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Multimedia innovation in higher education : An exploratory case study Ajayi, Ajibola O. 1995

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M U L T I M E D I A A N  I N N O V A T I O N  I N H I G H E R  E X P L O R A T O R Y C A S E  E D U C A T I O N :  S T U D Y  by A J I B O L A  O .  A J A Y I  B.Sc, T h e University of Ibadan, Nigeria,  1985  D i p l o m a in Education, T h e University of Lagos, Nigeria, D i p l o m a in C o m p u t i n g  Studies  Education, T h e University  Columbia,  A  Thesis Submitted  1987 of  British  1992  in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements of Master of  for the  Arts  in T h e Faculty of Graduate Department  W e  accept  T H E  Studies  of C u r r i c u l u m  this thesis as c o n f o r m i n g  Studies  to the r e q u i r e d  U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H January,  1995  © Ajibola O . Ajayi,  1995  C O L U M B I A  standard  Degree  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  C o pr i co  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  3>k^  -Woc^  .1995"  ABSTRACT  This  study  m u l t i m e d i a  investigated  technology  as  a professor's a n  first a t t e m p t  instructional  tool  in  at a  incorporating  first-year  A s t r o n o m y course at the U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a . T h e issues w e r e  the  kinds  of planning, organization, a n d  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  u n d e r t a k e n , as w e l l as the effects of the t e c h n o l o g y o n teaching a n d A  qualitative case study research m e t h o d o l o g y  investigation. w o r l d  v i e w  w a s  of education.  T h e  analyzed  records  that  learning.  a  the  p e d a g o g i c a l  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  theme.  technical knowledge,  of m u l t i m e d i a  technology  as  a n  the  Interest identified  successful  instructional tool  f r o m the analysis of these six categories are p r o v i d e d .  ii  for  lecture  software  w e r e the two categories  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  a n d  practical  a n d time w e r e four categories identified within the practical theme.  w i t h i n  this  students.  issues w e r e categorized into two major themes,  a n d motivation, a n d concept development  in  holistic  tutorial a n d  sessions, a n d interviews w i t h the instructor a n d four volunteer  a n d pedagogical issues. Issues of convenience,  w e r e  consist of fieldnotes  videotaped records of the p l a n n i n g stages, observations,  T h e emergent  explored  e m p l o y e d  T h e theoretical frame that i n f o r m e d the study w a s  level  arising  T A B L E O F  C O N T E N T S  ABSTRACT  ii  T A B L E OF  C O N T E N T S  iii  L I S T OF  TABLES  v  L I S T OF  F I G U R E S  vi  A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S  vii  C H A P T E R O N E I N T R O D U C T I O N T O T H E S T U D Y 1.0 B A C K G R O U N D 1.1 R E S E A R C H FOCUS 1.1.1 R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s 1.2 T H E R E S E A R C H SITE 1.3 J U S T I F I C A T I O N F O R T H E M E T H O D O L O G Y 1.4 I M P L I C A T I O N S O F T H E S T U D Y 1.5 O V E R V I E W O F T H E S T U D Y  1 1 2 2 3 4 6 6  C H A P T E R T W O L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W 2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 I N N O V A T I O N 2.1.1 E d u c a t i o n a l I n n o v a t i o n 2.2 E D U C A T I O N A L T E C H N O L O G Y 2.2.1 T e c h n o l o g i c a l I n n o v a t i o n 2.3 M U L T I M E D I A 2.3.1 M u l t i m e d i a T e c h n o l o g y i n E d u c a t i o n 2.3.2 M u l t i m e d i a T e c h n o l o g y i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n 2.4 S U M M A R Y '.  8  C H A P T E R T H R E E D E S I G N A N D M E T H O D O F A N A L Y S I S 3.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N 3.1 C O N T E X T O F T H E S T U D Y 3.2 T H E P A R T I C I P A N T S 3.2.1 T h e C o u r s e Initiator 3.2.2 T h e I n s t r u c t o r 3.2.3 T h e S t u d e n t V o l u n t e e r s 3.2.4 T h e C o u r s e s 3.3 D A T A C O L L E C T I O N 3.3.1 O b s e r v a t i o n s 3.3.2 I n t e r v i e w s 3.3.2.1 Instructor's interviews 3.3.2.2 Students' Interviews iii  23  8 8 9 12 12 15 17 18 22  23 23 24 24 25 25 27 28 29 31 31 33  3.4 M A N A G I N G A N D R E C O R D I N G D 3.5 D A T A A N A L Y S I S 3.5.1 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s 3.6 R E C I P R O C I T Y A N D E T H I C S 3.7 C R I T E R I A O F S O U N D N E S S 3.7.1 C r e d i b i l i t y / C o n s t r u c tValidi 3.7.2 D e p e n d a b i l i t y a n d C o n f i r m a 3.7.3 Transferability/Generalizab 3.8 L I M I T A T I O N S O F T H E S T U D Y 3.9 S U M M A R Y  A T A .  ty..... bility ility  C H A P T E R F O U R D A T A P R E S E N T A T I O N 4.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N 4.1 I N S T R U C T O R ' S V I E W S 4.2 E M E R G E N T I S S U E S 4.2.1 P r a c t i c a l Issues 4.2.1.1 C o n v e n i e n c e 4.2.1.2 T e c h n i c a l K n o w l e d g e 4.2.1.3 S o f t w a r e 4.2.1.4 T i m e 4.2.2 P e d a g o g i c a l Issues 4.2.2.1 Interest a n d M o t i v a t i o n 4.2.2.2 C o n c e p t d e v e l o p m e n t 4.3 S U M M A R Y C H A P T E R D I S C U S S 5.0 5.1 5.2  F O N V E  I V E I N ,C O N C L U S I O N S A N D I M P L I C I T R O D U C T I O N O E R V I E W O F T H ES T U D Y R S E A R C H F I N D I N G S 5.2.1 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 5.2.2 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 5.3 R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S F O R T H E S I M P L E M E N T A T I O N O F M U L T I M E D I A 5.4 R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S F O R F U R T H  33 34 35 36 37 38 39 42 43 44 45 45 45 48 50 50 53 55 60 61 64 69 79 82  A T I O N S 82 82 83 83 86 U C C E S S F U L T E C H N O L O G Y E R R E S E A R C H  89 93  R E F E R E N C E S  94  APPENDIX  99  A - Software integration packages  i v  LIST OF  TABLES  T a b l e 1. A s u m m a r y o f t h e e m e r g e n t t h e m e s  v  a n d related  issues  L I S T O F  F I G U R E S  F i g u r e 1. A s u m m a r y o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f  v i  description  A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S  I a m v e r y grateful to D r s . J a y m i e M a t t h e w s a n d G r e g D e p a r t m e n t of G e o p h y s i c s writing of this  a n d  T h e  a n d A s t r o n o m y at U B C for their s u p p o r t i n  the  thesis.  I thank m y Clarke  F a h l m a n of  Karen  thesis committee m e m b e r s , Drs. Janice W o o d r o w , M e y e r ,  for their insightful  c o m m e n t s  a n d  constructive  criticisms w h i c h has c o n t r i b u t e d to the successful c o m p l e t i o n of this T h e technicians Studies  at U B C h a v e  a n d the secretaries in the D e p a r t m e n t of b e e n  a w o n d e r f u l  carrer, a n d I thank t h e m very  support  throughout  A n t h o n y  thesis. Curriculum  m y  graduate  m u c h .  I appreciate the support I received f r o m fellow graduate  students.  I a m grateful to all m y teachers w h o at v a r i o u s stages of m y  educational  career h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t r e m e n d o u s l y to the m a k i n g of M E . I a m p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e b t e d to m y b r o t h e r s a n d sisters i n C h r i s t for  their  unconditional love a n d prayers, m y family a n d in-laws for their support in  so  m a n y w a y s , a n d m y m o t h e r , w h o g i v e s a n d g i v e s a n d is still g i v i n g . O u r preschool aged boys, Segun, S e u n a n d Seyi, have b r o u g h t so richness  to  m o t h e r h o o d .  m y  life  I thank  that t h e m  I thank  G o d  continually  for p r o v i d i n g the  for  necessary  the  m u c h  privilege  disturbance  of f r o m  academics. Finally, I dedicate this thesis to the Glory m y  dear h u s b a n d , D e b o , w h o s e  h u m b l e  of the A l m i g h t y G o d , a n d  love a n d c o m m i t m e n t  me.  vii  to m e  continues  to to  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY LO  BACKGROUND T h e m o v e  society. Offices  i n t o the t e c h n o l o g i c a l a g e is v e r y m u c h e v i d e n t i n a n d banks  are flooded  w i t h  computers.  Similarly,  s h o p s m a k e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f t e c h n o l o g y (e.g. b a r c o d e p r i c i n g a n d T h e s e days, the use  of m u l t i m e d i a technology  today's grocery  inventory).  has captured the attention  e d u c a t o r s as w e l l as the b u s i n e s s w o r l d . M a n y e d u c a t o r s are c o n c e r n e d being technologically competent 21st  C e n t u r y . Consequently,  i m p l e m e n t i n g the  technology  c h a l k b o a r d w a s  educators  n o w  p o w e r f u l  is  educational  is m u c h  using  to  be  m o d e r n  m u l t i m e d i a  tools.  H e n c e ,  a n d  students' learning a n d skill  A t one  technology. i n f o r m a t i o n  educators  different w a y s of i m p l e m e n t i n g c o m p u t e r enhance  interest in w a y s  as tools in the classrooms.  considered o n  are  interested  technology  of  effectively  point in T h e  a n d  to l a g b e h i n d ( S a m m o n s ,  post-secondary  time,  focus  in  as  exploring  in their classrooms  have d o n e  education's  1993). This discrepancy use  of  m u l t i m e d i a  is  a  b e t w e e n recently  w h i c h  used  learning a n d skill development. as  W r i g h t  State  University,  can be  in order  enhance  U n i v e r s i t y  of  D e l a w a r e ,  to e x p l o r e  instructional tools  These  1993).  1  W a s h i n g t o n  such State  the uses of m u l t i m e d i a  universities  h a v e  in  students'  A few universities in the U n i t e d States,  University, a n d others are beginning ( S a m m o n s ,  to  in  education  are b e g i n n i n g to investigate w a y s  technology  to  extensive w o r k  addressed issue. Currently, universities m u l t i m e d i a  of  technology  incorporating m u l t i m e d i a into both teaching a n d learning, higher  public  the  development.  W h i l e p r i m a r y a n d secondary educators  has b e e n s h o w n  with  as w e l l as e q u i p p i n g learners to live i n  there  of  as  individually  established c a m p u s - w i d e  m u l t i m e d i a centers w h i c h support faculty  w i t h  personnel.  e q u i p m e n t  d o c u m e n t e d decision  a n d  in this thesis w a s  to integrate  H o w e v e r ,  based  o n  the  professors  attempt  teaching,  especially  f r o m  u n i v e r s i t y . If a n d  the  w h e n  to integrate  there  is n o  w h e n  p r o c e s s  of initiative;  the  as a n instructional tool w a s  personal choice rather than part of auniversity-wide F e w  i n n o v a t i o n  a different type  m u l t i m e d i a technology  m e m b e r s  the use  p r o g r a m . of technology  into  technical or administrative  they incorporate  a  the  use  of  their  s u p p o r t  m u l t i m e d i a  technology  for the first time, w h a t d o e s the e x p l o r a t i o n l o o k like? T h i s  thesis  d o c u m e n t s  the case of i m p l e m e n t i n g m u l t i m e d i a instructional technology  in  A s t r o n o m y 101/102.  1A  RESEARCH FOCUS  T h e focus of this study w a s a n investigation of a professor's a t t e m p t at i n c o r p o r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a t e c h n o l o g y a first-year level A s t r o n o m y  1.1.1 B a s e d  first  as a teaching tool  in  course.  Research questions: o n  the  research  focus,  the  following  two  research  questions  are  addressed: • W h a t planning, organization, a n d implementations  w e r e  u n d e r t a k e n to i n c o r p o r a t e m u l t i m e d i a d u r i n g the • W h a t aspects of m u l t i m e d i a t e c h n o l o g y w e r e salient to  innovation? its  implementation, a n d h o w d i d they affect teaching a n d i n A s t r o n o m y 101 a n d 102?  2  learning  12  THE  R E S E A R C H SITE  T h e site for this s t u d y w a s the A s t r o n o m y 1 0 1 / 1 0 2 w i n t e r  1993-94  class at the U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a . T h e choice of the site w a s  g u i d e d  b y  Marshall  & R o s s m a n  the  following  four considerations  research  suggested  b y  w i l l i n g to h a v e his e x p l o r a t i o n of  the  (1989).  1. A c c e s s i b i l i t y . T h e instructor of the course w a s  use of m u l t i m e d i a technology tracked a n d  d o c u m e n t e d .  2. E a s e o f e n t r y . T h e instructor of the course a n d the professor w h o h a d b e e n involved in other E d u c a t i o n ,  hence,  they  initiated the  collaborative studies w i t h the Faculty  w e r e  comfortable  w i t h  the  researching their exploration attempt with m u l t i m e d i a 3. R e l e v a n c e o f the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n to t h e I d i d n o t set u p  course  the p h e n o m e n o n  of  concept  of  technology.  site.  o b s e r v e d , i.e., t h e i n s t r u c t o r s  w e r e  n o t a s k e d to e m b a r k o n this i n n o v a t i o n so that t h e y c o u l d p r o v i d e  data  for a M a s t e r ' s thesis. T h e y h a d p l a n n e d to start the i n n o v a t i o n  with  m u l t i m e d i a technology  d u r i n g the 1993/94 academic  session.  the research focus of this study w a s b a s e d o n a real situation as to h a v i n g the situation a r r a n g e d as a r e s e a r c h 4. O p p o r t u n i t y to measurable T h i s  capture  that w o u l d  i n n o v a t i o n  of G e o p h y s i c s  attempt  a n d  exercise.  be  both  credible a n d  of measurable  implications of the  e m b a r k e d  u p o n  a n d A s t r o n o m y l e n d s itself to  credible data. T h e information gleaned useful  o p p o s e d  of  a  quality.  e x p l o r a t o r y  D e p a r t m e n t  data  H e n c e ,  f r o m  quality as reflected  study.  3  the  study  in the  is  in  the  p r o v i d i n g valuable,  section o n  the  T h e principal participants in the study  were:  • D r . J a y m i e M a t t h e w s , the instructor of the  course.  • Dr. Greg F a h l m a n , the initiator a n d former instructor of the • Four male student volunteers f r o m the  course.  class.  ( A l l the participants g a v e p e r m i s s i o n to h a v e their actual n a m e s  used in  study, except  w h e r e  p s e u d o n y m s  of  m u l t i m e d i a  were For  in the case of the four volunteer  students  this  used.) this  innovation  technology were  attempt,  the  following  elements  the  used:  • C o m p u t e r s (laptop a n d  desktop)  • L i q u i dC r y s t a l D i s p l a y projection  panel  • Laserdiscs a n d player, with barcode readers a n d barcode • C D - R O M sa n d  software  readers  • HyperCard s t a c k s • P o w e r p o i n t / T o o l b o o k / V i d e o s t a c k (Macintosh & I B M )  presentation  packages • C o m p u t e r simulation  L3  software  JUSTIFICATION FOR THE M E T H O D O L O G Y A  T h e  qualitative case-study  nature  of the  research  research strategy w a s  focus  a n d  research  a p p r o a c h . Ac a s e s t u d y is d e f i n e d b y Y i n ( 1 9 9 4 )  e m p l o y e d i n this  questions  necessitated  study. this  as  ...an empirical inquiry that • investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when  4  •  the  boundaries between phenomenon and  context are  not  clearly  evident, (p.13). T h e p u r p o s e  o f this s t u d y is to g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o a p r o c e s s o f  innovation rather than specific outcomes. in  the  natural  classroom  setting  into account.  (i.e., t h e H e n c e ,  f r o m a holistic perspective  This investigation  classroom), this study  taking  considers  the  w a s  c o n d u c t e d  d y n a m i c s  teaching  a n d n o t as a set of d e p e n d e n t  technological  a n d  a n d  of  learning  independent  variables. T o strengthen the case study design a n d enhance the accuracy of data, multiple sources of evidence w e r e e m p l o y e d (1994), Merriam  (1991), a n d  sources of data w e r e  Marshall a n d  as r e c o m m e n d e d  R o s s m a n  the  (1989). T h e  b y  the Y i n  following  utilized:  • interview transcripts f r o m four volunteer male • interview transcripts f r o m the  students  instructor  • interview transcripts f r o m the initiator of the  course  • field notes f r o m informal interviews a n d conversations  with  the  students • field notes f r o m classroom observations with a n d without the use  of  m u l t i m e d i a • field notes f r o m observations of the tutorial  sessions  • field notes f r o m observations of s o m e of the instructor's  preparatory  activities • the course outline a n d laboratory m a n u a l  a n d  • course a n d teaching evaluation forms completed b y the All the interviews, a n d s o m e field observations  w e r e videotaped b y me.  m o r e d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f the m e t h o d o l o g y is p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r  5  students.  three.  A  1£  IMPLICATIONS OF  THE  STUDY  T h i s s t u d y is i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g  reasons:  1. N o s t u d y h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d o n t h i s k i n d o f i n n o v a t i o n i n w h i c h faculty m e m b e r w a s  the initiator of the  innovation.  2. T h e r e a r e f e w s t u d i e s t h a t u s e a p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h t o innovation, especially  technological  the  investigate  innovation.  3. T h i s s t u d y w i l l d e s c r i b e , d o c u m e n t a n d a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n w h a t a n d w h a t  d i d not w o r k , a n d m a k e  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  a t t e m p t s at i n t r o d u c i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l 4.  This study will be a useful guide planning similar kinds of  5.  this  study  will  to g u i d e  future  technology.  for other faculty m e m b e r s  w h o  are  innovations.  Since the field of m u l t i m e d i a technology one,  w o r k e d  contribute  to  i n E d u c a t i o n is a n  the  b o d y  of  e m e r g i n g  literature  in  that  discipline. 6.  F i n a l l y , this s t u d y is a n o t h e r research  m e t h o d o l o g y  in  example  gaining  an  of the usefulness of case in-depth  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  study of  a  p h e n o m e n o n .  L5  OVERVIEW OF T h i s s t u d y is p r e s e n t e d  THE  STUDY  i n f i v e c h a p t e r s . Chapter One  consists of  the  b a c k g r o u n d to the study, research f o c u s a n d the t w o research q u e s t i o n s to answered. A  brief description of the m e t h o d o l o g y  study are also presented. presented.  I n Chapter Two,  a n d the implications of  a review  the  of selected literature  Chapter Three c o n s i s t s o f t h e d e s i g n a n d m e t h o d s  u s e d to  classify a n d interpret the data. A l s o addressed in this chapter are the issues v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d y . T h e s t o r y o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n is  6  be  is  collect, of  presented  thematically research  in  Chapter Four. F i n a l l y , a d i s c u s s i o n  questions,  conclusions,  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  implementation of m u l t i m e d i a technology r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  of the for  a n s w e r s the  the  successful  as a n instructional tool as w e l l  f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter Five.  7  to  as  C H A P T E R  T W O  L I T E R A T U R E  R E V I E W  INTRODUCTION  2,0 This  study  investigates  m u l t i m e d i a technology  a professor's  into his teaching  first  attempt  at  integrating  practice. This chapter reviews  the  literature p e r t a i n i n g to m u l t i m e d i a i n n o v a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n . T h e c h a p t e r is d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . T h e first s e c t i o n is a r e v i e w of  the  literature  o n  innovation.  T h e  second  section reviews  technological  innovation in Education. Finally, areview of the literature regarding developments higher  in the area of m u l t i m e d i a technology  education  i n p a r t i c u l a r is p r e s e n t e d  further research are identified in each  recent  i n g e n e r a l a n d its u s e  in the  third section.  A r e a s  in for  section.  INNOVATION  2A Innovation traditional  is d e f i n e d  practices  business, educational, define schools,  of  a n  b y  L e v i n e (1980) as  organization"  (p.4).  or social institutions.  "any  O r g a n i z a t i o n s  Fullan  Stiegelbauer  districts  a n d  (1991) claim  innovation h o n o r s  the  the  universities..."  that  educational  complexity  (p. xiii). A l t h o u g h F u l l a n reform r a t h e r  than  not m a d e  the a n d  a strong  these  three change  a p p l i e d to  the  field of Education. T h e three terms are often used interchangeably e v e n in  the  8  w h e n  be  educational  the literature, innovation,  the s a m e thing especially  the  (1991)  classrooms,  b y the fact that they u s e d  terms interchangeably in their book. From a n d r e f o r m essentially m e a n  of the  o f change, t h e y h a v e  case for this distinction as e v i d e n c e d  c o u l d  a n d Stiegelbauer  e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m as " c h a n g i n g the cultures the  departure f r o m  s a m e  articles e.g., F u l l a n  thesis however,  &  Stiegelbauer  (1991), a n d W u n s c h (1992). In  for the p u r p o s e of consistency,  t h e t e r m i n n o v a t i o n is  e v e n t h o u g h the ideas are d r a w n f r o m the literature o n all the three  2.1.1  this used  concepts.  E d u c a t i o n a lI n n o v a t i o n T h e f i e l d o f E d u c a t i o n is a d y n a m i c o n e . E d u c a t o r s , f r o m t i m e to  reflect o n their o w n practices, o n institutional practices, as w e l l as o n  time, societal  practices or needs. These reflections very often result in actions in the f o r m  of  innovations,  of  E d u c a t i o n the  s o m e  of  is r e p l e t e  establishment  w h i c h w i t h  are  radical,  innovations,  of entirely n e w  involving peripheral changes  others  f r o m  m a j o r  organizations  1. E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n e w  within existing within existing  5. P e r i p h e r a l c h a n g e s  outside of existing  T h e m a j o r difference  a m o n g  established  changes  d o  not  innovations  n o r m s  within existing  first three categories,  organizations. organizations.  w i t h i n  the  is t h e e x t e n t o f  organization.  S a r a s o n  order changes  goals, structures a n d roles in a n  the last t w o  a n d w o u l d  categories  for Sarason. Levine, (1980) c a m e  9  the  (1990),  first a n d s e c o n d - o r d e r changes. F i r s t -  are larger in m a g n i t u d e while  L e v i n e  colleges.  disturb the basic organization features.  involve the definition of n e w  ones  innovation:  T h a t is,  different roles within the organization are not altered. Second-order  Second-order changes  involving  o r colleges to m i n o r  these five categories  however, broadly distinguished between order  history  organizations.  4. P i e c e m e a l c h a n g e s  f r o m  T h e  colleges.  2. E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n n o v a t i v e e n c l a v e s  change  so.  to existing o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( L e v i n e , 1980).  (1980) identified five basic types of educational  3. H o l i s t i c c h a n g e s  less  the  changes  organization.  include  Levine's  of L e v i n e constitute  first  u p with m a n y reasons  w h y  innovations fail,a n d d r a w s u p o n vignettes f r o m the field of higher as  examples.  H o w e v e r ,  these  vignettes  l a c k e d  education  particularity  a b o u t  technological innovation in higher education. This study will focus o n a  case  of technological innovation in higher education. This type of innovation  can  be  categorized  (Levine's  as  a  piecemeal  type four). This type  change  w i t h i n  of change  a n  existing  c a n l e a d to holistic c h a n g e s  i n v o l v e the entire f a c u l t y o r l e a d to a m a j o r d e p a r t m e n t a l Fullan a n d Stiegelbauer  organization. that  reorganization.  (1991), identified four phases of the change  /  1. i n i t i a t i o n / m o b i l i z a t i o n / a d o p t i o n : t h e p h a s e o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a s  to  innovation  process:  whether 2.  