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Strategies for implementation of drama as a learning medium Scott, Jeanette Elynn MacArthur 1984

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STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DRAMA AS A LEARNING MEDIUM by Jeanette Elynn MacArthur S c o t t B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Studies) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1984 © Je a n e t t e E. M. S c o t t , 1984 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department Of F r l i i r - a f - i n n ( r n r r i n i l i i n i and T n s f - r n r f i nn) The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 1984 10 12 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The c u r r e n t movement towards e x c e l l e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n has led t o a renewal of i n t e r e s t i n the academic and a e s t h e t i c d i s c i p l i n e s . Many a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s are s t r i v i n g t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s t o experience a c u r r i c u l u m which develops a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a r t s , s c i e n c e s and h u m a n i t i e s . Recent moves by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , however, suggest t h a t many stu d e n t s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e may be l i m i t e d i n the amount of i n s t r u c t i o n which they w i l l r e c e i v e i n some of the t r a d i t i o n a l areas of study, p a r t i c u l a r l y the v i s u a l and performing a r t s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g t h i s case study were desi g n e d t o f o s t e r an i n t e r e s t i n the new elementary f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m and to p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l e c t e d elementary t e a c h e r s t o experiment with the use of drama i n the classroom. Through a s e r i e s of classroom v i s i t s and r e l a t e d workshops, i t f o c u s s e d the a t t e n t i o n of a number of s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s on the r o l e o f the a r t s i n e d u c a t i o n . T h i s paper p r o v i d e s a review of some of the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on l e a r n i n g t h e o r y , e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and c u r r i c u l u m implementation. I t a l s o d e s c r i b e s the e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes of a h y p o t h e t i c a l K-12 dramatic a r t s programme and d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the use of drama i n v a r i o u s c o n t e n t a r e a s . The study c o n c e n t r a t e s on the use of classroom-based i n t e r v e n t i o n and p e r s o n a l communication between the r e s e a r c h e r and each of the t e a c h e r s as means of i n t r o d u c i n g drama as a l e a r n i n g medium. Teacher i n t e r v i e w s and c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s p r o v i d e the da t a which were analyzed t o determine s h i f t s i n t e a c h e r s ' stages of concern and l e v e l s of use of the i n n o v a t i o n . T h i s a n a l y s i s r e a f f i r m s the importance of d e v e l o p i n g implementation s t r a t e g i e s t h a t meet the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h a t t e a c h e r ' s c l a s s r o o m . I t i l l u s t r a t e s the importance of making p r o v i s i o n f o r m o d e l l i n g , t e s t i n g , feedback and i n t e r a c t i o n . I t a l s o i d e n t i f i e s some of the p i t f a l l s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o determine the e f f e c t s of t h i s model as i t would be a p p l i e d w i t h i n a s i n g l e s c h o o l with f i r m l y committed d i s t r i c t support. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF FIGURES v i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x CHAPTER I. THE PROBLEM 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.2 R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study 1 1.3 Purpose-of the Study 3 1.4 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 4 1.5 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 9 CHAPTER I I . RELATED THEORY AND RESEARCH 11.1 The Purpose of Schools 10 11.2 The L e a r n i n g Process 16 11.3 Drama and Le a r n i n g 20 I I . 4 Drama i n the C u r r i c u l u m 27 I I . 5 Pedagogical I m p l i c a t i o n s 42 II.6 I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s 44 i v CHAPTER I I I . DESIGN OF THE STUDY I I I . l Nature of the Study ' 47 I I I . l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Teacher P o p u l a t i o n ... 48 I I I . 2 Procedures 50 IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS IV. 1 A n a l y s i s of Classroom Observations 60 IV.2 A n a l y s i s of Workshop A c t i v i t i e s 65 IV.3 A n a l y s i s of Teacher Interviews 67 IV.4 Stages of Concern and L e v e l s of Use 79 IV. 4 A d d i t i o n a l F i n d i n g s 84 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS V. l Summary 9 2 V.2 Conclusions 94 V.3 E v a l u a t i o n 102 V.4 I m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY 10 8 v APPENDIX A INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 116 APPENDIX B DEMONSTRATION LESSONS 118 APPENDIX C FOLLOW-UP MEMORANDA 136 APPENDIX D PRO-D WORKSHOP INFORMATION 146 APPENDIX E WORKSHOP EVALUATION FORM 153 APPENDIX F OBSERVATION GUIDELINES 154 APPENDIX G INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 155 APPENDIX H INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 157 APPENDIX I INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 159 APPENDIX J INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 160 APPENDIX K SAMPLE INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT 161 APPENDIX L LETTER TO TEACHERS 168 APPENDIX M TIME LINE 169 APPENDIX N EVALUATION QUESTIONS 170 v i LIST OF TABLES 1. L e a r n i n g Outcomes of Drama A c t i v i t y as Related to Goals of the Core C u r r i c u l u m 28 2. Areas and L e v e l s of Mastery of Dramatic Performance 35 3. Areas and L e v e l s of Mastery of P e r c i p i e n t 36 4. Areas and L e v e l s of Mastery of Theatre C r a f t s 37 5. Scope and Sequence of Elementary Drama 38 6. L e a r n i n g O b j e c t i v e s as I d e n t i f i e d and C l a s s i f i e d by S e l e c t e d Elementary Teachers 52 7. Teaching S t r a t e g i e s as I d e n t i f i e d by S e l e c t e d Elementary Teachers 53 8. Previous Use of Drama by S e l e c t e d Teachers 54 9. Summary of Teacher E v a l u a t i o n of Drama Workshop 6 6 v i i LIST OF FIGURES 1. A C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the Continuum of Drama A c t i v i t i e s 22 2. A P r o j e c t i o n of B e h a v i o r a l and A t t i t u d i n a l Changes of Teachers as P e r c e i v e d at the Beginning and a t the End of the Pre-Implementation P i l o t Study 82 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank the members of f a c u l t y who served on my committee. I would a l s o l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Bev e r l e y Buchanan and P a u l i n e G a l i n s k i f o r t h e i r support and encouragement. L i t t l e would have been achieved, however, without the i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm of the teachers and students who were i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t and I thank them f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n . E s p e c i a l l y I wish t o thank Barry, Sine and F r a n c i s f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and f o r t h e i r l o v e . i x 1 Chapter I THE PROBLEM 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The B r i t i s h Columbia government's 1983 r e s t r a i n t budget has l e d to a number of changes i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system a t the p r o v i n c i a l , as w e l l as a t the l o c a l l e v e l . One of these changes i s a r e d u c t i o n i n s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the Program Implementation Branch. With new c u r r i c u l a s t i l l forthcoming, i t appears t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t s w i l l . h a v e to f i n d s u i t a b l e , a l t e r n a t i v e means of i n t r o d u c i n g the i n n o v a t i o n s i n t o the s c h o o l s . 1.2 The R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study One of the proposed c u r r i c u l u m changes i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a f i n e a r t s programme a t the elementary school l e v e l . While the p u b l i c a t i o n date f o r the c u r r i c u l u m guides and resource books has been postponed s e v e r a l times, the schedule f o r implementation of t h i s programme continues to i n d i c a t e t h a t o p t i o n a l use i s a n t i c i p a t e d by September; 1984. The problems c r e a t e d by t h i s d e l a y have been compounded by an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the v a r i o u s components of 2 t h i s new c u r r i c u l u m w i l l be taught by n o n - s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s . I t seemed a p p r o p r i a t e , then, t h a t a case study f o c u s s i n g on p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to one component of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d be conducted d u r i n g the 1983-84 school year. I f subsequent e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s as e x e m p l i f i e d i n these a c t i v i t i e s had f o s t e r e d a change i n t e a c h e r s ' l e v e l s of use of the i n n o v a t i o n , then the design model used f o r the case study c o u l d be a p p l i e d to other components of the c u r r i c u l u m i n a d i s t r i c t - w i d e implementation programme. Recent r e s e a r c h i n the area of c u r r i c u l u m implementation suggests t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l change occu r s , and thus should be viewed and measured, with the i n d i v i d u a l teacher a t the classroom l e v e l , r a t h e r than a t the system l e v e l (Buchanan, 1980; F u l l a n , 1982; Goodlad, 1984; Olson, 1980; Werner, 1980). The l i t e r a t u r e a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s the importance of the use of i n t e r n a l change agents to develop on-going, i n - s e r v i c e programmes wi t h p r o v i s i o n s f o r demonstrations and t r i a l s under r e a l and simulated c o n d i t i o n s (Berman and McLaughlin, 1978; Joyce and Showers, 1980). I t a l s o confirms the importance of peer i n t e r a c t i o n . T e a c h e r / l e a r n e r s must share knowledge and mediate experiences i n order to e f f e c t changes i n s c h ools ( F u l l a n , 1979; Shalaway, 1981; Tye, 1984). The f a c t o r s which were i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and which p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r the development of i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s used d u r i n g t h i s case study i n c l u d e d : v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n by s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s , use of a peer teacher as the change agent, i n t r o d u c t i o n of classroom-based demonstration l e s s o n s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of communication l i n k s between the change agent and each of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s , o r g a n i z a t i o n of formal workshops and i n f o r m a l meetings. I.3 The Purpose of the Study This case study was designed to i d e n t i f y i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t h a t would motivate n o n - s p e c i a l i s t teachers to i n i t i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l change i n the implementation of a drama programme w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h i n g . The q u e s t i o n s which the r e s e a r c h was designed to address are as f o l l o w s : 1. W i l l the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the p h i l o s o p h y and s t r u c t u r e s of a drama programme le a d to a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n teachers 1 stages of concern and l e v e l s of use w i t h i n the given time frame? 2. What f a c t o r s seem to i n h i b i t change? 4 3. What f a c t o r s seem to f o s t e r change? 4. What types of i n t e r v e n t i o n are viewed by the s e l e c t e d teachers and by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as most l i k e l y to lead to the adoption of the i n n o v a t i o n ? 1.4 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Change agent : For the purposes of t h i s study, the change agent p l a y s a v a r i e t y of r o l e s i n c l u d i n g : r e s e a r c h e r , p r o j e c t developer, r e s o u r c e l i n k e r , i n f o r m a t i o n source, workshop f a c i l i t a t o r , guest teacher, h e l p i n g t e a c h e r , observer, i n t e r v i e w e r and e v a l u a t o r . D e p i c t i o n : A d e p i c t i o n i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n which u t i l i z e s t h e a t r e form to focus on a theme or a concept. Drama : Drama i s making-believe, or t a k i n g on an a t t i t u d e of someone other than o n e s e l f , or a c t i n g as i f one were i n a p a r t i c u l a r time, p l a c e or s i t u a t i o n . See F i g u r e 1. 'Enactment : T h i s i s a t h e a t r i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s e l e c t e d segment of the drama. Innovation : T h i s term r e f e r s to a p r o j e c t or program t h a t r e q u i r e s a change i n t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . 5 Implementation : Implementation i s the process of p u t t i n g an i n n o v a t i v e instrument of s c h o o l i n g i n t o a c t u a l use. I n t e r v e n t i o n : T h i s i s an a c t i o n used to b r i d g e the gap between prese n t p r a c t i c e and p r a c t i c e as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n the i n n o v a t i o n . I t may be any e x t e r n a l a c t i o n whose purpose i s t o a c t u a l l y b r i n g the i n n o v a t i o n i n t o the context of the classroom. L e v e l s of use : These are stages of behavior of users of i n n o v a t i o n s . The s c a l e used f o r t h i s study i s an a d a p t a t i o n of the framework developed by Gene H a l l and Susan Loucks a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Texas ( H a l l , Loucks, e t . a l . , 1975). For the purposes of t h i s study, the l e v e l s w i l l be d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : L e v e l 0 - Non-Use, L e v e l 1- O r i e n t a t i o n , L e v e l 2 -P a r t i a l Use, L e v e l 3 - Regular Use, L e v e l 4 - In t e g r a t e d Use, L e v e l 5 - Refinement. Mantle of the expert : T h i s i s a r o l e of knowledge and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which i s p l a c e d on the student by the t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e . To the extent t h a t the teacher agrees to use the make-believe e x p e r t i s e of the students, there i s a r e v e r s a l of the t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c her-student r o l e s . M e t a - c o g n i t i o n : T h i s i s the a c t of knowing t h a t one knows. I t i s the c a p a b i l i t y of a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n 6 memory. N e g o t i a t i o n of meaning : T h i s i s the a c t of a p p l y i n g meaning obtained i n one context to a d i f f e r e n t c ontext. L i k e P i a g e t ' s term, accomodation , n e g o t i a t i o n of meaning i m p l i e s v a r i a b i l i t y , growth and change. N e g o t i a t i o n of shared meaning : N e g o t i a t i o n of meaning by a c u l t u r a l group, such as a group of students and the teacher who work t o g e t h e r . Networking : The noun, network, denotes the concept of i n t e r s e c t i n g l i n e s of communication but i t does not express the n o t i o n t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s system i s dependent upon an on-going p r o c e s s . T h i s process of pe r s o n a l s h a r i n g i n the est a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of an i n t e r a c t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s i m p l i e d by the r e c e n t l y - c o i n e d verb, networking. Networking techniques are c u r r e n t l y used by many groups t o encourage change and to pr o v i d e support f o r i t s members. I t should be noted, however, t h a t while the terminology i s new, t h i s method of employing n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication t o f o s t e r change i s as o l d as business t r a n s a c t i o n s and p a r t i s a n s h i p . Realms of Meaning : P h i l i p P h e n i x 1 s paradigm f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and s y n t h e s i s of knowledge i n c l u d e s the 7 f o l l o w i n g realms: symbolics (language, mathematics, n o n - d i s c u r s i v e communication), e m p i r i c s ( n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ) , a e s t h e t i c s ( a r t s ) , s y n n o e t i c s (personal knowledge), e t h i c s and s y n o p t i c s ( i n t e g r a t i n g d i s c i p l i n e s ) . R i t u a l : A symbolic a c t or ceremony based on p r i m o r d i a l mythology. Some r i t u a l s have a c q u i r e d o v e r t c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e through r e p e t i t i o n w h i l e others remain i n what Jung d e s c r i b e s as the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious. Schema : The schema i s a storage u n i t i n one's memory. One might conceive of the schema as a f i l e which c o n t a i n s knowledge about a concept. Schemata : The p l u r a l form of schema and ,hence, the t o t a l f i l i n g system or s c a f f o l d i n g f o r storage of i n f o r m a t i o n . Sign : A s i g n i s any i n t e n t i o n a l , or u n i n t e n t i o n a l , means of communication. As a p p l i e d to the r e g u l a r classroom teacher, i t would i n c l u d e body language, v o c a l dynamics, use of space and use of v e r b a l and v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n . As a p p l i e d i n a drama s i t u a t i o n , i t would a l s o i n c l u d e p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t , placement and use of o b j e c t s and the uses of l i g h t , sound, movement and s t i l l n e s s . Stages of Concern : These are stages of the user's knowledge 8 of an i n n o v a t i o n . T h i s s c a l e i s a l s o an a d a p t a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of Texas model ( H a l l , 1974; Loucks, 1977; R u t h e r f o r d , 1978) . For purposes of t h i s study, the stages are d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : Unaware and unconcerned, Unaware but i n t e r e s t e d , Previewing, E x p l o r a t o r y , T r i a l , E xperimental, C o l l a b o r a t i v e , Sharing, Renewal. Stakeholders : The s t a k e h o l d e r s are those i n d i v i d u a l s or groups i n s o c i e t y who have d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t r i g h t to be i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l decision-making. These i n c l u d e primary s t a k e h o l d e r s such as students, t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , parents and t r u s t e e s as w e l l as secondary s t a k e h o l d e r s i n c l u d i n g taxpayers, p o l i t i c i a n s , employers, other educators, graduates, e t c . Theatre : Theatre i s drama as shown to an audience. I t may be presented i n the form of a d e p i c t i o n or of an enactment. See F i g u r e 1. 9 1.5 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n of the study i s t h a t i t d e a l s with a l i m i t e d p o p u l a t i o n . The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the responses t h a t would be e v i d e n t w i t h a l a r g e r sample. The second l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t the study i s r e s t r i c t e d to one school year. The s h i f t i n t e a c h e r s ' l e v e l s of use might be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t over a longer p e r i o d of time. The t h i r d l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t no p r o v i s i o n was made f o r a formal assessment of student l e a r n i n g as i t r e l a t e d to the teacher's l e v e l of use of the i n n o v a t i o n . 10 Chapter II RELATED THEORY AND RESEARCH I I . I The Purpose of Schools Many of the c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c u r r i c u l u m development, c u r r i c u l u m implementation, p r o v i n c i a l l e a r n i n g assessment, secondary school g r a d u a t i o n requirements and budget r e s t r i c t i o n s are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the e v a l u a t i o n of schools and school programs i n the United S t a t e s . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e emerging from t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study f o r two reasons. Not o n l y does i t i n d i c a t e a renewal of concern f o r sound e d u c a t i o n a l goals but a l s o i t r e v e a l s a h e i g h t e n i n g of i n t e r e s t i n the r o l e of the a r t s i n ed u c a t i o n . Schools p r e s e n t l y serve two f u n c t i o n s i n s o c i e t y : t h a t of educating and t h a t of s o c i a l i z i n g our young people. While r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the l a t t e r i s an expected, i f not always an a p p r o p r i a t e , goal f o r s c h o o l s , John Goodlad t e l l s us t h a t n e i t h e r of these f u n c t i o n s i s being served very w e l l by the present system of e d u c a t i o n . In f a c t , he suggests t h a t u n l e s s s c h o o l s can begin to d e l i v e r the s e r v i c e s f o r which they are designed then we might as w e l l not have them. 11 We (must) come to r e a l i z e t h a t s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t which promotes s u c c e s s f u l problem s o l v i n g , s e n s i t i v e human r e l a t i o n s , s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and the i n t e g r a t i o n of one's t o t a l l i f e e xperience . . . we do not need schools today, i n our k i n d of s o c i e t y , i f t h e i r s o l e or even prime task i s t e a c h i n g the b a s i c s , d e f i n e d as the th r e e Rs. (Goodlad, 1979, pp.108-109) The goals which Goodlad a r t i c u l a t e s f o r us are not a l l t h a t d i f f e r e n t from those formulated by Ralph T y l e r over t h i r t y years ago ( T y l e r , 1949). They i n c l u d e a mastery of b a s i c communication and computation s k i l l s , a development of t h i n k i n g s k i l l s , e n c u l t u r a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s as w e l l as c r e a t i v e and a e s t h e t i c s k i l l s . L i k e Phenix (1964) and Broudy (1981), Goodlad a l s o suggests t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis should be p l a c e d on the moral, e t h i c a l , emotional and p h y s i c a l development of the i n d i v i d u a l . The c e n t r a l messages of A Study of S c h o o l i n g (Goodlad, 1984) and of The P a i d e a i Proposal (Adler, 1982) pro v i d e a rein f o r c e m e n t , i f not a r e i t e r a t i o n , of much of the c u r r i c u l u m thought which has evolved from Dewey's study of the school and s o c i e t y a t the begin n i n g of the cen t u r y . L i k e the Woods Hole group and the e x p e r i e n t i a l i s t s of the s i x t i e s , the contemporary t h e o r i s t s t e l l us t h a t we should be concerned not so much wit h the q u a n t i t y of l e a r n i n g but with i t s q u a l i t y , not wit h what i s being taught, but r a t h e r with how i t i s being taught. 12 The i r o n y of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l . In the f i r s t dimension, t h e r e i s the p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m of the education system. Throughout North America, schools continue to be c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e to d e l i v e r c e r t a i n standards of b a s i c s k i l l s . Yet, i t would seem t h a t there has not y e t been s u f f i c i e n t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t e d towards the e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n which i s : What i s b a s i c ? The concern f o r the t e a c h i n g of the b a s i c s i s not new. As Broudy (1978) reminds us, "only an ignorance of h i s t o r y " would make i t seem so (p.22). What i s encouraging to those who c o n s i d e r the a r t s as a fundamental component of one's education i s t h a t some school a u t h o r i t i e s have a l r e a d y taken a c t i o n to secure a more c e n t r a l r o l e f o r the v i s u a l and performing a r t s w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m . In areas where t h i s i s not o c c u r r i n g but where, i n f a c t , f u r t h e r c u t s i n a r t s programmes are impending, o p p o s i t i o n i s being v o i c e d . Andrew Lipchak of O n t a r i o ' s M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e and R e c r e a t i o n s t a t e s : There i s l i t t l e which i s more " b a s i c " to e d u c a t i o n , however, than the development of the senses, v e r b a l s k i l l s , c r i t i c a l r e a s o n i n g and p h y s i c a l d e x t e r i t y . The a r t s r e p r e s e n t the b a s i c l e a r n i n g t o o l s which i n c r e a s e a c h i l d ' s awareness of h i s or her world and the a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h i t p h y s i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . (Lipchak, 1981, p.24) The A r t s are not o p t i o n s . T h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n the c u r r i c u l u m " i s a matter both of l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y . . . and 13 moral n e c e s s i t y , " s t a t e s a r e c e n t r e p o r t prepared i n B r i t a i n by the C a l o u s t e Gulbenkian Foundation (Byron, 1982, p.3). While there i s s t i l l a need f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h to support t h i s premise as w e l l as a need f o r an assessment of c u r r e n t programmes, some v a l u a b l e work has a l r e a d y been completed i n t h i s area (Cook,1982; Courtney, 1982; E i s n e r , 1978; Hausman, 1980; Madeja,1978; Stake, 1975). I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d a r t e d u c a t i o n i s being o f f e r e d by the Geddy Foundation's Summer I n s t i t u t e i n Southern C a l i f o r n i a . I t i s hoped t h a t the network which emerges from t h i s nucleus w i l l b r i n g as much i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n to the improvement of a r t s programmes as the Huntington Beach W r i t i n g P r o j e c t (Cross i n Werner e t . a l , 1983) has brought to w r i t i n g programmes. The i r o n y of the second dimension might be captured i n the maxim, "Plus ca change, p l u s c ' e s t l a meme chose", though i t i s probably more c o r r e c t w i t h i n the context of the e d u c a t i o n a l system to say, "The more we assume t h a t t h i n g s are changing, the more they remain the same." I f we have learned anything from the work of those who have so p a i n s t a k i n g l y e v a l u a t e d implementation programmes d u r i n g the past decade, i t i s t h a t an i n n o v a t i o n cannot be assessed as having been i n e f f e c t u a l i f i t has not been put i n t o a c t u a l use. The f a c t t h a t many of the c u r r i c u l u m changes of the 14 s i x t i e s and s e v e n t i e s d i d not produce any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g outcomes may be a r e s u l t of t h e i r having been i n a p p r o p r i a t e or i n e f f e c t u a l , but, on the other hand, t h i s may be a r e s u l t of t h e i r not having been f u l l y implemented ( F u l l a n , 1982; Goodlad, 1984). Whatever the case, t h i s i s not argument enough to deny students the o p p o r t u n i t y of some b a s i c changes i n the e i g h t i e s . In the t h i r d dimension i s the i r o n y t h a t the message which we are c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v i n g from the more c o n s e r v a t i v e American educators i s both a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of P l a t o and a r e p l a y of the r a d i c a l B r a z i l i a n e x i l e , Paulo F r e i r e . P l a t o i d e a l i z e s the process of e d u c a t i o n : C e r t a i n p r o f e s s o r s of e d u c a t i o n must be wrong when they say t h a t they can put a knowledge i n t o the s o u l which was not there b e f o r e , l i k e s i g h t i n t o b l i n d eyes . . . our argument shows t h a t the power and c a p a c i t y of l e a r n i n g e x i s t s i n the s o u l a l r e a d y ; and t h a t j u s t as the eye was unable to t u r n from darkness to l i g h t without the whole body, so too the instrument of knowledge can o n l y by the movement of the whole s o u l be turned from the world of becoming i n t o t h a t of being. F r e i r e views t h i s process i n p o l i t i c a l terms. He b e l i e v e s that d i d a c t i c i s m breeds o p p r e s s i o n w h i l e d i a l e c t i c leads to freedom from o p p r e s s i o n . In the banking concept of e d u c a t i o n , knowledge i s a g i f t bestowed by those who c o n s i d e r themselves knowledgeable upon those whom they c o n s i d e r to know nothing. P r o j e c t i n g an a b s o l u t e ignorance onto o t h e r s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i d e o l o g y of o p p r e s s i o n , 15 n e g a t e s e d u c a t i o n and knowledge as p r o c e s s e s o f i n q u i r y . ( F r e i r e , 1983, p.58) F r e i r e d e s c r i b e s t h e c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m as " s u f f e r i n g f r o m n a r r a t i o n s i c k n e s s " ( p . 