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Strategies for implementation of drama as a learning medium Scott, Jeanette Elynn MacArthur 1984

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STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DRAMA AS A LEARNING MEDIUM  by Jeanette  E l y n n MacArthur  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Scott  C o l u m b i a , 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE ©  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1984 Jeanette  E . M. S c o t t , 1984  Studies)  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  Of  Frliir-af-inn  (rnrriniliini  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956  Main Mall  V6T  1Y3  Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6  (3/81)  1984  10  12  and  Tnsf-rnrf i  nn)  ABSTRACT  The led  c u r r e n t movement  t o a renewal  disciplines.  this  of Education,  The this  the v i s u a l  professional  case  fine  arts  f o r selected  and p e r f o r m i n g  to foster  elementary  visits  attention  o f a number o f s t u d e n t s ,  and r e l a t e d  on t h e r o l e  r e s e a r c h on l e a r n i n g  arts.  initiated  an i n t e r e s t  teachers  to  i n the  experiment  Through a s e r i e s o f  i n education.  o f some o f t h e c u r r e n t  e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and  I t also describes the educational  o u t c o m e s o f a h y p o t h e t i c a l K-12  programme a n d d i s c u s s e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  drama i n v a r i o u s c o n t e n t  during  t e a c h e r s and  of the arts  theory,  implementation.  g o a l s and l e a r n i n g  areas of  workshops, i t f o c u s s e d t h e  T h i s paper p r o v i d e s a review  arts  students  c u r r i c u l u m and t o p r o v i d e a n  classroom  curriculum  Columbia  i n t h e amount o f i n s t r u c t i o n  t h e u s e o f drama i n t h e c l a s s r o o m .  administrators  sciences  t h a t many  development a c t i v i t i e s  s t u d y were d e s i g n e d  opportunity  a curriculum  r e c e i v e i n some o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  particularly  new e l e m e n t a r y  with  however, suggest  p r o v i n c e may be l i m i t e d  to provide  of the a r t s ,  R e c e n t moves b y t h e B r i t i s h  which they w i l l study,  to experience  a basic understanding  humanities.  Ministry  i n t h e academic and a e s t h e t i c  f o r a l l students  which develops  in  of i n t e r e s t  Many a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s a r e s t r i v i n g  opportunities  and  towards e x c e l l e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n has  areas.  dramatic  of t h e use of  The  study  intervention researcher  concentrates  and p e r s o n a l communication  classroom-based between t h e  a n d e a c h o f t h e t e a c h e r s a s means o f i n t r o d u c i n g  drama a s a l e a r n i n g  medium. T e a c h e r  observations provide determine  on t h e u s e o f  shifts  i n t e r v i e w s and  classroom  t h e d a t a w h i c h were a n a l y z e d t o  i n teachers' stages  of concern  and  levels  of use o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n . T h i s a n a l y s i s  reaffirms the  importance  strategies  of developing  implementation  the needs o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l that  teacher's classroom.  making p r o v i s i o n interaction.  Further  teacher within the context of  It illustrates  f o r modelling,  I t also  identifies  r e s e a r c h i s needed  testing,  the importance feedback  t o determine  with  firmly  iii  and  the e f f e c t s of  model a s i t w o u l d be a p p l i e d w i t h i n a s i n g l e district  of  some o f t h e p i t f a l l s .  this  committed  t h a t meet  support.  school  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  L I S T OF FIGURES  v i i  L I S T OF TABLES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  CHAPTER I .  CHAPTER  ix  THE PROBLEM  1.1  Introduction  1  1.2  Rationale  1  1.3  Purpose-of  t h e Study  3  1.4  Definition  o f Terms  4  1.5  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study  II.  f o r the Study  RELATED THEORY AND  9  RESEARCH  11.1  The P u r p o s e o f S c h o o l s  10  11.2  The L e a r n i n g  16  11.3  Drama and L e a r n i n g  20  II. 4  Drama i n t h e C u r r i c u l u m  27  II. 5  Pedagogical  42  II.6  Intervention Strategies  iv  Process  Implications  44  CHAPTER I I I .  IV.  V.  DESIGN OF THE STUDY  III.l  Nature o f the Study  III.l  Identification  III. 2  Procedures  DATA ANALYSIS AND  '  of Teacher Population  47 ...  48 50  FINDINGS  IV. 1  Analysis of Classroom Observations  60  IV.2  A n a l y s i s o f Workshop A c t i v i t i e s  65  IV.3  A n a l y s i s of Teacher  67  IV.4  S t a g e s o f C o n c e r n and L e v e l s  IV. 4  Additional Findings  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND  Interviews o f Use  79 84  IMPLICATIONS  V. l  Summary  92  V.2  Conclusions  94  V.3  Evaluation  V.4  Implications for  102 and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  further research  BIBLIOGRAPHY  106  10 8  v  APPENDIX A  INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  116  APPENDIX B  DEMONSTRATION LESSONS  118  APPENDIX C  FOLLOW-UP MEMORANDA  136  APPENDIX D  PRO-D WORKSHOP INFORMATION  146  APPENDIX E  WORKSHOP EVALUATION FORM  153  APPENDIX F  OBSERVATION  154  APPENDIX G  INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  155  APPENDIX H  INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  157  APPENDIX  I  INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  159  APPENDIX J  INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  160  APPENDIX K  SAMPLE  161  APPENDIX L  LETTER TO TEACHERS  168  APPENDIX M  TIME LINE  169  APPENDIX N  EVALUATION QUESTIONS  170  GUIDELINES  INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT  vi  L I S T OF TABLES  1. L e a r n i n g Outcomes o f Drama A c t i v i t y  as R e l a t e d  to Goals o f the Core C u r r i c u l u m 2. A r e a s and L e v e l s  28  of Mastery of  Dramatic Performance  35  3. A r e a s and L e v e l s o f M a s t e r y  of P e r c i p i e n t  36  4. A r e a s and L e v e l s  of Theatre C r a f t s  37  of Mastery  5. S c o p e and S e q u e n c e o f E l e m e n t a r y Drama 6. L e a r n i n g O b j e c t i v e s Classified  as I d e n t i f i e d and  by S e l e c t e d  7. T e a c h i n g S t r a t e g i e s  Elementary  as I d e n t i f i e d  Teachers  8. P r e v i o u s Use o f Drama by S e l e c t e d  52  by  Selected Elementary Teachers  9. Summary  38  53 Teachers  54  of Teacher E v a l u a t i o n of  Drama Workshop  66  vii  LIST  OF FIGURES  1. A C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  o f t h e Continuum  o f Drama A c t i v i t i e s  22  2. A P r o j e c t i o n o f B e h a v i o r a l  and  Changes o f T e a c h e r s as P e r c e i v e d  Attitudinal at the  B e g i n n i n g and a t t h e End o f t h e Pre-Implementation  Pilot  viii  Study  82  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would  like  t o t h a n k t h e members o f f a c u l t y who s e r v e d  on my c o m m i t t e e . I w o u l d a l s o  like  a p p r e c i a t i o n t o B e v e r l e y Buchanan their  support  achieved,  t o express  my  and P a u l i n e G a l i n s k i f o r  and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . L i t t l e w o u l d have  however,  without  the interest  been  and e n t h u s i a s m o f  the  t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s who were i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t  and  I t h a n k them  Especially their  for their  co-operation.  I w i s h t o thank B a r r y ,  p a t i e n c e and f o r t h e i r  ix  love.  S i n e and F r a n c i s f o r  1  Chapter I  THE  1.1  Introduction  The has  PROBLEM  British  Columbia government's  1983 r e s t r a i n t  l e d t o a number o f c h a n g e s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  the p r o v i n c i a l ,  as w e l l  changes i s a r e d u c t i o n  as a t t h e l o c a l  level.  i n services provided  I m p l e m e n t a t i o n B r a n c h . W i t h new c u r r i c u l a it  appears t h a t  suitable,  individual  districts  budget  system a t  One o f  these  by t h e P r o g r a m  still  will.have  forthcoming, to find  a l t e r n a t i v e means o f i n t r o d u c i n g t h e i n n o v a t i o n s  into the schools.  1.2  The R a t i o n a l e  f o r the Study  One o f t h e p r o p o s e d c u r r i c u l u m introduction of a f i n e  changes i s t h e  a r t s programme a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y  school  l e v e l . While the p u b l i c a t i o n date f o r the curriculum  guides  and r e s o u r c e  the  schedule  books has been postponed  f o r implementation of t h i s  several  programme  times,  continues  t o i n d i c a t e t h a t o p t i o n a l u s e i s a n t i c i p a t e d by September; 1984.  The p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d  by t h i s  compounded by an e x p e c t a t i o n  delay  have b e e n  that the various  components o f  2  this  new  curriculum w i l l  be  t a u g h t by  non-specialist  teachers.  It  seemed a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e n ,  on p r o f e s s i o n a l  that  development a c t i v i t i e s  component o f t h i s  c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d be  1983-84 s c h o o l y e a r . I f s u b s e q u e n t the i n t e r v e n t i o n activities of  had  applied  a district-wide  suggests viewed  relating  evaluation  that  and  1980;  indicated  1980).  The  implementation  of i n t e r n a l  1978;  Joyce  importance  and  k n o w l e d g e and schools  1984;  Olson,  also establishes  change a g e n t s  thus  level  mediate  (Fullan,  the  Werner,  the importance  and  trials  the  T e a c h e r / l e a r n e r s must  Tye,  the  McLaughlin,  I t also confirms  S h a l a w a y , 1981;  of  in-service  experiences i n order to e f f e c t  1979;  be  (Buchanan,  1980;  f o r demonstrations  interaction.  should  teacher at  to develop on-going,  Showers, 1 9 8 0 ) .  of peer  case  implementation  s i m u l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s (Berman and  and  use  programme.  than a t the system  programmes w i t h p r o v i s i o n s under r e a l  of  f o r the  change o c c u r s , and  Goodlad,  literature  that  t o o t h e r components o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m  rather  1982;  d u r i n g the  a change i n t e a c h e r s ' l e v e l s  measured, w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l  Fullan,  one  as e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e s e  instructional  level,  focussing  to  conducted  r e s e a r c h i n the area of c u r r i c u l u m  classroom  in  study  t h e i n n o v a t i o n , t h e n t h e d e s i g n model u s e d  Recent  use  strategies  fostered  s t u d y c o u l d be in  a case  1984).  share changes  The  f a c t o r s w h i c h were i d e n t i f i e d  which p r o v i d e d the b a s i s strategies  used  participation  selected  t h e change a g e n t , demonstration  literature  f o r the development of  during this  by  i n the  intervention  case study i n c l u d e d : v o l u n t a r y  t e a c h e r s , use  introduction  of  of a peer  teacher  teachers, organization  and  each  as  classroom-based  l e s s o n s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of communication  between t h e change a g e n t  and  of the  links  participating  o f f o r m a l w o r k s h o p s and i n f o r m a l  meetings.  I.3  The  Purpose  This case strategies initiate  of the  s t u d y was  designed to i d e n t i f y  The  the c o n s t r a i n t s  a r e as  1. W i l l  the i n t r o d u c t i o n lead  o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y and to a s i g n i f i c a n t  s t a g e s o f c o n c e r n and  time  of a  classroom  designed  to  follows:  a drama programme  given  of r e g u l a r  q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h was  address  1  teachers to  change i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  drama programme w i t h i n  teachers  intervention  t h a t would m o t i v a t e n o n - s p e c i a l i s t  instructional  teaching.  Study  levels  frame?  2. What f a c t o r s  seem t o i n h i b i t  change?  structures  shift  of  in  of use w i t h i n  the  4 3. What f a c t o r s seem t o f o s t e r c h a n g e ?  4. What t y p e s teachers the  1.4  of  and  by  adoption  agent p l a y s project  administrators  of the  Definition  Change a g e n t  i n t e r v e n t i o n a r e v i e w e d by  of  : For  as  the  purposes of t h i s  study,  resource guest  linker,  the  information  teacher,  helping  : A d e p i c t i o n i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n which  form t o focus  on  a theme o r a  : This  segment o f  the  Innovation  : This  situation.  is a theatrical  utilizes  concept.  t a k i n g on  than o n e s e l f , or a c t i n g or  source,  evaluator.  Drama : Drama i s m a k i n g - b e l i e v e , o r  time, place  change  teacher,  Depiction  'Enactment  to  researcher,  i n t e r v i e w e r and  particular  lead  innovation?  observer,  someone o t h e r  to  Terms  workshop f a c i l i t a t o r ,  theatre  selected  most l i k e l y  a v a r i e t y of r o l e s i n c l u d i n g :  developer,  the  as See  if  an  a t t i t u d e of  one  were i n a  Figure  presentation  1.  of a s e l e c t e d  drama.  term r e f e r s t o a p r o j e c t or program  r e q u i r e s a change i n t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e .  that  5  Implementation innovative  : Implementation  instrument  Intervention  : This  i s the process  of schooling  o f p u t t i n g an  i n t o a c t u a l use.  i s an a c t i o n u s e d t o b r i d g e  t h e gap  between p r e s e n t  p r a c t i c e and p r a c t i c e as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n  the  I t may be any e x t e r n a l a c t i o n whose  is  innovation.  t o a c t u a l l y b r i n g the innovation  purpose  i n t o the context  of the  classroom.  Levels  o f use : These a r e stages  innovations. of  of behavior  The s c a l e u s e d f o r t h i s  study  t h e framework d e v e l o p e d by Gene H a l l  the  U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas  the  purposes of t h i s  follows: Level Partial Use,  study,  i s an  the l e v e l s w i l l  1975). F o r  be d e f i n e d  4 -  5 - Refinement.  : This  i s a role  o f k n o w l e d g e and  on t h e s t u d e n t  teacher-in-role.  that the teacher  To t h e e x t e n t  by t h e  the make-believe e x p e r t i s e of the students, of the t r a d i t i o n a l  Meta-cognition It  2 -  Integrated  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which i s p l a c e d  reversal  as  1- O r i e n t a t i o n , L e v e l  3 - R e g u l a r Use, L e v e l  Mantle of the expert  use  adaptation  and S u s a n L o u c k s a t  Loucks, e t . a l . ,  0 - Non-Use, L e v e l  Use, L e v e l  Level  (Hall,  of users of  : This  i s the c a p a b i l i t y  teacher-student  agrees to there  is a  roles.  i s t h e a c t o f knowing t h a t one knows. of accessing  information  stored i n  6  memory.  Negotiation  o f meaning  : This  obtained  i n one c o n t e x t  Piaget's  term, accomodation  variability,  Negotiation cultural who work  to a d i f f e r e n t context.  , n e g o t i a t i o n o f meaning  implies  o f meaning by a  group, such as a group o f students  and t h e t e a c h e r  meaning  together.  : The noun, n e t w o r k , d e n o t e s t h e c o n c e p t o f  notion  l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b u t i t does n o t e x p r e s s  that the existence  upon an o n - g o i n g p r o c e s s . the establishment  structure  Like  g r o w t h and c h a n g e .  o f shared  intersecting  in  meaning  : Negotiation  Networking  the  i s the a c t of applying  of t h i s  This process  system i s dependent of personal  and m a i n t e n a n c e o f an i n t e r a c t i v e  i s i m p l i e d by t h e r e c e n t l y - c o i n e d  networking. Networking techniques  terminology  verb,  a r e c u r r e n t l y u s e d by many  g r o u p s t o e n c o u r a g e change and t o p r o v i d e members. I t s h o u l d  sharing  support  for its  be n o t e d , however, t h a t w h i l e t h e  i s new, t h i s method o f e m p l o y i n g  non-institutional,  i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication  change i s a s o l d a s b u s i n e s s  Realms o f M e a n i n g interpretation  t r a n s a c t i o n s and p a r t i s a n s h i p .  : P h i l i p Phenix s  and s y n t h e s i s  to foster  1  paradigm  f o r the  o f knowledge i n c l u d e s t h e  7  following  realms: symbolics  (language,  n o n - d i s c u r s i v e communication), sciences), aesthetics knowledge),  Ritual  ethics  (arts),  mathematics,  empirics  (natural  synnoetics  and s y n o p t i c s  and s o c i a l  (personal  (integrating  disciplines).  : A s y m b o l i c a c t o r ceremony b a s e d on p r i m o r d i a l  mythology.  Some r i t u a l s  significance  have a c q u i r e d  overt  cultural  through r e p e t i t i o n w h i l e o t h e r s remain  i n what  Jung d e s c r i b e s as t h e c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s .  Schema might  : The schema i s a s t o r a g e u n i t c o n c e i v e o f t h e schema as a f i l e  i n one's which  memory. One  contains  knowledge a b o u t a c o n c e p t .  Schemata filing  Sign  : The p l u r a l  system o r s c a f f o l d i n g  : A sign  communication. it  f o r m o f schema and ,hence,  would  i n c l u d e body  and u s e o f v e r b a l drama s i t u a t i o n , placement  f o r storage of information.  i s any i n t e n t i o n a l , As a p p l i e d  or unintentional,  to the regular  language, v o c a l  and v i s u a l i t would  means o f  classroom teacher,  dynamics,  use o f space  e x p r e s s i o n . As a p p l i e d  also  and u s e o f o b j e c t s  the t o t a l  include physical  in a  contact,  and t h e u s e s o f l i g h t ,  sound,  movement and s t i l l n e s s .  Stages of Concern  : These  a r e s t a g e s o f t h e u s e r ' s knowledge  8  o f an  innovation. This  University  o f T e x a s model  Rutherford,  interested,  Stakeholders  Sharing,  : The  stakeholders  stakeholders  other educators,  See  : Theatre  presented Figure  1.  such  including  as  and  are  stages  u n c o n c e r n e d , Unaware  or  those  but  Experimental,  individuals  indirect  students,  right  to  or be  These i n c l u d e teachers,  t r u s t e e s as w e l l as  taxpayers,  graduates,  politicians,  secondary employers,  etc.  i s drama as  i n the  the  Renewal.  have d i r e c t  parents  the  1977;  study,  i n educational decision-making.  administrators,  be  Loucks,  Exploratory, T r i a l ,  stakeholders  g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y who  Theatre  1974;  f o l l o w s : Unaware and  Previewing,  Collaborative,  primary  (Hall,  a d a p t a t i o n of  1978) . F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s  a r e d e f i n e d as  involved  s c a l e i s a l s o an  shown t o an  audience.  f o r m o f a d e p i c t i o n o r o f an  It  may  enactment.  9  1.5  L i m i t a t i o n s of  The limited  first  The one be  Study  limitation  population.  representative larger  the  of  of  The  the  results,  i s that  therefore,  i t deals may  r e s p o n s e s t h a t w o u l d be  second  limitation  year.  The  i s that  shift  significantly different  formal  study  not  with  a  with  a  be  evident  sample.  school  The  the  third  limitation  assessment of  teacher's  level  over a  i s t h a t no  of  study  i n teachers'  student  o f use  the  the  is restricted  levels  longer  o f use  period  p r o v i s i o n was  l e a r n i n g as innovation.  of  to  might  time.  made f o r a  i t r e l a t e d to  the  10 Chapter II  RELATED THEORY AND  II.I  The P u r p o s e o f  RESEARCH  Schools  Many o f t h e c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l  decisions  regarding  curriculum  development, c u r r i c u l u m  implementation,  provincial  l e a r n i n g assessment, secondary school  graduation  r e q u i r e m e n t s and b u d g e t r e s t r i c t i o n s  are d i r e c t l y  the  programs i n t h e U n i t e d  evaluation of schools  and s c h o o l  States. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e evaluation reasons.  i s particularly  pertinent to this  interest  goals  i n the r o l e  Schools educating  f o r two  two f u n c t i o n s  and t h a t o f s o c i a l i z i n g  goal  n e i t h e r of these  f o r schools, functions  can begin  are designed  i n s o c i e t y : that of  o u r young p e o p l e .  i s an e x p e c t e d , John Goodlad  i s being  system of e d u c a t i o n . schools  of  of the arts i n education.  p r e s e n t l y serve  appropriate,  they  study  but also i t reveals a heightening  recognizing that the l a t t e r  unless  this  Not o n l y does i t i n d i c a t e a renewal o f c o n c e r n f o r  sound e d u c a t i o n a l  present  emerging from  related to  served  In f a c t ,  to deliver  While  i f n o t a l w a y s an tells very  us t h a t  w e l l by t h e  he s u g g e s t s  that  the s e r v i c e s f o r which  t h e n we m i g h t a s w e l l n o t have  them.  11 We (must) come t o r e a l i z e t h a t s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t which promotes s u c c e s s f u l problem s o l v i n g , s e n s i t i v e human r e l a t i o n s , s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f o n e ' s t o t a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . . . we do n o t need s c h o o l s t o d a y , i n o u r k i n d o f s o c i e t y , i f t h e i r s o l e o r even prime t a s k i s t e a c h i n g t h e b a s i c s , d e f i n e d a s t h e t h r e e Rs. ( G o o d l a d , 1979, pp.108-109)  The  goals which Goodlad a r t i c u l a t e s  that d i f f e r e n t thirty basic  years  and  ago ( T y l e r ,  skills,  as c r e a t i v e Broudy  emphasis and  The  and o f  curriculum  skills,  skills.  Goodlad a l s o  messages o f  a development o f  L i k e Phenix  suggests  as  (1964)  that considerable ethical,  A Study o f S c h o o l i n g  The P a i d e a i P r o p o s a l i f not a r e i t e r a t i o n , which has e v o l v e d  t h e s c h o o l and s o c i e t y t h e Woods H o l e  with  over  1 9 4 9 ) . They i n c l u d e a m a s t e r y o f  and a e s t h e t i c  thought  emotional  o f much o f t h e from  Dewey's s t u d y o f  of the century.  g r o u p and t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l i s t s  n o t s o much w i t h  i t s quality,  tell  taught.  Like  of the  us t h a t we  should  the quantity of learning but  n o t w i t h what i s b e i n g  w i t h how i t i s b e i n g  (Goodlad,  ( A d l e r , 1982) p r o v i d e a  a t the beginning  the contemporary t h e o r i s t s  concerned  Tyler  development of t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  central  sixties,  by R a l p h  s h o u l d be p l a c e d on t h e m o r a l ,  reinforcement,  be  formulated  e n c u l t u r a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s  (1981),  physical  1984)  those  c o m m u n i c a t i o n and c o m p u t a t i o n  thinking well  from  f o r us a r e n o t a l l  taught,  but rather  12  The first  i r o n y of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s three-dimensional. dimension, there  education to  be  for their  of b a s i c  skills.  not  y e t been s u f f i c i e n t  the  e s s e n t i a l question  The Broudy  c o n c e r n f o r the  consider  education action  not  continue  to d e l i v e r c e r t a i n  "only  (p.22).  of  the  an  ignorance  b a s i c s i s not  has  to  a f u n d a m e n t a l component o f  f o r the  where, i n f a c t ,  impending, o p p o s i t i o n  one's  visual  In areas  taken  and  where  further cuts i s being  As  those  a u t h o r i t i e s have a l r e a d y  curriculum.  of Ontario's  new.  of h i s t o r y "  What i s e n c o u r a g i n g  a more c e n t r a l r o l e  Andrew L i p c h a k  schools  i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e r e  teaching  a r t s w i t h i n the  programmes a r e  the  w h i c h i s : What i s b a s i c ?  a r t s as  o c c u r r i n g but  Recreation  Yet,  i s t h a t some s c h o o l  to secure  performing is  the  failure  of  the  p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t e d towards  (1978) r e m i n d s u s ,  w o u l d make i t seem so who  public criticism  system. Throughout North America,  criticized  standards  i s the  In  this  in arts  voiced.  M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e  and  states:  T h e r e i s l i t t l e w h i c h i s more " b a s i c " t o e d u c a t i o n , however, t h a n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e n s e s , v e r b a l s k i l l s , c r i t i c a l r e a s o n i n g and p h y s i c a l d e x t e r i t y . The a r t s r e p r e s e n t the b a s i c l e a r n i n g t o o l s which i n c r e a s e a c h i l d ' s a w a r e n e s s o f h i s o r h e r w o r l d and t h e a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h i t p h y s i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . ( L i p c h a k , 1981, p.24)  The  A r t s are  curriculum  not  options.  Their  " i s a matter both of  inclusion  logical  in  the  necessity  . . .  and  13  moral n e c e s s i t y , " by  the  Calouste  current  the  in this  the  as  a need f o r an work has  Madeja,1978; S t a k e ,  bring  improvement o f Project  to w r i t i n g  The  as  the  maxim, " P l u s  the ca  anything  painstakingly past  change, p l u s  say,  c'est  "The  from  Huntington has  to  Beach  brought  from the  evaluated  work o f  fact  that  captured  in  l a meme c h o s e " ,  more we  more t h e y r e m a i n t h e  decade, i t i s t h a t  The  offered  Southern  i n Werner e t . a l , 1983)  the  context  assume t h a t same." I f we  t h o s e who  have  of  the  things have  so  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n programmes d u r i n g  the  an  as  innovation  h a v i n g b e e n i n e f f e c t u a l i f i t has use.  In-service  i s being  s e c o n d d i m e n s i o n m i g h t be  system t o  changing, the  learned  Eisner,  much i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n the  of  been  1982;  1975).  t h o u g h i t i s p r o b a b l y more c o r r e c t w i t h i n  are  to  programmes.  i r o n y of  educational  p.3).  n e t w o r k w h i c h emerges  a r t s programmes as  (Cross  Britain  assessment  already  (Cook,1982; C o u r t n e y ,  I t i s hoped t h a t  nucleus w i l l  in  ( B y r o n , 1982,  Geddy F o u n d a t i o n ' s Summer I n s t i t u t e i n  Writing  the  area  prepared  i n d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d a r t education  California. this  report  a need f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h  p r e m i s e as w e l l  Hausman, 1980;  training by  is still  programmes, some v a l u a b l e  completed 1978;  a recent  Gulbenkian Foundation  While there support t h i s  states  many o f  the  not  c a n n o t be been put  curriculum  assessed into  changes of  actual the  14  sixties  and  s e v e n t i e s d i d not  differences having  i n l e a r n i n g outcomes may  be  may  implemented this  be  a result  (Fullan, i s not  1982;  we  third  having  on  not  Goodlad,  1 9 8 4 ) . Whatever  i s the  are c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v i n g i s both  been  other  fully the the  eighties.  i r o n y t h a t t h e message w h i c h  f r o m t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e a recapitulation  r e p l a y of the r a d i c a l  Brazilian  idealizes  of  the process  their  the  argument enough t o deny s t u d e n t s  dimension  American e d u c a t o r s  but,  of  of t h e i r  o p p o r t u n i t y o f some b a s i c c h a n g e s i n t h e  In the  significant  a result  been i n a p p r o p r i a t e or i n e f f e c t u a l ,  hand, t h i s  case,  p r o d u c e any  exile,  Paulo  o f P l a t o and Freire.  