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Macro-implementation of critical thinking in British Columbia's social studies curriculum Ford, Carole 1988

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MACRO-IMPLEMENTATION OF CRITICAL THINKING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM By CAROLE LORRAINE FORD B. Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 © Carole Lorraine Ford, 1988 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t - t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Faculty of Education Department o f : Centre for the Study of Curriculum & Instruction The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ^ (?<>frJa" • \9 Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g i i ABSTRACT T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d how macro—implementation occurs w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , the S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide. Grade One-Grade Seven (1983) and r e l a t e d student textbooks, teacher videotapes, e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s and other implementation support m a t e r i a l s were examined to determine how the p o l i c y " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " a key component of the c u r r i c u l u m , was i n t e r p r e t e d . Interviews CN=15) with r e l e v a n t M i n i s t r y c o o r d i n a t o r s , committee c h a i r p e r s o n s and members, and authors/ e d i t o r s / c o n s u l t a n t s were audiotaped and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d for a n a l y s i s i n l i g h t of the e x i s t i n g macro-implementation l i t e r a t u r e . It was found that the c u r r i c u l u m l a c k e d c l a r i t y , was p e r c e i v e d v a r i o u s l y by d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y developers, and was i n t e r p r e t e d i n d i s c r e p a n t ways i n implementation m a t e r i a l s . M i n i s t r y e f f o r t s t o implement " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s " appear t o have been thwarted by l a c k of i n i t i a l p o l i c y c l a r i t y ; i n c o n s i s t e n t l i a i s o n w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y t o f a c i l i t a t e shared e x p e r t i s e , understanding, and p o s i t i v e r a p p o r t ; as well as i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n i i t o c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y of M i n i s t r y c o o r d i n a t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r monitoring each phase of the p o l i c y . C a p a c i t y needs h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h i s study i n c l u d e d adequate working c o n d i t i o n s for developing complex p o l i c y , knowledge of the p o l i c y and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , as well as understanding the process of change. Future implementation prospects, may p r o f i t from r e s e a r c h which focusses on exemplary m i n i s t r y macro-implementation p l a n s and those f a c t o r s which enhance c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g , l i a i s o n , and p o l i c y c l a r i t y Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Ab s t r a c t i i Acknowledgement v i Chapter One: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Purpose 2 Method 4 L i m i t a t i o n s 10 Terminology and A b b r e v i a t i o n s 11 Background 13 Macro—Implementation 20 Chapter Two: The Innovation 37 Document A n a l y s i s 37 Interview Feedback 44 Summary 58 Chapter Three: M a c r o — I m p l e m e n t a t i o n — M a t e r i a l s 61 Document A n a l y s i s 62 Interview Feedback 69 Chapter Four: Macro-Implementation—Phases of Decision—Making 78 Pr e p a r a t o r y Phase 78 Development Phase 81 Implementation F a c i l i t a t i o n Phase 86 D i s c u s s i o n 92 Summary 95 Chapter F i v e : Summary, Co n c l u s i o n s , and Research I m p l i c a t i o n s 97 Summary 97 Co n c l u s i o n s 101 I m p l i c a t i o n s for Furth e r Research 109 References 111 Appendix 1: Interview Schedule 122 Appendix 2.1: The I n t e n t i o n of the N o t i o n — Interview A n a l y s i s 125 Appendix 2.2: The Sources for the N o t i o n — Interview A n a l y s i s 136 Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g Appendix 3.1: Macro-Implementation— Document A n a l y s i s 149 Appendix 3.2: M a c r o - I m p l e m e n t a t i o n — M a t e r i a l s : Interview A n a l y s i s 175 Appendix 4.1: Macro-Implementation—Phases of Decision-Making 228 Appendix 4.2: Macro-Implementation—Context 271 Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S p e c i a l thanks t o : . J e r r o l d Coombs for i n s t i l l i n g t he dissonance about what " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " e n t a i l s ; . Ian Wright for b r i n g i n g me nearer t o r e s o l v i n g the dissonance; . C h a r l e s C u r t i s , for h i s input as a member of my committee; . the i n t e r v i e w e e s , committed educators who made t h i s study p o s s i b l e ; . my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s for t h e i r p a t i e n c e and support; . and e s p e c i a l l y , Walter Werner, my a d v i s o r — a n educator p a r excellence—with whom i t has been a p r i v i l e g e t o work. Macro—Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION T h e o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s debate such i s s u e s as: What i s c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ? Can i t be taught? What should be taught? How should i t be taught? Of what u t i l i t y i s such an e n t e r p r i s e ? CEnnis, 1985: McPeck, 1985, 1984; S i e g e l , 1985; Sternberg, 1985, Nov.; Sternberg, 1985, D e c ; Pa u l , 1984; Nickerson, P e r k i n s , & Smith, 1985; Chipman, Segal, & G l a s e r , 1985; Segal, Chipman, & G l a s e r , 1985; Beyer, 1984; Costa, 1985; N o r r i s , 1985). Amidst t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y , B r i t i s h Columbia's M i n i s t r y of Education i n t r o d u c e d the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-solving s k i l l s , " i n the 1983 elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . Much of the l i t e r a t u r e , however, i n d i c a t e s that implementation of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g at the school may present a formidable venture with numerous impediments (Nickerson, 1981; Goodlad, 1983; G r i f f e n , 1986; Common, 1985; Derry, 1986; Beyer, 1984; Pa u l , 1984; Bernard & Gregory, 1979; Sternberg, 1984). Viewing c u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y implementation from a m i n i s t r y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e — w h a t i s r e f e r r e d t o here as m a c r o - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n — h i g h l i g h t s those f a c t o r s that Macro-Implementat ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 2 shape an i n n o v a t i o n d u r i n g i t s development from i t s i n c e p t i o n t o classroom m a t e r i a l s . Of i n t e r e s t i n re s e a r c h on macro—implementation i s how the M i n i s t r y f a c i l i t a t e s i n t e g r i t y of a p o l i c y from i t s development through i t s numerous t r a n s l a t i o n s t o classroom r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . PURPOSE The i n t e n t i o n s of t h i s study are t o d i s c o v e r how the M i n i s t r y of Education i n t e r p r e t e d the n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " i n the 1983 B r i t i s h Columbia elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s p o l i c y and then t o d e l i n e a t e how the M i n i s t r y of Education f a c i l i t a t e d implementation of t h i s n o t i o n . To t h i s end the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s are i nvest i gat ed: 1. What i s the M i n i s t r y of Educat i o n ' s n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and probl e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " i n the elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y and what f a c t o r s have helped shape i t ? (Chapter II) For examples 1.1 What n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s " i s represented i n the elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m CI983)? Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 3 1 . 2 How i s t h i s n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-solving s k i l l s " j u s t i f i e d ? 1.3 What f a c t o r s helped t o shape t h i s n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s ? " That i s , what sources d i d the c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s use when f o r m u l a t i n g the n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-solving s k i l l s " i n the c u r r i c u l u m (1983)? For example, was use made of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g l i t e r a t u r e , c u r r i c u l a from other p r o v i n c e s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s l i t e r a t u r e , and M i n i s t r y of Education assessments, r e p o r t s , and p o l i c y documents? 2 . How does the M i n i s t r y f a c i l i t a t e implementation of the n o t i o n " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s ? " (Chapter I I I and Chapter IV) That i s : 2 . 1 . What i s the M i n i s t r y ' s n o t i o n of macro-implementation i n regard t o " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem - s o l v i n g s k i l l s ? " 2 . 2 . By what means does the M i n i s t r y accommodate macro-implementation of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s ? " For example: 2 . 2 . 1 . M i n i s t r y i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s for s t a f f (e.g., C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, Program Implementation S e r v i c e s , Learning Assessment Branch, P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Media C e n t r e ) ; Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 4 2 . 2 . 2 . M i n i s t r y input r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n (e.g., terms of r e f e r e n c e for c u r r i c u l u m development, m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n ) ; 2 . 2 . 3 . M i n i s t r y e x p e c t a t i o n s (e.g., r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , d i r e c t i v e s , and working c o n d i t i o n s ) ; 2 . 2 . 4 . M i n i s t r y e f f o r t s toward classroom m a t e r i a l s (e.g., a u t h o r i z e d and p r e s c r i b e d student textbooks and teacher guides, teacher r e s o u r c e books, f i l m s , v i d e o t a p e s ) ; 2 . 2 . 5 . I n — s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s (e.g., d i s t r i c t s t a f f , t e a c h e r s ) ; 2 . 2 . 6 . C o n t i n u a t i o n measures (e.g., S o c i a l S t u d i e s A d v i s o r y Committee); 2 . 2 . 7 . Implementation e v a l u a t i o n (e.g., student assessments). METHOD The f o l l o w i n g t a s k s were undertaken i n p u r s u i t of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. A n a l y s i s of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m  Guide. Grade One-Grade Seven (1983) i n order t o determine the n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s " r e p resented t h e r e i n , as w e l l as i t s Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 5 s u p p o r t i n g r a t i o n a l e and i n d i c a t i o n of sources which helped shape i t . 2. A n a l y s i s of p u b l i c and unpublished documents and student/teacher m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o the implementation of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide,  Grade Qne-Grade Seven (1983), i n order t o a s s e s s the M i n i s t r y ' s c onception of macro-implementation of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " (see b i b l i o g r a p h y ) . 3. A n a l y s i s of p u b l i c and unpublished documents t o determine the p o l i c y context of the development of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " i n the c u r r i c u l u m (see b i b l i o g r a p h y ) . The purpose of a n a l y s i n g the documents above was to i n t e r p r e t the meaning of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " and t o i d e n t i f y r e l a t e d implementation c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Data that were of i n t e r e s t i n each document i n c l u d e d : .statements of d e f i n i t i o n s / p u r p o s e s .statements of p r e s c r i p t i o n •source m a t e r i a l quoted or r e f e r r e d t o .apparent c o n t i n u i t i e s or c o n t r a d i c t i o n s among d e f i n i t i o n s , p r e s c r i p t i o n s , and reasons a c r o s s documents Macro-Implamentations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 6 When the documents were compared, of i n t e r e s t were commonalities and d i f f e r e n c e s . 4. Review of macro-implementation l i t e r a t u r e C1978—1986) t o p r o v i d e an understanding of what i t i n v o l v e s , and t o compare with the M i n i s t r y ' s conception of macro—implementation. 5. S e l e c t e d , audio-taped i n t e r v i e w s were conducted (n=15) t o c l a r i f y the M i n i s t r y ' s n o t i o n s of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " and macro-implementation as evidenced i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o u t l i n e d i n t a s k s 1, 2 , and 3 above. 5.1. Interview Questions Interview q u e s t i o n s arose from the document a n a l y s i s . To c l a r i f y and c o r r o b o r a t e the document a n a l y s i s , the q u e s t i o n s focussed on the f o l l o w i n g areass .What do you b e l i e v e i s meant by " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s " i n the S o c i a l  S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide. Grade One-Grade Seven  (1983)? .What were the f a c t o r s t h at shaped t h i s n o t i o n ? .What c o n s i d e r a t i o n was given t o i t s implementation? (See Appendix 1 for an example of the i n t e r v i e w schedule.) Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 7 5.2. Subject S e l e c t i o n The c r i t e r i a for the s e l e c t i o n of i n t e r v i e w e e s (n=15) includeds 5.2.1. Ch a i r p e r s o n s of a l l committees d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e for the development of the c u r r i c u l u m and i t s macro—implementation (Curriculum Development Branch c o o r d i n a t o r s C49, 50, 28, 59, 621 c h a i r e d a l l committees except for 24 who was appointed c h a i r of the Management Committee about s i x months a f t e r i t was e s t a b l i s h e d and 60a, c h a i r of the S e l e c t Committee.). The r e l e v a n t committees i n c l u d e d the R e v i s i o n Management Committee, the Elementry Review Committee, the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee, the S e l e c t Committee, and the S o c i a l S t u d i e s A d v i s o r y Committee. 5.2.2. L i a i s o n personnel (Curriculum Development Branch c o o r d i n a t o r s C49, 50, 28, 59, 623 as well as 29, a member of the Management Committee) who c o o r d i n a t e d the work of the v a r i o u s committees. 5.2.3. A u t h o r s / e d i t o r s / c o n s u l t a n t s who c o n t r i b u t e d t o the n o t i o n ' s development and/or t r a n s l a t i o n s (45, 31, 29, 62, 66, 67). 5.2.4. I n d i v i d u a l s who were c i t e d by i n t e r v i e w e e s as a) having c o n t r i b u t e d t o the n o t i o n ' s Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 8 development or t r a n s l a t i o n i n some way (26, 30) or b) having i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n a n t t o t h i s study (30, 29, 26) . 5.2.5. The c o o r d i n a t o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Media Centre <23). 5.3. Interview Format The i n t e r v i e w s , conducted between June and October, 1987 and l a s t i n g from one-half t o two hours, were audiotaped for l a t e r t r a n s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s . 6. Coding numbers were assigned t o a l l i n d i v i d u a l s f o l l o w i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s examination of r e l e v a n t M i n i s t r y Annual Reports and i n t e r v i e w data; coded were those who were i n the M i n i s t r y h i e r a r c h y or i n o r g r a n i s a t i o n s p e r t i n a n t t o t h i s study between 1975 and 1986. G e n e r a l l y , a person with a number of lower v a l u e (e.g., 12, 17) would have been i n v o l v e d e a r l y i n the p r o c e s s whereas those with higher numbers (e.g., 59, 62) u s u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d more r e c e n t l y . However, i t l a t e r became apparent that c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s had c o n t r i b u t e d t o areas r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study e a r l i e r than was f i r s t e v i d e n t ; the number assigned t o them may not r e f l e c t the t i m i n g of t h e i r involvement. For example, i t was l e a r n e d that 67, e d i t o r for Douglas & Mclntyre, was i n v o l v e d i n 1973 as r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t i n Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 9 the p r e p a r a t i o n of the C u l t u r e Realms of the World: Teacher's Manual as well as being a member of the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment Team i n 1977. The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t l i s t s only those i n d i v i d u a l s who are r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s study. Minister (15, 37) I Deputy Minister (16, 17) Assistant Deputy Minister (17, 46) I SCHOOLS DEPARTMENT .Executive Director Programs (12) _ PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION SERVICES BRANCH .Director (21) .Coordinators (28, 59) LEARNIN6 ASSESSMENT BRANCH .Assist. Director Learning Assessment (12, 56) .Assist. Director Program Assessment (48) PROVINCIAL EDUCATIONAL MEDIA CENTRE (PEMC) .Coordinator (23) _PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS BRANCH .Director (21) .Coordinator (74) CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT BRANCH .Director (12, 53) .Assist. Director (11, 39, 54) .Coordinators (22, 49, 50, 28, 59, 62) —Revision Management Committee (24, 26, 28, 29, 30, 25, 27, 40) Elementary Review Committee (31) [—Elementary Materials Selection Committee (31, 45) —Select Committee (60a, 16, 60b, 60c, 60d, 101) Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 10 7. A "Request for E t h i c a l Review" was submitted t o The Behavioural S c i e n c e s Screening Committee for Research and Other S t u d i e s I n v o l v i n g Human S u b j e c t s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The proposed study was found by the committee t o be e t h i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . LIMITATIONS T h i s study was l i m i t e d i n a number of wayss 1. It was r e s t r i c t e d t o the elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m (1983), i n v o l v i n g grades one through seven. 2. Documentary data were l i m i t e d t o those documents t h a t were p u b l i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e . 3. Interview q u e s t i o n s asked respondents t o focus on events that happened some ye a r s ago, and t h e r e f o r e these s e l f r e p o r t data are l i m i t e d . Because of the l a r g e number of respondents who were c e n t r a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the development of the c u r r i c u l u m , much of the data were c o r r o b o r a t e d a c r o s s the i n t e r v i e w e e s . However, i t i s r e c o g n i s e d that i n any o r g a n i s a t i o n as l a r g e as a M i n i s t r y of Education, p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l have v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of events. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n 1 4. The study i s l i m i t e d t o a macro-implementation p e r s p e c t i v e . No c l a i m s a r e made about the a c t u a l use of the 1983 s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m i n classrooms. 5. C o n c l u s i o n s reached and views expressed i n t h i s study r e g a r d i n g " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " and "macro—implementation" are based on the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the documentary and i n t e r v i e w data. TERMINOLOGY AND ABBREVIATIONS The f o l l o w i n g have s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n t s when used i n t h i s study: A p r i l D r a f t - Proposed C u r r i c u l u m Guide: S o c i a l  S t u d i e s . K - l l z D r a f t Only C A p r i l , 19801 B. C. - B r i t i s h Columbia BCSSTA - B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Teacher's A s s o c i a t i o n BCTF - B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n C o o r d i n a t o r ( s ) - M i n i s t r y c o o r d i n a t o r s who worked with the committees r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study C u r r i c u l u m Cor guide) — S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide. Grade One-Grade Seven C1983) Curr i c u l u m Development Branch management or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n — the d i r e c t o r and a s s i s t a n t Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 12 d i r e c t o r ( s ) Developers or development team(s) - u n l e s s otherwise s t i p u l a t e d , the Management Committee, the Elementary Review Committee, and the c o o r d i n a t o r who worked with each committee EPIE - E d u c a t i o n a l Products Information Exchange I n s t i t u t e Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee — the one of the t h r e e M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees which was concerned with k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade s i x F i e l d - educators o u t s i d e the M i n i s t r y (e.g., t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , school d i s t r i c t s t a f f ) M i n i s t r y — B r i t i s h Columbia's M i n i s t r y of Education M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s — the M i n i s t e r of Education, the deputy m i n i s t e r , and the e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r of school programs Notion - " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " PEMC - P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Media Centre SFU — Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y UBC - U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia U V i c — U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i BACKGROUND By i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t e r v i e w feedback with data gleaned from r e c o r d s made a v a i l a b l e through i n t e r v i e w s r e l e v a n t i s s u e s of Hori 2on (1975-1985), and the M i n i s t r y of Education Annual Reports, t h i s r e s e a r c h e r attempted t o unravel some of the o f t e n d i s c r e p a n t accounts r e l a t e d t o the 1983 elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s r e v i s i o n . Two purposes were served by t h i s e f f o r t : 1) i t p r ovided for a more comprehensive understanding of the i n f l u e n c e s b e a r i n g on t h e n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-solving s k i l l s , " and the M i n i s t r y ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n implementation; and 2 ) i t allowed one t o examine how the t i m i n g o f s p e c i f i c events a f f e c t e d the development of the n o t i o n and e f f o r t s toward i t s implementation. The f i r s t event p r e c i p i t a t i n g the r e v i s i o n appeared t o be a M i n i s t r y i n i t i a t e d review of the secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m which concluded with a r e p o r t i n 1976 recommending that the c u r r i c u l u m be r e v i s e d . Next, a P r o v i n c i a l L e a r n i n g Assessment Team gathered data, and although i t s 1977 assessment r e p o r t d i d not provoke much m i n i s t e r i a l comment, a Secondary R e v i s i o n Committee was s t r u c k i n September, 1978. By January, 1979, a d r a f t i n c l u d i n g s i x o v e r a l l Macro-Implementat ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g program g o a l s was ready and shared with two r e a c t i o n panels. It appears that at t h i s p o i n t , i n February, 1979, a d e c i s i o n was made t o expand the Secondary R e v i s i o n Committee t o i n c l u d e two elementary r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n order t o p r o v i d e a r t i c u l a t i o n between the elementary and secondary c u r r i c u l u m s . As w e l l , i t s mandate was broadened. Now i d e n t i f i e d as the R e v i s i o n Management Committee, i t s task was t o oversee the secondary r e v i s i o n as well as a review of the elementary c u r r i c u l u m which would be c a r r i e d out by an Elementary Review Committee. L a t e r , i t s s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y would a l s o embrace the t h r e e M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees. From February t o A p r i l , 1979, ten c o n s u l t i n g groups were c o n t r a c t e d by the M i n i s t r y t o d r a f t p o s s i b l e scope and sequence o u t l i n e s . The c r o s s -s e c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e d submissions by the Greater V i c t o r i a , P r i n c e George, North Vancouver, D e l t a , and Langley School D i s t r i c t s ; the Schools Legal Education P r o j e c t Committee; the N a t i v e S t u d i e s Committee; members of the U.B.C. F a c u l t y of Education; members of the B.C.S.S.T.A. " a c t i n g as i n d i v i d u a l s " (p. 133, A p r i l D r a f t ) ; and a k i n d e r g a r t e n committee Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 15 represented by one Powell River and two Vancouver i n d i v i d u a l s . In October, 1979, the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee r e s p o n s i b l e for k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade s i x was c r e a t e d , followed l a t e r by s e p a r a t e M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees for grades seven t o nine and grades ten t o e l e v e n . Then i n November, 1979, another d r a f t was completed i n which the phrase " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s " made i t s f i r s t appearance w i t h i n four goal statements. T h i s November d r a f t , e n t a i l i n g a scope and sequence a p p a r e n t l y d e r i v e d from committee and c o n t r a c t group in p u t , was s u b j e c t e d t o t h r e e r e a c t i o n panels p r i o r t o f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n . By 1980, the A p r i l D r a f t was p u b l i s h e d and d i s t r i b u t e d for general feedback. During the s p r i n g of 1980, the f i r s t M i n i s t r y c a l l t o p u b l i s h e r s went out, r e q u e s t i n g samples of e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l s that would match the k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade s i x component of the proposed c u r r i c u l u m . An i n i t i a l s o r t by the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee ( k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade s i x ) narrowed the over four hundred submissions t o o n l y a few which i t f e l t warranted i n -depth a n a l y s i s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n four textbooks and Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 16 one textbook s e r i e s at the grade four and f i v e l e v e l s being f i e l d - t e s t e d i n the s p r i n g of 1981. Even i f the books being f i e l d - t e s t e d d i d meet the c r i t e r i a , t h e r e s t i l l e x i s t e d a need for new m a t e r i a l s t o s a t i s f y the requirements for a l l grades i n the d r a f t c u r r i c u l u m , so M i n i s t r y personnel sent out a second c a l l t o p u b l i s h e r s i n March, 1981, t h i s time for custom-made m a t e r i a l s . By J u l y , 1981, the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee (k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade s i x ) submitted i t s recommendations for a p p r o v a l , i t s d e c i s i o n f a v o u r i n g the Douglas & M c l n t y r e p r o p o s a l . But i t wasn't u n t i l sometime between January 11 and February 22, 1982 ( a c c o r d i n g t o r e f e r e n c e s i n the f i e l d - t e s t i n g r e p o r t t o the M i n i s t r y ) that a c o n t r a c t was a c t u a l l y signed between Douglas & M c l n t y r e for p u b l i c a t i o n of the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , grades one through s i x . Once the c o n t r a c t was f i n a l i z e d , f i e l d - t e s t i n g of some d r a f t Douglas & M c l n t y r e m a t e r i a l s commenced. By May 13, 1982, the f i e l d - t e s t i n g was complete and i n November, 1982, the p i l o t r e p o r t was submitted t o the M i n i s t r y . Sometime between the s i g n i n g of the c o n t r a c t with Douglas & M c l n t y r e i n 1982 and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the r e v i s e d 1983 elementary c u r r i c u l u m guide, P r e n t i c e — Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 17 H a l l , who had o r i g i n a l l y competed with Douglas & M c l n t y r e for the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u b l i s h grades one through s i x and who was the second c h o i c e of the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee ( k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade s i x ) , was given the chance t o produce m a t e r i a l s for grades four, f i v e and s i x . By t h i s time, n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s from t e a c h e r s t o the 1980 A p r i l D r a f t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the grade seven t o eleven components, r e s u l t e d i n the e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m being put on h o l d . It was l a t e i n 1982 that the M i n i s t r y r e s o r t e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g an anonymous S e l e c t Committee, a l l u d e d t o by s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w e e s . While most of these i n d i v i d u a l s i m p l i e d that t h i s " s e c r e t " committee rewrote the c u r r i c u l u m , the c h a i r of t h i s S e l e c t Committee s t a t e d that i t s members were t o examine the proposed secondary c u r r i c u l u m and "simply g i v e our o p i n i o n about i t . " Soon a f t e r , the S e l e c t Committee s a t i s f i e d i t s mandate and submitted i t s r e p o r t . Unaware of who a c t u a l l y r e v i s e d the A p r i l D r a f t , the c h a i r of the S e l e c t Committee commented, "I've no i d e a who took up a f t e r that but I can t e l l you t h a t i n a very s h o r t order of time l a t e r , a document came out...." Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 18 By September, 1983, the Elementary S o c i a l S t u d i e s  C u r r i c u l u m Guide. Grade One—Grade Seven was a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o o l s , as was the M i n i s t r y p u b l i s h e d S o c i a l  S t u d i e s Resource Manual. Grades One-Three and the Douglas & M c l n t y r e E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s for grades one t o t h r e e . The Revised Primary S o c i a l S t u d i e s  Curriculum. 1983: O r i e n t a t i o n Package, was a l s o p u b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t r y i n the same year, i n c l u d i n g a v i d e o and l e a d e r ' s guide. By November, 1983, the grade seven component of the 1983 elementary c u r r i c u l u m , p r e v i o u s l y designated as p a r t of the secondary c u r r i c u l u m , was r e v i s e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o s c h o o l s . Teachers were t o i g n o r e the o r i g i n a l grade seven segment of the 1983 guide and r e p l a c e i t with a r e v i s e d two page appendage. In the f a l l of 1984, a S o c i a l S t u d i e s A d v i s o r y Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d t o oversee the completion of the secondary c u r r i c u l u m and s e r v e as l i a i s o n between the M i n i s t r y and the " f i e l d " (educators o u t s i d e the Mini s t r y ) . Douglas & Mclntyre and P r e n t i c e - H a l l d e l i v e r e d the grade four m a t e r i a l s i n 1984 and the grade f i v e m a t e r i a l s i n 1985. In 1985, the r e v i s e d S o c i a l S t u d i e s  C u r r i c u l u m Guide. Grades E i g h t — E l e v e n was p u b l i s h e d . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 19 By 1986, along with Douglas & M c l n t y r e ' s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s for grade s i x , t h e r e appeared M i n i s t r y sponsored o r i e n t a t i o n v i d e o s , T h i n k i n g Together: S t r a t e g i e s i n  S o c i a l S t u d i e s : the T h i n k i n g Together: S t r a t e g i e s i n  S o c i a l S t u d i e s — I n s e r v i c e Handbook: and the S o c i a l  S t u d i e s Resource Manual. Grades F o u r — S e v e n . As w e l l , Gage p u b l i s h e d the grade seven student t e x t , Other  P l a c e s . Other Times. At the time of t h i s study, the t e a c h e r ' s guide for grade seven was not yet a v a i l a b l e . Regional i n s e r v i c e workshops throughout the p r o v i n c e were provided t o d i s t r i c t s t a f f s d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1986. Regular classroom t e a c h e r s were not i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y i n these s e s s i o n s . During the summer of 1987, the agreement between the M i n i s t r y and P r e n t i c e - H a l l i n regard t o the p u b l i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s for grade s i x was terminated. The development and implementation a c t i v i t i e s spanned over t h i r t e e n years, beginning i n 1975 with the Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Review, and at the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , i t was s t i l l i n p r o g r e s s . At times t h i s r e v i s i o n was plagued by c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y and apparent setbacks. Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 20 MACRO-IMPLEMENTATION L i t t l e r e s e a r c h t o date has been d i r e c t e d from a macro-implementation p e r s p e c t i v e , one that c o n s i d e r s government Crather than d i s t r i c t , s c h o o l , or teacher) e f f o r t s i n the implementation of p o l i c y . Some r e s e a r c h has i d e n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n t phases that p o l i c y i s s u b j e c t t o and the f a c t o r s which a f f e c t i t s implementation. PHASES For h i s view of macro-implementation, Paul Berman (1978) suggests that p o l i c y must endure four s e p a r a t e "passages" enroute t o outcomes and that "each passage transforms the i n p u t " (p. 166). Passage 1 — A d m i n i s t r a t i o n l e v e l : from m i n i s t r y p o l i c y t o m i n i s t r y program or m a t e r i a l s Passage 2 — A d o p t i o n l e v e l : from m i n i s t r y program t o adoption of l o c a l d i s t r i c t p r o j e c t , designed t o f a c i l i t a t e implementation of the m i n i s t r y p olicy/program Passage 3 — M i c r o - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n l e v e l : from adoption t o implementation by p o l i c y d e l i v e r e r s (e.g., classroom i n s t r u c t o r s ) Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 21 Passage 4 — V a l i d i t y l e v e l : from implementation by p o l i c y d e l i v e r e r s t o c l i e n t (e.g., student) outcomes (adapted from Berman, 1978, p. 167). During the f i r s t passage from government p o l i c y t o government program (or m a t e r i a l s ) , the p o l i c y i s v u l n e r a b l e t o " c o o p t a t i o n " (p. 169) through s e l e c t i o n based upon what government program developers agree with, even though t h e i r "presumed o b j e c t i v e i s t o c a r r y out the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t " (pp. 167-168). The government program i s then s u b j e c t t o r e - d e f i n i t i o n or " s l i p p a g e " (p. 169), depending on i t s r e c e p t i o n by l o c a l school d i s t r i c t personnel who d e v i s e a p r o j e c t (e.g., teacher i n s e r v i c e , l o c a l development of classroom m a t e r i a l s ) for implementing t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( s ) of the government p o l i c y or program. The p o l i c y i s then s u s c e p t i b l e t o f u r t h e r change or "mutation" (p. 171) as i n s t r u c t o r s i n c o r p o r a t e i t i n t o t h e i r classrooms. According t o Berman, the number of passages and implementation s e t t i n g s determines the number of mutated p o l i c y forms; the p o l i c y may be s u b j e c t t o " c o o p t a t i o n " (p. 178) where i t i s changed t o s u i t the d e l i v e r e r , or "mutual a d a p t a t i o n " (p. 178) where a l t e r a t i o n s occur t o both the p o l i c y and d e l i v e r e r behaviour. During i t s f o u r t h passage, evidenced by Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l Thinking 22 student outcomes, the p o l i c y ' s " v a l i d i t y " (p. 167) i s tested. The "essential differences", Berman explains, between the processes of micro—implementation and macro-implementation a r i s e from their d i s t i n c t i n s t i t u t i o n a l settings. Whereas the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g for micro-implementation i s a l o c a l delivery organization, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l setting for macro—implementation i s an enti r e p o l i c y sector, spanning federal Cor p r o v i n c i a l ] to local l e v e l s . <p. 164) In discussing macro-implementation, Fullan (1982) does not use Berman's "passages," r e f e r r i n g instead to three "phases of curriculum decision—making...: (1) curriculum or p o l i c y development, (2) implementation, and (3) evaluation or review and r e v i s i o n " (p. 242; i t a l i c s in o r i g i n a l ) . Fullan's p o l i c y development phase occurs prior to Berman's f i r s t passage from government policy to government program. Ministry decisions a f f e c t i n g Fullan's implementation phase re l a t e to Berman's f i r s t , second and t h i r d passages: from government policy to government program, from government program to lo c a l school d i s t r i c t adoption, and then from lo c a l d i s t r i c t project to classroom implementation. Ful1 an's evaluation phase coincides with Berman's fourth " v a l i d i t y " passage. In the present study, the researcher speaks of three phases in the evolution of the p o l i c y being Macro-Implementat ions C r i t i c a l Thinking 23 investigated. The outcomes of Berman's f i n a l " v a l i d i t y " passage and Ful1an's evaluation phase may both i n i t i a t e p o l i cy decisions and therefore contribute to what i s described in t h i s study as the p o l i c y ' s preparatory phase. Next i s the development phase which correlates to Fullan*s development phase, having no counterpart in Berman's passages. F i n a l l y , the implementation-facilitat ion phase r e l a t e s to Berman's f i r s t three passages and Fullan's implementation phase. These three phases of macro—implementation are used to organise the data in t h i s study. Within each phase i s evident some relationship between the government agent that develops the p o l i c y and the receiving organisation, the nature of which may influence how the p o l i c y i s translated. How a government agency addresses the passage of an innovation through each of these phases "so as to influence lo c a l delivery organizations to behave in desired ways" (p. 164), Berman defines as the macro-implementation problem. While Fullan posits that "the q u a l i t y of relationships across t h i s gulf [from Ministry to classroom] i s c r u c i a l to supporting change e f f o r t s " (p. 74), the government's macro—implementation task i s Macro-Implementat ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 24 complicated by the nature of the o r g a n i s a t i o n s which comprise the t o t a l p o l i c y s e c t o r , d e s c r i b e d by Berman as a " l o o s e l y coupled s t r u c t u r e " <p. 165> i n which 1) each o r g a n i z a t i o n has i t s own problems, p e r s p e c t i v e s , and purposes that r e f l e c t i t s p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e and c u l t u r e , and 2) each o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t s more or l e s s autonomously w i t h i n the o v e r a l l macro-structure of the s e c t o r , (p.165) If F u l l a n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n i s a c c u r a t e that p o l i c y reforms w i l l f a i l "to the extent that each s i d e i s ignorant of the s u b j e c t i v e world of the o t h e r . . . " Cp. 74), then i t would appear t h a t the implementation l i t e r a t u r e would b e n e f i t from more macro—implementation r e s e a r c h . FACTORS F u l l a n (1982), Berman (1978), and Anderson (1986) po i n t t o a p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g with a macro-implementation p e r s p e c t i v e , one that r e p r e s e n t s how government m i n i s t r i e s i n t e r a c t with v a r i e d agencies w i t h i n the p o l i c y s e c t o r t o f a c i l i t a t e a p o l i c y ' s implementation. F u l l an and Berman p r o v i d e general reviews of the l i t e r a t u r e w h i le Anderson d e p i c t s r e s u l t s of h i s r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o f e d e r a l l y i n i t i a t e d m u l t i c u l t u r a l programs i n Canada. Warning that g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s must be made with c a r e because of Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 25 the l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of comparable data, F u l l a n does s t a t e t h a t "some c l e a r impressions, backed up by a small number of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s being taken i n d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s " Cp. 242) are a v a i l a b l e . •ne l i m i t a t i o n t o date i n the search for f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g implementation of government p o l i c y i s that r e s e a r c h has focussed l a r g e l y on "why a u t h o r i t a t i v e d e c i s i o n s do not le a d t o expected r e s u l t s " (Berman, 1S78, p. 160) without c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the worthiness of p o l i c y g o a l s or how those g o a l s were s e l e c t e d . Research, however, i n d i c a t e s that m i n i s t r y d e c i s i o n s p r e c i p i t a t i n g and i n v o l v i n g p o l i c y development can have c o n s i d e r a b l e impact upon the success of the p o l i c y ' s implementation. As F u l l a n contends, "What happens aft e r w a r d s i s t o a l a r g e extent a c o n t i n u a t i o n of how well or how badly the change process i s i n i t i a t e d and followed through" (p. 227). P o s s i b l e p o l i c y implementation i n f l u e n c e s d e p i c t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e a re c l u s t e r e d here i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s which apply t o each segment of the p o l i c y s e c t o r and each of the t h r e e phases t o v a r y i n g degrees. How a m i n i s t r y p l a n s for and a c t s t o f a c i l i t a t e c l a r i t y of e x p e c t a t i o n s , c a p a c i t y f o r change, and s u s t a i n e d , Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 26 q u a l i t y l i a i s o n w i t h i n i t s own s t r u c t u r e as w e l l as among r e l e v a n t o r g a n i s a t i o n s w i t h i n the p o l i c y s e c t o r appears t o have s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the p r o g n o s i s for p o l i c y implementation. Each f a c t o r w i l l be examined b r i e f l y , i n l i g h t of Berman (1978), F u l l a n (1982), and Anderson (1986) for r e l a t e d problems, i m p l i c a t i o n s , and r ec ommendat i ons. 1. C l a r i t y of E x p e c t a t i o n s One of the most common problems c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o p o l i c y implementation i s a l a c k of c l a r i t y r e g a r d i n g the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t and the r o l e s expected of v a r i o u s agents i n v o l v e d i n the change pro c e s s w i t h i n the p o l i c y s e c t o r . Berman i n d i c a t e s that m u l t i p l e g o a l s are o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g and ambiguous, and that the means for p o l i c y f u l f i l l m e n t s u f f e r from "la c k of s p e c i f i c i t y " (Berman, p. 168), a f f e c t i n g t r a n s l a t i o n from p o l i c y t o program, program t o d i s t r i c t p r o j e c t , and p r o j e c t t o implementation and outcomes. The more ambiguous the p o l i c y , the more leeway agents have for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Without a c l e a r p o l i c y , each passage encourages d i s c r e p a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . As Anderson deducted from the academic l i t e r a t u r e and h i s own r e s e a r c h which Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 27 analysed the content of m u l t i - c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s of s i x Metro Toronto school boards t o determine "whether and t o what extent they a n t i c i p a t e d and addressed implementation (p. 3 4 ), i t was d i f f i c u l t t o judge what counted as i n s t a n c e s of the p o l i c y . M i n i s t r y p e r s o n n e l , program deve l o p e r s , d i s t r i c t s t a f f s , t e a c h e r s , and e v a l u a t o r s were o f t e n l e f t t o pursue t h e i r own p r i o r i t i e s , which d i d not always c o r r e l a t e with the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t . Government programs were not congruent with the p o l i c y , even i f developed t o match i t . M i n i s t r y personnel, unclear about the p o l i c y , r e p resented v a r i e d emphases i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n s for d i s t r i c t s t a f f who then added t o the c o n f u s i o n by s h a r i n g t h e i r "knowledge" with classroom t e a c h e r s . Teacher methodology was then sometimes i n a p p r o p r i a t e , and outcomes l i k e l y r e l a t e d t o the mutated c o n c e p t i o n s that were implemented. Without a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the p o l i c y or the means by which i t c o u l d be r e a l i s e d , the m a t e r i a l s developed for classroom use sometimes la c k e d congruency with the p o l i c y . One c o u l d expect i n s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g ambiguous p o l i c y t h a t i t w i l l be a l t e r e d . Otherwise non-implementation may be the case or even worse, the Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 28 f r u s t r a t i o n s t h at r e s u l t from attempts t o i n t e r p r e t p o l i c y c o u l d have d e t r i m e n t a l a f f e c t s on f u t u r e p o l i c y i mp 1 ernen t at i on. A d i f f i c u l t y experienced i n d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n implementing m i n i s t r y p o l i c y was the absence of e x p l i c a t i o n about who was t o do what and how i t might be accomplished. The assumption that adoption l e d t o implementation was o f t e n unfounded. Follow-through was u s u a l l y l e f t t o M i n i s t r y and d i s t r i c t s t a f f who may have been unc l e a r about the r o l e d i s t i n c t i o n s between a s s i s t a n c e and r e g u l a t i o n ( F u l l a n , 1982; Anderson, 1986). I f m i n i s t r y s t a f f i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r r o l e as a r e g u l a t o r y one, i t may have a l i e n a t e d d e l i v e r y o r g a n i s a t i o n s , r a t h e r than g a i n i n g c o o p e r a t i o n . Without a c l e a r understanding of r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , implementation agents o f t e n became i n e f f e c t i v e . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n c o n f u s i o n , non-action, i n e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n , and a waste of r e s o u r c e s . F u l l a n and Anderson s t r e s s the importance of d i s s e m i n a t i n g c l e a r p o l i c y , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g a r d i n g how the g o a l s are t o be achieved. P r o v i s i o n of a " p r a c t i c a l image of e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e " (Anderson, p. 36) promotes c o n t i n u a t i o n sooner than would otherwise be p o s s i b l e . I f implementation and c o n t i n u a t i o n are t o Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 29 be r e a l i s e d , then s p e c i f i c p l a n s must be made for each passage and followed through (Berman, F u l l a n , Anderson). 2. Nature of L i a i s o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o r g a n i s a t i o n s w i t h i n a p o l i c y s e c t o r present impediments t o s u s t a i n e d , q u a l i t y l i a i s o n among c o n s t i t u e n t s . Because of t h e i r " l o o s e l y coupled s t r u c t u r e " (Berman, p. 165), o r g a n i s a t i o n s operate r e l a t i v e l y independent of each other and are occupied with t h e i r own problems, p e r s p e c t i v e s , and p r i o r i t i e s ; t h i s accounts for some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a p o l i c y must endure through each passage. F u l l a n p o i n t s t o v a l u e c o n f l i c t s among committee members as well as between developers and p o l i c y s t a k e h o l d e r s as a l s o a f f e c t i n g the nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s and implementation p r o s p e c t s . O r g a n i s a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s h i n d e r i n g communication and p o l i c y implementation r e l a t e t o s i z e , complexity, f o r m a l i s a t i o n , the number of o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n v o l v e d , geographical d i s t a n c e s , and the number of i n t e r -o r g a n i s a t i o n a l agreements necessary. As these f a c t o r s i n c r e a s e , implementation p r o s p e c t s decrease (Berman). Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l Thinking 30 The more the number of passages, the more d i f f i c u l t i e s and mutations (Berman). Direct ministry contact with the po l i c y sector i s usually limited to orientation sessions for d i s t r i c t s t a f f . Yet Fullan maintains that i t i s " d u r i n g " ( i t a l i c s h i s , p. 245) implementation when assistance i s most needed and seldom provided. Anderson also notes that encouragement and help for teachers was a missing factor contributing to implementation problems. Liaison and rapport among ministry branches are also c r i t i c a l to po l i c y implementation. Without sustained l i a i s o n , implementation prospects are poor. If ministry branches have not established a close working relat i o n s h i p in which c l a r i f i c a t i o n and integration of development, implementation, and assessment considerations occur, d i s t r i c t s w i l l u n l i k e l y be successful in accomplishing what the ministry was unable to do. The relevance of sustained, q u a l i t y l i a i s o n within the ministry as well as among po l i c y sector organisations cannot be overstated. It allows players to gain understanding of the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a t i n g organisations which can f a c i l i t a t e planning and implementation. Fullan discusses the need Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l Thinking 31 to be open to the " m u l i t i p l e r e a l i t i e s of people who are the main participants in implementation change. The leader who presupposes what the change should be and acts i n ways which preclude others* r e a l i t i e s i s bound to f a i l " ( i t a l i c s h i s , p. 82). Resulting benefits from such openness, Fullan says, may be that sometimes...ideas from others w i l l lead to a l t e r a t i o n s for the better in the d i r e c t i o n of change, and sometimes because the others' r e a l i t i e s w i l l expose the problems of implementation which must be addressed and at the very least w i l l indicate where one should st a r t (p. 82). He further advocates that m i n i s t r i e s stand to p r o f i t by devoting more time to interacting with lo c a l d e l i v e r e r s to a s s i s t and c l a r i f y . Not only w i l l implementation potential be improved, the ministry w i l l also gain knowledge about compliance, capacity, and implementation r e a l i t i e s . 3. Capacity for Change Often overlooked and usually contributing to noncompliance i s an organisation's capacity for change (Fullan). Capacity incorporates a variety of factors related to the readiness of organisations to p a r t i c i p a t e in change, such as knowledge, s k i l l s , time, Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 32 support, encouragement, and r e s o u r c e s ; a compatible b e l i e f system; and l a c k of competing p r i o r i t i e s . Blanket e x p e c t a t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l o r g a n i s a t i o n s w i t h i n a p o l i c y s e c t o r may be unreasonable, c o n s i d e r i n g that o r g a n i s a t i o n s vary c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y for implementation, says F u l l a n . A l s o i n a p p r o p r i a t e may be a b u s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d p e r s p e c t i v e as the nature of s c h o o l s p r e c l u d e s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y for p o l i c y implementation. The t e a c h e r -p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s interdependent, with s e l e c t i o n of methodology and r e s o u r c e s r e l i a n t upon student feedback. What works with one c l i e n t may not apply t o another. The school-community r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a l s o unique t o some degree. Many p l a y e r s and events may i n t e r a c t t o a f f e c t p o l i c y implementation. P a r e n t a l and p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s ranging from apathy t o m i l i t a n c y , o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes, demographic f l u c t u a t i o n s , and the l i k e may add t o a p o l i c y ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y . P o l i c y d e v elopers may a l s o l a c k the s k i l l , as well as time and/or i n c l i n a t i o n t o co n s i d e r d e t a i l s ; program dev e l o p e r s may not understand the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t ; e v a l u a t o r s may not have the knowledge of what i n f o r m a t i o n t o gather and how t o i n t e r p r e t and apply i t ; d i s t r i c t s t a f f may l a c k knowledge of the p o l i c y ' s Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 33 i n t e n t as well as an understanding of the pro c e s s of change and p l a n s for f a c i l i t a t i n g change; t e a c h e r s may r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement which i s o f t e n not a v a i l a b l e , as well as knowledge of what the outcomes w i l l look l i k e , so as t o pl a n s t r a t e g i e s for how t o achieve them and t o r e c o g n i s e when they have been r e a l i s e d ; and m i n i s t r y s t a f f may lack the r e s o u r c e s or understandings of both the i n n o v a t i o n and the l o g i s t i c s o f change. Planning for change i s not s u f f i c i e n t , for as Anderson proposes, "the problem of implementing the implementation p l a n s t i l l has t o be surmounted" (p. 3 4 ) . A l s o a hindrance t o p o l i c y implementation are competing p r i o r i t i e s , which may be the r e s u l t of e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s which are in c o m p a t i b l e with or work ag a i n s t the new p o l i c y or are i n c o n f l i c t with d i s t r i c t i n t e r e s t s ( F u l l a n ) . Competing p r i o r i t i e s a l s o a f f e c t t r a n s l a t i o n s of government p o l i c y i n t o government program when the program d e v e l o p e r s d i s r e g a r d the p o l i c y and promote t h e i r own p r i o r i t i e s (Berman). Here the proposed p o l i c y i s i n c o n f l i c t with the g o a l s h e l d by other agents. When the c a p a c i t y of people i n v o l v e d i n the change process i s not co n s i d e r e d i n p l a n s for p o l i c y change, Macro- 1 implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 34 d i s c r e p a n t t r a n s l a t i o n s are a s t r o n g l i k e l i h o o d . U n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s may l e a d t o misunderstandings, resentment and noncompliance, or f e e l i n g s of inadequacy and even worse, a n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o f u t u r e change a s p i r a t i o n s ( F u l l a n ) . Perhaps because of these p o s s i b l e responses, Anderson suggests t h a t the r e l e a s e of a p o l i c y without c o n s i d e r a t i o n of implementation problems may be dangerous. C a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g would seem t o be i n order i f p o l i c y implementation i s d e s i r e d . S u s t a i n e d i n t e r a c t i o n which focusses on communicating the p o l i c y i n t e n t and p r i o r i t y , and p r o v i s i o n of a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement does reap r e s u l t s , a c c o r d i n g t o F u l l a n , as well as p r o v i d e s m i n i s t r i e s with an o p p o r t u n i t y t o monitor implementation and add t o i t s knowledge of the " r e a l i t i e s and needs of implementation" (p. 253). C a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g a l s o p e r t a i n s t o the m i n i s t r y ' s own s t a f f "who w i l l have the most co n t a c t with the f i e l d " (p. 254). Relevant knowledge should i n c l u d e that p e r t a i n i n g t o the i n n o v a t i o n and the process of change, as well as that d e a l i n g with the b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s of p o l i c y s t a k e h o l d e r s . Without such p r e p a r a t i o n , one can " h a r d l y expect government s t a f f t o extend c l a r i t y and support t o o t h e r s " (p. 253). Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 35 F u l l a n a l s o suggests that m i n i s t r i e s need t o ensure t h a t "for any neu pal icyf ...someone ... is addressing and looking at the program development and in-service assistance needs" (p. 253, i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) . Roles should not be taken for granted, and r e s o u r c e s should be a l l o c a t e d among e v a l u a t i o n , development, and implementation endeavours. Implementation must be c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g development, thereby i n c r e a s i n g the l i k e l i h o o d t h at c a p a c i t y concerns w i l l be r e c o g n i s e d and remedied p r i o r t o p o l i c y d i s s e m i n a t i o n . To a l l e v i a t e implementation s u r p r i s e s , F u l l an and Anderson propose an e x p l i c i t implementation p l a n t o guide change, one which i n c l u d e s a t r o u b l e shooter, "someone at the top who takes an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n probing and f i x i n g implementation problems" ( F u l l a n , p. 254). As W i l l i a m s (1980; i n F u l l a n , p. 254) observed, the " b a s i c i s s u e i s whether the agency can a l t e r i t s o r i e n t a t i o n and s t y l e of decision-making t o develop the r e s o u r c e s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e needed fo r implementing ( i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) the implementation p e r s p e c t i v e . " For t h i s t o occur, W i l l i a m s (1980, p. 101, i n F u l l a n , p. 254) contends that Top l e a d e r s must r e a l l y uant [ i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ] b e t t e r implementation t o the p o i n t of c o n t i n u a l l y Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l Thinking 36 asking s t a f f and loc a l personnel about implementation, committing resources to support implementation, and being r e a l i s t i c but in s i s t e n t about progress. In summary, t h i s review explored an area of research that has so far been neglected, one that examines implementation from the perspective of the ministry, noting i t s l i a i s o n with varied agencies to f a c i l i t a t e p o l i c y change. While information i s limite d , what i s available suggests that m i n i s t r i e s can make a difference by promoting capacity for change, sustained, q u a l i t y l i a i s o n , and c l a r i t y of expectations. Capacity building would include ministry s t a f f as well as others who w i l l be involved in the change process. This requires knowledge of the p o l i c y as well as i t s implementation. Also required are ongoing, constructive working re l a t i o n s h i p s across ministry departments and between i t and other organisations in the p o l i c y sector. Expectations are better r e a l i s e d i f a po l i c y intent i s e x p l i c i t , e s p e c i a l l y the means for li n k i n g intent with outcomes, and rol e s are c l e a r l y delineated. Planning which integrates evaluation, development, and implementation considerations i s ess e n t i a l , as i s " i m p l e m e n t i n g the implementation perspective" (Fullan, p. 254). Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 37 CHAPTER TWO THE INNOVATION In B r i t i s h Columbia's r e v i s e d elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m (1983), one reads that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-solving s k i l l s " (pp. 5-6) are t o p r o v i d e the means by which st u d e n t s a c q u i r e and apply knowledge. Of i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study, as w e l l as t o those who must i n t e r p r e t the pedagogical i m p l i c a t i o n s of such a c u r r i c u l u m , i s what the M i n i s t r y i n t e n d s by " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s . " T h i s phrase d e f i n e s the heart of the i n n o v a t i o n . To t h i s end, the S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide, Grade One- Grade Seven (1983) w i l l be analysed, followed by an examination of i n t e r v i e w e e feedback. DOCUMENT ANALYSIS E a r l y i n the guide, the f i r s t and o n l y mention of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s " appears i n the f o l l o w i n g four goal statements that p e r t a i n t o general l e a r n i n g outcomes expected of a l l s t u d e n t s by the end of grade el e v e n : GOAL 1: STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW AND UNDERSTAND THE FACTORS WHICH HAVE SHAPED AND CONTINUE TO SHAPE CANADA AND CANADIANS. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , by the end of the r e q u i r e d program and through the exercise of critical think ing and problem—salving Macro-1 implement at ion: C r i t i c a l Thinking 38 s k i l l s [ i t a l i c s added], students w i l l be expected to know and understand: — how Canadians have interacted with and continue to interact with their physical environment. — how Canada's s o c i a l and cu l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y has developed and continues to develop. — how Canada's economy has developed and continues to develop. — how Canada's p o l i t i c a l process has developed and .continues to develop. — how Canada's r e l a t i o n s with the rest of the world have affected and continue to affec t Canada's development. GOAL 2: STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW AND UNDERSTAND THE DIVERSE PATTERNS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY IN THE WORLD. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , by the end of the required curriculum and through the exercise of critical thinking and problem—solving skills C i t a l i c s added], students w i l l be expected to know and understand: — the world's physical environment and how the peoples of the world interact with their physical environment. — the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y of the peoples of the world and the factors which contribute to their d i v e r s i t y . — the basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the world's economics and the factors which contribute to their d i v e r s i t y . — the basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the diverse p o l i t i c a l processes of the world and the factors which contribute to their d i v e r s i t y . — the development of the nation states and thei r interactions. — current events i n the world and contemporary world issues. GOAL 3: STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW AND UNDERSTAND THE ROLES, RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF AN INDIVIDUAL AS A MEMBER OF SOCIETY. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , by the end of the required curriculum and through the exercise of critical thinking and problem—solving skills [ i t a l i c s added], students w i l l be expected to know and understand: Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 39 - i n f o r m a l and formal s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the s o c i e t y and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e upon i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. - the e f f e c t of the economy upon Canadians. - the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f Canadian government and how they f u n c t i o n . - the d i f f e r e n t types of government i n the world and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between governments and i n d i v i d u a l s throughout the world. - the media's i n f l u e n c e upon i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y . - the l e g a l system of Canada and i t s a f f e c t upon i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. GOAL 4: STUDENTS SHOULD DEVELOP A WILLINGNESS AND ABILITY TO USE KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING AS A MEMBER OF SOCIETY. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , by the end of the r e q u i r e d c u r r i c u l u m and through the exercise of critical thinking and problem—solving skills [ i t a l i c s added], s t u d e n t s w i l l : - communicate t h e i r i d e a s t o o t h e r s i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s and forms. - p a r t i c i p a t e t o the l e v e l of t h e i r m a t u r i t y , i n t h e i r s o c i e t y . - t o l e r a t e d i f f e r i n g views. - examine a v a r i e t y of viewpoints, p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t t o i s s u e s and problems. - analyze and r e a c t m e a n i n g f u l l y t o the constant change i n s o c i e t y . - reach a c o n c l u s i o n on the b a s i s of the best a v a i l a b l e evidence, (pp. 5 — 6 ) INTENTIONS Being that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " r e present the path ( s ) s t u d e n t s w i l l t r a v e l enroute t o t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , one might understandably be concerned by the d e f i c i e n c y of d e f i n i t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Appearing o n l y four times w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i s l e f t t o the reader Macro-Implamentation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 40 to d e c i p h e r . The use of "and" t o l i n k " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-solving s k i l l s " r a i s e s the unanswered q u e s t i o n : What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " t o "problem-solving s k i l l s " ? That i s : . Are they s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s ? . I f so, i n what way do they d i f f e r ? . In what sense do they belong t o g e t h e r ? Students a r e expected t o s o l v e problems but what "problems" e n t a i l i s never c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . I n q u i r i e s are s a i d t o embrace ...q u e s t i o n s [ t h a t ] range from those which have a s o l u t i o n based on the a v a i l a b l e evidence t o those which are i s s u e s . An i s s u e may be d e f i n e d as a matter of i n t e r e s t about which t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s a g r e e m e n t . . . . [ i n v o l v i n g ] matters of f a c t , matters of meaning or matters of v a l u e s , (p. 7) " I n q u i r i e s " would appear t o i n v o l v e "problems," q u e s t i o n s t o be solved on the b a s i s of a v a i l a b l e evidence <p. 7), and " i s s u e s " which are t o be discussed (p. 4 ) . Goal 4 i n d i c a t e s t h at s t u d e n t s w i l l "...examine a v a r i e t y of viewpoints, p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t t o i s s u e s and problems" (p. 6 ) . Thus each i s t r e a t e d as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y . F urther r e a d i n g of the sample " i n q u i r i e s " suggested for each grade r e v e a l s a v a r i e t y of Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 41 q u e s t i o n s , most which r e q u i r e g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o answer the q u e s t i o n s , w h i l e o t h e r s lend themselves t o more i n v o l v e d "problem-solving s k i l l s , " " d e c i s i o n -making s k i l l s " ( S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide. Grade  One-Grade Seven. 1983. p. 45), or the d i s c u s s i o n of i s s u e s . Under the r u b r i c " i n q u i r i e s , " i t s t a t e s t h a t "students should i n t e g r a t e content, understandings, and s k i l l s through the study and d i s c u s s i o n of i n q u i r i e s " (p.15). The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o " s k i l l s " suggests that they "should be i n t r o d u c e d , developed and r e i n f o r c e d i n a s u i t a b l e c o n t e x t " (p. 15). It would seem, then, t h a t " i n q u i r i e s , " some types which may be i n t e r p r e t e d as "problems," p r o v i d e the forum or context for d i s c u s s i o n , problem—solving, and dec i s i on—mak i ng. In order t o d i s c o v e r what "problem-solving s k i l l s " e n t a i l , t e a c h e r s are r e f e r r e d t o Appendix A of the c u r r i c u l u m for d e l i n e a t i o n of the s i x s t e p s t o problem-s o l v i n g : 1. D e f i n e a problem 2. E s t a b l i s h a t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s or answer 3. I n t e r p r e t the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e 4. Gather a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n 5. Analyze the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r purposes of a s s i m i l a t i n g evidence t o re-examine the o r i g i n a l t e n t a t i v e answer 6. S y n t h e s i z e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o Ca3 firmer h y p o t h e s i s or answer (p. 45) Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 42 "Decision-making s k i l l s " a re a l s o d e p i c t e d i n Appendix A as i n c l u d i n g the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : 1. I d e n t i f y problem or i s s u e 2. I d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s or o b j e c t i v e s 3. Gather, analyze and i n t e r p r e t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e s 4. E v a l u a t e the a l t e r n a t i v e s and e s t a b l i s h which should be accorded higher p r i o r i t y i n l i g h t of the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered and/or v a l u e p r e f e r e n c e s 5. Test the p r i o r i t i e s and analyze the consequences of each 6. Plan a course of a c t i o n 7. E s t a b l i s h a group d e c i s i o n 8. Take some a c t i o n of the group's d e c i s i o n 9. E v a l u a t e the group's d e c i s i o n (p. 45) Asi d e from o u t l i n i n g these s t e p s i n Appendix A and sug g e s t i n g that student e v a l u a t i o n should i n c o r p o r a t e s t u d e n t s ' c a p a c i t y i n a p p l y i n g such " s k i l l s " (p. 9 ) , the c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s no f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t i o n for i n s t r u c t i o n or student assessment. How " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-solving s k i l l s " a re r e l a t e d i s not c l a r i f i e d . SOURCES On the f i n a l page of the guide, sources that were "considered i n c o n s t r u c t i n g Cthel s k i l l s appendix" (.p. 60) are l i s t e d : 1- Responding t o Change—A Handbook f o r Teachers  of Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Department of Education, A l b e r t a . 2. Submissions of C o n s u l t i n g Groups and o t h e r s : Macro-Implamentation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 43 a) D e l t a School D i s t r i c t — S e c o n d a r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s  Program O u t l i n e for Grades E i g h t t o Eleven b) Maple R i d g e — S o c i a l S t u d i e s S k i l l s C u r r i c u l u m —  Kindergarten-Grade Seven c) P r i n c e G e o r g e — C o n s u l t i n g G r o u p — P a r t 3 — S k i l l s  Guide d) S a a n i c h — E l e m e n t a r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s S k i l l s e) V i c t o r i a C o n s u l t i n g G r o u p — S o c i a l S t u d i e s  S k i l l s (Grades 7-11) f) Vancouver School D i s t r i c t S k i l l s The m a j o r i t y of the above have used, t o v a r y i n g degrees, the f o l l o w i n g as a source: Johns, Eunice and F r a s e r , Dorothy McClure, Appendix, S o c i a l S t u d i e s S k i l l s : A Guide t o A n a l y s i s and Grade Placement. In Helen McCracken Carpenter (Ed.) S k i l l Development i n S o c i a l  S t u d i e s . 33rd Yearbook, N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l for S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Washington, D.C. 1963. (p. 60) T h i s i s the o n l y r e f e r e n c e t o m a t e r i a l s that were u t i l i z e d i n a r r i v i n g at the " s k i l l " component of the M i n i s t r y ' s n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " Sources t h a t shaped the other c o n s t i t u e n t s are not i n d i c a t e d . JUSTIFICATION While t h e r e does not seem t o be any j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " provided w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m , some r a t i o n a l e i s evident i n the statement below s u p p o r t i n g the use of " i s s u e s " and " s k i l l s , " of which "problem—solving" i s one of many: S o c i e t y demands that the p u b l i c s c h o o l s promote l e a r n i n g and p r o v i d e for the a c q u i s i t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge and the mastery of s k i l l s Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 44 upon which a student may b u i l d a s u c c e s s f u l f u t u r e . S o c i a l S t u d i e s makes a major c o n t r i b u t i o n i n meeting t h i s demand of s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the education of good c i t i z e n s , (p. 3) Furthermore, one reads, It i s the b e l i e f of those who have d r a f t e d t h i s c u r r i c u l u m that the key t o l e a r n i n g i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge. Concepts and s k i l l s , together with the d i s c u s s i o n o f contemporary i s s u e s , culminate i n the a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r knowledge t o a r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n . Cp. 4> Thus, the a c q u i s i t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of concepts and s k i l l s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the " d i s c u s s i o n of contemporary i s s u e s , " a re assumed t o be the means for students" t r a n s f e r e n c e of l e a r n i n g or, i n other words, t h e i r t o o l s t o achieve independence i n l e a r n i n g and t o p a r t i c i p a t e as r e s p o n s i b l e and p r o d u c t i v e c i t i z e n s . INTERVIEW FEEDBACK Interviewees, i n v o l v e d i n some way with the development of the 1983 c u r r i c u l u m , i n c l u d e d 49, 50, and 28, c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r s ; 24, 26, 28, and 30, R e v i s i o n Management Committee members; 31, a member of the Elementary Review Committee; and 60a, c h a i r p e r s o n of the S e l e c t Committee. Of the c o o r d i n a t o r s , 49 and 28 were i n v o l v e d o n l y with w r i t i n g the f i n a l document, not the A p r i l D r a f t , the development of which was c o o r d i n a t e d by 22 Che Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 45 passed away f o l l o w i n g h i s tenure as c o o r d i n a t o r ) . 50's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the 1983 c u r r i c u l u m was l i m i t e d t o her work with the Management Committee when 49 was i l l and while i t d i d not appear t o d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the n o t i o n , i t d i d r e l a t e t o the e v o l u t i o n of the term " i n q u i r i e s , " an apparent e f f o r t by the committee t o r e s o l v e c o n f u s i o n over the d e f i n i t i o n of " i s s u e s . " 24 and 26 were members of the Management Committee from i t s i n c e p t i o n while 29 and 30 j o i n e d a f t e r the f i r s t s i x months when the committee's mandate was broadened t o i n c o r p o r a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of elementary grades. As t h e i r membership preceded the appearance of the f i n a l four goal statements which f i r s t were noted by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i n the November, 1979 d r a f t , t h e i r understandings are r e l e v a n t t o the study. 31's mandate, as a member of the Elementary Review Committee, d i d not p e r t a i n t o the development or e x p l i c a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m ' s g o a l s . Yet, as d e v e l o p e r s of the body of the c u r r i c u l u m (1983), members of the Elementary Review Committee would have t o i n t e r p r e t the n o t i o n i n order t o accomplish t h e i r t a s k . For t h i s reason, 31's statements a r e p e r t i n a n t . The r o l e of the S e l e c t Committee was, a c c o r d i n g t o 60a, o n l y t o p r o v i d e a "candid o p i n i o n " of the proposed Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 46 c u r r i c u l u m . In that the S e l e c t Committee d i d not p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c s as t o what should be i n the document (60a), i t w i l l not be t r e a t e d as part of the development team. However, as some of the S e l e c t Committee's recommendations p e r t a i n e d t o the n o t i o n , i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as a source a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the development stage. INTENTIONS A review of how the i n t e n t i o n of the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and probl e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " was p e r c e i v e d by those who c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s development suggests that d i s c r e p a n t understandings were the norm, not the e x c e p t i o n . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , we look f i r s t t o the t h r e e c o o r d i n a t o r s who were i n v o l v e d , and then t o member(s) of the Management Committee and the Elementary Review Committee. (For more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s , r e f e r t o Appendix 2 .1. ) 1. C o o r d i n a t o r s Of the t h r e e c o o r d i n a t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development of the c u r r i c u l u m , 49 presented two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the n o t i o n , one which d e p i c t e d " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " as embracing "decision-making" and Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 47 "problem-solving," among other t h i n g s , and the other which equated " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " with " d e c i s i o n -making" while "problem-solving" was seen as somewhat d i f f e r e n t . H i s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t the former r e p r e s e n t e d the i n t e n t i o n of the document i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the employment of "and" i n the goal statements. 50 appeared t o focus on the " s k i l l s " aspect of the n o t i o n . 28 p e r c e i v e d that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " encompassed " i n q u i r y , " " problem-solving," and "decision-making." The c o o r d i n a t o r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s are summmarised i n the c h a r t below: 49 CT = DM + PS + X or CT = DM; PS = X 50 s k i l l s focus 28 CT = PS + DM + I n q u i r y ( r e l a t i o n s h i p s u n c l e a r ) Key: CT = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g DM = decision—making PS = prob l e m - s o l v i n g X = undefined; something d i f f e r e n t 2. Management Committee Members While the f i v e Management Committee members in t e r v i e w e d vary i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of what was intended by the n o t i o n , they seemed t o agree that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " " d e c i s i o n -making," "probi em—solving," and " i n q u i r y " was never r e c o n c i l e d . 26, 28, and 29 each i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 48 goal phrase, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " was i n t r o d u c e d l a t e r i n the development pro c e s s but how the n o t i o n evolved seemed t o be a puzz1e. Although none of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e very e x p l i c i t , they a re s u f f i c e n t for summarising the b a s i c p e r c e p t i o n s o f committee members on the c h a r t below: 24 CT £ DM CT = c e r e b r a l term d e p i c t i n g higher l e v e l t h i n k i n g (e.g., s y n t h e s i z i n g , e v a l u a t i n g ) DM = going beyond CT by t a k i n g a c t i o n DM model = p r a c t i c a l s t e p s t o t e a c h i n g t h i n k i n g 26 CT = PS = In q u i r y PS model = I n q u i r y model CT or PS or Inqui r y i n c l u d e I n q u i r y Processes or C o g n i t i v e S k i l l P rocesses 28 CT = PS + DM + In q u i r y Process ( r e l a t i o n s h i p not r e s o l v e d ) 29 CT = PS (+ CTP) + DM (+CTP) + CTP 30 CT = DM = PS Key: C T — c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g P S — p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g DM—dec i s i on-mak i ng C T P — c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g processes As d e p i c t e d above, 24 saw " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " as a mental a c t i v i t y employing higher l e v e l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s whereas "decision-making," she f e l t , went beyond t h i n k i n g t o " t a k i n g a c t i o n . " The "decision-making" Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 49 model was t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s with a step-by-step guide for t e a c h i n g t h i n k i n g . 26 thought Managment Committee members used "problem-solving" and " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . By "problem—solving," members r e a l l y meant " i n q u i r y . " Under the general r u b r i c of "problem-s o l v i n g " (or " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " or " i n q u i r y " ) would be found the i n q u i r y or c o g n i t i v e s k i l l " processes" the committee wanted c h i l d r e n t o experience. 29 envisaged " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " as the general r u b r i c , under which was found "problem—solving," "decision—making," and " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . " Of the l a t t e r , she i n d i c a t e d t h at they were i n c l u s i v e w i t h i n "decision-making" and "problem—solving" a c t i v i t i e s but may a l s o be employed s e p a r a t e l y . 30 i n d i c a t e d t h at the Management Committee used terms i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , equating " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " with "decision-making" and with "problem-solving." While 28 d i d suggest t h a t committee d i s c u s s i o n about terminology dwelt on whether some terms were synonymous, he i n d i c a t e d t h at i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i n c l u d e d "problem-solving" p l u s "decision-making" p l u s the " i n q u i r y p r o c e s s . " Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 50 In s p i t e of the d i f f e r e n c e s among these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , committee members appeared u n i f i e d i n t h e i r general impression of what the n o t i o n i m p l i e d for the c u r r i c u l u m . T h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s had i n common an approach t o s o c i a l s t u d i e s which encouraged a p r o g r e s s i o n beyond s t u d e n t s "memorising l a k e s and bays and streams and memorising e x p l o r e r s and k i n g s " (24) t o having them e x p l o r e q u e s t i o n s and i s s u e s , and c a r r y i n g out s k i l l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n order t o a c q u i r e understandings and a b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o the c i t i z e n s h i p a s p i r a t i o n s of the c u r r i c u l u m . 3. Elementary Review Committee As a member of the Elementary Review Committee, 31 d i d not r e c a l l working with the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " She n e i t h e r understood i t s i n t e n t nor agreed with i t as represe n t e d , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem—solving" were synonymous, "problem-solving" being a form of " r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y . " She claimed t h a t decision-making, not equated with " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " by the Elementary Review Committee, went beyond problem—solving t o i n c l u d e e x p l o r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a , making d e c i s i o n s which may Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 51 i n c l u d e a c t i o n , and e v a l u a t i n g the d e c i s i o n / a c t i o n . In chart—form, t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e c o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s : 31: CT = PS ( " v i r t u a l l y " ) DM * CT I n q u i r y = PS (+IP) + DM (+IP) + higher l e v e l I n q u i r y Processes I n q u i r y Processes = a n a l y s i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , e v a l u a t i n g SOURCES Interviewee comments were examined t o a s s e s s which r e f e r e n c e s were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-solving s k i l l s . " Other sources of i n t e r e s t i n c l u d e d input from c o n t r a c t groups, respondents t o the A p r i l D r a f t , c o n s u l t a n t s , committee members or other M i n i s t r y i n d i v i d u a l s , r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , and the S e l e c t Committee. (For a n a l y s e s d e t a i l s , r e f e r t o Appendix 2.2.) The Management Committee's terms of r e f e r e n c e i n c l u d e d M i n i s t r y d i r e c t i v e s that i t i n c o r p o r a t e the r e l e v a n t g o a l s from the Guide t o the Core C u r r i c u l u m (1977) and c o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y the r e p o r t s of the Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Review Committee (1976), the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment (1977), the e x i s t i n g S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m guides for B r i t i s h Columbia as well as comparable documents from the other Canadian p r o v i n c e s and a l l r e l e v a n t a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h . [ A p r i l D r a f t , 1980, P r e f a c e , page one of two! Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 52 It seems that c u r r i c u l a from other p r o v i n c e s , A l b e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r , were most i n f l u e n t i a l r e g a r d i n g the i n q u i r y approach adopted by the Management Committee. They a l s o had a binder of " a v a i l a b l e r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h " which was r e c o g n i s e d by 2G and 29 as a c o m p i l a t i o n of academic conference papers, i n c l u d i n g input by 45: i t was i m p l i e d by 26 that the s i g n i f i c a n c e of such c o n t r i b u t i o n s was of l i t t l e consequence as f a r as the committee's work was concerned. Contract group submissions were another source for the Management Committee t o c o n s i d e r . However, few i n t e r v i e w e e s c o u l d r e c a l l what a c t u a l i n f l u e n c e t h i s input had. Because some a l s o confused these b r i e f s with the A p r i l D r a f t feedback, both were c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r . It appears that 26*s assessment t h a t the committee focussed on p r a c t i t i o n e r input r a t h e r than u n i v e r s i t y submissions i s r e a l i s t i c . 29*s e x p r e s s i o n of committee d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e a l i n g with d i s c r e p a n t i n p u t , supported by 30, o f f e r s another e x p l a n a t i o n of why c o n t r i b u t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n may not have been ut i 1 i s e d . A p r i l D r a f t feedback seems t o have l e d t o most of the changes i n the c u r r i c u l u m . In that " i s s u e s " were Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 53 intended t o p r o v i d e the v e h i c l e for " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s , " t h e i r d i l u t i o n i n the f i n a l document and the removal of r e l a t e d t e a c h i n g notes and b i b l i o g r a p h y would have some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the n o t i o n . While a l l r e l e v a n t i n t e r v i e w e e s except 24 c r e d i t e d 45 with a d v i s i n g the Management Committee about the n o t i o n , t h e r e was doubt expressed about what a c t u a l impact a u n i v e r s i t y c o n s u l t a n t (45) had on i t , as r e p r e s e n t e d i n both the A p r i l D r a f t and the f i n a l document. While t h e r e was evidence of 45's input i n the A p r i l D r a f t , i n the r o l e exchange t e s t p r o v i d e d i n the appendix t e a c h i n g notes for d e a l i n g with i s s u e s and i n one b i b l i o g r a p h i c e n t r y , these were d e l e t e d i n the l a t e r c u r r i c u l u m (1983). In the guide, however, the i n t r o d u c t o r y statement (p. 7) that d e s c r i b e s " i s s u e s " as i n v o l v i n g disagreement about "matters of f a c t , matters of meaning or matters of v a l u e s " has been taken verbatim from 45's paper on i s s u e s (1981), page 2. He p o s i t s t h a t the o n l y i n f l u e n c e h i s work had was i n the committee's r e l a b e l l i n g of the " i s s u e s " column t o " i n q u i r i e s . " It seems that among committee members, 26 p r o v i d e d the i n q u i r y model (24, 30, 26; 49 c i t e d him as Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 54 c o n s u l t a n t for the n o t i o n ) , based, he claimed, on Edwin Fenton and John Dewey. 26 a l s o shared some i n f o r m a t i o n for d e a l i n g with i s s u e s , stemming from the Harvard P u b l i c Issues P r o j e c t <1967) and h i s own t e a c h i n g e x perience. 3 0 r s " s k i l l s l i s t " would appear t o have c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the f i n a l s k i l l s appendix C30, 24, 26). While on l y 26 appeared t o i n v e s t i g a t e the n o t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e i s evidence t o suggest that Bloom et a l . C1956) i n f l u e n c e d the framing of q u e s t i o n s (24, 29, 28). Interviewees were i n agreement t h a t " i s s u e s " were d i l u t e d i n the f i n a l document as a r e s u l t of M i n i s t r y i n t e r v e n t i o n , although they were not i n agreement as t o how or when t h i s o c c u r r e d . As " i s s u e s " a r e d e s c r i b e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m as i n v o l v i n g d i s p u t e s about matters of f a c t , meanings, and v a l u e s , and a l s o p r o v i d e the mo t i v a t i o n and f o c a l p o i n t for " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " such M i n i s t r y a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t . The r o l e of the S e l e c t Committee i s not e v i d e n t . Recommendations from the S e l e c t Committee that i f " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " g o a l s were t o be r e a l i s e d , the no t i o n needed c l a r i f i c a t i o n and "the i s s u e q u e s t i o n s had t o be t r u e i s s u e s . . . . t h a t allowed for d i v e r s e Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 55 p o i n t s of view" <60a) were not i n c o r p o r a t e d . Because the n o t i o n was not any c l e a r e r i n the f i n a l document and " i s s u e s , " r e l a b e l l e d as " i n q u i r i e s , " were even more d i l u t e than i n the A p r i l D r a f t , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r would judge t h a t the S e l e c t Committee had l i t t l e a f f e c t on the n o t i o n . The major sources u t i l i s e d i n the development of the n o t i o n seem t o be 26 and h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n of an " i n q u i r y model" as well as an approach t o d e a l i n g with i s s u e s ; 3 0 f s masters t h e s i s which along with the " s k i l l s l i s t s " c i t e d i n the guide, formed the b a s i s for the s k i l l s appendix; the A l b e r t a s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m with i t s i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y , i s s u e s / i n q u i r y -based approach; and the taxonomy of Bloom et a l . for f a s h i o n i n g q u e s t i o n s . While many acknowledged 45's c o n t r i b u t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n <29, 49, 28), he a c t u a l l y appeared t o have had l i t t l e impact. Nor were r e l e v a n t recommendations from the S e l e c t Committee acted upon. Feedback t o the A p r i l D r a f t , however, d i d seem t o have some i n f l u e n c e on adjustments t o the employment of c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s i n the f i n a l document. It i s of i n t e r e s t t o note that the p e r s p e c t i v e s of the i n t e r v i e w e e s vary as t o which sources were of importance t o the development of the n o t i o n . T h i s Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 56 seems p a r t l y due t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the t i m i n g of t h e i r involvement. In the case of the Management Committee and the Elementary Review Committee, the former d e v i s e d the g o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes w h i l e the l a t t e r formulated the grade t o p i c s . T h i s h e l p s t o e x p l a i n why the sources the Elementary Review Committee employed d i f f e r e d from those of the Management Committee. JUSTIFICATION C o n s i d e r i n g the apparent importance of the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " t o the four main program g o a l s , one wonders how the d e v e l o p e r s j u s t i f i e d i t s i n c l u s i o n over another " v e h i c l e " for a c q u i r i n g and a p p l y i n g knowledge. F i n d i n g l i t t l e e vidence i n the guide t o support i t , a s i d e from assumptions that exposure t o course content and the " e x e r c i s e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and prob l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " w i l l r e s u l t i n the t r a n s f e r e n c e of such knowledge and " s k i l l s " t o r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , one t u r n s t o the developers for t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . As the c o o r d i n a t o r s and the Management Committee were the o n l y ones i n v o l v e d i n r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s of the guide, o n l y t h e i r statements w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d here. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 57 Neither 49 or 28 were aware of what evidence the Management Committee c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e s e t t l i n g on the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " The assumption that t r a n s f e r e n c e would occur, 29 claimed, had j u s t i f i c a t i o n from her r e a d i n g of the l i t e r a t u r e , the s p e c i f i c s which she c o u l d not r e c a l l . She e x p l a i n e d : It seems t o me i n my r e a d i n g I came up with t h a t because t h a t ' s what I saw as being the great v a l u e . Content i s q u i c k l y f o r g o t t e n u n l e s s i t s put i n some kind of framework and u n l e s s i t has a conceptual base. The same a p p l i e s f o r p r o c e s s . A problem that might be r e l e v a n t today may not n e c e s s a r i l y be r e l e v a n t tomorrow but the p r o c e s s of a r r i v i n g at a s o l u t i o n c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o other problems and t h e r e f o r e i s v a l u a b l e . I t ' s a v a l u a b l e s k i l l . 24 c o u l d not r e c a l l whether the Management Committee examined s u p p o r t i n g evidence d u r i n g i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s . For r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n , she d i r e c t e d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o 26, the committee's r e f e r e n c e person for " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " On other hand, 26 p o i n t e d t o the experience of committee members and input from the f i e l d as s u p p o r t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the n o t i o n . However, as h i s statement below i l l u s t r a t e s , the committee f e l t i t was t r e a d i n g i n t o " v i r g i n t e r r i t o r y : " I t h i n k the p r a c t i t i o n e r s on the committee themselves, myself i n c l u d e d , would have i n d i c a t e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t r y i n g t h i n g s and what worked Macro-Implementat ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 58 and what d i d n ' t work. And that weighs q u i t e h e a v i l y , I t h i n k , i n terms of d e l i b e r a t i o n . And of course i n t r o d u c i n g t h e i r own knowledge of c o l l e a g u e s who had t r i e d t h i n g s and d i d not work or worked. 29, for i n s t a n c e , was a b l e t o o f f e r a l o t . Because of her r o l e as primary c o n s u l t a n t i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , she was a b l e t o come i n with i d e a s d i r e c t l y from the f i e l d . So t h e r e was a f e e d - i n that way i n terms of what works and what doesn't work. But I t h i n k the f e e l i n g of the Management Committee was that t h i s i s v i r g i n t e r r i t o r y and we r e a l l y have t o t h i n k about implementation. C o n s i d e r i n g the l a c k of consensus among in t e r v i e w e e s , and support for the n o t i o n t h a t appeared l i m i t e d t o 29's r e f e r e n c e t o general l i t e r a t u r e t h a t she had read and 26's mention that the committee r e l i e d b a s i c a l l y upon the e x p e r i e n c e of i t s members and input from t h e f i e l d v i a 29, j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the n o t i o n d i d not seem t o be a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n committee work. SUMMARY A n a l y s i s of the 1983 elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m d i d l i t t l e t o c l a r i f y the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " "Problem-s o l v i n g " seems t o be p o r t r a y e d as a s y s t e m a t i c form of " i n q u i r y . " What " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " e n t a i l s or i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o "problem-solving" i s not i n d i c a t e d . Nor i s any j u s t i f i c a t i o n p r ovided for assumptions t h a t p r a c t i c e i n a p p l y i n g " s k i l l s " and knowledge i n school w i l l r e s u l t i n the a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r l e a r n i n g t o a Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 59 " r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n " (p. 4 ) . The o n l y sources c i t e d t h a t might be r e l e v a n t t o the n o t i o n are those i n d i c a t i n g from where the s k i l l s appendix evolved. A review of t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of those i n v o l v e d i n some way with the development of the c u r r i c u l u m r e v e a l s as many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s as t h e r e were i n t e r v i e w e e s . C o o r d i n a t o r s (49, 50, 28), Management Committee members (24, 26, 29, 30, 28), and 31 of the Elementary Review Committee had d i f f e r e n t understandings of the s p e c i f i c components i n the n o t i o n and how they r e l a t e d t o each other. However, they seemed i n agreement as t o i t s general i n t e n t i o n — a n i n q u i r y approach t o l e a r n i n g which focussed on a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge r a t h e r than r o t e m e m o r i s a t i o n — a n d the f a c t t h at terminology was never c l a r i f i e d . Evidence t o j u s t i f y the conception p o r t r a y e d i n the document d i d not appear t o be of p a r t i c u l a r concern t o the Management Committee who f e l t t h a t i t was embarking upon " v i r g i n t e r r i t o r y " (24, 26). It appears that the main sources u t i l i s e d i n the development of the n o t i o n were 26*s c o n t r i b u t i o n of the i n q u i r y models for p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and decision—making, based on Dewey and Fenton, and perhaps some i d e a s borrowed from the Harvard P u b l i c Issues P r o j e c t ; 30 who provided the foundation f o r the s k i l l s appendix; the Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 60 A l b e r t a c u r r i c u l u m for i t s issues-based, m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y approach; and the i d e a s of Bloom et a l . for the c o n s t r u c t i o n of q u e s t i o n s . 45 and the S e l e c t Committee, each who were c r e d i t e d with input t h a t may have r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n , do not appear t o have had much impact. Feedback t o the A p r i l D r a f t appears t o have been somewhat r e s p o n s i b l e for the d i l u t i o n of " i s s u e s " i n the 1983 c u r r i c u l u m . C o n s i d e r i n g the d i s p a r i t y of understandings of s p e c i f i c s r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n among developers, and the vagueness of the n o t i o n as d e p i c t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m , i t would be s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " t r a n s l a t e d i n a c o h e s i v e manner throughout implementation endeavours. Chapter Three examines how these t r a n s l a t i o n s o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y . Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g Gl CHAPTER THREE MACRO-IMPLEMENTATION: MATERIALS In s p i t e of m i n i s t e r i a l concerns about which branches should handle implementation t a s k s (24, 26) and a " j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e " (26) throughout the r e v i s i o n over "shared" r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c u r r i c u l u m implementation (Annual Reports, 1977-1986), the M i n i s t r y e x h i b i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n implementation endeavours toward t h i s c u r r i c u l u m . P o t e n t i a l l y s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s were f i e l d — t e s t e d and when these seemed inadequate, new submissions were sought from p u b l i s h e r s . L a t e r , c o n t r a c t s or l e t t e r s of agreement were e s t a b l i s h e d with p u b l i s h e r s so that m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be designed t o match the c u r r i c u l u m . One textbook s e r i e s was p i l o t e d i n d r a f t form so that input from the f i e l d might be u t i l i s e d i n i t s p r o d u c t i o n . Resource manuals were w r i t t e n , v i d e o s made, and i n s e r v i c e handbooks produced. Some r e g i o n a l workshops were o f f e r e d for d i s t r i c t s t a f f s . What had p r e v i o u s l y been a d e f i c i e n c y of m a t e r i a l s would become a comparable wealth of r e s o u r c e s for s c h o o l s . As the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " was t o be the major v e h i c l e for s t u d e n t s a t t a i n i n g program g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , and Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 62 c o n s i d e r i n g that the c u r r i c u l u m lacked any e x p l i c a t i o n of i t or of the sources that c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t , one would expect t o see i n f o r m a t i o n i n the m a t e r i a l s that c l a r i f i e s the c u r r i c u l u m and enhances i t s implementation. To t h i s end, t h i s r e s e a r c h e r reviewed a l l p r e s c r i b e d and a u t h o r i s e d m a t e r i a l s f o r the c u r r i c u l u m . Interviews were conducted t o extend and c o r r o b o r a t e these f i n d i n g s , as w e l l as t o l e a r n how the M i n i s t r y f a c i l i t a t e d the implementation of the n o t i o n through the s e l e c t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n , and f i e l d — t e s t i n g of m a t e r i a l s , as well as about any other e f f o r t s undertaken t o enhance the p r o s p e c t s for implementation. R e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be shared, f i r s t f o c u s s i n g on the document a n a l y s i s and l a t e r on i n t e r v i e w feedback, i n order t o i l l u s t r a t e how the n o t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d and j u s t i f i e d i n the v a r i e d implementation endeavours, as well as sources which c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t . How these t r a n s l a t i o n s c o r r e l a t e with each other w i l l be noted as w e l l . DOCUMENT ANALYSIS Even while the S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide. Grade One-Grade Seven (1983) was being f i n a l i s e d , the M i n i s t r y d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o i t s implementation Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 63 through the s e l e c t i o n or development of m a t e r i a l s t h a t i n c l u d e d M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s , Douglas & M c l n t y r e ' s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l ' s I d e n t i t y S e r i e s , and Gage's Other P l a c e s . Other Times. CSee Appendix 3.1 for a n a l y s i s d e t a i l s . ) Common t o the m a t e r i a l s intended for the implementation of the c u r r i c u l u m i s a l a c k of any e x p l i c a t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s . " Data gleaned from 45's account of the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee's exper i e n c e and 50's p i l o t t e s t i n g r e p o r t are not o n l y devoid of the n o t i o n , but a l s o of any i n d i c a t i o n that i t was a c o n s i d e r a t i o n . It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s c o n c e r t i n g when a n o t i o n , intended as the major v e h i c l e for attainment of program g o a l s and l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , i s omitted even i n M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s , produced with c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t and expense e x p r e s s l y for the purpose of o r i e n t i n g educators t o the i n t e n t of the c u r r i c u l u m and f a c i l i t a t i n g i t s implementation. A l s o , the p u b l i c a t i o n s seldom i d e n t i f i e d s o u r c es u t i l i s e d i n the development of t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a s i d e from E x p l o r a t i o n s ' r e f e r e n c e t o two decision—making c o n s u l t a n t s , I d e n t i t y ' s c i t a t i o n of one author's d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , and the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e guide's Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 64 acknowledgement of Benjamin Bloom. P a r t i c u l a r s with which t o a s s e s s the v a l i d i t y of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are not evident i n the m a t e r i a l s . Within the M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s , one f i n d s v a r i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the i n q u i r y method. The 1983 o r i e n t a t i o n package v i d e o p r o v i d e s sample l e s s o n s of "problem—solving," r e f e r r i n g educators t o the primary r e s o u r c e guide for " e x t e n s i v e " e v a l u a t i o n s u g g e s t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s on how t o use the " i n q u i r y method." Three forms of i n q u i r y are promoted i n the l e a d e r ' s guide: "problem-solving," "decision-making," and " i s s u e s . " I n q u i r y "processes," i n v o l v e d i n a l l t h r e e forms of i n q u i r y , i n c l u d e o b s e r v i n g , comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , i n f e r r i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , g e n e r a l i s i n g , and d e f i n i n g . Neither p u b l i c a t i o n d e a l s with c r i t e r i a f o r making judgements. In the primary r e s o u r c e manual, "problem-solving" and "decision-making," r e f e r r e d t o i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y as " s k i l l s " and "processes," a r e emphasised, f o l l o w i n g the same s t e p s as o u t l i n e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Although c r i t e r i a for e v a l u a t i n g d e c i s i o n s are not explored, group consensus and a c t i o n i n "decision-making" are pursued t o a l i m i t e d degree. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 65 Suggestions for student a c t i v i t i e s , found i n the primary media r e s o u r c e s guide, p o r t r a y "problem-s o l v i n g " and "decision-making" s k i l l s , among o t h e r s , i n the form of "why" and "should" q u e s t i o n s . For i n s t r u c t i o n a l guidance p e r t a i n i n g t o these " s k i l l s , " i n s t r u c t o r s a re r e f e r r e d t o the c u r r i c u l u m . The T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o s are the o n l y M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s which purport t o " i l l u s t r a t e an important aspect of the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m — t h e emphasis on c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . " F o l l o w i n g t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y statement, the v i d e o s focus on "problem-solving," "decision-making," and " r o l e drama." The use of c r i t e r i a i n e v a l u a t i n g d e c i s i o n s i s not apparent t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r except t h a t the goal of group consensus i s employed i n one vide o . A c t i o n i s not i l l u s t r a t e d as pa r t of the "decision—making p r o c e s s . " The i n s e r v i c e handbook which accompanies the v i d e o s o n l y once mentions the n o t i o n i n i t s p r e f a c e . It c o n c e n t r a t e s on "problem-solving" and " d e c i s i o n -making" which a r e i d e n t i f i e d both as "processes" and " s k i l l s " and adheres t o s t e p s much as rep r e s e n t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m , although a c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of t h a t a c t i o n and d e c i s i o n s i n general a re not i l l u s t r a t e d . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 66 The i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual focusses on the "processes" of "problem-solving" and "decision-making," each " c e n t r a l t o the i n q u i r y p r o c e s s " (p. v i i ) , i n c o r p o r a t i n g "higher l e v e l i n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s i n c l u d i n g a n a l y z i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g " (p. 125) t o be i n s t i g a t e d by " c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s t i o n s " Cp. 63) modelled a f t e r Bloom et a l . ' s Taxonomy of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s (1956). R e f e r r i n g once t o the c u r r i c u l u m which "encourages the use of the i n q u i r y approach t o c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . . . " (p.3), t h i s i s the o n l y e x p l i c i t l i n k a g e made between the r e s o u r c e manual's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the c u r r i c u l u m . However, here " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " appears t o be r e p r e s e n t e d as an outcome r e s u l t i n g from the i n q u i r y approach whereas the c u r r i c u l u m proposes t h a t " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " a re v e h i c l e s for program g o a l s and l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . Group consensus i n " d e c i s i o n -making" i s recommended i n some i n s t a n c e s , but the use of a c t i o n i n "decision-making" i s not d e p i c t e d . How d e c i s i o n s are t o be e v a l u a t e d i s not e x p l i c a t e d e i t h e r . Other p u b l i c a t i o n s that p o r t r a y an i n q u i r y - b a s e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e t h e teachers* guides for Douglas & M c l n t y r e ' s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s and P r e n t i c e — H a l 1 ' s I d e n t i t y S e r i e s . The manual Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 67 accompanying the d i s c u s s i o n p i c t u r e s e t s , although p u b l i s h e d i n 1974, a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s some a s p e c t s of an i n q u i r y approach. The " i n q u i r y p r o c e s s " i s c e n t r a l t o the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s . L i n k i n g s i x l e v e l s of i n q u i r y , q u e s t i o n s , and t h i n k i n g (but not acknowledging the source of the design as Bloom et a l . ) t o a t h r e e - s t e p "decision-making" model, the E x p l o r a t i o n s t e a c h e r s ' guides imply that by w r e s t l i n g with the q u e s t i o n s v i a the "decision-making p r o c e s s , " s t u d e n t s should r e a l i s e higher l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g , as well as other o b j e c t i v e s . U n l i k e the "decision-making" s t e p s d e p i c t e d i n the 1983 c u r r i c u l u m (p. 45), n e i t h e r a c t i o n nor group consensus seems t o be part of the "decision—making p r o c e s s . " The I d e n t i t y "Taxonomy of L e a r n i n g P r o c e s s e s " i n c l u d e s l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g r e l a t e d t o a c q u i r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g data through r e c a l l and o b s e r v a t i o n , viewing s i t u a t i o n s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of an i n s i d e r , and problem—solving, decision-making, and e v a l u a t i o n . While e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a for d e c i s i o n s appears t o be important t o t h i s program, t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n for the i n s t r u c t o r on what those c r i t e r i a might be. T h i s i s the o n l y p u b l i c a t i o n that makes a conce r t e d e f f o r t t o e v a l u a t e i n q u i r y — r e l a t e d outcomes but t h e r e Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 68 i s l i t t l e guidance upon which t o judge p r o f i c i e n c y . A c t i o n , "where a p p r o p r i a t e " (Grade 5 Teacher's E d i t i o n , p. 9 ) , i s part of the decision—making process, as i s group consensus. The C u l t u r e Realms of the World: Teacher's Manual i n t e g r a t e s concepts and t h r e e forms of i n q u i r y : a n a l y s i s , s y n t h e s i s , and examining a problem from the p e r s p e c t i v e s o f those i n v o l v e d . "Problem-solving" e x p l o r e s v a l u e s , much l i k e t he "decision—making" model i n the c u r r i c u l u m , except for the ommission of e v a l u a t i o n of the a c t i o n . "Thinking p r o c e s s e s , " i n c l u d i n g g a t h e r i n g , o r g a n i s i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , and a p p l y i n g data, a re a l s o p a r t of each form of i n q u i r y . Standards for ju d g i n g d e c i s i o n s are not e v i d e n t . In summary, i t appears that t r a n s l a t i o n s o f the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " have i n common the element of " i n q u i r y . " Some form of "problem-solving" and/or "decision-making" i s employed i n teacher m a t e r i a l s , i n most cases a l s o i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h i n k i n g "processes" or " s k i l l s . " Another f e a t u r e u t i l i s e d i n many m a t e r i a l s t o d i f f e r e n t degrees i s student examination of s i t u a t i o n s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of an " i n s i d e r . " Questions, based on the Bloom et a l . Taxonomy of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s (1956), appear t o be Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 69 the s t a r t i n g p o i n t for i n q u i r y . With the e x c e p t i o n of Douglas & M c l n t y r e * s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , m a t e r i a l s promote t o v a r y i n g e x t e n t s group r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t and the use of a c t i o n i n "decision—making." Although e v a l u a t i o n of d e c i s i o n s may be a p a r t of d e c i s i o n -making, t h e r e appears t o be l i t t l e e x p l i c i t d i r e c t i o n t o a s s i s t t e a c h e r s or s t u d e n t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a , except for Douglas and M c l n t y r e ' s d i s c u s s i o n of moral standards. How c o u l d these m a t e r i a l s (with the e x c e p t i o n of the C u l t u r e Realms of the World: Teacher's Manual), c r e a t e d t o c l a r i f y the c u r r i c u l u m , n e g l e c t t o e x p l i c a t e how t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h e r e i n r e l a t e t o the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s ? " Even i n the T h i n k i n g Together k i t , the o n l y p u b l i c a t i o n which r e f e r s t o the n o t i o n , t h i s i s not done. Examination of r e l a t e d i n t e r v i e w feedback may p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n , as well as c o r r o b o r a t e t h i s a n a l y s i s . INTERVIEW FEEDBACK Interview statements were examined f i r s t t o v e r i f y the i n t e n t i o n of, j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r , and s o u r ces c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the n o t i o n , as i n t e r p r e t e d i n the Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 70 m a t e r i a l s . (See Appendix 3.2 for a n a l y s i s d e t a i l s . ) A l s o , c o n s i d e r a t i o n was giv e n t o why the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " seemed t o be abandoned. Interviewees i n v o l v e d with implementation m a t e r i a l s (the c o o r d i n a t o r s , two members of the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee, and major a u t h o r s / e d i t o r s / a d v i s o r s ) were i n t e r v i e w e d (N = 11). One e x c e p t i o n was i n the case of the primary r e s o u r c e manual where 62, the secondary author, was c o n s u l t e d because of the d i f f i c u l t y t h i s r e s e a r c h e r had i n c o n t a c t i n g 68, the major author. Interview feedback c o r r o b o r a t e d the document a n a l y s i s except i n two i n s t a n c e s . F i r s t , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was i n c o r r e c t i n assuming t h a t an attempt had been made t o l i n k "decision-making" and " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i n M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s . Second, she d i d not r e c o g n i s e as e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a t he t h r e e moral standards that 45 claimed were imbedded i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s decision-making model. These i n c l u d e d the r o l e exchange t e s t (e.g., Would you want t h i s d e c i s i o n t o apply t o you?), the u n i v e r s a l i s a t i o n t e s t (e.g., What would happen i f everyone faced with the same s i t u a t i o n d i d what you suggest?), and the new Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 71 cases t e s t (e.g., Mould t h i s s o l u t i o n a pply i n other s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s ? ) . With t h i s new i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o moral standards, the r e s e a r c h e r r e — a s s e s s e d the use of c r i t e r i a i n the T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o s . In one video, where a d e c i s i o n i s being g e n e r a l i s e d , i t would appear t h a t a new cases t e s t i s being used because s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o "apply a p r i n c i p l e a c c e p t a b l e t o them, t o new, l o g i c a l l y r e l e v a n t c a s e s " (45, 1981, p. 47). It would a l s o appear that i n the v i d e o p o r t r a y i n g r o l e drama and i n the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s , the focus on r o l e exchange c o u l d exemplify a r o l e exchange t e s t where the student i s asked " t o exchange r o l e s with those a f f e c t e d by the a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s p r i n c i p l e and c o n s i d e r whether or not he c o u l d s t i l l accept the p r i n c i p l e " (45, 1981, p. 48). Some m a t e r i a l s promote t h i s standard t o v a r y i n g degrees, but none so c l e a r l y as the r o l e drama e x h i b i t e d i n the T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o . M i s s i n g s t i l l i n a l l m a t e r i a l s , i t seems, i s any c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t t o guide s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s i n e v a l u a t i n g f a c t s , meanings, and arguments, even though such e v a l u a t i o n i s purported t o be an o b j e c t i v e i n the S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide, Grade One—Grade Seven. Macro-Imp lenient at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 72 1983 (p. 45), as well as i n some of the m a t e r i a l s . For example, when the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s l i s t s s e v e r a l c r i t i c a l l e v e l r e a d i n g comprehension " s k i l l s " which p e r t a i n t o the v a l i d i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e a re few s i t u a t i o n s where t h i s i s ex p l o r e d . A l s o , i n d e a l i n g with primary and secondary sources, the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s misses the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l a t e them and i l l u s t r a t e how i n f o r m a t i o n may be a l t e r e d when the secondary source i n t e r p r e t s the primary source (e.g., grade 4 t e a c h e r ' s book, pp. 309-310). Students are c o n s i s t e n t l y expected t o p r o v i d e reasons why a s o l u t i o n t o an i s s u e or q u e s t i o n has merit, without having much understanding of what counts as a sound d e c i s i o n or v a l i d i n f o r m a t i o n . The phrase, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g , " e i t h e r u n c l e a r t o at odds with the co n c e p t i o n s of the dev e l o p e r s of m a t e r i a l s , seems t o have been abandoned i n many i n s t a n c e s . T h i s was seemingly an i n t e n t i o n a l a ct by 31, a d v i s o r t o G2 and 23, i n the c r e a t i o n of most of the M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s , as i t was by 67 and 66, c r e a t o r s of the E x p l o r a t i o n s and I d e n t i t y S e r i e s . 