5 7 ) . G o o d l a d s a y s t h a t s c h o o l s r e f l e c t " our s h o r t c o m i n g s r a t h e r t h a n o u r i d e a l s " ( p . 1 2 3 ) . B o t h b e l i e v e t h a t a pedagogy t h a t i s b a s e d upon an i n t e r a c t i v e m o d e l, t h a t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p e o p l e r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h i n g s w i l l c h a l l e n g e t h e i n d i v i d u a l and, i n so d o i n g , w i l l t r a n s f o r m s o c i e t y . Whether one a c c e p t s t h e l o g i c o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e argument o r t h a t o f t h e r a d i c a l , t h e c h a l l e n g e a p p e a r s t o be t h e same. The e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s w h i c h one i n t r o d u c e s i n t o t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o A d l e r , G o o d l a d and F r e i r e , i s t o a s s i s t y o u n g p e o p l e i n t h e i r p r o c e s s o f g a i n i n g k nowledge and d i s c o v e r i n g meaning so t h a t t h e y may c o n t r i b u t e i n a w o r t h w h i l e manner t o t h e i r s o c i e t y . I I . 2 The L e a r n i n g P r o c e s s I n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p t h e o r i e s o f t h e w o r l d , t h e l e a r n e r must have models o f t h e w o r l d . T h e s e models a r e t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework, t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and t h e i d e a t i o n a l s c a f f o l d i n g . They a r e t h e s c h e m a t a , t h e 16 fundamental elements of which are the schema. Acco r d i n g to David Rumelhart, the schemata a r e : the b u i l d i n g b l o c k s of co g n i t i o n . T h e y are the fundamental elements upon which a l l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g depends. Schemata are employed i n the process of i n t e r p r e t i n g sensory data (both l i n g u i s t i c and n o n l i n g u i s t i c ) , i n r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from memory, i n o r g a n i z i n g a c t i o n s , i n determining goals and subgoals, i n a l l o c a t i n g r e s o u r c e s and g e n e r a l l y g u i d i n g the flow of p r o c e s s i n g i n the system. (Rumelhart, 1981, p.4) There i s some q u e s t i o n as t o the degree of complexity of the i n t u i t i v e schema network. We do not know how much i n f o r m a t i o n i s en f o l d e d i n the b r a i n a t b i r t h . Some b r a i n r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t j u s t as each p a r t of the b r a i n i s a hologram of the whole b r a i n , so each b r a i n i s a hologram of the whole e a r t h (Pribram, 1971) . I f t h i s i s t r u e , then the l e a r n i n g process i s bes t e x p l a i n e d as the process of exposure, i n t e r a c t i o n and f o c u s . As the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r i s exposed t o ideas and events, as she i n t e r a c t s w i t h nature and other i n d i v i d u a l s , then the i n f o r m a t i o n e n f o l d e d i n her b r a i n i s focused, c l a r i f i e d and un f o l d e d . What i s important i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s not the v a l i d i t y of the hologram n o t i o n but the r e l e v a n c e of the concept of u n f o l d i n g enf o l d e d knowledge. We walked down the path to the w e l l house a t t r a c t e d by the f r a g r a n c e of the honeysuckle w i t h which i t was covered. Someone was drawing water and my teacher p l a c e d my hand under the spout. As the c o o l stream gushed over one hand she s p e l l e d i n t o the other the word water, f i r s t s l o w l y , then r a p i d l y . I stood s t i l l , my whole a t t e n t i o n f i x e d upon the motions of her 17 f i n g e r s . Suddenly I f e l t a misty consciousness as  of something f o r g o t t e n [emphasis added] - a t h r i l l of r e t u r n i n g thought; and somehow the mystery of language was r e v e a l e d to me. I knew then t h a t "w-a-t-e-r" was the wonderful c o o l something t h a t was f l o w i n g over my hand. That l i v i n g word awakened my s o u l , gave i t l i g h t , hope, joy, s e t i t f r e e ! ( K e l l e r , 1958, p.28) Helen K e l l e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the u n f o l d i n g of en f o l d e d knowledge p r o v i d e s us wit h a powerful example of what David Bohm (1978) r e f e r s t o as r a t i o n a l i n s i g h t . U n t i l the senses provided her w i t h the i n s i g h t , the r a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n d i d not make sense. She d i d not see t h a t there was a co n n e c t i o n between the symbol, t h a t i s the motions of the tea c h e r ' s f i n g e r s , and the r e a l i t y . Once K e l l e r r e a l i z e d by the process of r a t i o n a l i n s i g h t t h a t e v e r y t h i n g has a name then she became aware of a very complex schema network and hence, capable of o r g a n i z i n g ideas and g e n e r a t i n g f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g (Bruner, 1977). How much of Helen K e l l e r ' s memorial network with i t s sub-schema, schemata and sub-schemata was present when she was born and how much of i t en f o l d e d i n those dark years b e f o r e Annie S u l l i v a n , i n d e s p e r a t i o n , f o r c e d her hand under the spout cannot be determined. What can be determined i s the importance of the experience of r a t i o n a l i n s i g h t i n the development of her awareness of the i n f o r m a t i o n which she had s t o r e d i n memory and of her a b i l i t y to access and communicate t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 18 I t i s t h i s awareness and a b i l i t y to which we p r e s e n t l y apply the term metacognition (Brown, 1982). U n t i l the l e a r n e r knows what she knows, then she cannot make use of knowledge. I f the l e a r n e r i s not pr o v i d e d with s u i t a b l e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , she w i l l not develop the metacognitive awareness of what i t i s t h a t she knows. The Helen K e l l e r s t o r y i l l u s t r a t e s the importance of the l e a r n i n g experience i n the development of comprehension and metacognition. The experience of sensing the r e a l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r e c o g n i z i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the symbol with the r e a l i t y i s a c a t a l y s t s u f f i c i e n t to unlock a v a s t amount of s t o r e d knowledge. Yet t h i s experience i s only an i n i t i a l step i n the p r o c e s s . The l e a r n e r must a l s o be p r o v i d e d with an o p p o r t u n i t y to s y n t h e s i z e the new i n f o r m a t i o n with e x i s t i n g knowledge. T h i s i s the sub-process of n e g o t i a t i o n of meaning. The l e a r n e r p l a y s w i t h the new concept to d i s c o v e r how i t f i t s i n t o her model of the world, then through the a c t i o n - r e f l e c t i o n d i a l e c t i c , both the concept and the model are changed. For example, l e t us assume t h a t the l e a r n e r hears a poem read aloud i n c l a s s and f i n d s the work to be a e s t h e t i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y p l e a s i n g . The i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g experience w i l l p r o v i d e a broad i n t e r f a c e between the e x t e r n a l body of knowledge and the i n t e r n a l 19 schema s t r u c t u r e . However, i t w i l l not be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the l e a r n e r ' s model of the world u n t i l she determines a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s new i n f o r m a t i o n and the e x i s t i n g knowledge. Thus, the meaning of the poem i s n e g o t i a t e d and the l e a r n e r ' s model of the world i s r e n e g o t i a t e d . 20 II.3 Drama and L e a r n i n g A knowledge of drama i m p l i e s an understanding of the s t r u c t u r e and the h i s t o r y of t h e a t r e and the dramatic a r t s . For the performer, knowledge of drama a l s o i m p l i e s a degree ; of mastery of the b a s i c s k i l l s of the dramatic a r t s , i n c l u d i n g those of speech and movement, of c r e a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n i For o t h e r s , knowledge may be c o n f i n e d to an understanding of the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of dramatic a c t i v i t y , the elements of t h e a t r e and the c r a f t s m a n s h i p : i n v o l v e d i n the creation, and p r o d u c t i o n of good t h e a t r e . A l l the world's a stage And a l l the men and women merely P l a y e r s ; They have t h e i r e x i t s and t h e i r entrances, And one man i n h i s time p l a y s many p a r t s . . . Shakespeare, As You L i k e I t , 11,7: 140-43 In h i s p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of Pythagorus' metaphor, Shakespeare reminds us t h a t we are c o n s t a n t l y i n v o l v e d i n dramatic a c t i v i t i e s , whether i n the form of p l a y or i n the v a r i o u s r o l e s which we assume i n our d a i l y l i v e s . As i n d i v i d u a l s and as a s p e c i e s , we are so immersed i n drama th a t we need the i m p o s i t i o n of a s t r u c t u r e i n t o which to i s o l a t e and s o r t our knowledge i f we are f u l l y to understand the nature of dramatic a c t i v i t y and i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . 21 Drama, i n the form of mimetic a c t i o n and p l a y , i s s a i d to be the e a r l i e s t form of a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ( E s s l i n , 1977; M a r t i n and V a l l i n s , 1968; Phenix, 1974). Drama and dance, i n the form of r i t u a l and p l a y , are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d to be the o l d e s t of the human s p e c i e s ' c r e a t i v e a r t forms (Carpenter, 1973; Courtney, 1980; E s s l i n , 1977; Phenix, 1974). I f one were to view drama a c t i v i t i e s on a continuum (Figure 1) , one would f i n d p l a y as the most elemental form of drama and t h e a t r e as the most complex. Pla y i s d i r e c t l y e x p e r i e n t i a l , n o n - r e p l i c a t i v e and f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e s a r e a l i z a t i o n of per s o n a l f a n t a s y . In a drama programme, the p l a y component would i n c l u d e simple e x e r c i s e s , a v a r i e t y of games and i m p r o v i s a t i o n s . In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the a r t s of movement, which i n c l u d e dance and drama, P h i l i p Phenix r e f e r s to Huizinga's Homo  Ludens: A Study of the Play Element i n C u l t u r e . He s t a t e s : P l a y i s not a minor and i n c i d e n t a l form of human a c t i v i t y a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y t o c h i l d r e n and to a d u l t s i n times of r e l a x a t i o n , but i t i s a p r i m o r d i a l c i v i l i z i n g f o r c e i n f l u e n c i n g every f i e l d of c u l t u r a l endeavor . . . the p l a y element i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n language, i n law, i n war, i n the p u r s u i t of knowledge, i n ph i l o s o p h y , i n r e l i g i o n , i n poetry, i n music and . . . i n the dance, the p e r f e c t e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of p l a y . (Phenix, 1964, pp.173-174) In a l a t e r a r t i c l e f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Forum , Phoenix concludes t h a t "play may t u r n out to be the most important 22 r i t u a l p l a y dramatic p l a y i n g t h e a t r e r e a l i t y / f a n t a s y enmeshed games / e x e r c i s e s / i m p r o v i s a t i o n s p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r s t a g e / f i l m / t e l e v i s i o n e x p e r i e n t i a l r e p l i c a t i v e ^ i n c r e a s i n g complexity of r o l e meaning s y m b o l i s a t i o n emergence of r o l e of s p e c t a t o r / c r i t i c F i g u r e 1. A C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the Continuum of Drama A c t i v i t i e s 23 f e a t u r e of the c u r r i c u l u m " (1965). Current r e s e a r c h which i n d i c a t e s a- p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between dramatic p l a y and the development of s e l f - c o n c e p t , c o g n i t i o n , language and communication s k i l l s , c o - o p e r a t i o n and c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n (Bruner, 1976; Courtney, 1982; Q u a i l s and Sheehan, 1983; Rubin, 1980) supports t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . P l a y , as a p p l i e d w i t h i n any of the d i s c i p l i n e s at any l e v e l , should be a v i t a l l y important p a r t of e d u c a t i o n . Whether p l a y i n g with language, with o b j e c t s , with motion or w i t h o t h e r s , one experiences a freedom from r e a l i t y , a freedom from the s e l f ( ex s t a s i s ). T h i s sense of f e l t freedom i s immensely important to the w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l and should be an outcome of a l l drama programmes. Drama f o r understanding, however, i s not simply p l a y . Nor i s i t simply s t o r i e s r e t o l d i n a c t i o n . Rather, i t i s human beings, as s u b j e c t s and o b j e c t s , as performers and audience, c o n f r o n t e d by s i t u a t i o n s which change them because of what they must f a c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h those c h a l l e n g e s (Heathcote, 1983). As the work progresses on the continuum from e x p e r i e n t i a l to r e p l i c a t i v e , the focus i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y a l t e r e d . The a c t i v i t i e s , which i n p l a y , were c h i l d - c e n t r e d now c e n t r e i n the a e s t h e t i c experience i t s e l f . T h e teacher c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t s the m a t e r i a l s , frames and focusses them i n order to e s t a b l i s h an emotional d i s t a n c i n g (Witkin, 1977) and to f o s t e r a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g experiences ( F e u r s t e i n , 24 1969) . The teacher becomes the mediator, a r o l e which Gavin B o l t o n compares to t h a t of p l a y w r i g h t . As the p l a y w r i g h t focuses the meaning f o r the audience, so the teacher helps to focus the meaning f o r the c h i l d r e n ; as the p l a y w r i g h t b u i l d s t e n s i o n f o r the audience, (so) the teacher b u i l d s t e n s i o n f o r the c h i l d r e n ; as the p l a y w r i g h t and d i r e c t o r and a c t o r s h i g h l i g h t meaning f o r the audience by the c o n t r a s t i n sound, l i g h t and movement, so does the teacher - f o r the c h i l d r e n ; as the p l a y w r i g h t chooses with g r e a t care the symbolic a c t i o n s and o b j e c t s t h a t w i l l operate a t many l e v e l s of meaning f o r the audience, so w i l l the teacher help the c h i l d r e n f i n d symbols i n t h e i r work. (Bolton, 1980, pp.72-73) By causing students to a c t and to r e f l e c t upon t h e i r a c t i o n s , the teacher helps them to e x p l o r e and to develop t h e i r p e r s o n a l knowledge, to d e a l with i m p l i c a t i o n s of a c t i o n and non-action and to d i s c o v e r the u n i v e r s a l i n themselves (Bolton, 1981; Heathcote, 1978; O ' N e i l l , 1983). I t i s through t h i s use of drama as a l e a r n i n g medium t h a t the language a r t s teacher can encourage the development of the b a s i c communication s k i l l s and make a broad spectrum of l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n of a l l ages and a b i l i t y l e v e l s ( B r i t t o n , 1973; G u t t e r i d g e , 1983; M o f f e t t and Wagner, 1983). The humanities teacher can a s s i s t even very young c h i l d r e n i n d e v e l o p i n g an understanding of h i s t o r y , of h i s t o r i c a l time, people and i s s u e s . 25 (The) g i f t of drama to the h i s t o r y teacher i s t h a t i t enables him to t a l k with c h i l d r e n about the important t h i n g s , r a t h e r than the t r i v i a l i s s u e s , i t helps him to e x p l o r e types of human m o t i v a t i o n , and helps c h i l d r e n to begin to g i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o what they are doing. (F i n e s , 1982, p.119) In a d d i t i o n to the r e s e a r c h which i n d i c a t e s a c o r r e l a t i o n between the use of drama and the development of students' a e s t h e t i c , s y n n o e t i c , symbolic and s y n o p t i c knowledge, a number of r e c e n t s t u d i e s c o n f i r m a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n drama a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r development of moral awareness and moral reasoning (Colby, 1982; Courtney, 1980 and Kohlberg, 1980). I t i s w i t h i n the t h e a t r e component of the drama programme t h a t students develop a consciousness of t h e a t r e form and of the c r e a t i o n of meaning through the manipulation of i t s b a s i c elements, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of the metaphoric t e n s i o n between the a c t o r as s e l f and the a c t o r as c r e a t o r , between the a c t o r as person i n present time and the a c t o r as person i n past or f u t u r e time, between the a c t o r as r e a l and the c h a r a c t e r as imagined. I t i s through t h i s development t h a t the student progresses from being a d i r e c t communicator and symbol user t o a c r a f t s p e r s o n and f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t i n the a e s t h e t i c experience (Wolf and Gardner, 1980). Theatre p r o v i d e s the a e s t h e t i c form through which the a b s t r a c t dramatic experience i s made c o n c r e t e . Good t h e a t r e 26 i s the r e s u l t of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s f u l l y r e a l i z e d " l i v i n g through" experience tempered by the power and the l i m i t a t i o n s of the "as i f " medium. Without the l a t t e r , the p l a y experience remains p e r s o n a l and does not have the substance of dramatic a r t . T h i s means, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t even young c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g simple make-believe must be made aware of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the "as i f " , i f they are being educated w i t h i n a drama c u r r i c u l u m . In the same manner, the more mature performers must r e t a i n a consciousness of the " l i v i n g through" experience i f they are to c r e a t e meaningful work. Because i t r e s t s i n t h i s d i a l e c t i c , r i t u a l i s seen to encompass the continuum (Figure 1). As i t i s e x p e r i e n t i a l , r i t u a l i s c o n s i d e r e d to be elemental but as i t i s a l s o h i g h l y symbolic, i t must be viewed as complex. R i t u a l , then, e x e m p l i f i e s the " l i v i n g through" experience of dramatic p l a y and, a t the same time, the r e p l i c a t i v e and metaphoric nature of t h e a t r e . I t o f f e r s us what Jung d e s c r i b e s as a " r e s i d u a of innumerable e x p e r i e n c e s , a remnant of the joys and sorrows t h a t have been repeated c o u n t l e s s times i n our a n c e s t r a l h i s t o r y . " Whoever speaks i n p r i m o r d i a l images speaks with a thousand v o i c e s ; he e n t h r a l s and overpowers, while at the same time he l i f t s the i d e a he i s seeking to express out of the o c c a s i o n a l and the t r a n s i t o r y i n t o the realm of the ever-enduring. He transmutes our p e r s o n a l d e s t i n y i n t o the d e s t i n y of mankind, and evokes i n a l l of us those b e n e f i c e n t f o r c e s t h a t ever and anon have enabled humanity to f i n d a refuge from every p e r i l and to o u t l i v e the longest n i g h t . 27 That i s the s e c r e t of g r e a t a r t , and of i t s e f f e c t upon us. (Jung, 1971, pp.320-321) That i s indeed the s e c r e t of g r e a t t h e a t r e and i t i s with the i n t e n t i o n of r e v e a l i n g t h i s s e c r e t t h a t a drama c u r r i c u l u m should be developed. II.4 Drama i n the C u r r i c u l u m In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the 1983 PEMC p r o d u c t i o n , Face to  Face , John Wright d e s c r i b e s drama as "a way of l e a r n i n g about o n e s e l f and the w o r l d 1 , as a means of "re-examining what one a l r e a d y knows, a way of growing." Drama demands t h a t the l e a r n e r be i n v o l v e d i n t u i t i v e l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y . In other words, i t p r o v i d e s a broad i n t e r f a c e between the themes and concepts being developed i n the l e a r n i n g experience and the student's p r i o r knowledge. The work r e q u i r e s the student to take r i s k s , to access knowledge, to a c t , r e f l e c t and n e g o t i a t e meaning. Drama i s a powerful l e a r n i n g t o o l because i t p r o v i d e s the "kind of l e a r n i n g t h a t can make people whole" (Wagner, 1978, p.147). Drama c a l l s upon a l l bodies of knowledge and human experience and i s , t h e r e f o r e , a p p l i c a b l e as a l e a r n i n g medium acr o s s the e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m . In t h i s p r o v i n c e , drama 28 a c t i v i t i e s are recommended as t e a c h i n g t o o l s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s and Science as w e l l as i n the Language A r t s (K-12). The B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education's Guide to  the Core C u r r i c u l u m (1977) a l s o recommends the use of drama to a t t a i n many of the core g o a l s . I t i s important to note, however, t h a t i f one accepts the arguments presented i n t h i s paper, the implementation of the drama process as a methodology has much wider e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s (Table 1) . TABLE 1 Le a r n i n g Outcomes of Drama A c t i v i t y as Related to Goals of the Core C u r r i c u l u m L e a r n i n g Outcome Core Goal of Drama A c t i v i t y The student should develop To Develop the S k i l l s i n c r e a s e d v ocabulary of Reading understanding of s t o r y schema o r a l r e a d i n g s k i l l s i n f e r e n c i n g s k i l l s i n c r e a s e d use and understanding of symbol and metaphor 29 Core Goal L e a r n i n g Outcome of Drama A c t i v i t y To Develop W r i t i n g S k i l l s To Develop the L i s t e n i n g S k i l l s The student should develop : e v a l u a t i v e s k i l l s : r e s e a r c h s k i l l s : a p p r e c i a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of r e a d i n g matter : a r e c o g n i t i o n of b i a s : e f f e c t i v e communication s k i l l s : c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g : i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y to p l a n , review and r e v i s e : audience awareness : a b i l i t y to generate ideas : a b i l i t y to l i s t e n to and to f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s : s k i l l i n l i s t e n i n g f o r changes i n r e g i s t e r : s k i l l i n l i s t e n i n g f o r changes i n phonology 30 Core Goal L e a r n i n g Outcome of Drama A c t i v i t y To Develop the Speaking S k i l l s To Develop Knowledge and Understanding of the Roles, R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and R i g h t s of the I n d i v i d u a l i n S o c i e t y The student should develop : s k i l l i n l i s t e n i n g f o r d e t a i l : s k i l l i n l i s t e n i n g to r e c e i v e feedback : a b i l i t y to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y ;: a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , debate, ; d i s c u s s i o n , i n t e r v i e w s , • •; d i a l o g u e , c h o r a l r e a d i n g , meetings, r e c o r d i n g s , t h e a t r e : a b i l i t y to use a p p r o p r i a t e v ocabulary and d i a l e c t : a b i l i t y to share ideas : a b i l i t y to co-operate with others : a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : a b i l i t y to e x p l o r e i s s u e s : c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g : p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t y 31 Core Goal L e a r n i n g Outcome of Drama A c t i v i t y To Develop Knowledge and Understanding of C u l t u r a l and P h y s i c a l H e r i t a g e To Develop S k i l l s of I n q u i r y , A n a l y s i s and Problem-Solving The student should develop : a b i l i t y to g i v e and to accept c r i t i c i s m : a p p r e c i a t i o n of the work of others : e v a l u a t i v e s k i l l : understanding of c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n : knowledge of h i s t o r i c a l persons and events : understanding of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of p o l i c i e s and d e c i s i o n s : understanding of c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s : a p p r e c i a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c form : a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e b i a s : a b i l i t y to formulate a n a l y t i c questions : a b i l i t y to exp l o r e i s s u e s Core Goal L e a r n i n g Outcome of Drama A c t i v i t y To Develop S k i l l s and Knowledge f o r H e a l t h f u l L i v i n g The student should develop : a b i l i t y to compare, i n t e r p r e t , judge and d i s c r i m i n a t e : w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e : s k i l l s of o b s e r v a t i o n and sense-awareness : t r u s t : c o n c e n t r a t i o n : c r e a t i v i t y : s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n : concern f o r the s a f e t y and w e l l - b e i n g of the s e l f and others : a b i l i t y to express emotion c l e a r l y and c o n f i d e n t l y : a b i l i t y to c r e a t e new r e l a t i o n s h i p s : s e l f - c o n t r o l : empathy and s e n s i t i v i t y : a b i l i t y to share and to co-operate with others 33 L e a r n i n g Outcome Core Goal of Drama A c t i v i t y The student should develop To Develop S k i l l s c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and Knowledge f o r f l e x i b i l i t y H e a l t h f u l L i v i n g and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s I t i s a l s o important to remember t h a t as w e l l as being a l e a r n i n g medium, drama i s a d i s t i n c t d i s c i p l i n e . Dramatic l i t e r a t u r e and concepts are expressed through an a e s t h e t i c form, known as t h e a t r e . Drama and t h e a t r e have an h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e and t r a d i t i o n as w e l l as an e s t a b l i s h e d system of e v a l u a t i o n . In d e v e l o p i n g , or adapting, a drama c u r r i c u l u m , i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e to c o n s i d e r Phenix's realms of meaning (1964) to determine the scope of the work and to apply B r u n e r 1 s concept of a s p i r a l c u r r i c u l u m (1977) to the sequencing of goals and l e a r n i n g outcomes. Thus, one might have primary students g a i n i n g a e s t h e t i c , e t h i c a l , s y n n o e t i c and s y n o p t i c meaning by e x p l o r i n g the world of Shakespeare through a simple r o l e drama. At the same time, s e n i o r students c o u l d be p l a y i n g t h e a t r e games. 