a  Plato  education:  C e r t a i n p r o f e s s o r s o f e d u c a t i o n must be wrong when they say t h a t they can put a knowledge i n t o the s o u l w h i c h was n o t t h e r e b e f o r e , l i k e s i g h t i n t o b l i n d e y e s . . . o u r argument shows t h a t t h e power and c a p a c i t y o f l e a r n i n g e x i s t s i n t h e s o u l a l r e a d y ; and t h a t j u s t as t h e eye was u n a b l e t o t u r n f r o m d a r k n e s s t o l i g h t w i t h o u t t h e w h o l e body, so t o o t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f knowledge c a n o n l y by t h e movement o f t h e w h o l e s o u l be t u r n e d f r o m t h e w o r l d o f b e c o m i n g i n t o t h a t o f being.  F r e i r e views t h i s  process  in political  that d i d a c t i c i s m breeds oppression while freedom from  t e r m s . He dialectic  believes leads  oppression.  In the banking c o n c e p t of e d u c a t i o n , knowledge i s a g i f t b e s t o w e d by t h o s e who c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s k n o w l e d g e a b l e upon t h o s e whom t h e y c o n s i d e r t o know n o t h i n g . P r o j e c t i n g an a b s o l u t e i g n o r a n c e o n t o o t h e r s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i d e o l o g y of o p p r e s s i o n ,  to  15  negates education inquiry.  and knowledge (Freire,  Freire  describes  "suffering that  from  schools  upon  interactive  in  than  with  so d o i n g ,  Whether argument the  that  transform  accepts  or that  same.  model,  things will  will  one  believe that  essential  into  and F r e i r e ,  process  o f g a i n i n g knowledge  they  II.2  In must  may  our  a pedagogy  that  i s  order have  and,  appears  t o be  of the innovations which be  i n keeping  which,  i s to assist  according  young  people  with  the  to Adler,  i n their  and d i s c o v e r i n g meaning manner  one  to their  so  that  society.  Process  to develop  models  people  the individual  the challenge  c o n t r i b u t e i n a worthwhile  The L e a r n i n g  with  based  of the conservative  should  of education  Goodlad  than  society.  of the r a d i c a l ,  purpose  says  rather  challenge  the logic  the schools  as  Goodlad  i s concerned  The e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s  introduces  system  (p.57).  "our shortcomings  Both  of  p.58)  the current educational  reflect  (p.123).  rather  1983,  narration sickness"  ideals" an  as p r o c e s s e s  theories of the world,  of the world.  conceptual  framework,  ideational  scaffolding.  These  models  the learner  are the  t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and the They  a r e t h e schemata,  the  16 f u n d a m e n t a l e l e m e n t s o f w h i c h a r e t h e schema. A c c o r d i n g t o David  Rumelhart, t h e schemata a r e :  the b u i l d i n g b l o c k s o f c o g n i t i o n . T h e y a r e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e l e m e n t s upon w h i c h a l l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g d e p e n d s . Schemata a r e employed i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g sensory d a t a (both l i n g u i s t i c and n o n l i n g u i s t i c ) , i n r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m memory, i n o r g a n i z i n g a c t i o n s , i n d e t e r m i n i n g g o a l s and s u b g o a l s , i n a l l o c a t i n g r e s o u r c e s and g e n e r a l l y g u i d i n g t h e f l o w o f p r o c e s s i n g i n t h e system. ( R u m e l h a r t , 1981, p.4)  T h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n a s t o t h e d e g r e e o f c o m p l e x i t y o f the i n t u i t i v e information research  schema n e t w o r k . We do n o t know how much  i s enfolded i n the b r a i n a t b i r t h .  suggests  that just  hologram o f t h e whole b r a i n , the whole e a r t h learning process exposure, is and  as each p a r t o f t h e b r a i n so e a c h b r a i n  1971) . I f t h i s  other  interaction  i s t r u e , then the  individuals,  then  learner  as she i n t e r a c t s w i t h  nature  the information enfolded i n her and u n f o l d e d . What i s i m p o r t a n t  discussion i s not the v a l i d i t y  notion but the relevance of the concept enfolded  i s a hologram of  and f o c u s . As t h e i n d i v i d u a l  i s focused, c l a r i f i e d  this  isa  i s b e s t e x p l a i n e d as t h e p r o c e s s o f  e x p o s e d t o i d e a s and e v e n t s ,  brain in  (Pribram,  Some b r a i n  o f the hologram of unfolding  knowledge.  We w a l k e d down t h e p a t h t o t h e w e l l house a t t r a c t e d by t h e f r a g r a n c e o f t h e h o n e y s u c k l e w i t h w h i c h i t was c o v e r e d . Someone was d r a w i n g w a t e r and my t e a c h e r p l a c e d my hand u n d e r t h e s p o u t . As t h e c o o l s t r e a m gushed o v e r one hand s h e s p e l l e d i n t o t h e o t h e r t h e word w a t e r , f i r s t s l o w l y , t h e n r a p i d l y . I s t o o d s t i l l , my w h o l e a t t e n t i o n f i x e d upon t h e m o t i o n s o f h e r  17  fingers. Suddenly I f e l t a m i s t y c o n s c i o u s n e s s as of something f o r g o t t e n [emphasis added] - a t h r i l l o f r e t u r n i n g t h o u g h t ; and somehow t h e m y s t e r y o f l a n g u a g e was r e v e a l e d t o me. I knew t h e n t h a t " w - a - t - e - r " was t h e w o n d e r f u l c o o l s o m e t h i n g t h a t was f l o w i n g o v e r my hand. T h a t l i v i n g word awakened my s o u l , g a v e i t l i g h t , hope, joy, s e t i t f r e e ! (Keller,  1958, p.28)  Helen K e l l e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n  of the unfolding  of enfolded  knowledge p r o v i d e s us w i t h a p o w e r f u l example o f what D a v i d Bohm  (1978) r e f e r s  t o as r a t i o n a l  provided her with the i n s i g h t ,  insight.  the r a t i o n a l  n o t make s e n s e . She d i d n o t s e e t h a t between t h e s y m b o l , fingers,  that  and t h e r e a l i t y .  process of r a t i o n a l  insight  that  the senses  information d i d  t h e r e was a c o n n e c t i o n  i s t h e motions Once K e l l e r  Until  of the teacher's  realized  by t h e  e v e r y t h i n g h a s a name t h e n  she became aware o f a v e r y complex schema n e t w o r k and h e n c e , capable of organizing  i d e a s and g e n e r a t i n g f u r t h e r  ( B r u n e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . How much o f H e l e n K e l l e r ' s with  memorial  learning network  i t s sub-schema, s c h e m a t a and s u b - s c h e m a t a was p r e s e n t  when s h e was b o r n and how much o f i t e n f o l d e d i n t h o s e years b e f o r e Annie under is  Sullivan,  i n desperation, forced  dark  h e r hand  t h e s p o u t c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d . What c a n be d e t e r m i n e d  the importance  the development she h a d s t o r e d  of the experience of r a t i o n a l  insight i n  o f h e r awareness o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n which i n memory and o f h e r a b i l i t y  communicate t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n .  t o a c c e s s and  18 It  i s this  a w a r e n e s s and a b i l i t y t o w h i c h we p r e s e n t l y  a p p l y t h e term  metacognition  (Brown,  l e a r n e r knows what she knows, t h e n knowledge. learning  1982). U n t i l  she c a n n o t  make u s e o f  I f the l e a r n e r i s not provided with  experiences,  she w i l l  not develop  the  the  suitable metacognitive  a w a r e n e s s o f what i t i s t h a t she knows.  The H e l e n learning  Keller  experience  story  illustrates  the importance  i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n and  metacognition.  The e x p e r i e n c e  intellectually  r e c o g n i z i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p  with  the r e a l i t y  i s a catalyst  of sensing the r e a l i t y  sufficient  amount o f s t o r e d k n o w l e d g e . Y e t t h i s initial  The  l e a r n e r must t h e new  the sub-process  plays with model  and  o f t h e symbol  to unlock  experience  a vast  i s only  an  step i n the process.  synthesize is  of the  t h e new  of the world,  dialectic,  both  F o r example, read aloud  information with  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  existing  knowledge.  This  o f n e g o t i a t i o n o f meaning. The l e a r n e r concept  t o d i s c o v e r how  then  the  through  the concept  i t fits  i n t o her  action-reflection  and t h e model  a r e changed.  l e t us assume t h a t t h e l e a r n e r h e a r s  i n class  emotionally,  a l s o be p r o v i d e d w i t h  and f i n d s  intellectually experience  t h e work t o be  a poem  aesthetically,  and s p i r i t u a l l y p l e a s i n g . The  initial  learning  will  p r o v i d e a broad  between  t h e e x t e r n a l body o f knowledge  and t h e  interface  internal  19  schema the  s t r u c t u r e . However, i t w i l l  l e a r n e r ' s model o f t h e w o r l d  relationship  between t h i s new  n o t be i n t e g r a t e d  until  into  she d e t e r m i n e s a  information  and t h e e x i s t i n g  k n o w l e d g e . T h u s , t h e meaning o f t h e poem i s n e g o t i a t e d the  l e a r n e r ' s model o f t h e w o r l d  i s renegotiated.  and  20  II.3  Drama and  Learning  A knowledge of s t r u c t u r e and For  the  drama i m p l i e s  the  h i s t o r y of  an  theatre  p e r f o r m e r , knowledge of  ; of mastery of including  the  basic  those of  presentationi  For  understanding of the  elements of  the  c r e a t i o n , and  skills  s p e e c h and others,  the  and  and  production  the  drama a l s o of  the  movement, o f  l e v e l s of the of  be  of  the  dramatic  implies  dramatic  k n o w l e d g e may  various  theatre  understanding  a  arts. degree  arts,  creation confined  dramatic  and to  activity  craftsmanship:involved good  an ,  in  theatre.  A l l the world's a stage And a l l t h e men and women m e r e l y P l a y e r s ; They h a v e t h e i r e x i t s and t h e i r entrances, And one man i n h i s t i m e p l a y s many p a r t s . . . Shakespeare,  In h i s p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of S h a k e s p e a r e r e m i n d s us dramatic various  activities,  individuals  and  t h a t we  need t h e  isolate  and  the  t h a t we  are  imposition  of  form of  play  or  daily  lives.  are  activity  implications.  so  immersed  a structure  k n o w l e d g e i f we  dramatic  metaphor, involved  assume i n o u r we  and  Like It , 140-43  constantly  i n the  a species,  s o r t our  nature of  educational  as  Pythagorus'  whether  r o l e s w h i c h we  As You 11,7:  are  in  to  the  As i n drama  i n t o which  fully  in  to  understand  i t s psychological  and  21  Drama, i n t h e f o r m o f m i m e t i c a c t i o n and p l a y , t o be t h e e a r l i e s t individual 1974).  (Esslin,  creative  1968; P h e n i x , and p l a y , a r e species'  find  play  as t h e most  complex.  e x p e r i e n t i a l , n o n - r e p l i c a t i v e and  involves a realization  of personal  t h e p l a y component w o u l d  a v a r i e t y o f games and  and drama, P h i l i p  fantasy.  include  In a  simple  improvisations.  Phenix r e f e r s t o Huizinga's  Ludens: A Study o f the Play  Element  i n Culture  include Homo  . He s t a t e s :  P l a y i s n o t a m i n o r and i n c i d e n t a l f o r m o f human a c t i v i t y a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y t o c h i l d r e n and t o a d u l t s i n times of r e l a x a t i o n , but i t i s a p r i m o r d i a l c i v i l i z i n g f o r c e i n f l u e n c i n g every f i e l d of c u l t u r a l endeavor . . . the p l a y element i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n language, i n law, i n war, i n t h e p u r s u i t o f k n o w l e d g e , i n p h i l o s o p h y , i n r e l i g i o n , i n p o e t r y , i n m u s i c and . . . i n the dance, the p e r f e c t e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of p l a y . ( P h e n i x , 1964, pp.173-174) In a l a t e r concludes  that  on  as t h e most  I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a r t s o f movement, w h i c h dance  Esslin,  I f one were t o v i e w drama a c t i v i t i e s  f o r m o f drama and t h e a t r e  drama programme, exercises,  and V a l l i n s ,  1973; C o u r t n e y , 1980;  ( F i g u r e 1) , one w o u l d  i s directly  frequently  of the  i n the form of r i t u a l  (Carpenter,  Phenix, 1974).  elemental  expression  t o be t h e o l d e s t o f t h e human  a r t forms  a continuum  Play  1977; M a r t i n  Drama and d a n c e ,  also considered  1977;  form o f a r t i s t i c  i s said  article  for  " p l a y may  Educational  Forum  , Phoenix  t u r n o u t t o be t h e most  important  22  ritual  play  dramatic  reality/ fantasy enmeshed  playing  games / e x e r c i s e s / improvisations  experiential increasing  1.  presentation for stage/film/television replicative^  complexity  of r o l e meaning symbolisation emergence o f r o l e  Figure  theatre  A Conceptualization  of s p e c t a t o r / c r i t i c  o f t h e C o n t i n u u m o f Drama A c t i v i t i e s  23 f e a t u r e of the c u r r i c u l u m " indicates  a- p o s i t i v e  (1965).  Current  r e s e a r c h which  c o r r e l a t i o n between d r a m a t i c  play  the development of s e l f - c o n c e p t , c o g n i t i o n , language communication (Bruner, Rubin,  1976;  1980)  Play, level,  skills,  Courtney,  supports  as  c o - o p e r a t i o n and 1982;  language,  experiences  freedom from  self  f r e e d o m i s immensely  is  and  ( ex  with  stasis  an  s u b j e c t s and  to r e p l i c a t i v e ,  altered.  activities,  selects  to e s t a b l i s h  to f o s t e r  a  felt the  programmes.  Nor  i t i s human and  audience,  those on  the  challenges  the continuum focus  from  is distinctively  experience  itself.The  t h e m a t e r i a l s , f r a m e s and an  (Heathcote,  w h i c h i n p l a y , were c h i l d - c e n t r e d  c e n t r e i n the a e s t h e t i c  order  Rather,  or  s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h change them b e c a u s e o f what  experiential  carefully  any  simply play.  o b j e c t s , as p e r f o r m e r s  t h e work p r o g r e s s e s  The  of  outcome o f a l l drama  t h e y must f a c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h 1 9 8 3 ) . As  reality,  to the w e l l - b e i n g of  in action.  retold  at  education.  ). T h i s sense  i t simply  c o n f r o n t e d by  and  from  however, i s n o t  as  1983;  o b j e c t s , with motion  Drama f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  beings,  now  Sheehan,  p a r t of  a freedom  important  s h o u l d be  stories  transmission  of the d i s c i p l i n e s  important  w i t h o t h e r s , one the  and  this conclusion.  a vitally  Whether p l a y i n g w i t h  individual  Q u a i l s and  a p p l i e d w i t h i n any  s h o u l d be  cultural  and  emotional  teacher  focusses  d i s t a n c i n g (Witkin,  appropriate learning  experiences  them i n 1977)  (Feurstein,  24  1969) . The  teacher  becomes t h e  B o l t o n compares t o t h a t o f  mediator,  a r o l e which  Gavin  playwright.  As t h e p l a y w r i g h t f o c u s e s t h e meaning f o r t h e a u d i e n c e , so t h e t e a c h e r h e l p s t o f o c u s t h e meaning f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ; as t h e p l a y w r i g h t b u i l d s t e n s i o n f o r t h e a u d i e n c e , (so) t h e t e a c h e r b u i l d s t e n s i o n f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ; as t h e p l a y w r i g h t and d i r e c t o r and a c t o r s h i g h l i g h t meaning f o r t h e a u d i e n c e by t h e c o n t r a s t i n s o u n d , l i g h t and movement, so does t h e t e a c h e r - f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ; as t h e p l a y w r i g h t c h o o s e s w i t h g r e a t c a r e t h e s y m b o l i c a c t i o n s and o b j e c t s t h a t w i l l o p e r a t e a t many l e v e l s o f meaning f o r t h e a u d i e n c e , so w i l l t h e t e a c h e r h e l p t h e c h i l d r e n f i n d symbols i n t h e i r work. ( B o l t o n , 1980, pp.72-73) By  causing  actions, their action  the  and  the  t o a c t and  teacher  personal  themselves  It  students  helps  non-action  and  ( B o l t o n , 1981;  language a r t s  this  use  teacher  the b a s i c communication  levels  available  (Britton,  1 9 8 3 ) . The children  humanities  time,  can  skills  teacher  people  develop  O'Neill,  1983).  a l e a r n i n g medium t h a t  encourage the development and  make a b r o a d  of a l l ages and  can  1983; assist  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  to  universal in  1978;  o f drama as  Gutteridge,  i n developing  historical  Heathcote,  and  their  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  to d i s c o v e r the  to c h i l d r e n  1973;  upon  them t o e x p l o r e  knowledge, t o d e a l w i t h  i s through  literature  to r e f l e c t  issues.  spectrum  of of  ability  M o f f e t t and even v e r y of h i s t o r y ,  Wagner,  young of  25 (The) g i f t o f drama t o t h e h i s t o r y t e a c h e r i s t h a t i t e n a b l e s him t o t a l k w i t h c h i l d r e n a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e t r i v i a l i s s u e s , i t h e l p s him t o e x p l o r e t y p e s o f human m o t i v a t i o n , and h e l p s c h i l d r e n t o b e g i n t o g i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o what t h e y are doing. ( F i n e s , 1982, p.119) In a d d i t i o n  t o the r e s e a r c h which i n d i c a t e s  a correlation  between t h e u s e o f drama and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t u d e n t s ' aesthetic,  synnoetic, symbolic  and s y n o p t i c k n o w l e d g e , a  number o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s c o n f i r m a p o s i t i v e between s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n development o f moral 1982;  It  Courtney,  a w a r e n e s s and m o r a l  1980 and K o h l b e r g ,  students develop  the c r e a t i o n basic  o f meaning t h r o u g h  elements,  particularly  the a c t o r as p e r s o n  reasoning  that  symbol u s e r aesthetic  tension  and t h e a c t o r a s c r e a t o r ,  between  and t h e a c t o r as p e r s o n  Theatre abstract  from  this  being a d i r e c t  t o a c r a f t s p e r s o n and f u l l  experience  (Wolf  and G a r d n e r ,  provides the a e s t h e t i c  dramatic  and o f  of the metaphoric  I t i s through  student progresses  programme  the manipulation of i t s  i n p r e s e n t time  as imagined.  (Colby,  o f t h e a t r e form  p a s t o r f u t u r e t i m e , between t h e a c t o r as r e a l  character  and t h e i r  1980).  a consciousness  between t h e a c t o r a s s e l f  the  i n drama a c t i v i t i e s  i s w i t h i n t h e t h e a t r e component o f t h e drama  that  in  relationship  experience  form  and t h e  development  that  c o m m u n i c a t o r and  participant  i n the  1980).  through  which the  i s made c o n c r e t e . Good t h e a t r e  26  is  the r e s u l t  through"  of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s  experience  limitations  of the  tempered by "as  of dramatic  young c h i l d r e n  playing  simple  i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be  highly  symbolic,  i t must be  and,  same t i m e ,  a t the  "living  of t h e a t r e . I t o f f e r s innumerable that  ancestral  the  the  dialectic,  elemental viewed  through"  even  made  i f they are  being  same manner,  a consciousness  ( F i g u r e 1 ) . As  ritual  sorrows  if",  must be  i f they are to c r e a t e  in this  encompass t h e c o n t i n u u m  of  "as  must r e t a i n  work. B e c a u s e i t r e s t s  the  latter,  does n o t have  make-believe  of the  experience  exemplifies  the  the  w i t h i n a drama c u r r i c u l u m . In t h e  through"  "living  a r t . T h i s means, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t  more mature p e r f o r m e r s "living  t h e power and  p e r s o n a l and  aware o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s educated  realized  i f " medium. W i t h o u t  p l a y e x p e r i e n c e remains substance  fully  ritual  of  the  the  meaningful i s seen  i t is experiential,  but  as  i t i s also  as complex. R i t u a l ,  then,  e x p e r i e n c e of d r a m a t i c  the r e p l i c a t i v e  to  and  metaphoric  play  nature  us what J u n g d e s c r i b e s as a " r e s i d u a  e x p e r i e n c e s , a remnant o f t h e  joys  have been r e p e a t e d c o u n t l e s s t i m e s  and  i n our  history."  Whoever s p e a k s i n p r i m o r d i a l images s p e a k s w i t h a t h o u s a n d v o i c e s ; he e n t h r a l s and o v e r p o w e r s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e he l i f t s t h e i d e a he i s s e e k i n g t o e x p r e s s o u t o f t h e o c c a s i o n a l and t h e t r a n s i t o r y i n t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e e v e r - e n d u r i n g . He t r a n s m u t e s o u r p e r s o n a l d e s t i n y i n t o t h e d e s t i n y o f mankind, and e v o k e s i n a l l o f us t h o s e b e n e f i c e n t f o r c e s t h a t e v e r and anon have e n a b l e d h u m a n i t y t o f i n d a r e f u g e f r o m e v e r y p e r i l and t o o u t l i v e t h e l o n g e s t n i g h t .  27 That i s the upon u s .  s e c r e t of g r e a t  a r t , and  (Jung,  That the  i s indeed  the  1971,  curriculum  II.4  should  be  Drama i n t h e  that  l e a r n e r be  the  emotionally, provides  and  interface  developed  prior  k n o w l e d g e . The  i n the  to access  the  Drama c a l l s experience  and  medium a c r o s s  of  Face  to  learning  "re-examining  o f g r o w i n g . " Drama demands intellectually,  In o t h e r  between t h e  and  student  knowledge, t o a c t , r e f l e c t learning tool  l e a r n i n g t h a t can  words, i t  themes and  learning experience  work r e q u i r e s t h e  "kind of  (Wagner, 1978,  a means o f  socially.  meaning. Drama i s a p o w e r f u l provides  "a way  involved i n t u i t i v e l y ,  physically  being  risks,  as  knows, a way  a broad  PEMC p r o d u c t i o n ,  drama as  1  already  i t i s with  s e c r e t t h a t a drama  1983  the w o r l d ,  what one  t h e a t r e and  Curriculum  , John Wright d e s c r i b e s  a b o u t o n e s e l f and  effect  developed.  In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Face  its  pp.320-321)  s e c r e t of great  i n t e n t i o n of r e v e a l i n g t h i s  of  and  concepts  the to  student's take  negotiate  because i t  make p e o p l e  whole"  p.147).  upon a l l b o d i e s  o f knowledge and  i s , t h e r e f o r e , a p p l i c a b l e as the  entire  curriculum.  In t h i s  human  a learning province,  drama  28  activities  a r e recommended  as t e a c h i n g t o o l s  i n Social  S t u d i e s and S c i e n c e as w e l l as i n t h e L a n g u a g e A r t s  The  British  Columbia M i n i s t r y  the Core C u r r i c u l u m to  attain  (1977) a l s o recommends  Guide t o  t h e u s e o f drama  many o f t h e c o r e g o a l s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t  however, t h a t i f one a c c e p t s paper,  of Education's  the implementation  to note,  t h e arguments p r e s e n t e d  o f t h e drama p r o c e s s  m e t h o d o l o g y has much w i d e r  (K-12).  i n this  as a  educational implications  (Table  1) .  TABLE 1 L e a r n i n g Outcomes o f Drama Goals  o f the Core  Activity  as R e l a t e d t o  Curriculum  Learning Core  Goal  of The  Outcome  Drama  Activity  student  should  To D e v e l o p t h e S k i l l s  increased  of  understanding  Reading  oral  vocabulary  reading  inferencing increased  of story skills skills  u s e and  understanding symbol  develop  of  and metaphor  schema  29  Learning Core  Goal  Outcome  o f Drama The  Activity  student  should  : evaluative : research  skills  skills  : appreciation variety  develop  of a  of reading  matter  : a r e c o g n i t i o n of b i a s To  Develop  Writing  : effective  Skills  communication  skills : critical :  thinking  increased to p l a n ,  ability r e v i e w and  revise : audience : ability  awareness to generate  ideas To  Develop the  Listening  : ability  Skills  and  to l i s t e n  to  to follow  instructions :  skill  i n listening for  changes i n r e g i s t e r :  skill  i n listening for  changes i n phonology  30  Learning Core  Goal  of  Drama  Outcome Activity  The s t u d e n t :  skill  should  develop  in listening for  detail : skill  in listening  receive  Speaking  feedback  : ability  To D e v e l o p t h e Skills  to  t o communicate  effectively ;  :  ability  to participate i n  conversation, ;  debate,  discussion, interviews,  • •; d i a l o g u e , c h o r a l r e a d i n g , meetings,  recordings,  theatre : ability  t o use  appropriate vocabulary  and  dialect  To D e v e l o p  : ability  t o share  Knowledge and  : ability  to  Understanding of  with  ideas  co-operate  others  the Roles,  : a sense  of  Responsibilities  : ability  to explore issues  and  : critical  Rights  of the  Individual i n Society  responsibility  thinking  : problem-solving  ability  31  Learning Core  Goal  o f Drama The  Outcome Activity  student  should  : ability accept  develop  t o g i v e and t o criticism  : a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e work o f o t h e r s : evaluative s k i l l To  Develop  : understanding  Knowledge and Understanding of C u l t u r a l Physical  and  Heritage  and  of c u l t u r e  tradition  : knowledge o f h i s t o r i c a l persons  and  events  : understanding implications  of the of p o l i c i e s  and d e c i s i o n s : understanding similarities  of c u l t u r a l and  differences : appreciation of aesthetic form To  Develop  Skills  of I n q u i r y , A n a l y s i s and Problem-Solving  : ability  to recognize bias  : ability  to formulate  analytic : ability  questions to explore issues  Learning Core  o f Drama  Goal  Outcome Activity  The s t u d e n t  should  : ability  develop  t o compare,  interpret,  judge  and  discriminate To D e v e l o p and  Skills  : willingness  Knowledge f o r  Healthful  Living  to  participate  : skills and :  of observation  sense-awareness  trust  : concentration :  creativity  : self-expression : concern and self  w e l l - b e i n g of the and  : ability emotion and  f o r the s a f e t y  others to  express  clearly  confidently  : ability  to create  new  relationships :  self-control  : empathy  and  : ability  to share  co-operate  sensitivity  with  and t o others  33  Core  Goal  Learning  Outcome  o f Drama  Activity  The To and  Develop  student  Skills  flexibility  Living  and  physical  recreational  It  i s also important  learning  t o remember t h a t  medium, drama i s a d i s t i n c t  literature  and  f o r m , known as s t r u c t u r e and  develop  co-ordination,  Knowledge f o r  Healthful  should  concepts are theatre. tradition  as  well  as  pursuits  well  as  discipline.  expressed  Drama and  as  fitness  an  a  Dramatic  t h r o u g h an  theatre  being  aesthetic  have an  established  historic system  of  evaluation.  In d e v e l o p i n g , be  appropriate  goals  and  scope of  a spiral  playing  Phenix's realms of the  curriculum  work and  exploring  theatre  the  world  the  games.  of  the  i t would  meaning  to apply  (1977) t o  aesthetic, ethical,  s i m p l e r o l e drama. A t be  a drama c u r r i c u l u m ,  l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s . T h u s , one  students gaining meaning by  adapting,  to consider  to determine the concept of  or  Bruner s 1  sequencing  m i g h t have  synnoetic  and  senior  of  primary synoptic  Shakespeare through  same t i m e ,  (1964)  students  a could  34  The imply  total  a familiarity  classical of  s c o p e and s e q u e n c e  Greek  rituals  with dramatic l i t e r a t u r e  to the present  the development  o f a drama c u r r i c u l u m  as w e l l  film  from the  as an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the a r t from i t s r o o t s  t o contemporary  would  and t e l e v i s i o n .  