to a d o p t the i n n o v a t i o n o r  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  /  initial use:  the  not first set  of  experiences  w i t h  the  institutionalization:  the  the innovation b e c o m e s a legitimate part of  the  i n n o v a t i o n 3.  continuation  /routinization / incorporation /  stabilizing stage w h e r e system 4. o u t c o m e :  the result of the  Fullan a n d Stiegelbauer  innovation  (1991) stated that the  o u t c o m e  phase  can refer  several different types of results a n d c a n be thought of generally as the of  i m p r o v e m e n t  example,  in  relation  to  given  criteria. Results  i m p r o v e d student learning a n d attitudes,  n e w  c o u l d  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p h a s e  is b a s e d  capacity o n  of the  school  a process-product  as  a n  m o d e l  for  skills, attitudes,  or  i m p r o v e d  organization. This in w h i c h  degree  include,  satisfaction o n the part of teachers a n d other school personnel, or  to  o u t c o m e  innovation  can  be  m e a s u r e d i n terms of different variables. L o o k i n g at a n i n n o v a t i o n in  terms  o f its o u t c o m e d o e s n o t p r o v i d e the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t is n e e d e d f o r a  person  t h a t is c o n s i d e r i n g e m b a r k i n g o n i n n o v a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e ,  10  if a s t u d y  that  s h o w s  that the  introduction of a particular type  of technology  i m p r o v e d  s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g , o n e w o u l d w a n t to k n o w h o w , w h e n  a n d w h a t aspect  student  all contexts?  learning? Straight recall? In  all students?  In  strategies d i d the teacher a d o p t to p r o m o t e this? W h a t things w e r e W h a t w a s  of  W h a t  avoided?  the teacher's attitude t o w a r d s this i n n o v a t i o n ? W h a t feelings  d i d  the teacher go t h r o u g h d u r i n g the different phases of the innovation  process?  W h a t w a s  changes  the response of the students? W e r e they excited about the  right a w a y ? T h e questions that arise are almost inexhaustible. T h e point  h o w e v e r  is  that  all these  issues  affect  students'  crucial  learning so  i m p o r t a n t to k n o w h o w t h e y w e r e h a n d l e d . E v e n t h o u g h F u l l a n , (a  it  is  respected  author in the field of educational change), a n d his co-workers over a ten  year  s p a n h a v e c o n s t a n t l y m a i n t a i n e d that c h a n g e is a p r o c e s s n o t a n e v e n t  a n d  that e v a l u a t i o n s c a n b e m i s l e a d i n g if t h e y p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n o n  products  only, the a d d i t i o n of this f o u r t h category renders their s t a n d contradictory. H o w e v e r ,  the  o u t c o m e  phase  is still i n t e r e s t i n g a n d as  educators, w e  innovating o u r practices implicitly because of the intended o u t c o m e w e  are  w h i c h  desire. This study describes a n innovation in the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase.  T h e  instructor's first set of e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the i n n o v a t i o n are d e s c r i b e d .  H i s  feelings a n d attitudes t o w a r d s these experiences, fears, d o u b t s a n d thrills are also d o c u m e n t e d . In addition, the s t u d y describes the sets of decisions that m a d e  d u r i n g this i m p l e m e n t a t i o n stage a n d the factors that g u i d e d  decisions.  11  he  those  Z2  EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Educational  technology  has  b e e n  defined  b y  'The Association  Educational C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d Technology's (AECT) T a s k Force' ...a complex, ideas,  integrated  devices  a n d  process,  organizations  involving people,  as  procedures,  for analyzing p r o b l e m s  a n d  devising, implementing, evaluating, a n d m a n a g i n g solutions those  p r o b l e m s  i n v o l v e d  in  all aspects  of  for  h u m a n  to  learning.  (p.164). This w a s  a n  technology the  appropriate definition given  a p p l i e d  m e d i a  E d u c a t i o n .  This  t oe d u c a t i o n a l  a n d  instructional technology i n  applicability of  across a variety of contexts. Educational technology  a p p r o a c h e s  p s y c h o l o g y ,  the  s y s t e m s  p r o b l e m s  a p p r o a c h ,  s u c h  a sw e l l  educational includes  a s educational  a st e r m s  that implies the application of a specific  p r o f u s i o n  Grabowski's  (1992) review  educational  technology  of  m e a n i n g s  w a s  further  s u c h a s technology  e v i d e n c e d  of the literature o n the multiple perspectives in  w h i c h  he  perspectives of educational technology.  discussed  four  different  In his article, educational  w a s  defined f r o m a philosophical, practical k n o w l e d g e  and  a practical research perspective. T h e result w a s  base,  all  b y of  research technology  methodological,  a n "interesting mosaic  of  issues" ( G r a b o w s k i , 1992).  2 . 2 . 1  T e c h n o l o g i c a lI n n o v a t i o n Technological innovation in E d u c a t i o n involves the adoption of a  technology  in  t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g  considered the use of n e w  e n v i r o n m e n t s .  Schools  h a v e  n e w  a l w a y s  t e c h n o l o g i e s . A s O l s o n ( 1 9 8 8 ) p u t s it "the s l a t e  w a s  o n c e a novelty". H o w e v e r i n o u r time, teachers h a v e h a d to c o n s i d e r the  use  12  of teaching machines,  instructional television, videos,  computers  recently, m u l t i m e d i a in their classrooms within a short period of  and,  m o r e  time.  T h e r e is a n i n c r e a s i n g a w a r e n e s s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s a r e  best  initiated b y the teachers themselves. O a k e s & Schneider (1984), contend  that  e v e n t h o u g h ideas m a y be u s e d f r o m outside, the school s h o u l d not be a target for innovations a n d Stiegelbauer  developed  outside the school. A c c o r d i n g  ( 1 9 9 1 ) , i n n o v a t i o n is n o t w h a t is d o n e  to  o n people  m a d e Fullan  but  w h a t  p e o p l e d o , t h a t is " b o t t o m u p c h a n g e s " ( S a l i s b u r y , 1 9 9 2 ) . F o r i n n o v a t i o n s to successful  they have  to b e  o w n e d  b y  those w h o  use  t h e m  (Levine,  Fullan, 1992). In this s t u d y , the d e c i s i o n to integrate m u l t i m e d i a into  teaching  w a s  instructor w h o  that of the  professor  w h o  initiated  t a u g h t it i n the 1 9 9 3 / 9 4 a c a d e m i c  the  1980;  technology  course  a n d  Instructional  i n n o v a t i o n  the  session. Fortunately,  w e r e able to get f u n d i n g f r o m the T e a c h i n g a n d L e a r n i n g E n h a n c e m e n t at U B C to s u p p o r t a n d r e s e a r c h the  be  they Fund  innovation.  w i t h  technology  is  often  classified  as  "piecemeal changes within existing organizations" (Levine, 1980). This type  of  c h a n g e is u s u a l l y i n i t i a t e d b y t h o s e u s i n g it d i r e c t l y a n d t e n d s to c o n f o r m  to  the traditional w a y s  be  w h y  of d o i n g things within the organization. This c o u l d  instructional technology,  a l t h o u g h i n t r o d u c e d as a f o r m of  innovation,  still t e n d s to b e u s e d i n a w a y that c o n f o r m s to the t r a d i t i o n a l lecture m o d e classrooms (Salisbury, W h i l e b o u n d a r y  of  1992).  technological institutional  innovations values  or  usually  n o r m s  d o  not  (Duttweiler,  go  outside  1983),  S u c h  as  the  m a j o r  negotiation  establishment  of innovative  innovation-related  changes  enclaves generally  (Levine, 1980). F o r this negotiation  13  within existing involve  to b e  s o m e  the  piecemeal  c h a n g e s c a n s o m e t i m e s l e a d to holistic o n e s w i t h i n existing organizations well  in  as  colleges. f o r m  of  e f f e c t i v e , it m u s t  be  s h o w n  that  innovations.  reasonable  a n d  its  h a v e  been  learned  f r o m  those  piecemeal  F o r s u c h m e a n i n g f u l lessons to occur, a p r o p e r a s s e s s m e n t  t h e i n n o v a t i o n is Many  lessons  vital.  scholars  p r o p e r  have  expressed  assessment  the n e e d  in classroom  for technological  settings.  In  the  innovation  process-product  approach, the m o s t recent d o m i n a n t p a r a d i g m , the success of the is u s u a l l y a s s e s s e d i n t e r m s students.  H o y l e s  of  of i m p r o v e m e n t  (1992), Kinnick  in achievement  innovation  scores  of  the  et al. (1990), a n d O l s o n (1985), s u g g e s t  the  n e e d f o r a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h i n w h i c h t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n is a s s e s s e d terms of the interaction processes product or outcomes  years  that go o n in the classroom rather than  approach. This suggestion  " I n n o v a t i o n is c o m p l e x  a n d subtle  o f p r a c t i c e it t a k e s  in  a n d w e  is b a s e d o n t h e p r e m i s e  n e e d  to a c k n o w l e d g e  to a c q u i r e a n d integrate  a n e w  w a y  that,  the  of  a  m a n y  teaching."  (Polin, 1991 p . 7 cited i n H o y l e s , 1992 p. 40). T h i s alternative a p p r o a c h c a n  be  appropriately studied b y using the case study m e t h o d of inquiry. A n  interaction  processes  a p p r o a c h  in  w h i c h  the  innovation  s t u d i e d w i t h i n its c o n t e x t , w a s  u s e d in this s t u d y rather t h a n treating  pertinent factors that m a k e  the context  u p  into the success of this technological  as extraneous  innovation were  variables.  Innovations,  especially  technological  to suffer f r o m p o o r a s s e s s m e n t ( M c C l u n g , u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of h o w  technological  innovation  instruments  a p p r o a c h in the day-to-day  that  h a v e  evaluation  practices  a n d  p r o d u c e d  takes  classroom  students.  h a v e  1979). T h e r e has  research in this area uses a p r o c e s s - p r o d u c t a n d  innovations,  been been  place.  results.  M o s t  T h e  n u m e r o u s  14  contextual  factors  of  of the  scales  quantitative  of innovation does not reveal m u c h the  k n o w n  a lack  f r a m e w o r k w i t h various  m i x e d  those Insights  gained b y  observations, a n d interviews with the instructor a n d volunteer  w a s  that  about are  the often  h i d d e n b y statistical m a n i p u l a t i o n s  (Fullan &  Stiegelbauer,  1991;  McClung,  1979). H e n c e , t h e r e is a n e e d to s t u d y i n n o v a t i o n i n a h o l i s t i c c o n t e x t , to h o w  i n n o v a t i o n a n d e v e r y d a y practices interact; to k n o w  w h a t  cope  w i t h  the  n e w  technologies;  to f i n d  out  h o w  it affects  learn  it is l i k e teachers  s t u d e n t s interactions; a n d to k n o w w h a t c h a n g e s to e x p e c t i n the  a n d  atmosphere  o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . A s F u l l a n a n d S t i e g e l b a u e r ( 1 9 9 1 ) n o t e , " H o w c h a n g e is into practice determines  to a large extent h o w  processes  within  studies  a n d  b e y o n d  reflexivity pattern of the m a k e s  are usually the  teacher  d o n e  in the  classroom.  a n d indeed  context of  T h e y  can  encourage  also  This notion of "reflection o n action" has b e e n s h o w n  interaction capture  this as  the  the  teacher 1991).  to b e v e r y v a l u a b l e  effective t e a c h i n g to take place i n v a r i o u s contexts (Smith, 1993; Clarke,  refers  to  application, multiple channels or delivery m e d i u m  such  the  ability  to  c o m b i n e ,  w i t h i n  of c o m m u n i c a t i o n within a single  as m a g n e t i c  p.33). M u l t i m e d i a incorporates two  1992).  u s e d  to  integrate  a n d  control  a  g i v e n  distribution  o r o p t i c a l disc." ( B a r k e r et al.  1993,  or m o r e of the following elements:  graphics, animation, audio, a n d video. In multimedia, c o m p u t e r these  elements.  U s i n g  text,  technology m u l t i m e d i a ,  information that has previously been presented in a lecture format a n d b y use  for  MULTIMEDIA " M u l t i m e d i a  is  best  detailed  day-to-day decisions o n the use of technologies in class (Olson,  13  put  w e l l it fares." S t u d i e s t h a t  capture a holistic, contextually rich picture of innovation are typically case studies. These  to  of overheads  a n d  other  visual aids  can n o w  be  presented  d y n a m i c , integrated a n d interactive m a n n e r . M u l t i m e d i a packages  15  the  in a  m o r e  can  either  be  for a M a c i n t o s h or a D O S environment.  T h e capabilities  of  m u l t i m e d i a  include: •  T h e  ability  of  m u l t i - c h a n n e l  of  data  c o m b i n a t i o n  c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  processing  technology  This  w i t h  refers  s o u n d  to  a n d  the i m a g e  technology. • T h e ability to c o n t a i n a large q u a n t i t y o f accessible m a t e r i a l w h i c h c a n integrated  in  a  variety  available to e d u c a t o r s  of  ways.  Since  the  a m o u n t  of  information  h a s i n c r e a s e d s h a r p l y , a n d this is a  trend, m u l t i m e d i a technology  be  continuing  is i n c r e a s i n g l y r e q u i r e d to h a n d l e  such  information. • T h e flexibility of authoring a n d navigation. T h e user friendliness of m u l t i m e d i a  w i t h  m i n i m a l  • T h e ability to b e u s a b l e i n v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s s u c h as the  lecturing  c o m p u t e r  technology  m a k e s  it a c c e s s i b l e  experience.  m o d e as w e l l as i n a h a n d s - o n T h e already  potential  w i d e l y  to p e o p l e  the  of m u l t i m e d i a  u s e d  in  the  m o d e . technology  business  sector.  is s e e m i n g l y Many  of  limitless.  today's  It  c o m p u t e r  applications could be i m p r o v e d with m u l t i m e d i a capabilities. A c c o r d i n g IBM,  " m u l t i m e d i a is l i m i t e d o n l y b y  (IBM  international  exaggeration  technical  the p o w e r  s u p p o r t  centers,  to  the  1992.  p.3).  infancy  of  its  d e v e l o p m e n t ,  This  m a y  technology  still h a s  s h o r t c o m i n g s . O n e s h o r t c o m i n g is t h a t t h e r e is y e t n o u n i q u e w a y o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e software a n d  the  be  a n d still r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g , the  set  of m u l t i m e d i a application areas.  p r o d u c t developments g r o w i n g  n u m b e r  continue  to affect the  of m u l t i m e d i a n e t w o r k  16  N e w  to  imagination".  e s p e c i a l l y b e a r i n g it i n m i n d t h a t I B M is a m a j o r s t a k e h o l d e r  t h e f i e l d o f m u l t i m e d i a . M u l t i m e d i a is n e w d u e  of the user's  is  application areas.  in a n d  m a n y defining  h a r d w a r e  m u l t i m e d i a  a n  a n d  m a r k e t These  n e w  products m a k e  m u l t i m e d i a products expensive, especially  that  presently  a n  it is  e m e r g i n g  technology.  Until  things  considering  b e c o m e  fairly  s t a b i l i z e d i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r , it is d i f f i c u l t f o r t e a c h e r s to t a k e advantage  of m u l t i m e d i a  technology  capabilities  a n d  think about  w h i c h t h e y c a n u s e it a n d e x p e r i m e n t w i t h t h e i r v a r i o u s  2 . 3 . 1  w a y s  in  ideas.  M u l t i m e d i aT e c h n o l o g y i nE d u c a t i o n M o s t  states  k n o w l e d g e  a n d  in  the  U . S  n o w  skills for using  stipulate  that  K - 1 2  teachers  information technologies so  acquire  that they  m a k e effective use of this technology in the elementary a n d s e c o n d a r y classrooms  (Punt,  computers  a m o n g  1994). A s  a result,  there  has  b e e n  their genuine  a n increasing use  teachers but m a i n l y for w o r d processing.  M a n y  interest b e c a u s e m a n y of t h e m still l a c k a basic  Kolloff, 1994). W h i l e the n e e d for instructional technology  m e t h o d o l o g y  b y m a n y  w i t h i n the last decade  teachers  advantages  of using  well  d o c u m e n t e d .  Much  television  (Duttweiler,  (Salisbury, 1992),  the  m u l t i m e d i a  instructional technology has  b e e n  (Koontz,  1989;  written  about  R o c k m a n ,  the  1985),  of different  effective use videos,  ( L C D ) panel.  T h e s e  c o m p o n e n t s  17  are  also  capable  has of  slides, in  1991). components,  example, the computer, video player, laser disc player, a n d the liquid display  a  education.  in E d u c a t i o n  1991; Faravelli, et al., 1991; B r a n d t ,  s e t - u p is a c o m b i n a t i o n  & has  1983), a n d m o r e recently, m u l t i m e d i a technology  E d u c a t i o n (Falk, & Carlson, A  ( R e e h m ,  o f g o i n g a b o u t it still r e m a i n s elusive. T h i s s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e  The  computers  despite  in E d u c a t i o n  detailed account of a case of m u l t i m e d i a innovation in higher  instructional  of  understanding  of the pedagogical usage of m u l t i m e d i a or h y p e r m e d i a packages  b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d  can  school  still l a c k the ability to i n c o r p o r a t e this t e c h n o l o g y into the c u r r i c u l u m  b e e n  full  of  being  for  crystal u s e d  i n d i v i d u a l l y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . T h e r e is t h e t e n d e n c y ,  therefore, to  m u l t i m e d i a just in terms of these i n d i v i d u a l h a r d w a r e c o m p o n e n t s n e w  'audio/visual' technology,  or as  b u t t h e c o n c e p t o f m u l t i m e d i a is  see the  integration  of technologies that has a p u r p o s e b e y o n d an a m a l g a m a t i o n of the individual technologies. T h e effectiveness of the integration m u l t i m e d i a technology  m e a n s  of the  single m e d i a  that the w h o l e is g r e a t e r t h a n the s u m  into of  individual parts. Because of this t e n d e n c y of seeing m u l t i m e d i a just in o f its i n d i v i d u a l h a r d w a r e c o m p o n e n t s ,  terms  extrapolations f r o m studies that  have  explored the effectiveness of single m e d i a usage in educational settings have (1985)  to b e  carefully examined.  lessons  f r o m  A n  instructional  e x a m p l e  of such  television.  s t u d i e s is  W e i n g r a d  et  necessarily  of these studies m a y  generalizable  2.3.2  to m u l t i m e d i a  be  useful  al. (1993)  pointers  will  R o c k m a n ' s also  c o n d u c t e d a r e v i e w of the literature o n the effects of various single m e d i a learning. T h e results  its  but  are  o n not  environments.  Multimedia Technology in Higher Education A s with m a n y innovations, p r i m a r y a n d secondary education  continue  to m a k e m o r e p r o g r e s s i n the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of m u l t i m e d i a t e c h n o l o g y curriculum than higher education ( S a m m o n s ,  in  the  1993). In a study d o n e w i t h  K -  12 teachers, H u a n g  ( 1 9 9 4 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e r e is a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n  grade  a n d technology  level  education  taught w h e r e  use.  This can be extrapolated  it c a n b e i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y  c l a s s r o o m is m i n i m a l . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , technology Sciences.  is b e i n g u s e d H o w e v e r ,  m a n y  t h e r e is e v i d e n c e  in research laboratories, especially instructors  have  yet  to  explore  potential in the classroom. W h i l e m a n y faculty m e m b e r s  that  use  higher in  the  m u l t i m e d i a Natural  pedagogical  are of the  t h a t m u l t i m e d i a i n s t r u c t i o n is v a l u a b l e , i n p r a c t i c e , t h e y f a v o r t h e  18  to  in the its  b e t w e e n  opinion  traditional  m o d e s  of  instruction.  centers with adequate use  of the  A  centralized  established  a p p r o a c h  T h e  w h o  s u c h  as of  M u l t i m e d i a  are interested in  m a j o r  instructors  E d u c a t i o n R e f o r m A c t (KERA)  incorporate technology  h a v e  in their classrooms.  a p p r o a c h is t h a t o f g e t t i n g  technology. K e n t u c k y  universities  support for faculty m e m b e r s  technology  centralized  Several  p r o b l e m  interested  the  of s u c h  in using  m a n d a t e  1990  the  given  stipulating  the  b y  that  the  schools  to c h a n g e the w a y c h i l d r e n are e d u c a t e d i n their  K - 1 2  level s c h o o l s w i l l b e difficult to i m p l e m e n t i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e of respect for diversity a n d academic f r e e d o m in such  a c o m p u t e r integrated course, f o u n d that h y p e r m e d i a w a s  m o s t  eight possible anxious  to  use  educational software of teaching, 35  ideas, in  the  institutions.  P u n t (1994), in her study w i t h 163 student teachers w h o  a m o n g  h a d  completed  their third  option  tools, a n d teaching strategies w h i c h they  the  classroom.  It w a s  third o n l y  to  the  w e r e  use  a n d Word-processing. After about one a n d a half  of these 163  n e w  a  of  years  teachers rated h y p e r m e d i a third again  in  c o u r s e s that t h e y h a v e b e e n able to use i n their c l a s s r o o m after their training. Interestingly  though, m a n y of these n e w  they h a d difficulty i m p l e m e n t i n g w h a t not visualize h o w  they h a d learned because they  practice? T h e y w e r e  taught  w h a t  they c o u l d d o  for the use  w i t h  the  instruction  the at  integration the  into but  student teachers  w a s  exemplars.  of exemplars  of c o m p u t e r  University of British  in teaching  technology C o l u m b i a .  into S o m e  introductory  secondary students  introductory Science E d u c a t i o n 412 course p r e p a r e d elements of the  19  the  technology,  recognized b y W o o d r o w (1994) in designing a practical, h a n d s - o n o n  could  teachers not p u t those concepts a n d skills  possibly h a d never been p r o v i d e d with  course  that  to p u t i n practice the c o n c e p t s a n d skills l e a r n e d i n  course. W h y could these n e w  T h e n e e d  teachers expressed the concern  Science in  this  software  packages  used  part of this  in the A s t r o n o m y 101/102 tutorial sessions that  constituted  study.  Many  of  the  present  generation  of university  professors  w e r e  not  taught with m u l t i m e d i a especially in higher education. M o s t of t h e m teach  in  a strict transmissive  be  c o n v i n c e d  of  the  m e t h o d o l o g y ' ?  manner-the  desirability of T e c h n o l o g i c a l  w a y  they w e r e  c h a n g i n g i n n o v a t i o n  taught. H o w  their  'tried a n d  c o u l d  be  could they true  g o o d  threatening  o l d  to  the  instructor. C l a s s r o o m n o r m s m a y c h a n g e d u e to the e x p l o r a t i o n of n e w of d o i n g not just old tasks but the exploration of n e w  ones. S u c h  c r e a t e a n i n e r t i a that n e e d s to b e o v e r c o m e if i n n o v a t i o n is to t a k e Midoro  o p e n  changes  place.  (1993) noted, "In E d u c a t i o n , m u l t i m e d i a s y s t e m s s h o u l d not  conceived as n e w w h i c h  w a y s  u p  s y s t e m s for d o i n g o l d tasks, b u t as a n e w n e w  possibilities."  W h i l e  agreeing  w i t h  class of this  be  systems  notion,  the  s t a r t i n g p o i n t is p r o b a b l y d o i n g o l d t a s k s d i f f e r e n t l y as a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r  the  exploration of n e w ideas. T h e prospect of o p e n i n g u p n e w possibilities can  be  frightening though. Therefore the readiness such n e w  of the instructors to d e a l  p o s s i b i l i t i e s is c r u c i a l . It is i n t e r e s t i n g f o r i n s t r u c t o r s to k n o w  k i n d of possibilities m u l t i m e d i a offers i n contexts s i m i l a r to their o w n . this case s t u d y c o u l d be useful as personal resonance for a n y higher instructor p l a n n i n g a similar kind T h e  with  v a r i o u s  of  capabilities  H e n c e  education  innovation.  