34 The t o t a l scope and sequence of a drama c u r r i c u l u m would imply a f a m i l i a r i t y with dramatic l i t e r a t u r e from the c l a s s i c a l Greek to the present as w e l l as an understanding of the development of the a r t from i t s r o o t s i n p r i m i t i v e r i t u a l s to contemporary f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n . I t would a l s o demand the refinement of a number of pers o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and a degree of mastery of the c r a f t of t h e a t r e (Tables, 2, 3, 4). 35 TABLE 2 AREAS AND LEVELS OF MASTERY OF DRAMATIC PERFORMANCE Le v e l Areas of I n s t r u c t i o n L e v e l One: P a r t i c i p a n t P a r t i c i p a t i o n T r u s t C o n c e n t r a t i o n O b s e r v a t i o n Sense Awareness Teamwork Movement L i s t e n i n g Speech Role P l a y i n g R e f l e c t i o n L e v e l Two: Performer A l l of the above plu s Energy D i s c i p l i n e ( i n c l u d i n g a t t e n d a n c e / p u n c t u a l i t y / p r e p a r a t i o n / a b i l i t y to take d i r e c t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ) Mime Scene work Reading and/or w r i t i n g of dramatic l i t e r a t u r e Stage Terminology Theatre Background Work with audio/video tape C r i t i c a l s k i l l s L e v e l Three: Actor (Apprentice) A l l of the above as c r a f t L e v e l Four: Master of Dramatic A l l of the above as a r t A r t s 36 TABLE 3 AREAS AND LEVELS OF MASTERY OF PERCIPIENT L e v e l Areas of I n s t r u c t i o n L e v e l One: Spect a t o r L i s t e n i n g O b s e r v a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s P r a c t i s e of c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m Reading/viewing and/or performing v a r i o u s types of dramatic works L e v e l Two: Connoisseur A l l of the above plus C r i t i c a l S k i l l s L e v e l Three: C r i t i c A l l of the above plus Communication S k i l l s E v a l u a t i v e S k i l l s 37 TABLE 4 AREAS AND LEVELS OF MASTERY OF THEATRE CRAFTS Areas of I n s t r u c t i o n L e v e l s of Mastery Theatre Design/ Costume Design/ Makeup Student App r e n t i c e Journeyman P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a g e / F i l m / T e l e v i s i o n D i r e c t i o n Student A p p r e n t i c e Journeyman P r o f e s s i o n a l L i g h t i n g / Sound/ Camera/Special E f f e c t s / E d i t i n g Student A p p r e n t i c e Journeyman P r o f e s s i o n a l Stage C o n s t r u c t i o n / Student Stage Management Ap p r e n t i c e Journeyman P r o f e s s i o n a l 38 The scope and sequence of drama i n s t r u c t i o n as a component of the Elementary F i n e A r t s c u r r i c u l u m i m p l i e s a s e r i e s of l e v e l s of mastery of pe r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s as w e l l as those of speech and movement. An o u t l i n e of these l e v e l s of mastery i s pro v i d e d i n Table 5 which has. been adapted from Phases I,II and I I I of the suggested i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the Foundation  Cu r r i c u l u m i n Language Development of the Vancouver School Board's P r o j e c t BUILD (1978), d r a f t s of the p r o v i n c i a l Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m (1982, 1983 and 1984) and Body Wisdom by Arthur Lessac (1981). TABLE 5 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF ELEMENTARY DRAMA INSTRUCTION Area of I n s t r u c t i o n L e v e l s of Mastery  The student should: TRUST L e v e l I: develop t r u s t i n others develop con f i d e n c e i n s e l f L e v e l I I : present work to peers accept r i s k i n drama t r u s t others demonstrate s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e L e v e l I I I : b e l i e v e i n own a b i l i t y and s k i l l s g i v e and r e c e i v e c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m 39 Area of I n s t r u c t i o n L e v e l s of Mastery CONCENTRATION L e v e l I: The student should: concentrate without being d i s t r a c t e d by others L e v e l I I : c o n c e n t r a t e without being d i s t r a c t e d by other students or by extraneous s t i m u l i focus a t t e n t i o n L e v e l I I I :concentrate and remain i n v o l v e d i n drama work change or maintain focus OBSERVATION AND SENSE AWARENESS L e v e l I: use a l l of the senses to i n t e r p r e t the immediate environment make s e l e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s L e v e l I I : focus on one or more senses r e c a l l sensory experiences L e v e l I I I d e m o n s t r a t e sensory r e c a l l i n drama work LISTENING L e v e l I: understand and a p p r e c i a t e the q u a l i t y of s i l e n c e l i s t e n and respond to i n s t r u c t i o n s L e v e l I I : l i s t e n to o r a l r e a d i n g , d r a m a t i z a t i o n s , sound and music f o r understanding l i s t e n f o r d e t a i l s L e v e l I I I : l i s t e n to o r a l r e a d i n g , d r a m a t i z a t i o n s , sound and music f o r enjoyment l i s t e n f o r i m p l i e d meaning IMAGINATION L e v e l I: accept f a n t a s y when a p p r o p r i a t e extend f a n t a s y when a p p r o p r i a t e 40 Area of I n s t r u c t i o n L e v e l s of Mastery The student should: L e v e l I I : use own ideas develop s o l u t i o n s to problems L e v e l I I I : i n v e n t and accept a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s MOVEMENT L e v e l I: move f r e e l y communicate through movement understand the meaning of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s L e v e l I I : move f r e e l y w i t h i n group i n t e r p r e t f e e l i n g s through movement move with c o n t r o l compare and c o n t r a s t types of movement demonstrate p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n perform p e r s o n a l mime demonstrate an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of p h y s i c a l endurance move with balance and rhythm L e v e l III:demonstrate p h y s i c a l stamina understand and u t i l i z e p h y s i c a l cues and sign s demonstrate s k i l l i n p h y s i c a l p r o j e c t i o n develop movement sequences perform elementary mime explo r e dynamics of rhythm, l i n e , shape, l e v e l , d i r e c t i o n SPEECH L e v e l I: speak c l e a r l y e x p l o r e a l t e r n a t e v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n 41 Area of I n s t r u c t i o n L e v e l s of Mastery The student should: L e v e l I I : speak c l e a r l y use p i t c h , tone and i n f l e c t i o n to a i d meaning use speech a p p r o p r i a t e to the s i t u a t i o n L e v e l I I I : u s e v o i c e to convey mood, emotion and meaning use a v a r i e t y of v o c a l s t y l e s use formal and i n f o r m a l language make e f f e c t i v e o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s PARTICIPATION L e v e l I: p a r t i c i p a t e i n drama games and e x e r c i s e s share s t o r i e s operate a puppet d e s c r i b e what has happened i n a drama L e v e l I I : p a r t i c i p a t e i n r o l e work, enactments and d e p i c t i o n s present o r i g i n a l ideas r e f l e c t on what has happened i n a drama L e v e l I I I d e m o n s t r a t e b e l i e f and commitment i n drama work p l a n , w r i t e and/or perform work f o r an audience ( i n the form of mime, puppet show, dance drama, readers' t h e a t r e , s t o r y t h e a t r e c h o r a l r e a d i n g , stage, f i l m or t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c t i o n ) , analyze and d i s c u s s c o n s t r u c t i v e l y the work of s e l f and of others 42 II.5 Pedagogical I m p l i c a t i o n s Implementation of a program which uses drama as a l e a r n i n g medium might mean t h a t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e w i l l be adj u s t e d to p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g experiences with any combination of the goals and l e a r n i n g outcomes l i s t e d i n Table 1. I t might a l s o mean t h a t the teacher w i l l take p a r t i n v a r i o u s i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s i n order to develop s u f f i c i e n t background i n the d i s c i p l i n e to a s s i s t students i n r e a c h i n g the l e v e l s of mastery d e s c r i b e d i n Table 5. Yet, i t must mean t h a t a teacher w i l l e v a l u a t e her c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e t o determine what changes are necessary and what degree of change she i s w i l l i n g to make to f a c i l i t a t e these l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . Recognizing t h a t teachers must f i n d ways of edging themselves, as w e l l as t h e i r students, i n t o t h i s type of drama, Dorothy Heathcote suggests t h a t the teacher determines her own t h r e s h o l d s of t o l e r a n c e . The t h r e s h o l d s which Mrs. Heathcote has i d e n t i f i e d are: d e c i s i o n - t a k i n g t h r e s h o l d , n o i s e t h r e s h o l d , d i s t a n c e t h r e s h o l d , s i z e of group t h r e s h o l d , t h r e s h o l d of t e a c h i n g r e g i s t e r s and s t a t u s t h r e s h o l d (Wagner, 1976). The teacher must d e c i d e , i n other words, the q u a n t i t y and the q u a l i t y of d e c i s i o n s t h a t she can comfortably a l l o w the students to make, the nois e l e v e l and type of n o i s e which she w i l l t o l e r a t e , the p h y s i c a l and 43 emotional d i s t a n c e which she f e e l s she needs, the s i z e of group which she f i n d s i t e a s i e s t to work with, the type of r o l e or a t t i t u d e which she p r e f e r s to use to focus and move the drama and the s t a t u s which she wishes to preserve i n the group. While i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t teachers have some understanding of t h e a t r e elements and of a e s t h e t i c form, t h i s i s l e s s important than t h e i r development of confidence and s k i l l i n p l a n n i n g , i n p a c i n g , i n s i g n i n g , i n b u i l d i n g b e l i e f and t r u s t , i n q u e s t i o n i n g and power-sharing techniques. The use of drama as an e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g medium r e q u i r e s t h a t the teacher f u n c t i o n s as an enabler of l e a r n i n g , a mediator of knowledge, r a t h e r than as an owner or banking manager of knowledge. G a l i l e o s a i d , "You cannot teach a man anything, you can o n l y help him to d i s c o v e r i t w i t h i n h i m s e l f . " The s t y l e of t e a c h i n g t h a t i s i m p l i e d i n the f u l l implementation of the program being d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper n e c e s s i t a t e s a s h i f t i n student-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Problem-posing edu c a t i o n i s incongruent with t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d e d u c a t i o n because, as Heathcote reminds us, i t depends upon d i a l o g u e , c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n of shared meanings: 44 Do you ever v i s i t the garden of your mind and, s i t t i n g q u i e t t h e r e , do you ever dream of the grace t h a t might come i n t o t h i s bower, the s c h o o l , i f people might be permitted t o become obsessed by j u s t a few important matters? Where one t h i n g might l e a d n a t u r a l l y to another? Where i n q u i r y might have time? Where d i s c i p l i n e i s from a s u b j e c t r a t h e r than another person? Where people might " l e a r n themselves" i n t o the work? Where small persons and b i g persons might grow together and help each other l e a r n ? Where teachers and students might garden and grow and d i g and de l v e and argue and t e l l and ask, and develop on each o t h e r , r a t h e r than s u b m i t t i n g and arguing about submission? ( Heathcote, 1978, pp.7-8) II.6 I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s The combination of a v a s t number of major c u r r i c u l u m changes and the demand f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i n the education system has l e d to e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n the area of c u r r i c u l u m implementation i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h have p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s f o r e f f e c t i v e implementation of i n n o v a t i o n s . While there i s s t i l l t a l k of de v e l o p i n g " t e a c h e r - p r o o f " c u r r i c u l a and resource m a t e r i a l s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y understood t h a t s u c c e s s f u l implementation depends upon the way i n which the teacher p e r c e i v e s the i n n o v a t i o n . Programs and m a t e r i a l s w i l l not be put i n t o a c t u a l use i f the teacher f e e l s t h a t they do not address student need, i f they r e p r e s e n t an 45 unacceptable change i n e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy or i f they p l a c e too g r e a t a demand upon the teacher's time, energy, s k i l l and knowledge. (Buchanan, 1980; Flanders,1980; F u l l a n , 1982; Olson, 1980). " E d u c a t i o n a l change depends on what teache r s do and t h i n k - i t ' s as simple and as complex as t h a t " ( F u l l a n , 1982, p.107). I t i s important, then, t h a t i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s which are used by e x t e r n a l change agents are t e a c h e r - s p e c i f i c and c l a s s r o o m - s p e c i f i c . They should p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s with e a r l y v i s i b l e r e s u l t s of an enhancement i n student l e a r n i n g . S u c c e s s f u l implementation a l s o depends upon an a p p r o p r i a t e balance between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . Teachers r e s e n t change which appears to be e x t e r n a l l y imposed ( F u l l a n and Leithwood, 1980) but, a t the same time, they need support from p r i n c i p a l s , from d i s t r i c t s t a f f and s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and they need to be connected to the knowledge and to r e l a t e d changes from o u t s i d e t h e i r school and d i s t r i c t (Goodlad, 1984; McLaughlin and Marsh, 1978; Tye, 1984). Joyce and Showers (1980) d i s c u s s the importance of job-embedded i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s concept i s a l s o supported by the f i n d i n g s of Goodlad (1984) and Ruddick (1980). Again, the need i s complex. Teachers have to be g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t y to n e g o t i a t e shared meaning of the change i n t h e i r own 46 classrooms w i t h t h e i r own students but they must a l s o share r e a c t i o n s to the new knowledge with others (Goodlad, 19 84). P r o v i s i o n s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n a t a s t a f f l e v e l and at a d i s t r i c t l e v e l are imperative ( F u l l a n and Park, 1981). S t r a t e g i e s t h a t are designed to u t i l i z e a core group of teachers m o d e l l i n g the i n n o v a t i o n and which operate on a networking model wi t h i n d i v i d u a l s c h ools as key u n i t s seem to be most s u c c e s s f u l (Werner et.al.,1983 ). Implementation must be viewed as a p r o c e s s , not an event. I t r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and i t takes time (Loucks and P r a t t , 1979). S u c c e s s f u l implementation s t r a t e g i e s are based on r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s , sound e d u c a t i o n a l goals and continuous f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n . 47 CHAPTER I I I . DESIGN OF THE STUDY I I I . l Nature of the Study T h i s case study was designed to e v a l u a t e the success of a s e r i e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s which were conducted d u r i n g the 1983-84 school year. The purpose of these a c t i v i t i e s was to encourage a s e l e c t e d group of s i x n o n - s p e c i a l i s t teachers from three elementary schools i n one school d i s t r i c t to experiment with the use of drama as a l e a r n i n g medium i n a v a r i e t y of content areas. D e s c r i p t i o n s of s u c c e s s f u l implementation p r o j e c t s conducted r e c e n t l y i n other areas i n the p r o v i n c e (Werner e t . a l , 1983) pr o v i d e d models f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n and t i m i n g of the a c t i v i t i e s . The a c t i v i t i e s which were conducted i n c l u d e d : (a) a p r e l i m i n a r y review of p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the use of drama as a l e a r n i n g medium and to s u c c e s s f u l experiences i n programme implementation; (b) a luncheon meeting with s e l e c t e d teachers to e x p l a i n the p r o j e c t , to c o l l e c t e x p l o r a t o r y data and to arrange classroom v i s i t s ; (c) demonstration lessons and follow-up a c t i v i t i e s ; (d) a din n e r meeting and f i l m n i g h t ; (e) a workshop wi t h the author of a resource book on the use 48 of drama i n the elementary classroom and (f) o b s e r v a t i o n s of s e l e c t e d teachers u s i n g drama i n t h e i r classrooms. The responses of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers and of school and d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to the v a r i o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d through i n t e r v i e w s and classroom o b s e r v a t i o n s . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the i n t e r v i e w s and the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the lessons which were observed p r o v i d e d the data which were q u a l i t a t i v e l y analyzed as a p a r t of t h i s study. I t should be noted t h a t while the s c a l e s used to measure te a c h e r s ' stages of concern and l e v e l s of use were based on models wi t h h i g h c o - r e l a t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y scores ( H a l l , 1974; Loucks, 1977), n e i t h e r the e x p l o r a t o r y d a t a - g a t h e r i n g instruments (Appendix A) nor these measurement s c a l e s were v a l i d a t e d f o r t h i s study. However, the standards developed by the J o i n t Committee on Standards f o r E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n (1981) were c o n s u l t e d and used i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the procedures and of the r e p o r t i n g of the data. III.2 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Teacher P o p u l a t i o n In s e l e c t i n g the teacher p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s study, the r e s e a r c h e r was guided by the assumption t h a t teachers who have been i d e n t i f i e d by school and d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 49 as being those with whom peers would be l i k e l y to share concepts and s t r a t e g i e s can p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a network f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of drama to a l a r g e number of elementary classrooms i n the d i s t r i c t . The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e should be at l e a s t two teachers s e l e c t e d from each school i n order to p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r peer, i n t e r a c t i o n and support. In a d d i t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r f e l t t h a t a peer r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r s e l f and each of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers would be more l i k e l y to l e a d to an acceptance of the i n n o v a t i o n . Furthermore, the r e s e a r c h e r was concerned t h a t there should be an a p p r o p r i a t e balance between male and female t e a c h e r s , between younger and o l d e r members of s t a f f and between those t e a c h i n g the primary grades and those t e a c h i n g the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades. The r e s e a r c h e r was guided a l s o by the b e l i e f t h a t a c t u a l change would be more l i k e l y to occur i n schools where the support of the i n n o v a t i o n by the p r i n c i p a l was c o v e r t , r a t h e r than o v e r t . T h e r e f o r e , the f o l l o w i n g steps were undertaken i n the s e l e c t i o n of the teacher p o p u l a t i o n : i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s were conducted with one school p r i n c i p a l and w i t h the c h a i r p e r s o n of the l o c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l development committee to determine t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the p r o j e c t and to i d e n t i f y some teachers who might be w i l l i n g to become i n v o l v e d ; a meeting with the superintendent was arranged i n order to d e s c r i b e the proposed study and to d i s c u s s the s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h e r s a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a 50 as o u t l i n e d above; approval to proceed having been granted, those s i x t e a c h e r s , who were known by the r e s e a r c h e r and who had been i d e n t i f i e d by the p r i n c i p a l s and the superintendent as probable " l i n k i n g " t e a c h e r s , were approached and i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o j e c t . III.3 Procedures The f i r s t task was to seek support and to o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n t o proceed with the study. The second task was to s e l e c t the teacher p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a t the beginning of the 1983-84 school year, a v i s i t was made to the d i s t r i c t s u p erintendent t o e x p l a i n the nature of the p r o j e c t , to s e l e c t the s p e c i f i c teacher p o p u l a t i o n and to o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n to proceed with the r e s e a r c h . The t h i r d task i n v o l v e d v i s i t i n g each of the three school p r i n c i p a l s t o e x p l a i n the nature of the p r o j e c t and to request p e r m i s s i o n to conduct the r e s e a r c h i n the classrooms of the s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s . F o l l o w i n g these d i s c u s s i o n s with d i s t r i c t and school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , meetings with each of the s e l e c t e d teachers were arranged and conducted. 51 Since a l l of the proposed a c t i v i t i e s to be conducted as a p a r t of the study would be, i n f a c t , p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s , and s i n c e funding would be r e q u i r e d f o r some of these a c t i v i t i e s , i t was e q u a l l y important to seek the support of the c h a i r p e r s o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l development committee of the l o c a l t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n . One r e s u l t of having o b t a i n e d support from t h i s s t a k eholder was t h a t an o p p o r t u n i t y was giv e n d u r i n g the d i s t r i c t p r o f e s s i o n a l development day to h o l d a group luncheon with the s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s . At t h a t time there was a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and of the drama work with which students, t e a c h e r s and the change agent would be i n v o l v e d . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Appendix A) were d i s t r i b u t e d , i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted, i n i t i a l classroom v i s i t s were arranged and a p p r o p r i a t e content areas or u n i t s were s p e c i f i e d by each of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s . The e x p l o r a t o r y q u e s t i o n s which were used f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e were based on M a s s i a l a s ' model of t e a c h i n g s t y l e s (Massialas and Hurst, 1978) and on Watson's t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s (1978). Teachers' responses to these q u e s t i o n s on e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s and goals appear as Tables 6 and 7. I n d i v i d u a l l y , t e a c h e r s were asked to comment upon t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s of t e a c h i n g , t o c l a s s i f y t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , to d e s c r i b e t h e i r c u r r e n t methodologies, to d i s c u s s t h e i r use of p r o v i n c i a l l y developed c u r r i c u l u m guides and resource m a t e r i a l s and to d e s c r i b e previous drama which they had done wi t h students i n t h e i r classrooms. TABLE 6 Le a r n i n g O b j e c t i v e s as I d e n t i f i e d and C l a s s i f i e d by S i x S e l e c t e d Elementary Teachers Number of Times Outcome was Outcome was Le a r n i n g Outcome I d e n t i f i e d C l a s s i f i e d as a P r i o r i t y Students should: l e a r n the b a s i c s k i l l s 5 2 l e a r n to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y * 3 0 l e a r n to get along w i t h others * 6 2 a c q u i r e knowledge 5 2 develop o r i g i n a l i t y and c r e a t i v i t y i * 3 0 l e a r n t o s o l v e problems * 2 1 be prepared f o r the " r e a l world" * 5 2 develop awareness * 3 0 communicate e f f e c t i v e l y * 5 1 * i d e n t i f i e d as important l e a r n i n g outcomes i n drama c u r r i c u l u m As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 6, th e r e i s a n o t i c e a b l e d i s c r e p a n c y between some of the l e a r n i n g outcomes which are give n p r i o r i t y i n a drama c u r r i c u l u m and those which were c l a s s i f i e d as p r i o r i t i e s by the s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s . No one, f o r example, i d e n t i f i e d the development of c r e a t i v i t y , 53 awareness, o r i g i n a l i t y or c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as being important l e a r n i n g outcomes. On the other hand, l e a r n i n g the b a s i c s k i l l s and a c q u i r i n g knowledge were s e l e c t e d as p r i o r i t i e s . Of the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i d e n t i f i e d , d i s c o v e r y , experimentation and small group work were chosen l e s s o f t e n than the more t r a d i t i o n a l methods (Table 7 ) . However, most of the s e l e c t e d teachers i n d i c a t e d t h a t they v a r i e d t h e i r methodologies t o meet the p a r t i c u l a r needs of a gi v e n c l a s s and t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y with the v a r i o u s content areas. TABLE 7 Teaching S t r a t e g i e s as I d e n t i f i e d by S i x S e l e c t e d Elementary Teachers S t r a t e g y Number d r i l l and p r a c t i c e 6 d i s c o v e r y 4 experimentation 4 st u d e n t - c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s 6 t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s 5 q u e s t i o n i n g 6 t e l l i n g 6 l a r g e group work 6 small group work 4 54 None of the s i x had done much pre v i o u s drama work with t h e i r students and a l l f e l t t h a t they would need some help to implement Drama as a component of the c u r r i c u l u m . TABLE 8 Previous Use of Drama by S e l e c t e d Teachers Teacher Type of Drama A c t i v i t y Teacher A l puppets Teacher A2 s t o r y - t e l l i n g , puppets, movement Teacher B l p r e - w r i t i n g , p r e - r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e s Teacher B2 none Teacher CI demonstration of math/science theory Teacher C2 puppets, games, movement to music, r o l e p l a y i n g Those s e l e c t e d were a l s o asked to comment upon t h e i r previous use of p r o v i n c i a l l y developed c u r r i c u l u m guides and resource m a t e r i a l s . The responses v a r i e d from e x t e n s i v e use, through g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e use, to l i m i t e d use and use o n l y when necessary. Some f e l t t h a t the m a t e r i a l s o f f e r e d by the M i n i s t r y are u n r e a l i s t i c , o v e r l y demanding and i n o r d i n a t e l y p r e s c r i p t i v e . One of the s i x teachers knew of the forthcoming Elementary F i n e A r t s c u r r i c u l u m but o n l y to the extent t h a t he was aware t h a t the committee had been working on i t f o r a 55 c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h of time. A l l seemed to f e e l t h a t elementary students should have more exposure to the f i n e a r t s but three of the s i x p r e f e r r e d to have s p e c i a l i s t s t e a c h i n g i n t h i s a r e a . Between October and December, demonstration lessons were given i n each of the s i x classrooms. In each case, the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the drama work which was i n t r o d u c e d was embedded i n the content which had p r e v i o u s l y been i d e n t i f i e d by the classroom t e a c h e r . Three of the lessons were intended as Language A r t s a c t i v i t i e s , two were i n the area of S o c i a l S t u d i e s and one was a movement l e s s o n . The Language A r t s lessons w i t h the f i f t h and seventh graders focussed on p r e - w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e the l e s s o n w i t h the f i r s t graders c o n c e n t r a t e d on the d r a m a t i z a t i o n of a poem. The S o c i a l S t u d i e s l e s s o n f o r the second graders was r e l a t e d to t h e i r study of B r i t i s h Columbia and the l e s s o n with the s i x t h graders was an e x t e n s i o n of t h e i r work on China. D e s c r i p t i o n s of these l e s s o n s as w e l l as of the two given i n A p r i l appear as Appendix B. F o l l o w i n g each of the demonstration l e s s o n s , memoranda o u t l i n i n g p o s s i b l e f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s were sent to each teacher (Appendix C ) . Teachers were encouraged to g i v e feedback t o the r e s e a r c h e r , t o request a d d i t i o n a l v i s i t s , t o seek a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s or any other a s s i s t a n c e t h a t might 56 be r e q u i r e d to f a c i l i t a t e the drama work wit h which they were experimenting. A f i l m s e s s i o n and d i n n e r meeting were scheduled to take pla c e a f t e r a l l of the teachers had been g i v e n time to implement the suggestions o f f e r e d d u r i n g the classroom v i s i t s and i n the follow-up commentaries. The f i l m s , B u i l d i n g B e l i e f and T a l k s to Teachers , which are p a r t of the Dorothy Heathcote Teaching S e r i e s , c l a r i f y f o r teachers ways i n which drama can be used e f f e c t i v e l y as a l e a r n i n g medium. In the d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w e d the viewing of the Dorothy Heathcote f i l m s , a l l of the s e l e c t e d teachers expressed an i n t e r e s t i n f i n d i n g out more about the s u b j e c t . The resource book, O f f s t a g e , Elementary Education Through  Drama ( T a r l i n g t o n and V e r r i o u r , 1983) was c i r c u l a t e d and arrangements were made to h o l d a workshop wi t h the authors l a t e r i n the year. O r i g i n a l l y , i t was hoped t h a t t h i s workshop would be h e l d e a r l y i n A p r i l so t h a t t e a c h e r s would have an o p p o r t u n i t y to explore some of the s t r a t e g i e s i n t r o d u c e d b e f o r e the o b s e r v a t i o n lessons i n June. However, s i n c e t h i s was a p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t y , i t was s u b j e c t to decision-making a t a d i s t r i c t l e v e l . A f t e r two postponements and a threatened c a n c e l l a t i o n , arrangements f o r a f u l l day 57 workshop w i t h Dr. V e r r i o u r were f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d a t the end of May. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s meant t h a t teachers had o n l y a few days to experiment with the a d d i t i o n a l concepts p r i o r to the r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i n a l v i s i t s . Both the f i l m s e s s i o n and t h i s f i n a l workshop were sponsored by the l o c a l Pro-D Committee and, t h e r e f o r e , were open t o a l l teachers i n the d i s t r i c t . A t o t a l of approximately 20% of the elementary teachers i n the d i s t r i c t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n these a c t i v i t i e s and two chose a l s o to attend the Dorothy Heathcote workshops sponsored by the Vancouver School Board a t the end of the 1983-84 school year. An a d d i t i o n a l classroom v i s i t to observe the drama work was scheduled t o take p l a c e p r i o r to each of the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s . Four of the s i x teachers were observed i n t h e i r classrooms, one was observed d i r e c t i n g a student p r o d u c t i o n and another d i d not schedule a v i s i t s i n c e he had not done any a d d i t i o n a l drama wi t h h i s stu d e n t s . F o l l o w i n g these o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with each of the s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s as w e l l as with the three school p r i n c i p a l s , w i t h the A s s i s t a n t Superintendent, the Chairperson of the Pro-D Committee, with a school t r u s t e e and a p r i n c i p a l who has s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t r o d u c e d the Young 58 W r i t e r s P r o j e c t i n t o the d i s t r i c t . The qu e s t i o n s used i n the i n t e r v i e w s with the teachers (Appendix G) were intended to gather data r e l a t e d t o the l e v e l s of use and the stages of concern. The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p r i n c i p a l s and d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s focussed on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the p r o j e c t and of the r o l e of the f i n e a r t s i n the elementary classrooms. In a d d i t i o n , the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was asked to comment upon the p o s s i b i l i t y of extending the implementation a c t i v i t i e s (Appendix H). The i n t e r v i e w s with the C h a i r p e r s o n of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee (Appendix J) and with the p r i n c i p a l i n v o l v e d w i t h the implementation of the w r i t i n g p r o j e c t (Appendix I) concentrated on the elements of s u c c e s s f u l l o c a l implementation programmes. T h i r t e e n of the f i f t e e n i n t e r v i e w s t h a t were conducted were taped and t r a n s c r i b e d . Because of time c o n s t r a i n t s , two of the i n t e r v i e w e e s chose to be i n t e r v i e w e d by telephone. These responses were noted and i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s a c c o r d i n g l y . A sample t r a n s c r i p t i o n appears as Appendix K. A l l r e f e r e n c e s t o names of t e a c h e r s , schools and other p e r s o n n e l , other than those r e f e r r i n g to Dr. V e r r i o u r (Pat and P a t r i c k ) and Mrs. Heathcote (Dorothy), were d e l e t e d and are i n d i c a t e d by ( ) i n the t r a n s c r i p t s . The t r a n s c r i p t s were coded to ensure anonymity and a l l u t t e r a n c e s are numbered s e q u e n t i a l l y . The source of each u t t e r a n c e i s 59 d e s i g n a t e d as (R) f o r the r e s e a r c h e r and (I) f o r the i n t e r v i e w e e . For example: 10 1 : 1 wasn't t h i n k i n g of drama uh, s p e c i f i c a l l y , I was t h i n k i n g of g e n e r a l l y 11 R: Urn hm, I know. 12 I: my goals i n the classroom 13 R: Urn hm. 14 I: but i t c e r t a i n l y would f i t drama. A n a l y s i s of the classroom o b s e r v a t i o n s were based on the g u i d e l i n e s which appear as Appendix F. These g u i d e l i n e s , adapted from an o b s e r v a t i o n schedule prepared by C e c i l y O ' N e i l l , drama a d v i s o r f o r the Inner London Education A u t h o r i t y , caused the observer to focus on the mode of the dramatic a c t i v i t y , the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and the e x p l i c i t l e a r n i n g outcome(s). T r a n s c r i p t s of the taped i n t e r v i e w s were analyzed and d i s c r e p a n c i e s and commonalities of responses were noted. Changes i n each of the teacher's stage of concern and l e v e l of use of the i n n o v a t i o n were determined by comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g responses g i v e n d u r i n g the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n w i t h those g i v e n d u r i n g the f i n a l v i s i t a t i o n . The case study was then s u b j e c t e d to a summative 60 e v a l u a t i o n and recommendations f o r the development of l o c a l implementation p r o j e c t s and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were developed. 61 CHAPTER IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS IV.1 A n a l y s i s of Classroom Observations The f i r s t c l a s s which was observed was a group of seventh grade students. The l e s s o n i n v o l v e d l a r g e and small group d i s c u s s i o n s as w e l l as r o l e - p l a y i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The purpose of the l e s s o n was to focus the students' a t t e n t i o n on the process of d e c i s i o n making and on the f u n c t i o n of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c moral v a l u a t i o n i n t h i s p r o c e s s . The type of a c t i v i t i e s chosen were c o n s i s t e n t with the s t a t e d purpose. Students were not asked f o r s p e c i f i c commitment but there seemed to be t a c i t agreement to work towards the achievement of the s t a t e d purpose. They were reminded of e a r l i e r drama work and were asked to b u i l d b e l i e v a b l e enactments of t h e i r r o l e dramas. A number of examples of s i t u a t i o n s demanding d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s were w r i t t e n on the board to a s s i s t students i n the small group work. Many of these examples were g i v e n by the.teacher but he sought student i n p u t and o f f e r e d them p r o t e c t i o n by a s k i n g f o r h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The teacher c i r c u l a t e d to a s s i s t the groups i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n of the r o l e dramas. Before 62 beginning the p r e s e n t a t i o n s , the students were t o l d t h a t they need not concern themselves with a c t i n g s k i l l s but r a t h e r with the honest p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n and the d e c i s i o n making. With continued encouragement, one group o f f e r e d to prese n t a s h o r t enactment of a h i t c h h i k i n g s i t u a t i o n . The teacher asked f o r more depth from the next group. The second group r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l of prodding but f i n a l l y made a s h o r t p r e s e n t a t i o n on s h o p - l i f t i n g . Again, the teacher expressed disappointment with the l e v e l of the work. The teacher continued t o work with each group, encouraging them, y e t c h a l l e n g i n g them to work f o r b e l i e f and commitment to the assig n e d t a s k . The type of r e f l e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d the a c t i o n suggested t h a t emotional, s o c i a l and moral l e a r n i n g had developed through the use of the a e s t h e t i c form. The second c l a s s t h a t was observed was a Cadre F r a n ^ a i s c l a s s w i t h students from k i n d e r g a r t e n to grade f o u r . The drama work was intended as a p r e - w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y and c o n s i s t e d of the r e a d i n g of the beginning of a very simple s t o r y . At a s i g n a l from the teacher, the c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r e a d i n g by adding sound e f f e c t s . They were then asked to work i n small groups to c r e a t e an ending to the s t o r y . While the drama work was b r i e f and r e l a t i v e l y undemanding, i t p r o v i d e d the m o t i v a t i o n f o r the students to p a r t i c i p a t e 63 i n the w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The students were i n v o l v e d i n working i m a g i n a t i v e l y and c o g n i t i v e l y with the o r a l r e a d i n g and the w r i t i n g tasks a t the same time as s o c i a l l e a r n i n g was t a k i n g p l a c e because of the i m p o s i t i o n of the group s t r u c t u r e . The t h i r d o b s e r v a t i o n was of a grade two c l a s s i n v o l v e d i n a miming e x e r c i s e . The s t a t e d purpose of the l e s s o n was to review the l i t e r a t u r e covered d u r i n g the year. The teacher had p r o v i d e d s l i p s of paper with the t i t l e s of the s t o r i e s read by the c l a s s d u r i n g the course of the year. Students drew t i t l e s and took turns f i n d i n g small groups to help them to improvise b r i e f mimes to pre s e n t to the c l a s s . The groups were allowed to add sound e f f e c t s and to p r o v i d e one v e r b a l c l u e to the remainder of the c l a s s whose task was to c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y the t i t l e of the s t o r y . The students responded w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of enthusiasm and the teacher was very p l e a s e d with the r e s u l t s . S i d e - c o a c h i n g was an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the e x e r c i s e . The teacher encouraged the audience w i t h comments such as, "This i s a good way of remembering a l l of the good s t o r i e s we have read t h i s year, i s n ' t i t ? " She supported those who were performing by complimenting them when they had done something w e l l . At the same time, she c o r r e c t e d unacceptable audience behavior, taught the performers how to bow and 64 c u r t s e y and f o r c e d them to examine the weaknesses i n t h e i r own performances w i t h q u e s t i o n s such as, "Do you know why everyone was g e t t i n g so i m p a t i e n t ? " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the teacher d e s c r i b e d the e x e r c i s e as one which she had taken from O f f s t a g e . I t may, i n f a c t , be an a p p l i c a t i o n and an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of concepts i n t r o d u c e d i n t h a t t e x t . However, s i n c e i t i s not a r e p l i c a t i o n of any of the e x e r c i s e s d e s c r i b e d , a higher l e v e l of use i s i n d i c a t e d . The f o u r t h l e s s o n which was observed was with a f i f t h grade c l a s s who were doing movement e x e r c i s e s and p l a y i n g the adverb game ( V e r r i o u r , p.19). Both a c t i v i t i e s took p l a c e d u r i n g a s i n g l e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n and were not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to each other nor to other c l a s s work. The s t a t e d purpose was to do some drama. The students enjoyed the change of pace and the teacher was very s u p p o r t i v e of t h e i r work, t a k i n g time to a s s i s t them i n f i n d i n g a c c e p t a b l e synonyms and i n expanding t h e i r movements i n space, but she d i d not seem anxious to have the drama work serve any purpose other than t h a t of warm-up e x e r c i s e s . The f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n was of a p u b l i c performance r a t h e r than of an a c t u a l l e s s o n . Working with over f i f t y primary students, the teacher wrote, d i r e c t e d , choreographed and 65 accompanied a p r o d u c t i o n of A l a d d i n and the Wonderful Lamp . Although w a r r a n t i n g many of the standard c r i t i c i s m s aimed at amateur school p r o d u c t i o n s , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work e x e m p l i f i e d some of the performance s k i l l s which can be encouraged i n younger c h i l d r e n by a teacher who has s u f f i c i e n t p a t i e n c e and t h e a t r e background to g i v e them proper d i r e c t i o n . Because of the amount of time which t h i s teacher had to devote to the p r o d u c t i o n , i t was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t no a d d i t i o n a l classroom v i s i t s be scheduled. However, i t was noted from both the i n t e r v i e w with the teacher and, l a t e r , w i t h the p r i n c i p a l t h a t she had completed some h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l r o l e work with her f i r s t graders d u r i n g a u n i t of study on whales. IV. 2 A n a l y s i s of Workshop A c t i v i t i e s As was s t a t e d e a r l i e r , a g r e a t deal of i n t e r e s t was generated by the f i l m workshop which was h e l d i n February. Teachers requested more i n f o r m a t i o n on Dorothy Heathcote and s e v e r a l made a p p l i c a t i o n to a t t e n d her June workshop at Lord K i t c h e n e r School i n Vancouver. I n t e r e s t was a l s o expressed f o r a l o c a l workshop with P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r and C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n , authors of the M i n i s t r y ' s recommended resource book, O f f s t a g e , Elementary E d u c a t i o n Through Drama . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a number of unexpected problems l e d to two 66 postponements and a r e s c h e d u l i n g of the l o c a l workshop. This meant t h a t not onl y were a number of the i n t e r e s t e d teachers unable to a t t e n d but a l s o C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n was u n a v a i l a b l e t h a t weekend. However, the workshop was h e l d l a t e i n May. Twelve teachers from v a r i o u s elementary schools i n the d i s t r i c t were i n attendance. The format p r o v i d e d f o r a morning and an a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n with lunch p r o v i d e d so t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d share ideas d u r i n g the break. Subsequent e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t teachers c o n s i d e r e d the s e s s i o n v a l u a b l e i n t h a t i t pr o v i d e d u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r drama work and gave each of the p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to experience v a r i o u s types of drama a c t i v i t i e s . The e v a l u a t i o n form used to gather t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n appears as Appendix E and a summary of the responses i s provided i n Table 9. TABLE 9 Summary of Teacher E v a l u a t i o n of Drama Workshop Number of e v a l u a t i o n forms d i s t r i b u t e d 12 i Number of e v a l u a t i o n forms r e t u r n e d 7 O v e r a l l r a t i n g - E x c e l l e n t - Good 1 6 Teacher used ideas i n classroom 7 Teacher shared ideas with c o l l e a g u e s 5 67 IV.3 A n a l y s i s of Teacher Interviews A l l of the s i x s e l e c t e d teachers who were i n t e r v i e w e d i n June s a i d t h a t they c o n s i d e r drama to be a very u s e f u l t e a c h i n g t o o l . Four f e l t t h a t a l l of the b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l goals which they had i d e n t i f i e d i n the e x p l o r a t o r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u l d be met through drama a c t i v i t i e s w h i le two s a i d t h a t most c o u l d be achieved through t h i s means. One s t a t e d t h a t he had f e l t t h i s way at the o u t s e t of the p r o j e c t , another s a i d t h a t she had not r e a l l y thought about i t w h i l e the others suggested t h a t they had d i s c o v e r e d a new understanding of the nature of drama. One teacher e x p l a i n e d t h a t she had been u s i n g drama a c t i v i t i e s w i t h her students f o r some time without having been aware of i t : 6 I: W e l l , the f i r s t I remember t h a t the f i r s t time t h a t you showed the p i c t u r e I was r e a l l y w o r r i e d because uh when you s a i d have you ever done any drama with your students the f i r s t t h i n g I would have s a i d i s no w e l l uh I don't know and when I asked what do you mean e x a c t l y ? Remember I s a i d what i s drama e x a c t l y ? What do you mean by that ? ( T r a n s c r i p t A2) There seemed to be a g e n e r a l consensus t h a t the drama a c t i v i t i e s p r ovided students w i t h enjoyable l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . 6 1:1 r e a l i z e t h a t the k i d s r e a l l y enjoy i t and uh they they don't r e a l i z e t h a t they're l e a r n i n g when they do i t . They t h i n k t h a t ' s a game. Now, l i k e t h i s morning, nobody s a i d "Ohhh, don't t e l l me t h a t we have to w r i t e something." They j u s t a l l went and uh i t was f i n e and uh I c o u l d see t h a t they had to adapt themselves to work with others l i k e uh ( ) and ( ) had a b i t of t r o u b l e . They d i d n ' t r e a l l y want to work you know they wanted to work together but then when they s t a r t e d they were k i n d of uh uneasy about i t and a c t u a l l y they d i d n ' t want to work wit h ( ) but they were l e f t over so they had to accomodate themself and do i t and d i d t h e i r s t o r i e s and uh they a l l thought t h a t was g r e a t . They had a good time and so, "Did you enjoy i t ? Did you l i k e i t ? " "Oh yeah, we d i d . " And nobody complained about w r i t i n g or I t h i n k t h a t they d i d n ' t r e a l i z e t h a t they wrote something down f o r me and i t was what I wanted too. ( T r a n s c r i p t A2) 69 One of the teachers e x p l a i n e d why, i n s p i t e of t h i s , she chooses not to use drama. 10 I: I t ' s uh the s o r t of t h i n g t h a t uh i f you enjoy t e a c h i n g t h a t way t h a t you can uh you can get a l l of the b a s i c t h i n g s across with i t . I t ' s not my way of t e a c h i n g . I f i n d i t very, very t i r i n g . P h y s i c a l l y , not j u s t m e n t a l l y , but p h y s i c a l l y t i r i n g . 11 R: Urn hm. 12: I: I c o u l d n ' t do t h i s a l l year. 20: I: Yeh. Although I, I do f e e l t h a t i t ' s , i t should, they uh, many c h i l d r e n f i n d i t a good way to l e a r n . I uh I . . . I . . . I have done t h i s b e f o r e . (Laugh) We d i d i t a t c o l l e g e . I t was, i t was eh i t was emphasized q u i t e eh uh h e a v i l y . I went to (...) C o l l e g e and i t was emphasized q u i t e h e a v i l y . I d i d more i n my younger days. 42: I: I, I r e a l l y do agree t h a t a l o t of c h i l d r e n do l e a r n BETTER t h i s way. I t ' s j u s t not my way but 1,1,1 can, I can see the uh the advantages of i t . ( T r a n s c r i p t B2) 70 A l l of the s i x teachers d i d some drama wi t h t h e i r c l a s s e s . F i v e of the s i x had students working i n r o l e . In four classrooms, t h i s r o l e work focused on s p e c i f i c s o c i a l and moral problems. Three teac h e r s used drama as a p r e - w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y . In one case, t h i s i n v o l v e d the school p r i n c i p a l v i s i t i n g the c l a s s i n the r o l e of an i n d i v i d u a l who had s i g h t e d a Sasquatch. One teacher s t a t e d t h a t he had not done much drama work over the course of the year and that what he had done was no d i f f e r e n t from what he had done i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s . Another s a i d t h a t she had t r i e d a number of a c t i v i t i e s suggested i n O f f s t a g e . These a c t i v i t i e s were p r i m a r i l y games and warm-up e x e r c i s e s . While they d i f f e r e d i n d e t a i l from work t h a t she had done p r e v i o u s l y , they d i d not demand any change i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y . The other f o u r teachers experimented w i t h concepts and approaches which were presented i n the model l e s s o n s , i n the f i l m s or i n the V e r r i o u r / T a r l i n g t o n t e x t . The three primary t e a c h e r s r e g u l a r l y use an i n t e g r a t e d approach t o the t e a c h i n g of v a r i o u s content area m a t e r i a l s so the use of drama as a means of a t t a i n i n g l e a r n i n g outcomes i n Language A r t s , Science or S o c i a l S t u d i e s d i d not r e q u i r e a major change i n approach. The seventh grade teacher who i n t e g r a t e d Language A r t s and S o c i a l S t u d i e s through the use of drama d i d not con c e i v e of the work i n terms of i n t e g r a t i o n or s e g r e g a t i o n but merely i n terms of 71 i t s b e i n g an e f f e c t i v e means of a c h i e v i n g an o b j e c t i v e . The other two i n t e r m e d i a t e teachers tended to maintain f i x e d boundaries between content areas; f o r one drama was used w i t h i n a s u b j e c t boundary; f o r the other i t served as warm-up e x e r c i s e s separated from the assig n e d work. Four of the s i x teach e r s i d e n t i f i e d the model lessons as c o n t r i b u t i n g most s i g n i f i c a n t l y to t h e i r acceptance of the i n n o v a t i o n . F i v e mentioned the impact of the Heathcote f i l m s and f o u r f e l t t h a t the O f f s t a g e book and workshop were most u s e f u l . However, there was an i m p l i c a t i o n i n the responses of teachers whose l e v e l s of use changed most s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( F i gure 2) t h a t i t was the t o t a l s e r i e s of a c t i v i t i e s , f u n c t i o n i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r , t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d these changes. 46 I: but a c t u a l l y i n order of the way they happened was the way i t was be s t f o r me because g e t t i n g together, making me aware of drama to begin with was where I needed to s t a r t and the f i l m s , which was s o r t of a by-stander's view of what cou l d be done and then P a t r i c k i n t e g r a t i n g what I should be doing and can do and then a c t u a l l y seeing Dorothy i n a c t i o n . Now your p a r t was the s o r t of the warming up 47 R: Urn hm 72 48 I: which I needed, you know, to see somebody e l s e u s i n g MY k i d s i n my classroom s i t u a t i o n with my c u r r i c u l u m or whatever s u b j e c t I was working w i t h and t h a t ' s the way i t works wi t h somebody who i s not f a m i l i a r w i t h drama, l i k e me. ( T r a n s c r i p t Al) The order of the a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r pe r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the change agent and each of the teachers p r i o r to the workshops. The r e s e a r c h e r ' s assumption t h a t such p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t would be a f a c t o r i n the attendance a t the workshops was confirmed i n a second i n t e r v i e w : 76 I: Well the f i l m . 77 R: Umhm. 78 I: That was what r e a l l y got me going and then your book. 79 R: Okay. 80 I: You know but here again u n l e s s I had been i n v o l v e d with you I might not-have taken advantage of t h a t workshop and then of course I would never have known about the book e i t h e r . You know i t ' s -81 R: So the p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t i n the classroom i s 73 81 R: important? 82 I: Yes, yes, yes, very much so I'd say. 83 R: Okay. 84 I: Because you tend t o uh s t i c k w i t h the t h i n g s t h a t you know t h a t you do w e l l and then you maybe may develop one other i d e a i n the course of a year. You know you may t h i n k , "This year I'm going to r e a l l y zero i n on my Science or something" and work t h a t up and t h a t ' s about a l l you can do i s one other e x t r a t h i n g a f t e r s chool i s over and i n the evening t h i s k i n d of t h i n g . And I t h i n k I might have been tempted to t h i n k , "Oh, Drama's not r e a l l y a l l t h a t important."" ( T r a n s c r i p t C2) The degree of s h a r i n g of ideas w i t h s t a f f members other than the p r o j e c t p a r t n e r v a r i e d . 45 R: Did you share any ideas w i t h other teachers about the drama work? 46 1:1 would say a f t e r we saw the f i l m s t h e r e was a l o t of s t a f f room t a l k about the f i l m s . Most of i t was q u i t e p o s i t i v e . ( T r a n s c r i p t CI) 74 35 R: Uh, w e l l o b v i o u s l y you d i s c u s s e d the p r o j e c t with somebody e l s e on your s t a f f . You had to t a l k about i t w i t h uh w i t h (...) or you wouldn't have got him i n t o t h a t ? 