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UBC Theses and Dissertations

High school students aspirations for post secondary career programs Kithyo, Mattemu 1989

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HIGH SHOOL STUDENTS ASPIRATIONS FOR POST SECONDARY CAREER PROGRAMS By ISAAC MATTEMU KITHYO B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1989 © Isaac Mattemu Kithyo, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Curriculum and Instnjr.t inn Studies The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date U)LH / f S"7 DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was to f i n d o u t what th e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s a r e r e g a r d i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s i n the s t u d e n t s ' c a r e e r programs d e c i s i o n making: s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - e x p e c t a t i o n s ; parents' e x p e c t a t i o n s ; t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s ; i n d u s t r y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s ; f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d s ; a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y ; upward m o b i l i t y ; sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g ; and a v a i l a b i l i t y of career i n f o r m a t i o n . The s t u d y was c a r r i e d out i n Machakos d i s t r i c t , Kenya between A p r i l and August 1988. The s u b j e c t s were 210 form 3 (grade 11) s t u d e n t s drawn from 3 d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s i n the d i s t r i c t . One s c h o o l was an a l l g i r l s s c h o o l , one an a l l boys school and one a mixed s c h o o l . For each s c h o o l , two c l a s s e s of 35 students each were used. D a t a f o r t h e s t u d y w e r e c o l l e c t e d by u s e o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed by the r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n each s c h o o l by the researcher a s s i s t e d by 2 t e a c h e r s s u p p l i e d by t h e s c h o o l . The d a t a were t h e n a n a l y z e d and the r e s u l t s grouped i n t o c a t e g o r i e s r e f l e c t i n g the q u e s t i o n s addressed by the study. Some of the major f i n d i n g s of the study were: 1. Programs i n A g r i c u l t u r e are p r i o r i t y a s p i r a t i o n s f o r both the boys and the g i r l s . 2. Besides a g r i c u l t u r e , the career program a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d the t r a d i t i o n a l gender l i n e s s u c h t h a t most o f t h e boys a s p i r e d f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r a m s w h i l e m o s t o f t h e g i r l s a s p i r e d f o r o f f i c e b a s e d p r o g r a m s . 3 . T h e r e seemed t o be no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r e n t s e x p e c t a t i o n s o n t h e b o y s a n d o n t h e g i r l s . 4. T h e r e seemed t o be no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e e f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o n t h e b o y s a n d o n t h e g i r l s . 5. T h e b o y s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y h a d g o o d a c a d e m i c a b i l i t i e s i n M a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s w h i l e g i r l s b e l i e v e d t h e y were g o o d i n b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n a n d l a n g u a g e s . 6. T h e b o y s seemed t o be more c o n c e r n e d w i t h c h a n c e s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n c a r e e r p r o g r a m t h a n t h e g i r l s w e r e . 7. B y t h e t i m e s t u d e n t s c h o s e s u b j e c t s f o r K e n y a C e r t i f i c a t e o f s e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n ( K . C . S . E . ) c e r t i f i c a t i o n t h e y h a d v e r y l i t t l e c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o them. 8. A l t h o u g h t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s a p r i o r i t y f i e l d f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t , i t i s n o t a p r i o r i t y a s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t c a r e e r g u i d a n c e i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n M a c h o k o s D i s t r i c t i s n o t e f f e c t i v e . The a u t h o r g i v e s s e v e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r a d d r e s s i n g t h e i s s u e s a n d c o n c e r n s r a i s e d b y t h e s t u d y . i v Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v i i Acknowledgement x CHAPTERS ONE: INTRODUCTION . 1 I. BACKGROUND 1 I I . HOW STUDENTS MAKE CAREER DECISIONS 2 I I I . FOCUS OF THE STUDY 3 IV. SPECIFIC RESEARCH QUESTIONS: 4 V. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5 TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 7 I. INTRODUCTION 7 I I . GENDER SEGREGATION OF JOBS 7 I I I . EFFECTS OF SUBJECTS STUDIED AT HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL 14 IV. PARENTAL INFLUENCE 16 V. EFFECTS OF SELF-CONCEPT . 18 VI. IMPORTANCE OF CAREER GUIDANCE 20 VI I . OTHER FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE CAREER CHOICES 2 2 THREE: METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY I. INTRODUCTION 32 I I . SUBJECTS 32 I I I . INSTRUMENTATION 33 V VI. DATA PREPARATION 38 VI I . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 39 FOUR: RESULTS 41 I. INTRODUCTION 41 I I . DESCRIPTION OF THE SUBJECTS 42 I I I . STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF GENDER APPROPRIATE CAREERS 4 3 IV. PARENTAL INFLUENCE 51 V. TEACHERS' INFLUENCE . . . . . . 54 VI. PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF NON-INTERPERSONAL FACTORS 57 V I I . IMAGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 65 V I I I . AMOUNT OF CAREER INFORMATION THE STUDENTS HAVE AND THEIR SOURCES 67 FIVE: DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS . . . . 73 I. INTRODUCTION 73 I I . STUDENTS' OWN ASPIRED CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAM 74 I I I . STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF THEIR GENDER ROLE . . . 76 IV. INFLUENCE OF THE EXPECTATIONS OF SIGNIFICANT OTHER 78 V. INFLUENCE OF NON-INTERPERSONAL FACTORS 79 VI. SOURCES AND AVAILABILITY OF CAREER INFORMATION . 83 VI I . IMAGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 86 V I I I . CONCLUSION . 87 v i IX. RECOMMENDATIONS 88 (I) GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING 88 (II) PROVIDING ROLE MODELS 89 X. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 91 XI. CONCLUDING COMMENTS 92 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 5 APPENDIX A 98 APPENDIX B 107 v i i L i s t of T a b l e s Table 2.1 P e r c e n t a g e of women i n d i f f e r e n t f a c u l t i e s i n N a r i o b i and Kenyatta U n i v e r s i t i e s 9 Table 2.2 Percentages of females i n d i f f e r e n t f a c u l t i e s i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s 10 Table 2.3 Percentage of Females i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r programs i n Canadian Middle (Diploma) C o l l e g e s . . . . 11 Table 2.4 Percentage of females i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r programs i n U n i t e d States Middle (Diploma) C o l l e g e s . . 12 Table 4.1 Students' Ages 42 Table 4.2 Parents' Occupations . 43 Table 4.3 Students' P e r c e p t i o n of T h e i r D e s i r e d Choices of Career P r e p a r a t i o n Program . . . . . . . . 44 Table 4.4 Jobs Seen By Most Students As Best For Boys and For G i r l s 45 Table 4.5 Reasons For C l a s s i f y i n g Jobs as Best f o r Boys and f o r G i r l s 46 Table 4.6 Are There Jobs Boys Can Do B e t t e r Than G i r l s 47 Table 4.7 Are There Jobs That G i r l s Can Do B e t t e r Than Boys 48 Table 4.8 Students P e r c e p t i o n of the Strength Required . 49 Table 4.9 S t u d e n t s ' P e r c e p t i o n o f Academic A b i l i t y Required to Perform T e c h n i c a l Jobs 50 Table 4.10 Agreement Between Students' Choice And T h e i r P e r c e i v e d Parents Choice 52 v i i i Table 4.11 The D i f f e r e n c e Between Agreement f o r Boys and f o r G i r l s with P e r c e i v e d Parents' Choice . . . 54 Table 4.12 Agreement Between Students Choices and T h e i r P e r c e i v e d Teachers Choice 55 Table 4.13 D i f f e r e n c e Between Boys' Agreement and G i r l s ' Agreement With P e r c e i v e d Teachers Choice . . . 57 Table 4.14 Agreement Between Students' Choices and T h e i r P e r c e p t i o n o f P r o g r a m s w i t h H i g h J o b A v a i l a b i l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 4.15 D i f f e r e n c e i n Agreement Between G i r l s and Boys w i t h T h e i r P e r c e p t i o n o f C a r e e r With Higher Job A v a i l a b i l i t y 60 Table 4.16 S t u d e n t s ' P e r c e p t i o n of Program Leading to Jobs With a B e t t e r Chance f o r F u r t h e r St u d i e s 61 Table 4.17 D i f f e r e n c e B e t w e e n t h e G i r l s a n d B o y s Agreement with t h e i r P e r c e p t i o n of the Career Programs w i t h B e t t e r Chances f o r F u r t h e r St u d i e s 63 Table 4.18 Students P e r c e p t i o n of T h e i r Academic A b i l i t y i n D i f f e r e n t S u b j e c t s 63 Table 4.19 Summary of the E f f e c t s of D i f f e r e n t F a c t o r s on Student Choice 64 Table 4.20 Students L e v e l of I n t e r e s t i n T e c h n i c a l Careers 65 i x Table 4.21 S t u d e n t s ' P e r c e p t i o n s o f I n d u s t r y ' s P r e f e r e n c e f o r Employment i n the T e c h n i c a l F i e l d s 66 Table 4.22 E n r o l m e n t P a t t e r n s f o r M a l e s and F e m a l e s In T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e s i n Kenya Between 1985 and 1988 66 Table 4.23 Number of Times Students had Discussed Career Choices With T h e i r Parents 68 Table 4.24 Number o f Times S t u d e n t s D i s c u s s e d C a r e e r Choices With Teachers 69 Table 4.25 Sources of Career Information 69 Table. 4.26 What S t u d e n t s Think People Do In D i f f e r e n t Careers 71 X Acknowledgement I would l i k e to thank a number of people who c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the production of t h i s t h e s i s . I am g r a t e f u l p a r t i c u l a r l y to Dr. Gaalen E r i c k s o n , my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , who guided my every step of the way. I would l i k e to thank Dr. Todd Rogers who took h i s time to read the whole t h e s i s and make many u s e f u l suggestions that s t e e r e d the t h e s i s to completion and B i l l Logan f o r reading the t h e s i s and making u s e f u l comments. In a d d i t i o n I would l i k e to thank the heads o f t h e schools that p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study f o r a l l o w i n g me to use t h e i r schools and f o r g i v i n g me a l l the a s s i s t a n c e needed f o r the success of the study and Pat Dobie f o r t y p e s e t t i n g and p r i n t i n g the t h e s i s with care and enthusiasm. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my wif e T e r e s i a and my c h i l d r e n Nthautha, K i t h y o , Ndanu and Nthome f o r p a t i e n t l y w a i t i n g i n Kenya and w r i t i n g l e t t e r s of encouragement to me w h i l e I was working on t h i s t h e s i s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND B e g i n n i n g i n 1986, the Kenya government has expanded t e c h n i c a l education a t post-secondary l e v e l by c o n v e r t i n g the f o r m e r t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s i n t o p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Harambee I n s t i t u t e s o f Technology ( s e l f - h e l p p o s t s e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ) a re emerging i n a l l p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y . The m a j o r i t y of t h e i r c o u r s e s a r e geared towards p o s t — s e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l e ducation. In f a c t , the e n t i r e Kenyan system of e d u c a t i o n has been o v e r h a u l e d , r e s u l t i n g i n the 8-4-4 (8 years i n primary s c h o o l , 4 years i n sec o n d a r y s c h o o l , and 4 y e a r s i n u n i v e r s i t y ) system which s t r e s s e s more and more f a c i l i t i e s i n t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y at the po s t - s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . I t i s hoped t h a t , with t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , some of the students who do not get j o b s can s t a r t s m a l l 'Jua K a l i 1 i n d u s t r i e s (open a i r low investment i n d u s t r i e s ) , thus becoming self-employed. The problem f a c e d by the educators i n Kenya now i s that many s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y g i r l s , keep t r a i n i n g f o r non-e x i s t e n t white c o l l a r j o b s . Imulando (1984) d e s c r i b e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n ; w i t h t h e phenomenal e x p a n s i o n a t a l l l e v e l s a nd t h e r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e i n school l e a v e r s , soon the jobs a v a i l a b l e i n the P u b l i c s e c t o r , as w e l l as the P r i v a t e s e c t o r f o r p e o p l e w i t h g e n e r a l n o n -v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s h r a n k a nd t h e 2 phenomenon o f ' e d u c a t e d u n e m p l o y e d ' s t a r t e d to show i n the 1960's . . . the q u e s t i o n was: 'What type of Education has a more d i r e c t e f f e c t on g e n e r a t i n g employment on a wider s c a l e ? ' , (p. 15) I t i s the aim of t h i s study to examine t h i s s i t u a t i o n s i n c e even the government e f f o r t to support 'Jua K a l i ' and o t h e r s m a l l s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s f i n a n c i a l l y does not seem t o be working. HOW STUDENTS MAKE CAREER DECISIONS C h o o s i n g a p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m n e c e s s i t a t e s making d e c i s i o n s . S i n c e the d e c i s i o n s made at t h i s time have a long l a s t i n g e f f e c t on the person's f u t u r e and on t h e i r l i f e s t y l e , they should be made with c a r e . For t h i s reason, i t i s important to f i n d out how students go about making these d e c i s i o n s , how much i n f o r m a t i o n they have, who i n f l u e n c e s them, and what the s t u d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of those i n f l u e n c e s a r e . Herr (1970) d i v i d e d the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n career d e c i s i o n making i n t o four groups: (a) P e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s such as a p t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , gender, age, p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , and s e l f image. (b) S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s such as s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , job requirements, and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . (c) I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n f a c t o r s s u c h as p e e r p r e s s u r e . (d) Impersonal f a c t o r s s u c h as f i n a n c e s , rewards and payments, and l o c a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s . 3 Herr argued that due to the c o n f l i c t i n g nature of these f a c t o r s , s t u d e n t s go through a long p r o c e s s of weighing the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f each f a c t o r b e f o r e they make t h e i r f i n a l d e c i s i o n . He f u r t h e r argued that age becomes a very important f a c t o r when a student attempts to decide on a career and t h a t at 17 y e a r s of age s t u d e n t s are capable of making r e a l i s t i c career d e c i s i o n s . FOCUS OF THE STUDY The focus of t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be on students who do not go on to U n i v e r s i t y but who may choose t o en t e r a t r a i n i n g program at a middle c o l l e g e l e v e l . These middle c o l l e g e s a re v o c a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e . The main reason f o r c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h i s group i s because of the enormous number of students i n Kenya who f a i l to g a i n e n t r y to the u n i v e r s i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g to E s h i w a n i (1983), w h i l e the number of s t u d e n t s f i n i s h i n g high s c h o o l has been i n c r e a s i n g , the number of students going to u n i v e r s i t i e s has remained almost the same (at between 23% and 27%). For example i n 1978, of those who f i n i s h e d form 6, 27% went on to u n i v e r s i t y . I t should be noted that those who dropped out i n form s i x j o i n e d a l a r g e r number of those who dropped out i n form f o u r . The r e s u l t a n t group of students not co n t i n u i n g on to u n i v e r s i t y i s very l a r g e . The 8-4-4 system w i l l make t h i s group more n o t i c e a b l e because there w i l l be no form f i v e c l a s s e s t o d e l a y the dropout time of some of the students. T h i s i s a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n and these students need 4 a l o t of a t t e n t i o n . The s i t u a t i o n i s worse f o r g i r l s . A c c o r d i n g to E s h i w a n i (1983), o n l y 0.44% of the g i r l s who e n t e r e d s t a n d a r d one i n 1966 made i t to form s i x by 1979. Given that only about 25% of the students who f i n i s h e d form 6 i n 1979 went to u n i v e r s i t y and that o n l y 20% of those who went to u n i v e r s i t y were g i r l s , then one sees c l e a r l y that of a l l the g i r l s who were w i t h i n t h i s s c h o o l age group l e s s than 0.1% entered the u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s study attempts to examine s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c h o i c e to s e l e c t a p o s t -secondary education program. SPECIFIC RESEARCH QUESTIONS: 1. What are the s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the i n f l u e n c e of t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s on t h e i r d e c i s i o n s to e n t e r a t e c h n i c a l program at the post secondary l e v e l : (a) Students' s e l f e x p e c t a t i o n s ? (b) Parents' e x p e c t a t i o n s ? (c) Teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s ? (d) Industry's e x p e c t a t i o n s ? 2. Does sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n f l u e n c e the s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of f a c t o r s which might i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c h o i c e o f a post secondary education program? 3. To what extent do the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s seem to i n f l u e n c e students' career c h o i c e : (a) f i n a n c i a l rewards? 5 (b) student's academic a b i l i t y ? (c) academic upward m o b i l i t y ? 4. Are students informed as to the academic requirements of d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r s before they choose the s u b j e c t s f o r the Kenya C e r t i f i c a t e of Secondary Education? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The r e s u l t s of t h i s study, i t i s hoped, w i l l h e l p us to b e t t e r understand some of the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g s t u d e n t s ' c a r e e r c h o i c e s . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s u s e f u l i n a s s i s t i n g s t u dents i n making a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r c h o i c e s ( a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r a c a d e m i c a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and a p t i t u d e s , and s h i f t i n g j o b m a r k e t s ) . I n o t h e r words t h e s t u d y h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s i n student c o u n s e l l i n g at secondary s c h o o l l e v e l . T h i s c o u n s e l l i n g i s necessary e s p e c i a l l y before the students choose the s u b j e c t s they pursue f o r the Kenya C e r t i f i c a t e of Secondary E d u c a t i o n (K.C.S.E.). These s u b j e c t s determine the c a r e e r s open to the s t u d e n t s i n the f u t u r e . The study may a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s i n educating parents as t o how they can h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n choosing r e a l i s t i c c areer p r e p a r a t i o n programs at post secondary l e v e l . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . Researchers have s t r e s s e d the r o l e of r o l e models i n i n f l u e n c i n g student d e c i s i o n s (Grady 1984, K i l o n z o 1983). T e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s l i k e K.T.T.C., K e n y a t t a U n i v e r s i t y and Kenya Science Teachers C o l l e g e may need to in c r e a s e t h e i r quotas of 6 t r a i n e e s i n t h e non t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r a r e a s , s u c h as i n c r e a s i n g the number o f women t e a c h e r s i n t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s . 