of  m u l t i m e d i a  t e c h n o l o g y  discussed  p r e v i o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e to m a k i n g it a t t r a c t i v e f o r E d u c a t i o n . S o m e o f t h e i n w h i c h m u l t i m e d i a is c u r r e n t l y b e i n g u s e d i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n • T h e exploration of multiple classroom environments video  w i t h i n  the  context  the  of  G o l d m a n a n d B a r r o n , 1990).  20  m u l t i m e d i a  areas  include:  with the use  ( E d y b u r n  et  al.  of  1994;  • T h e use of cases in presenting different scenarios a n d asking  students  f r o m d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s to c o m m e n t o n t h o s e s c e n a r i o s . T h i s is  useful  especially for s t u d e n t teachers ( A b e l l et al., 1994). • C o m p u t e r - b a s e d Science ( W o o d r o w ,  E d u c a t i o n instruction for student  teachers  1994).  • M u l t i m e d i a s u p p o r t e d data bases about the faculty a n d p r o g r a m s of school. These  data bases c o m b i n e  visual, audio, a n d  textual  giving a profile for each faculty m e m b e r . These data bases are for p e o p l e w h o w a n t to k n o w the r e s e a r c h areas of faculty  a  data useful  m e m b e r s  ( M a r c i n k i e w i c z x , et al. 1994). • Research tools for m u l t i m e d i a ethnographers  as w e l l as for  researching into various issues as school projects  students  (Goldman-Segall,  1993) . •  M u l t i m e d i a e n h a n c e d  distance  education  p r o g r a m s  (Valmont,  W .  1994) . M u l t i m e d i a p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t w a r e is n o w a v a i l a b l e to r e p l a c e the u s e s l i d e s a n d t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . P o w e r p o i n t is c u r r e n t l y the m o s t p o p u l a r o n e is a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e I B M a n d M a c i n t o s h c o m p u t e r s . o v e r v i e w w h i c h terms  of the  are useful  for  the  of five  software  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  packages  potential  of c o m p u t e r s  of  using  these  learning o u t c o m e s  p r o g r a m s a n d  over  benefits  the of the  a n  A p p e n d i x  A ) ,  in instruction.  regular  curricula  In the  a n d  the  o u t w e i g h  the  took into consideration  the  integration  investment. Like F r e e o u f a n d Flank (1994), this study  notion  (see  a n d  (1994) gave  of the time investments required of the instructors a n d students,  a d v a n t a g e s  time  capabilities  Murphy  of  that  "successful  change  is  training, support, a n d opportunities  contingent  u p o n  easy  access,  to test a n d i n c o r p o r a t e n e w  21  regular  skills  a n d  products in personally a n d contextually meaningful ways" current study w a s a n d  a collaborative enterprise between  (p.172).  H e n c e  researcher,  technicians  the instructor. T h e M u l t i m e d i a Instruction L a b o r a t o r y ( M I L a b ) at  p r o v i d e d  s o m e  of the  training, support  instructors in the D e p a r t m e n t of  2.4  a n d  opportunities  the  n e e d e d  U B C  for  the  A s t r o n o m y .  SUMMARY  In this chapter, three interrelated bodies  of literature were  a n d a n a l y z e d as t h e y a p p l y to this s t u d y . T h e first s e c t i o n  r e v i e w e d  started w i t h  a n  i n t r o d u c t i o n to the c o n c e p t o f i n n o v a t i o n . T h e v a r i o u s t y p e s a n d p r o c e s s e s  of  educational  innovation were  then  identified  w i t h  a v i e w  of situating  this  study. In the second section, a review of studies technological innovation w a s a  holistic  assessment  of  involving the assessment  presented. These studies presented the need  technological  innovation  thereby  rationale for u s i n g a case s t u d y research strategy for this T h e  final  section  started  w a s  a review  multimedia. N e x t  w i t h  a n  studies  for the  study.  introduction into  of evaluation  p r o v i d i n g  of  d o n e  the  concept  in the  area  of of  m u l t i m e d i a e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the last decade. Finally, the chapter e n d e d  with  a review of studies  need  for increased education  w a s  methodology, m e t h o d o l o g y  o n the use of m u l t i m e d i a in higher education. T h e  m u l t i m e d i a innovation established.  T h e next  t h a t is, the p r o c e d u r e s  a n d  its p r o p e r a s s e s s m e n t i n  chapter  describes  that were  a n d the rationale for selecting those  22  the study's  e m p l o y e d  higher research  to i m p l e m e n t  procedures.  this  C H A P T E R D E S I G N A N D  T H R E E  M E T H O D  3J)  O F  A N A L Y S I S  I N T R O D U C T I O N The  p u r p o s e of this study w a s  to investigate a professor's first  attempt  at i n c o r p o r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a t e c h n o l o g y as a teaching tool i n a first y e a r  level  A s t r o n o m y course. A qualitative case study research strategy was used for investigation.  A c c o r d i n g  to  Y i n (1994), one  of  the  over-riding  this  principles  i m p o r t a n t to a n y effort i n d o i n g c a s e s t u d i e s is the a b i l i t y o f the r e s e a r c h e r  to  p r o v i d e explicit links b e t w e e n t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d , t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d a n d  the  conclusions describe  d r a w n  a n d  (emphasis  p r o v i d e  mine).  a rationale  for  T h e the  p u r p o s e m e t h o d s  of  this  chapter  e m p l o y e d  in  is  the  collection a n d analysis. M y trail as the researcher f r o m the inception of s t u d y to the c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n f r o m the s t u d y is m a p p e d o u t i n this To  assist  the  reader  in situating  this  study,  the  context  of  the  data the  chapter. study  p r e s e n t e d , a b r i e f b a c k g r o u n d o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s is g i v e n , a n d the t w o  to  is  courses  u n d e r s t u d y a r e w e l l l a i d out. S i n c e r e s e a r c h is a d i s c i p l i n e d a n d  systematic  inquiry, the concerns of validity a n d reliability of the study m u s t  necessarily  be addressed.  These concerns  are addressed  section, the limitations of the study are  3,1  Studies,  S T U D Y  advisor, D r . Janice W o o d r o w f r o m the D e p a r t m e n t of a n d  A s t r o n o m y  D r . G r e g are  F a h l m a n f r o m  i n v o l v e d  in  the  D e p a r t m e n t  a joint m u l t i m e d i a  project  d e p a r t m e n t s at U . B . C . T h e p r o j e c t is f u n d e d b y U B C s  23  final  presented.  C O N T E X T O F T H E M y  in this chapter a n d in the  C u r r i c u l u m  of G e o p h y s i c s b e t w e e n  T e a c h i n g a n d  the  a n d two  Learning  E n h a n c e m e n t  Fund.  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  of  T h e  principal  m u l t i m e d i a  goal  of  the  technology  project  into  a  is  to  initiate  the  university  setting  for  instructional purposes. O n e aspect of the project involves the d e v e l o p m e n t m u l t i m e d i a packages for use  b y students in the department of Curriculum  as instructional materials in the A s t r o n o m y classes. D r s .  of  Studies W o o d r o w  a n d F a h l m a n are interested in m a k i n g the best use of existing technology m a x i m i z e  s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . T h e y a r g u e that i n o r d e r to k e e p p a c e w i t h  technological the m o d e  advancement,  especially  in the  area of c o m p u t e r  of  t e c h n o l o g y i n t e a c h i n g . T h e s t u d y d o c u m e n t e d i n this thesis, is a s u b s e t o f  3.2  T H E  Departments.  initiator o f t h e A s t r o n o m y 1 0 1 / 1 0 2 instructor f o r t h e A s t r o n o m y  course.  101/102  1993/94.  • F o u r m a l e student volunteers f r o m t h e  3.2.1  class.  T h e C o u r s eI n i t i a t o r After twenty years of experience  F a h l m a n w a s m a n y  as a university instructor, D r .  of the opinion that with  s u b j e c t a r e a s , it w a s  the increasing use  Greg  of technology  time the G e o p h y s i c s a n d A s t r o n o m y  started a n introductory course that m a d e  the  laboratory  c o m p o n e n t  of  extensive use of computers.  24  the  course  w a s  the  in  department H e n c e ,  A s t r o n o m y 101 a n d 102 w e r e i n t r o d u c e d i n 1990 b y D r . F a h l m a n . P r i o r to study,  the  were:  • D r . J a y m i e M a t t h e w s , the course in  this  P A R T I C I P A N T S  T h e participants in this s t u d y • D r . G r e g F a h l m a n , the  the  technology,  of instruction at the university s h o u l d incorporate the use  bigger collaborative project b e t w e e n the two  to  focus  this for  m i c r o c o m p u t e r based two  years  technology interested  after  instruction. D r . F a h l m a n taught  their inception. W h e n  in the lecture  c o m p o n e n t  the  the  possibility  of the course  two  of using  for  m u l t i m e d i a  arose, D r . F a h l m a n  i n its i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . H o w e v e r , i n t h e fall o f 1 9 9 3 ,  w e n t o n a sabbatical leave, a n d Dr. M a t t h e w s  courses  w a s  asked  Dr.  to teach  w a s  F a h l m a n the  two  courses.  3.2.2  it as  T h eI n s t r u c t o r Dr. J a y m i e M a t t h e w s has about 13 years of teaching experience, m o s t  of  a  of  graduate  A s t r o n o m y  101  student f r o m supervised  student.  H e  h a d  redesigned  the  laboratory  portion  a n d 102 with the assistance of M r . Phil H o d d e r , a the  the  D e p a r t m e n t  of G e o p h y s i c s  laboratory portion  conducted, D r . M a t t h e w s  w a s  Assistant Professor. H e w a s  of  the  a n d A s t r o n o m y in 1991,  courses.  in his second  graduate  W h e n  this  s t u d y  a n d w a s  y e a r of teaching at U B C as  a n  also the instructor of A s t r o n o m y 101 a n d 102  as  well as supervisor for the laboratory sessions w i t h the assistance of  graduate  students.  3.2.3  T h eS t u d e n tV o l u n t e e r s T h e  course.  interview  data  A t the beginning  w e r e  obtained  of the term, the  f r o m  four  m a l e  students  in  the  instructor introduced m e  to  the  class. S u b s e q u e n t l y , I a d d r e s s e d the entire class at the b e g i n n i n g of e a c h  term  a n d at e a c h of the tutorial s e s s i o n s that t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g the t e r m , told  the  students  for  the  p u r p o s e  of  the  study,  a n d  a s k e d  t h e m  interviews. T h e condition of the interviews w e r e defined as • participants w o u l d be  a n o n y m o u s .  25  to  volunteer follows:  participants w e r e free to stop the i n t e r v i e w at a n y t i m e o r decline a n s w e r  a n y  questions  if  they  w e r e  not  comfortable  w i t h  to the  questions. • p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e free to c h o o s e the v e n u e for During one  the first tutorial session  for the course w h i c h lasted for  a n d a half hours, the instructor r e v i e w e d  covered  so  questions.  far in  the  course  H e also m a d e  a n d  extensive  interviews.  asked  all the  for  the  topics  that h a d  been  students'  feedback  a n d  use of m u l t i m e d i a technology  session. This tutorial took place a few days before the m i d - t e r m At  the  e n d  w a l k e d  u p  of this first tutorial session to m e  a n d said that he  m u l t i m e d i a technology. consent  to  a n  for the  w a n t e d  course,  to c o m m e n t  T h e other three students  interview  w h i c h  they  readily  m a l e  o n  the use  a s k e d if they  did.  T h e  of the four student  were  of  the  w o u l d  students  w e r e refused  are used  for  D o n .  'formally' interviewed  once  with each interview lasting for about an hour. These formal interviews  were  v i d e o t a p e d . I n a d d i t i o n to these f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s  informal talks  w i t h  throughout the year. These  talks  these four students  volunteers  student  one male student  the four m a l e student volunteers, Alfred, Brad, C a l a n d  this  examination.  one  a n interview. T h r o u g h o u t this thesis, the f o l l o w i n g p s e u d o n y m s  Each  d u r i n g  were  i n t e r v i e w e d at different times d u r i n g the year. O n l y  about  as w e l l as other students  took place sometimes  were  after classes, d u r i n g l a b o r a t o r y sessions a n d after,  well as after tutorial sessions. T h e i n f o r m a t i o n obtained f r o m s u c h talks  as  were  c o n s i d e r e d part of the data for this study. T h r e e interviews took place after  the  tutorial sessions that w e r e h e l d b y the instructor at different times d u r i n g  the  year, while the interview with D o n w a s w a s  held  t o w a r d s  m u l t i m e d i a w a s  the  e n d  of  the  h e l d after a laboratory session s e c o n d  incorporated.  26  term,  w h e r e  the  use  w h i c h of  the  F e m a l e students constitute about 30% in the course. O n e female  of the total n u m b e r of  student consented  students  to b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d  for  five m i n u t e s she said, a n d d e c l i n e d to either b e i n g v i d e o t a p e d o r a u d i o Unfortunately, she  a n s w e r e d  'no'.  h a d  H o w e v e r ,  throughout opinions  I  the year, e v e n t h o u g h  r e g a r d i n g the  volunteer  m a l e  talks'  w i t h  about  six  'y  female  w e r e  similar to  the  v i e w s  '  e s  or  students  they all refused b e i n g v i d e o t a p e d .  technology  T h e i r  of the  four  students.  Further discussions this  taped.  all the questions w i t h a m o n o s y l l a b i c  'informal  only  o n the students' interviews  are presented  later  in  introductory A s t r o n o m y courses  at  chapter.  3.2.4  T h eC o u r s e s A s t r o n o m y  U.B.C.  T h e  A s t r o n o m y  101  University 101  as  a n d  observational  S u n  a n d  a n d 102, of  are two  British C o l u m b i a 1 9 9 3 / 9 4  C a l e n d a r  described  "Introductory A s t r o n o m y I-Basic astrophysical techniques;  f u n d a m e n t a l  recent  properties  observations  of  M a t h e m a t i c s 12." A s t r o n o m y 102 w a s  the  concepts  of the Solar System;  stars.  Prerequisite:  Physics  described as "Introductory  stellar  evolution;  the  structure  of  the  Milky  w a y :  the p e r i o d of obtaining this data, A s t r o n o m y 101  d u r i n g the fall t e r m while A s t r o n o m y 102 w a s  Topics  properties  Galaxies; the large scale structure of the Universe. Prerequisite; Astr. During  11,  A s t r o n o m y  II- A n i n t r o d u c t i o n to a s t r o n o m y f o l l o w i n g o n f r o m A s t r o n o m y 101. include  the  of  101."  w a s  taught  taught d u r i n g the winter  T h e c o u r s e s are three credits e a c h w i t h 101 b e i n g a prerequisite of 102.  term. M a n y  s t u d e n t s f r o m the F a c u l t y of A r t s are r e q u i r e d b y the u n i v e r s i t y to p a s s at least o n e three-credit S c i e n c e c o u r s e i n o r d e r to g r a d u a t e . M a n y s t u d e n t s f r o m F a c u l t y o f A r t s c h o o s e A s t r o n o m y 101 to fulfill that  27  requirement.  the  In the fall t e r m of 1993, eighty-seven 101  a n d  students  thirty-one students r a n g e d  departments  students  for A s t r o n o m y 102  in level f r o m years  one  registered for in the  winter  to f o u r a n d  were  A s t r o n o m y term.  f r o m  These  different  at U . B . C . T h e r e c o m m e n d e d text a n d l a b o r a t o r y m a n u a l w a s  s a m e for the two courses. T h e lectures for the two courses w e r e held in 1 at the W o o d w a r d b u i l d i n g , a n d d u r i n g the s a m e  the R o o m  t i m e slots, 12:30-1:30  p . m .  o n M o n d a y s , W e d n e s d a y s a n d F r i d a y s . E a c h s t u d e n t w a s r e q u i r e d to c h o o s e t w o - h o u r laboratory time slot i n the w e e k . T h e r e w e r e f o u r l a b o r a t o r y f o r A s t r o n o m y 101 held  o n  w e e k s  groups  a n d three for A s t r o n o m y 102. T h e tutorial sessions  w h e n  one  of the  laboratory sessions  w a s  lost  to a  were public  holiday. These sessions were held d u r i n g the r e m a i n i n g laboratory times w e e k  to e n s u r e  that n o n e  of the laboratory g r o u p s  laboratory w o r k . F o u r tutorial sessions were  lagged  held in the  b e h i n d in  that their  two  each  interviews  a n d  observations. T h e c o u r s e outline as w e l l as the c o u r s e e v a l u a t i o n f o r m s  were  term. A l l the tutorial sessions w e r e o b s e r v e d for this  33  session,  a  study.  D A T AC O L L E C T I O N The  m a j o r  sources  the other m i n o r sources  of  data  for  this  study  w e r e  of d a t a as o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r  collected f r o m the s u m m e r of 1993 to the fall of 1994. A  one.  T h e data  w a s  year w a s allowed  for  • give a n a t u r a l closure to the s t u d y b y b e i n g o n the r e s e a r c h site for  the  duration of the two courses, thereby increasing the reliability of  the  the data collection in order  to:  study.  28  • m i n i m i z e stress a n d inconvenience of the instructor's b u s y schedule  to the instructor b y b e i n g a n d other d e m a n d s  aware  placed  u p o n  h i m . T h e research design w a s  strengthened  into the study through the following  b y building a longitudinal  c o m p o n e n t  procedures:  •Eliciting f r o m the instructor, his goals a n d aspirations for c o u r s e at the b e g i n n i n g of the  term.  • O b s e r v i n g the instructor to see h o w h e w o r k e d t o w a r d s goals a n d w h a t obstacles he  the  those  encountered.  • A l l o w i n g the instructor to talk a b o u t the p r o c e s s t h r o u g h o u t  the  term. •Eliciting f r o m the instructor his reflections about the  w h o l e  process towards the e n d of the term, especially w i t h reference his initial goals a n d  to  aspirations.  Observations  3.3.1  T h e observation activities e m p l o y e d in this s t u d y w e r e two-fold. First, the class  instructor's p r e p a r a t i o n activities w e r e  without reference  observed.  the technology the  Secondly, w a s  data. These  his  for the use  of the m u l t i m e d i a in  teaching  the  in  observed. T h e observations  field notes described  classroom w e r e used  the  w i t h to  a n d cross  the instructor's w o r d s  actions i n those settings as w e l l as s o m e of the students' w o r d s a n d actions the classroom My  a n d in  setting.  role as the researcher in this investigation w a s  as participant. T h i s role definition w a s distinction a m o n g four categories of 1. C o m p l e t e  based  that of a n  observer  o n Merriam's (1991,  p.92&93)  observation.  participant.  29  2. P a r t i c i p a n t as  observer.  3. O b s e r v e r as p a r t i c i p a n t . 4. C o m p l e t e A s  an  observer.  "Observer-participant", the  observer  activities  w e r e  k n o w n  to  the  instructor a n d students a n d a n y participation in the g r o u p w a s  secondary  to  the  observer  as  role  of  b e i n g  a n  i n f o r m a t i o n  p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e is r e c o m m e n d e d (1989) w h o  gatherer.  b y  Taking  Y i n (1994)  a n d  o n  a n  Marshall  &  R o s s m a n  c l a i m t h a t a d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n is e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r to  g o o d observations.  conduct  T h e p a r t i c i p a n t activities w e r e m a i n l y restricted to  in the class with the students, attempting  sitting  to u n d e r s t a n d the c o n c e p t s  being  taught, a n d asking questions for clarification of the concepts d u r i n g the  class,  like a n y  student w o u l d .  H o w e v e r ,  I w a s  not  u n d e r  the  s a m e  pressure  to  a d e q u a t e l y u n d e r s t a n d the c o n c e p t s b e i n g taught as the s t u d e n t s since I n o t h a v e to d o a s s i g n m e n t s , o r w r i t e the e x a m i n a t i o n . H e n c e this p u t s a o n m y  participant's  technology,  technology, 1994).  a n d  limit  'hat'.  Formal observations the  d i d  w h e n  "observations  w e r e d o n e both w h e n he  d i d not.  of the  Since  technology  This variety of settings, roles  a n d  the instructor m a d e  this study at w o r k  audiences  w a s  about  use a  are invaluable" allowed  of n e w  (Yin,  access to  the  instructor's ideas in different contexts, thereby increasing the credibility of  the  f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t to the instructor's i d e a s a n d actions. I a t t e n d e d  the  all  four tutorial sessions that w e r e held d u r i n g the duration of the two courses. d o c u m e n t e d  a n d  v i d e o t a p e d  all  the  observations  interactions that related to m u l t i m e d i a as m u c h as  30  of  possible.  the  I  c l a s s r o o m  3.3.2  I n t e r v i e w s The interviews were conducted using open-ended, semi-structured  interview schedules that explored various themes. This procedure allowed the interviewees' perspectives to unfold during the interviews by letting them tell their story, rather than having their answers prescribed by my views. The interviews were allowed to flow more like a conversation, (albeit with a purpose) with the interviewees doing most of the talking. A l l interviews were conducted at a time and venue of the interviewees' choice and were videotaped with the interviewees' consent. The interviews took place in environments that were considered threatening neither to the interviewees nor to me.  3.3.2.1  Instructor's interviews The interviews conducted with the instructor were in two broad  categories. The first category focused on the preparations involved in using the technology, how he hoped to use it and what he intended to accomplish with the technology in class. The second category was reflective in nature. It gave him a chance to reflect on what he did in class and what he thought that he had accomplished, and what he would do differently in the future. I also had a chance to clarify with him some observations which were not understood, as well as to obtain insight into those things that could not be directly observed (i.e., his intentions, purpose and feelings). There were four in-depth interview sessions with the instructor during the innovation process. The average time for the interviews was one hour. Interviews were held at the instructor's office. The focus of all the interviews was on the interpreted experiences of the instructor, and his explanations of what was happening to him regarding his exploration of the technology. In  31  e a c h i n t e r v i e w there w e r e t h e m e s to b e e x p l o r e d , b u t the specific  questions  w e r e a l l o w e d to f l o w w i t h the c o u r s e of the c o n v e r s a t i o n . I n m a n y cases instructor c o m m e n t e d  o n questions w h i c h he  the  anticipated that I w o u l d  ask.  T h e i n s t r u c t o r a p p e a r e d to b e v e r y enthusiastic a n d w a s a l w a y s w i l l i n g to about  the  innovation.  T h e first i n t e r v i e w w i t h h i m w a s  the preliminary interview. This  h e l d at the b e g i n n i n g of the fall t e r m of 1993. T h e p u r p o s e w a s  to  talk  elicit  the  instructor's  particular reference  b a c k g r o u n d , his  to the use  goals  of the  a n d  w a s  interview  aspirations  of the m u l t i m e d i a technology  for  w i t h  A s t r o n o m y  101/102 d u r i n g the 1993/94 academic year. T h e second interview w a s a i m e d obtaining insights  into  the  instructors feelings  innovation in w h i c h he w a s going for h i m , w h a t  at that  time  r e g a r d i n g  i n v o l v e d , as w e l l as find out h o w  c h a n g e s h e h a d to m a k e  things  at the  w e r e  or w o u l d m a k e , w h a t  things  w e r e w o r k i n g well for h i m a n d those that w e r e not. This interview w a s  held  towards  T h e  the m i d d l e of the 1993  third interview  w a s  h e l d  at  fall t e r m after the first tutorial session. the  b e g i n n i n g  Information regarding his reflections  the  about h o w  regarding the innovation w e r e collected t e r m regarding the use of the technology. instructor's overall impressions  of  winter  t e r m  of  1994.  