i n primitive I t would  also  demand t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f a number o f p e r s o n a l and interpersonal theatre  skills  (Tables,  and a d e g r e e o f m a s t e r y  2, 3, 4 ) .  of the c r a f t of  35  TABLE 2  AREAS AND LEVELS OF MASTERY OF DRAMATIC  Areas  Level  of  PERFORMANCE  Instruction  Level  One: P a r t i c i p a n t  Participation Trust Concentration Observation S e n s e Awareness Teamwork Movement Listening Speech Role P l a y i n g Reflection  Level  Two:  A l l o f t h e above p l u s Energy Discipline (including attendance/punctuality/ preparation/ability to t a k e d i r e c t i o n and constructive criticism) Mime S c e n e work Reading and/or w r i t i n g of dramatic l i t e r a t u r e Stage Terminology T h e a t r e Background Work w i t h a u d i o / v i d e o t a p e Critical skills  Level  Three:  Level  Four: Master Arts  Performer  Actor (Apprentice)  of Dramatic  All  o f t h e above a s c r a f t  A l l o f t h e above as a r t  36  TABLE 3 AREAS AND LEVELS OF MASTERY OF Level  PERCIPIENT  Areas of I n s t r u c t i o n  Level  One: S p e c t a t o r  Listening Observation Participation i n class discussions P r a c t i s e of constructive criticism Reading/viewing and/or performing various types o f d r a m a t i c works  Level  Two: C o n n o i s s e u r  A l l o f t h e above Critical Skills  Level  Three:  A l l o f t h e above p l u s Communication S k i l l s Evaluative S k i l l s  Critic  plus  37 TABLE 4 AREAS AND  Areas  LEVELS OF MASTERY OF THEATRE  of I n s t r u c t i o n  Theatre Costume Makeup  Design/ Design/  Levels  CRAFTS  of Mastery  Student Apprentice Journeyman Professional  Stage/Film/Television Direction  Student Apprentice Journeyman Professional  L i g h t i n g / Sound/ Camera/Special E f f e c t s / Editing  Student Apprentice Journeyman Professional  Stage C o n s t r u c t i o n / Stage Management  Student Apprentice Journeyman Professional  38  The  s c o p e and s e q u e n c e o f drama i n s t r u c t i o n as a  component o f t h e E l e m e n t a r y F i n e  Arts  curriculum  series  of l e v e l s of mastery of p e r s o n a l  skills  as w e l l  of  these  instructional Curriculum  from Phases objectives  i s provided  and i n t e r p e r s o n a l  B o a r d ' s P r o j e c t BUILD Elementary Fine  Arts  i n Table  5 which has.  I , I I and I I I o f t h e s u g g e s t e d and a c t i v i t i e s  i n Language Development  Body Wisdom  a  as t h o s e o f s p e e c h and movement. An o u t l i n e  l e v e l s of mastery  been adapted  implies  of the  Foundation  of the Vancouver  School  (1978), d r a f t s of t h e p r o v i n c i a l Curriculum  by A r t h u r  Lessac  (1982, 1983 and 1984) and (1981).  TABLE 5 SCOPE AND  SEQUENCE  OF ELEMENTARY  Area of I n s t r u c t i o n TRUST  DRAMA  Levels  INSTRUCTION  of Mastery  The s t u d e n t s h o u l d : develop t r u s t i n others develop confidence i n s e l f  Level  I:  Level  I I : p r e s e n t work t o p e e r s a c c e p t r i s k i n drama t r u s t others demonstrate s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  Level  I I I : b e l i e v e i n own a b i l i t y and skills g i v e and r e c e i v e c o n s t r u c t i v e criticism  39 Area  of I n s t r u c t i o n  CONCENTRATION  OBSERVATION AND SENSE AWARENESS  LISTENING  IMAGINATION  L e v e l s of Mastery The s t u d e n t s h o u l d : concentrate without being d i s t r a c t e d by o t h e r s  Level  I:  Level  II:  Level  I I I : c o n c e n t r a t e and r e m a i n i n v o l v e d i n drama work change o r m a i n t a i n f o c u s  Level  I:  use a l l o f t h e s e n s e s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e immediate environment make s e l e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s  Level  II:  f o c u s on one o r more s e n s e s r e c a l l sensory experiences  Level  III demonstrate sensory i n drama work  Level  I:  u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e the q u a l i t y of s i l e n c e l i s t e n and r e s p o n d t o instructions  Level  II:  l i s t e n to oral reading, d r a m a t i z a t i o n s , sound and music f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g listen for details  Level  III : l i s t e n to oral reading, d r a m a t i z a t i o n s , sound and music f o r enjoyment l i s t e n f o r i m p l i e d meaning  Level  I:  concentrate without being d i s t r a c t e d by o t h e r s t u d e n t s o r by e x t r a n e o u s stimuli focus a t t e n t i o n  a c c e p t f a n t a s y when appropriate e x t e n d f a n t a s y when appropriate  recall  40 Area  of Instruction  L e v e l s of Mastery The  MOVEMENT  SPEECH  student  should:  Level  I I : u s e own i d e a s develop solutions to problems  Level  I I I : i n v e n t and a c c e p t alternative solutions  Level  I:  Level  I I : move f r e e l y w i t h i n g r o u p i n t e r p r e t f e e l i n g s through movement move w i t h c o n t r o l compare and c o n t r a s t t y p e s o f movement demonstrate physical characterization p e r f o r m p e r s o n a l mime d e m o n s t r a t e an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of physical endurance move w i t h b a l a n c e and r h y t h m  Level  III:demonstrate p h y s i c a l stamina u n d e r s t a n d and u t i l i z e p h y s i c a l c u e s and s i g n s demonstrate s k i l l i n physical projection d e v e l o p movement s e q u e n c e s p e r f o r m e l e m e n t a r y mime e x p l o r e dynamics o f rhythm, l i n e , shape, l e v e l , d i r e c t i o n  Level  I:  move f r e e l y communicate t h r o u g h movement u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning o f physical fitness  speak c l e a r l y explore alternate vocal expression  41 Area of I n s t r u c t i o n  Levels The  PARTICIPATION  student  of Mastery should:  Level  I I : speak c l e a r l y use p i t c h , t o n e and i n f l e c t i o n to a i d meaning use s p e e c h a p p r o p r i a t e to the s i t u a t i o n  Level  I I I : u s e v o i c e t o convey mood, e m o t i o n and meaning use a v a r i e t y o f v o c a l styles use f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l language make e f f e c t i v e o r a l presentations  Level  I:  Level  I I : p a r t i c i p a t e i n r o l e work, e n a c t m e n t s and d e p i c t i o n s present o r i g i n a l ideas r e f l e c t on what has happened i n a drama  Level  I I I d e m o n s t r a t e b e l i e f and commitment i n drama work p l a n , w r i t e and/or perform work f o r an a u d i e n c e ( i n t h e f o r m o f mime, p u p p e t show, d a n c e drama, r e a d e r s ' theatre, story theatre choral reading, stage, f i l m or t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c t i o n ) , a n a l y z e and d i s c u s s c o n s t r u c t i v e l y t h e work o f s e l f and o f o t h e r s  p a r t i c i p a t e i n drama games and e x e r c i s e s share s t o r i e s o p e r a t e a puppet d e s c r i b e what has happened i n a drama  42  II.5  Pedagogical  Implementation l e a r n i n g medium adjusted  o f a p r o g r a m w h i c h u s e s drama as a might  to provide  combination Table  Implications  mean t h a t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e w i l l  learning  experiences  o f t h e g o a l s and l e a r n i n g  sufficient  i n the d i s c i p l i n e  it  listed in  1. I t m i g h t a l s o mean t h a t t h e t e a c h e r w i l l activities  in  w i t h any  outcomes  in various in-service background  reaching the levels must  practice  to assist  5. Y e t ,  evaluate her current  what c h a n g e s a r e n e c e s s a r y  and what  t o make t o f a c i l i t a t e  these  experiences.  Recognizing themselves,  t h a t t e a c h e r s must f i n d  as w e l l as t h e i r  drama, D o r o t h y H e a t h c o t e determines  threshold,  students,  suggests  ways o f e d g i n g into  this  type of  that the teacher  h e r own t h r e s h o l d s o f t o l e r a n c e . The t h r e s h o l d s  which Mrs. Heathcote  has i d e n t i f i e d  are: decision-taking  noise threshold, distance threshold, size of  group t h r e s h o l d , t h r e s h o l d o f t e a c h i n g r e g i s t e r s threshold  part  students  of mastery d e s c r i b e d i n Table  degree o f change she i s w i l l i n g learning  take  i n order t o develop  mean t h a t a t e a c h e r w i l l t o determine  be  and s t a t u s  (Wagner, 1 9 7 6 ) . The t e a c h e r must d e c i d e ,  w o r d s , t h e q u a n t i t y and t h e q u a l i t y can  comfortably  allow the students  and  t y p e o f n o i s e w h i c h she w i l l  i n other  o f d e c i s i o n s t h a t she t o make, t h e n o i s e  tolerate,  level  t h e p h y s i c a l and  43  emotional  d i s t a n c e w h i c h she  g r o u p w h i c h she role  finds  i t easiest  o r a t t i t u d e w h i c h she  t h e drama and  the  feels  she  needs, the  t o work w i t h ,  p r e f e r s t o use  s t a t u s w h i c h she  size  the  to focus  of  type and  wishes to preserve  of move  in  the  group.  While  i t i s d e s i r a b l e that teachers  understanding this and  i s less skill  belief  trust,  techniques.  The  than  their  i n pacing,  use  o f drama as  teacher  of a e s t h e t i c form,  development of  an  power-sharing  effective  f u n c t i o n s as  an  anything,  l e a r n i n g medium  enabler  of knowledge, r a t h e r than  manager o f k n o w l e d g e . G a l i l e o  a man  you  can  confidence  in signing, in building  i n q u e s t i o n i n g and  a mediator  or banking  within  The  t h a t the  learning,  teach  important  i n planning,  and  requires  o f t h e a t r e e l e m e n t s and  have some  said,  o n l y h e l p him  of  as an "You  owner cannot  to discover i t  himself."  style  implementation necessitates  of t e a c h i n g t h a t i s i m p l i e d i n the of the program b e i n g a shift  education  i s incongruent  reflection  and  paper  relationships. with  b e c a u s e , as H e a t h c o t e r e m i n d s u s ,  dialogue, c r i t i c a l meanings:  discussed i n this  i n student-teacher  Problem-posing education  full  teacher-centred i t depends upon  n e g o t i a t i o n of  shared  44  Do y o u e v e r v i s i t t h e g a r d e n o f y o u r mind and, s i t t i n g q u i e t t h e r e , do y o u e v e r dream o f t h e g r a c e t h a t m i g h t come i n t o t h i s bower, t h e s c h o o l , i f p e o p l e m i g h t be p e r m i t t e d t o become o b s e s s e d by j u s t a few i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s ? Where one t h i n g m i g h t l e a d n a t u r a l l y t o a n o t h e r ? Where i n q u i r y m i g h t have t i m e ? Where d i s c i p l i n e i s f r o m a s u b j e c t r a t h e r t h a n another person? Where p e o p l e m i g h t " l e a r n t h e m s e l v e s " i n t o t h e work? Where s m a l l p e r s o n s and b i g p e r s o n s m i g h t grow t o g e t h e r and h e l p e a c h o t h e r l e a r n ? Where t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s m i g h t g a r d e n and grow and d i g and d e l v e and a r g u e and t e l l and a s k , and d e v e l o p on e a c h o t h e r , r a t h e r t h a n s u b m i t t i n g and a r g u i n g a b o u t s u b m i s s i o n ? ( H e a t h c o t e , 1978, pp.7-8)  II.6  Intervention Strategies  The  combination  o f a v a s t number o f major c u r r i c u l u m  c h a n g e s and t h e demand f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y system  has l e d t o e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f  curriculum this  implementation  i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The f i n d i n g s o f  r e s e a r c h have p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n  implementation  While curricula that  i n the education  for effective  of innovations.  there i s s t i l l  talk  of developing "teacher-proof"  and r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s ,  successful  principles  implementation  i t i s generally  understood  depends upon t h e way i n w h i c h  t h e t e a c h e r p e r c e i v e s t h e i n n o v a t i o n . Programs and m a t e r i a l s will  n o t be p u t i n t o  t h e y do n o t a d d r e s s  actual  use i f the t e a c h e r f e e l s  that  s t u d e n t n e e d , i f t h e y r e p r e s e n t an  45  unacceptable  change i n e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y o r i f t h e y  place  t o o g r e a t a demand upon t h e t e a c h e r ' s t i m e ,  skill  and  1982;  Olson,  knowledge.  t e a c h e r s do that"  1980). and  (Fullan,  intervention agents  (Buchanan, 1980;  Flanders,1980;  think - i t ' s 1982,  as  p.107).  s i m p l e and  as complex  I t i s important,  s t r a t e g i e s which are used and  by  enhancement i n s t u d e n t  Teachers  t o be  senior  r e s e n t change w h i c h a p p e a r s  district  Tye,  1980)  s u p p o r t from p r i n c i p a l s ,  k n o w l e d g e and and  Leithwood,  administration  results  a l s o depends upon and  they need  that change  classroom-specific.  a p p r o p r i a t e b a l a n c e between i n t e r n a l  and  as  They of  an  learning.  implementation  (Fullan  then,  external  should provide teachers with e a r l y v i s i b l e  imposed  Fullan,  " E d u c a t i o n a l change depends on what  are t e a c h e r - s p e c i f i c  Successful  energy,  and  to r e l a t e d (Goodlad,  external  externally  district  t h e y need t o be  1984;  forces.  b u t , a t t h e same t i m e ,  from  changes from  an  staff  connected  outside their  McLaughlin  and  Marsh,  to  and the  school 1978;  1984).  Joyce  and  Showers  (1980) d i s c u s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e  job-embedded  intervention.  the f i n d i n g s  of Goodlad  T h i s concept  (1984) and  t h e need i s c o m p l e x . T e a c h e r s  i s also  Ruddick  have t o be  of  supported  (1980).  Again,  given opportunity  t o n e g o t i a t e s h a r e d meaning o f t h e change i n t h e i r  own  by  46  classrooms reactions  t o t h e new  Provisions district  with their  students but  at a staff  are imperative  that are designed  to  be  model w i t h  to u t i l i z e  most s u c c e s s f u l  Implementation It  on  viewed  p l a n n i n g and  continuous  Park,  19 8 4 ) .  at a 1981).  which operate  s c h o o l s as key  on  units  i t takes  time  (Loucks  strategies  are  e x p e c t a t i o n s , sound e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s  and  formative evaluation.  a seem  ).  as a p r o c e s s , n o t an  1979). S u c c e s s f u l implementation  realistic  and  share  a core group of  (Werner e t . a l . , 1 9 8 3  must be  requires careful  Pratt,  individual  (Goodlad,  level  ( F u l l a n and  t e a c h e r s m o d e l l i n g t h e i n n o v a t i o n and networking  t h e y must a l s o  knowledge w i t h o t h e r s  for interaction  level  Strategies  own  event. and based  47 CHAPTER I I I .  DESIGN OF THE STUDY  III.l  Nature o f t h e Study  This case series  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d  of professional  conducted  non-specialist  was  w h i c h were  t o encourage a s e l e c t e d  teachers  from  medium  with  i n a variety  i n the province  schools  i n one  t h e u s e o f drama as a  of content  s u c c e s s f u l implementation  other areas  group of s i x  three elementary  d i s t r i c t t o experiment  learning of  development a c t i v i t i e s  of a  d u r i n g t h e 1983-84 s c h o o l y e a r . The p u r p o s e o f  these a c t i v i t i e s  school  to evaluate the success  areas. Descriptions  p r o j e c t s conducted (Werner e t . a l ,  1983)  recently i n provided  models f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t i m i n g o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s .  The  activities  w h i c h were c o n d u c t e d  (a) a p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i e w  of pertinent l i t e r a t u r e  t h e u s e o f drama as a l e a r n i n g experiences  i n programme  (b) a l u n c h e o n project, classroom (c)  medium  related to  and t o s u c c e s s f u l  implementation;  meeting with  to c o l l e c t  included:  selected  teachers  e x p l o r a t o r y d a t a and t o  to e x p l a i n the  arrange  visits;  demonstration  l e s s o n s and f o l l o w - u p  (d) a d i n n e r m e e t i n g and f i l m (e) a w o r k s h o p w i t h  the author  activities;  night; o f a r e s o u r c e book on t h e u s e  48 of (f)  drama i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m observations  and  of s e l e c t e d teachers  u s i n g drama i n t h e i r  classrooms.  The and  responses of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g  district  teachers  and o f s c h o o l  administrators to the various i n t e r v e n t i o n s  were c o l l e c t e d observations. descriptions  through  i n t e r v i e w s and  classroom  The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s and t h e o f t h e l e s s o n s w h i c h were o b s e r v e d  d a t a w h i c h were q u a l i t a t i v e l y  analyzed  provided  the  as a p a r t o f t h i s  study.  It  should  teachers'  stages  models w i t h Loucks,  co-relative  and l e v e l s  for this  Evaluation  study.  In s e l e c t i n g was  (Hall,  1974;  data-gathering  the standards  developed  f o r Educational  and u s e d  i n the e v a l u a t i o n  and o f t h e r e p o r t i n g o f t h e d a t a .  Identification  researcher  However,  (1981) were c o n s u l t e d  scores  measurement s c a l e s were  Committee on S t a n d a r d s  the procedures  o f u s e were b a s e d on  reliability  ( A p p e n d i x A) n o r t h e s e  the J o i n t  III.2  t h e s c a l e s u s e d t o measure  1977), n e i t h e r the e x p l o r a t o r y  validated  of  that while  of concern  high  instruments  by  be n o t e d  of Teacher  the teacher guided  have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d  Population  population  by t h e a s s u m p t i o n by s c h o o l  for this  study,  that teachers  and d i s t r i c t  the who  administration  49  as b e i n g  t h o s e w i t h whom p e e r s  concepts  and  strategies  establishment  can  w o u l d be  play a v i t a l  o f a network f o r the  a l a r g e number o f e l e m e n t a r y  s e l e c t e d from each  opportunity  classrooms  the r e s e a r c h e r and to  felt  l e a d t o an  balance  acceptance concerned  r e s e a r c h e r was  change w o u l d be support rather  of the than  i n order  and  those  and  guided  to  and  selection  between t h o s e  the b e l i e f  to occur the  discuss  i n order the  the  more  an  herself likely the  appropriate  of the  teacher with  the  grades.  that actual  was  the  the  covert, were  population:  one  school  local professional reactions to  some t e a c h e r s who  of t e a c h e r s  teaching  f o l l o w i n g steps  m i g h t be  study  and  a c c o r d i n g to the  the  willing  superintendent  to d e s c r i b e the proposed  selection  between  i n s c h o o l s where  principal  become i n v o l v e d ; a m e e t i n g w i t h  arranged  provide  intermediate  the c h a i r p e r s o n of the  to i d e n t i f y  two  In a d d i t i o n ,  s h o u l d be  development committee t o determine t h e i r project  least  The  i n n o v a t i o n . Furthermore,  a l s o by  i n n o v a t i o n by  with  to  support.  t e a c h i n g the  overt. Therefore,  and  at  t e a c h e r s w o u l d be  i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s were c o n d u c t e d principal  to  f e m a l e t e a c h e r s , between y o u n g e r  more l i k e l y  undertaken i n the  i n the  s h o u l d be  that there  o l d e r members o f s t a f f g r a d e s and  share  i n the d i s t r i c t .  relationship  of the  between male and  primary The  t h a t a peer  each of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g  r e s e a r c h e r was  and  school  f o r peer, i n t e r a c t i o n  role  to  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f drama  researcher also believed that there teachers  likely  was to  criteria  50  as  o u t l i n e d above; a p p r o v a l  those had  been i d e n t i f i e d  The  first  t o proceed  the teacher  t h e 1983-84  select  The  and t h e  who  superintendent  t e a c h e r s , were a p p r o a c h e d and  principals request  and t o o b t a i n  with  The s e c o n d  school year,  the study.  a visit  t o e x p l a i n the nature teacher  to proceed  third  t o seek s u p p o r t  population. Therefore,  the s p e c i f i c  permission  task  with  invited  t a s k was t o  a t the beginning  made t o t h e d i s t r i c t  of the p r o j e c t , to  p o p u l a t i o n and t o o b t a i n the research.  involved v i s i t i n g  to e x p l a i n the nature  permission  was  t o conduct  each o f the t h r e e  school  o f t h e p r o j e c t and t o  the research i n the  the s e l e c t e d teachers. Following these  district the  granted,  i n the p r o j e c t .  t a s k was  superintendent  of  been  Procedures  permission select  by t h e p r i n c i p a l s  "linking"  participate  III.3  of  having  s i x t e a c h e r s , who were known by t h e r e s e a r c h e r and  as p r o b a b l e to  to proceed  discussions with  and s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , m e e t i n g s w i t h  s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s were a r r a n g e d  and  classrooms  conducted.  each of  51  Since a l l of the proposed a c t i v i t i e s part  as a  o f t h e study would be, i n f a c t , p r o f e s s i o n a l  development a c t i v i t i e s , for  t o be c o n d u c t e d  some o f t h e s e  seek t h e s u p p o r t  and s i n c e f u n d i n g w o u l d be r e q u i r e d  activities,  i t was e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t  of the chairperson of the p r o f e s s i o n a l  development committee o f t h e l o c a l  One r e s u l t  to  of having  obtained  teachers' association.  support  from  this  s t a k e h o l d e r was t h a t an o p p o r t u n i t y was g i v e n d u r i n g t h e district  p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t day t o h o l d a g r o u p  luncheon  with  t h e s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s . At t h a t time  t h e r e was  a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and o f t h e drama with which students,  teachers  involved. Questionnaires individual visits  were s p e c i f i e d  The  and t h e c h a n g e a g e n t w o u l d be  ( A p p e n d i x A) were  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d ,  were a r r a n g e d  work  distributed,  initial  and a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e n t  by each o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g  e x p l o r a t o r y q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were u s e d  classroom areas  or units  teachers.  for this  q u e s t i o n n a i r e were b a s e d on M a s s i a l a s ' model o f t e a c h i n g styles  ( M a s s i a l a s and H u r s t ,  strategies  (1978).  educational  responses  t o these  teaching  q u e s t i o n s on  p h i l o s o p h i e s and g o a l s a p p e a r a s T a b l e s  Individually, philosophies  Teachers'  1978) and on Watson's  t e a c h e r s were a s k e d  of teaching, t o c l a s s i f y  t o comment upon their  6 and 7.  their  educational  goals, their  to describe  current  use o f p r o v i n c i a l l y  resource had  their  methodologies, to discuss  developed  m a t e r i a l s and t o d e s c r i b e  done w i t h  students  i n their  curriculum previous  guides  and  drama w h i c h  they  classrooms.  TABLE 6 L e a r n i n g O b j e c t i v e s a s I d e n t i f i e d and C l a s s i f i e d by S i x S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t a r y T e a c h e r s  Learning  Number o f Times Outcome was Outcome was Identified C l a s s i f i e d as a Priority  Outcome  Students should: learn the basic s k i l l s learn to think c r i t i c a l l y learn to get along with others a c q u i r e knowledge develop o r i g i n a l i t y and c r e a t i v i t y i l e a r n t o s o l v e problems be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e "real world" d e v e l o p awareness communicate effectively  5 3  2 0  *  6 5  2 2  * *  3 2  0 1  * * *  5 3 5  2 0 1  *  * i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t i n drama c u r r i c u l u m As i n d i c a t e d discrepancy given  for  between  priority  classified  i n Table  learning  6, t h e r e  outcomes  i s a noticeable  some o f t h e l e a r n i n g outcomes w h i c h a r e  i n a drama  curriculum  and t h o s e  w h i c h were  a s p r i o r i t i e s by t h e s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s .  example,  identified  No one,  t h e development o f c r e a t i v i t y ,  53  awareness, o r i g i n a l i t y important basic  or c r i t i c a l  t h i n k i n g as  l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s . On t h e o t h e r  skills  being  hand, l e a r n i n g t h e  and a c q u i r i n g k n o w l e d g e were s e l e c t e d as  priorities.  Of  the teaching  experimentation  strategies identified,  and s m a l l  t h a n t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l of the s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s  g r o u p work were c h o s e n methods  (Table  to deal  e f f e c t i v e l y with  content  TABLE 7 T e a c h i n g S t r a t e g i e s as I d e n t i f i e d by S i x S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t a r y T e a c h e r s  drill  Number  and p r a c t i c e  6  discovery  4  experimentation  4  student-centred  activities  6  teacher-centred  activities  5  questioning  6  telling  6  l a r g e g r o u p work  6  small  4  g r o u p work  varied  often most  their  needs o f a g i v e n  the various  Strategy  less  7 ) . However,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they  m e t h o d o l o g i e s t o meet t h e p a r t i c u l a r and  discovery,  class  areas.  54 None o f t h e their to  s i x had  students  and  done much p r e v i o u s  a l l felt  i m p l e m e n t Drama as  t h a t they  drama work  with  w o u l d need some  a component o f t h e  help  curriculum.  TABLE 8 Previous  Use  o f Drama by  Teacher  Selected  Teachers  Type o f Drama  Activity  Teacher  Al  puppets  Teacher  A2  story-telling,  Teacher  Bl  pre-writing,  Teacher  B2  Teacher  CI  demonstration of math/science  Teacher  C2  p u p p e t s , games, movement t o role playing  previous  use  resource  m a t e r i a l s . The  of p r o v i n c i a l l y  exercises  t o comment upon  developed curriculum  theory  music,  their guides  responses v a r i e d from e x t e n s i v e  through general  reference  use,  when n e c e s s a r y .  Some f e l t  t h a t the  are  pre-reading  none  Those s e l e c t e d were a l s o a s k e d  Ministry  p u p p e t s , movement  unrealistic,  to  limited  use  materials  and  use  use,  only  o f f e r e d by  o v e r l y demanding and  and  the  inordinately  prescriptive.  One  of the  s i x teachers  knew o f t h e  Elementary Fine A r t s c u r r i c u l u m he was  aware t h a t t h e  but  c o m m i t t e e had  only  forthcoming to the  extent  b e e n w o r k i n g on  that  i t for a  55  considerable elementary  length of time.  students  should  A l l seemed t o f e e l  h a v e more e x p o s u r e t o t h e f i n e  a r t s b u t t h r e e o f t h e s i x p r e f e r r e d t o have teaching  i n this  specialists  area.  Between O c t o b e r and December, d e m o n s t r a t i o n given  i n each of the s i x classrooms.  p o i n t f o r t h e drama work w h i c h was  embedded  i n the content  the classroom  the f i f t h  their  concentrated Studies  study  and s e v e n t h while  outlining teacher  focussed  the lesson with  was  the  on  first  was  related to  C o l u m b i a and t h e l e s s o n w i t h t h e  an e x t e n s i o n  o f t h e i r work on  China.  