67 and 66 d i s a g r e e d with the n o t i o n as d e p i c t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m and 31 "wished i t would go away." The M i n i s t r y Information Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 73 C i r c u l a r #167 (p. 3, composed by 62), the T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o s ( i n t r o d u c e d by 62), and the i n s e r v i c e handbook accompanying the T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o s (p. i i i ) i n d i c a t e d t h at M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s (e.g., o r i e n t a t i o n v i d e o s , some which support the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual, or the i n s e r v i c e handbook) or r e l a t e d o r i e n t a t i o n workshops focussed on " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " ; t he m a t e r i a l s , developed p r i m a r i l y by 31, d i s c u s s and p o r t r a y "decision-making" and "problem-solving." T h i s s i t u a t i o n seems t o be evidence o f the c o n f l i c t between 62, the c o o r d i n a t o r attempting t o p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i t y from the c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s , and 31 who d i s a g r e e d with the phrase, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " Sources u t i l i s e d i n M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s seemed dependent upon r e s o u r c e people who were l a r g e l y members of the development team. 31 and/or 29 were a d v i s o r s i n a l l M i n i s t r y endeavours and t h e r e i s evidence t o suggest t h a t 31's c o n t r i b u t i o n s a f f e c t e d the t r a n s l a t i o n of the n o t i o n i n most of those m a t e r i a l s . 29"s input appears most evident i n the d e l i n e a t i o n of " i n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s " i n the 1983 o r i e n t a t i o n package l e a d e r ' s guide. For the m a t e r i a l s p u b l i s h e d p r i o r t o 1983, t h e A p r i l D r a f t was the o n l y M i n i s t r y r e s o u r c e Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 74 u t i l i s e d , and the p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l u m . 31 s t a t e d that the n o t i o n represented i n the A p r i l D r a f t and the c u r r i c u l u m was dropped i n t e n t i o n a l l y , a g r e e i n g with 29, G2, and 23 that the A p r i l D r a f t and the c u r r i c u l u m were uncl e a r about the n o t i o n . 45 seems t o have been the o n l y r e s o u r c e person who c o n t r i b u t e d to 67's t r a n s l a t i o n i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , which 67 claimed was based l a r g e l y on Bloom et a l . While the Bloom et a l . i n f l u e n c e i s most apparent i n the q u e s t i o n s , l e v e l s of i n q u i r y , and d e c i s i o n -making, 45*s input i s evident i n the t h r e e moral standards for decision—making. He and 72, each c r e d i t e d as decision—making c o n s u l t a n t s i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s t e a c h e r s ' books, a l s o authored s t u d e n t s ' decision-making a c t i v i t i e s . 28, the c o o r d i n a t o r who i n t e r a c t e d with 67, i n f l u e n c e d the " i s s u e s " t hat were employed i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s . In h i s l e t t e r t o 67 (January 24, 1983), 28 recommended that decision-making a c t i v i t i e s should not i n v o l v e "value judgments which l e a d t o ' r i g h t ' and 'wrong', 'good* and 'bad'..., 'best* and 'not so good*... d e c i s i o n s . " Uncomfortable with the n o t i o n i n the A p r i l D r a f t , 67 i n c o r p o r a t e d her understanding of Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 75 what " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " s hould be. 66*s work i n the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s was based l a r g e l y on her d o c t o r a l t h e s i s and the i n f l u e n c e of C h a r l o t t e C r a b t r e e , her a d v i s o r . Evidence of M i n i s t r y input i s not e x t e n s i v e , as far as the t r a n s l a t i o n of the n o t i o n i s concerned. The o n l y M i n i s t r y r e s o u r c e that she depended on was the A p r i l D r a f t , from which she added "decision—making" t o her "taxonomy." While those i n v o l v e d with these m a t e r i a l s r a t i o n a l i s e d why they i n t e r p r e t e d the n o t i o n as they d i d , the evidence shows that they may not have understood the c u r r i c u l u m very w e l l . The f o l l o w i n g summary c h a r t , based upon evidence p r o v i d e d from the document a n a l y s i s and the i n t e r v i e w s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s Chapter, i l l u s t r a t e s how the m a t e r i a l s i n t e r p r e t the c u r r i c u l u m . M a t e r i a l CT&PSS PS DM Cr. Con. Act. Th. P/S IP Guide * ** ** x * * * * 1983 v i d e o x *# x x x x x x 1983 LG x S* .** x ? ? * ? PRM x ** #* x * ** * #* PMRG x # * x * * x * TT v i d e o s * ** ** l t d . ** x x ** Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 76 Mater i a l CT&PSS PS DM Cr. Con. Act. Th. P/S IP TT HB X ** ** X * X X ** IRM X ** ** l t d . * X * ** CRTM X (**> X X X * ** D&Mc X (**) l t d . X X * ** P-H X ** ** l t d . ** ** * ** Abbr e v i at i ons M a t e r i a l s : G u i d e — 1 9 8 3 c u r r i c u l u m guide 1983 v i d e o — 1 9 8 3 o r i e n t a t i o n package v i d e o 1983 LG—1983 o r i e n t a t i o n package l e a d e r ' s guide PRM—primary r e s o u r c e manual PMRG—primary media r e s o u r c e guide TT v i d e o s — T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o s TT H B — T h i n k i n g Together i n s e r v i c e handbook I R M — i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual C R T M — C u l t u r a l Realms t e a c h e r ' s manual D&Mc—Douglas & M c l n t y r e ' s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s t e a c h e r ' s book P - H — P r e n t i c e - H a l l ' s I d e n t i t y S e r i e s t e a c h e r ' s e d i t i o n Components: C T & P S S — " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " P S — p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g DM—dec i s i on-maki ng C r — c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g d e c i s i o n s C o n—consensus i n decision-making A c t . — a c t i o n i n decision—making Th. P / S — t h i n k i n g processes and/or s k i l l s I P — e x a m i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s from an " i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e " Key: * — component mentioned but not e x p l i c a t e d ## - component employed and e x p l a i n e d t o v a r y i n g degrees x - component not present, as far as t h i s r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d determine ? - re s e a r c h e r unsure i f component present because i n the case o f the 1983 Leader's Guide, she d i d not have ac c e s s t o the complete Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 77 p u b l i c a t i o n . (##> — In CRTM, component d e s c r i b e d as problem-s o l v i n g e x h i b i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of decision-making and i n D&Mc, d e c i s i o n -making i n c o r p o r a t e s p roblem-solving l t d . — l i m i t e d a s p e c t s of component employed somewhat, but not e x p l i c a t e d Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 78 CHAPTER FOUR MACRO-IMPLEMENTATION: PHASES OF DECISION-MAKING The M i n i s t r y ' s e f f o r t s i n f a c i l i t a t i n g implementation o f the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " a re here d i s c u s s e d i n l i g h t o f t h r e e f a c t o r s from the l i t e r a t u r e on macro-implementation: c l a r i t y of e x p e c t a t i o n s , the nature o f l i a i s o n , and c a p a c i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s . The i s s u e s r a i s e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a l s o have u t i l i t y for the implementation of other c u r r i c u l a r p o l i c i e s . The p o l i c y ' s p r e p a r a t o r y phase i s f i r s t reviewed, f o l l o w e d by examination o f the development and implementation f a c i l i t a t i o n phases. (Refer t o Chapter I f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of these phases and f a c t o r s as i d e n t i f i e d by the l i t e r a t u r e on macro-implementation; Appendix 4.1 p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f these f a c t o r s and phases; Appendix 4.2 p r o v i d e s a d i s c u s s i o n of the context of the M i n i s t r y and the broader p o l i t i c a l , economic, and c u r r i c u l a r c o n t e x t s of these phases and factors.> PREPARATORY PHASE (1975-1978) In the p r e p a r a t o r y phase, the M i n i s t r y reviewed the need for p o l i c y change, as well as assessed Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 79 d i r e c t i o n s the p o l i c y should f o l l o w . P o l i c y development would be d i r e c t e d by 22, a c o o r d i n a t o r who was h i r e d a year i n advance t o d e v i s e a c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g model and gather a r e v i s i o n team. In s p i t e of t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n , t h e r e seemed t o be inadequacies i n how the M i n i s t r y addressed l i a i s o n , c l a r i t y of e x p e c t a t i o n s , and c a p a c i t y . Although data a r e l i m i t e d , i t would appear that the M i n i s t r y ' s l a c k of response t o the 1977 assessment (28, 60a) and the M i n i s t e r ' s apparent d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the i n f o r m a t i o n i t s u p p l i e d (60a) a r e i n d i c a t i v e of i n c o n s i s t e n t l i a i s o n and unclear e x p e c t a t i o n s . 60a and 28 s t a t e d that the p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l u m was such t h a t s t a n d a r d i s e d comparison of l e a r n i n g outcomes a c r o s s classrooms was not p o s s i b l e . Had the M i n i s t e r c l a r i f i e d h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s for the assessment, he may have become aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the e x i s t i n g p o l i c y and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s for assessment. I f , as 28 p o s i t e d , the need for new secondary m a t e r i a l s was m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a need for r e v i s i o n of the e n t i r e secondary c u r r i c u l u m , t h i s too would imply i n c o n s i s t e n t communication. Appointment of 60a and 93 t o both the review and the assessment seems t o have been i n s u f f i c i e n t t o f a c i l i t a t e shared understandings among Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 80 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s p r e p a r a t o r y phase of the r e v i s i o n . It appears t h a t the r e s u l t s of the assessment and the review were l e f t t o M i n i s t r y personnel t o i n t e r p r e t i n v a r i o u s ways (28, 29). Data are l a c k i n g r e g a r d i n g M i n i s t r y a t t e n t i o n t o the need for developing the c a p a c i t y o f M i n i s t r y and p o l i c y s e c t o r personnel f o r the p r o c e s s of change du r i n g the review and the assessment. Most members of the review appear t o have been secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s w h i l e the assessment team i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s s t a k e h o l d e r s , with s i g n i f i c a n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by u n i v e r s i t y academics. However, ju d g i n g from the l i m i t e d u t i l i t y of the review and assessment r e p o r t s for c l a r i f y i n g s o c i a l s t u d i e s p r i o r i t i e s (26), f a m i l i a r i t y with implementation l i t e r a t u r e d i d not appear t o be a c r i t e r i a for membership s e l e c t i o n nor a c o n s i d e r a t i o n for i n s e r v i c e . C a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g i n order t o enhance 22's endeavours was not e v i d e n t , even though he was t o be the c o o r d i n a t o r of the e a r l y r e v i s i o n . Described as having some background i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s (23, 31), 22 d i d not appear t o e x h i b i t e x t e n s i v e knowledge of implementation or the n o t i o n . I f the e x p e r i e n c e s of other r e v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r s (49, 50, 28, 59, 62, 23) Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 81 were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of M i n i s t r y f u n c t i o n i n g d u r i n g t h i s phase of the r e v i s i o n , 22 would have been expected t o s a t i s f y h i s mandate without much guidance t o enhance h i s knowledge of implementation or of the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " I n c o n s i s t e n t l i a i s o n and i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s c r e p a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s suggests a need for those who design assessments and reviews t o have an understanding of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r recommendations as well as what i s e n t a i l e d i n the proc e s s o f change i n order t o a n t i c i p a t e implementation d i f f i c u l t i e s and enhance t h e u t i l i t y of the r e s u l t s for dev e l o p e r s . M i n i s t r y c o o r d i n a t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e for pl a n n i n g p o l i c y development r e q u i r e s i m i l a r understandings i f the r e s u l t i n g p o l i c y i s t o be implementable. DEVELOPMENT PHASE (1978-1985) During the p o l i c y development phase of the r e v i s i o n , inadequacies i n c l a r i t y of e x p e c t a t i o n s , l i a i s o n , and c a p a c i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were a l s o apparent. Terms of r e f e r e n c e , d i r e c t i v e s , c o n s i d e r a b l e o u t s i d e input from c o n t r a c t groups and r e a c t i o n panels, and feedback from at l e a s t t h r e e d r a f t s were pro v i d e d Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 82 t o d e v e l o p e r s without a s s u r i n g that the i n f o r m a t i o n was understood or that d e v e l o p e r s had the c a p a c i t y t o deal with i t (24, 26, 28, 49, 29). Although 28 and 25 were appointed t o the Management Committee Ceach having p a r t i c i p a t e d i n e i t h e r the review or the assessment), committee members worked b a s i c a l l y on t h e i r own, u n t i l p u b l i c d i s s e n s i o n over the A p r i l D r a f t motivated i n t e r v e n t i o n by M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s C24, 26, 28, 29, 49,). L i a i s o n between the Management Committee and the Elementary Review Committee, e f f e c t e d v i a the c o o r d i n a t o r and 29, a Management Committee member appointed t o f a c i l i t a t e communication, d i d not i n v o l v e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the i n t e n t of the c u r r i c u l u m , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " (31). The n a t u r e of l i a i s o n w i t h i n the Management Committee d i d not appear t o promote a shared understanding of concepts c e n t r a l t o t h i s n o t i o n (26, 24, 28, 30, 29, 49, 50), thus l i m i t i n g r e l a t e d c u r r i c u l u a r d e c i s i o n -making and l i a i s o n . Evidence a l s o shows that M i n i s t r y branches tended t o f u n c t i o n independently, except f o r o c c a s i o n a l i n f o r m a l l i a i s o n at the d i s c r e t i o n of the c o o r d i n a t o r s i n v o l v e d (28, 24, 49, 59, 23). Some concern w i t h i n the Management Committee for implementation (24, 26) l e d t o the promoting of a Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 83 t e a c h e r ' s r e s o u r c e book t o h e l p e x p l i c a t e what members saw as a c u r r i c u l u m r e p r e s e n t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t change for t e a c h e r s (24, 26, 29, 49, 31). However, t h i s focus on a r e s o u r c e book meant t h a t d e v e l o p e r s d i d not w r e s t l e with implementation i s s u e s themselves (26). I n s e r v i c e r e l a t e d t o the p o l i c y or t o i t s implementation was not a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the development phase (24, 49, 28, 59, 29, 31), a s i d e from the c o o r d i n a t o r seeking input from a u n i v e r s i t y academic about " i s s u e s " a f t e r the r e l e a s e of the 1980 A p r i l D r a f t when feedback r e v e a l e d conceptual e r r o r s (60a, 50, 49). It seems t h a t c a p a c i t y of p r a c t i t i o n e r -o r i e n t e d d e v e l o p e r s and c o o r d i n a t o r s was such that they d i d not r e c o g n i s e the need for guidance (49), and t h i s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o conceptual e r r o r s i n the c u r r i c u l u m (60a, 50). C a p a c i t y inadequacies may i n part e x p l a i n the apparent n e g l e c t of "expert" input when i t was a v a i l a b l e (e.g., 45's 1981 paper on " i s s u e s ; " the 1980 monograph on "implementation"). C a p a c i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the development phase of the r e v i s i o n was a l s o hindered by i n s u f f i c i e n t time. The t i m i n g of Management Committee meetings, monthly two-day s e s s i o n s , seemed t o d e t r a c t from c o n t i n u i t y (24, 29, 26, 30). Concurrent employment Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 84 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (24, 26, 28, 45), or i n the case of c o o r d i n a t o r s , d u t i e s i n v o l v i n g other s u b j e c t areas (28, 49, 59), l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s and i n c l i n a t i o n s t o r e f l e c t on c u r r i c u l a r conceptual c o m p l e x i t i e s (26, 45), as d i d the o v e r l a p p i n g of the development and implementation phases which meant that c o o r d i n a t o r s had the a d d i t i o n a l task of monitoring implementation p r o j e c t s w h i l e c u r r i c u l u m development was s t i l l i n p r o g r e s s . The time that M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s c o u l d devote t o s o c i a l s t u d i e s was r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for a l l s u b j e c t areas. During the l a t t e r p a r t of the development phase of the r e v i s i o n , the c a p a c i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s may have been f u r t h e r a f f e c t e d by s u b s t a n t i a l r e o r g a n i s a t i o n i n the M i n i s t r y . C o o r d i n a t o r s were l i k e l y most a f f e c t e d , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t they changed almost a n n u a l l y a f t e r 22's departure. Apparently l a c k i n g a thorough understanding of the n o t i o n and implementation, these c o o r d i n a t o r s would u n l i k e l y have had s u f f i c i e n t r e f l e c t i v e time t o a c q u i r e adequate knowledge t o monitor the i n t e g r i t y of the n o t i o n . However, c o n s i d e r i n g the A p r i l D r a f t d i d not seem t o e x p l i c a t e the i n t e n t of the n o t i o n when M i n i s t r y o r g a n i s a t i o n appeared more s t a b l e , one might Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 85 query whether l a t e r changes c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the n o t i o n ' s vagueness. When the 1980 A p r i l D r a f t became the c e n t r e of p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y , f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n was put on hold w h i l e the M i n i s t r y engaged an anonymous committee, the membership of which favoured u n i v e r s i t y academicians, t o p r o v i d e i t s o p i n i o n about the v i a b i l i t y of the secondary component (grades seven t o eleven) o f the proposed document (28, GOa). Judging from the changes i n the f i n a l documents, a c c e p t a b i l i t y by the " f i e l d " seemed t o be the M i n i s t r y ' s main concern. Contentious " i s s u e s " and "content arrangements" were a d j u s t e d t o s a t i s f y the many secondary educators who lacked the c a p a c i t y and perhaps d e s i r e t o implement a m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y , i s sues-based c u r r i c u l u m (29, 28, GOa). Repercussions were a l s o seen i n the elementary document which i n c u r r e d changes t o grade seven content and the d i s s o l u t i o n o f " i s s u e s . " Had M i n i s t r y personnel a b e t t e r understanding of the n o t i o n and of implementation p r i o r t o development e f f o r t s , they may have been b e t t e r equipped t o a n t i c i p a t e and work through the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t the p o l i c y met with. With s u s t a i n e d l i a i s o n w i t h i n i t s o r g a n i s a t i o n and a c r o s s committees, i t would have been Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 86 b e t t e r a b l e t o monitor progress, promote i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t encouraged p o l i c y c l a r i t y , and a s s i s t with the ongoing c a p a c i t y needs of i t s s t a f f . I f the development committees had more l i a i s o n with personnel i n the assessment and implementation branches, they may have r e s o l v e d implementation and e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s b e f o r e the p o l i c y was r e l e a s e d . IMPLEMENTATION FACILITATION PHASE (1979-1986) In the implementation f a c i l i t a t i o n phase, p o l i c y was s u b j e c t t o r e d e f i n i t i o n as i t passed t o the s e l e c t i o n and development of m a t e r i a l s , t o adoption by l o c a l school d i s t r i c t s , and from l o c a l school d i s t r i c t p r o j e c t s ( l o c a l development of i n s e r v i c e p l a n s and m a t e r i a l s ) t o classroom use. During t h i s phase, c l a r i t y o f e x p e c t a t i o n s was an i s s u e , as were l i a i s o n and c a p a c i t y . POLICY TO MATERIALS In the passage from p o l i c y t o m a t e r i a l s , M i n i s t r y concern for p o l i c y c l a r i t y and cohesiveness was seen i n i t s commissioning of new m a t e r i a l s t o match the proposed c u r r i c u l u m , i t s appointment of members of the development committees t o a s s i s t i n t h e s e l e c t i o n and Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 87 p r o d u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s , and i t s sponsorship of a d d i t i o n a l M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s t o i l l u s t r a t e the n o t i o n . L i a i s o n between the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee and the d e v e l o p e r s of these m a t e r i a l s was l i m i t e d , however, with c o o r d i n a t o r s a p p a r e n t l y unable or not i n c l i n e d t o e x p l i c a t e the i n t e n t of the p o l i c y (28, 59, 31, 45, 66, 67). In one case, the c o o r d i n a t o r (28) r e f e r r e d 67, e d i t o r of the Douglas & M c l n t r y e E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , t o 45, the author of the " i s s u e s " paper (1981), for c l a r i f i c a t i o n . L a t e r , however, f o l l o w i n g the A p r i l D r a f t , 28 informed 67 that her w r i t e r s (45 and 72) had "tangled decision-making and v a l u i n g " and t h a t i t was t o be r e c t i f i e d . Otherwise, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were l e f t t o the p r i o r i t i e s and understandings of committee members, authors and e d i t o r s , none who appeared t o have b e n e f i t t e d from r e l e v a n t input from the assessment and implementation branches (66, 67, 31, 59). During the one o c c a s i o n when the Management Committee met with the t h r e e M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees (50), p o l i c y c l a r i f i c a t i o n d i d not appear t o be a p r i o r i t y (31, 45). Congruency of m a t e r i a l s with the n o t i o n was not achieved beyond "content" congruency (45). Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 8B M i n i s t r y concern about the changes i n t e a c h i n g methodology t h a t were i m p l i e d by the r e v i s e d c u r r i c u l u m was evident i n i t s p r o v i s i o n of a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s and i t s f i e l d — t e s t i n g endeavours. However, i t s c a p a c i t y — b u i l d i n g e f f o r t s d i d not extend t o i t s c o o r d i n a t o r s who, d u r i n g t h i s phase of the r e v i s i o n , were r e p l a c e d y e a r l y and seemed t o l a c k adequate time and guidance t o a c q u i r e the understandings necessary t o monitor the p r o d u c t i o n s (28, 50, 59, 62>. Perhaps i t was f e l t t h a t s e l e c t i o n of c o o r d i n a t o r s and a d v i s o r s who had p r i o r involvement with some aspect of the r e v i s i o n (e.g., 28 had p a r t i c i p a t e d on the review team, the Management Committee for i t s f i r s t year, and as a c o o r d i n a t o r i n the implementation branch; 59 had been i n v o l v e d with m a t e r i a l s through h i s r o l e as an implementation c o o r d i n a t o r ; 62 had been a co-author of the primary r e s o u r c e manual; and a d v i s o r s , 29 and 31, had been members of the Management Committee and Elementary Review Committee r e s p e c t i v e l y ) was s u f f i c i e n t t o maintain cohesiveness. However, evidence shows that c o o r d i n a t o r s were i n a weak p o s i t i o n t o r a t i o n a l i s e t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s with a d v i s o r s and d e v e l o p e r s who succeeded i n promoting t h e i r own understandings (28, 50, 59, 66, 67, 31, 23). Another Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 89 e x p l a n a t i o n may be that the M i n i s t r y ' s p o s s i b l e s h i f t t o c o o r d i n a t o r s with management c a p a b i l i t i e s (23, 31) i n order t o get the job f i n i s h e d superceded i t s concern for c o n s i s t e n c y . Or as 49 i n d i c a t e d , perhaps cohesiveness between the p o l i c y and m a t e r i a l s was not a p r i o r i t y . Some c a p a c i t y - b u i l d i n g of the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees and the Management Committee was evident i n the M i n i s t r y ' s p r o v i s i o n of an EPIE t r a i n i n g course which prepared i n d i v i d u a l s for a s s e s s i n g the i n t e r n a l congruency of a c u r r i c u l u m and the congruency between a c u r r i c u l u m and m a t e r i a l s (45). However, one must f i r s t understand the i n t e n t of a p o l i c y t o a s s e s s how m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e . M i n i s t r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c a p a c i t y of p u b l i s h e r s was evident i n the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of 67 and 66, the p a r t i e s r e s p o n s i b l e for i n t e r p r e t i n g the p o l i c y i n the Douglas & M c l n t y r e and P r e n t i c e - H a l l m a t e r i a l s . However, the vagueness of the p o l i c y and the time l i m i t a t i o n s for the submission of p r o p o s a l s (45, 66, 67) may have hindered the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee's task (e.g., submissions may not have pr o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n for d e c i s i o n -making). Inadequate time for completing c o n t r a c t Macro-Implamentation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 90 o b l i g a t i o n s was c i t e d by 66 and 67 as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o 66's i n a b i l i t y t o complete the grade s i x component of the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s , and 67's apparent i n a t t e n t i o n t o i n c o r p o r a t i n g student e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s . Although time was a l s o a f a c t o r i n some M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s , a d d i t i o n a l help was p r o v i d e d when i t appeared t h a t the primary r e s o u r c e manual would not be ready on schedule (31). In t h i s passage from p o l i c y t o m a t e r i a l s , the M i n i s t r y i n v e s t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the development of a broad a r r a y of r e s o u r c e s fo r f a c i l i t a t i n g implementation of the c u r r i c u l u m . Yet, these m a t e r i a l s were not e n t i r e l y congruent with p o l i c y i n t e n t . Had M i n i s t r y c o o r d i n a t o r s been b e t t e r equipped t o f u l f i l l t h e i r r o l e s , with knowledge of the p o l i c y and the p r o c e s s of change, they may have been a b l e t o e i t h e r r a t i o n a l i s e more c l e a r l y the p o l i c y or d i s c e r n i t s i nadequacies and i n i t i a t e adjustments, r e c o g n i s e which i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were m e r i t o r i o u s , and e x p l i c a t e how the t r a n s l a t i o n s i n the m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o the p o l i c y . Mac r o-1 mp 1 emen t at i on: MATERIALS TO DISTRICT ADOPTION C r i t i c a l Th i n k i n 9 The passage from government p o l i c y / m a t e r i a l s t o adoption by l o c a l school d i s t r i c t s was f a c i l i t a t e d by M i n i s t r y s t a f f who conducted r e g i o n a l workshops, intended t o " o r i e n t " d i s t r i c t s t a f f s t o the i n t e n t o f the c u r r i c u l u m (62, 31): the p r o v i s i o n of an i n s e r v i c e l e a d e r ' s handbook and vid e o (1983), and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o classroom m a t e r i a l s which i n c l u d e d the primary r e s o u r c e manual, d e s c r i b e d as c l a r i f y i n g the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t (49, 29). Later i n 1986, i n s e r v i c e m a t e r i a l s would be enhanced with the a d d i t i o n of the T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o s and i n s e r v i c e handbook, as we l l as the accompanying i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e guide. A l s o a v a i l a b l e i n June, 1986, was the S o c i a l S t u d i e s A d v i s o r y Committee, a c o n t a c t for school and d i s t r i c t s t a f f who may have had implementation concerns ( M i n i s t r y Information C i r c u l a r . #167). Based on the d i s c r e p a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the p o l i c y h e l d by c o o r d i n a t o r s and those evident i n the m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e l i k e l y would have been i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s r e g a r d i n g the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t communicated t o d i s t r i c t s t a f f s . Consequently, c o o r d i n a t o r s may have been l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s than they might otherwise have been, had they b e n e f i t t e d from s u s t a i n e d Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 92 o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o b u i l d t h e i r understandings of the p o l i c y and of the pro c e s s o f implementation. CLASSROOM IMPLEMENTATION T h i s passage would have been i n f l u e n c e d by d i s t r i c t p l a n s , as well as by the v a r i e t y of M i n i s t r y r e s o u r c e s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the p o l i c y . The Thi n k i n g Together vi d e o s , a v a i l a b l e through PEMC as well as on KNOWledge Network t e l e v i s i o n , p rovided a v i s u a l model of 31's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p o l i c y for t e a c h e r s d u r i n g implementation. I n s e r v i c e was t o have been pr o v i d e d by the p u b l i s h e r s , as pa r t of t h e i r c o n t r a c t o b l i g a t i o n . Only the P r e n t i c e - H a l l m a t e r i a l s attended t o e v a l u a t i o n of student a b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n ; not even M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s s a t i s f i e d t h i s need. Thus d i v e r s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the n o t i o n are l i k e l y t o be implemented (Clausen, 1987; Clausen et a l . , 1985). DISCUSSION As the c o o r d i n a t o r s bore the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for d e v e l o p i n g the c u r r i c u l u m and f o r monitoring implementation m a t e r i a l s , i t would appear that i f the Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 93 n o t i o n was t o be implemented c o n s i s t e n t l y , the c o o r d i n a t o r s r e q u i r e d r e l e v a n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or guidance. In a d d i t i o n , they would need working c o n d i t i o n s t h a t allowed for the a c q u i s i t i o n o f understandings necessary t o t h e i r l i a i s o n r o l e . I n t e r -branch c o o r d i n a t i o n , although not i n much evidence i n t h i s study, may have allowed for g r e a t e r shared e x p e r t i s e . The M i n i s t r y ' s apparent i n a t t e n t i o n t o c l a r i f y i n g the n o t i o n when p r o v i d i n g c r i t e r i a t o p u b l i s h e r s and d i r e c t i v e s t o the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees meant that m a t e r i a l s p o r t r a y e d d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the c u r r i c u l u m . The development of the n o t i o n over a l l phases of the r e v i s i o n was perhaps most a f f e c t e d by the l i m i t e d c r e d e n t i a l s of p a r t i c i p a n t s , as evidenced i n the Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Review (1976), the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment (1977), the C u r r i c u l u m  Development Planning Model (1979), the S o c i a l S t u d i e s  C u r r i c u l u m Guide. Grade One-Grade Seven (1983), the p i l o t t e s t i n g r e p o r t (1982), and the implementation m a t e r i a l s . Each of these products r e f l e c t e d t h e i r a uthors' p r i o r i t i e s and understandings c o n c e r n i n g " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " and i mp1ement a t i on. Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 94 As Conners, c i t e d i n Dearden (1968), so a s t u t e l y observed, "A s e n s i b l e q u e s t i o n e r must a l r e a d y know what general s o r t of t h i n g w i l l count as an answer" (p. 125). What one questions or sees w i l l depend on one's p r i o r understandings. Or t o quote W i t t g e n s t e i n , which Burke (1985) does, "You see what you want t o see" (p. 308). In support of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , 49, when qu e r i e d about the Management Committee's employment of e x p e r t s for input r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n , responded, Never d i d i t become s i g n i f i c a n t enough for us t o have requested expert a d v i c e . In essence, Management Committee, p l u s a l l the people that we c o n s u l t e d with and the people on the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee, were happy enough with the way i t was. T h i s a t t i t u d e may account fo r the l a c k of i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s t o c u r r i c u l u m workers r e g a r d i n g implementation and the n o t i o n . However, 45, a c o n s u l t a n t to, the Management Committee as well as a member of the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee, had submitted a paper d e f i n i n g types of " i s s u e s " and how they r e l a t e d t o " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " but t h i s paper was not u t i l i s e d by the Management Committee. Perhaps not having an understanding of what the n o t i o n e n t a i l e d f o r classrooms, the committee d i d not r e c o g n i s e the c o m p l e x i t i e s i n v o l v e d and/or f e l t i t threatened the investment they had a l r e a d y put i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 95 T h i s apparent l a c k of concern r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n and i t s implementation l i k e l y i n f l u e n c e d how the n o t i o n was developed and i n t e r p r e t e d as much as any other f a c t o r . SUMMARY A n t i c i p a t i n g that the p o l i c y might mean change i n te a c h i n g methodolgy, the M i n i s t r y supported a v a r i e t y of r e s o u r c e s t o c l a r i f y the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t . Concerned about p o l i c y a c c e p t a b i l i t y , the M i n i s t r y favoured p r a c t i t i o n e r s on the development committees, f i e l d -t e s t e d r e s o u r c e s , sought input from v a r i e d c o n t r a c t groups, submitted d r a f t s t o r e a c t i o n p a n els, and i n response t o d i s c o r d over the A p r i l D r a f t , r e v i s e d the d r a f t t o a l l e v i a t e c o n t e n t i o n . Where the M i n i s t r y was thwarted, i t would appear, was i n a l a c k of c l a r i t y e a r l y i n the r e v i s i o n o f the n o t i o n , and a la c k of understanding o f implementation. Armed with such knowledge, i t may have been a b l e t o a n t i c i p a t e p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and taken s t e p s t o overcome them. For example, i t may have been b e t t e r equipped t o r e c o g n i s e and p r o v i d e for the c a p a c i t y needs i n o t h e r s . Because of the many d i f f e r e n t committees, c o o r d i n a t o r s and authors working overtime w i t h i n an o r g a n i s a t i o n that was i t s e l f i n change, Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 96 macro-implementation of the p o l i c y c o u l d have b e n e f i t t e d from s u s t a i n e d l i a i s o n and c a p a c i t y - b u i l d i n g i n each phase of c u r r i c u l a r decision-making. Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 97 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS SUMMARY T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d two q u e s t i o n s : 1) What i s the M i n i s t r y ' s n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " i n the 1983 elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m and what f a c t o r s helped shape i t ? and 2) What i s the M i n i s t r y ' s n o t i o n of "macro-implementation" as evident by i t s e f f o r t s toward f a c i l i t a t i n g the implementation of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s ? " To r e s o l v e the f i r s t q u e s t i o n , the c u r r i c u l u m was examined and i n t e r v i e w s were conducted t o c o r r o b o r a t e f i n d i n g s . Document examination d i d not help c l a r i f y what " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " was nor i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o "problem—solving." The document was devoid of r e f e r e n c e s t o any l i t e r a t u r e u t i l i s e d i n shaping the no t i o n or j u s t i f i c a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g i t . Interviews with p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the development of the c u r r i c u l u m r e v e a l e d that they had d i f f e r e n t understandings o f the no t i o n , although a l l seemed t o agree that i t repre s e n t e d an i n q u i r y approach t o l e a r n i n g . Sources they i d e n t i f i e d t h a t appear t o have i n f l u e n c e d the Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 98 n o t i o n i n c l u d e d 2 6 , s c o n t r i b u t i o n of i n q u i r y models, based on John Dewey (1933) and Edwin Fenton (1966); 30's c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o d e f i n i n g a " s k i l l s l i s t " for students; the work of Benjamin Bloom et a l . (1956) as a b a s i s for the c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n q u i r y q u e s t i o n s ; the A l b e r t a s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m (1977) for the m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y and issues-based format; and p u b l i c feedback t o the A p r i l D r a f t (1980). J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the n o t i o n d i d not appear t o r e c e i v e much c o n s i d e r a t i o n by Management Committee members who r e l i e d b a s i c a l l y upon t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l experience, p e r c e i v i n g the n o t i o n t o be a venture i n t o " v i r g i n t e r r i t o r y " (26, 24) . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the second q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d examination of documents and m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o p o l i c y implementation, f o l l o w e d by i n t e r v i e w s with the r e l e v a n t M i n i s t r y c o o r d i n a t o r s , the d e v e l o p e r s of m a t e r i a l s for t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s , and t h e i r e x t e r n a l a d v i s o r s . Document a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d as many d i s c r e p a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s as t h e r e were m a t e r i a l s , none which e x p l i c a t e d the i n t e n t of the p o l i c y or how the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i t h i n r e l a t e d t o i t . Nor were sources i d e n t i f i e d or j u s t i f i c a t i o n p r ovided for t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a s i d e from r e f e r e n c e i n Douglas & Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 99 M c l n t y r e ' s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s t o two decision-making c o n s u l t a n t s (45 and 72); P r e n t i c e - H a l l ' s I d e n t i t y S e r i e s mention of 66's d o c t o r a l r e s e a r c h ; and evidence of Bloom et a l - (1956) being u t i l i s e d i n the fo r m u l a t i o n of q u e s t i o n s . Interviews s u b s t a n t i a t e d the a n a l y s i s , with a few minor e x c e p t i o n s . The t r a n s l a t i o n s evident i n the m a t e r i a l s seemed t o be, i n many cases, d i v e r s i o n s from the p o l i c y , because the dev e l o p e r s or a d v i s o r s d i d not always agree with or understand t h e p o l i c y as re p r e s e n t e d . R e c e i v i n g l i t t l e guidance or d i r e c t i o n from M i n i s t r y c o o r d i n a t o r s , who were themselves seemingly unsure of the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t , these d e v e l o p e r s / a d v i s o r s were l e f t l a r g e l y t o t h e i r own understandings and p r i o r i t i e s . Yet M i n i s t r y d e c i s i o n s made throughout the r e v i s i o n i m p l i e d a concern for p o l i c y c o n s i s t e n c y , a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and implementation. For example, the need and d i r e c t i o n for a r e v i s i o n was f i r s t assessed and a model for c u r r i c u l u m development d e v i s e d . A c u r r i c u l u m was then developed with c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t t o make i t a c c e p t a b l e t o s c h o o l s . In order t o maintain c o n s i s t e n c y , c o o r d i n a t o r s and a d v i s o r s tended t o have long term involvement over the course of the r e v i s i o n . M i n i s t r y a t t e n t i o n t o enhancing the c a p a c i t y of school Macro—Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 100 and d i s t r i c t s t a f f was evident i n i t s attempts t o c l a r i f y the p o l i c y v i a an a r r a y of m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g v i d e o s r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e n t of the p o l i c y i n a c t i o n . F u r t h e r c a p a c i t y concerns were apparent i n the M i n i s t r y ' s o r i e n t a t i o n workshops that were pro v i d e d for d i s t r i c t s t a f f s , t he arrangements t h a t were made with p u b l i s h e r s t o atte n d t o the i n s e r v i c e needs of classroom t e a c h e r s , and the a d v i s o r y committee that was e s t a b l i s h e d t o r e s o l v e c u r r i c u l a r concerns. In s p i t e of these e f f o r t s , the M i n i s t r y had d i f f i c u l t y producing a p o l i c y that was a c c e p t a b l e t o the f i e l d , or m a t e r i a l s that e i t h e r c l a r i f i e d i t s i n t e n t or e x p l i c a t e d how they r e l a t e d t o the p o l i c y . How the M i n i s t r y addressed c l a r i t y of e x p e c t a t i o n s , l i a i s o n , and c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g — t h r e e f a c t o r s h i g h l i g h t e d i n macro-implementation l i t e r a t u r e — m a y help e x p l a i n t h i s outcome. C a p a c i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d i d not seem t o i n c l u d e the M i n i s t r y ' s c o o r d i n a t o r s who were r e s p o n s i b l e for c o o r d i n a t i n g a l l a s p e c t s of the r e v i s i o n . T h i s may have l e f t them i n a weak p o s i t i o n t o operate e f f e c t i v e l y . T h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p o l i c y development team or with r e l a t e d endeavours n e i t h e r ensured that they were c l e a r about the p o l i c y ' s i n t e n t Macro-1 implement at ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 101 nor d i d i t prepare them with an understanding o f the pr o c e s s of change. L i a i s o n w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y was i n c o n s i s t e n t , with branches seemingly f u n c t i o n i n g at times independently. I n i t i a l r e v i s i o n e f f o r t s d i d not, t h e r e f o r e , b e n e f i t from a n t i c i p a t i o n of and working through implementation and e v a l u a t i o n concerns. Sustained i n t e r a c t i o n d i d not seem t o occur i n order t o share a common understanding of implementation r o l e s , the process of change, the c l a r i t y o f the p o l i c y , or the need for c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y or i n the numerous o r g a n i s a t i o n s w i t h i n i t s p o l i c y s e c t o r . CONCLUSIONS T h i s study o f macro-implementation pr o v i d e d s t r o n g support f o r the need f o r i n i t i a l p o l i c y c l a r i t y ; i n c r e a s e d l i a i s o n w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y , as well as between i t and the p o l i c y s e c t o r ; and a t t e n t i o n t o c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g o f the v a r i o u s p l a y e r s . POLICY CLARITY Without i n i t i a l p o l i c y c l a r i t y , i t i s u n l i k e l y that l a t e r e f f o r t s t o e x p l i c a t e the p o l i c y w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t . As e x h i b i t e d i n t h i s study, a vague p o l i c y Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 102 i n v i t e s d i s c r e p a n t t r a n s l a t i o n s i n implementation f a c i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s . C o n t r a r y t o what some p o l i c y d e v e l o p e r s (29, 49, 24, 26, 31) seemed t o t h i n k , e x p l i c a t i o n o f " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s " — a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of the p o l i c y through which s t u d e n t s were t o r e a l i s e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s — H a s w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m development. Teachers f i r s t have t o understand uhat " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " e n t a i l s i n order t o made d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g hou they w i l l f a c i l i t a t e student l e a r n i n g . I f the p o l i c y i s t o have i n t e g r i t y and be implementable, i t seems r e l e v a n t t h a t terminology, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t r e l a t i n g t o p o l i c y g o a l s , be c l e a r t o de v e l o p e r s , c o o r d i n a t o r s , and those r e s p o n s i b l e for i t s implementation. By c o n t i n u a l l y s t r i v i n g toward a d e f e n s i b l e p o l i c y , c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s may be a b l e t o e l i m i n a t e much p o t e n t i a l p o l i c y vagueness. It t h e r e f o r e seems reasonable t o conclude that p o l i c y c l a r i t y may need t o be r e s o l v e d d u r i n g the development phase, r a t h e r than being l e f t t o o t h e r s i n l a t e r implementation e f f o r t s . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 103 LIAISON C l e a r l y d e p i c t e d i n t h i s study was the need f o r s u s t a i n e d c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y as well as between i t and other o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n the p o l i c y s e c t o r i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e shared understandings and shared e x p e r t i s e , as well as t o al l o w for the monitoring o f pro g r e s s and the c a p a c i t y needs of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Some mechanism t o ensure such l i a i s o n appears e s s e n t i a l t o producing a p o l i c y with i n t e g r i t y , one that has p r o s p e c t s for implementation. C o n s i s t e n t l i a i s o n throughout the r e v i s i o n t h a t focussed on a shared understanding of r o l e s , terms of r e f e r e n c e , p o l i c y i n t e n t , and p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s between M i n i s t r y l e v e l s , a c r o s s and w i t h i n branches and committees, as well as between the M i n i s t r y and other p o l i c y s e c t o r o r g a n i s a t i o n s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o b e t t e r r a p p o r t , smoother t r a n s i t i o n d u r i n g the r e o r g a n i s a t i o n s t h a t occurred, and more c o n s i s t e n t p o l i c y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . C o n s i s t e n t l i a i s o n t h a t a l s o encouraged shared e x p e r t i s e among these p a r t i c i p a n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a c r o s s M i n i s t r y branches, might have allowed the p r e d i c t i o n and working through of implementation and e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , perhaps enhancing p o l i c y i n t e g r i t y and a l l e v i a t i n g p o t e n t i a l Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 104 d i f f i c u l t i e s p r i o r t o p o l i c y d i s s e m i n a t i o n . C o n s i s t e n t l i a i s o n might a l s o have meant t h a t c a p a c i t y needs were noted e a r l y i n the r e v i s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of M i n i s t r y c o o r d i n a t o r s who i n t e r a c t e d with other p l a y e r s . C o n s i s t e n t l i a i s o n t h a t focussed on shared understandings, shared e x p e r t i s e , and c a p a c i t y needs would l i k e l y have had the a d d i t i o n a l advantage of p r o v i d i n g ongoing r e v i s i o n p r o g r e s s data, perhaps l e s s e n i n g what seemed t o be a d e t e r i o r a t i n g r apport and wasted e f f o r t s , as evidenced by the n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o the A p r i l D r a f t and s t e p s that were taken t o compensate. CAPACITY BUILDING The c a p a c i t y of people r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y change re p r e s e n t e d the most important c o n s i d e r a t i o n for macro-implementation i n t h i s study. Management c a p a b i l i t i e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the development of the p o l i c y seemed i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the r o l e of r e v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t i o n . Nor d i d e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g s o c i a l s t u d i e s seem adequate t o p r o v i d e p a r t i c i p a n t s with knowledge of the p o l i c y and of the change p r o c e s s . Without s u b s t a n t i a l understanding of the p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s i n the s u b j e c t area of s o c i a l Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 105 s t u d i e s , and of implementation c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , m i n i s t r y s t a f f may be i l l — e q u i p p e d t o i n i t i a t e and f a c i l i t a t e p o l i c y change. Unless t h e i r c a p a c i t y needs are f i r s t attended t o , they w i l l u n l i k e l y be a b l e t o r e c o g n i s e c a p a c i t y inadequacies i n c u r r i c u l u m committee members and i n other p o l i c y s e c t o r o r g a n i s a t i o n s , and be e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r r o l e s . I f the c a p a c i t y of m i n i s t r y c o o r d i n a t o r s i s t o be ensured, the c a p a c i t y of those r e s p o n s i b l e for a p p o i n t i n g c o o r d i n a t o r s i s a l s o an i s s u e . However, i t seems unreasonable t o expect management personnel t o have e x p e r t i s e i n a l l c u r r i c u l u m areas. Perhaps s p e c i a l i s a t i o n i n implementation r e s e a r c h would be more r e a l i s t i c , with the establishment o f ongoing l i a i s o n with o u t s i d e e x p e r t s who would p r o v i d e s u b j e c t a r e a c o n s u l t a t i o n throughout c u r r i c u l u m endeavours. As well as q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , time r e s t r a i n t s a l s o appeared t o a f f e c t the c a p a c i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the r e v i s i o n . It may be that we underestimate the time r e q u i r e d t o r e a l i s e shared understandings, e s p e c i a l l y when the concepts e n t a i l c o m p l e x i t i e s as does the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " In a d d i t i o n , i t seems that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " d i d not achieve prominance i n general e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 106 u n t i l a f t e r 1982, p r e v i o u s l y having been c o n c e n t r a t e d i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , an area of r e s e a r c h not r e a d i l y comprehended by the u n i n i t i a t e d , nor r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a common conception of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " R e l a t e d understandings seem t o r e q u i r e more time than i s l i k e l y a v a i l a b l e for many c u r r i c u l u m e n t e r p r i s e s . However, perhaps some adjustments c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d so that c u r r i c u l u m t a s k s with such f a r -r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s c o u l d be conducted under c o n d i t i o n s more conducive t o r e s o l v i n g i n h e r e n t c o m p l e x i t i e s . Because these understandings may be of an e v o l v i n g nature, i t seems even more r e l e v a n t that the i n t e n t of p o l i c i e s and the s o u r c e s upon which they are based be c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d so that they may s e r v e as a foundation for subsequent q u e s t i o n s and l e a r n i n g . In t h i s e r a where i t i s so d i f f i c u l t t o keep pace with new knowledge, some c u r r i c u l a seem more amenable t o ongoing c u l t i v a t i o n r a t h e r than remaining dormant between i n f r e q u e n t r e v i s i o n s . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s study suggests t h a t d i s c r e p a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of p o l i c y should be a n t i c i p a t e d . By approaching p o l i c y work with t h i s i n mind, m i n i s t r i e s Macro-Implamentation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 107 may be prepared t o gauge i n t e r a c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y , c o n t i n u a l l y s t r i v i n g t o promote shared understanding. " C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " a t t r i b u t e s , a l l u d e d t o i n the p o l i c y t h a t was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study, a r e necessary c o n d i t i o n s t o a c h i e v i n g such understanding. With a " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " d i s p o s i t i o n , one would be, among other t h i n g s , s e n s i t i v e t o o t h e r s ; committed t o seeking out the most c r e d i b l e and r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , reasons, standards, or s o l u t i o n s ; and w i l l i n g t o co n s i d e r arguments i n o p p o s i t i o n t o one's own view, being open-minded t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n so doing, one might have t o r e c o n s i d e r and compromise one's own id e a s . A " c r i t i c a l t h i n k e r " would a l s o be concerned about promoting c l a r i t y , sound i n f e r e n c e s and judgements (Ennis, 1985; P a u l , 1984; Coombs, 1987; Wright & La Bar, 1987). Yet without c l e a r , shared meanings of terminology, Coombs (1987) maintains that a c q u i s i t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of other " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " a t t r i b u t e s would be i n e f f e c t u a l . He e x p l a i n s : The meanings of statements, c l a i m s or judgments...are c r u c i a l t o c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g because both a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r ses o f a c t i o n and reasons for choosing are o f t e n brought t o our a t t e n t i o n through statements or judgments. To the extent that we f a i l t o understand such statements we w i l l be unclear about the a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e t o us or unable t o e v a l u a t e the Macro-Imp lenient at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 108 suggested reasons. Moreover, i n our c o n s i d e r a t i o n of reasons we make use of the concepts of our language. I f we i l l - u n d e r s t a n d the language we use i n our " i n t e r n a l d i a l o g u e , " our reas o n i n g may well be d e f e c t i v e , (pp. 45-46) Coombs (1987) d i s c u s s e s the need t o be s e n s i t i v e t o problems of meaning, which " i m p l i e s both being on the a l e r t f o r meaning problems and being a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e them when one sees them" (p. 51). T h i s , he suggests, would r e q u i r e one t o be on the lookout f o r "vagueness," a p u r s u i t which may be motivated by understanding the consequences "vagueness" i m p l i e s , so c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d i n t h i s study. T h i s i s not t o suggest that shared understanding should always l e a d t o f i d e l i t y i n p o l i c y implementation for t h i s would be i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o the open-minded d i s p o s i t i o n of a " c r i t i c a l t h i n k e r . " It i s o n l y t o propose t h a t without a shared understanding of a c u r r i c u l u m ' s i n t e n t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e b a s i s upon which t o r a t i o n a l i s e the merit o f the p o l i c y or other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Change may not always be the wisest d e c i s i o n . Nor i s t h i s t o suggest t h a t shared c l a r i t y w i l l always be r e a d i l y forthcoming. Research has suggested t h a t p o l i c y c l a r i t y may ev o l v e over time through use, s h a r i n g of exp e r i e n c e s and p e r c e p t i o n s , and ongoing adjustments based on the a c q u i s i t i o n of new Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 109 understandings. T h i s should not, however, be cause for condoning "vague" p o l i c y but i n s t e a d , f o r i n t e n s i f y i n g the search for c l a r i t y . Impediments e x i s t but p r o s p e c t s f o r implementation a r e more o p t i m i s t i c than e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h i m p l i e d . Although c o m p l e x i t i e s a re i n v o l v e d , they need not be a d e t e r r e n t , provided they a r e approached " i n a way which maximizes c l a r i t y " ( F u l l a n , 1982, p. 59). As Berman ( i n F u l l a n , 1982, p. 59) found, "the more t r i e d f o r , the more accomplished." IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH F o l l o w i n g from t h i s study are some s u g g e s t i o n s for futher r e s e a r c h . 