7 CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION T h i s chapter reviews the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s (see Chapter I ) . The l i t e r a t u r e was g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o the i s s u e s i n the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l theme: a) gender s e g r e g a t i o n of jobs b) e f f e c t s of s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d a t high s c h o o l c) p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e d) e f f e c t s of s e l f - c o n c e p t e) importance of career guidance f ) other f a c t o r s that may i n f l u e n c e career c h o i c e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l t h e a r t i c l e s i n each g r o u p was a n a l y z e d and t h e n s y n t h e s i z e d t o f i n d o u t i f t h e r e i s agreement or disagreement i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s . An attempt i s then made to e x p l a i n the agreement or disagreements found. GENDER SEGREGATION OF JOBS Research has shown t h a t t h e r e a r e jobs t h a t are female s e g r e g a t e d and o t h e r s t h a t a re male s e g r e g a t e d (Kenkel and Gage, 1983). Kenkel and Gage (1983), f o r example argue that " G i r l s a s p i r e to a s m a l l number of o c c u p a t i o n s w h i l e boys choose from a wider v a r i e t y o f j o b s ... f o u r o c c u p a t i o n s , nurse, t e a c h e r , s e c r e t a r y , and s o c i a l worker have been found to dominate the o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s of g i r l s " (p. 130). A l s o 8 P r e d i g e r , Roth and North (1984), i n t h e i r study of e l e v e n t h g r a d e r s , found t h a t "More than h a l f of the g i r l s chose jobs t h a t f e l l i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ; n u r s i n g a n d human c a r e ; a n d c l e r i c a l a n d s e c r e t a r i a l . " F u r t h e r , g i r l s do not go f o r the higher paying and more a v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g i c a l j o b s . As MacCarthy (1976) puts i t : Employment needs c u r r e n t l y and i n t h e f u t u r e a r e h e a v i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s e r v i c e areas ... Women who c o n t i n u e t o c h o o s e c o u r s e s a n d p r o g r a m s w h i c h h a v e no s p e c i f i c t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n are apt to f i n d t h e i r employment i n the low paying s e r v i c e areas ... (p. 6) Studies done i n Kenya show t h a t what MacCarthy says above i s true f o r Kenya even at U n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . Eshiwani (1984) g i v e s p e r c e n t a g e s of women i n d i f f e r e n t f a c u l t i e s i n both N a i r o b i and Kenyatta U n i v e r s i t i e s as shown i n Table 2.1: 9 Ta b l e 2.1 Percentage o f women i n d i f f e r e n t f a c u l t i e s i n N a r i o b i and Kenyatta U n i v e r s i t i e s (a) A g r i c u l t u r e 20% (b) B u i l d i n g Economics 2% (c) Land Economics 21% (d) Commerce 28% (e) A r t s 39% (f) E n g i n e e r i n g 2.2% (g) V e t e r i n a r y Medicine 13% (h) Advanced Nursing 95% ( i ) Law 50% (j ) Science 11% (k) Education 1. A r t s 50% 2. Science 8.4% Except f o r nu r s i n g , law and a r t s education, the percentage of women was q u i t e low, e s p e c i a l l y i n the programs which r e q u i r e d a background i n s c i e n c e . A n o t h e r study i n Canada, ( G a s k e l 1987) shows s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . At u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , the enrolment data f o r 1984-1985 showed the percentages o f females to be as i n Table 2.2: 10 Table 2.2 Percentages of females i n d i f f e r e n t f a c u l t i e s i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s Nursing 91% I Household Science 96. .1% Health Occupations 85. .1% S o c i a l Work 80. .7% Education 70. .3% A p p l i e d A r t s 65. .2% Pharmacy 62. .5% A r t s 56. .7% V e t e r i n a r y Medicine 52. ,2% B i o l o g i c a l S ciences 47. .6% A g r i c u l t u r e 43. .0% Commerce 38. .2% Medicine 37. .8% P h y s i c a l Sciences 27. .1% D e n t i s t r y 23. .2% En g i n e e r i n g 10, .7% (p. 182) A l s o , the enrolment d a t a f o r m i d d l e c o l l e g e s (diploma c o l l e g e s ) i n Canada f o r 1982/1983 shows the p e r c e n t a g e s of females to be as i n T a b l e 2.3: 11 Table 2.3 Percentage o f Females i n d i f f e r e n t career programs i n Canadian Middle (Diploma) C o l l e g e s Medical 88.2% Education 72.9% Business 68.9% A r t s 62.6% Engineering 22.2% Na t u r a l Resources 14.7% Technologies 9.5% Transport 2.8% (p. 184) The same s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendment A c t p a s s e d i n 1972, p r o h i b i t s sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n f e d e r a l l y supported programs. V e t t e r and Hic k e y (1985), r e p o r t e d t h a t ten years l a t e r , i n 1 9 8 2 , women c o n t i n u e t o e n r o l i n g r e a t n u m b e r s i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y female programs. They r e p o r t e d t h a t i n 1982, the percentages o f women e n r o l e d i n v o c a t i o n a l programs were as shown i n Table 2.4: 12 T a b l e 2.4 Percentage of females i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r programs i n U n i t e d S t a t e s Middle (Diploma) c o l l e g e s (A) In Male Dominated Car e e r s 1. A r c h i t e c t u r a l technology 22 .1% 2. C i v i l technology 13 .8% 3. E l e c t r o n i c s 11 .7% 4. Mechanical technology 11 .9% 5. I n d u s t r i a l technology 15 .6% 6. E l e c t r i c a l technology 7 .8% 7. Automotive technology 5 .1% 8. Water technology 14 .8% 9. A g r i c u l t u r a l mechanics 5 .3% 10. C o n s t r u c t i o n 7 .4% In Female Dominated C a r e e r s 1. Dental a s s i s t a n t s 95 .5% 2. Nursing 91 .2% 3. Dental hygiene 96 .4% 4. Care of guidance of c h i l d r e n 92 .4% 5. C l o t h i n g management and p r o d u c t i o n 89 .6% 6. Home f u r n i s h i n g s 80 .7% 7. M e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t s 90 .2% 8. Typing 79 .6% 9. Sten o g r a p h e r / s e c r e t a r y 93 .5% O t h e r s t u d i e s done i n t h e U.S.A. back t h i s up ( s e e Ma r s h a l l 1987). A u s t r a l i a a l s o seems t o h a v e t h e same p r o b l e m s . According to Towns (1985) a r e p o r t on the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of g i r l s i n A u s t r a l i a t ermed " G i r l s , S c h o o l and S o c i e t y " , r e l e a s e d i n 1975 and a second r e p o r t f o r V i c t o r i a n s c h o o l s only e n t i t l e d "Equal O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n V i c t o r i a Schools" showed s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . For example, the study on G i r l s , School and So c i e t y concluded that; g i r l s were not s t u d y i n g mathematics and s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s a t s e n i o r l e v e l s i n the same numbers as the boys, g i r l s were not ex p e r i e n c i n g a t e c h n i c a l education i n the same n u m b e r s a s b o y s , t h a t g i r l s r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r t e r t i a r y area of study and c o n s i d e r e d a l i m i t e d range o f j o b o p t i o n s c o m p a r e d t o b o y s , t h a t unemployment was h i g h e r f o r young female s c h o o l l e a v e r s than i t was f o r young male s c h o o l l e a v e r s and t h a t t h e r e were few p o s i t i v e f e m a l e r o l e models i n s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n s c h o o l . (p. 5) In f a c t , Towns argues that l e g i s l a t i o n f o r gender e q u i t y which was passed i n 1977, has a s s i s t e d men to get i n t o what i s seen t r a d i t i o n a l l y as women jobs. As she puts i t a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n has e x i s t e d i n some s t a t e s of A u s t r a l i a s i n c e 1977. I t i s d e s i g n e d to l e g i s l a t e and c o n c i l i a t e as a s u p p o r t i v e mechanism towards a c h i e v i n g e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r women i n the employment s e c t o r . But i t would appear t h a t the s i t u a t i o n f o r women has not changed very much. Indeed i t can be argued that the l e g i s l a t i o n has a s s i s t e d men to g a i n employment i n non-t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s f o r them s u c h as 14 n u r s i n g , k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h i n g and as p r i n c i p a l s of g i r l s schools whereas i t has not a s s i s t e d g i r l s i n a c h i e v i n g comparable in-roads i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l areas which are n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l f o r women. (p. 8) I t can, t h e r e f o r e , be c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n Kenya and i n many ot h e r c o u n t r i e s , some c a r e e r s are f e m a l e s e g r e g a t e d w h i l e o t h e r s a r e male s e g r e g a t e d . I t can a l s o be c o n c l u d e d t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n does not seem to be e f f e c t i v e as a t o o l a g a i n s t job s e g r e g a t i o n . EFFECTS OF SUBJECTS STUDIED AT HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL Towns (1985) suggests t h a t one of the main reasons why A u s t r a l i a n women do not have equal access to e d u c a t i o n a l and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s the types of s u b j e c t s g i r l s p r e f e r to do or do w e l l i n at h i g h school l e v e l . She argues t h a t : Even though g i r l s remain at s c h o o l f o r a longer p e r i o d than they d i d ten years ago and thousands more g i r l s than boys pass the Higher School C e r t i f i c a t e i n V i c t o r i a . . . g i r l s do not study the H i g h S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e s u b j e c t s which would be the most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e r t i a r y e n t r y or the employment market; the mathematics and s c i e n c e s ... l e s s than 1/3 of the students who pass p h y s i c s , the most u s e f u l s u b j e c t f o r s t u d i e s i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r e a s , are female, (p. 9) Sampson (1985) seems to echo these sentiments when she says t h a t there i s e a r l y s e g r e g a t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n A u s t r a l i a n schools such that most g i r l s study t y p i n g , shorthand, cookery and needlework, l i t e r a t u r e , languages, and h i s t o r y while boys 15 s t u d y c a r p e n t r y , m e t a l w o r k , t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g , maths, e c o n o m i c s , p h y s i c s , and c h e m i s t r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y when s e g r e g a t i o n i n s u b j e c t s occurs, i t t r a n s l a t e s to a s i t u a t i o n where when the g i r l s l e a v e s c h o o l , they are not a b l e to get the b e t t e r paying t e c h n i c a l jobs. A study done i n Canada (Gaskel and McLaren 1987) s t r e s s e s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of mathematics i n f i l t e r i n g students out of s c i e n c e and technology based c a r e e r s . They argue: M a t h e m a t i c s i s an i m p o r t a n t f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h because i t i s r e q u i r e d f o r a l l u n i v e r s i t y s c i e n c e programs. High school math c o u r s e s serve as a ' f i l t e r ' i n that s t u d e n t s who do not t a k e t h e s e c o u r s e s f i n d i t much more d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e to e n t e r s c i e n c e and a p p l i e d s c i e n c e programs ... (p. 133) Some r e s e a r c h e r s appear to suggest that g i r l s i n s i n g l e sex s c h o o l s seem to respond b e t t e r to t a k i n g n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s which would a s s i s t them t o j o i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r programs at post secondary l e v e l (Counsel 1982, Spender & Sarah 1980 and Stanworth 1983). In c o n t r a s t , o t h e r s suggest t h a t the g i r l s would have g r e a t e r a c c e s s to t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d courses o n l y i f they attended c o - e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s . F i t z g e r a l d (1982) concluded t h a t , i n c o - e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , more a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d to boys than g i r l s because boys a r e more a g g r e s s i v e and t h a t c o - e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s t e n d t o r e i n f o r c e s t e r e o t y p i n g . T h i s i s s u e needs f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 16 PARENTAL INFLUENCE I t i s c l e a r from the above s t u d i e s t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n i s n o t , by i t s e l f , c a p a b l e o f c h a n g i n g the p o l a r i z a t i o n o f programs a l o n g gender l i n e s as i t was e x p e c t e d t o . I t i s important to e s t a b l i s h f i r s t the causes of t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n before one t r i e s to p r e s c r i b e c o r r e c t i v e measures. R e s e a r c h h a s shown t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s o f g e n d e r s e g r e g a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d above are not based on any b i o l o g i c a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l reasons but mainly on reasons that are as a r e s u l t of t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n (Kenkel and Gage, 1983). They i d e n t i f y one of the reasons as lac k of female r o l e models i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l jobs or c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs. T h i s i s more so f o r low income f a m i l y c h i l d r e n . As Kenkel and Gage (1983) put i t : I f the daughters have higher a s p i r a t i o n s , as they do, they are f o r c e d to choose jobs t h a t a r e not b e i n g m o d e l l e d by t h e i r mothers, the mothers of t h e i r f r i e n d s or even women w i t h i n t h e i r own s u b c u l t u r e . (p. 135) Kenya i s a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y w i t h most o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n r u r a l p e a s a n t f a r m e r s . Thus, most o f the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n would f i t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f low income f a m i l y c h i l d r e n . Eshiwani (1983) found that i n 1982 the e d u c a t i o n a l background of p a r e n t s of Kenyan u n i v e r s i t y s tudents by p e r c e n t a g e was d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : 17 No Schooling S t d 1-4 Std 5-8 Secondary U n i v e r s i t y Father 22.9% 28.1% 23.6% 20.6% 4.8% Mother 42.3% 30.1% 19.0% 7.2% 1.4% From t h i s t a b l e i t can be seen that 74.6% of the f a t h e r s and as h i g h as 94.1% of the mothers of the u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were i l l i t e r a t e or s e m i - i l l i t e r a t e (Std. 8 and below). I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the percentage would have been worse had Eshiwani attempted to e s t a b l i s h the education l e v e l of the parents o f s e c o n d a r y and p r i m a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . T h i s i s b e c a u s e students of b e t t e r educated parents tend to be the ones who go on t o U n i v e r s i t y . I t s h o u l d a l s o be p o i n t e d out t h a t the above study e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t 48.4% of the f a t h e r s had no form of employment and s u r v i v e d as peasant farmers on l y and t h a t 60% of the f a m i l i e s had 7 or more c h i l d r e n . In the U.S.A., one of the most developed c o u n t r i e s i n the w o rld, MacCant (1984) i d e n t i f i e d s o c i a l i z a t i o n as a b i g f a c t o r i n career c h o i c e s . T h i s i s how she put i t : As l e g a l and b i o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s have been overcome, access to the t e c h n o l o g i e s has become an o p t i o n f o r women. The b a r r i e r s that remain are p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l and these w i l l not be overcome u n t i l women t a k e advantage of the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to them. (p. 5) The i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l i z a t i o n was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by O'Brien (1987) and Tucker and Asser (1980). These authors found t h a t p a r e n t s respond p o s i t i v e l y and even use rewards to encourage 18 t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o f i t i n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , a c c o r d i n g to gender rather than a b i l i t y . EFFECTS OF SELF-CONCEPT Another f a c t o r t h a t may i n f l u e n c e careers chosen by women i s t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t i n math and s c i e n c e s . A study done i n Kenya by Eshiwani (1975) showed t h a t form II boys had a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards math than g i r l s and that boys scored h i g h e r on t e s t s of mathematical r e a s o n i n g , computation and comprehension of mathematical and s c i e n t i f i c terms. M a r i t i m (1980)'argues that " i n a classroom s e t t i n g the c h i l d does not o n l y l e a r n what i s p r e s c r i b e d i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , but he a l s o a c q u i r e d a set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s about h i m s e l f and h i s a b i l i t i e s " and t h a t "the p u p i l s who thought h i g h l y of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y o u t a c h i e v e d t h o s e who had low p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s " (page 1 ) . Gaskel (1987) showed t h a t boys have more c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r maths a b i l i t y than g i r l s : ... Males were more c o n f i d e n t than females; those c h o o s i n g s c i e n c e were more c o n f i d e n t than those not choosing s c i e n c e . In order to measure confidence there were f i v e items ... On the s c a l e formed by these items, boys scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than g i r l s ... (p. 139) Research has shown t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t appears t o be m u l t i -dimensional (Marsh, Parker, and Barnes, 1985). In an e a r l i e r study Marsh, Smith, Barnes and B u t l e r (1983) found t h a t s e l f 19 concept i n math c o r r e l a t e d almost one to one w i t h academic achievement i n math. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , w h i l e s e l f - c o n c e p t i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a appears to be r e l a t e d to achievement i n the same or a h i g h l y r e l a t e d a r e a , i t does not appear to be r e l a t e d t o a c t u a l a p t i t u d e . In a study done a t Stork T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e (Canton, O h i o ) , u s i n g G e n e r a l A p t i t u d e t e s t b a t t e r y (GATB), i t was found that as many women as men have high mechanical a p t i t u d e (Grady & F r y e , 1984). A c c o r d i n g to Grady & F r y e (1984) the s e l f - c o n c e p t o f students are formed before students leave h i g h s c h o o l . Grady & Frye (1984) argued t h a t the only g i r l s who end up i n non-t r a d i t i o n a l programs and/or jobs are those w i t h p a r e n t s or c l o s e f r i e n d s i n these j o b s , and sometimes a c o u n s e l l o r who noted that the g i r l i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y good i n math or s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s a t h i g h s c h o o l . The i n f l u e n c e of gender, p a r e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s and peers upon job s e l e c t i o n was a l s o emphasized by W i g f i e l d (1984) who put i t t h i s way: s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t s are proposed to be i n d i r e c t m e d i a t o r s o f e x p e c t a n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g s u c h t h i n g s as c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s outcomes, and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f parents' - and t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s about them. These i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s more g e n e r a l s e l f p e r c e p t i o n s . Another of these g e n e r a l s e l f p e r c e p t i o n v a r i a b l e s p o s i t e d to i n d i r e c t l y m e d i a t e e x p e c t a n c i e s and v a l u e s i s t h e c h i l d ' s sex r o l e i d e n t i t y (p. 4). 20 IMPORTANCE OF CAREER GUIDANCE The main q u e s t i o n now i s what s t e p s can be t a k e n t o improve the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ? K i l o n z o (1983) p o i n t s o u t t h a t one o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n i m p r o v i n g the s i t u a t i o n i n Kenya l i e s i n a l a c k o f gu idance and c o u n s e l i n g . He sums up the s i t u a t i o n as f o l l o w s : In f a c t , the f u n c t i o n of the c a r e e r masters i s not any d i f f e r e n t from what i t was t h i r t e e n years ago . They c o n t i n u e to work wi th form I V s , h e l p i n g them to f i l l o u t c a r e e r f o r m s a n d g i v i n g o u t c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f any work on g u i d a n c e b e i n g done w i t h form I ' s , I I ' s or f o r m I l l ' s . No c a r e e r or P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s a v a i l a b l e to p u p i l s , (p . 9) K i l o n z o does not b lame the t e a c h e r s f o r t h i s p r o b l e m . He seems to suggest t h a t there are c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h i n the s c h o o l system which make i t hard f o r the t e a c h e r s to be e f f e c t i v e . He a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e are no adequate f a c i l i t i e s l i k e p r i v a t e rooms where t h e t e a c h e r c o u n s e l l o r c a n meet i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . He a l s o a r g u e s t h a t the t e a c h e r s a r e no t w e l l p r e p a r e d and t h e r e f o r e f e e l incompetent to handle the p u r e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m , and that the s i t u a t i o n i s made worse by the f a c t that these t e a c h e r s s t i l l have f u l l t e a c h i n g l o a d s . T h e y , t h e r e f o r e , have to do c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e i r spare t i m e . K i l o n z o suggests t h a t the s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be r e c t i f i e d i f : 21 1. c a r e e r masters are p r o v i d e d w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e on g u i d a n c e , i n the form o f pamphlets ( t h e s e can be prepared at Kenyatta U n i v e r s i t y ) ; 2. c a r e e r m a s t e r s have some method o f s h a r i n g i d e a s among themselves (workshops, seminars and/or s h o r t i n s e r v i c e courses at the U n i v e r s i t i e s ) , and s t a r t i n g a c a r e e r s j o u r n a l . The l a c k of e f f e c t i v e guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g seems to have a l s o been n o t i c e d i n a study done i n Canada (Gaskel and McLaren, 1987) where g i r l s were quoted as s a y i n g : "To t e l l you the t r u t h I think c o u n s e l l o r s j u s t don't get enough of whatever i t takes to become a c o u n s e l l o r . " "There i s not enough c o u n s e l l o r s . They are h a v i n g t o t a k e c a r e o f a whole grade o f people. They're spending t h e i r time running through the papers and there's not much time f o r them to s i t around and rap." (p. 156) One r e a l i z e s the e f f e c t s of l a c k of guidance when l o o k i n g a t why students made the choices they d i d not want to make. For example, i n G a s k e l ' s study ( G a s k e l and McLaren, 1987) the g i r l s themselves s a i d : "I l i k e to do the jobs men do. I think they are more i n t e r e s t i n g . " " I w i s h I had t a k e n woodwork. I l i k e working with wood." " I t would be e x c i t i n g to be a truck d r i v e r . But I wouldn't know how to go about i t . " (p. 163) 22 To c o n f r o n t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l problem f o r g i r l s Grady (1984) suggested t h a t : 1. Secondary s c h o o l s and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s must seek female r o l e models i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l areas. 2. F e m a l e c o u n s e l l o r s who a r e k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r areas f o r women must be sought. 