the fall t e r m w e n t for  as w e l l as his goals for the  h i m  winter  T h e fourth interview in w h i c h  of the innovation w e r e sought, took place  September, 1994. T h e s t u d y w a s debriefed w i t h the instructor d u r i n g this interview,  a n d  c o m p l e t e d  b y  the the  departmental students  w e r e  instructor also  a n d  collected  course at  interview w a s held in September because of the s u m m e r In  addition  conversations  to  the  interviews  with h i m m a n y  innovation. M u c h  n e w  the  w i t h  the  evaluation  this  time.  final f o r m s  This  final  holidays.  instructor, I h a d  i n f o r m a l  times d u r i n g the course of the year about  information, a n d clarification of m y  32  in  understanding  the of  the instructor's use of m u l t i m e d i a were talks took place at v a r i o u s locations students,  obtained t h r o u g h those talks.  These  d u r i n g his laboratory sessions with  after his A s t r o n o m y 1 0 1 / 1 0 2 classes, as w e l l as d u r i n g s o m e  of  sessions w i t h M r . D o u g Bilesky, the graduate student in Curriculum w h o  helped design the m u l t i m e d i a packages  the  Studies  that were u s e d in the  tutorials.  E n g a g i n g in dialogue w i t h the instructor throughout the year, enabled m e h a v e  a n  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o n  the  instructor's  critical thoughts  about  innovation project. I was  also able to o b s e r v e shifts i n his d e c i s i o n s  the use of the technology  in various classroom  3.3.2.2  Students' Since  (research  the  impressions  the  regarding  situations.  2),  perspectives the  were  interviews  p r o b e d  their  general  w e n t  o n for t h e m in different classes regarding the technology.  These  interviews  took place i m m e d i a t e l y after the tutorial sessions a n d after  classes  the  of the technology.  t h e m  study  about  in w h i c h  the use  w i t h  a n integral part of this  T h e y told their stories  w h a t  about  to  Interviews  students'  question  his  instructor m a d e  interview proceeded, I chose intonations were  a n d used  use  of the  m u l t i m e d i a  technology.  to f o l l o w closely the interviewees'  t h e m as clues  to g a t h e r a n d authenticate  A s  each  pauses,  a n d  d a t a as  they  collected.  3A  MANAGING AND RECORDING DATA D a t a records w e r e in the f o r m of field notes, interview transcripts  d o c u m e n t  analysis  i m m e d i a t e l y  after  notes. each  Transcription of the videotaped interview  b y  m e .  F i e l d  i m m e d i a t e l y after e a c h o b s e r v a t i o n b a s e d to s o m e  33  interviews  notes  a n d b e g a n  w e r e  written  extent u p o n data  recorded  during the observations. P s e u d o n y m s to m a i n t a i n their  order  anonymity.  T h e data w e r e annotated On  w e r e u s e d for all the students in  thus:  the top right h a n d corner of each d o c u m e n t w e r e the date a n d code for  kind  of information collected.  the corresponding kinds of •J  to  represent  information.  Journal  •I  T h e following letters w e r e u s e d  entries.  Interviews  •OM  Observation of a m u l t i m e d i a  lesson.  •OC  O b s e r v a t i o n of the class without  •OT  O b s e r v a t i o n of the tutorial class.  •OL  Observation of the lab.  multimedia.  session.  B e l o w are examples of coding patterns used in data  records:  •1931209 Alfred  Interview with Alfred o n 9th Dec.  • O C 9 3 1 1 0 2  Observation of the class without m u l t i m e d i a set-up 2 n d N o v .  1993. o n  1993.  D A T A ANALYSIS  3,5 Data analysis into  the  m a n a g e a b l e  "involves sized  w o r k i n g w i t h d a t a , o r g a n i z i n g it, b r e a k i n g  units,  synthesizing  it,  searching  for  it  patterns,  d i s c o v e r i n g w h a t is i m p o r t a n t a n d w h a t is to b e l e a r n e d . . . " ( B o g d a n & B i k l e n 1982,  p. 146).  d u r i n g Lincoln  the a n d  B o g d a n  data  & B i k l e n (1982), refer to this p r o c e s s ,  collection  Guba,  (1985)  process, called  as  it t h e  analysis.  34  "analysis-in-the-field constant  w h e n m o d e "  c o m p a r a t i v e  started while  m e t h o d  of  This constant  comparative m e t h o d  of data analysis  w a s  used  study. T h e f o r m a l o r final analysis started at the e n d of the data T h e  use  of  hypotheses f r o m  the  constant  to e m e r g e  a priori t h e o r y .  designated  boxes,  c o m p a r a t i v e  m e t h o d  of  analysis  a l l o w e d  hypotheses  T o  the  the categories  the  d a n g e r  were  of p o u r i n g  allowed  to e m e r g e .  this  collection.  f r o m the data, rather than testing avoid  in  data  the  arising into  pre-  In addition,  given  t h a t this s t u d y w a s a n e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f a n i n n o v a t i o n p r o c e s s , it w a s to select the a p p r o p r i a t e d a t a a n d a n a l y z e for e m e r g e n t hypotheses  were  challenging  tested for all negative  the hypotheses  categories.  E m e r g i n g  cases b y searching through the  a n d looking for larger or alternative  w h e r e necessary ( M a r s h a l l &R o s s m a n 1989, T h e data analysis process  best  consisted  data,  constructs  p.118). of four levels  of  'transformations',  ( N o v a k a n d G o w i n , 1984): 1. T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f a l l t h e v i d e o t a p e d i n t e r v i e w s a n d  observations.  2. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  subjects  of responses  related  to  the  s a m e  to  f o r m  categories. 3. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s i m i l a r c a t e g o r i e s f r o m t h e d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s o f 4. D e v e l o p m e n t  of themes  f r o m similar categories  data.  to f o r m t r e n d s  a n d  patterns.  Transformations  3.5.1 T h e  first l e v e l  interviews. T h e  of  transformation  E a c h interview  w a s  w a s  the  transcription of  transcribed v e r b a t i m f r o m the  transcription started the d a y after each interview.  a d o p t e d  in case  the  interview  w a s  not  technical fault with the equipment, m y fresh a n d I could recall highlights  well  r e c o r d e d  the  videotapes.  This procedure or, if there  Fortunately there  w a s  w a s  m e m o r y f r o m the interview w a s  of the interviews.  35  all  a still  were  n o technical glitches, a n d all interviews w e r e well recorded. T h e field  notes  w e r e  also  written  i m m e d i a t e l y  after  each  observation  observation  w a s  conducted. T h e  second l e v e l  similar components,  of  transformation  especially  i n v o l v e d  transcripts. T h e data w a s  w e r e  s a m e  to  the  subject  or  the  term.  Hence>  innovation b e c a m e T h e  issues  related  to  that  F o r e x a m p l e  the  at the b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e a n d  e n d  the  use  of  software  d u r i n g  the  a category.  third l e v e l  of  transformation  i n v o l v e d  the  identification  similar categories f r o m all the different sources of data. F o r e x a m p l e , w h a t the students say software  of the  searched for responses  similar responses.  instructor talked about the use of software of  identification  those that occurred longitudinally f r o m  instructor's interview related  the  about  software,  a n d w h a t  d i d I observe  about  the  d i d  use  d u r i n g the innovation? E v i d e n c e s f r o m all these sources w e r e  u s e d to juxtapose the d a t a f r o m the  of  of then  instructor.  T h e fourth a n d f i n a l l e v e l o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w a s  the identification  similar categories to f o r m t h e m e s . T h e s e t h e m e s w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d  of  according  to d o m i n a n t trends a n d patterns. C l a i m s e m e r g i n g f r o m the s t u d y w e r e  based  o n the analysis at the second, third a n d f o u r t h levels.  M  RECIPROCITY A N D ETHICS  Marshall  &R o s s m a n  researchers m i g h t need cooperation". D e p a r t m e n t A s t r o n o m y .  (1989  p. 63) s u g g e s t that "in negotiating  to offer r e w a r d s o r benefits to m o t i v a t e  Hence, the final report of the study w a s of  C u r r i c u l u m  I have  Studies  also offered  a n d  that s o m e  36  D e p a r t m e n t of the  m a d e of  findings  access,  participants'  available to G e o p h y s i c s f r o m this  the a n d  study  c o u l d be u s e d as s u p p o r t i n g d o c u m e n t s in the application for future grants the  two  departments.  O n  they  h a v e  finished the c o u r s e a n d s o m e of t h e m h a v e left the university, b u t t h e y  w e r e  a l l i n v i t e d to contact m e obtain a c o p y of the In  the  part of  the  student  volunteers,  for  t h r o u g h the D e p a r t m e n t of Curriculum  Studies  to  thesis.  all interactions  w i t h  the  participants  in  this  study,  guidelines  p r o m o t e d b y the U B C Ethical R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e w e r e followed. In order ensure that a g o o d collegial relationship w a s a debriefing session w a s w a s  a s k e d to c o m m e n t  maintained with the  instructor,  held with h i m . During  this session, the  instructor  o n his feelings about h o w  the study w a s  conducted,  especially w i t h r e g a r d s to m y role as the researcher. T h e instructor his satisfaction with the conduct of the study. H e n c e , there w a s closure to the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the  3^7  a n  concerns Guba  objectivity.  H o w e v e r ,  in  qualitative  research  (cited  in  Lincoln  "credibility" for construct generalizability,  &  Guba,  1985).  Guba  validity,  w o r k ,  are often defined differently than they are in quantitative  1981  amicable  SOUNDNESS  I n a n y r e s e a r c h w o r k t h e r e is c o n c e r n f o r i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l a n d  expressed  instructor.  C R I T E R I A OF  reliability  to  suggests  these  research the  t e r m  validity, "transferability" for external validity  "dependability"  for  reliability  objectivity or internal validity. Y i n , (1994) however,  a n d  "confirmability"  keeps the  s o u n d n e s s , i.e., t h e t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s , o f t h i s  37  study.  for  terminologies  of internal, a n d external validity, reliability a n d construct validity. B o t h of terms will be used in addressing the criteria established  or  for ensuring  sets the  3.7.1  Credibility/Construct Validity In  establishing  credibility,  the  goal  is  to  d e m o n s t r a t e  that  the  participants a n d events w e r e accurately identified a n d described (Marshall & R o s s m a n ,  1989  r e c o m m e n d e d  p.  145).  In  a c c o m p l i s h i n g  " p r o l o n g e d  this,  e n g a g e m e n t " ,  Lincoln  & Guba  "persistent  (1985)  observation",  "triangulation", "peer debriefing" a n d " m e m b e r checks" as i m p o r t a n t criteria! Prolonged engagement i s d e e m e d  necessary  sufficiently u n d e r s t a n d the context a n d recognize c r e e p i n t o t h e d a t a " ( L i n c o l n &G u b a f r o m misunderstandings  in order  to  "distortions  be  able  w h i c h  m i g h t  1985, p. 302). T h e s e distortions m a y  of the actions  to  stem  that w e r e observed. B y being o n  research site for a l o n g p e r i o d a n d possibly  observing  the  the reoccurrence  of  various actions, the researcher m a y gain m o r e accurate understandings of  the  different p h e n o m e n a .  two  courses (September  Iw a s  1993  o n the research site for the d u r a t i o n of the  to A p r i l 1994). T h i s p r o l o n g e d interaction h e l p e d  collecting credible d a t a as w e l l as i n b u i l d i n g trust w i t h the Persistent observation r e q u i r e s  that the  participants.  researcher  be  attentive to  relevant aspects of asituation. W h i l e p r o l o n g e d e n g a g e m e n t provides persistent  observation  provides  d e p t h  (Lincoln  & Guba,  1985).  w a s  d u r i n g  the year, about three quarters of the class sessions, a n d about a third of  w e r e  m a n y  courses.  In a d d i t i o n to the interviews,  i n f o r m a l talks w i t h the instructor a n d the  period of data collection. In s o m e  Triangulation i n v o l v e s order  to  verify  the  findings.  the there  students d u r i n g  of those talks, issues w e r e clarified  better insights w e r e gained into s o m e of the actions that w e r e  use  a n d  of multiple  in  sources  of  evidence, in am a n n e r e n c o u r a g i n g convergent lines of inquiry" ( Y i n 1994,  p.  38  "the  the  observed.  the collection of data f r o m different sources It i n v o l v e s  all  scope,  This  established b y m y presence in all the tutorial sessions that w e r e h e l d  laboratory sessions of the two  in  35). T h e u s e o f m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s of e v i d e n c e e n h a n c e s the s c o p e a n d clarity the  study.  Thus,  convincing  a n d  a n y  finding or conclusion  accurate  because  p r o v i d e multiple m e a s u r e s  based  multiple  study  of evidence  m o r e  essentially  a n d L e C o m p t e (1984), triangulation assists in correcting bias that m a y  occur  w h e n  b e i n g  investigated. the  is  the  o n l y  p h e n o m e n o n .  is  G o e t z  researcher  s a m e  sources  such  to  the  of the  o n  of  observer  of  the  A c c o r d i n g  p h e n o m e n o n  In this study, data w e r e collected t h r o u g h m y  instructor  c o n c u r r e n t l y . (See  a n d  students,  observations,  page 5 of Chapter One.)  a n d  d o c u m e n t  T h e interviews  w e r e spread throughout the session. This enabled m e  interviews  with  analysis  with the  instructor  to o b t a i n insights  the reasons for s o m e of the instructor's actions w h i c h I observed especially t h e y r e l a t e d to the d e c i s i o n s that h e m a d e r e g a r d i n g the u s e o f the before a n d after he took those actions in the Member checks i n v o l v e s the  participants' views.  reasonably checks  represent  a n d accurate representation  it w a s  i m p o r t a n t to a c c u r a t e l y  participants' views. H e n c e  a n u m b e r  of  of a n d  informal the  instructor a n d the students. In a d d i t i o n to this, the final draft of the thesis  was  read b y the instructor a n d the professor w h o  the  w a s  u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g the study  technology  t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l talks w i t h  thesis  w e r e  the  as  class.  the reasonable  In this study,  into  d e f e n d e d .  misrepresented in any  3.7.2  T h e y  b o t h  c o m m e n t e d  that  t h e y  w e r e  not  way.  Dependability and T h e  initiated the course before  Confirmability  a i m o f d e p e n d a b i l i t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y is to m i n i m i z e t h e e r r o r s  a n d  biases in a study. H o w reliable w a s the instrument? In a qualitative study,  the  r e s e a r c h e r is the i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s q u e s t i o n w a s  the  partly a n s w e r e d  d u r i n g  debriefing interview w i t h the instructor, in w h i c h the instructor w a s  39  asked  to  c o m m e n t  o n m y role as the researcher d u r i n g the s t u d y especially d u r i n g  interviews.  T h e instructor's only negative c o m m e n t ,  a c c o r d i n g to h i m ,  the w a s  that I a l l o w e d h i m to talk too m u c h a b o u t the i n n o v a t i o n process. H e felt c o u l d h a v e b e e n cut short. I d o not consider this c o m m e n t  as b e i n g  since  the  the  goal  of  a  qualitative  researcher  is  to  allow  negative  interviewees  p e r c e p t i o n s to u n f o l d w i t h o u t b i a s . It w o u l d h a v e b e e n d i f f i c u l t to e n s u r e 'non-bias' if the instructor h a d b e e n cut short d u r i n g the A n o t h e r researcher Lincoln  as  m e t h o d  of  e n h a n c i n g  the  the research instrument  a n d Guba  the  use  of  the  qualitative  of a reflexive  journal.  (1985) d e s c r i b e d a reflexive j o u r n a l as:  ...a k i n d o f d i a r y i n w h i c h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r o n a d a i l y b a s i s , o r needed, t e r m  records a variety of information about  "reflexive")  reflexive  a n d  m e t h o d .  journal m i g h t  be  W i t h  thought  respect of as  as  self (hence to  the  the  self,  p r o v i d i n g the  the s a m e  k i n d o f d a t a a b o u t the h u m a n i n s t r u m e n t t h a t is o f t e n  p r o v i d e d  a b o u t  u s e d  the  p a p e r - a n d - p e n c i l  conventional  studies.  W i t h  or  brass  respect  instruments  to  m e t h o d ,  the  in  journal  provides information about methodological decisions m a d e the reasons for m a k i n g t h e m ~ information also of great to the a u d i t o r , (p.  a n d  i m p o r t  327).  H e n c e the use of a reflexive journal w a s m a d e a n integral part of this  study.  R e l i a b i l i t y is a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h a s t u d y c a n repeated  this  interviews.  reliability  is b y  he  a n d result in the  s a m e findings.  T o the  extent that replication  p o s s i b l e , it c a n b e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w a s reliable. A c c o r d i n g to Y i n (1994), if t w o  or m o r e  be is  indeed  case studies are s h o w n  to  s u p p o r t the s a m e t h e o r y , r e p l i c a t i o n m a y b e c l a i m e d . S i n c e this s t u d y is  an  e x p l o r a t o r y c a s e s t u d y , o n e s u g g e s t i o n f o r f u r t h e r w o r k is to t r y  40  replicating  this s t u d y w i t h t h e a i m o f g e n e r a l i z i n g it to a t h e o r y . T o e n s u r e t h e  possibility  of replication of the study, Y i n (1994) a n d Merriam  a detailed  (1991) suggested  documentation of the research work. T h e detail presented predicated u p o n these  Y i n (1994)  called  "a case  (1985) suggest the use of a n audit trail  study  database"  to  ensure  q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s . T h i s a u d i t t r a i l is a f o r m a l a s s e m b l y f r o m  the  final case  questions  study  report that provides  of evidence  distinct  explicit links between  a n d the conclusions  of  the (1994)  suggests that this s h o u l d b e k e p t w i t h u t m o s t care a n d attention as o n e  w o u l d  a financial audit a n d s h o u l d be available for review  p r o c e d u r e  is  considered, categories were  data collected,  reliability  d r a w n . Y i n  give  asked, the  w a s  recommendations.  Furthermore, Lincoln a n d Guba w h i c h  in this thesis  r e c o m m e n d e d a n d  care  a n d themes  four levels  w a s  to  ensure  taken  in  that  the  This  constructs  w e r e  all possible  generation  d u r i n g the analysis  at all times.  of  the  sub-categories,  of the data. F o r this s t u d y  o f t h e a u d i t t r a i l . T h e first level c o n s i s t e d  there  of all the  video  m a s t e r t a p e s f o r a l l t h e i n t e r v i e w s a s w e l l a s f o r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h e second level  of  audit  interviews.  trail consisted  T h e third level w a s  of  the  v e r b a t i m  transcriptions  of  all  the  the identification of similar responses  b y  the  use of different colors of highlighters. Different quotes were then extracted f o r m sub-categories, These  different  categories  categories  and, subsequently,  w e r e  p u l l e d  out  f r o m  themes the  a t t h e fourth l e v e l . transcripts  another w o r d processing document, w h i c h were revised a n d  to  a consensus  that the links m a d e between  questions asked, the data collected a n d the inferences d r a w n were  41  f o r m  re-revised.  A l l aspects of this case s t u d y data base w e r e s h a r e d b y m y peers a n d thesis committee, a n d there w a s  to  the the  acceptable.  3.7.3  Transferability/Generalizability T r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y is c o n c e r n e d  with establishing  d o m a i n to w h i c h a s t u d y c a n b e g e n e r a l i z e d . C a s e studies, like are generalizable  experiments,  to theoretical p r o p o s i t i o n s . Y i n (1994) refers to this kind  generalizability as "analytic generalization". the other h a n d , relies o n statistical are m a d e  the  to p o p u l a t i o n s  a n d  Quantitative research w o r k  generalization  universes.  These  in w h i c h  are two  different yet  valid  to a scientific  theory f r o m a single experiment, case studies researchers face a similar  kind  of hesitancy i n generalizing to a t h e o r y f r o m a single case study. U n l i k e of s a m p l e s for statistical generalizations,  H e n c e  the  use  of multiple  case study  single case studies for analytic generalizations Yin  cases are not  research m e t h o d  o n  generalizations  k i n d s of generalizability. W h i l e scientists hesitate to generalize  use  of  s a m p l i n g  a n d  the  units.  replication  w e r e highly r e c o m m e n d e d  of b y  (1994). I n a q u a l i t a t i v e c a s e s t u d y , t h e first level o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o r  external  v a l i d i t y is f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r to p r o v i d e a n i n d e x o f t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y , i.e., a d a t a base that m a k e s  transferability judgments  appliers (Lincoln &Guba these meanings  possible  potential  meanings,  v a r y f r o m c o n t e x t to context. T h e g o a l i n qualitative the particular in depth, not w h a t  m a n y  1991). This  instructor in attempting to p r o v i d e  the part of  1985). Teachers construct their o w n  is to u n d e r s t a n d (Merriam,  o n  a useful  study,  therefore,  is g e n e r a l l y  reports  the  s e e k i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s to their o w n  readers  activities  m a y  be  In  the  of  a n  order  interested  in  circumstances, e n o u g h detail regarding  the  m e t h o d used a n d the circumstances involved are  w h o  research  true of  innovation using m u l t i m e d i a technology.  f r a m e w o r k for the  a n d  included.  A second l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s " C a s e t o C a s e " g e n e r a l i z a t i o n 1994). A t this level, claims are m a d e  (Yin,  to s u p p o r t the n o t i o n that for a c o n t e x t  42  s i m i l a r to that i n w h i c h a case s t u d y w a s  p e r f o r m e d , the researcher  claim that the s a m e findings or k n o w l e d g e  claims w o u l d  w o u l d  hold.  In the context of this s t u d y , the first t w o levels of generalization b y (1994), t h a t is, t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y a n d c a s e to c a s e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s previous discussions study  Y i n  are claimed.  T h e  a n d details regarding the m a n n e r of the c o n d u c t of  this  in a contextually  rich fashion,  especially  w i t h  regards  validity, reliability a n d internal validity of the study  to  construct  s e r v e to s u p p o r t  this  claim. T h e  third  level, is the  generalization  earlier i n the first p a r t of this  3Ji  theory  as  already  discussed  that  processes  section.  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY T h e  i n v o l v e d a n d  to  m y  m o s t  significant  in technological observations  limitation to the innovation  study  cannot  as a researcher.  be  w a s  limited  F o r example,  to  the the  interviews  if the professor  d e c i s i o n s a b o u t the i n n o v a t i o n a n d d i s c u s s e s its effects w i t h o t h e r w i t h i n a n d o u t s i d e his d e p a r t m e n t , o r at c o n f e r e n c e s etc., s u c h  m a k e s  colleagues information  w o u l d b e difficult to access a n d assess. T h e r e f o r e , the s t u d y w a s d e l i m i t e d collecting  i n f o r m a t i o n  interviews, observations  o n l y  o n  c a m p u s  a n d d o c u m e n t  activities  specifically  analysis. T h e categories  T h e c l a s s r o o m  second as  interventionist  a n in  t h r o u g h  d o c u m e n t e d  herein w e r e the ones that e m e r g e d f r o m this data a n d w e r e d e e m e d m o s t pertinent to the  b y  to b e  the  presence in  the  study.  