l e s s o n s a s w e l l as o f t h e two g i v e n i n  a p p e a r as A p p e n d i x  Following  graders  l e s s o n f o r the second graders  D e s c r i p t i o n s of these April  two were i n t h e a r e a o f S o c i a l  on t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f a poem. The  of B r i t i s h  s i x t h graders  intended  a movement l e s s o n . The L a n g u a g e A r t s  pre-writing a c t i v i t i e s  Social  was  identified  t e a c h e r . T h r e e o f t h e l e s s o n s were  S t u d i e s and one was  graders  introduced  w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n  as L a n g u a g e A r t s a c t i v i t i e s ,  lessons with  l e s s o n s were  In each case, the  starting  by  that  B.  each of the demonstration  possible follow-up  activities  (Appendix C ) . Teachers  l e s s o n s , memoranda were s e n t  were e n c o u r a g e d  t o each  to give  feedback t o the r e s e a r c h e r , t o request  additional  seek a d d i t i o n a l  a s s i s t a n c e t h a t might  m a t e r i a l s o r any o t h e r  visits,  to  56 be  required to f a c i l i t a t e  were  t h e drama work w i t h w h i c h  they  experimenting.  A film  s e s s i o n and  place after  a l l of the  d i n n e r m e e t i n g were s c h e d u l e d t e a c h e r s had  implement t h e s u g g e s t i o n s visits  and  Building  offered  i n the follow-up  Belief  and  been g i v e n t i m e  d u r i n g the  Teaching  ways i n w h i c h drama c a n be  Series,  used  take  to  classroom  c o m m e n t a r i e s . The  Talks to Teachers  the Dorothy Heathcote  to  films,  , which are p a r t of clarify  effectively  f o r teachers  as a  learning  medium.  In t h e d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w e d t h e v i e w i n g Dorothy Heathcote expressed The  an  films,  interest  r e s o u r c e book,  Drama  a l l of the  in finding  selected  out  teachers  V e r r i o u r , 1983)  Education  was  i n the  in April  i t was  professional  strategies  introduced before  development a c t i v i t y ,  a threatened  at a d i s t r i c t cancellation,  i t was  level.  After  held  opportunity  to  the  l e s s o n s i n J u n e . However, s i n c e t h i s was  decision-making and  authors  hoped t h a t t h i s w o r k s h o p w o u l d be  so t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d have an  e x p l o r e some o f t h e observation  the  and  year.  Originally, early  Through  circulated  a r r a n g e m e n t s were made t o h o l d a w o r k s h o p w i t h later  the  more a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t .  O f f s t a g e , Elementary  ( T a r l i n g t o n and  of  a  subject to two  postponements  arrangements f o r a f u l l  day  57  workshop w i t h D r . V e r r i o u r were f i n a l l y of few  May.  Unfortunately, this  days t o experiment  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i n a l  Both  the f i l m  sponsored  with  meant t h a t  participated attend  final  i n these a c t i v i t i e s  Vancouver School  Heathcote  Board  p r i o r to  w o r k s h o p were  P r o - D Committee a n d , t h e r e f o r e , were  20% o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y  the Dorothy  concepts  visits.  open t o a l l t e a c h e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t . approximately  a t t h e end  t e a c h e r s had o n l y a  the a d d i t i o n a l  s e s s i o n and t h i s  by t h e l o c a l  realized  A t o t a l of  teachers i n the d i s t r i c t  and two c h o s e  also to  workshops sponsored  by t h e  a t t h e end o f t h e 1983-84  school  year.  An a d d i t i o n a l was  scheduled  classroom v i s i t  t o take p l a c e p r i o r  interviews.  Four  classrooms,  one was  and  another  d i d not schedule  any  additional  Following with each  to observe t o each  t h e drama  of the f i n a l  o f t h e s i x t e a c h e r s were o b s e r v e d observed  directing a visit  a student production  s i n c e he had n o t done  t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s were  of the s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s  as w e l l  with the A s s i s t a n t  as w i t h  who  has s u c c e s s f u l l y  conducted the three  Superintendent, the  C h a i r p e r s o n o f t h e Pro-D Committee, w i t h a s c h o o l a principal  i n their  drama w i t h h i s s t u d e n t s .  school p r i n c i p a l s ,  and  work  trustee  i n t r o d u c e d t h e Young  58  Writers Project into interviews with gather  data  concern.  the teachers  related  focussed  of the r o l e  classrooms.  i n the  activities  the C h a i r p e r s o n  elementary  implementation concentrated  of extending the  ( A p p e n d i x H ) . The i n t e r v i e w s  the p r i n c i p a l  of the w r i t i n g p r o j e c t  ( A p p e n d i x I) local  programmes.  Thirteen of the f i f t e e n  i n t e r v i e w s t h a t were  and t r a n s c r i b e d . B e c a u s e o f t i m e  of t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s These responses  were n o t e d  than  those  a p p e a r s as A p p e n d i x  referring  and  P a t r i c k ) and M r s . H e a t h c o t e  are  i n d i c a t e d by  (  telephone.  and i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s  r e f e r e n c e s t o names o f t e a c h e r s , other  conducted  c o n s t r a i n t s , two  c h o s e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d by  a c c o r d i n g l y . A sample t r a n s c r i p t i o n  K.  s c h o o l s and o t h e r t o Dr. V e r r i o u r (Pat  ( D o r o t h y ) , were d e l e t e d and  ) i n the t r a n s c r i p t s .  The t r a n s c r i p t s  were c o d e d t o e n s u r e a n o n y m i t y and a l l u t t e r a n c e s a r e numbered  with  involved with the  on t h e e l e m e n t s o f s u c c e s s f u l  implementation  asked  o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t Committee  (Appendix J) and w i t h  personnel,  of the p r o j e c t  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  implementation  All  i n the  and d i s t r i c t  perceptions  arts  t o comment upon t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  were t a p e d  used  o f u s e and t h e s t a g e s o f  principals  on t h e i r  of the f i n e  The q u e s t i o n s  ( A p p e n d i x G) were i n t e n d e d t o  to the levels  The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  administrators and  the d i s t r i c t .  s e q u e n t i a l l y . The s o u r c e  of each u t t e r a n c e i s  59  designated  a s (R) f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r and (I) f o r t h e  i n t e r v i e w e e . F o r example:  10  1:1  wasn't t h i n k i n g  was t h i n k i n g  o f drama uh, s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  of g e n e r a l l y  11  R: Urn hm, I know.  12  I : my g o a l s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m  13  R: Urn hm.  14  I : b u t i t c e r t a i n l y w o u l d f i t drama.  Analysis  of the classroom  o b s e r v a t i o n s were b a s e d  g u i d e l i n e s w h i c h a p p e a r a s A p p e n d i x F. T h e s e adapted  from  O'Neill,  dramatic learning  an o b s e r v a t i o n s c h e d u l e  drama a d v i s o r f o r t h e I n n e r  Authority,  caused  activity,  the observer  discrepancies  by C e c i l y  Education  t o f o c u s on t h e mode o f t h e  the teaching strategies  o f the taped  and t h e e x p l i c i t  i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d and  and c o m m o n a l i t i e s  Changes i n e a c h  of responses  contrasting  responses  s e s s i o n with those  case  were  of the teacher's stage of concern  u s e o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n were d e t e r m i n e d  The  guidelines,  prepared London  on t h e  outcome(s).  Transcripts  of  I  s t u d y was t h e n  and  level  by c o m p a r i n g and  given during the i n i t i a l  given during the f i n a l  noted.  interview  visitation.  s u b j e c t e d t o a summative  60  evaluation  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  implementation  projects  and  f o r the development  further  research  were  of  local  developed.  61 CHAPTER  IV.  DATA ANALYSIS AND  IV.1  Analysis  The  first  of t h e  of Classroom  Observations  c l a s s w h i c h was  grade s t u d e n t s . discussions  FINDINGS  The  as w e l l  l e s s o n was  lesson as  o b s e r v e d was  involved  to focus  the  p u b l i c moral v a l u a t i o n  activities  students'  seemed t o be  achievement of earlier  on  their  to a s s i s t  input  hypothetical  and  d i s c u s s i o n and  decisions  i n the by  small  private  type  stated  the  of  purpose.  commitment  but the  believable examples  of  were w r i t t e n  on  but  o f f e r e d them p r o t e c t i o n by  preparation  of  he  the  the  for  experiences.  groups i n  r o l e dramas.  of  sought  asking  than personal  c i r c u l a t e d to a s s i s t  of  g r o u p work. Many  the.teacher  situations rather  teacher  of  The  r o l e dramas. A number o f  t h e s e e x a m p l e s were g i v e n  The  process.  were a s k e d t o b u i l d  students  purpose  p u r p o s e . They were r e m i n d e d  s i t u a t i o n s demanding d i f f i c u l t  student  function  for specific  group  The  a g r e e m e n t t o work t o w a r d s  stated  drama work and  enactments of  board  the  in this  asked  tacit  the  small  seventh  a t t e n t i o n on  c h o s e n were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e  S t u d e n t s were n o t there  l a r g e and  role-playing activities.  p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n making and and  a group of  their  Before  the  62  beginning  t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , t h e s t u d e n t s were t o l d  need n o t c o n c e r n with  the honest  decision offered  themselves  making. With c o n t i n u e d  situation.  s k i l l s but r a t h e r  e n c o u r a g e m e n t , one g r o u p  asked  f o r more d e p t h  from  teacher  disappointment  continued  the assigned  the a c t i o n  with  t o work w i t h  t a s k . The t y p e  suggested  the l e v e l  each group,  second  class with  class  students  drama work was consisted story.  from  from  o f t h e work. encouraging  and  commitment  that followed and m o r a l  t h e use o f t h e a e s t h e t i c  observed  was  form.  a Cadre F r a n ^ a i s  k i n d e r g a r t e n t o g r a d e f o u r . The as a p r e - w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y  and  of a very  simple  the teacher, the c h i l d r e n  i n t h e r e a d i n g by a d d i n g  asked  Again, the  sound e f f e c t s .  t o work i n s m a l l g r o u p s t o c r e a t e an  They ending  the story.  While it  t h a t was  social  of the reading of the beginning  participated  to  through  intended  At a s i g n a l  were t h e n  of r e f l e c t i o n  that emotional,  l e a r n i n g had d e v e l o p e d  The  the next  group r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l of prodding but  them, y e t c h a l l e n g i n g them t o work f o r b e l i e f to  and t h e  made a s h o r t p r e s e n t a t i o n on s h o p - l i f t i n g .  teacher expressed  they  a s h o r t enactment o f a h i t c h h i k i n g  The t e a c h e r  g r o u p . The s e c o n d  The  acting  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n  to present  finally  with  that  t h e drama work was b r i e f  provided  and r e l a t i v e l y  the motivation f o r the students  undemanding,  to participate  63  in  the w r i t i n g  working  activities.  i m a g i n a t i v e l y and  The  s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n  c o g n i t i v e l y with the o r a l  and  the w r i t i n g  t a s k s a t the  same t i m e  was  t a k i n g p l a c e because of the  as s o c i a l  reading  learning  i m p o s i t i o n of the  group  structure.  The  third  o b s e r v a t i o n was  in  a miming e x e r c i s e .  to  review  the  t e a c h e r had stories  help  literature  stated  the c l a s s  drew t i t l e s  and  them t o i m p r o v i s e b r i e f  v e r b a l c l u e to the remainder  responded was  t e a c h e r encouraged a good way  read  this  something audience  by  an  of the  of  s m a l l groups  sound e f f e c t s  and  class.  to provide  o f t h e c l a s s whose t a s k of the  integral  i t ? " She  complimenting  well.  At the  story. and  was  The  students  the  teacher  p a r t of the e x e r c i s e . w i t h comments s u c h  supported  t h o s e who  them when t h e y  same t i m e ,  behavior, taught  to  results.  the audience  isn't  the  year.  as,  o f remembering a l l o f t h e good s t o r i e s we  year,  performing  the  was  The  the t i t l e s  w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of enthusiasm  S i d e - c o a c h i n g was  is  t o add  the t i t l e  very pleased with  lesson  mimes t o p r e s e n t t o t h e  one  identify  with  turns f i n d i n g  g r o u p s were a l l o w e d  correctly  of the  d u r i n g the course took  class involved  d u r i n g the y e a r .  of paper  The  to  two  purpose  covered  provided s l i p s  r e a d by  Students  The  of a grade  she  had  The "This have  were  done  c o r r e c t e d unacceptable  the performers  how  t o bow  and  64  c u r t s e y and f o r c e d them t o examine t h e w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e i r own p e r f o r m a n c e s w i t h q u e s t i o n s e v e r y o n e was g e t t i n g  It  i s interesting  such  so i m p a t i e n t ? "  t o note  t h a t the teacher d e s c r i b e d the  e x e r c i s e a s one w h i c h she had t a k e n in  fact,  be an a p p l i c a t i o n  introduced  i n that text.  replication level  a s , "Do y o u know why  from  and an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  However,  of  concepts  s i n c e i t i s not a  o f any o f t h e e x e r c i s e s d e s c r i b e d , a h i g h e r  f o u r t h l e s s o n w h i c h was  g r a d e c l a s s who the adverb during related  game  a single  were d o i n g  observed  was w i t h  fifth  movement e x e r c i s e s and p l a y i n g  (Verriour,  p.19).  Both a c t i v i t i e s  took  place  o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n and were n o t d i r e c t l y  t o do some drama. The s t u d e n t s  change o f p a c e and t h e t e a c h e r was v e r y work, t a k i n g t i m e  to assist  synonyms and i n e x p a n d i n g n o t seem a n x i o u s  purpose other  The  a  t o e a c h o t h e r n o r t o o t h e r c l a s s work. The s t a t e d  p u r p o s e was  than  . I t may,  o f use i s i n d i c a t e d .  The  did  Offstage  final  than  acceptable  movements i n s p a c e ,  b u t she  t o have t h e drama work s e r v e any  t h a t o f warm-up e x e r c i s e s .  o b s e r v a t i o n was  o f an a c t u a l  the  supportive of t h e i r  them i n f i n d i n g  their  enjoyed  of a public  l e s s o n . Working with  students, the teacher wrote, d i r e c t e d ,  performance r a t h e r  over  fifty  primary  choreographed  and  65  accompanied Although  a production  warranting  amateur s c h o o l some o f t h e  amount o f  classroom both  the  visits  interview with  her  As  had  first  was  by  the  several  who  has  teacher  graders  film  School  local  Tarlington,  teacher  at  in  patience  and  Because  to devote to  of  the  t h a t no a d d i t i o n a l  a unit  noted  later,  from  with  the  of  study  on  role  whales.  Activities  a great  deal  her  of  interest held  in  was February.  Dorothy Heathcote J u n e workshop a t  I n t e r e s t was  also  P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r and  and Lord  expressed  Carole  t h e M i n i s t r y ' s recommended  Offstage, Elementary Education  Unfortunately,  encouraged  some h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l  during  i n Vancouver.  of  had  aimed  exemplified  direction.  and,  more i n f o r m a t i o n on  authors  be  work  sufficient  workshop w h i c h was  workshop w i t h  criticisms  However, i t was  made a p p l i c a t i o n t o a t t e n d  Kitchener  book,  which can  completed  stated earlier,  Teachers requested  a  the  A n a l y s i s o f Workshop  generated  for  scheduled.  t h e W o n d e r f u l Lamp .  particular  deemed a p p r o p r i a t e  be  work w i t h  standard  this  a teacher  and  t o g i v e them p r o p e r  i t was  t h a t she  2  the  time which t h i s  principal  IV.  Aladdin  performance s k i l l s  t h e a t r e background  production,  many o f  productions,  y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n by  the  of  resource  T h r o u g h Drama .  a number o f u n e x p e c t e d p r o b l e m s  led to  two  66  p o s t p o n e m e n t s and a r e s c h e d u l i n g o f t h e l o c a l meant t h a t n o t o n l y were a number unable to attend but a l s o Carole  of the i n t e r e s t e d teachers T a r l i n g t o n was  t h a t weekend. However, t h e w o r k s h o p was  Twelve t e a c h e r s district  from v a r i o u s  were i n a t t e n d a n c e .  workshop. T h i s  held  elementary  unavailable  late  schools  The f o r m a t p r o v i d e d  i n May.  i n the for a  m o r n i n g and an a f t e r n o o n  session with  lunch provided  participants  ideas during  the break.  evaluation valuable  could  share  i n d i c a t e d that teachers  i n that i t provided  considered  useful starting  Subsequent  the s e s s i o n points f o r  drama work and gave e a c h o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s an to  experience  evaluation  various  form used  types  this  information  A p p e n d i x E and a summary o f t h e r e s p o n s e s Table  opportunity  o f drama a c t i v i t i e s .  to gather  The a p p e a r s as  i s provided i n  9.  TABLE 9 Summary o f T e a c h e r E v a l u a t i o n o f Drama Workshop  Number o f e v a l u a t i o n f o r m s  distributed  i  Number o f e v a l u a t i o n f o r m s Overall  rating  Teacher used Teacher  - Excellent - Good  ideas  shared  returned  i n classroom  ideas with  colleagues  so t h a t  12 7 1 6 7 5  67  IV.3  A n a l y s i s of Teacher  All  of the s i x selected teachers  June s a i d teaching goals  t h a t they tool.  two s a i d  consider  Four f e l t  which they  questionnaire  stated  Interviews  drama t o be a v e r y  that a l l of the basic  had i d e n t i f i e d  educational  i n the exploratory  t h a t most c o u l d be a c h i e v e d  project,  another  it  the others  understanding  said  that  she had n o t r e a l l y  suggested  explained  with  through t h i s  t h i s way a t t h e o u t s e t  of the nature  One t e a c h e r activities  useful  c o u l d be met t h r o u g h drama a c t i v i t i e s  t h a t he had f e l t  while  who were i n t e r v i e w e d i n  t h a t they  while  means. One  of the thought  had d i s c o v e r e d  I: Well,  that  her students  the f i r s t  she had b e e n u s i n g  drama  f o r some t i m e w i t h o u t  I remember t h a t t h e f i r s t  t h a t y o u showed t h e p i c t u r e I was worried  b e c a u s e uh when y o u s a i d  done any drama w i t h thing  your  I w o u l d have s a i d  having  you  time  really have y o u e v e r  students i s no w e l l  the f i r s t uh I d o n ' t  know and when I a s k e d what do y o u mean Remember  exactly?  I s a i d what i s drama e x a c t l y ? What do  mean by t h a t ? (Transcript  a new  o f drama.  b e e n aware o f i t :  6  about  A2)  There  seemed t o be  activities  a g e n e r a l consensus  that  provided students with enjoyable  the  drama  learning  experiences.  6  1:1  realize  that  the k i d s r e a l l y  they they don't when t h e y do  realize  it.  this  tell  me  just  a l l went and that  they're  m o r n i n g , nobody s a i d  t h a t we  "Ohhh,  like  uh  i t was  t o adapt uh  (  fine  and  uh  themselves ) and  They  I could  t o work  (  ) had  of t r o u b l e .  you  know t h e y wanted t o work t o g e t h e r b u t  about with had  i t and (  actually  ) but  stories  g r e a t . They had enjoy  that  uh  over  uneasy  do  so  and  i t ? " "Oh about  they d i d n ' t r e a l i z e down f o r me  and  (Transcript  A2)  too.  so,  they  i t was  did  that  "Did  was  you  y e a h , we d i d . "  writing  that  they  i t and  they a l l thought  like  nobody c o m p l a i n e d  something  and  a good t i m e  i t ? D i d you  then  t h e y d i d n ' t want t o work  t h e y were l e f t  and  a  want t o work  t h e y were k i n d o f uh  t o accomodate t h e m s e l f  their  And  They d i d n ' t r e a l l y  started  Now,  don't  bit  when t h e y  uh  learning  have t o w r i t e s o m e t h i n g . "  t h e y had  with others  i t and  T h e y t h i n k t h a t ' s a game.  like  see  that  enjoy  or  I think  wrote  what I wanted  69 One  of the  chooses not  10  teachers  t o use  I : I t ' s uh  the  teaching  e x p l a i n e d why,  in spite  drama.  sort  o f t h i n g t h a t uh  t h a t way  t h a t you  can  of t e a c h i n g . I f i n d  Physically,  not  just  i f you  uh  of the b a s i c t h i n g s a c r o s s w i t h way  of t h i s ,  can  get a l l  i t . I t ' s not  i t very,  mentally,  you  enjoy  very  but  my  tiring.  physically  tiring. 11  R:  Urn  hm.  12:  I : I c o u l d n ' t do  this  20:  I : Yeh.  I , I do  they  Although uh,  learn.  was  (...)  I uh  42:  q u i t e eh i t was  I d i d more i n my  do  can,  (Transcript  I can B2)  i t should,  i t a good way  uh  to  before.  I t was,  i t was  see  emphasized younger  It's just the  uh  eh  h e a v i l y . I went  the  to  quite  days.  agree t h a t a l o t of c h i l d r e n  l e a r n BETTER t h i s way. 1,1,1  find  did i t at college.  C o l l e g e and  I: I, I r e a l l y  that i t ' s ,  I . . . I . . . I have done t h i s  emphasized  heavily.  feel  many c h i l d r e n  (Laugh) We it  a l l year.  not  my  way  advantages  do but of i t .  she  70  All  of the s i x teachers  classes.  F i v e o f t h e s i x had s t u d e n t s  four classrooms, and  d i d some drama w i t h  this  r o l e work f o c u s e d  moral problems. Three t e a c h e r s  pre-writing principal  activity.  visiting  I n one c a s e ,  the c l a s s  who h a d s i g h t e d a S a s q u a t c h . n o t done much drama work o v e r t h a t what he h a d done was  suggested  on s p e c i f i c  this  o f an  One t e a c h e r  s t a t e d t h a t he had  the course  individual  of the year  f r o m what he h a d done  t h a t she h a d t r i e d  Offstage  a  number  . These a c t i v i t i e s  experimented with  concepts  and a p p r o a c h e s  i n t h e model l e s s o n s , i n t h e f i l m s  Verriour/Tarlington  three primary  four  which or i n the  text.  teachers  regularly  u s e an i n t e g r a t e d  approach t o the t e a c h i n g of v a r i o u s content  area  so t h e u s e o f drama a s a means o f a t t a i n i n g  learning  outcomes i n L a n g u a g e A r t s , S c i e n c e  or S o c i a l  materials  Studies d i d not  r e q u i r e a m a j o r c h a n g e i n a p p r o a c h . The s e v e n t h  grade  t e a c h e r who  Studies  through  were  differed  any c h a n g e i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y . The o t h e r  were p r e s e n t e d  The  and  f r o m work t h a t s h e had done p r e v i o u s l y , t h e y d i d  n o t demand teachers  social  involved the school  p r i m a r i l y games and warm-up e x e r c i s e s . W h i l e t h e y in detail  In  u s e d drama as a  no d i f f e r e n t  in  in role.  i n the r o l e  i n previous years. Another s a i d of a c t i v i t i e s  working  their  i n t e g r a t e d L a n g u a g e A r t s and S o c i a l  t h e u s e o f drama d i d n o t c o n c e i v e  terms o f i n t e g r a t i o n  o f t h e work i n  o r s e g r e g a t i o n b u t merely i n terms o f  71  its  being  other  an e f f e c t i v e  two i n t e r m e d i a t e  boundaries  means o f a c h i e v i n g an o b j e c t i v e . The teachers  between c o n t e n t  tended  areas;  to maintain  f o r one drama was  w i t h i n a s u b j e c t boundary; f o r the other warm-up e x e r c i s e s s e p a r a t e d  Four o f t h e s i x t e a c h e r s contributing  identified  four f e l t  that the  Offstage  most u s e f u l . However, t h e r e was responses  the t o t a l  facilitated  these  t h e way  together,  i n order  o f t h e way  i t was b e s t  m a k i n g me  order,  s e r i e s of that  they happened  f o r me b e c a u s e g e t t i n g  aware o f drama t o b e g i n  w i t h was where  I needed t o s t a r t  and t h e f i l m s ,  w h i c h was  of a by-stander's  v i e w o f what  sort  I should  be d o i n g  Patrick integrating  a n d c a n do and t h e n  s e e i n g D o r o t h y i n a c t i o n . Now s o r t o f t h e warming up R: Urn hm  films  i n the  changes.  c o u l d be done and t h e n  47  of the  o f u s e c h a n g e d most  functioning i n a particular  was  acceptance  an i m p l i c a t i o n  ( F i g u r e 2) t h a t i t was  I: but a c t u a l l y  work.  of the Heathcote  activities,  46  as  book and w o r k s h o p were  o f t e a c h e r s whose l e v e l s  significantly  used  t h e model l e s s o n s as  to their  i n n o v a t i o n . F i v e mentioned the impact and  i t served  from the a s s i g n e d  most s i g n i f i c a n t l y  fixed  what  actually  y o u r p a r t was t h e  72  48  I : w h i c h I n e e d e d , y o u know, t o s e e somebody else  u s i n g MY k i d s i n my c l a s s r o o m  situation  w i t h my c u r r i c u l u m o r w h a t e v e r s u b j e c t I was w o r k i n g w i t h and t h a t ' s t h e way i t works  with  somebody who i s n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h drama,  like  me. (Transcript Al)  The  order of the a c t i v i t i e s provided several  opportunities agent  f o r personal  interaction  and e a c h o f t h e t e a c h e r s p r i o r  r e s e a r c h e r ' s assumption  t h a t such  a factor  i n the attendance  a second  interview:  between t h e change  t o t h e w o r k s h o p s . The  p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w o u l d be  a t t h e w o r k s h o p s was c o n f i r m e d i n  76  I: Well  77  R: Umhm.  78  I : T h a t was what r e a l l y g o t me g o i n g your  the f i l m .  and t h e n  book.  79  R: Okay.  80  I : You know b u t h e r e  again unless  I had b e e n  i n v o l v e d w i t h you I might not-have a d v a n t a g e o f t h a t w o r k s h o p and t h e n I would never either. 81  taken of course  h a v e known a b o u t t h e book  You know i t ' s -  R: So t h e p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i s  73 81  R:  important?  82  I : Y e s , y e s , y e s , v e r y much s o I ' d s a y .  83  R: Okay.  84  I : Because you tend  t o uh s t i c k w i t h  the things  t h a t y o u know t h a t y o u do w e l l and t h e n y o u maybe may d e v e l o p course  one o t h e r  idea i nthe  o f a y e a r . You know y o u may t h i n k ,  "This year  I'm g o i n g  to really  z e r o i n on my  S c i e n c e o r s o m e t h i n g " and work t h a t up and t h a t ' s a b o u t a l l y o u c a n do i s one o t h e r extra thing after evening  this  school i s over  kind of thing.  m i g h t have b e e n t e m p t e d Drama's n o t r e a l l y  and i n t h e  And I t h i n k I  t o t h i n k , "Oh,  a l l that  important.""  ( T r a n s c r i p t C2)  The than  45  degree of s h a r i n g of ideas with  the project  partner  R: D i d y o u s h a r e  staff  members  varied.  any i d e a s w i t h o t h e r  teachers  a b o u t t h e drama work? 46  1:1  w o u l d s a y a f t e r we saw t h e f i l m s  a l o t of staff  room t a l k  Most o f i t was q u i t e  ( T r a n s c r i p t CI)  t h e r e was  about the f i l m s .  positive.  other  74 35  R:  Uh,  well  obviously  you  w i t h somebody e l s e  36  I:  37  R:  38  I:  39  R:  your  staff.  t a l k a b o u t i t w i t h uh  with  (...)  w o u l d n ' t have g o t  into  that?  him  Anybody  had  or  to  you  Uhm. 1 mean d o n ' t name names b u t  talked  project  a b o u t how  enjoyed  i t or  particularly  letters  at  w i t h anybody  not.  