3. Female c o u n s e l l i n g must become more b r o a d l y based, o p e n l y e x p l o r i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s f u l l r a n g e o f a p t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s . 4. F e m a l e i n s t r u c t o r s must be s o u g h t f o r t h e s e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l areas of study. OTHER FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE CAREER CHOICES E f f e c t s o f School O r g a n i z a t i o n Some r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e a r g u e d t h a t s c h o o l a s an i n s t i t u t i o n p l a y s a b i g p a r t i n molding g i r l s to be g i r l s and boys to be boys so to speak (Holcomb 1981, K e l l y and Nehlen 1982). One need o n l y look a t the power s t r u c t u r e at sch o o l t o see how i t e n f o r c e s t h i s n o t i o n . Although i n United S t a t e s f o r example, women are the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n pr i m a r y s c h o o l l e v e l s , those i n p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y a r e men. As K e l l y et a l put i t : The p a t t e r n of male a u t h o r i t y over females h o l d s i n each s c h o o l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s where 67.2% of a l l teachers are women, yet 23 women are l e s s than 16% of a l l p r i n c i p a l s or a s s i s t a n t p r i n c i p a l s . These f i g u r e s mask t h e s t a t u s a n d wage h i e r a r c h i e s o f ed u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Female p r i n c i p a l s are e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . Twenty percent of elementary s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s are women; l e s s than 7 percent of middle school and secondary s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s are female, (p. 167) T h i s being true then the hidden message i s that men are the bosses and the women are the su b o r d i n a t e s . One should not wonder, t h e r e f o r e , when g i r l s do not t r y very hard to move up the academic l a d d e r . They r e a l i z e t h a t what i s happening i n scho o l i s the same as what i s happening i n s o c i e t y where, as K e l l y and N e h l e n s a y , "most o f t h e women i n a u t h o r i t y s u p e r v i s e other women r a t h e r than men, mainly i n predominantly female occupations" (p. 168). They may get the message that they a re expected to a v o i d competing w i t h men. Even the s u b j e c t s women te a c h , a c c o r d i n g to K e l l y and Nehlen are gender d e f i n e d , i . e . , most of the women teache r s teach languages and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . The authors quote f i g u r e s from Simpson (1974) as showing t h a t i n the United S t a t e s at hig h e r l e v e l s the percentage of women teachers f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s a r e as f o l l o w s : B u s i n e s s 1.9%, E n g i n e e r i n g 0.4%, P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e 4.3%, Maths and Computer S c i e n c e 43.%, Education 20.6%. Another aspect of s c h o o l t h a t sends hidden messages to students i s the way males and females sexes are p o r t r a y e d i n the t e x t books. P i c t u r e s i n the t e x t book t y p i c a l l y show men 24 as engineers, d o c t o r s , s c i e n t i s t s and t e c h n i c i a n s w h i l e women a r e shown as n u r s e s , t e a c h e r s , m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t s and s e c r e t a r i e s (Holcomb, 1987). In f a c t , Holcomb (1987) goes on t o s a y t h a t e v e n t h e m a t e r i a l s s u p p l i e d t o s t u d e n t s t o supplement the t e x t books are gender segregated. For example, i n h e a l t h the k i t s sent to supplement text books are such that boys are s u p p l i e d with d o c t o r s k i t s while g i r l s a r e s u p p l i e d with nurses k i t s . T h i s g i v e s the students the message that i n the medical f i e l d boys are supposed to be doc t o r s w h i l e g i r l s a re supposed to be nurses. For secondary sc h o o l t e x t books, the study shows t h a t out of 102 i l l u s t r a t i o n s of nurses, 100 were women and 2 were men w h i l e f o r d o c t o r s , o ut of 153 i l l u s t r a t i o n s 127 were men and o n l y 26 were females. Mangano and Pat t e r s o n (1976) quote a poem by Darrow (1970) which goes as f o l l o w s : Boys have tru c k s G i r l s have d o l l s Boys are p i l o t s G i r l s are stewardesses Boys f i x t h i n g s G i r l s get things f i x e d Boys i n v e n t things G i r l s use what boys i n v e n t Boys b u i l d houses G i r l s keep houses I'm g l a d you are a boy I'm g l a d you are a g i r l We need each other. (p. HO) 25 E f f e c t s of the Methods of Teaching Grant and Harding (1987) argue that w h i l e boys view the importance of l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e and technology as f o r producing products that work w e l l , they seem not to c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r o d u c t s . In c o n s t r a s t , g i r l s are more concerned with s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Grant and Harding (1987) suggest: I f s c h o o l s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y a r e p r e s e n t e d a s a b s t r a c t e d , l a w b o u n d , t e c h n i c a l , u n e m o t i o n a l and d i s t a n c e d from the p e r s o n a l , they w i l l serve the needs of a p a r t i c u l a r group o f e m o t i o n a l l y r e t i c e n t p e r s o n s ( u s u a l l y male) who seek t o escape from the demands of the r e a l world. On the o t h e r hand, i f s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y are p r e s e n t e d as c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h re l e v a n c e to many other aspects of the human c o n d i t i o n , t h e n a w i d e r r a n g e o f young people seeking i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a l l e n g e , or a v e h i c l e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the world, may be a t t r a c t e d to the study, (p. 134) To s u p p o r t t h e i r c l a i m they quote f i n d i n g s by Head (1980), Harding and S u t o r i s (1984) and Rajput (1985) who found t h a t women would get i n t o s c i e n c e and technology i f s o c i a l i s s u e s were used as the b a s i s f o r t e a c h i n g them. There are some s t u d i e s , though few i n number, which show t h a t g i r l s o u t p e r f o r m boys i n maths and s c i e n c e . One such study, done i n Hawaii, c o n s i d e r e d mathematics achievement f o r c h i l d r e n o f grades 4, 6, 8 and 10 and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o gender, e t h n i c group, grade and year (Brandon, 1981). The f i n d i n g s were put t h i s way: 26 c o n t r a s t e d w i t h most s t u d i e s , the s t u d y r e p o r t e d h e r e shows g i r l s w i t h h i g h e r mathematics achievement l e v e l s than boys. That the H a w a i i d a t a show d i f f e r e n c e s i n Mathematics achievement f a v o u r i n g g i r l s i s not s u r p r i s i n g : p r e v i o u s H a w a i i s t u d i e s g i v e c l u e s about Hawaii g i r l s ' s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r b o y s i n M a t h e m a t i c s ' a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r e a s e as t h e g r a d e l e v e l i n c r e a s e , (p. 22) I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t there were f a c t o r s which c o u l d have accounted f o r the r e s u l t s obtained. One of these f a c t o r s has to do w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n of mathematics achievement used. This t e s t broke the s k i l l s t e s t e d i n t o mathematical r e a s o n i n g , mathematical computation and mathematical a p p l i c a t i o n . The study s t a t e s that boys are good i n mathematical a p p l i c a t i o n s and g i r l s i n computation problems. Another f a c t o r has to do with r o l e models. As the study puts i t "because of the high p r o p o r t i o n of female Japanese-American P u b l i c School t e a c h e r s i n H a w a i i , g i r l s may have p o w e r f u l female sex r o l e models s h o w i n g them t h a t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i s p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e " (Brandon, 1981, p. 28). A l s o e t h n i c i t y may have p l a y e d a b i g p a r t i n t h e s e r e s u l t s . Hawaii i s h i g h l y m u l t i - e t h n i c with high composition of J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n s . Brandon (1981) a r g u e s ; " J a p a n e s e -A m e r i c a n boys do not a c c u l t u r a t e as q u i c k l y as J a p a n e s e -American g i r l s . . . and peer v a l u e s may not f a v o u r h i g h achievement" (p. 28). I t i s c l e a r here that the d i f f e r e n c e between American s c h o o l v a l u e s and Japanese e t h n i c v a l u e s c l a s h and Japanese boys do not accept the s c h o o l v a l u e s but t h e g i r l s do. T h i s v a l u e c o n f l i c t may s p i l l o v e r and e n c o u r a g e a l l H a w a i i a n g i r l s t o compete e f f e c t i v e l y f o r domination i n s c h o o l s . Another study which seems to argue f o r g i r l s s u p e r i o r i t y i n Math and Science was conducted i n Rhode I s l a n d , Sharon and Sharon (1986). These authors found that i n a d d i t i o n to choosing as many high l e v e l c o u r s e s as t h e i r male c l a s s m a t e s , young women i n the sample tended to r e c e i v e higher grades f o r t h e i r work i n maths and s c i e n c e c l a s s e s than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . S i x t y p e r c e n t o f a l l A's awarded i n math and s c i e n c e c l a s s e s were earned by females . . . F e m a l e s t u d e n t s a l s o r e c e i v e d more B's awarded i n math and s c i e n c e c l a s s e s (52%). (p. 8) L i k e the Hawaiian study, t h e r e seems to be f a c t o r s working here which need to be noted. One of those i s c o u n s e l i n g which the study says was very good i n the s c h o o l s . Another was p a r e n t s i n v o l v e m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n . They quote a c o u n s e l o r say i n g : We a r e l a r g e l y a b l u e c o l l a r s t a t e , you k n o w — w i t h l o t s o f s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n i m m i g r a n t s . A f a t h e r knows h i s son c a n a l w a y s g e t a j o b i n t h e t r a d e s , but he worries about h i s daughter's f u t u r e . So he p u s h e s h e r t o be p r e p a r e d f o r c o l l e g e . Maybe t h a t i s why g i r l s i n t h i s s t a t e take more math and s c i e n c e than boys. (p. 23) Role models a l s o p l a y e d a p a r t , j u s t as i n the Hawaiian study. Sharon and Sharon (1986) found t h a t , i n Rhode I s l a n d , t h e r e 28 were more female math teac h e r s than male ones which and a c t e d as r o l e models f o r the g i r l s . A n o t h e r t h i n g t o n o t e h e r e i s t h a t t h e s t u d y u s e d teachers grades and not a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t . These grades d i d not c o r r e l a t e with the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by the same students from the f e d e r a l s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t where the boys outperformed g i r l s . T h i s leads to q u e s t i o n s about the r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e a c h e r s g r a d e s . S h a r o n and S h a r o n ( 1 9 8 6 ) saw t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f e r r o r . "Do maths and s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t a t e i n f l a t e the grades of young women?" (p. 23). Gaskel and McLaren (1987) shed some l i g h t on the i s s u e of the d i f f e r e n c e i n g i r l s ' performance i n t e a c h e r grades and grades from s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s . They suggested t h a t : ... when women r e c e i v e l o w e r s c o r e s on s t a n d a r d i z e d mathematics achievement t e s t s i t may be p r i m a r i l y a r e s u l t of t h e f a c t t h a t they have taken fewer c o u r s e s . Most s t u d i e s do not match females and males on number of courses taken. However, the ones t h a t do u s u a l l y f i n d t h a t s e x - r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t become s m a l l e r or disappear on some or a l l of the t e s t s that are used. (p. 134) I f t h i s was the only reason, the d i f f e r e n c e s should not show i n c o u n t r i e s l i k e Kenya where mathematics i s a compulsory sub j e c t f o r a l l the students both i n a l l primary and secondary s c h o o l s . 29 The S t a t u s o f T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n Due to the way i n which t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n Kenya was introduced d u r i n g c o l o n i a l times, t e c h n i c a l education has been viewed by both parents and st u d e n t s , and, to a p o i n t by some ed u c a t o r s , as having a lower s t a t u s than s t r a i g h t academics. King (1977) argued t h a t when t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n ' f o r the A f r i c a n ' was i n t r o d u c e d t h e main g o a l was t o p r o d u c e a g r a d u a t e who c o u l d work f o r the c o l o n i a l m a s t e r s on non permanent employment terms. T h e i r main t a s k s were b u i l d i n g p l a n t a t i o n houses, churches and s c h o o l s . King (1977) shows that t h e r e was a s e r i o u s d i f f e r e n c e between the aims of the e a r l y t e c h n i c a l o r v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m and t h e expectations o f the t r a i n e e s themselves. He i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s d i f f e r e n c e w i t h the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from the c o l o n i a l D i r e c t o r of Education about t r a i n i n g of A f r i c a n a p p r e n t i c e s a t the then N a t i v e I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g Depot. The employment of ex- a p p r e n t i c e s on the farm i s not an u n q u a l i f i e d success. The farmer appears to have two needs. The f i r s t i s a handy man .. . The second i s a man t o do a p i e c e of work which w i l l occupy a month or so. T h i s i s a r e a l d i f f i c u l t y . The boy who lea v e s the Native I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g Depot wants and looks f o r permanent work. (p. 25) When s t u d e n t s r e a l i z e d where the t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n as p l a n n e d was l e a d i n g t o , the y d i s p u t e d and r e j e c t e d i t as i n f e r i o r to s t r a i g h t academics. T h i s r e j e c t i o n was so s t r o n g t h a t t h e p e o p l e r e f u s e d government s c h o o l s which o f f e r e d 30 t e c h n i c a l programs and s t a r t e d t h e i r own independent s c h o o l s which o f f e r e d s t r a i g h t academics. L a t e r when the t e c h n i c a l aspect was removed from the s c h o o l system and put i n s e p a r a t e trade s c h o o l s , the same mistake was repeated by making these s c h o o l s t e r m i n a l i . e . , w i t h o u t p r o v i d i n g a way f o r t h e graduates to r a i s e t h e i r academic l e v e l s l a t e r i n l i f e i f they so wished. P r o d u c t i v e Roles vs Reproductive Roles T e t r e a u l t (1986) argues that the problem of gender e q u i t y i n e d u c a t i o n i s b r o u g h t about by s o c i e t y o v e r v a l u i n g the p r o d u c t i v e processes of s o c i e t y , such as p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l and e c o n o m i c s p r o c e s s e s , and u n d e r v a l u i n g t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s of s o c i e t y l i k e c h i l d r e a r i n g , h o u s e k e e p i n g and management, and o t h e r n u r t u r i n g r o l e s . R e p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s , she argues, a re j u s t as important as p r o d u c t i v e processes of s o c i e t y . I f t he k i n d s o f c a r e e r programs and jo b s t h a t women n o r m a l l y choose to p u r s u e were c o n s i d e r e d as i m p o r t a n t as those men pursue, r e s u l t i n g i n e q u i t a b l e pay f o r both types of r e s u l t a n t c a r e e r s , then perhaps the need to persuade g i r l s to j o i n technology based programs would be unnecessary. E f f e c t s o f Job Segregation on Boys S a d k e r and K l e i n (1986) a r g u e t h a t emphasis on sex stereotyped programs h u r t s boys too. These authors argue t h a t job s e g r e g a t i o n h u r t s boys who do not f i t what i s seen as 31 ' r e a l men', a t h l e t i c , competitive and a g g r e s s i v e . These boys o f t e n have p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l problems b o t h i n and ou t s i d e s c h o o l , e s p e c i a l l y when they a s p i r e t o c a r e e r s seen as u n f i t f o r them. As Sadker and K l e i n (1986) put i t , Sex s t e r e o t y p i n g l i m i t s boys career o p t i o n s a n d i n t e r e s t s . B o y s i n t e r e s t e d i n b a l l e t , n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n , or p a r e n t i n g and homemaking encounter negative m e s s a g e s i n s c h o o l a n d b e y o n d . A comprehensive approach t o e l i m i n a t i n g sex b i a s f r o m s c h o o l s w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l , c a r e e r , a n d f a m i l y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r male as w e l l as female students, (p. 22) T h i s i s a p o i n t of view t h a t , a l t h o u g h important, does not seem to have a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of many r e s e a r c h e r s . I t looks l i k e the main q u e s t i o n now as f a r as gender e q u i t y i s c o n c e r n e d i s how t o get g i r l s t o a c c e p t a move i n t o male dominated, s c i e n c e and technology based c a r e e r s . T h i s study t h e r e f o r e d e a l s w i t h t h e e q u i t y q u e s t i o n m a i n l y f r o m i n c r e a s i n g career o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g i r l s as t h i s l o o k s l i k e a p r i o r i t y need r i g h t now. Study i s however needed to f i n d out how boys who a r e not s u i t e d f o r what i s seen as 'mans jobs' can be encouraged t o take c a r e e r programs of t h e i r c h o i c e , r e g a r d l e s s of s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e put on them both at sch o o l and i n s o c i e t y . 32 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTION This chapter e x p l a i n s how the study was c a r r i e d out. I t c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n on who t h e s u b j e c t s a r e , the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n procedure f o l l o w e d and how the data were a n a l y z e d . SUBJECTS The study was c a r r i e d out i n Machakos D i s t r i c t between May and August 1988. During t h i s time secondary s c h o o l s i n Kenya were c l u s t e r e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g four c a t e g o r i e s : 1. Government M a i n t a i n e d S c h o o l s - government s u p p l i e s teachers and bears the running c o s t s . 2. Government A s s i s t e d Schools - government s u p p l i e s some of the t e a c h e r s but the other teachers and a l l the running c o s t s are p a i d f o r by the community. 3. Unaided Harambee Schools - a l l teachers and a l l running c o s t s borne by the community. 4. P r i v a t e Secondary S c h o o l s - s c h o o l s owned and run by i n d i v i d u a l s or groups, as business concerns. Within category 1 there were three types of s c h o o l s : a) Boys Only schools b) G i r l s Only schools c) Mixed ( g i r l s and boys) s c h o o l s . Schools w i t h i n the other three c a t e g o r i e s were normally mixed schoo l s . 33 In Machakos d i s t r i c t , there were 218 secondary s c h o o l s i n t o t a l . Category 1 had 39 s c h o o l s . Nine of these were boys o n l y s c h o o l s , ten were g i r l s o n l y s c h o o l s and 20 were mixed s c h o o l s . The other c a t e g o r i e s had the f o l l o w i n g number of schools each: category two - 80 s c h o o l s , category three - 70 schools and category f o u r - 28 s c h o o l s . T h r e e s c h o o l s were used i n t h i s s t u d y . One o f t h e schools was a boys on l y s c h o o l s e l e c t e d from category 1. The second s c h o o l was a g i r l s only school s e l e c t e d from category 1 a l s o , and the t h i r d s c h o o l was a mixed s c h o o l s e l e c t e d from category 2. The reasons why category 3 and 4 schools were not used i s because t h e i r i n t a k e s a r e not w e l l m o n i t o r e d , and t h e i r teachers are p r i v a t e l y employed and normally u n t r a i n e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e s e s c h o o l s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t (normally very poor) from those of other c a t e g o r i e s . The boys school and the g i r l s s c h o o l had three form t h r e e c l a s s e s each. The agreement with heads of these s c h o o l s was that f u l l c l a s s e s would be used i n the study so 2 c l a s s e s of 35 s t u d e n t s each were s e l e c t e d from each of the 2 s c h o o l s . The mixed school had 2 form 3 c l a s s e s with 35 students each. INSTRUMENTATION Two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used to c o l l e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The main q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was used to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n 34 p r o g r a m s . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e b a c k g r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was used to check the a c t u a l enrolment p a t t e r n s of s t u d e n t s i n the m i d d l e c o l l e g e s . The p u r p o s e o f the b a c k g r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o f i n d o u t w h e t h e r t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t e s t e d were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a c t u a l e n r o l m e n t p a t t e r n s i n the m i d d l e c o l l e g e s . Student Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s The s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e had 19 q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n one was used to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the students' c h o i c e s of career programs which they would l i k e to enter f o l l o w i n g t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n o f form 4. The o t h e r q u e s t i o n s formed groups around i s s u e s c o n s i d e r e d to i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e s of c a r e e r p r o g r a m s i d e n t i f i e d i n q u e s t i o n 1. Group one, c o m p r i s i n g q u e s t i o n s 7, 8, 15 and 16, was used to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on students' p e r c e p t i o n s of the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of v a r i o u s c a r e e r programs f o r g i r l s and boys. Q u e s t i o n 7 asked the s t u d e n t s t o s t a t e 3 j o b s which they thought were more s u i t a b l e f o r boys while q u e s t i o n 8 asked them to s t a t e t h r e e jobs they thought were bes t s u i t e d f o r g i r l s . Q u e s t i o n 15 asked each student i f they b e l i e v e d that there were jobs which boys performed b e t t e r than g i r l s , while q u e s t i o n 16 asked them i f they b e l i e v e d there were jobs g i r l s performed b e t t e r than boys. For both q u e s t i o n s 15 and 16, i f they s a i d yes, they were asked to g i v e an example and to g i v e the reasons why they 35 thought so. For each of the questions 15 and 16 i f a student s a i d no, they were asked to give the reasons why. Group 2, which i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s 2 and 4, was used to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . Questions 2 and 4 asked the s t u d e n t s to i n d i c a t e the c a r e e r s t h e y t h o u g h t t h e i r p a r e n t s and t h e i r t e a c h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , would want them to t r a i n f o r . Q u e s t i o n s 11, 12, 13 and 14, t o g e t h e r formed group 3 which was used to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of n o n - i n t e r p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s on t h e i r c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n program c h o i c e s . Question 11 addressed the i s s u e o f job a v a i l a b i l i t y i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r s , q u e s t i o n 12 the i s s u e of chances f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s , q u e s t i o n 13 whether t e c h n i c a l programs a r e above, below or a t the s t u d e n t s ' academic a b i l i t y , and q u e s t i o n 14 the s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t academic s u b j e c t s . Group 4, c o n s i s t i n g of q u e s t i o n s 3, 5, 18 and 19, was used to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n the students had p r i o r to choosing the s u b j e c t s they would pursue f o r a Kenya C e r t i f i c a t e o f Secondary E d u c a t i o n (K.C.S.E.) C e r t i f i c a t i o n , which would, i n p a r t , d e t e r m i n e the c a r e e r f i e l d s they would be a b l e to f i t i n t o i n the f u t u r e . A l s o , t h r o u g h t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , the s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h e s t u d e n t s u s e d t o o b t a i n t h e i r c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n was determined. Question 3 asked the students the number of times 36 they d i s c u s s e d c a r e e r s with t h e i r p a rents and q u e s t i o n 5 the number of times they d i s c u s s e d c a r e e r s with t h e i r t e a c h e r s . Q u e s t i o n 18 asked the s t u d e n t s to e x p l a i n what they thought people i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r s d i d , while q u e s t i o n 19 asked them to i n d i c a t e where they got t h e i r c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n from. Q u e s t i o n 17 was used to f i n d out the weight s t u d e n t s p l a c e d on each of the f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d above when they chose the c a r e e r programs they wished to pursue. The idea here was to f i n d out i f g i r l s p l a c e d t h e i r weight on d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s from those on which boys p l a c e d t h e i r s . A c opy o f t h e s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix A. Background Information Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The background i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i n form of a t a b l e . The c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s were asked to f i l l i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the number o f men and women e n r o l l e d i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r programs i n each of the years 1985, 1986, 1987 and May 1988. The programs i d e n t i f i e d i n the background q u e s t i o n n a i r e were those o f f e r e d i n middle c o l l e g e s i n Kenya. T e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , w h i c h was i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d e n t s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was not l i s t e d because on l y one of the middle t e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e s (K.T.T.C.) o f f e r e d t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programs. A copy of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix B. 37 QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION The s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e rese a r c h e r . In a l l three schools surveyed, each c l a s s of 35 students was put i n t o i t s own classroom. For each c l a s s , a teacher was a s s i g n e d to s u p e r v i s e and make sure t h a t students d i d not d i s c u s s the q u e s t i o n s . The s t u d e n t s were a s s u r e d t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p u r e l y f o r r e s e a r c h purposes and that t h e i r responses had no e f f e c t on t h e i r f u t u r e d e c i s i o n t o ch o o s e o t h e r c a r e e r programs. They were made aware though that i n f o r m a t i o n they were p r o v i d i n g would be used by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s , so i t was im p o r t a n t t h a t t h e y take i t s e r i o u s l y . Throughout the whole time the students worked on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the r e s e a r c h e r moved between t h e two c l a s s e s ( w i t h i n e a c h s c h o o l ) a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s a n d c l a r i f y i n g p o i n t s that proved c o n f u s i n g to the s t u d e n t s . The b a c k g r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o m p l e t e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f each o f t h e c o l l e g e s s u r v e y e d . Seven c o l l e g e s were s e l e c t e d f o r the sur v e y . The re s e a r c h e r took the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to the c o l l e g e s and c o l l e c t e d them from the c o l l e g e s a f t e r they were completed. The aim of t h i s e x e r c i s e was to provide i n f o r m a t i o n f o r comparison with the i n f o r m a t i o n from other c o u n t r i e s as obtained through review of l i t e r a t u r e . 38 PROTOCOL B e f o r e t h e s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d , p e r m i s s i o n had been o b t a i n e d from the p r e s i d e n t ' s o f f i c e as i s r e q u i r e d i n Kenya t o d a y . A c e r t i f i c a t e was i s s u e d which was shown t o t h e headmasters of the boys and mixed schools and the headmistress of the g i r l s s c h o o l surveyed. A r r a n g e m e n t s were made, w i t h the headmaster of each sample s c h o o l , f o r the data c o l l e c t i o n at the convenience of the school i n order to minimize school d i s r u p t i o n s . DATA PREPARATION The s t u d e n t s ' responses were g i v e n n u m e r i c a l codes f o r the purpose of data a n a l y s i s . P r e l i m i n a r y examination of the r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n 1 r e v e a l e d t h a t i t would be more p r o f i t a b l e t o c l u s t e r t h e c a r e e r p r o g r a m s i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : o f f i c e , t e c h n i c a l , a g r i c u l t u r e and t e a c h i n g . A f i f t h c a r e e r program, m e d i c a l , was i d e n t i f i e d i n i t i a l l y by the g i r l s ( m a i n l y n u r s i n g ) and boys ( m a i n l y d o c t o r ) under the c a t e g o r y o t h e r (see q u e s t i o n 1 i n s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . This category was maintained i n the f i l e s but was not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s because i t was not s p e c i f i c a l l y g i v e n as one of the o p t i o n s t o t h e s t u d e n t . I t was f e l t t h a t i f t h i s o p t i o n had been given more students would l i k e l y have chosen i t . T h e r e f o r e the obtained f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h i s category c o u l d not be used as a true r e p r e s e n t a t i v e response. 39 The c o d e d d a t a w e re t r a n s f e r r e d t o F o r t r a n c o d i n g f o r m s . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n c o d e s f o r e a c h s c h o o l , e a c h s t u d e n t i n t h e s c h o o l , a n d t h e g e n d e r o f e a c h s t u d e n t w e r e i n c l u d e d . The d a t a w e r e t h e n e n t e r e d i n t h e c o m p u t e r w i t h 100% v e r i f i c a t i o n . A 1 0 % random s a m p l e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' d a t a was s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e c o m p u t e r f i l e a n d c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One e r r o r (wrong g e n d e r ) was f o u n d . Due t o t h e f o r m a t a n d t y p e o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d b y t h e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t d i d n o t r e q u i r e c o d i n g . I t was t h e r e f o r e a n a l y z e d by h a n d . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Student Q u e s t i o n n a i r e F o r the s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d o u t i n t w o s t a g e s ; p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s a n d a f i n a l a n a l y s i s . P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s was f i r s t c a r r i e d o u t t o c h e c k i f t h e r e w e r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c a r e e r p r o g r a m c h o i c e s b e t w e e n g i r l s f r o m t h e m i x e d s c h o o l a n d f r o m g i r l s o n l y s c h o o l , a n d b e t w e e n b o y s f r o m t h e m i x e d s c h o o l a n d f r o m t h e b o y s o n l y s c h o o l . T h e r e were no p a t t e r n d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o r a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e b o y s o r t h e g i r l s f r o m s i n g l e s e x s c h o o l s a n d t h o s e f r o m t h e m i x e d s c h o o l . 40 F i n a l A n a l y s i s A f t e r a s c e r t a i n i n g t h a t t h e r e w e r e no p a t t e r n d i f f e r e n c e s , the s c h o o l s were combined f o r a f i n a l a n a l y s i s . The a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out using SPSS:X CROSSTABS program on t h e Amdahl 5860 computer m a i n t a i n e d by U.B.C. Computing Centre. The s t a t i s t i c s used were f r e q u e n c i e s , percentages and c h i - s q u a r e s . Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The y e a r l y enrollments of a l l the boys and g i r l s i n the Kenyan c o l l e g e s surveyed were t o t a l e d and e n t e r e d i n t o one t a b l e . For each program, percentages of males and females i n each year of enrolment were c a l c u l a t e d and a l s o entered i n t o the t a b l e . Then the o v e r a l l percentages f o r each program f o r a l l the years together were c a l c u l a t e d such that the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f gender r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n each program c o u l d be seen. 41 CHAPTER IV RESULTS INTRODUCTION The r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s made t o b o t h t h e s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p e n d i x A) a n d t h e b a c k g r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p e n d i x B) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . F i r s t , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f s u b j e c t s i s p r e s e n t e d . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s f o l l o w e d b y p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e f o u r m a i n s e c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . a) S t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f ge n d e r a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r s b) P e r c e p t i o n a b o u t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s i ) P a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i i ) T e a c h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e c ) P e r c e p t i o n a b o u t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f n o n - i n t e r p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s ; and d) The amount o f c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e and t h e i r s o u r c e s . The q u e s t i o n s t h a t a d d r e s s t h e p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e u n d e r e a c h o f t h e s e t o p i c s w e r e a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y . However, t o a i d i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e r e s u l t s were g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r . A comment was t h e n made a s t o t h e o v e r a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e t o w a r d s t h e q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d by t h e s t u d y . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s r e l a t e d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . A s s t a t e d i n 42 Chapter 2, Kenya government has been encouraging students to pursue t e c h n i c a l education. The government seems to b e l i e v e that t h i s type of education w i l l have the advantage of g i v i n g the students s k i l l s f o r s t a r t i n g small s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s i n the r u r a l areas, thus reducing r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n . A l s o , i t i s p r e s e n t l y b e l i e v e d that most jobs i n i n d u s t r y are technology based and that a l a r g e p o r t i o n of o f f i c e based jobs w i l l be taken over by computers and dictaphones. DESCRIPTION OF THE SUBJECTS The group of students surveyed c o n s i s t e d of 118 boys and 92 g i r l s . T h e ir ages ranged from 15 to over 19 years of age as shown i n Table 4.1. Table 4.1 Students' Ages 15 years 16 years 17 years 18 years 19 and n above Boys 1.7% 7.8% 12.1% 29.3% 49.1% 118 G i r l s 0.0% 14.1% 40.2% 34.8% 10.9% 92 The g i r l s were younger than the boys. For example only 10.9% of the g i r l s were over 18 years of age as compared to 49.1% of the boys. However, 14% of the g i r l s and 9.5% of the boys were below 17 years of age. Since the m a j o r i t y of the students were 17 years or o l d e r , i t was f e l t that they were capable of making r e a l i s t i c 43 career choices i f they had the r i g h t i n f o r m a t i o n and guidance to do so (see Herr, 1970). The major occupations of the students' parents were as shown i n Table 4.2. Table 4.2 Parents' Occupations A. F a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n F a r m e r B u s i n e s s T e a c h e r E n g i n e e r D r i v e r C l e r k S a l e s m a n O t h e r n 5 2 . 6 % 8.6% 1 0 . 5 % 2.9% 2.4% 2.9% 2.4% 1 7 . 6 % 210 B. M o t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n F a r m e r B u s i n e s s T e a c h e r N u r s e H o u s e w i f e S e c r e t a r y C l e r k O t h e r , n 5 5 . 5 % 6.7% 1 2 . 4 % 1.9% 1 6 . 3 % 2.4% 2.9% 1.9% 210 I t i s important to note here that s l i g h t l y more than 50% of the s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s a r e f a r m e r s . In Machakos, most of the farmers are s u b s i s t e n c e farmers whose income i s q u i t e low. C o n s e q u e n t l y the m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y were fr o m f a m i l i e s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y low incomes. STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF GENDER APPROPRIATE CAREERS The f i r s t q u e s t i o n d e a l t with i n t h i s study asked the students to i d e n t i f y t h e i r d e s i r e d career preparation-program a f t e r form four (see question no. 1, Appendix A). L i s t e d i n Table 4.3 i s a summary of the responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n f o r both the boys and the g i r l s . 44 Table 4.3 Students' P e r c e p t i o n of T h e i r Desired Choices of Career P r e p a r a t i o n Program O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teaching n Boys 7.4% 39.8% 43.5% 9.3% 108 G i r l s 34.4% 2.9% 44.3% 18.6% 70 O v e r a l l 18,0% 25.3% 43.8% 12.9% 178 Chi square = 42.87; df = 3; p < 0.05 Note: (a) O f f i c e i n c l u d e s s e c r e t a r i a l , and c l e r i c a l career programs. (b) T e c h n i c a l i n c l u d e s m e c h a n i c a l , e l e c t r i c a l , b u i l d i n g , and automotive career programs. (c) There were 32 missing cases. The t o t a l number of subjects was 210. A g r i c u l t u r e was the most f r e q u e n t l y s e l e c t e d c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n program (43.8%), f o l l o w e d i n order by t e c h n i c a l (25.3%), o f f i c e (18.0%), and t e a c h i n g (12.9%). However, as shown i n Table 4.-3, there are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between boys and g i r l s (X 2 = 42.87; p < .05). While more g i r l s than boys i n d i c a t e d that they would s e l e c t o f f i c e programs (34.3% g i r l s v e r s e s 7.4% boys) or t e a c h i n g programs (18.6% g i r l s verses 2.9% boys), a greater percentage of boys (39.9% verse s 2.9% g i r l s ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t they wished to e n t e r t e c h n i c a l programs. Equal percentages of boys and g i r l s (44%) i n d i c a t e d that they would enter a g r i c u l t u r e . To a i d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these career program c h o i c e s and to examine the i n f l u e n c e of gender, the students were asked to 45 i n d i c a t e which jobs they thought were most s u i t a b l e f o r men and f o r women ( Q u e s t i o n s 7 and 8 ) . T h e i r r e s p o n s e s a r e summarized i n Table 4.4. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , while almost 44% of t h e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y w i s h e d t o e n t e r a c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e , 12.9% of the s t u d e n t s suggested that a job i n a g r i c u l t u r e was best f o r boys as compared to o n l y 2.6% who s a i d a job i n a g r i c u l t u r e was best f o r g i r l s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the remaining jobs seen by the students as best f o r boys and g i r l s mirrored the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the career p r e p a r a t i o n program choices, e.g., f o r o f f i c e , 46.6% g i r l s vs. 6.2% boys (Table 4.4), compared to 34.3% g i r l s vs. 7.4% boys (Table 4.3). Table 4.4 Jobs Seen By Most Students As Best For Boys and For G i r l s O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l - Teaching Nurse n ture As Boys 6.2% 60.6% 12.9% 6.0% 0.0% 210 As G i r l s 46.6% 0.5% 2.6% 24.7% 17.7% 210 Chi square = 281.6 ; df = 4; p < 0.05 Note: Each student gave 3 jobs f o r g i r l s and 3 f o r boys. The reasons given by the students as to why they f e l t a p a r t i c u l a r job was more s u i t a b l e f o r boys or f o r g i r l s a re summarized i n Table 4.5. 46 Table 4 . 5 Reasons For C l a s s i f y i n g Jobs as Best f o r Boys and f o r G i r l s (A) FOR BOYS Financial Benefits Boys Better in Academics More Physical Strength Interests Boys Not G i r l s Forceful Character Required Industrial Preference n BOYS 21.2* 24.2* 39.4* 4.0* 8.1* 1.0* 99 GIRLS 9.8* 18.3* 65.9* 3.7* 2.4* 0.0* 82 OVERALL 16.0* 21.5* 51.4* 3.9* 5.5* 0.6* 181 (B) FOR GIRLS Less Less Interests Requires Gives Industry G i r l s Physical Thinking g i r l s and more tine Prefers Better in n Strength A b i l i t y not boys tolerance for Connuni-Required f a n i l y cation BOYS 57.0* 5.0* 8.0* 16.0* 6.0* 3.0* 5.0* 100 GIRLS 52.7* 6.8* 9.5* 13.5* 10.8* 2.7* 4.1* 74 OVERALL 55.2* 5.7* 8.6* 14.9* 8.0* 2.9* 4.6 174 The major t h i n g to note here i s t h a t the st u d e n t s seem t o b e l i e v e t h a t jobs r e q u i r i n g a l o t of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and high academic a b i l i t y are f o r boys. They a l s o i n d i c a t e that boys are more concerned with f i n a n c i a l rewards i n a job than are g i r l s . To f u r t h e r check gender s t e r e o t y p i n g , the students were asked t o i n d i c a t e whether they b e l i e v e d there were jobs that boys performed be t t e r than g i r l s (question 15) and jobs that g i r l s performed b e t t e r than boys (question 16) and i f so, to 47 gi v e an example of each. They were a l s o asked to give reasons f o r t h e i r answers. These responses are summarized i n T a b l e s 4.6 and 4.7. Table 4.6 Are There Jobs Boys Can Do Be t t e r Than G i r l s (A) Boys G i r l s O v e r a l l Yes 94.4% 88.0% 91.9% No 5.1% 12.0% 8.4% n 118 92 210 Chi-square = 2.42247 ; df=l (B) Examples Secretarial Technical Agriculture n. s, Boys Girls Overal1 (C) 1.3* 0.0* 0.7* 94.8* 98.7* 96.7* Reasons For Saying Yes Boys are brave Boys better in academics Requires a lot of strength 2.6* 1.2* 2.0* Girls prefer safer work Catering 1.3* 0.0* 0.7* Girls like neatness No time for family n 77 74 151 Boys Girls Overall 13.3* 2.7* 8.5* 10.0* 6.8* 8.5* 59.9* 83.8* 70.1* 11.1* 2.7* 7.3* 1.1* 2.7* 1.8* 5.6* 1.4* 3.7* 90 74 164 NOTE: 1. The f i v e boys who responded no i n d i c a t e d that anybody can do any job as long as they are t r a i n e d i n i t ; 10 out of 11 of the g i r l s who responded no suggested the same. 2. There i s no disagreement between boys and g i r l s i n b e l i e v i n g that there are jobs which are more s u i t a b l e f o r g i r l s than f o r boys. 48 Table 4.7 (A) Are There Jobs That G i r l s Can Do B e t t e r Than Boys Boys G i r l s O v e r a l l Yes 72.2% 75.8% 73.8% No 27.8% 24.2% 26.2% n 115 91 206 Chi-square = 0.11668; df = l ; n.s. (B) Examples S e c r e t a r i a l C l e r i c a l Teaching Nursing n Boys 42.6% 6.6% 0% 50.8% 61 G i r l s 47.4% 8.8% 5. 3% 38.6% 57 O v e r a l l 73.8% 7.6% 2. 5% 44.9% 118 (C) Reasons For Saying Yes Girls have Less Girls Girls Girls are Job is better phsyical better in like merciful simple n attitude strength communi- neatness required cation Boys •41.7* 10.0* 0* 5.0* 33.3* 10.0* 60 Girls 38.3* 17.0* 2.1* 8.5* 29.8* 4.3* 47 Overal1 40.2* 13.1* .9* 6.5* 31.8* 7.5* 107 (D) Reasons For Saying NO Boys can do Boys and girls Physical strength Anybody trained any job have same aptitude is no deterrent can do any job n Boys 73.3* 0* 3.3* 23.3* 30 Girls 54.*5 4.5* 0* 40.9* 22 Overall 65.4* 1.9* 1.9* 30.8* 52 NOTE: 73.3% (30) of the boys and 54. 