limitation of this s t u d y observer. nature.  B e i n g N o  a n  longer  w a s  that of m y  observer w a s  the  in  a n y  c l a s s r o o m  c l a s s r o o m i s the  'normal'  A s t r o n o m y 101/102 classroom. T o reduce the distortion in the a t m o s p h e r e  43  of  the class, I sat w i t h the students participant-observer relationship between in the class  a n d not just in a corner taking notes. B e i n g  i m p r o v e d  trust  a n d  a n d asked  S o m e t i m e s  students presence  b u i l d i n g  of  a  collegial  the instructor a n d m e , as well as w i t h the students. I questions  talking about, just like a n y  d u r i n g laboratory sessions,  I sat  in  g r o u p s  student  w i t h  in  the  c l a s s r o o m  a n d  e n h a n c e d  d e s i r e d for this  b o t h  the  participation  the  study. arose  f r o m the use of a video c a m e r a d u r i n g classes, laboratory a n d tutorials. use of a video  T h e  c a m e r a also altered the setting. T o ameliorate the situation,  the classes a n d tutorials for a couple of w e e k s before bringing  c a m e r a in. T h i s p r o c e d u r e w a s d i d  m y a n d  T h e t h i r d l i m i t a t i o n is r e l a t e d to the s e c o n d o n e . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n  students  for  to discuss the tasks. T h i s h e l p e d i n e a s i n g the tension c r e a t e d b y  observation processes  attended  sat  f r o m the instructor d u r i n g the classes  clarification of certain concepts that he w a s w o u l d .  the  not  h a v e  to  a d o p t e d  adjust  to  too  to e n s u r e m a n y  that the  things  F u r t h e r m o r e , I d i d n o t take the v i d e o c a m e r a to all the  M  a  at  instructor the  s a m e  I the  a n d time.  classes.  SUMMARY  In this chapter, the processes  of data collection  a n d  analysis  in  s t u d y h a v e b e e n explained. A t t e n t i o n w a s p a i d to details r e g a r d i n g the in w h i c h the innovation w a s  context  c o n d u c t e d so that insights c o u l d be gained  innovation practices involving the use  of m u l t i m e d i a technology  this  into  in a  first-  year level university course. C o n c e r n s regarding the quality of the study  were  also addressed a n d finally the limitations of the study w e r e  44  discussed.  CHAPTER FOUR D A T A PRESENTATION  M  I N T R O D U C T I O N In this chapter, t h e story o f the e x p l o r a t o r y i n n o v a t i o n is p r e s e n t e d .  T o  assist the reader i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the context of the study, abrief b a c k g r o u n d of the instructor's views section.  I n the second  o n teaching a n d learning are presented section,  the issues  that  e m e r g e d  f r o m  involving innovation with the use of m u l t i m e d i a technology 101/102, a r e d i s c u s s e d longitudinal c o m p o n e n t  u n d e r t w o major themes. because  B o t h themes  the data w a s collected  i n the this  i n  first study  A s t r o n o m y  e n c o m p a s s  a  over a considerable  p e r i o d o f t i m e , i.e., f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e s s i o n i n S e p t e m b e r to t h e e n d of the session i n April.  4J,  I N S T R U C T O R ' S V I E W S Like m a n y teachers, D r . M a t t h e w s has his o w n conceptions of g o o d  bad w h e n  teaching. During  a n interview i n September, at the beginning of the  this i n n o v a t i o n process w a s a b o u t to start, D r . M a t t h e w s ' m e t a p h o r  a n d term for  t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g w a s t h a t t e a c h i n g w a s l i k e "a two-way street." A c c o r d i n g Dr. M a t t h e w s , h e does n o t w a n t to s p o o n feed the students, rather h e sees his role as that of a facilitator, entering into partnership w i t h the students. sees himself as o n e w h o gives the students build certain basic things with those  the tools  H e  a n d expects t h e m  to  tools:  For example, on assignments often they [students] are not asked to regurgitate things in class, [rather] they are asked to combine various pieces of information -of principles- that they've learned  45  to  in class and apply them... it turns Astronomy into a detective game for them [the students]. T o  D r . M a t t h e w s ,  A s t r o n o m y is a n  e x a m p l e  of h o w  Science  fortunately, adiscipline in w h i c h the students are inherently  w o r k s ,  a n d  interested.  ...Astronomy has an appeal to students, and it's something that they can share in.  They can go out at night and look up at the  stars... and so rather than showing some reaction in a test tube or talking about some physical principle by itself, we can relate it and show them how Science works, [that is] how we go from observation to theory to confirmation in things that are likely to take their interest and at the same time give them a sense of the philosophical and social importance of Astronomy. This  v i e w  of A s t r o n o m y  is p r o b a b l y w h y  he  gives  the  s t u d e n t s "...some  incentives either through rewards of marks or humor or entertainment value, or relating what they are doing to things of topical interest or to last week's episode of 'StarTrek: The Next Generation'." D u r i n g c l a s s e s ,  stories  connected  w e r e  w i t h  interviewed a n d  h o w  A s t r o n o m y  c o m m e n t e d these  m a k e  w e r e  very  o n  the instructor's use  his  classes  evaluation forms, about 90%  interesting.  the beginning  technology w a s  e m b r a c e  this  students  of h u m o r In  the  a n d  that  storytelling,  students' o n the  course  instructor's  material.  of the innovation, Dr. Matthews'  obvious. H e was  conjunction with D r . Greg  T h e  of the students c o m m e n t e d  interesting w a y s of presenting the course From  frequent.  interest in  the  w i l l i n g to t a l k a b o u t it a n y t i m e w i t h m e .  In  F a h l m a n a n d Dr. Janice W o o d r o w , he decided  to  innovation:  ...over the years in  my  conversations with  Greg about  Astronomy education here at UBC in particular we've always  46  bemoaned the lack of facilities and the fact that we're stuck ...with the chalkboard age and we'd like to incorporate all this technology. This was an opportunity for us to do it in our own backyard." At the beginning of the session  w h e n  four goals regarding the technology 1.  as a regular c o m p o n e n t  T o e x p a n d the use of m u l t i m e d i a technology into other courses  T o  use  m u l t i m e d i a  A c c o r d i n g  of  101/102.  Geophysics a n d A s t r o n o m y 3.  Matthews'  were:  T o incorporate m u l t i m e d i a technology A s t r o n o m y  2.  this i n n o v a t i o n started, D r .  like  310.  t e c h n o l o g y  in  d e p a r t m e n t a l  seminars.  t o D r . M a t t h e w s , " . . . i f w e have guest speakers we can now  tell them that if they have some stuff on computers that they'll like to show, they can bring along the diskette and they will be able to show it in their talks." 4.  T o p r o v i d e a n e x a m p l e to the D e p a r t m e n t a n d the U n i v e r s i t y of possibility of using m u l t i m e d i a technology in other  By  the  e n d  of the  course,  m u l t i m e d i a technology classes  a n d  Instructors course  their for the  b e c a m e  associated different  course w a s  these goals  were  courses.  realized. T h e  aregular c o m p o n e n t  of A s t r o n o m y  tutorial  a n  sections  sessions of the  as  G e o p h y s i c s  use  instructional  tool.  &A s t r o n o m y  into their courses, in the  Dr. Fahlman. Finally, attempts m a d e b y s o m e  b y s o m e  glitches  in the h a r d w a r e . T h e use  departmental seminars has since been successfully  47  of the  310  winter  faculty m e m b e r s  for the departmental seminars w e r e  of  101/102  input f r o m D r . M a t t h e w s . O n e of the instructors for the  the m u l t i m e d i a technology  i m p e d e d  of  incorporated m u l t i m e d i a technology  term, with s o m e  use  m o s t  the  310 to  initially  technology  for  achieved. In addition  Dr.  M a t t h e w s has since u s e d the technology for p u b l i c lectures at the p l a n e t a r i u m a n d various other  venues.  4^2  E M E R G E N T  I S S U E S  T w o b r o a d sets of issues or t h e m e s e m e r g e d f r o m this s t u d y of the of m u l t i m e d i a technology in •  Practical  •  Pedagogical  use  teaching:  issues issues  Both themes were further s u b d i v i d e d into categories a n d subcategories.  These  sub-categories, categories a n d themes were constructed f r o m the data in order t o m a k e r e a s o n a b l e a n d p e r s u a s i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e d a t a . F i g u r e 1, o n the next page, s h o w s a s u m m a r y of the categories a n d subcategories that  are  d i s c u s s e d w i t h respect to e a c h t h e m e . H o w e v e r , these e m e r g e n t categories  are  interrelated a n d are not exclusive of one  48  another.  4.2.1  Practical Practical issues were  I s s u e s  related to the practicality of u s i n g the  technology  i n A s t r o n o m y 1 0 1 / 1 0 2 . T h e s e issues relate to the p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n implementation d u r i n g  the  technology  procedures  innovation.  that were  F o u r categories  w e r e identified i n this  1. C o n v e n i e n c e : hardware.  This category  of the  to i n c o r p o r a t e  involving  the  m u l t i m e d i a  practical use  of  the  study:  refers to the e a s e of utility of the  This ease of use  infrastructure  undertaken  a n d  is d i s c u s s e d  building  in terms  in w h i c h  the  multimedia  of the location  m u l t i m e d i a  a n d  set-up  was  used. 2. T e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e :  T h i s c a t e g o r y is d i s c u s s e d  k n o w l e d g e  of h o w  multimedia  set-up  3. S o f t w a r e :  the  h a r d w a r e  a n d  recounts  of  the  packages  that were  relating  used in  the  the time required b y the instructor for  the  process.  4. T i m e : T h i s c a t e g o r y exploration  addresses  of multimedia  technology.  C o n v e n i e n c e C o n v e n i e n c e  interviews  with  the  was  a  major  instructor.  the i n s t r u c t o r ' s office is l o c a t e d carrying the e q u i p m e n t a l i m i t to h o w  practical  T h e  h e l d is a b o u t a f i v e to t e n m i n u t e  was  c o m p o n e n t s  the availability a n d design issues  to the different p r o g r a m s a n d s o f t w a r e  4.2.1.1  software  instructor's  work.  This category  innovation  in terms of the  lecture  issue theater  that  c a m e  w h e r e  the  u p  in  m u c h h a r d w a r e could be safely transported. held in one-hour  50  were w h e r e  is s t o r e d . T h e n e c e s s i t y  back a n d forth created a major problem, hence  the A s t r o n o m y classes w e r e  the  classes  w a l k f r o m the A s t r o n o m y building  a n d the e q u i p m e n t  all  slots three times  of there  Furthermore, a week.  There  w e r e  other  classes before  a n d  i m m e d i a t e l y  after  the  A s t r o n o m y  101/102  classes, h e n c e , there w a s n o t m u c h t i m e for the instructor to set u p a n d the e q u i p m e n t before a n d after These  inconveniences  p a c k  classes.  h a d  b e e n  anticipated b y  the  instructor  w h i c h  w a s w h y the d e c i s i o n w a s m a d e to u s e al a p t o p c o m p u t e r i n the lectures.  T h e  inconvenience  w a s  of transporting e v e n the laptop c o m p u t e r a n d L C D panel  evident the first time the instructor u s e d the t e c h n o l o g y in the classroom.  H e  h a d a s k e d the s t u d e n t s to s u b m i t their l a b o r a t o r y n o t e b o o k s that s a m e d a y  at  the e n d of the class. W h a t h e d i d n o t anticipate w a s that h e h a d to c a r r y  about  eighty n o t e b o o k s i n a d d i t i o n to the lap-top c o m p u t e r , L C D p a n e l a n d his  o w n  c o u r s e n o t e s b a c k to his office. H e d i d s u r v i v e that o r d e a l , but, n e e d l e s s mention, he  d i d not ask  after the class sessions  the students  to s u b m i t  their laboratory  to  notebooks  again.  At the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of this study, the instructor r e m a r k e d ...most of the lecture halls at U.B.C  that  are not really very conducive  to using the technology. There are only a few places on campus like the I.R.C building that seem relatively well suited to it. We may have some difficulty setting up and having the right kind of projection facilities, so it's a disadvantage for us because we are lecturers, hired gun lecturers. W e go to other buildings, we don't get to stay here and so we have to carry all this stuff around...I don't see any immediate disadvantages other than just the mechanics of carrying things, setting them up and finding the room which is suitable for them where you can bring the lights down to the proper level and that sort of thing. A s  aresult of this inconvenience,  the laser disc player (which w a s  the instructor decided  to l i m i t the u s e  m u c h less p o r t a b l e t h a n the l a p t o p ) to  51  of the  laboratory a n d tutorial sessions w h i c h w e r e held in the A s t r o n o m y w h e r e a s  the  laptop  simulations s u m m a r i z e level  of  a n d  c o m p u t e r  digitized  the procedures inconvenience  m u l t i m e d i a  a n d  the  material  L C D panel  in  the  lectures.  w e r e  used  T h e  display  following  caused  b y  the  necessity  of  steps the  transporting  the  equipment. equipment.  2. U s i n g o n l y t h e l a p t o p a n d L C D p a n e l i n t h e l e c t u r e s to simulations  a n d digitized  laboratory  inconvenience  taken of  After afew  to the tutorial  a n d  sessions.  4. D i g i t i z i n g s o m e i m a g e s f r o m t h e l a s e r d i s c s actions  s h o w  material.  3. L i m i t i n g t h e u s e o f the l a s e r d i s c t e c h n o l o g y  instructor  to  t a k e n b y the instructor i n o r d e r to m i n i m i z e  1. P u r c h a s i n g p o r t a b l e m u l t i m e d i a  These  building  b y  the  instructor  w e r e  to p r e s e n t i n  successful  in  lectures. r e d u c i n g  the  classroom,  the  transportation. occasions of using  the  technology  in the  c o m m e n t e d ,  ...the laptop technology and the projection panel are clearly easy to use in a lecture environment as long as you are in a lecture hall which has good lighting control. You can bring the lights down to a reasonable quality [darkness]... so I think that's encouraging because many of the venues on campus where we might have to teach courses should present no problem [in] using the technology. At  the  beginning  of  convenience  was  multimedia  technology.  the  innovation,  the  instructor  said  that  the  issue  am a j o r i m p e d i n g factor to his t e a c h i n g w i t h the u s e of H o w e v e r ,  he overcame  as h e c o u l d as the i n n o v a t i o n p r o c e e d e d .  52  the inconveniences  F i n a l l y at the e n d of the  as  of the  m u c h  innovation,  the  instructor  felt  that  the  issue  i m p e d i m e n t to the i n n o v a t i o n O n c e w h e r e  he  convenience  w a s  c o u l d use work.  4.2.1.2  Technical  it, t h e  longer  a m a j o r  next  issue w a s  setting  u p  to the lecture the  e q u i p m e n t  issues relate to the o p e r a t i o n of the  a n d  technical glitches  were  expected  d u e  to the  m u l t i m e d i a instructor's  m i n i m a l familiarity w i t h the m u l t i m e d i a set-up. O n e of the technical o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the first class in w h i c h the instructor u s e d set-up  hall  K n o w l e d g e  Technical k n o w l e d g e A few  n o  process.  the instructor got the m u l t i m e d i a e q u i p m e n t  g e t t i n g it to  equipment.  of  the  m u l t i m e d i a  in A s t r o n o m y 101. Reflecting o n this class a b o u t three d a y s  class d u r i n g a n interview, the instructor  glitches  after  the  said,  Well, on Friday's class I used the projection panel. That's the one day in which I normally have only one lecture, and had time before and after, so I thought if I was going to do a test of this, this was the best day to do it. Because if things didn't work, I'd have time to try to fix it before or afterwards. ... As it turned out, the setup of the computer and the projection panel was very simple. I arrived 10 minutes before the class and everything was plugged in and running in about five minutes. A minor glitch is that there is an option: you can either see everything projected just on the monitor screen of the laptop or on the projection panel projected on the main screen or both. Unfortunately the 'both' option wasn't working, I had  to configure to allow it to do  both, and that didn't work and it turns out that the minor problem is that if the battery dies, It runs on the power from the  53  outlet. But if the internal battery runs down, then when you start up the computer again it resets to its basic configuration, and the basic configuration doesn't allow you to project both at one time. So now I know: one, it's useful to try and keep the battery charged; two, now I have investigated how I can go into the setup and change that, so I can see on the monitor with the keyboard what's going on in the screen so that I don't have to type and look over my shoulders, especially in the dark. A f t e r the instructor's first use of the t e c h n o l o g y i n the class, h e m o r e  confident  technology.  w i t h  h a n d l i n g s o m e  Since the instructor w a s  of the  p r o b l e m s  associated  fairly comfortable with using  b e c a m e w i t h  the  computers,  a n d only m a d e use of the laptop c o m p u t e r a n d L C D panel in the lectures, did  not  encounter  a n y  m a j o r  technical  difficulties  in  that  environment.  H o w e v e r , for the tutorial sessions, the laserdisc player w a s integrated w i t h r e s t o f t h e e q u i p m e n t a n d it w a s that w e r e n e w that  he  w a s  confidence  the laserdisc player a n d controlling  to h i m . O n c e , d u r i n g the first t e r m , the i n s t r u c t o r just  using  the  set  u p  like  "a b l a c k  box".  T h e  with adjusting the various controls of the technology  needs g r e w  d u r i n g the t e r m as he e x p l o r e d the technology.  the e n d of the term, w h e n  the instructor needed  the  software  c o m m e n t e d instructor's to suit  Finally  his  towards  to m a k e a d j u s t m e n t s  in  the  settings he consulted the m a n u a l a n d tinkered with the various settings increasing At d e v e l o p e d  with  confidence. the o n  b e g i n n i n g the  of  this  innovation,  the  tutorial  packages  M a c i n t o s h platform. T h e instructor, h o w e v e r  already based  o n such machines.  w e r e  w a s  familiar w i t h I B M computers, a n d the A s t r o n o m y P C laboratory for w a s  he  m o s t 101/102  T o w a r d s the m i d d l e of the term,  packages w e r e converted f r o m H y p e r C a r d o n the M a c i n t o s h into T o o l b o o k  54  the o n  the I B M , thereafter packages. u s i n g  Finally, in the second  a n  I B M  d e v e l o p m e n t w a y  c o m p u t e r .  the  w a s  m o r e  comfortable w i t h using  term, the software  T h e  instructor's  using T o o l b o o k w a s  the software  m a d e  the instructor b e c a m e  d e v e l o p m e n t  k n o w l e d g e  limited, so, if h e  of  d o n e  software  desired changes  in  set-up, h e h a d to talk w i t h the d e v e l o p e r , w h o  the then  adjustments.  Before each tutorial session,  the instructor h a d at least three  with M r . D o u g Bilesky, the graduate student f r o m the Faculty of w h o  w a s  the  meetings E d u c a t i o n  developed most of the software packages w h i c h interfaced the  a n d the laserdisc player. S o m e packages w e r e c u s t o m - m a d e in the Science E d u c a t i o n 412 s u m m e r 1993  b y s o m e  c o m p u t e r students  class.  In the first m e e t i n g , the instructor m e t w i t h M r . B i l e s k y to discuss  the  k i n d s of things h e w o u l d like to a c c o m p l i s h w i t h the p a c k a g e , as w e l l as  the  features  that h e w o u l d like to see i n c l u d e d . T h e s e c o n d m e e t i n g consisted  c h e c k i n g to see the package  w o u l d  m u c h  a n d to discuss  final meeting w o r k  h o w  w a s  to s h o w  t h r o u g h the p a c k a g e  revisions that n e e d e d  the instructor h o w together  implementable  o n  the  to b e m a d e .  the package  c o m p u t e r  w h i c h  also  u s e d  this  m e e t i n g  d e v e l o p e d  to  instructor  a n d  M r . Bilesky  were  the  T h e  Bilesky's computer. Since the packages w e r e d e v e l o p e d o n one c o m p u t e r another,  tutorial sessions. T h e packages  w o r k e d , a n d  in  M r .  o n  in the  necessary  were  o n  u s e d  use  of the instructor's ideas  of  to  adjust  settings to m a k e the p r o g r a m r u n s m o o t h l y o n the instructor's  4.2.1.3  software  computer.  Software Availability a n d software design features, were the two subcategories  issues relating to software use that e m e r g e d f r o m this  55  study.  of  Software Availability During been  the class sessions, the instructor used  a c c u m u l a t e d b y  the  d e p a r t m e n t for use  the software  in the  that  A s t r o n o m y  laboratory. S o m e of the software packages could be adapted for  h a d  101/102  'lecture-style'  teaching, while s o m e were not d e e m e d suitable for use outside the laboratory. O n e m a j o r p r o b l e m i n t h e f i e l d o f c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y i n E d u c a t i o n is locating suitable software. This instructor w a s of the opinion that there a m p l e  suitable  software,  exists  but"...most of the simulation software that we have  doesn't really seem to illustrate anything in any different way than I would do it in class to make it worth taking the projection panel..." D e s p i t e  this  h a n d i c a p , d u r i n g the first t e r m , the instructor d i d not actively search  for  a p p r o p r i a t e s o f t w a r e f o r t h e c l a s s , b e c a u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o h i m , "...I considered that part, last term in the lectures to be more of the test of the technology and its practical aspects ... than really exploring the full power of the educational potential." During  the  second  term,  h o w e v e r ,  the  instructor  o r d e r e d  s o m e  s o f t w a r e w h i c h h e t h o u g h t w a s m o r e suitable to the lecture e n v i r o n m e n t useful  for  illustrating different  A s t r o n o m y concepts.  Unfortunately,  s o f t w a r e d i d n o t a r r i v e i n t i m e for the i n s t r u c t o r to b e able to u s e d u r i n g second  a n d the the  term. For the tutorial sessions, the instructor u s e d the software packages  Mr. Bilesky developed. T h e final tutorial package developed w a s  o n  that  galactic  m o r p h o l o g y . W h e n the instructor m e t w i t h M r . Bilesky after the p a c k a g e  was  developed,  the  Dr. F a h l m a n , M r . Phil H o d d e r , a graduate  D e p a r t m e n t of Geophysics a n d A s t r o n o m y w h o of  the  laboratory m a n u a l  for  A s t r o n o m y  student  assisted in the  101/102,  a n d  d e v e l o p m e n t  I w e r e  attendance. E v e r y o n e present at that m e e t i n g b r a i n s t o r m e d o n the  56  f r o m  also  in  different  w a y s in w h i c h the package package o n galactic  could be used. E v e r y o n e w a s  technology.  d e v e l o p e d  with  the  morphology.  T o w a r d s the e n d of the second term, there w a s CD-ROM  pleased  a n d pressed  A graduate  student f r o m  a CD-ROM  the  the possibility of Faculty of  of A s t r o n o m i c a l images.  using  E d u c a t i o n  This  graduate  s t u d e n t w a s g i v e n alist of i m a g e s that w o u l d b e p u t o n the C D - R O M .  