36 I: Yes. 37 R: Anybody e l s e ? 38 I: Uhm. 3 9 R: 1 mean don't name names but d i d you t a l k about the p r o j e c t w i t h anybody e l s e ? 40 I: Yeah, each time you came i n , I men- I t a l k e d a b i t about i t i n the s t a f f room and uh t a l k e d about how i t went and whether the k i d s enjoyed i t or not. The one you d i d p a r t i c u l a r l y about the changes i n the the secondary school and uh having them w r i t e l e t t e r s a t the end. I most other s t a f f members thought i t was a g r e a t i d e a and uh were most impressed by the and I was very impressed by the r e s u l t s too.The k i d s r e a l l y went f o r i t and they l i k e t h a t i d e a . Again a good motivator f o r w r i t i n g I f e e l . ( T r a n s c r i p t Bl) Recommendations from the s e l e c t e d teachers f o r s t r a t e g i e s to be used i n a d i s t r i c t - w i d e implementation program s t r e s s e d the use of model l e s s o n s . I t was suggested a l s o t h a t teachers who had s t a r t e d drama work with t h e i r c l a s s e s 75 t h i s year c o u l d be used as re s o u r c e people w i t h i n t h e i r own sc h o o l s . 36 I: W e l l , I t h i n k t h a t uh the f a c t t h a t you came was r e a l l y neat to see somebody l i k e another teacher l i k e you doing i t you know. . . .1 wish t h a t you would have come more o f t e n a c t u a l l y because i t ' s neat t o see some other people working w i t h your k i d s because you can see them r e a c t i n g . On the f i l m you always k i n d of t h i n k My God maybe these k i d s are s p e c i a l or they've done a l o t of i t or uh the teacher who was doing i t was j u s t u n r e a l t o me. I t was j u s t l i k e uh she had done t h a t a l l her l i f e and when i t ' s somebody l i k e you s t a r t e d a w h i l e ago but i t seemed t o me t h a t she had so much experience scares me almost. But when i t ' s a teacher l i k e you who works c l o s e t o you so i t helps i t makes you f e e l t h a t maybe you can do i t too ( T r a n s c r i p t A2) The demonstration lessons f u n c t i o n e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways. They i n t r o d u c e d the concept of drama as a methodology; they e s t a b l i s h e d a p e r s o n a l peer r e l a t i o n s h i p between the teacher and the change agent; and they d i s p e l l e d the n o t i o n 76 t h a t t h i s work c o u l d be done o n l y with s p e c i a l students by very s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s . 42 1:1 t h i n k t h a t the most v a l u a b l e would be model lessons so t h a t you know coming i n t o classrooms as you d i d to mine t h a t ' s maybe unmanageable but uh someone coming i n t o classrooms and p r e s e n t i n g a few model lessons of a v a r i e d nature l i k e l i k e you d i d . The one t h a t you d i d a t the beginning was very d i f f e r e n t than the one t h a t you d i d the second time round and then uh some p r i n t e d l i t e r a t u r e to accompany t h a t I t h i n k to g i v e people ideas how drama can be used and t h a t i t ' s not j u s t s o r t of a c t i n g as as such t h a t t h e r e 1 s more to i t than t h a t and ways t h a t i t can be implemented. I t h i n k s o r t of hands-on th i n g s t h a t teachers can take r i g h t now and use tomorrow i f need be or a t l e a s t get some ideas from about how they can uh f i t i t i n t o t h e i r s t y l e of t e a c h i n g . The f i l m s are were u s e f u l but as f a r as u s i n g them to uh s t a r t i n on something tomorrow u n l e s s your s t y l e i s very s i m i l a r t o the t h a t woman's then uh I don't t h i n k t h a t t h a t would be enough to get people going on i t . They would say, "Very 77 n i c e , but - t h a t ' s not me." ( T r a n s c r i p t Bl) Apart from the f e e l i n g s of p e r s o n a l d i s c o m f o r t and i n s e c u r i t y , t e a c h e r s expressed other r e s e r v a t i o n s about the use of drama. One teacher s a i d t h a t she f e l t concerned t h a t s i n c e the c h i l d r e n seemed to enjoy the work so much they would hate t o stop and i t would go on and on. Another s a i d t h a t she had been concerned about the l o s s of c o n t r o l u n t i l she saw the Heathcote f i l m s and r e a l i z e d the power of s i g n i n g . A f t e r having t r i e d a number of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s , however, both of these teachers were c l e a r l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about what they had achieved and c o u l d achieve through the use of drama. 48 I: The way I f i t i t i n was with my S o c i a l so a l o t of these would now f i t i n with t h a t i d e a . A c q u i r i n g knowledge. O r i g i n a l i t y and c r e a t i v i t y . To s o l v e problems. Very much so because we d i d . Where I f i t i t i n was with people have f e e l i n g s and I s t a r t o f f with a l i t t l e s t o r y much the way you d i d when you were here t h a t day. Urn, I adapted the l i t t l e t h i n g on the whales f o r f e a r , you know. 49 R: Urn hm. 50 I: Uhm and had them imagine t h a t they were a l l 78 whales and then t h i s one l i t t l e whale of course got caught. What I was working f o r was M i r a c l e , the whale going to the zoo of course a l l b eing b l o o d - t h i r s t y you know they had him j u s t about a l l chopped up and used up as a l l kinds of c a t and dog food but they d e f i n i t e l y got the i d e a and worked on i t . And we a l s o adapted the one uh "The Boy That C r i e d Wolf" and how c o u l d we as a d u l t s cope w i t h i t you know they c o u l d n ' t get t h e i r work done i n t h e i r gardens and t h i s k i n d of t h i n g . 85 R: W e l l , I thank you (....) and I 86 I: Oh, you're most welcome. I've enjoyed i t . 87 R: I was r e a l l y e x c i t e d by the t h i n g s t h a t you s a i d t h a t you d i d . 88 I: Yeh, yeh, I was too I r e a l l y thought because f o r one t h i n g t h a t area of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s bothered me and uh i t shouldn't have but once we got going and the c h i l d r e n were very open about t h e i r f e e l i n g s and what I wanted to lead them onto was, "How do you cope wi t h i t ? " without s o r t of sa y i n g , " I do t h i s and t h i s i s what you should do," and i t was. I l e a r n t a l o t from i t and i t was a good s i t u a t i o n f o r 79 me. I r e a l l y l e a r n t from i t and I got to know my c h i l d r e n and t h i n g s j u s t went r e a l l y w e l l a f t e r i t and i t was a d i f f e r e n t a d i f f e r e n t f e e l about the t e a c h i n g of i t . So I was g l a d t h a t 1 1 d s o r t of you know gone ahead and t r i e d t o experiment a l i t t l e b i t . 89 R: W i l l you keep t r y i n g to? 90 I: Oh yes, d e f i n i t e l y . Probably extend i t more a b i t next year. ( T r a n s c r i p t C2) IV.4 Stages of Concern and L e v e l s of Use As i n d i c a t e d i n the f i r s t c hapter, the s c a l e s which were developed f o r the measurement of i n d i v i d u a l teacher's s h i f t i n stages of concern and i n l e v e l s of use of the i n n o v a t i o n are a d a p t a t i o n s of the framework developed a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Texas. The stages of concern are d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : Stage 0 - Unaware and unconcerned Stage 1 - Unaware but i n t e r e s t e d Stage 2 - Previewing Stage 3 - E x p l o r a t o r y Stage 4 - T r i a l Stage 5 - Experimental Stage 6 - C o l l a b o r a t i v e Stage 7 - Sharing 80 Stage 8 - Renewal The l e v e l s of use i n c l u d e : L e v e l 0 - Non-Use Le v e l 1 - O r i e n t a t i o n L e v e l 2 - P a r t i a l Use Le v e l 3 - Regular Use L e v e l 4 - I n t e g r a t e d Use Le v e l 5 - Refinement I t should be noted t h a t movement w i t h i n the two s c a l e s i s i n t e r a c t i v e but independent. The s c a l e s are not to be con s i d e r e d h i e r a r c h i c a l s i n c e L e v e l 5 (Refinement) and Stage 8 (Renewal) both imply t h a t the user may r e t u r n to e a r l i e r stages of concern and l e v e l s of use i n the processes of refinement and renewal. There a r e , of course, a number of pe r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l reasons f o r teachers to move or to f a i l to move from one stage or l e v e l t o another. A number of these are d i s c u s s e d i n the F l a n d e r s ' r e p o r t (1980) on p r o f e s s i o n a l development and others w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n s to t h i s study. While t h i s study has reviewed the r a t i o n a l e , the philo s o p h y , the e d u c a t i o n a l goals and l e a r n i n g outcomes of a 81 K-12 Dramatic A r t s programme, the case study was e s s e n t i a l l y concerned w i t h the use of drama as a l e a r n i n g medium. From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , then, a l l s i x teachers would be c o n s i d e r e d non-users a t the o u t s e t (Table 8). A s h i f t from one stage of concern to another i n d i c a t e s an a t t i t u d i n a l change w h i l e a movement from one l e v e l of use to another d e s c r i b e s a b e h a v i o r a l change. In t h i s s h o r t p e r i o d , i t was not a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t there would be any r a d i c a l s h i f t i n behavior but i t was hoped t h a t changes i n a t t i t u d e would be apparent. The changes which were monitored are p l o t t e d on the graph which appears as F i g u r e 2. Teacher B l had done l i t t l e p r e v i o u s work wi t h drama. He was assessed as having moved from L e v e l 0 to L e v e l 1 and from Stage 0 to Stage 4. Teacher A2 had worked with puppets, movement e x e r c i s e s and some drama a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the Language A r t s programme. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t she had not p e r c e i v e d of these a c t i v i t i e s as drama and t h a t she d i d r e q u i r e guidance and encouragement to experiment with the approaches i n t r o d u c e d , she was assessed as having moved from a l e v e l of non-use to a l e v e l of o r i e n t a t i o n and from Stage 1 to Stage 3. Teacher B2 i n i t i a l l y s a i d t h a t she had not done any drama work but l a t e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t had been p a r t of her teacher t r a i n i n g . However, she had not used i t i n the classroom to any extent f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . Although, she s a i d t h a t she d i d not expect t h a t she would continue to 82 F i g u r e 2 A P r o j e c t i o n of B e h a v i o r a l and A t t i t u d i n a l Changes of Teachers as P e r c e i v e d a t the Beginning and at the End of the Pre-Implementation P i l o t Study 5-4-3-2-1-0-A l A2 B l B2 CI L e v e l s of Use I C2 [] - September E§ - June 8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1-0-A l A2 B l [] - September H - June B2 CI C2 Stages of Concern 83 use drama, she d i d experiment with i t s use t h i s year and s a i d t h a t she would t r y to share ideas with other teachers next year. T h e r e f o r e , she was assessed as having remained at L e v e l 0 but having s h i f t e d from Stage 0 to Stage 3. Teacher CI s a i d t h a t he had p r e v i o u s l y used r o l e p l a y i n g w i t h h i s students. However, l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n seemed to i n d i c a t e t h a t students had simply taken p a r t i n v i s u a l demonstrations of c e r t a i n concepts i n Mathematics and Science r a t h e r than i n the a c t u a l assumption of r o l e s . T h i s teacher was assessed as having remained a non-user of the i n n o v a t i o n but s i n c e he d i d view the f i l m s and d i s c u s s the work w i t h other members of h i s s t a f f , h i s stage of concern s h i f t e d from 1 to 2. Teacher A l had p r e v i o u s l y done some work wit h puppets and b r i e f p l a y s c r i p t s but had not viewed drama as a means of t e a c h i n g w i t h i n the content areas. By the end of the year, she was experimenting w i t h a v a r i e t y of approaches i n the areas.of S o c i a l S t u d i e s and Language A r t s . She attended the f i l m and the workshop, read the O f f s t a g e book and t r a v e l l e d t o Vancouver to a t t e n d the s e s s i o n s with Dorothy Heathcote. She was assessed as having moved from a l e v e l of non-use to a l e v e l of o r i e n t a t i o n and from Stage 1 to Stage 4. Teacher C2 had p r e v i o u s l y done e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r drama a c t i v i t i e s though she d i d not mention t h i s i n the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n . She had a l s o worked with puppets and movement a c t i v i t i e s . She d i d not a t t e n d e i t h e r the Heathcote or the O f f s t a g e workshop but she read the t e x t . D e s p i t e having suggested t h a t she d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t she would 84 change her l e v e l of use of the i n n o v a t i o n , she made q u i t e a s h i f t i n both a t t i t u d e and i n behavior. Since she had not p r e v i o u s l y thought of drama as a l e a r n i n g medium, she was assessed as having moved from a l e v e l of non-use to a l e v e l of p a r t i a l use and from Stage 0 to Stage 5. IV.5 A d d i t i o n a l F i n d i n g s A l l of the p r i n c i p a l s w i l l i n g l y gave p e r m i s s i o n f o r the p r o j e c t work to take p l a c e i n t h e i r s c h ools but i n the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s none seemed to have a very c l e a r n o t i o n of what had taken p l a c e . In f a c t , two of the three s a i d t h a t they had not been aware of the c o n n e c t i o n between the p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s and the drama work which they had observed when they had been i n v i t e d to v i s i t the s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s ' classrooms. The p r i n c i p a l who had observed the r o l e drama with the f i r s t graders who were d e a l i n g with the problem of the whales was very impressed by t h e i r involvement i n t h e i r r o l e s , by t h e i r c o n t r o l of vocabulary and by t h e i r c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n of emotion. He seemed q u i t e p l e a s e d t h a t the emphasis had been on i n t e g r a t e d classroom a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than on p r o d u c t i o n work. That, he s a i d , "can t i e up too much time. The p r i c e can be too h i g h . " He f e l t t h a t an e f f e c t i v e 85 implementation p l a n should i n c l u d e the classroom v i s i t s with an emphasis on ways i n which teachers c o u l d use drama w i t h i n the content areas. He s t a t e d t h a t t h i s was more l i k e l y to encourage change because the teachers would be given v i s i b l e evidence of the r e s u l t s . They would see the heightened i n t e r e s t and the improvement i n work such as i n the broadening of the c h i l d r e n ' s v o c a b u l a r y . He added, however, t h a t some teachers might r e j e c t the i n n o v a t i o n because they would be a f r a i d of l o s i n g c o n t r o l . The p r i n c i p a l who had taken on the r o l e i n the Sasquatch s i g h t i n g i n c i d e n t was a l s o p l e a s e d with the l e v e l of the work but a l s o had to be t o l d t h a t the idea had emerged from the p r o j e c t . He s a i d t h a t although drama, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the form of r o l e - p l a y i n g , was w i d e l y recommended as a l e a r n i n g medium i n v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l a , i t was not widely used because teac h e r s are not t r a i n e d to use i t . He suggested t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y would be the model lessons which would occur i n a teacher's own classroom with her students "doing something s p e c i f i c to t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m . " 32 I: They've got to be shown how i t works; they've got to t r y i t on t h e i r own without anybody l o o k i n g and then they've got to have some hel p some support to make i t work a b i t b e t t e r and t h a t u s u a l l y does - t h a t w i l l 86 t r a n s f e r as I say. That teacher having gone through the process w i l l probably i f they found i t s u c c e s s f u l i n themselves would then the f o l l o w i n g year use i t again with d i f f e r e n t groups and might' expand i t . ( T r a n s c r i p t B3) The other p r i n c i p a l s a i d t h a t he was aware t h a t t h i n g s had been going on and t h a t there had been r e g u l a r classroom v i s i t s but t h a t he had "not seen' any a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n s " . When he was questioned on whether or hot t h i s was the a n t i c i p a t e d outcome of drama work, he r e p l i e d t h a t he knew there was "a l o t more to drama than p u t t i n g on a grand show on the stage." He e x p l a i n e d f u r t h e r t h a t he f e l t t h a t the Fine A r t s were a n e g l e c t e d area, t h a t there were a number of reasons f o r t h i s n e g l e c t and he o f f e r e d two p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . 14 I: In r e c e n t years t h e r e ' s t h i s emphasis on the b a s i c s and I get the impression t h a t teachers are j u s t c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the b a s i c core areas of Math., Language A r t s , Reading, S o c i a l S t u d i e s , to a l e s s e r degree Sci e n c e , some P.E. - not the s o r t of P.E. I would l i k e to see but there we are and I t h i n k Drama i s something t h a t ' s been very much n e g l e c t e d as as A r t as such. 87 15 R: Would you 16 I: But I you know I t h i n k there's pressure on teache r s to conc e n t r a t e on those areas t h a t are t e s t e d you know almost ad nauseum. 17 R: Would you do anything to encourage your teachers t o do more? 18 1:1 would but I would need help from a resource person l i k e y o u r s e l f who c o u l d t a l k to them, encourage them, o f f e r them i d e a s , get them going 22 1:1 t h i n k t h a t a l o t of them, perhaps the uh upper elementary teachers are q u i t e uncomfortable with a s u b j e c t l i k e drama uh. I f workshops c o u l d be h e l d uh to show th a t i t ' s not the awesome task uh t h a t some of them seem to t h i n k i t i s I th i n k t h a t might h e l p . ( T r a n s c r i p t A3) A n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t s of i n t e r v i e w s with s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s proved to be q u i t e d i f f i c u l t because of the v a r y i n g p o s i t i o n s expressed. A l l s a i d t h a t they s u b s c r i b e d to the Board p o l i c y (1982, #11, 7132) i n t h a t they c o n s i d e r e d the Fine A r t s to be an important component of the c u r r i c u l u m . However, the conceptions of the degree of 88 importance which they c u r r e n t l y do h o l d and i d e a l i s t i c a l l y should h o l d d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . The A s s i s t a n t Superintendent d e s c r i b e d the A r t s as p l a y i n g a fundamental r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n . 2 I: The F i n e A r t s are a v e h i c l e f o r e x p r e s s i o n , s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , a v e h i c l e of communication and are an e s s e n t i a l component of what most c i v i l i z e d c o u n t r i e s regard as e d u c a t i o n . ( T r a n s c r i p t D2) The r e t i r i n g Superintendent, on the other hand, d e s c r i b e d the A r t s as enrichment areas r a t h e r than as b a s i c s though he suggested t h a t the V i s u a l and Performing A r t s at the elementary l e v e l should e x i s t as "outgrowths" of other r e g u l a r programmes such as Language A r t s or S o c i a l S t u d i e s . While the A s s i s t a n t Superintendent s t r e s s e d the need f o r h i g h l y - t r a i n e d teachers and c o n s u l t a n t s to o f f e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n the A r t s , the incoming Superintendent suggested t h a t i n the e a r l i e r years (up to the f o u r t h or f i f t h grade), s p e c i a l i s t s were not necessary. She added, however, t h a t she f e l t t h a t a l l g e n e r a l i s t teachers should have some area of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t h a t a l l s p e c i a l i s t s should be prepared to g e n e r a l i z e . 89 A l l t hree s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s a i d t h a t they f e l t t h a t the d i s t r i c t has a very s t r o n g A r t s programme at the present time and the Board p o l i c y on F i n e A r t s was c i t e d r e p e a t e d l y . When asked about implementation of the new F i n e A r t s c u r r i c u l u m , however, they again took s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s . The A s s i s t a n t Superintendent s t a t e d t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h a t the chances of t h i s new c u r r i c u l u m being implemented i n the p r o v i n c e were very remote because of c o n t i n u i n g p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s , f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t , s t a f f c u t s , and the absence of t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l . The r e t i r i n g Superintendant added t h a t the " c a p r i c i o u s n e s s of the M i n i s t r y i n d e a l i n g with new programmes keeps the d i s t r i c t s o f f balance". Both i n d i c a t e d t h a t M i n i s t r y p r i o r i t i e s and time l i n e s should take precedence over those of a l o c a l board. They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t i n - s e r v i c e r e l a t e d to the implementation of new c u r r i c u l u m i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The incoming Superintendent, on the other hand, f e l t t h a t l o c a l d i s t r i c t s , having assessed l o c a l needs and s e t p r i o r i t i e s , should work to r e a l i z e these p r i o r i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r own time frames. S u c c e s s f u l implementation, s h e . s a i d , depended upon a s u s t a i n e d programme of c a r e f u l l y - p l a n n e d and a r t i c u l a t e d d i s t r i c t - b a s e d and school-based i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . Again, there seemed to be some misunderstanding about the 90 nature of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . While the Superintendent had not o n l y d i s c u s s e d the procedure and a s s i s t e d i n the s e l e c t i o n of the teacher p o p u l a t i o n , but a l s o had s t u d i e d the p r o p o s a l b e f o r e the work began, he seemed to be unaware of what had a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d . The A s s i s t a n t Superintendent took the p o s i t i o n t h a t the work had been a scheme d e v i s e d and o r c h e s t r a t e d by one teacher a c t i n g without any o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n . N e i t h e r seemed to be i n t e r e s t e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n or a review of the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . The incoming Superintendent, having a c t u a l l y s u p e r v i s e d the d r a f t i n g of the pr o p o s a l w h i l e t e a c h i n g a t the u n i v e r s i t y , was s u p p o r t i v e of the work throughout the year and expressed an i n t e r e s t i n the r e s u l t s but was not i n a p o s i t i o n to propose any d i s t r i c t - b a s e d f o l l o w - u p . The i n t e r v i e w with the school t r u s t e e focussed on p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l F i n e A r t s p o l i c y . She s a i d t h a t , i n s p i t e of the p u b l i c a t i o n of the M i n i s t e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n paper on secondary school g r a d u a t i o n requirements and the delay i n implementation of the Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m , l o c a l school boards had not been informed of any o f f i c i a l s h i f t i n p o l i c y . I t was her o p i n i o n t h a t the l o c a l p o l i c y which s t a t e s t h a t the V i s u a l and Performing A r t s " c o n s t i t u t e a v i t a l element i n the e d u c a t i o n a l development of every p u p i l " remained i n l i n e with t h a t of the p r o v i n c e . She concluded 91 t h a t , as s t a t e d i n p o l i c y , the A r t s would remain a p r i o r i t y i n the d i s t r i c t and the Board would continue to p r o v i d e i n - s e r v i c e i n t h i s area where i t was deemed necessary. The f i n a l two i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with the C h a i r p e r s o n of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee of the l o c a l t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n and with a school p r i n c i p a l who was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n networking the Young W r i t e r s P r o j e c t i n the d i s t r i c t . Both i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s as elements of s u c c e s s f u l i n - s e r v i c e i n t h i s d i s t r i c t : (1) support from s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (2) good p u b l i c i t y at d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' meetings (3) i n t e r e s t of l o c a l p r i n c i p a l s (4) school-based a c t i v i t i e s which i n v o l v e a whole s t a f f . I t should be noted a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t h a t a number of teachers other than the s i x who were d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the case study expressed i n t e r e s t and became i n v o l v e d i n drama-related a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the course of the year. T h i s i n c l u d e d an a d d i t i o n a l ten teachers who attended the Dorothy Heathcote f i l m s , e l e v e n who took p a r t i n the O f f s t a g e workshop, two who went to the Heathcote s e s s i o n s i n Vancouver and two who e n r o l l e d i n Drama courses at summer s e s s i o n . 