The  and  end.  members t h o u g h t  one  i m p r e s s e d by  the  went f o r i t and good m o t i v a t o r (Transcript  room and  uh  you  having  them  idea  the  I was  and  for writing  that I  write  and  idea.  t e a c h e r s who  of  model  had  very really Again  a  feel.  selected  teachers  i n a d i s t r i c t - w i d e implementation use  uh  Bl)  Recommendations f r o m t h e  the  the  staff  a great  like  kids  did  r e s u l t s too.The k i d s they  talked  whether the  I most o t h e r  by  I  changes i n the  uh  i t was  were most i m p r e s s e d  used  staff  talk  else?  came i n , I men-  about the  the  d i d you  i t went and  secondary school  that  You  else?  a b i t about i t i n the  stressed  project  Yes.  I : Y e a h , e a c h t i m e you  t o be  the  on  about the 40  discussed  lessons.  started  I t was  for  strategies  program  suggested  drama work w i t h  their  also classes  75  t h i s y e a r c o u l d be u s e d  as r e s o u r c e p e o p l e w i t h i n  their  own  schools.  36  I : W e l l , I t h i n k t h a t uh t h e f a c t was r e a l l y teacher wish  n e a t t o s e e somebody  like  t h a t y o u came like  another  y o u d o i n g i t y o u know. . . .1  t h a t y o u w o u l d have come more o f t e n  a c t u a l l y because people working  i t ' s neat  w i t h your  t o s e e some o t h e r  k i d s because  see them r e a c t i n g . On t h e f i l m  you can  you always  k i n d o f t h i n k My God maybe t h e s e k i d s a r e special  or they've  done a l o t o f i t o r uh t h e  t e a c h e r who was d o i n g i t was j u s t me. I t was j u s t her  life  started  like  unreal to  uh s h e had done t h a t a l l  and when i t ' s somebody  l i k e you  a w h i l e ago b u t i t seemed t o me  she h a d s o much e x p e r i e n c e s c a r e s me B u t when i t ' s a t e a c h e r l i k e close  that  almost.  y o u who works  t o y o u s o i t h e l p s i t makes y o u f e e l  t h a t maybe y o u c a n do i t t o o ( T r a n s c r i p t A2)  The  demonstration  lessons functioned i n a variety of  ways. They i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t they e s t a b l i s h e d  a p e r s o n a l peer  t e a c h e r and t h e c h a n g e a g e n t ;  o f drama a s a m e t h o d o l o g y ; r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  and t h e y d i s p e l l e d  the notion  76  that  t h i s work c o u l d be  very  special  42  1:1  done o n l y w i t h  t h a t the  lessons  so  most v a l u a b l e w o u l d be  t h a t you  c l a s s r o o m s as you unmanageable b u t c l a s s r o o m s and  t h a t you  know c o m i n g  uh  someone coming  presenting like  d i d a t the  different  than the  one  people it's  ideas  not  there s 1  be  things  how  just  drama c a n  that teachers  can  tomorrow i f need be f r o m a b o u t how  their  style  useful on  very  but  of as  f a r as  u s e d and as  don't think people going  to the  that  such  that  hands-on  right  now  and  or at  least  get  some  can The  using  uh  f i t i t into  f i l m s are  them t o uh  were start  your s t y l e  t h a t woman's t h e n uh  t h a t t h a t w o u l d be on  give  ways t h a t i t  s o r t of  s o m e t h i n g tomorrow u n l e s s similar  to  take  they  teaching.  the  I think  be  I think  one  some p r i n t e d  more t o i t t h a n t h a t and implemented.  lessons  very  did  s o r t o f a c t i n g as  ideas  in  t h a t you  t o accompany t h a t  into  d i d . The  was  t h e n uh  maybe  model  you  beginning  s e c o n d t i m e r o u n d and literature  a few  like  model  into  d i d t o mine t h a t ' s  of a v a r i e d nature  use  students  teachers.  think  can  special  enough t o  i t . They w o u l d s a y ,  "Very  is  I get  by  77  n i c e , b u t - t h a t ' s n o t me." (Transcript Bl)  Apart  from  insecurity, use  the f e e l i n g s  teachers expressed  o f drama. One t e a c h e r s a i d  since the c h i l d r e n would h a t e that she  o f p e r s o n a l d i s c o m f o r t and o t h e r r e s e r v a t i o n s about t h e that  seemed t o e n j o y  she f e l t  concerned  t h e work so much  about  the loss  of control  saw t h e H e a t h c o t e  films  and r e a l i z e d  signing. A f t e r having  tried  a number o f a c t i v i t i e s  classes,  enthusiastic through  48  they  t o s t o p and i t w o u l d go on and o n . A n o t h e r  she had been concerned  their  however, b o t h  about  of these  until  with  t e a c h e r s were  clearly  what t h e y had a c h i e v e d and c o u l d  achieve  I : The way I f i t i t i n was w i t h my S o c i a l o f t h e s e w o u l d now f i t i n w i t h  that  so a idea.  A c q u i r i n g k n o w l e d g e . O r i g i n a l i t y and creativity.  To s o l v e p r o b l e m s .  Very  much so  b e c a u s e we d i d . Where I f i t i t i n was w i t h people  have f e e l i n g s  little  story  were h e r e  said  t h e power o f  t h e u s e o f drama.  lot  that  and I s t a r t  o f f with a  much t h e way y o u d i d when y o u  that  d a y . Urn, I a d a p t e d  t h i n g on t h e w h a l e s f o r f e a r , 49  R: Urn hm.  50  I : Uhm and h a d them i m a g i n e  that  the l i t t l e  y o u know.  t h e y were a l l  78  w h a l e s and t h e n  this  course got caught. Miracle, all  one l i t t l e  What I was w o r k i n g  t h e whale g o i n g  being blood-thirsty  just  about  whale o f  t o t h e zoo o f c o u r s e y o u know t h e y had him  a l l c h o p p e d up and u s e d  k i n d s o f c a t and dog f o o d b u t t h e y g o t t h e i d e a and worked on i t . adapted and  f o r was  up a s a l l definitely  And we  also  t h e one uh "The Boy T h a t C r i e d  how c o u l d we a s a d u l t s c o p e w i t h  Wolf"  i t you  know t h e y c o u l d n ' t g e t t h e i r work done i n their  gardens  85  R: W e l l ,  I thank  86  I : Oh, y o u ' r e  87  R: I was r e a l l y said  88  and t h i s  kind of thing.  y o u (....) and I  most welcome. I ' v e e n j o y e d i t . excited  by t h e t h i n g s t h a t y o u  t h a t you d i d .  I : Y e h , y e h , I was t o o I r e a l l y for  one t h i n g  bothered  that  thought  area of the S o c i a l  because Studies  me and uh i t s h o u l d n ' t have b u t o n c e  we g o t g o i n g and t h e c h i l d r e n were v e r y about  their  feelings  them o n t o was, "How without  sort  open  and what I wanted t o l e a d do y o u c o p e w i t h i t ? "  o f s a y i n g , " I do t h i s  and t h i s i s  what y o u s h o u l d d o , " and i t was. I l e a r n t a lot  from  i t and i t was a good s i t u a t i o n f o r  79  me.  I really  my c h i l d r e n after  learnt  and t h i n g s  i t and i t was  feel  about  that  1 d sort  of i t .  a  different  So I was  90  I : Oh y e s , d e f i n i t e l y .  you keep t r y i n g t o ? P r o b a b l y e x t e n d i t more a  next year. (Transcript  C2)  Stages of Concern  As i n d i c a t e d  and L e v e l s  i n the f i r s t  o f Use  c h a p t e r , t h e s c a l e s w h i c h were  d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e measurement o f i n d i v i d u a l in  glad  t o experiment a l i t t l e b i t .  R: W i l l  IV.4  a different  well  o f y o u know gone a h e a d and  89  bit  j u s t went r e a l l y  the teaching  1  tried  f r o m i t and I g o t t o know  s t a g e s o f c o n c e r n and i n l e v e l s  teacher's s h i f t  o f use o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n  a r e a d a p t a t i o n s o f t h e framework d e v e l o p e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s . The s t a g e s o f c o n c e r n a r e d e f i n e d S t a g e 0 - Unaware and u n c o n c e r n e d Stage  1 - Unaware b u t i n t e r e s t e d  Stage  2 - Previewing  Stage 3 - E x p l o r a t o r y Stage 4 Stage  Trial  5 - Experimental  Stage 6 - C o l l a b o r a t i v e Stage  7 - Sharing  as  follows:  80  S t a g e 8 - Renewal  The l e v e l s  o f use i n c l u d e :  Level  0 - Non-Use  Level  1 - Orientation  Level  2 - Partial  Level  3 - R e g u l a r Use  Level  4 - Integrated  Level  5 - Refinement  It  should  Use  Use  be n o t e d  t h a t movement w i t h i n  t h e two s c a l e s i s  i n t e r a c t i v e b u t i n d e p e n d e n t . The s c a l e s a r e n o t t o be considered 8  hierarchical  (Renewal) b o t h i m p l y  stages  since Level that  the user  o f c o n c e r n and l e v e l s  5  ( R e f i n e m e n t ) and S t a g e may  return  to e a r l i e r  o f use i n t h e processes  of  r e f i n e m e n t and r e n e w a l .  There a r e , o f course, professional  reasons f o r teachers  f r o m one s t a g e o r l e v e l discussed  and  t o move o r t o f a i l  t o move  t o a n o t h e r . A number o f t h e s e a r e  i n the Flanders'  d e v e l o p m e n t and o t h e r s to t h i s  a number o f p e r s o n a l  will  report  (1980) on p r o f e s s i o n a l  be i d e n t i f i e d  i n the conclusions  study.  While t h i s philosophy,  s t u d y has r e v i e w e d  the educational  goals  the r a t i o n a l e , the and l e a r n i n g outcomes o f a  81  K-12  Dramatic  concerned this  w i t h the use  o f drama as a l e a r n i n g  a t the o u t s e t  A shift  from  attitudinal another was  one  stage of concern  not a n t i c i p a t e d  that  i t was  to another one  The  Teacher  B l had  t h e r e w o u l d be  hoped t h a t  o f use  any  radical  Stage  0 t o Stage  4.  movement e x e r c i s e s and  A2  had  worked w i t h  some drama a c t i v i t i e s  of these a c t i v i t i e s  r e q u i r e guidance approaches a level  part  i n t r o d u c e d , she was  3. T e a c h e r  B2  drama work b u t  of her  that  she  had  that  of o r i e n t a t i o n  later  said  that  explained that However, she  puppets, the  not  she d i d  extent f o r several  she d i d n o t e x p e c t  that  and  with  from  she had i t had  had  He  and  the  a s s e s s e d as h a v i n g moved  initially  teacher t r a i n i n g .  t h e c l a s s r o o m t o any said  as drama and  within  encouragement t o experiment  of non-use t o a l e v e l  1 to Stage done any  and  on  2.  Language A r t s programme. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t perceived  would  p r e v i o u s work w i t h drama.  Teacher  to  shift  are p l o t t e d  a s s e s s e d as h a v i n g moved f r o m L e v e l 0 t o L e v e l 1  from  an  short period,  changes i n a t t i t u d e  as F i g u r e  done l i t t l e  indicates  level  c h a n g e s w h i c h were m o n i t o r e d  the graph which appears  she  medium. From  d e s c r i b e s a b e h a v i o r a l change. In t h i s  be a p p a r e n t .  in  essentially  (Table 8).  change w h i l e a movement f r o m  i n behavior but  was  s t u d y was  p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e n , a l l s i x t e a c h e r s w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  non-users  it  A r t s programme, t h e c a s e  from  Stage not  been  not used i t  years.  Although,  she w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o  82 Figure  A P r o j e c t i o n of Behavioral T e a c h e r s as P e r c e i v e d End  2  and A t t i t u d i n a l  Changes o f  a t t h e B e g i n n i n g and  of the Pre-Implementation P i l o t  at the  Study  543[] - September  2-  E§ -  1-  June  I  0Al  A2  Bl  B2  Levels  of  CI  C2  Use  87-  6[] - September  5-  H  43210Al  A2  Bl  Stages of  B2  Concern  CI  C2  -  June  83  use  drama, she  said  with  t h a t she w o u l d t r y t o s h a r e  next year. Level CI  d i d experiment  Therefore,  0 but  said  having  t h a t he  she was  shifted  had  certain  had  the a c t u a l having  simply  concepts  assessed  from  Teacher  but  film  the workshop, r e a d the  Heathcote.  shifted  with a v a r i e t y  Social  travelled  Science r a t h e r than  a r e a s . By  areas.of and  S t u d i e s and  from  was  non-use t o a l e v e l had  assessed  C2  activities  t h o u g h she  assessed since  movement a c t i v i t i e s . or the  Offstage  having  suggested  as h a v i n g  d i d not had  She  he  2.  and  of the  She  and  book  from  she  read  the  Dorothy  a level  Stage 1 to  i n the  the  text.  d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t she  of  Stage  drama initial  puppets  attend either  the  and  moved f r o m  mention t h i s  d i d not  year,  attended  sessions with  a l s o worked w i t h  workshop but t h a t she  as  members  1 to  p r e v i o u s l y done e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r  i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n . She  in  of approaches i n the  Offstage  of o r i e n t a t i o n  4. T e a c h e r  t h e end  Language A r t s .  t o Vancouver t o a t t e n d the She  of  n o t v i e w e d drama as a means o f  t e a c h i n g w i t h i n the c o n t e n t experimenting  that  demonstrations  d i s c u s s t h e work w i t h o t h e r  had  at  Teacher  p r e v i o u s l y done some work w i t h p u p p e t s  play scripts  she was  teachers  role playing with h i s  i n n o v a t i o n but  h i s stage of concern  A l had  and  remained  T h i s t e a c h e r was  remained a non-user of the  of h i s s t a f f ,  other  as h a v i n g  part in visual  of r o l e s .  and  year  S t a g e 0 t o S t a g e 3.  i n M a t h e m a t i c s and  films  this  d i s c u s s i o n seemed t o i n d i c a t e  taken  assumption  d i d view the  brief  ideas with  p r e v i o u s l y used  s t u d e n t s . However, l a t e r students  i t s use  and Heathcote  Despite would  84  change h e r shift  level  i n both  previously assessed  attitude  thought  use  All  and  i n n o v a t i o n , she  i n behavior.  moved f r o m  and  Additional  of the  o f drama as  as h a v i n g  of p a r t i a l  IV.5  o f use  from  a learning a level  had  not  medium, she  was  5.  gave p e r m i s s i o n s c h o o l s but  none seemed t o have a v e r y c l e a r p l a c e . In f a c t ,  taken  had  n o t been aware o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n between  observed  selected  teachers'  principal  roles,  by  expression  very their  time.  had  had  and  final  that  they  the  t h e drama work w h i c h  the r o l e  were d e a l i n g w i t h  impressed control  been on  price  three said  been i n v i t e d  observed  by  their  to v i s i t  the  drama w i t h  the  can  the problem of involvement  of v o c a b u l a r y  and  integrated classroom  be  by  in  the their  their  clear  seemed q u i t e p l e a s e d t h a t  on p r o d u c t i o n work. T h a t , The  i n the  classrooms.  o f e m o t i o n . He  e m p h a s i s had than  when t h e y  who  g r a d e r s who  w h a l e s was  of the  development a c t i v i t i e s  t h e y had  first  two  f o r the  n o t i o n o f what  had  The  level  Findings  p r o j e c t work t o t a k e p l a c e i n t h e i r  professional  she  o f non-use t o a  Stage 0 to Stage  of the p r i n c i p a l s w i l l i n g l y  interviews  Since  made q u i t e a  he  said,  t o o h i g h . " He  activities  "can  felt  t i e up  t h a t an  the rather t o o much  effective  85  implementation an  plan should  i n c l u d e the classroom  e m p h a s i s on ways i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s  the c o n t e n t  a r e a s . He  visible  evidence  heightened  the broadening  and  the  improvement  b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d be  principal  who  i n c i d e n t was  work b u t  a l s o had  the  form  learning  He  afraid  had  sighting  the p r o j e c t .  told  the  t h a t the  o f r o l e - p l a y i n g , was  widely  "doing  help  t o be  t o t r y i t on  looking  and  then  some s u p p o r t  better  and  the  role  specific  own  they've  innovation  level  i d e a had  of  the  emerged  i t was  i t . He  classroom  with  used  lessons her  they've  anybody  t o have some  does - t h a t  a  curriculum."  i t works;  got  in  suggested  t h e model  without  from  not w i d e l y  t o make i t work a b i t  that usually  Sasquatch  recommended as  to t h e i r  shown how their  added,  i n the  the  s t r a t e g y w o u l d be  something  He  as i n  control.  t o use  i n a t e a c h e r ' s own  I: They've got got  trained  the  drama, p a r t i c u l a r l y  medium i n v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l a ,  which would occur  32  on  that although  t h e most e f f e c t i v e  students  losing  also pleased with  t o be  said  of  taken  because t e a c h e r s are not that  see  of the c h i l d r e n ' s v o c a b u l a r y .  to  given  i n work s u c h  however, t h a t some t e a c h e r s m i g h t r e j e c t  The  more l i k e l y  They w o u l d  with  drama w i t h i n  t e a c h e r s w o u l d be  of the r e s u l t s .  interest  c o u l d use  s t a t e d t h a t t h i s was  e n c o u r a g e change b e c a u s e t h e  visits  will  86  transfer through found the  as  I say.  That  the process  will  f o l l o w i n g year  use  g r o u p s and (Transcript  had  other  principal  been g o i n g  visits  but  probably  on  and  t h a t he  said  i t again  t h a t he  was  t h a t t h e r e had  had  "not  seen' any  on w h e t h e r o r h o t  l o t more t o drama t h a n  stage."  He  for this  aware t h a t  area,  n e g l e c t and  he  things classroom  productions".  t h i s was  replied  the  t h a t he  p u t t i n g on  e x p l a i n e d f u r t h e r t h a t he  F i n e A r t s were a n e g l e c t e d reasons  with  actual  outcome o f drama work, he  the  then  been r e g u l a r  anticipated  on  i f they  B3)  questioned  "a  gone  might' expand i t .  When he was  t h e r e was  having  i t s u c c e s s f u l i n themselves would  different  The  teacher  a grand  felt  that  I : In r e c e n t y e a r s basics are  and  just  areas Social  o f f e r e d two  the  this  possible  e m p h a s i s on  impression  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on  that  the b a s i c  the  teachers core  o f Math., L a n g u a g e A r t s , R e a d i n g , Studies, to a l e s s e r  some P.E. to  I get  there's  see b u t  - not  the  t h e r e we  sort  such.  degree  o f P.E.  a r e and  something t h a t ' s been v e r y as A r t as  show the  t h a t t h e r e were a number  solutions. 14  knew  Science,  I would  like  I t h i n k Drama i s much n e g l e c t e d  as  of  87  15  R: Would y o u  16  I : B u t I y o u know I t h i n k teachers are  17  to concentrate  R: Would y o u do a n y t h i n g  1:1  pressure  on  on t h o s e a r e a s  that  t e s t e d y o u know a l m o s t ad nauseum.  teachers 18  there's  t o encourage  t o do more?  w o u l d b u t I w o u l d need h e l p  person  your  like  from a  y o u r s e l f who c o u l d  e n c o u r a g e them, o f f e r  talk  them i d e a s ,  resource t o them,  g e t them  going  22  1:1  think  t h a t a l o t o f them, p e r h a p s t h e uh  upper elementary t e a c h e r s  are quite  uncomfortable with  a subject  I f workshops c o u l d  be h e l d  it's  n o t t h e awesome t a s k  them seem t o t h i n k  like  drama u h .  uh t o show t h a t uh t h a t  i t i s I think  some o f that  might  help. ( T r a n s c r i p t A3)  Analysis  of the t r a n s c r i p t s  administrators varying  proved  of interviews  t o be q u i t e  with  d i f f i c u l t because of the  p o s i t i o n s expressed. A l l said  that  they  to the Board p o l i c y  (1982, #11, 7132) i n t h a t  considered  Arts  curriculum.  the Fine  senior  t o be an i m p o r t a n t  However, t h e c o n c e p t i o n s  subscribed  they  component o f t h e  o f the degree o f  88  i m p o r t a n c e w h i c h t h e y c u r r e n t l y do should  The  hold  Fine  Arts  role in are  self-expression, and  are  an  civilized  the  Arts  as  suggested elementary regular  level  the  the  the  Arts,  earlier  should  that  communication  as  education.  the  other  t h a n as  (up  Superintendent  to the  and  f o u r t h or She  or  at  described though  other  the  Studies.  need  for  to o f f e r i n s t r u c t i o n suggested  fifth  that  should  have some a r e a should  in  grade),  a d d e d , however, t h a t  a l l specialists  he  the  Social  stressed  consultants  necessary.  that  basics  "outgrowths" of  Language A r t s  and  hand,  Performing Arts  a l l g e n e r a l i s t teachers  generalize.  expression,  incoming Superintendent  years  specialization to  on  e x i s t as  s u c h as  s p e c i a l i s t s were n o t felt  regard  V i s u a l and  teachers  the  as  D2)  Assistant  highly-trained in  a v e h i c l e of  Superintendent,  programmes  While  a vehicle for  countries  the  Arts  education.  enrichment areas r a t h e r  that  the  e s s e n t i a l component o f what most  (Transcript  retiring  idealistically  considerably.  a fundamental  I : The  The  and  Assistant Superintendent described  playing 2  differed  hold  be  she of  prepared  89  All the  three  senior  district  t i m e and  has  the  administrators  a very  strong  B o a r d p o l i c y on  Arts  Fine  positions. believed  The  that  implemented continuing fiscal  however, t h e y a g a i n Assistant the  i n the  province  political  restraint,  personnel.  The  staff  of  the  programmes k e e p s t h e  cuts,  and  Ministry  districts  precedence over those of  a  i n - s e r v i c e r e l a t e d to  new  stated  the  the  districts,  on  the  other  having assessed  remote b e c a u s e  lines  work t o r e a l i z e  time frames. S u c c e s s f u l upon a s u s t a i n e d  with  articulated  that  needs and  these p r i o r i t i e s implementation,  new  of  stated new  incoming local  set  within  priorities, their  she.said,  school-based  indicated  take  carefully-planned  d i s t r i c t - b a s e d and  the  b o a r d . They a l s o  hand, f e l t  programme o f  trained  added t h a t  should  of  decisions,  absence of  implementation  local  he  being  o f f b a l a n c e " . Both  local  Arts  that  curriculum  in dealing  time  present  repeatedly.  Fine  i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The  Superintendent,  should  new  Superintendant  and  curriculum  this  cited  that  significantly different  were v e r y  that Ministry p r i o r i t i e s  that  took  the  the  intervention i n educational  retiring  "capriciousness  of  Superintendent  chances of  they f e l t  programme a t  A r t s was  When a s k e d a b o u t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n curriculum,  said that  own  depended and  in-service  activities.  Again,  there  seemed t o be  some m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  about  the  90  nature not  of the research p r o j e c t . While  only discussed  selection the of  before  and  a review  The  The A s s i s t a n t  expressed  supportive  an i n t e r e s t  having  while  interview with and l o c a l  school  implementation  supervised  a t the  o f t h e work t h r o u g h o u t i n the r e s u l t s  the school  Fine Arts p o l i c y .  the year  b u t was  not i n a  follow-up.  trustee focussed  graduation  She s a i d  requirements  on  that, i n  policy.  I t was  o f any o f f i c i a l  her o p i n i o n that the l o c a l  t h a t t h e V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g element  remained  and t h e d e l a y i n  of the Elementary Fine A r t s Curriculum,  s c h o o l b o a r d s h a d n o t been i n f o r m e d  vital  official  of the p u b l i c a t i o n of the M i n i s t e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n paper  secondary  states  any  actually  teaching  t o p r o p o s e any d i s t r i c t - b a s e d  provincial spite  a c t i n g without  devised  seemed t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n o r  of the proposal  u n i v e r s i t y , was  The  Superintendent  t h a t t h e work had been a scheme  incoming Superintendent,  position  b u t a l s o had s t u d i e d  of the research f i n d i n g s .  the d r a f t i n g  on  occurred.  o r c h e s t r a t e d by one t e a c h e r  sanction. Neither  and  population,  t h e work b e g a n , he seemed t o be unaware  what h a d a c t u a l l y  took the p o s i t i o n  had  t h e p r o c e d u r e and a s s i s t e d i n t h e  of the teacher  proposal  the Superintendent  i n the educational  i n l i n e with  policy  Arts  shift in  which  "constitute a  development of every  that of the province.  local  She  pupil"  concluded  91  that, in  as  stated i n policy,  the d i s t r i c t  in-service  The  in this  final  Chairperson local was  and  two  a s s o c i a t i o n and i n networking  Both i d e n t i f i e d  with the  the  successful in-service  (1)  from  interest  (4)  school-based  It  of  should  at d i s t r i c t  local  be  activities  noted than  the case  study  expressed  an  the  the  a school p r i n c i p a l  Young W r i t e r s  following factors in this  the who  Project in as  district:  additional  i n v o l v e a whole  were d i r e c t l y  interest during  and  the  ten teachers  e l e v e n who  took  of  involved in  became i n v o l v e d i n  course who  of the y e a r .  attended  p a r t i n the  w o r k s h o p , two  who  went t o t h e H e a t h c o t e  V a n c o u v e r and  two  who  enrolled  staff.  j u n c t u r e t h a t a number  s i x who  activities  Heathcote f i l m s ,  session.  with  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' meetings  which  at this  other  included  necessary.  principals  teachers  drama-related  provide  senior administration  (2) good p u b l i c i t y (3)  to  priority  P r o f e s s i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t Committee o f  elements of support  deemed  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d  instrumental  the d i s t r i c t .  the Board would c o n t i n u e a r e a where i t was  of the  teachers'  the A r t s would remain a  the  This  Dorothy  Offstage  sessions in  i n Drama c o u r s e s  at  summer  92 Chapter V  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS,  V.1  EVALUATION  AND  IMPLICATIONS  Summary  W h i l e t h e c u r r e n t d e b a t e on e x c e l l e n c e the  United  States  discipline-based the  has f o c u s s e d education  aesthetic disciplines  attenuation  increase  enrolling  are affecting  series  electives.  of delays  the opposite  i n most d i s t r i c t s  courses  level,  encouraged  some t o s p e c u l a t e  been p e r m a n e n t l y  If the  there  believe who  that  a continuing  this  curriculum  curriculum  t o these  moves  s y s t e m , i t must come f r o m t h o s e  i n the fundamental  has  role  T h i s p r o j e c t was d e v e l o p e d on t h e a r t s ,  within  people  who  of the a r t s i n education  and  are i n p o s i t i o n s to put t h e i r  attention  as w e l l  shelved.  i s t o be any c o u n t e r a c t i o n  p u b l i c school  who a r e  t h e p u b l i c a t i o n and  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e new E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s has  level,  required f o r  Arts courses  At the elementary  seems  and t h e p r o p o s e d  t h e number o f s t u d e n t s  affecting  towards  Columbia. At the secondary  i n t h e V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g  i n other  o f a t t e n t i o n on  and r e d i r e c t e d c o n c e r n  i n t h e number o f n o n - e l e c t i v e  graduation  as  of s t a f f  deal  i n particular,  t o be o c c u r r i n g i n B r i t i s h the  a great  i n education i n  commitments i n t o p r a c t i c e .  i n an a t t e m p t  specifically  to focus  teachers'  t h e D r a m a t i c A r t s , and  93  to a s s i s t learning  them i n f i n d i n g medium i n t h e i r  p r o j e c t was specific  intended  s u i t a b l e ways t o use classrooms.  t o examine t h e  intervention strategies  recommendations f o r a f u l l  The  d e s i g n of the  networking  model and  intervention interviews determine o f use  study  provided shifts  of the  a case  to  implementation  i s an  study,  plan.  on  observations  stages  i n n o v a t i o n as w e l l as  popular  classroom-based and  t h e d a t a w h i c h were a n a l y z e d  i n teachers'  this  provide  a d a p t a t i o n of the  Classroom  a  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  and  concentrates  strategies.  As  drama as  teacher  to  of concern  and  levels  to i d e n t i f y  the  types  i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s v i e w e d as h a v i n g  of  b e e n most  valuable.  