Because  it w a s c l o s e to t h e e n d o f t h e t e r m , a n d m o s t o f t h e t o p i c s w h e r e t h e  CD-ROM  w o u l d have b e e n useful w e r e already covered, the C D - R O M n o t u s e d . T h e instructor's r e a c t i o n to the C D - R O M  technology  technology  w a s  was:  I'm really pleased that we are making inroads into the CD-ROM technology so soon in this project. Eventually, that will be of most use as opposed to the laser disc which is a little bit fixed to the building here or to the Education building. But with this now, the ability of having a CD-ROM  unit, we'll be able to put  laser disc images and presumably digitized slide images and some other media to a CD-ROM  which can then be hooked up  with the same kind of presentation package. Then we have the possibility of adding images as things are updated for making different CD-ROM Traditionally,  and so on.  slides have  education  as  a m a j o r  visual aid. T h e r e have b e e n s o m e p r o b l e m s w i t h the maintenance  as  reflected  b y the instructor  b e e n  used  in A s t r o n o m y  thus:  The slide collection in our department...is difficult to maintain and keep up to date. There is very little control over people who can go in and take the slides and never return them and don't sort them when they do return them. Many of the faculty have just given up on the departmental slide collection, and put  57  together their own personal slide collections for their lectures. So this kind of system [CD-ROM  technology] really will avoid  most of the problems associated with that and once it's set-up will have fairly minimal maintenance to keep it up-to-date. Well this is the sort of direction that Dr. Fahlman and I are going. Our vision, a sort of 'pie in the sky' picture, is to have a kind of audiovisual  educational workstation with  CD-ROM  unit, small computer and possibly a laser disc unit and slide digitizer. All of this in a location with a library of images in store, with some kind of software catalogue that makes it easy to find what you're looking for. Then the instructor can just go in there with the diskette, plug it in and basically pick and choose from the library which images he/she will like to use for this particular lecture, download them on the diskette. With the laptop computer and the projection panel, ... they also have the ability to show films and the still images. One can update the library because it's all digital and you can add things at will rather than having to get a new drawer as you get another stack of slides and resort all the numbers and re-label them. H e n c e , for this exploration w i t h m u l t i m e d i a technology, the  instructor  p r e f e r r e d the c u s t o m i z e d software h e u s e d to achieve af e w b u t specific objectives in the  tutorial sessions, t h a n u s i n g  the  s o f t w a r e d e s i g n e d to a c h i e v e m a n y b u t less specific Closely  related  to  the  discussion  consideration of the design features of the  58  o n  c o m m e r c i a l l y  available  objectives.  software  software.  course  availability, i s the  Software Design Many  Features  design features of the software  a n d presentation packages,  as the size a n d position of the text a n d images, simulations  w e r e  b e y o n d  inherent in the packages  the  instructor's  such  as well as the s p e e d of  control.  T h e s e  features  a n d c o u l d not be adjusted b y the instructor.  e x a m p l e o c c u r r e d at a class h e taught w i t h the use of the  the w e r e O n e  m u l t i m e d i a  ...when I brought the lights down, the images I think were quite visible. Some of the text is not easily seen from the back of the room, but I wasn't relying heavily on text in some of these things, and these programs weren't designed, custom-designed, for lecture purposes. To ameliorate this situation, the instructor's strategy w a s  to b e less  o n the text in the p r o g r a m , a n d also in the future his intention w a s  dependent to b e  able  "...to set up some simulations that we intend specifically for projections in the classroom, so we can make extra large text or labels. " A n o t h e r situation occurred d u r i n g a tutorial session, w h e n c a u g h t alittle bit o f f - g u a r d  the instructor  was  because,  ...when I got to the planets, Uranus and Neptune, I was accustomed to showing slides of the Voyager flybys and close-ups of these planets and of course the laser disc was made before those flybys occurred. ...the first time that I ran it, of course, I  had  forgotten that. So I was preparing to show these, then I realized that they weren't there. The second time I knew this so I adjusted the presentation accordingly. But that's always going to be a restriction with the laser disc. T h e instructor's strategy in dealing with the situation of a n outdated laser  disc  w a s  that  to i n f o r m the s t u d e n t s of the restriction. W h e n I a s k e d the s t u d e n t s  59  w e r e interviewed  for their c o m m e n t s  o n those glitches in the software,  the  s t u d e n t s a l l felt t h a t t h e y c o u l d l i v e w i t h it. During packages  the innovation, the instructor m o v e d f r o m relying o n  software  that w e r e n o t v e r y suitable for c l a s s r o o m p u r p o s e s to u s i n g  c u s t o m  m a d e packages. T o w a r d s the e n d of the term, e v e n w h e n the instructor h a d u s e p r e - m a d e s o f t w a r e p a c k a g e s , h e w a s able to a d a p t t h e m to suit his H o w e v e r , for the design features w h i c h he c o u l d not adjust, the s u p p l e m e n t e d  the information given in the software  a n d h o p e d  w h e n all the software packages for the lectures c o u l d be c u s t o m  4.2.1.4  to  classes.  instructor for a time  m a d e .  T i m e A t the b e g i n n i n g of the first t e r m w h e n  this e x p l o r a t i o n s t a r t e d , it  n e c e s s a r y for the instructor to take extra t i m e p l a n n i n g w h a t to d o , a n d a n d h o w  to i n c o r p o r a t e the t e c h n o l o g y  in the class. H e  also n e e d e d  w a s w h e n  time  to  d e c i d e the a p p r o p r i a t e software for use i n the class. T h e first time h e u s e d  the  t e c h n o l o g y i n c l a s s , "...it was an hasty choice of what I did have on hand to try this [the technology] out..." T h r e e w e e k s  into  the  first t e r m h e  c o m m e n t e d  "It's been a shame, I would have been able to use some things earlier in the course, but I was just too busy and it was too hectic to get everything set-up. " T h e  instructor's  initial decision  Friday classes w a s s h o w i n g  something  to limit the  use  of the  technology  to  his  r e l a t e d to the i s s u e s o f t i m e , a n d the a d d e d attraction  of  different a n d colorful at the e n d of the w e e k . T h i s  w a s  one d a y w h i c h he d i d not have another lecture immediately before a n d  after  the A s t r o n o m y 101 C o m m e n t i n g  class. o n  his  time  second term, the instructor  said,  input towards  60  this exploration d u r i n g  the  I guess when you are first trying it out, it takes a lot of time. You would go down some blind alley, so it probably took a little more effort and time than it would have if I had presented the course in a more conventional way. So you just have to be prepared for it. I'd say using the panel and the laptop doesn't really take any additional time. The additional time now is going out to look for new software and trying to keep in mind as you prepare the course. "Where can I use the technology?" We're not used to thinking in these terms ...It's taking less and less time. So, the initial time input required b y the instructor decreased over t e r m as he b e c a m e m o r e familiar w i t h the technology, therefore, time  the  b e c a m e  less of al i m i t i n g factor.  S u m m a r y In  the  p r e c e d i n g discussions  practical t h e m e  of the use  o n  the  categories  that p e r t a i n to  of m u l t i m e d i a technology, four categories  the w e r e  identified. These categories, for the m o s t part, w e r e outside the control of  the  instructor even t h o u g h the instructor w a s  the  able to d o things that r e d u c e d  negative effects of these categories o n the i n n o v a t i o n T h e n e x t t h e m e d i s c u s s e d relates to p e d a g o g i c a l  4.2.2  process. issues.  Pedagogical Issues W h i l e p r a c t i c a l i s s u e s c a n o f t e n b e c o n s i d e r e d to b e ag i v e n , p e d a g o g i c a l  issues  are  not.  P e d a g o g i c a l  instructor  a n d  relate  instructional  tool b y  to  h o w  issues the  are  m o s t l y  w i t h i n  instructor uses  taking a d v a n t a g e  61  of s o m e  the  of the  the  control of  technology attributes  the  as  a n  that  are  i n h e r e n t i n the technology, s u c h as accessibility a n d  flexibility  of the t e c h n o l o g y , i n o r d e r to a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d l e a r n i n g  a n d the  appeal  effects.  T h e issues of p e d a g o g y a n d concept d e v e l o p m e n t (which are  e x a m i n e d  later i n this section) reflect the teacher/student duality. W h i l e the  instructor  strives  t o w a r d s  p e d a g o g y  in  the  class  b y  a d o p t i n g  different m o d e s  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n p a r t to m o t i v a t e the  of  students,  a n d s t i m u l a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e p r i m a r y g o a l is  concept  d e v e l o p m e n t  of  o n  the  part  of  the  innovation process, p e d a g o g y w a s  students.  From  the  b e g i n n i n g  this  i m p o r t a n t to t h e i n s t r u c t o r . A s t r o n o m y is  a n appealing course choice for m a n y students. E n r o l l m e n t figures are e v i d e n c e of this a p p e a l . A c c o r d i n g to the instructor, e n r o l l m e n t w a s b y the D e p a r t m e n t because  clear  restricted  of the limited n u m b e r s of c o m p u t e r s they  h a v e  for the l a b o r a t o r y activities, n o t b y the n u m b e r of students w a n t i n g to take course. B o t h Arts a n d Science students  enroll in this course. T h e  the  instructor  w a s interested in presenting the course content in different w a y s , s u c h that all the students p e d a g o g y  c o u l d benefit f r o m the course. T w o b r o a d categories related  as t h e y p e r t a i n to t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g identified i n this  to  study  were: • Interest a n d M o t i v a t i o n • C o n c e p t  d e v e l o p m e n t  1. I n t e r e s t a n d M o t i v a t i o n : T h i s c a t e g o r y r e l a t e s t o t h e i n h e r e n t a p p e a l a n d students' fascination w i t h the instructional materials w i t h the a i d of the technology as they affect the students' a n d motivation in the  of,  presented interest  course.  Appeal of the technology r e l a t e s t o t h e u n i q u e n e s s t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f f e r s it affects interest a n d m o t i v a t i o n . A l s o d i s c u s s e d i n this  62  as  sub-category  is  the  a p p e a l  w i t h  the  technology,  i.e.  the  a p p e a l  p e d a g o g i c a l l y o n e c a n d o w i t h t h e t e c h n o l o g y , i.e. r u n access stored images,  a n d highlight features with  U s i n g the technology the  subject  matter  students,  in a  t e c h n o l o g y  non-traditional w a y . p r o v i d e d  the  technology. present  Therefore, for  a n o t h e r  p l a t f o r m  for  the  questions:  d i d the instructor strive to exploit the a p p e a l of  t e c h n o l o g y i n o r d e r to p r o m o t e the interests of the s t u d e n t s as as motivate  I have  C o n c e p t  a n y e v i d e n c e to s h o w  d e v e l o p m e n t :  discussed  in  T h e  terms  accessibility a n d  that the students w e r e  of  category the  two  motivated  materials? of C o n c e p t  d e v e l o p m e n t  subcategories,  will  be  visualization,  a n d  flexibility.  Visualization r e l a t e s t o t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o p r o m o t e d e v e l o p m e n t w h e r e v e r  well  motivated?  a n d interested in the instructional 2.  the  them?  • D i d the students feel that they w e r e • D o  the  concepts.  T h i s section w i l l s e e k to a n s w e r the f o l l o w i n g w a y s  w h a t  simulations,  g a v e the instructor a n o p p o r t u n i t y to  representation of A s t r o n o m y  • In w h a t  of  b y  presenting  possible.  predict, observe  T h e  the  material  instructor's  use  of  in  a  visual  different  concept f o r m a t  i m a g e s  a n d explain A s t r o n o m y concepts a n d  to  p h e n o m e n a ,  to the s t u d e n t s are discussed. T h e resulting i m p l i c a t i o n a l factors also  considered.  Accessibility and to  are  Flexibility a s p e c t s r e l a t e t o a c c e s s t o t h e t e c h n o l o g y ,  i n f o r m a t i o n  via  the  technology,  a n d  r a n d o m access to i n f o r m a t i o n as o p p o s e d affects concept  development.  63  flexibility  in  access  terms  to sequential access as  of it  4.2.2.1  Interest a n d P a r a m o u n t  intention  of  to  Motivation  the  t h e m e  motivating  a n d  of pedagogical  k e e p i n g  the  issues w a s  students'  the  interest.  instructor's O n e  w a y  sustaining the students' interest i n the subject, a c c o r d i n g to the instructor, m a i n t a i n i n g his o w n interest too. T h e use of t e c h n o l o g y w a s p e r c e i v e d as m e a n s of maintaining that  of is one  interest.  Anything that allows you to try to teach something in a different way... keeps it interesting for you. After one teaches a subject essentially year after year after year, then one of the challenges isn't just keeping it interesting for the students, it is keeping it interesting for yourself, because if you're bored up there then that's going to be transmitted to the audience. T h e i n s t r u c t o r w a s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a p p e a l i n g to the v a r i e d interests o f all  the  students in the course, as diverse as they were. T o obtain this result, he  felt  t h a t it w a s i m p o r t a n t to u s e as m a n y v a r i e d w a y s o f t e a c h i n g as h e c o u l d .  T h e  m u l t i m e d i a technology  w a s  another  teaching  b e g i n n i n g of the first t e r m the instructor  tool for the instructor. A t  the  said,  ...I think from the point of view of keeping the students' interests ... this [the technology] certainly helps. I noticed that [in comparison to] last year with the labs, (having had to teach the celestial sphere with the traditional old plastic and cardboard models and then seeing how the students reacted to the fullcolor SkyGlobe software) it's fun for them. It's exciting and that helps make it easier for them to learn. So I think that's a big factor... T h e  course  w a s  a n elective not  a r e q u i r e m e n t for all of the  instructor d e s c r i b e d A s t r o n o m y as a n inherently interesting  64  students. subject, one  T h e in  w h i c h m a n y people s h a r e d this view.  are interested. T h e four students  a l l felt  that  interviewed  A l l f o u r o f t h e m r e l a t e d A s t r o n o m y to o u t d o o r  a n d r e a l life, a n d w e r e after a s k i n g s o m e  that were  curious about A s t r o n o m y . A t the e n d of the  students  they  activities  w e r e  if their sense of curiosity w a s n o w  even  m o r e  curious  about  n o w  course,  satisfied,  other  they  aspects  of  A s t r o n o m y . All the students best typified b y  that were interviewed spoke about motivation. This  a n excerpt  f r o m  the interview  w i t h Alfred,  is  a second-year  student i n the D e p a r t m e n t of Forestry. Alfred w a s s p e n d i n g ay e a r at U . B . C as p a r t o f a n e x c h a n g e p r o g r a m t h a t h i s u n i v e r s i t y h a s w i t h U . B . C . E n g l i s h is  not  his first language.  a n d  facial expressions  During  the interview, Alfred  while he w a s  used  a lot of gestures  speaking w h i c h cannot be textualized in  thesis. Alfred w a s i n t e r v i e w e d after the first tutorial session h e l d i n m i d d l e the first t e r m . F o r A s t r o n o m y 101  a n d 102, the instructor u s e d  teaching  this of aids  like slides, transparencies, m u l t i m e d i a displays a n d video. Alfred  considered  those  h i m  teaching  aids  to b e  motivated. In courses w h e r e thinks that the students Alfred:  very important, because  they  h e l p e d  the instructors d o not use teaching aids,  lose their  motivation.  Teachers have to be careful so that we don't lose our motivation. In many courses which are not interesting to us, we are losing our motivation. So we just sit in class and try to pass exams, but what kind of Bachelors' [degree] do we get? (Pause.)  Ajibola:  Yes, what kind of Bachelors' does one get? That's a major concern isn't it?" (In a rather low voice, thoughtfully)  65  to  be  Alfred  Alfred:  Y e s it is. Teachers have to do a lot of work so that we don't lose our motivation. If we don't understand the stuff, we lose our motivation. So the use of audio-visual materials can help our motivation in the material that we are learning.  So, instructors the  students.  During  m u s t  ensure  the  term, the  that  motivation  is m a i n t a i n e d  instructor w a s  students w e r e i n d e e d being motivated b y the use of the  able  to v e r i f y  a m o n g s t that  technology.  It [the technology] certainly heightened their [the students'] interest in that they are seeing something different. All the new kind of technology up front, [in class] A number of students came down [to the front of the class], and were intrigued by the software itself. They thought it was interesting and they wanted to know whether it was available commercially, and could they buy it or could they get a copy? It was also an opportunity to let everybody know that this particular package was available in the laboratory on their menu. We don't use it in the lab, [for a project] but it is there as a possible tutorial aid, and so this was a good chance to show them, that this is the kind of thing that exists if you're curious or if you want to reinforce some concepts from the lectures and lab... And this week, I noticed a marked increase in the number of people who were actually calling up Orbits [a solar system tutorial program] in the lab after they finished their measurements on the regular project. I've noticed about four or five people this week, who started Orbits and were looking through the different menus on planets and so on. So I think, just from the point of view of stimulating curiosity and  66  the  also making students aware, its better than just telling them, well we have this tutorial package on the computer, which sounds kind of intimidating, "Oh! We have to use the computer again. It's probably some dry boring lines of text..." I also o b s e r v e d that the students  w e r e  interested in the  technology.  After classes in w h i c h the instructor h a d m a d e use of the technology, w e r e  often  seen  gathering a r o u n d h i m  a n d  asking questions  students  a n d  talking  about the concepts that h a d been presented via the technology. This w a s  in  c o n t r a s t to the n o r m a l b e h a v i o r o f the s t u d e n t s  n o  technology w a s  after classes in w h i c h  used, even t h o u g h the instructor thinks that w h e t h e r  there  w a s a n after- class r e s p o n s e w o u l d d e p e n d o n w h a t w a s d i s c u s s e d i n class. T h e students' interest in the technology w a s  also evident d u r i n g  the  laboratory sessions. A n example w a s D o n , afourth-year Physics student in his last s e m e s t e r at t h e u n i v e r s i t y . D o n is n o n e w c o m e r to t h e u s e o f m u l t i m e d i a technology,  h a v i n g  w o r k e d  w i t h  different  types  at  Science  World  in  V a n c o u v e r . D o n s h o w e d a lot of excitement in the laboratory sessions. H e quite  comfortable w i t h  the  technology.  During  the  laboratory sessions, I  o b s e r v e d that h e f r e q u e n t l y offered h e l p to classmates a n d s o m e t i m e s t h e m to c o m e Many  a n d see  the  "neat stuff" t h a t h e w a s  d o i n g o n the  called c o m p u t e r .  of those things were outside the scope of the lab requirements.  A p p e a l of the  technology  O n e of the reasons w h y the students were motivated b y the  technology  w a s t h e a p p e a l o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y itself. T h e u s e o f m u l t i m e d i a t e c h n o l o g y a  is  u n i q u e  instructional m e d i u m  m o t i v a t e d a n d s h o w e d  for  the  i n s t r u c t o r to  use.  Students  greater interest in the subject matter w h e n  w a s w e r e  it  presented w i t h the use of a c o m p u t e r a n d computer-related technologies  67  w a s in  the classroom. So, pedagogically, the appeal the technology  offers in terms  its u n i q u e n e s s  is i m p o r t a n t i n s t i m u l a t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s as  as m o t i v a t i n g  them.  advantages instructor  of using  A t the b e g i n n i n g m u l t i m e d i a  of the  t e r m , to d e s c r i b e  technology  as  a n  one  of well  of  the  instructional tool,  the  said:  I think that there is an appeal to it [the technology] and especially in [Astronomy] 101 where the students are in first year, from secondary schools. Often there is a bit of a let down; they are coming into the University for the first time and then they ... see inadequate lecture halls, people using chalkboards and clunky old overheads and so on. I think students would like to have the impression that they are coming to a place where they are seeing some of the latest techniques in studying current Science and so be able to use technology, you know current technology. To be able to show them computer simulation in real time, to make use of videos and laser discs and so on, gives them the impression that, yes, they are at a first-class institution ... All the students that w e r e interviewed expressed preference for i m a g e s  o n  the  c o m p u t e r  projector or photocopies s h o w  m o r e  details than  instructor used m y  observations  or television even w h e n the  F o r the  as a r e p l a c e m e n t  i m a g e s  rather than f r o m  the c o m p u t e r i m a g e s d i d not  transparencies.  transparencies too, m a n y  m o n i t o r  w e r e m o r e  m o s t  slide  necessarily  part though,  visually pleasing  o f t h e L C D p a n e l is still i n f e r i o r to s l i d e s a l t h o u g h n o t b y m u c h  the From  using  e v e n w h e n  transparencies w e r e used. H o w e v e r , the instructor claims that the  68  the  for c h a l k b o a r d notes.  m u l t i m e d i a set-up than using slides a n d transparencies  instances.  seeing  the  colored resolution in  s o m e  T h r o u g h o u t w a s  the  able to m o t i v a t e  term, w h e n the  the  technology  students b y  the use  w a s  of the  used,  the  instructor  technology.  O v e r  course of the term, I observed that the students m a i n t a i n e d a constant in the  the  interest  technology.  4.2.2.2  C o n c e p t P e d a g o g y  D e v e l o p m e n t  a n d C o n c e p t d e v e l o p m e n t  reflect the teaching a n d  learning  situation. T h e y are so closely related that the b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n the two is n o t e a s i l y d e f i n e d as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n t e a c h i n g a n d  learning.  T h e t e r m , c o n c e p t , is d e f i n e d b y t h e W e b s t e r ' s S e v e n t h N e w Dictionary as " s o m e t h i n g  conceived  in the mind," a "thought"  terms  Collegiate  or a  "notion"  as well as "an abstract idea generalized f r o m particular instances". N o v a k  a n d  G o w i n (1984, p.4) cited i n H a n s b y (1991, p. 11) define c o n c e p t as "a r e g u l a r i t y in events or objects designated b y s o m e label". N o v a k a n d G o w i n (1984), cited in H a n s b y (1991), established construction of k n o w l e d g e happenings.  a n d  that observation  that "objects"  is t h e first s t e p i n  are things  while  exists  a  w i d e  range  literature o n conceptual change  of  s o m e t i m e s  "events"  analysis  a n d  synthesis  ideas  refers to that p r o c e s s o f  that  leads  to  the  personal  m e a n i n g s  are  not  constructed  G l a s e r s f e l d , 1 9 8 9 ) , it w o u l d b e i n t e r e s t i n g to k n o w technology  h e l p e d  the  students  of A s t r o n o m y  69  the of  a n d  students'  A s t r o n o m y  in isolation  if the use of  101/102  to  repeated  construction  c o n s t r u c t i o n of m e a n i n g as t h e y a t t e m p t to g r a p p l e w i t h different Since  in  In the context  i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f a n i d e a . I n this s t u d y , t h e f o c u s is o n the  concepts.  are  idea".  