1. Focus on exemplary m i n i s t r y macro-implementation p l a n s and f a c t o r s that enhance c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g : a) of m i n i s t r y s t a f f , and b) of other p o l i c y s e c t o r o r g a n i s a t i o n s . 2. Pursue one of the more s i g n i f i c a n t problems i n c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g — t h e means for t r a n s l a t i n g theory i n t o p r a c t i c e . 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C.: M i n i s t r y of Edu c a t i o n . D a n i e l s , Mike & Wright, Ian (Eds.). (June, 1980). Implementation vi e w p o i n t s . Vancouver, B. C: Centre for the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 116 Elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s : Year one t o seven (1974). V i c t o r i a , B. C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . G u i d e l i n e s f o r p l a n n i n g program implementation (1982). Vancouver, B. C.: The M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Guide t o the c o r e c u r r i c u l u m <1977). V i c t o r i a , B. C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Horizon: Newsletter of the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . (1975 through 1986). Johns, Eunice & F r a s e r , Dorothy McClure (1963). S o c i a l s t u d i e s s k i l l s : A guide t o a n a l y s i s and grade placement. In H. McCracken Carpenter (Ed.), S k i l 1  Development i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s . 33rd Yearbook. Washington, D. C.: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s . M i n i s t r y i n f o r m a t i o n c i r c u l a r # 157 ( A p r i l 30, 1986). V i c t o r i a , B. C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . M i n i s t r y i n f o r m a t i o n c i r c u l a r tt 167 (June 6, 1986). V i c t o r i a , B. C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Mussio, J e r r y (1976, S e p t . ) . P r o v i n c i a l assessment i n the s o c i a l s t u d i e s . Horizon, 15(1), 4-5. Parker, Ian (1981). The s o c i a l s t u d i e s r e v i s i o n : An i n s i d e r ' s view. Horizon. 20(1), 43-46. Proposed c u r r i c u l u m guide: S o c i a l S t u d i e s . K - l l : D r a f t  o n l y ( A p r i l , 1980). V i c t o r i a , B. C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Report of the secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s review committee (1976). Unpublished. S o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m guide, grade one-grade seven (1983). V i c t o r i a , B. C.: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . S o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m guide, grade e i g h t - g r a d e  e l even (1985). V i c t o r i a , B. C.: M i n i s t r y of Edu c a t i o n . S o c i a l s t u d i e s media r e s o u r c e s : Grade one-grade t h r e e (1983). Richmond, B. C.: M i n i s t r y of Education, P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Media Centre. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 117 UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS A r e p o r t on goal IV of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m t o  the M i n i s t r y of Education, S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y —  C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch ( A p r i l , 1979). A sub-committee of the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Teachers" A s s o c i a t i o n . A r e p o r t submitted t o the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e and Technology, P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( A p r i l , 1979). U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r o f e s s o r s Gunn, A., Kehoe, J . , W i l l i a m s , D., & Wright, I. B r i e f Cto J e r r y Mussio, D i r e c t o r o f C u r r i c u l u m Development1 from an ad hoc group o f Simon F r a s e r  U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  p r o f e s s o r s (March 7, 1980). P r o f e s s o r s Kubicek, R., Barman, R., Bongie, E., Breen, D., Cole, D., Cragg, J . , Cunningham, A., Johnston, H., Koepke, B., Mil b u r n , D., North, M., Spagnolo, J . , Su t h e r l a n d , N., & Wynn, G. Responses t o the A p r i l . 1980 s o c i a l s t u d i e s d r a f t  c u r r i c u l u m (May, 1980). U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r o f e s s o r s S u t h e r l a n d , N., Kehoe, J . , Werner, W., & Wilson, D. C. Ohs, P. D. (November 16, 1982). Report t o : R. M. Overgaard, D i r e c t o r . C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch,  on t h e Douglas & M c l n t y r e ^ E x p l o r a t i o n s e r i e s ' p i l o t  and the design of the p i l o t procedures. Overgaard, V a l e r i e (1987). C u r r i c u l u m g o a l s and  p r i n c i p l e s — A p o s i t i o n paper. Unpublished. R e f l e c t i o n s on the proposed B. C. s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m (January, 1982). The F r a s e r V a l l e y East S o c i a l S t u d i e s Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . Wright, Ian (1983). The p o l i t i c s of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t i o n : The B r i t i s h Columbia case. The  H i s t o r y and S o c i a l S c i e n c e Teacher. 18(4), 211-218. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 118 Wright, Ian (June, 1981). Issues: A n a l y s i s and p o l i c y  q u e s t i o n s . Presented t o : The C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, M i n i s t r y of Education, B r i t i s h Columbia. MACRO-IMPLEMENTATION LITERATURE REVIEW Berman, Paul (1978). The study of macro— and micro-implementation. P u b l i c P o l i c y . 26(2), 1978, 157-184. Anderson, S. E. (1986). A r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e on the  implementation of m u l t i c u l t u r a l ism p o l i c i e s i n  Canadian ed u c a t i o n . Unpublished. F u l l a n , Michael (1982). The meaning of e d u c a t i o n a l change. Toronto, O n t a r i o : The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e for S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n . CRITICAL THINKING Bernard, Anne K. & Armstrong, Gregory (1979). Implementing an e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y : "Khit-pen" i n T h a i l a n d . Convergence: An I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l  of Adult Education. 12(4), 17-28. Beyer, Barry K. (1984, March). Improving t h i n k i n g s k i l l s — D e f i n i n g the problem. Phi D e l t a Kappan. §5(7), 486-490. Carkhuff, Robert R. (1982, S p r i n g ) . L e a r n i n g i n the age of i n f o r m a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n . 106(3). 264-267. Chipman, S. F., S e g a l , J . W., G l a s e r , R. ( E d s . ) . (1985). T h i n k i n g and l e a r n i n g s k i l l s , v o l . 2s  Research and open g u e s t i o n s . H i l l s d a l e , N. J . : Laurence Erlbaum Ass. Common, Dianne L. (1985, W i n t e r ) . Teacher a u t h o r i t y i n the S o c i a l S t u d i e s classroom: E r o s i o n of a barren ground. Theory and Research i n S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n . 12(4), 25-28. Coombs, J e r r o l d R. (1987). C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problems of meaning. In I. Wright and C. La Bar Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 119 (Eds.), C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and s o c i a l s t u d i e s , The  H i s t o r y and S o c i a l S c i e n c e Teacher, Monograph  S e r i e s , pp. 45-51. London, O n t a r i o : U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o . Costa, Arthur L. (Ed.). (1985). Developing minds: A  r e s o u r c e book for t e a c h i n g t h i n k i n g . A l e x a n d r i a , V i r g i n i a : A s s o c i a t i o n for the S u p e r v i s i o n of C u r r i c u l u m Development. De Bono, Edward (1976). Teaching t h i n k i n g . London: Maurice Temple Smith L t d . Derry, Sharon J . & Murphy, Debra A. (1986, S p r i n g ) . Designing systems that t r a i n l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y : From the o r y t o p r a c t i c e . Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research. 56(1), 1-39. E n n i s , Robert H. (1985, O c t . ) . A l o g i c a l b a s i s for measuring c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . E d u c a t i o n a l  L e a d e r s h i p . 43(2), 44-48. Goodlad, John (1983, A p r i l ) . What some s c h o o l s and classrooms teach. E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p . 40(7), 8-19. G r i f f e n , Andrew H. (1986, S p r i n g ) . T h i n k i n g i n e d u c a t i o n yesterday, today and tomorrow. Ed u c a t i o n . 106(3), 268-280. McPeck, John E. (1985). Response t o H. S i e g e l . P h i l o s o p h y of Education 1985. 73-77. McPeck, John E. (1984, Wi n t e r ) . S t a l k i n g beasts, but s w a t t i n g f l i e s : The t e a c h i n g of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . Canadian Journal of E d u c a t i o n . 9 ( 1 ) , 22-44. McPeck, John (1981). C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and e d u c a t i o n . New York: S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s . Nickerson, Raymond S. (1981, O c t . ) . Thoughts on t e a c h i n g t h i n k i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership. 39(1), 21-24. Nickerson, R. S., P e r k i n s , D. N., & Smith, E. E. (1985). The t e a c h i n g of t h i n k i n g . H i l l s d a l e , N. J . : Lawrence Erlbaum Ass. Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 120 N o r r i s , Stephen P. CI985, May). S y n t h e s i s of r e s e a r c h on c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p . 42(8), 40-45. Pau l , R i c h a r d W. (1984, S e p t . ) . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s Fundamental t o education for a f r e e s o c i e t y . E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership. 42(1), 4—14. Raths, L. E., Jonas, A., R o t h s t e i n , A., & Wassermann, S. (1967). Teaching f o r t h i n k i n g s Theory and  a p p l i c a t i o n . Columbus, Ohios C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l Pub. Co. S e g a l , J . W., Chipman, S. F., & G l a s e r , R. ( E d s . ) . (1985). T h i n k i n g and l e a r n i n g s k i l l s . , v o l . Is  R e l a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t o r e s e a r c h . H i l l s d a l e , N. J . : Laurence Erlbaum Ass. S i e g e l , Harvey (1985). McPeck, i n f o r m a l l o g i c and the nature of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . P h i l o s o p h y of  E d u c a t i o n 1985. 61-72. Sternberg, Robert J . (1985, Nov.). Teaching c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , Part Is Are we making c r i t i c a l mistakes? Phi D e l t a Kappan. 67(3), 194-198. Sternberg, Robert J . (1985, D e c ) . Teaching c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , Part 2s P o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . Phi D e l t a  Kappan. 67(4), 277-280. Sternberg, Robert J . (1984, S e p t . ) . How can we teach i n t e l l i g e n c e ? E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p . 42(1), 38-48. OTHER REFERENCES Burke, James (1985). The day the u n i v e r s e changed. Bostons L i t t l e , Brown & Co. Bloom, B. (Ed.), E n g e l h a r t , M. D., F u r s t , E. J . , H i l l , W. H., Krathwohl, D. K. (1956). Taxonomy of  e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s s The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , Handbook Is C o g n i t i v e domain. New Yorks David McKay Co. Mac r o—Imp1emen t a t i on: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 121 Dearden, R. F. (1968). The p h i l o s o p h y of primary  e d u c a t i o n : An i n t r o d u c t i o n . London: Rout ledge & Kegan P a u l . Dewey, John (1933). How we t h i n k . Boston: Heath & Co. Fenton, Edwin (1966). Teaching the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s  i n secondary s c h o o l s : An i n d u c t i v e approach. New York: H o l t , Rhinehart & Winston. Fowler, Robert H. (1980, June). Decision-making i n c u r r i c u l u m implementation: An a n a l y s i s of a Saskatchewan model. In M. D a n i e l s and I. Wright (E d s . ) , Implementation v i e w p o i n t s . 33-42. Vancouver, B. C.: Centre for the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Kaser, L i n d a (1983). The young w r i t e r s p r o j e c t k i t . V i c t o r i a , B. C.: Program Implementation S e r v i c e s , M i n i s t r y of Ed u c a t i o n . K i l i a n , Crawford (1985). School wars: The a s s a u l t on  B. C. ed u c a t i o n . Vancouver, B. C.: New Star Books. O l i v e r , D. W. & Newmann, F. (1967). Cases and c o n t r o v e r s y : A guide t o t e a c h i n g the p u b l i c i s s u e s  s e r i e s . Middletown, Conn.: American E d u c a t i o n P u b l i c a t i o n s . Palmer, R i c h a r d E. (1969). I l l i n o i s : Northwestern Her meneuti c s. Evanston, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 122 APPENDIX 1 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Interview q u e s t i o n s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the r o l e t h a t each i n t e r v i e w e e had f u l f i l l e d i n the r e v i s i o n o f the 1983 elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . The f o l l o w i n g schedule, t h e r e f o r e , i s o n l y an example of the common areas that were i n v e s t i g a t e d . 1. C l a r i f y t he i n t e r v i e w e e ' s r o l e i n the p r e p a r a t o r y , development, and/or implementation f a c i l i t a t i o n phases of t he c u r r i c u l u m and the b a s i s f o r h i s or her involvement. 2. The n o t i o n o f " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " 2.1. What was intended by the n o t i o n i n the 1983 guide? 2.1.1. What was intended by " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ? " 2.1.2. What was intended by "problem-solving s k i l l s ? " 2.1.3. What r e l a t i o n s h i p was intended between " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-solving s k i l l s ? " 2.2. What j u s t i f i c a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d f o r the n o t i o n i n the guide? Macro-Implamentation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 123 2.3. What sources c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development of t h e n o t i o n (e.g., s p e c i f i c s o c i a l s t u d i e s , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , and implementation l i t e r a t u r e ; other c u r r i c u l a ; input from i n d i v i d u a l committee members; o u t s i d e p r e s s u r e groups; M i n i s t r y d i r e c t i v e s , terms of r e f e r e n c e , and r e p o r t s ) ? 2.4. Why d i d " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " seem t o disappear i n the guide? 2.5. What r e l a t i o n s h i p was intended between " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "decision-making?" 3. Macro—Implementation 3.1. C l a r i f y what s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s the M i n i s t r y took i n f a c i l i t a t i n g implementation of the n o t i o n . 3.2. What M i n i s t r y e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n and i t s implementation were expressed t o the c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s as well t o those engaged with implementation r e l a t e d e f f o r t s ? For example, were concerns expressed r e g a r d i n g the c l a r i t y and complexity of the n o t i o n , l o s s of f i d e l i t y t o the n o t i o n , j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the n o t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n of outcomes r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n , p r o v i s i o n of a r a t i o n a l e for the c u r r i c u l u m change, the c a p a c i t y of d e l i v e r e r s for implementing the n o t i o n , and the nature o f a p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e conducive t o implementing the n o t i o n ? Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 124 3.3. What i n s e r v i c e and/or terms of r e f e r e n c e d i d the M i n i s t r y p r o v i d e t o i t s c o o r d i n a t o r s , the d e v e l o p e r s , and those i n v o l v e d with implementation r e l a t e d endeavours r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n and i t s implementation? 3.4. Which M i n i s t r y branches were i n v o l v e d i n the p r e p a r a t o r y , development, and implementation-f a c i l i t a t i o n phases and i n what ways? 3.5. How was the c o n s i s t e n c y of the n o t i o n monitored a c r o s s implementation m a t e r i a l s and endeavours? By whom? 3.6. How was the n o t i o n i n t e r p r e t e d i n the v a r i o u s implementation m a t e r i a l s ? 3.7. Why does the n o t i o n seem t o disappear i n the m a t e r i a l s ? 4. M i n i s t r y o r g a n i s a t i o n 4.1. What o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the r e v i s i o n ? 4.2. What s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s might o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes have had on the n o t i o n and i t s implementation? 5. Obtain s u g g e s t i o n s for f u r t h e r r e l e v a n t data s o u r c e s t o pursue. Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 125 APPENDIX 2.1 THE INTENTION OF THE NOTION: INTERVIEW ANALYSIS To i l l u s t r a t e the d i s c r e p a n t p e r s p e c t i v e s of the i n t e n t of the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " we look f i r s t t o the t h r e e c o o r d i n a t o r s who were i n v o l v e d and then t o member(s) of the Management Committee and the Elementary Review Committee. COORDINATORS 49, c o o r d i n a t o r for the f i r s t year f o l l o w i n g the more than t h r e e years of d i r e c t i o n by 22, r e f e r r e d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o page 81 and 125 of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s  Resource Manual, Grades One-Three C1983) for e x p l i c a t i o n of the i n t e n t i o n of the n o t i o n . As these pages o n l y e x p l a i n what "decision—making" and "problem-s o l v i n g " e n t a i l , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r pursued with 49 the r e l a t i o n s h i p of "decision-making" t o " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " He i n d i c a t e d t h a t two p e r s p e c t i v e s were evident among Management Committee members: One group tended t o see decision-making and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and so t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g was a b i t more general i n nature and i n c l u d e d those two....There tended t o be a...sub-group of the Management Team t h a t were s a y i n g that...when they were t a l k i n g about c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g they were Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 126 e s s e n t i a l l y t h i n k i n g o f the decision-making p r o c e s s . . . . I f e e l f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t about t h a t . And those people probably would say,...'And we see problem—solving as s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n some way.' In agreement with the former group, 49 f e l t the c u r r i c u l u m represented that p e r s p e c t i v e . However, when asked why the "and" l i n k e d " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-solving s k i l l s , " he was unsure, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t l i k e l y r e f l e c t e d a " c o n t r o v e r s y " among committee members. 50, c o — c o o r d i n a t o r d u r i n g 49's tenure, d i d not e x h i b i t a c l e a r understanding of the i n t e n t i o n o f the n o t i o n . T h i s i n f e r e n c e i s based upon her i n a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l such i n f o r m a t i o n i n the i n t e r v i e w and the l a c k of a t t e n t i o n t o the n o t i o n i n her f i e l d - t e s t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and r e p o r t . It appears that she emphasised the " s k i l l s " component r a t h e r than the four goal statements. 28, a member of the Management Committee d u r i n g i t s f i r s t year p r i o r t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of the f i n a l goal statements and the l a s t c o o r d i n a t o r i n v o l v e d with the 1983 document, thought that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " was rep r e s e n t e d by "problem—solving, decision—making, and the i n q u i r y p r o c e s s . " While the r e l a t i o n s h i p among these a s p e c t s of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " was d i s c u s s e d by Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 127 committee members, 28 i n d i c a t e d i t was never r e s o l v e d . He d i d not r e c a l l any committee d i s c u s s i o n about the term, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE MEMBERS 24, c h a i r p e r s o n of the Management Committee, when asked about the intended r e l a t i o n s h i p between " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-solving s k i l l s , " i n d i c a t e d t h at " i t was a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o make them s e p a r a t e . " As for the r e l a t i o n s h i p , she thought t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was "probably r e a d i n g more i n t o the 'and* t h a t we would have ever intended." To a l l q u e r i e s r e l a t e d t o "problem—solving," her responses were d i r e c t e d t o "decision-making," even when she was p o i n t e d l y asked i f she was equating "decision-making" and "problem-s o l v i n g . " Regarding her understanding o f the i n t e n t i o n of the n o t i o n , 24 commented i n a r a t h e r u n c l e a r manner: The " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " you know, i f you're l o o k i n g at a Bloom's Taxonomy of encouraging s t u d e n t s t o get beyond the lowest l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g and analyse, s y n t h e s i z e , e t c . , g i v e n some content and some i n f o r m a t i o n and some experiences, c o u l d they a n a l y s e i t ? So I t h i n k we would have s a i d , 'There's " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " . ' Then we were a l s o l o o k i n g at "decision-making" i n terms of t a k i n g t hat i n f o r m a t i o n and working through i t i n s e q u e n t i a l s t e p s and a r r i v i n g at a c o n c l u s i o n and a c t i n g on i t . Me saw i t as going beyond, I guess something c e r e b r a l i n a n a l y s i n g , but we thought t a k i n g a c t i o n . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 128 The decision-making model employed i n the guide, 24 d e s c r i b e d as a "handy-dandy guide t o t h i n k i n g , t e a c h i n g t h i n k i n g . " While at one p o i n t i n the i n t e r v i e w 24 suggested that the committee d i d d i s t i n g u i s h between "decision-making" and " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " she l a t e r expressed doubt as t o whether the committee ever " r e s o l v e d the two." 26, the o n l y u n i v e r s i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the Management Committee, thought the committee o f t e n used the terms " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-solving" i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . He e x p l a i n e d : Now, I'm u s i n g "problem-solving," " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " because one of the problems t h a t we ran i n t o was a l a c k of c l a r i t y i n terms of what they meant, those two terms, whether they were synonymous or whether they should be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y or what. So when the committee t a l k e d about these t h i n g s they g e n e r a l l y used them synonymously. " C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-s o l v i n g " became s o r t of a catchword t o d e s c r i b e the processes, the s k i l l p r o c e s s e s — c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s p r o c e s s e s t h a t we wanted the k i d s t o go through. ....Now the d i f f i c u l t y was I don't r e a l l y t h i n k we d e f i n e d the d i s t i n c t i o n between " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-solving." In other words, we used the word i n q u i r y — i n q u i r y s k i l l s , and we r e a l l y thought t h i s was going t o be the crux of our p r o c e s s of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m , t o promote i n q u i r y . And we viewed i n q u i r y as p r i m a r i l y a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g e x e r c i s e where you i d e n t i f y a problem and you have some sy s t e m a t i c way of a t t a c k i n g the problem, g a t h e r i n g the data, a n a l y s i n g data, and so on. . . . . I t h i n k the committee tended t o look at p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as the general r u b r i c under which a l l these s k i l l s f i t t e d . Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 129 D i s c u s s i n g the secondary c u r r i c u l u m , 26's comments a l s o p e r t a i n t o the elementary document as the Management Committee imposed the same s t r u c t u r e on the Elementary Review Committee (31): ...Ue f e l t t h a t the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g component t h e r e , probably e r r o n e o u s l y we thought t h i s , would be plugged i n under the i n q u i r y column, q u e s t i o n s which were s p e c i f i e d i n terms of content i n each grade l e v e l so that when you examined a q u e s t i o n , i t u s u a l l y had, sometimes had a 'should' i n i t , t h a t you o b v i o u s l y had t o go back t o t h i s decision-making, p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and/or d e c i s i o n -making model t o come t o g r i p s with that item. We hoped t e a c h e r s c o u l d make the b r i d g e so we were l i n k i n g the back end of the c u r r i c u l u m , the document, d e a l i n g with those i s s u e s , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s t u f f , back i n t o the s u b s t a n t i v e content. And we f e l t the o n l y way t o do i t was t o make i t very c o n t e n t — o r i e n t e d . In other words, the Management Committee assumed t h a t through the i n q u i r y method, a student would be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . As t o how the a c t u a l phrase, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " evolved, 26 c o u l d not r e c a l l , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t " i n any case, i t wasn't a b i g i s s u e . " 29, one of two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who j o i n e d the Management Committee a f t e r i t s f i r s t s i x months t o p r o v i d e an elementary c u r r i c u l a r p e r s p e c t i v e , a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h at " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " was not a term used by the Management Committee i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s : Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 130 . . . O r i g i n a l l y , i t was "problem-solving" and "decision-making." Those were the two major a r e a s t h a t we were f o c u s s i n g i n on. And then somehow l a t e r the term " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " emerged. I don't t h i n k we s t a r t e d with " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " It s o r t of came a f t e r . We t r i e d t o t h i n k of a term that would i n c o r p o r a t e both o f those components ["problem-solving" and " d e c i s i o n -making"! because they a r e d i s t i n c t . . . . S o r a t h e r than c o n t i n u a l l y s a y i n g we're going t o be t e a c h i n g "problem-solving" and "decision-making," " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " seemed t o emerge. Attempting then t o e x p l a i n the goal statement which l i n k s " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " t o "problem—solving s k i l l s , " 29 commented: ...We r e a l i s e d t h at w i t h i n the whole s t r u c t u r e of "problem-solving" and "decision-making" the c h i l d r e n a l s o go through other " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " p r o c e s s e s . So i n "problem-solving" you'd f i n d the problem, you'd generate a h y p o t h e s i s , you'd do your r e s e a r c h , you'd t e s t i t , e t c . But w h i l e you're doing those t h i n g s , you're a l s o doing a l o t of other t h i n g s . You are a n a l y s i n g , you are e v a l u a t i n g , you are comparing, you are c o n t r a s t i n g . And that c o u l d be where the " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " came up because throughout t h e whole program, the c h i l d r e n w i l l not j u s t be doing "problem-solving" and "decision-making." You can't do that a l l the time but you w i l l , through c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , have the c h i l d r e n e v a l u a t e something. You w i l l have them c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y s e something. ....The committee f e l t i t was j u s t too overwhelming [ f o r t e a c h e r s ! . . . t o have "problem-s o l v i n g , " "decision-making," p l u s some of the h i e r a r c h y of s k i l l s t h a t . . . v a r i o u s other w r i t e r s had suggested.... So we decided t o j u s t d e f i n e the two and I guess t h a t ' s where the o t h e r s ["observing, comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , a n a l y s i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , i n f e r r i n g " ! would be subsumed, under " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 131 29 i s t r y i n g t o say that w h i l e these a s p e c t s of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " have been subsumed i n the document under the term, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " they may a l s o be subsumed or employed w i t h i n the p rocesses of " d e c i s i o n -making" and "problem-solving." However, when d i s c u s s i n g v a r i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the n o t i o n , 29 allowed t h a t perhaps the " d e f i n i t i o n was never c l e a r l y conveyed." 30, the second elementary r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , claimed that t h e r e was "no t o t a l agreement" among members as t o how " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " "decision—making," and "problem—solving" r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r . Meanings were "u n c l e a r " and terms o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , a "mish—mash of the same t h i n g . " However, u n l i k e 28, 30 r e c a l l e d much d i s c u s s i o n by the Management Committee about " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , and i n q u i r i e s . " 28, as well as being the l a s t c o o r d i n a t o r i n v o l v e d with the development of the c u r r i c u l u m , was a l s o a member of the Management Committee d u r i n g i t s f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n . H i s understanding of the i n t e n t of the n o t i o n , which i t appears was developed a f t e r h i s d e parture from the committee, d e p i c t s " c r i t i c a l Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 132 t h i n k i n g " as a general r u b r i c for "decision-making," "problem—solving," and " i n q u i r y . " ELEMENTARY REVIEW COMMITTEE 31, the member of the Elementary Review Committee i n t e r v i e w e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , c o u l d not r e c a l l the phrase " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " as being p a r t o f the goal statements i n the Elementary Review Committee's terms of r e f e r e n c e . She explaineds It would be f a s c i n a t i n g t o look at those four goal statements Cin the e a r l i e r d r a f t s ! because somewhere i n and around 28's time, i t changed. That phrase " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g " c r e p t i n . And t h a t was never t h e r e , i n my r e c o l l e c t i o n , e a r l y on because i n my c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-solving" a re v i r t u a l l y t he same t h i n g and th a t i n f a c t , i f you look i n the s k i l l s appendix, what we have i s proble m - s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n -making. So why " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g " appears i n the goal statements has always been a mystery t o me. According t o her, the Elementary Review Committee worked on the body of the document "...with the s k i l l s appendix i n mind, pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g and decision-making i n our mind...," although she acknowledged t h a t committee members "knew about the program g o a l s . . . , knew what guided us." Yet 31 had "ho i d e a " what the Management Committee intended by " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " or what r e l a t i o n s h i p Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 133 was i m p l i e d between " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " presumably because these were not the g o a l s she remembers being p r o v i d e d t o the Elementary Review Committee. C o n s i d e r i n g i t a "redundancy" t o use the phrase, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pr o b l e m — s o l v i n g " as each i m p l i e s " v i r t u a l l y t he same t h i n g , " 31's e x p l i c a t i o n of what she thought was meant by "problem-s o l v i n g , " l i k e l y d e s c r i b e s her understanding o f " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " as w e l l : I t h i n k that they intended i t t o be the kind of r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y type of problem, the q u e s t i o n t h a t i s t o be resea r c h e d . I don't t h i n k i t ' s i n the sense of you know, maybe l i k e a guidance problem—solving or a c o u n s e l l i n g problem where you've got something t h a t ' s wrong that has t o be f i x e d up but t h a t i t ' s . . . i n t he s o r t of s c i e n t i f i c or r a t i o n a l mode of i n q u i r y , when you read about pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g and you look through the s t a g e s . There's d e f i n e the problem, come up with a hy p o t h e s i s . . . , gather a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , you know, which i n my view, i n d i c a t e s that i t ' s a r a t i o n a l form of almost s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y . As f o r "decision-making," 31 i n d i c a t e d t h at the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual (1983) r e p r e s e n t s where her t h i n k i n g was " c l a r i f i e d " as far as the d i f f e r e n c e between "problem-solving" and "decision-making" was concerned. Here one reads t h a t the "decision-making" p r o c e s s may be d e f i n e d as making reasoned c h o i c e s based on judgements that a re c o n s i s t e n t with one's v a l u e s and based on sound, r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . The s t e p s i n the decision—making p r o c e s s may be o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : . i d e n t i f y i s s u e Macro-Imp lenient at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 134 . i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s or a l t e r n a t i v e s . gather, analyze, i n t e r p r e t data r e l e v a n t t o a l t e r n a t i v e s . p l a n a c t i o n and act a c c o r d i n g l y . e v a l u a t e d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n Cp. 125) The manual a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t o make d e c i s i o n s , s t u d e n t s w i l l engage i n numerous, r e l a t e d h i g h e r - l e v e l i n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s i n c l u d i n g a n a l y z i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g . Cp. 125) "Decision-making," a c c o r d i n g t o 31, cannot be done "without l o o k i n g at the v a l u e s t a n c e . " Queried about e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r making d e c i s i o n s , 31 emphasised that i t was p a r t of the decision-making "process." While i t i s h e l p f u l t o view how 31 p e r c e i v e d the n o t i o n , she admits t h a t her understanding evolved s i n c e her work on the Elementary Review Committee. Consequently, i t would seem u n l i k e l y t h a t her c u r r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t e d by the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual, would have i n f l u e n c e d the work of t h e Elementary Review Committee. If 31's o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c o r r e c t , that the Elementary Review Committee worked b a s i c a l l y from the " s k i l l s l i s t " and focussed on "problem-solving" and "decision-making," then i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they too were confused by the n o t i o n , i f they even attended t o Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 135 i t . Whether committee members p e r c e i v e d the n o t i o n as d i d 31 i s not c l e a r t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 136 APPENDIX 2.2 THE SOURCES FOR THE NOTIONS INTERVIEW ANALYSIS Interviewees provided some i n d i c a t i o n of what sources c o n t r i b u t e d t o the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . " The comments below p e r t a i n t o the i n f l u e n c e of M i n i s t r y terms of r e f e r e n c e , c o n t r a c t groups and respondents t o the A p r i l D r a f t , c o n s u l t a n t s , the personal c o n t r i b u t i o n s and/or r e f e r e n c e s used by members of the development committees, and other r e l a t e d M i n i s t r y i n p u t . TERMS OF REFERENCE Of the s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d i n the M i n i s t r y terms of r e f e r e n c e , most i n t e r v i e w e e s on the Management Committee seemed impressed by the A l b e r t a s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m ' s i n q u i r y model, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n that i t had an i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y , i n q u i r y - b a s e d p e r s p e c t i v e at the secondary l e v e l <26). 24, 26, 29, and 30 confirmed that i t l i k e l y had an impact i n terms of the n o t i o n . The Saskatchewan s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m may a l s o have pr o v i d e d some i n s i g h t s , a c c o r d i n g t o 26 and 28, e s p e c i a l l y because 26 had experie n c e with i t . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 137 The Guide t o the Core C u r r i c u l u m (1977) and p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l a were not u s e f u l i n dev e l o p i n g the n o t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o 29 and 28. Nor was the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment (1977) h e l p f u l , suggested 26, although 29 was the o n l y i n t e r v i e w e e t o i n d i c a t e t h at i t was an i n f l u e n c e on the Management Committee's t h i n k i n g . As she remarked: Whenever they d i d i t Cthe B.C. assessment!, one of the t h i n g s that the t e a c h e r s s a i d i s t h a t we should make our c h i l d r e n more capable t o reason, t o s o l v e problems, e t c . And so the r e v i s i o n was based p r i m a r i l y on the assessment r e s u l t s . So i t seemed as i f the t e a c h e r s and the p u b l i c were s a y i n g we should be h e l p i n g our c h i l d r e n t o be c r i t i c a l t h i n k e r s , and deal with l i f e ' s i s s u e s . And so the Management Committee t r i e d t o f u l f i l l t h e s e g o a l s , designed the c u r r i c u l u m with i s s u e s and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o them. Then the d r a f t was submitted t o r e a c t i o n p a n e l s . We went through s e v e r a l of these....And the t e a c h e r s t h a t looked at them s a i d , 'We don't want t o do t h i s . We can't. Issues a re v a l u e s . T h i s i s s e n s i t i v e . We'd get i n t o a l o t o f t r o u b l e . We don't have the s k i l l s . We are not s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . We are h i s t o r i a n s and geographers.' 31, a member of the Elementary Review Committee, was the o n l y i n t e r v i e w e e t o suggest t h a t the p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l u m was of prime import, i n that the committee's mandate was t o review, not r e v i s e . As for the " r e l e v a n t a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h " mentioned i n t he Management Committee's terms of r e f e r e n c e , 49 r e f e r r e d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o a " b i g , black 3 - r i n g b i n d e r " t h a t might c o n t a i n such m a t e r i a l . 24 i n d i c a t e d Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 138 that such a binder c o n t a i n e d A p r i l D r a f t responses, not r e s e a r c h . 26 suggested t h a t a binder c o n t a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e from a conference preceding the r e v i s i o n , papers by "people from SFU and UBC p r i m a r i l y , " had been made a v a i l a b l e t o the Management Committee e a r l y i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s . But 26, who i d e n t i f i e d 45 as one of the c o n t r i b u t o r s , suggested t h a t he "wouldn't overemphasise t h e i r importance...." Of the e l u s i v e b i n d e r , a l l t h a t 29 r e c a l l e d was that 45 had some input i n t o i t . CONTRACT GROUPS AND RESPONDENTS TO THE APRIL DRAFT Contr a c t group submissions were another source for the Management Committee t o c o n s i d e r . However, few i n t e r v i e w e e s c o u l d r e c a l l what a c t u a l i n f l u e n c e t h i s input had. Some a l s o confused these b r i e f s with the A p r i l D r a f t feedback so both w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r . 24 suggested t h a t i t was too long a f t e r the f a c t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e among the v a r i e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s . She d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t the A p r i l D r a f t feedback focussed on concerns about content l o c a t i o n . L i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n was r e c a l l e d over how the n o t i o n was re p r e s e n t e d i n the A p r i l D r a f t except that some p o i n t e d out, " T h i s i s not Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 139 the o n l y model." Regarding t h i s i n p u t , 24 remarked, "Well, we knew t h a t . " D i s c u s s i n g the c o n t r a c t group submissions, 26 f e l t the u n i v e r s i t y b r i e f s had " l e s s impact" than those from school—based p r a c t i t i o n e r s , " p r i m a r i l y [because] we c o u l d understand i t . " Of the c o n s u l t i n g groups who had the most i n f l u e n c e on the n o t i o n , 26 p o i n t e d t o North Vancouver and Richmond who he remembered having "attacked the i s s u e of [ c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g ] . . . . " The f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n for t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s was o f f e r e d by 26: The problem with most u n i v e r s i t y s t u f f , speaking now as a c u r r i c u l u m committee member, was i t ' s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e i n the sense that i t ' s , given the nature of our work here [as u n i v e r s i t y academics], that we focus on very s p e c i f i c problems i n a very d e t a i l e d way and develop a language t h a t may be incomprehensible t o the c u r r i c u l u m committee's frame of r e f e r e n c e whereas a p r a c t i t i o n e r -developed focus, which may not have the depth that the other does, i s more a c c e p t a b l e because i t ' s r e a d a b l e . I t ' s as simple as t h a t . You get someone t a l k i n g t o you, for example, l i k e 45 on how t o teach i s s u e s i n the classroom. Now, 45's a very profound t h i n k e r and c e r t a i n l y w r i t e s a very d e t a i l e d , complex, complicated paper but t h a t ' s not what a c u r r i c u l u m committee wants t o hear because i t s task i s under a t i m e l i n e t o produce something and t h e r e f o r e i t tends t o be impatient with the c o m p l e x i t i e s and l o o k s for a r a t h e r simpler o r g a n i s a t i o n a l path. And t h a t ' s a f a c t of l i f e . That's the type of t h i n g that happens t o committees. So t h a t ' s what I would say, but t h a t ' s j u s t my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n but t h a t ' s how I r e c a l 1 i t . . . . But I t h i n k t h a t the other problem, C a r o l e , i s the way committees f u n c t i o n . You see, they Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 140 o n l y meet t h r e e days every month and I c o u l d see t h a t gap narrowing i f they had more i n t e n s i v e and more commitment t o time. You c o u l d w r e s t l e with these problems with a l i t t l e b i t more d e t a i l because i t i n v o l v e s time commitment t o go through i t . Now you can say we can g i v e homework t o the committee members, t e l l them t o read. Well, that j u s t doesn't happen because t h e y ' r e doing a m u l t i p l i c i t y of other t h i n g s as a classroom te a c h e r . As f o r the e f f e c t t h a t the A p r i l D r a f t feedback had on the n o t i o n , 26 was unsure although he suspected " i t was p a r t l y a r e a c t i o n t o the r e a c t i o n s t o the d r a f t " t h a t the " i s s u e s " component was downplayed. 29, responding t o q u e r i e s about the c o n s u l t a n t groups' i n f l u e n c e on the n o t i o n , d e s c r i b e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by the committee i n r e s o l v i n g the d i s p a r a t e views. The committee, she s a i d , f i n a l l y concluded that attainment of consensus, because of such extreme d i f f e r e n c e s , was "extremely hard" and that i t c o u l d not a r r i v e at understandings t h a t would s a t i s f y everyone. While 29 was sure that the u n i v e r s i t y input was c o n s i d e r e d , she d i d not know "whether i t had a great b e a r i n g on what a c t u a l l y appeared i n the c u r r i c u l u m . " Of the A p r i l D r a f t feedback, however, 29 i n d i c a t e d that educators e x p r e s s i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o d e a l i n g with " i s s u e s " and the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t approach l e d t o the r e v i s i o n s seen i n the f i n a l document which i n c l u d e d the d i l u t i o n of " i s s u e s " and the removal of Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 141 r e l a t e d t e a c h i n g notes and a b i b l i o g r a p h y . As far as how " i s s u e s " r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n , the A p r i l D r a f t responses a f f e c t e d i t . 30*s o b s e r v a t i o n s support 29*s p e r s p e c t i v e that the committee was not a b l e t o r e c o n c i l e the d i a m e t r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s that were submitted f o l l o w i n g t h e A p r i l D r a f t . C e r t a i n f e a t u r e s that t o some were the " s t r o n g e s t , " t o o t h e r s were the "weakest." T h i s , he p o s i t e d , l e d t o a "middle of the road c u r r i c u l u m . " 28 c o u l d not r e c a l l c o n s u l t a n t group input "addressing c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " However, h i s comments i m p l i e d that he was l i k e l y t h i n k i n g of responses t o the A p r i l D r a f t d u r i n g h i s tenure as c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r . T h i s input r e l a t e d more t o sequencing of content r a t h e r than " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " (Perhaps h i s e a r l y d e p a r t u r e from the committee preceded committee c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c o n t r a c t group submissions which were not due u n t i l A p r i l i n the same year he r e s i g n e d . ) However, 28 i n d i c a t e d that changes r e l a t e d t o " i s s u e s " evolved i n response t o secondary educators who were opposed t o t h i s approach. The elementary c u r r i c u l u m , he suggested, was a f f e c t e d by t h i s A p r i l D r a f t d i s s e n s i o n . Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 142 CONSULTANTS A u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r o f s o c i a l education (45) was c i t e d by 29, 28, 49, and 30 as being a c o n s u l t a n t for the i n q u i r y / c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g component of the new c u r r i c u l u m v i a h i s paper on " i s s u e s . " 26, who a l s o acknowledged 45's c o n t r i b u t i o n s , was not sure they weighed h e a v i l y i n the development of the n o t i o n because the c o n d i t i o n s the committee worked under d i d not a l l o w for s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c o m p l e x i t i e s e n t a i l e d . Nor was 28 aware of what a c t u a l impact 45 had. 24 claimed that 45 served t o repr e s e n t the u n i v e r s i t y a f t e r 26"s departure but she d i d not mention h i s i n f l u e n c e on the n o t i o n . While a l l r e l e v a n t i n t e r v i e w e e s except 24 c r e d i t e d 45 with a d v i s i n g the Management Committee i n some c a p a c i t y about the n o t i o n , t h e r e was doubt expressed about what a c t u a l impact 45 had on i t , as rep r e s e n t e d i n both the A p r i l D r a f t and the f i n a l document. While t h e r e appears t o be s l i g h t evidence of 45*s input i n the A p r i l D r a f t , i n the r o l e exchange t e s t provided i n the appendix t e a c h i n g notes for d e a l i n g with i s s u e s and i n one b i b l i o g r a p h i c e n t r y , these were d e l e t e d i n the l a t e r document (1983). In t h i s guide, however, the i n t r o d u c t o r y statement (p. 7) that d e s c r i b e s " i s s u e s " Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 143 as i n v o l v i n g disagreement about "matters of f a c t , matters of meaning or matters of v a l u e s " had been taken verbatim from 45's paper on i s s u e s , page 2. He p o s i t s that the o n l y i n f l u e n c e h i s work had was i n the committee's r e l a b e l l i n g of the " i s s u e s " column t o " i n q u i r i e s . " It would seem that the committee was not i n t e r e s t e d i n changing t h e i r i d e a s about " i s s u e s " because t h i s would n e c e s s i t a t e reworking the e n t i r e document. C o n s i d e r i n g that 45's input seemed t o have come l a t e i n committee d e l i b e r a t i o n s , t h i s would appear t o be a reasonable c o n c l u s i o n . COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND THE RESEARCH BASIS FOR THEIR INPUT Accord i n g t o 24, 26 was the Management Committee's r e f e r e n c e person for l i t e r a t u r e on the " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " a s p e c t s of the c u r r i c u l u m . Once he departed, she i m p l i e d the committee had a d i f f i c u l t time f i l l i n g the v o i d . In the b r i e f time that 50 spent as c o o r d i n a t o r working with the committee, she v e r i f i e d t h a t the committee never d e a l t with d e f i n i n g what " i s s u e s " were. 24 r e f e r r e d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o 26 for i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 144 t o r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e that might have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the n o t i o n and how the committee j u s t i f i e d t he n o t i o n i t s e t t l e d on. While 30 confirmed t h a t 26 pro v i d e d the i n q u i r y model for the c u r r i c u l u m , 26 was l e s s s u r e of what h i s a c t u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s were, i n that committee members were experienced t e a c h e r s who he f e l t a l r e a d y r e l i e d upon Edwin Fenton's (1966) approach. Dewey and Fenton, he claimed, provided the b a s i s for the "very simple s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n q u i r y mode" u t i l i s e d i n the r e v i s e d c u r r i c u l u m . 26 a l s o shared with the committee approaches he was f a m i l i a r with, t h e Harvard P u b l i c Issues P r o j e c t , for example, which even though i t was "o l d h a t " was i n t e r e s t i n g t o look at " i n terms of d e a l i n g with i s s u e s . " While 29 was not sur e what c o n t r i b u t i o n s 26 made i n r e g ard t o the n o t i o n , 49 c i t e d 26 and 45 as a committee source for the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and prob l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " Any other r e s e a r c h i n i t i a t e d by committee members concerning the n o t i o n seems t o have been s e l f - d i r e c t e d (29). 24*s remark t h a t 26 was the o n l y committee member who i n v e s t i g a t e d r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , because of Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 145 h i s i n t e r e s t i n the area and h i s p r o x i m i t y t o the u n i v e r s i t y , would c o n f i r m t h i s view. However, t h i s r e s e a r c h e r noted evidence i n the c u r r i c u l u m of Bloom et a l . ' s Taxonomy of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s (1956). When asked about t h i s source, 29 confirmed i t s i n f l u e n c e . She a l s o agreed t h a t L o u i s Raths (1967) had some impact. 24 and 28 acknowledged th a t the work of Bloom et a l . was u t i l i s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of q u e s t i o n s . While 31 d i d not i d e n t i f y Bloom as a r e s o u r c e u t i l i s e d e x p l i c i t l y i n the c u r r i c u l u m ' s development, she d i d suggest that "people's c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n of t h i n k i n g was more along the l i n e s of Bloom's Taxonomy a n d . . . e a r l y work i n the s k i l l s of t h i n k i n g . " A c c o r d i n g t o 30, h i s masters t h e s i s p r o v i d e d the b a s i s of the s k i l l s component of the c u r r i c u l u m , which was l a t e r s i m p l i f i e d f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s from 22, the c o o r d i n a t o r , that i t was too d e t a i l e d . Though 28 was not c l e a r about 30's i n p u t , 24 and 26 confirmed h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the s k i l l s component. 31 was unaware of 30*s r o l e i n the c u r r i c u l u m ' s s k i l l s appendix, sugges t i n g that the l i s t stemmed from the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s (1963), a source c i t e d i n the back of the c u r r i c u l u m . As 30 worked for the Maple Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 146 Ridge School D i s t r i c t whose " s k i l l s " c u r r i c u l u m was a l s o r e c o g n i s e d i n the guide, i t seems reas o n a b l e t o conclude that 30's input was l i k e l y i n the form of the Maple Ridge submission. OTHER MINISTRY INPUT While 24, 49 and 28 were p o s i t i v e that the M i n i s t r y d i d not p r o v i d e any d i r e c t i v e s i n regard t o the n o t i o n and 26 concurred that M i n i s t r y d i r e c t i v e s were more general i n nature, 26 d i d s t a t e t h a t the Management Committee was under a c o n s t r a i n t from the b eginning of i t s work t o a v o i d u s i n g the term " v a l u e s " i n the new c u r r i c u l u m . He suggested that the committee was c e r t a i n l y aware t h a t the M i n i s t r y was not going t o be happy with us g e t t i n g i n t o the v a l u e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n game or emphasising our problem-s o l v i n g or c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n that domain. 28 was a l s o aware of the M i n i s t r y ' s r e t i c e n c e t o i n c o r p o r a t e "values" w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m although he was not c l e a r how or when such concerns were communicated t o the committee. M i n i s t r y c o n s t e r n a t i o n over the type of " i s s u e s " employed d i d not appear t o erupt u n t i l a f t e r the A p r i l D r a f t , as evident when 22 commissioned 45 t o do a paper about " i s s u e s , " by 50's d i s c u s s i o n s with the committee concerning what " i s s u e s " Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 147 were, and by 28 f 29, and 49's concurrence that t h e r e was l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e from M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s p r i o r t o the r e l e a s e of the A p r i l D r a f t . It seems t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r that M i n i s t r y c o n t r a i n t s d e s c r i b e d by 26 were communicated j u s t t o some members of the Management Committee f o l l o w i n g the A p r i l D r a f t f u r o r e . 45 remarked that the M i n i s t r y had been opposed t o e n t e r t a i n i n g the use of "va l u e s " i n c u r r i c u l a as long as he had been i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Such M i n i s t r y i n t e r v e n t i o n would a f f e c t t he n o t i o n i n the c u r r i c u l u m i f one agrees that " i s s u e s " i n v o l v e d i s p u t e s about matters of f a c t , meanings, and v a l u e s <45) which may be s e t t l e d v i a " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and prob l e m — s o l v i n g " and/or "decision—making." SELECT COMMITTEE While 24, 28, 29, and 49 i m p l i e d that members of the s e c r e t S e l e c t Committee re-wrote the A p r i l D r a f t , 60a, c h a i r p e r s o n o f the S e l e c t Committee, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the committee's mandate was t o review and o f f e r o n l y an o p i n i o n about the proposed c u r r i c u l u m . Of i t s recommendations r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n , 60a suggested that i f the n o t i o n was t o be r e a l i s e d , i t must be c l e a r l y e x p l i c a t e d . As w e l l , " i s s u e s , " which needed t o Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 148 be r e a l " i s s u e s " r a t h e r than q u e s t i o n s that c o u l d be answered by a "yes" or "no," would have t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n order t o "allow" for d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n . In t h a t the n o t i o n was not any c l e a r e r i n the f i n a l document and " i s s u e s " remained even more d i l u t e than i n t h e A p r i l D r a f t , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r would judge t h a t the S e l e c t Committee had l i t t l e a f f e c t on the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and probl e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " i n the 1983 c u r r i c u l u m . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 149 APPENDIX 3.1 MACRO-IMPLEMENTATION: MATERIALS—DOCUMENT ANALYSIS MATERIALS SELECTION COMMITTEES The o n l y p r i n t data p e r t a i n i n g t o the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee's work a v a i l a b l e t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was 45's paper, "The P o l i t i c s o f M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n : The B r i t i s h Columbia Case" C1983; a v a i l a b l e t o the M i n i s t r y i n J u l y , 1981>. Herein he d e l i n e a t e d two s e t s of c r i t e r i a p r o v i d e d t o p u b l i s h e r s t o guide t h e i r submissions, one for e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l s and another for new p r o p o s a l s . The o n l y r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i o n for new p r o p o s a l s suggested that p u b l i s h e r s submit "a statement on how the proposed r e s o u r c e s match the proposed c u r r i c u l u m " (p. 11). How the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees or p u b l i s h e r s were t o i n t e r p r e t the c u r r i c u l u m i n order t o ac h i e v e a match with i t i s not i n d i c a t e d . PILOT TESTING REPORT 50, who with 49 was a c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r f o l l o w i n g 22's r e s i g n a t i o n , conducted a p i l o t t e s t of d r a f t m a t e r i a l s for Douglas & M c l n t y r e ' s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s . E x p e c t i n g t o see some evidence i n the r e p o r t Macro-Implamentation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 150 of 50's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g i t s r e l e v a n c e t o the o v e r a l l program g o a l s , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r found l i t t l e t o suggest that the n o t i o n was of importance t o the p r o j e c t , a s i d e from o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s t o the " s k i l l s " component of the c u r r i c u l u m . For example, on the t e a c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the v e h i c l e for o b t a i n i n g feedback r e l a t e d t o the m a t e r i a l s , 50 asked i f "the a c t i v i t i e s supported the knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s t o be developed?" or i f "the q u e s t i o n s posed encouraged the s t u d e n t s t o use a v a r i e t y of s k i l l s ? " B r i e f a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d t o whether "the program CisD geared t o s k i l l s development r a t h e r than con t e n t ? " or whether "the s t u d e n t s have the necessary s k i l l s t o handle the program?" When r a t i o n a l i s i n g her c o l l e c t i o n of data, 50 d i d not mention any j u s t i f i c a t i o n for or sources u t i l i s e d i n determining the content of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e or the d i s c u s s i o n guides f o r p i l o t t e a c h e r s . Perhaps 50's r e f e r e n c e t o Palmer (1969) best e x p l a i n s why: A q u e s t i o n , a f t e r a l l , p o s i t s a p r e l i m i n a r y way of s e e i n g ; j u s t as understanding i s not p i a c e l ess and empty so q u e s t i o n i n g i s not without i t s own h o r i z o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s . Judging by comments throughout the r e p o r t , 50*s p r i o r i t i e s for the p i l o t t e s t i n g seem more concerned Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 151 with the m a t e r i a l s themselves than with the c u r r i c u l a r g o a l s . MINISTRY PUBLICATIONS M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o implementation of the n o t i o n i n c l u d e d the M i n i s t r y Information  C i r c u l a r #167 (June 6, 1986), the 1983 o r i e n t a t i o n package ( i n c l u d e s The Revised Primary S o c i a l S t u d i e s  C u r r i c u l u m . 1983: Leader's Guide to O r i e n t a t i o n Package (1983) and the video, The Primary Revised S o c i a l  S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m (1983); the S o c i a l S t u d i e s Resource  Manual. Grades One-Three (1983); the S o c i a l S t u d i e s  Media Resources. Grade One-Grade Three (1983); the T h i n k i n g Together: S t r a t e g i e s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s K i t ( i n c l u d e s the video, T h i n k i n g Together: S t r a t e g i e s i n  S o c i a l S t u d i e s (1986) and the T h i n k i n g Together.  S t r a t e g i e s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s : I n s e r v i c e Handbook (1986); the KNOWledge Network broadcasts; and the S o c i a l S t u d i e s Resource Manual. Grades Four—Seven (1986). MINISTRY INFORMATION CIRCULAR #16 7 Within t h i s c i r c u l a r , four implementation p r o j e c t s a r e brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of educators. The Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 152 i n t e r m e d i a t e s o c i a l s t u d i e s r e s o u r c e manual i s s a i d t o "...emphasize problem s o l v i n g or d e c i s i o n making, a key component of the new c u r r i c u l u m " (p. 1) while the Th i n k i n g Together k i t i s t o " a i d d i s t r i c t s i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n t o the i n t e n t of the new c u r r i c u l u m " (p. 2 ) . Not i n d i c a t i n g what t h a t i n t e n t i s , t h e c i r c u l a r c o n t i n u e s , mentioning n i n e r e g i o n a l workshops that "...focussed on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g t o the new 1-11 c u r r i c u l u m " (p. 3) and twelve KNOWledge Network broadca s t s t h a t " . . . h i g h l i g h t e d t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n l e s s o n s emphasizing c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g " <p. 3 ) . Because the r e s o u r c e manual d e p i c t s "problem s o l v i n g or d e c i s i o n making" as a "key component of the new c u r r i c u l u m , " and because the v i d e o l e s s o n s i n the Th i n k i n g Together k i t i l l u s t r a t e the " i n t e n t of the new c u r r i c u l u m " and were used f o r workshops and KNOWledge Network bro a d c a s t s , one might conclude that "problem s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n making" have been construed as e q u i v a l e n t t o " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g . " Lacking, however, i s any v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p or any j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the n o t i o n . Mac r o—Imp1ementat i on: 1983 ORIENTATION PACKAGE C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 153 Neither w i t h i n the video, The Primary Revised  S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m or The Revised Primary S o c i a l  S t u d i e s Curriculum, 1983: Leader's Guide t o O r i e n t a t i o n  Package i s the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " a l l u d e d t o . While the vi d e o p o r t r a y s the n o t i o n as a form of " i n q u i r y " which employs the " s k i l l " of "problem-s o l v i n g , " the l e a d e r ' s guide d e l i n e a t e s t h r e e forms of i n q u i r y : p r oblem-solving, decision-making, and i s s u e s . Page 9 p r o v i d e s a b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n o f each. Problem-s o l v i n g i n v o l v e s s t u d e n t s making an "educated guess" or h y p o t h e s i s and " t e s t i n g C i t l by g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . " Decision-making e n t a i l s the " e x p l o r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s " w h i l e " i s s u e s " a r e d e s c r i b e d as "a p o i n t i n d i s p u t e . " Each type of i n q u i r y w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by " v a l u e s " which a r e "something c o n s i d e r e d worthwhile or d e s i r a b l e . " " I n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s " inherent w i t h i n each form of i n q u i r y i n c l u d e o b s e r v i n g , comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , i n f e r r i n g , a n a l y z i n g , h y p o t h e s i z i n g , r e c a l l i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , g e n e r a l i z i n g , [and] d e f i n i n g , (p. 9) How " i s s u e s " became a form of i n q u i r y , r a t h e r than a v e h i c l e which employs "knowledge, s k i l l s and Macro-Imp lenient at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 154 understandings" (p. 7) as s t a t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m , i s not e v i d e n t . Nor does t h e r e seem t o be any i n d i c a t i o n of where the " i n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s " emerged from. Reference t o c r i t e r i a for j u d g i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s i n "decision-making" or the use of group consensus and a c t i o n i n "decision-making" i s not apparent. The n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " i s not c l a r i f i e d i n the v i d e o and l e a d e r ' s guide w i t h i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n package. SOCIAL STUDIES RESOURCE MANUAL. GRADES ONE-THREE (1983) In t h i s manual which p u r p o r t s t o "...help t e a c h e r s t r a n s l a t e the c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . . . " (p. 1), i t i s c u r i o u s that a s i d e from a b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes r e l e v a n t t o m u l t i c u l t u r a l education (p. 17), the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s , " does not appear. "Problem-solving" and "decision-making" r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis and a r e d e f i n e d as a "process" (pp. 120, 132), c l a s s i f i e d as a " s k i l l " (pp. 62-63, 114, 170, 180), and i n the case of "decision—making," d i s c u s s e d as a " s k i l l " and "process" i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h i n the same paragraph (p. 27). Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 155 Without r e s o l v i n g these a m b i g u i t i e s , the manual d e f i n e s "problem-solving" as i n c l u d i n g the same s t e p s o u t l i n e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m : " d e f i n e the problem, e s t a b l i s h a t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s or s o l u t i o n , i n t e r p r e t the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , gather i n f o r m a t i o n , analyze the i n f o r m a t i o n , [and3 s y n t h e s i z e the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a firmer h y p o t h e s i s or s o l u t i o n " (p. 132). The r e l e v a n c e of "problem—solving" i s r a t i o n a l i s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g statement: Developing s k i l l i n s o l v i n g problems should enable the student t o attempt any i n t e l l e c t u a l endeavour by a syst e m a t i c method. By making use of a standard procedure, f a m i l i a r i z i n g s t u d e n t s with the process and p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i s e w i t h i n the context of r e a l e xperience, i t i s p o s s i b l e for the c h i l d t o t r a n s f e r t h i s a b i l i t y t o any d i s c i p l i n e ; t o move from theory i n t o p r a c t i s e . . . . T h e p r o c e s s of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s one of continuous refinement....Regardless of s u b j e c t content, d e v e l o p i n g compentence [ s i c ] i n t h i s p r o c e s s i s c r i t i c a l . It p r o v i d e s the c h i l d with a framework for e f f e c t i v e l y s o l v i n g problems, (p. 26) The "decision-making p r o c e s s " i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from "problem-solving," i n t h a t the c h i l d a l s o l e a r n s t o : .ev a l u a t e and p r i o r i z e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r e f l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n gathered or value p r e f e r e n c e s , . t e s t the p r i o r i t i e s and an a l y z e the consequences of each, •plan a course o f a c t i o n , . e s t a b l i s h a group d e c i s i o n , .take some a c t i o n on the group's d e c i s i o n , [and! .evaluate the group's d e c i s i o n , (p. 26) Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 156 The manual p r o v i d e s a r a t i o n a l e by s t a t i n g t h a t assuming personal r e s p o n s i b l i t y i s based on the a b i l i t y t o make r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s and t o a n t i c i p a t e the consequences of one's a c t i o n s . The student who knows how t o a r r i v e at d e c i s i o n s and p r a c t i c e s t h i s s k i l l should be b e t t e r a b l e t o apply the p r o c e s s t o r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s now and i n the f u t u r e . <p. 27) Again, t h e r e i s no evidence t o support t h i s t r a n s f e r e n c e assumption, nor r e f e r e n c e t o s o u r c e s other than the c u r r i c u l u m and the o r i e n t a t i o n package, each which were found l a c k i n g i n t h i s r e g a r d . As w e l l , absent a r e c r i t e r i a t o be employed i n p r i o r i s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s or a s s e s s i n g the merit of d e c i s i o n s . Being that the c u r r i c u l u m proposes "...a more b r o a d l y based e v a l u a t i o n program—one which i s c o n s i s t e n t with i t s i n t e n t s and which a s s e s s e s a l l i t s components," and c o n s i d e r i n g 49's r e f e r r a l i n the 1983 o r i e n t a t i o n v i d e o t o the primary r e s o u r c e manual for " e x t e n s i v e " e v a l u a t i o n s u g g e s t i o n s , i t i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o f i n d t h a t the nearest the manual comes t o i l l u s t r a t i n g how r e l a t e d outcomes might be assessed i s on page 52 where i t permits photocopying of the s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t " f o r e v a l u a t i o n purposes." How i n s t r u c t o r s are t o gage p r o f i c i e n c y of s k i l l s i s not i n d i c a t e d . The manual does not mention " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s ; " i t d i s c u s s e s "problem-solving" Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 157 and "decision-making." How they r e l a t e t o the n o t i o n i s not e v i d e n t . "Decision-making" may have been i n t e r p r e t e d as " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " "problem-s o l v i ng/decision—making" may have been p e r c e i v e d as some aspect of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " or " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " may have been abandoned or l o s t i n the t r a n s l a t i o n . SOCIAL STUDIES MEDIA RESOURCES. GRADE ONE-GRADE THREE C1983) Lacking any r e f e r e n c e t o the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pr o b l e m — s o l v i n g , " the media guide does l a b e l suggested student a c t i v i t i e s as u t i l i s i n g among other " s k i l l s , " " p roblem-solving" and " d e c i s i o n -making." These a c t i v i t i e s a r e intended t o i l l u s t r a t e "...ways i n which st u d e n t s can p r a c t i c e the ranges of s k i l l s o u t l i n e d i n the S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide, 1983" (p. 1). T h i s i s the o n l y r e f e r e n c e or r a t i o n a l e p r o v i d e d . THINKING TOGETHER: STRATEGIES IN SOCIAL STUDIES KIT C1986) In the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o each of the t h r e e v i d e o s i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n k i t , 62, the C u r r i c u l u m Development Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 158 Coordinator for S o c i a l S t u d i e s , proposes that the v i d e o was "...designed t o i l l u s t r a t e an important aspect of the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m — t h e emphasis on c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m — s o l v i n g . " C o n s i d e r i n g that the focus of each v i d e o i s s a i d t o be " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , " one might expect t o f i n d f u r t h e r e x p l i c a t i o n of the n o t i o n t h e r e i n ; along with r e p o r t w r i t i n g , small group s k i l l s , and r o l e drama, the o v e r a l l emphasis i s on "problem-solving" and " d e c i s i o n -making." At t h i s p o i n t , one p u z z l e s whether an attempt t o l i n k "decision—making" with " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i s being made. An answer t o t h i s quandry, as well as t o what j u s t i f i c a t i o n or sources support or c o n t r i b u t e t o the n o t i o n , a r e not p r o v i d e d . In one of the vi d e o s , 31, PEMC a d v i s o r as well as a member of the Elementary Review Committee, r e l a t e d the "problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s " t o r e p o r t - w r i t i n g s t r a t e g i e s . A second v i d e o i l l u s t r a t e s the "decision—making p r o c e s s " s t e p s which i n c l u d e : i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the c o n f l i c t , followed by r e s t a t i n g the c o n f l i c t so t h a t i t s r e s o l u t i o n w i l l have a more general a p p l i c a t i o n r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n ; s t u d e n t s , i n small groups, c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t e s o l u t i o n s and Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 159 consequences, d e c i d i n g upon a r u l e a p p l i c a b l e t o the s i t u a t i o n , s h a r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the d e c i s i o n s made by each group, and s e l e c t i n g the best one as a c l a s s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s i s based on De Bono's PMI's (the P l u s s e s , Winusses, and i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s of a s i t u a t i o n ) , though De Bono was not c r e d i t e d (1976). A t e s t t o be a p p l i e d t o the c l a s s ' s e l e c t i o n of a r u l e f o r r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t was t h a t the r u l e be a c c e p t a b l e t o o t h e r s . The f i n a l v i d e o e x p l o r e s r o l e drama, d e s c r i b e d by one of the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d as "an e x c e l l e n t t o o l for t h i n k i n g . . . . where s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o walk i n someone e l s e ' s shoes." Emphasised i n the v i d e o a r e the p r o c e s s of e x p l o r i n g the u n i v e r s a l i t y of the i s s u e , c l a r i f y i n g statements and vague areas i n need of more i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of v a r i o u s o p t i o n s and c r i t e r i a for s e l e c t i o n (a teacher mentions some c r i t e r i a for s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r on one o c c a s i o n ) , and c l a r i f y i n g the emotions experienced i n a r o l e ; these seem t o take precedence over the d e c i s i o n i t s e l f which i s never r e s o l v e d i n the v i d e o . As the teacher i n d i c a t e d , the " . . . t h i n k i n g s e s s i o n s / d i s c u s s i o n s were r e a l l y the most important p a r t . " Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 160 While the decision-making models re p r e s e n t e d i n two of the v i d e o s are s i m i l a r t o that d e p i c t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m , each adds the step of r e l a t i n g the c o n f l i c t i n q u e s t i o n t o more general s i t u a t i o n s . Neither appear t o e x p l i c i t l y develop c r i t e r i a Cexcept, perhaps, with r o l e t a k i n g t a s k s ) f o r j u d g i n g the merit of d e c i s i o n s with s t u d e n t s , nor i s a c t i o n promoted. The T h i n k i n g Together: S t r a t e g i e s i n S o c i a l  S t u d i e s I n s e r v i c e Handbook c l a i m s " . . . t o show t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s that promote t h i n k i n g " (p. 5); a s i d e from b r i e f mention of the n o t i o n i n the p r e f a c e , the o n l y other r e f e r e n c e i s made d u r i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o one i n s e r v i c e program where the s e s s i o n leader i s encouraged t o draw p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e n t i o n t o "the four program g o a l s of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide, pages 4 and 5, n o t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y Goal 4" <p. 27). The focus then s h i f t s t o "...the i n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s of problem s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n making [which1 are important elements of the c u r r i c u l u m " (p. 14). One a l s o l e a r n s that "...the decision-making p r o c e s s . . . [ i s l one of the main i n q u i r y s k i l l s of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m " (p. 26), as i s the "problem-solving p r o c e s s " (p. 18). Once again "process" and " s k i l l " seem t o be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . It i s expected that Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 161 the s t e p s i n "problem-solving" and "decision-making" would p a r a l l e l the c u r r i c u l u m . Seeking some connection between the goal statements and the emphasis on "problem—solving" and "decision-making," t h i s reseacher noted that f o l l o w i n g a r e f e r e n c e t o the four c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s , the leader i s prompted t o "put the words DECISION MAKING on the board" and focus on the "process." At t h i s p o i n t , one might query whether the author i s attempting t o l i n k " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " with "decision-making." No e x p l i c a t i o n i s provi d e d , nor any j u s t i f i c a t i o n or source f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e r e i n . Absent i s guidance for e v a l u a t i n g the merit of a d e c i s i o n as well as how " p r o c e s s - r e l a t e d " outcomes might be assessed. KNOWLEDGE NETWORK BROADCASTS Of twelve PEMC v i d e o s a i r e d on the KNOWledge Network, o n l y f i v e p e r t a i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m (1983). One of these has s i n c e been r e c a l l e d as u n s u i t a b l e and was u n a v a i l a b l e f o r study. Another about a Dene f a m i l y emphasised p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . The l a s t t h r e e are the same v i d e o s d i s c u s s e d above i n the 1986 T h i n k i n g Together o r i e n t a t i o n k i t (1986). Hence, the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 162 p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " as "decision-making" and "problem-solving" and the l a c k of any i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o j u s t i f i c a t i o n or sources apply here as w e l l . SOCIAL STUDIES RESOURCE MANUAL. GRADES FOUR-SEVEN C1986) Focu s s i n g on "problem s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . . . c e n t r a l t o the i n q u i r y p r o c e s s " (p. v i i ) , the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual proposes t h a t i t p r o v i d e s " . . . s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h at t e a c h e r s can adopt t o f a c i l i t a t e the a p p l i c a t i o n of the i n q u i r y model" Cp. 3) w i t h i n the "framework of program g o a l s , grade g o a l s , and l e a r n i n g outcomes" Cp. v i i ) provided i n the c u r r i c u l u m C1983) which "encourages the use of the i n q u i r y approach t o c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . . . " (p. 3 ) . Here one wonders i f an attempt i s being made t o i d e n t i f y the i n q u i r y approach, t o which " d e c i s i o n -making" and "problem-solving" are " c e n t r a l , " as the v e h i c l e for a t t a i n i n g " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " outcomes. If so, t h i s may be a d i g r e s s i o n from the c u r r i c u l u m which d e p i c t s " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " as the means for a c q u i r i n g understanding and a p p l y i n g Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 163 knowledge. Although not d e f i n i n g " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " the manual says: The i n q u i r y approach encourages the g e n e r a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s that r e q u i r e s t u d e n t s t o apply and extend t h e i r knowledge, s k i l l s , and understanding, i n c l u d i n g the a b i l i t y t o d e f i n e q u e s t i o n s , observe, e v a l u a t e , argue a case, a s s e s s a counter-argument, and make d e c i s i o n s i n a r a t i o n a l and o b j e c t i v e manner. The i n q u i r y approach, through i t s use of c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s t i o n s a l s o encourages the search f o r , and e v a l u a t i o n o f , evidence t o support or r e f u t e hypotheses, the development of an i n q u i r i n g and c r i t i c a l s p i r i t , p a r t i c i p a t o r y c i t i z e n s h i p , personal autonomy, a t t e n t i o n t o v a l u e i s s u e s , e t h i c a l awareness, and f u l l involvement i n group decision-making p r o c e s s e s . With such an approach, f a c t u a l knowledge i s not downgraded but becomes more meaningful and i n c r e a s i n g l y l i k e l y t o be r e t a i n e d and used by stu d e n t s . <p. 63) Furthermore, i t s t a t e s : The p r o c e s s e s of proble m - s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n -making form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the i n q u i r y approach t o t e a c h i n g S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Students who understand these processes, and who a r e pro v i d e d with o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p r a c t i s e the s k i l l s i n v o l v e d , a re a b l e t o approach h y p o t h e t i c a l and r e a l problems with a much gr e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y , (p. 63) By promoting the use of " c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s t i o n s " (p. 168) based upon the c o g n i t i v e l e v e l s of Bloom et a l . , the manual suggests t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l be aided i n use of "higher thought p r o c e s s e s " (pp. 267-268) which they a l s o may employ i n "decision-making" and "problem-s o l v i n g . " For example, t o make d e c i s i o n s , s t u d e n t s w i l l engage i n numerous, r e l a t e d h i g h e r - l e v e l i n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 164 i n c l u d i n g a n y a l y z i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g . Cp. 125) A s i d e from the i m p l i c a t i o n that through p r a c t i s e s t u d e n t s w i l l a c q u i r e r e l a t e d a b i l i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s t i o n s , higher thought processes, and "decision-making" and "problem-solving" t o the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " are l e f t t o the user t o ponder. D e l i n e a t i n g "problem-solving" and " d e c i s i o n -making" i n v i r t u a l l y the same manner as the s k i l l s appendix i n the guide, the r e s o u r c e manual d e f i n e s "problem s o l v i n g " as "a form of. r a t i o n a l , s y s t e m a t i c i n q u i r y i n which s t u d e n t s c l a r i f y and expand knowledge" Cp. 81) and "decision-making" as i n v o l v i n g "reasoned c h o i c e s based on judgments that are c o n s i s t e n t with one's v a l u e s and based on sound r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n " Cp. 125). Lacking any e x p l i c a t i o n about c r i t e r i a upon which t o judge the soundness or r e l e v a n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n or c h o i c e s , the manual i s a l s o devoid of j u s t i f i c a t i o n for i t s assumptions or sources c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n Cwith the e x c e p t i o n of acknowledging Bloom et a l . ) . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 165 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Two p u b l i s h i n g companies were commissioned t o produce m a t e r i a l s t o accompany the c u r r i c u l u m (1983). Douglas & M c l n t y r e won the c o m p e t i t i o n and produced the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s for grades one through s i x . P r e n t i c e - H a l l was awarded the r i g h t t o p u b l i s h the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s for grades four through s i x , but a p p a r e n t l y unable t o meet the M i n i s t r y t i m e - l i n e , o n l y produced m a t e r i a l f o r grades four and f i v e . Gage produced Other P l a c e s . Other Times, the grade seven student textbook. At the time of t h i s study, Gage's t e a c h e r ' s guide for grade seven had not yet been produced. The C u l t u r e Realms of the World: P i c t u r e s (Year 6) (1973) and i t s accompanying C u l t u r e Realms of  the World: Teacher's Manual (1974), produced by F i t z h e n r y and Whiteside, remained p a r t of the a u t h o r i s e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s program f o r grade s i x , as d i d a v a r i e t y of e a r l i e r p u b l i s h e d student textbooks for grades f i v e through seven. Examination of student m a t e r i a l s and the p i c t u r e set d i d not r e v e a l any e x p l i c i t n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s . " Student a c t i v i t i e s i n some of these r e s o u r c e s might be construed as conducive t o " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 166 p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , " i f one assumes that such outcomes r e s u l t from e x e r c i s e s d i r e c t e d t o the higher l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g . EXPLORATION SERIES: TEACHER BOOKS As each teacher book for grades one through s i x i s s i m i l a r or i d e n t i c a l as f a r as c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the no t i o n a re concerned, page r e f e r e n c e s w i l l r e l a t e t o the grade one e d i t i o n , u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d . The E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s never a l l u d e s t o " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s . " The nearest r e f e r e n c e t o the n o t i o n i s found i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the " c r i t i c a l l e v e l " Cp. 32) of r e a d i n g comprehension which i n c l u d e s many a t t r i b u t e s that c o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d as " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " a b i l i t i e s . C e n t r a l t o the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s i s the i n q u i r y p r o c e s s through which s t u d e n t s a r e encouraged t o f i n d out t h i n g s f o r themselves by g a t h e r i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , and a p p l y i n g data t o form concepts and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , s o l v e problems and make d e c i s i o n s . Cp. 11) The s i x l e v e l s of the i n q u i r y approach are p a r a l l e l e d t o " s i x l e v e l s of classroom q u e s t i o n s which are designed t o move st u d e n t s from lower t o higher l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g " Cp. 12, grade 4 teacher book). It Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 167 i s immediately apparent t h a t these i n q u i r y l e v e l s , q u e s t i o n s , and higher l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g have been modelled a f t e r the Taxonomy of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s , though Bloom et a l . have not been c r e d i t e d . Students are encouraged t o "use i n q u i r y s k i l l s t o s o l v e problems and make d e c i s i o n s " Cp. 13) v i a a t h r e e -step decision-making model which i n c o r p o r a t e s problem-s o l v i n g , as seen below: 1. D e f i n e i s s u e or problem. 2. E x p l o r e a l t e r n a t i v e s and consequences. . i d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t i v e s .analyze a l t e r n a t i v e s . evaluate c o n s e q u e n c e s — h e l p s t u d e n t s c l a r i f y c r i t e r i a or v a l u e s they use t o e v a l u a t e consequences. 3. Make d e c i s i o n Cor choose s o l u t i o n ) . j u s t i f y c h o i c e s ; examine reas o n i n g Chelp s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s / c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n reasons and d e c i s i o n s . ) Cpp. 14-15) It i s apparent that t h i s "decision—making p r o c e s s " d i v e r g e s from the "decision—making" model i n the c u r r i c u l u m when i t s t o p s sho r t of t a k i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g a d e c i s i o n . Perhaps t h i s stems from an attempt t o l i n k the t h r e e s t e p s of decision—making t o the higher l e v e l s of i n q u i r y , q u e s t i o n s , and t h i n k i n g , none of which suggest or promote a c t i o n . While consensus i n decision-making i s advocated i n the c u r r i c u l u m , the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s , and M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s , the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s i s adament that Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 168 i n regard t o i s s u e s , "students can o n l y make d e c i s i o n s for themselves, because decision—making i s i n f l u e n c e d by one's own background and v a l u e s " Cp. 161, grade 4 teacher book). It appears that the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s i s proposing that i n q u i r y , of which decision-making i s an important aspect Cp. 18), should f a c i l i t a t e s t u d e n t s ' attainment of higher l e v e l t h i n k i n g . Through t h i s i n q u i r y approach t o l e a r n i n g , s t u d e n t s w i l l a c q u i r e concepts, g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s , and a b i l i t i e s i n s o l v i n g problems and making d e c i s i o n s . But how any of these "processes" or l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g r e l a t e t o the n o t i o n i s not s p e c i f i e d . Assessment e x e r c i s e s d i d not p r o v i d e f u r t h e r c l u e s . Even though the i n q u i r y approach was the foundation of these m a t e r i a l s , i t was not p a r t of student assessment a c t i v i t i e s . References l i s t e d i n the t e a c h e r ' s book p e r t a i n t o a v a r i e t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s on t o p i c s such as i n q u i r y , t h i n k i n g , decision-making, p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , c o o p e r a t i v e r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t , c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , q u e s t i o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , responding techniques, r o l e p l a y i n g , and v a l u e s . What r o l e they played i n the development of the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s i s not Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 169 i n d i c a t e d . However, 45 and 72 have been acknowledged as decision-making c o n s u l t a n t s for the s e r i e s . J u s t i f i c a t i o n for how the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s has i n t e r p r e t e d the i n t e n t of the c u r r i c u l u m i s not e v i d e n t . IDENTITY SERIES: TEACHER'S EDITIONS As r e l e v a n t data are s i m i l a r for each grade, r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be based upon the grade f i v e p u b l i c a t i o n , u n l e s s otherwise i n d i c a t e d . L i k e so many imp l e m e n t a t i o n — r e l a t e d endeavours, the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s does not e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r t o any n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " The program i s or g a n i s e d around " l e a r n i n g processes, concepts, a f f e c t i v e responses, and l e a r n i n g s k i l l s " Cp. 8 ) . Of these four s t r a n d s , "the I d e n t i t y Taxonomy of l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s i s the b a s i s of the I d e n t i t y C u r r i c u l u m Framework" Cp. 9) and t h i s appears t o be the program's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n . The "taxonomy" i s arranged so t e a c h e r s can s e l e c t l e s s o n i d e a s from and c r e a t e q u e s t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o " v a r i o u s l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g " Cp. 9) and so that s t u d e n t s can " i d e n t i f y l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g they are u s i n g " Cp. 9 ) . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 170 E v a l u a t i o n i s designated as the h i g h e s t l e v e l of t h i n k i n g Cp. 11). M i s s i n g , however, i s guidance for the teacher and/or student t o determine what counts as " a p p r o p r i a t e reasons" or " a p p r o p r i a t e evidence." As seen below, the "taxonomy" has i n c o r p o r a t e d f i e l d t r i p o b s e r v a t i o n Ca source of data) and use of the " i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e " Cp. 9) as s e p a r a t e l e v e l s : I d e n t i t y Taxonomy of L e a r n i n g Processes Cp. 9) 1.0 C o l l e c t i n g Information Remembering 1.1 C o l l e c t i n g f a c t s 1.2 C o l l e c t i n g terms 1.3 C o l l e c t i n g sources of i n f o r m a t i o n 1.4 Determining means of v a l i d a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n 1.5 Reporting and i n t e r p r e t i n g f a c t s 2.0 Observing on F i e l d T r i p s 2.1 S e l e c t i n g the SITE 2.2 Adding new i n f o r m a t i o n 2.3 Confirming new i n f o r m a t i o n 2.4 R e j e c t i n g m i s i n f o r m a t i o n 2.5 Reporting 3.0 Using the I n s i d e r ' s P e r s p e c t i v e 3.1 S e l e c t i n g the SITUATION 3.2 Planning 3.3 Using the p l a n 3.4 Making improvements 3.5 Reporting 4.0 Problem-Solving 4.1 S e l e c t i n g the PROBLEM 4.2 Comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g 4.3 Generating a h y p o t h e s i s 4.4 T e s t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s 4.5 Reporting 5.0 D e c i s i o n Making 5.1 S e l e c t i n g the ISSUE 5.2 E x p l o r i n g v a l u e s 5.3 C o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and consequences 5.4 Making a d e c i s i o n 5.5 Reporting Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 171 5.6 A c t i n g on a d e c i s i o n where a p p r o p r i a t e G.O E v a l u a t i n g 6.1 P r e — e v a l u a t i o n 6.2 S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n 6.3 E x t e r n a l e v a l u a t i o n The use of consensus i n decision—making a l i g n s t h i s approach with the c u r r i c u l u m , as well as the i n c l u s i o n of a c t i o n . However, how the l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g or " i n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s " <p. 15), t o be expl o r e d v i a q u e s t i o n s at each l e v e l , r e l a t e t o the n o t i o n i s not e x p l i c a t e d . There i s some evidence of de v e l o p i n g c r i t e r i a f o r decision—making with s t u d e n t s , though t h i s seems l i m i t e d . For example, s t u d e n t s a r e t o e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a for r e c o r d i n g data about "business at each f o r t " (p. 6 ) . Sample c r i t e r i a l i s t e d a r e : "neat, s u i t a b l e headings, c a p i t a l s , date, complete, a c c u r a t e " (p. 6 ) . While the use of c r i t e r i a appears t o be an important i n g r e d i e n t i n the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s , t e a c h e r s and/or s t u d e n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y l e f t t o t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s i n determining what c r i t e r i a might be employed. E v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r st u d e n t s f r e q u e n t l y e n t a i l the i n q u i r y element of the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s , although t h e r e i s l i t t l e guidance provided the teacher for j u d g i n g the p r o f i c i e n c y of the s t u d e n t s . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 172 For s p e c i f i c evidence j u s t i f y i n g the "taxonomy," one must r e f e r t o 68's d o c t o r a l work, c i t e d i n the t e a c h e r ' s e d i t i o n together with the assumption that t h i s combination of l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s f o l l o w s the n a t u r a l way of ' g e t t i n g t o know' new people, new p l a c e s , and new i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c i n g new t h i n g s . It a l l o w s the student t o not o n l y g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o a new s i t u a t i o n , problem, or i s s u e , but a l s o t o develop empathy through an i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i s i n t e g r a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g i s a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of the I d e n t i t y approach. Cp. 9) CULTURE REALMS OF THE WORLD: TEACHER'S MANUAL Developed p r i o r t o the c u r r i c u l u m , t h i s t e a c h e r ' s manual i s being examined f o r evidence of the n o t i o n because i t i s intended t o accompany the Intermediate  S o c i a l S t u d i e s P i c t u r e Set, a u t h o r i s e d for grade s i x . It i s a l s o of i n t e r e s t , i n that 67, c o — e d i t o r of the Douglas & Mc l n t y r e E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s as well as one of the authors of the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s  Assessment 1977 Report, served as a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t for the p r o j e c t w h i l e 49 and 50, c u r r i c u l u m development c o o r d i n a t o r s succeeding 22, p a r t i c i p a t e d as c o n s u l t a n t s . U t i l i s i n g a "conceptual approach t o s o c i a l s t u d i e s " Cp. 1), the authors l i n k a n a l y t i c and i n t e g r a t i v e concepts t o a n a l y t i c (e.g., examine Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 173 p a r t i c u l a r aspect of one or more groups) and i n t e g r a t i v e (e.g., g e n e r a l i s e i n f o r m a t i o n about a s i n g l e group t o a l a r g e r c u l t u r a l e n t i t y ) forms of i n q u i r y , p o s i t i n g t h a t " to adopt a conceptual approach i s not t o de—emphasize the pro c e s s e s of i n q u i r y ( t h i n k i n g ) " (p. 1), some which i n c l u d e : A. Gathering data 1. Observing.... 2. R e c a l 1 i n g . . . . B. O r g a n i z i n g data 1. Compar i ng.... 2. C l a s s i f y i n g . . . . 3. D e f i n i n g . . . . 4. A n a l y z i n g . . . . 5. Synthesi z i n g . . . . C. I n t e r p r e t i n g Data 1. I n f e r r i n g . . . . 2. G e n e r a l i z i n g . . . . 3. E v a l u a t i n g . A s s e s s i n g data, sources, c o n c l u s i o n s . D. App l y i n g f i n d i n g s 1. H y p o t h e s i z i n g . Using known i n f o r m a t i o n t o make " I f . . . t h e n . . . " statements. 2. P r e d i c t i n g . . . . (pp. 1-2) As "understanding i s a major goal of s o c i a l s t u d i e s " (p.2), the authors f u r t h e r advocate t h a t "one must have some knowledge of the b e l i e f - v a l u e system of i t s people" (p. 2 ) . By p r o v i d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s for stud e n t s t o imagine being someone e l s e and d e c i d i n g how th a t i n d i v i d u a l would a c t , stu d e n t s ...develop an understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of another p o i n t of view....When v a l u e s a r e examined i n the l i g h t of a p a r t i c u l a r problem or i s s u e , a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e i r consequences...can be co n s i d e r e d and a course of a c t i o n recommended. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 174 T h i s mode of i n q u i r y or p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s known as the p o l i c y mode. (p. 2) Thus "problem-solving," a form of i n q u i r y which e x p l o r e s v a l u e s , i s s i m i l a r t o "decision—making" i n the c u r r i c u l u m Cp. 45), except for the i n a t t e n t i o n t o e v a l u a t i n g the proposed a c t i o n . Educators are advised that i n t e g r a t i o n of concepts with the t h r e e modes of i n q u i r y , w i l l a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o "achieve a recommended course of a c t i o n and t o a s s e s s i t s consequences" (p. 2 ) . While awareness of the " t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s " a l l o w s t e a c h e r s t o p l a n for the development of " t h i n k i n g s k i l l s " <p. 1), the r e l a t i o n s h i p between "processes" and " s k i l l s " i s not e x p l a i n e d . Concepts are c o n s i d e r e d " . . . u s e f u l t o o l s t o f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g " Cp. 1), l e a r n i n g l i k e l y being the attainment of understanding, i n s i g h t , and the a b i l i t y t o make a sound d e c i s i o n . Upon what standards d e c i s i o n s a r e t o be e v a l u a t e d i s not i n d i c a t e d . How " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " might r e l a t e t o "modes of i n q u i r y , " " i n q u i r y or t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s , " " t h i n k i n g s k i l l s , " or "problem-solving" i s not evident from the authors' d e s c r i p t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s and s u g g e s t i o n s for p l a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n . Sources or support for the n o t i o n s and assumptions presented are a l s o l a c k i n g . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 175 APPENDIX 3.2 MACRO-IMPLEMENTATION: MATERIALS—INTERVIEW ANALYSIS ELEMENTARY MATERIALS SELECTION COMMITTEE 45, a d v i s o r t o the Management Committee as well as a member of the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee (grades one t o s i x ) , when asked what he thought the developers intended by the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and probl e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " r e p l i e d , "I haven't the f o g g i e s t i d e a . " However, he p o s t u l a t e d t h a t the f o u r t h goal statement has t h i n g s about e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and t o l e r a t i n g p o i n t s of view and my guess i s they probably t h i n k t h a t " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " has something t o do with t h a t . And c e r t a i n l y e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n does. So t h a t ' s the o n l y connection I c o u l d see. 45 thought that the committee i n t e r p r e t e d the n o t i o n by t a k i n g "a common sense n o t i o n o f what i n q u i r y i s , decision-making and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . " M a i n t a i n i n g that "those are a l l confused" i n the c u r r i c u l u m , 45 added t h a t "they're a l l r e l a t e d and they [ the d e v e l o p e r s ! haven't f i g u r e d out what the key d i f f e r e n c e s between ' i n q u i r y , ' 'problem,' and ' d e c i s i o n ' [ a r e ] . " Asked i f the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee c o n s i d e r e d " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem— Macro-Implamentations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 176 s o l v i n g " i n i t s f i n a l a n a l y s i s of m a t e r i a l s , 45 responded, No. What happened was, I t h i n k we had i d e a s about approaches t o the books that we reviewed. I f somebody s a i d , ' A l l we're going t o do i s present a n a r r a t i v e , * you may not c o n s i d e r t h e i r approach, whereas i f they s a i d , fWe are going t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n q u i r y q u e s t i o n s and problems and that s o r t of s t u f f , * then you'd take another look i f t h a t ' s what t h e y ' r e going t o do. And you l e a v e the Management Committee t o make sur e t h a t ' s what they i n f a c t do. •ne reason t h a t the committee was so u n c l e a r about the n o t i o n i s that i t does not appear t o have been c l a r i f i e d for them by e i t h e r the Management Committee, 29, or the c o o r d i n a t o r s (31, 45). The Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee a p p a r e n t l y worked much of the time " i n the dark" (45), without even a completed c u r r i c u l u m . The o n l y communication i t had came down...in terms of the c r i t e r i a t h a t we had t o a p ply t o the textbooks and other m a t e r i a l s and the b i g one was congruence with the c u r r i c u l u m i n content. (45) D e s c r i b i n g " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " as "reasonably d e c i d i n g what t o do or b e l i e v e , " 45 c r e d i t s Robert E n n i s (1985) for what seems t o be h i s c o n c e p t i o n as w e l l , with the c r i t e r i a for j u d g i n g appearing t o s e t t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e apart from that i n the c u r r i c u l u m and most of the m a t e r i a l s . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 177 31, a member of the Elementary Review Committee, as well as the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee, when que r i e d about implementation c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as the complexity or c l a r i t y of the n o t i o n i n her committee work, r e c a l l e d : ...That was c e r t a i n l y a c o n s i d e r a t i o n on m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t i o n . Yes, i t must have been i n t h e r e . It must have been something we kept harkening back t o . You see, again, i n those times I would say t h a t people's c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n of t h i n k i n g was more along the l i n e s of Bloom's Taxonomy and...kind of e a r l y work i n the s k i l l s of t h i n k i n g . And I would say that now people have a much b e t t e r or more r e f i n e d or a c l e a r e r i d e a of some of the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . But c e r t a i n l y , yeah, we must have kept r e f e r r i n g t o i t because t h a t was of primary importance when we looked at the m a t e r i a l . As for whether f i d e l i t y t o any p a r t i c u l a r n o t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " was a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of these committees, 31 remarked, No, I don't t h i n k C s o l . No, you c o u l d n ' t say t h a t . No, although I mentioned Bloom,...I don't t h i n k anybody bought i n t o one p a r t i c u l a r framework or n o t i o n . In f a c t , I c o u l d j u s t say t h a t . . . I doubt that anybody had a common c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n and t h a t . . . c o u l d be construed t o be one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s and t h a t ' s why t h e r e i s a mushiness about what...do we mean by 'problem—solving' and ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . ' Nor d i d 31 t h i n k that the c l i m a t e for implementation was a c o n s i d e r a t i o n (For example, was t h e r e any concern about what s e t t i n g or t e a c h i n g s t y l e would be conducive t o s t u d e n t s r e a l i s i n g " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " outcomes?). Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 178 As the s i x members of the Elementary Review Committee j o i n e d f i v e new members on the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they i n f l u e n c e d the s e l e c t i o n committee. Acco r d i n g t o 31 f the Elementary Review Committee d i d not equate "decision-making" with " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " 31 suggested that she i n t e r p r e t e d "problem-s o l v i n g " i n the goal statements as a sys t e m a t i c form of r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y . As she p e r c e i v e d "problem-solving" as " v i r t u a l l y " synonymous t o " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " then t h i s l i k e l y d e p i c t s her understanding of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " as w e l l . C l a i m i n g t h a t her understanding of the n o t i o n evolved s i n c e her work on these committees, 31*s c u r r e n t understanding may not be r e l e v a n t here. Whether 31's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the view of other committee members i s not known t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r except t h a t i t would not be i l l u s t r a t i v e of 45's p e r s p e c t i v e . A summary i n cha r t form i s i n c l u d e d below t o i l l u s t r a t e how the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n r e l a t e s t o the c u r r i c u l u m , the m a t e r i a l s i t s e l e c t e d , and 45's p e r s p e c t i v e . As the c o o r d i n a t o r t h a t 45 worked with Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 179 was 22, i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o present h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . C u r r i c ulum: CT + PSS = ? E x p l o r a t i o n s : CT + PSS = ? CT = DM + I n q u i r y I d e n t i t y : CT + PSS = ? CT = L e a r n i n g / T h i n k i n g Processes ( i n c l u d e s DM, PS, IP, E v a l u a t i o n , C o l l e c t i n g data by r e c a l l and o b s e r v a t i o n ) M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee: CT + PSS = ? I n q u i r y = DM + PS 45: C u r r i c u l u m : CT + PSS = ? PS, DM, + I n q u i r y a r e confused CT = DM re-what t o do or b e l i e v e , based upon reason i n v o l v i n g c r i t e r i a 31: CT + PSS = ? I n q u i r y = PS + DM PS = r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y = CT DM ^ CT (her view and M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee) Elementary Review Committee focus: DM + PS Key: CT = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g PSS = problem—solving s k i l l s PS = p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g DM = decision-making IP = i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e ? = i n t e n t u n c l e a r PILOT TESTING REPORT P i l o t t e s t i n g was conducted for two purposes: t o i n c o r p o r a t e recommendations from the f i e l d i n t o the Douglas & M c l n t y r e m a t e r i a l s and t o design and t e s t a model for f u t u r e p i l o t i n g endeavours. Of i n t e r e s t t o Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 180 t h i s study i s how the n o t i o n was i n t e r p r e t e d by 50, the c o o r d i n a t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p i l o t and a M i n i s t r y i n t e r m e d i a r y with 67, e d i t o r of the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , and whether p a r t i c i p a n t feedback r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h a t 28, one c o o r d i n a t o r i n the 1983 video, s t a t e d that the f i e l d - t e s t i n g feedback p r e c i p i t a t e d r e v i s i o n s t o both textbook s e r i e s . Unable t o r e c a l l s p e c i f i c s r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n , 50 i n d i c a t e d that her l i a i s o n r o l e with 67 was " j u s t a whole b i g grey area as t o how t h a t was going t o work." Queried as t o how 67 would know the n o t i o n was important, 50 suggested that 67 had "a tremendous backgound i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s so she would have a good i d e a of what she t h i n k s i s [ i m p o r t a n t ] . " Based upon examination o f 50's p i l o t t e s t i n g r e p o r t and the i n a b i l i t y o f 50 t o r e c a l l r e l a t e d d e t a i l s , i t would appear that the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " was not a p r i o r i t y i n her work. There i s some evidence t o suggest t h a t the " s k i l l s " aspect of the n o t i o n r e c e i v e d b r i e f a t t e n t i o n i n a very general way. P a r t i c i p a n t feedback r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n was a l s o l i m i t e d t o the " s k i l l s " component. Douglas & Mc l n t y r e d i d not appear Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 181 t o r e c e i v e any input r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n as a r e s u l t of the p i l o t t e s t i n g . 50*s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , supported by l i m i t e d evidence, i s d e p i c t e d below, as i s 67's, the e d i t o r r e s p o n s i b l e for t r a n s l a t i n g the n o t i o n i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , the m a t e r i a l s that were f i e l d -t e s t e d and t o have b e n e f i t t e d from the r e s u l t s of the p i 1 o t . C u r r i c u l u m Guide: CT + PSS = ? 50: CT + PSS = ? Focussed on s k i l l s component 67: CT + PSS = ? CT = DM + I n q u i r y Key: CT = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g PSS = p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s DM = decision—making ? = i n t e n t unclear MINISTRY PUBLICATIONS ORIENTATION PACKAGE (1983) 59, c u r r i c u l u m development c o o r d i n a t o r r e s p o n s i b l e for the p u b l i c a t i o n of the v i d e o and l e a d e r ' s guide i n the 1983 o r i e n t a t i o n package, r e f e r r e d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o the " i n q u i r i e s " d e s c r i p t i o n i n the c u r r i c u l u m for an e x p l i c a t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " When q u e r i e d i f " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " was i n t e r p r e t e d as " i n q u i r i e s , " he Macro-Imp lenient at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 182 suggested that " i t was one of the approaches of the program." Admitting t h a t "there were some b i g grey areas i n t h e r e " r e g a r d i n g the disappearance of the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s , " and d i s c r e p a n t p o r t r a y a l s o f "decision-making" and "problem-solving" i n the implementation m a t e r i a l s , 59 thought that "decision-making" and "problem-solving" were terms that were o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . We t r i e d t o sep a r a t e them and g i v e them a sep a r a t e use because i t seemed t o us t h a t i n what had been w r i t t e n about the c u r r i c u l u m that they were almost used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . And [what] we saw i n ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ' was having s t u d e n t s who were dev e l o p i n g a s e t of s k i l l s look at i n f o r m a t i o n i n a c r i t i c a l way, simply not accept i t the way i t was w r i t t e n or presented e i t h e r i n textbooks or i n the media, but t o look at that c r i t i c a l l y from a background of some knowledge and with some ' s k i l l s . ' Here, 59 suggests t h a t " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i s a d i s p o s i t i o n , r a t h e r than as a concept encompassing s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s . Not c l a r i f y i n g how " d e c i s i o n -making" and "problem-solving" were d e l i n e a t e d , 59 l a t e r p r o v i d e d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r with r e l e v a n t p o r t i o n s o f the l e a d e r ' s guide t o i l l u s t r a t e how the terms had been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Although 59 d i d not p r o v i d e evidence s u p p o r t i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n i n the l e a d e r ' s guide, he i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t had been an attempt t o a l l e v i a t e the a m b i g u i t i e s " i n what had been w r i t t e n about the c u r r i c u l u m " and p r o v i d e help for Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 183 teacher.s. 59 remarked that the vid e o was intended t o i l l u s t r a t e and " e x p l a i n t h e . . . b i g g e s t changes between that c u r r i c u l u m C19833 and the o l d c u r r i c u l u m . " Of t h i s change, 59 e l a b o r a t e d : . . . I t h i n k the c u r r i c u l u m guide had some major changes i n i t from p r e v i o u s s o c i a l s t u d i e s guides. I t h i n k that having four s t r a n d s t o each y e a r ' s o u t l i n e was a major change. And of course the i n q u i r y s t r a n d , which almost seemed t o take precedence over the content s t r a n d i n the elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s , was r e a l l y brought i n t o being by the Douglas & Mc l n t y r e and P r e n t i c e — H a l 1 m a t e r i a l s where l e s s o n s evolved out of a s e r i e s of c a r e f u l q u e s t i o n s or problem-posing. And I t h i n k one of the problems t h a t we saw i n the implementation was that you had t o get t e a c h e r s focussed on the t r a n s m i s s i o n of content i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t o a c h i l d a c t u a l l y u s i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n and working with i t and i n t e g r a t i n g i t with the s k i l l s t h a t a re necessary i n working with s o c i a l s t u d i e s , a l l the s k i l l s of r e s e a r c h and map re a d i n g and the use of symbols, geography terminology, and so on. A l l of those t h i n g s were a f a i r l y major s h i f t and the implementation branch saw the g e t t i n g people o f f the focus of content and onto the i n q u i r y as a major p a r t . . . . Based upon 59's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the major changes i n the new c u r r i c u l u m and h i s p r i o r statement about " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " i t would appear that he p e r c e i v e d the n o t i o n as p o r t r a y i n g an i n q u i r y approach t o l e a r n i n g , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " being the d i s p o s i t i o n a l component and " c a r e f u l q u e s t i o n s or problem-posing" i n s t i g a t i n g the i n q u i r i e s . 