5% (22) of the g i r l s who responded no i n d i c a t e d that boys can do any job w h i l e 23.3% of these boys and 40% of these g i r l s i n d i c a t e d anybody t r a i n e d can do any job. 49 One very important a s p e c t to note from T a b l e 4.6 and Table 4.7 i s that although only 8.4% of the students suggested that there are no jobs boys can do b e t t e r than g i r l s , as high as 25.6% suggested that there are no jobs g i r l s can do b e t t e r than boys. The r e a s o n i n g t h a t jobs seen as r e q u i r i n g a l o t o f p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h would be c l a s s i f i e d as men's j o b s was e x p e c t e d . What was not e x p e c t e d i s t h a t the s t u d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g the g i r l s themselves, suggested that boys c o u l d do c e r t a i n jobs b e t t e r than g i r l s because boys a r e b e t t e r i n academics. To f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t he i s s u e of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e the amount of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h r e q u i r e d to perform t e c h n i c a l jobs ( q u e s t i o n 10). The r e s u l t s are summarized i n Table 4.8. TABLE 4.8 STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE STRENGTH REQUIRED IN PERFORMING TECHNICAL JOBS Requires more s t r e n g t h than I have Requires s t r e n g t h that would leave me t i r e d Requires s t r e n g t h that I can handle Boys 9.5% 15.5% 75% G i r l s 25.0% 18.5% 56.5% Chi-square = 10.45; df = 2; p < 0.05 50 The strengt h f a c t o r may have an e f f e c t on the r e l u c t a n c e of g i r l s to get i n t o t e c h n i c a l jobs s i n c e 43.5% of the g i r l s seem to think that t e c h n i c a l jobs r e q u i r e a l o t of s t r e n g t h to do. A l s o , t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t h e i s s u e o f a c a d e m i c requirements, and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e upon the d e c i s i o n to enter t e c h n i c a l c a r e e r s , the students were asked to i n d i c a t e the l e v e l of academic a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d to perform t e c h n i c a l jobs ( q u e s t i o n 13). The responses were summarized as shown i n Table 4.9. Table 4.9 Students' P e r c e p t i o n of Academic A b i l i t y Required to Perform T e c h n i c a l Jobs Above my At my Below my A b i l i t y A b i l i t y A b i l i t y Boys 20.5 76.9 2.6 G i r l s 41.3 53.3 5.4 O v e r a l l 29.7 66.5 3.8 Chi Square = 12.95; df = 2; p < 0.05 The r e s u l t s seem to support the students' b e l i e f that boys are b e t t e r academically than g i r l s (see Table 4.6 Part C); s i n c e 41.3% of the g i r l s compared to 20.5% of boys seem to b e l i e v e that t e c h n i c a l jobs r e q u i r e higher academic a b i l i t y than they can a c h i e v e . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n might have an e f f e c t on the g i r l s ' r e l u c t a n c e to get i n t o t e c h n i c a l education. 51 Summary Comparing the r e s u l t s f o r q u e s t i o n s 7, 8, 15 and 16 to t h e r e s u l t s f o r q u e s t i o n 1, i t can seen t h a t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e t h e r e i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between what the students saw as app r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r gender and what they chose. A l s o , both boys and g i r l s agree on which jobs they p e r c e i v e d as women jobs' and they p e r c e i v e d as 'mens j o b s ' . T h i r d l y , t h e y seem to agre e on the r e a s o n s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the jobs as e i t h e r s u i t a b l e f o r women or f o r men. PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE EXPECTATIONS OF SIGNIFICANT OTHERS The s t u d e n t s w ere a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs they b e l i e v e d t h e i r parents ( q u e s t i o n 2) and teachers (question 3) would choose f o r them. Both parents and t e a c h e r s were i d e n t i f i e d , through l i t e r a t u r e review, as the p e o p l e i n the b e s t p o s i t i o n to i n f l u e n c e a s t u d e n t ' s c h o i c e . These p e r c e p t i o n s were then compared with what the students had i n d i c a t e d they would choose f o r themselves. P a r e n t a l Influence The r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2 a r e summarized together i n Table 4.10. The t a b l e provides an i n d i c a t i o n of th e e x t e n t o f agreement between what c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs students chose f o r themselves and what the students p e r c e i v e d t h e i r parents would choose f o r them. The summaries are reported s e p a r a t e l y f o r boys and g i r l s . 52 Table 4.10 (A) Boys Agreement Between Students' Choice And Th e i r Perceived Parents Choice Q l O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher Q2 O f f i c e 2 3 1 0 T e c h n i c a l 1 18 5 2 A g r i c -u l t u r e 1 8 23 1 Teaching 1 5 7 5 TOTAL 5 34 36 8 Note: Q l = Q2 = S t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e s o f c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs perc e i v e d parents' choices of ca r e e r s f o r t h e i r sons (B) G i r l s Q l O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher Q2 O f f i c e 11 1 2 5 T e c h n i c a l 0 1 0 0 A g r i c -u l t u r e 3 0 16 2 Teaching 5 0 8 6 TOTAL 19 2 26 13 Note: Ql Q2 Students' choices of career programs Perceived parents' choices of c a r e e r s f o r t h e i r daughters 53 The r e s u l t s i n Table 4.10(A) show that 48 boys out of the 83 boys who responded to both questions 1 and 2 had c h o i c e s that agreed with t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of what t h e i r parents would choose f o r them. T h i s works out to an o v e r a l l agreement of 57.8%. Of these 48 boys, 2 were i n o f f i c e , 18 i n t e c h n i c a l , 23 i n a g r i c u l t u r e , and 5 i n teacher t r a i n i n g . I t should a l s o be noted that even when the student's choice and h i s p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l c h o i c e do not agree, both c h o i c e s are c o n c e n t r a t e d around t e c h n i c a l programs (34 students and 26 p a r e n t s ) and a g r i c u l t u r e (36- s t u d e n t s and 33 p a r e n t s ) and t h a t o n l y 5 s t u d e n t s and 6 parents choose o f f i c e programs. T h i s makes o f f i c e the l e a s t popular choice f o r boys both by the students and t h e i r parents. The r e s u l t s i n Table 4.10(B) show that of the 60 g i r l s who re s p o n d e d t o q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2, 34 matched t h e i r own c h o i c e o f a c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n program w i t h what t h e y p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n ts' would choose f o r them. T h i s works out t o an o v e r a l l 56.7% agreement. For the g i r l s , t he agreement was d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : o f f i c e - 11, t e c h n i c a l - 1 , a g r i c u l t u r e - 16, teaching - 6. I t should be noted here that even when the student's choice and her p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l c h o i c e do not agree, both c h o i c e s are c o n c e n t r a t e d around o f f i c e programs (19 students and 19 parents) and as with the boys a g r i c u l t u r a l programs (26 students and 21 p a r e n t s ) . The l e a s t popular choice f o r g i r l s i s t e c h n i c a l programs (chosen by only one g i r l ) . 54 A comparison of the agreement f o r boys and the agreement f o r g i r l s i s shown i n Table 4.11. Table 4.11 The D i f f e r e n c e Between Agreement f o r Boys and f o r G i r l s with Perceived Parents' Choice O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher T o t a l Boys 2 18 23 5 48 G i r l s 11 1 16 6 34 Chi Square = 20.99; df = 3; p < 0.05 Looking at the r e s u l t s of Table 4.10(A) and 4.10(B), one r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the o v e r a l l p e r c e n t a g e s of g i r l s and boys whose c h o i c e s matched t h e i r p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t s c h o i c e s . However, Table 4.11 shows t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n the programs f o r which t h e r e was agreement f o r g i r l s and f o r boys. For boys, the main f i e l d s of agreement are a g r i c u l t u r e (23 out of 48) and t e c h n i c a l (18 out of 48) while f o r g i r l s they are a g r i c u l t u r e (16 out of 34) and o f f i c e (11 out of 34). Teachers' Influence The r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s 1 and 3 a r e summarized together i n Table 4.12. This t a b l e provides an i n d i c a t i o n of the e x t e n t o f agreement between what c a r e e r programs the students chose f o r themselves and what they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r t e a c h e r s would choose f o r them. The summaries are r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r boys 4.12(A) and f o r g i r l s 4.12(B). 55 Table 4.12 Agreement Between Students Choices and T h e i r Perceived Teachers Choice (A) Boys Ql O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher __ O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c -u l t u r e 1 3 1 2 22 10 4 5 23 0 2 2 Teaching 3 7 12 5 TOTAL 8 41 44 9 Note: Q l = Students' choices of career p r e p a r a t i o n programs Q3 = perc e i v e d teachers' choices (B) G i r l s Q l O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher Q3 O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c -u l t u r e Teaching TOTAL Note: Q l Q3 13 2 2 1 1 0 9 0 12 6 1 1 6 0 8 3 23 2 29 11 Students' choices of career p r e p a r a t i o n program perceived teachers' choices 56 As shown i n Table 4.12(A) the o v e r a l l agreement between what the boys chose f o r themselves and what they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r teachers would choose for them was 51 out of 102 boys or 50%. Of these 51 boys, 1 was i n o f f i c e , 22 i n t e c h n i c a l , 23 i n a g r i c u l t u r e and 5 i n teaching. Where the boys' c h o i c e s d i d not agree with t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s ' c h o i c e , both choices concentrated around t e c h n i c a l (41 students and 32 p a r e n t s ) and a g r i c u l t u r e (44 s t u d e n t s and 36 p a r e n t s ) as compared to o f f i c e (8 students and 7 parents) and teaching (9 students and 27 p a r e n t s ) . Table 4.12(B) shows a 44.6% o v e r a l l agreement between the g i r l s ' c h o i c e s and what they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r t e a c h e r s would choose f o r them (20 out of 65 who responded to both q u e s t i o n s 1 and 4). These 20 are d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : 13 i n o f f i c e , 1 i n t e c h n i c a l , 12 i n a g r i c u l t u r e , and 3 i n t e a c h i n g . For g i r l s , where there was disagreement between t h e i r c h o ice and what they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r parents would choose f o r them, both c h o i c e s c o n c e n t r a t e a r o u n d o f f i c e (23 s t u d e n t s and 29 p a r e n t s ) , a g r i c u l t u r e (29 s t u d e n t s and 15 p a r e n t s ) , and t e a c h i n g (11 students and 17 p a r e n t s ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s that t e c h n i c a l jobs are not seen as s u i t a b l e f o r g i r l s judging by t h e g i r l s ' own c h o i c e s ( o n l y 2) or by t h e i r p e r c e i v e d teachers' choices (only 4). A comparison fo r the agreement f o r boys and f o r g i r l s i s shown i n Table 4.13. 57 Table 4.13 D i f f e r e n c e Between Boys' Agreement and G i r l s ' Agreement With Perceived Teachers Choice O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teaching T o t a l Boys 1 22 23 5 65 G i r l s 13 1 12 3 29 Chi square 33.32; df = 3; p < 0.05 Summary Comparing the r e s u l t s i n Table 4.10 to those reported i n T a b l e 4.12 i t seems l i k e p a r e n t s have a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r i n f l u e n c e on the boys' c h o i c e s (58% agreement w i t h p a r e n t s compared to 50% agreement with teachers) and the g i r l s (57% agreement with parents verses 44.6% agreement with teachers) than the teachers have. PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF NON-INTERPERSONAL FACTORS The non-interpersonal f a c t o r s that were seen p o t e n t i a l l y to have i n f l u e n c e on s t u d e n t s when s e l e c t i n g t h e i r c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs and which were considered i n the present study i n c l u d e d job a v a i l a b i l i t y , academic a b i l i t y and chances fo r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . The e x t e n t of agreement between s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e s o f ca r e e r programs and t h e i r perceptions of job a v a i l a b i l i t y i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s (Question 11) i s summarized i n Table 4.14. 58 TABLE 4.14 Agreement Between Students' Choices and T h e i r P e r c e p t i o n of Programs with High Job A v a i l a b i l i t i e s (A) Boys Q l O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher Q4 O f f i c e 1 0 0 0 T e c h n i c a l 4 27 13 4 A g r i c -u l t u r e 1 7 19 1 Teaching 2 7 13 4 TOTAL 8 41 45 9 Note: Q l = Q4 = Students' choices of career p e r c e i v e d job a v a i l a b i l i t y p r e p a r a t i o n program (B) G i r l s Q l O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teache Q4 O f f i c e 13 1 3 4 T e c h n i c a l 3 1 5 2 A g r i c -u l t u r e 2 0 12 0 Teaching 5 0 10 6 TOTAL 23 2 30 12 Note: Q l = Students' choices of career p r e p a r a t i o n program Q4 = perc e i v e d job a v a i l a b i l i t y 59 The r e s u l t s of T a b l e 4.14(A) show t h a t the agreement between what c a r e e r program the male students chose ( T a b l e 4.3) and the program they perceived as p r o v i d i n g the h i g h e s t chance of o b t a i n i n g a job was 49.5% (51 but of 103 b o y s ) . T h i s agreement, however, i s not evenly d i s t r i b u t e d i n each program but r a t h e r f a v o r s c e r t a i n programs, i . e . , 1 f o r o f f i c e , 27 f o r t e c h n i c a l , 19 f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and 4 f o r teacher. I t should a l s o be noted that only 1 male student saw o f f i c e as h a v i n g h i g h job a v a i l a b i l i t y , making o f f i c e the l e a s t p r e f e r r e d career for boys. The r e s u l t s f o r g i r l s i n d i c a t e an agreement of 47.8% (32 out of 67 g i r l s ) between what they chose and the program they saw as having the highest p o s s i b i l i t y of g e t t i n g a job. T h i s agreement i s d i s t r i b u t e d d i f f e r e n t l y to that f o r boys c a r e e r s ( T a b l e 4 . 1 4 ( A ) ) . For g i r l s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s 13 f o r o f f i c e , 1 f o r t e c h n i c a l , 12 f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and 6 f o r teacher t r a i n i n g . T h i s shows that t e c h n i c a l i s not a popular c h o i c e by the g i r l s (only 2 g i r l s chose i t ) though 11 of them see t e c h n i c a l as a f i e l d with higher job a v a i l a b i l i t y . A comparison f o r the agreement f o r boys and f o r g i r l s i s shown i n Table 4.15. 60 Table 4.15 D i f f e r e n c e i n Agreement Between G i r l s and Boys with T h e i r P e r c e p t i o n of Career With Higher Job A v a i l a b i l i t y O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher T o t a l Boys 1 27 19 4 51 G i r l s 13 1 12 6 52 Chi-square = 36 . 6; df = 3; p < 0.05 L o o k i n g a t T a b l e 4.15, i t i s seen t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between boys and g i r l s agreement w i t h t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the chances f o r job a v a i l a b i l i t y i n a g r i c u l t u r e and t e a c h i n g c a r e e r s . However, t h e r e i s a b i g d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i r a g r e e m e n t s as c o n c e r n s c h a n c e s f o r j o b a v a i l a b i l i t y i n t e c h n i c a l careers and o f f i c e based c a r e e r s . The r e s u l t s of the agreement between students' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c a r e e r s w i t h h i g h e r c h a n c e s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s ( q u e s t i o n 12) and the students own c h o i c e s are as shown i n Table 4.16. 61 Table 4.16 Students' P e r c e p t i o n of Program Leading to Jobs With a Be t t e r Chance f o r Further S t u d i e s (A) Boys Ql O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher Q5 O f f i c e 3 1 1 1 T e c h n i c a l 2 28 17 3 A g r i c - 2 8 21 1 u l t u r e Teaching 1 4 4 5 TOTAL 8 41 43 12 Note: Q l = Students' choices of career p r e p a r a t i o n programs Q5 = p e r c e i v e d chances of f u r t h e r s t u d i e s (B) G i r l s Q l O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher Q5 O f f i c e 7 0 2 3 T e c h n i c a l 6 2 10 3 A g r i c - 5 0 13 2 u l t u r e Teaching 6 3 6 TOTAL 24 2 28 13 Note: Q l = Students' choices of career p r e p a r a t i o n programs Q5 = Perceived chances of f u r t h e r s t u d i e s The r e s u l t s of t a b l e 4.16(A) shows an agreement of 55.9%, between the male s t u d e n t s ' c a r e e r program c h o i c e and the program they see -as having higher chances f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s 62 (57 of 102 who answered both question 1 and ques t i o n 11). The agreement however was not e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n a l l the f i e l d s ; 3 were i n o f f i c e , 28 i n t e c h n i c a l , 21 i n a g r i c u l t u r e , and 5 i n teacher t r a i n i n g . The agreement shown i n Table 4.16(B) between the female students c h o i c e s and the programs they see as having higher chances f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i s 42.8% (28 out of 67). The 28 s t u d e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h i s agreement are d i s t r i b u t e d i n d i f f e r e n t programs as f o l l o w s : 7 i n o f f i c e , 2 i n t e c h n i c a l , 13 i n . a g r i c u l t u r e and 6 i n teacher t r a i n i n g . I t was noted that although only 2 g i r l s chose t e c h n i c a l , 21 of them r a t e i t as the f i e l d with the highest chances f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . L o o k i n g a t T a b l e s 4.16(A) and 4.16(B) t o g e t h e r one r e a l i z e s that there i s an a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between g i r l s (42.8%) and boys (55.9%) as regards the agreement between s t u d e n t s ' own c h o i c e and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r programs that l e a d to f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . I t seems as though f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i s not a p r i o r i t y f o r g i r l s . A c o m p a r i s o n f o r the agreement of the s t u d e n t s ' own c h o i c e and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of f u r t h e r s t u d i e s f o r boys and f o r g i r l s i s shown i n Table 4.17. 63 Table 4.17 D i f f e r e n c e Between the G i r l s and Boys Agreement with t h e i r P e r c e p t i o n of the Career Programs with B e t t e r Chances f o r Further Studies O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Teacher T o t a l Boys 3 28 21 5 57 G i r l s 7 2 13 6 28 Chi square = 59.43 ; df = 3 ; p < 0.05 Another f a c t o r t h a t t h i s study c o n s i d e r e d was s t u d e n t s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r own a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . The students were asked to rank what they p e r c e i v e d as t h e i r four best s u b j e c t s (see q u e s t i o n 14). The r e s u l t s are t a b u l a t e d i n two ways i n Table 4.18. F i r s t i n p a r t A f o r the students best four subjects and part B f o r the student's o v e r a l l best s u b j e c t . TABLE 4.18 Students' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r academic a b i l i t y i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s (A) As one of the students best four s u b j e c t s : Business English Geography History Maths Science Swahili Boys 41% 59% 62% 38% 68% 58% 30% G i r l s 63% 77% 61% 38% 58% 37% 54% (B) As the students best s u b j e c t : Boys 13.6% 19.4% 17.8% 12.7% G i r l s 22.8% 28.3% 17.4% 13.0% 29.7% 18.6% 18.5% 7.6% 11.9% 15.2% 64 It i s seen that while there are no d i f f e r e n c e s between boys and g i r l s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r academic a b i l i t y i n Geography and H i s t o r y but the r e s t of the s u b j e c t s are p o l a r i z e d a l o n g gender l i n e s . G i r l s seem t o p e r c e i v e themselves as good i n Business, E n g l i s h , and S w a h i l i w h i l e boys seem to p e r c e i v e themselves as good i n Mathematics and Science. T h i s may be one of the major reasons the g i r l s chose o f f i c e jobs over t e c h n i c a l . T e c h n i c a l jobs g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e good grounding i n science subjects f o r which the g i r l s seem to have n e g a t i v e s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n , w h i l e o f f i c e j o b s seem to r e q u i r e good a b i l i t y i n languages f o r which the g i r l s seem to have p o s i t i v e academic s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n . Summary Looking at a l l the major f a c t o r s examined i n the study, T a b l e 4.19 was produced as a summary, which was expected to show the f a c t o r s with high o v e r a l l i n f l u e n c e s on the students' c h o i c e s . Table 4.19 Summary of the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s on student c h o i c e Parent Teacher Job A v a i l - F u r t h e r Expectations Expectations a b i l i t y S t u d i e s Boys 57.8% 50.0% 49.5% 55.9% G i r l s 56.7% 44.6% 47.8% 42.8% 65 IMAGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION As p o i n t e d out i n Chapter I I , the Kenya Government has devoted i t s e l f to i n c r e a s i n g the t e c h n i c a l c a p a c i t y o f the country. The issu e s r e l a t e d to the image t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t s to the students were examined i n t h i s study. F i r s t , the students were asked to i n d i c a t e how i n t e r e s t i n g t e c h n i c a l careers are (question 9). The r e s u l t s are summarized i n Table 4.20. TABLE 4.20 Students l e v e l of i n t e r e s t i n t e c h n i c a l c a r e e r s Very i n t e r e s t i n g I n t e r e s t i n g enough D u l l Boys 65.8% 32.5% 1.7% G i r l s 50.0% 44.6% 5.4% Chi-square = 6.31; df = 3; p < 0.05 I t i s s u r p r i s i n g to note that Table 4.20 shows that only 1.7% of the boys and 5.4% of the g i r l s i n d i c a t e t h a t t e c h n i c a l education i s d u l l yet 60.2% of the boys and 97.1% of the g i r l s chose some other car e e r . Question 6 was used to f i n d out i f the students thought the i n d u s t r y would be w i l l i n g to employ them, r e g a r d l e s s of gender, i f they were t r a i n e d as t e c h n i c i a n s . The summary of the responses to t h i s question i s shown i n Table 4.21. 