conflicting  a n d concept development.  this study, the term, concept d e v e l o p m e n t , observation,  the  A c c o r d i n g to H a n s b y (1991), "the n o t i o n of r e g u l a r i t y s e e m s  indicate repeated observation a n d again the building u p of a n T h e r e  also  ( V o n  m u l t i m e d i a  individually  a n d  collectively H o w e v e r ,  in since  u n d e r s t a n d i n g this s t u d y  or  w a s  m a k i n g  about  the  sense  of  A s t r o n o m y  innovation process  concepts.  a n d  not  evaluation of that process, there w e r e no specific m e a s u r e s of o u t c o m e into the study. Therefore this section will e x a m i n e data collected in this study of w h a t influencing concept  the built  certain evidences f r o m  m i g h t c o u n t as m u l t i m e d i a  the  technology  development.  Visualization W h i l e  visualization  w a s  claimed b y  being important for concept development,  the  instructor a n d  students  v i s u a l i z a t i o n is a l s o c l o s e l y  as  related  to i n t e r e s t a n d m o t i v a t i o n , h e n c e this a s p e c t o f t h e s t u d y is a l s o c a t e g o r i z e d  as  a pedagogical issue. O n e major reason w h y  b y  the technology w a s  the students w e r e motivated  b e c a u s e they c o u l d see m a n y of the a s t r o n o m i c a l  images  a n d relate these i m a g e s to the d e s c r i p t i o n a n d characteristics a s s o c i a t e d  with  the i m a g e s . T h i s ability to visualize m a n y of the things b e i n g t a l k e d a b o u t the class, o n the other h a n d , h e l p e d concept  development.  At the b e g i n n i n g of the term, one of the instructor's aspirations w a s b e able to u s e m u l t i m e d i a to s h o w s t u d e n t s i n r e a l t i m e w h a t h a p p e n s the  motions  of  the  Celestial spheres,  in  to with  "...to actually have it there when I'm  talking about, say, the gradual motion of the [sun along the] ecliptic over the year. I can actually illustrate it."  I noticed  that  the  instructor  u s e d  m u l t i m e d i a set-up in talking about the motions of the Celestial sphere in class d u r i n g the  the  year.  T h e instructor's v i e w of s o m e A s t r o n o m y concepts like the a n d motions  the  of the celestial sphere  w a s  that,  appearance  "...these concepts are hard even  for advanced students to grasp because it's more of a perception problem, and to be able to show them [students] things moving as opposed to just static  70  diagrams would be very valuable." I n  the  identified certain A s t r o n o m y concepts  quote,  the  students  difficulty i n p e r c e i v i n g or visualizing the concepts as b e i n g real. F o r  example,  that c a n b e o b s e r v e d like o n e w o u l d a tree, h e n c e  need for asophisticated yet accessible the m u l t i m e d i a technology P o s n e r  (1985)  difficult because  instructor  of the  planets are not bodies  as  a b o v e  study,  s e r v e d as this m e d i u m of observation. Strike  in  conception  b y  i n f l u e n c i n g a p e r s o n ' s i n t u i t i v e s e n s e o f w h a t is r e a s o n a b l e . I n this s t u d y ,  the  the  that  the  intelligibility  use  a n d  of  e x e m p l a r s  plausibility  a n d  of  images  a n d  help  establishing  suggest  m e d i u m of observation. In this  the  a n e w  i n s t r u c t o r felt t h a t it w a s i m p o r t a n t to b e a b l e to s h o w i m a g e s  to the  students  i n o r d e r to a i d their u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concepts. O n h o w h e w o u l d k n o w  if  the technology  /  w a s  aiding conceptual development,  t h e i n s t r u c t o r s a i d , "..  think I'll get some feedback during the course itself. You can see how students react to things, especially in the labs, and you get an immediate response in many cases. Hopefully there will be some feedback in the course evaluations." T h e instructor d i d receive u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of s o m e  s o m e of  the  feedback f r o m the students concepts  d u r i n g the  a l l u d e d to v i s u a l i z a t i o n as a m a j o r step t o w a r d s e n d  of the  term, c o m m e n t i n g  regarding  course.  T h e  students  their u n d e r s t a n d i n g of o n  their  the performance, of  the  concepts.  A t the  the  students,  t h e i n s t r u c t o r s a i d , " I also can gauge performance on particular test  questions compared to previous years. I have noticed improved performance on celestial sphere questions." W h i l e c o n s i d e r e d to b e a n effective subtle  m i x  of  checking  for  the  measure  instructor's  response  of concept development,  students'  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  as  m a y  not  be  it is at l e a s t a  well  as  concept  d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e course evaluation forms that were completed b y the students positive.  W h i l e  they  w e r e  f e w  specific  71  c o m m e n t s  a b o u t  the  use  were of  m u l t i m e d i a  in  teaching,  m o s t  of  appreciated the instructor's use term, the instructor w a s  able  the  students  m e n t i o n e d  that  of various m e t h o d s  of teaching.  During  to use  s o m e  of the software  l a b o r a t o r y s e s s i o n s to v i s u a l l y r e i n f o r c e s o m e c o n c e p t s class. A c c o r d i n g to the  they the  available in  the  that were taught in  the  instructor,  ..the educational potential was clear...If the software had been tailored a little bit better to the topic, I would see many cases where you would want to use this...Although there were...four or five different simulation packages, I think the two or three of them that we used...were effective, [and] brought across the concept more clearly than I would have if I just had slides or if I just had [the] blackboard or the overhead projector with normal transparencies. Students  also  cited  instances  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concepts.  w h e r e  to u n d e r s t a n d c o n c e p t s  h e l p e d  C o n s i d e r the case of Alfred w h o  h i m s e l f as av e r y visual p e r s o n as o p p o s e d able  visualization  better  w h e n  their  described  to b e i n g v e r b a l so, for h i m , h e he  sees t h e m  represented  in  visual f o r m or the other. H e f o u n d the use of audio-visual devices, w i t h the m o t i o n a n d animation of the images A s t r o n o m y m a k e  use  course  w i t h  of visual aids  his other he  said,  very helpful. W h e n c o m p a r i n g  courses  in w h i c h  the instructors  d o  is one all this not  "I sit in some courses and the teacher goes  'blah blah blah,' all the class long. It's a bit boring, and I wonder, 'what is this?'" i n d i c a t i n g t h a t l e c t u r e s o f t e n g o s t r a i g h t ' o v e r h i s W h i l e  Alfred  does not m i n d  the use  head'.  of transparencies,  he  is o f  the  o p i n i o n t h a t t h e u s e o f m u l t i m e d i a t e c h n o l o g y a n d v i d e o is b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r a course  like  A s t r o n o m y .  "For Astronomy, for this type of course, definitely  you need a video. Because for many people, it's easy to see planets in their  72  head, but for others, it's harder: it's tilted and it's moving around the Sun which way? So, it's easier with video for this particular course... to see the surface of Mars and I go 'Oh ,Wow!"' Alfred s h o w e d s o m e excitement at s o m e  of the things that he  learned:  "Just in class this morning, we were talking about Saturn. Saturn is a planet but it's only gas, but you can't actually pass through this planet..." W h e n I expressed  s u r p r i s e a b o u t the fact t h a t the p l a n e t S a t u r n is g a s e o u s ,  spoke excitedly about the c o m p u t e r images  they h a d seen in the class  Alfred earlier  that d a y i n w h i c h the m u l t i m e d i a set-up w a s u s e d to s h o w the features of  the  planet Saturn. Brad, a second-year arts student, considers the use of transparencies being elementary a n d unclear since  the images  a p p e a r only in black  white. O n the other h a n d , images appear in color o n the computer. Brad  as a n d  gave  a n e x a m p l e of a n i m a g e of stars that they s a w in one of the tutorial classes using m u l t i m e d i a technology  thus:  ...the colors of stars comes out on the color pictures ... I guess the different temperatures would come out as different colors, it does not come out in black and white. So you get a grasp of what it looks like rather than elementary grasp using an overhead projector. Don, another student,  said,  ...I enjoyed it, like it [the multimedia] helped me visualize what we've been taught in the lab with the CD-ROM  set-up hooked  on with the laser disc. That helps because it gives me actual pictures to have in my mind when I'm going through my notes later on so that I can remember seeing what they actually look like. And last week, when we did the flying over planet Mars  73  and stuff like this, that really helped too when I can find the stuff that I can picture not only in my mind. I thought it [the multimedia] was an asset too in addition to the lecture notes. A n o t h e r  interesting  t h e m e  that  c a m e  across  regarding the visual representation p h e n o m e n a  w a s  w h a t  Brad  is r e a l a n d w h a t  i m a g e s  helped  to p r o v e  is t h e o r y . F o r e x a m p l e , that w h a t  the  in  his  i m a g i n a t i o n  w i t h  w h i c h  to  the  students  the distinction  b e t w e e n  stated that seeing  instructor said w a s  helped the students' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concepts. n o t h i n g  f r o m  true, a n d  that  F o r Brad, since he  h a d  c o m p a r e  the  concepts,  c o n s i d e r e d it b e n e f i c i a l to b e a b l e to see t h e i m a g e s . H e u s e d t h e e x a m p l e s H y d r o g e n II r e g i o n s a n d s t a r c l u s t e r s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  Brad:  conversation:  Unless you can actually see it, you have absolutely no idea of what the professor is talking about, so it [the technology[ certainly makes it a lot clearer to the students.  A j i b o l a : For you?  Brad:  Certainly yes. Otherwise I would have no idea of what HII regions are about, I would go out of the lecture and then go home and wonder about it at night: what in the world was it because we've never seen one so we have no idea what HII was except what we are told in class. But to actually see one is more or less the application side in the course whereas the lecture is the theory and actually seeing it is applying it to everyday life. If you wonder at the sky and have a telescope you can actually understand because you've seen it before.  74  the  he of  D o n w h e n  also m a d e  the  this distinction b e t w e e n  instructor  s h o w s  i m a g e s  theory a n d reality. F o r  u s i n g  the  m u l t i m e d i a  D o n ,  set-up,  or  o v e r h e a d s , t h a t is r e a l , b u t w h e n h e lectures, that is t h e o r y . ...It was nice because he [the instructor] could talk a little bit about the theory, show us some of the actual stuff that is in outer space, give us some concrete pictures of it and then explain how each relates to each part. I thought it was really good. Okay this is the theory and that's what it looks like in real life]. A c c o r d i n g to the f o u r students  that w e r e interviewed, the technology  a i d e d  their u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f certain concepts. T h e y also felt that there w o u l d been n o other w a y  t h r o u g h w h i c h they c o u l d h a v e b e e n able to  s o m e of these concepts but for the Brad,  a student,  have  c o m p r e h e n d  technology.  described  the  case  of  a class  session  w h e r e  the  instructor described the features of h y d r o g e n regions a n d star clusters in  the  class. A c c o r d i n g to B r a d , m a n y o f the s t u d e n t s f o u n d it d i f f i c u l t to u n d e r s t a n d the concept b u t w h e n  the c o m p u t e r images  understood w h a t the instructor  w e r e later s h o w n , the  students  meant.  Cal, a first-year Arts student, t h i n k s that u s i n g the m u l t i m e d i a to helps  his u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  concepts  b e i n g  taught  concepts.  in A s t r o n o m y are  A c c o r d i n g difficult to  to h i m , m a n y u n d e r s t a n d  teach of  the  w i t h o u t  seeing pictures. F o r C a l , ideally, h e w a n t s to b e able to see the i m a g e s the i n s t r u c t o r is i n t r o d u c i n g the c o n c e p t s . W h e n a s k e d if p h o t o c o p i e d  while images  o n transparencies w o u l d suffice, he said no, a n d explained further: Because for something like the demonstration of the circles that he showed, where he can actually show you the flash as it rotated, and the sound as it vibrated. You know it got the point across better rather than just saying it pulses and it vibrates blah  75  blah blah. So by actually showing it instead of just telling it, it's easier to process. C o m m e n t i n g o n the significance of seeing the m o v i n g images, he  said,  Because when I see a question on the exam, I see the word posted on there. I remember, oh yeah, that flashing thing; otherwise it's just all jumbled together. So I think if you can sort of isolate it and  have a visual picture of it then it's much more effective  than just the Prof, spurting out words because that just loses the point altogether. F o r C a l , h a v i n g a d e m o n s t r a t i o n w i t h the m u l t i m e d i a is b e t t e r t h a n a l e c t u r e a l o n e w h i c h h e d e s c r i b e d a s "...just an explanation." F u r t h e r m o r e , h e  said,  As a rule I think just the ideas are easier to follow than the technical Mumbo Jumbo. [For] something like Astronomy, which is very scientific, if you just have the professor spurting off all this technical Mumbo Jumbo, then I find it sort of confusing. But if I can see what he means when he talks about supernovae or any of these other things then I get a much clearer picture, because for a lot. of these things, I mean, I'm a first-year student in Astronomy and all of these things I've never even heard about before. So if you're just giving me words and I don't have pictures, then I just get lost. Don, w h o  as p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , is n o n e w c o m e r  u p , "...would have done okay..." w i t h o u t t h e  to the m u l t i m e d i a  m u l t i m e d i a in  u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o n c e p t s b u t h e t h o u g h t "...it was Evidently f r o m the students' interviews, of  the  things  b e i n g  talked  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concepts.  about  in  This m a d e  76  the  terms  a definite help..."  the ability to visualize class,  set-  h e l p e d  the  m a n y  students'  the concepts real for s o m e of  the  of  students. A s classroom taught,  a participant observer  instruction w i t h  a n d  occasionally  the  a i m  asked  in this study,  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  questions  m u l t i m e d i a set-up in displaying m a n y understanding of the A  s e c o n d  the  to  concepts  for clarification. T h e  images a n d simulations  use  the being  of  the  helped  m y  concepts.  feature  that  e m e r g e d  f r o m  significant in terms of concept development was the  I p a i d attention  the  analysis  that  w a s  also  accessibility a n d flexibility  of  technology.  Accessibility a n d Flexibility A multiple  very useful feature of m u l t i m e d i a technology forms  of representation  w h i c h  it offers  a n d  is t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y the  flexibility of  possible usage in different learning settings. In the A s t r o n o m y 101/102  teach in adifferent way. T h e ..  also able  multimedia,  gives some flexibility.  We can do things that we always just  dismissed before. We'd say, well it would really be nice to...and now we are starting to get to the stage where we can do that. There were certain things that I wouldn't have been able to do any other way like the simulations, [which] I would never have been able to show. When we are discussing the collision of galaxies, we can actually show a computer simulation of two galaxies interacting before, [and after] rather than just talking about it or ...photocopying a set of still images and showing it in sequence, like those old flip-card movies. I think it was a great success having the ability of this menu-driven software in front  77  its  course,  the instructor w a s able to use the m u l t i m e d i a set-up i n c l a s s r o o m settings tutorials, as w e l l as i n the l a b o r a t o r y sessions. T h e instructor w a s  to  a n d to  [of  the class]. You could see that there were a lot of [natural]  pauses, one could move the mouse fairly easily, bring up images, adapt the tool to the situation, and change things at will. I really appreciated that flexibility... I could have presented the tutorial in a conventional slide show fashion but I wouldn't have had the same amount of flexibility as within the software... D o n  preferred  technology could  go  the  a n d  flexibility  of  the  m u l t i m e d i a  to the u s e o f slide p r o j e c t o r p a r t i c u l a r l y b e c a u s e , as a s t u d e n t , to the  m u l t i m e d i a  seeing a n d in whatever other  accessibility  h a n d ,  according  set-up a n d  order he to  wanted.  choose w h a t  he  w a s  he  interested  U s i n g the slide projector o n  in the  h i m , " . . . is a lot more tedious and cumbersome... to  try to go back and forth through all the slides." I n s u m m i n g u p , D o n  noted:  What I find most helpful was, like last week when I was up there myself choosing what I wanted to see and stuff like that. It was available for us to come in and look at it like that, studying it on our own time and stuff like this. I was able to choose and then go back and forth to compare many different things, if I wanted to, and that's what I found most helpful. So I think if it was available for student use or for small groups to use, maybe to come in and sign up for a time allotment, to use it for a certain time, it might be a good idea." In the above discussion, two different, yet valuable types of a n d  flexibility w e r e  discussed  w i t h  accessibility a n d flexibility that m a d e settings. Second, w a s  the accessibility  information using the technology.  regards  accessibility  to m u l t i m e d i a . F i r s t w a s  the technology  to b e u s e f u l i n  different  to v a r i o u s f o r m s of representation  B o t h w e r e f o u n d to b e u s e f u l for  d e v e l o p m e n t .  78  the  of  concept  S u m m a r y Reflecting o n the use the students'  of the  technology,  teaching/learning  overall p e r f o r m a n c e in the course, the instructor  goals  a n d  said  1 got no sense that the use of this technology confused anybody, that it gave the wrong impression. I got a sense that anytime we used it effectively, that a concept was made a little clearer to people as opposed to people getting blinded by all the bright colorful  technology. It wasn't  so flashy as to obscure the  message...People, [the students] came up individually  and they  said they would like to see more of that. They found it very useful to better understand the concepts. T h e concept a n d  G o w i n ' s  construction visualization A s t r o n o m y  d e v e l o p m e n t (1984) of  notion  that  k n o w l e d g e .  as  a m a j o r  concepts.  discussed observation  A l l the factor  Finally,  previous section seemed issues were  category  four  that  while  is  a n  students  a i d e d the  in this section s u p p o r t  their  i m p o r t a n t  step  interviewed  in  practical issues  the  described  u n d e r s t a n d i n g discussed  to h a v e relatively clear b o u n d a r i e s , the  of  the  in  the  pedagogical  interwoven.  4 3  S U M M A R Y In this chapter, the analysis of data has b e e n presented.  the  N o v a k  data  emergent  is p r e s e n t e d themes:  different pertinent different categories These themes  along  w i t h  quotes  as  evidence  to  Practical a n d Pedagogical issues. These aspects of the discussed  a n d categories  s u p p o r t themes  the  each  of these themes.  (See  delimited for analytic purposes  79  two  portrayed  innovation w i t h multimedia. T h e r e  u n d e r were  F u r t h e r m o r e ,  were  Figure  1).  only,  a n d  w e r e not m u t u a l l y exclusive  of one another but are interrelated. A  s u m m a r y  o f the salient p o i n t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y is p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 o n the n e x t Finally, at the  e n d  of the  term w h e n  I debriefed  the study  page.  w i t h  instructor, the i n s t r u c t o r r e f e r r e d to the i n n o v a t i o n p r o c e s s as v i r t u a l l y unqualified standpoint,  success  f r o m  the  technical  standpoint.  From  the  exploited.  T h e testimony  o f the s u c c e s s o f the i n n o v a t i o n f o r the i n s t r u c t o r is that h e  teaching  two  courses  m u l t i m e d i a technology.  again  a n d  m a k i n g  increasing  the  G i v e n the instructor's increased familiarity with  the  s o f t w a r e w h i c h is b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r  lecture e n v i r o n m e n t , the instructor h o p e s to b e able to take m o r e of the educational potential of the  use  is  of  technology, a n d the availability of n e w  is  a n  educational  t h e i n s t r u c t o r a d m i t t e d to it as n o t h a v i n g b e e n f u l l y  the  the  technology.  80  the  advantage  T H E M E 1. P r a c t i c a l  C O M M E N T  Issues  i. Convenience: Transportation equipment  of  the  ii. Technical Knowledge: Use  iii.  of the technology.  For convenience, the instructor used a lap-top and L C D panel i n the classes and, the laser disc player only d u r i n g tutorial sessions. By the end of the term, the instructor was able to change the settings of the equipment w i t h increased confidence.  Software: a. Availability of software packages.  the  The instructor used available software for the classes and custom-made packages for the tutorials.  b. Design features of the software packages.  The instructor used his text to compensate for the text and speed of the simulations w h i c h were design features inherent i n the software, that he found to be inadequate.  iv. T i m e : Instructor's time input.  2. P e d a g o g i c a l  The a d d i t i o n a l time r e q u i r e d b y the i n s t r u c t o r to f a m i l i a r i z e h i m s e l f w i t h , a n d structure h i s lecture around, m u l t i m e d i a technology decreased over the term as his familiarity w i t h the technology increased.  Issues  i. Interest and Motivation: Motivation and arousing the interests of students. a. Appeal of technology: The uniqueness of the technology,  ii. Concept development: The construction of an idea or concept.  The use of m u l t i m e d i a t e c h n o l o g y m o t i v a t e d the students and promoted their interest i n the subject.  The uniqueness of the t e c h n o l o g y m o t i v a t e d stimulated the interest of the students.  and  The instructor made use of the technology i n teaching some concepts i n a way w h i c h he otherwise w o u l d not have been able to do.  a. Visualization: S h o w i n g images and simulation programs w i t h the technology.  V i s u a l i z a t i o n was important for the understanding of the concepts b y the students.  b. Accessibility and Flexibility: Access to the technology and information via the technology.  The access to multiple representation of information that the use of the technology offered was important i n the construction of k n o w l e d g e . The flexibility w i t h w h i c h the instructor a n d the students were able to r a n d o m l y explore and choose the information they wanted i n a software package also helped concept development.  Table 1: A summary of the emergent themes and related issues i n the exploration w i t h the use of multimedia technology i n Astronomy 101/102.  81  C H A P T E R  F I V E  D I S C U S S I O N .C O N C L U S I O N S  ! L 0  A N D  I M P L I C A T I O N S  I N T R O D U C T I O N This chapter begins with a brief overview  section  the  findings  based  o n  presented.  