In e v a l u a t i n g the of the  design,  research, a series  formulated  and  additional  the procedures  d a t a were c o l l e c t e d  from p r i n c i p a l s  questions  w h i c h a r e b a s e d on W o r t h e n and  Standards and  ( i n press)  the f i n d i n g s  of e v a l u a t i v e q u e s t i o n s  teachers,  Guidelines  and  and  from d i s t r i c t  as w e l l as  on  was  from  other  staff.  These  Sanders'  the J o i n t  Committee's  f o r E v a l u a t i o n s of E d u c a t i o n a l Programs, P r o j e c t s  Materials  (1981) a p p e a r as A p p e n d i x  N.  94  V.2  Conclusions  I t would appear fiscal  from  constraints,  instructional  individual  learning.  f a c t o r s which f o s t e r  school  v a r y from and  identified  study that  from by  There  and w h i c h  that  this  of time  s u c h change  and  will  a r e , however, a number o f inhibit  change. While  classroom to classroom,  district  c o n s i d e r a t i o n by  in spite  teachers w i l l incorporate  change i f t h e y f e e l  enhance s t u d e n t  factors  this  to d i s t r i c t ,  r e s e a r c h might  well  from  school to  those which be  taken  anyone p l a n n i n g a s i m i l a r  these  are  into  in-service  project.  In t h i s  case, the i n h i b i t i n g  f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d  as  follows: (1) P r o v i n c i a l Elementary  - The  d e l a y i n the r e l e a s e  Fine Arts curriculum guides  m a t e r i a l s has and  politics  caused  and  to reconsider t h e i r  activities y e a r had spring  anticipated  w o u l d have t o be  begun t o s h i f t  o f 1984  Professional  that  scheduled  implementation  i n t h e 1984-85 s c h o o l  for allocation  Development budget  Thus  1983-84  t o o t h e r a r e a s o f c o n c e r n by  when d e c i s i o n s  level  priorities.  the support f o r the study a t the b e g i n n i n g of the y e a r when i t was  the  resource  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at the d i s t r i c t  a t the school l e v e l  school  of  of  the  the  f u n d s were b e i n g made.  95  Since  the  implementation of  the  Fine  Arts  curriculum  implies  a number o f p r o b l e m s w h i c h many w o u l d r a t h e r  avoid  with,  speculation  a  this  senior  delay  administrator  permanently W i t h no  could  shelved  official  continue  to give  retrain  that  the  would tend  to a c t ,  local  r e l i e v e d of  to the will  the  a r e a s and  i n w h i c h many f e e l  quoting  be  to  o f as  particularly  to  in-service  (2)  i s needed a t t h i s  Intervention  Offstage  by  senior  w o r k s h o p was  Committee on I t was  the  that  s u c h an  focussing  a t t e n t i o n on later,  a part  this  the  being  of  to  specialty  these  In  the  teachers  first  J o i n t Management administrator.  o f a two-day P r o f e s s i o n a l  planned  Arts  - The  a senior  following a  at which time i t  e v e n t m i g h t be the  of having  time.  researcher  suggested  time  as  of  i n which a d d i t i o n a l  administration  w h i c h was  the  one  c a n c e l l e d by  then re-scheduled  discussion with  as  recommendation of  Development a f f a i r  short  area  continue  inadequate.  are  this  able  A number  e x t e r n a l l y imposed c h a n g e s , few identify  may  a r t s by  absence of likely  been  such a p o s i t i o n .  prospect  i n areas which they conceive  by  decision-makers  they c u r r e n t l y e x i s t . be  has  to manifest  i n d i v i d u a l schools  a l s o may  The  curriculum  t o k e n commitment  programmes as  teachers  a welcome one.  pressure  B o a r d p o l i c y and with  be  dealing  and  on  e v e n t a l s o was  an  lengthy was  effective  the  new  means o f  curriculum.  c a n c e l l e d and  it  was  A  96  only  through the  co-operation  Pro-D Committee and the  initial  requested  and  able  times,  t h e w o r k s h o p and  who  intervention  a t the  (3)  Teacher  Tye,  and  of  wide-scale of  the  cliches  interviews  by  the  classroom  realize  that  of  isolation.  this  from the ideas  teachers  rest  into  and  are  case  are  a teacher's  were  of  the  w h i c h was  those  (Tye  individual  educational recent  to  of  article  reform.  period  of  quoted d u r i n g doors are  one  closed  whose p h i l o s o p h i e s ,  protected  by  the  four  walls  to  more f r e q u e n t l y u n w i l l i n g v i c t i m s separated  f r o m one  another  community. T h e r e i s l i t t l e  a general  who  study.  d o o r . However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t  between c l a s s r o o m s ,  venture  isolation  some t e a c h e r s  They a r e  of the  t o a n o t h e r . As  Kappan  suggests that teachers'  materials  the  led also  i n Goodlad's Study  i n f l u e n c e on  reform  There are  m e t h o d o l o g i e s and  the  t h a t emerged f r o m t h e  curriculum  has  i n t o a second year  i n a recent  a profound  to innovations.  and  found  pp.319-322), the  has  the  to extend  - As  that  commitments. S i m i l a r  w h i c h were p a r t o f  expressed  1984,  classroom One  isolation  the  were keen t o a t t e n d ,  Management l e v e l  c a n c e l l a t i o n of plans  Schooling and  Joint  activities  of  meant t h a t a number o f t h o s e  so b e c a u s e o f o t h e r  in-service  chairperson  to proceed. Unfortunately  u n a b l e t o do  the  the  Primary Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n  w o r k s h o p was  changes i n dates had  the  of  among s c h o o l s rule,  the  classroom  only are  or  f r o m one  other the  sharing  and of  district  adults  occasional  to  97  substitute volunteer  t e a c h e r , t h e c u s t o d i a n , and, aide. V i s i t s  superintendent delivery on  by  the p r i n c i p a l  a r e r a r e and  o f m a t e r i a l s and  primarily  out  w i t h i n the  and  individual  of t h a t classroom  either  o r by  or  by  m a t e r i a l s which  the  of  i n order  classroom  to report are  are r a r e l y  teacher  a  the  f o r purposes  instructions  t e a c h e r performance. Ideas  developed  i n some c a s e s ,  o r by  taken  the  administrators.  This such is  factor  has  as t h e one  particular  significance  i n which t h i s  s t u d y was  the area g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d  t h e community and population  (4)  and  Teaching  a rigidly  kindergarten  drain  could  not  direct  would  like  stable  year.  She  very and  as much a t t e n t i o n  seniority  structure.  Cadre F r a n g a i s  t o have done. I t has  p r o g r a m and stable  a very  time  leave f o r the next  only  school d i s t r i c t  e s t a b l i s h e d power  on h e r  Because of d e c l i n i n g  but  Not  within  t o f o u r t h g r a d e and  The  conducted. i t has  assignment t h i s  material.  district  also  a s s i g n m e n t - The  very d i f f i c u l t  requested  w i t h i n the  in a  enrollment,  children  limited  energy  was  such  l e d t o her  fiscal  as  that she  having  restraint  clauses, a small d i s t r i c t  t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n sees  from  year.  the  a  resource  to the p r o j e c t  also  school  had  t e a c h e r had  with  a  a number o f c h a n g e s i n  she  98  teaching  assignments each year.  Two o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e  t e a c h e r s who were i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t transferred one  to junior  of these  experiment being  teachers continued  with  informed  to extend  secondary  of this  or t o share  the l o c a l  principal with  level  s c h o o l s i n September. to develop  c h a n g e , he w i l l the ideas t h i s  While  s t r a t e g i e s and after  coming  year.  in  implementation  i n interviews with the  who h a s b e e n i n v o l v e d w i t h  the w r i t i n g  project,  o f t h e Pro-D Committee as w e l l as w i t h  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . That  f a c t o r was t h e s t a t u s o f t h e  change a g e n t .  A l l three suggested  inappropriate  f o r an i n d i v i d u a l  professional  be  n o t be i n a p o s i t i o n  - A key f a c t o r  was i d e n t i f i e d  the Chairperson  senior  year w i l l  t h e u s e o f drama i n h i s c l a s s r o o m  (5) S t a t u s o f change a g e n t at  this  teacher  development a c t i v i t y  also a school p r i n c i p a l  t h a t i t i s seen as  unless  to i n i t i a t e  that teacher i s  o r a member o f d i s t r i c t  the d i s c u s s i o n s which took  a  place a t the J o i n t  s t a f f . In  Management  Committee's p l a n n i n g meetings r e g a r d i n g d e c i s i o n s t o fund the workshops d u r i n g t h e c u r r e n t year school year, this  single  the negative decisions ultimately factor  - i t was an i d e a p r e s e n t e d  t e a c h e r , n o t by a p r i n c i p a l , administrative surprising Flanders'  and d u r i n g t h e coming  staff  then report  r e s t e d on by one  n o t by a member o f d i s t r i c t  and n o t by an o f f i c i a l  t h a t one o f t h e f a c t o r s (1980) on p r o f e s s i o n a l  group.  identified development  I t i s not i n the i n the  99  province  i s that of the i n d i v i d u a l  teacher's  sense of  inadequacy.  The  study  also identified  f a c t o r s which f o s t e r  change.  These i n c l u d e d :  (1) by  Support  from peers  the three  interviewed having  school p r i n c i p a l s ,  impact  l e s s o n s were  by f i v e  and by t h e C h a i r p e r s o n  significant  particular  - The model  identified  of the s i x teachers  o f t h e Pro-D Committee as  on t h e change p r o c e s s .  This  i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y was s e e n t o have  encouraged  teachers  t o experiment with  the innovation f o r several  reasons.  First,  a type  i t provided  change a g e n t . T e a c h e r s t e a c h e r was w i l l i n g another with  classroom  seemed t o f e e l  t o devote time  and t o r i s k  an u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s  should  be w i l l i n g  some r i s k s  activities  as w e l l .  it  how t h e i r provided  develop  time  i t occurred  of a  time  then  they  and t a k e  i n school  time.  The  and weekends f o r i n - s e r v i c e of s p e c i f i c  teachers with  interest to  the opportunity to  reacted to the innovation.  teachers with  peer  and e n e r g y a r e so h e a v y t h a t few  i t i s an a r e a  students  or extend.  i n front  i n an u n f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g ,  Second,  them. T h i r d , i t p r o v i d e d see  and e n e r g y t o v i s i t  failure  t o g i v e up e v e n i n g s unless  that i f a fellow  t o g i v e up some o f t h e i r  demands on t e a c h e r s ' are w i l l i n g  of bonding with the  i d e a s which they  In f a c t ,  Finally,  might choose t o  a l l of the s i x teachers  said  100  that  they had a p p l i e d s u g g e s t i o n s  the  follow-up  (2)  I n t r o d u c t i o n o f i d e a s from  films, of six  the  memoranda.  Offstage  the authors teachers  exposed  which had been o u t l i n e d i n  Heathcote  book and f o l l o w - u p workshop w i t h one  were g e n e r a l l y w e l l - r e c e i v e d b u t f o u r o f t h e  suggested  t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t  t o the ideas through  interventions  o u t s i d e - The  the e a r l i e r  i n order to b e n e f i t  from  t o have been  classroom-based  these  other  activities.  (3) O p p o r t u n i t y she  felt  order  t o share  k n o w l e d g e - One t e a c h e r  to reflect  such  that  t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d have been more g r o u p m e e t i n g s i n on i n d i v i d u a l  successes  However, s h e added t h a t s h e was r e t i c e n t in  said  discussions f o r fear  g i v e . Another teacher successes  and f a i l u r e s . t o be t o o i n v o l v e d  o f t a k i n g more t h a n  suggested  that talking  she c o u l d  about  may be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d a s b e i n g b o a s t f u l .  the t e a c h e r ' s  sense  of inadequacy  one's Again,  i s evident.  (4) C a r i n g - T h i s f a c t o r  must.be a p a r t o f e a c h o f t h e  intervention  Teachers  are being meet t h o s e  strategies.  must f e e l  c o n s i d e r e d and t h a t an a t t e m p t needs. Teachers  professionals.  In keeping  that their  i s being  made t o  a l s o have t o be t r e a t e d a s with  a p p o i n t m e n t s were made t o v i s i t  this  concept,  needs  then,  each of the t e a c h e r s  101  personally  t o s e e i f t h e y w o u l d be w i l l i n g  to participate i n  t h e p r o j e c t . A r r a n g e m e n t s were made t o have a s e p a r a t e for  the luncheon  district  which they teacher  m e e t i n g w h i c h was h e l d as a p a r t o f t h e  p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t d a y . Time was t a k e n  each t e a c h e r  t o d i s c u s s t h e p r o j e c t and t o i d e n t i f y  m i g h t w i s h t o have model  chose a s u i t a b l e  the content maintained  time  throughout  f o r the v i s i t  the year  with  memoranda. The d a t e  with  areas i n  lessons presented.  each t e a c h e r  and t i m e  Each  and d e s i g n a t e d  and o b j e c t i v e f o r t h e l e s s o n . C o n t a c t  personalized  room  was through  f o r the f i l m  s e s s i o n , w h i c h was f o l l o w e d by d i s c u s s i o n and d i n n e r , was set  by a g r o u p c o n s e n s u s .  additional  visit  were t h e d a t e s evaluation  The t i m e  and c o n t e n t  was a l s o s e t by t h e i n d i v i d u a l  f o r the f i n a l  f o r each t e a c h e r s as  i n t e r v i e w s . Most o f t h e  f o r m s w h i c h were r e t u r n e d  after  the  Offstage  w o r k s h o p made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l u n c h e o n  w h i c h was  One  i s an  might conclude  t h a t the food  element o f the c a r i n g  Several as  u s e o f any t y p e  non-existent.  As a m e t h o d o l o g y , i t was  Once t e a c h e r s  content  areas  t h e u s e o f drama  seemed t o be v e r y  o f drama a c t i v i t i e s  s t r a t e g i e s which p r o v i d e d various  suggest  s t r a t e g y . However, t h e r e  w h i c h were v i s i t e d .  important  factor.  of the curriculum guides  a teaching  limited  factor  served.  i n the schools virtually  h a d been e x p o s e d t o t e a c h i n g  f o r t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f themes i n  through  t h e u s e o f drama, t h e r e was  102  evidence levels those  o f change i n t h e i r  o f use  o f drama i n t h e  teachers w i l l  learning  V.3  had  for further  To what  to experiment  a support  and  with  in  their  extent drama as  network i s y e t t o  a  be  change w o u l d have o c c u r r e d  b e e n v i e w e d as  an  i  authority figure is  research.  Evaluation  The study  p h i l o s o p h y which underpins - t h a t i s , the purpose of  drama t h e o r y and evaluation  techniques  in historical study  The  schools, learning  - is a reflection British  and  on  sound  y o u n g e r and expressed learning  o l d e r members o f  any  theory,  particular  and  and  American r e s e a r c h viewed m i g h t assume  the  principles.  teacher population included a selected teachers, primary  the  of r e l e v a n t ,  p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e r e f o r e , one  t o have been b a s e d  female  The  e a c h component o f  pedagogy, c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  contemporary Canadian,  and  of concern  classroom.  To what e x t e n t any  t h e change a g e n t subject  continue  medium w i t h o u t  determined.  stages  sample o f  intermediate teachers  staff,  interest  none o f whom  i n t h e use  mal and  had  o f drama as  medium.  activities  professional  were o r g a n i z e d  and  manner. C o m m u n i c a t i o n  conducted  l i n k s were  in a maintained  a  103  between t h e r e s e a r c h e r and study  and  t h e r e was  chairperson  to the other  and  with  in-service  collected observed  the  The  activities  p r o v i s i o n was  newly-appointed researcher  visits  from  with  who  learning  Superintendent  source noted  Responses  participants  was  would  a l s o had  earlier  visited  the documentation b e f o r e p a s s i n g  of  the the  the  suggest  that  findings  that  in  the c h a i r p e r s o n of  Superintendent  the  as  outcomes.  a credible  indicates and  o f use  confirmed  D e v e l o p m e n t Committee and  Superintendent  i t was  from  teachers, p r i n c i p a l s ,  the r e t i r i n g  the  analyzed.  made f o r t h e t e s t i n g  i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be  doubted both although  by  and  of t e a c h e r s ' l e v e l s  those p r i n c i p a l s  the P r o f e s s i o n a l  Assistant  gathered  d u r i n g the classroom  response  have  teachers confirm those r e a c t i o n s  o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n on  reaction  collected  as d a t a . E v i d e n c e  c l a s s r o o m s . No  may  senior administration.  selected  interviews with  effect  Committee.  t o m a i n t a i n adequate communication  d a t a were c a r e f u l l y  than  Development  the  the  of the major weaknesses of the p r o j e c t  been t h e f a i l u r e  The  throughout  also regular contact with  of the P r o f e s s i o n a l  However, one  principals  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  that  the  source. and  However,  from  t h e y may  the  have  of the r e s e a r c h  n e i t h e r wished  judgement.  to  study  104  I t was  generally  chairperson  of  the  responded to  project  The  costs  the  a g r e e d by  Professional  incurred  f o r the  classroom v i s i t s  researcher's  preparation  a substitute  teacher  mimimum l e v y  on  dinner  researcher.  The  local  covered  the  cost  of  rentals  and  the  Offstage  l e s s than f i v e  w o u l d have c o s t teachers  to  v i e w e d as  and  May  workshop,  Development  luncheon, of  w o r k s h o p . The  a variety  would  successful.  use  of  innovation,  of  send  that  strategies  drama i n t h e the  s u p p o r t and i t was  a  catering  expenditure  the  unsuccessful.  the  it  six  project the  is six  experiences.  will  classroom,  extend  that  i n terms of  project  the  film  each of  that  for  Committee  the  total  in-service  indicate  However, s i n c e  need  Other than  a s i n g l e o u t - o f - t o w n workshop, the  actual  no  hundred d o l l a r s . C o n s i d e r i n g  offered  the  l u n c h e o n were b o r n e by  initial  identifying intervention  this  the  Professional  the  programme w h i c h w i l l of  the  classes.  n i n e hundred d o l l a r s to  evaluation  teachers' was  and  at  that  were  during  t h e r e was  h a v i n g been c o s t - e f f e c t i v e s i n c e  t e a c h e r s was  This  that  the  need.  were c o n d u c t e d  t o c o v e r her  charges f o r the  local  in-service activities  t i m e so  participants  p r i n c i p a l s and  D e v e l o p m e n t Committee  a specific  m i n i m a l . The  was  teachers,  has  testing lead  the not  to  project led to  implementation  Those  elements  a  105  w h i c h have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d as s t r e n g t h s o f t h e  project  include: (1)  theoretical  underpinning  (2)  organization  (3)  establishment with  (4)  and m a i n t e n a n c e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k s  participants  provision between  f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s  each p a r t i c i p a n t  (5)  modelling  of teaching  (6)  cost  (7)  changes i n t e a c h e r s '  and t h e change a g e n t  strategies  effectiveness  levels  stages of concern  and  of use  (8)  systematic data c o l l e c t i o n  (9)  analysis  (10)  balanced  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a reporting  E l e m e n t s w h i c h have been i d e n t i f i e d as w e a k n e s s e s project  context  (2)  audience i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  (3)  political  analysis  viability  evaluation  would i n d i c a t e  have b e e n s u c c e s s f u l with  of the  include:  (1)  This  and  full  publicized  the p r o j e c t  i f i t had b e e n p i l o t e d i n one  involvement  participation  that  o f t h e p r i n c i p a l and  of a l l teachers.  at d i s t r i c t  Results  administrators'  may school  voluntary  w o u l d t h e n have b e e n m e e t i n g s and  other  106  s c h o o l s may priority  have b e e n e n c o u r a g e d  f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development  year.  Caution  since  teachers  that  w o u l d be may  i t i s being  produce  V.4  to i d e n t i f y  not  needed w i t h accept  imposed  and  the  this  i n the  this  as  coming  approach,  a school  however,  i n n o v a t i o n i f they  that there  i s an  feel  expectation  to  results.  I m p l i c a t i o n s and  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r  Research  T u r n i n g and t u r n i n g i n t h e w i d e n i n g gyre The f a l c o n does n o t h e a r t h e f a l c o n e r ; Things f a l l a p a r t ; the c e n t r e cannot h o l d ; Mere a n a r c h y i s l o o s e d upon t h e w o r l d . The blood-dimmed t i d e i s l o o s e d , and e v e r y w h e r e The ceremony o f i n n o c e n c e i s drowned; The b e s t l a c k a l l c o n v i c t i o n , w h i l e t h e w o r s t Are f u l l of p a s s i o n a t e i n t e n s i t y . (W.B. The  review  reiterates in  the  The  of the  the v i t a l  h e a l i n g of the  p r e s e n t a t i o n and  such  as G a v i n  Yeats,  The  literature  fragmentation d i s c u s s i o n of  B o l t o n and  work t h a t g i v e s them t h e reinterpret  participation that  those  continue  who  and  r o l e which the  Coming)  of the arts  t h e work o f  aesthetic experience.  t o work t o e s t a b l i s h  the  of a r t s  play  describes. educators the  of d e r i v i n g  to explore,  b e l i e v e i n the v a l u e  should  suggests  are capable  freedom  and  which Yeats  t h e human c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h i n the  research  can  Dorothy Heathcote  d e g r e e o f meaning t h a t c h i l d r e n  to  Second  to create  from and  their It is  imperative  education  aesthetic disciplines  as  107  p a r t of the  This  core  study  curriculum.  has  implementation  r e a f f i r m e d the  strategies  importance  t h a t meet t h e  of  developing  needs o f  individual  t e a c h e r w i t h i n the  context  classroom.  It illustrates  i m p o r t a n c e o f making p r o v i s i o n  for  modelling,  identifies  Further such  testing,  research  i s needed  a p r o j e c t as d e v e l o p e d  on-going  does t h e  study  do  inhibit  the use  the  in-service  Is i t p o s s i b l e t o s t r i k e teacher-controlled  and  acceptance  single  activities  levels  intended  of  include:  of  lead  use?  o f drama as  a  l e a r n i n g outcomes?  external factors and  success  extended w i t h i n a addressed  It also  occur.  implementation  medium d e l i v e r  (3) To what e x t e n t this  do  w h i c h may  increase i n teachers'  (2) To what e x t e n t learning  and  teacher's  interaction.  to determine the  t h a t must be  To what e x t e n t to continued  (4)  f e e d b a c k and  some o f t h e p i t f a l l s  school. Questions (1)  the  of t h a t  the  identified of the  the p e r f e c t balance  management-controlled  in  innovation? between innovation?  108 BIBLIOGRAPHY A d l e r , Mortimer J . (1982). The P a i d e i a P r o p o s a l , An E d u c a t i o n a l M a n i f e s t o . New Y o r k . M a c M i l l a n . Berman, P a u l and M c L a u g h l i n , M i l b r e y W a l l i n . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . F e d e r a l Programs S u p p o r t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l Cahnge, Volume V I I I : I m p l e m e n t i n g and S u s t a i n i n g I n n o v a t i o n s . S a n t a M o n i c a , C a l i f o r n i a . Rand C o r p o r a t i o n . . Black,  Sam.(1984). An E d u c a t i o n T h r o u g h A r t ; The Need i s Now. I n R o n a l d N. M a c G r e g o r ( E d . ) , R e a d i n g s i n Canadian A r t Education University of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . WEDGE.  Bohm, D a v i d . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . 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What do you t r y t o h e l p s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o do? ( L i m i t y o u r s e l f t o f o u r and c l a s s i f y two as p r i o r i t i e s . ) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  l e a r n the b a s i c s k i l l s think c r i t i c a l l y get along with others a c q u i r e knowledge develop o r i g i n a l i t y & creativity (f) s o l v e p r o b l e m s (g) p r e p a r e f o r t h e " r e a l world" (h) d e v e l o p a w a r e n e s s ( i ) communicate effectively (j) o t h e r M e t h o d o l o g y : Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a p p r o a c h e s do you f a v o u r ? (a) d r i l l and p r a c t i c e OR d i s c o v e r y and experimentation? (b) s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s OR t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s ? (c) q u e s t i o n i n g OR telling? (d) l a r g e g r o u p work OR s m a l l g r o u p work? Content: (a) Have you  (b) C o u l d  (c)  How  (d) How you  you  ever  done any  d e s c r i b e the  w o u l d you  say  the  w o u l d you s a y t h e y d i d w i t h them?  drama w i t h y o u r  type  o f m a t e r i a l w h i c h you  students  feel  students?  feel  used?  a b o u t drama i n g e n e r a l ?  about the  type  o f work w h i c h  117  4.  Curriculum: (a) To what e x t e n t do y o u u s e t h e c u r r i c u l u m y o u r work and c h o o s e y o u r m a t e r i a l s ?  guides  to  plan  (b) Do you f i n d p r o v i n c i a l l y d e v e l o p e d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s u s e f u l ? ( t o o p r e s c r i p t i v e ? demanding? c h a l l e n g i n g ? realistic?)  (c) What do y o u know a b o u t t h e E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s which i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g developed?  (d) What i s y o u r o p i n i o n a b o u t t h e  (e) Do y o u f e e l generalists  5.  i n t e g r a t i o n of  t h a t the Fine A r t s should o r s p e c i a l i s t s ? Why?  be  curriculum  the  taught  Fine  Arts?  by  Impact:  (a) What i m p a c t w o u l d you e x p e c t t h e drama component o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m m i g h t h a v e on y o u i n t e r m s o f y o u r r o l e ? t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s ? background knowledge? time? d a i l y preparation? classroom organization?  new  118 APPENDIX B - MODEL LESSONS  1983  10  26  T e a c h e r B2/  This  Location  l e s s o n was  B/  Grade  a fifty  classroom teacher  had  V  minute i n t r o d u c t o r y  lesson.  requested a pre-writing  The  activity  for  Hallowe'en.  1.  Introduction  talking life  to the  she  that  will  does n o t again  and  teacher  adults  also explains  when she  to  teacher  students  they are  returns  i s someone e l s e .  willing she  asks the  s o m e t h i n g . She  room b u t  visiting  s p e n d s a few  l e t her  She  she  that  asks the  play with  and  will  that  she  be  will  to the  leaves  the  teacher's  She  w a i t s f o r a s t u d e n t t o answer h e r , right  is  the  office  a d d r e s s . She of  the  The  to  experts the  that  are  if  that she  Scott  visiting  room.  T e a c h e r - i n - R o l e - The  the  that  become Mrs.  chair.  2.  at  i f they  but  able  soon l e a v e  then explains  believe return  will  students  them. She  she  they are  making b e l i e v e  i n her  i n them t h a t  real  i f t h e y w o u l d be  t r y t o make them b e l i e v e  then  minutes  g r o u p a b o u t p r e t e n d , m a k e - b e l i e v e and  a c t i o n s . She  make b e l i e v e at  - The  visitor  t h e n k n o c k s on  says t h a t  she  the  door.  t h e n a s k s i f she believes  (....) House E x p e r t s .  