66 Table 4.21 Students' Perceptions of Industry's Preference f o r Employment i n the T e c h n i c a l F i e l d s Industry Industry Industry not w i l l i n g h e s i t a n t w i l l i n g n Boys 68.1% 25.9% 6.0% 116 G i r l s 58.9% 32.2% 8.9% 90 O v e r a l l 64.1% 28.6% 7.3% 206 Chi-square = 1.9544; df = 2; N.S. The per c e i v e d i n d u s t r i a l preference of boys and of g i r l s was e s s e n t i a l l y the same (x2=1.95; p < .38) t h e r e f o r e cannot be taken as a reason f o r g i r l s not choosing t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g programs. L a s t l y , the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e n d e d program c h o i c e s were compared with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of students c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n the t e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e s i n Kenya. T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s shown i n Table 4.22. Table 4.22 Enrolment Patterns f o r Males and Females In T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e s i n Kenya Between 1985 and 1988 O f f i c e T e c h n i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e Home n Economics Boys 0.8% 88.0% 10.3% 0.9% 2519 G i r l s 51.9% 11.2% 10.7% 26.2% 599 n 331 2283 323 180 3118 Chi square = 2117.3; df = 3; p < 0.05 67 Comparing the enrolment data summarized i n Table 4.22 with the students' choices i n Table 4.3 one r e a l i z e s that although a g r i c u l t u r e i s the most p r e f e r r e d c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n program f o r 43.8% of the sampled students, the p r e p a r a t i o n of students c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l c a r e e r programs i n the t e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e s sampled i s only 10.1%. I t should be noted however that i n both Table 4.22 and Table 4.3 the percentages of females and males i n a g r i c u l t u r e are e q u i v a l e n t . Apart from a g r i c u l t u r e , T a b l e 4.22 shows t h a t a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e of g i r l s than boys e n r o l l e d i n o f f i c e work (51.9% vs. 0.8%) while boys p r e f e r t e c h n i c a l work (88% v s . 11.2%). These r e s u l t s f o l l o w a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n to that observed i n Table 4.3 where more g i r l s than boys p r e f e r o f f i c e (34.3% vs. 7.4%) and more boys than g i r l s p r e f e r r e d t e c h n i c a l (29.8% vs. 2.9%). AMOUNT OF CAREER INFORMATION THE STUDENTS HAVE AND THEIR SOURCES B e s i d e s a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s a b o u t c a r e e r programs they p r e f e r r e d to enter and the i n f l u e n c e of d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s upon t h e i r d e c i s i o n s , the s t u d e n t s were a l s o asked about the c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n they had b e f o r e c h o o s i n g the s u b j e c t s they would take to prepare f o r the form 4 n a t i o n a l e x a m i n a t i o n , K.C.S.E., and where they got t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . F i r s t the s t u d e n t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e the t i m e s t h e y d i s c u s s e d careers with t h e i r parents (question 3). A summary of the r e s u l t s i s shown i n Table 4.23. 68 TABLE 4.23 Number of times students had d i s c u s s e d career choices with t h e i r parents Discussed more than once Once Never d i s c u s s e d n Boys 40.4% 20.2% 39.5% 116 G i r l s 37.4% 22.0% 40.7% 92 O v e r a l l 39.0% 21.0% 40.0% 208 Chi-square = 0.21; df = 2; n.s. These r e s u l t s show t h a t as f a r as the s t u d e n t s c o u l d remember only about 40% of the g i r l s and 40% of the boys had d i s c u s s e d c a r e e r c h o i c e s with t h e i r p a rents more than once. These students being i n form 3 had already chosen the s u b j e c t s they were p u r s u i n g f o r K.C.S.E. which would determine which career programs they would be e l i g i b l e f o r i n the f u t u r e . As s a i d before, the other group of people who are c l o s e to the students i s t h e i r teachers, so i t was l o g i c a l to f i n d out how much d i s c u s s i o n there might have been between the students and the teachers ( q u e s t i o n 5). The r e s u l t s are t a b u l a t e d i n Table 4.24. 69 TABLE 4.24 Number of times students d i s c u s s e d career c h o i c e s with t e a c h e r s More than once Once Never n Discussed Boys 26.3% 12.7% 61.0% 118 G i r l s 17.8% 31.1% 51.1% 90 O v e r a l l 22.6% 20.7% 56.7% 198 Chi square = 10.51; df = 2; p < 0.05 These r e s u l t s show that only 26% of the boys and 17.8% of the g i r l s , as f a r as they c o u l d remember, had d i s c u s s e d c a r e e r s with t h e i r t e a c h e r s more than once. A l s o they show t h a t as high as 51% of the g i r l s and 61% of the boys had not d i s c u s s e d any c a r e e r s with t h e i r teachers before they chose the s u b j e c t s they were going to pursue f o r K.C.S.E. Q u e s t i o n number 19 asked the s t u d e n t s t h e i r s o u r c e o f career i n f o r m a t i o n . The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 4.25. TABLE 4.25 Sources of career i n f o r m a t i o n Parents Peers Teachers Books n Boys 5.4% 43.2% 23.4% 27.9% 111 G i r l s 12.0% 25.3% 42.2% 20.5% 83 O v e r a l l 8.2% 35.6% 31.4% 24.7% 194 Chi-square = 13.21; df = 3; p < 0.05 70 From these r e s u l t s i t seems that 71% of the boys f e e l t h a t t h e i r main source of ca r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n was e i t h e r books or t h e i r peers. For the g i r l s the percentage i s lower at 45.8%. One should note t h a t o n l y 5.4% of the boys and 12.0% of the g i r l s i n d i c a t e d that t h e i r main source of c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e i r p a r e n t s , a l t h o u g h p a r e n t s , as t h e p r i m a r y s o c i a l i z e r s , should have had more i n p u t . A l s o , i t seems as though t e a c h e r s have more e f f e c t on g i r l s ' c h o i c e s (42.2% regarded them as t h e i r major source) than on boys (only 23.4% regarded them as t h e i r major source). Question 18 was used to f i n d out i f the students knew what d i f f e r e n t people i n d i f f e r e n t careers do. It may be necessary t o p o i n t out h e r e t h a t an e l a b o r a t e e x p l a n a t i o n was not expected and any i n d i c a t i o n of some idea of what the occ u p a t i o n i n v o l v e d was taken as knowledge. The r e s u l t s , t a b u l a t e d i n Table 4.26, showed mixed l e v e l s of knowledge from occupation to o c c u p a t i o n and a l s o showed a gender d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e knowledge l e v e l s according to whether the job i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y gender a p p r o p r i a t e . Exceptions of t h i s are masonry, t y p i s t and e l e c t r i c a l t e c h n i c i a n where students, female or male seemed to have f a i r knowledge. For c l e r i c a l , both female and male students seemed to have a l l s o r t s of ideas of what a c l e r k does i n an o f f i c e , almost to g i v i n g him or her the o v e r a l l running of the company or i n s t i t u t i o n . 71 TABLE 4.26 What students think people do i n d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r s Mechanical Electrical Secretary Cleric Accounts Mason Typist Technician Technician Person (A) BOYS Know 63.6* 78.0* 53.4* 44.9* 70.3* 92.4* 86.4* Don't Know 36.4* 22.0* 46.6* 55.1* 29.7* 7.6* 13.6* (B) GIRLS Know 43.5* 79.3* 64.1* 42.4* 65.2* 91.3* 88.0* Don't Know 56.5* 20.7* 35.9* 57.6* 34.8* 8.7* 12.0* (C) OVERALL Know 54.8* 78.6* 58.1* 43.8* 68.1* 91.9* 87.1* Don't Know 45.2* 21.4* 41.9* 56.2* 31.9* 8.1* 12.9* n 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n here should be drawn to key occupations l i k e M e c h a n i c a l T e c h n i c i a n , S e c r e t a r i a l and C l e r i c a l work, which are gender p o l a r i z e d occupations. Large percentages of both g i r l s and boys do not seem to know what these occupations i n v o l v e , i . e , f o r mechanical 36.4% of boys and 35.9% of the g i r l s , f o r s e c r e t a r i a l 46.6% of boys and 35.9% of the g i r l s , f o r c l e r i c a l 55.1% of boys and 56.2% of the g i r l s . I t i s 72 t h e r e f o r e u n r e a l i s t i c t o e x p e c t t h e s e s t u d e n t s t o make reasonable, choices of career p r e p a r a t i o n programs. I t i s f a i r to say many of the students are faced with having to choose programs which would prepare them f o r f u t u r e c a r e e r s w h i l e they have mysterious ideas or no idea at a l l about what the care e r s i n v o l v e . 73 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e main s e c t i o n s . In the f i r s t s e c t i o n , the d i s c u s s i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n the l a s t c h a p t e r a r e p r o v i d e d . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x s u b s e c t i o n s . In the f i r s t s u b s e c t i o n , the r e s u l t s p e r t a i n i n g to s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e o f c a r e e r program are presented ( p a r t (a) of the f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n ) . In the second, the r e s u l t s r e l a t e d to s t u d e n t s p e r c e p t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of gender are d i s c u s s e d ( r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n number t w o ) . The t h i r d s u b s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s d e s c r i b i n g the i n f l u e n c e of p a r e n t s ' and t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s upon the career program d e c i s i o n s made by s t u d e n t s ( q u e s t i o n 1 ) . The f o u r t h s u b s e c t i o n , i n f l u e n c e of non i n t e r p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , d e a l s w i t h r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n number three and addresses such f a c t o r s as f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d s , a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y and academic upward m o b i l i t y . Subsection f i v e , sources of c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n , addresses the i s s u e of a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n to the students p r i o r t o m a k i n g c h o i c e s o f s u b j e c t s f o r K . C . S . E . c e r t i f i c a t i o n . T h i s r e l a t e s to the f o u r t h r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n (see c h a p t e r 1 ) . F i n a l l y , the s i x t h s u b s e c t i o n , image of t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , attempts to e x p l a i n the p o s s i b l e reasons why t e c h n i c a l i s not p r e f e r r e d by the m a j o r i t y of the students 74 although the government has e s t a b l i s h e d i t as a p r i o r i t y f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n . The second main s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the c o n c l u s i o n of the study. T h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s s y n t h e s i s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n from the d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s addressed by the study. S e c t i o n t h r e e , recommendations, i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s u b s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s u b s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y and the q u a l i t y o f g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . The s e c o n d s u b s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h the i s s u e o f p r o v i d i n g r o l e models f o r the students. The f o u r t h s e c t i o n s u g g e s t s r e l a t e d t o p i c s n e e d i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n order to c l a r i f y i s s u e s addressed by t h i s s t u d y . The f i f t h s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o n c l u d i n g comments, m a i n l y on how o t h e r c o u n t r i e s a r e d e a l i n g with the i s s u e of gender i n e q u i t y which t h i s study sees as a p o s s i b l e cause f o r the gender segregated career a s p i r a t i o n of high s c h o o l students. STUDENTS * OWN ASPIRED CAREER PREPARATION PROGRAM The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y showed t h a t p r o g r a m s i n a g r i c u l t u r e were a p r i o r i t y a s p i r a t i o n f o r both g i r l s and boys (about 44% f o r both boys and g i r l s ) . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h done i n Kenya ( E s h i w a n i , 1984) , and e l s e w h e r e ( M a r s h a l l , 1987; V e l f o r d and H i c k e y 1985) , a l l o f which showed a g r i c u l t u r a l c a r e e r s a t p o s t secondary l e v e l to be male segregated. For example, Eshiwani 75 (1984) shows only 20% females i n a g r i c u l t u r e programs. I t i s not c l e a r why a g r i c u l t u r e seems to have become the f a v o u r i t e career f o r the s t u d e n t s . What i s seen as a p o s s i b l e reason i s that the change to the new 8-4-4 system of education which has e s t a b l i s h e d l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . The f i r s t l e v e l c o n t a i n s the core s u b j e c t s that each s c h o o l must o f f e r . These s u b j e c t s are 1) E n g l i s h , 2) Maths, 3) P h y s i c s , Chemistry and B i o l o g y or B i o l o g i c a l S c i ence and P h y s i c a l Science, 4) Geography, 5) H i s t o r y and Government, and 6) S w a h i l i . Poorer schools which do not have f a c i l i t i e s f o r pure Chemistry, P h y s i c s and B i o l o g y o f f e r P h y s i c a l Science and B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e . The s e c o n d l e v e l c o n t a i n s t h e f o l l o w i n g o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s ; Home S c i e n c e , A g r i c u l t u r e , Woodwork, Metalwork, Power Mechanics, B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n , E l e c t r i c i t y , and Drawing and Design. Any s c h o o l which o f f e r s P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e and B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e i n s t e a d of P h y s i c s , B i o l o g y , and C h e m i s t r y must o f f e r one of t h e s e s u b j e c t s . Since the c o s t of f a c i l i t i e s needed i n s c h o o l i s borne by the community, most of the r u r a l s c h o o l s , whose communities income i s q u i t e low, o f f e r a g r i c u l t u r e as t h e i r o p t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t as i t i s t h e c h e a p e s t i n terms of f a c i l i t i e s and equipment. A l s o due to previous experience with food shortage, the government has r e c e n t l y l a u n c h e d a campaign f o r s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y i n food p r o d u c t i o n , which has caused food s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s to be b u i l t a l l over the country. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h e r e f o r e f o r the s t u d e n t s to see a g r i c u l t u r e as a h i g h 76 p r i o r i t y f i e l d i n the c o u n t r y . Another f a c t o r may be t h a t s i n c e over 50% of the parents are i n farming, the k i d s may be i n f l u e n c e d by the l i f e s t y l e w i t h i n the communities they grew up i n . A p a r t from a g r i c u l t u r e , t he r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e career a s p i r a t i o n f o r boys and g i r l s f o l l o w e d the t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s , i . e . boys a s p i r e d f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a r e e r programs while the g i r l s a s p i r e d f o r o f f i c e and t e a c h i n g programs. I t should be noted here that t h i s study expected to f i n d changes towards g r e a t e r e n r o l l m e n t s i n t e c h n i c a l c a r e e r programs. T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n comes f r o m the government's emphasis i n t e c h n o l o g y e d u c a t i o n and i n e d u c a t i o n f o r se l f - e m p l o y m e n t which r e s u l t e d i n the change to 8-4-4 education system. I t shows however t h a t t h i s change has not o c c u r r e d y e t . Maybe there are f a c t o r s that the government has not addressed yet i n i t s campaign f o r change. STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF THEIR GENDER ROLE When t h e q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s i n g the i s s u e o f s t u d e n t s p e r c e p t i o n o f gender r o l e were a n a l y z e d (Questions 7, 8, 15 and 16), i t was c l e a r that there was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the students career a s p i r a t i o n s and what they saw as a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s f o r t h e i r gender r o l e s . For example, 46.6% of a l l the students saw o f f i c e jobs as best f o r g i r l s and sure enough 34.3% of the g i r l s i n the study a s p i r e d fo r c a r e e r programs i n o f f i c e work. A l s o 60.6% of a l l the 77 students saw t e c h n i c a l c a r e e r s as best f o r boys, and 39.8% of the boys i n the study a s p i r e d f o r t e c h n i c a l jobs. S i n c e s t u d i e s have shown t h a t t h e r e a r e no i n h e r e n t b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a gender d i f f e r e n c e i n a b i l i t y to perform i n d i f f e r e n t jobs (MacCant, 1984; Mangano and P a t t e r s o n , 1976; G a s k e l l and MacLaren, 1987), then somewhere d u r i n g t h e i r u p b r i n g i n g , the s t u d e n t must have l e a r n e d t h a t t h e r e a r e t y p e s o f c a r e e r s and knowledge a p p r o p r i a t e t o each gender. When g i v i n g t h e i r r e a s o n s why they saw c e r t a i n c a r e e r s as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r g e n d e r , t h e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t c a r e e r s s u i t a b l e f o r boys are the ones which r e q u i r e a l o t of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and high academic a b i l i t y while commanding h i g h pay at the same time. Careers s u i t a b l e f o r the g i r l s on the other hand were seen as those r e q u i r i n g l e s s p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , l e s s academic a b i l i t y , and a l o t of p a t i e n c e and mercy, w h i l e at the same time a l l o w i n g them f r e e time to b r i n g up f a m i l y . U n d e r l y i n g these p e r c e p t i o n s are c e r t a i n assumptions that the students h o l d about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b i l i t i e s of a g i r l as opposed to those of a boy. For g i r l s the u n d e r l y i n g assumptions are that g i r l s are e i t h e r weak or do not l i k e to get t i r e d , that they a r e academically l e s s capable, t h a t they are very t o l e r a n t and m e r c i f u l and that they w i l l be r e q u i r e d to bear c h i l d r e n and p l a y the major r o l e of r a i s i n g them. For boys, the assumptions a r e that they are strong both p h y s i c a l l y and a c a d e m i c a l l y and t h a t money i s t h e i r d r i v i n g f o r c e . T h i s 78 may not be s u r p r i s i n g when one r e a l i z e s that i n a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y , the women are expected to do most of the domestic work even when they have a f u l l time job (O'Brien 1987) and that the kinds of jobs they do i n i n d u s t r y are mainly s e r v i c e jobs which are normally boring and are at subordinate l e v e l s where they are supposed to c a r r y out o r d e r s g i v e n by t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s (mainly men). One has to have p a t i e n c e to keep these jobs and the students seem to have gotten the message. One aspect to note from Tables 4.6 and 4.7 i n the r e s u l t s i s that although o n l y 8.4% of a l l the students say there are no j o b s boys can do t h a t g i r l s c a n n o t do. T h i s p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e s d r a s t i c a l l y to 26.2% when c o n s i d e r i n g those who say that there are no jobs the g i r l s can do that the boys cannot do. T h i s c o n f i r m s t h a t g i r l s , as workers, are seen as l e s s capable compared to boys and 24.2% of the g i r l s i n the study seem to have accepted the n o t i o n (see Table 4.7). INFLUENCE OF THE EXPECTATIONS OF SIGNIFICANT OTHER The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y show t h a t t h e r e i s a 58% agreement between what boys choose and what they t h i n k t h e i r parents would have chosen f o r them. For g i r l s t h i s agreement i s 57%. One c a n c o n c l u d e t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n p a r e n t a l e f f e c t between boys and g i r l s . A l s o , the study shows a 50% agreement f o r boys and 44.6% f o r g i r l s with what they p e r c e i v e as t h e i r t eachers' c h o i c e s . A l s o here no s e r i o u s d i f f e r e n c e was found. Other s t u d i e s have concluded 79 t h a t students l e a r n from s o c i e t y what an a c c e p t a b l e c a r e e r f o r them i s , and they tend to conform w i t h those e x p e c t a t i o n s even though such c o n f o r m i n g might go a g a i n s t ones a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s ( O ' B r i e n , 1987). A l s o Tucker and A s s e r (1980) a r g u e d t h a t " p a r e n t s e n c o u r a g e d t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s w i t h a v a r i e t y of rewards and responded n e g a t i v e l y to n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s " (p. 53). Although data were not o b t a i n e d on how the students came t o b e l i e v e why t h e i r p a r e n t s and teachers would have l i k e d them to enter t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , i t seems f a i r to assume t h a t s t u d e n t s took t h e i r cues from the r o l e s t h e y see t h e i r p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s p l a y i n g a t home, a t s c h o o l , and at work. I f most of the mothers they know are e i t h e r s e c r e t a r i e s t o male managers, or n u r s e s f o r male d o c t o r s or c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s under male headmasters, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the students to b e l i e v e that t h a t i s how th i n g s ought to be. Blaming them f o r c h o o s i n g a l o n g gender l i n e s would then be 'blaming the v i c t i m s ' because they d i d not make the r u l e s the s o c i e t y seems to p l a y by. INFLUENCE OF NON-INTERPERSONAL FACTORS The n o n - i n t e r p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study