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  m u l t i m e d i a  technology  section,  while  the  as  the  a n s w e r s  for  the  of the study. In the  to  the  research  successful  questions  are  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  of  a n instructional tool are presented  fourth section  concludes  w i t h  second  in the  suggestions  for  third further  research.  5A  O V E R V I E WO F T H ES T U D Y The  attempt  purpose  of the study w a s  to g a i n insights  at i n c o r p o r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a  technology  into a professor's  as  a teaching  tool in  i n t r o d u c t o r y A s t r o n o m y course. O l s o n (1988), calls for a n e e d for  w o r k  closely  advice w a s closely  the  teacher  m e n t i o n e d d u r i n g the  process  for the researcher  of the  innovation.  the  instructor  such  that  the  process  of  the  attempts  w e r e  m a d e  to  e x a m i n e  within the e v e r y d a y practice in A s t r o n o m y The  data  observations,  in  this  observations  s t u d y  consisted  a n d  d o c u m e n t  innovation  to This  w a s this  the  innovation  o n  c l a s s r o o m  101/102. of  field  notes  of s o m e of the instructor's preparatory  the class, a n d transcripts of interviews  82  (p.  w o r k e d  to u n f o l d i n the p r e s e n c e of b o t h instructor a n d researcher. In  research,  before  the n e e d  closely followed d u r i n g the process of this innovation. I  w i t h  allowed  w i t h  this, he  a n  "...research  to b e a p a r t of a p r o c e s s of teacher e d u c a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n m a n i p u l a t i o n " 13). I n o r d e r to a c h i e v e  first  activities  w i t h the instructor a n d  four  students  in  the  course.  evaluation forms  Analysis  completed  claims f r o m the interviews  b y  aspect  i n n o v a t i o n  process,  implementations  of  course  a n d observations.  aspect of the  longitudinal  the  the students, w e r e  d a t a h e l p e d to triangulate the d a t a A n o t h e r  of  outline used  course  to c o r r o b o r a t e  the of  interpretation.  research design  built into  collection.  Since  the  different  p l a n n i n g ,  innovation  process  the  the  Relying o n multiple sources  data  d u r i n g  a n d  this s t u d y  this  study  w e r e  w a s  the  explores  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n  a n d  d o c u m e n t e d  over  time. T h e  analysis  of the  data w a s  i n f o r m e d b y  a holistic w o r l d v i e w  E d u c a t i o n (Roberts, 1982). H e n c e , the day-to-day practices a n d the  n u m e r o u s  contextual factors of innovation w e r e sought a n d not m a s k e d b y the series statistical m a n i p u l a t i o n s that are representative of studies that are b a s e d a sampling logic  of  of  u p o n  approach.  5^2  R E S E A R C H  F I N D I N G S  T h e t w o interrelated research questions served as a focus for the t o w a r d gaining insights  study  into a n innovation involving the use of  m u l t i m e d i a  t e c h n o l o g y i n a first y e a r level A s t r o n o m y course. In the n e x t t w o  subsections,  the research questions are stated a n d  5.2.1 What  discussed.  R e s e a r c hQ u e s t i o n1 planning,  incorporate  organization  multimedia  during  and  implementation  the  innovation?  83  was  undertaken  to  T h e  p l a n n i n g ,  in  the  i n n o v a t i o n e m e r g e d as a series of practical issues a n d h a v e b e e n g r o u p e d  into  the following  organization  a n d  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  i n v o l v e d  categories:  C o n v e n i e n c e Technical  k n o w l e d g e  Availability a n d design of appropriate  software  T i m e A  brief treatment of these issues in each of these four categories  in the section discussing the practical aspects of the m u l t i m e d i a  is  addressed  innovation.  C o n v e n i e n c e T h e ease of utility of the m u l t i m e d i a technology w a s  important for  A s t r o n o m y 1 0 1 / 1 0 2 i n s t r u c t o r . F o r h i m , it w a s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e be portable since his classes were s o m e a n d  there  Indeed,  w e r e  at the  instructor's example,  n o  m e a n s  beginning  greatest  limiting the  of storing of the  challenge use  course, to  of the  technology  distance f r o m the A s t r o n o m y the  e q u i p m e n t the  at the  class  issue of convenience  the  workability  of  the  laser  disc player  to the  offices location.  w a s  the  innovation.  F o r  tutorial  sessions  within the A s t r o n o m y b u i l d i n g a n d m a k i n g use of only the laptop a n d p a n e l as a n alternative in the classes greatly facilitated the ease of u s i n g  technology.  the  L C D the  For this innovation to be successful, steps were implemented to  minimize the inconveniences experienced by the instructor.  Technical  k n o w l e d g e  O n c e the e q u i p m e n t w a s next concern was  at the location w h e r e  it w a s  to b e u s e d ,  g e t t i n g it to w o r k . I n this s t u d y , it w a s f o u n d t h a t  the expertise required of the instructor w a s  84  m i n i m a l in getting the  the  although h a r d w a r e  to w o r k , the instructor's expertise going support a n d assistance  in m u l t i m e d i a applications required  on-  p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e s t a r t - u p p h a s e . Therefore,  a technical knowledge of multimedia applications was required by course instructor and a technical assistant who was familiar with the technology was required to help ensure the successful implementation of the technology.  Software T w o  sub-categories  discussed  u n d e r  m a d e  of the  use  obtained  the  or aspects,  software  software  for use  in the  availability a n d software  category.  that w a s  F o r this i n n o v a t i o n ,  already available  laboratories.  H e  i n n o v a t i o n to b e a test of the t e c h n o l o g y the e n d of the term, h o w e v e r , he w a s software for the  of the design features  in the the  of the software  first y e a r  of  the  T o w a r d s suitable  w a s  also i m p o r t a n t to the instructor. were  to o v e r c o m e  not suitable for use in  the  of the simulations  r a n  too  to  use  design deficiencies  features  1 0 1 / 1 0 2  w a s  lesson  software.  For the tutorials, the instructor u s e d c u s t o m - m a d e design  S o m e  as d e m o n s t r a t i o n only, rather t h a n a l l o w i n g the  content to be d r i v e n b y the  A s t r o n o m y  D e p a r t m e n t ,  able to locate a n d o r d e r m o r e  too small a n d s o m e  quickly. T h e instructor's strategy  the  instructor  itself, n o t o f the s o f t w a r e .  u s e d in the software  classes. T h e screen text w a s  hence  the  were  class.  T h e design of the software  s o m e  considered  design,  w e r e  tutorials.  m o r e  tailored  to  suit  software the  n e e d s  packages, of  the  Thus, tailored software packages, although  expensive in terms of time and funding, were a critical feature of successful and substantive multimedia innovation.  85  T i m e University professors interested getting  of innovation are  usually  in k n o w i n g about the a m o u n t of time required of them.  lectures  k e e p i n g  considering a n y kind  ready, m a r k i n g , conducting research, supervising  abreast  of  recent  d e v e l o p m e n t s  in  their  respective  Between students,  fields  a n d  p u b l i s h i n g , little t i m e is left to i n v e s t i n e x p l o r a t i o n s o f w h i c h t h e o u t c o m e uncertain. F o r the instructor of A s t r o n o m y 101 required  decreased  technology  a n d ,  technology,  over  the  a l t h o u g h  t e r m he  as  d i d  he  b e c a m e  s p e n d  h e felt the t i m e s p e n t w a s  a n d 102, the extra time  extra  is  input  m o r e  familiar w i t h  the  time  o n  the  exploring  q u i t e w o r t h w h i l e . Therefore, successful  multimedia innovation required sufficient  time investment that is above  and beyond regular course planning and teaching, especially during the initial stages of the innovation.  H e n c e  in  a n s w e r  to  the  first  research  question,  the  p l a n n i n g ,  organization a n d implementation issues that arose have b e e n g r o u p e d  u n d e r  the t h e m e of practical issues a n d s u b g r o u p e d into four categories related the  technology  m o s t  of w h i c h  w e r e  transparent  to the  students but  clearly a p p a r e n t to b o t h the instructor a n d m y s e l f t h r o u g h o u r a n d these  o u r conversations. p l a n n i n g  a n d  T h e instructor w a s organizational  able  details  to w o r k  d u r i n g  adjustments as his exploration of the technology  the  to  w e r e  observations  t h r o u g h m a n y year  a n d  of  m a d e  progressed.  Research Question 2  5.2.2 What implementation, Astronomy  aspects and 101 1102  of how  multimedia did  technology  they  affect  class?  86  teaching  were and  salient  to  its  learning  in  the  This question relates pedagogical  implications  to the issues of m u l t i m e d i a t e c h n o l o g y of this  technology.  T w o  distinct but  a n d  interrelated  categories of pedagogical issues w e r e generated f r o m the analysis of the • Interest a n d • C o n c e p t  the  data:  Motivation  development  I n o r d e r to clarify the d a t a analysis, s u b categories for each of these two  categories.  or aspects were  A p p e a l of the technology  developed  is a s u b - c a t e g o r y  related to interest a n d m o t i v a t i o n , w h i l e visualization, a n d accessibility flexibility  of  development.  the  T h e s e  analytic purposes a n d  technology  subcategories  categories  only a n d  of themselves.  are  the  a n d  sub-categories  are not representative  Finally, teaching  w e r e  sub-categories  e x a m i n e d  related w e r e  the  concept  constructed  for  of i n d i v i d u a l entities  a n d learning within each  f r o m  to  a n d  students'  a n d  of the  in  three  the  instructor's  c o n s i d e r e d it i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s  presentation,  perspectives.  Interest  a n d  Motivation  T h e students knowledge,  a n d interest i n the c o u r s e m o t i v a t e d t h e m to l e a r n . I n this  the a p p e a l o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y , i n t e r m s o f its u n i q u e n e s s instructor's teaching the  students.  varied w a y s interested  T h e use  that w a s of the  in  the  course.  was an element of  the  cited as a n i m p o r t a n t m o t i v a t i o n a l factor  for  technology  of teaching w h i c h  study,  served  enabled to k e e p  the  i n s t r u c t o r to  the instructor a n d  e m p l o y students  Thus, motivation was an important attribute of  multimedia use that contributed to student learning.  87  C o n c e p t T h e  d e v e l o p m e n t  accessibility  technology,  c o u p l e d  to  the  technology,  w i t h  the  flexibility  m u l t i m e d i a p r o g r a m s w a s four  of  the  students  a n d of  to  i n f o r m a t i o n  authoring  a n d  w i t h  navigation  w h o  w e r e  i n t e r v i e w e d  s p o k e  significantly  G o w i n (1984), w h o  interviewed sense  to  of  k n o w l e d g e .  after  they  technology.  students said, that w a s the p h e n o m e n a that the  In  this  study,  said that the p h e n o m e n a  t h e m  m u l t i m e d i a  state that observation  w e r e W h e n  four  described b y  able the  to  visualize  instructor  theory, but w h e n  students  the  teacher  it  t h r o u g h  taught  the  real. So, to the  students, lecture  w a s  not  real a n d  the  w e r e  m a d e  m o r e  the  then  concepts  explained  to  possible  flexibility  in  traditional  they  t h e m  in  of concepts in a s t r o n o m y in w a y s setting.  said  the the  visualize. flexibility  a l l o w e d the s t u d e n t s to b e actively i n v o l v e d i n  c l a s s r o o m  the  reality,  that for  T h i s accessibility to m u l t i p l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of concepts, a n d  construction a n d refinement  of  visualize  s t u d e n t s , v i s u a l i z a t i o n is  lecture m a y not be considered real or true unless they could  offered b y the technology  use  concepts,  w h i l e t e a c h i n g o r t a l k i n g a b o u t a c o n c e p t is t h e o r y . T h i s m e a n t  the  that  the s t u d e n t s w e r e able to  w i t h the aid of the m u l t i m e d i a technology,  concepts b e c a m e  N o v a k  is a n i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n the  o n  development  of A s t r o n o m y concepts. Clearly, the findings of this s t u d y c o n c u r w i t h  construction  of  greatly v a l u e d b y the instructor a n d students. A l l  visualization, accessibility a n d flexibility as c o n t r i b u t i n g to their  a n d  the  that are  In short, visualization  the not  and the  and accessibility of the technology enhanced student observation  through multiple representations of the phenomena under study, which in turn contributed to concept development.  88  5 . 3  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u li m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f m u l t i m e d i a  The  following are recommendations,  successful  i n n o v a t i o n  w i t h  t e c h n o l o g y arising f r o m this study, for  m u l t i m e d i a  technology  in  a n  enhancing  instructional  e n v i r o n m e n t :  1.  O w n e r s h i p This study w a s  clearly the story of a successful innovation.  to' t h e i n s t r u c t o r , h i s u s e  of m u l t i m e d i a technology  will continue  w a s  because  he  efficacy of the technology  convinced  A c c o r d i n g  in A s t r o n o m y  that this study  101/102  demonstrated  the  for enhancing student learning. T h e results of  this  study support the notion m a d e b y m a n y notable scholars o n innovation F u l l a n , (1993); O l s o n , (1985); a n d L e v i n e (1980) that for a n i n n o v a t i o n to successful,  it is  i m p o r t a n t  that  the  innovation  is  i m p l e m e n t it. T h e d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s  o w n e d  b y  those  2. P e d a g o g i c a l  that this instructor  took  process.  Salisbury  (1992)  claims  innovation has b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d  that  the  n e e d  for  technological  b y m a n y w i t h i n the last decade,  a n d K o l l o f f (1994) state that m a n y t e a c h e r s still l a c k the ability to this technology of t h e m  m u l t i m e d i a  not  Considerations  W h i l e  m a n y  be w h o  d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of this i n n o v a t i o n m a y h a v e b e e n curtailed if h e h a d b e e n in control of the innovation  (e.g.  or  into  the  curriculum  still l a c k a b a s i c h y p e r m e d i a  despite their genuine  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  packages.  This  of the s t u d y  pedagogical issues that e m e r g e d f r o m the use of the  89  incorporate  interest  pedagogical highlighted  multimedia.  R e e h m  because use  of  several  V i s u a l i z a t i o n A s t r o n o m y  aided  concepts.  p h e n o m e n a  w i t h  b e c a m e real to  the  W h e n  students'  the  students  u n d e r s t a n d i n g w e r e  able  the aid of the m u l t i m e d i a technology,  of to  the  various  visualize  then, the  the  concepts  them.  T h e accessibility to m u l t i p l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of concepts, a n d offered b y the technology  flexibility  a l l o w e d the s t u d e n t s to b e actively i n v o l v e d i n  the  construction a n d refinement of concepts in A s t r o n o m y in w a y s that are  not  possible in traditional classroom  setting.  In short, this s t u d y claims that the use of m u l t i m e d i a technology in teaching of A s t r o n o m y 101/102 aided concept students.  B a s e d  o n  these  m u l t i m e d i a technology instruction in  findings,  this  h o w  d e v e l o p m e n t o n the part of s t u d y  proposes  that  be r e g a r d e d as a n i m p o r t a n t p e d a g o g i c a l  the  (1979) claimed that there has b e e n a lack of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  A s t r o n o m y .  environment.  take place, a n d that m o s t studies d o n e in  area d o not reveal m u c h about the day-to-day practices that took place the innovation. F u r t h e r m o r e , Fullan a n d Stiegelbauer c h a n g e is p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e d e t e r m i n e s  to a large extent h o w  a n d  innovation w i t h  A s t r o n o m y 101/102 w a s  enhance  a technically  p l a n n i n g o n a similar kind  rich e n v i r o n m e n t  can be  m u l t i m e d i a  of innovation  constructed  learning. T h e following practical suggestions are useful  90  In  d o c u m e n t e d  i m p l e m e n t e d have b e e n highlighted. In light of  results, it is u s e f u l f o r a n y o n e h o w  the  " h o w  w e l l it fares".  has b e e n carefully  important aspects of h o w  this  d u r i n g  (1991) note that  this study, therefore, the process of c h a n g e  k n o w  use of  technological innovations  several  the  element  3. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t e c h n i c a l l y r i c h l e a r n i n g McClung  the  in order  in the to to  guidelines  for  a n y  university  technology  i.  instructor e m b a r k i n g o n  as a n instructional  T h e technology  innovation  using  tool.  s h o u l d b e c o n v e n i e n t l y located i n o r d e r to a v o i d  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f t h e e q u i p m e n t . I n this s t u d y it w a s the i n s t r u c t o r to h a v e  to b e  inconvenient  transporting the technology  to a n d  f r o m  u n p l u g g e d , s o m e adjustments  i n the settings h a d to b e m a d e b e f o r e  usable  in the  classroom.  T r a n s p o r t i n g the  T h e  e q u i p m e n t  s h o u l d  be  accessible  was  e q u i p m e n t  it  also  equipment.  to  the  instructor  i n s t r u c t o r is a b l e to t i n k e r w i t h the t e c h n o l o g y  so  that  outside of class  the time.  T h i s a c c e s s i b i l i t y is i m p o r t a n t so t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t o r c a n i n c r e a s e h i s  or  her familiarity with the technology  of  using the technology in the  T h e technology time  or  for  a n d think through the best w a y  class.  s h o u l d also b e available to the s t u d e n t s o u t s i d e  use  in  small  g r o u p  settings  s u c h  as  tutorial  class  groups.  A c c e s s i b l e t e c h n o l o g y w i l l e n a b l e the s t u d e n t s to b e able to e x p l o r e accessibility a n d flexibility potential of the m u l t i m e d i a  iv.  for  to b e used. E a c h t i m e the c o m p u t e r  p o t e n t i a l l y d e c r e a s e s the life s p a n o f the  iii.  major  t h e c l a s s r o o m e a c h t i m e it w a s  could be  ii.  m u l t i m e d i a  Technical support especially  at  the  personnel b e g i n n i n g  s h o u l d of  the  be  technology.  p r o v i d e d for the  innovation.  T h e  easier if the instructor d o e s not h a v e  about  to get  able  the  to w o r k  to  of  the  w o r r y  in front of  the  students! T h e r e could also be a potential negative backlash f r o m  the  91  technology  instructor  process  innovation w o u l d be not being  the  s t u d e n t s if the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t e c h n o l o g y  is p o o r l y i m p l e m e n t e d .  s t u d e n t s m a y see it as a j o k e s i n c e t h e y t e n d to l a u g h w h e n goes w r o n g with the technology  T h e  something  hence their attention m a y  t e n d to  d i v e r t e d to t h e t e c h n o l o g y r a t h e r t h a n o n w h a t is b e i n g t a u g h t w i t h aid of the technology. In this study, the assistance p r o v i d e d b y students  f r o m  D e p a r t m e n t faculty  D e p a r t m e n t  of G e o p h y s i c s  liaison  w h e n e v e r  the  of  this  a n d  of  C u r r i c u l u m  A s t r o n o m y  nature  s h o u l d  be  a n d  invaluable.  e n c o u r a g e d  the  graduate  Studies  w e r e  a n d  the Inter-  utilized  possible.  Appropriate software should be located or developed. F o r this study, w a s  be  f o u n d that "off-the-shelf" software w a s not always  it  appropriate  for  the instructor. T h e r e w e r e always s o m e features of the software that  the  instructor w i s h e d m a d e  software,  he could change. This study proposes w h i c h  the  is m o r e  i m p o r t a n t  for  use  of  classrooms.  In this study,  customized  software  tailored to  m u l t i m e d i a  the  technology  in  a few  but specific  m a n y but less specific objectives.  With  course  designed  the e m e r g i n g use  easier a n d cheaper  to h a v e  T h e  to  use  objectives to  of  achieve CD-ROM  c u s t o m  s o f t w a r e p a c k a g e s . Efforts s h o u l d also b e m a d e to k e e p the data  is  university  t h e i n s t r u c t o r f o u n d it m o r e u s e f u l  to a c h i e v e  it is b e c o m i n g  custom-  instructor's needs,  rather than using commercially available software  technology,  that  m a d e  m u l t i m e d i a  up-to-date.  university  i n n o v a t i o n  w i t h  s h o u l d  p r o v i d e  m u l t i m e d i a  time  for  technology  instructors to  e x p e r i m e n t  t e c h n o l o g y . A c c o r d i n g to W o o d r o w et al. (1994, p.697),  92  e m b a r k i n g w i t h  o n the  ...while  the  introduction  of  such  technology] affords the possibility  technology  [multimedia  of producing  change and  educational benefits, none of them can be assumed to become automatically realized only because of the technology's presence. The implementation of technology requires major adjustments in the traditional roles and instructional procedures of teachers. It  takes careful  educational  preparation  and  planning  benefits of technology  and  to  realize  the  to make innovative  things happen. T i m e is n e e d e d  for the i n s t r u c t o r to e x p e r i m e n t  w i t h the technology a n d alternative pedagogical  5A  ideas  approaches.  R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S FOR FURTHER R E S E A R C H  In this study,  the m a j o r focus w a s  o n  the instructor's activities,  rightly so, since, b e i n g the i m p l e m e n t e r of the n e w w e r e  w i t h different  quite  c e n t r a l to the  technology,  innovation. A further study  students experiencing innovation with an e w to it w o u l d  further i n f o r m both  m u l t i m e d i a  innovation.  the  technology  practical a n d  his  activities  that focuses a n d their  pedagogical  enable  the investigation  aspects  of a variety of contexts w o u l d  c o n t r i b u t e to o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r o c e s s ( a n d potentially the of m u l t i m e d i a innovation for tertiary  education.  93  o n  the  reactions  Finally, a similar study using a multiple case study research that w o u l d  a n d  of  strategy further products)  R E F E R E N C E S Abell, K.S., C e n n a m o , K.S. interactive video case p r e s e n t e d at the a n Research in Science T AECT:  , C a m p b e l l , L . studies for ref n u a l meeting eaching. A n a h e  M . & lecti of t i m ,  H on he C A  u g . W . (1994). D e s i g n i n g o n Science teaching. P a p e r N a t i o n a l Association for .  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A C o m p u t e r - b a s e d m u l t i m e d i a Science education course. T e c h n o l o g y a n d Teacher E d u c a t i o n A n n u a l , Proceedings of S T A T E 94. p. 579-584. W u n s c h , M . A . (1992). P o s i t i o n i n g a n instructional t e c h n o l o g y n e w era i n h i g h e r education. T e c h T r e n d s , 37(6), 17-21.  97  center  for  a  Yin, R . K . (1994). C a s e Publications.  S t u d y  Research.  98  N e w b u r y  Park, California:  Sage  A P P E N D I X  A  Five Software integration packages for university level  courses.  1. A u t h o r w a r e P r o f e s s i o n a l : A n a u t h o r i n g p r o g r a m t h a t a l l o w s u s e r s t o their o w n  p r o g r a m s  c o m p u t e r  language.  2. A c t i o n :  A  a n d  presentation  instruction o n  package  the  capable  motion, interactivity a n d audio with m i n i m a l 3.  Inspiration.  4.  S e m N e t .  c o m p u t e r  without  of i n c o r p o r a t i n g text,  learning  5. L e a r n i n g T o o l .  99  a  graphics,  effort.  T h e last three are conceptual m a p p i n g p r o g r a m s of similar  create  capabilities.  

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