She  that  is  this  is invited  in  119 and  she then e x p l a i n s  t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h s h e seems t o be  having w i t h h e r house.(The d e s c r i p t i o n c o u l d conclusion  that  decide to v i s i t  3. is  quite  if  a distance  i tthat  t o h e r home and s i n c e  i t w o u l d be b e s t  Student N a r r a t i o n positioned  describe  student-experts  - The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e  a r c h i t e c t s , e t c . who w i s h t o v i s i t  inspect  suggests that i t  there  to charter  and D e s c r i p t i o n  on t h e b u s . They c l o s e  their  first  impressions  a r e so many-  t h e house t o a bus.  - The s t u d e n t s their  s i t as  e y e s and q u i e t l y  t h e j o u r n e y t o t h e h o u s e . The t e a c h e r  also to give  to the  t h e house.  Whole Group Work  expert  4.  t h e h o u s e i s h a u n t e d ) . The  lead  asks  them  o f h e r h o u s e when t h e y  a r r i v e a t the entrance t o the driveway.  5.  S m a l l Group Work  separate parts  - S t u d e n t s form  6.  and c h a l l e n g e  Enactment  their  theories.  this  activity  teacher  to support,  i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s as n e c e s s a r y .  L a r g e Group D i s c u s s i o n  d i s c o v e r i e s and t h e i r  7.  g r o u p s and go t o  o f t h e h o u s e t o i n v e s t i g a t e . The  moves i n and o u t o f r o l e d u r i n g discipline  small  - Students  share  their  theories.  - Students plan  presentations  based  upon  120  1983  11  17  Teacher A l / L o c a t i o n  This  l e s s o n was  A/  Grade  a forty-five  classroom teacher  had  II  minute i n t r o d u c t o r y  requested  d e a l i n g w i t h a n o t h e r community  1.  Introduction  children action.  the She  - The  a Social  teacher  by  helping  is  a g i a n t . They d i s c o v e r  before  a very  others  asks the  will  a child  and  again  and the  believe  that  and  life.  t o make o t h e r s has  i n him.  The  going  they are  They  experiment  believe  like  in  that  himself then  t o t r y some  have t o work that  a d u l t s . They a g r e e t o t h e f o r the  he  teacher  t o have t o b e l i e v e  chair i s established  the  difference  visiting  they w i l l  with  make-believe  to b e l i e v e  whole c l a s s would  t e l l s them t h a t  teacher  she  task  ( i n case  i s needed).  2.  Teacher-in-Role  the  teacher-in-role  is  real  t h a t he  hard because they are  is  it  boy  c h i l d r e n i f the  m a k e - b e l i e v e . She very  small  Columbia.  them a b o u t t h e  between m a k e - b e l i e v e a c t i o n and  The  lesson  discusses  d i f f e r e n c e between p r e t e n d also talks with  Studies  in British  visiting  lesson.  very  shy  and  has  children-in-role explains  t h a t her  as  - The  s t u d e n t s move t o t h e  comes t o t o be  the  outside  of  the  carpet  and  group.  She  l e d i n by  one  of  a caring adult.  The  teacher-in-role  best  friend,  Lara,  has  the  gone away and  the  121  only clue that  s h e h a s a r e t h e two words " P r i n c e G e o r g e "  w h i c h she p r i n t s  (with d i f f i c u l t y )  on t h e b o a r d .  She does  n o t know what i t means and when s h e i s g i v e n t h e name wonders i f t h a t means t h a t L a r a has gone t o v i s i t o r a p l a c e . Someone o f f e r s name o f a c i t y  3.  the information that  P r i n c e G e o r g e and t h e home d i s t r i c t are provided with photographs,  (b) C o u l d L a r a ' s  - A map i s f o u n d a r e found.  friend  travel  The c h i l d r e n which  there?  also  t o guide  she t r a v e l ?  s h o u l d she t a k e w i t h  discussion,  as n e c e s s a r y children  and b o t h  here?  (d) What t y p e o f c l o t h i n g  The  i s the  s k e t c h maps, e t c . f r o m  (c) By what means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w o u l d  role  this  t h e answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s :  (a) I s i t f a r f r o m  Throughout t h i s  person  up n o r t h .  D i s c u s s i o n i n and o u t o f r o l e  they determine  a  her?  t h e t e a c h e r moves i n and o u t o f the inquiry  and t h e d i s c o v e r y .  t e n d t o move i n and o u t o f r o l e b u t  continue to maintain the caring  attitude  throughout  this  exercise. The  d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s f o c u s s e s on t h e p r o b l e m s  m i g h t be e n c o u n t e r e d  including  the i n i t i a l  which  problems of  o b t a i n i n g p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n and f u n d i n g .  4.  Working i n P a i r s  - C h i l d r e n ask parents  and  money f o r t h e t r i p .  f o r permission  122  1983  11 22  T e a c h e r A2/ L o c a t i o n  A/ G r a d e s K t o IV  T h i s was a f o r t y - f i v e  minute  lesson concentrating  movement. The t e a c h e r  was a n x i o u s  e x e r c i s e s which would i n v o l v e and  1.  girls,  kindergarten  Warm-up Game  play w i l l i n g l y .  to identify  on  games and  a l l of the c h i l d r e n  to fourth  (boys  grade).  - T a g i s a game t h a t c h i l d r e n o f a l l ages  By a d d i n g  the concepts of f a s t  m o t i o n and  s l o w m o t i o n t h e game becomes somewhat more i n t e r e s t i n g and more  2.  challenging.  Isolations  - Children  through a s e r i e s o f slow  3.  D r a m a t i z e d movements  children  find  their  own s p a c e s and work  isolations.  - From c o n t r a c t i o n s  and s t r e t c h e s ,  a r e l e d i n t o movements a s p u p p e t s and a s r o b o t s .  (They a r e a l l o w e d  t o add sound e f f e c t s f o r t h e l a t t e r ) .  4.  Concentration  and c o - o r d i n a t i o n  had  difficulty  with  the previous  Winking Murder i s p l a y e d concentrate. confidence,  - Some o f t h e c h i l d r e n  exercise,  s o a game o f  t o e n c o u r a g e them t o r e l a x and t o  A f t e r t h e y have d e v e l o p e d a b i t more the mechanical walking e x e r c i s e  (robots) i s  123  repeated.  A mirroring exercise  i s then i n t r o d u c e d t o develop  concentration.  A movement s e q u e n c i n g e x e r c i s e falling)  i s used  Finally,  s t u d e n t s a r e asked  cool  tip-toe.  also  pour,  i n this  to physicalize  pop, d r i p ,  the f o l l o w i n g  b a r k , bounce,  bubble,  (The p r o g r e s s i o n h e r e a l l o w s s t u d e n t s t o  down and t o c a l m  Students  jumping,  t o d e v e l o p c o n c e n t r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  words: push, p u l l , sleep,  (running, stopping,  class  down.)  a r e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g so t h e l e s s o n  s e r v e d as t h e E n g l i s h  lesson  f o r t h a t day.  124  1983  11  22  T e a c h e r C2/  This  l e s s o n was  classroom  1.  Location  teacher  her  on  had  the  real  very  the  v i s i t i n g teacher  life  2.  a s k s them i f t h e y  believe  t r y t o make them b e l i e v e  approaches the being  the  that  that  she  is a  teacher-in-role  a r a i n y day.  theme o f  children will  treat  the the  This  c r e a t i o n of  to  she  adults  as the  asks and  Whole G r o u p D r a m a t i z e d  make-believe  animals.  Movement  she  child.  as  a  child  i s used  to  to ensure  that  make-believe  animals s e r i o u s l y .  3.  so  try  problems r e l a t e d  strategy  poem as w e l l  they are  willing  they are  c h i l d r e n w i t h a s e r i e s of  i n s i d e on  introduce the  actions.  a s k s i f t h e y w o u l d be  - The  students  pretend,  She  The  activity.  They d i s c u s s  d i f f i c u l t make b e l i e v e . They a g r e e and  Teacher i n Role  lesson.  asks the  good a t make b e l i e v e . They s u g g e s t t h a t  them t o t r y t o make h e r will  a Language A r t s  v i s i t i n g teacher  carpet.  are  minute i n t r o d u c t o r y  requested  - The  m a k e - b e l i e v e and  some v e r y  Grade I  a forty-five  Introduction  to j o i n  C7  - Children  create  to  125  4. to  Dramatized their  desks  a poem t h a t day. to are  Reading so t h a t  talks  The v i s i t i n g  - The c h i l d r e n  a b o u t what someone m i g h t  do on a r a i n y  teacher then asks the readers i n the c l a s s  t o v o l u n t e e r t o be s p e c i a l  members o f t h e c l a s s t o y s i n t h e a t t i c . The  r e a d e r s a c t a s a c h o r u s and t h e r e m a i n d e r mice o r a i r p l a n e s  to return  t h e y c a n s e e t h e b o a r d where t h e r e i s  h e l p h e r r e a d t h e poem. I n d i v i d u a l asked  a r e asked  on c u e .  become e l e p h a n t s ,  126  1983  11 23  Teacher B l / L o c a t i o n  This  B/ G r a d e V I I  l e s s o n was a f i f t y - m i n u t e i n t r o d u c t o r y  classroom teacher  had r e q u e s t e d  the  study of the novel,  1.  Introduction  some drama work r e l a t e d t o  B a n n e r i n t h e Sky .  - By making r e f e r e n c e  t o f i l m and  television,  the v i s i t i n g teacher  role-taking  and c l a r i f i e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  role-taking  i n real  believe  believe.  the concept of between  s i t u a t i o n s and r o l e - t a k i n g i n make  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p r e t e n d i n g  She e s t a b l i s h e s  t o be b e l i e v e d  Discussion  with the real general  discusses  s i t u a t i o n s . She a l s o r e l a t e s a p e r s o n a l  illustrate  2.  life  l e s s o n . The  an e x p e c t a t i o n  when they- a r e a s k e d  that  and making t h e y w i l l work  t o t a k e on r o l e s .  - The f i c t i o n a l h e r o , R u d i M a t t , hero featured  discussion  i n the l o c a l  on a c t i o n s  that  incident to  i s compared  newspaper. There i s  m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d  as  heroic.  3.  Interviewing  taking role  i n pairs  - S t u d e n t s work i n p a i r s w i t h one  on t h e r o l e o f a r e p o r t e r  of a hero.  and t h e o t h e r  taking  on t h e  127  4.  Discussion  shared  with  - Information  the whole group. Students  t h e m o t i v a t i o n s and situations  5.  - In groups of f o u r or f i v e ,  to i l l u s t r a t e  individuals  on  to act  the  to focus  on  i n v o l v e d i n the  television  incidents  the  tableaux with  students  are  accompanying  s i t u a t i o n s which c a l l e d  on  heroically.  Media E x t e n s i o n s  preparing  interviews i s  are asked  e m o t i o n s t h a t w o u l d be  given the task of c r e a t i n g  6.  i n the  identified.  Tableaux  headlines  gathered  - Students  are assigned  the  tasks  i n t e r v i e w s o r newspaper s t o r i e s  presented.  of  based  128  1983  11  30  Teacher CI/  This  l e s s o n was  classroom the  1.  Location  had  Studies  Introduction  contract  Grade  a forty-five  teacher  Social  C/  w i t h the  some drama work r e l a t e d  visiting  students  teacher  establishes  a s k s them w h e t h e r t h e y w i s h t o be  children.  They c h o o s e t o be  - The  older  teacher-in-role  a d v e r t i s e m e n t w h i c h she  n e w s p a p e r . She China to gather up  a s e r i e s of  information  t o come b a c k w i t h t h e the  agency i n p l e a s i n g  3.  Discussion  areas that  has  suggests that  tours.  She  placed  as  that w i l l  explains  following  possible  itinerary  be help  that  a  adults  a travel  information  their  c u s t o m e r s and  or  important  agent  answered  campus  travelling the  to  agency to be  their  that w i l l  set job  assist  i n making money.  then asked to  sub-topics:  have  i t will  type of  t h e y b e l i e v e w o u l d be  the  i n the  they w i l l  - Students are  identify  to  teenagers.  a p p r o a c h e s a g r o u p o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s who an  The  t o t r y some m a k e - b e l i e v e work  She  Teacher-in-Role  lesson.  China.  with her.  2.  minute i n t r o d u c t o r y  requested  u n i t on  - The  VI  to  identify study.  the They  129  means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n foods souvenirs recreation  and  sports  entertainment special travel  interest  stops  precautions  costs  4.  Research  - The  students  choose the  areas  i n which  a r e , m o s t i n t e r e s t e d . A number o f books a r e p r o v i d e d and  they  begin  5.  Discussion  p o s s i b l y be share  their  - This  completed  i n f o r m a t i o n and  encountering.  research  i s an during  they  f o r them  work.  on-going a c t i v i t y the  single  and  period.  d i s c u s s problems which they  could  not  Students have b e e n  130  1984  04  02  Teacher B l / L o c a t i o n  This  is a fifty  requested  that  B/  Grade  minute p r e - w r i t i n g s t u d e n t s be  w h i c h t h e y must s t a t e an  in  prior discussions not  that  k e e n on  the  visiting  she  has  class  not  that  (Since  moving t o t h e is  the  being  she  will  these are  secondary  a r r a n g e programmes f o r t h e The  visiting  teacher  a b o u t some o f at  both of  explained at  the  the  the that  senior  implementing There w i l l students.  c l a s s i s very  fond  of  the  i n order  such t h i s  be  discussing  be (The  no  time.  school coming  recognize  However,  In  fact,  programming  seventh graders,  for  they w i l l  i n September.  counsellors  the  be  April  visit  to  year).  that  she be  has  come t o  occurring  talk  next  year  j u n i o r secondary  schools.  It is  t o accommodate t h e  proposed  changes  secondary, that the  course,  Drama t e a c h e r .  changes t h a t w i l l  district's  Physical  Studies.  as  explains  assignment established  j u n i o r secondary schools  month t h a t  has  been  - Students, of  been i n t r o d u c e d  is told  next year.  as  teacher  I t has  Social  Establishing situation  The  for a written  opinion.  the  1.  teacher  activity.  prepared  in  E d u c a t i o n but  VII  the  j u n i o r secondary w i l l  following policy in Physical  Education  be  September: f o r Grade  r a t i o n a l e , i t i s explained,  Eight  i s that with  the  131  increased  Science  there w i l l at  the  take  be  no  and  room i n t h e i r  e l e v e n t h grade  two  provide  Social time  Math r e q u i r e m e n t s  level.  be  cancelled.)  Classes w i l l  be  segregated.  since there w i l l  there w i l l courses.  no  be  f o r both  (The  no  reason  the  and  students  c o m i n g and  Students  are  of  questions  to  make us  Studies,  given  content  then  going  asked  area  scheduled teacher  thus  to  P.E.  is  from c l a s s  i f they  Guidance  a t any  and  by  including,  segregated schedules  d i s r u p t i o n s of  sexual  have any  time  the  have t o be  t o have c o n s t a n t  are d e a l t with,  believe this  to  for this  system f o r the  t h e r e f o r e , be  impossible  have  In o r d e r  f e m a l e c o u n s e l l o r s have d i f f e r e n t  i t w o u l d be  Studies  Physical Education classes,  Guidance c o u n s e l l o r . C l a s s e s w i l l s i n c e male and  they w i l l  i n e i g h t h grade.  appropriate delivery  Guidance w i l l ,  convenient  Therefore,  levels,  for Social  e x t r a b l o c k of S o c i a l  classes w i l l  that  schedules  Studies courses  f o r the  at senior  groupings.)  questions. A "You're o n l y  b e c a u s e i t ' s a Drama c l a s s ,  number trying  isn't  it?"  The  visiting  teacher  make-believe but listening  2.  carries  to t h e i r  Discussion  does n o t on  concerns  accept  o r deny  to e s t a b l i s h and  the problem  n o t i n g these  - Once most o f t h e  initial  are v o i c e d , the d i s c u s s i o n i s focussed  the  on  the  personal  on p o s s i b l e  by board.  concerns  13 2 c o u n t e r a c t i o n s . The identified board,  as  that  including:  parents  are reminded  audience  and  f o r the  student  protest i s  c o u n s e l l o r s , administrators, school  other  members o f t h e  community.  Students  t h a t i f t h e d e c i s i o n s have a l r e a d y b e e n made  they w i l l  have t o work v e r y  hard  t o change  people's  minds. 3. W o r k i n g i n p a i r s presented  4.  Students  their an  t o any  of the  i n Role  allows  then  another  opinions.  local  the  students  tells  on  on  the  them t h a t she  co-educational  hard  looks  they  have P h y s i c a l  Written  students providing  have two  Follow-up  write  The  or  letters  t o t r y out role  station  and  allows  to express  this  and  b l o c k s of S o c i a l  their  congratulates  ERASES THE  fall  and  one.)  then  to having  of  classroom  Superintendent  teacher  forward  groups.  the  his office  work and  be  on  regular  of the  c l a s s e s i n the  not  6.  role  visiting  they w i l l will  takes  have t o work on  - The their  teacher  concerns.  (They r e a l l y  De-Briefing  individuals  television  group to v i s i t  5.  her  the  takes  identified  visiting  group t o a i r t h e i r  teacher  p l a n arguments t o  - S e v e r a l groups v o l u n t e e r  a r g u m e n t s . The  i n t e r v i e w e r on  one  - Students  BOARD.  some o f assures  S t u d i e s but  She  them i n them  that  that  Education.  - The  classroom  expressing  teacher  their  s u p p o r t i n g arguments f o r t h e s e  opinion  then and  opinions.  has  the  133  1984  04 06  Teacher A l / L o c a t i o n  This  forty-five  introduction  A/ G r a d e I I  minute  l e s s o n was t o s e r v e  to the S o c i a l Studies  a s an  unit dealing  with  space  communities.  1.  Introduction  children present  that time.  of Problem  there  i s a serious  I t seems t h a t  people are g e t t i n g  p r o b l e m on E a r t h  a l l of the plants  a r e d y i n g and  and t h e d e a t h s . The  t h e n a s k s t h e c h i l d r e n i f t h e y have any i d e a  o f what m i g h t happen i f t h e p o l l u t i o n p r o b l e m They r e a l i z e  at the  these events. P o l l u t i o n i s  as t h e cause o f t h e s i c k n e s s  teacher-in-role  t e l l s the  s i c k . She wonders i f t h e y have any i d e a  o f what m i g h t be c a u s i n g identified  - The t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e  that without plants,  i s not solved.  people a l s o w i l l  d i e . She  a s k s i f anyone c a n p r o p o s e a s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m .  2.  Introduction  of classroom  teacher-in-role  i s introduced  - The  classroom  teacher  a s M r s . G. f r o m Newport. She  says t h a t  s h e h a s a s o l u t i o n b u t i t w o u l d mean t h a t  w o u l d have t o move t o Newport. She s u g g e s t s  t h a t an  inspection  then  the  trip  visitor.  facilities  m i g h t be a r r a n g e d . S t u d e n t s  I t i s decided  to journey  everyone  question  to v i s i t the  t o b r i n g back recommendations  for their  families.  134  3.  Discussion  bring  i n roles  a s many p o s s e s s i o n s  - Travellers are told  s i z e i s c a r e f u l l y d e t e r m i n e d w i t h a metre  4.  Journal  will  5.  - students  list  - Children  w h i c h i s now e s t a b l i s h e d  belongings  as t h e s p a c e c r a f t ,  they  Arrival  simple  sketch  map o f t h e community  port  i s studied  p a r k dome  greenhouses  food  dome  storage tanks dome  police  dome  childcare  domes  dome  dome  explorers'  dome  water  discussed.  g o v e r n m e n t dome communication  hotel  and  - This  identified:  bus dome  community  term  and t h e j o u r n e y .  and i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e map o f Newport  The f o l l o w i n g have been space  though t h i s  The c h i l d r e n a r e t h e n i n v i t e d  to o f f e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c r a f t  dome  s h o p p i n g dome w o r s h i p dome l i v i n g domes hospital  dome  Two o f t h e domes have no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . if  that  move q u i e t l y i n p a i r s t o t h e c a r p e t  has n o t y e t b e e n i n t r o d u c e d .  fire  stick.  take.  Journey  6.  t h e y may  a s t h e y c a n f i t i n a metre box.  The  Entries  that  Visitors  t h e y c a n d e t e r m i n e what e s s e n t i a l p a r t s  of the  a r e asked  135  community a r e m i s s i n g . They c o r r e c t l y dome a n d t h e g a r b a g e  7. on  f o rhaving  Some v o c a b u l a r y  - I n i t i a l discussion focusses  domes t h r o u g h o u t  dome. Then g r o u p s a r e  t o i n v e s t i g a t e each o f t h e s i t e s  what p u r p o s e i s s e r v e d sharing prior  knowledge  8.  back  Reporting  t h e community.  work i s done t o d e t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n c e between  community dome and c o m m u n i c a t i o n assigned  the school  site.  R e s e a r c h and d i s c u s s i o n the reasons  identify  and t o f i n d o u t  by e a c h . T h i s i s c o n d u c t e d (with  - Reports  limited  through  teacher a s s i s t a n c e ) .  a r e g i v e n on e a c h p a r t o f t h e  community.  9.  Recommendations  recommendation  - The w h o l e g r o u p t h e n  to families  on E a r t h w i l l b e .  decides  what i t s  136 APPENDIX  C - FOLLOW-UP MEMORANDA  TO: B2 FROM: J e a n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1983 10 27 RE: H a u n t e d House Drama  H e r e a r e a few i d e a s f o r e x t e n d i n g t h e work i f y o u f e e l y o u would (1)  like  t o do s o :  Writing  activities  '- o f f i c i a l  reports  their  (appropriately  - diary  entries  visited)  house  (2)  based  on t h e e n a c t m e n t s .  f r o m p e o p l e who have  lived i n  t h e house  - notes or l e t t e r s  in  that  might  have been f o u n d  (* some y o u n g s t e r s a l r e a d y s t a r t e d  class  on  i n the  t o do t h i s  Thursday)  U s i n g t h e media - Assume t h e r o l e reporter - This  of a radio,  and c o n d u c t  might  television  Working  t h e n be e x t e n d e d  into  a television  news  clips.  i n pairs  - Student A has v i s i t e d told  o r newspaper  interviews with the investigators.  broadcast with students performing f i l m (3)  b a s e d on  findings.  - newspaper s t o r i e s  (or  illustrated)  about  t h e house/  Student B i s being  the v i s i t  - S t u d e n t A i s a l a w y e r who i s p r e p a r i n g t o d e f e n d  137  S t u d e n t B who  was  involved  i n the mystery/crime  i n some  - S t u d e n t A i s a w i t n e s s b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d by (Student (4)  Working  i n groups  - create Whole - spend  (6)  additional  leading  tape  up  to the  crime  recordings  group the night  i n the  house  - conduct a t r i a l  o f one  o r more o f t h e  Non-Drama  - pictures  accused  Activities  - descriptions  - floor  police  B)  - r e - e n a c t the events  (5)  the  o f t h e house o r a room i n t h e house  o f t h e r o a d / h o u s e / r o o m s i n t h e house  plans of the a t t i c / b a s e m e n t / f i r s t ,  or  third  story  to  include  (may  some math  be  scale  skills)  drawings  second  i f you  way  wish  138  TO: A l FROM: J e a n e t t e  Scott  DATE: 1983 11 17  RE: Drama  Activities  H e r e a r e a few i d e a s f o r e x t e n d i n g would (1)  like  t o do s o :  Working  i n pairs  - Students B seeks Lara for  A & B work a s p a r e n t p e r m i s s i o n from  as b e f o r e .  A t o make t h e t r i p  to v i s i t  journey A telephones  planned  - Student  Student  B  (Lara)  to t e l l her  visit  A buys t i c k e t ( s )  Student  f o r the journey  from  B  - Student (2)  and c h i l d  i n P r i n c e G e o r g e a n d / o r A h e l p s B make p l a n s  - Student of  t h e work i f y o u f e e l y o u  A helps  Non-Drama  Student  B who i s l o s t  i n the c i t y  Activities  - map work - math  (cost of t i c k e t s /  - group  story-telling  - drawing p i c t u r e s - writing -  list the  distance to travel, etc.)  letters  of t r a i n , e t c . to Lara  j o b s on t h e f e r r y , train  a t the s t a t i o n  and on b o a r d  139  (3)  Whole Group Drama - based  on sound  - b a s e d on  Exercises  effects  story-telling  - b a s e d on t r a i n  poem  and/or  movements o f t r a i n  140  TO:  A2  FROM: J e a n e t t e DATE: 1983  RE:  11  Movement  Scott 22  Lesson  I fully realize created  t h a t the v a r i e t y  starting  p o i n t s f o r movement and  some o f w h i c h w o u l d be your c l a s s  for  the  extend  1.  and  more s u i t a b l e  some o f  H o p e f u l l y , you  w h i c h m i g h t be  2.  Awareness  Concentration  and  do  the  (e.g. r o l e - p l a y i n g  literature).  able  of t h i s  - finding,  to  warm-up  they  can  and  establishing  i s a basic  them use  or a c t i n g out  while  allows  have m a s t e r e d  these  them i n  a piece  of  and  skill.  stretching  are puppets or r o b o t s  t h e y work. Once t h e y  movements, o f c o u r s e ,  play  be  Tag".  c o n t r a c t i n g and  making b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y as  "Character  s p a c e a r o u n d one's s e l f  Having c h i l d r e n  play  members  a p p r o p r i a t e i n c l u d e "Cat  or  the  activities,  them.  Mouse", "Wounded Tag"  exploring  drama  a  more a p p r o p r i a t e  will  - t h e r e a r e numerous v a r i a t i o n s  game. O t h e r s  of  have  f o r the younger  some o f w h i c h w o u l d be  older students.  Tag  to  may  some c o n f u s i o n . However, I d i d w i s h t o o f f e r  number o f  of  of a c t i v i t i e s  them types  dramatic  141  3.  Mirrors  - again,  this  activity  builds concentration  a w a r e n e s s . I t i s an  e x c e l l e n t means o f h e l p i n g y o u n g e r  students  physical control  social  to develop  skills.  movement work  I t can  be  extended  (with or without  skills  4. as  in this  accompanying  - this  some s t u d e n t s  of  d a n c e . The  and  Go,  Stop"  necessary  5. be  choral  extension  o r as  a  readings.  to  develop  ( or  on  practise  w o u l d be  to  develop  and  o t h e r s w o u l d have b e e n  the  sequence t i l l , actually  t h i s w o u l d be  them t o t h e  rest  with  very  the  created a  , then,  s m a l l groups) develop  present  motor  c o u l d have gone a l l m o r n i n g  music, they  step a f t e r  movements and  activity  control  suitable  individuals  an  needed more h e l p and  happy t o k e e p b u i l d i n g addition  u s e d as  and  music)  area.)  Sequencing  concentration  and i n t e r p e r s o n a l  i n t o group m i r r o r s f o r  p r e s e n t a t i o n method f o r i n d i v i d u a l ("Simon S a y s " c o u l d be  and  group  t o have  other  sequences  of the  class.  a u s e f u l means o f d e v e l o p i n g  of ("Go,  the  control.  Physicalization  o f words  used r e g u l a r l y with  words and  by  into oral  reading  - this  a l l levels.  i n c o r p o r a t i n g the activities.  i s an  Extend  exercise that by  adding  physicalization  more  techniques  can  142  TO:  B 1  FROM: J e a n e t t e DATE: 1983  11  Scott 24  RE:  B a n n e r i n t h e Sky  I am  not  pre-writing activities  sure whether or not  I chose to c o n t i n u e w i t h reached trust the  some l e v e l  t h a t you  I would p r o b a b l y (1)  Developing  be  Wright with  the person  r e s c u e . The journal  before  a b l e t o go  proceed  the  first  b a c k and  d e c i s i o n when the  class  steps but  recover  I f I were t o e x t e n d  had  I  some o f t h e work,  somewhat as f o l l o w s :  empathy d i s c u s s the  in a situation  or Rudi  extensions  generated.  - have s t u d e n t s experience  right  of mastery w i t h  will  ideas/feelings  the  I made t h e  Matt.  ( The  such  feelings as  t h a t one  t h a t f a c e d by  Steven  student  may  choose to  i n t r o u b l e or with  the  one  d i s c u s s i o n may  who  be w r i t t e n i n t h e  e n t r y and/or p r e s e n t e d  i n an  might  empathize  performs  form  of  the  a  i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n or  interview.)  (2)  Media  extensions  (a) w o r k i n g w i t h h e a d l i n e s - most o f t h e c l a s s this had  p a r t o f t h e work d i f f i c u l t I p r o v i d e d a few  models. With a l i t t l e  and  found  w o u l d have been  e x a m p l e s o f newspaper h e a d l i n e s guidance,  helped as  a l l o f them c o u l d c r e a t e  143  headlines that  they  f o r s t o r i e s a b o u t R u d i M a t t and  about  the "heroes"  interviewed.  (b) w r i t i n g c a p t i o n s  for pictures  sketches or f r o z e n  (photographs,  pictures)  (c) w r i t i n g news s t o r i e s - f o r n e w s p a p e r s - for radio - for television (d) c r e a t i n g initial (e)  creating  documentaries  ( u s i n g r o l e s as i n t h e  interviews) TV  interviews  (using  roles)  144  TO: C I FROM: J e a n e t t e  Scott  DATE: 1983 11 30  RE: Drama - C h i n a  I wish that since  (1)  I could  t h a t was  extensions  Tour  have s p e n t  impossible,  that  I will  I m i g h t have  Research - Obviously,  suggest  your c l a s s but,  some o f t h e  pursued.  more t i m e i s r e q u i r e d  activity. already  more t i m e w i t h  One c a n c a p i t a l i z e  completed  for this  on t h e work  and r e d i r e c t  energies  t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n and q u e s t i o n  periods  ( i n or out of r o l e ) . (2)  Presentation  - I believe this capable  g r o u p w o u l d be q u i t e  of presenting  information  i n role  the research (with  maps, p i c t u r e s , b l a c k b o a r d (3)  Math - d e t e r m i n i n g supplied) within  costs  (based  accompanying diagrams,  on t h e newspaper ads  and t h e d i s t a n c e s  t o be  covered  China.  (4) G e o g r a p h y - naming t h e p r o v i n c e s outlining street walking  t o be  visited,  the r o u t e ( s ) , studying the  maps o f P e k i n g tours.  and  planning  etc.).  145  (5)  Preparation  f o r the v i s i t  - d i s c o v e r i n g the necessary passports -  talking  i n v o l v e drama  intended  promised by t h e " t r a v e l  to replicate  the v i s i t  a g e n t " c o u l d w e l l be t h e c u l m i n a t i o n  t h e work.  t h e community t o p r o v i d e  food.  i n the various  demonstration. quite  you w i t h  T h e r e a r e a l s o a number  skilled  If  t r a v e l e d i n China.  activities  ( I t m i g h t n o t be t h a t d i f f i c u l t in  etc.).  China  - drama a c t i v i t i e s  of  (applying f o r  and v i s a s , r e c e i v i n g i m m u n i z a t i o n s ,  t o p e o p l e who have a l r e a d y  - T h i s might (6) V i s i t i n g  procedures  resource  some a u t h e n t i c  people  Chinese  o f p e o p l e who a r e q u i t e  m a r t i a l a r t s who c o u l d  give a  Some m u s i c and a few s l i d e s w o u l d make i t  a memorable m a k e - b e l i e v e  experience.)  I c a n h e l p y o u i n any way w i t h  another, please  to find  l e t me know.  this  u n i t o f work, o r  146 APPENDIX D - WORKSHOP  INFORMATION  MEMORANDUM  TO:  (  )  FROM: J e a n e t t e S c o t t DATE: 1983 12 04  RE:  Drama C u r r i c u l u m M e e t i n g  I would the  t o o r g a n i z e a d i n n e r meeting  week o f J a n u a r y  would from  like  23-27 a n d w o u l d  be most s u i t a b l e  f o r everyone.  4-7 p.m. on T u e s d a y ,  alternate  time and/or  f r o m UBC w i t h i n hearing  like  January  date.  some t i m e  during  t o know w h i c h d a y  I f y o u COULD NOT a t t e n d  24, p l e a s e l e t me know an  S i n c e I must book t h e f i l m s  t h e n e x t few d a y s ,  I would  f r o m y o u a s soon as p o s s i b l e .  appreciate  147  IN AN ATTEMPT TO DRUM UP A L I T T L E SUPPORT FOR THE  COMPONENT OF THE NEW ELEMENTARY FINE ARTS CURRICULUM, THE FOLLOWING FILMS WILL BE SHOWN FROM 3:45 TO 6:00 P.M. ON THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 16TH AT THE RESOURCE CENTRE.  ALL INTERESTED TEACHERS ARE WELCOME TO ATTEND.  FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, P L E A S E CONTACT J E A N E T T E SCOTT AT OCEANVIEW  148  MEMORANDUM TO:  (  )  FROM: J e a n e t t e  Scott  DATE: 1984 03 05  Re:  Drama W o r k s h o p / C l a s s  Visits  C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n and D r . P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r , a u t h o r s o f O f f s t a g e , Elementary t o come t o ( with or  T h r o u g h Drama , have  ) on S a t u r d a y ,  interested  teachers.  agreed  April  28th  t o do a workshop  I f you would  like  to participate,  i f y o u know o f any who m i g h t w i s h t o t a k e  let  part,  please  me know a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e so t h a t I c a n a p p l y f o r  Pro-D As  Education  funding.  promised,  I have a t t a c h e d  available  to v i s i t  feel  t o c o n t a c t me w i t h  free  a schedule  of times  your c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h i s an a s s i g n m e n t .  term.  when I am Please  149  MEMORANDUM TO : (  )  FROM: J e a n e t t e DATE:  Scott  1984 04 16  RE: Drama Workshop  The  workshop w i t h  Dr. P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r  T a r l i n g t o n , w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y has  been p o s t p o n e d u n t i l  incorporated  i n t o the Elementary Fine  and t h e d e t a i l s  on F r i d a y  for April  Arts  28th,  be  Curriculum  i s t o be a D i s t r i c t  Pro-D  a r e n o t y e t c o n f i r m e d . However, i t  w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t P a t and C a r o l e group s e s s i o n  scheduled  t h e end o f MAy. I t w i l l  workshop on May 25-26. T h i s activity  and C a r o l e  afternoon  will  be i n v o l v e d  as w e l l  i n a large  as t h e s m a l l  group  workshop on S a t u r d a y . I hope t h a t y o u w i l l of  these  be a b l e  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n one o r b o t h  sessions.  We a r e now i n t o t h e f o u r t h t e r m and my s c h e d u l e no p e r m i t s me t o v i s i t o t h e r o f any a s s i s t a n c e suitable any  time.  c l a s s r o o m s . However,  i n planning  lessons  f o r drama work, p l e a s e  call  longer  i f I c a n be  or f i n d i n g  materials  me a t s c h o o l  o r a t home  150  MEMORANDUM TO:  (  )  FROM: J . S c o t t 1984  05 15  RE:  Drama  Dr.  Patrick Verriour  O f f s t a g e , Elementary which, will  I believe,  E d u c a t i o n T h r o u g h Drama  therefore,  start  run straight break  the session u n t i l  through  around  from  14:00).  committments,  some o f y o u w i l l  I do l o o k f o r w a r d  c o l l e a g u e s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d varied  As  I mentioned  content areas  t o your  of other  be u n a b l e  t o a t t e n d . However,  also  encourage  those o f your  i n f i n d i n g ways o f u s i n g drama  to attend.  a t our i n i t i a l classrooms  meeting,  I do hope t o be  b e f o r e t h e end o f J u n e t o s e e interviews should  t o c o i n c i d e with these v i s i t s .  below t h e d a t e s  15:30 ( w i t h  I am aware t h a t b e c a u s e o f  some drama work b e i n g done. Our f i n a l scheduled  will,  t o s e e i n g t h o s e o f y o u who a r e a b l e t o  u s . I hope t h a t y o u w i l l  in  12:30. We  12:30 u n t i l  o f t h e c h a n g e s o f d a t e s and b e c a u s e  invited  ) on  May 26. S i n c e t h e r e h a s been a change i n a i r l i n e  a coffee/tea  be  ( t h e book  most o f y o u have now h a d a c h a n c e t o u s e )  s c h e d u l e s , we c a n n o t  join  authors of  be c o n d u c t i n g a workshop i n t h e Commons a t (  Saturday,  all  and C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n ,  I have  and t i m e s when I am a v a i l a b l e  also  noted  and I would  151  a p p r e c i a t e your it  letting  me know, a s soon as p o s s i b l e ,  w o u l d be most c o n v e n i e n t  J u n e 18 -  9-10 o r 2-3  J u n e 19 -  9 -2  J u n e 20 -  11 -3  J u n e 21 -  9 -11  J u n e 22 -  9-3  J u n e 25 -  9-3  J u n e 26 -  9-3  J u n e 27 -  9-3  f o r y o u t o s e e me.  when  APPENDIX E EVALUATION OF WORKSHOP Overall  rating  o f workshop (excellent,  The most b e n e f i c i a l  part  good,  o f t h e workshop  fair,  f o r me  The w o r k s h o p w o u l d have b e e n more s a t i s f y i n g  One  thing  I have/have not shared colleague. Other  was:  f o r me i f :  I learned i s :  I have/have not used i d e a s c l a s s r o o m t h i s week.  comments:  f r o m t h e workshop  at least  one  idea with  poor)  i n my  a  154 APPENDIX F - OBSERVATION GUIDELINES  1. D a t e / P l a c e / T i m e / G r a d e  level/Length  2. What mode o f d r a m a t i c  activity  dramatic p l a y i n g , 3.  What was t h e s t a t e d  4. Was 5.  theatre  the  took p l a c e  observed  - exercise,  or a combination?  purpose of the  the type of a c t i v i t y  What k i n d s  of lesson  lesson?  consistent  with  this  objective?  o f i n d i v i d u a l commitments were r e q u i r e d  from  pupils?  6. What d e c i s i o n s  were t h e y r e q u i r e d  7. What t y p e o f r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 8. What o p p o r t u n i t i e s  were t h e r e  t o make? was r e q u i r e d  o f them?  f o r the n e g o t i a t i o n of  meaning? 9. What k i n d s 10.  o f i n t e r a c t i o n were s e t up?  What k i n d s socially,  o f demands were made on t h e p u p i l s cognitively, imaginatively,  -  linguistically,  emotionally? 11.  To what e x t e n t  were t h e p u p i l s  "exposed" d u r i n g the  lesson? 12. 13.  What p a r t How  d i d " showing" p l a y  child-centered  was t h e  14.  What t y p e s o f r e f l e c t i o n  15.  What s t a n d a r d establish  16.  i n the lesson?  d i d the teacher  allow  o f b e h a v i o r and work d i d t h e  and how was t h i s  f a r d i d the teacher' support,  the  contributions from t h e  for?  teacher  achieved?  How  resulted  lesson?  extend  and  challenge  o f t h e c l a s s ? What t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g lesson?  APPENDIX G -INTERVIEW  QUESTIONS  (Teachers) 1. H a v i n g in  reviewed  the f i r s t  believe  the l e a r n i n g  objectives  that  c o u l d be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h  t h e u s e o f drama?  ( I f n o t , what made y o u change y o u r  3. Have y o u done any drama w i t h y o u r a) How  selected  i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n , w h i c h o f t h e s e do y o u  2. Do y o u t h i n k t h a t y o u w o u l d have h e l d t h i s time?  you  view a t t h a t  mind?)  students  this  year?  much?  b) When? c) What  type?  d) D i d t h i s If  d i f f e r from  s o , i n what  what y o u have done p r e v i o u s l y ?  way(s)?  e) C o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e t h e s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e  4. Do y o u t e n d  to segregate  5. Would y o u f i n d  i t easy  means o f t e a c h i n g c o n c e p t s of  or i n t e g r a t e content  or d i f f i c u l t  areas?  t o u s e drama as a  i n various content areas?  t h e c o n t e n t a r e a s w o u l d y o u be most l i k e l y  using  t o t h e work?  t o t e a c h by  drama?  6. Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  d i d you f i n d  Which  most u s e f u l ? least useful?  156  a)  group  meetings  b)  classroom  c)  Offstage  d)  Heathcote  e)  workshop  7. D i d you  visits  films  discuss this  project with with  8.  D i d you  share  next  year?  others  i d e a s f o r drama work w i t h  9. What w o u l d c o n s i d e r t o be implementation  o t h e r s on y o u r  of the  fine  effective  arts  i n the  other  staff? district?  teachers?  plan for  c u r r i c u l u m i n the d i s t r i c t  157  APPENDIX H - INTERVIEW (Senior  Administration)  1. Would y o u d e s c r i b e t h e r o l e p l a y e d by V i s u a l  QUESTIONS  t h a t y o u f e e l . s h o u l d be  and P e r f o r m i n g  Arts i n the  elementary  school? 2. I s t h i s present  a realistic  time  political  with  the present  staffing  River at the  and t h e p r e s e n t  t h a t t h e White Paper w i l l  e m p h a s i s on t h e a r t s  (Perhaps  i n Powell  climate?  3. Do y o u f e e l less  expectation  l e a d t o more o r  a t the elementary  as a c o u n t e r a c t i o n t o t h e s h i f t  level  ?  a t the upper  levels?) 4. Do y o u f e e l  that the M i n i s t r y i s d i v o r c i n g i t s e l f  the p o s i t i o n which #82) and w h i c h Fine Arts  Performing  t h a t B.C. i s i n l i n e w i t h  Circular  Elementary  other  educational  i n t e r m s o f t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e V i s u a l and Arts?  6. To what e x t e n t Arts Curriculum over  do y o u e x p e c t  implemented the next  of the arts  significantly  over  t o see the Elementary  i n the province?  year?  two y e a r s ?  7. What i s t h e c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n role  (Ministry  Curriculum?  authorities  the  i n 1979  l e d t o t h e d e s i g n i n g o f t h e new  5. Do y o u f e e l  district?  i tcirculated  from  of the l o c a l  i n the curriculum?  the past  two  five  years?  Fine  i n this years? board  regarding  Has i t c h a n g e d  158  8. Would you to  assist  be  prepared  elementary  as a l e a r n i n g  to support  an  t e a c h e r s i n the  in-service  introduction  medium i f t h e r e seemed t o be  programme o f drama  sufficient  interest? 9.  I f s o , t o what e x t e n t w o u l d you If  n o t , why  such  a  programme?  not?  10. What w o u l d you were t o be  support  wish  implemented?  t o see  i n such  a programme i f i t  159 APPENDIX I - INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (Principal  1. To what actual  extent  i n Young W r i t e r s  has t h e i n n o v a t i o n  use i n the  2. What t y p e 3. C o u l d  involved  implementation  district?  an h i s t o r i c a l  i s this  6. To what after  been  extent  school  have t e a c h e r s  had 9. How  on t h e  where  of the  district?  school-based? strategy?  been p r e p a r e d  time f o r r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i v e  district  8. What e f f e c t  perspective  s e e n as s u c h an i m p o r t a n t  7. A r e y o u r e c e i v i n g r e g u l a r the  given?  of the p r o j e c t i n the  4. Have a l l o f t h e s e s s i o n s 5. Why  has been p u t i n t o  o f f e e d b a c k have y o u b e e n  y o u g i v e me  Project)  to devote sessions?  feedback from o t h e r  schools i n  y o u have o f f e r e d w o r k s h o p s ?  have r e g u l a r  staffing  changes i n t h e  district  implementation?  important  a f a c t o r was  your  s t a t u s as an  administrator? 10. What k i n d  of advice  to introduce  would you o f f e r  a similar  innovation  t o someone  to the  wishing  district?  160 APPENDIX J - INTERVIEW (Chairperson of l o c a l  QUESTIONS  Pro-D Committee)  1. To what e x t e n t were y o u as C h a i r p e r s o n member o f t h e J o i n t I was d o i n g 2. Do y o u f e e l  this  Management  o f Pro-D and a  c o m m i t t e e aware o f what  year?  t h a t you s h o u l d  have known more a b o u t t h e  project? 3. You a r e aware t h a t p r o b l e m s h a v e d e v e l o p e d . give your p e r c e p t i o n of these  Could  p r o b l e m s and o f  you  their  origins? 4. D i d y o u h a v e t h e s e n s e t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r being  foisted  on  o f t h e Young W r i t e r s  differ?  6. What i s t h e s t a t u s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l initiating  local  7. To what e x t e n t  in-service  has t h i s  teacher i n  activities?  changed over  the past  8. Would a p r e s e n t a t i o n by an i n d i v i d u a l district  teacher  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' m e e t i n g have any  9. Under what c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d Pro-D f u n d in-service  a c t i v i t i e s conducted  projects?  at a  the type of  as p a r t o f t h i s  What a p p r o a c h w o u l d y o u recommend implementation  t e n months?  effect?  project? 10.  was  teachers?  5. I n what ways d i d t h e i n - s e r v i c i n g Project  philosophy  for local  research  161 APPENDIX K - SAMPLE Transcription Location: Date:  1  06  21  Alright,  t h o s e do 2  Al  A  1984  R:  you  went b a c k t o t h o s e now,  you  could  certainly,  effectively. Um  i f you  think  I: Well,  Just  the  achieve first  R:  4  I : Yeh,  5  R:  6  I : Yeah, i n t h e  and  i n order  of  priority  I t doesn't matter.  priority  I t doesn't  drama t h a t  of  drama?  , communicate them?  still? matter.  I intend  to t r y , not  the  today  7  R:  8  I: because t h a t Heathcote  I n a drama.  Um  hm,  of  each other  yes...and  that  and  skills,  um  and Do  one... c r e a t i v i t y ,  (which t h e  hm...getting along, k n o w l e d g e , um you  thought t h a t 10  I:  was  thinking  11  R:  12  I : my  think about  Um  hm,  audience  yes,  that.  awareness  do,  sure d i d  certainly,  t h a t when you  the  today), real  filled  that  out  you  drama? of  drama...uh, s p e c i f i c a l l y . . . I  generally  I know.  goals  awareness,  do  hm.  I wasn't t h i n k i n g of  i d e a would c e r t a i n l y  a w a r e n e s s o f what t h e y have t o  thinking c r i t i c a l l y  R:  many  hm  drama I d i d  9  how  through using  g o i n g back t h r o u g h a l l of  3  world  TRANSRIPTION  i n the  classroom  162 13  R: Um  14  I : b u t i t c e r t a i n l y would  15  R: Umhm. Uh, how much t i m e have  16  I : N o t much.  17  R: Have y o u done any, b e s i d e s  18  I : Oh, y e s . Uh huh, uh, j u s t  done t h i s  hm. fit  drama. y o u done t h i s  year?  (Laugh) this? small  t h i n g s b u t I've never  same t e c h n i q u e and I l i k e i t .  19  R: Can y o u t e l l  20  I : Um,  me a b o u t  y e a h , more r o l e  situations.  some o f t h e t h i n g s y o u do?  play  and s o l v i n g  You know, where t h e c h i l d r e n  problem  have  had p r o b l e m s  on t h e p l a y g r o u n d 21  R: Um  hm.  22  I : and how w o u l d  they,  THEY  , solve  the problem  t h a n me r e m i n d i n g them a b o u t t h e same r u l e s . puppets, puppet  p e r f o r m a n c e s and a c t u a l  Um,  using  rather  stick  m u s i c and  movement 23  R: Um  24  I: to portray a story  but  I ' v e n e v e r done t h i s  worked 25  hm. that  t h e y a l r e a d y know, a f a b l e ,  pantomime t e c h n i q u e b e f o r e and t h a t  out n i c e l y .  R: Now,  y o u know, I s e e y o u u s i n g y o u r v o c a b u l a r y i n  t h e , uh, i n t h e e x e r c i s e .  Do y o u t e n d t o i n t e g r a t e  subject  areas? 26  I : Yeah,  talked  about whether  know, i t ' s , 27  uh huh o r w h a t e v e r ,  R: Uh hm  we r e c a l l  i n t e g r a t e whatever  i t was p r o b l e m it,  solving  we've  s i t u a t i o n s , you  y o u know, i f i t comes up a g a i n  163 28  I : and i f i t ' s v o c a b , c e r t a i n l y ,  like  that  picky  we went o v e r on  thing  like  y e s , because a l o t of  Dana and Dana, t h a t was  something  pronunciations.  29  R: Oh.  30  I : Hmhm.  31  R: Uh, do y o u f i n d  preparing  t o u s e drama i s a l o t o f  work? Does i t t a k e a l o t o f t i m e ? 32  I: Well,  i t was when I d i d n ' t  know what I was  m a i n l y , n o t work b u t , uh, n o t k n o w i n g , i n s e c u r e k n o w i n g what's g o i n g  t o happen and i s i t g o i n g  w o r t h w h i l e and t h a t k i n d so  of thing  i n not t o be  of thing but the c h i l d r e n enjoy i t  i t doesn't r e a l l y "require  kind  doing,  much work, a c t u a l l y . N o t t h e  I ' v e done so f a r b u t t h e k i n d  of t h i n g  I want  t o do 33  R: Would y o u f i n d ,  would you f i n d  some o f t h e , t h e t e c h n i q u e s to 34 it  t h a t you say y o u ' r e , you'd  I : Y e a h , I'm j u s t  concerned  that  t h e y h a t e t o s t o p and  w o u l d , y o u know, go on and on b u t t h e , uh, M r s . idea  of being  able  t o use a l l of those  the  c l a s s f o r whatever purpose c o u l d ,  the  acting  certainly  of  like  try?  Heathcote's  35  i t easy t o , t o use  they c o u l d  carry  y o u know, b e c a u s e o f  on i n t h e room a l l o w a n c e s  would  be okay t o o .  R: W e l l ,  let's  go t o t h i n g s  t h e , uh, t h e p r o j e c t  t h a t have s o r t o f come o u t  and t h e t h i n g s  t h a t we've, we've  done, uh, g r o u p m e e t i n g s , c l a s s r o o m v i s i t s , classroom  within  visits  there  were  three  36  I : Um hm  37  R: uh, O f f s t a g e book  38  I : Um hm  39  R: H e a t h c o t e  films,  P a t ' s workshop and I t h i n k  Dorothy's  workshop, as w e l l 40  I : R i g h t , um hm,  41  R: C o u l d  you  found  42  I : Um hm  43  R: I n p r i o r i t y ,  especially  you, c o u l d you s o r t  Dorothy's  of t e l l  me what, o b v i o u s l y  workshop t h e most v a l u a b l e  what w o u l d y o u s a y t h e o t h e r  things  might be? 44  I : Uh, P a t r i c k ' s  45  R: Um hm  46  I: but a c t u a l l y  workshop  i n o r d e r o f t h e way t h e y  t h e way i t was b e s t f o r me b e c a u s e g e t t i n g  happened was  together,  me aware o f . d r a m a t o b e g i n w i t h was where I needed and  t h e f i l m s , w h i c h was s o r t  c o u l d be done and t h e n doing  Patrick  and c a n do and t h e n  Now y o u r  p a r t was t h e s o r t  47  R: Um hm  48  I: which  v i e w o f what  i n t e g r a t i n g what I s h o u l d be  actually  seeing Dorothy  i n action.  o f t h e warming up  s i t u a t i o n with  s u b j e c t I was w o r k i n g w i t h  works w i t h  to start  I n e e d e d , y o u know, t o s e e somebody e l s e  MY k i d s i n my c l a s s r o o m whatever  of a by-stander's  making  my c u r r i c u l u m o r  and t h a t ' s t h e way i t  somebody who i s n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h drama,  49  R: The n e x t  two q u e s t i o n s  but  I have t o be s u r e . Um,  using  like  me.  I t h i n k I know t h e answers t o  I'm p r e t t y  sure you've d i s c u s s e d  this  project with  50  I : Um  51  R:  hm,  other people  yes,  (  I a l s o have t h e f e e l i n g  52  I : Oh,  53  R:  54  I: B r i e f l y ,  55  R: Um  (  )  ) isn't  hm,  just  t o e x p l a i n why  t h a t , i t was on s t a f f  y o u were  important  doing  t o have  coming (  for (  d o i n g , what otherwise own,  idea  ) and we were  talking  have y o u been d o i n g , what  I p r o b a b l y w o u l d have j u s t  not t a l k i n g  ) or  i t as w e l l ?  I : Uh no, I p r o b a b l y w o u l d n ' t have t a l k e d  except  57  (  t h a t you d i s c u s s e d ,  oh I s e e  somebody e l s e  my  staff  )  discussed, well besides  56  on t h e  a t a l l maybe,  a b o u t what we  c o u l d y o u be d o i n g been e x p e r i m e n t i n g  t h a t do y o u b u t what  g u e s s , a s k i n g you i s I s t h a t whole c o n c e p t somebody t h a t y o u c a n t a l k  of  I'm,  I  having  about  58  I : Um  59  R: y o u r work w i t h does i s t h a t a r e i n f o r c i n g  60  I : Yes  61  R:  62  I: C e r t a i n l y ,  63  R: Now,  and  on  a show  R: Y e a h , uh, uh I a c c e p t  films  and  t o anybody a b o u t i t b e c a u s e I L I K E t h e  of i t not being  people  were  hm thing?  Is i t h e l p f u l ? hm  i n the d i s t r i c t ,  t h a t were and  um  (  t h e r e were  a number o f o t h e r  i n v o l v e d i n some o f t h e t h i n g s ) went  like  the  t o V a n c o u v e r w i t h u s , have y o u , uh,  some came t o t h e w o r k s h o p . Have y o u t a l k e d  to other  166 people 64  i n the d i s t r i c t  I : Uh, o n l y  that's  all,  (  about  what y o u ' v e been  ) uh, j u s t  nobody  briefly  doing?  with  (  ) but  else.  65  R: Thank y o u , w e l l  66  I : J u s t you  67  R: Now,  t h e outcome o f a l l t h i s  i s obviously going  some k i n d o f a p l a n t h a t we c a n u s e i n t h e d i s t r i c t y e a r and uh what I w o u l d e l s e you can t e l l  like  from  t o be  next  y o u now uh i s a n y t h i n g  me i n t e r m s o f what y o u t h i n k w o u l d be  useful 68  I: For other  69  R: Um hm,  70  I: In that  71  R: Um  72  I : W e l l , I t h i n k t h e same s t e p by s t e p , y o u know,  f o r other  R: No  74  I : Oh  75  R: No  76  1:1  ( just  same  teachers  situation?  hm  t h a t happening 73  people?  b u t y o u want t o i m p l e m e n t  t h i n k perhaps  even h a v i n g ,  ) and I were d o i n g having  seeing  something  somebody e l s e  i t sooner  y o u know, now  that  i n t h e s c h o o l , y o u know,  i n t o another  c l a s s r o o m and  i t work and what c a n be done i n a s h o r t t i m e p e r i o d  or whatever, the r e s u l t s . night  going  having  a t the campsite.  were p l a n n e d  Now  Even g o i n g  to (  t h a t was f a n t a s t i c .  )'s s k i t s Now,  last  they  and i t was n i c e t o s e e how somebody e l s e has  done i t and how i t ' s worked o u t w i t h d i f f e r e n t  age l e v e l s so  167  I t h i n k t h a t would  work  77  R:  Good  78  I: w i t h i n the s c h o o l .  79  R: Um  80  I : P a t r i c k ' s book h e l p s  hm,  okay  a c t i o n because  b u t y o u i t ' s b e t t e r t o see i t i n  t h e book p e r h a p s d o e s n ' t mean a n y t h i n g  you've  seen something happening u s i n g h i s i d e a s  81  R:  Good  82  I : Okay?  83  R: Thank y o u  84  I: C'est  tout?  unless  168 APPENDIX L - LETTER TO  TEACHERS  1984  Dear  (  08  30  ) ,  The r e s e a r c h work i s now c o m p l e t e d and I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k you f o r h a v i n g g i v e n me t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o work w i t h you d u r i n g t h e p a s t s c h o o l y e a r . I hope t h a t you f o u n d t h e a c t i v i t i e s w o r t h w h i l e and t h a t you w i l l c o n t i n u e t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h Drama i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w i t h the c o n t i n u i n g d e l a y of the E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s c u r r i c u l u m , the Management Committee has d e c i d e d t o r e a s s e s s p r i o r i t i e s so t h e r e w i l l n o t be any f u n d i n g extend the p r o j e c t t h i s f a l l .  i n the r e l e a s e Joint its a v a i l a b l e to  I f you f e e l t h a t you w o u l d l i k e t o have more i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s i n Drama, you w i l l have t o i d e n t i f y t h i s as a need w i t h i n y o u r s c h o o l o r PSA. I n t h e meantime, i f I can contact me. All  the  best  h e l p you  i n any  f o r 1984-85. Yours  sincerely,  Jeanette  E.  Scott  way,  please  169 APPENDIX M - TIME L I N E  o;» S ?  If:  3  OS 3 J- J (T> V r iO  r*v  cf1 T  i -  f t "  r  170  APPENDIX N - EVALUATION QUESTIONS  1. How  credible  a source  2. How w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d  i s the author  of the research?  i s the study?  3. What a r e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s in-service  project  theory/drama 4. Which l o c a l  of the  (curriculum theory/learning  theory)? t e a c h e r s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e c a s e  5. What were t h e r e c o r d e d  responses  study?  to the i n - s e r v i c e  activities? 6. Can t h e s e  be v e r i f i e d ?  7. What t y p e  of a c t i v i t i e s  8. Was t h e r e e v i d e n c e of  took  place?  o f an i n c r e a s e i n t e a c h e r s '  levels  use?  9. To what e x t e n t were o t h e r  teachers  involved?  10.  To what e x t e n t was c l a s s r o o m  instruction  affected?  11.  To what e x t e n t was c l a s s r o o m  instruction  improved?  12.  Were c o m m u n i c a t i o n  links  maintained  between c h a n g e  links  maintained  among  a g e n t and t e a c h e r s ? 13.  Were c o m m u n i c a t i o n  14.  Was t h e r e a d e q u a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h senior  teachers?  p r i n c i p a l s and  administration?  15.  What c o s t s were  incurred?  16.  What a r e t h e p r o j e c t e d c o s t s ?  17. What a r e t h e p r o j e c t e d b e n e f i t s ? 18.  Does t h e p r o j e c t r e s p o n d  to specific  local  needs?  

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