were academic a b i l i t y , a cademic upward m o b i l i t y , and job a v a i l a b i l i t y . As f a r as students s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n i n academic a b i l i t y i s c o n c e r n e d , the g i r l s saw th e m s e l v e s as good i n Business Education and Languages while the boys saw themselves as good i n Maths and Science s u b j e c t s . Since there i s l i t t l e 80 b i o l o g i c a l evidence that academic a b i l i t y i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s i s d i s t r i b u t e d along gender l i n e s , a number of s p e c u l a t i o n s can be pr o v i d e d as to the cause of the p e r c e p t i o n . One of the e x p l a n a t i o n s may l i e i n the s c h o o l s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s . In Kenya, as i n othe r p a r t s of the world, s c h o o l s u b j e c t s a r e shar e d such t h a t women m a i n l y teach languages, s e c r e t a r i a l ( b u s i n e s s ) s t u d i e s and s o c i a l s t u d i e s while men mainly teach maths and s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s (see K e l l y and N o l r l e n 1982). By observing t h i s p a t t e r n , students may get the message that some types of knowledge i s l e g i t i m a t e f o r males w h i l e another type i s f o r females. A l s o when the students compare the s u b j e c t s t h e women a r e t e a c h i n g and t h e t y p e s o f j o b s women a r e perfor m i n g a t work p l a c e , they see a c l e a r match. O f f i c e jobs r e q u i r e languages and b u s i n e s s s t u d i e s w h i l e t e c h n i c a l jobs r e q u i r e maths and s c i e n c e s . Since the students have shown that mainly they a s p i r e to gender s t e r e o t y p e d j o b s , t h e y may see no need i n p u t t i n g e f f o r t i n s u b j e c t s that do not l e a d to those j o b s . Why would a g i r l who knows or assumes t h a t she w i l l end up being e i t h e r a s e c r e t a r y or a c l e r k spend a l o t of time t r y i n g to master p r i n c i p l e s o f p h y s i c s ? Her time might be b e t t e r spent i n p r a c t i c i n g t y p i n g or stu d y i n g sentence s t r u c t u r e . I t may be necessary to note t h a t , although t h i s study d i d not e s t a b l i s h whether boys a c t u a l l y out perform g i r l s i n maths and s c i e n c e , other s t u d i e s have shown that where the teachers and pa r e n t s expectations were not gender b i a s e d , the academic r e s u l t s a l s o 81 were not gender b i a s e d (see Brandon, 1981; Sharon and Sharon, 1 9 8 6 ) . C h a n g i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f g e n d e r a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r s i n Kenya t h e r e f o r e may need an e f f o r t to change the gender b i a s e s the teachers and the parents may h o l d i n r e g a r d to a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t these b i a s e s a r e not o n l y passed by d i s c u s s i o n but a l s o by i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s . T u c k e r and A s s e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) suggested: "Roles are, however, c o n s t a n t l y r e n e g o t i a t e d . As i n d i v i d u a l s s t r i v e to meet t h e i r needs, t h e y ' t r y out new b e h a v i o u r s to see i f t h e i r r o l e p a r t n e r s w i l l a c c e p t those behaviours as a p p r o p r i a t e . T h e r e f o r e the p o t e n t i a l f o r change i s always t h e r e , tempered by r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s which support the s t a t u s quo" (p. 51). The r e s u l t s i n T a b l e 4.16 show t h a t t h e r e i s a b i g d i f f e r e n c e between the i n f l u e n c e of f u r t h e r s t u d i e s on the boys (56%) and g i r l s (43%) used i n t h i s study. I t may be t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f female s t u d e n t s do not a s p i r e t o f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . They may be l o o k i n g t o o b t a i n i n g a job and then s e t t l i n g down t o r a i s e a f a m i l y . They may be s e e i n g t h a t t h e i r job of r a i s i n g a f a m i l y may not f i t i n very w e l l w i t h f u r t h e r s t u d i e s timewise. A l s o , i f the g i r l s are t h i n k i n g of marriage, they can see that b e s i d e s r a i s i n g a f a m i l y they w i l l be e x p e c t e d t o do most of t h e d o m e s t i c work. They w i l l t h e r e f o r e be d o i n g two jobs a l r e a d y and a d d i n g s t u d i e s t o these jobs may be too much f o r them to handle. Boys on the other hand seem to r e l a t e t h e i r career a s p i r a t i o n s and t h e i r 82 chances f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s more p o s i t i v e l y . Assuming t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n t e n t i o n a l , one i s made to think t h a t boys e i t h e r do not i n t e n d t o marry soon or that even i f they marry, t h e y w i l l s t i l l have time t o f u r t h e r t h e i r s t u d i e s during t h e i r working y e a r s . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g when one r e a l i z e s t h a t we s t i l l l i v e i n a s o c i e t y where the domestic work and the work of r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i s l e f t to women w h i l e the men are supposed to earn enough money, o u t s i d e the home, to support t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n . T h i s r e q u i r e s the men t o s e i z e a l l p o s s i b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o improve t h e i r e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l . Another reason why female students may not want to go f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s r e l a t e s t o how t h e y p i c t u r e a c a d e m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r women as opposed to s o c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l women. A l t h o u g h t h i s study d i d not t e s t f o r the s t u d e n t s ' i d e a o f a s o c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l woman, o t h e r s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s s u c c e s s i s m e a s u r e d by m a r r y i n g a s u c c e s s f u l man and r a i s i n g a f a m i l y w i t h i n a p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y , and p l a y i n g s u p p o r t i v e r o l e s to the husband who i s the head of the f a m i l y (see K e l l y 1982, O'Brien, 1987). K e l l y and Nehlen (1982) when t a l k i n g about s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r women, s a i d " I f they a r e s i n g l e t h i s may serve to remind a l l that women can c h o o s e t o work f o r wages, b u t t h a t c h o i c e i n v o l v e s f o r s a k i n g marriage and c h i l d r e n ... i f women i n a u t h o r i t y a r e s i n g l e and women i n subordinate p o s i t i o n s are not the messages may be even s t r o n g e r " (p. 168). I f then the students see a 83 s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r woman as being s i n g l e or d i v o r c e d , mainly c h i l d l e s s and a b r a s i v e to men, they may not want to end up i n that s i t u a t i o n . An i m p l i c a t i o n here i s that marriage i s not an a s s o c i a t i o n of equals but of a s u p e r i o r man to an i n f e r i o r woman and unless the s o c i e t y changes t h i s s i t u a t i o n the women who want to marry and r a i s e f a m i l i e s w i l l f e e l the p r e s s u r e to l i m i t t h e i r success t o a l e v e l below t h e i r husbands. I t i s c l e a r that the female p l a y s the dominant r o l e i n c h i l d b i r t h and e a r l y n u r t u r i n g , however, there i s no reason why f a m i l y r o l e s , i n c l u d i n g domestic work, cannot be shared by both men and women. Educators t h e r e f o r e should be c a r e f u l not to l e a d the c h i l d r e n t o c h o o s i n g c a r e e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l gender l i n e s while they are aware that most of the s e c r e t a r i a l and c l e r i c a l jobs t h a t g i r l s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s p i r e f o r a r e being taken over by computers and dictaphones. SOURCES AND AVAILABILITY OF CAREER INFORMATION The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y showed t h a t t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e c a r e e r d i s c u s s i o n between the stu d e n t s surveyed and t h e i r parents (see T a b l e 4.23). T h i s has both a p o s i t i v e and a n e g a t i v e s i d e . Some s t u d i e s have a r g u e d t h a t p a r e n t s encourage students t o pursue t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s and reward s t u d e n t s f o r p u r s u i n g them w h i l e they d i s c o u r a g e d any non-t r a d i t i o n a l c h o i c e s (Tucker and Asser 1980). The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s had l i m i t e d s e r i o u s c a r e e r d i s c u s s i o n s with t h e i r p arents. T h i s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d to 84 i n d i c a t e t h at the care e r teachers should have a b e t t e r chance to g u i d e t h e s e s t u d e n t s t o c h o o s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r s , a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r a b i l i t y , i n t e r e s t and a p t i t u d e r a t h e r than gender. On the negative s i d e , one c o u l d argue that s i n c e the p a r e n t s a r e n o r m a l l y the p r i m a r y s o c i a l i z i n g a g e n t s , they c o u l d be very e f f e c t i v e l y used by the s c h o o l system i n g e t t i n g the students to make a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e s . T h i s would on l y be p o s s i b l e , however, i f t h e r e was a good program i n p l a c e , i n v o l v i n g d i s c u s s i o n s between p a r e n t s , c a r e e r t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . The aim would mainly be exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n about the student's s c h o o l performance, i n t e r e s t s at home and a t s c h o o l , and a p t i t u d e towards d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r s . The parents and the teachers t h e r e f o r e would be g i v i n g the student s i m i l a r messages on c a r e e r s . T h i s would be s i m i l a r to the ty p e o f i n v o l v e m e n t by some p a r e n t s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n i n England (see Mortimore and Mortimore 1984) only that i n s t e a d of addr e s s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l achievement i t would be add r e s s i n g career p r e p a r a t i o n . The problem with the above su g g e s t i o n i s that the r e s u l t s show that there was very l i t t l e c areer guidance i n the schools surveyed a l s o . In f a c t some of the students seemed to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e were no c a r e e r t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r s c h o o l . T h i s seems to support the claims made by K i l o n z o (1983) who claimed that career teachers only work with form 4 students, ( h e l p i n g them to f i l l c areer forms) and gi v e no guidance to forms 1 to 3. I t may not be f a i r to blame the t e a c h e r s because the 85 e d u c a t i o n system i s so se t up that c a r e e r t e a c h e r s , where they are a v a i l a b l e , a r e a l s o f u l l t ime c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . They are e x p e c t e d to c a r r y out gu idance and c o u n s e l l i n g on t h e i r own t i m e . T h i s i s a s i t u a t i o n which needs immediate a t t e n t i o n i f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n t e n t i o n to change s t u d e n t ' s c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s ( t o a c c e p t e d u c a t i o n f o r s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t and e d u c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o j o b m a r k e t ) i s e x p e c t e d to work. C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d be r e l i e v e d of t h e i r t e a c h i n g l o a d and g i v e n t i m e w i t h i n t h e t i m e t a b l e t o g i v e b o t h c a r e e r and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a t e d g u i d a n c e to s t u d e n t s a t a l l l e v e l s i n the s c h o o l . B e s i d e s g i v i n g the c a r e e r t e a c h e r s t i m e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to make s u r e t h a t t h e c a r e e r t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s a r e not g e n d e r b i a s e d and t h a t t h e y have the a p p r o p r i a t e c u r r e n t c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l . T h i s suggests i n s e r v i c e c o u r s e s from time to t ime and workshops p r o v i d e d , p o s s i b l y at t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s l i k e K . T . T . C . a n d K e n y a t t a U n i v e r s i t y , where they can o b t a i n and s h a r e r e l e v a n t c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n and d e v e l o p a p p r o p r i a t e g u i d a n c e t e c h n i q u e s and s t r a t e g i e s . A l s o , a Kenyan based c a r e e r g u i d a n c e magaz ine s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d where new r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n on s h i f t i n g c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s can be p u b l i s h e d and c i r c u l a t e d to c a r e e r t eachers i n the f i e l d . 86 IMAGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h i s study suggest t h a t the image of t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the minds of the s t u d e n t s , both female and male, i s not a g l o s s y one. Only 39.8% of boys and 2.9% of the g i r l s seem to have t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d , i n s p i t e o f t h e g o vernment c a m p a i g n . The same s i t u a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d by the s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s e x p e c t a t i o n s . Given the f a c t t h a t the students i n d i c a t e t h a t the chances f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s and job a v a i l a b i l i t y a r e more i n t h e s e j o b s one wonders why t h e m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s do not choose these j o b s . I t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d as h a v i n g a lower s t a t u s than s t r a i g h t academic programs even where the s t r a i g h t academics are l i k e l y to l e a d to jobs with l o w e r f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d s . On t h e g i r l s ' p o i n t o f view, t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s seen as r e q u i r i n g a l o t of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h even though nowadays machines and advanced technology a r e a v a i l a b l e w h i c h makes b r u t e s t r e n g t h u n n e c e s s a r y i n p e r f o r m i n g i n any of t h e s e j o b s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the government message may not be g e t t i n g through to the s t u d e n t s . This i s emphasized by the r e s u l t s of q u e s t i o n 18 which shows that the students d i d not know what some of the major c a r e e r s i n v o l v e d , e . g . 55.0% o f t h e g i r l s do n o t know what a mechanical t e c h n i c i a n does, while on the other hand 46.6% of the boys do not know what a s e c r e t a r y does. The r e s u l t s showed that 70% of the boys and 45% of the g i r l s mainly got 87 t h e i r career i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e i r peers and books, both of which are very u n r e l i a b l e sources and o f t e n are h i g h l y gender biased (O'Brien, 1987). CONCLUSION One of the c o n c l u s i o n s reached by t h i s study i s that the career a s p i r a t i o n s of g i r l s and of boys are e q u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by p a r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and te a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s . However, boys' a s p i r a t i o n s seem to be more i n f l u e n c e d by a v a i l a b i l i t y of f u r t h e r s t u d i e s than i s the case f o r the g i r l s . Another c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t e x t e n s i v e g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g f o r stu d e n t s , and c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g f o r teachers would be more e f f e c t i v e i n b r i n g i n g about change i n career a s p i r a t i o n s . An i m p l i c a t i o n drawn from these c o n c l u s i o n s i s that i n order to achieve some degree of gender e q u i t y reverse d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i n form of awards and s c h o l a r s h i p s , may be n e c e s s a r y . The g o a l o f s u c h a c t i o n would be t o p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s and e v e n t u a l l y r o l e m o d e l s f o r g i r l s t o p u r s u e t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Other c o u n t r i e s have t r i e d u s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n to get g i r l s t o t r a i n f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s w i t h o u t any s u c c e s s . I t i s t h e s t a n c e o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t w i t h o u t a d d r e s s i n g the f a c t o r s t h a t s u s t a i n the gender d i f f e r e n c e s change w i l l not o c c u r . Some of the f a c t o r s are seen i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between males and females which give s t u d e n t s hidden messages t h a t the p o s i t i o n of woman i s tha t of s e r v i n g men. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e i r homes a r e 88 a l s o such that i n most i n s t a n c e s , the women do a l l the house work to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e i r husband. At p l a c e of work a l s o , most women are expected to be i n subordinate p o s i t i o n s , mainly i n s e r v i c e jobs, i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether they have the a b i l i t i e s and a p t i t u d e which s h o u l d e n a b l e them t o a t t a i n higher p o s i t i o n s . RECOMMENDATIONS Guidance and C o u n s e l l i n g C a r e e r t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d and p r o v i d e d w i t h the l a t e s t l i t e r a t u r e should be posted i n each secondary s c h o o l . These t e a c h e r s s h o u l d have t h e i r t e a c h i n g l o a d m i n i m i z e d i f not removed a l t o g e t h e r . I n s e r v i c e courses should be developed f o r e x i s t i n g c o u n s e l l o r s t o b r i n g them up t o d a t e w i t h new knowledge about guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g as w e l l as s h i f t s i n demands i n the c a r e e r market. These c o u r s e s should i n c l u d e work on the nature of gender b i a s e s i n care e r c o u n s e l l i n g . In a d d i t i o n t h e y s h o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and methods o f e x p l o r i n g the s t u d e n t s ' academic a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and a p t i t u d e i n r e l a t i o n to the a d v i c e they g i v e students about p r o s p e c t i v e c a r e e r s . Furthermore, a guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g j o u r n a l , which i s s p e c i f i c to Kenya should be s t a r t e d so t h a t counselors and educators can share t h e i r i d e a s . T h i s j o u r n a l , as w e l l as workshops and s e m i n a r s might be s p o n s o r e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e K.I.E., K.T.T.C., and Kenyatta U n i v e r s i t y . 89 P r o v i d i n g Role Models The i s s u e o f r o l e m o d e l s must be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y . A t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l , m o re f e m a l e m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s w o u l d h e l p t o d e m o n s t r a t e t o t h e s c h o o l g i r l s t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e a r e n o t t h e p r i v a t e d o m a i n s o f men. T h i s i n i t i a t i v e must ho w e v e r be a c c o m p a n i e d b y o p e n i n g p l a c e s i n t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l b a s e d c a r e e r s f o r f e m a l e s e v e n i f i t means i n t r o d u c i n g r e v e r s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s u c h t h a t r e w a r d s l i k e s p e c i a l s c h o l a r s h i p s a r e g i v e n t o f e m a l e s who a r e w i l l i n g t o t r a i n i n t h e s e c a r e e r s . A n o t h e r i n i t i a t i v e m i g h t t a k e t h e f o r m o f p r o m i s i n g f e m a l e s t u d e n t s t h a t i f t h e y t r a i n e d i n t h e s e c a r e e r s t h e y w o u l d be a s s u r e d o f j o b s . T h i s may r e q u i r e s ome t y p e o f l e g i s l a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r y t o f o l l o w g i v e n g u i d e l i n e s o n g e n d e r b a l a n c e . I t may a l s o r e q u i r e t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o u s e t h e i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g l e v y t o t r a i n more f e m a l e s f o r t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s . To e n c o u r a g e more f e m a l e s t o e n t e r i n t o m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e , a n d t e c h n i c a l t e a c h i n g c a r e e r s i t may r e q u i r e d i r e c t i v e s f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n f o r c o l l e g e s l i k e K . T.T.C., K . S . T . C . , K e n y a t t a U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e d i p l o m a t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s t o e n r o l a c e r t a i n g e n d e r r a t i o o f s t u d e n t s ( s i m i l a r t o t h e d i r e c t i v e s o n r e g i o n a l r a t i o s ) . The s t a f f i n g o f s c h o o l s a l s o s h o u l d be s u c h t h a t p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y a r e d i s t r i b u t e d e q u i t a b l y b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s . I f t h e g i r l s s e e t h a t t h e r e a r e e q u i t a b l e r a t i o s o f f e m a l e h e a d m a s t e r s , d e p u t y h e a d s , a n d e d u c a t i o n o f f i c e r s 90 f o r example, they w i l l get the message that a l l p o s i t i o n s are open t o them i f they work hard enough. The drawback i n t h i s s t r a t e g y i s the f a c t t h a t i f the females see themselves as having a primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n the f u t u r e , of b r i n g i n g up c h i l d r e n s i n g l e handedly, they may s t i l l not want or even be able to get i n t o a demanding c a r e e r . T h i s s i t u a t i o n can be addressed by making students aware that t h e r e are a l t e r n a t i v e s to the p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g a r d i n g the iss u e of c h i l d care and n u r t u r i n g . Such an a w a r e n e s s m i g h t be done t h r o u g h g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l i n g , through home economics s t u d i e s or through s o c i a l s t u d i e s . I t can be done by r o l e p l a y i n g and simulated f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n s where t h e s t u d e n t s a r e shown t h a t i t i s a reasonable s t r a t e g y and a good experience f o r both husband and wife t o share domestic work at home while both of them work o u t s i d e the home f o r wages. The i n t e n t of such an awareness program would be t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h i s arrangement would i m p r o v e t h e f a m i l y ' s s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g as w e l l a s s t r e n g t h e n i n g the bond between the f a m i l y members. I t i s l i k e l y a l s o to show the g i r l s that they don't have to choose between career success and having a f a m i l y ; they can have both i f a p p r o p r i a t e arrangement are made between them and t h e i r f u t u r e s p o u s e s t o s h a r e domestic work when they a r e both working f o r wages. 