92 Chapter V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, EVALUATION AND IMPLICATIONS V.1 Summary While the c u r r e n t debate on e x c e l l e n c e i n education i n the United S t a t e s has focu s s e d a g r e a t deal of a t t e n t i o n on d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d e d u c a t i o n and r e d i r e c t e d concern towards the a e s t h e t i c d i s c i p l i n e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , the o p p o s i t e seems to be o c c u r r i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. At the secondary l e v e l , the a t t e n u a t i o n of s t a f f i n most d i s t r i c t s and the proposed i n c r e a s e i n the number of n o n - e l e c t i v e courses r e q u i r e d f o r grad u a t i o n are a f f e c t i n g the number of students who are e n r o l l i n g i n the V i s u a l and Performing A r t s courses as w e l l as i n other e l e c t i v e s . At the elementary l e v e l , a c o n t i n u i n g s e r i e s of de l a y s a f f e c t i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n and implementation of the new Elementary Fine A r t s c u r r i c u l u m has encouraged some to s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h i s c u r r i c u l u m has been permanently s h e l v e d . I f t h e r e i s t o be any c o u n t e r a c t i o n to these moves w i t h i n the p u b l i c school system, i t must come from those people who b e l i e v e i n the fundamental r o l e of the a r t s i n educ a t i o n and who are i n p o s i t i o n s to put t h e i r commitments i n t o p r a c t i c e . T h i s p r o j e c t was developed i n an attempt to focus t e a c h e r s ' a t t e n t i o n on the a r t s , s p e c i f i c a l l y the Dramatic A r t s , and 93 to a s s i s t them i n f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e ways to use drama as a l e a r n i n g medium i n t h e i r classrooms. As a case study, t h i s p r o j e c t was intended to examine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and to provide recommendations f o r a f u l l implementation p l a n . The d e s i g n of the study i s an a d a p t a t i o n of the popular networking model and c o n c e n t r a t e s on classroom-based i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . Classroom o b s e r v a t i o n s and teacher i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d the data which were analyzed to determine s h i f t s i n t e a c h e r s ' stages of concern and l e v e l s of use of the i n n o v a t i o n as w e l l as to i d e n t i f y the types of i n t e r v e n t i o n which p a r t i c i p a n t s viewed as having been most v a l u a b l e . In e v a l u a t i n g the d e s i g n , the procedures and the f i n d i n g s of the r e s e a r c h , a s e r i e s of e v a l u a t i v e q u e s t i o n s was formulated and a d d i t i o n a l data were c o l l e c t e d from other t e a c h e r s , from p r i n c i p a l s and from d i s t r i c t s t a f f . These qu e s t i o n s which are based on Worthen and Sanders' G u i d e l i n e s ( i n press) as w e l l as on the J o i n t Committee's Standards f o r E v a l u a t i o n s of E d u c a t i o n a l Programs, P r o j e c t s  and M a t e r i a l s (1981) appear as Appendix N. 94 V.2 C o n c l u s i o n s I t would appear from t h i s study t h a t i n s p i t e of time and f i s c a l c o n s t r a i n t s , i n d i v i d u a l teachers w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l change i f they f e e l t h a t such change w i l l enhance student l e a r n i n g . There a r e , however, a number of f a c t o r s which f o s t e r and which i n h i b i t change. While these f a c t o r s vary from classroom to classroom, from school to school and from d i s t r i c t to d i s t r i c t , those which are i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h might w e l l be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by anyone p l a n n i n g a s i m i l a r i n - s e r v i c e p r o j e c t . In t h i s case, the i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s : (1) P r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s - The delay i n the r e l e a s e of the Elementary F i n e A r t s c u r r i c u l u m guides and resource m a t e r i a l s has caused a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l and a t the school l e v e l to r e c o n s i d e r t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s . Thus the support f o r the study a t the beginning of the 1983-84 school year when i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t implementation a c t i v i t i e s would have to be scheduled i n the 1984-85 school year had begun to s h i f t to other areas of concern by the s p r i n g of 1984 when d e c i s i o n s f o r a l l o c a t i o n of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development budget funds were being made. 95 Since the implementation of the Fine A r t s c u r r i c u l u m i m p l i e s a number of problems which many would r a t h e r a v o i d d e a l i n g w i t h , t h i s d e l a y c o u l d be a welcome one. The s p e c u l a t i o n by a s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m has been permanently shelved would tend to manifest such a p o s i t i o n . With no o f f i c i a l p r e s s u r e to a c t , l o c a l decision-makers may continue to g i v e token commitment to the a r t s by q u o t i n g Board p o l i c y and i n d i v i d u a l schools w i l l be able to continue with programmes as they c u r r e n t l y e x i s t . A number of teachers a l s o may be r e l i e v e d of the p r o s p e c t of having to r e t r a i n i n areas which they conceive of as being s p e c i a l t y areas and i n which many f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y inadequate. In the absence of e x t e r n a l l y imposed changes, few of these teachers are l i k e l y t o i d e n t i f y t h i s area as one i n which a d d i t i o n a l i n - s e r v i c e i s needed at t h i s time. (2) I n t e r v e n t i o n by s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - The f i r s t O f f s t a g e workshop was c a n c e l l e d by the J o i n t Management Committee on the recommendation of a s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r . I t was then re-scheduled as a p a r t of a two-day P r o f e s s i o n a l Development a f f a i r which was planned f o l l o w i n g a lengthy d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r a t which time i t was suggested t h a t such an event might be an e f f e c t i v e means of f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on the A r t s and on the new c u r r i c u l u m . A s h o r t time l a t e r , t h i s event a l s o was c a n c e l l e d and i t was 96 o n l y through the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the c h a i r p e r s o n of the Pro-D Committee and the Primary Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n t h a t the i n i t i a l workshop was a b l e to proceed. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the changes i n dates and times, meant t h a t a number of those who had requested the workshop and who were keen to a t t e n d , were unable to do so because of other commitments. S i m i l a r i n t e r v e n t i o n a t the J o i n t Management l e v e l has l e d a l s o to the c a n c e l l a t i o n of plans to extend i n t o a second year those i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s which were p a r t of the case study. (3) Teacher i s o l a t i o n - As found i n Goodlad's Study of S c h o o l i n g and expressed i n a r e c e n t Kappan a r t i c l e (Tye and Tye, 1984, pp.319-322), the i s o l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l classroom has a profound i n f l u e n c e on e d u c a t i o n a l reform. One of the c l i c h e s t h a t emerged from the r e c e n t p e r i o d of w i d e - s c a l e c u r r i c u l u m reform and which was quoted d u r i n g one of the i n t e r v i e w s suggests t h a t t e a c h e r s ' doors are c l o s e d to i n n o v a t i o n s . There are some teachers whose p h i l o s o p h i e s , methodologies and m a t e r i a l s are p r o t e c t e d by the f o u r w a l l s and by the classroom door. However, i t i s important to r e a l i z e t h a t teachers are more f r e q u e n t l y u n w i l l i n g v i c t i m s of t h i s i s o l a t i o n . They are separated from one another and from the r e s t of the community. There i s l i t t l e s h a r i n g of ideas between classrooms, among schools or from one d i s t r i c t to another. As a general r u l e , the only other a d u l t s to venture i n t o a teacher's classroom are the o c c a s i o n a l 97 s u b s t i t u t e t eacher, the c u s t o d i a n , and, i n some cases, a v o l u n t e e r a i d e . V i s i t s by the p r i n c i p a l or by the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t are r a r e and p r i m a r i l y f o r purposes of d e l i v e r y of m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n s or i n order to r e p o r t on teacher performance. Ideas and m a t e r i a l s which are developed w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l classroom are r a r e l y taken out of t h a t classroom e i t h e r by the teacher or by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . T h i s f a c t o r has p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a d i s t r i c t such as the one i n which t h i s study was conducted. Not only i s the area g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d but a l s o i t has w i t h i n the community and w i t h i n the school d i s t r i c t a very s t a b l e p o p u l a t i o n and a r i g i d l y e s t a b l i s h e d power s t r u c t u r e . (4 ) Teaching assignment - The Cadre Fra n g a i s teacher had a very d i f f i c u l t assignment t h i s year. She had c h i l d r e n from k i n d e r g a r t e n to f o u r t h grade and very l i m i t e d r e source m a t e r i a l . The d r a i n on her time and energy was such t h a t she c o u l d not d i r e c t as much a t t e n t i o n to the p r o j e c t as she would l i k e to have done. I t has a l s o l e d to her having requested leave f o r the next school year. Because of d e c l i n i n g e n r o l l m e n t , the f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t program and s e n i o r i t y c l a u s e s , a small d i s t r i c t with a s t a b l e t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n sees a number of changes i n 98 t e a c h i n g assignments each year. Two of the i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s who were i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t t h i s year w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d to j u n i o r secondary schools i n September. While one of these teachers continued to develop s t r a t e g i e s and experiment with the use of drama i n h i s classroom a f t e r being informed of t h i s change, he w i l l not be i n a p o s i t i o n to extend or to share the ideas t h i s coming year. (5) Status of change agent - A key f a c t o r i n implementation at the l o c a l l e v e l was i d e n t i f i e d i n i n t e r v i e w s with the p r i n c i p a l who has been i n v o l v e d with the w r i t i n g p r o j e c t , with the Ch a i r p e r s o n of the Pro-D Committee as w e l l as with s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . That f a c t o r was the s t a t u s of the change agent. A l l three suggested t h a t i t i s seen as i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l teacher to i n i t i a t e a p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t y u n l e s s t h a t teacher i s a l s o a school p r i n c i p a l or a member of d i s t r i c t s t a f f . In the d i s c u s s i o n s which took p l a c e a t the J o i n t Management Committee's p l a n n i n g meetings r e g a r d i n g d e c i s i o n s to fund the workshops d u r i n g the c u r r e n t year and d u r i n g the coming school year, the ne g a t i v e d e c i s i o n s u l t i m a t e l y r e s t e d on t h i s s i n g l e f a c t o r - i t was an idea presented by one teacher, not by a p r i n c i p a l , not by a member of d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f and not by an o f f i c i a l group. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g then t h a t one of the f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n the F l a n d e r s ' r e p o r t (1980) on p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n the 99 p r o v i n c e i s t h a t of the i n d i v i d u a l teacher's sense of inadequacy. The study a l s o i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s which f o s t e r change. These i n c l u d e d : (1) Support from peers - The model lessons were i d e n t i f i e d by the three school p r i n c i p a l s , by f i v e of the s i x teachers i n t e r v i e w e d and by the Ch a i r p e r s o n of the Pro-D Committee as having s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the change pro c e s s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y was seen to have encouraged teachers to experiment with the i n n o v a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l reasons. F i r s t , i t pro v i d e d a type of bonding with the change agent. Teachers seemed to f e e l t h a t i f a f e l l o w teacher was w i l l i n g to devote time and energy to v i s i t another classroom and to r i s k f a i l u r e i n f r o n t of a peer with an u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i n an u n f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g , then they should be w i l l i n g to g i v e up some of t h e i r time and take some r i s k s as w e l l . Second, i t occu r r e d i n school time. The demands on t e a c h e r s ' time and energy are so heavy t h a t few are w i l l i n g to g i v e up evenings and weekends f o r i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s u n l e s s i t i s an area of s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t to them. T h i r d , i t pro v i d e d teachers with the o p p o r t u n i t y to see how t h e i r students r e a c t e d to the i n n o v a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t p r o v i d e d teachers with ideas which they might choose to develop or extend. In f a c t , a l l of the s i x teachers s a i d 100 t h a t they had a p p l i e d suggestions which had been o u t l i n e d i n the follow-up memoranda. (2) I n t r o d u c t i o n of ideas from o u t s i d e - The Heathcote f i l m s , the O f f s t a g e book and follow-up workshop wi t h one of the authors were g e n e r a l l y w e l l - r e c e i v e d but fou r of the s i x t e a c h e r s suggested t h a t i t was important to have been exposed to the ideas through the e a r l i e r classroom-based i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n order to b e n e f i t from these other a c t i v i t i e s . (3) O p p o r t u n i t y to share knowledge - One teacher s a i d t h a t she f e l t t h a t there should have been more group meetings i n order to r e f l e c t on i n d i v i d u a l successes and f a i l u r e s . However, she added t h a t she was r e t i c e n t to be too i n v o l v e d i n such d i s c u s s i o n s f o r f e a r of t a k i n g more than she c o u l d g i v e . Another teacher suggested t h a t t a l k i n g about one's successes may be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as being b o a s t f u l . Again, the t e a c h e r ' s sense of inadequacy i s e v i d e n t . (4) C a r i n g - T h i s f a c t o r must.be a p a r t of each of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . Teachers must f e e l t h a t t h e i r needs are being c o n s i d e r e d and t h a t an attempt i s being made to meet those needs. Teachers a l s o have to be t r e a t e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l s . In keeping with t h i s concept, then, appointments were made to v i s i t each of the teachers 101 p e r s o n a l l y to see i f they would be w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o j e c t . Arrangements were made to have a separate room f o r the luncheon meeting which was h e l d as a p a r t of the d i s t r i c t p r o f e s s i o n a l development day. Time was taken with each teacher to d i s c u s s the p r o j e c t and to i d e n t i f y areas i n which they might wish to have model lessons presented. Each teacher chose a s u i t a b l e time f o r the v i s i t and designated the content and o b j e c t i v e f o r the l e s s o n . Contact was maintained throughout the year w i t h each teacher through p e r s o n a l i z e d memoranda. The date and time f o r the f i l m s e s s i o n , which was f o l l o w e d by d i s c u s s i o n and di n n e r , was set by a group consensus. The time and content f o r each a d d i t i o n a l v i s i t was a l s o s e t by the i n d i v i d u a l teachers as were the dates f o r the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s . Most of the e v a l u a t i o n forms which were r e t u r n e d a f t e r the O f f s t a g e workshop made r e f e r e n c e to the luncheon which was served. One might conclude t h a t the food f a c t o r i s an important element of the c a r i n g f a c t o r . S e v e r a l of the c u r r i c u l u m guides suggest the use of drama as a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y . However, there seemed to be very l i m i t e d use of any type of drama a c t i v i t i e s i n the schools which were v i s i t e d . As a methodology, i t was v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . Once teachers had been exposed to t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which p r o v i d e d f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n of themes i n v a r i o u s content areas through the use of drama, there was 102 evidence of change i n t h e i r stages of concern and i n t h e i r l e v e l s of use of drama i n the classroom. To what extent those teachers w i l l continue to experiment with drama as a l e a r n i n g medium without a support network i s yet to be determined. To what extent any change would have occ u r r e d i the change agent had been viewed as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i s s u b j e c t f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . V.3 E v a l u a t i o n The p h i l o s o p h y which underpins each component of the study - t h a t i s , the purpose of s c h o o l s , l e a r n i n g theory, drama theory and pedagogy, c u r r i c u l u m implementation and e v a l u a t i o n techniques - i s a r e f l e c t i o n of r e l e v a n t , contemporary Canadian, B r i t i s h and American r e s e a r c h viewed i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e r e f o r e , one might assume the study to have been based on sound p r i n c i p l e s . The teacher p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e d a s e l e c t e d sample of mal and female t e a c h e r s , primary and i n t e r m e d i a t e teachers and younger and o l d e r members of s t a f f , none of whom had expressed any p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the use of drama as a l e a r n i n g medium. The a c t i v i t i e s were org a n i z e d and conducted i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l manner. Communication l i n k s were maintained 103 between the r e s e a r c h e r and the p a r t i c i p a n t s throughout the study and there was a l s o r e g u l a r c o n t a c t with the c h a i r p e r s o n of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee. However, one of the major weaknesses of the p r o j e c t may have been the f a i l u r e t o maintain adequate communication with p r i n c i p a l s and with s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The data were c a r e f u l l y c o l l e c t e d and analyzed. Responses to the i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s gathered from p a r t i c i p a n t s other than the s e l e c t e d teachers c o n f i r m those r e a c t i o n s c o l l e c t e d as data. Evidence of t e a c h e r s ' l e v e l s of use as observed d u r i n g the classroom v i s i t s was confirmed i n i n t e r v i e w s with those p r i n c i p a l s who a l s o had v i s i t e d the classrooms. No p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the t e s t i n g of the e f f e c t of the i n n o v a t i o n on l e a r n i n g outcomes. The response by t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , the c h a i r p e r s o n of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee and the newly-appointed Superintendent would suggest t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a c r e d i b l e source. However, r e a c t i o n from the r e t i r i n g Superintendent and from the A s s i s t a n t Superintendent i n d i c a t e s t h a t they may have doubted both the source and the f i n d i n g s of the r e s e a r c h although i t was noted e a r l i e r t h a t n e i t h e r wished to study the documentation b e f o r e p a s s i n g judgement. 104 I t was g e n e r a l l y agreed by t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s and the c h a i r p e r s o n of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee t h a t the p r o j e c t responded to a s p e c i f i c l o c a l need. The c o s t s i n c u r r e d f o r the i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s were minimal. The classroom v i s i t s were conducted d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p r e p a r a t i o n time so t h a t there was no need f o r a s u b s t i t u t e teacher to cover her c l a s s e s . Other than a mimimum le v y on p a r t i c i p a n t s at the May workshop, c a t e r i n g charges f o r the d i n n e r and the luncheon were borne by the r e s e a r c h e r . The l o c a l P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee covered the c o s t of the i n i t i a l luncheon, of the f i l m r e n t a l s and the O f f s t a g e workshop. The t o t a l expenditure was l e s s than f i v e hundred d o l l a r s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i t would have c o s t nine hundred d o l l a r s to send the s i x teachers to a s i n g l e out-of-town workshop, the p r o j e c t i s viewed as having been c o s t - e f f e c t i v e s i n c e each of the s i x t eachers was o f f e r e d a v a r i e t y of i n - s e r v i c e e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s e v a l u a t i o n would i n d i c a t e t h a t i n terms of t e s t i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t h a t w i l l lead to t e a c h e r s ' a c t u a l use of drama i n the classroom, the p r o j e c t was s u c c e s s f u l . However, s i n c e the p r o j e c t has not l e d to a programme which w i l l support and extend the implementation of t h i s i n n o v a t i o n , i t was u n s u c c e s s f u l . Those elements 105 which have been i d e n t i f i e d as s t r e n g t h s of the p r o j e c t i n c l u d e : (1) t h e o r e t i c a l underpinning (2) o r g a n i z a t i o n (3) e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of communication l i n k s w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s (4) p r o v i s i o n f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s and between each p a r t i c i p a n t and the change agent (5) m o d e l l i n g of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s (6) c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s (7) changes i n t e a c h e r s ' stages of concern and l e v e l s of use (8) s y s t e m a t i c data c o l l e c t i o n (9) a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data (10) balanced r e p o r t i n g Elements which have been i d e n t i f i e d as weaknesses of the p r o j e c t i n c l u d e : (1) c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s (2) audience i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (3) p o l i t i c a l v i a b i l i t y T h i s e v a l u a t i o n would i n d i c a t e t h a t the p r o j e c t may have been s u c c e s s f u l i f i t had been p i l o t e d i n one school with f u l l involvement of the p r i n c i p a l and v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l t e a c h e r s . R e s u l t s would then have been p u b l i c i z e d a t d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' meetings and other 106 schools may have been encouraged to i d e n t i f y t h i s as a p r i o r i t y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n the coming school y e a r . Caution would be needed with t h i s approach, however, s i n c e teachers may not accept the i n n o v a t i o n i f they f e e l t h a t i t i s being imposed and t h a t there i s an e x p e c t a t i o n to produce r e s u l t s . V.4 I m p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research Turning and t u r n i n g i n the widening gyre The f a l c o n does not hear the f a l c o n e r ; Things f a l l a p a r t ; the c e n t r e cannot h o l d ; Mere anarchy i s loosed upon the world. The blood-dimmed t i d e i s loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence i s drowned; The b e s t l a c k a l l c o n v i c t i o n , while the worst Are f u l l of p a s s i o n a t e i n t e n s i t y . (W.B. Yeats, The Second Coming) The review of the l i t e r a t u r e and of the r e s e a r c h r e i t e r a t e s the v i t a l r o l e which the a r t s can and should p l a y i n the h e a l i n g of the fragmentation which Yeats d e s c r i b e s . The p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the work of educators such as Gavin B o l t o n and Dorothy Heathcote suggests the degree of meaning t h a t c h i l d r e n are capable of d e r i v i n g from work t h a t g i v e s them the freedom to e x p l o r e , to c r e a t e and to r e i n t e r p r e t the human c o n d i t i o n through t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a e s t h e t i c experience. I t i s imperative t h a t those who b e l i e v e i n the value of a r t s education continue to work to e s t a b l i s h the a e s t h e t i c d i s c i p l i n e s as 107 p a r t of the core c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s study has r e a f f i r m e d the importance of d e v e l o p i n g implementation s t r a t e g i e s t h a t meet the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l teacher w i t h i n the context of t h a t teacher's classroom. I t i l l u s t r a t e s the importance of making p r o v i s i o n f o r m o d e l l i n g , t e s t i n g , feedback and i n t e r a c t i o n . I t a l s o i d e n t i f i e s some of the p i t f a l l s which may occur. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed to determine the success of such a p r o j e c t as developed and extended w i t h i n a s i n g l e s c h o o l . 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(1980). Fantasy P l a y : I t s Role i n the Development of S o c i a l S k i l l s and S o c i a l C o g n i t i o n . New D i r e c t i o n s f o r C h i l d Development C h i l d r e n ' s Play . San F r a n c i s c o . Jossey-Bass. Rumelhart, David, E. (1981). Schemata: The B u i l d i n g Blocks of C o g n i t i o n . In John T. G u t h r i e (Ed.) Comprehension and Teaching . Newark. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n . R u t h e r f o r d , W i l l i a m L. (1978). The Personal Interview: A Tool f o r I n v e s t i g a t i n g and Understanding Change i n Schools. Paper presented a t the annual meeting of the American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n . Toronto. 1978.03.28. School D i s t r i c t # 47, P o l i c y Statement # 11, June 9, 1982. Secondary School Graduation Requirements, A D i s c u s s i o n Paper. (1984). V i c t o r i a . P rovince of B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Shalaway, Linda.(1981). 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APPENDIX A - INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Philoso p h y : How would you d e s c r i b e your r o l e as teacher? What do you t r y to h e l p students l e a r n to do? ( L i m i t y o u r s e l f to f o u r and c l a s s i f y two as p r i o r i t i e s . ) (a) l e a r n the b a s i c s k i l l s (b) t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y (c) get along w i t h others (d) a c q u i r e knowledge (e) develop o r i g i n a l i t y & c r e a t i v i t y (f) s o l v e problems (g) prepare f o r the " r e a l world" (h) develop awareness (i) communicate e f f e c t i v e l y (j) other Methodology: Which of the f o l l o w i n g approaches do you favour? (a) d r i l l and p r a c t i c e OR d i s c o v e r y and experimentation? (b) s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s OR t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s ? (c) q u e s t i o n i n g OR t e l l i n g ? (d) l a r g e group work OR small group work? Content: (a) Have you ever done any drama with your students? (b) Could you d e s c r i b e the type of m a t e r i a l which you used? (c) How would you say the students f e e l about drama i n general? (d) How would you say they f e e l about the type of work which you d i d with them? 117 4. C u r r i c u l u m : (a) To what extent do you use the c u r r i c u l u m guides to p l a n your work and choose your m a t e r i a l s ? (b) Do you f i n d p r o v i n c i a l l y developed c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s u s e f u l ? (too p r e s c r i p t i v e ? demanding? c h a l l e n g i n g ? r e a l i s t i c ? ) (c) What do you know about the Elementary F i n e A r t s c u r r i c u l u m which i s c u r r e n t l y being developed? (d) What i s your o p i n i o n about the i n t e g r a t i o n of the F i n e A r t s ? (e) Do you f e e l t h a t the F i n e A r t s should be taught by g e n e r a l i s t s or s p e c i a l i s t s ? Why? 5. Impact: (a) What impact would you expect the drama component of the new c u r r i c u l u m might have on you i n terms of your r o l e ? t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s ? background knowledge? time? d a i l y p r e p a r a t i o n ? classroom o r g a n i z a t i o n ? APPENDIX B - MODEL LESSONS 118 1983 10 26 Teacher B2/ L o c a t i o n B/ Grade V T h i s l e s s o n was a f i f t y minute i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n . The classroom teacher had requested a p r e - w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y f o r Hallowe'en. 