a p p r o p r i a t e  space.  Please  students  year,  write the  i n each  year  BACKGROUND INFORMATION QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONS I am c o n d u c t i n g a r e s e a r c h on c a r e e r c h o i c e s o f b o t h male and f e m a l e s t u d e n t s . In order t o a s s e s s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n r e s p e c t t o e n r o l m e n t i n v a r i o u s c o u r s e s , I need i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m p o s t secondary t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . I am t h e r e f o r e r e q u e s t i n g y o u t o p r o v i d e me w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d h e r e w i l l be t h e b a c k b o n e o f t h e s t u d y , so your a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s r e g a r d w i l l be h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Thanks i n advance. Name o f C o l l e g e : NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE COURSE AS OF MARCH 1, 1988 COURSES OFFERED  FIRST YEAR  M = Male F = Female 1  Accounting (ACNC, CPA, e t c )  2 Agricultural Engineering 3 Building (Plumbing, Carp e n t r y , Masonry) 4 E l e c t r i c a l and Electronics 5 Home E c o n o m i c s (Clothing, Catering, Banking, e t c . ) 6  Mechanical (Fitting, Fabrication, etc.)  7 Power M e c h a n i c s (Automotive, D i e s e l , Const. Planter) 8  Secretarial (Typist, Stenographer, e t c . ) TOTALS  M  SECOND YEAR M  THIRD YEAR M  

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