59's " i n q u i r y " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s t o 49's comment i n the v i d e o about the " i n q u i r y method." Through Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 184 "problem-solving" and "decision-making" a c t i v i t i e s and a " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " a t t i t u d e , s t u d e n t s would a t t a i n l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and program g o a l s . Implying above that the p u b l i s h e r s " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s provided d i r e c t i o n t h at was l a c k i n g i n the c u r r i c u l u m , 59 added, "...During my time with the M i n i s t r y , those t h i n g s were a l l being worked out and c l a r i f i e d and we were not p r o v i d e d with a s e t d i r e c t i v e . " 59 a l s o c r e d i t e d 49 and 28, c o o r d i n a t o r s i n v o l v e d d u r i n g the development of the c u r r i c u l u m ; 29, a member of the Management Committee; and 45, a d v i s o r t o the Management Committee; as r e s o u r c e people that he depended on for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n . Although 59 d i d not mention 31 as a c o n s u l t a n t , she was among s e v e r a l c r e d i t e d i n the v i d e o as such. The i n q u i r i e s s e c t i o n Cp. 7) of the c u r r i c u l u m (1983) and the Douglas St M c l n t y r e and P r e n t i c e - H a l l m a t e r i a l s were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by 59 as sources. Queried about the intended cohesiveness of the n o t i o n , 59 responded, Well, I t h i n k the attempt was made that i t be t h a t way. From a person o u t s i d e that whole process, l o o k i n g at i t now, t h e r e are probably anomalies that are hard t o e x p l a i n . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 185 The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t d e p i c t s how the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s and other sources u t i l i s e d by 59 r e l a t e t o h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m Guide: CT + PSS = ? O r i e n t a t i o n v i d e o : CT + PSS = ? (1983) I n q u i r y = PS + X O r i e n t a t i o n Leader's Guide: CT + PSS = ? (1983) I n q u i r y = PS(+IP) + DM(+IP) + Issues(+IP) 59: I n q u i r y Approach = DM + PS + CT ( d i s p o s i t i o n ) + X ( I n q u i r y Processes and the " i s s u e s " mode of i n q u i r y , as i n Leaders' Guide) 49: CT = DM + PS + X or CT = DMj PS = X I n q u i r y Method = o v e r a l l i n t e n t of C u r r i c u l u m 28: CT = PS + DM + I n q u i r y 29: CT = PS (+CTP) + DM (+CTP) + CTP 31: CT = PS; DM £ CT; DM goes beyond CT 45: CT = DM re-what t o b e l i e v e or what t o do, based upon sound reason ( c r i t e r i a e s s e n t i a l ) C u r r i c u l u m Guide (p. 7 ) : I n q u i r i e s : pursue v i a q u e s t i o n s about i s s u e s and i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e through r e s e a r c h , u t i l i s i n g s k i l l s , knowledge, and g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s : CT + CT = PSS = ? DM ( i n c l u d e s PS) + I n q u i r y Processes v i a q u e s t i o n s (Bloom et a l . , 1956) I d e n t i t y S e r i e s : - C T + PSS = ? - L e a r n i n g or T h i n k i n g Processes = DM + PS + IP; E v a l u a t i o n ; and c o l l e c t i n g data through r e c a l l and o b s e r v a t i o n - I n q u i r y Forms = T h i n k i n g Processes = Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 186 DM + PS + IP v i a q u e s t i o n s Key: CT = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g x PSS = probl e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s PS = prob l e m - s o l v i n g DM = decision—making X = unknown q u a n t i t y CTP = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s IP = i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e ? = i n t e n t unclear What i s most i n t e r e s t i n g i n these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the n o t i o n i s the d i s p a r i t y that i s e v i d e n t . While i t would appear that 29*s p e r s p e c t i v e which i n c o r p o r a t e s " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s " may have i n f l u e n c e d the l e a d e r ' s guide, i t does not seem that her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has been the s o l e i n f l u e n c e on 59's d e p i c t i o n . Nor d i d 28 F the c o o r d i n a t o r who 59 i n d i c a t e d worked c l o s e l y with him, p e r c e i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the same manner as 59. It does not appear t h a t 45 had much i n f l u e n c e i n these M i n i s t r y p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s i n t h a t use of " c r i t e r i a " i n "decision-making" are not e v i d e n t . SOCIAL STUDIES RESOURCE MANUAL. GRADES ONE-THREE (1983) AND SOCIAL STUDIES MEDIA RESOURCES. GRADE ONE-GRADE  THREE (1983) As 28 was acknowledged as the c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r i n the primary r e s o u r c e manual and, a c c o r d i n g t o 23, oversaw the development of the primary Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 187 media r e s o u r c e s guide (23), h i s comments w i l l be of i n t e r e s t here, as w i l l 59's, who claimed t h a t as an implementation c o o r d i n a t o r , he was i n v o l v e d t o some degree as w e l l . Other i n t e r v i e w e e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n some way with these m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e 23, PEMC c o o r d i n a t o r ; 62, co-author of the primary r e s o u r c e manual; and 31 and 29 who served on the Resource Manual A d v i s o r y Committee with 23 and 59. A c c o r d i n g t o 31, i t was b a s i c a l l y 29 and h e r s e l f who worked i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y with the authors of the primary r e s o u r c e manual d u r i n g the f i n a l s t a g e s of development. T h e r e f o r e , t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s should be r e l e v a n t . 28's i n t e r v i e w d i d not focus on h i s r o l e with these p u b l i c a t i o n s , o n l y i n regard t o the development of the c u r r i c u l u m and h i s l i a i s o n with 67, e d i t o r for Douglas & Mclntyre. However, h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n d u r i n g development should apply t o h i s l i a i s o n work with these m a t e r i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h a t they were a l l p u b l i s h e d i n the same year as the c u r r i c u l u m . As the goal statements which i n c l u d e " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " were not developed d u r i n g 28*s p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the Management Committee, i t i s understandable that he d i d not r e c a l l d i s c u s s i o n about " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " However, r e f e r r i n g t o the Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 188 c u r r i c u l u m , he i n d i c a t e d that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s guide by a) p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ; b) decision-making; and c) i n q u i r y . " Yet when c a l l e d upon t o e x p l i c a t e the n o t i o n for 67, the Douglas & M c l n t y r e e d i t o r , 28 i n d i c a t e d that he d i d not know what was intended, r e f e r r i n g her t o 45, who had w r i t t e n a paper for the Management Committee about " i s s u e s " which a l s o d e a l t with " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and " i n q u i r y . " D i s c u s s i n g input from the L e a r n i n g Assessment Branch, 59 r e c a l l e d , We submitted the e v a l u a t i o n s e c t i o n of the primary r e s o u r c e book, I b e l i e v e , t o the assessment branch, t o get feedback from them. And my r e c o l l e c t i o n i s that they d i d have a look at that e v a l u a t i o n component of the primary r e s o u r c e book and they f e l t i t was a step ahead of what we had i n the past. Now you know none of these t h i n g s happened i n a . . . l i n e a r f a s h i o n . The whole t h i n g was a kind of an e v o l u t i o n a r y t h i n g and i t i n v o l v e d changing r e s o u r c e people, d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l concerns at the time, d i f f e r e n t input from the f i e l d , and so on. 59*s comments about input from the assessment branch imply that i t came a f t e r the f a c t and would u n l i k e l y have had any a f f e c t on the n o t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e i n the manual t o d e p i c t a " c r i t i c a l t h i n k e r " or e v a l u a t i o n guidance a s i d e from a " s k i l l s " check l i s t . How t e a c h e r s were t o judge when a student became a " c r i t i c a l t h i n k e r " d i d not appear t o be a concern. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 189 62, co-author with 68 of the primary r e s o u r c e manual, who would s e r v e l a t e r as c u r r i c u l u m development c o o r d i n a t o r for s o c i a l s t u d i e s , when asked what the i n t e n t of the " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " component of the n o t i o n was, r e p l i e d , " . . . I t ' s hard for me because I've never been asked t o d e f i n e i t . " While she d i d p r o v i d e t h i s r e s e a r c h e r with her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " , as seen below, she i m p l i e d t h a t her understanding evolved through her communications with r e s o u r c e people f o l l o w i n g her appointment as c o o r d i n a t o r : C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s a hard t h i n g t o d e f i n e because i t ' s huge....It's the removal o f , i t ' s t a k i n g content t o a l e v e l where you t r y t o c r e a t e understanding, where you're t r y i n g t o look at the m a t e r i a l i n order t o formulate g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s and c r e a t e understanding.... 62 added t h a t , i n her o p i n i o n , "decision—making" and "problem-solving" were "ways people can t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y . " She f e l t they c o u l d " f i t under the umbrella of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " along with other t h i n g s . C o n s i d e r i n g that the n o t i o n was l a t e r d e p i c t e d by 62 i n the T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o s and the i n s e r v i c e handbook without any e x p l i c a t i o n , i t may be t h a t 62's conc e p t i o n has been a c q u i r e d more r e c e n t l y . Unaware of what r e s o u r c e s the d e v e l o p e r s of the n o t i o n employed, 62 i n d i c a t e d that she and 68 were l e f t Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 190 on t h e i r own t o i n t e r p r e t the c u r r i c u l u m . She e x p l a i n e d : When I worked with 68 on the primary r e s o u r c e manual, nobody s a i d t o us, 'This i s our d e f i n i t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving.* Nobody s a i d t o us, 'This i s the kind of m a t e r i a l that needs t o be i n that r e s o u r c e manual' i n d e t a i l . We were given r e l a t i v e l y open hand i n c r e a t i n g i t . Asked what terms of r e f e r e n c e might have been pr o v i d e d for the development of the primary r e s o u r c e manual, 62 r e f e r r e d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o 68 who " s t a r t e d w r i t i n g with the Management Committee." It seems c u r i o u s that even though 62 was not i n i t i a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the a u t h o r s h i p of the manual, that she would not have some knowledge of what r e s o u r c e s may have been recommended by the M i n i s t r y . 29 and 31, each a p p a r e n t l y a c t i v e as a d v i s o r s t o these authors d u r i n g the summer p r i o r t o p u b l i c a t i o n of the primary r e s o u r c e manual, p e r c e i v e d the n o t i o n somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y . 29, who saw " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " as embracing "decision-making" (which c o u l d i n c l u d e " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s " ) , "problem-solving" (which a l s o c o u l d i n c l u d e " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s " ) , and " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s " (e.g., o b s e r v i n g , comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , a n a l y s i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , i n f e r r i n g ) which may be employed s e p a r a t e l y from "decision—making" and Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 191 "problem—solving", d i d not o f f e r enlightenment as t o her s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o implementation endeavours, a s i d e from her l i a i s o n r o l e with Douglas & McIntyre. 31, d e s c r i b i n g her and 29*s a d v i s o r y r o l e i n the review of the primary r e s o u r c e manual, p r o v i d e s some i n s i g h t as t o how the manual was completed and the l a c k of e x p e r t i s e the authors and rev i e w e r s had r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n at that time: ...You see, 68 was h i r e d by 28 t o w r i t e a l o t of the s t u f f . Okay, t h e r e was the a d v i s o r y committee, 29 and myself, but we s a i d , l i s t e n , we can't w r i t e a l l t h i s s t u f f . We don't have the time. And so 28 h i r e d 68 because 68 had worked on a Saanich, V i c t o r i a , Sooke primary book which was r e a l l y good, for s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and so she had tha t background and then 68 h e r s e l f bogged down so t h a t ' s when 28 h i r e d 62 t o help 68 and so the two of them wrote and then we reviewed, we being 29 and myself and who was the t h i r d person?.... It wasn't r e a l l y 23. Anyway, I b a s i c a l l y r e c a l l 29 and myself, you know, working with 68 and 62, so I'm not sure i f t h e r e was a t h i r d person t h e r e r e g u l a r l y because I know we met over the summer and you know, we w r e s t l e d with t h i n g s . And I would say that noone's t h i n k i n g was as c l e a r as i t would be now....If you look i n that document, as I s a i d , I c o u l d p o i n t out the phrases that now j u s t leap o f f the page at me as being i n c o n s i s t e n t . Attempting t o e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the n o t i o n t o "decision-making" and "problem-solving" and the disappearance of the phrase, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " i n the primary r e s o u r c e manual, 31 commented: Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 192 Well, I ' l l t e l l you my view of i t i s t h a t . . . I ' v e been i n v o l v e d i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of those p r o j e c t s and I never understood ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and prob l e m - s o l v i n g ' as a phrase but I do understand 'problem-solving' and 'decision-making' and t h a t ' s what's i n the s k i l l s appendix and t h a t ' s what t e a c h e r s have t o teach and so C o f l a l l those documents, the primary r e s o u r c e manual i s the l e a s t t i g h t . Okay? That was because none of us had r e a l l y worked i t out as yet and we were s o r t of , I t h i n k we were c a r r y i n g along some of the baggage of mushy t h i n k i n g . . . . . I know now, because my own t h i n k i n g c l a r i f i e d over time, I know now th a t what we put i n t o the primary r e s o u r c e manual i s mushy i n the sense t h a t o f t e n when we c a l l e d i t 'problem-s o l v i n g , ' i t was r e a l l y 'decision-making.' And I c o u l d go through t h a t , i n f a c t , I've gone through my own copy and changed i t . You know, so that i n f a c t , the u n i t s as they were w r i t t e n a r e good u n i t s . They do have e i t h e r 'problem-solving' or 'decision-making.' But we may not have l a b e l l e d them c o r r e c t l y , as I now see i t . Okay? But we were much c l e a r e r , as I s a i d e a r l i e r , i n the next work that we d i d . Admitting that her understanding of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " has evolved s i n c e her work on the Elementary Review Committee, 31 now saw i t as a redundancy, i n my mind, t o say ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g ' r a t h e r than 'problem-solving and decision-making' which i s what appears i n the document under the s k i l l s l i s t . . . , e s p e c i a l l y when you know the l i t e r a t u r e and when you look at...what ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ' i s and then you look at what 'problem-solving' i s and th e y ' r e very s i m i l a r . "Problem-solving," 31 p e r c e i v e d as a " r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y type of problem, the q u e s t i o n that i s t o be rese a r c h e d , " which followed systematic s t e p s as Macro-1 implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 193 d e p i c t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m . "Decision-making" went beyond "problem-solving" t o i n c l u d e e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s , followed by a d e c i s i o n which may i n v o l v e a c t i o n . 31 saw the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of v a l u e s and the establishment of c r i t e r i a for e v a l u a t i n g d e c i s i o n s as an i n t e g r a l component of the "decision-making p r o c e s s , " although the l a t t e r she conceded was "imbedded." I f as 31 i n d i c a t e s , the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual r e p r e s e n t s her i n t e r p r e t i o n of the n o t i o n , then h i g h e r -l e v e l i n q u i r y or t h i n k i n g "processes" which i n c l u d e a n a l y s i s , s y n t h e s i s , p r e d i c t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n a r e a l s o employed i n the "decision-making" and "problem-s o l v i n g " i n q u i r y "processes." Asked i f she was \ equating "decision-making" with " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " 31 was emphatic that t h i s was not the i n t e n t i o n i n any of the p r o j e c t s with which she was i n v o l v e d . 23, PEMC Coordinator who would have been i n v o l v e d with the primary media r e s o u r c e s guide, i n d i c a t e d , " I t wasn't my job t o t h i n k about ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ' . " For s p e c i f i c s r e g a r d i n g a c u r r i c u l u m f o r which media m a t e r i a l s were being produced, i t was customary for her t o h i r e a d v i s o r s , p r e f e r a b l y one "kosher" with the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch who had been i n v o l v e d on the development team and who i n t h i s case, had "the Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 194 r i g h t concept about c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g , " " r i g h t " i n the sense that 53, d i r e c t o r o f the Cu r r i c u l u m Development Branch, concurred that i t c o r r e l a t e d with the d i r e c t i o n the branch was heading. Being that 23's a d v i s o r for the n o t i o n was 31, i t i s understandable why 31*s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s so evident i n the m a t e r i a l s . When qu e r i e d about " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " 23 r e p e a t e d l y responded with d e t a i l s about " d e c i s i o n -making." Asked i f the two terms were intended t o be synonymous i n some of the implementation m a t e r i a l s , she responded, "They must mean i t . They must mean i t . " Yet b e f o r e t h i s a f f i r m a t i o n , 23 p o s i t e d that "everybody had d i f f e r e n t i d e a s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p . " E x p l a i n i n g , 23 r e f e r r e d t o 79's c u r r e n t d r a f t , " Curriculum Goals and P r i n c i p l e s — a P o s i t i o n Paper," which she f e l t i m p l i e d that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i s being used as "a general term now...because everybody has such a d i f f e r e n t view of i t . " Of her own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , 23 remarked: The people who i n s t r u c t e d me s a i d t h i n g s l i k e 'Problem-solving i s r e a l l y the f i r s t p art of decision-making. So decision-making adds a step and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s a much more general term.' So p e r s o n a l l y , from what I've read and heard, I would never say ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and prob l e m - s o l v i n g ' because i t doesn't make any sense Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 195 t o me. I mean, what's the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n — t o me, problem-solving i s pa r t o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . If 23's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of 31's view, as 31 was her a d v i s o r f o r " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " then 31 was not very e x p l i c i t i n d e s c r i b i n g her conc e p t i o n or t h i s r e s e a r c h e r has misconstrued i t . Or perhaps 23 depended on other a d v i s o r s as w e l l . Another e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be that she has a l t e r e d her con c e p t i o n s i n c e r e a d i n g 79's paper, which would mean tha t her c u r r e n t understanding i s not t h a t gleaned from 31 d u r i n g the development of any m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o t h i s study. Apparently, 23 was not provided with any M i n i s t r y d i r e c t i v e s r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n , except that i t was t o be " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g " t h a t was t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n the 1986 m a t e r i a l s . Neither were any m a t e r i a l s recommended for r e f e r e n c e , a s i d e from the c u r r i c u l u m . 23's o n l y r e s o u r c e s would have been her a d v i s o r s . The c h a r t below r e l a t e s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of those i n d i v i d u a l s who were i n v o l v e d as c o o r d i n a t o r s , a d v i s o r s , or authors of the primary r e s o u r c e manual and the primary media r e s o u r c e s guide t o each other and the m a t e r i a l s . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 196 C u r r i c u l u m Guide: CT + PSS = ? Primary Resource Manual: CT = ?; Focus on S k i l l s / P rocesses i n c l u d i n g DM + PS Media Resources Guide: CT = ?; Focus on S k i l l s i n c l u d i n g DM + PS 28: CT = PS + DM + In q u i r y 59: CT = d i s p o s i t i o n I n q u i r y = DM <+ IP) + PS <+IP) + Issues C+IP) 23: CT = PS + DM + X; DM = CT i n some m a t e r i a l s ; C i n t e r p r e t a t i o n evolved l a t e r ) 62: CT = PS + DM + X ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n evolved l a t e r ) ; DM £ CT 29: CT = PS <+ CTP) + DM C+CTP) + CTP 31: CT = PS CT * DM; DM goes beyond CT I n q u i r y Approach = PS <+IP) +DM C+IP) ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n evolved l a t e r ) ; Key: CT = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g PSS = probl e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s PS = probl e m - s o l v i n g DM = decision—making CTP = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g processes ( o b s e r v i n g , comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g , i n f e r r i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , e t c . ) IP = higher l e v e l i n q u i r y p rocesses i n c l u d i n g a n a l y s i s , s y n t h e s i s , p r e d i c t i n g , and evalua t i on X = other a s p e c t s not s p e c i f i e d ? = i n t e n t unclear Even though t h e r e a re s i m i l a r i t i e s among the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the n o t i o n of those i n v o l v e d with the primary r e s o u r c e manual, i t does not appear t h a t anyone i n v o l v e d i n i t s development was c l e a r about the Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 197 i n t e n t of the n o t i o n at that time. Understandings seem t o have evolved s i n c e then and i n 31*s case, appear t o be the most removed from the o t h e r s , even though she worked c l o s e l y with so many of them. I f 31*s o p i n i o n that i t was a "redundancy" t o say " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " and her i n a b i l i t y t o comprehend or r e f u s a l t o accept the n o t i o n as employed i n the c u r r i c u l u m l e d t o i t s t r a n s l a t i o n as "decision-making and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " i n the primary r e s o u r c e manual, then i t would appear t h a t c o o r d i n a t o r s had l i t t l e r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g c o n s i s t e n c y , i f that was a c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 59 was the o n l y c o o r d i n a t o r t o suggest that i t was. THINKING TOGETHER: STRATEGIES IN SOCIAL STUDIES (1986; v i d e o s ) ; THINKING TOGETHER: STRATEGIES IN SOCIAL  STUDIES: INSERVICE HANDBOOK (1986); and SOCIAL STUDIES  RESOURCE MANUAL. GRADES FOUR-SEVEN (1986) The t h i n k i n g together v i d e o s and i n s e r v i c e handbook as well as the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual were developed p r i m a r i l y under the s u p e r v i s i o n of 62, the c u r r i c u l u m development c o o r d i n a t o r . 23, PEMC c o o r d i n a t o r , a l s o p r o v i d e d c o o r d i n a t i o n for the development of these m a t e r i a l s , depending upon 31 for Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 198 the " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " e x p e r t i s e . According t o 3 i f the v i d e o s were 23's i d e a , r e s u l t i n g from the apparent success of s i m i l a r e f f o r t s for the Young W r i t e r s P r o j e c t . 29 appeared t o have input i n t o the i n s e r v i c e handbook as one of s e v e r a l a d v i s o r s who c o n s u l t e d with 31, author of the o r i g i n a l d r a f t . 62 suggested t h a t 29 a l s o took p a r t i n the w r i t i n g of the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual, although 29 d i d not mention t h i s . 74, a Program E f f e c t i v e n e s s Branch c o o r d i n a t o r , c o n t r i b u t e d u n o f f i c i a l l y as c o n s u l t a n t for the v i d e o format which evolved from her c l o s e work with the Young W r i t e r ' s P r o j e c t C31, 23). Hence the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of 62 and 31 w i l l be of prime i n t e r e s t , as w i l l be 23's account for why t h e n o t i o n evolved as i t d i d , being t h a t she has been on the scene throughout the e n t i r e r e v i s i o n . 29's p e r p e c t i v e w i l l a l s o be reviewed. Due t o 74's apparent l i m i t e d i n p u t , she was not i n t e r v i e w e d . As c o o r d i n a t o r , 62 s t a t e d that she never r e c e i v e d any guidance about the i n t e n t of the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " It was l e f t t o her t o i n t e r p r e t i t , which she d i d through c o n v e r s i n g with s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e people i n c l u d i n g , she r e c a l l e d , my p r e d e c e s s o r s , C28 and 59, andl i n t e r a c t i o n s with i n d i v i d u a l s i n the f i e l d l i k e 31, 74, 29 I o f t e n turned, i n i t i a l l y i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o people Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 199 who were i n the r o l e o f having t o t r a n s l a t e i t for t h e i r d i s t r i c t . As mentioned e a r l i e r , 62 p e r c e i v e d " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " as a g l o b a l term which i n c o r p o r a t e s "decision-making" and "problem-solving," among other t h i n g s . Admitting she had never had t o d e f i n e i t bef o r e , she d e s c r i b e d i t as " t a k i n g content t o a l e v e l where...you're t r y i n g t o look at the m a t e r i a l i n order t o formulate g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s and c r e a t e understanding." Of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the n o t i o n i n the Th i n k i n g Together k i t and the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual, 62 remarked: ...In order t o help t e a c h e r s have a sense of what th a t could (emphasis by 62) mean, not n e c e s s a r i l y o n l y means or does, w e l l , i t does mean but c o u l d mean, we went i n t o producing the tapes and the r e s o u r c e books and t h i n g s l i k e that....And the reason that we chose those t h r e e t o p i c s was i n par t because of what was a v a i l a b l e t o us t h a t demonstrated ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g ' t h at we were i n a p o s i t i o n t o put i n p l a c e . When q u e r i e d about why she i n t r o d u c e d the v i d e o s as r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e n t o f the c u r r i c u l u m , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " when the balance of the v i d e o s r e l a t e d t o "problem-solving" or "decision—making," without any c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the n o t i o n , 62, agreeing that " t h e r e ' s no l i n k , " i n d i c a t e d t h at i t had been her attempt t o "maintain a c o n s i s t e n t Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 200 d e f i n i t i o n " with the c u r r i c u l u m , even though she d i d not p e r c e i v e t h e r e t o be "a s i n g l e model" or "a s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n " t o maintain. She e x p l a i n e d : .. . I t r i e d t o adhere t o the s t e p s . I t r i e d t o adhere t o the programs as they were d e f i n e d by the p u b l i s h e r s and make changes w i t h i n the bigger s t r u c t u r e s t h at they l a i d out and moved them along with what I saw other t h i n g s moving so t h a t t h e r e was some semblance of s i m i l a r i t y between what was happening i n the r e s o u r c e manual and what was happening i n the AVE Caudio v i s u a l e d u c a t i o n ! guides and what was happening i n other t h i n g s . When t h i s r e s e a r c h e r shared her c o n c l u s i o n that "decision—making" was intended t o be synonymous with " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " 62 r e p l i e d , " I t wasn't intended." She agreed, however, that the c o n c l u s i o n s r a i s e d " v a l i d concerns." 31, who was i d e n t i f i e d by 23 and 62 as an a d v i s o r , d i d not agree with the n o t i o n , as d e p i c t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Queried about the intended r e l a t i o n s h i p between " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and "problem-solving" i n the guide, 31 answered, Those a r e a l l v a l i d q u e s t i o n s [ f o r ] which I have no answer. A l l I can say i s I agree with you, t h a t i t ' s very c o n f u s i n g and i t ' s even more c o n f u s i n g when you're t r y i n g t o implement the document. It was a "redundancy," she f e l t , t o say " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " when they meant " v i r t u a l l y the same t h i n g . " As o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , she Macro-Implementation5 C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 201 saw the s t e p s of "problem-solving" and " d e c i s i o n -making" as they were d e p i c t e d i n the guide, with "decision-making" i n v o l v i n g more than "problem-solving" and a p p a r e n t l y , more than " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " as w e l l . Within these i n q u i r y "processes," 31 would agree with the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual which l i s t s h i g h e r -l e v e l i n q u i r y "processes" such as a n a l y s i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g as p a r t s of each form of i n q u i r y . R e c a l l i n g the primary r e s o u r c e manual as being the l e a s t t i g h t . . . b e c a u s e none of us had r e a l l y worked i t out as yet and we were s o r t o f , I t h i n k we were c a r r y i n g along some of the baggage of mushy t h i n k i n g , C31 maintained t h a t ! by the time we got t o the i n t e r m e d i a t e one, we'd got i t r e a l l y c l e a r i n our mind that what we meant Cby the n o t i o n ! was 'problem-solving' and 'decision-making.' And so t i n ! the v i d e o tapes and the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual, t h a t ' s what comes up. Of the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual, 31 i n d i c a t e d t h at she had a l o t t o do with i t and that i t was "an i n d i c a t i o n of where my t h i n k i n g c l a r i f i e d . " She commented: We had a much c l e a r e r i d e a of the d i f f e r e n c e between probl e m - s o l v i n g and decision-making and we e l i m i n a t e d the phrase, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g . " E x p l a i n i n g t h i s a c t i o n , 31 remarked, It was i n t e n t i o n a l because i t was fuzzy and i t d i d n ' t make sense t o us and what was i n the guide Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 202 was p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and decision-making. So t h a t ' s what we were going t o show t e a c h e r s . When con f r o n t e d with t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s about "decision-making" and " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " being synonymous, 31 maintained that t h e r e was "never an attempt" t o p o r t r a y them as such. She e x p l a i n e d the i n c l u s i o n of the n o t i o n , p r i o r t o a "decision-making" e x e r c i s e i n the i n s e r v i c e handbook: ...The main reason that i t ' s 'decision-making' i s t h a t the v i d e o tape focusses on 'decision-making' and t h i s i s .an i n t r o d u c t o r y a c t i v i t y t o the v i d e o tape. The r e f e r e n c e t o the four program g o a l s i s working under the assumption that p o s s i b l y t h i s would be the o n l y s e s s i o n these people have attended. They may not have gone t o the i n t r o d u c t o r y one and the f i r s t one and so i f they came i n t o t h i s one, i t would be important t o r e f e r t o the program g o a l s as being our g u i d e l i n e for the c u r r i c u l u m and that one of the i n t e n t s of the c u r r i c u l u m i s 'decision—making.' But i n t h a t d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e was never any l i n k a g e between ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ' and 'decision-making.' As a matter of f a c t , 31 i n d i c a t e d t hat i t was one of those t h i n g s where we wished i t would go away. We never t a l k e d about i t because by t h i s time, you see, t h i s i s t o t a l l y l i n k e d i n t o the v i d e o tapes and the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual. So i t ' s a c o n s i s t e n c y that had t o be t h e r e from those two, 'problem-solving' and 'decision-making.' E x p l a i n i n g 62's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the v i d e o s , 31 r e c a l l e d t h a t 62 and I ended up i n . . . l o g g e r h e a d s about that very phrase t o the p o i n t where we don't t a l k about i t because she has her view and I have mine. Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 203 23 d i s c u s s e d the T h i n k i n g Together k i t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t was 62 who she "worked most c l o s e l y w i t h . " Suggesting that 62 had been "very s u p p o r t i v e a l l a l o n g , " 23 remarked that 62 " r e a l l y supported d e v e l o p i n g i t i n the f i r s t p l a c e and making i t s t r i c t l y ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g * . " When qu e r i e d about why 62*s i n t r o d u c t i o n suggested that the v i d e o s i l l u s t r a t e d the i n t e n t of the c u r r i c u l u m , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " when "problem-solving" and "decision-making" were developed i n s t e a d , 23 r e p l i e d , The people who a c t u a l l y work on the p r o d u c t i o n s C311 tend t o have a c l e a r e r i d e a of what they mean, so I t h i n k that t h i s handbook that goes with T h i n k i n g Together... i s very e x p l i c i t , r i g h t ? What i s meant [by the n o t i o n ! ? And t h a t ' s because 31 has a very p a r t i c u l a r view. When t h i s r e s e a r c h e r proposed that the n o t i o n and i t s l i n k with "decision-making" was not e x p l i c i t i n the handbook, 23 r a t i o n a l i s e d why t h i s might be: Yeah, w e l l , okay. 31 wrote i t but i t was reviewed by 62 and a group of s e v e r a l people [ i n c l u d i n g 293 and so again, i t g e t s watered down. Again, i t ' s my personal view but i f you're going t o ask a committee what they t h i n k of something, t h e y ' l l n i t — p i c k away here and cut t h e r e and i t means that the e s s e n t i a l , c l e a r , s t r o n g view g e t s messed up. That's my own f e e l i n g again. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case,, t h e r e was a l o t of r e a c t i o n and t h e r e were a l o t o f changes. Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 204 However, when 31 was qu e r i e d about the handbook, the i m p l i e d l i n k between the n o t i o n and " d e c i s i o n -making" was not a t t r i b u t e d by 31 t o such r e v i e w e r -motivated changes. At no time d i d she i n d i c a t e t h a t the n o t i o n , as d e p i c t e d , was at v a r i a n c e with her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . L a t e r , when asked i f the " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g " phrase was j u s t tacked on as an a f t e r t h o u g h t t o make the m a t e r i a l s f i t with the c u r r i c u l u m , 23 responded: No. I t h i n k each person...genuinely t h i n k s that they understand what i t means. The o n l y problem i s t h a t when i t has t o be used by t e a c h e r s or used by a producer of a v i d e o or whatever, i t ' s not c l e a r enough so then you have t o ask more q u e s t i o n s and then you have t o get i n t o people's i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . B u t . . . i t ' s not w r i t t e n anywhere i n the c u r r i c u l u m e x a c t l y how i t f i t s and so people go t o the p u b l i s h e r s for t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and you can look i n the T h i n k i n g Together handbook for another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . . 29 thought that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i n c l u d e d the proce s s e s of "decision-making," "problem-solving," and other " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s " such as ob s e r v i n g , comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , and a n a l y s i n g which may be employed w i t h i n "decision-making" or "problem-s o l v i n g " e x e r c i s e s or s e p a r a t e l y . R e f e r r i n g t o d i s c r e p a n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the n o t i o n i n the Douglas 8< Mc l n t y r e and P r e n t i c e - H a l l p u b l i c a t i o n s , 29 wondered Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 205 i f "that i s p a r t of where the vagueness emerged...." As fo r the r e s o u r c e manuals, 29 p o s i t e d t h a t perhaps the n o t i o n had never been " c l e a r l y conveyed" i n the c u r r i c u l u m and t h a t " i t t h e r e f o r e got l o s t i n the s h u f f l e . " 62, 31, 23, and 29 p o i n t e d t o a l a c k of c l a r i t y i n the c u r r i c u l u m as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s found i n the implementation m a t e r i a l s . 29 and 23 i m p l i e d t h a t because of t h i s v o i d i n the c u r r i c u l u m , perhaps the p u b l i s h e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were r e l i e d on by the d e v e l o p e r s of other m a t e r i a l s . 62, 31, and 23 concurred that t h e r e was not any M i n i s t r y d i r e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n or i t s implementation, except for what appears t o be 62's concern that the m a t e r i a l s focus on the n o t i o n and her e f f o r t t o maintain c o n s i s t e n c y through i n t r o d u c i n g the T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o s with the phrase, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g . " 23 was the o n l y one who i m p l i c a t e d the committee manuscript review p r o c e s s as a f f e c t i n g the n o t i o n i n the handbook. Data do not support her view. In the case of the v i d e o s and handbook, t h e r e i s i n d i c a t i o n of c o n f l i c t between the i n t r o d u c t o r y " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 206 and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " phrase and the a c t u a l focus on "decision—making," "problem—solving," and " r o l e drama." The o n l y evidence of r e s o u r c e s u t i l i s e d i s the Bloom et a l . Taxonomy of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s (1956), though o n l y Bloom i s c r e d i t e d i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual. A s i d e from t h i s , i t appears that 29 and 31, development team members, pro v i d e d most c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the n o t i o n f o r 62 and 23, p a r t i c u l a r l y e a r l y i n 62's tenure as c u r r i c u l u m development c o o r d i n a t o r . They were not s p e c i f i c about l i t e r a t u r e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s . Although 29's p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the T h i n k i n g Together k i t and the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual i s not c l e a r , 31, a d v i s o r t o 23 and 62, appears t o have been most i n f l u e n t i a l i n these m a t e r i a l s (31, 23). Because the n o t i o n as expressed i n the c u r r i c u l u m made l i t t l e sense t o her, she admitted that i t was abandoned i n t e n t i o n a l l y . In t h a t 31 was f o r the most p a r t s u c c e s s f u l i n promoting her own e v o l v i n g c o n c e p t i o n of the n o t i o n , a s i d e from evidence of c o n f l i c t i n 62's b r i e f i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the v i d e o s and handbook, the l i a i s o n r o l e of the c u r r i c u l u m development c o o r d i n a t o r might be questioned. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 207 A summary of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f 62, 23, 31, and 29 have been i n c l u d e d below t o help i l l u s t r a t e how they r e l a t e t o each other and the m a t e r i a l s . C u r r i c u l u m Guide: CT + PSS = ? Th i n k i n g Together -CT = ? Videos & Handbook: - I n t r o d u c t i o n or P r e f a c e : s t a t e s m a t e r i a l s i l l u s t r a t e CT & PSS —Body of m a t e r i a l s i l l u s t r a t e PS, DM, & Role Drama Intermediate CT = ? Resource Manual: I n q u i r y = DM ( + IP) + PS ( + IP) +IP 62: CT = DM + PS + X 23: CT = DM + PS + X 29: CT = DM (+CTP) + PS (+CTP) + CTP 31: CT = PS ( " v i r t u a l l y " ) DM CT ( DM goes beyond CT) In q u i r y = DM (+IP) + PS (+IP) Key: CT = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g DM = decision-making PSS = proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s PS = proble m - s o l v i n g CTP = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p rocesses such as obs e r v i n g , comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g , i n f e r r i n g , a n a l y s i n g , s y n t h e s i s i n g , e v a l u a t i n g IP = higher l e v e l i n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s such as a n a l y s i n g , s y n t h e s i s i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , e v a l u a t i n g ? = i n t e n t unclear OTHER PUBLICATIONS Interview feedback from 67, c o - e d i t o r of the Douglas & M c l n t y r e E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s and the major Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 208 developer of i t s "decision-making" model; 45 who was one of two "decision—making" c o n s u l t a n t s f o r the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s ; 66, co-author of the P r e n t i c e -H a l l ' s I d e n t i t y S e r i e s and the c r e a t e r of i t s "Learning P rocesses Taxonomy;" and 31 who was c r e d i t e d as c o n s u l t a n t for the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d here i n order t o c o r r o b o r a t e the a n a l y s i s of r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s and determine how the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " came t o be rep r e s e n t e d as i t was. DOUGLAS & MCINTYRE'S EXPLORATIONS SERIES 67 i n d i c a t e d that though the d e f i n i t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " c o n t i n u e s t o a l l u d e me a f t e r a number of yea r s . . . , i t doesn't matter too much how we d e f i n e i t , as long as we are doing i t i n some form or another. It was "a personal m i s s i o n " for 67 t o i n t e g r a t e her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i n t o the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s i n order t o e f f e c t change i n the classroom, t o "encourage t h i n k i n g i n our s t u d e n t s . " R e l a t i n g her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o that of the c u r r i c u l u m , 67 e x p l a i n e d why the f i n a l document had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s : ...Probably by that time Cwhen the c u r r i c u l u m was published!! we were well i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r model Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 209 that we had developed which i s a very simple model. And probably i n s p i r i t and i n p r i n c i p l e , I t h i n k , i t i s c o n s i s t e n t or congruent with the c u r r i c u l u m document i n i t s v a r i o u s phases. But i n i t s terminology and a p p l i c a t i o n , I would t h i n k the terminology, i t c e r t a i n l y i s d i f f e r e n t . In i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , I don't know because I don't know how the M i n i s t r y ever imagined t h i s would be a p p l i e d . As f a r as the n o t i o n was concerned, 67 was adament t h a t the M i n i s t r y d i d not p r o v i d e any d i r e c t i o n i n any way. Postman, Suchmann, and Michael i s , however, 67 i d e n t i f i e d as having been "very i n f l u e n t i a l " i n her t h i n k i n g . T h e i r s p e c i f i c i n f l u e n c e on the n o t i o n i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s she d i d not i n d i c a t e . 45 and 72, she s a i d , c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s e r i e s by w r i t i n g student decision—making a c t i v i t i e s . 67 i n d i c a t e d that w i t h i n every student a c t i v i t y i n the t e a c h e r s ' e d i t i o n s for the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , "no matter what c h o i c e , i n t e g r a l and inherent i n the a c t i v i t y i s the i n q u i r y s p i r i t . " Unsure about whether any textbook program can develop the " i n q u i r y s p i r i t , " 67 suggested that " c e r t a i n t h i n g s can be done t o encourage i t . " " I n q u i r y " , the means by which t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , i s the focus of 67's approach, which she d e s c r i b e s and r a t i o n a l i s e s below, c i t i n g Bloom (1956) as p r o v i d i n g the b a s i s for the c o n s t r u c t i o n of q u e s t i o n s which would i n s t i g a t e i n q u i r i e s : Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 210 Now I used i n q u i r y and I d e f i n e d i t very, very simply. I used the Bloom Taxonomy and so because I f e l t i t was the e a s i e s t . I had worked with i t i n the p a s t . I had worked with i t with s t u d e n t s . In f a c t t h a t very year a f t e r I began work on t h i s I was t e a c h i n g at UBC the methods course,... and I had developed and worked with t h i s taxonomy. B a s i c a l l y the p r i n c i p l e , and again, the same p r i n c i p l e was for student t e a c h e r s , 'Don't do something too d i f f i c u l t here. You know, do something t h a t ' s r e a l l y going t o happen. You get the kind of t h i n k i n g you ask f o r , q u i t e 1 i t e r a l l y ' . . . . S o you might as well get them t o l e a r n how t o design and ask q u e s t i o n s t h a t encourage v a r i o u s l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g , beginning with l e v e l one of t h e taxonomy and moving through l e v e l s i x or whatever... where you're e v a l u a t i n g and s y n t h e s i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . So, t h e r e i s i n every a c t i v i t y i n t h i s book, some l e v e l of t h i n k i n g i s i n v o l v e d . Almost a l l of them have many l e v e l s . Every q u e s t i o n i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s textbook had t o be c a t e g o r i z e d or c l a s s i f i e d i n one of these c a t e g o r i e s . And we b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o a l l grades. In other words, you don't do j u s t l e v e l one and two i n grade one and l e v e l f i v e i n s i x . And so, we took, we dropped ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , ' used the word ' i n q u i r y ' . . . . T h i s i n t e n t i o n a l abandonment of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " was e x p l a i n e d by 67: .. . I knew something about the l i t e r a t u r e , the p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g model t i n the c u r r i c u l u m ] , I don't know, i t j u s t d i d n ' t r e a l l y appeal t o me....I simply, I suppose, was more comfortable. I t ' s s o r t of a personal p r e f e r e n c e , r e a l l y . Regarding 67's dropping of the n o t i o n , 31 s t a t e d that she heard 67 stand up at a s e s s i o n and say t h a t i t d i d not make sense t o them, the ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving' phrase, and that they came up Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 211 with t h e i r own c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n and they have and i t ' s d i f f e r e n t . When 67 was asked i f she was equating " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " with the i n q u i r y "process," she r e p l i e d , The i n q u i r y 'process' p l u s 'decision—making.' You see, and t h i s i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , of course, of the ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , ' 'problem-solving.' ....And r e a l l y what t h i s i s i s a much l o o s e r , t h i s i s not a t i g h t model at a l l , t h i s i s very l o o s e . So b a s i c a l l y i t says, 'Questions are very important. Encourage k i d s t o ask q u e s t i o n s . Encourage k i d s t o answer q u e s t i o n s that f o r c e them through c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e behaviours t o r e c a l l , e v a l u a t e and so on. That i s r e a l l y a l l t h e r e i s t o t h i s . Very simple. 67 a l s o c l a r i f i e d why she d i d not develop a "problem-solving" model, i n c o r p o r a t i n g i t i n s t e a d w i t h i n her "decision-making" model: I used, I l i k e 'decision-making' because... 'problems' bothered me. There's a problem t o s o l v e , I mean, and people are problems. We have the Indian problem and we have, you know t h e r e ' s j u s t something about i t t h a t — Regarding t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n that the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s opposed consensus i n " d e c i s i o n -making" as far as s o c i a l i s s u e s were concerned, 67 d i d not t h i n k i t was s t a t e d as s t r o n g l y as t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i n f e r r e d . She e x p l a i n e d : Well, I don't know that we made i t that s t r o n g . C e r t a i n l y we f e l t s t r o n g l y that d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n was not n e c e s s a r i l y something t o be d e s i r e d , but r e a l i s t i c a l l y , would happen i n the i n s t a n c e of d e c i s i o n s where s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e s a r e i n v o l v e d . And u s u a l l y , u n d e r l y i n g a l l of these t h i n g s , a re v a l u e s that we would expect i n a Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 212 p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , a d i v e r s i t y which was t o t a l l y l e g i t i m a t e and t h a t we wouldn't always be working toward consensus. We d i d n ' t want t o f e e l t h a t s t u d e n t s had t o be pressured i n t o h o l d i n g a p o i n t of view or corning t o a d e c i s i o n t h a t everybody e l s e thought was r i g h t , i f they d i d n ' t , i n other words, r e a l l y r e s p e c t . . . a m i n o r i t y p o s i t i o n as being a v a l i d p o s i t i o n . F u r t h e r on t h i s t o p i c , 67 remarked, I f I may, though, j u s t make one statement, another t h i n g that we were concerned with, e s p e c i a l l y i n grade s i x and grade four where we deal with other c u l t u r e s , t hat we d i d not want s t u d e n t s t o be making d e c i s i o n s from t h e i r own c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e about other people's c u l t u r e . That was another very important concern of ours and I t h i n k t h a t , you know, my own o p i n i o n i s that we've handled that q u i t e w e l l . I t ' s a l l very well t o say that i t ' s wrong t h a t women i n I n d i a aren't g i v e n equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , you see, but you can't be making judgements and d e c i s i o n s about people l i v i n g i n other c u l t u r e s because of the e t h n o c e n t r i c framework i n which you are working. So t h a t ' s a l s o p a r t of t h a t . When t h i s r e s e a r c h e r commented on the need i n a democratic s o c i e t y t o r e s o l v e i s s u e s , at times through consensus, 67 responded, Our job i n the classroom i s t o develop the ' s k i l l s ' t h a t are i n v o l v e d i n 'decision-making,' not n e c e s s a r i l y t o teach the k i d s about p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s . Now, they, you know, c e r t a i n l y , i n so f a r as we would have student governments, for example i n the s c h o o l , that would be the forum i n which t h i s kind of t h i n g , I t h i n k , would come about. 67's r e l u c t a n c e f o r t e a c h e r s t o become i n v o l v e d i n " p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s " l i k e l y e x p l a i n s her avoidance of a c t i o n i n her "decision-making" model. She Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 213 r a t i o n a l i s e d t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , p o i n t i n g t o the n e g a t i v e backlash t o such a program i n A l b e r t a , and the r e a l i t i e s of the classroom s i t u a t i o n : I had a l o t , we had a l o t of t r o u b l e with t h a t . Yeah, we had a l o t of t r o u b l e . But we, i n the end, and I've looked at some i n t e r e s t i n g models developed by Ralph Sabey i n p a r t i c u l a r at the U of A, or he used t o be connected with the U of A, about the t a k i n g a c t i o n . Not Sabey, not Sabey, i t ' s somebody e l s e . Anyway,... you a r e aware of the e x p e r i e n c e s i n 'decision-making' c u r r i c u l u m i n A l b e r t a which was then superceded by, they have a whole s o c i a l i n q u i r y model C u n i n t e l 1 i g i b l e word] which has now been changed and they b u i l t i n the a c t i o n component. And, you know, we f e l t j u s t , i t was j u s t u n r e a l i s t i c . I t ' s j u s t simply u n r e a l i s t i c . We wanted c e r t a i n t h i n g s t o happen i n the classroom and i f we were going t o d e a l , e s p e c i a l l y i f i s s u e s a r e going t o a r i s e n a t u r a l l y out of the context, i t ' s not n e c e s s a r i l y something k i d s c o u l d do, although we always t r i e d t o have them w r i t e a l e t t e r t o the e d i t o r or do something. But i n the end the t a k i n g a c t i o n component was almost a r b i t r a r i l y [ a v o i d e d ] . As t o what t h i s r e s e a r c h e r observed t o be the absence of c r i t e r i a for decision-making, 67 suggested that w h i l e she was "a l i t t l e far away from i t now" t o r e c a l l the s p e c i f i c s , "maybe we d i d n ' t pay enough a t t e n t i o n t o i t . " When q u e r i e d about what j u s t i f i c a t i o n 67 had for her assumption that " s k i l l s " would be t r a n s f e r r e d t o s t u d e n t s ' d a i l y l i v e s , 67 i n d i c a t e d t h a t due t o the demands i n g e t t i n g the books p u b l i s h e d , " b a s i c a l l y , we d i d n ' t face the problem." Student e v a l u a t i o n Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 214 a c t i v i t i e s , employed throughout the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , were "not of the c r i t i c a l o rder, i n q u i r y , or decision-making." 67 proposed that w h i l e she d i d not "expect t o see very much happening for another year or two myself", the p u b l i s h e r would be e v a l u a t i n g i n that kind of macro way. We would not be e v a l u a t i n g the st u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y a problem and so on and so f o r t h . But what we would be monitoring was whether t h i s kind of a c t i v i t y was going on i n the classroom as pa r t of s o c i a l s t u d i e s or any s u b j e c t . Unable t o r e c a l l any M i n i s t r y i n t e r v e n t i o n r e g a r d i n g the type o f " i s s u e s " that c o u l d be used, 67 suggested that the p h i l o s o p h y of E x p l o r a t i o n s and the ph i l o s o p h y of the developers, mainly 73 and myself as general e d i t o r s , was t h a t the heart and so u l of s o c i a l s t u d i e s education i s d e a l i n g with i s s u e s . That's why i t ' s t h e r e . . . . 45, one of 67's "decision-making" c o n s u l t a n t s , f e l t the " i s s u e s " employed w i t h i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s were "watered down" or "muted." There were a p p a r e n t l y " l o t s of i s s u e s " that he would have l i k e d t o have d e a l t with. But a c c o r d i n g t o 45, c o n t r a r y t o 67's r e c o l l e c t i o n s , the M i n i s t r y d i d i n t e r v e n e r e g a r d i n g " i s s u e s " which p e r t a i n t o "v a l u e s . " 28, i n a l e t t e r t o 67 (January 24, 1983), s t a t e d that "decision-making and v a l u i n g seem t o be t a n g l e d " and t h a t teacher books and Macro-1 implement at ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 215 accompanying textbooks i f necessary, be r e -examinined and r e w r i t t e n so the a c t i v i t i e s are, i n f a c t , decision-making and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g r a t h e r than v a l u e judgment. He added, "Good/bad va l u e judgment i s not d e c i s i o n -making." It should be remembered t h a t t h i s c r i t i q u e from 28, w r i t t e n when he was c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r d u r i n g the tense p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the A p r i l D r a f t when M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s became i n v o l v e d p e r s o n a l l y i n d e c i s i o n s , p e r t a i n s t o input from 45, the same i n d i v i d u a l whose paper on " i s s u e s " 28 recommended t o 67 as r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e n t i o n of the n o t i o n , which he was unable t o c l a r i f y . C o n t r a r y t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n , 45 s t a t e d t h a t he worked on the "decision—making" model with 67, p r o v i d i n g the t h r e e moral standards which were b u i l t i n t o i t . Located i n the focus q u e s t i o n s column of the model, these standards are d e s c r i b e d by 45 who assured t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t h a t 67 was aware of them: There a r e t h r e e standards down t h e r e . . . . There*s the r o l e exchange t e s t which i s b a s i c a l l y : you wouldn't want the d e c i s i o n a p p l i e d t o you, then you ought not apply i t t o someone e l s e . There's the u n i v e r s a l consequences t e s t . . . , t h e standard of would you l i k e everybody t o act on that d e c i s i o n ? And t h e r e ' s the standard of c o n s i s t e n c y [new cases t e s t ! . If you're going t o make t h i s d e c i s i o n i n t h i s context, would you make the same d e c i s i o n i n a s i m i l a r c ontext. Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 216 As r e p r e s e n t e d i n the t e a c h e r s ' books, the moral standards are i n c l u d e d with other q u e s t i o n s without being h i g h l i g h t e d or i d e n t i f i e d as standards necessary for j u d g i n g the merit of d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l i s s u e s . According t o 45, the moral standards o n l y apply t o s i t u a t i o n s i n which other people are going t o be, t h e r e ' s a l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e y ' r e going t o be harmed. I f i t ' s going t o p l e a s e them, you don't worry about i t . 45 concurred that a s i d e from b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n of b i a s i n data, E x p l o r a t i o n s d i d not a t t e n d t o other standards which would be r e q u i r e d for a s s e s s i n g the merit of f a c t s , arguments, and the meaning of concepts, f a c t o r s which he d i s c u s s e d i n h i s paper (1981). In response t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s concern about E x p l o r a t i o n s being the o n l y implementation m a t e r i a l t o oppose consensus i n decision-making, a c i t i z e n s h i p goal expressed i n the c u r r i c u l u m , 45 i n d i c a t e d t h a t even where consensus was a goal i n group decision-making, t h a t each d e c i s i o n i s an i n d i v i d u a l one which may be a d j u s t e d i n order for consensus t o be achieved. Though 45 i n d i c a t e d t h a t consensus would be d e s i r a b l e where s o c i a l i s s u e s are i n v o l v e d , where the d e c i s i o n i s "going t o impinge on other people," he does not f e e l Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 217 that i t i s a "necessary c o n d i t i o n for r e s o l v i n g s o c i a l i s sues." It seems t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , t h a t 45*s p e r s p e c t i v e that d e c i s i o n s are made by i n d i v i d u a l s , whether they i n v o l v e consensus or not, r e p r e s e n t s the u n d e r l y i n g i n t e n t i o n of the n o t i o n presented i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s . However, i t appears that the m a t e r i a l s c a r r y t h i s even f u r t h e r by a v o i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s for s o c i a l d e c i s i o n s which as part of the " p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s " (67) of the r e a l world, may b e n e f i t from consensus. 45 emphasised the r e l e v a n c e of understanding and r e a s o n i n g for judgements, as e x e m p l i f i e d by the moral standards for d e c i d i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s ; r u l e s of l o g i c for a s s e s s i n g arguments; o b s e r v a t i o n , experiment, and r e l i a n c e on a u t h o r i t y for determining the a u t h e n t i c i t y of f a c t s ; and where meaning i s i n doubt, r e c o u r s e t o the d i c t i o n a r y , normal usage assessment, concept c l a r i f i c a t i o n , or s t i p u l a t i o n (p. 2-6 and Appendix A of 45's " i s s u e s " paper, June, 1981). H i s understanding of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " , which he seemed t o a t t r i b u t e t o Robert E n n i s ' (1985) d e f i n i t i o n of "reasonably d e c i d i n g what t o do and b e l i e v e " (45), i n f l u e n c e d the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s through the i n c l u s i o n of moral standards for j u d g i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s about what one Macro-1 implement at ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 218 "should do." "Decision-making" p e r t a i n i n g t o matters of meaning and matters of f a c t does not appear t o have b e n e f i t t e d by h i s i n p u t . It appears t h a t Douglas & M c l n t y r e ' s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s has i n t e r p r e t e d the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " as " i n q u i r y and d e c i s i o n -making," the l a t t e r which e n t a i l s moral standards and i n c o r p o r a t e s problem—solving, with l i t t l e guidance or d i r e c t i o n from the M i n i s t r y , not even i n the form of a completed c u r r i c u l u m . When the guide was p u b l i s h e d , 67 i n d i c a t e d i t had l i t t l e a f f e c t as the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s was too far along i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Created by 67, with some input from 45, the d e c i s i o n -making model r e l i e s on the Bloom et a l . Taxonomy of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s (1956) which p r o v i d e s the b a s i s for the c r e a t i o n of s i x l e v e l s of q u e s t i o n s through which s t u d e n t s engage i n s i x l e v e l s of i n q u i r y encouraging s i x l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g . While 67 i d e n t i f i e d Postman, Suchmann, and Michael i s as having i n f l u e n c e d her t h i n k i n g , t h e i r s p e c i f i c impact was not i n d i c a t e d . The d i l u t i o n of i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g v a l u e s would seem t o have been p a r t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the M i n i s t r y , j u d g i n g by 28*s l e t t e r , even though 67 d i d not mention the Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 219 o c c a s i o n . Avoidance of " a c t i o n " was an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n , s e l f — i m p o s e d , 67 maintained. 67 i m p l i e d t h a t the p r e s s u r e s of producing m a t e r i a l s on time c o n t r i b u t e d t o her i n a t t e n t i o n t o assessment of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " or " i n q u i r y " - r e l a t e d outcomes, as i t d i d her n e g l e c t of j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Classroom change was 67's m o t i v a t i o n for her e f f o r t s i n d e s i g n i n g the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s "decision-making" model. She admitted that she abandoned the c u r r i c u l u m ' s d e p i c t i o n i n t e n t i o n a l l y because having read r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , i t d i d not appeal t o her. T h i s suggests that r a t h e r than i n t e r p r e t i n g the n o t i o n , 67 c r e a t e d her own. Evident i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s " i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s i s n e g l i g i b l e input from c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r s , except the r e f e r r a l of 67 t o 45 for c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the n o t i o n . In summary, how 67 and 45 p e r c e i v e d the n o t i o n , as well as 28, c o o r d i n a t o r when 67 developed her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a re c h a r t e d below, as are t r a n s l a t i o n s of the n o t i o n evident i n the m a t e r i a l s . C u r r i c u l u m Guide: CT + PSS = ? E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s : CT + PSS = ? In q u i r y = DM ( i n c l u d e s PS) + higher l e v e l t h i n k i n g Mac r o-1mp1ementat i on: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 220 67: CT = DM ( i n c l u d e s PS) + I n q u i r y 45: CT = DM (with c r i t e r i a a p p l i c a b l e t o type of i s s u e ) 28: CT = DM + PS + I n q u i r y Key: CT = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g PSS = probl e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s DM = decision—making PS = problem-solving ? = i n t e n t unclear It i s of i n t e r e s t t o note that 28's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n appears t o be more i n l i n e with 67's than i t i s with t h a t of the c u r r i c u l u m . PRENTICE-HALL'S IDENTITY SERIES 66 f co-author and developer of the " I d e n t i t y L e a r n i n g Processes Taxonomy," and 31 who was c r e d i t e d as a c o n s u l t a n t were i n t e r v i e w e d . As 31 d i d not p r o v i d e input t o the n o t i o n , as represented by 66, her statements w i l l s e r v e o n l y t o c o r r o b o r a t e 66*s. R e l a t i n g her "taxonomy" t o the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and probl e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " 67 commented on one reason why she d i g r e s s e d from the c u r r i c u l u m : So that when you look at the 'problem-solving* i n that C c u r r i c u l u m l , . . . . t h e y d i d n ' t c a l l i t i n q u i r y . They c a l l e d i t a ' s k i l l . ' And t h i s I won't...go along with...because I t h i n k i t ' s a t h i n k i n g 'process' and so I would not j u s t c a l l i t a ' s k i l l . ' I f i g u r e i t warrants a s e p a r a t e column. In other words, your ' s k i l l s ' a re not your t h i n k i n g ' s k i l l s . ' They're ' s k i l l s ' t h a t you use for a c q u i r i n g and u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , communicating, map re a d i n g , r e a d i n g , o r a l Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 221 communication. Those a r e t h i n g s t h a t you use t o get and t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n or your s o c i a l ' s k i l l s , ' r i g h t , which a r e s o r t of Can3 a f f e c t i v e component. But they are ' s k i l l s . * They are t h i n g s that you can show by doing. For 66, "decision—making" and "problem—solving" were among the "processes" w i t h i n her "Taxonomy of L e a r n i n g P r o c e s s e s . " These t h i n k i n g or l e a r n i n g "processes" she equated with " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " A c c o r d i n g t o 31, 66 a l s o dropped the phrase, " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " because i t d i d n ' t make sense t o her. Within her "taxonomy," 66 i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e modes of i n q u i r y : s o l v i n g problems v i a "why" q u e s t i o n s , i d e n t i f y i n g with s i t u a t i o n s and viewing them from an " i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , " and r e s o l v i n g d e c i s i o n s v i a "should" q u e s t i o n s . When qu e r i e d about what counted as c r i t e r i a for "decision-making" and "problem-solving," 66 p o i n t e d t o r e f e r e n c e s i n her "taxonomy" where e v a l u a t i o n i s employed at each l e v e l on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , as well as t o chapter t e s t s . When i t was suggested that guidance for t e a c h e r s t o help s t u d e n t s e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a was l a c k i n g , 66 wondered i f t h i s r e s e a r c h e r had overlooked i t . However, 66 was not a b l e t o p r o v i d e any f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . As f a r as j u d g i n g evidence was concerned, she assumed that "a Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 222 teacher has t o know" and would guide c h i l d r e n i n r e c o g n i s i n g s t r o n g or weak evidence. The " I d e n t i t y L earning Processes Taxonomy" was developed by 66 as part of her d o c t o r a l work, motivated by the d e s i r e t o implement change i n s c h o o l s by p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r s with " e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l s . . . b e c a u s e you can't change methods i f you don't have t o o l s t o do i t w i t h . " She r a t i o n a l i s e d her "taxonomy" as being a p o s s i b l e key for implementing i n q u i r y , as p r e v i o u s " i n q u i r y " implementation endeavours which had been u n s u c c e s s f u l had i n v o l v e d j u s t the "manipulation of data r a t h e r than i n t e r n a l i z i n g the problems and the i s s u e s . " 66 had a s t r o n g f e e l i n g t h a t i f you c o u l d use the methods of ethnomusicology Cone aspect which concerns "communication between p e o p l e s " ! you would have...a s t a r t on h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n t o i n t e r n a l i s e the problems of themselves and of other people and the i s s u e s that people are faced with....You s t a r t with t h i s f e e l i n g of i d e n t i t y or communication with the people and s o r t of work from that base. C r e d i t i n g Goodlad, Popham, Baker, Wilbur Dutton, and C h a r l o t t e C r a b t r e e for t h e i r i n f l u e n c e while she was a d o c t o r a l candidate, 66 expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s were e f f e c t e d through her working with the "taxonomy" with c h i l d r e n . In order t o a c q u i r e evidence that c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f y i n g with o t h e r s and Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 223 improving t h e i r i n q u i r y a b i l i t i e s , and have t e a c h e r s help t r a n s l a t e her c u r r i c u l u m framework i n t o the language of the classroom, 66 took her I d e n t i t y program i n t o s c h o o l s i n mining communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia and O n t a r i o . Mentioning that an e v a l u a t o r monitored the p r o j e c t , 66 s p e c i f i e d t h at such assessments r e l a t e d t o " c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward people and towards t h i n g s " r a t h e r than "the 'taxonomy' Cwhichl had a l r e a d y been t e s t e d by C r a b t r e e and o t h e r s . " When q u e r i e d f u r t h e r about the e v a l u a t i o n , 66 i n d i c a t e d that i t was not her 'taxonomy' t h a t had been t e s t e d but i n s t e a d , "the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l e a r n i n g i f you're u s i n g a s y s t e m a t i c , step—by—step approach." F o l l o w i n g t h i s experience, she sought a p u b l i s h e r and P r e n t i c e - H a l l agreed t o have the m a t e r i a l submitted t o a n a t i o n a l marketing survey; on the b a s i s of the survey recommendations, 66 and her co-author 69 r e v i s e d the m a t e r i a l s p r i o r t o s u b m i t t i n g them t o the M i n i s t r y for c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Asked i f the M i n i s t r y provided any input r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n , 66 remarked t h a t the A p r i l D r a f t was the o n l y guidance she r e c e i v e d . A s i d e from adding the "decision-making" step, which had p r e v i o u s l y been p a r t Macro-Imp lenient at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 224 of I d e n t i t y ' s "problem-solving" l e v e l , 66's " t r a n s l a t i o n " appears t o have been the r e s u l t of her endeavours and perhaps her d o c t o r a l a d v i s o r , C h a r l o t t e C r a b t r e e , not the c u r r i c u l u m . 31 emphasised the r e s e a r c h base t o the I d e n t i t y c u r r i c u l u m framework, and i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was from 66 and 69, the authors, that she a c q u i r e d her c l a r i t y of t h i n k i n g . . . i n that [II...saw the d i s t i n c t i o n between 'problem-solving' and 'decision—making,' at l e a s t the d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t they made. And i t seems t o be supported i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I mean, c e r t a i n l y 66's work i s research-based, s t r o n g l y research-based. And p a r t of i t comes from work t h a t she's developed h e r s e l f i n her d o c t o r a l t h e s i s . And so i t ' s . . . n o t j u s t p u l l e d out of the a i r somewhere. ....They d i d not, Cshe f e l t ] , equate ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ' with 'decision-making.' They s a i d ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ' don't make sense but we b e l i e v e i n what's i n the [ c u r r i c u l u m ] s k i l l s l i s t . . . . T h e one which d e a l s with c i t i z e n s h i p i n the s k i l l s l i s t t a l k s about p o i n t s of view and...that p a r t i c u l a r area l i n k s most c l o s e l y with the u s i n g the i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e l e v e l of 66's 'taxonomy' where you're h e l p i n g k i d s t o r e v e r s e t h e i r r o l e s , t o take a r o l e and be someone e l s e so that you can break down some of the p r e j u d i c e s . When asked what l e v e l s were the e q u i v a l e n t of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " or whether " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " was a component at a l l , 31 o f f e r e d t h a t "problem-s o l ving...would be the c l o s e s t l i n k . " Yet when q u e r i e d about e v a l u a t i o n , 31 allowed that i t too f i t s . She then remarked, "...Sure, i t ' s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 225 e v a l u a t i o n , then, i f you l i k e . I t ' s decision-making and e v a l u a t i o n " but 31 was not more s p e c i f i c about what the r e l a t i o n s h i p was. She s a i d t h a t the l e v e l s of the "taxonomy" were u n l i k e l y arranged i n an h i e r a r c h i c a l sequence because more than one l e v e l c o u l d be employed at the same time. For i n s t a n c e , ...Often i n decision-making, k i d s would go i n t o r o l e so you've got r o l e , decision—making, and e v a l u a t i o n a l l clumped t o g e t h e r . So i t r e a l l y can't be chopped up. How the n o t i o n i s represented i n the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s i s c h a r t e d below, along with 66's p e r s p e c t i v e and 31's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as well as with 49 and 50's, who were c o o r d i n a t o r s when 66 was r e v i s i n g her submissions. 50 was the i n d i v i d u a l asked t o respond t o 66's submission d u r i n g her t w e n t y - f i v e day summer c o n t r a c t p r i o r t o her September appointment as c o o r d i n a t o r . C u r r i c u l u m Guide: CT + PSS = ? P r e n t i c e - H a l l ' s -CT + PSS = ? I d e n t i t y S e r i e s : - L e a r n i n g or T h i n k i n g Processes = C o l l e c t i n g Data through r e c a l l and o b s e r v a t i o n , PS, DM, Using the I n s i d e r ' s P e r s p e c t i v e , and E v a l u a t i o n -Forms of I n q u i r y = T h i n k i n g Processes = PS + DM + IP 66: CT + PSS = d i d not make sense t o her CT = Taxonomy of T h i n k i n g or Learning Processes L e a r n i n g Processes = see I d e n t i t y S e r i e s above Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 226 31: In I d e n t i t y : DM £ CT CT + PSS = ? ( d i d not make sense) CT c l o s e s t l i n k = PS CT r e l a t e d t o DM + PS + E v a l u a t i o n Own view: CT + PSS = ? ( d i d not make sense) In q u i r y = DM + PS + I n q u i r y Processes CT = PS; DM f CT 50: CT +PSS = ?; focussed on S k i l l s 49: CT = DM; PS = somewhat d i f f e r e n t ; or CT = PS + DM + X Key: CT = c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g PSS = proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s DM = decision-making PS = problem—solving X = other e n t i t y IP = u s i n g I n s i d e r ' s P e r s p e c t i v e ? = i n t e n t unclear While 31 and 66 both were t r o u b l e d by t h e n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g , " as represented i n the c u r r i c u l u m , they d i d not seem t o p e r c e i v e " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i n the same manner. With 50's ap p a r e n t l y l i m i t e d understanding of the n o t i o n , i t would not appear that any feedback she pro v i d e d 66 would have a f f e c t e d the n o t i o n i n the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s . The l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by 49 i s not u n l i k e 66's, except that 66 p e r c e i v e d the " i n s i d e r ' s p e r p e c t i v e " as c e n t r a l t o her "taxonomy" and c r i t e r i a as an i n t e g r a l f a c t o r i n each l e v e l . It appears t h a t 66 adapted her conc e p t i o n t o the c u r r i c u l u m by adding the " d e c i s i o n -making" l e v e l t o her "taxonomy." Opposed t o Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 227 c l a s s i f y i n g "problem-solving" and "decision-making" as " s k i l l s , " she i n s i s t e d on l a b e l l i n g them "processes." Although d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of each l e v e l of 66's "taxonomy" correspond t o v a r i o u s p a r t s of the c u r r i c u l u m ' s s k i l l s appendix, i t does not appear that t h i s was the r e s u l t of 66's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m , but r a t h e r , her c r e a t i o n . Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 228 APPENDIX 4.1 MACRO-IMPLEMENTATION: PHASES OF DECISION-MAKING I f , as the i n t e r v i e w evidence supports, M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s as well as commissioned works by Douglas & Mcl n t y r e and P r e n t i c e - H a l l d i g r e s s e d from the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s , " one c o u l d reasonably q u e s t i o n the value of a c u r r i c u l u m document. F a c t o r s that i n t e r v i e w e e s i m p l i e d c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s d i g r e s s i o n might help show how t h i s o c c u r r e d . Three general f a c t o r s from the macro-implementation l i t e r a t u r e were i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter One: c l a r i t y of e x p e c t a t i o n s , l i a i s o n , and c a p a c i t y . These t h r e e f a c t o r s are t a l k e d about ( i n more s p e c i f i c terms) i n the present chapter as q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , d i r e c t i v e s , i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s , l i a i s o n and time. How these f a c t o r s may have a f f e c t e d the development and t r a n s l a t i o n s of the n o t i o n a re of concern here and w i l l be examined i n terms of the p r e p a r a t o r y , developmental, and implementation f a c i l i t a t i o n phases of the r e v i s i o n . PREPARATORY PHASE (1975-1978) Beginning with the secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s review i n 1975, the p r e p a r a t o r y phase of t h e r e v i s i o n Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 229 continued through the province-wide s o c i a l s t u d i e s assessment (1976-1977) t o the establishment of the Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s R e v i s i o n Committee i n September, 1978. Evidence p e r t a i n i n g t o q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s , d i r e c t i v e s , allowances for s t a f f i n s e r v i c e , and l i a i s o n among committees a r e examined t o as s e s s t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o the macro-implementation of the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " QUALIFICATIONS Data p e r t a i n i n g t o the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s who c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p r e p a r a t o r y phase of the r e v i s i o n a re not complete. However, 22 i n d i c a t e d that the Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Review Committee was comprised " e n t i r e l y of t e a c h e r s nominated by the BCTF and school d i s t r i c t s " (Horizon, 20(1), pp. 43-44). 60a, who was on t h i s committee, i d e n t i f i e d 93, a u n i v e r s i t y academic with e x p e r t i s e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s and e v a l u a t i o n , as a member, as well as 28, 96, and 99. 100, 93, 94, and 67, each who had u n i v e r s i t y a f f i l i a t i o n s as s o c i a l s t u d i e s s p e c i a l i s t s , c r e a t e d the t e s t s f o r the assessment, and served as major authors for the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment, Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 230 1977 Report. According t o John C o l l i n s (Horizon 15(1). pp. 4-5), t h i s " c o n t r a c t team" was "guided by a management committee" whose members i n c l u d e d 101, a u n i v e r s i t y academic with s o c i a l s t u d i e s c r e d e n t i a l s ; a school t r u s t e e ; two t e a c h e r s , one who was 25, a l a t e r member of the Management Committee; and 60a who was then a p r i n c i p a l . The e n t i r e p r o j e c t was being monitored by a " J o i n t E v a l u a t i o n Committee" comprised of a C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch c o n s u l t a n t ; 12, who was then a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r of the Learning Assessment Branch, as well as a c t i n g d i r e c t o r of the P r o v i n c i a l L e a r n i n g Assessment Program; t h r e e BCTF r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; a u n i v e r s i t y education f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; and one school s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . While i t seems reasonable t o assume t h a t t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e on the review committee and the assessment had some p r a c t i c a l e xperience with s o c i a l s t u d i e s at the secondary l e v e l , t h e i r c r e d e n t i a l s a r e otherwise unknown t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . A s i d e from a short essay i n the Assessment Report (1977) by Aoki and H a r r i s o n about ways of k n o w i n g — i n c l u d i n g a general account of " c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e k n o w i n g " — t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n the Assessment Report t o a s s i s t d e v e l o p e r s i n c l a r i f y i n g the n o t i o n (26). Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 231 As for 22, he was d e s c r i b e d as having a s t r o n g academic background i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s (23, 31) but beyond t h i s , h i s c r e d e n t i a l s are not known t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . The c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g model (1979), which was l i k e l y the product of h i s labour, does not r e f l e c t an understanding of c u r r i c u l u m implementation l i t e r a t u r e . Without p r o v i d i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n , the model promotes se p a r a t e f u n c t i o n s f o r the M i n i s t r y ' s d i f f e r e n t branches, yet s t r e s s e s the need for a " c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p " (Foreward). For example, Program Implementation S e r v i c e s becomes i n v o l v e d "uhen [ i t a l i c s added! a new c u r r i c u l u m i s approved (p. 9) while the Learning Assessment Branch, " i n a d d i t i o n t o conducting broad p r o v i n c i a l surveys of student achievement, develops and norms p r o v i n c i a l t e s t s . . . . after [ i t a l i c s added! the new c u r r i c u l u m i s prepared" (p. 11). Nor does the A p r i l D r a f t , which 22 alone c o o r d i n a t e d , p o r t r a y knowledge of implementation l i t e r a t u r e . In summary, q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s appeared t o be a major c r i t e r i o n i n M i n i s t r y appointments, with some attempt t o f a c i l i t a t e c a r r y o v e r from one p r o j e c t t o the next. There i s l i t t l e evidence t o suggest t h a t e x p e r t i s e i n other areas was a Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l p r i o r i t y , though 93 and 12 had experi e n c e i n e v a l u a t i o n . DIRECTIVES AND INSERVICE The Secondary S o c i a l S t u d i e s Review Committee's f u n c t i o n was t o a s s e s s the need for a r e v i s i o n of the secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m (60a, 28), whereas the p r o v i n c i a l assessment was i n i t i t i a t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e province-wide comparison of student achievement (Annual Report, 1975/1976, p. 10) and p r o v i d e means f o r "monitorCingl the whole p u b l i c school system" (Annual Report, 1976/1977, p. 10). While data are l a c k i n g r e g a r d i n g M i n i s t r y d i r e c t i v e s or i n s e r v i c e r e l a t i n g t o the n o t i o n and i t s implementation d u r i n g the review and assessment, 22 d i d not seem t o b e n e f i t from much guidance, i f the ex p e r i e n c e s of other c o o r d i n a t o r s are i n d i c a t i v e , a s i d e from h i s mandate t o develop a c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g model, gather together a r e v i s i o n committee, and conduct the r e v i s i o n (26). LIAISON PROVISIONS There i s some evidence t o suggest that the M i n i s t r y attempted t o f a c i l i t a t e communication between the review, the assessment, and the r e v i s i o n by i t s T h i n k i n g 232 Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 233 assignment of i n d i v i d u a l s who worked on the e a r l i e r p r o j e c t s t o l a t e r endeavours. 60a and 93 were i d e n t i f i e d by 60a as working for the review and the assessment. 60a a l s o i n d i c a t e d that he had been approached i n f o r m a l l y by 12 t o c h a i r the Management Committee, but that he had r e f u s e d , l a t e r becoming the c h a i r of the S e l e c t Committee when the r e v i s i o n ran i n t o t r o u b l e . 28, a member of the Secondary Review Committee, served on the Management Committee for i t s f i r s t year and l a t e r as a c o o r d i n a t o r i n the Program Implementation S e r v i c e s Branch and the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch. 25, who had been a member of the assessment team, was a l s o on the Management Committee. A s i d e from t h i s o v e r l a p p i n g of personnel and i n c l u s i o n of two M i n i s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the Assessment J o i n t E v a l u a t i o n Committee, i t does not appear that t h e r e was much communication between the Secondary Review Committee, the assessment team, or the c o o r d i n a t o r i n the p r e p a r a t o r y phase of the r e v i s i o n . Neither 28 nor 60a i n d i c a t e d such l i a i s o n e x i s t e d . C o n s i s t e n t l i a i s o n was not i n evidence. While the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch and the Learning Assessment Branch were represented on the J o i n t E v a l u a t i o n Committee fo r the assessment, t h e i r Macro-Implt-mentation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 234 input does not seem t o have been r e l a t e d t o c l a r i f y i n g the n o t i o n . How might t h i s apparent l a c k of M i n i s t r y monitoring and i n a t t e n t i o n t o c r e d e n t i a l s beyond e v a l u a t i o n and experience or e x p e r t i s e i n s o c i a l st.udies d u r i n g t h i s phase of the r e v i s i o n have i n f l u e n c e d the n o t i o n and i t s implementation? The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of those who planned the r e v i s i o n would have i n f l u e n c e d the type of data that were c o l l e c t e d and how these were i n t e r p r e t e d . I f e x p e r t i s e i n " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and " c u r r i c u l u m implementation" were not c r i t e r i a for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s stage, i t would be s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d such knowledge or p r i o r i t i e s r e f l e c t e d i n the products of t h i s p e r i o d . DEVELOPMENT PHASE (1978-1985) With the establishment o f the R e v i s i o n Committee, the development phase of the r e v i s i o n was underway and would c o n t i n u e through t o the p u b l i c a t i o n of the elementary c u r r i c u l u m i n 1983, followed l a t e r by the r e l e a s e o f the secondary c u r r i c u l u m i n 1985. F a c t o r s that may have i n f l u e n c e d the n o t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d are now examined. Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 235 QUALIFICATIONS A l a c k of r e l e v a n t e x p e r t i s e among p a r t i c i p a n t s was i m p l i e d as having some i n f l u e n c e on the development of the n o t i o n (31, 23, 60a). It seems that the Cu r r i c u l u m Development Branch was p e r c e i v e d as moving away from the c r i t e r i o n of having s o c i a l s t u d i e s s p e c i a l i s t s as c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r s , f a v o u r i n g management c a p a b i l i t i e s a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the A p r i l D r a f t (23, 31). Development teams were b a s i c a l l y p r a c t i t i o n e r -o r i e n t e d (26, 60a, 45). 22 s e l e c t e d a p r a c t i t i o n e r -o r i e n t e d r e v i s i o n committee, i n p a r t because he may have a t t r i b u t e d Saskatchewan's d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t o i t s committee's "blend of academicians, e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s , and t e a c h i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s " (Fowler, 1980, p. 35). 26, the o n l y u n i v e r s i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the committee, d e s c r i b e d the membership as being p r a c t i t i o n e r - o r i e n t e d , " c r e d i b l e i n terms of s o c i a l s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n , " having " s i m i l a r o u t l o o k s , " and with r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the assessment. Yet 24's r e c o l l e c t i o n of the " d i s p a r a t e " views h e l d by the R e v i s i o n Committee members, who she i n d i c a t e d a l s o i n c l u d e d a school t r u s t e e , does not c o n f i r m 26's assessment of the membership. When i t s mandate was Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 236 expanded a f t e r the f i r s t s i x months t o i n c l u d e a review of the elementary c u r r i c u l u m , two elementary l e v e l e ducators j o i n e d the committee. Judging by a l l r e l a t e d i n t e r v i e w e e comments, c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of development workers were not r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n or t o c u r r i c u l u m implementation, though 26 was c r e d i t e d by 45 as having e x h i b i t e d a good understanding of " i s s u e s r e s o l u t i o n " i n h i s w r i t i n g s . A paper by 26 was i n c l u d e d i n the monograph, Implementation Viewpoints (1380), a p p a r e n t l y made a v a i l a b l e t o committee members, i l l u s t r a t i n g some knowledge of implementation 1 i t e r a t u r e . Members of the Elementary Review Committee i n c l u d e d one p r i n c i p a l , t h r e e elementary t e a c h e r s , and one school board c o n s u l t a n t . 31, a p a r t i c i p a n t on t h i s committee, was a c t i v e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s as a school d i s t r i c t c o o r d i n a t o r and i n the p r o v i n c i a l teachers* a s s o c i a t i o n . As for e x p e r t i s e r e g a r d i n g " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " she claimed t o have a c q u i r e d her understanding of i t a f t e r her work on the committee. It seems reasonable, t h e r e f o r e , t o conclude that r e l a t e d e x p e r t i s e i n " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " or "implementation" were not c r i t e r i a for committee s e l e c t i o n . Macro—Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 237 If the S e l e c t Committee's c r i t i q u e of the secondary component of the A p r i l D r a f t was a c c u r a t e — that i t lacked a r a t i o n a l e and c l a r i t y for the user, c o n t a i n e d many conceptual flaws, i n c l u d e d " i s s u e s " t h a t were not " t r u e i s s u e s . . . C t h a t d i d not a l l o w ! for d i v e r s e p o i n t s of view" (60a), and had not c o n s i d e r e d t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d i n e s s or a r e a l i s t i c time-l i n e — t h e n t h i s may be a r e s u l t of the p r a c t i t i o n e r r a t h e r than e x p e r t - o r i e n t e d d e v e l o p e r s . Yet, "expert" input was a v a i l a b l e through 45*s paper on " i s s u e s " (June, 1981) which pr o v i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and was noted as a r e f e r e n c e by 26, 29, 49, and 28. As w e l l , t h e r e was the monograph on implementation (1980) and the recommendations of the S e l e c t Committee whose members i n c l u d e d , among o t h e r s , t h r e e post—secondary academics (one who had been deputy m i n i s t e r p r i o r t o 17) . But i t appears that input from academic s p e c i a l i s t s r e l a t i n g t o the n o t i o n and i t s implementation was not i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the f i n a l c u r r i c u l u m document. Might t h i s be because "expert" input may r e q u i r e "expert" r e c i p i e n t s t o comprehend the a d v i c e , a s u g g e s t i o n i m p l i e d by 26, the o n l y u n i v e r s i t y Macro—Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 238 academic on the Management Committee? While t h i s q u e s t i o n warrants c o n s i d e r a t i o n , had more e x p e r t s been i n v o l v e d e a r l i e r i n the process, the c l a r i t y of the n o t i o n may have b e n e f i t t e d . DIRECTIVES AND INSERVICE PROVISIONS L i m i t e d d i r e c t i v e s and i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s appear t o have had some i n f l u e n c e on the development of the n o t i o n . C o o r d i n a t o r s and development committee members maintained t h a t " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s had t o be made a l l the way through" (59, 49, 40, 28, 62). Devoid of ongoing guidance r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l s t u d i e s , c u r r i c u l u m development/implementation, or the n o t i o n , c o o r d i n a t o r s and d e v e l o p e r s s t r u g g l e d on t h e i r own. The C u r r i c u l u m  P l a n n i n g (1979) model pro v i d e d some i n s t r u c t i o n s on what t o do but few s p e c i f i c s of what that e n t a i l e d . For example, on page 5, one l e a r n s t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m guide i s l i m i t e d t o "what i s t o be taught" (emphasis i n document). "Key" i n f o r m a t i o n t o be i n c l u d e d are "the r a t i o n a l [ s i c 1, p h i l o s o p h y and general g o a l s , " as well as "a conceptual c u r r i c u l u m model as i t a p p l i e s t o the s u b j e c t a r e a " and "student 1ear n i ng out comes." Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 239 A few p r o c e d u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s are found on page 15: It i s expected that committees w i l l draw t o the a t t e n t i o n of the M i n i s t r y any a s p e c t s of i n d i v i d u a l courses t h a t may be s u b j e c t t o p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y . The purpose of t h i s procedure i s not t o e l i m i n a t e c o n t r o v e r s y from a c u r r i c u l u m but r a t h e r t o ensure that accountable a u t h o r i t i e s a r e f u l l y aware of p o t e n t i a l problems. . . . . I t i s expected that committees w i l l reach d e c i s i o n s u s i n g a consensus model. ....To p r o v i d e a degree of p r o t e c t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l committee members from both commercial and vested i n t e r e s t p r e s s u r e s , i t i s expected that committees w i l l operate with a degree of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s important t o safeguard a g a i n s t rumours or e x p e c t a t i o n s being r a i s e d by premature announcements. It i s expected t h a t committees w i l l g i v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o v a r i o u s i n p u t s such as b r i e f s , r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and c u r r e n t s t u d i e s . In a d d i t i o n , on page 16 one l e a r n s that committees w i l l prepare guides i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l and c l a r i t y with adequate emphasis on content and a p p l i c a t i o n t o a l l o w for a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and ease of implementation. Judging by t h i s c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g phamphlet, pr o c e d u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s for c u r r i c u l u m development at the time of the r e v i s i o n would have i n c l u d e d : development workers a d v i s e the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o v e r s y , a r r i v e at d e c i s i o n s through consensus, maintain c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r " b r i e f s , r e s e a r c h Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 240 f i n d i n g s and c u r r e n t s t u d i e s , " p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t c l a r i t y and d e t a i l s t o f a c i l i t a t e implementation, and maintain an "adequate emphasis on content and a p p l i c a t i o n . " Along with "the r a t i o n a l [ s i c 3. p h i l o s o p h y , and general g o a l s of the c u r r i c u l u m , " "a conceptual model," and "student l e a r n i n g outcomes," de v e l o p e r s were expected t o c o n c e n t r a t e on "what i s t o be taught" [emphasis i n pamphlet 1. It i s not c l e a r how these e x p e c t a t i o n s were t o be r e a l i s e d by the Management Committee. In order for the Management Committee t o be aware of p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o v e r s y , they would need some understanding of the v a r i o u s purposes for s o c i a l s t u d i e s and how these r e l a t e t o t e a c h e r s . What c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the Management Committee should g i v e t o the r a t i o n a l e , p h i l o s o p h y , general g o a l s , and student outcomes were not c l a r i f i e d . How the Management Committee was expected t o s i f t through submissions and r e s e a r c h and 1) make sense of i t , 2) e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s and a r r i v e at d e c i s i o n s , and 3) t e s t the worthiness of d e c i s i o n s were not i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e that a l a c k of c l e a r e x p e c t a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d the Management Committee's d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n . 26 p o s i t s t h a t how the committee Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 241 f u n c t i o n e d , c o n c e n t r a t i n g f i r s t on " p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " (confirmed by 24) and then f o c u s s i n g on the c u r r i c u l a r design and p u t t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s i n t o language that made sense t o p r a c t i t i o n e r s , might have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the lack of cohesiveness of the n o t i o n . For example, he thought t h a t the committee f e l t t h a t "problem-solving and decision-making made more sense at a p r a c t i t i o n e r l e v e l than a general d i s c u s s i o n on c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " 28 a l s o f e l t t h i s was the case. D e c i s i o n s were a r r i v e d a t , 26 r e c a l l e d , b a s i c a l l y [through! g i v e and take around the committee t a b l e i n which you argue f o r and ag a i n s t a p a r t i c u l a r model or paradigm o r . . . approach. And the argument i s won or l o s t , depending upon how r e a d i l y i t can be formulated i n t o p r a c t i c e . A decision—making model, as d e s c r i b e d by 26, which a r r i v e s at consensus through " g i v e and take" t r a d e - o f f s i s no guarantee t h a t the r e s u l t i n g d e c i s i o n w i l l have merit or be understood by the dev e l o p e r s . Nor does i t mean th a t the co n c e s s i o n s made enhance the o r i g i n a l g o a l s , which seems t o be the case with the 1983 c u r r i c u l u m . These d i r e c t i v e s , r e g a r d i n g "what" belonged i n a c u r r i c u l u m guide, were suggested as having i n f l u e n c e d the n o t i o n i n the A p r i l D r a f t . 26, 29, 49, and 31 a l l commented on the l i m i t a t i o n s of the guide and how t h i s Mac r o—Imp1emen t at i on: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 242 l e d t o the Management Committee's n e g l e c t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that might have brought more c l a r i t y t o the n o t i o n . 26 e x p l a i n e d : But one t h i n g we d i d s t r e s s i n the e a r l y going was that t h e r e would be some type of t e a c h e r ' s guide t h a t would go along with the c u r r i c u l u m guide. And then we p r e t t y soon found we were dumping e v e r y t h i n g i n the t e a c h e r ' s guide. People would say, 'Well, we should say t h i s i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide' and we would say, 'No, no, no. We put t h a t i n the t e a c h e r ' s guide.' But we kept t a l k i n g t h at way, but we never got t o a stage, by '81, of s a y i n g what are we going t o put i n t h i s t e a c h e r ' s guide. We became s o l e l y concerned with the c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n . The Elementary Review Committee had l i t t l e guidance r e g a r d i n g the i n t e n t , source, and r a t i o n a l e for the n o t i o n , 31 suggested, which r e s u l t e d i n the committee " r e l y C i n g ] on the a b i l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the committee and i f you have s t r o n g v o i c e s and s t r o n g p h i l o s o p h i e s , then that tends t o l e a d the committee i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n . " T h i s c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n . With i t s mandate l i m i t e d t o p r o v i d i n g an o p i n i o n about the proposed c u r r i c u l u m , the S e l e c t Committee worked a c c o r d i n g t o i t s own p r i o r i t i e s (60a). As recommendations r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n that were submitted by the S e l e c t Committee were not i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the f i n a l document, l i m i t e d d i r e c t i o n t o t h i s Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 243 committee would not appear t o be a f a c t o r i n the development of the n o t i o n . It t h e r e f o r e seems f e a s i b l e t h at the nature and p a u c i t y of d i r e c t i o n and guidance c o n t r i b u t e d t o how the c u r r i c u l u m was developed, as well as the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s . " LIAISON PROVISIONS Important t o c o n s i d e r i s the l i a i s o n mechanism set i n p l a c e t o f a c i l i t a t e communication between and w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t M i n i s t r y l e v e l s , branches, and committees. Data gathered from i n t e r v i e w e e s along with i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned from Annual Reports were analysed for evidence of l i a i s o n , how i t was manifested, and what a f f e c t t h i s had on the n o t i o n . Although personnel were put i n p l a c e t o f a c i l i t a t e communication, the i n t e n t , source, and j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the n o t i o n d i d not appear t o be a p r i o r i t y i n such communication. According t o 31, the Elementary Review Committee lac k e d r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , even though 29 and 22 were intended t o f a c i l i t a t e communication between committees. Furt h e r weaknesses evident i n intra-cornmittee i n t e r a c t i o n c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l a c k of a c o h e s i v e understanding of the n o t i o n . By Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 244 a s s i g n i n g " r e s e a r c h " t o 26, for example, the Management Committee as a whole d i d not appear t o have grappled with the n o t i o n and r e l a t e d concepts, as evidenced by the d i s p a r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of members, 24's r e f e r r a l of t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o 26 for i n f o r m a t i o n about the n o t i o n , as well as an admission by one member t o 50 that the committee had never delved i n t o the concept of " i s s u e s " p r i o r t o her working with them. While 49 suggested an " e x c e l l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p " e x i s t e d between the development branch and the assessment branch, and although Annual Reports i n d i c a t e d t h at i n t e r — b r a n c h c o o p e r a t i o n was standard p r a c t i c e d u r i n g the r e v i s i o n , t h e r e i s l i t t l e evidence of any c o n s t r u c t i v e input from the L e a r n i n g Assessment Branch and the Program Implementation S e r v i c e s d u r i n g the development phase (28, 29, 24). For t h a t matter, the Management Committee seems t o have been d i r e c t e d t o l e a v e implementation c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o the implementation branch (24). Communication l i n k s between l e v e l s of the M i n i s t r y and a c r o s s and w i t h i n branches and committees appear t o have s u f f e r e d when c o o r d i n a t o r s , the major means of l i a i s o n , were l e f t t o t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s t o i n t e r p r e t and t r a n s l a t e the i n t e n t of the c u r r i c u l u m . Lacking Macro-1 implement at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 245 guidance on how t o a c h i e v e c u r r i c u l a r c l a r i t y and i n t e g r i t y , as well as how t o p r e d i c t d i f f i c u l t i e s and work them through, d e v e l o p e r s seem t o have proceeded v i a t r i a l and e r r o r . It seems reasonable t o conclude that inadequate l i a i s o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o how the n o t i o n was developed, i n c l u d i n g i t s l a c k of c l a r i t y and c o h e siveness throughout the c u r r i c u l u m . TIME The working c o n d i t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , a f f e c t e d as they were by time l i m i t a t i o n s , might have a f f e c t e d the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " as i t appeared i n the A p r i l D r a f t and the f i n a l 1983 document. For example, the Schools Department mandate, c i t e d i n the M i n i s t r y ' s 1980-1981 Annual Report, was t o "ensure high q u a l i t y and e f f i c i e n t d e l i v e r y of a l l school programs from k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade twelve" Cp. 20). Such g l o b a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r o f f i c i a l s at t h i s l e v e l of the M i n i s t r y would suggest that the time they c o u l d a f f o r d t o s o c i a l s t u d i e s would be l i m i t e d . T h i s may e x p l a i n why t h e r e was no evidence of the m i n i s t e r ' s C37) or deputy m i n i s t e r ' s C17) involvement i n the r e v i s i o n u n t i l p u b l i c d i s s e n s i o n f o l l o w i n g the A p r i l D r a f t Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 246 brought the c o n t e n t i o u s new c u r r i c u l u m t o t h e i r a t t e n t i o n C49 f 24, 26, 29, 28). T h e i r work lo a d may a l s o account for the lengthy d e l a y when 37, the M i n i s t e r of Education, h e l d up the f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s and i n so doing, endangered the u t i l i t y of the f i e l d — t e s t i n g which had t o be put on h o l d , with the r e s u l t t h a t Douglas & M c l n t y r e d i d not seem a b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e many changes recommended by the f i e l d (50, 67) . 12, who served f i r s t as the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch D i r e c t o r and l a t e r as the E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of Programs; 53, the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch D i r e c t o r ; as well as the A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch appear t o have been r e s p o n s i b l e for a l l c u r r i c u l a r areas except i n some yea r s where the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r s h i p was shared (Annual Reports and 62). Being r e s p o n s i b l e for a l l c u r r i c u l a r areas would p r e c l u d e management from having a l o t of time t o devote j u s t t o s o c i a l s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with a l l the r e o r g a n i s a t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d i n those y e a r s . As w e l l , the preoccupation with the new Consumer Education 9/10 program would have o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the 1981-1982 school year (Annual Report, 1981/1982; 28) when much of the e a r l y implementation Macro-Implementat ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 247 p l a n s for commissioned s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l s were being l a i d . There was not even a mention of s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch's r e p o r t i n t h i s 1981-1982 Annual Report. 62, i n d e s c r i b i n g the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, s a i d t h a t " t h e r e ' s not a s t r o n g system b u i l t i n the branch that f a c i l i t i a t e s the maintenance of a v i s i o n . There's j u s t not the personnel or the money." As fo r the Management Committee, 24 d e s c r i b e d the way meetings were set up: ...You're c a l l e d out for two days a month from your job and you kind of parachute i n , get your mind on i t , you express your concerns, and o f f you go back t o your job again. 26 spoke of the other employment r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of committee members: ... I t h i n k that the other problem, C a r o l e , i s the way committees f u n c t i o n . You see, they o n l y meet t h r e e days every month....Now you can say we can g i v e homework t o the committee members, t e l l them t o read. Well, t h a t j u s t doesn't happen because t h e y ' r e doing a m u l t i p l i c i t y of other t h i n g s as a classroom t e a c h e r . 30 a l s o r e l a t e d how committee members gathered at t h e i r two day monthly meetings, f i n d i n g i t necessary t o f i r s t " r e f r e s h " themselves as t o what p r o g r e s s had been made at the p r i o r meeting; they sometimes d i s c o v e r e d that "much changed" without anyone being sure why Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 248 a l t e r a t i o n s t o the c u r r i c u l u m had t r a n s p i r e d (30). 29 confirmed t h i s view, a t t r i b u t i n g the changes t o the " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s : " ...Ue as a committee would make r e v i s i o n s and then a l l of a sudden we'd see i t i n type and i t d i d n ' t look l i k e what we had suggested. And t h a t c o u l d be because of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s . You know, 22's making a l l the notes and somehow i t d i d n ' t look q u i t e the way we had o r i g i n a l l y intended. 28, agreeing with 26's a n a l y s i s r e g a r d i n g other job commitments, r e c a l l e d t h a t he wasn't a t t e n d i n g t o the committee b u s i n e s s . I was a t t e n d i n g t o the b u s i n e s s I was p a i d t o do. So I s a i d , 'Look, I can't do t h i s . I'm r e a d i n g the s t u f f on the f e r r y on the way over that I should have d i g e s t e d . ' So I r e s i g n e d . 45 a l s o commented on the s i t u a t i o n : I t ' s r i d i c u l o u s t o t r y and w r i t e a c u r r i c u l u m document... i n a meeting once a month and h o l d i n g down j o b s . . . . I t ' s t o t a l l y unreasonable. And t o s t a r t a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s about the assumptions you a r e making. It i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the t i m i n g of "expert" input (e.g., 45's 1981 paper; the 1980 implementation monograph; the S e l e c t Committee r e p o r t ) which came a f t e r the r e l e a s e of the 1980 A p r i l D r a f t c o n t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o the i n a t t e n t i o n t h a t i t seemed t o r e c e i v e . Had t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n been a v a i l a b l e t o the d e v e l o p e r s e a r l i e r i n the development phase, i t may have been more r e a d i l y i n c o r p o r a t e d . Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 249 The d u r a t i o n of the r e v i s i o n (23, GOa), and the o v e r l a p p i n g of development and implementation endeavours were mentioned as p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e s on the i n t e g r i t y of the notion- I f t h e 1980 A p r i l D r a f t , which d i d l i t t l e more than the 1983 guide t o c l a r i f y " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , " s a t i s f i e d the developers r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n (23, 29, 49), i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t the d e l a y s i n p u b l i s h i n g the f i n a l document c o n t r i b u t e d t o the n o t i o n ' s l a c k of i n t e g r i t y . It i s p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t the o v e r l a p p i n g of development and implementation (45, 50, 49, 59, 67) meant that the c o o r d i n a t o r i n the f i n a l stage of the r e v i s i o n may have had i n s u f f i c i e n t time t o monitor the n o t i o n ' s i n t e g r i t y . Based upon i n t e r v i e w feedback, i t seems that had working c o n d i t i o n s been more conducive t o w r e s t l i n g with inherent c u r r i c u l u m c o m p l e x i t i e s , the n o t i o n might have r e f l e c t e d i t . Developers worked under inadequate time r e s t r a i n t s (they had a d d i t i o n a l employment demands) for any i n t e n s i v e study of the n o t i o n . Had management and c o o r d i n a t o r s more " r e f l e c t i v e time" and r e l e v a n t "expert" input e a r l i e r i n the development phase, i t i s f e a s i b l e that some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 250 with the i n t e g r i t y of the c u r r i c u l u m would have been 1essened. IMPLEMENTATION FACILITATION PHASE (1979-1986) The d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n how the n o t i o n i s represented i n implementation m a t e r i a l s , as c o n t r a s t e d t o the c u r r i c u l u m , makes one c u r i o u s about why the v a r i a n c e i n t r a n s l a t i o n s . F a c t o r s examined here are the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the implementation workers, i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s , l i a i s o n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , and time. QUALIFICATIONS The c h a i r p e r s o n of the S e l e c t Committee, 60a, suggested t h a t p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a have long s u f f e r e d from a l a c k of expert i n p u t . It may be that q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of those i n v o l v e d with the implementation of the 1983 c u r r i c u l u m a f f e c t e d the t r a n s l a t i o n s o f the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem—solving s k i l l s . " C u r r i c u l u m development a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f (12, 53) d i d not seem t o have any st r o n g e x p e r t i s e r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l s t u d i e s , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " or c u r r i c u l u m implementation. L i a i s o n p e r s o n n e l , some who were a p p a r e n t l y h i r e d for management c a p a b i l i t i e s (23 and 31, speaking of 49, 28, Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 251 62), had p r i o r involvement with the r e v i s i o n i n v a r i o u s ways: 28 and 29 were members of the development team: 62 was an author of m a t e r i a l s . Experience i n t e a c h i n g s o c i a l s t u d i e s was an a t t r i b u t e of 28, 49, 50, and 29, and 50 a l s o had experience i n c u r r i c u l u m development and e v a l u a t i o n . However, what these i n d i v i d u a l s lacked was e x p e r t i s e i n the area of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " or e x t e n s i v e understanding of c u r r i c u l u m implementation. Two f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of l i a i s o n personnel had p o t e n t i a l for i n f l u e n c i n g the v a r i e d t r a n s l a t i o n s of the n o t i o n . F i r s t , i f the M i n i s t r y favoured management c a p a b i l i t i e s i n order t o get the job f i n i s h e d (23, 31), i t i s p o s s i b l e that the goal of completion superceded the a t t e n t i o n given t o m a i n t a i n i n g c o n s i s t e n c y . Second, the apparent l a c k of understanding that these l i a i s o n personnel had of the n o t i o n , not o n l y as i t was intended but a l s o of " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " g e n e r a l l y , may have l i m i t e d t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Without such knowledge, they may have been i l l — e q u i p p e d t o 1) r e c o g n i s e when d i g r e s s i o n s o c c u r r e d ; 2) i n t e r a c t knowledgeably with d e v e l o p e r s of implementation m a t e r i a l s who h e l d d i s c r e p a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the n o t i o n (50, 49, 28, 59, 62, 29); and 3) judge the merit of d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 252 As well as meeting the c r i t e r i a of r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and c o m p a t i b i l i t y (45), most members of the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee, had e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g s o c i a l s t u d i e s . There was l i t t l e e vidence that any had e x p e r t i s e i n " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " except for 45 who as a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r , had taught and w r i t t e n i n the area of s o c i a l s t u d i e s and " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and was knowledgeable about c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y . 