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n - The v i s i t i n g teacher spends a few minutes t a l k i n g t o the group about pretend, make-believe and r e a l l i f e a c t i o n s . She asks the students i f they would be able to make b e l i e v e t h a t they are a d u l t s and t h a t they are experts at something. She a l s o e x p l a i n s t h a t she w i l l soon leave the room but when she r e t u r n s she w i l l be making b e l i e v e t h a t she i s someone e l s e . She asks the students i f they are w i l l i n g t o l e t her p l a y w i t h them. She then e x p l a i n s t h a t she w i l l t r y to make them b e l i e v e i n her but t h a t i f she does not b e l i e v e i n them t h a t she w i l l become Mrs. S c o t t again and r e t u r n to the t e a c h e r ' s c h a i r . The v i s i t i n g teacher then leaves the room. 2. Teacher-in-Role - The v i s i t o r then knocks on the door. She waits f o r a student to answer her, then asks i f she i s at the r i g h t address. She says t h a t she b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s i s the o f f i c e of the (....) House E x p e r t s . She i s i n v i t e d i n 119 and she then e x p l a i n s the problems which she seems to be having with her house.(The d e s c r i p t i o n c o u l d lead to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the house i s haunted). The student-experts decide to v i s i t the house. 3. Whole Group Work - The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e suggests t h a t i t i s q u i t e a d i s t a n c e to her home and s i n c e there are so many-expert a r c h i t e c t s , e t c . who wish t o v i s i t the house to i n s p e c t i t t h a t i t would be bes t to c h a r t e r a bus. 4. Student N a r r a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n - The students s i t as i f p o s i t i o n e d on the bus. They c l o s e t h e i r eyes and q u i e t l y d e s c r i b e the journey to the house. The teacher asks them a l s o t o g i v e t h e i r f i r s t impressions of her house when they a r r i v e a t the entrance to the driveway. 5. Small Group Work - Students form small groups and go to separate p a r t s of the house to i n v e s t i g a t e . The teacher moves i n and out of r o l e d u r i n g t h i s a c t i v i t y to support, d i s c i p l i n e and c h a l l e n g e i n d i v i d u a l students as necessary. 6. Large Group D i s c u s s i o n - Students share t h e i r d i s c o v e r i e s and t h e i r t h e o r i e s . 7. Enactment - Students p l a n p r e s e n t a t i o n s based upon t h e i r t h e o r i e s . 120 1983 11 17 Teacher A l / L o c a t i o n A/ Grade II T h i s l e s s o n was a f o r t y - f i v e minute i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n . The classroom teacher had requested a S o c i a l S t u d i e s l e s s o n d e a l i n g w i t h another community i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n - The v i s i t i n g teacher d i s c u s s e s w i t h the c h i l d r e n the d i f f e r e n c e between pretend and make-believe a c t i o n . She a l s o t a l k s w i t h them about the d i f f e r e n c e between make-believe a c t i o n and r e a l l i f e . They experiment by h e l p i n g a v e r y small boy to make others b e l i e v e t h a t he i s a g i a n t . They d i s c o v e r t h a t he has to b e l i e v e i n h i m s e l f b e f o r e others w i l l b e l i e v e i n him. The v i s i t i n g teacher then asks the c h i l d r e n i f the whole c l a s s would l i k e to t r y some make-believe. She t e l l s them t h a t they w i l l have to work very hard because they are going to have to b e l i e v e t h a t she i s a c h i l d and t h a t they are a d u l t s . They agree to the task and again the c h a i r i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the teacher ( i n case i t i s needed). 2. Teacher-in-Role - The students move to the c a r p e t and the t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e comes to the o u t s i d e of the group. She i s v e r y shy and has to be l e d i n by one of the c h i l d r e n - i n - r o l e as a c a r i n g a d u l t . The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e e x p l a i n s t h a t her best f r i e n d , L a r a , has gone away and the 121 only c l u e t h a t she has are the two words " P r i n c e George" which she p r i n t s (with d i f f i c u l t y ) on the board. She does not know what i t means and when she i s giv e n the name wonders i f t h a t means t h a t L a r a has gone to v i s i t a person or a p l a c e . Someone o f f e r s the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h i s i s the name of a c i t y up n o r t h . 3. D i s c u s s i o n i n and out of r o l e - A map i s found and both P r i n c e George and the home d i s t r i c t are found. The c h i l d r e n are p r o v i d e d with photographs, sketch maps, e t c . from which they determine the answers to the q u e s t i o n s : (a) Is i t f a r from here? (b) Could Lara's f r i e n d t r a v e l there? (c) By what means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n would she t r a v e l ? (d) What type of c l o t h i n g should she take w i t h her? Throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the teacher moves i n and out of r o l e as necessary to guide the i n q u i r y and the d i s c o v e r y . The c h i l d r e n a l s o tend t o move i n and out of r o l e but continue to maintain the c a r i n g a t t i t u d e throughout t h i s e x e r c i s e . The d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s focusses on the problems which might be encountered i n c l u d i n g the i n i t i a l problems of o b t a i n i n g p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n and fun d i n g . 4. Working i n P a i r s - C h i l d r e n ask parents f o r pe r m i s s i o n and money f o r the t r i p . 122 1983 11 22 Teacher A2/ L o c a t i o n A/ Grades K t o IV Thi s was a f o r t y - f i v e minute l e s s o n c o n c e n t r a t i n g on movement. The teacher was anxious to i d e n t i f y games and e x e r c i s e s which would i n v o l v e a l l of the c h i l d r e n (boys and g i r l s , k i n d e r g a r t e n to f o u r t h grade). 1. Warm-up Game - Tag i s a game t h a t c h i l d r e n of a l l ages p l a y w i l l i n g l y . By adding the concepts of f a s t motion and slow motion the game becomes somewhat more i n t e r e s t i n g and more c h a l l e n g i n g . 2. I s o l a t i o n s - C h i l d r e n f i n d t h e i r own spaces and work through a s e r i e s of slow i s o l a t i o n s . 3. Dramatized movements - From c o n t r a c t i o n s and s t r e t c h e s , c h i l d r e n are l e d i n t o movements as puppets and as r o b o t s . (They are allowed to add sound e f f e c t s f o r the l a t t e r ) . 4. C o n c e n t r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n - Some of the c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the pr e v i o u s e x e r c i s e , so a game of Winking Murder i s played to encourage them to r e l a x and to con c e n t r a t e . A f t e r they have developed a b i t more con f i d e n c e , the mechanical walking e x e r c i s e (robots) i s 123 repeated. A m i r r o r i n g e x e r c i s e i s then i n t r o d u c e d to develop c o n c e n t r a t i o n . A movement sequencing e x e r c i s e (running, s t o p p i n g , jumping, f a l l i n g ) i s used to develop c o n c e n t r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . F i n a l l y , students are asked to p h y s i c a l i z e the f o l l o w i n g words: push, p u l l , pour, pop, d r i p , bark, bounce, bubble, s l e e p , t i p - t o e . (The p r o g r e s s i o n here allows students to c o o l down and to calm down.) Students i n t h i s c l a s s are French-speaking so the l e s s o n a l s o served as the E n g l i s h l e s s o n f o r t h a t day. 124 1983 11 22 Teacher C2/ L o c a t i o n C7 Grade I T h i s l e s s o n was a f o r t y - f i v e minute i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n . The classroom teacher had requested a Language A r t s a c t i v i t y . 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n - The v i s i t i n g teacher asks the students to j o i n her on the c a r p e t . They d i s c u s s pretend, make-believe and r e a l l i f e a c t i o n s . She asks them i f they are very good at make b e l i e v e . They suggest t h a t they are so the v i s i t i n g teacher asks i f they would be w i l l i n g to t r y some very d i f f i c u l t make b e l i e v e . They agree and she asks them to t r y to make her b e l i e v e t h a t they are a d u l t s and she w i l l t r y to make them b e l i e v e t h a t she i s a c h i l d . 2. Teacher i n Role - The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as a c h i l d approaches the c h i l d r e n w i t h a s e r i e s of problems r e l a t e d to being i n s i d e on a r a i n y day. T h i s s t r a t e g y i s used to i n t r o d u c e the theme of the poem as w e l l as to ensure t h a t the c h i l d r e n w i l l t r e a t the c r e a t i o n of the make-believe animals s e r i o u s l y . 3. Whole Group Dramatized Movement make-believe animals. - C h i l d r e n c r e a t e 125 4. Dramatized Reading - The c h i l d r e n are asked to r e t u r n to t h e i r desks so t h a t they can see the board where there i s a poem t h a t t a l k s about what someone might do on a r a i n y day. The v i s i t i n g teacher then asks the readers i n the c l a s s to h e l p her read the poem. I n d i v i d u a l members of the c l a s s are asked t o v o l u n t e e r to be s p e c i a l toys i n the a t t i c . The readers a c t as a chorus and the remainder become elephants, mice or a i r p l a n e s on cue. 126 1983 11 23 Teacher B l / L o c a t i o n B/ Grade VII Thi s l e s s o n was a f i f t y - m i n u t e i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n . The classroom teacher had requested some drama work r e l a t e d to the study of the n o v e l , Banner i n the Sky . 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n - By making r e f e r e n c e to f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n , the v i s i t i n g teacher d i s c u s s e s the concept of r o l e - t a k i n g and c l a r i f i e s the d i f f e r e n c e s between r o l e - t a k i n g i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s and r o l e - t a k i n g i n make b e l i e v e s i t u a t i o n s . She a l s o r e l a t e s a pers o n a l i n c i d e n t to i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f e r e n c e between pr e t e n d i n g and making b e l i e v e . She e s t a b l i s h e s an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t they w i l l work to be b e l i e v e d when they- are asked to take on r o l e s . 2. D i s c u s s i o n - The f i c t i o n a l hero, Rudi Matt, i s compared with the r e a l hero f e a t u r e d i n the l o c a l newspaper. There i s general d i s c u s s i o n on a c t i o n s t h a t might be c o n s i d e r e d as h e r o i c . 3. I n t e r v i e w i n g i n p a i r s - Students work i n p a i r s with one t a k i n g on the r o l e of a r e p o r t e r and the other t a k i n g on the r o l e of a hero. 127 4. D i s c u s s i o n - Information gathered i n the i n t e r v i e w s i s shared with the whole group. Students are asked to focus on the m o t i v a t i o n s and emotions t h a t would be i n v o l v e d i n the s i t u a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d . 5. Tableaux - In groups of f o u r or f i v e , students are g i v e n the task of c r e a t i n g tableaux with accompanying h e a d l i n e s to i l l u s t r a t e the s i t u a t i o n s which c a l l e d on i n d i v i d u a l s to a c t h e r o i c a l l y . 6. Media Extensions - Students are assigned the tasks of p r e p a r i n g t e l e v i s i o n i n t e r v i e w s or newspaper s t o r i e s based on the i n c i d e n t s presented. 128 1983 11 30 Teacher CI/ L o c a t i o n C/ Grade VI T h i s l e s s o n was a f o r t y - f i v e minute i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n . The classroom teacher had requested some drama work r e l a t e d to the S o c i a l S t u d i e s u n i t on China. 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n - The v i s i t i n g teacher e s t a b l i s h e s a c o n t r a c t w i t h the students to t r y some make-believe work with her. She asks them whether they wish to be a d u l t s or c h i l d r e n . They choose to be o l d e r teenagers. 2. Teacher-in-Role - The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e as a t r a v e l agent approaches a group of u n i v e r s i t y students who have answered an advertisement which she has p l a c e d i n the campus newspaper. She suggests t h a t they w i l l be t r a v e l l i n g to China to gather i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l h e lp the agency to s e t up a s e r i e s of t o u r s . She e x p l a i n s t h a t i t w i l l be t h e i r job to come back wi t h the type of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l a s s i s t the agency i n p l e a s i n g t h e i r customers and i n making money. 3. D i s c u s s i o n - Students are then asked to i d e n t i f y the areas t h a t they b e l i e v e would be important to study. They i d e n t i f y the f o l l o w i n g s u b - t o p i c s : p o s s i b l e i t i n e r a r y 129 means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n foods souvenirs r e c r e a t i o n and s p o r t s entertainment s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t stops t r a v e l p r e c a u t i o n s c o s t s 4. Research - The students choose the areas i n which they are,most i n t e r e s t e d . A number of books are p r o v i d e d f o r them and they begin t h e i r r e s e a r c h work. 5. D i s c u s s i o n - T h i s i s an on-going a c t i v i t y and c o u l d not p o s s i b l y be completed d u r i n g the s i n g l e p e r i o d . Students share i n f o r m a t i o n and d i s c u s s problems which they have been encountering. 130 1984 04 02 Teacher B l / L o c a t i o n B/ Grade VII T h i s i s a f i f t y minute p r e - w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y . The teacher has requested t h a t students be prepared f o r a w r i t t e n assignment i n which they must s t a t e an o p i n i o n . I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n p r i o r d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t the c l a s s i s very fond of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n but not keen on S o c i a l S t u d i e s . 1. E s t a b l i s h i n g s i t u a t i o n - Students, of course, r e c o g n i z e the v i s i t i n g teacher as being the Drama teacher. However, she has not been i n t r o d u c e d as such t h i s time. In f a c t , the c l a s s i s t o l d t h a t she w i l l be d i s c u s s i n g programming f o r next year. (Since these are seventh graders, they w i l l be moving to the j u n i o r secondary schools i n September. A p r i l i s the month t h a t secondary school c o u n s e l l o r s v i s i t to arrange programmes f o r the coming y e a r ) . The v i s i t i n g teacher e x p l a i n s t h a t she has come to t a l k about some of the changes t h a t w i l l be o c c u r r i n g next year at both of the d i s t r i c t ' s j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s . I t i s e x p l a i n e d t h a t i n order to accommodate the proposed changes at the s e n i o r secondary, t h a t the j u n i o r secondary w i l l be implementing the f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y i n September: There w i l l be no P h y s i c a l Education f o r Grade E i g h t students. (The r a t i o n a l e , i t i s e x p l a i n e d , i s t h a t with the 131 i n c r e a s e d Science and Math requirements at s e n i o r l e v e l s , t h ere w i l l be no room i n t h e i r schedules f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s at the e l e v e n t h grade l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , they w i l l have to take two S o c i a l S t u d i e s courses i n e i g h t h grade. In order to p r o v i d e time f o r the e x t r a block of S o c i a l S t u d i e s , P.E. c l a s s e s w i l l be c a n c e l l e d . ) C l a s s e s w i l l be segregated. (The reason g i v e n f o r t h i s i s t h a t s i n c e there w i l l be no P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , there w i l l no a p p r o p r i a t e d e l i v e r y system f o r the Guidance courses. Guidance w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be scheduled at any time convenient f o r both the content area teacher and the Guidance c o u n s e l l o r . C l a s s e s w i l l thus have to be segregated s i n c e male and female c o u n s e l l o r s have d i f f e r e n t schedules and i t would be i m p o s s i b l e to have constant d i s r u p t i o n s of students coming and going from c l a s s by sexual groupings.) Students are then asked i f they have any q u e s t i o n s . A number of q u e s t i o n s are d e a l t w i t h , i n c l u d i n g , "You're only t r y i n g to make us b e l i e v e t h i s because i t ' s a Drama c l a s s , i s n ' t i t ? " The v i s i t i n g teacher does not accept or deny the make-believe but c a r r i e s on to e s t a b l i s h the problem by l i s t e n i n g t o t h e i r concerns and n o t i n g these on the board. 2. D i s c u s s i o n - Once most of the i n i t i a l p e r s o n a l concerns are v o i c e d , the d i s c u s s i o n i s focussed on p o s s i b l e 13 2 c o u n t e r a c t i o n s . The audience f o r the student p r o t e s t i s i d e n t i f i e d as i n c l u d i n g : c o u n s e l l o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , school board, parents and other members of the community. Students are reminded t h a t i f the d e c i s i o n s have a l r e a d y been made t h a t they w i l l have to work very hard to change people's minds. 3. Working i n p a i r s - Students p l a n arguments to be presented to any of the i d e n t i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s or groups. 4. Students i n Role - S e v e r a l groups v o l u n t e e r to t r y out t h e i r arguments. The v i s i t i n g teacher takes on the r o l e of an i n t e r v i e w e r on the l o c a l t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n and allows one group to a i r t h e i r concerns. The r e g u l a r classroom teacher then takes on the r o l e of the Superintendent and allows another group to v i s i t h i s o f f i c e to express t h e i r o p i n i o n s . (They r e a l l y have to work on t h i s one.) 5. D e - B r i e f i n g - The v i s i t i n g teacher then c o n g r a t u l a t e s the students on t h e i r hard work and ERASES THE BOARD. She t e l l s them t h a t she looks forward to having some of them i n her c o - e d u c a t i o n a l c l a s s e s i n the f a l l and assures them t h a t they w i l l not have two b l o c k s of S o c i a l S t u d i e s but t h a t they w i l l have P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . 6. W r i t t e n Follow-up - The classroom teacher then has the students w r i t e l e t t e r s e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r o p i n i o n and p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t i n g arguments f o r these o p i n i o n s . 133 1984 04 06 Teacher A l / L o c a t i o n A/ Grade II Th i s f o r t y - f i v e minute l e s s o n was to serve as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the S o c i a l S t u d i e s u n i t d e a l i n g with space communities. 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n of Problem - The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e t e l l s the c h i l d r e n t h a t there i s a s e r i o u s problem on E a r t h at the present time. I t seems t h a t a l l of the p l a n t s are dying and people are g e t t i n g s i c k . She wonders i f they have any idea of what might be cau s i n g these events. P o l l u t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d as the cause of the s i c k n e s s and the deaths. The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e then asks the c h i l d r e n i f they have any idea of what might happen i f the p o l l u t i o n problem i s not s o l v e d . They r e a l i z e t h a t without p l a n t s , people a l s o w i l l d i e . She asks i f anyone can propose a s o l u t i o n to the problem. 2. I n t r o d u c t i o n of classroom t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e - The classroom teacher i s i n t r o d u c e d as Mrs. G. from Newport. She says t h a t she has a s o l u t i o n but i t would mean t h a t everyone would have to move to Newport. She suggests t h a t an i n s p e c t i o n t r i p might be arranged. Students then q u e s t i o n the v i s i t o r . I t i s decided to journey to v i s i t the f a c i l i t i e s t o b r i n g back recommendations f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . 134 3. D i s c u s s i o n i n r o l e s - T r a v e l l e r s are t o l d t h a t they may b r i n g as many poss e s s i o n s as they can f i t i n a metre box. The s i z e i s c a r e f u l l y determined with a metre s t i c k . 4. J o u r n a l E n t r i e s - students l i s t belongings t h a t they w i l l take. 5. Journey - C h i l d r e n move q u i e t l y i n p a i r s to the c a r p e t which i s now e s t a b l i s h e d as the s p a c e c r a f t , though t h i s term has not y e t been i n t r o d u c e d . The c h i l d r e n are then i n v i t e d to o f f e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c r a f t and the journey. 6. A r r i v a l and i n t r o d u c t i o n of the map of Newport - Th i s simple sketch map of the community i s s t u d i e d and d i s c u s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g have been i d e n t i f i e d : space p o r t bus dome park dome community dome h o t e l dome food storage domes water tanks f i r e dome p o l i c e dome government dome communication dome greenhouses c h i l d c a r e dome e x p l o r e r s ' dome shopping dome worship dome l i v i n g domes h o s p i t a l dome Two of the domes have no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . V i s i t o r s are asked i f they can determine what e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of the 135 community are m i s s i n g . They c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y the school dome and the garbage s i t e . 7. Research and d i s c u s s i o n - I n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n focusses on the reasons f o r having domes throughout the community. Some voc a b u l a r y work i s done to determine d i f f e r e n c e between community dome and communication dome. Then groups are assigned to i n v e s t i g a t e each of the s i t e s and to f i n d out what purpose i s served by each. T h i s i s conducted through s h a r i n g p r i o r knowledge (with l i m i t e d teacher a s s i s t a n c e ) . 8. Reporting back - Reports are giv e n on each p a r t of the community. 9. Recommendations - The whole group then decides what i t s recommendation to f a m i l i e s on E a r t h w i l l be. 136 APPENDIX C - FOLLOW-UP MEMORANDA TO: B2 FROM: Jea n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1983 10 27 RE: Haunted House Drama Here are a few ideas f o r extending the work i f you f e e l you would l i k e t o do so: (1) W r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s '- o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s ( a p p r o p r i a t e l y i l l u s t r a t e d ) based on t h e i r f i n d i n g s . - newspaper s t o r i e s based on the enactments. - d i a r y e n t r i e s from people who have l i v e d i n (or v i s i t e d ) the house - notes or l e t t e r s t h a t might have been found i n the house (* some youngsters a l r e a d y s t a r t e d to do t h i s i n c l a s s on Thursday) (2) Using the media - Assume the r o l e of a r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n or newspaper r e p o r t e r and conduct i n t e r v i e w s with the i n v e s t i g a t o r s . - T h i s might then be extended i n t o a t e l e v i s i o n news broadcast with students performing f i l m c l i p s . (3) Working i n p a i r s - Student A has v i s i t e d the house/ Student B i s being t o l d about the v i s i t - Student A i s a lawyer who i s p r e p a r i n g to defend 137 Student B who was i n v o l v e d i n the mystery/crime i n some way - Student A i s a witness being questioned by the p o l i c e (Student B) (4) Working i n groups - r e - e n a c t the events l e a d i n g up to the crime - c r e a t e a d d i t i o n a l tape r e c o r d i n g s (5) Whole group - spend the n i g h t i n the house - conduct a t r i a l of one or more of the accused (6) Non-Drama A c t i v i t i e s - d e s c r i p t i o n s of the house or a room i n the house - p i c t u r e s of the road/house/rooms i n the house - f l o o r plans of the a t t i c / b a s e m e n t / f i r s t , second or t h i r d s t o r y (may be s c a l e drawings i f you wish to i n c l u d e some math s k i l l s ) 138 TO: A l FROM: Jea n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1983 11 17 RE: Drama A c t i v i t i e s Here are a few ideas f o r extending the work i f you f e e l you would l i k e to do so: (1) Working i n p a i r s - Students A & B work as parent and c h i l d as b e f o r e . B seeks p e r m i s s i o n from A to make the t r i p to v i s i t L a r a i n P r i n c e George and/or A helps B make plans f o r journey - Student A telephones Student B (Lara) to t e l l her of planned v i s i t - Student A buys t i c k e t ( s ) f o r the journey from Student B - Student A helps Student B who i s l o s t i n the c i t y (2) Non-Drama A c t i v i t i e s - map work - math (cost of t i c k e t s / d i s t a n c e to t r a v e l , etc.) - group s t o r y - t e l l i n g - drawing p i c t u r e s of t r a i n , e t c . - w r i t i n g l e t t e r s to Lara - l i s t jobs on the f e r r y , at the s t a t i o n and on board the t r a i n 139 (3) Whole Group Drama E x e r c i s e s - based on sound e f f e c t s and/or movements of t r a i n - based on s t o r y - t e l l i n g - based on t r a i n poem 140 TO: A2 FROM: Jea n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1983 11 22 RE: Movement Lesson I f u l l y r e a l i z e t h a t the v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s may have c r e a t e d some c o n f u s i o n . However, I d i d wish to o f f e r a number of s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r movement and drama a c t i v i t i e s , some of which would be more s u i t a b l e f o r the younger members of your c l a s s and some of which would be more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the o l d e r s t u d e n t s . H o p e f u l l y , you w i l l be able to extend some of them. 1. Tag - there are numerous v a r i a t i o n s of t h i s warm-up game. Others which might be a p p r o p r i a t e i n c l u d e "Cat and Mouse", "Wounded Tag" or "Character Tag". 2. C o n c e n t r a t i o n and Awareness - f i n d i n g , e s t a b l i s h i n g and e x p l o r i n g the space around one's s e l f i s a b a s i c s k i l l . Having c h i l d r e n do the c o n t r a c t i n g and s t r e t c h i n g w h ile making b e l i e v e t h a t they are puppets or robots allows them to p l a y as they work. Once they have mastered these types of movements, of course, they can them use them i n dramatic p l a y (e.g. r o l e - p l a y i n g or a c t i n g out a p i e c e of l i t e r a t u r e ) . 141 3. M i r r o r s - again, t h i s a c t i v i t y b u i l d s c o n c e n t r a t i o n and awareness. I t i s an e x c e l l e n t means of h e l p i n g younger students to develop p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s o c i a l s k i l l s . I t can be extended i n t o group m i r r o r s f o r movement work (with or without accompanying music) or as a p r e s e n t a t i o n method f o r i n d i v i d u a l and c h o r a l r e a d i n g s . ("Simon Says" c o u l d be used as an e x t e n s i o n to develop s k i l l s i n t h i s area.) 4. Sequencing - t h i s a c t i v i t y c o u l d have gone a l l morning as some students needed more help and p r a c t i s e to develop c o n c e n t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l and others would have been very happy to keep b u i l d i n g on the sequence t i l l , with the a d d i t i o n of s u i t a b l e music, they a c t u a l l y c r e a t e d a group dance. The step a f t e r t h i s would be , then, to have i n d i v i d u a l s ( or small groups) develop other sequences of movements and present them to the r e s t of the c l a s s . ("Go, Go, Stop" would be a u s e f u l means of d e v e l o p i n g the necessary motor c o n t r o l . 