91 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The Kenyan E d u c a t i o n s y s t e m has changed t o an 8-4-4 system w i t h the aim of p r o v i d i n g a l l s t u d e n t s w i t h a more p r a c t i c a l t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a s s i s t students to change t h e i r career a s p i r a t i o n s and to gear t h e i r e d u c a t i o n towards programs t h a t p r e p a r e them f o r the more a v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g y b a s e d c a r e e r s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t h e r e f o r e i s r e q u i r e d t o f i n d o u t the f a c t o r t h a t keep students, e s p e c i a l l y females, away from choosing to t r a i n f o r t h e s e t e c h n i c a l j o b s . The areas seen by the r e s e a r c h e r as r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h to d e a l with these i s s u e s are as o u t l i n e d below: 1. A s t u d y s h o u l d be i n i t i a t e d to document the s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s i n the school system to show the gender r a t i o s a t a l l l e v e l s , i . e . , E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r s , p r i n c i p a l s of middle c o l l e g e s , high school head masters, primary s c h o o l head masters and c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . A l s o t h i s study s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h the r a t i o s of female to male t e a c h e r s f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . 2. A n a l y s i s of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n commonly used textbooks t o see whether they s t i l l d e p i c t females as d o m e s t i c workers, t e a c h e r s , s e c r e t a r i e s and n u r s e s , thus g i v i n g the s t u d e n t s h i d d e n messages t h a t t h e s e a r e the o n l y c a r e e r s f o r women. 3. A s t u d y s h o u l d document the gender r a t i o s of t e a c h e r t r a i n e e s p r e p a r i n g to t e a c h Mathematics, S c i e n c e and 92 t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s ( f o r i n s t a n c e , at K.T.T.C., K.S.T.C. and the diploma t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ) to i d e n t i f y e x i s t i n g t r e n d s , a n d p r o v i d e b a s e l i n e d a t a f o r f u t u r e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . 4. Te a c h e r / s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s i n mixed s c h o o l s should be examined to determine whether teachers i n t e r a c t more or i n d i f f e r e n t ways with boys than with g i r l s . 5. a) A study should be c a r r i e d out to determine whether a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s f o r s t u d e n t s i n mixed s c h o o l s vs. s i n g l e sex sc h o o l i s d i f f e r e n t f o r females versus males, b) There i s a gender d i f f e r e n c e i n c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and a c t u a l c a r e e r c h o i c e s of s t u d e n t s i n mixed s c h o o l vs. s i n g l e sex s c h o o l s . Such a study would a s s i s t e d u cators t o f i n d out i f s i n g l e sex s c h o o l s o c i a l i z e students d i f f e r e n t l y from mixed s c h o o l s . 6 . A s t u d y t o e x p l o r e a p p r o p r i a t e methods of e d u c a t i n g p a r e n t s to a s s i s t s t udents i n making a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r c h o i c e s and to b r i n g about more i n t e r a c t i o n s between parents and schools f o r the purpose of a s s i s t i n g students i n making wise career c h o i c e s . CONCLUDING COMMENTS The r e s e a r c h e r sees t h a t one of the major u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s i n t h i s area of e s t a b l i s h i n g a more gender e q u i t a b l e t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s how to break the p a t r i a r c h a l hegemony 93 e x i s t i n g i n t h e s o c i e t y t o d a y . Such a change can o n l y come about w i t h a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d agenda. Those s e e k i n g t h e s e changes w i l l have t o i d e n t i f y who t h e i r a l l i e s a r e i n s o c i e t y , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n p o s i t i o n s o f power, because any s u c c e s s f u l campaign f o r change w i l l r e q u i r e a c t i o n t a k e n not o n l y a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n l e v e l s but a l s o i n the w o r k p l a c e , i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( f o r e d u c a t i n g p a r e n t s and o t h e r members o f s o c i e t y ) , i n v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l f o r u m s and i n d i f f e r e n t government m i n i s t r i e s . The whole e d u c a t i o n a l and l e g i s l a t i v e campaign i n t h i s r e g a r d s h o u l d be geared towards g e t t i n g a l l s t u d e n t s t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r s u c c e s s i n any c a r e e r i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and a p t i t u d e s r a t h e r than by gender. A l s o , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e s e a r c h a n d o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on what o t h e r c o u n t r i e s w i t h s i m i l a r problems a r e doing s h o u l d not be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . For example, B r i t a i n has e s t a b l i s h e d The Equal O p p o r t u n i t i e s Commission, T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n I n i t i a t i v e ( T V E I ) , a n d G i r l s a n d T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n (GATE) t o c a r r y out s t u d i e s and f o r m u l a t e s t r a t e g i e s t o d e a l w i t h gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . Many American s t a t e s have a l s o come up w i t h p r o g r a m s t o a d d r e s s t h e s e ' i s s u e s . For example, New J e r s e y has e s t a b l i s h e d P r o j e c t HEAR, M i n n e s o t a has P r o j e c t BORN FREE w h i l e C a l i f o r n i a has P r o j e c t EVE. A l l t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have t h e aim o f r e d u c i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e sex b i a s e d messages t h a t t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e t h r o u g h v a r i o u s f o r m s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . T h e s e programs i l l u s t r a t e how s e r i o u s l y o t h e r c o u n t r i e s of the w o r l d 94 a r e t a k i n g t h i s i s s u e . We i n K e n y a s h o u l d a l s o ' r e a d t h e w r i t i n g o n t h e w a l l ' a n d p r e p a r e o u r s t u d e n t s f o r c h a n g e b e c a u s e we do n o t l i v e i n i s o l a t i o n . W h a t e v e r i s h a p p e n i n g t o t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y h a p p e n t o u s . 95 BIBLIOGRAPHY Brandon, P.R. and ot h e r s . The S u p e r i o r i t y of G i r l s over Boys  i n Hawaii. Paper presented a t Annual Meeting of American Education Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Chicago, A p r i l 1985. 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Canada J o u r n a l o f  Educatio n 6.2, 54-72. Grady, S.R. and Frye, B.J. (1985). The Female as T e c h n i c i a n . V o c a t i o n a l Education J o u r n a l , October, 11-16. Herr, E.L. (170). Decision-Making and V o c a t i o n Development. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company. Holcomb, C A . (1981). O c c u p a t i o n a l S t e r e o t y p i n g i n H e a l t h Textbooks. J o u r n a l of School Health, May, 336-340. K e l l y , G.P., and N i h l e n , A.S. (1982). S c h o o l i n g and t h e Rep r o d u c t i o n of P a t r i a r c h y : Unequal Work Load, Unequal R e w a r d s . In M i c h a e l A p p l e ( e d . ) , R e p r o d u c t i o n i n  educat i o n . London R. and K.P. K e n k e l , W.F. and Gage, B.A. (1983). The R e s t r i c t e d and Gender typed O c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of young women: Can they be modified?, Family R e l a t i o n s 31, 129-138. K i l o n z o , G.K. (1981). Guidance and C o u n s e l l i n g i n Kenya. Kenyatta U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e . N a i r o b i : Kenya. Kolde, R.F. (1985). Women i n the Labour Force. V o c a t i o n a l  E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l , October, 25-25. L a n e , J . ( 1976 ) . So t h e y g o t an F on t h e i r b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e . Canadian V o c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Toronto, O n t a r i o . Lesser, E.K. (1976). Are We S t i l l S e x i s t ? A Recent Study o f C o u n s e l l o r s ' A t t i t u d e s . The School Counselor, November, 84-91. L u p i d i , H.R. (1980). A Comparative A n a l y s i s of the f a c t o r s  A s s o c i a t e d with Career A s p i r a t i o n s of B r a z i l i a n Students  by sex and grade l e v e l . Washington, D.C.: N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Educat i o n . Mangano, R.M. and P a t t e r s o n , D. (1976). Sugar and S p i c e s won't s u f f i c e : Desexing I n d u s t r i a l A r t s and Technology. The School C o u n s e l l o r , November 100-114. 97 M a r i t i m , E. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d t e a c h e r ' s  p e r c e p t i o n : T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p u p i l ' s g r a d e  a t t a i n m e n t i n r u r a l Kenya. Seminar paper no. 2031 The Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h ; K e n y a t t a U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e . N a i r o b i , Kenya. M a r s h a l l , K. (1987). Women i n Male dominated p r o f e s s i o n s . Canadian S o c i a l Trends, Winter, 7-11. McCants, L. (1985). B r e a k i n g the B a r r i e r s : Women i n the Techno l o g i e s , V o c a t i o n a l Education J o u r n a l , October, 4-9. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . E d u c a t i o n i n K e n y a :  Information Handbook. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, N a i r o b i , Kenya. O'Brien, M. (1987). Sexism i n Education. In Gosh, R., and Ray, D. , ( E d s ) , S o c i a l Change and E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. Toronto, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. .Omulando, S . J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P r o s p e c t s a n d P r o b l e m s o f  T e c h n o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Kenya: An overview of the r o l e of Harambee I n s t i t u t e s o f S c i e n c e and Technology. Paper p r e s e n t e d to an e d u c a t i o n a l seminar, Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , K e n y a t t a U n i v e r s i t y , N a i r o b i , Kenya. R a l l i s , S.F. (1986). Math and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n i n High  S c h o o l : A q u e s t i o n of Sex E q u i t y ? (Report no. SE 046 631). Rhode I s l a n d C o l l e g e , Center f o r E v a l u a t i o n and Research. ( E r i c Document Reproduction S e r v i c e no. ED 278 326) . T o h i d i , N. (1984). Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n ach i e v e m e n t / c a r e e r m o t i v a t i o n of I r a n i a n Boys and G i r l s . Sex Role s , V o l . 11, 467-483. Towns, D. (1985). The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to educate g i r l s f o r a  t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . D e a k i n U n i v e r s i t y , V i c t o r i a , A u s t r a l i a . V e l t e r , L., and Hickey, D.R. (1985). V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n  J o u r n a l , October, 26-29. W i g f i e l d , A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a b i l i t y ,  p e r c e p t i o n s , o t h e r r e l a t e d b e l i e f s , a n d s c h o o l  performances. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n . New Orleans. 98 APPENDIX A ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THEIR CHOICE OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAMS STUDENTS' QUESTIONNAIRE PURPOSE The questions c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e are p u r e l y f o r r e s e a r c h purposes and have no e f f e c t or consequence i n your p r e s e n t or f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . You w i l l n o t i c e t h a t your name i s not as k e d f o r , so you need not i d e n t i f y y o u r s e l f . ANY INFORMATION YOU GIVE WILL BE KEPT IN STRICT CONFIDENCE. Thanks i n advance f o r your a s s i s t a n c e . HOW TO RESPOND 1. For the g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n s e c t i o n p l e a s e w r i t e your response i n the space pr o v i d e d . 2. For the c a r e e r q u e s t i o n s the i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n the questions and, i n most cases a space i s p r o v i d e d f o r you to g i v e a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n as to why you chose a p a r t i c u l a r response. Please be b r i e f and to the p o i n t . 99 GENERAL INFORMATION Name of Your School Your C l a s s (Form 1, 2, 3, 4 etc.) Gender: (a) Male (b) Female ( c i r c l e one) Date of B i r t h : Day Month Year Father's Occupation: Mother's Occupation: Number of broth e r s and s i s t e r s : Number of br o t h e r s and s i s t e r s working: Number of br o t h e r s and s i s t e r s i n s c h o o l : Number of br o t h e r s and s i s t e r s out of school and not working: 100 CAREER QUESTIONS 1. I f you were to s e l e c t a t r a i n i n g program f o r y o u r s e l f without c o n s u l t i n g anybody, which of the f o l l o w i n g would you choose? ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) s e c r e t a r i a l t r a i n i n g |~| (b) c l e r i c a l t r a i n i n g |~| (c) teacher t r a i n i n g | ~ l (d) mechanical t e c h n i c i a n t r a i n i n g | ~ l (e) e l e c t r i c a l t r a i n i n g |~| (f) a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r t r a i n i n g |_| (g) other (name) Please e x p l a i n why: 101 2. I f I do not go to u n i v e r s i t y , I t h i n k my parents would l i k e me t o : ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a (b (c (d (e (f (g (h t r a i n as a c l e r i c a l o f f i c e r t r a i n as a mechanical t e c h n i c i a n t r a i n as a s e c r e t a r y t r a i n as an a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r t r a i n as a teacher t r a i n as a b u i l d e r go s t r a i g h t to look f o r a job other (name) Please e x p l a i n why you think so: 3. I have d i s c u s s e d my career a s p i r a t i o n s with my p a r e n t s : ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) more than once | ~ l (b) once | ~ l (c) never | - | 102 4. I f I do not go to u n i v e r s i t y , I think my c a r e e r teacher would l i k e me t o : ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) t r a i n as a c l e r i c a l o f f i c e r |_| (b) t r a i n as a mechanical t e c h n i c i a n |_| (c) t r a i n as an a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r | ~ l (d) t r a i n as a teacher |_| (e) t r a i n as a b u i l d e r |_| (f) other (name) Please e x p l a i n why you t h i n k so 103 5. I have d i s c u s s e d my ca r e e r choice with my ca r e e r teacher: ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) more than once | ~ l (b) once | ~ l (c) never |~| 6. I f I t r a i n as a t e c h n i c i a n , i n d u s t r y i s : ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) l i k e l y to employ me without r e s e r v a t i o n |_| (b) l i k e l y to employ me with r e s e r v a t i o n s |_| (c) not l i k e l y to employ me |_| Please e x p l a i n why you think so 7. P l e a s e w r i t e down what you t h i n k a r e t h e b e s t t h r e e c a r e e r s f o r g i r l s 1. 2. 3. E x p l a i n why you thi n k so 104 8. P l e a s e w r i t e down what you t h i n k a r e the b e s t t h r e e c a r e e r s f o r boys: 1. 2. 3. E x p l a i n why you thi n k so: 9. T e c h n i c a l jobs a r e : ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) very i n t e r e s t i n g |~| (b) i n t e r e s t i n g enough |~| (c) very d u l l | ~ l 10. T e c h n i c a l jobs r e q u i r e : ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) more p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h than I have |_ (b) p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h that would leave me _ very t i r e d |_ (c) p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h that I can handle with no problem a t a l l |_ E x p l a i n why you think so: 105 I t would be e a s i e s t f o r me to get a job i f I t r a i n e d as a: ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) a c l e r i c a l o f f i c e r | ~ l (b) a mechanical t e c h n i c i a n |~| (c) a s e c r e t a r y | | (d) an a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r |~~| (e) a teacher | ~ l (f) a b u i l d e r |~~| (g) other (name) My chances f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s would be good i f I t r a i n e d as: ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) a c l e r i c a l o f f i c e r HI (b) a mechanical t e c h n i c i a n HI (c) a s e c r e t a r y HI (d) an a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r 1 — 1 (e) a teacher HI (f) a b u i l d e r HI (g) other (name) In general a t e c h n i c a l program i s : ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) above my academic a b i l i t y HI (b) a t my academic a b i l i t y CI (c) below my academic a b i l i t y C I 106 14. P l e a s e rank t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s i n terms of your academic a b i l i t y i n them: ( S e l e c t and rank your best 4 where 1 stands f o r best and 4 the l e a s t . ) (a) Business S t u d i e s (b) E n g l i s h (c) Geography (d) H i s t o r y (e) Maths (f) Science (g) S w a h i l i (h) Technology 15. I b e l i e v e that there are jobs that boys can handle b e t t e r than g i r l s : yes | ~ l I f yes, g i v e an example and g i v e reasons f o r b e l i e v i n g so I f no p l e a s e g i v e reasons 107 16. I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e a r e j o b s t h a t g i r l s can h a n d l e b e t t e r than boys: yes HI-no III I f yes, g i v e an example and g i v e reasons f o r b e l i e v i n g so I f no p l e a s e g i v e reasons 17. The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r when choosing my c a r e e r i s : ( t i c k one of boxes provided) (a) a d v i c e from my teachers |_| (b) a d v i c e from my parents | ~ l (c) my own f e e l i n g s about the job |_| (d) my academic a b i l i t y |~| (e) whether the job i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y _ f o r a boy or a g i r l |_| (f) other (name) 108 18. P l e a s e e x p l a i n b r i e f l y what you t h i n k the f o l l o w i n g people do: (a) mechanical t e c h n i c i a n (b) e l e c t r i c a l t e c h n i c i a n (c) s e c r e t a r y (d) c l e r i c a l o f f i c e r (e) accounts person (f) mason (g) t y p i s t 109 19. I r e c e i v e d most of the i n f o r m a t i o n about what d i f f e r e n t jobs i n v o l v e from: ( t i c k one of the boxes provided) (a) my parents | ~ l (b) my peers ( f r i e n d s ) |~| (c) my teachers |~| (d) books |~| (e) other (name) E x p l a i n how you got the i n f o r m a t i o n 110 APPENDIX B ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THEIR CHOICE OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAMS BACKGROUND INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE PURPOSE The p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o examine the r a t i o s of male and female students i n d i f f e r e n t post secondary education programs. The i n f o r m a t i o n obtained w i l l be used as b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e s e a r c h w h i c h e x a m i n e s t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r p o s t secondary e d u c a t i o n program c h o i c e s . HOW TO RESPOND A t a b l e i s p r o v i d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . For each of the programs g i v e n , there are spaces marked M f o r males and F f o r females. These spaces a r e repeated f o r the f i r s t year, second year and t h i r d year of the program. P l e a s e w r i t e the number of male and the number of female students i n each year of the program i n the a p p r o p r i a t e space. BACKGROUND INFORMATION QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONS I am conducting a research on career choices of both male and female students. In order to assess the s i t u a t i o n i n r e s p e c t to enrolment i n v a r i o u s courses, I need i n f o r m a t i o n from p o s t -secondary t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . I am t h e r e f o r e r e q u e s t i n g you to p r o v i d e me with the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d h e r e w i l l be the backbone of the s t u d y , so y o u r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s regard w i l l be h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Thanks i n advance. Name of C o l l e g e : NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE COURSE AS OF MARCH 1, 1988 COURSES OFFERED FIRST YEAR SECOND YEAR THIRD YEAR M = Male F = Female M M M 1 Accounting (ACNC, CPA, etc) 2 A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineering 3 B u i l d i n g (Plumbing, Car-pentry, Masonry) 4 E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c s 5 Home Economics ( C l o t h i n g , C a t e r i n g , Banking, etc.) 6 Mechanical ( F i t t i n g , F a b r i c a t i o n , etc.) 7 Power Mechanics (Automotive, D i e s e l , Const. P l a n t e r ) 8 S e c r e t a r i a l ( T y p i s t , Sten-ographer, etc.) TOTALS 

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