45 had a l s o served as c o n s u l t a n t t o the Management Committee and advised Douglas & M c l n t y r e * s 67 r e g a r d i n g some a s p e c t s of the n o t i o n (28, 45, 67), a p p a r e n t l y p r i o r t o the f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s . ( T h i s i n f e r e n c e i s based on 45's admission that he d i d not vote, one of the M i n i s t r y ' s s t i p u l a t i o n s for members i n p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t , and s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d he s i g n e d a formal c o n t r a c t with the company.) It i s p o s s i b l e that 45's a s s o c i a t i o n with the p u b l i s h i n g company i n f l u e n c e d the committee's d e c i s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s i d e r i n g that h i s o p i n i o n was s a i d t o be valued by the committee (49). Another p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t was seen i n 31's p r i o r a s s o c i a t i o n with 66 i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m Research P r o j e c t , i n that the Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 253 m a t e r i a l s i n v o l v e d were l a t e r p u b l i s h e d as the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s . 29 and 31 were a d v i s o r s for most of the M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s . Both were s o c i a l s t u d i e s educators who were a c t i v e i n t h e i r school d i s t r i c t s and i n t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i n g as well i n the development of the c u r r i c u l u m . 29 j o i n e d the Management Committee a f t e r i t s f i r s t s i x months t o p r o v i d e a r t i c u l a t i o n between the secondary and elementary grades. 31 had been a member of the Elementary Review Committee. While each suggested that the c u r r i c u l u m ' s i n t e n t was u n c l e a r , 31 d i s a g r e e d with the n o t i o n as r e p r e s e n t e d . Neither had any e x p e r t i s e r e l a t e d t o " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " 67, c o — e d i t o r for Douglas & M c l n t y r e ' s E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , was a noted s o c i a l s t u d i e s educator who had been r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t f o r the C u l t u r e Realms P i c t u r e Set i n 1974 as well as on the assessment c o n t r a c t team i n 1977. C l a i m i n g t o have some understanding of the " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " l i t e r a t u r e , 67 d i s a g r e e d with the n o t i o n as represented i n the c u r r i c u l u m . 66 and 69, authors of the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s , each had background i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , 69's s p e c i a l t y being Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 254 i n h i s t o r y and much of 66 recent work stemming from her i n t e r e s t i n ethnomusicology and the development and implementation of s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l s . 69 authored the S o c i a l S t u d i e s Media Resources. Grade One- Grade Three (1983), a PEMC p u b l i c a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g the r e v i s e d c u r r i c u l u m . 66 t r a n s l a t e d the n o t i o n i n terms of her "Taxonomy of Learning P r o c e s s e s , " c r e a t e d and p i l o t e d much e a r l i e r . It would appear t h a t the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of those i n v o l v e d i n implementation endeavours d i d i n f l u e n c e the t r a n s l a t i o n of the n o t i o n . T h e i r p r i o r i t i e s and understandings were evident i n the m a t e r i a l s . Of most importance t o t h i s study, however, would appear t o be the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l i a i s o n personnel t o r e c o g n i s e and judge these t r a n s l a t i o n s . Without a thorough understanding of the n o t i o n , they were not i n any p o s i t i o n t o compare d i g r e s s i o n s , or i f they d i d , t o r a t i o n a l i s e them. The a u t h o r s / e d i t o r s of the commissioned m a t e r i a l s and the m i n i s t r y m a t e r i a l s seemed t o have a r e l a t i v e l y f r e e hand i n promoting t h e i r own c o n c e p t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , the implementation m a t e r i a l s for the 1983 c u r r i c u l u m r e f l e c t the understandings and p r i o r i t i e s of t h e i r authors and a d v i s o r s . For t h i s Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 255 s i t u a t i o n t o have been otherwise, c o o r d i n a t o r s would have r e q u i r e d e x p e r t i s e at l e a s t e q u i v a l e n t t o the authors, s u f f i c i e n t t o c h a l l e n g e t h e i r i d e a s . C o o r d i n a t o r s seemed t o be i n a weak p o s i t i o n t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r l i a i s o n r o l e . INSERVICE PROVISIONS The o n l y i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n for anyone i n v o l v e d i n implementation p r o j e c t s was the EPIE t r a i n i n g course p r o v i d e d t o members of the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees and the Management Committee (45). The i n s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d a way t o an a l y s e the i n t e r n a l content of a c u r r i c u l u m , as well as congruency between the c u r r i c u l u m and r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s . How congruency was t o be assessed, c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the n o t i o n was so vague i n the c u r r i c u l u m , does not appear t o have t r o u b l e d anyone s u f f i c i e n t l y for him/her t o have sought c l a r i f i c a t i o n (49). Neither committee members nor w r i t e r s / a d v i s o r s / e d i t o r s were given i n s e r v i c e on " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s " or on c u r r i c u l u m implementation (49, 28, 31, 29, 24, 26, 23, 59, 62, 67, 66). There was some e f f o r t by the M i n i s t r y t o p r o v i d e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of " i s s u e s " when 22 commissioned 45 t o Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 256 w r i t e a paper which analysed types of " i s s u e s " and how they might be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a program. T h i s paper a l s o d e l i n e a t e d how " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " f i t i n the judgement of " i s s u e s . " While 45's paper was intended for the Management Committee, i t was a l s o p r o v i d e d t o 67, the c o - e d i t o r for the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , by 28, who as c o o r d i n a t o r was not a b l e t o c l a r i f y the n o t i o n h i m s e l f . There i s no evidence t o suggest t h a t i t was made a v a i l a b l e t o the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees or t o P r e n t i c e - H a l l authors. As 59 and 23 observed, the n o t i o n was l e f t t o the p u b l i s h e r s t o d e f i n e , and they d i d . Evidence i s unanimous i n d e p i c t i n g l i m i t e d i n s e r v i c e for M i n i s t r y s t a f f and implementation workers r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n and i t s implementation. LIAISON PROVISIONS L i a i s o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e r t i n a n t t o implementation endeavours i n c l u d e d the placement of development people on the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee and the Primary Resources A d v i s o r y Committee (49); PEMC's c o o r d i n a t o r , 23, h i r i n g a d v i s o r s who had been on the development team; the appointment of 28 who had been an o r i g i n a l member of the Management Committee as a c o o r d i n a t o r i n the Program Implementation S e r v i e s and the C u r r i c u l u m Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 257 Development Branch; 62 who had been a co-author of the primary r e s o u r c e manual as a c u r r i c u l u m development c o o r d i n a t o r ; and 59 as a c u r r i c u l u m development c o o r d i n a t o r , f o l l o w i n g h i s work i n the Program Implementation S e r v i c e s where he was r e s p o n s i b l e for the implementation of the c u r r i c u l u m ; the d e s i g n a t i o n of 29, the elementary r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the Management Committee, as l i a i s o n between i t and the Elementary Review Committee, the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee, and Douglas & Mclntyre, the p u b l i s h e r of the primary grade m a t e r i a l s ; and the p r o v i s i o n of c o o r d i n a t o r s whose main f u n c t i o n appeared t o be t o serve as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s between and among development and implementation p r o j e c t s , as well as with M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s . P u b l i c a t i o n dates of implementation m a t e r i a l s , Annual Reports, and i n t e r v i e w data i l l u s t r a t e the s p e c i f i c involvement of these i n d i v i d u a l s . 22 and 29 would have been the major l i n k s with the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee (45), although t h e r e must have been some contact with 49 and 50 d u r i n g the end of t h e i r mandate (49, 50). It would seem that 50, 28 and 29 were the major l i a i s o n personnel with Douglas & Mclntyre. 50 was requested by 22 t o respond t o Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 258 P r e n t i c e - H a l l ' s proposal as 22 was p r e p a r i n g t o depart, w h i l e 59 and 62 would have i n t e r a c t e d with P r e n t i c e -H a l l l a t e r on. The M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s for primary grades would have been developed under the c o o r d i n a t i o n of 28 and 59, with a d v i c e from 29 and 31, among o t h e r s . The i n t e r m e d i a t e m a t e r i a l s were s u p e r v i s e d by 59 and 62, with c o n s i d e r a b l e input from a PEMC a d v i s o r , 31, and i n at l e a s t one i n s t a n c e , 29. How i s i t , then, that i n s p i t e of these e f f o r t s t o assure l i n k a g e between de v e l o p e r s of the c u r r i c u l u m and dev e l o p e r s of implementation p r o j e c t s , that c o n s i s t e n c y was so l a c k i n g i n how the n o t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d ? A look at the nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s that o c c u r r e d p r o v i d e s some c l u e s . 1. L i a i s o n w i t h i n the Cu r r i c u l u m Development  Branch While a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r s was that of l i a i s o n between the v a r i o u s implementation a c t i v i t i e s , t he communication network d i d not appear t o be c o n s i s t e n t . 50 l e a r n e d from the p u b l i s h e r that the f i e l d - t e s t i n g had been c a n c e l l e d , not having been p a r t y t o the meeting where the d e c i s i o n had been made. Unclear about some of her Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 259 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , 50 expressed concern that she had not understood what was expected of her i n her l i a i s o n r o l e with Douglas & Mcl n t y r e . Whether she was d e s c r i b i n g her f u n c t i o n as l i a i s o n between the f i e l d and the p u b l i s h e r s , between the Cu r r i c u l u m Development Branch a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the p u b l i s h e r s , or among a l l t h r e e i s not known t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . Perhaps t h i s t r o u b l e d 50 as w e l l . In any case, 50 d i d not appear t o r e c e i v e d i r e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n and her f i e l d - t e s t i n g e f f o r t s d i d not p o r t r a y i t as a p r i o r i t y , i f at a l l . Being that her p i l o t t e s t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d i d not al l o w her the same cont a c t with development team members that most other c o o r d i n a t o r s had access t o , she may have been at an added disadvantage. 49, 28, 59, and 62 a l l concurred that any input from C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was u n r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n . P r o v i s i o n s for the t r a n s i t i o n between c o o r d i n a t o r s seemed t o be l a c k i n g , except when 22 t r i e d t o i n t r o d u c e 49 and 50 to committee workings du r i n g the summer p r i o r t o h i s departure (50). Even then, n e i t h e r 49 or 50 gave any i n d i c a t i o n that c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the n o t i o n was part of t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n . Apparently, the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r was normally expected t o f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s i t i o n s but due t o Macro-Imp lenient at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 260 other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , may not have been a b l e t o do so <62). There d i d not seem t o be much l i a i s o n among the r e l e v a n t committees. 50, c o v e r i n g for 49 when he was i l l , d i s c o v e r e d that the Management Committee had never met with the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees (50). Whether the s i n g l e meeting t h a t evolved from t h i s d i s c o v e r y l e d t o any e x p l i c a t i o n of the n o t i o n i s d o u b t f u l , c o n s i d e r i n g 31 and 4 5 f s comments sugges t i n g that such i n f o r m a t i o n was not shared with e i t h e r the Elementary Review Committee or the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee. According t o 45, the M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee worked much of the time " i n the dark," without even a completed c u r r i c u l u m . I n i t i a l l y , the o n l y communication i t r e c e i v e d came down...in terms of the c r i t e r i a t h a t we had t o apply t o the textbooks and other m a t e r i a l s , and the b i g one was congruence with the c u r r i c u l u m i n content. (45) 2. L i a i s o n with Authors Except for 62's concern that the Th i n k i n g Together o r i e n t a t i o n k i t should focus on the n o t i o n , and apparent M i n i s t r y concern about student decision-making a c t i v i t i e s t h a t focussed on "v a l u e s " or c o n t e n t i o u s " i s s u e s " €28, 26, 45), p a r t i c u l a r l y f o l l o w i n g the A p r i l Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 261 D r a f t (28, 29), t h e r e i s not much evidence that c o o r d i n a t o r s or other l i a i s o n personnel attempted t o guide the t r a n s l a t i o n of the n o t i o n i n implementation m a t e r i a l s (49, 28, 29, 31, 23, 62, 66, 67, 59). Even awareness of d i s c r e p a n c i e s d i d not appear s u f f i c i e n t t o a l t e r the t r a n s l a t i o n s i n implementation m a t e r i a l s . 29, who had been on the Management Committee for a l l but i t s f i r s t s i x months, r e c o g n i s e d the d i f f e r e n c e s i n how the Douglas & M c l n t y r e and P r e n t i c e — H a l 1 m a t e r i a l s t r e a t e d the n o t i o n . L i k e l y her r o l e d i d not e n t a i l the power t o do more than communicate t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and perhaps, even i f she had, the matter would not have concerned anyone. 49 i n d i c a t e d t h at the Management Committee r e c o g n i s e d that the two s e r i e s "took q u i t e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s " and saw t h i s as " h e a l t h y . " Perhaps t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t cohesiveness of the n o t i o n was not a p r i o r i t y , c o n t r a r y t o 59 and 24's s u g g e s t i o n that some adherence was hoped f o r . 62, the c o o r d i n a t o r r e s p o n s i b l e for l i a i s o n and, i n her o p i n i o n , m a i n t a i n i n g c o n s i s t e n c y , t r i e d t o l i n k the T h i n k i n g Together v i d e o s and handbook t o the c u r r i c u l u m ; her i n t r o d u c t o r y statement i n the v i d e o s and handbook s a i d t h at the l e s s o n s t h e r e i n i l l u s t r a t e d Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 262 " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and proble m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " However, t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y statement i s not e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t with the body of the m a t e r i a l which seemed t o r e p r e s e n t 31's con c e p t i o n of "decision—making" and "problem—solving." The attempt by c o o r d i n a t o r s t o promote c o n t i n u i t y by h i r i n g or seeking a d v i c e from development team members may have been confounded by the s e l e c t i o n of personnel who may have been e i t h e r unclear about the Management Committee's i n t e n t (29, 28, 31, 62) or di s a g r e e d with i t (31). 29 was unaware of how o t h e r s on the Management Committee i n t e r p r e t e d the n o t i o n , perhaps because she was not t h e r e d u r i n g those f i r s t s i x months and because her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were more o r i e n t e d t o elementary grades. 31 was not a member of the Management Committee at a l l . As a member of the Elementary Review Committee, she had not b e n e f i t t e d by any e x p l i c a t i o n . Yet she and 29 were asked t o ser v e on the Primary Resources A d v i s o r y Committee and 31 was h i r e d as a d v i s o r by 23, PEMC c o o r d i n a t o r . 28, the co o r d i n a t o r a p p a r e n t l y most i n v o l v e d with Douglas St Mclntyre, had i n s u f f i c i e n t understanding of the n o t i o n t o communicate i t t o 67, and r e f e r r e d her i n s t e a d t o 45 for c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Although he had been a member of Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 263 the o r i g i n a l Management Committee, 28 had l e f t b e f o r e the f i n a l g o a l s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r present form. 3. Inter-Branch L i a i s o n It seems that i n t e r a c t i o n s between M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s and c o o r d i n a t o r s i n v o l v e d with implementation p r o j e c t s d i d not focus d i r e c t l y on the n o t i o n (49, 50, 28, 59, 62). Inter-branch c o o r d i n a t i o n o c c u r r e d at the d i s c r e t i o n of the c o o r d i n a t o r s (49, 28, 59, 23, 31). Although the Annual Reports i m p l i e d such l i a i s o n was ongoing, t h i s d i d not seem t o be the case. There i s not any i n d i c a t i o n of input from the L e a r n i n g Assessment Branch r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n i n any implementation m a t e r i a l s (31, 23, 28, 66, 67). 59 suggested that the people i n the assessment branch reviewed the e v a l u a t i o n component of the primary r e s o u r c e manual and remarked that i t was b e t t e r than what e x i s t e d b e f o r e . T h i s appears t o have been the extent of i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n , c e r t a i n l y not a f f e c t i n g the n o t i o n because i t came a f t e r the f a c t . It appears that the Program Implementation S e r v i c e s had l i t t l e t o do with the c u r r i c u l u m u n t i l i t was almost completed. 28, who had been a c o o r d i n a t o r i n the implementation branch, suggested t h a t h i s term Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 264 ran out be f o r e t h e r e was a c u r r i c u l u m t o implement, although he d i d i n t e r a c t on an in f o r m a l b a s i s with 49 i n t h i s regard (28, 49). 59's involvement with the 1983 o r i e n t a t i o n package and primary r e s o u r c e guide would have occurred j u s t p r i o r t o the f o l d i n g of the implementation branch i n J u l y , 1983. Hampered i n h i s e f f o r t s by a n o t i o n that was s t i l l being c l a r i f i e d , 59 depended upon development people such as 28 and 29 for guidance, as well as upon the n o t i o n as rep r e s e n t e d by the p u b l i s h e r s , Douglas & Mc l n t y r e and P r e n t i c e - H a l l . PEMC seemed t o have i n t e r a c t e d o f f i c i a l l y on a r e g u l a r b a s i s with the Cu r r i c u l u m Development Branch (23). However, the o n l y input that 23 r e c e i v e d r e g a r d i n g the n o t i o n was that the 1986 T h i n k i n g Together o r i e n t a t i o n k i t was t o focus on the n o t i o n , a concern expressed by 62, the c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r (23). As understanding the n o t i o n was not 23's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , she h i r e d 31, a member of the development team as her ad v i s o r i n t h i s regard (23). The o n l y other evidence of i n t e r - b r a n c h involvement was seen i n the u n o f f i c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f 74 of the Program E f f e c t i v e n e s s Branch i n the p r o d u c t i o n of the Thi n k i n g Together v i d e o s (23, 31), a r e s u l t of 74"s Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 265 i n t e r e s t i n the use of v i d e o s as an i n s e r v i c e v e h i c l e r a t h e r than any i n t e r e s t r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n . 4- L i a i s o n Between the M i n i s t r y and L o c a l D e l i v e r y  Qrqani sat i ons The S o c i a l S t u d i e s A d v i s o r y Committee (Kindergarten t o Grade Twelve) was e s t a b l i s h e d , a c c o r d i n g t o the M i n i s t r y Information C i r c u l a r #167 (June, 1986), "to d i s c u s s c u r r e n t i s s u e s and p r o v i d e recommendations on the r e v i s i o n of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1-12 c u r r i c u l u m " (p. 3 ) . L o c a l d e l i v e r y o r g a n i s a t i o n s were ad v i s e d t h a t "time i s a l l o c a t e d at each Ad v i s o r y Committee meeting for i d e n t i f y i n g c u r r e n t f i e l d concerns" (p. 3 ) . Because of the t i m i n g of t h i s l i a i s o n , input from l o c a l d e l i v e r y o r g a n i s a t i o n s t o the A d v i s o r y Committee would have l i t t l e a f f e c t on the development of the elementary c u r r i c u l u m , u n l e s s perhaps t o the grade seven content. 62, c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r at the time of t h i s communication and r e s p o n s i b l e for the A d v i s o r y Committee (comprised of at l e a s t ten i n d i v i d u a l s l o c a t e d i n s c h o o l s throughout the p r o v i n c e ) , s a i d t h a t the f u n c t i o n of the committee i n c l u d e d " a l e r t i n g us Cthe M i n i s t r y ] t o problems that are coming up that we Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 266 may not have heard o f . " There was not any i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the committee would s e r v e i n a c l a r i f y i n g c a p a c i t y for the n o t i o n . Most communication forthcoming from M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s or management l e v e l s of the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch seemed u n r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n , except for d i r e c t i v e s r e g a r d i n g a v o i d i n g c o n t e n t i o u s " i s s u e s " f o l l o w i n g the A p r i l D r a f t . Although c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was taken t o assure o v e r l a p of personnel i n development and implementation endeavours, i t was a p p a r e n t l y i n e f f e c t i v e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the implementation of the n o t i o n . The mere presence of l i a i s o n personnel d i d not guarantee coh e s i v e n e s s . M i n i s t r y e f f o r t s t o promote c a r r y o v e r through i t s dependence on development people (e.g., 28, 29, 31) or i n d i v i d u a l s who had been p r e v i o u s l y i n v o l v e d with r e l a t e d endeavours (e.g., 59, 62) appeared t o be i n part r e s p o n s i b l e for the m u l t i t r a n s l a t i o n s . TIME C o n s i d e r i n g that c o o r d i n a t o r s ' c o n t r a c t s were being renewed y e a r l y d u r i n g the implementation phase, t h e i r workloads may have been overwhelming, p a r t i c u l a r l y when they may have had c u r r i c u l a r Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 267 r e p o n s i b i 1 i t i e s for more than one s u b j e c t (28, 59). 62's comment, based upon her experience as c o o r d i n a t o r d u r i n g l a t e r implementation e f f o r t s , i l l u s t r a t e s how the work load may have made i t d i f f i c u l t for her t o maintain c o n s i s t e n c y of the n o t i o n : You know, one of the dilemmas i n working with the M i n i s t r y i s t h e r e ' s a minimal number of people....You're working on an e i g h t e e n hour day.... There's not that r e f l e c t i v e time. F i e l d — t e s t i n g seemed t o be h i t hardest by time l i m i t a t i o n s , r e s u l t i n g i t seems, from the m i n i s t e r ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n C50). Put on h o l d while he decided which p u b l i s h e r s would be awarded the c o n t r a c t , the "cushion of time" (50) for f i e l d - t e s t i n g was l o s t . As a r e s u l t , the p u b l i s h e r , i n t h i s case Douglas & M c l n t r y e , d i d not seem t o have time t o i n c o r p o r a t e input from the f i e l d (67, i n a communication t o 50; p i l o t t e s t i n g r e p o r t ) , even though 49 ( i n an i n t e r v i e w ) and 28 Cin the 1983 o r i e n t a t i o n video) both remarked that m a t e r i a l s from both p u b l i s h e r s b e n e f i t t e d from changes recommended i n the r e p o r t . On the other hand, when 28 was asked t o e x p l a i n Douglas St M c l n t y r e ' s seeming i n a t t e n t i o n t o f i e l d - t e s t i n g recommendations, he commented t h a t : You cannot dump onto a p u b l i s h e r a g r a v e l t r u c k l o a d o f . . . m i n o r i t y viewpoints and expect them t o r e a c t t o them a l l . And so number one, the manner i n which that m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d , the manner i n which i t was presented, the f a i l u r e t o come out Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 268 with a comprehensive l i s t of what was r e a l l y necessary, meant t h a t the p u b l i s h i n g f i r m managed simply t o d i s m i s s i t a l l as being i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a c t t o . That's what f i n a l l y happened. 67 suggested that time l i m i t a t i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e for the i n a t t e n t i o n t o e v a l u a t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n for her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o t i o n i n the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s . Douglas 8t M c l n t y r e ' s apparent d i s r e g a r d of i n c o r p o r a t i n g p i l o t i n g feedback seems i n c o n t r a s t t o P r e n t i c e - H a l l whose authors were r e q u i r e d t o make numerous adjustments t o the I d e n t i t y m a t e r i a l s on the b a s i s of many c r i t i c a l reviews. T h i s c o n t r i b u t e d i n part t o the i n a b i l i t y of the P r e n t i c e - H a l l authors t o meet the M i n i s t r y p u b l i s h i n g d e a d l i n e . The Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee a l s o seemed t o work under s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s , t h e i r task p r o v i n g more than a n t i c i p a t e d , as evidenced by the q u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l s r e c e i v e d for the i n i t i a l s o r t , the v a r i a t i o n s i n new p r o p o s a l s , and the need t o balance f u l l - t i m e j o b s with monthly committee meetings (two days long, and seven t o ten days d u r i n g the summers of 1980 and 1981). Whether the s e c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t e d t h e i r s e l e c t i o n i s not known, even though 66 r e c a l l e d 22 s a y i n g that he "didn't t h i n k i t was f a i r because people...don't get much time t o read a l o t and people on the committee were seei n g these p r e t t y Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 269 p i c t u r e s and g l o s s y p r i n t , " implying that the time was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w for c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s . As for M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s , time was a concern, j u d g i n g by the f a c t t h a t 62 was h i r e d t o help 68 complete the primary r e s o u r c e manual when she got "bogged down" <31). A l s o , 31 admitted that her conc e p t i o n of the n o t i o n changed over time as she gained experience i n r e l a t e d endeavours. C o n s i d e r i n g that the c o o r d i n a t o r was the key person i n the r e v i s i o n , the one who monitored and mediated development and implementation p r o j e c t s and who communicated with the v a r i o u s p l a y e r s , i t would appear that heavy demands on t h e i r time made i t very d i f f i c u l t t o oversee implementation and maintain c o n s i s t e n c y of an i n n o v a t i o n that they may not have understood w e l l . The turnover of c o o r d i n a t o r s might well r e f l e c t the nature of demands made upon them. 62, a c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r i n v o l v e d i n the implementation stage, responding t o q u e r i e s about a l a c k of cohesion between the c u r r i c u l u m document and implementation m a t e r i a l s , wondered i f ...what has happened i s because the c u r r i c u l u m has been developing over such a great p e r i o d of time t h a t . . . c o h e s i o n i s missing because the o r i g i n a l people who developed the c u r r i c u l u m a re no longer a v a i l a b l e or i n v o l v e d . Macro-1 implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 270 S i x i n t e r v i e w e e s commented on the o v e r l a p p i n g of development and implementation endeavours and i t s e f f e c t on t h e i r e f f o r t s which had the p o t e n t i a l for i n f l u e n c i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n of the n o t i o n i n implementation m a t e r i a l s <59, 49, 50, 45, 67, 66). Working o n l y with the A p r i l D r a f t complicated t h e M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee's e f f o r t s t o a s s e s s "content congruency." 66, co-author of the I d e n t i t y S e r i e s t r a n s l a t i o n , added "decision-making" t o accommodate the A p r i l D r a f t . What she d i d not agree with i n the d r a f t she ignored. 67, c o - e d i t o r of the E x p l o r a t i o n s S e r i e s , i s the o n l y one who suggested that the c u r r i c u l u m document's l a t e a r r i v a l meant that she was too f a r along i n her t r a n s l a t i o n t o change: however, i t i s apparent that she d i s a g r e e d as well with the n o t i o n as represented i n the A p r i l D r a f t and p r o v i d e d her own c o n c e p t i o n i n s t e a d . Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 271 APPENDIX 4.2 MACRO-IMPLEMENTATION: CONTEXT The two c o n t e x t s focussed on here are the M i n i s t r y o r g a n i s a t i o n i t s e l f and the broader p o l i c y s e c t o r c o n t e x t . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t are the o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y , which i n t e r v i e w e e s suggested may have had some a f f e c t on the n o t i o n , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " MINISTRY CONTEXT: ORGANISATIONAL CHANGES To a s s i s t i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t was necessary t o supplement i n t e r v i e w feedback with data from the M i n i s t r y of Education Annual Reports (1978-1986). O r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes were experienced i n the M i n i s t r y d u r i n g the r e v i s i o n . Changes i n s t a f f i n g o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g framework, as w e l l as the a d d i t i o n or removal of p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n departments, adjustments i n job d e s c r i p t i o n s , and a l t e r a t i o n s t o normal communication channels. For example, over the course of the r e v i s i o n , M i n i s t e r s of Education numbered f i v e , i f one i n c l u d e s the t r a n s i t i o n between 15 and 37 i n November, 1979. During the 1980/1981 p e r i o d , one of the more t u r b u l e n t times for the r e v i s i o n , the M i n i s t r y was r e o r g a n i s e d Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 272 under 37's l e a d e r s h i p . Twenty-eight of f i f t y - n i n e p o s t s (which d i d not i n c l u d e the ten d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ) were new assignments w h i l e f i v e p o s i t i o n s were l e f t vacant. The f o l l o w i n g year saw t h i r t y - t w o of s e v e n t y - e i g h t p o s i t i o n s Cnot i n c l u d i n g the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s which now numbered f i v e ) with new p e r s o n n e l . While 37 was the o n l y M i n i s t e r of Education who was i n o f f i c e d u r i n g the r e v i s i o n for more than two years, 17 was i n o f f i c e d u r i n g the e n t i r e process, e i t h e r as A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of Schools <1978-1980) or deputy m i n i s t e r (1980-1986). 16, deputy m i n i s t e r from 1978-1980, disappeared for a few years, appearing l a t e r as a member of the S e l e c t Committee for the 1982-1983 school year. During 1980-1981, a d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d for the r e v i s i o n f o l l o w i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of the c o n t e n t i o u s 1980 A p r i l D r a f t , 12's p o s i t i o n of D i r e c t o r of the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch was one of the f i v e l e f t vacant when he became E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of School Programs. At the same time, two program superintendent p o s i t i o n s were d e l e t e d . A f t e r i t s f i r s t year of work, the Management Committee l o s t 28 and gained 40 and Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 273 f o l l o w i n g the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of the A p r i l D r a f t , 26 departed the Management Committee, l e a v i n g a v o i d . While 22 remained c o o r d i n a t o r for the r e v i s i o n u n t i l a year a f t e r the r e l e a s e of the 1980 A p r i l D r a f t , d u r i n g each of the next two years of the development phase, c o o r d i n a t o r s were r e p l a c e d . Those i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e for i n t e r p r e t i n g the c u r r i c u l u m for implementation m a t e r i a l s experienced s i x d i f f e r e n t c o o r d i n a t o r s . When 22 r e s i g n e d i n the summer of 1981, he was r e p l a c e d by 49 and 50. 28 p i c k e d up the p i e c e s , r e s p o n s i b l e for f i n a l touches t o the c u r r i c u l u m as well as monitoring implementation p r o j e c t s f o r the primary grades d u r i n g the 1982/1983 p e r i o d , followed by 59 for the 1983/1984 term. 62 succeeded 59, remaining c o o r d i n a t o r for the next two school y e a r s . In a d d i t i o n t o o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes i n v o l v i n g s t a f f readjustments and r e s t r u c t u r i n g of departments and p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n them, t h e r e was a l s o a r e l o c a t i o n of the a c t u a l p l a n t j u s t p r i o r t o the 1984/1985 school year (62). O f f i c e s were moved from Richmond t o V i c t o r i a . 50, a c o o r d i n a t o r , provided a f i r s t - h a n d p e r s p e c t i v e , i l l u s t r a t i n g how rapport may a l s o have been a f f e c t e d by the upheavalss Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 274 ...In t h a t . . . s p r i n g , summer, and f a l l of '81, t h e r e were a l o t of j o b s open and changes i n the h i e r a r c h y — c o o r d i n a t o r s , d i r e c t o r s , and so f o r t h , a l o t of changes t h e r e . In other words, a whole bunch of people...going i n t o j o b s , very, very v u l n e r a b l e . . . . The other t h i n g that made the job d i f f i c u l t . . . w a s the s h i f t s that would go on i n the s t r u c t u r e of the bureaucracy i t s e l f where they would have meetings and change some j o b s . I know one j o b , one f e l l o w went away i n the summertime and when he came back they had r e o r g a n i z e d the s t r u c t u r e , the bureaucracy, and h i s job had l i t e r a l l y gone. He came back and s a i d , 'Where's my j o b ? I'm out.' 'Oh, we've got t o do something about t h i s , [was the response!.' ....The next t h i n g t h a t was v o l a t i l e i s t h a t when I went i n , 58 was the M i n i s t e r of Education and the next one t h a t came i n was 37. So you have ...people changing j o b s , new j o b s , changes i n the s t r u c t u r e of the bureaucracy, changes i n the m i n i s t e r i a l s e t . . . . A l l that too, then, i s o v e r l a i d overtop of a s e e t h i n g mass of human emotions, people p r o t e c t i n g themselves at t h e i r j o b s , people's p e r s o n a l i t i e s , people's d i s l i k e s . . . . A v i s u a l summary of the o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes p e r t i n a n t t o the s o c i a l s t u d i e s r e v i s i o n and ensuing implementation e f f o r t s i s i n c l u d e d below. Academic Year 1978- 1979- 1980- 1981- 1982- 1983- 1984- 1985-1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 MIN. 15 15/37 37 37 58 61 61 63 D.M. 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 A.D.M. Schools 17 17 46 46 46 46 3 3 Sr.Super. Programs 6 38 Super. Programs X X Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 275 Academic Year (continued) 1978- 1979- 1980- 1981- 1982- 1983- 1984- 1985-1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 Exec.Dir. Programs 12 12 12 12 12 12 D i r . C u r r . Dev. 12 12 vacant 53 53 53 53 53 A.D.Curr. Dev. 1 1 1 1 11 11 11 64 A.D.Curr. Dev. 39 39 54 54 54 54 55 A.D.Curr. Dev. 65 C D . Coord. 22 22 22 49 28 59 62 62 C D . Coord. 50 . PEMC Coord. 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 Pr.Imp. Serv. Coord. ? ? ? 28 59 * -28 -26 ** +40 El«R«Ca f^C 2$C2fC M.S.C. * ** <K-6> Key: * i n d i c a t e s academic year committee s t r u c k . Macro-Implementat ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 276 i n d i c a t e s academic year committee disbanded. X i n d i c a t e s an i n d i v i d u a l who was not coded. ? i n d i c a t e s data l a c k i n g . A b b r e v i a t i o n s s MIN.s M i n i s t e r of Education D.M.s Deputy M i n i s t e r of Education A.D.M. Schoolss A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of Schools Department Sr.Super. Programss Senior Superintendent of Schools Department, Programs D i v i s i o n Super.Programs: Superintendent of Sch o o l s Department, Programs D i v i s i o n E x ec.Dir. Programs: E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of Schools Department, Programs D i v i s i o n D i r . Curr. Dev.: D i r e c t o r of C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, Schools Department, Programs D i v i s i o n A.D. Curr. Dev.: A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, Schools Department, Programs D i v i s i o n C D . Coord.: C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch C o o r d i n a t o r , i n v o l v e d i n some way with r e v i s e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m development/ implementation, i n the Cu r r i c u l u m Development Branch, Schools Department, Programs D i v i s i o n PEMC Coord.: P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Media Centre Coordinator Pr. Imp. Serv. Coord.: Program Implementation S e r v i c e s Coordinator Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 277 Committeess M.C.s Management Committee (Sept. 1978 t o summer of 1983) E.R.C.: Elementary Review Committee (Feb. 1979 t o Oct. 1979 when members move t o M.S.C., K-6) M.S.C. (K-6): M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee, Ki n d e r g a r t e n t o Grade 6 (Oct. 1979 t o Dec. 1981) S.C.: S e l e c t Committee (work completed a p p a r e n t l y d u r i n g the 1982/1983 ac ademi c year) The f o l l o w i n g diagram r e p r e s e n t s the formal communication channels employed i n the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch. M i n i s t e r of Education I Deputy M i n i s t e r I A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of Schools E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , Schools Department, Programs D i v i s i o n I D i r e c t o r of C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch I A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r s of C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch Coor d i nat or s ( R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may e n t a i l one s u b j e c t area or more that one, depending upon the circumstances, and may be shouldered by o n l y one i n d i v i d u a l , or shared by two or more who may work with s e p a r a t e or r e l a t e d t a s k s . ) I Committees (e.g., Management Committee Elementary Review Committee M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committees) Macro-Imp lenient at i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 278 DEVELOPMENT PHASE: INTERVIEW ANALYSIS • f those i n t e r v i e w e e s i n v o l v e d i n the development of the r e v i s i o n , 24, 31, and 28 maintained that changes i n o r g a n i s a t i o n had some e f f e c t on the development of the n o t i o n whereas 43 and 29 suggested t h i s was not the case. However, i t would seem that the p o t e n t i a l for v a r i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the n o t i o n c e r t a i n l y e x i s t e d as a r e s u l t of o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes. During the e a r l y development phase of the r e v i s i o n , some o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes oc c u r r e d , although they do not seem t o have a f f e c t e d the n o t i o n d i r e c t l y . U n t i l the c o n t r o v e r s y that erupted f o l l o w i n g the A p r i l D r a f t (1980), t h e r e appears t o have been l i t t l e r e l a t e d input from M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s or C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch management personnel (24, 29, 28, 49), a s i d e from the s u g g e s t i o n that the Management Committee a v o i d the term "values" (26). Even when the m i n i s t e r and deputy m i n i s t e r , 37 and 17, became i n v o l v e d , a c c o r d i n g t o 24, 26, 28, 49, 50, and 60a, t h e i r i n t e r e s t was not r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n . 17 e s t a b l i s h e d the S e l e c t Committee who submitted recommendations r e l a t e d t o the secondary component of the A p r i l D r a f t (60a) w hile 37 decided which p u b l i s h e r Macro—Implementation! C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 279 should be awarded the c o n t r a c t for the elementary m a t e r i a l s (28, 50). 2 6 f s departure from the Management Committee l e f t a s i g n i f i c a n t v o i d , as i n d i c a t e d by 24 when she r e f e r r e d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o 26 for d e t a i l s about the n o t i o n , and 50, when she noted that the Management Committee had never d e a l t with terminology such as " i s s u e s " as a group. 26, the o n l y member f o r m a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e for rev i e w i n g r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , departed a f t e r the A p r i l D r a f t was r e l e a s e d . It seems that t h i s l e f t other development workers (29, 24, 31) i l l -prepared t o e x p l a i n some as p e c t s of the n o t i o n (e.g., i t s l i t e r a t u r e base and j u s t i f i c a t i o n ) , an o b s e r v a t i o n noted by 60a, the c h a i r p e r s o n of the S e l e c t Committee who i n t e r v i e w e d members about the r a t i o n a l e for the c u r r i c u l u m . Although c o o r d i n a t o r turnover was a l s o suggested as having i n f l u e n c e d the n o t i o n (24), the p o s i t i o n of c o o r d i n a t o r (22) remained s t a b l e u n t i l a year a f t e r the r e l e a s e o f the A p r i l D r a f t , a document for which dev e l o p e r s expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n with how the n o t i o n was p o r t r a y e d (24, 29, 49). Adjustments t o the n o t i o n i n t he 1983 guide (e.g., the removal of a b i b l i o g r a p h y and two pages i n the appendix that provided some Macro—Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 280 teacher guidance for d e a l i n g with " i s s u e s ; " the d i l u t i o n of some " i s s u e s ; " and re-wording of goal four) c o u l d have r e s u l t e d from l a t e r c o o r d i n a t o r changes. However, as n e i t h e r document c l a r i f i e d the n o t i o n , i t seems reasonable t o conclude that w h i l e o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes would have made the monitoring of p o l i c y i n t e g r i t y more d i f f i c u l t , they u n l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o the n o t i o n ' s vagueness. Yet, had 22 and 26 continued i n t h e i r r o l e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e that input f o l l o w i n g the A p r i l D r a f t (e.g., 45*s paper on " i s s u e s " ) may have been b e t t e r understood and ac c ommodat ed. IMPLEMENTATION FACILITATION PHASE: INTERVIEW ANALYSIS The implementation f a c i l i t a t i o n phase of the c u r r i c u l u m would have begun with the work of the Elementary M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n Committee and i t s e a r l y s c r e e n i n g of e x i s t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s d u r i n g the summer of 1980 and i t s l a t e r a n a l y s i s and s e l e c t i o n of new submissions by J u l y 1981, both o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g what appears t o be p e r i o d s of s i g n i f i c a n t upheaval i n the M i n i s t r y . Work on M i n i s t r y p u b l i c a t i o n s a l s o began p r i o r t o the r e l e a s e of the c u r r i c u l u m , with m a t e r i a l s for grades one t o t h r e e disseminated i n 1983, and the Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 281 i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual for grades four t o seven and the T h i n k i n g Togethers S t r a t e g i e s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s  K i t i n 1386. 67 for Douglas & M c l n t y r e and 66 for P r e n t i c e - H a l l both developed t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s of the n o t i o n by the summer of 1981. While the context for implementation was anything but s t a b l e , one wonders how i n f l u e n t i a l the o r g a n i s a t i o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s were on how the n o t i o n was i n t e r p r e t e d , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the authors for p u b l i s h e r s had t h e i r own concep t i o n s , i n pa r t because the n o t i o n as represented i n the c u r r i c u l u m d i d not make sense t o them (31, 66, 67). Other than adapting her "taxonomy" t o i n c o r p o r a t e "decision-making," 66's con c e p t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g was i n p l a c e p r i o r t o the A p r i l D r a f t . Yet c o o r d i n a t o r s who were t o monitor implementation endeavours appeared t o s u f f e r from the constant upheavals, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h a t a f t e r 22's departure, t h e i r assignments never l a s t e d more than one year (except for 62 who remained c o o r d i n a t o r for two y e a r s ) . For example, 50 was unsure about the i n t e n t of the n o t i o n and about the nature of her r o l e , which a f f e c t e d the nature of her f i e l d - t e s t i n g and her i n t e r a c t i o n s with 67, one of Douglas & M c l n t y r e ' s Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 282 e d i t o r s . 28, who appeared t o have i n t e r a c t e d most with 67, had t o r e f e r her t o 45 f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the n o t i o n , even though he had been a member of the Management Committee for i t s f i r s t year. 59 and 62, each who was i n charge of d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of implementation m a t e r i a l s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes meant that they each were l e f t t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s i n determining what the n o t i o n meant. (59 had been r e s p o n s i b l e for the e a r l y primary o r i e n t a t i o n v i d e o and i t s accompanying i n - s e r v i c e handbook. 62 not o n l y co-authored the primary r e s o u r c e manual, she l a t e r , as c o o r d i n a t o r , s u p e r v i s e d the development of the i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e manual and oversaw the T h i n k i n g Together o r i e n t a t i o n k i t . ) Queried about whether f i d e l i t y t o the n o t i o n was a concern, 59 and 24 proposed t h a t some cohesiveness was o r i g i n a l l y d e s i r e d . Yet 62, unsure of what was intended, s a i d t h at f l e x i b i l i t y "became the i n t e n t , " even though she t r i e d t o i n s t i l l some semblance of cohesiveness among m a t e r i a l s . T h i s i s one example i l l u s t r a t i n g d i s p a r a t e views for implementation of the n o t i o n , p o s s i b l y a r e s u l t of o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes. I f c o o r d i n a t o r s who i n t e r a c t e d with e d i t o r s and authors had remained i n t h e i r r o l e throughout the Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 283 r e v i s i o n , they may have had a c l e a r e r understanding of the n o t i o n . The independence e x h i b i t e d by the de v e l o p e r s of implementation m a t e r i a l s may have been a r e f l e c t i o n of the i n a b i l i t y of c o o r d i n a t o r s t o guide them. However, 22 was i n p l a c e as c o o r d i n a t o r throughout the c u r r i c u l u m development u n t i l a year f o l l o w i n g the A p r i l D r a f t ' s r e l e a s e , and yet the Elementary M a t e r i a l S e l e c t i o n Committee r e c e i v e d l i t t l e input r e g a r d i n g how the n o t i o n was t o be t r a n s l a t e d . One t h e r e f o r e has t o query how i n f l u e n t i a l the r o l e of o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes was on the d i s c r e p a n t t r a n s l a t i o n s . POLICY SECTOR CONTEXT The p o l i t i c a l , economic, and c u r r i c u l a r c o n t e x t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were mentioned by some i n t e r v i e w e e s as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the development of the n o t i o n as well as t o i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n i t s t r a n s l a t i o n s . These c o n t e x t s a r e examined v i a data made a v a i l a b l e through i n t e r v i e w s , M i n i s t r y of Education Annual Reports, and other r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 284 POLITICAL CONTEXT Throughout the r e v i s i o n t h e r e was an e s c a l a t i o n of d i s c o n t e n t i n the BCTF, f o s t e r e d by a p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t t o t e a c h e r ' s independence and i n c r e a s e d s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y being promoted by a S o c i a l C r e d i t Government seeking t o " r e a s s e r t " (15, Annual Report, 1976/1977, p. 10) i t s e l f f o l l o w i n g a t h r e e year absence when the New Democratic P a r t y was i n o f f i c e (Annual Reports; 45's paper, "The P o l i t i c s of C u r r i c u l u m M a t e r i a l s S e l e c t i o n " ) . When the M i n i s t r y i n t r o d u c e d the c o r e c u r r i c u l u m and p r o v i n c i a l assessments i n 1977, i t was p e r c e i v e d by some educators as being done i n an a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner, as evident i n c o r e c u r r i c u l u m statements about "goals and l e a r n i n g outcomes...which must be taught" (Guide t o the Core Curriculum, p. 4, i t a l i c s added). A f t e r having r e l a t i v e l y more freedom i n p l a n n i n g c u r r i c u l u m and a s s e s s i n g student progress, t h i s c e n t r a l i s a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o d i s c o n t e n t w i t h i n the membership of the BCTF. Crawford K i l i a n ' s School  Mars e x e m p l i f i e s what one educator p e r c e i v e d t o be as a growing a t t a c k on educators by the S o c i a l C r e d i t Government. It was i n t h i s c l i m a t e that r e v i s i o n e f f o r t s proceeded. Non-compliance i n s t r u c t i o n s dispensed by Macro—Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 285 the BCTF were intended t o prevent t e a c h e r s from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n r e l a t e d c u r r i c u l u m e n t e r p r i s e s . While t h i s a c t i o n d i d not appear t o a f f e c t development e f f o r t s , i t seemed t o have complicated the c o o r d i n a t o r s ' implementation r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t e s . In s p i t e of t h i s , they seemed s u c c e s s f u l i n g a t h e r i n g together t e a c h e r s t o f a c i l i t a t e f i e l d - t e s t i n g (50) and the p r o d u c t i o n of the 1983 M i n i s t r y implementation m a t e r i a l s (59, 49). ECONOMIC CONTEXT As the M i n i s t r y continued t o i n c r e a s e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n and t e n s i o n s between i t and the BCTF grew, economic r e s t r a i n t s w i t h i n education were a l s o on the r i s e . As e a r l y as 1975, one reads i n the Annual Reports about " f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t " (p. 10), "the economic c r i s i s our s o c i e t y has been f a c i n g " (1976/1977, p. 11), and the need for " s t r o n g managerial c a p a b i l i t y and keen f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " (1976/1977, p. 11). R e s t r a i n t was being espoused by 15, the M i n i s t e r of Education, even p r i o r t o the establishment of the Management Committee i n September, 1978. While seven i n t e r v i e w e e s i m p l i e d that r e s t r a i n t a f f e c t e d the r e v i s i o n i n some way, i t d i d not appear t o Macro-Implementat i o n : C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 286 a f f e c t the e a r l y development years (.31, 24, 26). 23 and 31 commented t h a t the swing away from academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for c o o r d i n a t o r s t o management c a p a b i l i t i e s was due p a r t l y t o r e s t r a i n t . 29, 60a, 24, 59, and 50 a l l i n d i c a t e d that a v a i l a b l e implementation funding seemed l e s s s u r e as the time grew c l o s e r t o p u t t i n g i t t o use. As w e l l , 60a i m p l i e d that the c o s t s i n c u r r e d with the primary grade m a t e r i a l s had proved more than a n t i c i p a t e d . 59 i n d i c a t e d t hat the f i r s t c a s u a l t y of the J u l y 10, 1983 budget speech was the Program Implementation S e r v i c e s . While r e s t r a i n t brought with i t cutbacks, the f o l d i n g o f the implementation branch, and d e l a y s t o some p u b l i c a t i o n s , these f a c t o r s r e a l l y d i d not seem t o a f f e c t the t r a n s l a t i o n of the n o t i o n . Implementation m a t e r i a l s were more than what primary grade t e a c h e r s had been accustomed t o . The n o t i o n , as represented i n the primary grade m a t e r i a l s , was not a l t e r e d i n t e a c h e r s ' e d i t i o n s for grades four t o s i x which were p u b l i s h e d l a t e r when r e s t r a i n t was more of a f a c t o r . How the n o t i o n was represented i n M i n i s t r y produced m a t e r i a l s f o r grade four t o seven d i d not appear t o have been a f f e c t e d by r e s t r a i n t e i t h e r , except t h a t they a r r i v e d l a t e and t h a t the developers claimed t o Macro-Implementat ions C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 287 have been c l e a r e r about t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s by then (31).. As f o r the l o s s of Program Implementation S e r v i c e s , development of the n o t i o n as well as the m a t e r i a l s for primary grades would have been n e a r l y completed by the time the branch f o l d e d . It may be that such a l o s s was an advantage, p r o v i d i n g i t meant that development and implementation would now be handled by the same p a r t i e s . However, i f such a move added t o the a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r a b l e burden p l a c e d upon the c o o r d i n a t o r s , then r e s t r a i n t might be an a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the l a c k of time they had for r e f l e c t i o n and thus, a f f e c t e d the development of the n o t i o n and i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n l a t e r implementation endeavours. CURRICULAR CONTEXT Broader c u r r i c u l a r c o n f l i c t s were i m p l i c a t e d as a f f e c t i n g how the n o t i o n was represented i n implementation m a t e r i a l s . Interviewees commented on the c o n t e n t i o n i n A l b e r t a f o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n of an issues-based, m u l t i - d i s c i p i i n a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m , the r e p e r c u s s i o n s which some s p e c u l a t e d may have been f e l t by the development team i n B r i t i s h Macro-Implementations C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 288 Columbia (31, 26, 28), as well as by Douglas & M c l n t y r e (67, 45). While many i n t e r v i e w e e s seemed t o be aware of the c o n t r o v e r s y that r e s u l t e d from the A l b e r t a c u r r i c u l u m , 45 remarked that the M i n i s t r y had been r e l u c t a n t t o i n t r o d u c e " v a l u e s " education "ever s i n c e Che had]...been i n B r i t i s h Columbia." It i s l i k e l y t h a t the M i n i s t r y was opposed t o any c u r r i c u l u m which focussed on i s s u e s that might be t r e a t e d i n s e n s i t i v e l y or be misconstrued by the v o t i n g p u b l i c . 67's d e s i r e t o a v o i d c o n t e n t i o n would seem more r e l a t e d t o her r o l e as a p u b l i s h i n g e d i t o r r a t h e r than a s o c i a l s t u d i e s educator (45). It i s u n l i k e l y that the p u b l i s h e r s would need A l b e r t a ' s e x p e r i e n c e t o s t e e r c l e a r of c o n t e n t i o u s content that may not s a t i s f y the v a r i e d v a l u e s t ances w i t h i n t h e i r p o t e n t i a l market. The c u r r i c u l a r context i n B r i t i s h Columbia, however, f o l l o w i n g the r e l e a s e of the A p r i l D r a f t , was so tense that i t would have been d i f f i c u l t for the M i n i s t r y t o i g n o r e i t (23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 28, 49, 59). Changes t o the A p r i l D r a f t appeared t o be the r e s u l t of M i n i s t r y e f f o r t s t o appease educators unhappy e i t h e r about a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach or the prospect of t e a c h i n g " i s s u e s " (26, 29, 28, 60a). Interviewee Macro-Implementation: C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g 289 statements p a i n t a c l e a r p i c t u r e of a d i s s a t i s f i e d community of s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s , opposed p r i m a r i l y t o content arrangement, ommissions, or the focus on " i s s u e s . " Consequently, the d i l u t i o n of " i s s u e s " i n implementation m a t e r i a l s appears t o have emanated