5. P h y s i c a l i z a t i o n of words - t h i s i s an e x e r c i s e t h a t can be used r e g u l a r l y with a l l l e v e l s . Extend by adding more words and by i n c o r p o r a t i n g the p h y s i c a l i z a t i o n techniques i n t o o r a l r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 142 TO: B 1 FROM: Jea n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1983 11 24 RE: Banner i n the Sky p r e - w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s I am not sure whether or not I made the r i g h t d e c i s i o n when I chose to continue with the extensions before the c l a s s had reached some l e v e l of mastery with the f i r s t steps but I t r u s t t h a t you w i l l be able to go back and recover some of the i d e a s / f e e l i n g s generated. I f I were to extend the work, I would probably proceed somewhat as f o l l o w s : (1) Developing empathy - have students d i s c u s s the f e e l i n g s t h a t one might experience i n a s i t u a t i o n such as t h a t faced by Steven Wright or Rudi Matt. ( The student may choose to empathize with the person i n t r o u b l e or with the one who performs the rescue. The d i s c u s s i o n may be w r i t t e n i n the form of a j o u r n a l e n t r y and/or presented i n an i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n or i n t e r v i e w . ) (2) Media extensions (a) working with h e a d l i n e s - most of the c l a s s found t h i s p a r t of the work d i f f i c u l t and would have been helped had I p r o v i d e d a few examples of newspaper h e a d l i n e s as models. With a l i t t l e guidance, a l l of them c o u l d c r e a t e 143 h e a d l i n e s f o r s t o r i e s about Rudi Matt and about the "heroes" t h a t they i n t e r v i e w e d . (b) w r i t i n g c a p t i o n s f o r p i c t u r e s (photographs, sketches or f r o z e n p i c t u r e s ) (c) w r i t i n g news s t o r i e s - f o r newspapers - f o r r a d i o - f o r t e l e v i s i o n (d) c r e a t i n g documentaries (using r o l e s as i n the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s ) (e) c r e a t i n g TV i n t e r v i e w s (using r o l e s ) 144 TO: CI FROM: Je a n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1983 11 30 RE: Drama - China Tour I wish t h a t I c o u l d have spent more time wi t h your c l a s s but, s i n c e t h a t was i m p o s s i b l e , I w i l l suggest some of the extensions t h a t I might have pursued. (1) Research - Ob v i o u s l y , more time i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y . One can c a p i t a l i z e on the work a l r e a d y completed and r e d i r e c t e n e r g i e s through d i s c u s s i o n and q u e s t i o n p e r i o d s ( i n or out of r o l e ) . (2) P r e s e n t a t i o n - I b e l i e v e t h i s group would be q u i t e capable of p r e s e n t i n g the r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n i n r o l e (with accompanying maps, p i c t u r e s , blackboard diagrams, e t c . ) . (3) Math - determining c o s t s (based on the newspaper ads supplied) and the d i s t a n c e s to be covered w i t h i n China. (4) Geography - naming the p r o v i n c e s to be v i s i t e d , o u t l i n i n g the r o u t e ( s ) , s t u d y i n g the s t r e e t maps of Peking and p l a n n i n g walking t o u r s . 145 (5) P r e p a r a t i o n f o r the v i s i t - d i s c o v e r i n g the necessary procedures ( a p p l y i n g f o r passp o r t s and v i s a s , r e c e i v i n g immunizations, e t c . ) . - t a l k i n g to people who have a l r e a d y t r a v e l e d i n China. - T h i s might i n v o l v e drama a c t i v i t i e s (6) V i s i t i n g China - drama a c t i v i t i e s intended to r e p l i c a t e the v i s i t promised by the " t r a v e l agent" c o u l d w e l l be the c u l m i n a t i o n of the work. ( I t might not be t h a t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d r e source people i n the community to pro v i d e you with some a u t h e n t i c Chinese food. There are a l s o a number of people who are q u i t e s k i l l e d i n the v a r i o u s m a r t i a l a r t s who c o u l d g i v e a demonstration. Some music and a few s l i d e s would make i t q u i t e a memorable make-believe experience.) I f I can he l p you i n any way with t h i s u n i t of work, or another, p l e a s e l e t me know. 146 APPENDIX D - WORKSHOP INFORMATION MEMORANDUM TO: ( ) FROM: Jea n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1983 12 04 RE: Drama Cu r r i c u l u m Meeting I would l i k e to org a n i z e a dinner meeting some time d u r i n g the week of January 23-27 and would l i k e to know which day would be most s u i t a b l e f o r everyone. I f you COULD NOT atten d from 4-7 p.m. on Tuesday, January 24, ple a s e l e t me know an a l t e r n a t e time and/or date. Since I must book the f i l m s from UBC w i t h i n the next few days, I would a p p r e c i a t e h e a r i n g from you as soon as p o s s i b l e . 147 IN AN ATTEMPT TO DRUM UP A LITTLE SUPPORT FOR THE COMPONENT OF THE NEW ELEMENTARY FINE ARTS CURRICULUM, THE FOLLOWING FILMS WILL BE SHOWN FROM 3:45 TO 6:00 P.M. ON THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 16TH AT THE RESOURCE CENTRE. ALL INTERESTED TEACHERS ARE WELCOME TO ATTEND. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT JEANETTE SCOTT AT OCEANVIEW 148 MEMORANDUM TO: ( ) FROM: Jea n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1984 03 05 Re: Drama Workshop/Class V i s i t s C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n and Dr. P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r , authors of O f f s t a g e , Elementary E d u c a t i o n Through Drama , have agreed to come to ( ) on Saturday, A p r i l 28th to do a workshop wit h i n t e r e s t e d t e a c h e r s . I f you would l i k e to p a r t i c i p a t e , or i f you know of any who might wish to take p a r t , p l e a s e l e t me know as soon as p o s s i b l e so t h a t I can apply f o r Pro-D fun d i n g . As promised, I have attached a schedule of times when I am a v a i l a b l e to v i s i t your c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h i s term. Please f e e l f r e e to c o n t a c t me with an assignment. 149 MEMORANDUM TO : ( ) FROM: Jea n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1984 04 16 RE: Drama Workshop The workshop wit h Dr. P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r and C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n , which was o r i g i n a l l y scheduled f o r A p r i l 28th, has been postponed u n t i l the end of MAy. I t w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m workshop on May 25-26. T h i s i s to be a D i s t r i c t Pro-D a c t i v i t y and the d e t a i l s are not y e t confirmed. However, i t would appear t h a t Pat and Ca r o l e w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n a l a r g e group s e s s i o n on F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n as w e l l as the small group workshop on Saturday. I hope t h a t you w i l l be able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n one or both of these s e s s i o n s . We are now i n t o the f o u r t h term and my schedule no longer permits me t o v i s i t other classrooms. However, i f I can be of any a s s i s t a n c e i n pl a n n i n g lessons or f i n d i n g m a t e r i a l s s u i t a b l e f o r drama work, ple a s e c a l l me a t school or at home any time. 150 MEMORANDUM TO: ( ) FROM: J . S c o t t 1984 05 15 RE: Drama Dr. P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r and C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n , authors of O f f s t a g e , Elementary E d u c a t i o n Through Drama (the book which, I b e l i e v e , most of you have now had a chance to use ) w i l l be conducting a workshop i n the Commons a t ( ) on Saturday, May 26. Since there has been a change i n a i r l i n e s chedules, we cannot s t a r t the s e s s i o n u n t i l 12:30. We w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , run s t r a i g h t through from 12:30 u n t i l 15:30 (with a c o f f e e / t e a break around 14:00). I am aware t h a t because of a l l of the changes of dates and because of other committments, some of you w i l l be unable to a t t e n d . However, I do look forward to seeing those of you who are able to j o i n us. I hope t h a t you w i l l a l s o encourage those of your c o l l e a g u e s who are i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g ways of u s i n g drama i n v a r i e d content areas to a t t e n d . As I mentioned a t our i n i t i a l meeting, I do hope to be i n v i t e d to your classrooms b e f o r e the end of June to see some drama work being done. Our f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s should a l s o be scheduled to c o i n c i d e w i t h these v i s i t s . I have noted below the dates and times when I am a v a i l a b l e and I would 151 a p p r e c i a t e your l e t t i n g me know, as soon as p o s s i b l e , when i t would be most convenient f o r you to see me. June 18 - 9-10 or 2-3 June 19 - 9 -2 June 20 - 11 -3 June 21 - 9 -11 June 22 - 9-3 June 25 - 9-3 June 26 - 9-3 June 27 - 9-3 APPENDIX E EVALUATION OF WORKSHOP O v e r a l l r a t i n g of workshop ( e x c e l l e n t , good, f a i r , poor) The most b e n e f i c i a l p a r t of the workshop f o r me was: The workshop would have been more s a t i s f y i n g f o r me i f : One t h i n g I learned i s : I have/have not used ideas from the workshop i n my classroom t h i s week. I have/have not shared at l e a s t one idea with a c o l l e a g u e . Other comments: 154 APPENDIX F - OBSERVATION GUIDELINES 1. Date/Place/Time/Grade l e v e l / L e n g t h of l e s s o n observed 2. What mode of dramatic a c t i v i t y took p l a c e - e x e r c i s e , dramatic p l a y i n g , t h e a t r e or a combination? 3. What was the s t a t e d purpose of the lesson? 4. Was the type of a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t e n t with t h i s o b j e c t i v e ? 5. What kinds of i n d i v i d u a l commitments were r e q u i r e d from the p u p i l s ? 6. What d e c i s i o n s were they r e q u i r e d to make? 7. What type of r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was r e q u i r e d of them? 8. What o p p o r t u n i t i e s were there f o r the n e g o t i a t i o n of meaning? 9. What kinds of i n t e r a c t i o n were s e t up? 10. What kinds of demands were made on the p u p i l s -s o c i a l l y , c o g n i t i v e l y , i m a g i n a t i v e l y , l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y ? 11. To what extent were the p u p i l s "exposed" d u r i n g the lesson? 12. What p a r t d i d " showing" p l a y i n the lesson? 13. How c h i l d - c e n t e r e d was the lesson? 14. What types of r e f l e c t i o n d i d the teacher a l l o w f o r ? 15. What standard of behavior and work d i d the teacher e s t a b l i s h and how was t h i s achieved? 16. How f a r d i d the teacher' support, extend and c h a l l e n g e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the c l a s s ? What types of l e a r n i n g r e s u l t e d from the lesson? APPENDIX G -INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (Teachers) 1. Having reviewed the l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s t h a t you s e l e c t e d i n the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n , which of these do you b e l i e v e c o u l d be achieved through the use of drama? 2. Do you t h i n k t h a t you would have h e l d t h i s view at t h a t time? (If not, what made you change your mind?) 3. Have you done any drama with your students t h i s year? a) How much? b) When? c) What type? d) Did t h i s d i f f e r from what you have done p r e v i o u s l y ? I f so, i n what way(s)? e) Could you d e s c r i b e the student response to the work? 4. Do you tend to segregate or i n t e g r a t e content areas? 5. Would you f i n d i t easy or d i f f i c u l t to use drama as a means of t e a c h i n g concepts i n v a r i o u s content areas? Which of the content areas would you be most l i k e l y to teach by u s i n g drama? 6. Which of the f o l l o w i n g d i d you f i n d most u s e f u l ? l e a s t u s e f u l ? 156 a) group meetings b) classroom v i s i t s c) O f f s t a g e d) Heathcote f i l m s e) workshop 7. Did you d i s c u s s t h i s p r o j e c t with others on your s t a f f ? w i t h others i n the d i s t r i c t ? 8. Did you share ideas f o r drama work with other teachers? 9. What would c o n s i d e r to be e f f e c t i v e p l a n f o r implementation of the f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m i n the next year? d i s t r i c t 157 APPENDIX H - INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (Senior A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) 1. Would you d e s c r i b e the r o l e t h a t you f e e l . s h o u l d be played by V i s u a l and Performing A r t s i n the elementary school? 2. Is t h i s a r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n i n Powell R i v e r at the present time with the present s t a f f i n g and the present p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e ? 3. Do you f e e l t h a t the White Paper w i l l l ead to more or l e s s emphasis on the a r t s at the elementary l e v e l ? (Perhaps as a c o u n t e r a c t i o n to the s h i f t at the upper l e v e l s ? ) 4. Do you f e e l t h a t the M i n i s t r y i s d i v o r c i n g i t s e l f from the p o s i t i o n which i t c i r c u l a t e d i n 1979 ( M i n i s t r y C i r c u l a r #82) and which l e d to the d e s i g n i n g of the new Elementary F i n e A r t s Curriculum? 5. Do you f e e l t h a t B.C. i s i n l i n e with other e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n terms of the emphasis on the V i s u a l and Performing A r t s ? 6. To what extent do you expect to see the Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m implemented i n the prov i n c e ? i n t h i s d i s t r i c t ? over the next year? two years? f i v e years? 7. What i s the c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n of the l o c a l board r e g a r d i n g the r o l e of the a r t s i n the cu r r i c u l u m ? Has i t changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y over the past two years? 158 8. Would you be prepared to support an i n - s e r v i c e programme to a s s i s t elementary teachers i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of drama as a l e a r n i n g medium i f there seemed to be s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t ? 9. I f so, to what extent would you support such a programme? If not, why not? 10. What would you wish to see i n such a programme i f i t were to be implemented? 159 APPENDIX I - INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ( P r i n c i p a l i n v o l v e d i n Young W r i t e r s P r o j e c t ) 1. To what extent has the i n n o v a t i o n has been put i n t o a c t u a l use i n the d i s t r i c t ? 2. What type of feedback have you been given? 3. Could you g i v e me an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the implementation of the p r o j e c t i n the d i s t r i c t ? 4. Have a l l of the s e s s i o n s been school-based? 5. Why i s t h i s seen as such an important s t r a t e g y ? 6. To what extent have teachers been prepared to devote a f t e r school time f o r r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i v e s e s s i o n s ? 7. Are you r e c e i v i n g r e g u l a r feedback from other schools i n the d i s t r i c t where you have o f f e r e d workshops? 8. What e f f e c t have r e g u l a r s t a f f i n g changes i n the d i s t r i c t had on the implementation? 9. How important a f a c t o r was your s t a t u s as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ? 10. What k i n d of a d v i c e would you o f f e r to someone wishing to i n t r o d u c e a s i m i l a r i n n o v a t i o n to the d i s t r i c t ? 160 APPENDIX J - INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (Chairperson of l o c a l Pro-D Committee) 1. To what extent were you as Chai r p e r s o n of Pro-D and a member of the J o i n t Management committee aware of what I was doing t h i s year? 2. Do you f e e l t h a t you should have known more about the p r o j e c t ? 3. You are aware t h a t problems have developed. Could you g i v e your p e r c e p t i o n of these problems and of t h e i r o r i g i n s ? 4. Did you have the sense t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h y was being f o i s t e d on teachers? 5. In what ways d i d the i n - s e r v i c i n g of the Young W r i t e r s P r o j e c t d i f f e r ? 6. What i s the s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d u a l teacher i n i n i t i a t i n g l o c a l i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? 7. To what extent has t h i s changed over the past ten months? 8. Would a p r e s e n t a t i o n by an i n d i v i d u a l teacher at a d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' meeting have any e f f e c t ? 9. Under what c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d Pro-D fund the type of i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s conducted as p a r t of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t ? 10. What approach would you recommend f o r l o c a l implementation p r o j e c t s ? 161 APPENDIX K - SAMPLE TRANSRIPTION T r a n s c r i p t i o n A l L o c a t i o n : A Date: 1984 06 21 1 R: A l r i g h t , i f you went back to those now, how many of those do you t h i n k you c o u l d achieve through u s i n g drama? 2 I: W e l l , c e r t a i n l y , the f i r s t p r i o r i t y , communicate e f f e c t i v e l y . J u s t going back through a l l of them? 3 R: Um hm 4 I: Yeh, and i n order of p r i o r i t y s t i l l ? 5 R: I t doesn't matter. I t doesn't matter. 6 I: Yeah, i n the drama t h a t I i n t e n d to t r y , not the drama I d i d today 7 R: In a drama. 8 I: because t h a t Heathcote idea would c e r t a i n l y do t h a t . Um hm, yes...and t h a t one... c r e a t i v i t y , awareness, awareness of each other and awareness of what they have to do, t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y (which the audience sure d i d today), s k i l l s , um hm...getting along, c e r t a i n l y , yes, the r e a l world and knowledge, um hm. 9 R: Do you t h i n k t h a t when you f i l l e d t h a t out you thought t h a t about drama? 10 I: I wasn't t h i n k i n g of drama...uh, s p e c i f i c a l l y . . . I was t h i n k i n g of g e n e r a l l y 11 R: Um hm, I know. 12 I: my g o a l s i n the classroom 162 13 R: Um hm. 14 I: but i t c e r t a i n l y would f i t drama. 15 R: Umhm. Uh, how much time have you done t h i s year? 16 I: Not much. (Laugh) 17 R: Have you done any, besides t h i s ? 18 I: Oh, yes. Uh huh, uh, j u s t small t h i n g s but I've never done t h i s same technique and I l i k e i t . 19 R: Can you t e l l me about some of the t h i n g s you do? 20 I: Um, yeah, more r o l e p l a y and s o l v i n g problem s i t u a t i o n s . You know, where the c h i l d r e n have had problems on the playground 21 R: Um hm. 22 I: and how would they, THEY , s o l v e the problem r a t h e r than me reminding them about the same r u l e s . Um, s t i c k puppets, puppet performances and a c t u a l u s i n g music and movement 23 R: Um hm. 24 I: to p o r t r a y a s t o r y t h a t they a l r e a d y know, a f a b l e , but I've never done t h i s pantomime technique b e f o r e and t h a t worked out n i c e l y . 25 R: Now, you know, I see you u s i n g your vocabulary i n the, uh, i n the e x e r c i s e . Do you tend to i n t e g r a t e s u b j e c t areas? 2 6 I: Yeah, uh huh or whatever, i n t e g r a t e whatever we've t a l k e d about whether i t was problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , you know, i t ' s , we r e c a l l i t , you know, i f i t comes up again 27 R: Uh hm 163 28 I: and i f i t ' s vocab, c e r t a i n l y , yes, because a l o t of l i k e t h a t p i c k y t h i n g l i k e Dana and Dana, t h a t was something we went over on p r o n u n c i a t i o n s . 29 R: Oh. 30 I: Hmhm. 31 R: Uh, do you f i n d p r e p a r i n g to use drama i s a l o t of work? Does i t take a l o t of time? 3 2 I: W e l l , i t was when I d i d n ' t know what I was doing, mainly, not work but, uh, not knowing, i n s e c u r e i n not knowing what's going to happen and i s i t going to be worthwhile and t h a t k i n d of t h i n g but the c h i l d r e n enjoy i t so i t doesn't r e a l l y "require much work, a c t u a l l y . Not the kin d of t h i n g I've done so f a r but the k i n d of t h i n g I want to do 33 R: Would you f i n d , would you f i n d i t easy t o , to use some of the, the techniques t h a t you say you're, you'd l i k e to t r y ? 3 4 I: Yeah, I'm j u s t concerned t h a t they hate to stop and i t would, you know, go on and on but the, uh, Mrs. Heathcote's i d e a of being able to use a l l of those w i t h i n the c l a s s f o r whatever purpose c o u l d , you know, because of the a c t i n g they c o u l d c a r r y on i n the room allowances would c e r t a i n l y be okay too. 35 R: W e l l , l e t ' s go to t h i n g s t h a t have s o r t of come out of the, uh, the p r o j e c t and the t h i n g s t h a t we've, we've done, uh, group meetings, classroom v i s i t s , t here were three classroom v i s i t s 36 I: Um hm 37 R: uh, O f f s t a g e book 38 I: Um hm 39 R: Heathcote f i l m s , Pat's workshop and I t h i n k Dorothy's workshop, as w e l l 40 I: Right, um hm, e s p e c i a l l y 41 R: Could you, c o u l d you s o r t of t e l l me what, o b v i o u s l y you found Dorothy's workshop the most v a l u a b l e 42 I: Um hm 43 R: In p r i o r i t y , what would you say the other t h i n g s might be? 44 I: Uh, P a t r i c k ' s workshop 45 R: Um hm 46 I: but a c t u a l l y i n order of the way they happened was the way i t was best f o r me because g e t t i n g t ogether, making me aware of.drama to begin w i t h was where I needed to s t a r t and the f i l m s , which was s o r t of a by-stander's view of what co u l d be done and then P a t r i c k i n t e g r a t i n g what I should be doing and can do and then a c t u a l l y s e e i n g Dorothy i n a c t i o n . Now your p a r t was the s o r t of the warming up 47 R: Um hm 48 I: which I needed, you know, to see somebody e l s e u sing MY k i d s i n my classroom s i t u a t i o n with my c u r r i c u l u m or whatever s u b j e c t I was working with and t h a t ' s the way i t works wi t h somebody who i s not f a m i l i a r w i t h drama, l i k e me. 49 R: The next two ques t i o n s I t h i n k I know the answers to but I have to be sure. Um, I'm p r e t t y sure you've d i s c u s s e d t h i s p r o j e c t w i t h other people on the s t a f f 50 I: Um hm, yes, ( ) 51 R: I a l s o have the f e e l i n g t h a t you d i s c u s s e d , d i s c u s s e d , w e l l b e s i d e s ( ) 52 I: Oh, oh I see 53 R: ( ) i s n ' t 54 I: B r i e f l y , j u s t to e x p l a i n why you were coming 55 R: Um hm, t h a t , i t was important to have ( ) or somebody e l s e on s t a f f doing i t as w e l l ? 56 I: Uh no, I probably wouldn't have t a l k e d at a l l maybe, except f o r ( ) and we were t a l k i n g about what we were doing, what have you been doing, what c o u l d you be doing and otherwise I probably would have j u s t been experimenting on my own, not t a l k i n g to anybody about i t because I LIKE the id e a of i t not being a show 57 R: Yeah, uh, uh I accept t h a t do you but what I'm, I guess, a s k i n g you i s Is t h a t whole concept of having somebody t h a t you can t a l k about 58 I: Um hm 59 R: your work with does i s t h a t a r e i n f o r c i n g t h i n g ? 60 I: Yes 61 R: Is i t h e l p f u l ? 62 I: C e r t a i n l y , um hm 63 R: Now, i n the d i s t r i c t , there were a number of other people t h a t were i n v o l v e d i n some of the t h i n g s l i k e the f i l m s and ( ) went to Vancouver wi t h us, have you, uh, and some came to the workshop. Have you t a l k e d to other 166 people i n the d i s t r i c t about what you've been doing? 64 I: Uh, onl y ( ) uh, j u s t b r i e f l y with ( ) but t h a t ' s a l l , nobody e l s e . 65 R: Thank you, w e l l 66 I: J u s t you 67 R: Now, the outcome of a l l t h i s i s o b v i o u s l y going to be some k i n d of a p l a n t h a t we can use i n the d i s t r i c t next year and uh what I would l i k e from you now uh i s anything e l s e you can t e l l me i n terms of what you t h i n k would be u s e f u l 68 I: For other people? 69 R: Um hm, f o r other teachers 70 I: In t h a t same s i t u a t i o n ? 71 R: Um hm 72 I: W e l l , I t h i n k the same step by step, you know, having t h a t happening but you want to implement i t sooner 73 R: No 74 I: Oh 75 R: No 76 1:1 t h i n k perhaps even having, you know, now t h a t ( ) and I were doing something i n the s c h o o l , you know, j u s t having somebody e l s e going i n t o another classroom and seeing i t work and what can be done i n a s h o r t time p e r i o d or whatever, the r e s u l t s . Even going to ( )'s s k i t s l a s t n i g h t at the campsite. Now t h a t was f a n t a s t i c . Now, they were planned and i t was n i c e to see how somebody e l s e has done i t and how i t ' s worked out wit h d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s so 167 I t h i n k t h a t would work 77 R: Good 78 I: w i t h i n the s c h o o l . 79 R: Um hm, okay 80 I: P a t r i c k ' s book helps but you i t ' s b e t t e r to see i t i n a c t i o n because the book perhaps doesn't mean anything u n l e s s you've seen something happening u s i n g h i s ideas 81 R: Good 82 I: Okay? 83 R: Thank you 84 I: C'est tout? 168 APPENDIX L - LETTER TO TEACHERS 1984 08 30 Dear ( ) , The r e s e a r c h work i s now completed and I would l i k e to thank you f o r having given me the o p p o r t u n i t y to work with you d u r i n g the past school year. I hope t h a t you found the a c t i v i t i e s worthwhile and t h a t you w i l l continue to experiment with Drama i n your classrooms. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , with the c o n t i n u i n g delay i n the r e l e a s e of the Elementary Fine A r t s c u r r i c u l u m , the J o i n t Management Committee has decided to r e a s s e s s i t s p r i o r i t i e s so there w i l l not be any funding a v a i l a b l e to extend the p r o j e c t t h i s f a l l . I f you f e e l t h a t you would l i k e to have more i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s i n Drama, you w i l l have to i d e n t i f y t h i s as a need w i t h i n your school or PSA. In the meantime, i f I can help you i n any way, p l e a s e c o n t a c t me. A l l the b e s t f o r 1984-85. Yours s i n c e r e l y , J e a n e t t e E. S c o t t 169 APPENDIX M - TIME LINE f t " o ; » S ? I f : 3 OS 3 J- J r * v (T> Vr iO c f 1 T i - r 170 APPENDIX N - EVALUATION QUESTIONS 1. How c r e d i b l e a source i s the author of the research? 2. How well-documented i s the study? 3. What are the p h i l o s o p h i c a l underpinnings of the i n - s e r v i c e p r o j e c t ( c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y / l e a r n i n g theory/drama t h e o r y ) ? 4. Which l o c a l t e a c h e r s were i n v o l v e d i n the case study? 5. What were the recorded responses to the i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ? 6. Can these be v e r i f i e d ? 7. What type of a c t i v i t i e s took p l a c e ? 8. Was there evidence of an i n c r e a s e i n tea c h e r s ' l e v e l s of use? 9. To what extent were other teachers i n v o l v e d ? 10. To what extent was classroom i n s t r u c t i o n a f f e c t e d ? 11. To what extent was classroom i n s t r u c t i o n improved? 12. Were communication l i n k s maintained between change agent and teachers? 13. Were communication l i n k s maintained among teachers? 14. Was th e r e adequate communication with p r i n c i p a l s and s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? 15. What c o s t s were i n c u r r e d ? 16. What are the p r o j e c t e d c o s t s ? 17. What are the p r o j e c t e d b e n e f i t s ? 18. Does the p r o j e c t respond to s p e c i f i c l o c a l needs? 

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